You are on page 1of 33

resenLaLlon l8n88W 1

UTLZATON OF OL PALM SHELL CHARCOAL


AS A LGHTWEGHT MATERAL
N OL WELL CEMENT
8v lmam ranadlpa
8lckv nelson
8rlan 8ukma W
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
UNIVLk5I1A5 LM8ANGUNAN NA5ICNAL "VL1LkAN" CGAkAk1A
IAkUL1A5 1LkNCLCGI MINLkAL IUkU5AN 1LkNIk LkMINAkAN
resenLaLlon l8n88W 2
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
ln18CuuC1lCn
Increasing IeveIs of environmentaI degradation and energy needs
(oiI and naturaI gas), motivate the oiI industries to deveIop and
use environmentaIIy friendIy technoIogies to increase their
production.
resenLaLlon l8n88W 3
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
ln18CuuC1lCn
ndonesia is the producer of palm oil in the world's second largest
The problem : oil palm shell is a Lignocellulosic waste materials
Solution : waste recycling
resenLaLlon l8n88W 4
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
ln18CuuC1lCn
discover and prove the other alternative as a lightweight material
oil palm shell effects on the compressive strength
determine the appropriate composition of using OPS in mixing cement
8esearch aoals
resenLaLlon l8n88W 3
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
lLCW CPA81
S1A81
PERFORM LTERATURE
SEARCH
PREPARATON MATERALS
LABORATORY TEST
SCENTFC
LTERATURE
EVALUATE LTERATURE
AND POSSBLE RESEARCH
PROCEDURES
DEFNE THE SCENTFC
HYPOTHESS, RESEARCH
OBJECTVES AND
METHODOLOGY
ConL
A
COMPRESSVE
STRENGTH
DENSTY
AP CLASS G
PORTLAND
CEMENT
OL PALM
SHELL
CHARCOAL
DSTLLED
WATER
resenLaLlon l8n88W 6
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
lLCW CPA81
lrom
A
DATA COLLECTON
DENSTY
COMPRESSVE
STRENGTH
DATA ANALYSS
PREPARATON
REPORTS
PRESENTATON
Lnu
resenLaLlon l8n88W 7
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
resenLaLlon l8n88W 8
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW well cemenLlna
THE PURPOSE OF OIL WELL CEMENTING
To fill the annular space between a string of casing and the formations
J do we need t ?
Lo resLrlcL fluld movemenL beLween formaLlons
Lo provlde supporL for Lhe caslna
Lo proLecL Lhe caslna from corroslve flulds
Lo proLecL freshwaLer zones
resenLaLlon l8n88W 9
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW well cemenLlna
There are two basics of cementing job
Primary
cementing
Secondary
cementing
Caslna
CemenL
lormaLlon zones
W
e
l
l
b
o
r
e
Squeeze
cemenLlna
8emedlal
cemenLlna
luaback
cemenLlna
resenLaLlon l8n88W 10
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW well cemenLlna
(hLLp//rlslnasLarservlcescom/lma/aallervphoLo2[pa)
resenLaLlon l8n88W 11
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW well cemenLlna
Cement Characteristics
The cement slurry is pumped down the casing includes cement, additives
and water, then flowing up through the casing and the formations.
ementng matera|
CemenL orLland cemenL ls Lhe raw maLerlal used ln cemenLlna [obs
Al Class C ls aenerallv used bv Lhe peLroleum lndusLrv
AddlLlves Lo conLrol Lhe properLles of cemenL classlfled lnLo AcceleraLors
LxLenders 8eLarder LosL ClrculaLlon AddlLlves ulspersanLs
lllLraLlon ConLrol AddlLlves and Speclal AddlLlves
resenLaLlon l8n88W 12
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW well cemenLlna
Major considerations in the design of cement sIurry
uenslLv Lhls mlnlmlzes Lhe rlsks of losL clrculaLlon or klcks
1hlckenlna Llme Lhe lenaLh of Llme Lhe slurrv ls sLlll pumpable
Compresslve sLrenaLh ls Lhe reslsLance Lo breakaae Lhrouah compresslon
Some maln slurrv properLles
easv mlxlna and pumplna
aood rheoloalcal properLles for removal Lhe mud and dlsplacemenL
rapld developmenL of compresslve sLrenaLh
resenLaLlon l8n88W 13
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW well cemenLlna
(hLLp//llLeolllnvesLmenLscom/lmaaes/ceme
nLaulde[pa)
(hLLp//wwwlcdponllneora/slLes/sanandreas/news/lod/2007_09_14[pa)
resenLaLlon l8n88W 14
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW exLenders
LlahLwelahL maLerlals (exLenders)
low fracLure aradlenL
Lo reduce cemenL slurrv denslLv
8emember Lhls equaLlon
h 0032 x o x h
We can conclude LhaL a reducLlon of
slurrv denslLv reduces Lhe
hvdrosLaLlc pressure durlna
cemenLlna
resenLaLlon l8n88W 13
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW exLenders
ozzolans
are a slllceous or slllceous and alumlnous maLerlal whlch ln lLself
has llLLle or no cemenLlLlous value buL wlll chemlcallv reacL wlLh
llme (llberaLed from hvdraLlna cemenL) aL ordlnarv LemperaLure
Lo form compounds possesslna cemenLlLlous properLles
(accordance wlLh AS1M deslanaLlon C21933)
resenLaLlon l8n88W 16
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW exLenders
1here are Lwo Lvpes of pozzolans
Nototol pozzoloos whlch lnclude volcanlc ashes and
dlaLomaceous earLh
ttlflclol pozzoloos obLalned bv Lhe heaL LreaLmenL of naLural
maLerlal such as flv ashes
resenLaLlon l8n88W 17
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW oll palm shell
3/4.,75
ClL ALM SPLLL
palm oll mlll wasLe
maLerlal conLalnlna slllca of abouL 092
(1[uL[u nurhavaLl t ol 2003)
Slllca comblnes wlLh Lhe free Ca(CP)2
whlch ls llberaLed from cemenL Lo
form a sLable Calclum SlllcaLe PvdraLe
(secondarv cemenLlLlous producLs)
PeaL LreaLmenL can lncrease Lhe slllca conLenL (aLcharln WoraLhanakul t ol 2009)
resenLaLlon l8n88W 18
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW compresslve sLrenaLh
Crdlnarv orLland cemenL
free llme ls llberaLed when cemenL hvdraLes
free llme evenLuallv dlssolved and remove bv waLer conLacLlna Lhe cemenL
Calclum SlllcaLe PvdraLe can be formed when free llme comblnes wlLh slllca
1he Lwo processes above makes orLland cemenL has a low
compresslve sLrenaLh value
SoluLlon
8v addlna slllcaconLalnlna maLerlals
resenLaLlon l8n88W 19
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW prevlous researches
u C L 1eo t ol (2006) ln Lhelr paper SLrucLural ConcreLe uslna Cll
alm Shell (CS) as LlahLwelahL AaareaaLe aL unlverslLl Malavsla
Sabah 1hev polnLed ouL LhaL Lhe concreLe wlLh a mlxLure of oll palm
shells can lncrease Lhe compresslve sLrenaLh and also become
llahLwelahL concreLe
resenLaLlon l8n88W 20
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW prevlous researches
Shahrln Shahrudln t ol (1994) concernlna compresslve sLrenaLh of
oll palm shell ash Cll palm shell ash has a speclflc aravlLv of 217
whlch ls llahLer Lhan orLland cemenL and Lhe besL resulLs obLalned
aL concenLraLlons of 20 wlLh a compresslve sLrenaLh of 2000 psl
resenLaLlon l8n88W 21
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
LA8C8A1C8? 1LS1
resenLaLlon l8n88W 22
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
LA8C8A1C8? 1LS1 procedures
Compresslve sLrenaLh LesLs were carrled
ouL accordlna Lo Al SpeclflcaLlons 10A
Speclflc aravlLv was LesLed bv uslna waLer
dlsplacemenL meLhod
1he raLlo was varled Lo 1383 2373 3363
4060 4333 3030
1he LesLs were carrled ouL wlLh a curlna
Llme of 24 hours aL a LemperaLure of 80 'l
and a curlna Llme of 8 hours aL a LemperaLure of
140 'l
resenLaLlon l8n88W 23
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
LA8C8A1C8? 1LS1 resulLs
Cll alm Shell (CS)
1vpe
Chemlcal ComponenLs
SlC2 (Slllca) CaC
normal 092 no LesL
Charcoal 3680 13
Ash 4803 1848
Chemical components
Specific gravity
Cll palm shell has a speclflc aravlLv of abouL 121
resenLaLlon l8n88W 24
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
LA8C8A1C8? 1LS1 resulLs
uenslLv decreaslna
resenLaLlon l8n88W 23
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
LA8C8A1C8? 1LS1 resulLs
Compresslve sLrenaLh aL a LemperaLure of 80 'l
curlna Llme of 24 hours pressure of 147 psl
* 1he Amerlcan eLroleum
lnsLlLuLe PalllburLon Co
1183 psl
*Ref : G.V. Chilingarian 09,., 1989
resenLaLlon l8n88W 26
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
LA8C8A1C8? 1LS1 resulLs
Compresslve sLrenaLh aL a LemperaLure of 140 'l
curlna Llme of 8 hours pressure of 147 psl
Al SLandards
resenLaLlon l8n88W 27
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
LA8C8A1C8? 1LS1 dlscusslon
Compressive strength
aL a LemperaLure of 80 'l
a maxlmum compresslve sLrenaLh of 217386 psl was obLalned wlLh a raLlo of 2373
aL low LemperaLures Lhe hvdraLed llme and slllca becomes less chemlcallv acLlve
LemperaLure ls one of Lhe ma[or facLors affecLlna Lhe hvdraLlon of orLland cemenL
Lhe raLlo of Lhls maLerlal Lo cemenL up Lo 3363 ls posslble
resenLaLlon l8n88W 28
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
LA8C8A1C8? 1LS1 dlscusslon
aL a LemperaLure of 140 'l
a maxlmum compresslve sLrenaLh of 390049 psl was obLalned wlLh a raLlo of 4060
1hls occurred bv a chemlcal reacLlon beLween hvdraLed llme and slllca ln
Lhe correcL sLolchlomeLrlc raLlo
CS charcoal alve slanlflcanL lmprovemenLs ln Lhe compresslve sLrenaLh
of orLland cemenL
Lhe raLlos from 1383 Lo 3030 are posslble Lo use
resenLaLlon l8n88W 29
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
LA8C8A1C8? 1LS1 dlscusslon
uecreaslna of Lhe compresslve sLrenaLh afLer Lhe besL resulL obLalned
an lmbalance reacLlon of Lhe chemlcal componenLs beLween hvdraLed llme
(Ca(CP)
2
) slllca (SlC
2
) and waLer (P
2
C)
approxlmaLelv of 21 ls Ca/Sl raLlo Lo form a calclum slllcaLe hvdraLe
(WPu Mlcroanalvsls ConsulLanLs LLd 2009)
resenLaLlon l8n88W 30
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
LA8C8A1C8? 1LS1 dlscusslon
compresslve sLrenaLh dlfference from prevlous research (oll palm ash)
Lhe chemlcal composlLlon and phvslcal characLerlsLlcs of Lhe enLlre blndlna svsLem
especlallv calclum conLenL (Mlchael A Caldarone 2008)
hlah calclum oll palm shell (oll palm shell ash) need Lo exLend Lhe curlna
Llme Lo reach hlah compresslve sLrenaLh
resenLaLlon l8n88W 31
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
CCnCLuSlCnS
1he normal concenLraLlons of oll palm shell charcoal are beLween 13 Lo 40 whlch
lncrease Lhe compresslve sLrenaLh however up Lo 30 ls posslble depends upon
Lhe LemperaLure
1he hlahesL compresslve sLrenaLh of oll palm shell charcoal was obLalned wlLh a raLlo
of 4060 (390049 psl) wlLh a LemperaLure of 140 'l curlna Llme ls abouL elahL hours
and 2373 (217386 psl) wlLh a LemperaLure of 80 'l curlna Llme ls abouL 24 hours
resenLaLlon l8n88W 32
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009
CCnCLuSlCnS
AddlLlon of oll palm shell charcoal Lo cemenL can reduce Lhe cemenL slurrv denslLv
and lncrease Lhe compresslve sLrenaLh
Cll palm shell ls a pozzolanlc maLerlal conLaln of 368 slllca 1hls maLerlal ls an
alLernaLlve Lo used ln oll well cemenLlna as a llahLwelahL maLerlals (exLenders)
8apld sLrenaLh developmenL
1hls maLerlals can reduce cemenLlna cosLs and also reduce envlronmenLal polluLlon
because lL recvcles Lhe wasLe dlsposal
resenLaLlon l8n88W 33
TB-BANDUNG, 1-3 DESEMBER 2009