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4,000

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2007

2006

2005

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3,000

.1
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,
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700
25,600

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.

Important Birds
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1982-1996 279
, 40 15-
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:
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,

.
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.
1980 .
:
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. .

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. 2
. 3
. 4
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,
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( RAMSAR ).

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.

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2001
.
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( : )

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35,000
30,000

200,000
25,000
150,000

20,000
15,000

100,000

10,000
50,000
5,000
0

.
( : )

2005

1996

1991

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;

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.

250,000

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()

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2009
, .

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2009 .

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, ,
, ( : )

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,
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, ,
.


- .
, , ,,
,
-.
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( ,
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20-
. ,
,
.

, David Lack ,
,31 32
.

,

,

19-

,
,
,1906-1922
,

,43,44
,
,

.


.

( )1877-1947 30- ,20-
- ,
- . ,
19- ,
- ,
)1822-1906( 54 20-
(1882-
)1946 64,65
. ,
,
.
, ,
- ,
( ,)1910-2002 .

,

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,20-


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,
,

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.
,
,
:
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,
,
,
.

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.

,
.

70-
, .
,
,17 70-
, 314-
,
,90
,
.

,
.
.

.
60- ,20-
.
, 80- 20-



.
. 2 -
, ,

, ,
.
- 79 ,
1972 ( )
.
,
.
,
( ,82 ,88 , ,
) , ( ) ,
( , , - ,).
. 3 -

.
,
.
20-
,
. ,51

Birds of Israel
( ,)Unipress & Academic Press 692,
.
, ,

,-
.

.4 -

,
,
.
, ,

.
, 1994
,
,
,

.
,
,
90- .20-
- ,
63 -
80 ,20-


.
,
.
.5 -
.
,19-

70- .20-
,
60- .20-
,
, ,

< 74

25 1982-2007


( 1997-1998 )

( , )

800,000

1,200,000

700,000
1,000,000
600,000

300,000

400,000

500,000

800,000
600,000
400,000

200,000

200,000

100,000
2006

2004

2002

2000

1998

1996

1994

1992

1990

1988

1986

1984

1982

1977
1980
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

( - 2000 ,2007 )
( , , )

2008

2007

2006

2002

2001

2000

1999

2008

2007

2005

130

83

130

180

2003

2005

125

218

199

2002

173

181

2001

167

( )

50,000

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
1991
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008

292

100,000

240

2000

150,000

164

108

204

107

60

1999

200,000

206

169

229

202

2006

250,000

93

48

105

112

113

2003

182

171

123

102

137

102

186

99

500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0

( , )

450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0

254

300,000

( , )

350,000

< 75


( : )

, ,-
, , ,

.
- .

,
,
,
.
,

,
, , .

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,
,

. ,

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68,69,74 ,

.


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.

,
.

, .


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.

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90- ,20-
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-
- .

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,
,
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,
.

600-
.
( : )

. ,
( : )

41
( ) . (
,)2007 800 ( ),
, (
) , ( ),
, ,
. 10-
, 12-
()McGrady et al. 2007

4,000
( : )


( : )

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.5 .

. 27,000- 511 .

. :
.1 .
283 ,
50 127 , 106-
.
.2 ,
,
-
- ().
.3 .
,
- -
.
- - 16 .
.

.

-

.18.8.85 ( )

.6 ()Shirihai 1996

- ()

(-)
( )
( )
-

( +)
-
-


12
23
11
57
29
33
11
8
11
7
202


5.9
11.3
5.4
28.2
14.3
16.3
5.4
3.9
5.4
3.4
100

< 78

.7 ()Statterfield & Capper, 2000


)Endangered (EN

Oxyura leucocephala

1935 , ( 2828 - 2008 , )

)Vulnerable (VU

Marmaronette angustirostris

, 35

Vulnerable

Aquila clanga

Vulnerable

Aquila heliaca

Vulnerable

Falco naumanni

Vulnerable

Vulnerable

)Near threatened (NT

Near threatened

Near threatened

Crex crex

. , 200
, 70-
, 600-

Vanellus gregarius
Phalacrocorax pygmeus

Aythya nyroca
Haliaeetus albicilla


, 100- .

Near threatened

Gypaetos bazbatos

Near threatened

Near threatened

Aegypius monachus

Circus macrourus
Tetrax tetrax

Near threatened

Near threatened

Chlamydotis undulata
Gallinago media

75

150-


.
,


, 100-

Near threatened

Emberiza cineracea

Near threatened

Serinus syriacus

100- 200

DD

Glareola nordmanni

- Torgos trachliotas negevensis

20-

( 20 - )

< 79

. . . 140- ( : )

( : )


18 .
1,186 15
, , -
11 .66
.
,
13 .
.20- ( 78

) - , , -
. .
, ,
-.
,
. ,
,
.

.8
Total

RE

RE+Reintrduction

CR

EN

VU

NT

LC

DD

194

15

17

21

51

71

12

. ,
( : )

< 80


105


.
.

. , ,

.
,
.

. ,
.
:


( : )

:1998 35 ,
50
( : )
-
, , , .
, 50- ,20-
,
, , ,
, ,
, , .
- - 20-
,
. ,
,
. -
.

. -
, , . ,
,
,
.
- :
, . ,

( : )

, .
, , ,
.
, , ,
.
:
, ,
. :
, .

< 81

- 1956 , ( ) ,

( 76,77 : )

, :
,
.
,
, .

,
,
, .
,
. , ,
, , ,
, .
70-
.


50- 20-
.45 ,


,
.81
. 12- 20
, .
, , , , ,
, .
,
.

< 82

( : )

( : )


( : )

. ( : )

< 83

, , ( . : )

- 1982
( : )

< 84

,
,20- ,
, : , ,
.
, , ,
, .
- , , ,
, ,
, .
.
:
. ,
,
,
,

.
,

.

,
.




,

.


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, ,
:
.
,
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.
,

.
.
( : )
.
,
:
.
, ,
.
.

,

. .
,
.
,
.
,
: 1,200 , ,
.
.

,
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< 198

Mujib (Nahal Arnon) in Jordan. At the moment there is

establishing a national network of ornithology centers, the

five years (NIS 7 Mil. per year) and NIS 1.5 Mil. per year

an ongoing project of cooperation with Israeli, Jordanian

time is finally ripe for it.

for current operation. The directorate of the project

and Palestinian farmers, using Barn Owls and Kestrels as

The team recommended to the decision-makers to increase

would raise the additional third (17 million NIS) from

biological pesticides in agriculture. Another important

the number of existing birdwatching centers from nine

private foundations; from donors abroad and from

project is being developed in the field of birdwatching

to fourteen and to define the activities of each center as

international birdwatching organizations, in the hope

establishing significant contact between 22 countries

a regional center that would cooperate with bodies such

that birdwatching has the potential to promote the

that lie along the Syrian-African Rift Valley, mainly with the

as municipalities, local councils, JNF, Israel Nature and

peace process in the area.

countries in Africa.

National Parks Protection Authority, the Foundation for the

2. The document will be presented to all the public and

Rehabilitation of Quarries and the "Mekorot" Company, to

non-governmental bodies to approve the process and

develop the common infrastructure.

to promote it.

Birdwatching from an economic perspective


The statistics in the following lines calculate the significant

3. Based on the economic calculation in sections 7 & 8.

contribution that the field of birdwatching could bring to

The team suggests the establishment of staff that will lead

Israel, if it is managed properly.

the subject for five years, in cooperation with the Society


for the Protection of Nature in Israel and Tel Aviv University

The income to the country from a single tourist

the two leading bodies in the field of birdwatching

stands at $1,200. The team estimates that, following

in Israel in the public and research aspects.

the promotion of the infrastructure, the number of

committee, that would consist of representatives from the

birdwatchers visiting Israel will rise from 30,000 (before

cooperating bodies as well as experts who would advise

the intifada) to 100,000 a year.

on the work methods for the five years, would accompany

The

proposed

infrastructure

of

network

A public

of

the staff. Within this period all the centers would have to

birdwatching centers will increase the level of internal

become financially independent with a balanced budget.

tourism and tourism from the education system from

Those that do not achieve this will be closed.

500,000 to 1,500,000 visitors a year. The additional


The estimate is that the 14 birdwatching centers and

The team's recommendations for the budgetry


implementations of the project3

the accompanying systems will add about 300 places

1. It will cost 52 million NIS to subsidize the five years it will

of work, mostly in peripheral areas of the Negev and

take to establish the system. The team suggests that

Galilee (without considering other activities such as

a committee with representatives from government

transport and accommodation in guest houses).

ministries, led by the Director Generals of the Prime

value for each local visitor stands at NIS 90 per day tour.

Minister's Office, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry

Recommendations of the team

of Education, the Ministry of the Environment, the

Coinciding with the recent increase in Ornithology's

Ministry of Tourism, the Ministry of Science, the

worldwide popularity, people have begun to take note of

Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Defence and the

Israel's unique potential as an ornithology superpower.

Ministry of the Interior, should find a way to raise two-

While ornithologists in Israel have long dreamed of

thirds of the budget (NIS 35 Mil) which would cover the

) : (
Male Lesser Kestrel in flight (Photo: Eyal Bartov)

< 199

Birdwatching tourism is on the increase in the


world

(IGTC), municipalities and local councils, such as the Eilat

the field of birdwatching on a national level and the

Municipality, the Jerusalem Municipality and the Local

combination of activities with government, academic and

The interest in birdwatching is soaring upwards. Tourism

Council of the Bet Shean Valley, eight birdwatching

public bodies as well as with private foundations connected

experts reckon that about 100 million people take an

centers were established. They function on a purely local

with birdwatching.

interest in birdwatching. This sector of tourism involves

level without any plan for working on a national level and

billions of dollars the acquisition of binoculars, telescopes,

without developing a national network that could promote

The birds and the political dimension

photographic equipment, literature, the handling of the

the field of birdwatching in multidisciplinary aspects such

The program "Migrating Birds Know No Boundaries"

tourists and the development of the infrastructure. A

as tourism, education, research and marketing at a national

connects Israel with her neighbours, the Palestinians and

survey that was carried out in the United States revealed

and international level.

the Jordanians, and with other countries in the world. In

that birdwatching is the second most popular hobby in the

On the initiative of the Society for the Protection of Nature

2004 the six-year USAID/MERC program ended. It had been

United States. The birdwatching organization in Britain

in Israel and Tel Aviv University, a group of organizations

funded by the United States.

counts 1.1 million members and is the largest public body in

the Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies, the Ministry of

With an investment of 1.5 million dollars, the program

Britain! During the last decade 30 new birdwatching sites

Tourism, the Ministry of the Environment, the Ministry of

connected the activities of Palestinian and Jordanian public

have been developed, drawing millions of visitors.

Education and the Ministry for the Development of the

bodies with activities in Israel. The European Common

In Israel, as well, during the last decade there have been

Negev and the Galilee supported the activities of a team

Market continued to fund the program with a further

considerable changes in the field of birdwatching. The

of 21 experts.

For two years the team examined the

sum of 2.3 million euros and created cooperation in the

Hula Valley, which was re-flooded and given a proper

economic feasibility and value of the vision described in

Jordan Valley, the Bet Shean Valley, in Jericho and in Wadi

infrastructure, receives about 220,000 Israeli visitors at the

this document.

Agamon, and about 80,000 people visit the nature reserve,


each year. They are mainly attracted by the thousands

The work concentrated on studying and

of Cranes in the valley that remain there for only four

evaluating the present situation of the

months during the winter! At the Memorial Site to the

birdwatching centers, the multidisciplinary

Armoured Corps at Latrun, the Center for Bird Migration

aspects of their work and the evaluation of

has been established. When the site is complete it will draw

their activities as economically viable centers.

400,000 visitors a year. But that is not all, during the last

The

decade about 100,000 pupils took part in birdwatching

potential and the financial contribution to

educational programs and tours to birdwatching sites. 250

internal tourism as well as incoming tourism

schools take part in the program "Migrating Birds Know No

and to aspects such as education, research,

Boundaries". The internet site which supports the program,

nature protection, conflict with agriculture,

www.birds.org.il records about 800,000 entries each year.

birdwatching in cities and the conflict with

team

examined

the

birdwatching

civil and military aviation.

Birdwatching Centers in Israel present situation

The team studied birdwatching in the western

On the initiative of the Society for the Protection of Nature

world and the development of connections

in Israel, the Israel Nature & National Parks Protection

with professional bodies abroad. The team

Authority, JNF, the Israel Government Tourist Corporation

also checked the possibility of developing

) : (,
Migrating Rose-colored Starling, on a Mulberry tree in Israel
)Photo: Eyal Bartov(

< 200

The Development of a National Network of Birdwatching Centers in Israel


and their contribution to the environment, tourism, education and research
Executive Summary
Yossi Leshem, Dan Alon, Josef Avi Yair Engel (Jucha), Amir Idelman, Ran Haklai

Israel's attraction is based on tourism, in fields mainly

Israel: a birdwatcher's paradise all year round

connected to its heritage: a rich past, the cradle of

The geographical conditions give rise to the extraordinary

Christianity, the world of Jewish traditions alongside the

variety of bird species in Israel, relative to the size of the

establishment of the State of Israel, which has achieved

country. More than 540 different bird species can be seen

wonders in the establishment of kibbutzim, moshavim,

in Israel resident species, wintering birds, birds that

villages and towns, and, the development of modern

spend the summer here, migrants and vagrants. A large

agriculture and the blossoming of the desert.

The

abundance of archaeological sites concentrated in small

The relation between bird species and the area of


a country
Country

Area
(in kms)

No.bird
species

No.species
per 1000
kms

Israel

23,500

530

22.5

number of species are desert birds and other species that

Britain

244,400

489

do not breed in Central or Western Europe. These species

Germany

356,500

258

0.73

area, the uniqueness of Jerusalem, the story of Masada and

are a unique attraction for foreign birdwatchers and, thus,

Sudan

2,500,000

871

0.35

the climate, which is pleasant for most of the year, are all

increase Israel's tourism potential.

China

9,800,000

1198

0.12

factors which draw tourists to Israel.


During the last two decades nature tourism has increased

Another distinction that Israel has is in the rich variety

The autumn and spring bird migrations last for six to seven

and birdwatching in Israel has become a sector of

of natural habitats that exist here. This is an enormous

months each year. The spring migration is from the end of

tourism with enormous potential which could promote

advantage for nature lovers who can cover the country

February until May; the autumn migration is from August

multidisciplinary aspects of the economics of the country,

in a relatively short time, from the snows of Mt. Hermon

until November. The birds that winter in Israel are here

mainly in the peripheral areas of the Negev and the

and the cliffs of the Golan Heights, to the Agamon in the

from October to March giving birdwatchers from Europe

Galilee.

Hula Valley, the fishponds in the northern valleys, the

the opportunity to spend a Christmas holiday watching a

Israel is situated in a unique geographical position at

Mediterranean scrub region, the Galilee, Judean Hills

variety of resident and wintering birds. From April to July

the crossroads of three continents, between the Great

and Desert, the Negev Desert and the mountains of Eilat.

birdwatchers can observe nesting species and summer

Rift Valley and the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea. This

In these regions there are accessible road networks and

species, such as the nesting colonies of Lesser Kestrels, Bee-

rare combination of conditions makes Israel a site of

accommodation available at different levels near all the

eaters, Pygmy Cormorants and five species of Heron. So,

international importance as over 500 million birds fly

birdwatching sites. Valuable information about the best

Israel is definitely a "birdwatching attraction", the whole

over the country twice a year during the seasons of bird

time of the year and the best sites to see each bird species is

year round.

migration.

available to birdwatchers.