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Naini Allahabad


It is indeed a great pleasure and privilege to present this report on training at B.S.N.L., I am extremely grateful to my training and placement officer for issuing a request letter, which made my training possible at B.S.N.L., Allahabad.

I would like to give my heartily thanks to Er. O.P.Shukla (S.D.E.OCB), Mr.kamlesh (T.T.A.), Mr. shubedar Singh (S.D.O. D.E.NAINI), Mr.R.K.MIRSHA ( A.G.M. Allahabad) and all staff for motivation guidance and support through out the training. I extended my due thanks to Er. O.P. Shukla who gave mevaluable time and suggestions and guide me a lot at various stages of my training.


09BTEEE047 B.TECH. E.E.E.(2nd YEAR)


As a part of curriculum of S.H.I.A.T.S. every Engineering student should undergo Practical training of 60 days. First phase after 2nd year of 30 days and second phase after 3rd yearof 30 days. For fulfillment this purpose I have taken my first phase training in a professionally managed and well known organization Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) . Basic objects of this training are to known practically how work is performed in company, theoretical knowledge is not sufficient for understanding things in a better way. One cannot have complete knowledge without practical experience. Date: -





B.S.N.L. Organization
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. formed in October, 2000, is World's 7th largest Telecommunications Company providing comprehensive range of telecom services in India: Wire line, CDMA mobile, GSM Mobile, Internet, Broadband, Carrier service, MPLS-VPN, VSAT services, IN Services etc. Within a span of five years it has become one of the largest public sector unit in India. BSNL has installed Quality Telecom Network in the country and now focusing on improving it, expanding the network, introducing new telecom services with ICT applications in villages and wining customer's confidence. Today. it has about 47.3 million line basic telephone capacity, 4 million WLL capacity, 20.1 Million GSM Capacity, more than 37382 fixed exchanges, 18000 BTS, 287 Satellite Stations, 480196 Rkm of OFC Cable, 63730 Rkm of Microwave Network connecting 602 Districts, 7330 cities/towns and 5.5 Lakhs villages. Scaling new heights of success, the present turnover of BSNL is more than Rs.351,820 million (US $ 8 billion)with net profit to the tune of Rs.99,390 million (US $2.26 billion) for last financial year. The infrastructure asset on telephone alone is worth about Rs.630,000 million (US $ 14.37 billion).

HISTORY :The foundation of telecom network in India was laid by British sometime in 19th century & history of B.S.N.L. is linked with beginning of telecom in India was operated as a government of India wing. Earlier it was the part of post & telegraph department (P&T). in 1975 the department of telecom (D.O.T.) was separated from P&T. subsequently in 1990 the telecom sector was opened up by government for private investment ,therefore it became necessary to separates the governments policy wing from operations wings. The government of India corporatised the operations wing of D.O.T. on October 01,2000 and named it as Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (B.S.N.L.)

B.S.N.L.Present & Future :since corporation in October 2000, B.S.N.L. has been actively providing connections in both urban and rural areas and the efficiency of the company has drastically improved from the days when one had to wait for years to get a phone connection to now when one can get a connection in even hours. BSNL plans to expand its customer base from present 47 millions lines to 125 million lines by December 2007 and infrastructure investment plan to the tune of Rs. 733 crores (US$ 16.67 million) in the next three years. The turnover, nationwide coverage, reach, comprehensive range of telecom services and the desire to excel has made BSNL the No. 1 Telecom Company of India.

This block diagram shows how subscriber reaches to the telephone through telephone lines.

Main Distribution Frame:M.D.F. is a media between switching network and subscribers line. It distribute wires in different areas and this wire connect switching room and subscribers line.

M.D.F. has different parts as:1. V.F. (Vertical frame) 2. N.E. (number of equipments) 3. Module. 4. Selector. 5. Wire and Cable.

V.F. (Vertical frame) :V.F. has distribution of wire in 10-10 horizontal sequence, left side connectwith switching room and back side connect subscribers color wire. One V.F.has 100 pair of wire. Color wires connect with subscribers by groundingpath. This color wire connects with pillar. Pillar has different no. of pair. It depend on phone connection in particularareas and after then pillar connect with D.P. (distribution point). Distributionpoint has 5-10 pair of wire. By the cable this one-one pair goes in thesubscribers phone and 10 connections can connected with one D.P..

Figure: - Vertical Frame in M.D.F. N.E. (Number of Equipment): -

Figure: - Vertical Frame in M.D.F.

N.E. (Number of Equipment): -

N.E. frame is directly connected with switch room by this no. Find out thefault card of subscriber. Many time no. any fault in pillar pole and M.D.F.then find out the N.E. no of particular subscriber and check the fault. Card ofswitch room connection depends only on N.E. no means that with the check the reconnection between subscriber and M.D.F.

Figure: - N.E. in M.D.F

Complete View of M.D.F Module: -

Module is a medium, which connects M.D.F. CONNECTION OF N.E.fromsubscriber. It is a small hall. This module is present in V.F. is present in V.F.connect 100 module. No of module is directly proportional to no of pair.

Selector: In the M.D.F. department an important work is long distancecommunication. Many frames have many branches in different cities. Forcommunication in modern banks, hotels, companies and their branches thehelp of modem is required. Selector is old manner but advance selector is amodem.. Selector of old manner work by help of a worker. Main form call inmain exchange and branch for communication. Old manner selector have many disadvantage:1. This takes much of time. 2. Need a worker for connection for between two branches. 3. Indirect communication

Wire And Cable: Wire and cable are the medium for any connection. The different type of cables use for connection: 1. Terminal cables 2. Inter frame cables 3. Power cables 4. Maintenance panel cable 5. Ground wires

Colour scheme: For find out the fault in particular subscribers cable use the colour coding,.By this, we find the cable, which has a fault, and remove it. In this coding,two types of wires are used: 1. Different colour wire. 2. Common colour wire. Different colour wire has fallowing colour: 1. Blue 2. Orange 3. Green 4. Brown 5. Gray Common colour wire has fallowing colours: 1. White 2. Red 3. Black 4. Yellow

Colour Sequence: -

1-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 26 -30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 56-.60 61-65 66-70 71-75 76-.80



Figure: - V.F. showing colour coding

OCB-283- System Description

All new technology switching system are based on stored programmecontrol concept. The all-processing programs are distributed over differentcontrol organs of the system and are stored in ROM/RAM of the units. Datarequired to handle the calls are also managed in the RAMs of differentcontrol units. Processor in the control units by using the programme and datastored in unit ROM/RAM process and handle calls. Handling or processing acall ultimately establish a connection in a switch between I/C and O/G ends.Depending on the system the name and architecture of control units switchmay change but basic criterion for switching remains or less the same.

OVERVIEW OF OCB 283 DIGITAL ELECTRONIC SYSTEM: OCB 283 is digital switching system which supports a variety ofcommunication needs like basic telephony, ISDN, interface to mobilecommunication, data communication etc. This system has been developed byCITALCATEL of France and therefore has many similarities to its predecessorE-10B (also known as OCB 181 in france). The first OCB 283 exchanges of R11 version were commissioned in Brestand Beijing(China) in 1991. The first OCB-283 exchange came to India in1993. Subsequently, the system has been upgraded and current version R-20was fully validated in January 1994. The exchanges, which are beingsupplied. The basic architecture remaining same, facilities both tosubscribers and administration are supported by later versions. Salient Features of the system: i. It supports both analogue and digital subscribers ii.It provides telephony ,I.S.D.N., Data communication, cellular radio and other valuable services. iii.The system has Automatic Recovery feature. When a serious faultoccurs in control unit , it gives message to SMM(O&M unit). TheSMM unit puts this unit out of service , load the software of this unitin a back up unit and brings it into the service. Diagnosticprogrammmes are run on the faulty unit and printed on the terminal. Iv . Every system in OCB-283 works in duplex. One system remains in working condition and other remains in stand by mode. v. The charge accounts of the subscriber are automatically save on thedisk once in a day. This avoids the loss of revenue in case of totalpower supply failure. vi. This system requires very less space . there is no fix rack and suite configuration in the system. It provides great flexibility


OCR-283 provides a large no of facilities. Some facilities are available toonly digital subscriber and as such they can not be availed by analoguesubscriber. To avail these facilities subscriber number are given specialcategories by man machine commands. FACILITIES TO THE SUBSCRIBERS 1. A line can be made only outgoing on incoming. 2. Hotline Facility. It is of two types: 1. Immediate Hotline Facility. 2. Delay Hotline Facility. 3. Abbreviated dialing. 4. Conference between four subscribers. 5. Automatic cal back on busy.

6. Priority line. 7. Malicious call identification. 8. Detailed Billing.


Digital subscribers are provided all the facilities available to all analogue subscribers . in addition ,they are provide following facilities which is called ISDN service . An ISDN subscriber can use many electronic devices on its telephone line and can utilize them for two or more simultaneous calls for either


VIDEO The following is the list of some of the services to digital subscribers: 1. the system can provide 2,3,4 facimile services. 2. it provides videotext services. 3. it also provides call trnsfer facility

Brief description of the functional components

BT (Time base) : Time pulses are generated in triplicate and distributed to LRs at Switching unit. The time base is usually synchronised with the network by a synch. interface. Synchronisation interface gets the clock from PCMs which carry traffic also and synchronises the local clock with the PCM clock and thus network synchronisation is achieved. Host switching Matrix (MCX)/Switch Control Function COM This is a pure time switch of maximum 2048 LRs connectivity capability.The switching of LR time shots are controlled by the function COM whichin turn obtains the connection particulars from call handler known as Multiregister.

OUTER LOOK OF OCB-283 TAX The ETA supports the following function: Tone generation (GT) e.g. dial tone, busy tone etc. Frequency generation & reception (RGF) for R2 MF signal, tone dial reception etc. CCS # 7 Protocol Manager (PU/PE) 64 kbps signalling channels are connected to this by semipermanent link and carries out level 2 and level 3 of the signalling message transfer. The defence and signalling link resource allocation is done by a control function PC. Protocol Handler : The signalling protocol between an access network an d local exchange is processed and managed by this function. Call Handler MR: This obtains necessary data from subs and circuits and process for connection and disconnection of call with the help of a database manager TR. In addition this helps in carrying out circuit tests and some obser vations. Besides MR function there is one CC (Call Contorl) function which again contains register to handle CCS # 7 calls in conjunction with MR registers. Data Manager TR:

This function is responsible for managing and storing various subscriberand trunks related data base. The data is returned by the call handler MRas and when required during call processing. Charging function (TX): This function is responsible for charge computation on the basis of certain charging parameters supplied by the translator during analysis of digits received from a source (Subs or Circuit). This also prepares detailed billing messages and forwarding the same to the operation & maintenance function for further processing. Besides the charge related function the TX also is responsible for carrying out some traffic observation on subscriber and trunks. Matrix handler (GX) This function is responsible for processing and for defence of connections on receipt of :- request for connection and disconnection from MR or MQ

(marker).fault in connection signalled by the switching controller function(COM).GX also carrier out monitoring of connections and checks data link speriodically.. Message Distribution function (MQ) marker: Its function is to format if required and distribute messages It also supervises semipermanent links . Interchange of messages between different communication multiplexes. PCM controller (URM) : PCM interface receives PCM from other exchanges remote subs accessunits, access networks and digital recorded announcement systems and theURM function carrier out the following: HDB3/Binary code conversion Injection / extraction of TS 16 for CAS. OM Function:

This function enables to create all data required for subs/circuits and their testing. This also enables spontaneously issuing fault and alarm messages incase of indications coming from OCB units.OM function further provides features for saving detail billing/ bulk billing messages on mag tape(cartridge) .The OM function possess a two way communication path with the exchange system. Subscriber access function : This functional component is implemented in CSNL/CSND or CSED and is responsible to forward new call connection & disconnection requests to control functions


Hardware architecture of OCB-283 Switching Systems

1. Various functional components discussed in the previous chapter are required to be implemented in some hardware unit. For this purpose functions are classified as under:Subs access functions PCM connection interface Auxiliary functions interface Control functions OM function OCB 283 system does not include the subs access systems but can support different type of subs access systems. 2. There are different type of subs access units like CSNL/CSND i.e. local

and distant digital (Numerique) subs connection unit and CSED i.e. (Distant analogue subs connection unit).A detail description of subs interface provided in OCB shall be discussed in yet another chapter. 3. Control functions Concept of station For all control function or functions OCB-283 uses concept of a station. Following type of stations are available: 3.1SMT: Trunk multiprocessor station This implements the URM function for PCMs i.e. responsible to handle CAS and be transparent to CCS# 7 signalling


3.2SMA : Auxiliary multiprocessor station. These stations implement one

or more auxiliary functions like ETA, PU/PE or V 5.2 functions. However, while ETA & PU/PE functions can be implemented in one station, V 5.2 function is implemented in SMA without any other auxiliary function


SMX: Switch multiprocessor station This implements the switching function (COM) and contains the switch matrix system also. 3.4SMC : Command or control multiprocessor station. This type of station implements one or more control functions like MQ, TR, TX, MR, GX, PC etc. 3.5SMM: Maintenance multiprocessor station implementing all OM functions. This supports process for, dialogue with OCB, data base management and handling spontaneous message generated by OCB units. 3.6STS : Synchronisation and time base station. This station is responsible for generating exchange clock and synchronise the same with the network. SUBSCRIBER CARDS: The main and important thing of OCB-283 is subscriber cards. The view of subscriber cards is shown below in figure. One subscriber card can support 8 or 16 subscribers. Old versions of OCB-283 were supporting 8 subscriber per card . now the latest version of OCB-283 is supporting 16 subscribers per card. One rack consist of 128

cards and each card have 16 subs cribers. No of racks are decided on the bais of no of subscriber in that particular exchange. subscriber cars is shown in figure exchange. subscriber cars is shown in figure:-

SUBSCRIBER CARDS: The main and important thing of OCB-283 is subscriber cards. The view of subscriber cards is shown below in figure. One subscriber card can support 8 or 16 subscribers. Old versions of OCB-283 were supporting 8 subscriber per card . now the latest version of OCB-283 is supporting 16 subscribers per card. One rack consist of 128 cards and each card have 16 subs cribers. No of racks are decided on the bais of no of subscriber in that particular exchange. subscriber cars is shown in figure:-

SUBSCRIBER CARD CONSISTING 16 SUBSCRIBERS Whenever the cards gets burnt they are replaced by by another new card.

BURNT SUBSCRIBER CARD For STD PCO special cards are being are used as shown in figure. Charging rates of STD PCO is also different.

SUBSCRIBER CARD FOR STD PCO SUBSCRIBER CHARGING PROCEDURE: Charging rate of each subscriber is stored on hard disks every day. These hard disks have capacity around 4 to 8 GB. From these tapes data is copied in MAGNETIC TAPES which are 2400 feet long and with the help of these tapes the is send to particular department for charging. Now a days cassette type magnetic tapes are in fashion and have very small size.


INTRODUCTION:Automatic trunk booking system through IVRS (Interactive Voice Response System) is a system, which is use to book trunk calls for any station with in India. The system consists of two servers, which are in Hot Standby mode, along with one dedicated operator terminal parented to each. The server takes care of booking and put-through the trunk Calls, which are booked by the esteemed customers of BSNL by dialing 180 and following the announcements of IVRS. The esteemed customers of BSNL can also make enquiries regarding status / cancellation / charges of the booked trunk calls by dialing 181 and then following the announcements of IVRS. When a customer of BSNL has any problem during booking / enquiry of trunk call through IVRS, he will be transferred to the operator terminal for further assistance.



2 Intel Pentium-IV @ 2.6 Ghz. 3 RAM 512 MB 4 HDD 1 X 40 GB 5 SAVG 15 Monitor 6 FDD 1.44 MB 7 52X Samsung CD ROM Drive 8 Mouse with Mouse pad 9 Key Board 10 4 PCI SLOT 11 COMPEX PS2208B 8 CHANNEL HUB 12 Dot Matrix Printer TVSE MSP 245 13 2 Serial / 1 Parallel / 2 USB Port (Support for ECC / EPP) 14 32 Bits 10 / 100 Mbps Ethernet Card with UTP Support. 15 PSTN Interface Card 1. Trunk Card: PSTN Interface Card for 30 Channels Support R2MFC Signaling. 3. Intel Dialogic Card 12 Dot Matrix Printer TVSE MSP 245 13 2 Serial / 1 Parallel / 2 USB Port (Support for ECC / EPP) 14 32 Bits 10 / 100 Mbps Ethernet Card with UTP Support. 15 PSTN Interface Card 1. Trunk Card: PSTN Interface Card for 30 Channels Support R2MFC Signaling. 3. Intel Dialogic Card 4.


3.1 INTELLEGENT ANSWERING The IVRS trunk booking is having the function of requesting for the Calling Line Identification (CLI) of the customer from the telephone system. When the call is landed to the IVRS, an appropriate announcement with welcome is given to the incoming subscriber. 3.2 LANGUAGE TYPE Automatic trunk booking system supports multilinguistic announcements. There can be announcement in as many as three languages viz English, Hindi or regional Language. 3.3 INTELLEGENT CALL ROUTING The incoming subscriber routed to the service requested as per the dial digits. Non-CLI subscriber is routed to the operator terminal for assistant / enquiry. 3.4 DISCONNECT TIME The option specifies the announcement that has to be given to the calling

party before disconnection of the call. 3.5 ALLOCATION OF TRUNK SERVICE IVRS administrator can allocate a service number for each service i.e. 180 for trunk booking and 181 for trunk enquiry etc. 3.6 CONFIGURING EACH CHANNEL IVRS administrator can configure each channel according to the existing channel i.e. booking, incoming, STD-outgoing etc. 3.7 SILENCE DETECTION When the calling party after finishing his conversation keeps the receiver, the line does not get disconnected due to the fact that line reversal from theexchange is not received. So, when we enable the silence detection option the line is forcefully disconnected according to the specified seconds when there is no speech on the line. 3.8 BOOKING BARRING IVRS administrator can configure booking setup option in order to bar CCB Nos, duplicate booking, and non CLI, CLI length less than 11 Nos. etc. 3.9 DIALING AND RETRIES IVRS administrator can configure the number of times of dialing / retries ofcalling person OFF-HOLD / Called person OFF-HOLD / Called person ON-HOLD / Operator ON-HOLD etc. 3.10 DIALING MODE It is used for the IVRS System to dial to the subscriber in pulse or in tone mode. 3.11 ZERO HOURS CANCELLATION IVRS administrator can activate this option in order to cancel all pending STD call of the day before at midnight 12 Oclock. 3.12 BOOK MULTIPLE CALL WITHOUT DISCONNECTION IVRS administrator can activate this option in order to book multiple calls without disconnection. 3.13 CONFIRM LOCAL PERSON TO KEEP THE CALL PENDING If this option is clicked, whenever the system tries to put through the call to outstation number, some times outstation number may be busy or no response, at that time system confirms calling person to keep the call in pending or cancel the call. 3.14 MULTI SSA TRUNK BOOKING As the master file of IVRS data contains the STD code Versus X-Y coordinates of the SDCCs and distance is calculated taking these coordinates by the software and on the basis of distance slab pulse is taken and trunk charge is calculated per minute basis, therefore Multi-SSAs trunk booking is possible through IVRS. 3.15 DISPLAY OF THE CLI OF THE CALLING NUMBER TO THE CALLED NUMBER As per the BSNL HQ norms the CLI of the calling subscriber will be given to the called subscriber in trunk booking. IVRS supports this feature. 3.16 BILLING FORMAT AS PER TRA SYSTEM Billing data format matches with the DOTSOFT / CDTMX / Trichur package as per TRA System.

3.17 DATA SECURE SYSTEM In IVRS system both the servers are in Hot Standby configuration for data security.



The ACD8800 is a digital stored program controlled switch with a maximum capacity of 48 operators and 4 supervisors. The ACD800 can be configured for a maximum of 4 groups. The ACD8800 distributes incoming calls to operators, such that operators waiting or 'FREE' for maximum time will be the first to receive a call. Also, a subscriber landing first on the system is the first to get connected to an operator. The ACD800has the capability of holding subscriber in queue such that whenever all operator are busy or unavailable, the incoming subscribers is held in queue. The calling subscriber is given a digitized message when

being held in queue. The system is capable of being software programmed in real time to boost its capabilities. The system may be configured in multiple group or splits; in such a case the junctions as well as operator are assigned a group. The ACD8800 allows the user to set overflow patterns for the assigned groups. This means that when operator s in a particular group is busy, the subscriber may be connected to operators in another group. The ACD8800 provides the user with comprehensive statistical Information which helps in improving the standard of service considerably. Some of the information Included is: 1. Total number of calls landed on the system. 2. Total number of calls serviced. 3. Total number of calls offered to individual operator. 4. Effective calls per operator. 5. Average response period of any operator. 6. Average conversation/service period. 7. Number of calls in Queue. 8. Number of calls landed on the system. 9. Information on how each operator handles calls. 10. Retained daily statistics for further analysis. The Department of telecommunication renders an essential service. The public expects very high Standards of performance from D.O.T. it is through the prompt response of special services staff that the public judges the whole Department. When the number of operator available is less than the calls landing on the trunks, calls are lost, resulting in poor service quality. if a queue delay is provided, the caller's waiting times increases. When the number of service improves and no calls are lost, but the operator remains idle. So, what we number of operator available to attend to them. in addition, if we had actual data of the traffic, it would help us in traffic measurement and traffic prediction. HAKOTRONICS ACD 8800 is a digital switch under the overall control of the supervisory computer. The subscribers may land on the equipment through the parent exchange or trunk concentrators and relay sets. The HAKOTRONIC ACD distributes this traffic automatically among the available operator. The computer helps the supervisor manage this job. Our ACD consists of: 1. DIGITAL SWITCH WORKING ON EXCHANGE BATTERY 2. OPERATOR INSTRUMENTS 3. TELEPHONE INSTRUMENT FOR THE SUPERVISOR 4. COMPUTER FOR THE SUPERVISOR 5. PRINTER FOR THE SUPERVISOR The digital switch distributes calls between the available operator and supplies call information to the computer to the computer. The computer

collects this information and makes it available to the supervisor. The supervisor is also provided with a telephone instrument. He may take out a printout of the information using the printer. Before installing the ACD 8800 system at your site, make sure that: 1. Proper site is allotted for the placement of system. 2. Proper earthing supply cabling, line cabling is done. 3. Sufficient ventilation and furniture is provided. 4. Accessories such as computers, printers, instruments, etc. should be as per the system Requirement. 5. If message is required, an audiocassette with the recording of the required message is sent to The factory before the installation. 6. All the accessories and copies of manuals are provided along with the ACD 8800 system. All these points are explained in detail in the following chapters. Please make sure that ACD8800 meets your feature requirement. Hakotronics looks forward to satisfying your requirement and assisting to you to improve your services

ACD SYSTEM AUTOCALL ACDcomprises of Incoming Trunks

Digital Switching Unit Operator Positions Supervisor Terminal Supervisor Telephone Console INCOMING TRUNKS Depending upon the signaling scheme of the parent exchange to which ACD is connected, appropriate analog terminations are provided to terminate the incoming trunks on the ACD. All traffic data related to a particular trunk or a group of trunks is conveyed to the supervisor terminal and is logged. This includes the no of calls landed on a trunk grouping of calls serviced, calls delayed etc. Hakotronics ACD allows grouping of trunks. This allows the calls belonging to a particular trunk group to be handled by operators belonging to that group. It is also possible to terminate a trunk group to other devices such as automatic answering machines, EPABX's etc. DIGITAL SWITCHING UNIT: The Switching Unit forms the most important part of the ACD. In the present system it continuously scans the trunks terminating on the unit, for a LOOP OFFER condition .On detection of ring the Switching Unit does one of the following: Switches the caller to a free operator Puts the caller in a queue and gives him music or a pre-recorded message such as "Please wait, you are in queue " (iii) Gives a busy tone to the caller in case either the queue is full or the trunk is disabled. The switch hardware has proved to be totally reliable. It does not require air-conditioning and is extensively fault-tolerant. The design supports redundancy and maintenance. Solid-state message units are available as extra options. In case a free operator is available, the ACD links the caller to this operator and connects them; the ACD links the caller to this operator and connects them. In case more than one operator is free, the call is switched to the operator has been free for the longest time. This ensures an even distribution of calls among the operators. In case no a free operator is available, but the queue is not full. The system switches either music or a pre-recorded message to the caller such as "please wait, you are in queue. This information is simultaneously provided to the supervisor terminal. When an operator becomes free, the incoming caller is automatically switched to that operator. In case the queue is full, i.e. the incoming traffic is too high for the number of available operators; a busy tone is fed to the callers. A busy tone is also fed to callers landing on "disable trunks".

The system cabinet consists of a card stage MDF frame and the power distributor the system cabinet is made of steel and is chemically treated to give it a non-corrosive finish adequate ventilation has been provided on all

sides the system has two covers which are hinged to facilitate Maintenance these are screwed on by means of by means of 'ALLEN' type bolts to fasten then securely. The card cage houses switching network, comprising various functional modules. Removing the bolts for the front cover can access these The card cage consists of card guides\rails in which all the system cards .all the cards are connected and placed in a card frame and the card connectors terminate in a back plane PCB (THE MOTHER BOARD) which runs throughout the length of the back of the frame inter card connections Inter card connections are through this back plane. All the important cards e.g. PSU, PROCESSOR, SIGNAL and ANNC are duplicated in 128port system, to make the switch fault tolerant. Unauthorized/untrained personnel have provided polarization of controller cards to avoid damage or misuse of the cards. The ACD system has basically 8 type of card: 1. OPERATER CARD : Interfaces Analog subscriber line terminations with the digital switches (capacity: 8 termination/card.) 2. TRUNK CARD (JUNCTION) : Functionally identical to OPERATOR CARD; but interfaces with Analog Trunk Lines. 3. ANNOUNCEMENT CARD (ANNC) : Announcement and Tones are stored as DIGITAL PCM samples in this card. Like subscribers, Announcement and tones also are allotted 'Ports' and connected to PCM 32 channel link. This card performs self-diagnostics and reports to the processor card through the "error signal". 4. PROCESSOR CARD: Digital switch which connects two subscribers by the way of TIME-SLOT INTERCHANGE. It controls the time multiplexing/demultiplexing functions for the PCM coded voice samples form/to the termination cards. 5.SIGNAL CARD: Receives/sends signaling information (ONHOOK,OFF-HOOK, Dial pulses etc.) from Terminal Cards in multiplexed fashion and is made available to the processor card through a standard Rockwell 6502-bus interface. 6. CONFERENCE CARD (CNF) : Caters for 3 party conferencing (operator, trunk and supervisor). MAIN DISTRIBUTION FRAME: The main distribution frame (MDF) is mounted on the topside of the system cabinet and provides interconnection between the equipment side, the operator side (position), junction side and the supervisor. POWER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTOR: The float charger with a battery standby or the exchange battery of -48 volts DC forms the source of the system. All voltages needed by the cards inside the system are generated by the power supply card, which is duplicated. The power supply card is a DC-DC converter using -48V,5A as the input

voltage. The -48V required by the voice circuit is from the filtered voltage of AC/DC converter, which is connected at the power source. This is done to improve the transmission characteristics of the line circuit. SUPERVISORY CONSOLE: The Supervisory Console consists of a PC/AT computer, VDU, printer and keyboard with a supervisory telephone instrument. This console performs the operation features and on -line diagnostics. It communicates with the PROCESSOR via a serial asynchronous RS-232 interface for all control function . The speech path is provided for each supervisor (max. 4nos.) by a telephone instrument via a Terminal Card, to communicate with the system operators. PRE INSTALLATION PHASE: PRE--INSTALLATIONACTIVITIES 0. ORDERING INFORMATION 2. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITONS 3. CABLELAYING AND EARTHING 4. PROCUREMENT OF POWER SUPPLY 5. SYSTEM REQUIREMENT ORERING INFORMATION: The number of incoming trunks and operators will depend, among other things, upon the type of service, holding time for that service. For example, in case of the 180 services, the typical holding time will be about 45-60 seconds. Approximately one trunk inlet is required for 200 subscribers. The number of operator should be at least 2/3rd the number of trunks. in the case of a service link 197,the holding time may be longer. To illustrate, in a town with 30,000 subscriber DEL's, and ACD with 180, 181 and 197 inlets, may have approx 15 inlets on 180 service, 5 on 181 service and 28 on 197 Service (estimated requirement as per calls attempts per service). FLOOR SPACE: An enclosure (or room) with proper lighting and ventilation of 3.59 m(L) x 3m(B) x 3m (ceiling Ht) is required for the installation of ACD, Power Plant (optional), MDF. This enclosure or room should be dust free. ENVIOURMENTAL CONDITION: The system environment should be cool, dust free and well ventilated. Sunlight should not directly fall on the system. However the general lighting in the ACD room should be 300 lux.(At least four of fluorescent lamps are placed in the room, one and half meters apart.) The moment of personnel should be minimum to reduce dust accumulation. Environment temperature should not exceed 45 degrees Celsius and the relative humidity can be up to 95 percent maximum.

Fire protection devices must be considered and applicable regulatory standards must be met. the voltage drop between the battery terminal and the system power supplyterminal should not be more then 2V. In other wards, the whole power plantcable should not be more than 8 metres from system cabinet.


* The WIRELESS LOCAL LOOP works on CDMA technology. The CDMA technology is based on the principle of CODE DIVISION MULTIPLEXING. Different telecom companies are assigned different frequency range to cater for their individual WLL services. The frequency channels provided to BSNL for WLL communication are 37&398. * The switch room for the WLL at BSNL jaipur (M.I.ROAD) consists of 2 units namely BTS and BSC. The unit BSC is installed only at the main BSNL station in a city, a BTS unit is also installed here. In the rest of local BSNL branches in a city only the unit BTS is installed and this in turn connected to the single BSC in the city. Each BDS unit is installed wherever WLL antennas are mounted. A BDS can cover an area of radius 1 to 5 Km. Each such area is divided into 3 sectors, each covering a circular area of 120 degrees ,denoted by the symbols alpha, beta & gamma. Corresponding to transmission and reception of signals (data or speech) ,there are different antennas at each tower for WLL service: TRANS and TRANSRECIEVE. * BTS recieves signals from an antenna located at the corresponding station, which are then send to BSC for further processing. BSC is the main controller unit while BTS simply acts as a gateway for the signals to reach BSC. * Compared to GSM ,WLL provides a wider range and that is why WLLantennas are mounted above GSM antennas on communication towers, sothat they can cover a larger area WLL: THE HARDWARE


The BTS unit comprises of the following components: *Demultiplexer. *Power amplifier. *Combiner. *Timing device. *Up-down converter. etc. DEMULTIPLEXER: This device is used to seperate different signals from the frequency channel recieved by the reciever antenna.Here three demultiplexers are used corresponding to the three sectors alpha ,beta & gamma. POWER AMPLIFIER: The signals reaching the WLL antennas ,become very weak due to the distance they travel & thus need top be amplified. Also while sending the signals they need to be amplified for the same reason .This amplification is achieved by power amplifiers. Corresponding to each of the three sectors here are two amplifiers ,one for transmission of signals and one for reception .Thus, in all the BTS cabinet has 6 power amplifiers. COMBINER: It combines different frequency channels ,may be 2,3 or 4. A single frequency channel can serve for 128 calls.If 2 frequency channels are combined,256 cals can be served and so on for 3 & 4 channels.Right now ,here, 2 frequency channels are combined. TIMING DEVICE SIM BLOCKS,etc. FUNCTIONS OF BTS : 1. Call processing 2. Software downloading 3. Operation and maintenance 4. Fault management 5. Testing function 6. Overload control function 7. Mobility support BASE STATION CONTROLLER The base station controller is a main controller which has many BS

connected to it.Each district has its own BSC located at main station. Different BSCs are connected to a MSC. COMPONENTS OF BSC: OCP (operation control processor): It supervises a series of operation and maitenance function in the system.For this purpose,it controls MAGNETIC TAPE and MAGNETIC DISC as auxillary memory unit. In MT billing recording, stastic maintenance and operatin and administration details are recorded whereas on disc ,generic programs and data are recorded.In addition it carries out the controlling and processing function on the database to manage each subscriber's records.It performs an acknoledgement function on the subscriber. CIN (CDMA inter working): It provides communication path to voice packets for the mobile communication using CDMA system. In addition it provides paths to be connected to IPC(inter proccesor comunication) modes in order to provide all physical connection paths required for call processing. CCP (call control processor): This is main processor accomodated in the BSC. It performs a call setup/release request,paging,and selector allocation and cancelation functions.In addition it manages the call status info of each sector generated during call processing,traffic channel addtress,selector address,allocation info and cell ID info. CSB (CDMA selector bank): CSB located in BSC,performs a vocoding function that converts the QCELP voice data of BTS channel cord and the PCM data of the sysyem IWF (inter working function): This block is used to perform asynchronous line data and fax service. It carries out the function of connecting input and output converted 64 Kbps PCM data to line modem or fax of PSTN network. It also processes data communication protocol on the service option of wireless data terminal. WTFC (WLL timing and frequency control): It is made up of a timing module that provides BSC synchronisation and clock using TOD (Time of Day) synchronisation from GPS receive and a module for performing the fault detection on BSC hardware and system environment. It inetrfaces with CIN block in order to report WTFC status and fault info to main processor. RGPS (redundant global positioning system) It receives clock info from GPS satellite in BSC GPS is used so that clock info received can be used as the synchronisation source of 20 ms voice traffic frame.

FUNCTIONS OF BSC 1. Call processing functions 2. Transparent service provision 3. Voice coding 4. Optimal voice selection 5. Provision of sypplimentry services 6. Message distridution function 7. Call resource mamagement 8. PSTN interface 9. Operation and maintenance function 10. Network interworking function BSM (BASE STATION MANAGER): It is used to interface with the SUN network for interworking with the system operators. Basic functions of BSM are: 1. Configuration management 2. Performance management 3. Fault management 4. Security management 5. Software downloading FIXED SUBSCRIBER UNIT: This unit is placed between BTS and subscriber. It provides wireless interface function .It also provides voice services ,voice bandwidth data and digital data services. Of course, the above is raw transmission rate modern technologies use advance compression algorithms to reduce the data rate to a great extent. 2. Broadband delivery technologies The problem of the last mile While telecom companies have adequate high speed OFC infrastructure to connect their Exchanges and switches, the same does not hold good with the legacy fixed line customers who are connected, however adequately for voice communication, by good old copper. How to deliver the broadband

Broadband services are used by Telecom Companies worldwide to leverage their existing investment in copper in the local loop. Copper as a last-mile delivery medium has the advantage of near-universal penetration, and local Telecom Companies are increasingly eyeing broadband services on it as a means of hitting back at cable operators who have begun infringing on

their turf by their bundled Internet offerings. This article attempts to demystify the basic technologies involved in broadband delivery, the GOIs attempts to promote broadband usage in the country, and BSNLs broadband plans as part of its ambitious NIB-II project. 1. What is broadband? To state the obvious, broadband indicates a means of connectivity at a high or broad bandwidth. In India, TRAI has defined broadband as any connectivity delivered to the end user at a bandwidth greater that 256 kbps. (So that immediately excludes the popular DIAS services offered by BSNL at many places). Why is bandwidth so important and how to estimate how much bandwidth is required for a particular application? A small example below will help illustrate the concept. Assuming you wish to receive a VCD quality transmission ( incidentally, this is also the quality offered by low cost desktop videoconferencing applications ) over your broadband connection, the maths is: Pixel count per frame 200 X 300 = 60000 Frame rate -- 30 per sec (minimum) Bandwidth required : 200 X 300 X 30 = 1800000 = 1.8 Mbps Of course, the above is raw transmission rate modern technologies use advance compression algorithms to reduce the data rate to a great extent. 2. Broadband delivery technologies The problem of the last mile While telecom companies have adequate high speed OFC infrastructure to connect their Exchanges and switches, the same does not hold good with the legacy fixed line customers who are connected, however adequately for voice communication, by good old copper. How to deliver the broadband content over this seemingly low bandwidth medium was the question till recently, when advanced Line coding and compression technologies solved the problem. The Misunderstood Copper It has been the general perception that copper is no good for anything other than speech communications of the analog variety. However, the blame for the low bandwidth rests with the telephone system rather than with the medium. The telephone system filters the voice to a range of 400 Hz to 3-.4 KHz, thereby rendering the local lead useless for even good quality sound transmission. And people blame the poor copper. When data transmission was attempted over non-exchange lines using traditional line coding mechanisms like AMI (Alternate Mark Inversion), a good bandwidth could not be achieved because these mechanisms corrupt

the spectrum and cause interference between the pairs in a copper cable bundle. To overcome this, alternative technologies were devised which performed the line coding and transmission in such a way that the interference was minimized, thereby enabling much higher frequencies to be transmitted. And the mother of all technologies was DSL. Broadband over copper: the DSLs DSL stands for Digital Subscriber Loop. The diagram below shows how DSL modulates the Line Spectrum. Data Signal is sent at a frequency higher that the Voice (3.4 Khz) frequency There are various technologies spawned off from DSL which perform to different expectations: DSL: Digital Subscriber Line SDSL: Single Line Digital Subscriber Line ADSL: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line HDSL: High data rate Digital Subscriber Line VDSL : Very High data rate Digital Subscriber Line IDSL: ISDN Digital Subscriber Line These technologies offer differing bandwidths over different distances. The table below shows a comparison of their c 3. ADSL Of all the mechanisms outlined above, Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop (ADSL) has found favour as a broadband delivery mechanism, in view of its high downstream bandwidth. Down strrefers to data flowing from the service provider to the user. Most of the popular applications, like web browsing, video streaming, FTP downloads, etc., require much higher downstream bandwidth than upstream bandwidth. ADSL manages to extract high data rates in this direction. The distance limitations for ADSL areeam With all the local telecom companies edging closer to the customer with their distributed access mechanisms like DLCs and RSUs, the above distances lie well within the range of most customer premises, and thus broadband delivery can be quite effective, with a richer user experience. Multiplexing Voice and Data: DSLAM The DSL Access Multiplexer, popularly known as DSLAM, is employed by the Telecom Companies to code the subscriber line with the broadband data content. Once the ADSL copper line reaches the customer, some customer premises equipment (CPE) has to be employed to separate the voice and data signals.

In many cases the Splitter function is combined within the DSL Modem CPE equipment, which is also known sometimes as a Set-top Box. 4. Broadband Services Several interesting services can be provided in an Integrated manner by the broadband service provider. Some of these are: High Speed Internet Services Video on Demand Multicast Video Streaming Interactive e- Learning Interactive Gaming High speed Internet Services refer to always-on fast Internet access. Video on Demand enables the user to select from an online library of content and select any of the available choices for viewing at a convenient time. This is similar to borrowing a Video for viewing . Multicast video streaming is similar to cable or terrestrial broadcast the user can join at any time but the stream begins and ends at the preappointed times. Interactive e-learning can consist of electronic classrooms with 2-way and multi-way communication between teachers and students. Interactive gaming enables multiple players to play online games pitted against each other or against computers, through gaming servers employed by gaming content providers. Needless to say, all these services require the service provider to have strong tie-ups with the various content providers. After all, what is hardware without usable software.


I did my training from BSNL, Allahabad which is one of the best knwn communication service provider company of India. Where I learnt various sections of BSNL which are as follows : (1) Main Distribution Frame(MDF) (2) Broadband (3) EWSD-System Exchange and (4) BSNL Power Plant In MDF section it is explained that how MDF acts as a media between switching network and subscriber,s line. In broadband section, I learnt that how internet connections are given to consumers through broadband. In EWSD section, I learnt about the design and manufacturing of switching systems. I also learnt, how power is supplied to various section in BSNL Power Plant sectio

1). Telecommunications by Fraser. 2). Introduction to switching Networks and Traffics by Flyod. 3). Website: -