A The Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List Scott Pakin <scott+clsl@pakin.

org>∗ 3 January 2008

Abstract
A This document lists 4947 symbols and the corresponding L TEX commands that produce them. Some A of these symbols are guaranteed to be available in every L TEX 2ε system; others require fonts and packages that may not accompany a given distribution and that therefore need to be installed. All of the fonts and packages used to prepare this document—as well as this document itself—are freely available from the Comprehensive TEX Archive Network (http://www.ctan.org/).

Contents
1 Introduction 1.1 Document Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Frequently Requested Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Body-text symbols A Table 1: L TEX 2ε Escapable “Special” Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Table 2: Predefined L TEX 2ε Text-mode Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A X 2 Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode Table 3: L TE ε Table 4: AMS Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode . Table 5: Non-ASCII Letters (Excluding Accented Letters) . . . . . . . . . . Table 6: Letters Used to Typeset African Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 7: Letters Used to Typeset Vietnamese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 8: Punctuation Marks Not Found in OT1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 9: pifont Decorative Punctuation Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 10: tipa Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 11: tipx Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 13: wsuipa Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 14: wasysym Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 15: phonetic Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 16: t4phonet Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 17: semtrans Transliteration Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 18: Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 19: tipa Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 20: extraipa Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 21: wsuipa Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 22: phonetic Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 23: metre Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 24: t4phonet Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 25: arcs Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 26: semtrans Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 27: wsuipa Diacritics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 28: textcomp Diacritics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 29: textcomp Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 30: marvosym Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 13 13 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 17 17 17

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∗ The original version of this document was written by David Carlisle, with several additional tables provided by Alexander Holt. See Section 7.7 on page 104 for more information about who did what.

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31: 32: 33: 34: 35: 36: 37:

wasysym Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . eurosym Euro Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . textcomp Legal Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . cclicenses Creative Commons License Icons textcomp Old-style Numerals . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous textcomp Symbols . . . . . . Miscellaneous wasysym Text-mode Symbols

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17 17 18 18 18 19 19 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 26 27 28 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 32 32 33 34 34 35 35 36 36 36 36 36 36 37 37 37 37

3 Mathematical symbols Table 38: Math-Mode Versions of Text Symbols . . . . . Table 39: cmll Unary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 40: Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 41: AMS Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 42: stmaryrd Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . Table 43: wasysym Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . Table 44: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Operators . . . . . . . . Table 45: mathabx Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . Table 46: MnSymbol Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . Table 47: mathdesign Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . Table 48: cmll Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 49: ulsy Geometric Binary Operators . . . . . . . . Table 50: mathabx Geometric Binary Operators . . . . . Table 51: MnSymbol Geometric Binary Operators . . . . Table 52: Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . . . . Table 53: AMS Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . Table 54: stmaryrd Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . Table 55: wasysym Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . Table 56: mathabx Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . Table 57: txfonts/pxfonts Variable-sized Math Operators Table 58: esint Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . Table 59: MnSymbol Variable-sized Math Operators . . . Table 60: mathdesign Variable-sized Math Operators . . Table 61: cmll Large Math Operators . . . . . . . . . . . Table 62: Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 63: AMS Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 64: AMS Negated Binary Relations . . . . . . . . Table 65: stmaryrd Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 66: wasysym Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 67: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Relations . . . . . . . . Table 68: txfonts/pxfonts Negated Binary Relations . . . Table 69: mathabx Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 70: mathabx Negated Binary Relations . . . . . . . Table 71: MnSymbol Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . Table 72: MnSymbol Negated Binary Relations . . . . . Table 73: mathtools Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . Table 74: turnstile Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 75: trsym Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 76: trfsigns Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 77: cmll Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 78: Subset and Superset Relations . . . . . . . . . Table 79: AMS Subset and Superset Relations . . . . . . Table 80: stmaryrd Subset and Superset Relations . . . . Table 81: wasysym Subset and Superset Relations . . . . Table 82: txfonts/pxfonts Subset and Superset Relations Table 83: mathabx Subset and Superset Relations . . . . Table 84: MnSymbol Subset and Superset Relations . . . Table 85: Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 86: AMS Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

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wasysym Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Inequalities . . . . . . mathabx Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Inequalities . . . . . . . . AMS Triangle Relations . . . . . . . stmaryrd Triangle Relations . . . . . . mathabx Triangle Relations . . . . . . MnSymbol Triangle Relations . . . . . Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . textcomp Text-mode Arrows . . . . . AMS Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Negated Arrows . . . . . . . . . AMS Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . stmaryrd Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Arrows . . . . . . . . mathabx Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Negated Arrows . . . . . . . mathabx Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Negated Arrows . . . . . . MnSymbol Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Negated Harpoons . . . . chemarrow Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . fge Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Spoons . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Pitchforks . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Smiles and Frowns . . . . ulsy Contradiction Symbols . . . . . . Extension Characters . . . . . . . . . stmaryrd Extension Characters . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Extension Characters mathabx Extension Characters . . . . Log-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Log-like Symbols . . . . . . . . Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Upright Greek Letters upgreek Upright Greek Letters . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Variant Latin Letters AMS Hebrew Letters . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Hebrew Letters . . . . . . Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . AMS Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Letter-like Symbols . . mathabx Letter-like Symbols . . . . . MnSymbol Letter-like Symbols . . . . trfsigns Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . mathdesign Letter-like Symbols . . . . fge Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . AMS Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . stmaryrd Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . nath Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . Large, Variable-sized Delimiters . . . AMS Variable-sized Delimiters . . . .

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stmaryrd Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . mathabx Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . mathdesign Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Double) . . . . . . nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Triple) . . . . . . . textcomp Text-mode Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . metre Text-mode Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . fge Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yhmath Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . overrightarrow Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . yhmath Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . mathtools Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . esvect Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . undertilde Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathtools Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . chemarr Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . chemarrow Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . trfsigns Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . extarrows Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . extpfeil Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . holtpolt Non-commutative Division Symbols . . . Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wasysym Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathdots Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yhmath Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathcomp Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mathabx Mayan Digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . marvosym Digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fge Digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Miscellaneous L TEX 2ε Math Symbols . . . . . . . Miscellaneous AMS Math Symbols . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous wasysym Math Symbols . . . . . . . Miscellaneous txfonts/pxfonts Math Symbols . . . Miscellaneous mathabx Math Symbols . . . . . . . Miscellaneous MnSymbol Math Symbols . . . . . . Miscellaneous Internal MnSymbol Math Symbols . Miscellaneous textcomp Text-mode Math Symbols Miscellaneous marvosym Math Symbols . . . . . . Miscellaneous fge Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous mathdesign Math Symbols . . . . . Miscellaneous arev Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . Math Alphabets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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53 54 54 55 55 55 56 56 56 56 56 56 57 57 57 57 58 58 58 58 59 59 59 59 59 60 60 60 60 60 61 61 61 61 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 63 63 63 63 63 64 64 64 64 64 64 65

4

4 Science and technology symbols Table 197: gensymb Symbols Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode Table 198: wasysym Electrical and Physical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 199: ifsym Pulse Diagram Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 200: ar Aspect Ratio Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 201: textcomp Text-mode Science and Engineering Symbols . . . . . . Table 202: wasysym Astronomical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 203: marvosym Astronomical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 204: mathabx Astronomical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 205: wasysym APL Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 206: wasysym APL Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 207: marvosym Computer Hardware Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 208: keystroke Computer Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 209: ascii Control Characters (CP437) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 210: marvosym Communication Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 211: marvosym Engineering Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 212: wasysym Biological Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 213: marvosym Biological Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 214: marvosym Safety-related Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 215: feyn Feynman Diagram Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Dingbats Table 216: Table 217: Table 218: Table 219: Table 220: Table 221: Table 222: Table 223: Table 224: Table 225: Table 226: Table 227: Table 228: Table 229: Table 230: Table 231: Table 232: Table 233: Table 234: Table 235: Table 236: Table 237: Table 238: Table 239: Table 240: Table 241: Table 242: Table 243: Table 244: Table 245: Table 246: Table 247: Table 248: Table 249: Table 250: Table 251:

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67 67 67 67 67 67 68 68 68 68 68 69 69 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 73 73 73 73 73 73 74 74 74 74 75 75 75 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 77 77

bbding Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pifont Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . universal Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . marvosym Scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pifont Scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dingbat Pencils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Pencils and Nibs . . . . . . . . . . . pifont Pencils and Nibs . . . . . . . . . . . dingbat Fists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Fists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pifont Fists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Crosses and Plusses . . . . . . . . . pifont Crosses and Plusses . . . . . . . . . bbding Xs and Check Marks . . . . . . . . pifont Xs and Check Marks . . . . . . . . . wasysym Xs and Check Marks . . . . . . . universal Xs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pifont Circled Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . wasysym Stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes pifont Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes . wasysym Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . MnSymbol Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . ifsym Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . pifont Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . universa Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . universal Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . igo Go Stones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . manfnt Dangerous Bend Symbols . . . . . skull Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Non-Mathematical mathabx Symbols . . . marvosym Information Symbols . . . . . . . Miscellaneous dingbat Dingbats . . . . . . Miscellaneous bbding Dingbats . . . . . . . 5

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Table 252: Miscellaneous pifont Dingbats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Other symbols Table 253: textcomp Genealogical Symbols . . . . . Table 254: wasysym General Symbols . . . . . . . . . Table 255: wasysym Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 256: wasysym Musical Symbols . . . . . . . . . Table 257: arev Musical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . Table 258: harmony Musical Symbols . . . . . . . . . Table 259: harmony Musical Accents . . . . . . . . . Table 260: Miscellaneous manfnt Symbols . . . . . . Table 261: marvosym Navigation Symbols . . . . . . Table 262: marvosym Laundry Symbols . . . . . . . Table 263: Other marvosym Symbols . . . . . . . . . Table 264: Miscellaneous universa Symbols . . . . . . Table 265: Miscellaneous universal Symbols . . . . . Table 266: ifsym Weather Symbols . . . . . . . . . . Table 267: ifsym Alpine Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . Table 268: ifsym Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 269: Other ifsym Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . Table 270: epsdice Dice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 271: skak Chess Informator Symbols . . . . . Table 272: metre Metrical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . Table 273: metre Small and Large Metrical Symbols Table 274: phaistos Symbols from the Phaistos Disk Table 275: protosem Proto-Semitic Characters . . . . Table 276: hieroglf Hieroglyphics . . . . . . . . . . . Table 277: dictsym Dictionary Symbols . . . . . . . Table 278: simpsons Characters from The Simpsons Table 279: staves Magical Staves . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Additional Information 7.1 Symbol Name Clashes . . . . . . . . 7.2 Resizing symbols . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Where can I find the symbol for . . . ? 7.4 Math-mode spacing . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Bold mathematical symbols . . . . . 7.6 ASCII and Latin 1 quick reference . 7.7 About this document . . . . . . . . . 7.8 Copyright and license . . . . . . . . References Index

77 78 78 78 78 78 78 79 79 79 79 80 80 80 80 80 81 81 81 81 82 82 82 83 83 84 84 85 85 87 87 87 87 99 100 100 104 106 106 107

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6

1

Introduction

A A Welcome to the Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List! This document strives to be your primary source of L TEX A symbol information: font samples, L TEX commands, packages, usage details, caveats—everything needed to put thousands of different symbols at your disposal. All of the fonts covered herein meet the following criteria:

1. They are freely available from the Comprehensive TEX Archive Network (http://www.ctan.org).
A 2. All of their symbols have L TEX 2ε bindings. That is, a user should be able to access a symbol by name, not just by \char number . A These are not particularly limiting criteria; the Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List contains samples of 4947 A symbols—quite a large number. Some of these symbols are guaranteed to be available in every L TEX 2ε system; others require fonts and packages that may not accompany a given distribution and that therefore need to be installed. See http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=instpackages+wherefiles for help with installing new fonts and packages.

1.1

Document Usage

Each section of this document contains a number of font tables. Each table shows a set of symbols, with the A corresponding L TEX command to the right of each symbol. A table’s caption indicates what package needs to be loaded in order to access that table’s symbols. For example, the symbols in Table 35, “textcomp Old-Style Numerals”, are made available by putting “\usepackage{textcomp}” in your document’s preamble. “AMS” means to use the AMS packages, viz. amssymb and/or amsmath. Notes below a table provide additional information about some or all the symbols in that table. One note that appears a few times in this document, particularly in Section 2, indicates that certain symbols do not exist in the OT1 font encoding (Donald Knuth’s original, 7-bit font encoding, which is the A default font encoding for L TEX) and that you should use fontenc to select a different encoding, such as T1 (a common 8-bit font encoding). That means that you should put “\usepackage[ encoding ]{fontenc}” in your document’s preamble, where encoding is, e.g., T1 or LY1. To limit the change in font encoding to the current group, use “\fontencoding{ encoding }\selectfont”. Section 7 contains some additional information about the symbols in this document. It shows which symbol names are not unique across packages, gives examples of how to create new symbols out of existing symbols, A explains how symbols are spaced in math mode, presents a L TEX ASCII and Latin 1 tables, and provides A some information about this document itself. The Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List ends with an index of all the symbols in the document and various additional useful terms.

1.2

Frequently Requested Symbols

There are a number of symbols that are requested over and over again on comp.text.tex. If you’re looking for such a symbol the following list will help you find it quickly. , as in “Spaces are significant.” ´ ` ¯ ˆ etc. (versus ´ ` ¯ and ˆ ı, ı, ı, ı, ı, ı, i, ı) ¢ e ‰ ∴ ........ ........ 8 13 17 17 18 19 27 30 31 .. . and ......................... 37 62 64 65 65 92 94

.............................. .............. ........................ ......................

............................... .............................. ...................... .............................. .............................. ............................... and .........................

°, as in “180°” or “15 ” L, F, etc.

©, ®, and ™

N, Z, R, etc.

...............................

´ ˆ a e ¯, `, etc. (i.e., several accents per character) <, >, and | (instead of ¡, ¿, and —) ˆ and ˜ (or ∼)

. . . . . . 100

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

7

2

Body-text symbols

This section lists symbols that are intended for use in running text, such as punctuation marks, accents, ligatures, and currency symbols.

A Table 1: L TEX 2ε Escapable “Special” Characters

$

\$

%

\%

\_ ∗

}

\}

&

\&

#

\#

{

\{

The underscore package redefines “_” to produce an underscore in text mode (i.e., it makes it unnecessary to escape the underscore character).

A Table 2: Predefined L TEX 2ε Text-mode Commands

c

ˆ ˜ ∗ \ | { } • © † ‡ $ ... — – ¡ >

\textasciicircum \textasciitilde \textasteriskcentered \textbackslash \textbar \textbraceleft∗ \textbraceright∗ \textbullet \textcopyright∗ \textdagger∗ \textdaggerdbl∗ \textdollar∗ \textellipsis∗ \textemdash \textendash \textexclamdown \textgreater

a o

r
TM

< ª º ¶ · ¿ “ ” ‘ ’ ® § £ ™

\textless \textordfeminine \textordmasculine \textparagraph∗ \textperiodcentered \textquestiondown \textquotedblleft \textquotedblright \textquoteleft \textquoteright \textregistered \textsection∗ \textsterling∗ \texttrademark \textunderscore∗ \textvisiblespace

A Where two symbols are present, the left one is the “faked” symbol that L TEX 2ε provides by default, and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes available. ∗

It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode.

A Table 3: L TEX 2ε Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode

$ ¶ §

\$ \P \S

c

© †

\_ \copyright \dag

‡ ... £

\ddag \dots \pounds

{ }

\{ \}

A Where two symbols are present, the left one is the “faked” symbol that L TEX 2ε provides by default, and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes available.

Table 4: AMS Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode \checkmark \circledR 8 \maltese

Table 5: Non-ASCII Letters (Excluding Accented Letters) ˚ a ˚ A Æ æ

\aa \AA \AE \ae

Ð ð Ð đ

\DH∗ \dh∗ \DJ∗ \dj∗

L l Ŋ ŋ

\L \l \NG∗ \ng∗

ø Ø Œ œ

\o \O \OE \oe

ß SS Þ þ

\ss \SS \TH∗ \th∗

Not available in the OT1 font encoding. Use the fontenc package to select an alternate font encoding, such as T1.

Ð ž ‡ § · —   € 

\B{D} \B{d} \B{H} \B{h} \B{t} \B{T} \m{b} \m{B} \m{C}

°  ð Ð ¡ ‚ ¢ ƒ £

Table 6: Letters Used to Typeset African Languages \m{c} \m{D} \M{d} \M{D} \m{d} \m{E} \m{e} \M{E} \M{e}

¤ „ † ¦ À à ‰ © ˆ

\m{f} \m{F} \m{G} \m{g} \m{I} \m{i} \m{J} \m{j} \m{K}

¨  ­ ª Š ‘ ± ¬ Œ

\m{k} \m{N} \m{n} \m{o} \m{O} \m{P} \m{p} \m{s} \m{S}

» › º š ® Ž  ¯ ¶

\M{t} \M{T} \m{t} \m{T} \m{u}∗ \m{U}∗ \m{Y} \m{y} \m{z}

–  â Å å

\m{Z} \T{E} \T{e} \T{O} \T{o}

These characters all need the T4 font encoding, which is provided by the fc package.

\m{v} and \m{V} are synonyms for \m{u} and \m{U}.

Table 7: Letters Used to Typeset Vietnamese Ơ \OHORN ơ \ohorn Ư \UHORN ư \uhorn

These characters all need the T5 font encoding, which is provided by the vntex package.

Table 8: Punctuation Marks Not Found in OT1 « » \guillemotleft \guillemotright ‹ › \guilsinglleft \guilsinglright „ ‚ \quotedblbase \quotesinglbase " \textquotedbl

To get these symbols, use the fontenc package to select an alternate font encoding, such as T1.

Table 9: pifont Decorative Punctuation Marks — ˜ \ding{123} \ding{124} ™ d \ding{125} \ding{126} e f \ding{161} \ding{162} g \ding{163}

9

Table 10: tipa Phonetic Symbols È b c d é g Ü 1 ł 8 Ý 0 ì B ò X Å Ñ Æ Þ ^ ă ą g è Û ň 2 C ć ćý š J ő ť ťC ÿ ý dý S } = / { Ş Ť à dz E S \textbabygamma \textbarb \textbarc \textbard \textbardotlessj \textbarg \textbarglotstop \textbari \textbarl \textbaro \textbarrevglotstop \textbaru \textbeltl \textbeta \textbullseye \textceltpal \textchi \textcloseepsilon \textcloseomega \textcloserevepsilon \textcommatailz \textcorner \textcrb \textcrd \textcrg \textcrh \textcrinvglotstop \textcrlambda \textcrtwo \textctc \textctd \textctdctzlig \textctesh \textctj \textctn \textctt \textcttctclig \textctyogh \textctz \textdctzlig \textdoublebaresh \textdoublebarpipe \textdoublebarslash \textdoublepipe \textdoublevertline \textdownstep \textdyoghlig \textdzlig \textepsilon \textesh P ; ż # á ê Á â ä H Ê Î Ò Ó č É Ö ß Û K Ì ń : ş ę ű Ô ¡ M ñ ë Ð Í ŋ ř _ O % F | " ij ğ 7 \ 9 3 Q ź Ç \textglotstop \texthalflength \texthardsign \texthooktop \texthtb \texthtbardotlessj \texthtc \texthtd \texthtg \texthth \texththeng \texthtk \texthtp \texthtq \texthtrtaild \texthtscg \texthtt \texthvlig \textinvglotstop \textinvscr \textiota \textlambda \textlengthmark \textlhookt \textlhtlongi \textlhtlongy \textlonglegr \textlptr \textltailm \textltailn \textltilde \textlyoghlig \textObardotlessj \textOlyoghlig \textomega \textopencorner \textopeno \textpalhook \textphi \textpipe \textprimstress \textraiseglotstop \textraisevibyi \textramshorns \textrevapostrophe \textreve \textrevepsilon \textrevglotstop \textrevyogh \textrhookrevepsilon ï ó ù ú ü $ À à ď å Ë @ I ĺ Ï ð Œ ś ö A g V Ú Y ž  tC Ù T þ £ 5 ŕ 4 ľ Õ W î ô õ 6 Ø 2 û L U Š \textrtailn \textrtailr \textrtails \textrtailt \textrtailz \textrthook \textsca \textscb \textsce \textscg \textsch \textschwa \textsci \textscj \textscl \textscn \textscoelig \textscomega \textscr \textscripta \textscriptg \textscriptv \textscu \textscy \textsecstress \textsoftsign \textstretchc \texttctclig \textteshlig \texttheta \textthorn \texttoneletterstem \texttslig \textturna \textturncelig \textturnh \textturnk \textturnlonglegr \textturnm \textturnmrleg \textturnr \textturnrrtail \textturnscripta \textturnt \textturnv \textturnw \textturny \textupsilon \textupstep \textvertline

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R ě G Ů Ű

\textfishhookr \textg \textgamma \textglobfall \textglobrise

Ä ~ ¿ ã í

\textrhookschwa \textrhoticity \textrptr \textrtaild \textrtaill

ğ ů Z

\textvibyi \textvibyy \textwynn \textyogh

tipa defines shortcut characters for many of the above. It also defines a command \tone for denoting tone letters (pitches). See the tipa documentation for more information.

Table 11: tipx Phonetic Symbols

" B . D 2 % & @ ) H G ˇ 7 5 ’ ( ? T U V , 0 4

\textaolig \textbenttailyogh \textbktailgamma \textctinvglotstop \textctjvar \textctstretchc \textctstretchcvar \textctturnt \textdblig \textdoublebarpipevar \textdoublepipevar \textdownfullarrow \textfemale \textfrbarn \textfrhookd \textfrhookdvar \textfrhookt \textfrtailgamma \textglotstopvari \textglotstopvarii \textglotstopvariii \textgrgamma \textheng \texthmlig

3 ; p ! I # < 1 > 6 9 ˆ ˜ F = ¨ ˚ v z * + : /

\texthtbardotlessjvar \textinvomega \textinvsca \textinvscripta \textlfishhookrlig \textlhookfour \textlhookp \textlhti \textlooptoprevesh \textnrleg \textObullseye \textpalhooklong \textpalhookvar \textpipevar \textqplig \textrectangle \textretractingvar \textrevscl \textrevscr \textrhooka \textrhooke \textrhookepsilon \textrhookopeno \textrtailhth

´ q r s t w x y ˝ $ ˙ ¯ P Q R S E u { C A 8 ˘

\textrthooklong \textscaolig \textscdelta \textscf \textsck \textscm \textscp \textscq \textspleftarrow \textstretchcvar \textsubdoublearrow \textsubrightarrow \textthornvari \textthornvarii \textthornvariii \textthornvariv \textturnglotstop \textturnsck \textturnscu \textturnthree \textturntwo \textuncrfemale \textupfullarrow

Table 13: wsuipa Phonetic Symbols

3 ¦  9 F

\babygamma \barb \bard \bari \barl

V " w  h

\eng \er \esh \eth \flapr

R G T i I

\labdentalnas \latfric \legm \legr \lz

! B X t ¡

\schwa \sci \scn \scr \scripta

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11

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` e C ˆ „ Y  ‚ c ' ¥  5 Q  x — ” @  e

\baro \barp \barsci \barscu \baru \clickb \clickc \clickt \closedniomega \closedrevepsilon \crossb \crossd \crossh \crossnilambda \curlyc \curlyesh \curlyyogh \curlyz \dlbari \dz \ejective

˜ ¨  ) 6 7 & 4   D d 8 s S q u £ ¤  ’ 2

\glotstop \hookb \hookd \hookg \hookh \hookheng \hookrevepsilon \hv \inva \invf \invglotstop \invh \invlegr \invm \invr \invscr \invscripta \invv \invw \invy \ipagamma

¢ © ‘ $ 1 A P b g y ƒ † U d a # f % ™ 0

\nialpha \nibeta \nichi \niepsilon \nigamma \niiota \nilambda \niomega \niphi \nisigma \nitheta \niupsilon \nj \oo \openo \reve \reveject \revepsilon \revglotstop \scd \scg

( ‰ ‡ “ §   …  r H W p v € •  f E –

\scriptg \scriptv \scu \scy \slashb \slashc \slashd \slashu \taild \tailinvr \taill \tailn \tailr \tails \tailt \tailz \tesh \thorn \tildel \yogh

Table 14: wasysym Phonetic Symbols D Þ \DH \Thorn \dh \inve þ \openo \thorn

Table 15: phonetic Phonetic Symbols
j ¡ w n x 4 s d p

\barj \barlambda \emgma \engma \enya \epsi \esh \eth \fj

f c f ˜ h „ k u h

\flap \glottal \hausaB \hausab \hausad \hausaD \hausak \hausaK \hookd

i ¯
™

¯ h
… ¢   m  r

\ibar \openo \planck \pwedge \revD \riota \rotm \rotOmega \rotr

e w y e p

u
u — q

\rotvara \rotw \roty \schwa \thorn \ubar \udesc \vara \varg

i ¨ g

v ˚
h x

\vari \varomega \varopeno \vod \voicedh \yogh

12

ž § ¢ ¬    °

Table 16: t4phonet Phonetic Symbols \textcrd \textcrh \textepsilon \textesh \textfjlig \texthtb \texthtc

¡ ¨ ± º à © ª

\texthtd \texthtk \texthtp \texthtt \textiota \textltailn \textopeno

| ð » ¡ ¬ œ ¶

\textpipe \textrtaild \textrtailt \textschwa \textscriptv \textteshlig \textyogh

The idea behind the t4phonet package’s phonetic symbols is to provide an interface to some of the characters in the T4 font encoding (Table 6 on page 9) but using the same names as the tipa characters presented in Table 10 on page 10.

Table 17: semtrans Transliteration Symbols \Alif \Ayn

Table 18: Text-mode Accents ¨a A¨ ´a A´ ˙˙ Aa ¯a A¯ ˆa Aˆ \"{A}\"{a} \’{A}\’{a} \.{A}\.{a} \={A}\={a} \^{A}\^{a} Aa
∗ †

`a A`

¿a A¿

˜a A˜ Aa ¯¯ Aa ¸¸

\‘{A}\‘{a} \|{A}\|{a}‡ \~{A}\~{a} \b{A}\b{a} \c{A}\c{a} Aa

Aa ..

Ÿa AŸ

˝a A˝ Ąą

\d{A}\d{a} \G{A}\G{a}‡ \h{A}\h{a}§ \H{A}\H{a} \k{A}\k{a}†

˚a A˚ Aa ˘a A˘ ˇa Aˇ

¼a A¼

\r{A}\r{a} \t{A}\t{a} \u{A}\u{a} \U{A}\U{a}‡ \v{A}\v{a}

\newtie{A}\newtie{a}∗

\textcircled{A}\textcircled{a}

Requires the textcomp package. Not available in the OT1 font encoding. Use the fontenc package to select an alternate font encoding, such as T1. Requires the T4 font encoding, provided by the fc package. Requires the T5 font encoding, provided by the vntex package.

‡ §

Also note the existence of \i and \j, which produce dotless versions of “i” and “j” (viz., “ı” and “”). These are useful when the accent is supposed to replace the dot. For example, “na\"{\i}ve” produces a correct “na¨ ıve”, while “na\"{i}ve” would yield the rather odd-looking “na¨ ıve”. (“na\"{i}ve” does work in encodings other than OT1, however.)

Table 19: tipa Text-mode Accents ´a ¯¯ A´ ´´ ˇa Aˇ \textacutemacron{A}\textacutemacron{a} \textacutewedge{A}\textacutewedge{a}

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13

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Aa ffiffi A< <a ˘a ¯˘ A¯ Ża AŻ ˆa ˙˙ Aˆ §a A§ ˙˙ ˘a A˘ ˙˙ ˘a A˘ ‚a A‚ İa Aİ Ža AŽ đa Ađ `a ¯¯ A` Źa AŹ Aa „„ Aa flfl Ÿa AŸ ‰a A‰ —— Aa Aa ˛˛ Aa fifi Aa fflffl ˚˚ ¯a A¯ “a A“ Aa Aa ›› Aa ““ Aa ¯¯ Aa ”” Aa ˆˆ Aa ˙˙ Aa ‹‹ Aa –– Aa ffff Aa »» Aa ˚˚ Aa «« Aa ˜˜ Aa ¨¨ Aa —— Aa ˇˇ A& &a

\textadvancing{A}\textadvancing{a} \textbottomtiebar{A}\textbottomtiebar{a} \textbrevemacron{A}\textbrevemacron{a} \textcircumacute{A}\textcircumacute{a} \textcircumdot{A}\textcircumdot{a} \textdotacute{A}\textdotacute{a} \textdotbreve{A}\textdotbreve{a} \textdotbreve{A}\textdotbreve{a} \textdoublegrave{A}\textdoublegrave{a} \textdoublevbaraccent{A}\textdoublevbaraccent{a} \textgravecircum{A}\textgravecircum{a} \textgravedot{A}\textgravedot{a} \textgravemacron{A}\textgravemacron{a} \textgravemid{A}\textgravemid{a} \textinvsubbridge{A}\textinvsubbridge{a} \textlowering{A}\textlowering{a} \textmidacute{A}\textmidacute{a} \textovercross{A}\textovercross{a} \textoverw{A}\textoverw{a} \textpolhook{A}\textpolhook{a} \textraising{A}\textraising{a} \textretracting{A}\textretracting{a} \textringmacron{A}\textringmacron{a} \textroundcap{A}\textroundcap{a} \textseagull{A}\textseagull{a} \textsubacute{A}\textsubacute{a} \textsubarch{A}\textsubarch{a} \textsubbar{A}\textsubbar{a} \textsubbridge{A}\textsubbridge{a} \textsubcircum{A}\textsubcircum{a} \textsubdot{A}\textsubdot{a} \textsubgrave{A}\textsubgrave{a} \textsublhalfring{A}\textsublhalfring{a} \textsubplus{A}\textsubplus{a} \textsubrhalfring{A}\textsubrhalfring{a} \textsubring{A}\textsubring{a} \textsubsquare{A}\textsubsquare{a} \textsubtilde{A}\textsubtilde{a} \textsubumlaut{A}\textsubumlaut{a} \textsubw{A}\textsubw{a} \textsubwedge{A}\textsubwedge{a} \textsuperimposetilde{A}\textsuperimposetilde{a}

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Aa " " ˜a ˙˙ A˜ >> Aa IJa AIJ

\textsyllabic{A}\textsyllabic{a} \texttildedot{A}\texttildedot{a} \texttoptiebar{A}\texttoptiebar{a} \textvbaraccent{A}\textvbaraccent{a}

tipa defines shortcut sequences for many of the above. See the tipa documentation for more information.

Table 20: extraipa Text-mode Accents ”” Aa ”” Ŕ Ŕ ˜˜ Aa .. .. ˜a A˜ ˜a A˜ Aa» ˇ»ˇ Aa» » ˚˚ A–a –ˇ ˇ Aa –”–” ˚˚ Aa A– –ˇ»a» ˇ \bibridge{A}\bibridge{a} \crtilde{A}\crtilde{a} \dottedtilde{A}\dottedtilde{a} \doubletilde{A}\doubletilde{a} \finpartvoice{A}\finpartvoice{a} \finpartvoiceless{A}\finpartvoiceless{a} \inipartvoice{A}\inipartvoice{a} \inipartvoiceless{A}\inipartvoiceless{a} \overbridge{A}\overbridge{a} \partvoice{A}\partvoice{a} A– – »a» ˚˚ A¯ ¯a A˙ ˙a Aa ^^ Aa ¯¯ Aa "" "" Aa ¡¡ Aa ¿¿ Aa \partvoiceless{A}\partvoiceless{a} \sliding{A}\sliding{a} \spreadlips{A}\spreadlips{a} \subcorner{A}\subcorner{a} \subdoublebar{A}\subdoublebar{a} \subdoublevert{A}\subdoublevert{a} \sublptr{A}\sublptr{a} \subrptr{A}\subrptr{a} \whistle{A}\whistle{a}

Table 21: wsuipa Text-mode Accents Aa gg Aa  \dental{A}\dental{a} \underarch{A}\underarch{a}

Table 22: phonetic Text-mode Accents Aa
{ {

\hill{A}\hill{a} \od{A}\od{a} \ohill{A}\ohill{a}

Aa ©© Aa A.. .. a

\rc{A}\rc{a} \syl{A}\syl{a} \td{A}\td{a}

Aa ˚˚ { { Aa

Aa ˜˜

\ut{A}\ut{a}

The phonetic package provides a few additional macros for linguistic accents. \acbar and \acarc compose characters with multiple accents; for example, ¯ ¯ \acbar{\’}{a} produces “´” and \acarc{\"}{e} produces “¨”. \labvel joins a e two characters with an arc: \labvel{mn} → “mn”. \upbar is intended to go between characters as in “x\upbar{}y’’ → “x y”. Lastly, \uplett behaves like \textsuperscript but uses a smaller font. Contrast “p\uplett{h}’’ → “ph ” with “p\textsuperscript{h}’’ → “ph ”.

15

Table 23: metre Text-mode Accents ´´ Aa ˘˘ Aa ˜˜ Aa ¨¨ Aa `` Aa ¯¯ Aa \acutus{A}\acutus{a} \breve{A}\breve{a} \circumflexus{A}\circumflexus{a} \diaeresis{A}\diaeresis{a} \gravis{A}\gravis{a} \macron{A}\macron{a}

Ÿa AŸ ¿a A¿ ¼a A¼

Table 24: t4phonet Text-mode Accents \textdoublegrave{A}\textdoublegrave{a} \textvbaraccent{A}\textvbaraccent{a} \textdoublevbaraccent{A}\textdoublevbaraccent{a}

The idea behind the t4phonet package’s text-mode accents is to provide an interface to some of the accents in the T4 font encoding (accents marked with “‡” in Table 18 on page 13) but using the same names as the tipa accents presented in Table 19 on page 13.

Table 25: arcs Text-mode Accents Aa \overarc{A}\overarc{a} Aa \underarc{A}\underarc{a}

The accents shown above scale only to a few characters wide. An optional macro argument alters the effective width of the accented characters. See the arcs documentation for more information.

Table 26: semtrans Accents Aa ¨¨ \D{A}\D{a} aA Aa ˘˘ \U{A}\U{a}

\T{A}\T{a}∗

\T is not actually an accent but a command that rotates its argument 180° using the graphicx package’s \rotatebox command.

Table 27: wsuipa Diacritics

s k u m p

\ain \corner \downp \downt \halflength

v n q { z

\leftp \leftt \length \midtilde \open

x ~ w o i

\overring \polishhook \rightp \rightt \secstress

h j r y |

\stress \syllabic \underdots \underring \undertilde

} t l

\underwedge \upp \upt

The wsuipa package defines all of the above as ordinary characters, not as accents. However, it does provide \diatop and \diaunder commands, which are used to compose diacritics with other characters. For example, \diatop[\overring|a] produces “x”, and \diaunder[\underdots|a] produces “r”. See the wsuipa doca a umentation for more information. 16

Table 28: textcomp Diacritics \textacutedbl \textasciiacute \textasciibreve \textasciicaron \textasciidieresis \textasciigrave \textasciimacron \textgravedbl

The textcomp package defines all of the above as ordinary characters, not as accents.

Table 29: textcomp Currency Symbols ¢  ₡ ¤ \textbaht \textcent \textcentoldstyle \textcolonmonetary \textcurrency

$  ₫ € ƒ

\textdollar∗ \textdollaroldstyle \textdong \texteuro \textflorin

£

\textguarani \textlira \textnaira \textpeso \textsterling∗

¥

\textwon \textyen

It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 on page 8 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode.

Table 30: marvosym Currency Symbols ¢  \Denarius \Ecommerce e d \EUR \EURcr D c \EURdig \EURhv e ¦ \EURtm \EyesDollar £ ¡ \Pfund \Shilling

The different euro signs are meant to be visually compatible with different fonts— Courier (\EURcr), Helvetica (\EURhv), Times Roman (\EURtm), and the marvosym digits listed in Table 182 (\EURdig). The mathdesign package redefines \texteuro to be visually compatible with one of three additional fonts: Utopia ( ), Charter ( ), or Garamond ( ).

Table 31: wasysym Currency Symbols ¢ \cent ¤ \currency

Table 32: eurosym Euro Signs A C \geneuro B C \geneuronarrow C C \geneurowide e \officialeuro

\euro is automatically mapped to one of the above—by default, \officialeuro— based on a eurosym package option. See the eurosym documentation for more information. The \geneuro. . . characters are generated from the current body font’s “C” character and therefore may not appear exactly as shown.

17

Table 33: textcomp Legal Symbols \textcircledP \textcopyleft c r © ® \textcopyright \textregistered
TM

\textservicemark \texttrademark

A Where two symbols are present, the left one is the “faked” symbol that L TEX 2ε provides by default, and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes available. See http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=tradesyms for solutions to common problems that occur when using these symbols (e.g., getting a “ r ” when you expected to get a “®”).

Table 34: cclicenses Creative Commons License Icons
\
CC

\cc

BY:

\ccby

$

=

\ccnd

These symbols utilize the rotating package and therefore display improperly in most DVI viewers.

Table 35: textcomp Old-style Numerals     \textzerooldstyle \textoneoldstyle \texttwooldstyle \textthreeoldstyle     \textfouroldstyle \textfiveoldstyle \textsixoldstyle \textsevenoldstyle   \texteightoldstyle \textnineoldstyle

Rather than use the bulky \textoneoldstyle, \texttwooldstyle, etc. commands shown above, consider using \oldstylenums{. . .} to typeset an old-style number.

18

C

\ccnc∗

\ccsa∗

Table 36: Miscellaneous textcomp Symbols ∗ ○ ¦ • † ‡ \textasteriskcentered \textbardbl \textbigcircle \textblank \textbrokenbar \textbullet \textdagger∗ \textdaggerdbl∗ \textdblhyphen \textdblhyphenchar \textdiscount \textestimated \textinterrobang \textinterrobangdown \textmusicalnote \textnumero \textopenbullet
a o

ª º ¶ · ‰ '

§ 

♪ № ◦

\textordfeminine \textordmasculine \textparagraph∗ \textperiodcentered \textpertenthousand \textperthousand \textpilcrow \textquotesingle \textquotestraightbase \textquotestraightdblbase \textrecipe \textreferencemark \textsection∗ \textthreequartersemdash \texttildelow \texttwelveudash

A Where two symbols are present, the left one is the “faked” symbol that L TEX 2ε provides by default, and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes available. ∗

It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 on page 8 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode.

Table 37: Miscellaneous wasysym Text-mode Symbols \permil

19

3

Mathematical symbols

Most, but not all, of the symbols in this section are math-mode only. That is, they yield a “Missing $ inserted” error message if not used within $. . .$, \[. . .\], or another math-mode environment. Operators marked as “variable-sized” are taller in displayed formulas, shorter in in-text formulas, and possibly shorter still when used in various levels of superscripts or subscripts. Alphanumeric symbols (e.g., “L ” and “ ”) are usually produced using one of the math alphabets in Table 196 rather than with an explicit symbol command. Look there first if you need a symbol for a transform, number set, or some other alphanumeric. Although there have been many requests on comp.text.tex for a contradiction symbol, the ensuing discussion invariably reveals innumerable ways to represent contradiction in a proof, including “©” (\blitza), “⇒⇐” (\Rightarrow\Leftarrow), “⊥” (\bot), “ ” (\nleftrightarrow), and “ ” (\textreferencemark). Because of the lack of notational consensus, it is probably better to spell out “Contradiction!” than to use a symbol for this purpose. Similarly, discussions on comp.text.tex have revealed that there are a variety of ways to indicate the mathematical notion of “is defined as”. Common candidates include “ ” (\triangleq), def “≡” (\equiv), “ ” (\coloneqq), and “ =” (\stackrel{\text{\tiny def}}{=}). See also the example of \equalsfill on page 95. Depending upon the context, disjoint union may be represented as “ ” (\coprod), · “ ” (\sqcup), “∪” (\dotcup), “⊕” (\oplus), or any of a number of other symbols.1 Finally, the average value of a variable x is written by some people as “x” (\overline{x}), by some people as “ x ” (\langle x \rangle), and by some people as “ x” or “∅x” (\diameter x or \varnothing x). The moral of the story is that you should be careful always to explain your notation to avoid confusing your readers.

Table 38: Math-Mode Versions of Text Symbols $ ... \mathdollar \mathellipsis ¶ § \mathparagraph \mathsection £ \mathsterling \mathunderscore

It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 on page 8 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode.

Table 39: cmll Unary Operators ! ˜

\oc∗ \shift

ˆ ´

\shneg \shpos

?

\wn∗

\oc and \wn differ from “!” and “?” in terms of their math-mode spacing: $A=!B$ produces “A =!B”, for example, while $A=\oc B$ produces “A = !B”.

Table 40: Binary Operators ∗ \amalg \ast \bigcirc \bigtriangledown \bigtriangleup \bullet \cap \cdot \circ ∪ † ‡ ÷ \cup \dagger \ddagger \diamond \div \lhd∗ \mp \odot \ominus ⊕ ⊗ ± \ \oplus \oslash \otimes \pm \rhd∗ \setminus \sqcap \sqcup \star × \times \triangleleft \triangleright \unlhd∗ \unrhd∗ \uplus \vee \wedge \wr

• ∩ · ◦

∨ ∧

A Not predefined in L TEX 2ε . Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym.

1 Bob

Tennent listed these and other disjoint-union symbol possibilities in a November 2007 post to comp.text.tex.

20

Table 41: AMS Binary Operators \barwedge \boxdot \boxminus \boxplus \boxtimes \Cap \centerdot \circledast \circledcirc \circleddash \Cup \curlyvee \curlywedge \divideontimes \dotplus \doublebarwedge \intercal \leftthreetimes \ltimes \rightthreetimes \rtimes \smallsetminus \veebar

Table 42: stmaryrd Binary Operators \baro \bbslash \binampersand \bindnasrepma \boxast \boxbar \boxbox \boxbslash \boxcircle \boxdot \boxempty \boxslash \curlyveedownarrow \curlyveeuparrow \curlywedgedownarrow \curlywedgeuparrow \fatbslash \fatsemi \fatslash \interleave \leftslice \merge \minuso \moo \nplus \obar \oblong \obslash \ogreaterthan \olessthan \ovee \owedge \rightslice \sslash \talloblong \varbigcirc \varcurlyvee \varcurlywedge \varoast \varobar \varobslash \varocircle \varodot \varogreaterthan \varolessthan \varominus \varoplus \varoslash \varotimes \varovee \varowedge \vartimes \Ydown \Yleft \Yright \Yup

Table 43: wasysym Binary Operators \lhd \LHD \ocircle \rhd \RHD \unlhd \unrhd

Table 44: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Operators \circledbar \circledbslash \circledvee \circledwedge \invamp \medbullet \medcirc \sqcapplus \sqcupplus

21

Table 45: mathabx Binary Operators

¦ ˆ   
ˆ

¦

¨
§

§ 
‰ y

\ast \Asterisk \barwedge \bigstar \bigvarstar \blackdiamond \cap \circplus \coasterisk \coAsterisk \convolution \cup \curlyvee

x

£  ¡   ¢  ’ “ 

©  

\curlywedge \divdot \divideontimes \dotdiv \dotplus \dottimes \doublebarwedge \doublecap \doublecup \ltimes \pluscirc \rtimes \sqbullet

‘ ’

” • ¥
“

¤

  •

‰ ‘
”

\sqcap \sqcup \sqdoublecap \sqdoublecup \square \squplus \udot \uplus \varstar \vee \veebar \veedoublebar \wedge

Many of the above glyphs go by multiple names. \centerdot is equivalent to \sqbullet, and \ast is equivalent to *. \asterisk produces the same glyph as \ast, but as an ordinary symbol, not a binary operator. Similarly, \bigast produces a large-operator version of the \Asterisk binary operator, and \bigcoast produces a large-operator version of the \coAsterisk binary operator.

22

Table 46: MnSymbol Binary Operators ∗ \amalg \ast \backslashdiv \bowtie \bullet \cap \capdot \capplus \cdot \circ \closedcurlyvee \closedcurlywedge \cup \cupdot \cupplus \curlyvee \curlyveedot \curlywedge \curlywedgedot \ddotdot \diamonddots \div \dotmedvert \dotminus \doublecap \doublecup \doublecurlyvee \doublecurlywedge \doublesqcap \doublesqcup \doublevee \doublewedge \downtherefore \downY \dtimes \fivedots \hbipropto \hdotdot \lefthalfcap \lefthalfcup \lefttherefore \leftthreetimes \leftY \ltimes \medbackslash \medcircle \medslash \medvert \medvertdot \minus \minusdot \mp \neswbipropto \nwsebipropto \plus \pm \righthalfcap \righthalfcup \righttherefore \rightthreetimes \rightY \rtimes \slashdiv \smallprod \sqcap \sqcapdot \sqcapplus \sqcup \sqcupdot \sqcupplus \squaredots \times \udotdot \uptherefore \upY \utimes \vbipropto \vdotdot \vee \veedot \vertbowtie \vertdiv \wedge \wedgedot \wreath

∩ ⋅ ○ ∪

× ∴

÷

+ ±

MnSymbol defines \setminus and \smallsetminus as synonyms \medbackslash; \Join as a synonym for \bowtie; \wr as a synonym \wreath; \shortmid as a synonym for \medvert; \Cap as a synonym \doublecap; \Cup as a synonym for \doublecup; and, \uplus as a synonym \cupplus.

for for for for

Table 47: mathdesign Binary Operators \dtimes \udtimes \utimes

The mathdesign package additionally provides versions of each of the binary operators shown in Table 41 on page 21.

Table 48: cmll Binary Operators `

\parr

&

\with∗

\with differs from “&” in terms of its math-mode spacing: $A \& B$ produces “A&B”, for example, while $A \with B$ produces “A & B”.

23

Table 49: ulsy Geometric Binary Operators

¨

\odplus

 ž Ÿ œ f n k e g ™ d h — –

Table 50: mathabx Geometric Binary Operators \blacktriangledown \blacktriangleleft \blacktriangleright \blacktriangleup \boxasterisk \boxbackslash \boxbot \boxcirc \boxcoasterisk \boxdiv \boxdot \boxleft \boxminus \boxplus

i m ˜ j o l
f n k e g ™ d h

\boxright \boxslash \boxtimes \boxtop \boxtriangleup \boxvoid \oasterisk \obackslash \obot \ocirc \ocoasterisk \odiv \odot \oleft

— – i m ˜ j o l

™ š › ˜

\ominus \oplus \oright \oslash \otimes \otop \otriangleup \ovoid \smalltriangledown \smalltriangleleft \smalltriangleright \smalltriangleup

Table 51: MnSymbol Geometric Binary Operators \boxbackslash \boxbox \boxdot \boxminus \boxplus \boxslash \boxtimes \boxvert \diamondbackslash \diamonddiamond \diamonddot \diamondminus \diamondplus \diamondslash \diamondtimes \diamondvert \downslice \filleddiamond \filledmedsquare \filledmedtriangledown \filledmedtriangleleft \filledmedtriangleright \filledmedtriangleup \filledsquare \filledstar \filledtriangledown \filledtriangleleft \filledtriangleright \filledtriangleup \meddiamond \medsquare \medstar \medtriangledown \medtriangleleft \medtriangleright \medtriangleup \oast \obackslash \ocirc \odot \ominus \oplus \oslash \ostar \otimes \otriangle \overt \pentagram \smalldiamond \smallsquare \smallstar \smalltriangledown \smalltriangleleft \smalltriangleright \smalltriangleup \thinstar \upslice

⊕ ⊗

MnSymbol defines \blacksquare as a synonym for \filledmedsquare; \square and \Box as synonyms for \medsquare; \diamond as a synonym for \smalldiamond; \Diamond as a synonym for \meddiamond; \star as a synonym for \thinstar; \circledast as a synonym for \oast; \circledcirc as a synonym for \ocirc; and, \circleddash as a synonym for \ominus.

24

Table 52: Variable-sized Math Operators \bigcap \bigcup \bigodot \bigoplus \bigotimes \bigsqcup \biguplus \bigvee \bigwedge \coprod \int \oint \prod \sum

Table 53: AMS Variable-sized Math Operators \iint \iiiint ··· ··· \iiint \idotsint

Table 54: stmaryrd Variable-sized Math Operators \bigbox \bigcurlyvee \bigcurlywedge \biginterleave \bignplus \bigparallel \bigsqcap \bigtriangledown \bigtriangleup

Table 55: wasysym Variable-sized Math Operators \int† \varint∗ \iint \varoint∗ \iiint \oiint

None of the preceding symbols are defined when wasysym is passed the nointegrals option.
∗ †

Not defined when wasysym is passed the integrals option. Defined only when wasysym is passed the integrals option. Otherwise, the default A L TEX \int glyph (as shown in Table 52) is used.

25

Table 56: mathabx Variable-sized Math Operators

œ¬ –¦ ›« Öö Þþ Ûû Õõ ×÷ Óó Ôô Øø Ññ Ðð Ùù

\bigcurlyvee \bigsqcap \bigcurlywedge \bigboxasterisk \bigboxbackslash \bigboxbot \bigboxcirc \bigboxcoasterisk \bigboxdiv \bigboxdot \bigboxleft \bigboxminus \bigboxplus \bigboxright

Ýý Òò Úú ßÿ Üü ’ ¢ Ææ Îî Ëë Åå Çç Ãã Èè Áá

\bigboxslash \bigboxtimes \bigboxtop \bigboxtriangleup \bigboxvoid \bigcomplementop \bigoasterisk \bigobackslash \bigobot \bigocirc \bigocoasterisk \bigodiv \bigoleft \bigominus

Éé Íí Êê Ïï Ìì   ˜¨ ‘¡ µ½ ´ ¼ ³ » · ¿ ¶ ¾

\bigoright \bigoslash \bigotop \bigotriangleup \bigovoid \bigplus \bigsquplus \bigtimes \iiint \iint \int \oiint \oint

26

Table 57: txfonts/pxfonts Variable-sized Math Operators \bigsqcapplus \bigsqcupplus \fint \idotsint \iiiint \iiint \iint \oiiintclockwise \oiiintctrclockwise \oiiint \oiintclockwise \oiintctrclockwise \oiint \ointclockwise \ointctrclockwise \sqiiint \sqiint \sqint \varoiiintclockwise \varoiiintctrclockwise \varoiintclockwise \varoiintctrclockwise \varointclockwise \varointctrclockwise \varprod

27

Table 58: esint Variable-sized Math Operators ¯ ffl ˇ ˝ ˜ % # ‚ ˘ \iiiint ˚ \iiint ¨ \iint & \landdownint $ \landupint ‹ \oiint ˙ \dotsint \fint ” › ! ff fl „ \sqiint “ \sqint " \varoiint fi \varointclockwise ffi \varointctrclockwise ı  \ointclockwise ‰ \ointctrclockwise

28

Table 59: MnSymbol Variable-sized Math Operators \bigcap \bigcapdot \bigcapplus \bigcircle \bigcup \bigcupdot \bigcupplus∗ \bigcurlyvee \bigcurlyveedot \bigcurlywedge \bigcurlywedgedot \bigdoublecurlyvee \bigdoublecurlywedge \bigdoublevee \bigdoublewedge \bigoast \bigobackslash \bigocirc \bigodot

\bigominus \bigoplus \bigoslash \bigostar \bigotimes \bigotriangle \bigovert \bigplus \bigsqcap \bigsqcapdot \bigsqcapplus \bigsqcup \bigsqcupdot \bigsqcupplus \bigtimes \bigvee \bigveedot \bigwedge \bigwedgedot ∑ ∏ ∫

\complement \coprod \idotsint \iiiint \iiint \iint \int \landdownint \landupint \lcircleleftint \lcirclerightint \oiint \oint \prod \rcircleleftint \rcirclerightint \strokedint \sum \sumint

MnSymbol defines \biguplus as a synonym for \bigcupplus.

Table 60: mathdesign Variable-sized Math Operators \intclockwise \ointclockwise

\oiiint

\ointctrclockwise

\oiint

The mathdesign package provides three versions of each integral—in fact, of every symbol—to accompany different text fonts: Utopia ( ), Garamond ( ), and Charter ( ).

29

Table 61: cmll Large Math Operators ˙ \bigparr ˘ \bigwith

Table 62: Binary Relations ≈ \approx \asymp \bowtie \cong \dashv \doteq ≡ \equiv \frown \Join∗ \mid \models \parallel ⊥ \perp \prec \preceq \propto \sim \simeq \smile \succ \succeq \vdash

| |=

∝ ∼

A Not predefined in L TEX 2ε . Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, mathabx, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym.

Table 63: AMS Binary Relations \approxeq \backepsilon \backsim \backsimeq \because \between \Bumpeq \bumpeq \circeq \curlyeqprec \curlyeqsucc \doteqdot \eqcirc \fallingdotseq \multimap \pitchfork \precapprox \preccurlyeq \precsim \risingdotseq \shortmid \shortparallel \smallfrown \smallsmile \succapprox \succcurlyeq \succsim \therefore \thickapprox \thicksim \varpropto \Vdash \vDash \Vvdash

∴ ≈ ∼ ∝

Table 64: AMS Negated Binary Relations \ncong \nmid \nparallel \nprec \npreceq \nshortmid \nshortparallel \nsim \nsucc \nsucceq \nvDash \nvdash \nVDash \precnapprox \precnsim \succnapprox \succnsim

Table 65: stmaryrd Binary Relations \inplus \niplus

Table 66: wasysym Binary Relations \invneg \Join \leadsto \logof 30 \wasypropto

Table 67: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Relations \circledgtr \circledless \colonapprox \Colonapprox \coloneq \Coloneq \Coloneqq \coloneqq∗ \Colonsim \colonsim \Eqcolon \eqcolon \eqqcolon \Eqqcolon \eqsim

\lJoin \lrtimes \multimap \multimapboth \multimapbothvert \multimapdot \multimapdotboth \multimapdotbothA \multimapdotbothAvert \multimapdotbothB \multimapdotbothBvert \multimapdotbothvert \multimapdotinv \multimapinv \openJoin

\opentimes \Perp \preceqq \precneqq \rJoin \strictfi \strictif \strictiff \succeqq \succneqq \varparallel \varparallelinv \VvDash

As an alternative to using txfonts/pxfonts, a “:=” symbol can be constructed with “\mathrel{\mathop:}=”.

Table 68: txfonts/pxfonts Negated Binary Relations \napproxeq \nasymp \nbacksim \nbacksimeq \nbumpeq \nBumpeq \nequiv \nprecapprox \npreccurlyeq \npreceqq \nprecsim \nsimeq \nsuccapprox \nsucccurlyeq \nsucceqq \nsuccsim \nthickapprox \ntwoheadleftarrow \ntwoheadrightarrow \nvarparallel \nvarparallelinv \nVdash

2  % # & ! ) ¶ · A
A

Table 69: mathabx Binary Relations \between \botdoteq \Bumpedeq \bumpedeq \circeq \coloneq \corresponds \curlyeqprec \curlyeqsucc \DashV \Dashv \dashVv
# 

$ ' " Ï Î Æ ¤
Ì

E

À

\divides \dotseq \eqbumped \eqcirc \eqcolon \fallingdotseq \ggcurly \llcurly \precapprox \preccurlyeq \precdot \precsim 

Ç ¥
Í

Á T 
@ D

@ D

\risingdotseq \succapprox \succcurlyeq \succdot \succsim \therefore \topdoteq \vDash \Vdash \VDash \Vvdash

31

Table 70: mathabx Negated Binary Relations
' )

¸ ¹
C G 9

C G
$ 0 1 %

\napprox \ncong \ncurlyeqprec \ncurlyeqsucc \nDashv \ndashV \ndashv \nDashV \ndashVv \neq \notasymp \notdivides \notequiv

w

¢ È ¦ ª Â
& (

£ É § « Ã

\notperp \nprec \nprecapprox \npreccurlyeq \npreceq \nprecsim \nsim \nsimeq \nsucc \nsuccapprox \nsucccurlyeq \nsucceq \nsuccsim

B

B
F 8

F Ê ¬ Ä Ë ­ Å

\nvDash \nVDash \nVdash \nvdash \nVvash \precnapprox \precneq \precnsim \succnapprox \succneq \succnsim

The \changenotsign command toggles the behavior of \not to produce either a vertical or a diagonal slash through a binary operator. Thus, “$a \not= b$” can be made to produce either “a = b” or “a = b”.

Table 71: MnSymbol Binary Relations ≈ \approx \approxeq \backapprox \backapproxeq \backcong \backeqsim \backsim \backsimeq \backtriplesim \between \bumpeq \Bumpeq \circeq \closedequal \closedprec \closedsucc \cong \curlyeqprec \curlyeqsucc \doteq \Doteq \downfootline \downfree \downmodels \downModels \downpropto \downvdash \downVdash \eqbump \eqcirc \eqdot \eqsim \equal \equalclosed \equiv \equivclosed \fallingdotseq \hateq \hcrossing \leftfootline \leftfree \leftmodels \leftModels \leftpropto \leftrightline \Leftrightline \leftslice \leftvdash \leftVdash \nefootline \nefree \nemodels \neModels \neswline \Neswline \nevdash \neVdash \nwfootline \nwfree \nwmodels \nwModels \nwsecrossing \nwseline \Nwseline \nwvdash \nwVdash \prec \precapprox \preccurlyeq \preceq \precsim \rightfootline \rightfree \rightmodels \rightModels \rightpropto \rightslice \rightvdash \rightVdash \risingdotseq \sefootline \sefree \semodels \seModels \separated \sevdash \seVdash ∼ \shortparallel \sim \simeq \succ \succapprox \succcurlyeq \succeq \succsim \swfootline \swfree \swmodels \swModels \swvdash \swVdash \triplesim \updownline \Updownline \upfootline \upfree \upmodels \upModels \uppropto \upvdash \upVdash \vcrossing \Vvdash

= ≡

32

MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols: \dashv \diagdown \diagup \divides \doteqdot \models \parallel \perp \propto \relbar \Relbar \varpropto \vDash \VDash \vdash \Vdash (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as \leftvdash) \nwseline) \neswline) \updownline) \Doteq) \rightmodels) \Updownline) \upvdash) \leftpropto) \leftrightline) \Leftrightline) \leftpropto) \rightmodels) \rightModels) \rightvdash) \rightVdash)

⊥ ∝ ∝

Table 72: MnSymbol Negated Binary Relations \napprox \napproxeq \nbackapprox \nbackapproxeq \nbackcong \nbackeqsim \nbacksim \nbacksimeq \nbacktriplesim \nbumpeq \nBumpeq \ncirceq \nclosedequal \ncong \ncurlyeqprec \ncurlyeqsucc \ndoteq \nDoteq \ndownfootline \ndownfree \ndownmodels \ndownModels \ndownvdash \ndownVdash \neqbump \neqcirc \neqdot ≠ \neqsim \nequal \nequalclosed \nequiv \nequivclosed \neswcrossing \nfallingdotseq \nhateq \nleftfootline \nleftfree \nleftmodels \nleftModels \nleftrightline \nLeftrightline \nleftvdash \nleftVdash \nnefootline \nnefree \nnemodels \nneModels \nneswline \nNeswline \nnevdash \nneVdash \nnwfootline \nnwfree \nnwmodels \nnwModels \nnwseline \nNwseline \nnwvdash \nnwVdash \nprec \nprecapprox \npreccurlyeq \npreceq \nprecsim \nrightfootline \nrightfree \nrightmodels \nrightModels \nrightvdash \nrightVdash \nrisingdotseq \nsefootline \nsefree \nsemodels \nseModels \nsevdash \nseVdash \nshortmid \nshortparallel \nsim \nsimeq \nsucc \nsuccapprox \nsucccurlyeq \nsucceq \nsuccsim \nswfootline \nswfree \nswmodels \nswModels \nswvdash \nswVdash \ntriplesim \nupdownline \nUpdownline \nupfootline \nupfree \nupmodels \nupModels \nupvdash \nupVdash \precnapprox \precnsim \succnapprox \succnsim

MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols:

33

≠ ≠

\ndashv \ndiagdown \ndiagup \ndivides \ne \neq \nmid \nmodels \nparallel \nperp \nrelbar \nRelbar \nvDash \nvdash \nVdash \nVDash

(same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same

as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as

\nleftvdash) \nnwseline) \nneswline) \nupdownline) \nequal) \nequal) \nupdownline) \nrightmodels) \nUpdownline) \nupvdash) \nleftrightline) \nLeftrightline) \nrightmodels) \nrightvdash) \nrightVdash) \nrightModels)

Table 73: mathtools Binary Relations ::≈ :≈ := ::= ::− \Colonapprox \colonapprox \coloneqq \Coloneqq \Coloneq :− :∼ ::∼ :: −: \coloneq \colonsim \Colonsim \dblcolon \eqcolon −:: =: =:: \Eqcolon \eqqcolon \Eqqcolon

Similar symbols can be defined using mathtools’s \vcentcolon, which produces a colon centered on the font’s math axis:

=:= “=:=”

vs.

=: =
“=\vcentcolon=”

Table 74: turnstile Binary Relations
def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc

\dddtstile{abc}{def} \ddststile{abc}{def} \ddtstile{abc}{def} \ddttstile{abc}{def} \dndtstile{abc}{def} \dnststile{abc}{def} \dntstile{abc}{def}

def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc

def

\nntstile{abc}{def} \nnttstile{abc}{def} \nsdtstile{abc}{def} \nsststile{abc}{def} \nststile{abc}{def} \nsttstile{abc}{def} \ntdtstile{abc}{def}

abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc

\stdtstile{abc}{def} \stststile{abc}{def} \sttstile{abc}{def} \stttstile{abc}{def} \tddtstile{abc}{def} \tdststile{abc}{def} \tdtstile{abc}{def}

(continued on next page)

34

(continued from previous page)
def

def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc

def

\dnttstile{abc}{def} \dsdtstile{abc}{def} \dsststile{abc}{def} \dststile{abc}{def} \dsttstile{abc}{def} \dtdtstile{abc}{def} \dtststile{abc}{def} \dttstile{abc}{def} \dtttstile{abc}{def} \nddtstile{abc}{def} \ndststile{abc}{def} \ndtstile{abc}{def} \ndttstile{abc}{def} \nndtstile{abc}{def} \nnststile{abc}{def}

abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc

\ntststile{abc}{def} \nttstile{abc}{def} \ntttstile{abc}{def} \sddtstile{abc}{def} \sdststile{abc}{def} \sdtstile{abc}{def} \sdttstile{abc}{def} \sndtstile{abc}{def} \snststile{abc}{def} \sntstile{abc}{def} \snttstile{abc}{def} \ssdtstile{abc}{def} \ssststile{abc}{def} \sststile{abc}{def} \ssttstile{abc}{def}

abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc def abc

\tdttstile{abc}{def} \tndtstile{abc}{def} \tnststile{abc}{def} \tntstile{abc}{def} \tnttstile{abc}{def} \tsdtstile{abc}{def} \tsststile{abc}{def} \tststile{abc}{def} \tsttstile{abc}{def} \ttdtstile{abc}{def} \ttststile{abc}{def} \tttstile{abc}{def} \ttttstile{abc}{def}

Each of the above takes an optional argument that controls the size of the upper and lower expressions. See the turnstile documentation for more information.

¡ £

Table 75: trsym Binary Relations \InversTransformHoriz \InversTransformVert \TransformHoriz \TransformVert

  ¢
c c c c

Table 76: trfsigns Binary Relations c \dfourier c \fourier c s \laplace c .... s \ztransf
.. .. .. ..

s s ....

\Dfourier \Fourier \Laplace \Ztransf

35

Table 77: cmll Binary Relations ¨ ˚ \coh \incoh ˝ ˇ \scoh \sincoh

Table 78: Subset and Superset Relations \sqsubset∗ \sqsubseteq \sqsupset∗

⊂ ⊆

\sqsupseteq \subset \subseteq

⊃ ⊇

\supset \supseteq

A Not predefined in L TEX 2ε . Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, mathabx, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym.

Table 79: AMS Subset and Superset Relations \nsubseteq \nsupseteq \nsupseteqq \sqsubset \sqsupset \Subset \subseteqq \subsetneq \subsetneqq \Supset \supseteqq \supsetneq \supsetneqq \varsubsetneq \varsubsetneqq \varsupsetneq \varsupsetneqq

Table 80: stmaryrd Subset and Superset Relations \subsetplus \subsetpluseq \supsetplus \supsetpluseq

Table 81: wasysym Subset and Superset Relations \sqsubset \sqsupset

Table 82: txfonts/pxfonts Subset and Superset Relations \nsqsubset \nsqsubseteq \nsqsupset \nsqsupseteq \nSubset \nsubseteqq \nSupset

36

‚ – † Ž

‚ – † Ž ƒ — ‡ 

Table 83: mathabx Subset and Superset Relations \nsqsubset \nsqSubset \nsqsubseteq \nsqsubseteqq \nsqsupset \nsqSupset \nsqsupseteq \nsqsupseteqq \nsubset \nSubset \nsubseteq \nsubseteqq
ƒ — ‡ 

€ ” „ Œ ˆ  • 

\nsupset \nSupset \nsupseteq \nsupseteqq \sqsubset \sqSubset \sqsubseteq \sqsubseteqq \sqsubsetneq \sqsubsetneqq \sqSupset \sqsupset

€ ” „ Œ ˆ   •

…  ‰ ‘

\sqsupseteq \sqsupseteqq \sqsupsetneq \sqsupsetneqq \subset \Subset \subseteq \subseteqq \subsetneq \subsetneqq \supset \Supset

Š ’ ‹ “

Š ’ ‹ “

…  ‰ ‘

\supseteq \supseteqq \supsetneq \supsetneqq \varsqsubsetneq \varsqsubsetneqq \varsqsupsetneq \varsqsupsetneqq \varsubsetneq \varsubsetneqq \varsupsetneq \varsupsetneqq

Table 84: MnSymbol Subset and Superset Relations \nSqsubset \nsqsubset \nsqsubseteq \nsqsubseteqq \nSqsupset \nsqsupset \nsqsupseteq \nsqsupseteqq \nSubset \nsubset \nsubseteq \nsubseteqq \nSupset \nsupset \nsupseteq \nsupseteqq \Sqsubset \sqsubset \sqsubseteq \sqsubseteqq \sqsubsetneq \sqsubsetneqq \Sqsupset \sqsupset \sqsupseteq \sqsupseteqq \sqsupsetneq \sqsupsetneqq \Subset \subset ⊆ \subseteq \subseteqq \subsetneq \subsetneqq \Supset \supset \supseteq \supseteqq \supsetneq \supsetneqq

⊃ ⊇

MnSymbol additionally defines \varsubsetneq as a synonym for \subsetneq, \varsubsetneqq as a synonym for \subsetneqq, \varsupsetneq as a synonym for \supsetneq, and \varsupsetneqq as a synonym for \supsetneqq.

Table 85: Inequalities ≥ \geq \gg ≤ \leq \ll \neq

Table 86: AMS Inequalities \eqslantgtr \eqslantless \geqq \geqslant \ggg \gnapprox \gneq \gneqq \gnsim \gtrapprox \gtrdot \gtreqless \gtreqqless \gtrless \gtrsim \gvertneqq \leqq \leqslant \lessapprox \lessdot 37 \lesseqgtr \lesseqqgtr \lessgtr \lesssim \lll \lnapprox \lneq \lneqq \lnsim \lvertneqq \ngeq \ngeqq \ngeqslant \ngtr \nleq \nleqq \nleqslant \nless

Table 87: wasysym Inequalities \apprge \apprle

Table 88: txfonts/pxfonts Inequalities \ngg \ngtrapprox \ngtrless \ngtrsim \nlessapprox \nlessgtr \nlesssim \nll

Table 89: mathabx Inequalities
· ¶ ¥ ¯ 4 Ï Ë ­ ³ Å Ç Í

\eqslantgtr \eqslantless \geq \geqq \gg \ggg \gnapprox \gneq \gneqq \gnsim \gtrapprox \gtrdot

½ ¿ » Á µ ¤ ® Æ Ì ¼ ¾ º

\gtreqless \gtreqqless \gtrless \gtrsim \gvertneqq \leq \leqq \lessapprox \lessdot \lesseqgtr \lesseqqgtr \lessgtr

À 3 Î Ê ¬ ² Ä ´ ¹ ¸ § ±

\lesssim \ll \lll \lnapprox \lneq \lneqq \lnsim \lvertneqq \neqslantgtr \neqslantless \ngeq \ngeqq

£ É Ã ¦ ° ¢ È Â « ª © ¨

\ngtr \ngtrapprox \ngtrsim \nleq \nleqq \nless \nlessapprox \nlesssim \nvargeq \nvarleq \vargeq \varleq

mathabx defines \leqslant and \le as synonyms for \leq, \geqslant and \ge as synonyms for \geq, \nleqslant as a synonym for \nleq, and \ngeqslant as a synonym for \ngeq.

38

Table 90: MnSymbol Inequalities \eqslantgtr \eqslantless ≥ \geq \geqclosed \geqdot \geqq \geqslant \geqslantdot \gg \ggg \gnapprox \gneqq \gnsim \gtr \gtrapprox \gtrclosed \gtrdot \gtreqless \gtreqlessslant ≤ \gtreqqless \gtrless \gtrneqqless \gtrsim \leq \leqclosed \leqdot \leqq \leqslant \leqslantdot \less \lessapprox \lessclosed \lessdot \lesseqgtr \lesseqgtrslant \lesseqqgtr \lessgtr \lessneqqgtr \lesssim \ll \lll \lnapprox \lneqq \lnsim \neqslantgtr \neqslantless \ngeq \ngeqclosed \ngeqdot \ngeqq \ngeqslant \ngeqslantdot \ngg \nggg \ngtr \ngtrclosed \ngtrdot \ngtreqless \ngtreqlessslant \ngtreqqless \ngtrless \nleq \nleqclosed \nleqdot \nleqq \nleqslant \nleqslantdot \nless \nlessclosed \nlessdot \nlesseqgtr \nlesseqgtrslant \nlesseqqgtr \nlessgtr \nll \nlll

<

>

MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols: \gggtr \gvertneqq \lhd \llless \lvertneqq \ntrianglelefteq \ntriangleleft \ntrianglerighteq \ntriangleright \rhd \trianglelefteq \trianglerighteq \unlhd \unrhd \vartriangleleft \vartriangleright (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as \ggg) \gneqq) \lessclosed) \lll) \lneqq) \nleqclosed) \nlessclosed) \ngeqclosed) \ngtrclosed) \gtrclosed) \leqclosed) \geqclosed) \leqclosed) \geqclosed) \lessclosed) \gtrclosed)

Table 91: AMS Triangle Relations \blacktriangleleft \blacktriangleright \ntriangleleft \ntrianglelefteq \ntriangleright \ntrianglerighteq \trianglelefteq \triangleq \trianglerighteq \vartriangleleft \vartriangleright

39

Table 92: stmaryrd Triangle Relations \trianglelefteqslant \ntrianglelefteqslant \trianglerighteqslant \ntrianglerighteqslant

Table 93: mathabx Triangle Relations
š ž ›

\ntriangleleft \ntrianglelefteq \ntriangleright

Ÿ ˜ œ

\ntrianglerighteq \triangleleft \trianglelefteq

™  ˜

\triangleright \trianglerighteq \vartriangleleft

™

\vartriangleright

Table 94: MnSymbol Triangle Relations \filledmedtriangledown \filledmedtriangleleft \filledmedtriangleright \filledmedtriangleup \filledtriangledown \filledtriangleleft \filledtriangleright \filledtriangleup \largetriangledown \largetriangleleft \largetriangleright \largetriangleup \medtriangledown \medtriangleleft \medtriangleright \medtriangleup \ntriangleeq \ntriangleleft \ntrianglelefteq \ntriangleright \ntrianglerighteq \otriangle \smalltriangledown \smalltriangleleft \smalltriangleright \smalltriangleup \triangleeq \trianglelefteq \trianglerighteq \vartriangleleft \vartriangleright

MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for many of the preceding symbols: \triangleq is a synonym for \triangleeq; \lhd and \lessclosed are synonyms for \vartriangleleft; \rhd and \gtrclosed are synonyms for \vartriangleright; \unlhd and \leqclosed are synonyms for \trianglelefteq; \unrhd and \geqclosed are synonyms for \trianglerighteq; \blacktriangledown, \blacktriangleleft, \blacktriangleright, and \blacktriangle [sic] are synonyms for, respectively, \filledmedtriangledown, \filledmedtriangleleft, \filledmedtriangleright, and \filledmedtriangleup; \triangleright is a synonym for \medtriangleright; \triangle, \vartriangle, and \bigtriangleup are synonyms for \medtriangleup; \triangleleft is a synonym for \medtriangleleft; \triangledown and \bigtriangledown are synonyms for \medtriangledown; \nlessclosed is a synonym for \ntriangleleft; \ngtrclosed is a synonym for \ntriangleright; \nleqclosed is a synonym for \ntrianglelefteq; and \ngeqclosed is a synonym for \ntrianglerighteq. The title “Triangle Relations” is a bit of a misnomer here as only \triangleeq and \ntriangleeq are defined as TEX relations (class 3 symbols). The \largetriangle. . . symbols are defined as TEX “ordinary” characters (class 0) and all of the remaining characters are defined as TEX binary operators (class 2).

40

Table 95: Arrows ⇓ ↓ ← → ← ⇐ ⇔ ↔

\Downarrow \downarrow \hookleftarrow \hookrightarrow \leadsto∗ \leftarrow \Leftarrow \Leftrightarrow \leftrightarrow

←− ⇐= ←→ ⇐⇒ −→ =⇒ −→ →

\longleftarrow \Longleftarrow \longleftrightarrow \Longleftrightarrow \longmapsto \Longrightarrow \longrightarrow \mapsto \nearrow†

⇒ →

↑ ⇑

\nwarrow \Rightarrow \rightarrow \searrow \swarrow \uparrow \Uparrow \updownarrow \Updownarrow

A Not predefined in L TEX 2ε . Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym.

See the note beneath Table 157 for information about how to put a diagonal arrow B ¨0 across a mathematical expression (as in “¨¨ ”) . ·B

Table 96: Harpoons \leftharpoondown \leftharpoonup \rightharpoondown \rightharpoonup \rightleftharpoons

Table 97: textcomp Text-mode Arrows ↓ ← \textdownarrow \textleftarrow → ↑ \textrightarrow \textuparrow

Table 98: AMS Arrows \circlearrowleft \circlearrowright \curvearrowleft \curvearrowright \dashleftarrow \dashrightarrow \downdownarrows \leftarrowtail \leftleftarrows \leftrightarrows \leftrightsquigarrow \Lleftarrow \looparrowleft \looparrowright \Lsh \rightarrowtail \rightleftarrows \rightrightarrows \rightsquigarrow \Rsh \twoheadleftarrow \twoheadrightarrow \upuparrows

Table 99: AMS Negated Arrows \nLeftarrow \nleftarrow \nLeftrightarrow \nleftrightarrow \nRightarrow \nrightarrow

Table 100: AMS Harpoons \downharpoonleft \downharpoonright \leftrightharpoons \rightleftharpoons 41 \upharpoonleft \upharpoonright

Table 101: stmaryrd Arrows \leftarrowtriangle \leftrightarroweq \leftrightarrowtriangle \lightning \Longmapsfrom \longmapsfrom \Longmapsto ⇐ ← ⇒ \Mapsfrom \mapsfrom \Mapsto \nnearrow \nnwarrow \rightarrowtriangle \shortdownarrow \shortleftarrow \shortrightarrow \shortuparrow \ssearrow \sswarrow

⇐= ←− =⇒

Table 102: txfonts/pxfonts Arrows \boxdotLeft \boxdotleft \boxdotright \boxdotRight \boxLeft \boxleft \boxright \boxRight \circleddotleft \circleddotright \circleleft \circleright \dashleftrightarrow \DiamonddotLeft \Diamonddotleft \Diamonddotright \DiamonddotRight \DiamondLeft \Diamondleft \Diamondright \DiamondRight \leftsquigarrow \Nearrow \Nwarrow \Rrightarrow \Searrow \Swarrow

ö ÷ ó õ ô ð ò ñ ê Ó ÿ × ë

Table 103: mathabx Arrows \circlearrowleft \circlearrowright \curvearrowbotleft \curvearrowbotleftright \curvearrowbotright \curvearrowleft \curvearrowleftright \curvearrowright \dlsh \downdownarrows \downtouparrow \downuparrows \drsh
Ð

Ð
Ø

Ô ú ø ü î ï ì í è
Õ

\leftarrow \leftleftarrows \leftrightarrow \leftrightarrows \leftrightsquigarrow \leftsquigarrow \lefttorightarrow \looparrowdownleft \looparrowdownright \looparrowleft \looparrowright \Lsh \nearrow

Ô æ Ñ

Õ Ñ ù ý é
× Ö

Ö þ Ò

\nwarrow \restriction \rightarrow \rightleftarrows \rightrightarrows \rightsquigarrow \righttoleftarrow \Rsh \searrow \swarrow \updownarrows \uptodownarrow \upuparrows

Table 104: mathabx Negated Arrows
ö Ú

\nLeftarrow \nleftarrow

Ü ø

\nleftrightarrow \nLeftrightarrow

Û ÷

\nrightarrow \nRightarrow

42

Þ ß Û
å ç ë

Table 105: mathabx Harpoons \barleftharpoon \barrightharpoon \downdownharpoons \downharpoonleft \downharpoonright \downupharpoons \leftbarharpoon \leftharpoondown
à

Ø à
è

Ý
ã á

Ü
â

á

\leftharpoonup \leftleftharpoons \leftrightharpoon \leftrightharpoons \rightbarharpoon \rightharpoondown \rightharpoonup \rightleftharpoon

é

Ù
ê ä æ

Ú

\rightleftharpoons \rightrightharpoons \updownharpoons \upharpoonleft \upharpoonright \upupharpoons

Table 106: MnSymbol Arrows \curvearrowdownup \curvearrowleftright \curvearrownesw \curvearrownwse \curvearrowrightleft \curvearrowsenw \curvearrowswne \curvearrowupdown \dasheddownarrow \dashedleftarrow \dashednearrow \dashednwarrow \dashedrightarrow \dashedsearrow \dashedswarrow \dasheduparrow \Downarrow \downarrow \downarrowtail \downdownarrows \downlsquigarrow \downmapsto \downrsquigarrow \downuparrows \lcirclearrowdown \lcirclearrowleft \lcirclearrowright \lcirclearrowup \lcurvearrowdown \lcurvearrowleft \lcurvearrowne \lcurvearrownw \lcurvearrowright \lcurvearrowse \lcurvearrowsw \lcurvearrowup \Leftarrow \leftarrow ← ⇐ ←→ ⇐⇒ → → ⇒ \longleftarrow \Longleftarrow \longleftrightarrow \Longleftrightarrow \longmapsto \longrightarrow \Longrightarrow \looparrowleft \looparrowright \Lsh \nearrow \Nearrow \nearrowtail \nelsquigarrow \nemapsto \nenearrows \nersquigarrow \neswarrow \Neswarrow \neswarrows \nwarrow \Nwarrow \nwarrowtail \nwlsquigarrow \nwmapsto \nwnwarrows \nwrsquigarrow \nwsearrow \Nwsearrow \nwsearrows \partialvardlcircleleftint∗ \partialvardlcirclerightint∗ \partialvardrcircleleftint∗ \partialvardrcirclerightint∗ \partialvartlcircleleftint∗ \partialvartlcirclerightint∗ \partialvartrcircleleftint∗ \partialvartrcirclerightint∗ \rhookswarrow \rhookuparrow \rightarrow \Rightarrow \rightarrowtail \rightleftarrows \rightlsquigarrow \rightmapsto \rightrightarrows \rightrsquigarrow \Rrightarrow \Rsh \searrow \Searrow \searrowtail \selsquigarrow \semapsto \senwarrows \sersquigarrow \sesearrows \squigarrowdownup \squigarrowleftright \squigarrownesw \squigarrownwse \squigarrowrightleft \squigarrowsenw \squigarrowswne \squigarrowupdown \swarrow \Swarrow \swarrowtail \swlsquigarrow \swmapsto \swnearrows \swrsquigarrow \swswarrows \twoheaddownarrow \twoheadleftarrow

→ ⇒

⇓ ↓

⇐ ←

(continued on next page)

43

(continued from previous page)

↔ ⇔

\leftarrowtail \leftleftarrows \leftlsquigarrow \leftmapsto \leftrightarrow \Leftrightarrow \leftrightarrows \leftrsquigarrow \lhookdownarrow \lhookleftarrow \lhooknearrow \lhooknwarrow \lhookrightarrow \lhooksearrow \lhookswarrow \lhookuparrow \lightning \Lleftarrow

\rcirclearrowdown \rcirclearrowleft \rcirclearrowright \rcirclearrowup \rcurvearrowdown \rcurvearrowleft \rcurvearrowne \rcurvearrownw \rcurvearrowright \rcurvearrowse \rcurvearrowsw \rcurvearrowup \rhookdownarrow \rhookleftarrow \rhooknearrow \rhooknwarrow \rhookrightarrow \rhooksearrow

↑ ⇑ ↕

\twoheadnearrow \twoheadnwarrow \twoheadrightarrow \twoheadsearrow \twoheadswarrow \twoheaduparrow \uparrow \Uparrow \uparrowtail \updownarrow \Updownarrow \updownarrows \uplsquigarrow \upmapsto \uprsquigarrow \upuparrows

MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols: \circlearrowleft \circlearrowright \curvearrowleft \curvearrowright \dashleftarrow \dashrightarrow \hookleftarrow \hookrightarrow \leadsto \leftrightsquigarrow \mapsto \rightsquigarrow

(same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same

as as as as as as as as as as as as

\rcirclearrowup) \lcirclearrowup) \rcurvearrowleft) \lcurvearrowright) \dashedleftarrow) \dashedrightarrow) \rhookleftarrow) \lhookrightarrow) \rightlsquigarrow) \squigarrowleftright) \rightmapsto) \rightlsquigarrow)

The \partialvar. . . int macros are intended to be used internally by MnSymbol to produce various types of integrals.

Table 107: MnSymbol Negated Arrows \ncurvearrowdownup \ncurvearrowleftright \ncurvearrownesw \ncurvearrownwse \ncurvearrowrightleft \ncurvearrowsenw \ncurvearrowswne \ncurvearrowupdown \ndasheddownarrow \ndashedleftarrow \nlhooknwarrow \nlhookrightarrow \nlhooksearrow \nlhookswarrow \nlhookuparrow \nLleftarrow \nnearrow \nNearrow \nnearrowtail \nnelsquigarrow \nrightleftarrows \nrightlsquigarrow \nrightmapsto \nrightrightarrows \nrightrsquigarrow \nRrightarrow \nSearrow \nsearrow \nsearrowtail \nselsquigarrow

(continued on next page)

44

(continued from previous page)

\ndashednearrow \ndashednwarrow \ndashedrightarrow \ndashedsearrow \ndashedswarrow \ndasheduparrow \ndownarrow \nDownarrow \ndownarrowtail \ndowndownarrows \ndownlsquigarrow \ndownmapsto \ndownrsquigarrow \ndownuparrows \nlcirclearrowdown \nlcirclearrowleft \nlcirclearrowright \nlcirclearrowup \nlcurvearrowdown \nlcurvearrowleft \nlcurvearrowne \nlcurvearrownw \nlcurvearrowright \nlcurvearrowse \nlcurvearrowsw \nlcurvearrowup \nLeftarrow \nleftarrow \nleftarrowtail \nleftleftarrows \nleftlsquigarrow \nleftmapsto \nleftrightarrow \nLeftrightarrow \nleftrightarrows \nleftrsquigarrow \nlhookdownarrow \nlhookleftarrow \nlhooknearrow

\nnemapsto \nnenearrows \nnersquigarrow \nNeswarrow \nneswarrow \nneswarrows \nNwarrow \nnwarrow \nnwarrowtail \nnwlsquigarrow \nnwmapsto \nnwnwarrows \nnwrsquigarrow \nnwsearrow \nNwsearrow \nnwsearrows \nrcirclearrowdown \nrcirclearrowleft \nrcirclearrowright \nrcirclearrowup \nrcurvearrowdown \nrcurvearrowleft \nrcurvearrowne \nrcurvearrownw \nrcurvearrowright \nrcurvearrowse \nrcurvearrowsw \nrcurvearrowup \nrhookdownarrow \nrhookleftarrow \nrhooknearrow \nrhooknwarrow \nrhookrightarrow \nrhooksearrow \nrhookswarrow \nrhookuparrow \nrightarrow \nRightarrow \nrightarrowtail

\nsemapsto \nsenwarrows \nsersquigarrow \nsesearrows \nsquigarrowdownup \nsquigarrowleftright \nsquigarrownesw \nsquigarrownwse \nsquigarrowrightleft \nsquigarrowsenw \nsquigarrowswne \nsquigarrowupdown \nswarrow \nSwarrow \nswarrowtail \nswlsquigarrow \nswmapsto \nswnearrows \nswrsquigarrow \nswswarrows \ntwoheaddownarrow \ntwoheadleftarrow \ntwoheadnearrow \ntwoheadnwarrow \ntwoheadrightarrow \ntwoheadsearrow \ntwoheadswarrow \ntwoheaduparrow \nuparrow \nUparrow \nuparrowtail \nupdownarrow \nUpdownarrow \nupdownarrows \nuplsquigarrow \nupmapsto \nuprsquigarrow \nupuparrows

MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols:

45

\ncirclearrowleft \ncirclearrowright \ncurvearrowleft \ncurvearrowright \ndasharrow \ndashleftarrow \ndashrightarrow \ngets \nhookleftarrow \nhookrightarrow \nleadsto \nleftrightsquigarrow \nmapsto \nrightsquigarrow \nto

(same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same (same

as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as

\nrcirclearrowup) \nlcirclearrowup) \nrcurvearrowleft) \nlcurvearrowright) \ndashedrightarrow) \ndashedleftarrow) \ndashedrightarrow) \nleftarrow) \nrhookleftarrow) \nlhookrightarrow) \nrightlsquigarrow) \nsquigarrowleftright) \nrightmapsto) \nrightlsquigarrow) \nrightarrow)

Table 108: MnSymbol Harpoons \downharpoonccw∗ \downharpooncw∗ \downupharpoons \leftharpoonccw∗ \leftharpooncw∗ \leftrightharpoondownup \leftrightharpoons \leftrightharpoonupdown \neharpoonccw \neharpooncw \neswharpoonnwse

\neswharpoons \neswharpoonsenw \nwharpoonccw \nwharpooncw \nwseharpoonnesw \nwseharpoons \nwseharpoonswne \rightharpoonccw∗ \rightharpooncw∗ \rightleftharpoons \seharpoonccw

\seharpooncw \senwharpoons \swharpoonccw \swharpooncw \swneharpoons \updownharpoonleftright \updownharpoonrightleft \updownharpoons \upharpoonccw∗ \upharpooncw∗

Where marked, the “ccw” suffix can be replaced with “up” and the “cw” suffix can be replaced with “down”. (In addition, \upharpooncw can be written as \restriction.)

Table 109: MnSymbol Negated Harpoons \ndownharpoonccw \ndownharpooncw∗ \ndownupharpoons \nleftharpoonccw∗ \nleftharpooncw∗ \nleftrightharpoondownup \nleftrightharpoons \nleftrightharpoonupdown \nneharpoonccw \nneharpooncw \nneswharpoonnwse
∗ ∗

\nneswharpoons \nneswharpoonsenw \nnwharpoonccw \nnwharpooncw \nnwseharpoonnesw \nnwseharpoons \nnwseharpoonswne \nrightharpoonccw∗ \nrightharpooncw∗ \nrightleftharpoons \nseharpoonccw

\nseharpooncw \nsenwharpoons \nswharpoonccw \nswharpooncw \nswneharpoons \nupdownharpoonleftright \nupdownharpoonrightleft \nupdownharpoons \nupharpoonccw∗ \nupharpooncw∗

Where marked, the “ccw” suffix can be replaced with “up” and the “cw” suffix can be replaced with “down”. (In addition, \nupharpooncw can be written as \nrestriction.)

46

Table 110: chemarrow Arrows

A

\chemarrow

Table 111: fge Arrows

!

\fgerightarrow

"

\fgeuparrow

Table 112: MnSymbol Spoons \downfilledspoon \downspoon \leftfilledspoon \leftspoon \ndownfilledspoon \ndownspoon \nefilledspoon \nespoon \nleftfilledspoon \nleftspoon \nnefilledspoon

\nnespoon \nnwfilledspoon \nnwspoon \nrightfilledspoon \nrightspoon∗ \nsefilledspoon \nsespoon \nswfilledspoon \nswspoon \nupfilledspoon \nupspoon

\nwfilledspoon \nwspoon \rightfilledspoon \rightspoon∗ \sefilledspoon \sespoon \swfilledspoon \swspoon \upfilledspoon \upspoon

MnSymbol defines \multimap as a synonym for \rightspoon and \nmultimap as a synonym for \nrightspoon.

Table 113: MnSymbol Pitchforks \downpitchfork \leftpitchfork \ndownpitchfork \nepitchfork \nleftpitchfork \nnepitchfork

\nnwpitchfork \nrightpitchfork \nsepitchfork \nswpitchfork \nuppitchfork \nwpitchfork

\rightpitchfork \sepitchfork \swpitchfork \uppitchfork

MnSymbol defines \pitchfork as a synonym for \uppitchfork and \npitchfork as a synonym for \nuppitchfork.

47

Table 114: MnSymbol Smiles and Frowns \doublefrown \doublefrowneq \doublesmile \doublesmileeq \eqfrown \eqsmile \frown \frowneq \frowneqsmile \frownsmile \frownsmileeq \ndoublefrown \ndoublefrowneq \ndoublesmile \ndoublesmileeq \neqfrown \neqsmile \nfrown \nfrowneq \nfrowneqsmile \nfrownsmile \nfrownsmileeq \nsmile

\nsmileeq \nsmileeqfrown \nsmilefrown \nsmilefrowneq \nsqdoublefrown \nsqdoublefrowneq \nsqdoublesmile \nsqdoublesmileeq \nsqeqfrown \nsqeqsmile \nsqfrown \nsqfrowneq \nsqfrowneqsmile \nsqfrownsmile \nsqsmile \nsqsmileeq \nsqsmileeqfrown \nsqsmilefrown \nsqtriplefrown \nsqtriplesmile \ntriplefrown \ntriplesmile \smile

\smileeq \smileeqfrown \smilefrown \smilefrowneq \sqdoublefrown \sqdoublefrowneq \sqdoublesmile \sqdoublesmileeq \sqeqfrown \sqeqsmile \sqfrown \sqfrowneq \sqfrowneqsmile \sqfrownsmile \sqsmile \sqsmileeq \sqsmileeqfrown \sqsmilefrown \sqtriplefrown \sqtriplesmile \triplefrown \triplesmile

MnSymbol defines \smallsmile as a synonym for \smile, \smallfrown as a synonym for \frown, \asymp as a synonym for \smilefrown, and \nasymp as a synonym for \nsmilefrown.

©

\blitza 

Table 115: ulsy Contradiction Symbols \blitzb 

\blitzc 

\blitzd 

\blitze

Table 116: Extension Characters − \relbar = \Relbar

Table 117: stmaryrd Extension Characters \Arrownot \arrownot \Mapsfromchar \mapsfromchar \Mapstochar

Table 118: txfonts/pxfonts Extension Characters \Mappedfromchar \mappedfromchar \Mmappedfromchar \mmappedfromchar \Mmapstochar \mmapstochar

48

Table 119: mathabx Extension Characters
û ß

\mapsfromchar \Mapsfromchar
ú

Þ

\mapstochar \Mapstochar

Table 120: Log-like Symbols \arccos \arcsin \arctan \arg \cos \cosh \cot \coth \csc \deg \det \dim \exp \gcd \hom \inf \ker \lg \lim \liminf \limsup \ln \log \max \min \Pr \sec \sin \sinh \sup \tan \tanh

Calling the above “symbols” may be a bit misleading.2 Each log-like symbol merely produces the eponymous textual equivalent, but with proper surrounding spacing. See Section 7.4 for more information about log-like symbols. As \bmod and \pmod are arguably not symbols we refer the reader to the Short Math Guide for A L TEX [Dow00] for samples.

Table 121: AMS Log-like Symbols inj lim proj lim \injlim \projlim lim − → lim \varinjlim \varliminf lim lim ← − \varlimsup \varprojlim

Load the amsmath package to get these symbols. See Section 7.4 for some additional comments regarding log-like symbols. As \mod and \pod are arguably not symbols A we refer the reader to the Short Math Guide for L TEX [Dow00] for samples.

Table 122: Greek Letters α β γ δ ε ζ η Γ ∆ Θ \alpha \beta \gamma \delta \epsilon \varepsilon \zeta \eta \Gamma \Delta \Theta θ ϑ ι κ λ µ ν ξ Λ Ξ Π \theta \vartheta \iota \kappa \lambda \mu \nu \xi \Lambda \Xi \Pi o π ρ σ ς o \pi \varpi \rho \varrho \sigma \varsigma τ υ φ ϕ χ ψ ω \tau \upsilon \phi \varphi \chi \psi \omega

Σ Υ Φ

\Sigma \Upsilon \Phi

Ψ Ω

\Psi \Omega

The remaining Greek majuscules can be produced with ordinary Latin letters. The symbol “M”, for instance, is used for both an uppercase “m” and an uppercase “µ”. See Section 7.5 for examples of how to produce bold Greek letters.

Table 123: AMS Greek Letters \digamma
2 Michael

κ

\varkappa

J. Downes prefers the more general term, “atomic math objects”.

49

Table 124: txfonts/pxfonts Upright Greek Letters α β γ δ ε ζ η \alphaup \betaup \gammaup \deltaup \epsilonup \varepsilonup \zetaup \etaup θ ϑ ι κ λ µ ν ξ \thetaup \varthetaup \iotaup \kappaup \lambdaup \muup \nuup \xiup π ρ σ ς τ υ \piup \varpiup \rhoup \varrhoup \sigmaup \varsigmaup \tauup \upsilonup φ ϕ χ ψ ω \phiup \varphiup \chiup \psiup \omegaup

Table 125: upgreek Upright Greek Letters α β γ δ ε ε ζ η Γ ∆ Θ \upalpha \upbeta \upgamma \updelta \upepsilon \upvarepsilon \upzeta \upeta \Upgamma \Updelta \Uptheta θ ϑ ι κ λ µ ν ξ Λ Ξ Π \uptheta \upvartheta \upiota \upkappa \uplambda \upmu \upnu \upxi \Uplambda \Upxi \Uppi π ϖ ρ ρ σ σ τ υ Σ Υ Φ \uppi \upvarpi \uprho \upvarrho \upsigma \upvarsigma \uptau \upupsilon \Upsigma \Upupsilon \Upphi φ ϕ χ ψ ω \upphi \upvarphi \upchi \uppsi \upomega

Ψ Ω

\Uppsi \Upomega

upgreek utilizes upright Greek characters from either the PostScript Symbol font (depicted above) or Euler Roman. As a result, the glyphs may appear slightly different from the above. Contrast, for example, “Γ∆Θαβγ” (Symbol) with “Γ∆Θαβγ” (Euler).

Table 126: txfonts/pxfonts Variant Latin Letters \varg \varv \varw \vary

Pass the varg option to txfonts/pxfonts to replace g, v, w, and y with , , , and in every mathematical expression in your document.

Table 127: AMS Hebrew Letters \beth \gimel \daleth

\aleph (ℵ) appears in Table 184 on page 62.

Table 128: MnSymbol Hebrew Letters ℵ \aleph \beth \gimel \daleth

50

Table 129: Letter-like Symbols ⊥ ∃ \bot \ell \exists ∀ \forall \hbar \Im ı ∈  \imath \in \jmath ∂ \ni \partial \Re ℘ \top \wp

Table 130: AMS Letter-like Symbols k \Bbbk \circledR \circledS \complement \Finv \Game \hbar \hslash \nexists

Table 131: txfonts/pxfonts Letter-like Symbols ¢

\mathcent

£

\mathsterling∗

\notin

\notni

It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 on page 8 because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode.

Table 132: mathabx Letter-like Symbols
† e h p q

\barin \complement \exists \Finv \Game

€ i w ‚ ƒ

\in \nexists \notbot \notin \notowner

v  ‡ f g

\nottop \owns \ownsbar \partial \partialslash

„ …

\varnotin \varnotowner

Table 133: MnSymbol Letter-like Symbols ∃ ∀

\bot \exists \forall

∈ ∉

\in \nexists \nin∗

\nowns∗ \owns \powerset

\top \wp

MnSymbol provides synonyms \notin for \nin, \ni for \owns, and \intercal for \top.

Table 134: trfsigns Letter-like Symbols e \e j \im

Table 135: mathdesign Letter-like Symbols ∈ ∈ \in \notin \notsmallin \notsmallowns \owns \smallin \smallowns

The mathdesign package additionally provides versions of each of the letter-like symbols shown in Table 130. 51

Table 136: fge Letter-like Symbols

A c e

p

\fgeA \fgec \fged \fgee

F f  

\fgeeszett \fgeF \fgef \fgelb∗

D C B s

\fgeleftB \fgeleftC \fgerightB \fges

U

\fgeU

The fge package defines \fgeeta, \fgeN, and \fgeoverU as synonyms for \fgelb.

Table 137: AMS Delimiters \ulcorner \llcorner \urcorner \lrcorner

Table 138: stmaryrd Delimiters \Lbag \llceil \llparenthesis \Rbag \rrceil \rrparenthesis \lbag \llfloor \rbag \rrfloor

v x z

Table 139: mathabx Delimiters \lcorners \ulcorner \llcorner

w y {

\rcorners \urcorner \lrcorner

Table 140: nath Delimiters \niv \vin

52

Table 141: Variable-sized Delimiters ↓   \downarrow \langle \lceil \lfloor ( / ( / ) \ ⇓ \Downarrow \rangle \rceil \rfloor ) \backslash { [ | ↑    [ | \uparrow \updownarrow \{ } ⇑ ] ] \| \Uparrow \Updownarrow \}

When used with \left and \right, these symbols expand to the height of the enclosed math expression. Note that \vert is a synonym for |, and \Vert is a synonym for \|. ε-TEX provides a \middle analogue to \left and \right. \middle can be used, for example, to make an internal “|” expand to the height of the surrounding \left and \right symbols. (This capability is commonly needed when typesetting adjacent bras and kets in Dirac notation: “ φ|ψ ”). A similar effect can be achieved in A conventional L TEX using the braket package.

   

          

\lmoustache

\arrowvert

Table 142: Large, Variable-sized Delimiters           \lgroup   \rmoustache             \bracevert \Arrowvert      

 

     

\rgroup

These symbols must be used with \left and \right. The mathabx package, however, redefines \lgroup and \rgroup so that those symbols can work without \left and \right.

Table 143: AMS Variable-sized Delimiters | \lvert \lVert | \rvert \rVert

According to the amsmath documentation [AMS99], the preceding symbols are intended to be used as delimiters (e.g., as in “|−z|”) while the \vert and \Vert symbols (Table 141) are intended to be used as operators (e.g., as in “p|q”).

Table 144: stmaryrd Variable-sized Delimiters \llbracket 53 \rrbracket

Table 145: mathabx Variable-sized Delimiters
v

1
\ldbrack

w

9
\rdbrack

7

~

7 7 7 7   

\lfilet \thickvert

? ? ? \rfilet ?   ~  \vvvert ?

Table 146: MnSymbol Variable-sized Delimiters

\lceil

\rceil

\ulcorner

\urcorner

\lfloor

\rfloor

\llcorner

\lrcorner

\lwavy

\rwavy

\langle

\rangle

\lWavy

\rWavy

\langlebar

\ranglebar

(

)

\lgroup

\rgroup

\lsem

\rsem

\llangle

\rrangle

\lmoustache

\rmoustache

\lbrace

\rbrace

/

\backslash

<

>

[

]

\ullcorner

\ulrcorner

|

\|

\bracevert

\arrowvert

\Arrowvert

\vert is a synonym for |. \Vert is a synonym for \|. \mid and \mvert produce the same symbol as \vert but designated as math relations instead of ordinals. \divides produces the same symbol as \vert but designated as a binary operator instead of an ordinal. \parallel and \mVert produce the same symbol as \Vert but designated as math relations instead of ordinals.

54

Table 147: mathdesign Variable-sized Delimiters \leftwave \leftevaw \rightwave \rightevaw

The definitions of these symbols include a preceding \left or \right. It is therefore an error to specify \left or \right explicitly. The internal, “primitive” versions of these symbols are called \lwave, \rwave, \levaw, and \revaw.

Table 148: nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Double) \lAngle [[ \lBrack \lCeil \lFloor ||

\rAngle ]] \rBrack \rCeil \rFloor || \rVert∗

\lVert∗

nath redefines all of the above to include implicit \left and \right commands. Hence, separate \lVert and \rVert commands are needed to disambiguate whether “|” is a left or right delimiter. All of the symbols in Table 148 can also be expressed using the \double macro. See the nath documentation for examples and additional information.

Table 149: nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Triple) \triple< [[[ |||

\triple> ]]] ||| \triple] \rtriple|∗

\triple[ \ltriple|∗

Similar to \lVert and \rVert in Table 148, \ltriple and \rtriple must be used instead of \triple to disambiguate whether “|” is a left or right delimiter. Note that \triple—and the corresponding \double—is actually a macro that takes a delimiter as an argument.

55

Table 150: textcomp Text-mode Delimiters 〈 \textlangle \textlbrackdbl \textlquill 〉 \textrangle \textrbrackdbl \textrquill

Table 151: metre Text-mode Delimiters } { \alad \alas \angud \angus

} \Alad { \Alas
\Angud \Angus


]] [[

\crux \quadrad \quadras


]] [[

\Crux \Quadrad \Quadras

Table 152: Math-mode Accents a ´ a ¯ a ˘ \acute{a} \bar{a} \breve{a} a ˇ a ¨ a ˙ \check{a} \ddot{a} \dot{a} a ` a ˆ ˚ a \grave{a} \hat{a} \mathring{a} a ˜ a \tilde{a} \vec{a}

Also note the existence of \imath and \jmath, which produce dotless versions of “i ” and “j ”. (See Table 184 on page 62.) These are useful when the accent is supposed to replace the dot. For example, “\hat{\imath}” produces a correct “ ˆ ”, while “\hat{i}” would yield the rather odd-looking “ ˆ ”. ı i

Table 153: AMS Math-mode Accents ... .... a \dddot{a} a \ddddot{a} These accents are also provided by the mathabx and accents packages and are redefined by the mathdots package if the amsmath and amssymb packages have previously been loaded. All of the variations except for the original AMS ones tighten ... the space between the dots (from a to ˙˙˙ The mathabx and mathdots... a). versions also a function properly within subscripts and superscripts (x˙˙˙ instead of x a ) .

Table 154: MnSymbol Math-mode Accents a \vec{a} 

A a

Table 155: fge Math-mode Accents \spirituslenis{A}\spirituslenis{a}∗

When fge is passed the crescent option, \spirituslenis instead uses a crescent accent as in “  ”. a

56

Table 156: yhmath Math-mode Accents ˚ a \ring{a}

A This symbol is largely obsolete, as standard L TEX 2ε has supported \mathring A since June, 1998 [L T98].

Table 157: Extensible Accents › abc ← − abc abc abc √ abc \widetilde{abc}∗ \overleftarrow{abc}† \overline{abc} \overbrace{abc} \sqrt{abc}‡ ” abc − → abc abc abc \widehat{abc}∗ \overrightarrow{abc}† \underline{abc} \underbrace{abc}

As demonstrated in a 1997 TUGboat article about typesetting long-division problems [Gib97], an extensible long-division sign (“ )abc ”) can be faked by putting a “\big)” in a tabular environment with an \hline or \cline in the preceding row. The article also presents a piece of code (uploaded to CTAN as longdiv.tex) that automatically solves and typesets—by putting an \overline atop “\big)” and the desired text—long-division problems. See also the polynom package, which automatically solves and typesets polynomial-division problems in a similar manner.

These symbols are made more extensible by the MnSymbol package and even more extensible by the yhmath package. If you’re looking for an extensible diagonal line or arrow to be used for canceling or 5 $ reducing mathematical subexpressions (e.g., “$+ −x” or “$+ $ ”) then consider x $$ 3 $X 2 using the cancel package. With an optional argument, \sqrt typesets nth roots. For√ example, √ 3 n “\sqrt[3]{abc}” produces “ abc ” and “\sqrt[n]{abc}” produces “ abc ”.

Table 158: overrightarrow Extensible Accents = ⇒ abc \Overrightarrow{abc}

Table 159: yhmath Extensible Accents ˆ abc ˚ ˆ abc \wideparen{abc} \widering{abc} È abc \widetriangle{abc}

57

Table 160: AMS Extensible Accents ← → abc abc ← − \overleftrightarrow{abc} \underleftarrow{abc} abc ← → abc − → \underleftrightarrow{abc} \underrightarrow{abc}

Table 161: MnSymbol Extensible Accents abc abc abc abc abc abc \overbrace{abc} \overgroup{abc} \overlinesegment{abc} \overleftharpoon{abc} \widehat{abc} \wideparen{abc} abc abc abc abc abc \underbrace{abc} \undergroup{abc} \underlinesegment{abc} \overrightharpoon{abc} \widetilde{abc}

Table 162: mathtools Extensible Accents abc abc

\overbrace{abc} \overbracket{abc}∗

abc abc

\underbrace{abc} \underbracket{abc}∗

\overbracket and \underbracket accept optional arguments that specify the bracket height and thickness. See the mathtools documentation for more information.

hkkikkj hkkk j
abc abc

Table 163: mathabx Extensible Accents \overbrace{abc} \overgroup{abc}

„ abc | abc Œ abc
˚ ˆ abc

\widebar{abc} \widecheck{abc} \wideparen{abc} \widering{abc}

abc loomoon \underbrace{abc} abc looo n ˆ abc \undergroup{abc} \widearrow{abc}

The braces shown for \overbrace and \underbrace appear in their minimum size. They can expand arbitrarily wide, however.

58

Table 164: esvect Extensible Accents #” abc \vv{abc} with package option a #„ abc \vv{abc} with package option b #« abc \vv{abc} with package option c #» abc \vv{abc} with package option d #– abc \vv{abc} with package option e #— abc \vv{abc} with package option f # abc \vv{abc} with package option g #‰ abc \vv{abc} with package option h esvect also defines a \vv* macro which is used to typeset arrows over vector variables with subscripts. See the esvect documentation for more information.

Table 165: undertilde Extensible Accents abc › \utilde{abc}

Because \utilde is based on \widetilde it is also made more extensible by the yhmath package.

Table 166: AMS Extensible Arrows ←− −
abc

\xleftarrow{abc}

−→ −

abc

\xrightarrow{abc}

Table 167: mathtools Extensible Arrows ←− − −→ − ⇐= =
abc abc abc abc

\xhookleftarrow{abc} \xhookrightarrow{abc} \xLeftarrow{abc} \xleftharpoondown{abc} \xleftharpoonup{abc} \xleftrightarrow{abc} \xLeftrightarrow{abc}

−− −− −→ − =⇒ = − − − −
abc abc abc abc abc

abc

\xleftrightharpoons{abc} \xmapsto{abc} \xRightarrow{abc} \xrightharpoondown{abc} \xrightharpoonup{abc} \xrightleftharpoons{abc}

− − − −

abc

←→ − ⇐⇒ =
abc

abc

−− −−

Table 168: chemarr Extensible Arrows −− −−
abc

\xrightleftharpoons{abc}

59

Table 169: chemarrow Extensible Arrows abc DGGGGGGG def abc EGGGGGGG GGGGGGGC def abc GGGGGGGA def abc GGGGGGGB FGGGGGGG def

\autoleftarrow{abc}{def}

\autorightarrow{abc}{def}

\autoleftrightharpoons{abc}{def}

\autorightleftharpoons{abc}{def}

In addition to the symbols shown above, chemarrow also provides \larrowfill, \rarrowfill, \leftrightharpoonsfill, and \rightleftharpoonsfill macros. Each of these takes a length argument and produces an arrow of the specified length.

Table 170: trfsigns Extensible Arrows
a

\dft{a}

a

\DFT{a}

Table 171: extarrows Extensible Arrows ⇐⇒ = ←→ − == == ⇐= = ←− −
abc abc abc abc abc

\xLeftrightarrow{abc} \xleftrightarrow{abc} \xlongequal{abc} \xLongleftarrow{abc} \xlongleftarrow{abc}

⇐=⇒ = ←−→ − = =⇒ − −→
abc abc abc

abc

\xLongleftrightarrow{abc} \xlongleftrightarrow{abc} \xLongrightarrow{abc} \xlongrightarrow{abc}

Table 172: extpfeil Extensible Arrows == == −− −−
abc abc

\xlongequal{abc} \xtwoheadleftarrow{abc}

−→ − −− −−
abc

abc

\xmapsto{abc} \xtwoheadrightarrow{abc}

The extpfeil package also provides a \newextarrow command to help you define your own extensible arrow symbols. See the extpfeil documentation for more information.

Table 173: holtpolt Non-commutative Division Symbols abc def \holter{abc}{def} abc def \polter{abc}{def}

60

Table 174: Dots · ···

\cdotp \cdots

: ..

\colon∗ . \ddots†

. ...

\ldotp \ldots

. . .

\vdots†

While “:” is valid in math mode, \colon uses different surrounding spacing. See A Section 7.4 and the Short Math Guide for L TEX [Dow00] for more information on math-mode spacing. The mathdots package redefines \ddots and \vdots to make them scale properly with font size. (They normally scale horizontally but not vertically.) \fixedddots A and \fixedvdots provide the original, fixed-height functionality of L TEX 2ε ’s \ddots and \vdots macros.

Table 175: AMS Dots ··· ...

\because∗ \dotsb \dotsc

··· ··· ...

\dotsi \dotsm \dotso

\therefore∗

\because and \therefore are defined as binary relations and therefore also appear in Table 63 on page 30. The AMS \dots symbols are named according to their intended usage: \dotsb between pairs of binary operators/relations, \dotsc between pairs of commas, \dotsi between pairs of integrals, \dotsm between pairs of multiplication signs, and \dotso between other symbol pairs.

Table 176: wasysym Dots ∴ \wasytherefore

Table 177: MnSymbol Dots ⋅ \cdot \ddotdot \ddots \diamonddots \downtherefore \fivedots \hdotdot \hdots \lefttherefore \righttherefore \squaredots \udotdot ∴ \udots \uptherefore \vdotdot \vdots

MnSymbol defines \therefore as \uptherefore and \because as \downtherefore. Furthermore, \cdotp and \colon produce the same glyphs as \cdot and \vdotdot respectively but serve as TEX math punctuation (class 6 symbols) instead of TEX binary operators (class 2). All of the above except \hdots and \vdots are defined as binary operators and therefore also appear in Table 46 on page 23. Also, unlike most of the other dot symbols in this document, MnSymbol’s dots are defined as single characters instead of as composites of multiple single-dot characters.

61

Table 178: mathdots Dots . .. \iddots

Table 179: yhmath Dots .. . \adots

Table 180: mathcomp Math Symbols µ \tccentigrade \tcmu Ω \tcohm \tcpertenthousand ‰ \tcperthousand

H I

Table 181: mathabx Mayan Digits \maya{0} \maya{1}

P Q

\maya{2} \maya{3}

R S

\maya{4} \maya{5}

Table 182: marvosym Digits 0 1 \MVZero \MVOne 2 3 \MVTwo \MVThree 4 5 \MVFour \MVFive 6 7 \MVSix \MVSeven 8 9 \MVEight \MVNine

Table 183: fge Digits

0

\fgestruckzero

1

\fgestruckone

A Table 184: Miscellaneous L TEX 2ε Math Symbols

ℵ \ ♣

\aleph \angle \backslash \Box∗,† \clubsuit

♦ ∅ ♥

\Diamond∗ \diamondsuit \emptyset‡ \flat \heartsuit

¬

\infty \mho∗ \nabla \natural \neg

♠ `

\prime \sharp \spadesuit \surd \triangle

A Not predefined in L TEX 2ε . Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym. Note, however, that amsfonts and amssymb define \Diamond to produce the same glyph as \lozenge (“♦”); the other packages produce a squarer \Diamond as depicted above.

To use \Box—or any other symbol—as an end-of-proof (Q.E.D.) marker, consider using the ntheorem package, which properly juxtaposes a symbol with the end of the proof text. Many people prefer the look of AMS’s \varnothing (“∅”, Table 185) to that of A L TEX’s \emptyset. 62

Table 185: Miscellaneous AMS Math Symbols ∠ \angle \backprime \bigstar \blacklozenge \blacksquare \blacktriangle \blacktriangledown \diagdown \diagup \eth \lozenge \measuredangle \mho \sphericalangle \square \triangledown \varnothing \vartriangle

ð ♦

Table 186: Miscellaneous wasysym Math Symbols \Box

\Diamond

\mho∗

\varangle

wasysym also defines an \agemO symbol, which is the same glyph as \mho but is intended for use in text mode.

Table 187: Miscellaneous txfonts/pxfonts Math Symbols \Diamondblack \Diamonddot \lambdabar \lambdaslash \varclubsuit \vardiamondsuit \varheartsuit \varspadesuit

Table 188: Miscellaneous mathabx Math Symbols
H

å ä
s

\degree \diagdown \diagup \diameter

R 5 V

6

\fourth \hash \infty \leftthreetimes

b 8
W

7

\measuredangle \pitchfork \propto \rightthreetimes

P

c
Q

5

\second \sphericalangle \third \varhash

Table 189: Miscellaneous MnSymbol Math Symbols ∠ ⌐ ♣ \angle \backneg \backprime \checkmark \clubsuit \diameter \diamondsuit \flat \heartsuit \infty \invbackneg \invneg ∇ ¬ ′ \maltese \measuredangle \nabla \natural \neg \prime ♠ \sharp \smallint \spadesuit \sphericalangle

MnSymbol defines \emptyset and \varnothing as synonyms for \diameter; \lnot and \minushookdown as synonyms for \neg; \minushookup as a synonym for \invneg; \hookdownminus as a synonym for \backneg; and, \hookupminus as a synonym for \invbackneg.

63

Table 190: Miscellaneous Internal MnSymbol Math Symbols \partialvardint \partialvardlanddownint \partialvardlandupint \partialvardlcircleleftint \partialvardlcirclerightint \partialvardoiint \partialvardoint \partialvardrcircleleftint \partialvardrcirclerightint \partialvardstrokedint \partialvardsumint \partialvartint \partialvartlanddownint \partialvartlandupint \partialvartlcircleleftint \partialvartlcirclerightint \partialvartoiint \partialvartoint \partialvartrcircleleftint \partialvartrcirclerightint \partialvartstrokedint \partialvartsumint

These symbols are intended to be used internally by MnSymbol to construct the integrals appearing in Table 59 on page 29 but can nevertheless be used in isolation.

Table 191: Miscellaneous textcomp Text-mode Math Symbols ° ÷ ⁄ ¬ −

\textdegree∗ \textdiv \textfractionsolidus \textlnot \textminus

½ ¼ ¹ ± √

\textonehalf† \textonequarter† \textonesuperior \textpm \textsurd

¾ ³ × ²

\textthreequarters† \textthreesuperior \texttimes \texttwosuperior

If you prefer a larger degree symbol you might consider defining one as “\ensuremath{^\circ}” (“◦ ”). nicefrac (part of the units package) can be used to construct vulgar fractions like “1/2”, “1/4”, “3/4”, and even “c/o”.

Table 192: Miscellaneous marvosym Math Symbols W = \Anglesign \Corresponds ÷ p \Squaredot \Vectorarrow P \Vectorarrowhigh

Table 193: Miscellaneous fge Math Symbols

K M O

\fgebackslash \fgebaracute \fgebarcap

S Q N

\fgecap \fgecapbar \fgecup

R P i

\fgecupacute \fgecupbar \fgeinfty

h L

\fgelangle \fgeupbracket

Table 194: Miscellaneous mathdesign Math Symbols \rightangle

Table 195: Miscellaneous arev Math Symbols \steaming \varclub ♦ ♥ \vardiamond \varheart 64 \varspade

Table 196: Math Alphabets Font sample ABCdef123 ABCdef123 ABCdef  ABC ABC or ABC or ABCdef123 ABC º»¼ Generating command \mathrm{ABCdef123} \mathit{ABCdef123} \mathnormal{ABCdef123} \mathcal{ABC} \mathscr{ABC} \mathcal{ABC} \mathcal{ABC} \mathscr{ABC} \mathpzc{ABCdef123} \mathbb{ABC} \varmathbb{ABC} \mathbb{ABCdef123} \mathbb{ABCdef123} \mathbbm{ABCdef12} \mathbbmss{ABCdef12} \mathbbmtt{ABCdef12} \mathds{ABC1} \mathds{ABC1} \mathfrak{ABCdef123} \textfrak{ABCdef123} \textswab{ABCdef123} \textgoth{ABCdef123} Required package none none none none mathrsfs calrsfs euscript with the mathcal option euscript with the mathscr option none; manually defined∗ amsfonts,§ amssymb, txfonts, or pxfonts txfonts or pxfonts bbold or mathbbol† mbboard† bbm bbm bbm dsfont dsfont with the sans option eufrak yfonts‡ yfonts‡ yfonts‡

ABCdef12 ABC1 ABC1 ABCdef123 ABCdef123 ABCdef123 ABCˇf123

ABCdef12 ABCdef12

ABCdef123 ABCdef123

Put “\DeclareMathAlphabet{\mathpzc}{OT1}{pzc}{m}{it}” in your document’s preamble to make \mathpzc typeset its argument in Zapf Chancery. As a similar trick, you can typeset the Calligra font’s script “ r ” (or other calligraphic symbols) in math mode by loading the calligra package and putting “\DeclareMathAlphabet{\mathcalligra}{T1}{calligra}{m}{n}” in your document’s preamble to make \mathcalligra typeset its argument in the Calligra font. (You may also want to specify “\DeclareFontShape{T1}{calligra}{m}{n}{<->s*[2.2]callig15}{}” to set Calligra at 2.2 times its design size for a better blend with typical body fonts.) The mathbbol package defines some additional blackboard bold characters: parentheses, square brackets, angle brackets, and—if the bbgreekl option is passed to matbbol—Greek letters. For instance, “<[( )]>” is produced by “\mathbb{\Langle\Lbrack\Lparen\bbalpha\bbbeta\bbgamma\Rparen \Rbrack\Rangle}”. mbboard extends the blackboard bold symbol set significantly further. It supports not only the Greek alphabet—including “Greek-like” symbols such as \bbnabla (“š”)—but also all punctuation marks, various currency symbols such as \bbdollar (“$”) and \bbeuro (“û”), and the Hebrew alphabet (e.g., “\bbfinalnun\bbyod\bbqof\bbpe” → “ÏÉ×Ô”).

As their \text. . . names imply, the fonts provided by the yfonts package are actually text fonts. They are included in Table 196 because they are frequently used in a mathematical context.

65

§

An older (i.e., prior to 1991) version of the AMS’s fonts rendered C, N, R, S, and Z as C, N, R, S, and Z. As some people prefer the older glyphs—much to the AMS’s surprise—and because those glyphs fail to build under modern versions of METAFONT, Berthold Horn uploaded PostScript fonts for the older blackboardbold glyphs to CTAN, to the fonts/msym10 directory. As of this writing, however, A there are no L TEX 2ε packages for utilizing the now-obsolete glyphs.

66

4

Science and technology symbols
This section lists symbols that are employed in various branches of science and engineering.

Table 197: gensymb Symbols Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode ° \celsius \degree µ Ω \micro \ohm ‰ \perthousand

Table 198: wasysym Electrical and Physical Symbols ¬ \AC \VHF ¬¬¬¬ \photon F \HF \gluon

3 8

\FallingEdge \LongPulseHigh

9 6
m M

Table 199: ifsym Pulse Diagram Symbols \LongPulseLow \PulseHigh

7 2

\PulseLow \RaisingEdge

4 5

\ShortPulseHigh \ShortPulseLow

In addition, within \textifsym{. . .}, the following codes are valid:

l v

l L

m w

h r

h H

d h

d D

` a

< <<

b c

> >>

This enables one to write “\textifsym{mm<DDD>mm}” to get “ ” or “\textifsym{L|H|L|H|L}” to get “ ”. See also the timing package, which provides a wide variety of pulse-diagram symbols within an environment designed specifically for typesetting pulse diagrams.

v|r|v|r|v V

mm`hhhbmm

Finally, \textifsym supports the display of segmented digits, as would appear on an LCD: “\textifsym{-123.456}” produces “ ”. “\textifsym{b}” outputs a blank with the same width as an “ ”.

EIPQFRST

Table 200: ar Aspect Ratio Symbol

A

\AR

Table 201: textcomp Text-mode Science and Engineering Symbols \textcelsius \textmho µ \textmu Ω \textohm

67

Table 202: wasysym Astronomical Symbols ♀ \mercury \venus \astrosun \aries \taurus \gemini \ascnode ♂ \earth \mars \fullmoon \cancer \leo \virgo \descnode \jupiter \saturn \leftmoon \libra \scorpio \sagittarius \conjunction \uranus \neptune \newmoon \aquarius \capricornus \pisces \opposition \vernal \pluto

\rightmoon

Table 203: marvosym Astronomical Symbols  à Á à á â \Mercury \Venus \Moon \Aries \Taurus \Gemini Ê Ä À ã ä å \Earth \Mars \Sun \Cancer \Leo \Virgo æ ç è \Libra \Scorpio \Sagittarius é ê ë \Capricorn \Aquarius \Pisces Å Æ \Jupiter \Saturn Ç È \Uranus \Neptune É \Pluto

Note that \Aries . . . \Pisces can also be specified with \Zodiac{1} . . . \Zodiac{12}.

e f w €

\Mercury \Venus \fullmoon \Aries

g h u 

Table 204: mathabx Astronomical Symbols \Earth \Mars \leftmoon \Taurus

i p

\Jupiter \Saturn \newmoon \Gemini

q r v

\Uranus \Neptune \rightmoon

s t d

\Pluto \varEarth \Sun

x ‚

mathabx also defines \girl as an alias for \Venus, \boy as an alias for \Mars, and \Moon as an alias for \leftmoon.

Table 205: wasysym APL Symbols \APLbox \APLcomment \APLdown \APLdownarrowbox \APLinput ÷ − \APLinv \APLleftarrowbox \APLlog \APLminus \APLrightarrowbox \APLstar \APLup \APLuparrowbox \notbackslash \notslash

− \ − /

Table 206: wasysym APL Modifiers ◦ \APLcirc{} ∼ \APLnot{} 68 | \APLvert{}

Table 207: marvosym Computer Hardware Symbols Í Ï \ComputerMouse \Keyboard Ñ Ò \ParallelPort \Printer Î Ð \SerialInterface \SerialPort

Table 208: keystroke Computer Keys
Alt AltGr Break →− Ctrl ↓ Del End

\Alt \AltGr \Break∗ \BSpace† \Ctrl∗ \DArrow \Del∗ \End∗

Enter Esc Home Ins ← Num Page ↓ Page ↑

\Enter∗ \Esc∗ \Home∗ \Ins∗ \LArrow \NumLock \PgDown∗ \PgUp∗

PrtSc → ← Scroll Shift ⇑

→→ −− −−

\PrtSc∗ \RArrow \Return \Scroll∗ \Shift∗ \Spacebar \Tab† \UArrow

Changes based on the language option passed to the keystroke package. For example, the german option makes \Del produce “ Entf ” instead of “ Del ”. These symbols utilize the rotating package and therefore display improperly in most DVI viewers. The \keystroke command draws a key with an arbitrary label. For example, “\keystroke{F7}” produces “ F7 ”.

Table 209: ascii Control Characters (CP437) \SOH \STX \ETX \EOT \ENQ \ACK \BEL \DEL \BS \HT \LF \VT \FF \CR \SO \NBSP \SI \DLE \DCa \DCb \DCc \DCd \NAK \NUL ¦ \SYN \ETB \CAN \EM \SUB \ESC \FS \splitvert \GS \RS \US

Code Page 437 (CP437), which was first utilized by the original IBM PC, uses the symbols \SOH through \US to depict ASCII characters 1–31 and \DEL to depict ASCII character 127. The \NUL symbol, not part of CP437, represents ASCII character 0. \NBSP, also not part of CP437, represents a nonbreaking space. \splitvert is merely the “|” character drawn as it was on the IBM PC.

Table 210: marvosym Communication Symbols k z \Email \Emailct t u \fax \FAX v B \Faxmachine \Letter E H \Lightning \Mobilefone A T \Pickup \Telefon

69

Table 211: marvosym Engineering Symbols " # › • % – \Beam \Bearing \Circpipe \Circsteel \Fixedbearing \Flatsteel

l ’ & L $ ™

\Force \Hexasteel \Lefttorque \Lineload \Loosebearing \Lsteel

‘ ˜ ” ' Ÿ 

\Octosteel \Rectpipe \Rectsteel \Righttorque \RoundedLsteel∗ \RoundedTsteel∗

ž — “ œ š

\RoundedTTsteel \Squarepipe \Squaresteel \Tsteel \TTsteel

\RoundedLsteel and \RoundedTsteel seem to be swapped, at least in the 2000/05/01 version of marvosym.

Table 212: wasysym Biological Symbols ♀ \female ♂ \male

Table 213: marvosym Biological Symbols ~  „ \Female \FEMALE \FemaleFemale … } € \FemaleMale \Hermaphrodite \HERMAPHRODITE | ƒ \MALE \Male \MaleMale { \Neutral

Table 214: marvosym Safety-related Symbols h n \Biohazard \BSEfree C J \CEsign \Estatically ` a \Explosionsafe \Laserbeam j ! \Radioactivity \Stopsign

Table 215: feyn Feynman Diagram Symbols

3 — ™   n e

\bigbosonloop \feyn{a} \feyn{c} \feyn{fd} \feyn{fl} \feyn{fs}

¡ ¢ f w o ¥

\feyn{fu} \feyn{fv} \feyn{f} \feyn{glu} \feyn{gl} \feyn{gu}

§ ¦ g  i 

\feyn{gvs} \feyn{gv} \feyn{g} \feyn{hd} \feyn{hs} \feyn{hu}

h l m p x 2

\feyn{h} \feyn{ms} \feyn{m} \feyn{p} \feyn{x} \smallbosonloop

All other arguments to the \feyn command produce a “c” symbol. The feyn package provides various commands for composing the preceding symbols into complete Feynman diagrams. See the feyn documentation for examples and additional information.

70

5

Dingbats

Dingbats are symbols such as stars, arrows, and geometric shapes. They are commonly used as bullets in itemized lists or, more generally, as a means to draw attention to the text that follows. A The pifont dingbat package warrants special mention. Among other capabilities, pifont provides a L TEX interface to the Zapf Dingbats font (one of the standard 35 PostScript fonts). However, rather than name each of the dingbats individually, pifont merely provides a single \ding command, which outputs the character that lies at a given position in the font. The consequence is that the pifont symbols can’t be listed by name in this document’s index, so be mindful of that fact when searching for a particular symbol.

y {

Table 216: bbding Arrows \ArrowBoldDownRight \ArrowBoldRightCircled

z w

\ArrowBoldRightShort \ArrowBoldRightStrobe

x

\ArrowBoldUpRight

Table 217: pifont Arrows   ¡ £ ¤ Ä ¥ À ¦ § \ding{212} \ding{213} \ding{214} \ding{215} \ding{216} \ding{217} \ding{218} \ding{219} \ding{220} ¨ © ª « ¬ ­ ¢ ® ¯ \ding{221} \ding{222} \ding{223} \ding{224} \ding{225} \ding{226} \ding{227} \ding{228} \ding{229} ° ± ² ³ Á ´ Ç µ È \ding{230} \ding{231} \ding{232} \ding{233} \ding{234} \ding{235} \ding{236} \ding{237} \ding{238} ¶ É · ¸ Å ¹ Â Æ º \ding{239} \ding{241} \ding{242} \ding{243} \ding{244} \ding{245} \ding{246} \ding{247} \ding{248} Ã » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ \ding{249} \ding{250} \ding{251} \ding{252} \ding{253} \ding{254} 

Table 218: universal Arrows \bauarrow 

\bauwhitearrow

Table 219: marvosym Scissors s r \Cutleft \Cutline q R \Cutright \Kutline S Q \Leftscissors \Rightscissors

§ ¦ ¤ £

Table 220: bbding Scissors \ScissorHollowLeft \ScissorHollowRight \ScissorLeft \ScissorLeftBrokenBottom

¥ ¡   ¢

\ScissorLeftBrokenTop \ScissorRight \ScissorRightBrokenBottom \ScissorRightBrokenTop

Table 221: pifont Scissors ¡ \ding{33} ¢ \ding{34} 71 Ê \ding{35} £ \ding{36}

Table 222: dingbat Pencils

W

\largepencil

P

\smallpencil

0 ) 2 1 

Table 223: bbding Pencils and Nibs \NibLeft \NibRight \NibSolidLeft \NibSolidRight

$ ( & #

\PencilLeft \PencilLeftDown \PencilLeftUp \PencilRight

' %

\PencilRightDown \PencilRightUp

Table 224: pifont Pencils and Nibs \ding{46}  \ding{47} i \ding{48}  \ding{49}  \ding{50}

Table 225: dingbat Fists

R D U

\leftpointright \leftthumbsdown \leftthumbsup

L d u

\rightpointleft \rightthumbsdown \rightthumbsup

N

\rightpointright 

 

Table 226: bbding Fists \HandCuffLeft \HandCuffLeftUp \HandCuffRight 



\HandCuffRightUp \HandLeft \HandLeftUp

"  

\HandPencilLeft \HandRight \HandRightUp

Table 227: pifont Fists  \ding{42}  \ding{43}  \ding{44}  \ding{45}

B E R F

Table 228: bbding Crosses and Plusses \Cross \CrossBoldOutline \CrossClowerTips \CrossMaltese

C D 9 @

\CrossOpenShadow \CrossOutline \Plus \PlusCenterOpen

8 A

\PlusOutline \PlusThinCenterOpen

Table 229: pifont Crosses and Plusses % & \ding{57} \ding{58} ' ( \ding{59} \ding{60} 72 ¦ § \ding{61} \ding{62} ¨ © \ding{63} \ding{64}

3 4

Table 230: bbding Xs and Check Marks \Checkmark \CheckmarkBold

5 6

\XSolid \XSolidBold

7

\XSolidBrush

Table 231: pifont Xs and Check Marks  \ding{51} \ding{52} ! " \ding{53} \ding{54} # $ \ding{55} \ding{56}

Table 232: wasysym Xs and Check Marks \CheckedBox \Square \XBox

Table 233: universal Xs

¥

\baucross

Table 234: pifont Circled Numbers x y z { | } ~  €  \ding{172} \ding{173} \ding{174} \ding{175} \ding{176} \ding{177} \ding{178} \ding{179} \ding{180} \ding{181} ‚ ƒ „ … † ‡ ˆ ‰ Š ‹ \ding{182} \ding{183} \ding{184} \ding{185} \ding{186} \ding{187} \ding{188} \ding{189} \ding{190} \ding{191} Œ  Ž   ‘ ’ “ ” • \ding{192} \ding{193} \ding{194} \ding{195} \ding{196} \ding{197} \ding{198} \ding{199} \ding{200} \ding{201} – — ˜ ™ š › œ  ž Ÿ \ding{202} \ding{203} \ding{204} \ding{205} \ding{206} \ding{207} \ding{208} \ding{209} \ding{210} \ding{211}

pifont (part of the psnfss package) provides a dingautolist environment which resembles enumerate but uses circled numbers as bullets.3 See the psnfss documentation for more information.

Table 235: wasysym Stars \davidsstar
3 In

\hexstar

\varhexstar

fact, dingautolist can use any set of consecutive Zapf Dingbats symbols.

73

x e f ˆ g h H G  ƒ ‰ r s p i ‚

Table 236: bbding Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes \Asterisk \AsteriskBold \AsteriskCenterOpen \AsteriskRoundedEnds \AsteriskThin \AsteriskThinCenterOpen \DavidStar \DavidStarSolid \EightAsterisk \EightFlowerPetal \EightFlowerPetalRemoved \EightStar \EightStarBold \EightStarConvex \EightStarTaper \FiveFlowerOpen

€ V Y c U W X ` a b d I † ‡ S T

\FiveFlowerPetal \FiveStar \FiveStarCenterOpen \FiveStarConvex \FiveStarLines \FiveStarOpen \FiveStarOpenCircled \FiveStarOpenDotted \FiveStarOutline \FiveStarOutlineHeavy \FiveStarShadow \FourAsterisk \FourClowerOpen \FourClowerSolid \FourStar \FourStarOpen

P Q y … w  v ‘ q u – ” • “ ’ t

\JackStar \JackStarBold \SixFlowerAlternate \SixFlowerAltPetal \SixFlowerOpenCenter \SixFlowerPetalDotted \SixFlowerPetalRemoved \SixFlowerRemovedOpenPetal \SixStar \SixteenStarLight \Snowflake \SnowflakeChevron \SnowflakeChevronBold \Sparkle \SparkleBold \TwelweStar

Table 237: pifont Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes  ) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 \ding{65} \ding{66} \ding{67} \ding{68} \ding{69} \ding{70} \ding{71} \ding{72} \ding{73} 7 8 9 @ A B C D E \ding{74} \ding{75} \ding{76} \ding{77} \ding{78} \ding{79} \ding{80} \ding{81} \ding{82} F G H I P Q R S T \ding{83} \ding{84} \ding{85} \ding{86} \ding{87} \ding{88} \ding{89} \ding{90} \ding{91} U V W X Y ` a b c \ding{92} \ding{93} \ding{94} \ding{95} \ding{96} \ding{97} \ding{98} \ding{99} \ding{100} d e f g h i p \ding{101} \ding{102} \ding{103} \ding{104} \ding{105} \ding{106} \ding{107}

Table 238: wasysym Geometric Shapes \hexagon \octagon \pentagon \varhexagon

Table 239: MnSymbol Geometric Shapes \filledlargestar \filledlozenge \filledmedlozenge \largecircle \largediamond \largelozenge \largepentagram \largesquare \largestar \largestarofdavid \medlozenge \medstarofdavid ◊ \smalllozenge

MnSymbol defines \bigcirc as a synonym for \largecircle; \bigstar as a synonym for \filledlargestar; \lozenge as a synonym for \medlozenge; and, \blacklozenge as a synonym for \filledmedlozenge.

74

7  8 & • G 2 5 4 6 3 ) S  ¥ ¦ § T … † € ƒ ‚

Table 240: ifsym Geometric Shapes \BigCircle \BigCross \BigDiamondshape \BigHBar \BigLowerDiamond \BigRightDiamond \BigSquare \BigTriangleDown \BigTriangleLeft \BigTriangleRight \BigTriangleUp \BigVBar \Circle \Cross \DiamondShadowA \DiamondShadowB \DiamondShadowC \Diamondshape \FilledBigCircle \FilledBigDiamondshape \FilledBigSquare \FilledBigTriangleDown \FilledBigTriangleLeft

„  e ¨ © f u v p s r t q – £ ¤ ™ ˜ d — ' o c

\FilledBigTriangleRight \FilledBigTriangleUp \FilledCircle \FilledDiamondShadowA \FilledDiamondShadowC \FilledDiamondshape \FilledSmallCircle \FilledSmallDiamondshape \FilledSmallSquare \FilledSmallTriangleDown \FilledSmallTriangleLeft \FilledSmallTriangleRight \FilledSmallTriangleUp \FilledSquare \FilledSquareShadowA \FilledSquareShadowC \FilledTriangleDown \FilledTriangleLeft \FilledTriangleRight \FilledTriangleUp \HBar \LowerDiamond \RightDiamond

i  p (  y d g f h e 1 B A H   ¡ ¢ Q P R I 0

\SmallCircle \SmallCross \SmallDiamondshape \SmallHBar \SmallLowerDiamond \SmallRightDiamond \SmallSquare \SmallTriangleDown \SmallTriangleLeft \SmallTriangleRight \SmallTriangleUp \SmallVBar \SpinDown \SpinUp \Square \SquareShadowA \SquareShadowB \SquareShadowC \TriangleDown \TriangleLeft \TriangleRight \TriangleUp \VBar

The ifsym documentation points out that one can use \rlap to combine some of the above into useful, new symbols. For example, \BigCircle and \FilledSmallCircle combine to give “ ”. Likewise, \Square and \Cross combine to give “ ”. See Section 7.3 for more information about constructing new symbols out of existing symbols.

H 

7 u

d — p ˜ e ™ s r

\CircleShadow \CircleSolid \DiamondSolid \Ellipse \EllipseShadow \EllipseSolid \HalfCircleLeft \HalfCircleRight

u v t f k m l h

Table 241: bbding Geometric Shapes \Rectangle \RectangleBold \RectangleThin \Square \SquareCastShadowBottomRight \SquareCastShadowTopLeft \SquareCastShadowTopRight \SquareShadowBottomRight

j i g o n

\SquareShadowTopLeft \SquareShadowTopRight \SquareSolid \TriangleDown \TriangleUp

Table 242: pifont Geometric Shapes q r s \ding{108} \ding{109} \ding{110} t Ë u \ding{111} \ding{112} \ding{113} Ì v w \ding{114} \ding{115} \ding{116} x  ‚ \ding{117} \ding{119} \ding{120} ƒ „ \ding{121} \ding{122}

75

¡

Table 243: universa Geometric Shapes \baucircle

 

\bausquare

¢

\bautriangle

¤ ¨

Table 244: universal Geometric Shapes \baucircle \baueclipse

§ …

\bauhole \baupunct

† £

\bausquare \bautriangle

} |   ~  ™

Table 245: igo Go Stones \blackstone[\igocircle] \blackstone[\igocross] \blackstone[\igonone] \blackstone[\igosquare] \blackstone[\igotriangle]

} |   ~ 

\whitestone[\igocircle] \whitestone[\igocross] \whitestone[\igonone] \whitestone[\igosquare] \whitestone[\igotriangle]

In addition to the symbols shown above, igo’s \blackstone and \whitestone commands accept numbers from 1 to 99 and display them circled as , , , . . . and , , , . . . , respectively.

¡¢£

™

¡¢£

The igo package is intended to typeset Go boards (goban). See the igo documentation for more information.

Table 246: manfnt Dangerous Bend Symbols \dbend \lhdbend \reversedvideodbend

Note that these symbols descend far beneath the baseline. manfnt also defines nondescending versions, which it calls, correspondingly, \textdbend, \textlhdbend, and \textreversedvideodbend.

Table 247: skull Symbols

A

\skull

Table 248: Non-Mathematical mathabx Symbols

y

\rip

Table 249: marvosym Information Symbols ® V U K X \Bicycle \Checkedbox \Clocklogo \Coffeecup \Crossedbox o x I i y \Football \Gentsroom \Industry \Info \Ladiesroom 76 Z w b \Pointinghand \Wheelchair \Writinghand

O C D 
q

Table 250: Miscellaneous dingbat Dingbats \anchor \carriagereturn \checkmark

E

C I

\eye \filledsquarewithdots \satellitedish

S B Z
„ 

\Sborder \squarewithdots \Zborder

Table 251: Miscellaneous bbding Dingbats \Envelope \OrnamentDiamondSolid

! ¨

\Peace \Phone

© 

\PhoneHandset \Plane

\SunshineOpenCircled \Tape

Table 252: Miscellaneous pifont Dingbats ¤ ¥ w \ding{37} \ding{38} \ding{39} v u y \ding{40} \ding{41} \ding{118} h j k \ding{164} \ding{165} \ding{166} l p n \ding{167} \ding{168} \ding{170} m o \ding{171} \ding{169}

77

6

Other symbols

The following are all the symbols that didn’t fit neatly or unambiguously into any of the previous sections. (Do weather symbols belong under “Science and technology”? Should dice be considered “mathematics”?) While some of the tables contain clearly related groups of symbols (e.g., musical notes), others represent motley assortments of whatever the font designer felt like drawing.

Table 253: textcomp Genealogical Symbols \textborn \textdied \textdivorced \textleaf \textmarried

Table 254: wasysym General Symbols \ataribox \bell \blacksmiley \Bowtie \brokenvert \checked \clock \diameter \DOWNarrow \frownie \invdiameter \kreuz \LEFTarrow \lightning \phone \pointer \recorder \RIGHTarrow ☼ ◊ \smiley \sun \UParrow \wasylozenge

Table 255: wasysym Circles \CIRCLE \Circle \LEFTCIRCLE \LEFTcircle \Leftcircle \RIGHTCIRCLE \RIGHTcircle \Rightcircle \leftturn \rightturn

Table 256: wasysym Musical Symbols \eighthnote \halfnote \twonotes \fullnote \quarternote

See also \flat, \sharp, and \natural (Table 184 on page 62).

Table 257: arev Musical Symbols \quarternote ♪ \eighthnote \sixteenthnote

See also \flat, \sharp, and \natural (Table 184 on page 62).

78

Table 258: harmony Musical Symbols

= = ˇ “ˇ “ ˇ=“ =( ˇ “= = ˇ“ ?
D D

\AAcht \Acht \AchtBL \AchtBR \AcPa \DD

D / D D / s s S S

\DDohne \Dohne \Ds \DS \Ganz \GaPa

˘“ < ‰ ˇ=“ =) “ =ˇ=“ ˇ=

\Halb \HaPa \Pu \Sech \SechBL \SechBl

= = ˇ“ = = ˇ “= @
<

\SechBR \SechBr \SePa \UB \Vier \ViPa

>

\VM \Zwdr \ZwPa

ˇ “* A

¯ <

ˇ“ >

The musixtex package must be installed to use harmony.

Table 259: harmony Musical Accents .. Aa \Ferli{A}\Ferli{a}∗ .. Aa \Fermi{A}\Fermi{a} ll \Kr{A}\Kr{a} A a

Aa // A a

\Ohne{A}\Ohne{a}∗ \Umd{A}\Umd{a}∗

These symbols take an optional argument which shifts the accent either horizontally or vertically (depending on the command) by the given distance. In addition to the accents shown above, \HH is a special accent command which accepts five period-separated characters and typesets them such that b c “\HH.X.a.b.c.d.” produces “Xd”. All arguments except the first can be omita ted: “\HH.X.....” produces “X”. \Takt takes two arguments and composes them into a musical time signature. For example, “\Takt{12}{8}” produces “ 12 ”. As 8 two special cases, “\Takt{c}{0}” produces “S ” and “\Takt{c}{1}” produces “R ”. The musixtex package must be installed to use harmony.

Table 260: Miscellaneous manfnt Symbols \manboldkidney \manconcentriccircles \manconcentricdiamond \mancone \mancube \manerrarrow \manfilledquartercircle \manhpennib \manimpossiblecube \mankidney \manlhpenkidney \manpenkidney \manquadrifolium \manquartercircle \manrotatedquadrifolium \manrotatedquartercircle \manstar \mantiltpennib \mantriangledown \mantriangleright \mantriangleup \manvpennib

Table 261: marvosym Navigation Symbols · ¸ ¹ \Forward \ForwardToEnd \ForwardToIndex » º ¶ \MoveDown \MoveUp \Rewind ´ µ ½ \RewindToIndex \RewindToStart \ToBottom ¼ \ToTop

79

Table 262: marvosym Laundry Symbols Ø Ó Õ Ë « ¾ ¿ ¬ Ý \AtForty \AtNinetyFive \AtSixty \Bleech \CleaningA \CleaningF \CleaningFF \CleaningP \CleaningPP \Dontwash Ü ¯ ° ± Ì ¨ ²  × Ù \Handwash \IroningI \IroningII \IroningIII \NoBleech \NoChemicalCleaning \NoIroning \NoTumbler \ShortFifty \ShortForty Ô Ö Û Ú  ‰ Š ‹ \ShortNinetyFive \ShortSixty \ShortThirty \SpecialForty \Tumbler \WashCotton \WashSynthetics \WashWool

Table 263: Other marvosym Symbols ˆ ý ¥ ‡ ª \Ankh \Bat \Bouquet \Celtcross \CircledA † F f § Ž \Cross \FHBOlogo \FHBOLOGO \Frowny \FullFHBO Œ ÿ m @ : \Heart \MartinVogel \Mundus \MVAt \MVRightarrow © þ Y \Smiley \Womanface \Yinyang

Table 264: Miscellaneous universa Symbols

¤

\bauforms

£

\bauhead

¡ ¢ 

Table 265: Miscellaneous universal Symbols \baudash \bauequal \bauface

„   

\bauforms \bauhead \bauplus

©  ¦

\bauquarter \bauquestion \bauwindow

ƒ

\varQ

Table 266: ifsym Weather Symbols
' 2 3 5 4 

\Cloud \FilledCloud \FilledRainCloud \FilledSunCloud \FilledWeakRainCloud \Fog

#  &  ! (

\Hail \HalfSun \Lightning \NoSun \Rain \RainCloud

$ % 1  0

\Sleet \Snow \SnowCloud \Sun \SunCloud \ThinFog

" ) 6

\WeakRain \WeakRainCloud \FilledSnowCloud

In addition, \Thermo{0}. . .\Thermo{6} produce thermometers that are between 0/6 and 6/6 full of mercury: ¥ ¦ § ¨ ©   Similarly, \wind{ sun }{ angle }{ strength } will draw wind symbols with a given amount of sun (0–4), a given angle (in degrees), and a given strength in km/h (0– 100). For example, \wind{0}{0}{0} produces “  H ”, \wind{2}{0}{0} produces “¢ H ”, and \wind{4}{0}{100} produces “¤ X ”. 80

Table 267: ifsym Alpine Symbols \SummitSign \StoneMan \Hut \FilledHut \Village \Summit \Mountain \IceMountain \VarMountain \VarIceMountain \SurveySign \Joch \Flag \VarFlag \Tent \HalfFilledHut \VarSummit

Table 268: ifsym Clocks \Interval \StopWatchEnd \StopWatchStart \Taschenuhr \VarClock \VarTaschenuhr \Wecker

ifsym also exports a \showclock macro. \showclock{ hours }{ minutes } outputs a clock displaying the corresponding time. For instance, “\showclock{5}{40}” produces “ ”. hours must be an integer from 0 to 11, and minutes must be an integer multiple of 5 from 0 to 55.

Table 269: Other ifsym Symbols \FilledSectioningDiamond \Fire \Irritant \StrokeOne \StrokeTwo \Letter \PaperLandscape \PaperPortrait \StrokeThree \StrokeFour \Radiation \SectioningDiamond \Telephone \StrokeFive

In addition, \Cube{1}. . .\Cube{6} produce dice with the corresponding number of spots:

Table 270: epsdice Dice \epsdice{1} \epsdice{2} \epsdice{3} \epsdice{4} \epsdice{5} \epsdice{6}

The epsdice package does not provide a font but rather an interface to a set of graphics drawn in Encapsulated PostScript. Consequently, epsdice does not work A with pdfL TEX.

81

Table 271: skak Chess Informator Symbols g i b a e I RR n V t G \bbetter \bdecisive \betteris \bishoppair \bupperhand \centre \comment \compensation \counterplay \devadvantage \diagonal d L j P H O x y m S U \doublepawns \ending \equal \etc \file \kside \markera \markerb \mate \morepawns \moreroom N F o r M s l q T k u \novelty \onlymove \opposbishops \passedpawn \qside \samebishops \see \seppawns \timelimit \unclear \unitedpawns R f h J w A E C v c D \various \wbetter \wdecisive \weakpt \with \withattack \withidea \withinit \without \wupperhand \zugzwang

The preceding symbols are merely the named informator symbol. skak can typeset many more chess-related symbols, including those for all of the pieces ( / ), but only in the context of moves and boards, not A as individual, named L TEX symbols.

KQRBNP kqrbnp

Table 272: metre Metrical Symbols
×

´ ˘ ˘ ´ ˘ ˘ ´ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ´ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ˘ ´ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯
×

\a \B \b \Bb \BB \bb \bB \bba \bbb \BBm

˘´ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ ´ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘˘ ˘ ¯¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ ´ ˘ ¯

\bBm \bbm \Bbm \bbmb \bbmx \bm \Bm \c \C \Cc

¯ ´ ¯ ¯ ´ ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘ ´ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯´ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘
×

\cc \Ccc \m \M \ma \Mb \mb \mBb \mbB \mbb

´ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯¯ ¯ ˘˘ ˘ ¯ ◦◦ ˙ ˙ ¯ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ¯˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙

\Mbb \mbbx \oo \p \pm \pp \Pp \ppm \ppp \Ppp

˙ ˙˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ∼

\Pppp \pppp \Ppppp \ppppp \ps \pxp \Pxp \R \r \T

˙ ¯ ˙ ¯ ˙˙ ˙˙

\t \tsbm \tsmb \tsmm \vppm \vpppm \x

The preceding symbols are valid only within the argument to the metre command.

Table 273: metre Small and Large Metrical Symbols
÷

< · < ·

× ··· ·

> · > ·

· ·
∼ ⊗ ⊕

\anaclasis \antidiple \antidiple* \antisigma \asteriscus \catalexis \diple \diple* \obelus \obelus* \respondens \terminus \terminus*

÷

< · < ·

× ··· ·

> · > · · · ∼ ⊗ ⊕

\Anaclasis \Antidiple \Antidiple* \Antisigma \Asteriscus \Catalexis \Diple \Diple* \Obelus \Obelus* \Respondens \Terminus \Terminus*

82

Table 274: phaistos Symbols from the Phaistos Disk J h X R K b D S c E M W U T f \PHarrow \PHbee \PHbeehive \PHboomerang \PHbow \PHbullLeg \PHcaptive \PHcarpentryPlane \PHcat \PHchild \PHclub \PHcolumn \PHcomb \PHdolium \PHdove e o H p G a Z Q m N O n k A i \PHeagle \PHflute \PHgaunlet \PHgrater \PHhelmet \PHhide \PHhorn \PHlid \PHlily \PHmanacles \PHmattock \PHoxBack \PHpapyrus \PHpedestrian \PHplaneTree B d l P L Y V r q C I g j s F \PHplumedHead \PHram \PHrosette \PHsaw \PHshield \PHship \PHsling \PHsmallAxe \PHstrainer \PHtattooedHead \PHtiara \PHtunny \PHvine \PHwavyBand \PHwoman

Table 275: protosem Proto-Semitic Characters a A b B g d D e \Aaleph \AAaleph \Abeth \AAbeth \Agimel \Adaleth \AAdaleth \Ahe E z w H h T y Y \AAhe \Azayin \Avav \Aheth \AAheth \Ateth \Ayod \AAyod k K l L m n o O \Akaph \AAkaph \Alamed \AAlamed \Amem \Anun \Aayin \AAayin s p P x X q Q r \Asamekh \Ape \AApe \Asade \AAsade \Aqoph \AAqoph \Aresh R S v V t \AAresh \Ashin \Ahelmet \AAhelmet \Atav

The protosem package defines abbreviated control sequences for each of the above. In addition, single-letter shortcuts can be used within the argument to the \textproto command (e.g., “\textproto{Pakyn}” produces “Pakyn”). See the protosem documentation for more information.

83

Table 276: hieroglf Hieroglyphics A a B b c C D d ¸ e E f F G g h H \HA \Ha \HB \Hb \Hc \HC \HD \Hd \Hdual \He \HE \Hf \HF \HG \Hg \Hh \HH I i ˝ ˆ ¨ ˜ J j k K L l m M ˇ ´ N \HI \Hi \Hibl \Hibp \Hibs \Hibw \HJ \Hj \Hk \HK \HL \Hl \Hm \HM \Hman \Hms \HN n O o p P ˙ + Q q ? R r s S ¯ / ˚ \Hn \HO \Ho \Hp \HP \Hplural \Hplus \HQ \Hq \Hquery \HR \Hr \Hs \HS \Hscribe \Hslash \Hsv T t ˘ U u V v | w W X x Y y z Z \HT \Ht \Htongue \HU \Hu \HV \Hv \Hvbar \Hw \HW \HX \Hx \HY \Hy \Hz \HZ

| 2

\Hone \Hten

3 4

\Hhundred \Hthousand

5 6

\HXthousand \HCthousand

7

\Hmillion

The hieroglf package defines alternate control sequences and single-letter shortcuts for each of the above which can be used within the argument to the \textpmhg command (e.g., “\textpmhg{Pakin}” produces “Pakin”). See the hieroglf documentation for more information.

Table 277: dictsym Dictionary Symbols a G A B C \dsaeronautical \dsagricultural \dsarchitectural \dsbiological \dschemical c H J L M \dscommercial \dsheraldical \dsjuridical \dsliterary \dsmathematical m X R T \dsmedical \dsmilitary \dsrailways \dstechnical

84

Table 278: simpsons Characters from The Simpsons

   ¦    

\Bart

   ¤

\Homer

       ¨

\Maggie

¡

\SNPP

\Burns

   ¢

\Lisa

\Marge

The location of the characters’ pupils can be controlled with the \Goofy command. See A METAFONT of ‘Simpsons’ characters [Che97] for more information. Also, each of the above can be prefixed with \Left to make the character face left instead of right:

   §

\Left\Bart

Table 279: staves Magical Staves \staveI \staveII \staveIII \staveIV \staveV \staveVI \staveVII \staveVIII \staveIX \staveX \staveXI \staveXII \staveXIII \staveXIV \staveXV \staveXVI \staveXXIV \staveXXV \staveXXVI \staveXXVII \staveXXVIII \staveXXIX \staveXXX \staveXXXI \staveXXXII \staveXXXIII \staveXXXIV \staveXXXV \staveXXXVI \staveXXXVII \staveXXXVIII \staveXXXIX \staveXLVII \staveXLVIII \staveXLIX \staveL \staveLI \staveLII \staveLIII \staveLIV \staveLV \staveLVI \staveLVII \staveLVIII \staveLIX \staveLX \staveLXI \staveLXII

(continued on next page)

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(continued from previous page)

\staveXVII \staveXVIII \staveXIX \staveXX \staveXXI \staveXXII \staveXXIII

\staveXL \staveXLI \staveXLII \staveXLIII \staveXLIV \staveXLV \staveXLVI

\staveLXIII \staveLXIV \staveLXV \staveLXVI \staveLXVII \staveLXVIII

The meanings of these symbols are described on the Web site for the Museum of Icelandic Sorcery and Witchcraft at http://www.galdrasyning.is/ index.php?option=com content&task=category&sectionid=5&id=18&Itemid= 60 (TinyURL: http://tinyurl.com/25979m). For example, \staveL (“ ”) is intended to ward off ghosts and evil spirits.

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7

Additional Information

Unlike the previous sections of this document, Section 7 does not contain new symbol tables. Rather, it provides A additional help in using the Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List. First, it draws attention to symbol names used by multiple packages. Next, it provides some guidelines for finding symbols and gives some examples regarding how to construct missing symbols out of existing ones. Then, it comments on the spacing surrounding symbols in math mode. After that, it presents an ASCII and Latin 1 quick-reference guide, showing how to enter all of A the standard ASCII/Latin 1 symbols in L TEX. And finally, it lists some statistics about this document itself.

7.1

Symbol Name Clashes

Unfortunately, a number of symbol names are not unique; they appear in more than one package. Depending A on how the symbols are defined in each package, L TEX will either output an error message or replace an earlier-defined symbol with a later-defined symbol. Table 280 presents a selection of name clashes that appear in this document. Using multiple symbols with the same name in the same document—or even merely loading conflicting symbol packages—can be tricky but, as evidenced by the existence of Table 280, not impossible. The general procedure is to load the first package, rename the conflicting symbols, and then load the second package. A Examine the L TEX source for this document (symbols.tex) for examples of this and other techniques for handling symbol conflicts. Note that symbols.tex’s \savesymbol and \restoresymbol macros have been extracted into the savesym package, which can be downloaded from CTAN. txfonts and pxfonts redefine a huge number of symbols—essentially, all of the symbols defined by latexsym, A textcomp, the various AMS symbol sets, and L TEX 2ε itself. Similarly, mathabx redefines a vast number of math symbols in an attempt to improve their look. The txfonts, pxfonts, and mathabx conflicts are not listed in Table 280 because they are designed to be compatible with the symbols they replace. Table 281 on page 89 illustrates what “compatible” means in this context. To use the new txfonts/pxfonts symbols without altering the document’s main font, merely reset the default font families back to their original values after loading one of those packages: \renewcommand\rmdefault{cmr} \renewcommand\sfdefault{cmss} \renewcommand\ttdefault{cmtt}

7.2

Resizing symbols

Mathematical symbols listed in this document as “variable-sized” are designed to stretch vertically. Each variable-sized symbol comes in one or more basic sizes plus a variation comprising both stretchable and nonstretchable segments. Table 282 on page 89 presents the symbols \} and \uparrow in their default size, in their \big, \Big, \bigg, and \Bigg sizes, in an even larger size achieved using \left/\right, and—for A contrast—in a large size achieved by changing the font size using L TEX 2ε ’s \fontsize command. Because the symbols shown belong to the Computer Modern family, the type1cm package needs to be loaded to support font sizes larger than 24.88 pt. Note how \fontsize makes the symbol wider and thicker. (The graphicx package’s \scalebox or \resizebox commands would produce a similar effect.) Also, the \fontsize-enlarged symbol is vertically centered relative to correspondingly large text, unlike the symbols enlarged using \big et al. or \left/\right, which all use the same math axis regardless of symbol size. However, \fontsize is not limited to mathematical delimiters. Also, \scalebox and \resizebox are more robust to poorly composed symbols (e.g., two symbols made to overlap by backspacing a fixed distance) but do not work with every TEX backend and will produce jagged symbols when scaling a bitmapped font. All variable-sized delimiters are defined (by the corresponding .tfm file) in terms of up to five segments, as illustrated by Figure 1 on page 89. The top, middle, and bottom segments are of a fixed size. The top-middle and middle-bottom segments (which are constrained to be the same character) are repeated as many times as necessary to achieve the desired height.

7.3

Where can I find the symbol for . . . ?

If you can’t find some symbol you’re looking for in this document, there are a few possible explanations:

87

Table 280: Symbol Name Clashes
A L TEX 2ε

Symbol AMS

stmaryrd

wasysym

mathabx

marvosym

bbding

ifsym

dingbat

wsuipa

`

D
S   


Ï

B

88 B E
Î

&

\baro \bigtriangledown \bigtriangleup \checkmark \Circle \Cross \ggg \Letter \lightning \Lightning \lll \Square \Sun \TriangleDown \TriangleUp

d

À

f o n

H  Q I

Table 281: Example of a Benign Name Clash Symbol R \textrecipe Default (Computer Modern) txfonts (Times Roman)

R

R

Table 282: Sample resized delimiters Symbol Default size \big \Big \bigg \Bigg \left / \right \fontsize

™ \} }

                

\uparrow

 

  

   

           

} ↑

                                        

  −→ 

top top-middle (extensible) middle

 

middle-bottom (extensible) bottom

Figure 1: Implementation of variable-sized delimiters

89

• The symbol isn’t intuitively named. As a few examples, the ifsym command to draw dice is “\Cube”; a plus sign with a circle around it (“exclusive or” to computer engineers) is “\oplus”; and lightning bolts in fonts designed by German speakers may have “blitz” in their names as in the ulsy package. The moral of the story is to be creative with synonyms when searching the index. • The symbol is defined by some package that I overlooked (or deemed unimportant). If there’s some A symbol package that you think should be included in the Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List, please send me e-mail at the address listed on the title page. • The symbol isn’t defined in any package whatsoever.
A Even in the last case, all is not lost. Sometimes, a symbol exists in a font, but there is no L TEX binding for it. For example, the PostScript Symbol font contains a “↵” symbol, which may be useful for representing a carriage return, but there is no package (as far as I know) for accessing that symbol. To produce an A A unnamed symbol, you need to switch to the font explicitly with L TEX 2ε ’s low-level font commands [L T00] 4 and use TEX’s primitive \char command [Knu86a] to request a specific character number in the font. In fact, \char is not strictly necesssary; the character can often be entered symbolically. For example, the symbol for an impulse train or Tate-Shafarevich group (“ ”) is actually an uppercase sha in the Cyrillic alphabet. (Cyrillic is supported by the OT2 font encoding, for instance). While a sha can be defined numerically as “{\fontencoding{OT2}\selectfont\char88}” it may be more intuitive to use the OT2 font encoding’s “SH” ligature: “{\fontencoding{OT2}\selectfont SH}”.

X

Reflecting and rotating existing symbols A common request on comp.text.tex is for a reversed or rotated version of an existing symbol. As a last resort, these effects can be achieved with the graphicx (or graphics) package’s \reflectbox and \rotatebox macros. For example, \textsuperscript{\reflectbox{?}} produces an irony mark (“ ? ”; cf. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irony mark), and \rotatebox[origin=c]{180}{$\iota$} produces the definite-description operator (“ ”). The disadvantage of the graphicx/graphics approach is that not every TEX backend handles graphical transformations.5 Far better is to find a suitable font that contains the desired symbol in the correct orientation. For instance, if the phonetic package is available, then \textit{\riota} will yield a backend-independent “  ”. Similarly, tipa’s \textrevepsilon (“3”) or wsuipa’s \revepsilon (“%”) may be used to express the mathematical notion of “such that” in a cleaner manner than with \reflectbox or \rotatebox.6 Joining and overlapping existing symbols
A Symbols that do not exist in any font can sometimes be fabricated out of existing symbols. The L TEX 2ε source file fontdef.dtx contains a number of such definitions. For example, \models (see Table 62 on page 30) is defined in that file with:

\def\models{\mathrel|\joinrel=} where \mathrel and \joinrel are used to control the horizontal spacing. \def is the TEX primitive upon A which L TEX’s \newcommand is based. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for more information on all three of those commands. With some simple pattern-matching, one can easily define a backward \models sign (“=|”): \def\ismodeledby{=\joinrel\mathrel|} In general, arrows/harpoons, horizontal lines (“=”, “-”, “\relbar”, and “\Relbar”), and the various mathextension characters can be combined creatively with miscellaneous other characters to produce a variety of A new symbols. Of course, new symbols can be composed from any set of existing characters. For instance, L TEX defines \hbar (“ ”) as a “¯” character (\mathchar’26) followed by a backspace of 9 math units (\mkern-9mu), followed by the letter “h”: \def\hbar{{\mathchar’26\mkern-9muh}}
defines a convenient \Pisymbol command for accessing symbols in PostScript fonts by number. “\Pisymbol{psy}{191}” produces “↵”. 5 As an example, Xdvi ignores both \reflectbox and \rotatebox. 6 More common symbols for representing “such that” include “|”, “:”, and “s.t.”.
4 pifont

ι

For example,

90

We can just as easily define other barred letters: \def\bbar{{\mathchar’26\mkern-9mu b}} \def\dbar{{\mathchar’26\mkern-12mu d}} (The space after the “mu” is optional but is added for clarity.) \bbar and \dbar define “¯” and “¯ respectively. b d”, Note that \dbar requires a greater backward math kern than \bbar; a −9 mu kern would have produced the less-attractive “¯” glyph. d The amsmath package provides \overset and \underset commands for placing one symbol respectively G above or below another. For example, \overset{G}{\sim}7 produces “∼” (sometimes used for “equidecomposable with respect to G”). Sometimes an ordinary tabular environment can be co-opted into juxtaposing existing symbols into a new symbol. Consider the following definition of \asterism (“**”) from a June 2007 post to comp.text.tex by * Peter Flynn: \newcommand{\asterism}{\smash{% \raisebox{-.5ex}{% \setlength{\tabcolsep}{-.5pt}% \begin{tabular}{@{}cc@{}}% \multicolumn2c*\\[-2ex]*&*% \end{tabular}}}} Note how the space between columns (\tabcolsep) and rows (\\[. . . ]) is made negative to squeeze the asterisks closer together. There is a TEX primitive called \mathaccent that centers one mathematical symbol atop another. For · example, one can define \dotcup (“∪”)—the composition of a \cup and a \cdot—as follows: \newcommand{\dotcup}{\ensuremath{\mathaccent\cdot\cup}} The catch is that \mathaccent requires the accent to be a “math character”. That is, it must be a character in a math font as opposed to a symbol defined in terms of other symbols. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for more information. Another TEX primitive that is useful for composing symbols is \vcenter. \vcenter is conceptually similar A to “\begin{tabular}{l}” in L TEX but takes a list of vertical material instead of \\-separated rows. Also, it vertically centers the result on the math axis. (Many operators, such as “+” and “−” are also vertically centered on the math axis.) Enrico Gregorio posted the following symbol definition to comp.text.tex in March 2004 in response to a query about an alternate way to denote equivalence: \newcommand*{\threesim}{% \mathrel{\vcenter{\offinterlineskip \hbox{$\sim$}\vskip-.35ex\hbox{$\sim$}\vskip-.35ex\hbox{$\sim$}}}} The \threesim symbol, which vertically centers three \sim (“∼”) symbols with 0.35 x-heights of space between ∼ them, is rendered as “∼”. \offinterlineskip is a macro that disables implicit interline spacing. Without ∼ it, \threesim would have a full line of vertical spacing between each \sim. Because of \vcenter, \threesim ∼ aligns properly with other math operators: a ÷ b ∼ c × d. ∼ A A related L TEX command, borrowed from Plain TEX, is \ooalign. \ooalign vertically overlaps symbols and works both within and outside of math mode. Essentially, it creates a single-column tabular environment with zero vertical distance between rows. However, because it is based directly on TEX’s \ialign primitive, A \ooalign uses TEX’s tabular syntax instead of L TEX’s (i.e., with \cr as the row terminator instead of \\). The ◦ following example of \ooalign, a macro that defines a standard-state symbol (\stst, “− ”) as a superscripted 8 Plimsoll line (\barcirc, “−”), is due to an October 2007 comp.text.tex post by Donald Arseneau: ◦ \makeatletter \providecommand\barcirc{\mathpalette\@barred\circ} \def\@barred#1#2{\ooalign{\hfil$#1-$\hfil\cr\hfil$#1#2$\hfil\cr}} \newcommand\stst{^{\protect\barcirc}} \makeatother
EX’s \stackrel command is similar but is limited to placing a symbol above a binary relation. \barcirc illustrates how to combine symbols using \ooalign, the stmaryrd package’s \minuso command (Table 42 on page 21) provides a similar glyph (“ ”) as a single, indivisible symbol.
8 While 7L T A

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In the preceding code, note the \ooalign call’s use of \hfil to horizontally center a minus sign (“−”) and a \circ (“◦”). As another example of \ooalign, consider the following code (due to Enrico Gregorio in a June 2007 post to comp.text.tex) that overlaps a \ni (“ ”) and two minus signs (“− to produce “− an obscure variation −”) −”, on the infrequently used “3” symbol for “such that”discussed on page 90: \newcommand{\suchthat}{% \mathrel{\ooalign{$\ni$\cr\kern-1pt$-$\kern-6.5pt$-$}}} The slashed package, although originally designed for producing Feynman slashed-character notation, in fact facilitates the production of arbitrary overlapped symbols. The default behavior is to overwrite a given / character with “/”. For example, \slashed{D} produces “D”. However, the \declareslashed command provides the flexibility to specify the mathematical context of the composite character (operator, relation, punctuation, etc., as will be discussed in Section 7.4), the overlapping symbol, horizontal and vertical adjustments in symbol-relative units, and the character to be overlapped. Consider, for example, the symbol for reduced quadrupole moment (“I”). This can be declared as follows: \newcommand{\rqm}{{% \declareslashed{}{\text{-}}{0.04}{0}{I}\slashed{I}}} \declareslashed{·}{·}{·}{·}{I} affects the meaning of all subsequent \slashed{I} commands in the same scope. The preceding definition of \rqm therefore uses an extra set of curly braces to limit that scope to a single \slashed{I}. In addition, \rqm uses amstext’s \text macro (described on the next page) to make \declareslashed use a text-mode hyphen (“-”) instead of a math-mode minus sign (“−”) and to ensure that the hyphen scales properly in size in subscripts and superscripts. See slashed’s documentation (located in slashed.sty itself) for a detailed usage description of the \slashed and \declareslashed commands. Somewhat simpler than slashed is the centernot package. centernot provides a single command, \centernot, which, like \not, puts a slash over the subsequent mathematical symbol. However, instead of putting the slash at a fixed location, \centernot centers the slash over its argument: −→ −→ \not\longrightarrow vs. \centernot\longrightarrow

See the centernot documentation for more information. Making new symbols work in superscripts and subscripts To make composite symbols work properly within subscripts and superscripts, you may need to use TEX’s \mathchoice primitive. \mathchoice evaluates one of four expressions, based on whether the current math style is display, text, script, or scriptscript. (See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for a more complete descripA tion.) For example, the following L TEX code—posted to comp.text.tex by Torsten Bronger—composes a sub/superscriptable “⊥” symbol out of \top and \bot (“ ” and “⊥”): \def\topbotatom#1{\hbox{\hbox to 0pt{$#1\bot$\hss}$#1\top$}} \newcommand*{\topbot}{\mathrel{\mathchoice{\topbotatom\displaystyle} {\topbotatom\textstyle} {\topbotatom\scriptstyle} {\topbotatom\scriptscriptstyle}}} The following is another example that uses \mathchoice to construct symbols in different math modes. The code defines a principal value integral symbol, which is an integral sign with a line through it. \def\Xint#1{\mathchoice {\XXint\displaystyle\textstyle{#1}}% {\XXint\textstyle\scriptstyle{#1}}% {\XXint\scriptstyle\scriptscriptstyle{#1}}% {\XXint\scriptscriptstyle\scriptscriptstyle{#1}}% \!\int} 92

\def\XXint#1#2#3{{\setbox0=\hbox{$#1{#2#3}{\int}$} \vcenter{\hbox{$#2#3$}}\kern-.5\wd0}} \def\ddashint{\Xint=} \def\dashint{\Xint-} (The preceding code was taken verbatim from the UK TEX Users’ Group FAQ at http://www.tex.ac.uk/ faq.) \dashint produces a single-dashed integral sign (“−”), while \ddashint produces a double-dashed one (“=”). The \Xint macro defined above can also be used to generate a wealth of new integrals: “ ” (\Xint\circlearrowright), “ ” (\Xint\circlearrowleft), “⊂” (\Xint\subset), “∞” (\Xint\infty), and so forth. A L TEX 2ε provides a simple wrapper for \mathchoice that sometimes helps produce terser symbol definitions. The macro is called \mathpalette and it takes two arguments. \mathpalette invokes the first argument, passing it one of “\displaystyle”, “\textstyle”, “\scriptstyle”, or “\scriptscriptstyle”, followed by the second argument. \mathpalette is useful when a symbol macro must know which math style is currently in use (e.g., to set it explicitly within an \mbox). Donald Arseneau posted the following \mathpalette-based definition of a probabilistic-independence symbol (“⊥ to comp.text.tex in June 2000: ⊥”) \newcommand\independent{\protect\mathpalette{\protect\independenT}{\perp}} \def\independenT#1#2{\mathrel{\rlap{$#1#2$}\mkern2mu{#1#2}}} The \independent macro uses \mathpalette to pass the \independenT helper macro both the current math style and the \perp symbol. \independenT typesets \perp in the current math style, moves two math units to the right, and finally typesets a second—overlapping—copy of \perp, again in the current math style. \rlap, which enables text overlap, is described later on this page. √ ”) as this helps visually distinguish Some people like their square-root signs with a trailing “hook” (i.e., “ √ √ expressions like “ 3x ” from those like “ 3x”. In March 2002, Dan Luecking posted a \mathpalette-based definition of a hooked square-root symbol to comp.text.tex: \def\hksqrt{\mathpalette\DHLhksqrt} \def\DHLhksqrt#1#2{\setbox0=\hbox{$#1\sqrt{#2\,}$}\dimen0=\ht0 \advance\dimen0-0.2\ht0 \setbox2=\hbox{\vrule height\ht0 depth -\dimen0}% {\box0\lower0.4pt\box2}} Notice how \DHLhksqrt uses \mathpalette to recover the outer math style (argument #1) from within an \hbox. The rest of the code is simply using TEX primitives to position a hook of height 0.2 times the \sqrt height at the right of the \sqrt. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for more understanding of TEX “boxes” and “dimens”. Sometimes, however, amstext’s \text macro is all that is necessary to make composite symbols appear correctly in subscripts and superscripts, as in the following definitions of \neswarrow (“ ”) and \nwsearrow (“ ”):9 \newcommand{\neswarrow}{\mathrel{\text{$\nearrow$\llap{$\swarrow$}}}} \newcommand{\nwsearrow}{\mathrel{\text{$\nwarrow$\llap{$\searrow$}}}}
A \text resembles L TEX’s \mbox command but shrinks its argument appropriately when used within a subscript or superscript. \llap (“left overlap”) and its counterpart, \rlap (“right overlap”), appear frequently when creating composite characters. \llap outputs its argument to the left of the current position, overlapping whatever text is already there. Similarly, \rlap overlaps whatever text would normally appear to the right of its argument. For example, “A\llap{B}” and “\rlap{A}B” each produce “A”. However, the result of the B former is the width of “A”, and the result of the latter is the width of “B”—\llap{. . . } and \rlap{. . . } take up zero space. In a June 2002 post to comp.text.tex, Donald Arseneau presented a general macro for aligning an arbitrary number of symbols on their horizontal centers and vertical baselines:

\makeatletter \def\moverlay{\mathpalette\mov@rlay}
9 Note

that if your goal is to typeset commutative diagrams, then you should probably be using X -pic. Y

93

\def\mov@rlay#1#2{\leavevmode\vtop{% \baselineskip\z@skip \lineskiplimit-\maxdimen \ialign{\hfil$#1##$\hfil\cr#2\crcr}}} \makeatother
A The \makeatletter and \makeatother commands are needed to coerce L TEX into accepting “@” as part of a macro name. \moverlay takes a list of symbols separated by \cr (TEX’s equivalent of A L TEX’s \\). For example, the \topbot command defined on page 92 could have been expressed as “\moverlay{\top\cr\bot}” and the \neswarrow command defined on the previous page could have been expressed as “\moverlay{\nearrow\cr\swarrow}”. The basic concept behind \moverlay’s implementation is that \moverlay typesets the given symbols in a table that utilizes a zero \baselineskip. This causes every row to be typeset at the same vertical position. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for explanations of the TEX primitives used by \moverlay. A Modifying L TEX-generated symbols A Oftentimes, symbols composed in the L TEX 2ε source code can be modified with minimal effort to produce useful variations. For example, fontdef.dtx composes the \ddots symbol (see Table 174 on page 61) out of three periods, raised 7 pt., 4 pt., and 1 pt., respectively:

\def\ddots{\mathinner{\mkern1mu\raise7\p@ \vbox{\kern7\p@\hbox{.}}\mkern2mu \raise4\p@\hbox{.}\mkern2mu\raise\p@\hbox{.}\mkern1mu}}
A \p@ is a L TEX 2ε shortcut for “pt” or “1.0pt”. The remaining commands are defined in The TEXbook [Knu86a]. To draw a version of \ddots with the dots going along the opposite diagonal, we merely have to reorder the \raise7\p@, \raise4\p@, and \raise\p@:

\makeatletter \def\revddots{\mathinner{\mkern1mu\raise\p@ \vbox{\kern7\p@\hbox{.}}\mkern2mu \raise4\p@\hbox{.}\mkern2mu\raise7\p@\hbox{.}\mkern1mu}} \makeatother \revddots is essentially identical to the mathdots package’s \iddots command or the yhmath package’s \adots command. Producing complex accents Accents are a special case of combining existing symbols to make new symbols. While various tables in this document show how to add an accent to an existing symbol, some applications, such as transliterations from non-Latin alphabets, require multiple accents per character. For instance, the creator of pdfTEX A writes his name as “H`n Th´ Th`nh”. The dblaccnt package enables L TEX to stack accents, as in “H\‘an a ˆ e a Th\’{\^e} Th\‘anh” (albeit not in the OT1 font encoding). In addition, the wsuipa package defines \diatop and \diaunder macros for putting one or more diacritics or accents above or below a given character. For example, \diaunder[{\diatop[\’|\=]}|\textsubdot{r}] produces “´”. See the wsuipa documentation for r ¯ ˙ more information. The accents package facilitates the fabrication of accents in math mode. Its \accentset command enables any character to be used as an accent. For instance, \accentset{\star}{f} produces “f ” and e \accentset{e}{X} produces “X”. \underaccent does the same thing, but places the accent beneath the character. This enables constructs like \underaccent{\tilde}{V}, which produces “V ”. accents provides ˜ other accent-related features as well; see the documentation for more information. Creating extensible symbols A relatively simple example of creating extensible symbols stems from a comp.text.tex post by Donald Arseneau (June 2003). The following code defines an equals sign that extends as far to the right as possible, A just like L TEX’s \hrulefill command:

94

\makeatletter \def\equalsfill{$\m@th\mathord=\mkern-7mu \cleaders\hbox{$\!\mathord=\!$}\hfill \mkern-7mu\mathord=$} \makeatother TEX’s \cleaders and \hfill primitives are the key to understanding \equalsfill’s extensibility. Essentially, \equalsfill repeats a box containing “=” plus some negative space until it fills the maximum availA able horizontal space. \equalsfill is intended to be used with L TEX’s \stackrel command, which stacks one mathematical expression (slightly reduced in size) atop another. Hence, “\stackrel{a}{\rightarrow}” produces “→” and “X \stackrel{\text{definition}}{\hbox{\equalsfill}} Y” produces “X = = = = Y ”. === If all that needs to extend are horizontal and vertical lines—as opposed to repeated symbols such as the A “=” in the previous example—L TEX’s array or tabular environments may suffice. Consider the following code (due to a February 1999 comp.text.tex post by Donald Arseneau) for typesetting annuities: \DeclareRobustCommand{\annu}[1]{_{% \def\arraystretch{0}% \setlength\arraycolsep{1pt}% adjust these \setlength\arrayrulewidth{.2pt}% two settings \begin{array}[b]{@{}c|}\hline \\[\arraycolsep]% \scriptstyle #1% \end{array}% }} One can then use, e.g., “$A\annu{x:n}$” to produce “Ax:n ”. A more complex example of composing accents is the following definition of extensible \overbracket, \underbracket, \overparenthesis, and \underparenthesis symbols, taken from a May 2002 comp.text.tex post by Donald Arseneau: \makeatletter \def\overbracket#1{\mathop{\vbox{\ialign{##\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@} \downbracketfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@\nointerlineskip} $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr}}}\limits} \def\underbracket#1{\mathop{\vtop{\ialign{##\crcr $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@\nointerlineskip} \upbracketfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@}}}}\limits} \def\overparenthesis#1{\mathop{\vbox{\ialign{##\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@} \downparenthfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@\nointerlineskip} $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr}}}\limits} \def\underparenthesis#1{\mathop{\vtop{\ialign{##\crcr $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@\nointerlineskip} \upparenthfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@}}}}\limits} \def\downparenthfill{$\m@th\braceld\leaders\vrule\hfill\bracerd$} \def\upparenthfill{$\m@th\bracelu\leaders\vrule\hfill\braceru$} \def\upbracketfill{$\m@th\makesm@sh{\llap{\vrule\@height3\p@\@width.7\p@}}% \leaders\vrule\@height.7\p@\hfill \makesm@sh{\rlap{\vrule\@height3\p@\@width.7\p@}}$} \def\downbracketfill{$\m@th \makesm@sh{\llap{\vrule\@height.7\p@\@depth2.3\p@\@width.7\p@}}% \leaders\vrule\@height.7\p@\hfill \makesm@sh{\rlap{\vrule\@height.7\p@\@depth2.3\p@\@width.7\p@}}$} \makeatother Table 283 showcases these accents. The TEXbook [Knu86a] or another book on TEX primitives is indispensible for understanding how the preceding code works. The basic idea is that \downparenthfill, \upparenthfill, \downbracketfill, and \upbracketfill do all of the work; they output a left symbol (e.g., \braceld [“ ”] for \downparenthfill), a horizontal rule that stretches as wide as possible, and a right symbol (e.g., \bracerd [“ ”] for \downparenthfill). \overbracket, \underbracket, \overparenthesis, and \underparenthesis 95
a definition

merely create a table whose width is determined by the given text, thereby constraining the width of the horizontal rules. Table 283: Manually Composed Extensible Accents abc abc \overbracket{abc} \underbracket{abc} abc abc \overparenthesis{abc} \underparenthesis{abc}

Note that the simplewick package provides mechanisms for typesetting Wick contractions, which utilize \overbracket- and \underbracket-like brackets of variable width and height (or depth). For example, “\acontraction{}{A}{B}{C}\acontraction[2ex]{A}{B}{C}{D}\bcontraction{}{A}{BC}{D}ABCD” produces ABCD See the simplewick documentation for more information. Developing new symbols from scratch Sometimes is it simply not possible to define a new symbol in terms of existing symbols. Fortunately, most, if not all, TEX distributions are shipped with a tool called METAFONT which is designed specifically for creating fonts to be used with TEX. The METAFONTbook [Knu86b] is the authoritative text on METAFONT. If you plan to design your own symbols with METAFONT, The METAFONTbook is essential reading. Nevertheless, the A following is an extremely brief tutorial on how to create a new L TEX symbol using METAFONT. Its primary A X-specific operations not mentioned in The METAFONTbook and to demonstrate purpose is to cover the L TE that symbol-font creation is not necessarily a difficult task. Suppose we need a symbol to represent a light bulb (“A”).10 The first step is to draw this in METAFONT. It is common to separate the font into two files: a size-dependent file, which specifies the design size and various font-specific parameters that are a function of the design size; and a size-independent file, which draws characters in the given size. Figure 2 shows the METAFONT code for lightbulb10.mf. lightbulb10.mf specifies various parameters that produce a 10 pt. light bulb then loads lightbulb.mf. Ideally, one should produce lightbulb size .mf files for a variety of size s. This is called “optical scaling”. It enables, for example, the lines that make up the light bulb to retain the same thickness at different font sizes, which looks much nicer than the alternative—and default—“mechanical scaling”. When a lightbulb size .mf file does not exist for a given size size , the computer mechanically produces a wider, taller, thicker symbol: .

A
10 pt.

vs.

20 pt.

A

vs.

30 pt.

A

vs.

A
40 pt.

vs.

A A
vs.
50 pt. 60 pt.

vs.

A
70 pt.

font identifier := "LightBulb10"; font size 10pt#; em# := 10pt#; cap# := 7pt#; sb# := 1/4pt#; o# := 1/16pt#; input lightbulb

% Name the font. % Specify the design size. % “M” width is 10 points. % Capital letter height is 7 points above the baseline. % Leave this much space on the side of each character. % Amount that curves overshoot borders. % Load the file that draws the actual glyph.

Figure 2: Sample METAFONT size-specific file (lightbulb10.mf) lightbulb.mf, shown in Figure 3, draws a light bulb using the parameters defined in lightbulb10.mf. Note that the the filenames “lightbulb10.mf” and “lightbulb.mf” do not follow the Berry font-naming
10 I’m

not a very good artist; you’ll have to pretend that “A” looks like a light bulb.

96

scheme [Ber01]; the Berry font-naming scheme is largely irrelevant for symbol fonts, which generally lack bold, italic, small-caps, slanted, and other such variants. mode setup; define pixels(em, cap, sb); define corrected pixels(o); % Target a given printer. % Convert to device-specific units. % Same, but add a device-specific fudge factor.

%% Define a light bulb at the character position for “A” %% with width 1/2em#, height cap#, and depth 1pt#. beginchar("A", 1/2em#, cap#, 1pt#); "A light bulb"; pickup pencircle scaled 1/2pt; %% Define the points we need. top z1 = (w/2, h + o); rt z2 = (w + sb + o − x4 , y4 ); bot z3 = (z1 − (0, w − sb − o)); lft z4 = (sb − o, 1/2[y1 , y3 ]); path bulb; bulb = z1 . . z2 . . z3 . . z4 . . cycle;

% Use a pen with a small, circular tip.

% z1 is at the top of a circle. % z2 is at the same height as z4 but the opposite side. % z3 is at the bottom of the circle. % z4 is on the left of the circle. % Define a path for the bulb itself. % The bulb is a closed path.

z5 = point 2 − 1/3 of bulb; % z5 lies on the bulb, a little to the right of z3 . z6 = (x5 , 0); % z6 is at the bottom, directly under z5 . z7 = (x8 , 0); % z7 is at the bottom, directly under z8 . z8 = point 2 + 1/3 of bulb; % z8 lies on the bulb, a little to the left of z3 . bot z67 = ( 1/2[x6 , x7 ], pen bot − o − 1/8pt); % z67 lies halfway between z6 and z7 but a jot lower. %% Draw the bulb and the base. draw bulb; draw z5 - - z6 . . z67 . . z7 - - z8 ; % Draw the bulb proper. % Draw the base of the bulb.

%% Display key positions and points to help us debug. makegrid(0, sb, w/2, w − sb)(0, −1pt, y2 , h); % Label “interesting” x and y coordinates. penlabels(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 67, 7, 8); % Label control points for debugging. endchar; end Figure 3: Sample METAFONT size-independent file (lightbulb.mf) The code in Figures 2 and 3 is heavily commented and should demonstrate some of the basic concepts behind METAFONT usage: declaring variables, defining points, drawing lines and curves, and preparing to debug or fine-tune the output. Again, The METAFONTbook [Knu86b] is the definitive reference on METAFONT programming. METAFONT can produce “proofs” of fonts—large, labeled versions that showcase the logical structure of each character. In fact, proof mode is METAFONT’s default mode. To produce a proof of lightbulb10.mf, issue the following commands at the operating-system prompt: prompt > mf lightbulb10.mf prompt > gftodvi lightbulb10.2602gf ⇐ Produces lightbulb10.2602gf ⇐ Produces lightbulb10.dvi

You can then view lightbulb10.dvi with any DVI viewer. The result is shown in Figure 4. Observe how the grid defined with makegrid at the bottom of Figure 3 draws vertical lines at positions 0, sb, w/2, and w − sb and horizontal lines at positions 0, −1pt, y2 , and h. Similarly, observe how the penlabels command labels all of the important coordinates: z1 , z2 , . . . , z8 and z67 , which lightbulb.mf defines to lie between z6 and z7 . Most, if not all, TEX distributions include a Plain TEX file called testfont.tex which is useful for testing new fonts in a variety of ways. One useful routine produces a table of all of the characters in the font: prompt > tex testfont This is TeX, Version 3.14159 (Web2C 7.3.1) (/usr/share/texmf/tex/plain/base/testfont.tex Name of the font to test = lightbulb10 97

1

4

2

8

3

5

7

67

6

Figure 4: Proof diagram of lightbulb10.mf Now type a test command (\help for help):) *\table *\bye [1] Output written on testfont.dvi (1 page, 1516 bytes). Transcript written on testfont.log. The resulting table, stored in testfont.dvi and illustrated in Figure 5, shows every character in the font. To understand how to read the table, note that the character code for “A”—the only character defined by lightbulb10.mf—is 41 in hexadecimal (base 16) and 101 in octal (base 8).

Test of lightbulb10 on March 11, 2003 at 1127

´0 ´10x ´11x ˝8

´1 A ˝9

´2

´3

´4

´5

´6

´7 ˝4x

˝A

˝B

˝C

˝D

˝E

˝F

Figure 5: Font table produced by testfont.tex
A The LightBulb10 font is now usable by TEX. L TEX 2ε , however, needs more information before documents A can use the font. First, we create a font-description file that tells L TEX 2ε how to map fonts in a given font family and encoding to a particular font in a particular font size. For symbol fonts, this mapping is fairly simple. Symbol fonts almost always use the “U” (“Unknown”) font encoding and frequently occur in only one variant: normal weight and non-italicized. The filename for a font-description file important; it must be of the form “ encoding family .fd”, where encoding is the lowercase version of the encoding name (typically “u” for symbol fonts) and family is the name of the font family. For LightBulb10, let’s call this “bulb”. Figure 6 lists A A the contents of ubulb.fd. The document “L TEX 2ε Font Selection” [L T00] describes \DeclareFontFamily and \DeclareFontShape in detail, but the gist of ubulb.fd is first to declare a U-encoded version of the bulb A font family and then to specify that a L TEX 2ε request for a U-encoded version of bulb with a (m)edium font series (as opposed to, e.g., bold) and a (n)ormal font shape (as opposed to, e.g., italic) should translate into a TEX request for lightbulb10.tfm mechanically scaled to the current font size. A The final step is to write a L TEX 2ε style file that defines a name for each symbol in the font. Because we have only one symbol our style file, lightbulb.sty (Figure 7), is rather trivial. Note that instead of typesetting “A” we could have had \lightbulb typeset “\char65”, “\char"41”, or “\char’101” (respectively, decimal, hexadecimal, and octal character offsets into the font). For a simple, one-character symbol font

98

\DeclareFontFamily{U}{bulb}{} \DeclareFontShape{U}{bulb}{m}{n}{<-> lightbulb10}{}
A Figure 6: L TEX 2ε font-description file (ubulb.fd)

such as LightBulb10 it would be reasonable to merge ubulb.fd into lightbulb.sty instead of maintaining two separate files. In either case, a document need only include “\usepackage{lightbulb}” to make the \lightbulb symbol available. \newcommand{\lightbulb}{{\usefont{U}{bulb}{m}{n}A}}
A Figure 7: L TEX 2ε style file (lightbulb.sty)

METAFONT normally produces bitmapped fonts. However, it is also possible, with the help of some external tools, to produce PostScript Type 1 fonts. These have the advantages of rendering better in Adobe® Acrobat® (at least in versions prior to 6.0) and of being more memory-efficient when handled by a PostScript interpreter. See http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=textrace for pointers to tools that can produce Type 1 fonts from METAFONT.

7.4

Math-mode spacing

Terms such as “binary operators”, “relations”, and “punctuation” in Section 3 primarily regard the surrounding A spacing. (See the Short Math Guide for L TEX [Dow00] for a nice exposition on the subject.) To use a symbol for a different purpose, you can use the TEX commands \mathord, \mathop, \mathbin, \mathrel, \mathopen, \mathclose, and \mathpunct. For example, if you want to use \downarrow as a variable (an “ordinary” symbol) instead of a delimiter, you can write “$3 x + \mathord{\downarrow}$” to get the properly spaced ˙ “3x + ↓” rather than the awkward-looking “3x+ ↓”. Similarly, to create a dotted-union symbol (“∪”) that spaces like the ordinary set-union symbol (\cup) it must be defined with \mathbin, just as \cup is. Contrast ˙ ˙ “$A \dot{\cup} B$” (“A∪B”) with “$A \mathbin{\dot{\cup}} B$” (“A ∪B”). See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for the definitive description of math-mode spacing. The purpose of the “log-like symbols” in Tables 120 and 121 is to provide the correct amount of spacing around and within multiletter function names. Table 284 contrasts the output of the log-like symbols with various, na¨ alternatives. In addition to spacing, the log-like symbols also handle subscripts properly. For ıve example, “\max_{p \in P}” produces “maxp∈P ” in text, but “max” as part of a displayed formula.
p∈P

Table 284: Spacing Around/Within Log-like Symbols
A L TEX expression

Output r sin θ rsinθ rsinθ rsinθ (best)

$r $r $r $r

\sin \theta$ sin \theta$ \mbox{sin} \theta$ \mathrm{sin} \theta$

The amsmath package makes it straightforward to define new log-like symbols: \DeclareMathOperator{\atan}{atan} \DeclareMathOperator*{\lcm}{lcm} The difference between \DeclareMathOperator and \DeclareMathOperator* involves the handling of subscripts. With \DeclareMathOperator*, subscripts are written beneath log-like symbols in display style and to the right in text style. This is useful for limit operators (e.g., \lim) and functions that tend to map over a set (e.g., \min). In contrast, \DeclareMathOperator tells TEX that subscripts should always be displayed to the right of the operator, as is common for functions that take a single parameter (e.g., \log and \cos). Table 285 contrasts symbols declared with \DeclareMathOperator and \DeclareMathOperator* in both text style ($. . .$) and display style (\[. . .\]).11
11 Note that \displaystyle can be used to force display style within $. . .$ and \textstyle can be used to force text style within \[. . .\].

99

Table 285: Defining new log-like symbols Declaration function \DeclareMathOperator \DeclareMathOperator* $\newlogsym {p \in P}$ newlogsymp∈P newlogsymp∈P \[ \newlogsym {p \in P} \] newlogsymp∈P newlogsym
p∈P

It is common to use a thin space (\,) between the words of a multiword operators, as in “\DeclareMathOperator*{\argmax}{arg\,max}”. \liminf, \limsup, and all of the log-like symbols shown in Table 121 utilize this spacing convention.

7.5

Bold mathematical symbols

A L TEX does not normally use bold symbols when typesetting mathematics. However, bold symbols are occasionally needed, for example when naming vectors. Any of the approaches described at http://www.tex.ac.uk/ cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=boldgreek can be used to produce bold mathematical symbols. Table 286 contrasts the output produced by these various techniques. As the table illustrates, these techniques exhibit variation in their formatting of Latin letters (upright vs. italic), formatting of Greek letters (bold vs. normal), formatting of operators and relations (bold vs. normal), and spacing.

Table 286: Producing bold mathematical symbols Package none none none amsbsy amsbsy bm fixmath Code $\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D$ $\mathbf{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ \boldmath$\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D$ $\pmb{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ $\boldsymbol{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ $\bm{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ $\mathbold{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ Output α+b=Γ÷D α+b=Γ÷D α+b=Γ÷D α+b=Γ÷D α+b=Γ÷D α+b=Γ÷D α+b=Γ ÷D (no bold)

(faked bold)

7.6

ASCII and Latin 1 quick reference

Table 287 on the next page amalgamates data from various other tables in this document into a convenient A reference for L TEX 2ε typesetting of ASCII characters, i.e., the characters available on a typical U.S. computer keyboard. The first two columns list the character’s ASCII code in decimal and hexadecimal. The third A column shows what the character looks like. The fourth column lists the L TEX 2ε command to typeset the A character as a text character. And the fourth column lists the L TEX 2ε command to typeset the character within a \texttt{. . .} command (or, more generally, when \ttfamily is in effect). The following are some additional notes about the contents of Table 287: • “"” is not available in the OT1 font encoding. • The characters “<”, “>”, and “|” do work as expected in math mode, although they produce, respectively, “¡”, “¿”, and “—” in text mode when using the OT1 font encoding.12 The following are some alternatives for typesetting “<”, “>”, and “|”: – Specify a document font encoding other than OT1 (as described on page 7). – Use the appropriate symbol commands from Table 2 on page 8, viz. \textless, \textgreater, and \textbar. – Enter the symbols in math mode instead of text mode, i.e., $<$, $>$, and $|$.
12 Donald

Knuth didn’t think such symbols were important outside of mathematics so he omitted them from his text fonts.

100

A Table 287: L TEX 2ε ASCII Table

Dec 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 . . . 57 58 59 60 61

Hex 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2A 2B 2C 2D 2E 2F 30 31 32 . . . 39 3A 3B 3C 3D

Char ! " # $ % & ’ ( ) * + , . / 0 1 2 . . . 9 : ; < =

Body text ! \textquotedbl \# \$ \% \& ’ ( ) * + , . / 0 1 2 . . . 9 : ; \textless =

\texttt ! " \# \$ \% \& ’ ( ) * + , . / 0 1 2 . . . 9 : ; < =

Dec 62 63 64 65 66 67 . . . 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 . . . 122 123 124 125 126

Hex 3E 3F 40 41 42 43 . . . 5A 5B 5C 5D 5E 5F 60 61 62 63 . . . 7A 7B 7C 7D 7E

Char > ? @ A B C . . . Z [ \ ] ˆ ‘ a b c . . . z { | } ˜

Body text \textgreater ? @ A B C . . . Z [ \textbackslash ] \^{} \_ ‘ a b c . . . z \{ \textbar \} \~{}

\texttt > ? @ A B C . . . Z [ \char‘\\ ] \^{} \char‘\_ ‘ a b c . . . z \char‘\{ | \char‘\} \~{}

Note that for typesetting metavariables many people prefer \textlangle and \textrangle to \textless and \textgreater, i.e., “ filename ” instead of “<filename>”.
A • Although “/” does not require any special treatment, L TEX additionally defines a \slash command which outputs the same glyph but permits a line break afterwards. That is, “increase/decrease” is always typeset as a single entity while “increase\slash{}decrease” may be typeset with “increase/” on one line and “decrease” on the next.

• \textasciicircum can be used instead of \^{}, and \textasciitilde can be used instead of \~{}. Note that \textasciitilde and \~{} produce raised, diacritic tildes. “Text” (i.e., vertically centered) tildes can be generated with either the math-mode \sim command (shown in Table 62 on page 30), which produces a somewhat wide “∼”, or the textcomp package’s \texttildelow (shown in Table 36 on page 19), which produces a vertically centered “~” in most fonts but a baseline-oriented “ ” in Computer Modern, txfonts, pxfonts, and various other fonts originating from the TEX world. If your goal is to typeset tildes in URLs or Unix filenames, your best bet is to use the url package, which has a number of nice features such as proper line-breaking of such names. • The various \char commands within \texttt are necessary only in the OT1 font encoding. In other encodings (e.g., T1), commands such as \{, \}, \_, and \textbackslash all work properly. • The code page 437 (IBM PC) version of ASCII characters 1 to 31 can be typeset using the ascii package. See Table 209 on page 69. • To replace “‘” and “’” with the more computer-like (and more visibly distinct) “`” and “'” within a verbatim environment, use the upquote package. Outside of verbatim, you can use \char18 and \char13 to get the modified quote characters. (The former is actually a grave accent.) Similar to Table 287, Table 288 on the next page is an amalgamation of data from other tables in this document. While Table 287 shows how to typeset the 7-bit ASCII character set, Table 288 shows the Latin 1 (Western European) character set, also known as ISO-8859-1. 101

A Table 288: L TEX 2ε Latin 1 Table

Dec 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208

Hex A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 AA AB AC AD AE AF B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 BA BB BC BD BE BF C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 CA CB CC CD CE CF D0

Char ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § © ª « ¬ ® ° ± ² ³ µ ¶ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ ` A ´ A ˆ A ˜ A ¨ A ˚ A Æ C ¸ ` E ´ E ˆ E ¨ E ` I ´ I ˆ I ¨ I Ð

A L TEX 2ε

Dec (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255

Hex D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 DA DB DC DD DE DF E0 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 E9 EA EB EC ED EE EF F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 FA FB FC FD FE FF

Char ˜ N ` O ´ O ˆ O ˜ O ¨ O × Ø ` U ´ U ˆ U ¨ U ´ Y Þ ß a ` a ´ a ˆ a ˜ a ¨ ˚ a æ ¸ c ` e ´ e ˆ e ¨ e ` ı ´ ı ˆ ı ¨ ı ð n ˜ o ` o ´ o ˆ o ˜ o ¨ ÷ ø u ` u ´ u ˆ u ¨ y ´ þ y ¨

A L TEX 2ε

!‘ \textcent \pounds \textcurrency \textyen \textbrokenbar \S \textasciidieresis \textcopyright \textordfeminine \guillemotleft \textlnot \\textregistered \textasciimacron \textdegree \textpm \texttwosuperior \textthreesuperior \textasciiacute \textmu \P \textperiodcentered \c{} \textonesuperior \textordmasculine \guillemotright \textonequarter \textonehalf \textthreequarters ?‘ \‘{A} \’{A} \^{A} \~{A} \"{A} \AA \AE \c{C} \‘{E} \’{E} \^{E} \"{E} \‘{I} \’{I} \^{I} \"{I} \DH

(T1) (tc)

(tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc)

(tc) (T1) (tc) (tc) (tc)

\~{N} \‘{O} \’{O} \^{O} \~{O} \"{O} \texttimes \O \‘{U} \’{U} \^{U} \"{U} \’{Y} \TH \ss \‘{a} \’{a} \^{a} \~{a} \"{a} \aa \ae \c{c} \‘{e} \’{e} \^{e} \"{e} \‘{ı} \’{ı} \^{ı} \"{ı} \dh \~{n} \‘{o} \’{o} \^{o} \~{o} \"{o} \textdiv \o \‘{u} \’{u} \^{u} \"{u} \’{y} \th \"{y}

(tc)

(T1)

(T1)

(tc)

(T1)

(T1)

102

The following are some additional notes about the contents of Table 288: • A “(tc)” after a symbol name means that the textcomp package must be loaded to access that symbol. A “(T1)” means that the symbol requires the T1 font encoding. The fontenc package can change the font encoding document-wide. • Many of the \text. . . accents can also be produced using the accent commands shown in Table 18 on page 13 plus an empty argument. For instance, \={} is essentially the same as \textasciimacron.
A • The commands in the “L TEX 2ε ” columns work both in body text and within a \texttt{. . .} command (or, more generally, when \ttfamily is in effect).

• The “£” and “$” glyphs occupy the same slot (36) of the OT1 font encoding, with “£” appearing in italic A fonts and “$” appearing in roman fonts. A problem with L TEX’s default handling of this double-mapping is that “{\sffamily\slshape\pounds}” produces “$”, not “£”. Other font encodings use separate slots for the two characters and are therefore robust to the problem of “£”/”$” conflicts. Authors who use \pounds should select a font encoding other than OT1 (as explained on page 7) or use the textcomp package, which redefines \pounds to use the TS1 font encoding. • Character 173, \-, is shown as “-” but is actually a discretionary hyphen; it appears only at the end of a line. Microsoft® Windows® normally uses a superset of Latin 1 called “Code Page 1252” or “CP1252” for short. CP1252 introduces symbols in the Latin 1 “invalid” range (characters 128–159). Table 289 presents the characters with which CP1252 augments the standard Latin 1 table.
A Table 289: L TEX 2ε Code Page 1252 Table

Dec 128 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 142

Hex 80 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 8A 8B 8C 8E

Char € ‚ f „ ... † ‡ ˆ ‰ ˇ S ‹ Œ ˇ Z

A L TEX 2ε

Dec (tc) (T1) (T1) 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 158 159

Hex 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 9A 9B 9C 9E 9F

Char ‘ ’ “ ” • – — ˜ ™ ˇ s › œ ˇ z ¨ Y

A L TEX 2ε

\texteuro \quotesinglbase \textit{f} \quotedblbase \dots \dag \ddag \textasciicircum \textperthousand \v{S} \guilsinglleft \OE \v{Z}

(tc) (T1)

‘ ’ ‘‘ ’’ \textbullet ---\textasciitilde \texttrademark \v{s} \guilsinglright \oe \v{z} \"{Y}

(T1)

The following are some additional notes about the contents of Table 289: • As in Table 288, a “(tc)” after a symbol name means that the textcomp package must be loaded to access that symbol. A “(T1)” means that the symbol requires the T1 font encoding. The fontenc package can change the font encoding document-wide. • Not all characters in the 128–159 range are defined. • Look up “euro signs” in the index for alternatives to \texteuro. While too large to incorporate into this document, a listing of ISO 8879:1986 SGML/XML character entities A and their L TEX equivalents is available from http://www.bitjungle.com/~isoent/. Some of the characters A presented there make use of isoent, a L TEX 2ε package (available from the same URL) that fakes some of the A missing ISO glyphs using the L TEX picture environment.13
13 isoent is not featured in this document, because it is not available from CTAN and because the faked symbols are not “true” characters; they exist in only one size, regardless of the body text’s font size.

103

7.7

About this document

History David Carlisle wrote the first version of this document in October, 1994. It originally contained all A of the native L TEX symbols (Tables 40, 52, 62, 95, 120, 122, 141, 142, 152, 157, 184, and a few tables that have since been reorganized) and was designed to be nearly identical to the tables in Chapter 3 of Leslie Lamport’s book [Lam86]. Even the table captions and the order of the symbols within each table matched! The AMS symbols (Tables 41, 63, 64, 98, 99, 123, 127, 137, and 185) and an initial Math Alphabets table (Table 196) were added thereafter. Later, Alexander Holt provided the stmaryrd tables (Tables 42, 54, 65, 101, 117, and 138). In January, 2001, Scott Pakin took responsibility for maintaining the symbol list and has since implemented A a complete overhaul of the document. The result, now called, “The Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List”, includes the following new features: • the addition of a handful of new math alphabets, dozens of new font tables, and thousands of new symbols • the categorization of the symbol tables into body-text symbols, mathematical symbols, science and technology symbols, dingbats, and other symbols, to provide a more user-friendly document structure • an index, table of contents, and a frequently-requested symbol list, to help users quickly locate symbols • symbol tables rewritten to list the symbols in alphabetical order
A • appendices to provide additional information relevant to using symbols in L TEX

• tables showing how to typeset all of the characters in the ASCII and Latin 1 font encodings Furthermore, the internal structure of the document has been completely altered from David’s original version. Most of the changes are geared towards making the document easier to extend, modify, and reformat. Build characteristics Table 290 lists some of this document’s build characteristics. Most important is A the list of packages that L TEX couldn’t find, but that symbols.tex otherwise would have been able to take advantage of. Complete, prebuilt versions of this document are available from CTAN (http://www.ctan.org/ or one of its many mirror sites) in the directory tex-archive/info/symbols/comprehensive. Table 291 shows the package date (specified in the .sty file with \ProvidesPackage) for each package that was used to build this document and that specifies a package date. Packages are not listed in any particular order in either Table 290 or 291. Table 290: Document Characteristics Characteristic Source file: Build date: Symbols documented: Packages included: Value symbols.tex January 3, 2008 4947 textcomp latexsym amssymb stmaryrd euscript wasysym pifont manfnt bbding undertilde ifsym tipa tipx extraipa wsuipa phonetic ulsy ar metre txfonts mathabx fclfont skak ascii dingbat skull eurosym esvect yfonts yhmath esint mathdots trsym universa upgreek overrightarrow chemarr chemarrow nath trfsigns mathtools phaistos arcs vietnam t4phonet holtpolt semtrans dictsym extarrows protosem harmony hieroglf cclicenses mathdesign arev MnSymbol cmll extpfeil keystroke fge turnstile simpsons epsdice feyn universal staves igo accents nicefrac bm mathrsfs chancery calligra bbold mbboard dsfont bbm none

Packages omitted:

104

Table 291: Package versions used in the preparation of this document Name textcomp latexsym amssymb stmaryrd euscript wasysym pifont manfnt bbding undertilde ifsym tipa tipx wsuipa metre txfonts mathabx skak ascii dingbat skull eurosym yfonts mathdots trsym universa upgreek chemarr mathtools phaistos arcs t4phonet semtrans dictsym extarrows protosem harmony hieroglf cclicenses arev MnSymbol extpfeil keystroke fge turnstile epsdice feyn universal accents nicefrac bm calligra Date 2005/09/27 1998/08/17 2002/01/22 1994/03/03 2001/10/01 2003/10/30 2005/04/12 1999/07/01 1996/06/21 2000/08/08 2000/04/18 2002/08/08 2003/01/01 1994/07/16 2001/12/05 2005/01/03 2003/07/29 2003/09/27 2006/05/30 2001/04/27 2002/01/23 1998/08/06 2003/01/08 2006/03/16 2000/06/25 98/08/01 2003/02/12 2006/02/20 2004/10/10 2004/04/23 2004/05/09 2004/06/01 1998/02/10 2004/07/26 2002/03/30 2005/03/18 2007/05/03 2000/09/23 2005/05/20 2005/06/14 2007/01/21 2006/07/27 2003/08/15 2007/06/03 2007/06/23 2001/02/15 2002/04/23 97/12/24 2006/05/12 1998/08/04 2004/02/26 1996/07/18

105

7.8

Copyright and license

A The Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List Copyright © 2008, Scott Pakin A This work may be distributed and/or modified under the conditions of the L TEX Project Public License, either version 1.3c of this license or (at your option) any later version. The latest version of this license is in

http://www.latex-project.org/lppl.txt
A and version 1.3c or later is part of all distributions of L TEX version 2006/05/20 or later. This work has the LPPL maintenance status “maintained”. The current maintainer of this work is Scott Pakin.

References
[AMS99] American Mathematical Society. User’s Guide for the amsmath Package (Version 2.0), December 13, 1999. Available from ftp://ftp.ams.org/pub/tex/doc/amsmath/amsldoc.pdf. [Ber01] [Che97] Karl Berry. Fontname: Filenames for TEX fonts, June 2001. Available from http://www.ctan.org/ tex-archive/info/fontname. Raymond Chen. A METAFONT of ‘Simpsons’ characters. Baskerville, 4(4):19, September 1997. ISSN 1354-5930. Available from http://tug.ctan.org/usergrps/uktug/baskervi/4 4/ bask4 4.ps.

A [Dow00] Michael Downes. Short math guide for L TEX, July 19, 2000. Version 1.07. Available from http:// www.ams.org/tex/short-math-guide.html.

[Gib97]

Jeremy Gibbons. Hey—it works! TUGboat, 18(2):75–78, June 1997. Available from http:// www.tug.org/TUGboat/Articles/tb18-2/tb55works.pdf.

[Knu86a] Donald E. Knuth. The TEXbook, volume A of Computers and Typesetting. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, USA, 1986. [Knu86b] Donald E. Knuth. The METAFONTbook, volume C of Computers and Typesetting. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, USA, 1986.
A [Lam86] Leslie Lamport. L TEX: A document preparation system. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, USA, 1986. A [L T98] A A L TEX3 Project Team. A new math accent. L TEX News. Issue 9, June 1998. Available from http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/doc/ltnews09.pdf (also included in many TEX distributions). A A L TEX3 Project Team. L TEX 2ε font selection, January 30, 2000. Available from http:// www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/doc/fntguide.ps (also included in many TEX distributions).

A [L T00]

106

Index
If you’re having trouble locating a symbol, try looking under “T” for “\text. . .”. Many text-mode commands begin with that prefix. Also, accents are shown over/under a gray box, e.g., “ a ” for “\’”. ´ Some symbol entries appear to be listed repeatedly. This happens when multiple packages define identical (or nearly identical) glyphs with the same symbol name.14 Symbols ........ ....... ........ ....... ....... ........ ........ \AAhe (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \AAhelmet (V) . . . . . . . . . . 83 \AAheth (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \AAkaph (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \AAlamed (L) . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \Aaleph (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \AApe (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \AAqoph (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \AAresh (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \AAsade (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \Aayin (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \AAyod (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \Abeth (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 absolute value . see \lvert and \rvert abz¨glich . . see \textdiscount u \AC (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \acarc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \acbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 accents . . 13–17, 33–35, 44, 46, 56–60, 68, 79, 86, 94–96 any character as . . . . . . 94 extensible . . 57–60, 95–96 multiple per character . 94 accents (package) 56, 94, 104, 105 \accentset . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \Acht (ˇ “( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \AchtBL ( ˇ “ ) ]( ) .. \^ (ˆ) . . a \^{} (ˆ) \| ( ) . . \| (a) . . ¿ \= (¯) . . a \={} (¯) | (|) . . . \_ ( ) . . \{ ({) . . \} (}) . . \‘ (`) . . a \~ (˜) . . a \~{} (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 . . . . . 13 . . . . 101 . . . . . 53 . . . . . 13 . . . . . 13 . . . . 103 . . . . . 53 . . 8, 101 8, 53, 101 8, 53, 101 . . . . . 13 . . . . . 13 . . . . 101 \Alas ({) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \alas ({) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \aleph (ℵ) . . . . . . . . . . 50, 62 \aleph (ℵ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Alif ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \alpha (α) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 alphabets African . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Cyrillic . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Greek . . . . . . . . 49, 50, 65 Hebrew . . . . . . . . . 50, 65 hieroglyphic . . . . . . . . . 84 math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 phonetic . . . . . . . . 10–13 proto-Semitic . . . . . . . . 83 Vietnamese . . . . . . . . . . 9 \alphaup (α) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 alpine symbols . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Alt ( Alt ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \AltGr ( AltGr ) . . . . . . . . . 69 \amalg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \amalg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Amem (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 ampersand . . . . . . . . . . see \& AMS 7, 8, 21, 25, 30, 36, 37, 39, 41, 49–53, 56, 58, 59, 61–63, 66, 87, 104 amsbsy (package) . . . . . . . . 100 amsfonts (package) 20, 30, 36, 41, 62, 65 amsmath (package) 7, 49, 56, 91, 99 amssymb (package) 7, 20, 30, 36, 41, 56, 62, 65, 104, 105, 107 amstext (package) . . . . . 92, 93 \Anaclasis (÷) . . . . . . . . . . 82 \anaclasis (÷) . . . . . . . . . . 82 \anchor ( ) . and . . . . . . . . . \angle (∠) . . . \angle ( ) . . . \angle (∠) . . . angles . . . . . . . \Anglesign (W) ˚ Angstr¨m unit o math mode text mode \Angud ( ) . . . . \angud ( ) . . . . angular minutes angular seconds \Angus ( ) . . . . \angus ( ) . . . .

\" (¨) a \# (#) \$ ($) \% (%) \& (&) \’ (´) a ( (() .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . 13 8, 101 8, 101 8, 101 8, 101 . . . 13 . . . 53

( ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 ) ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 ) ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 * (*) . \, . . . \- (-) \. (a) ˙ / (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 . . . 100 102, 103 . . . . 13 . . . . 53

/ ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 < ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 [ ([) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 [ ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 ] (]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

= =

A a (esvect package option) \a ( ×) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \AA (˚ . . . . . . . . . . . . . A) \aa (˚ . . . . . . . . . . . . . a) \AAaleph (A) . . . . . . . . \AAayin (O) . . . . . . . . . \AAbeth (B) . . . . . . . . . = =

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

59 82 . 9 . 9 83 83 83

\AAcht (ˇ “ ˇ “ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \AAdaleth (D) . . . . . . . . . . . 83
14 This

\AchtBR ( ˇ “ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \ACK ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \acontraction . . . . . . . . . . 96 \AcPa (? ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 actuarial symbols . . . . . . . . 95 \acute (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \acutus (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 ´ \Adaleth (d) . . . . . . . . . . . 83 adjoint (†) . . . . . . . . . see \dag Adobe Acrobat . . . . . . . . . . 99 . \adots ( . . ) . . . . . . . . . 62, 94 advancing . see \textadvancing \AE (Æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \ae (æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \agemO ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \Agimel (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \Ahe (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \Ahelmet (v) . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \Aheth (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \ain (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \Akaph (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \Alad (}) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \alad (}) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \Alamed (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

= =

. . . . . . . . . . . . 79

O

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . 77 see \wedge . . . . . . 63 . . . . . . 62 . . . . . . 63 . . . 62–64 . . . . . . 64

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

see \mathring . . . . see \AA . . . . . . . . 56 . . . . . . . . 56 . . see \prime . see \second . . . . . . . . 56 . . . . . . . . 56

occurs frequently between amssymb and mathabx, for example.

107

\Ankh (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \annu ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 annuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Antidiple (<) . . . . . . . . . . 82 \antidiple (<) . . . . . . . . . . 82 · \Antidiple* (<) . . . . . . . . . 82 · · \antidiple* (<) . . . . . . . . . 82 · \Antisigma (⊃) . . . . . . . . . . 82 \antisigma (⊃) . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Anun (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \Ape (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 APL modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . 68 symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \APLbox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \APLcirc (◦) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \APLcomment ( ) . . . . . . . . . 68 \APLdown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \APLdownarrowbox ( ) . . . . 68 \APLinput ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 68 \APLinv (÷) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \APLleftarrowbox ( ) . . . . 68 \APLlog ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \APLminus (−) . . . . . . . . . . 68 \APLnot (∼) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \APLrightarrowbox ( ) . . . . 68 \APLstar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \APLup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \APLuparrowbox ( ) . . . . . . 68 \APLvert ( | ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \apprge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \apprle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \approx (≈) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \approx (≈) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \approxeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 30 \approxeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Aqoph (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \Aquarius (ê) . . . . . . . . . . 68 \aquarius ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 68 \AR ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 ar (package) . . . . . . . . 67, 104 arc . . . . . . . . . . . . see accents \arccos (arccos) . . . . . . . . . 49 arcminutes . . . . . . . see \prime arcs (package) . . . . 16, 104, 105 arcseconds . . . . . . . see \second \arcsin (arcsin) . . . . . . . . . 49 \arctan (arctan) . . . . . . . . . 49 \Aresh (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 arev (package) . 64, 78, 104, 105 \arg (arg) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Aries (€) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \Aries (à) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \aries ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \ArrowBoldDownRight ( ) . 71 \ArrowBoldRightCircled ( ) 71 \ArrowBoldRightShort ( ) . . 71 \ArrowBoldRightStrobe ( ) 71 \ArrowBoldUpRight ( ) . . . 71 \Arrownot () . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \arrownot () . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

arrows . . . 41–43, 47, 69, 71, 90 diagonal, for reducing subexpressions . . . . . . . . . . 57 double-headed, diagonal 93 extensible . . . . . . . 57–60 fletched . . . . . . . . . 47, 71 negated . . . . . . . 41, 42, 44 \Arrowvert ( ) . . . . . . . . . 53 \Arrowvert \arrowvert ( ) . . . . . . . . . 54  () . . . . . . . . . . 53

\Avav (w) . . average . . . . \Ayn ( ) . . . \Ayod (y) . . \Azayin (z)

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

83 20 13 83 83

\arrowvert ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 54 Arseneau, Donald . . . 91, 93–95 \Asade (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \Asamekh (s) . . . . . . . . . . . 83 ASCII . . . 7, 9, 69, 100–101, 104 table . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 ascii (package) 69, 101, 104, 105 \ascnode ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \Ashin (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 aspect ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \ast (¦) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \ast (∗) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \ast (∗) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Asteriscus ( ×) . . . . . . . . 82 ··· · \asteriscus (×) . . . . . . . . . 82 ··· · \Asterisk (¦) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Asterisk ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 74 \asterisk (¦) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \AsteriskBold (

B \B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \B ( ´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˘ b (esvect package option) \b (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ \b ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˘ \babygamma (3) . . . . . . . \backapprox ( ) . . . . . . \backapproxeq ( ) . . . . \backcong ( ) . . . . . . . . \backepsilon ( ) . . . . . \backeqsim ( ) . . . . . . . \backneg (⌐) . . . . . . . . . \backprime ( ) . . . . . . . \backprime ( ) . . . . . . . \backsim ( ) . . . . . . . . \backsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . \backsimeq ( ) . . . . . . \backsimeq ( ) . . . . . . . \backslash (\) . . . . . . . \backslash ( )

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

... 9 . . 82 . . 59 . . 13 . . 82 . . 11 . . 32 . . 32 . . 32 . . 30 . . 32 . . 63 . . 63 . . 63 . . 30 . . 32 . . 30 . . 32 53, 62

A

. . . . . . . . . 74 \asterism (**) . . . . * astrological symbols . astronomical symbols \astrosun ( ) . . . . \asymp ( ) . . . . . . . \asymp ( ) . . . . . . . \atan (atan) . . . . . . \ataribox ( ) . . . . . \Atav (t) . . . . . . . . \Ateth (T) . . . . . . . \AtForty (Ø) . . . . \AtNinetyFive (Ó) atomic math objects \AtSixty (Õ) . . . . \autoleftarrow (

e) . . . . . . . 74 \AsteriskCenterOpen (f) . . 74 \AsteriskRoundedEnds (ˆ) . 74 asterisks . . . . . . . . . . . . 22, 74 \AsteriskThin (g) . . . . . . . 74 \AsteriskThinCenterOpen (h)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 . . . 68 . . . 68 . . . 68 . . . 30 . . . 48 . . . 99 . . . 78 . . . 83 . . . 83 . . . 80 . . . 80 49, 100 . . . . 80 . . . 60

x

. . . . . . . . . 54

\backslashdiv ( ) . . . . . . . 23 \backtriplesim ( ) . . . . . . . 32 banana brackets . . . . . . . . . . . . see \llparenthesis and \rrparenthesis \bar (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \barb (¦) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \barcirc (−) . . . . . . . . . . . 91 ◦ \bard () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \bari (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \barin (†) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \barj (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \barl (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \barlambda (¡) . . . . . . . . . . 12 \barleftharpoon (Þ) . . . . . 43 \baro ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \baro ( vs. `) . . . . . . . . . . 88 \baro (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \barp (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 barred letters . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \barrightharpoon (ß) . . . . 43 \barsci (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \barscu (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

y { z w x

DGGGGG) GGGGGA)

   \Bart (¦) 
¤ ¥

\autoleftrightharpoons (

EGGGGG) GGGGGC GGGGGB FGGGGG)

. . . . . . . . . . . 60 . . 60

\autorightarrow (

\autorightleftharpoons ( . . . . . . . . . . . 60

\baru („) . . . . \barwedge (ˆ) \barwedge ( ) . \Bat (ý) . . . . . \bauarrow ( ) \baucircle ( ) \baucircle ( ) \baucross ( )

¡

. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . ..

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

85 12 22 21 80 71 76 76 73

108

\baudash ( ) . . . . . . \baueclipse ( ) . . . . \bauequal ( ) . . . . . \bauface ( ) . . . . . . \bauforms ( ) . . . . .

¡

¢  „ 

¨

\bauforms ( ) . . . . . . . . . 80 \bauhead ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \bauhead ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 80 \bauhole ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 76 \bauplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \baupunct ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 76 \bauquarter ( ) . . . . . . . . . 80 \bauquestion ( ) . . . . . . . . 80 \bausquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 76 \bausquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . 76 \bautriangle ( ) . . . . . . . . 76 \bautriangle ( ) . . . . . . . . 76 \bauwhitearrow ( ) . . . . . . 71 \bauwindow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 80 \BB ( ´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ˘ ˘ \Bb ( ´ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ˘ ˘ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \bB ( ´ ˘ ˘ \bb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ˘ × ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ˘ \bba ( ˘ ˘ \bbalpha ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \bbar (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 b \bbb ( ˘ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ˘ ˘ \bbbeta ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \Bbbk (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 bbding (package) . 71–75, 77, 88, 104, 105 \bbdollar ($) . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \bbetter (g) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \bbeuro (û) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \bbfinalnun (Ï) . . . . . . . . . 65 \bbgamma ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 bbgreekl (mathbbol package option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \BBm ( ´ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ˘ ˘ ¯ \Bbm ( ¯ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ´ ˘ ˘ ¯ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ¯ \bBm ( ´ ˘ ˘ ¯ ¯ bbm (package) . . . . . . . 65, 104 \bbm ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ˘ ˘ ¯ \bbmb (¯˘ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ \bbmx ( ¯ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ˘˘ ˘( ¯ ¯š) . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \bbnabla¯ bbold (package) . . . . . . 65, 104 \bbpe (Ô) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \bbqof (×) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \bbslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \bbyod (É) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \bcontraction . . . . . . . . . . 96 \bdecisive (i) . . . . . . . . . 82 \Beam (") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \Bearing (#) . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \because ( ) . . . . . . . . 30, 61 \because ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \BEL ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \bell ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Berry, Karl . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 \beta (β) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

¤

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

80 76 80 80 80

£
§   …

©  †

\betaup (β) . . . \beth ( ) . . . . \beth ( ) . . . . \betteris (b) \between (2) . . \between ( ) . . \between ( ” . ) \bibridge (a) . ” \Bicycle (®) . \Big . . . . . . . . \big . . . . . . . . \bigast (¦) . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 87, 87, ...

50 50 50 82 31 30 32 15 76 89 89 22 70 25 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 25 29 29 29 20 74 75 29 22 26 75 25 29 29 29 29 26 25 29 29 26 25 29 29 75 29 29 29 29 89 89

 

£

¢

¦ 

\bigbosonloop (3) . . . . . \bigbox ( ) . . . .Ö. . . . . \bigboxasterisk ( Þ . . ) \bigboxbackslash ( ) . Û \bigboxbot ( Õ . . . . . . ) \bigboxcirc ( ) . . . . . × \bigboxcoasterisk ( ) Ó \bigboxdiv (Ô) . . . . . . \bigboxdot ( Ø . . . . . . ) \bigboxleft ( Ñ . . . . . ) \bigboxminus Ð ) . . . . ( \bigboxplus ( Ù . . . . . ) \bigboxright (Ý) . . . . \bigboxslash (Ò) . . . . \bigboxtimes ( ) . . . . Ú \bigboxtop ( ) . . . . . . ß \bigboxtriangleup ( ) Ü \bigboxvoid ( ) . . . . . \bigcap ( ) . . . . . . . . . \bigcap ( ) . . . . . . . . . \bigcapdot ( ) . . . . . . . \bigcapplus ( ) . . . . . . \bigcirc ( ) . . . . . . . . \bigcirc ( ) . . . . . . . . \BigCircle ( ) . . . . . . \bigcircle ( ) . . . . . . \bigcoast (§) . . .’. . . . \bigcomplementop ( ) . . \BigCross ( ) . . . . . . . \bigcup ( ) . . . . . . . . . \bigcup ( ) . . . . . . . . . \bigcupdot ( ) . . . . . . . \bigcupplus ( ) . . . . . \bigcupplus ( œ . . . . . . ) \bigcurlyvee ( ) . . . . . \bigcurlyvee ( ) . . . . . \bigcurlyvee ( ) . . . . . \bigcurlyveedot › ) . . ( \bigcurlywedge ( ) . . . \bigcurlywedge ( ) . . . \bigcurlywedge ( ) . . . \bigcurlywedgedot ( ) . \BigDiamondshape ( ) . \bigdoublecurlyvee ( ) \bigdoublecurlywedge ( \bigdoublevee ( ) . . . . \bigdoublewedge ( ) . . \Bigg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \bigg . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 

8

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ) . ... ... 87, 87,

\BigHBar ( ) . . . . . . . . \biginterleave ( ) . . . \BigLowerDiamond ( ) . \bignplus ( ) . . . . . . . \bigoast ( ) . Æ . . . . . .. \bigoasterisk ( Î . . . . ) \bigobackslash ( ) . . . \bigobackslash ( ) . . . Ë \bigobot ( Å . . . . . . . . ) \bigocirc ( ) . . . . . . . \bigocirc ( ) . .Ç. . . . . \bigocoasterisk ( ) . . à \bigodiv ( ) . . . . . . . . \bigodot ( ) . . . . . . . . \bigodot ( È . . . . . . . . ) \bigoleft ( Á . . . . . . . ) \bigominus ( ) . . . . . . \bigominus ( ) . . . . . . \bigoplus ( ) . . . . . . . \bigoplus ( É . . . . . . . ) \bigoright (Í) . . . . . . \bigoslash ( ) . . . . . . \bigoslash ( ) . . . . . . \bigostar ( ) . . . . . . . \bigotimes ( ) . . . . . . \bigotimes ( ) . . . . . . Ê \bigotop ( ) . . . . . . . . \bigotriangle ( ) . . . . Ï \bigotriangleup ( ) . . \bigovert (Ì . . . . . . . ) \bigovoid ( ) . . . . . . . \bigparallel ( ) . . . . . ˙ \bigparr () . . . . . . . . \bigplus ( ) . . . . . . . . \bigplus ( ) . . . . . . . . \BigRightDiamond ( ) . – \bigsqcap ( ) . . . . . . . \bigsqcap ( ) . . . . . . . \bigsqcap ( ) . . . . . . . . \bigsqcapdot ( ) . . . . . \bigsqcapplus ( ) . . . . \bigsqcapplus ( ) . . . . \bigsqcup ( ) . . . . . . . \bigsqcup ( ) . . . . . . . . \bigsqcupdot ( ) . . . . . \bigsqcupplus ( ) . . . . \bigsqcupplus ( ) . . . . \BigSquare ( ˜ . . . . . . ) \bigsquplus ( ) . . . . . . \bigstar () . . . . . . . . \bigstar ( ) . . . . . . . . \bigstar ( ‘ . . . . . . . . ) \bigtimes ( ) . . . . . . . \bigtimes ( ) . . . . . . . . \BigTriangleDown ( ) . \bigtriangledown ( ) . \bigtriangledown ( vs. \bigtriangledown ( ) . \bigtriangledown ( ) . \BigTriangleLeft ( ) . \BigTriangleRight ( )

&

•

G

2

5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 6

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ) .. .. .. ..

75 25 75 25 29 26 26 29 26 26 29 26 26 25 29 26 26 29 25 29 26 26 29 29 25 29 26 29 26 29 26 25 30 26 29 75 26 25 29 29 27 29 25 29 29 27 29 75 26 22 63 74 26 29 75 25 88 20 40 75 75

109

\BigTriangleUp ( ) . . . . . . 75 \bigtriangleup ( ) . . . . . . 25 \bigtriangleup ( vs. ) . 88 \bigtriangleup ( ) . . . . . . 20 \bigtriangleup ( ) . . . . . . 40 \biguplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \biguplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigvarstar () . . . . . . . . . 22 \BigVBar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 75 \bigvee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \bigvee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigveedot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigwedge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \bigwedge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigwedgedot ( ) . . . . . . . . 29 ˘ \bigwith ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \binampersand ( ) . . . . . . . 21 binary operators . . . . . . 20–24 binary relations . . 30–32, 34–39, 47, 48 negated . . . . . . . . . 30–33 \bindnasrepma ( ) . . . . . . . 21 \Biohazard (h) . . . . . . . . . 70 biological symbols . . . . . . . . 70 bishop . . . . . . see chess symbols \bishoppair (a) . . . . . . . . . 82 blackboard bold see alphabets, math \blackdiamond () . . . . . . . 22 \blacklozenge ( ) . . . . . . . 63 \blacklozenge ( ) . . . . . . . 74 \blacksmiley ( ) . . . . . . . . 78 \blacksquare ( ) . . . . . . . . 63 \blacksquare ( ) . . . . . . . . 24 \blackstone . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 \blacktriangle ( ) . . . . . . 63 \blacktriangle ( ) . . . . . . 40 \blacktriangledown () . . . 24 \blacktriangledown ( ) . . . 63 \blacktriangledown ( ) . . . 40 \blacktriangleleft (ž) . . . 24 \blacktriangleleft ( ) . . . 39 \blacktriangleleft ( ) . . . 40 \blacktriangleright (Ÿ) . . 24 \blacktriangleright ( ) . . 39 \blacktriangleright ( ) . . 40 \blacktriangleup (œ) . . . . . 24 blank . . . . . . . see \textblank \Bleech (Ë) . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \blitza ( ) . . . . . . . . . 20, 48 \blitzb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \blitzc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \blitzd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \blitze ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \Bm ( ´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ˘ ¯ bm (package) . . . . 100, 104, 105 \bm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 \bm ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ˘ \bmod ¯ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 body-text symbols . . . . . . 8–19 bold symbols . . . . . . . . . . . 100 \boldmath . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

3

)

©    

\boldsymbol . . . . . . . . . . . 100 born . . . . . . . . . see \textborn bosons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \bot (⊥) . . . . . . . . . . 20, 51, 92 \bot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \botdoteq () . . . . . . . . . . 31 \Bouquet (¥) . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \Bowtie ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \bowtie ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \bowtie ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Box ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \Box ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \Box ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \boxast ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \boxasterisk (f) . . . . . . . . 24 \boxbackslash (n) . . . . . . . 24 \boxbackslash ( ) . . . . . . . 24 \boxbar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \boxbot (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \boxbox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \boxbox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \boxbslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 21 \boxcirc (e) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \boxcircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 21 \boxcoasterisk (g) . . . . . . 24 \boxdiv (™) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \boxdot (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \boxdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \boxdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \boxdotLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . 42 \boxdotleft ( ) . . . . . . . . 42 \boxdotRight ( ) . . . . . . . 42 \boxdotright ( ) . . . . . . . 42 \boxempty ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 21 \boxLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 42 \boxleft (h) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \boxleft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 42 \boxminus (—) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \boxminus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 21 \boxminus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \boxplus (–) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \boxplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \boxplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \boxRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . 42 \boxright (i) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \boxright ( ) . . . . . . . . . 42 \boxslash (m) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \boxslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \boxslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \boxtimes (˜) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \boxtimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 21 \boxtimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \boxtop (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \boxtriangleup (o) . . . . . . 24 \boxvert ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \boxvoid (l) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \boy (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 bra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \braceld ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \bracerd ( )  . . . . . . . . . . . 95 .  \bracevert () . . . . . . . . . 53  \bracevert ( ) . . . . . . . . . 54

brackets . . . . . . . see delimiters braket (package) . . . . . . . . . 53 \Break ( Break ) . . . . . . . . . 69 breve . . . . . . . . . . see accents \breve (˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \breve (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 ˘ \brokenvert ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 78 Bronger, Torsten . . . . . . . . . 92 \BS ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \BSEfree (n) . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \BSpace ( →− ) . . . . . . . . . 69 \bullet (•) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \bullet ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 bullseye . . . see \textbullseye \Bumpedeq (%) . . . . . . . . . . 31 \bumpedeq (#) . . . . . . . . . . 31 \Bumpeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \Bumpeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \bumpeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \bumpeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \bupperhand (e) . . . . . . . . . 82

   \Burns ()

. . . . . . . . 85

C \C ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 c (esvect package option) . . . 59 \c (¸) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 102 a \c ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 calligra (package) . . 65, 104, 105 Calligra (font) . . . . . . . . . . . 65 calrsfs (package) . . . . . . . . . 65 \CAN ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 cancel (package) . . . . . . . . . 57 \Cancer (ã) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \cancer ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \Cap ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \Cap ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \cap (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \cap (∩) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \cap (∩) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \capdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \capplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Capricorn (é) . . . . . . . . . . 68 \capricornus ( ) . . . . . . . . 68 card suits . . . . . . . . . 62–64, 77 cardinality . . . . . . . see \aleph care of (c/o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 caret . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \^ Carlisle, David . . . . . . . 1, 104 caron . . . . . . . . . . see accents carriage return . 69, 77, 90, see also \hookleftarrow \carriagereturn ( ) . . . . . 77 castle . . . . . . see chess symbols \Catalexis (∧) . . . . . . . . . . 82 \catalexis (∧) . . . . . . . . . . 82 catamorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \llparenthesis and \rrparenthesis \Cc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

C

110

\cc ( CC ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \cc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \ccby ( BY: ) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \Ccc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 cclicenses (package) 18, 104, 105 \ccnc ( $ ) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \ccnd ( = ) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \ccsa ( \cdot (·) . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 91 \cdot (⋅) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 61 \cdotp (·) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \cdotp (⋅) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \cdots (· · · ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Cedi . see \textcolonmonetary cedilla . . . . . . . . . . see accents celestial bodies . . . . . . . . . . 68 \celsius ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \Celtcross (‡) . . . . . . . . . . 80 \cent (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \centerdot () . . . . . . . . . . 22 \centerdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 21 centernot (package) . . . . . . . 92 \centernot . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 \centre (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 cents . . . . . . . . . see \textcent \CEsign (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 chancery (package) . . . . . . . 104 \changenotsign . . . . . . . . . 32 \char . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 90 Charter (font) . . . . . . . . 17, 29 \check (ˇ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 check marks . . . . . . . 73, 76, 77 \checked ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \CheckedBox ( ) . . . . . . . . . 73 \Checkedbox (V) . . . . . . . . . 76 \Checkmark ( ) . . . . . . . . . 73 \checkmark ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 8 \checkmark ( ) . . . . . . . . . 63 \checkmark ( vs. ) . . . . . 88 \checkmark ( ) . . . . . . . . . 77 \CheckmarkBold ( ) . . . . . . 73 chemarr (package) . 59, 104, 105 chemarrow (package) 47, 60, 104 \chemarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . 47 Chen, Raymond . . . . . . . . 106 chess symbols . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \chi (χ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \chiup (χ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \circ (◦) . . . . . . . . . 20, 64, 92 \circ (○) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \circeq (&) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \circeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \circeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \CIRCLE ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \Circle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 \Circle ( vs. ) . . . . . . . 88 \Circle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \circlearrowleft (ö) . . . . 42 \circlearrowleft ( ) . . . . 41 \circlearrowleft ( ) . . . . 44 \circlearrowright (÷) . . . . 42

3

D
A

D

4

S

S

\circlearrowright ( ) . . . 41 \circlearrowright ( ) . . . 44 circled numbers . . . . . . . 73, 76 \CircledA (ª) . . . . . . . . . . 80 \circledast ( ) . . . . . . . . . 21 \circledast ( ) . . . . . . . . . 24 \circledbar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 21 \circledbslash ( ) . . . . . . 21 \circledcirc ( ) . . . . . . . . 21 \circledcirc ( ) . . . . . . . . 24 \circleddash ( ) . . . . . . . . 21 \circleddash ( ) . . . . . . . . 24 \circleddot . . . . . . see \odot \circleddotleft ( ) . . . . 42 \circleddotright ( ) . . . . 42 \circledgtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . 31 \circledless ( ) . . . . . . . . 31 \circledminus . . . see \ominus \circledotleft . . . . . . . . see \circleddotleft \circledotright . . . . . . . see \circleddotright \circledplus . . . . . see \oplus \circledR ( ) . . . . . . . . 8, 51 \circledS ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 51 \circledslash . . . see \oslash \circledtimes . . . see \otimes \circledvee ( ) . . . . . . . . . 21 \circledwedge ( ) . . . . . . . 21 \circleleft ( ) . . . . . . . . 42 \circleright ( ) . . . . . . . 42 circles . . . . . . . . . . . . 75, 76, 78 \CircleShadow ( ) . . . . . . . 75 \CircleSolid ( ) . . . . . . . . 75 \Circpipe (›) . . . . . . . . . . 70 \circplus (¨) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Circsteel (•) . . . . . . . . . 70 circumflex . . . . . . . see accents \circumflexus (a) . . . . . . . 16 ˜ \CleaningA («) . . . . . . . . . . 80 \CleaningF (¾) . . . . . . . . . . 80 \CleaningFF (¿) . . . . . . . . . 80 \CleaningP (¬) . . . . . . . . . . 80 \CleaningPP ( ) . . . . . . . . . 80 \clickb (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \clickc () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \clickt (‚) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \clock ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 clock symbols . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Clocklogo (U) . . . . . . . . . . 76 \closedcurlyvee ( ) . . . . . . 23 \closedcurlywedge ( ) . . . . 23 \closedequal ( ) . . . . . . . . 32 \closedniomega (c) . . . . . . 12 \closedprec ( ) . . . . . . . . . 32 \closedrevepsilon (') . . . . 12 \closedsucc ( ) . . . . . . . . . 32 \Cloud ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 clovers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 clubs (suit) . . . . . . . . 62–64, 77 \clubsuit (♣) . . . . . . . . . . 62 \clubsuit (♣) . . . . . . . . . . . 63

d — 

cmll (package) 20, 23, 30, 36, 104 \coAsterisk (§) . . . . . . . . . 22 \coasterisk (§) . . . . . . . . . 22 code page 1252 . . . . . . . . . 103 table . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 code page 437 . . . . . . . 69, 101 \Coffeecup (K) . . . . . . . . . 76 \coh (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \colon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \colon ( : ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \colon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \Colonapprox ( ) . . . . . . . 31 \Colonapprox (::≈) . . . . . . . 34 \colonapprox (:≈) . . . . . . . . 34 \colonapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . 31 \Coloneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \Coloneq (::−) . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \coloneq (!) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \coloneq (:−) . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \coloneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \Coloneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 31 \Coloneqq (::=) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \coloneqq (:=) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \coloneqq ( ) . . . . . . . 20, 31 \Colonsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 31 \Colonsim (::∼) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \colonsim (:∼) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \colonsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 31 \comment (RR) . . . . . . . . . . 82 communication symbols . . . . 69 comp.text.tex (newsgroup) . 7, 20, 90–95 \compensation (n) . . . . . . . 82 \complement (e) . . . . . . . . . 51 \complement ( ) . . . . . . . . . 51 \complement ( ) . . . . . . . . . 29 complex numbers (C) . . . . see alphabets, math Comprehensive TEX Archive Network 1, 7, 57, 66, 87, 103, 104 computer hardware symbols . 69 computer keys . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Computer Modern (font) 87, 89, 101 \ComputerMouse (Í) . . . . . . . 69 \cong ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \cong (≅) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 conjunction . . . . . . . see \wedge \conjunction ( ) . . . . . . . . 68 consequence relations . . . . . . 34 contradiction symbols . . 20, 48 control characters . . . . . . . . 69 \convolution () . . . . . . . . 22 \coprod ( ) . . . . . . . . . 20, 25 \coprod ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 copyright . . . . . . . . . 8, 18, 102 \copyright (©) . . . . . . . . . . 8 \corner (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \Corresponds (=) . . . . . . . . 64 \corresponds ()) . . . . . . . . 31 \cos (cos) . . . . . . . . . . . 49, 99 \cosh (cosh) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

\
C

111

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 93 41 44 42 41 44 31 31 30 33 31 73

\dfourier ( c \DFT ( \dft (

\Dfourier (

.. .. . ..

c . . . . . . . . 35 )
)

. . . . . . . . 35

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

112

ι

\cot (cot) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \coth (coth) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \counterplay (V) . . . . . . . . 82 Courier (font) . . . . . . . . . . . 17 CP1252 . . . . see code page 1252 CP437 . . . . . see code page 437 \CR ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \cr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Creative Commons licenses . 18 crescent (fge package option) 56 \Cross ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 \Cross († vs. vs. ) . . . . . 88 \Cross ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \Cross (†) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \crossb (¥) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \CrossBoldOutline ( ) . . . . 72 \CrossClowerTips ( ) . . . . 72 \crossd () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \Crossedbox (X) . . . . . . . . . 76 crosses . . . . . . . . . . . 72, 76, 80 \crossh (5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \CrossMaltese ( ) . . . . . . . 72 \crossnilambda (Q) . . . . . . 12 \CrossOpenShadow ( ) . . . . . 72 \CrossOutline ( ) . . . . . . . 72 crotchet . . see musical symbols Ŕ \crtilde (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 a crucifixes . . . . . . . . . . . . 72, 80 \Crux (†) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \crux (†) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \csc (csc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 CTAN see Comprehensive TEX Archive Network \Ctrl ( Ctrl ) . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \Cube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81, 90 cube root . . . . . . . . see \sqrt \Cup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \Cup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \cup (‰) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \cup (∪) . . . . . . . . . . 20, 91, 99 \cup (∪) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \cupdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \cupplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \curlyc () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \curlyeqprec (¶) . . . . . . . . 31 \curlyeqprec ( ) . . . . . . . . 30 \curlyeqprec ( ) . . . . . . . . 32 \curlyeqsucc (·) . . . . . . . . 31 \curlyeqsucc ( ) . . . . . . . . 30 \curlyeqsucc ( ) . . . . . . . . 32 \curlyesh (x) . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \curlyvee (y) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \curlyvee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 21 \curlyvee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \curlyveedot ( ) . . . . . . . . 23 \curlyveedownarrow ( ) . . . 21 \curlyveeuparrow ( ) . . . . . 21 \curlywedge (x) . . . . . . . . . 22 \curlywedge ( ) . . . . . . . . . 21 \curlywedge ( ) . . . . . . . . . 23 \curlywedgedot ( ) . . . . . . 23 

B

B 

E R

F

D

C

\curlywedgedownarrow ( ) . 21 \curlywedgeuparrow ( ) . . . 21 \curlyyogh (—) . . . . . . . . . . 12 \curlyz (”) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \currency (¤) . . . . . . . . . . . 17 currency symbols . . . . . . 17, 65 \curvearrowbotleft (ó) . . 42 \curvearrowbotleftright (õ) . . . . . . . . . 42 \curvearrowbotright (ô) . . 42 \curvearrowdownup ( ) . . . . 43 \curvearrowleft (ð) . . . . . 42 \curvearrowleft ( ) . . . . . 41 \curvearrowleft ( ) . . . . . 44 \curvearrowleftright (ò) . 42 \curvearrowleftright ( ) . 43 \curvearrownesw ( ) . . . . . 43 \curvearrownwse ( ) . . . . . 43 \curvearrowright (ñ) . . . . 42 \curvearrowright ( ) . . . . 41 \curvearrowright ( ) . . . . 44 \curvearrowrightleft ( ) . 43 \curvearrowsenw ( ) . . . . . 43 \curvearrowswne ( ) . . . . . 43 \curvearrowupdown ( ) . . . . 43 \Cutleft (s) . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Cutline (r) . . . . . . . . . . . 71 cutoff subtraction . see \dotdiv \Cutright (q) . . . . . . . . . . 71 D \D (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¨ d (esvect package option) . \d (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \dag (†) . . . . . . . . . . . . \dagger (†) . . . . . . . . . . . \daleth ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \daleth ( ) . . . . . . . . . . dangerous bend symbols . \DArrow ( ↓ ) . . . . . . . . \dasharrow . . . . . . . . . . . \dashrightarrow \dasheddownarrow ( ) . . . \dashedleftarrow ( ) . . \dashednearrow ( ) . . . . \dashednwarrow ( ) . . . . \dashedrightarrow ( ) . . \dashedsearrow ( ) . . . . \dashedswarrow ( ) . . . . \dasheduparrow ( ) . . . . . \dashint (− ) . . . . . . . . . \dashleftarrow ( ) . . . . \dashleftarrow ( ) . . . . \dashleftrightarrow ( ) \dashrightarrow ( ) . . . \dashrightarrow ( ) . . . \DashV (A) . . . . . . . . . . . \Dashv (A) . . . . . . . . . . . \dashv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \dashv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \dashVv (E) . . . . . . . . . . \davidsstar ( ) . . . . . . .

\DavidStar ( ) . \DavidStarSolid ( \dbar (¯ . . . . . . . d) \dbend ( ) . . . . dblaccnt (package) \dblcolon (::) . . . \DCa ( ) . . . . . . . \DCb ( ) . . . . . . . \DCc ( ) . . . . . . . \DCd ( ) . . . . . . . \DD (D ) . . . . . . . D \ddag (‡) . . . . . . \ddagger (‡) . . . . \ddashint (= ) . . . .... \ddddot ( ) . . . . ... \dddot ( ) . . . . . \dddtstile ( \DDohne (D ) / D \ddot (¨) . . \ddotdot ( ) . \ddots ( . . ) \ddots ( ) . \ddststile ( \ddtstile (

H

G)

.... . .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . 74 . . 74 . . 91 . . 76 . . 94 . . 34 . . 69 . . 69 . . 69 . . 69 . . 79 8, 103 . . 20 . . 93 . . 56 . . 56

) . . . . . . . . . 34 . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 . . . . . . . . . 23, 61 . . . . . . . . . 61, 94 . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 ) . . . . . . . . . 34 ) . . . . . . . . . . 34

. . 16 . . 59 . . 13 8, 103 . . 20 . . 50 . . 50 . . 76 . . 69 . see

) . . . . . . . . 34 \ddttstile ( \DeclareFontFamily . . . . . . 98 \DeclareFontShape . . . . . . . 98 \DeclareMathOperator . . . . 99 \DeclareMathOperator* . . . 99 \declareslashed . . . . . . . . 92 definite-description operator ( ) . . . . . . . . . 90 definition symbols . . . . . 20, 95 \deg (deg) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \degree (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \degree (°) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 degrees . . . . . see \textdegree \DEL ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \Del ( Del ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \Deleatur . . . . . see \Denarius delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . 52–56 text-mode . . . . . . . . . . 56 variable-sized . . . . . 53–55 wavy-line . . . . . . . . 54, 55 \Delta (∆) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \delta (δ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \deltaup (δ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 demisemiquaver . . . see musical symbols \Denarius (¢) . . . . . . . . . . 17 \dental (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 g derivitive, partial . see \partial \descnode ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 68 \det (det) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \devadvantage (t) . . . . . . . 82

\DH (Ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 102 \DH (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \dh (ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 102 \dh ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 diacritics . . . . . . . . see accents \diaeresis (a) . . . . . . . . . . 16 ¨ diæresis . . . . . . . . see accents \diagdown (å) . . . . . . . . . . 63 \diagdown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 63 \diagdown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \diagonal (G) . . . . . . . . . . 82 \diagup (ä) . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \diagup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \diagup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \diameter (s) . . . . . . . . . . 63 \diameter ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 20 \diameter ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \diameter ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 78 \Diamond ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \Diamond ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \Diamond ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \diamond ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \diamond ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \diamondbackslash ( ) . . . . 24 \Diamondblack ( ) . . . . . . . 63 \diamonddiamond ( ) . . . . . 24 \Diamonddot ( ) . . . . . . . . . 63 \diamonddot ( ) . . . . . . . . . 24 \DiamonddotLeft ( ) . . . . 42 \Diamonddotleft ( ) . . . . 42 \DiamonddotRight ( ) . . . . 42 \Diamonddotright ( ) . . . . 42 \diamonddots ( ) . . . . . 23, 61 \DiamondLeft ( ) . . . . . . . 42 \Diamondleft ( ) . . . . . . . 42 \diamondminus ( ) . . . . . . . 24 \diamondplus ( ) . . . . . . . . 24 \DiamondRight ( ) . . . . . . 42 \Diamondright ( ) . . . . . . 42 diamonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 diamonds (suit) . . . . . 62–64, 77 \DiamondShadowA ( ) . . . . . 75 \DiamondShadowB ( ) . . . . . 75 \DiamondShadowC ( ) . . . . . 75 \Diamondshape ( ) . . . . . . . 75 \diamondslash ( ) . . . . . . . 24 \DiamondSolid ( ) . . . . . . . 75 \diamondsuit (♦) . . . . . . . . 62 \diamondsuit ( ) . . . . . . . . 63 \diamondtimes ( ) . . . . . . . 24 \diamondvert ( ) . . . . . . . . 24 \diatop . . . . . . . . . . . . 16, 94 \diaunder . . . . . . . . . . . 16, 94 dice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81, 90 dictionary symbols . . . 10–13, 84 dictsym (package) . 84, 104, 105 died . . . . . . . . . see \textdied differential, inexact . see \dbar \digamma ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 49 digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 LCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Mayan . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

T

¥ ¦ §

p

old-style . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 segmented . . . . . . . . . . 67 \dim (dim) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \ding . . . . . . . . . . 9, 71–75, 77 dingautolist . . . . . . . . . . . 73 dingbat (package) 72, 77, 88, 104, 105 dingbat symbols . . . . . . 71–77 \Diple (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \diple (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 · \Diple* (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 · · \diple* (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 · Dirac notation . . . . . . . . . . . 53 discount . . . see \textdiscount discretionary hyphen . . . . . 103 disjoint union . . . . . . . . . . . 20 disjunction . . . . . . . . see \vee \displaystyle . . 92, 93, 95, 99 ditto marks . see \textquotedbl \div (÷) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \div (÷) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \divdot (£) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \divideontimes () . . . . . . 22 \divideontimes ( ) . . . . . . 21 \divides (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \divides ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 division . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 57 non-commutative . . . . . 60 division times . . . . . . . . . . see \divideontimes divorced . . . see \textdivorced \DJ (Ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \dj (đ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \dlbari (@) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \DLE ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \dlsh (ê) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \dndtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 34 \dnststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 34 \dntstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \dnttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . 35 does not divide . . . . see \nmid does not exist . . . see \nexists \Dohne (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 / dollar . . . . . . see \textdollar dollar sign . . . . . . . . . . . see \$ \Dontwash (Ý) . . . . . . . . . . 80 \dot ( ˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 dot symbols . . . . . 8, 61, 62, 94 · \dotcup (∪) . . . . . . . . . 20, 91 \dotdiv (¡) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Doteq . . . . . . . see \doteqdot \Doteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \doteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \doteq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \doteqdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 30 \doteqdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 dotless i (ı) math mode . . . . . . 56, 62 text mode . . . . . . . . . . 13 dotless j () math mode . . . . . . 56, 62 text mode . . . . . . . . . . 13

\dotmedvert ( ) . . . . . . . . . 23 \dotminus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \dotplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \dotplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \dots (. . . ) . . . . . . . . . . 8, 103 dots (ellipses) . . . . 8, 61, 62, 94 \dotsb (· · · ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \dotsc (. . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \dotseq () . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \dotsi (· · ·¯ . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 ) \dotsint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 28 \dotsm (· · · ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \dotso (. . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 ˙ dotted union (∪) . . . . . . . . . 99 .. \dottedtilde (˜) . . . . . . . . 15 a \dottimes (¢) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \double . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \doublebarwedge () . . . . . 22 \doublebarwedge ( ) . . . . . 21 \doublecap . . . . . . . . see \Cap \doublecap (’) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \doublecap ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \doublecup . . . . . . . . see \Cup \doublecup (“) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \doublecup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \doublecurlyvee ( ) . . . . . 23 \doublecurlywedge ( ) . . . . 23 \doublefrown ( ) . . . . . . . . 48 \doublefrowneq ( ) . . . . . . . 48 \doublepawns (d) . . . . . . . . 82 \doublesmile ( ) . . . . . . . . 48 \doublesmileeq ( ) . . . . . . . 48 \doublesqcap ( ) . . . . . . . . 23 \doublesqcup ( ) . . . . . . . . 23 \doubletilde (˜) . . . . . . . . 15 a \doublevee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \doublewedge ( ) . . . . . . . . 23 \DOWNarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 78 \Downarrow (⇓) . . . . . . . 41, 53 \Downarrow (⇓) . . . . . . . . . . 43 \downarrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 \downarrow (↓) . . . . . . . 41, 53 \downarrow (↓) . . . . . . . . . . 43 \downarrowtail ( ) . . . . . . . 43 \downbracketfill . . . . . . . . 95 \downdownarrows (Ó) . . . . . 42 \downdownarrows ( ) . . . . . 41 \downdownarrows ( ) . . . . . 43 \downdownharpoons (Û) . . . . 43 Downes, Michael J. . . . 49, 106 \downfilledspoon ( ) . . . . . 47 \downfootline ( ) . . . . . . . . 32 \downfree ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \downharpoonccw ( ) . . . . . . 46 \downharpooncw ( ) . . . . . . . 46 \downharpoonleft (å) . . . . . 43 \downharpoonleft ( ) . . . . . 41 \downharpoonright (ç) . . . . 43 \downharpoonright ( ) . . . . 41 \downlsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . 43 \downmapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . 43 \downModels ( ) . . . . . . . . . 32 \downmodels ( ) . . . . . . . . . 32

113

\downp ( ) . . . . . . . . . \downparenthfill . . . \downpitchfork (⫛) . . \downpropto ( ) . . . . \downrsquigarrow ( ) \downslice ( ) . . . . . \downspoon (⫰) . . . . . \downt ( ) . . . . . . . . . \downtherefore (∵) . \downtouparrow ( ) . \downuparrows ( ) . . \downuparrows ( ) . . \downupharpoons ( ) . \downupharpoons (⥯) . \downVdash (⍑) . . . . . \downvdash (⊤) . . . . . \downY ( ) . . . . . . . . \drsh ( ) . . . . . . . . . \DS (S ) . . . . . . . . . . . S \Ds (s . . . . . . . . . . . s) \dsaeronautical (a) \dsagricultural (G) \dsarchitectural (A) \dsbiological (B) . . \dschemical (C) . . . . \dscommercial (c) . . \dsdtstile ( ) . . . dsfont (package) . . . \dsheraldical (H) . \dsjuridical (J) . . \dsliterary (L) . . . \dsmathematical (M) \dsmedical (m) . . . . \dsmilitary (X) . . . \dsrailways (R) . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. ..

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 23, .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

16 95 47 32 43 24 47 16 61 42 42 43 43 46 32 32 23 42 79 79 84 84 84 84 84 84

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . 35 65, 104 . . . . 84 . . . . 84 . . . . 84 . . . . 84 . . . . 84 . . . . 84 . . . . 84

\EightFlowerPetalRemoved ( ) . . . . . . . . . 74 eighth note see musical symbols \eighthnote (♪) . . . . . . . . . 78 \eighthnote ( ) . . . . . . . . . 78 \EightStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 74 \EightStarBold ( ) . . . . . . 74 \EightStarConvex ( ) . . . . 74 \EightStarTaper ( ) . . . . . 74 \ejective ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 12 electrical symbols . . . . . . . . 67 electromotive force (E) . . . . see alphabets, math \ell ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Ellipse ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 75 ellipses (dots) . . . . 8, 61, 62, 94 ellipses (ovals) . . . . . . . . . . . 75 \EllipseShadow ( ) . . . . . . 75 \EllipseSolid ( ) . . . . . . . 75 \EM (␙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \Email (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \Emailct (z) . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \emgma ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \emptyset (∅) . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \emptyset (∅) . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \End ( End ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 end of proof . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \ending (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \eng ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 engineering symbols . . . . 67, 70 \engma ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \ENQ (␅) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 entails . . . . . . . . . . see \models \Enter ( Enter ) . . . . . . . . . 69 \Envelope ( ) . . \enya ( ) . . . . . \EOT (␄) . . . . . . epsdice (package) \epsdice ( \epsi ( ) . . . . . \epsilon ( ) . . . \epsilonup ( ) . \eqbump ( ) . . . . \eqbumped ( ) . \eqcirc ( ) . . . \eqcirc ( ) . . . \eqcirc (≖) . . . . \Eqcolon ( ) . . \Eqcolon (−::) . . \eqcolon ( ) . . \eqcolon (−:) . . \eqcolon ( ) . . \eqdot (⩦) . . . . \eqfrown ( ) . . . \Eqqcolon ( ) . \Eqqcolon (=::) . \eqqcolon (=:) . \eqqcolon ( ) . \eqsim ( ) . . . . \eqsim (≂) . . . . \eqslantgtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 . . . . . . . 12 . . . . . . . 69 81, 104, 105 ) . . . . . 81 . . . . . . . . 12 . . . . . . . . 49 . . . . . . . . 50 . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . 31 . . . . . . . . 31 . . . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . 31 . . . . . . . . 34 . . . . . . . . 31 . . . . . . . . 34 . . . . . . . . 31 . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . 48 . . . . . . . . 31 . . . . . . . . 34 . . . . . . . . 34 . . . . . . . . 31 . . . . . . . . 31 . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . 38

\dsststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \dstechnical (T) . . . . . . . . 84 \dststile ( \dsttstile ( \dtdtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 35 ) . . . . . . . . 35 ) . . . . . . . . . 35

\dtimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \dtimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \dtststile ( \dttstile ( \dtttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 ) . . . . . . . . . . 35 ) . . . . . . . . 35

DVI . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18, 69, 97 \dz ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 E e (esvect package option) \e (e ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ε-TEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Earth ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \Earth (Ê) . . . . . . . . . . \earth (♁) . . . . . . . . . . \Ecommerce () . . . . . .

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. . . . . . .

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59 51 53 68 68 68 17

\EightAsterisk ( ) . . . . . . 74 \EightFlowerPetal ( ) . . . 74

\eqslantgtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . 37 \eqslantgtr (⪖) . . . . . . . . . 39 \eqslantless ( ) . . . . . . . . 38 \eqslantless ( ) . . . . . . . . 37 \eqslantless (⪕) . . . . . . . . 39 \eqsmile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \equal (=) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \equal (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \equalclosed ( ) . . . . . . . . 32 \equalsfill . . . . . . . . . 20, 95 equidecomposable . . . . . . . . 91 equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . see \rightleftharpoons \equiv (≡) . . . . . . . . . . 20, 30 \equiv (≡) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . see \equiv, \leftrightarrow, and \threesim \equivclosed ( ) . . . . . . . . 32 \er ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 es-zet . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \ss \ESC (␛) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \Esc ( Esc ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 escapable characters . . . . . . . 8 \esh ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \esh ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 esint (package) . . . . . . . 28, 104 \Estatically (J) . . . . . . . . 70 estimated . see \textestimated esvect (package) . . . . . . 59, 104 \eta (η) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \etaup (η) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \ETB (␗) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \etc (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \eth (ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \eth ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \eth ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \ETX (␃) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 eufrak (package) . . . . . . . . . 65 Euler Roman . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \EUR (e ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \EURcr (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \EURdig (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \EURhv (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \euro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 euro signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 blackboard bold . . . . . . 65 eurosym (package) . 17, 104, 105 \EURtm (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 euscript (package) . 65, 104, 105 evaluated at . . . . . . see \vert evil spirits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 exclusive or . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \exists ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \exists (∃) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \exists (∃) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \exp (exp) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Explosionsafe (`) . . . . . . 70 extarrows (package) 60, 104, 105 extensible accents 57–60, 95–96 extensible arrows . . . . . . 57–60

114

extensible symbols, creating 94– 96 extensible tildes . . . . . . . 57, 59 extension characters . . . 48, 49 extpfeil (package) . . 60, 104, 105 extraipa (package) . . . . 15, 104 \eye ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 \EyesDollar (¦) . . . . . . . . . 17

E

F f (esvect package option) . . . 59 faces . . . . . . . . . . 69, 78, 80, 85 \fallingdotseq ( ) . . . . . . 31 \fallingdotseq ( ) . . . . . . 30 \fallingdotseq ( ) . . . . . . . 32 \FallingEdge ( ) . . . . . . . . 67 \fatbslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 21 \fatsemi ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \fatslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \FAX (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \fax (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \Faxmachine (v) . . . . . . . . 69 fc (package) . . . . . . . . . . 9, 13 fclfont (package) . . . . . . . . 104 feet . . . . . . . . . see \prime and \textquotesingle \FEMALE () . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \Female (~) . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \female (♀) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \FemaleFemale („) . . . . . . . 70 \FemaleMale (…) . . . . . . . . . 70 . \Ferli (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 . \Fermi (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 fermions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 feyn (package) . . . . 70, 104, 105 Feynman slashed character notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Feynman-diagram symbols . . 70 \feyn{a} (—) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \feyn{c} (™) . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \feyn{fd} ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \feyn{fl} (n) . . . . . . . . 70

3

\feyn{fs} (e) \feyn{fu} (¡) \feyn{fv} (¢) . \feyn{f} (f) \feyn{glu} (w) \feyn{gl} (o) . \feyn{gu} (¥) \feyn{gvs} (§) \feyn{gv} (¦) . \feyn{g} (g) \feyn{hd} () \feyn{hs} (i) \feyn{hu} () \feyn{h} (h) \feyn{ms} (l) \feyn{m} (m) \feyn{p} (p) \feyn{x} (x) . .

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70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70

\FF ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 fge (package) . 47, 52, 56, 62, 64, 104, 105 fge-digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \fgeA (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \fgebackslash (K) . . . . . . . . 64 \fgebaracute (M) . . . . . . . . 64 \fgebarcap (O) . . . . . . . . . . 64 \fgec (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \fgecap (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \fgecapbar (Q) . . . . . . . . . . 64 \fgecup (N) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \fgecupacute (R) . . . . . . . . 64 \fgecupbar (P) . . . . . . . . . . 64 \fged (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \fgee (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \fgeeszett () . . . . . . . . . . 52 \fgeeta () . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \fgeF (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \fgef (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \fgeinfty (i) . . . . . . . . . . 64 \fgelangle (h) . . . . . . . . . . 64 \fgelb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \fgelb () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \fgeleftB (D) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \fgeleftC (C) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \fgeN () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \fgeoverU () . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \fgerightarrow (!) . . . . . 47 \fgerightB (B) . . . . . . . . . . 52 \fges (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \fgestruckone (1) . . . . . . . . 62 \fgestruckzero (0) . . . . . . . 62 \fgeU (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \fgeuparrow (") . . . . . . . . . 47 \fgeupbracket (L) . . . . . . . 64 \FHBOLOGO (f) . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \FHBOlogo (F) . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \file (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \FilledBigCircle ( ) . . . . 75 \FilledBigDiamondshape ( ) 75 \FilledBigSquare ( ) . . . . 75 \FilledBigTriangleDown ( ) 75 \FilledBigTriangleLeft ( ) 75 \FilledBigTriangleRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . 75 \FilledBigTriangleUp ( ) . 75 \FilledCircle ( ) . . . . . . . 75 \FilledCloud ( ) . . . . . . . . 80 \filleddiamond ( ) . . . . . . . 24 \FilledDiamondShadowA ( ) 75 \FilledDiamondShadowC ( ) 75 \FilledDiamondshape ( ) . . 75 \FilledHut ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 81 \filledlargestar ( ) . . . . 74 \filledlozenge ( ) . . . . . . . 74 \filledmedlozenge ( ) . . . . 74 \filledmedsquare ( ) . . . . . 24 \filledmedtriangledown ( ) 24, 40

\filledmedtriangleleft ( ) 24, 40 \filledmedtriangleright ( ) . . . . . . . 24, 40 \filledmedtriangleup ( ) 24, 40 \FilledRainCloud ( ) . . . . 80 \FilledSectioningDiamond ( ) . . . . . . . . . 81 \FilledSmallCircle ( ) . . 75 \FilledSmallDiamondshape ( ) . . . . . . . . . 75 \FilledSmallSquare ( ) . . 75 \FilledSmallTriangleDown ( ) . . . . . . . . . 75 \FilledSmallTriangleLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . . 75 \FilledSmallTriangleRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 \FilledSmallTriangleUp ( ) 75 \FilledSnowCloud ( ) . . . . 80 \FilledSquare ( ) . . . . . . . 75 \filledsquare ( ) . . . . . . . . 24 \FilledSquareShadowA ( ) . 75 \FilledSquareShadowC ( ) . 75

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\filledsquarewithdots ( ) 77 \filledstar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 24 \FilledSunCloud ( ) . . . . . 80 \FilledTriangleDown ( ) . . 75 \filledtriangledown ( ) 24, 40 \FilledTriangleLeft ( ) . . 75 \filledtriangleleft ( ) 24, 40 \FilledTriangleRight ( ) . 75 \filledtriangleright ( ) 24, 40 \FilledTriangleUp ( ) . . . 75 \filledtriangleup ( ) . 24, 40 \FilledWeakRainCloud ( ) . 80 finger, pointing . . . . . . see fists \finpartvoice (a») . . . . . . . 15 ˇ \finpartvoiceless (a») . . . . 15 ˚ \fint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 ffl \fint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Finv (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Finv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Fire ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 fish hook . . . . . . see \strictif fists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \fivedots ( ) . . . . . . . . 23, 61 \FiveFlowerOpen ( ) . . . . . 74 \FiveFlowerPetal ( ) . . . . 74 \FiveStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 74 \FiveStarCenterOpen ( ) . . 74 \FiveStarConvex ( ) . . . . . 74 \FiveStarLines ( ) . . . . . . 74 \FiveStarOpen ( ) . . . . . . . 74 \FiveStarOpenCircled ( ) . 74

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\FiveStarOpenDotted ( ) . . 74 \FiveStarOutline ( ) . . . . 74 \FiveStarOutlineHeavy ( ) 74 \FiveStarShadow ( ) . . . . . 74 \Fixedbearing (%) . . . . . . . 70 . \fixedddots ( . . ) . . . . . . . . 61 . \fixedvdots (. . . . . . . . . . . 61 .) fixmath (package) . . . . . . . 100 \fj (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \Flag ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \flap (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \flapr (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \flat ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 62, 78 \flat ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \Flatsteel (–) . . . . . . . . . . 70 fletched arrows . . . . . . . 47, 71 florin . . . . . . see \textflorin flowers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Flynn, Peter . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \Fog ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 font encodings . . . . . 7, 100, 103 7-bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 8-bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 ASCII . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 document . . . . . . . . . . 103 Latin 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 104 limiting scope of . . . . . . . 7 LY1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 OT1 7, 9, 13, 94, 100, 101, 103 OT2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 T1 . . . . . 7, 9, 13, 101, 103 T4 . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 13, 16 T5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 13 TS1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 fontdef.dtx (file) . . . . . 90, 94 fontenc (package) . . 7, 9, 13, 103 \fontencoding . . . . . . . . . . . 7 fonts Calligra . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Charter . . . . . . . . . 17, 29 Computer Modern . 87, 89, 101 Courier . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Garamond . . . . . . . 17, 29 Helvetica . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Symbol . . . . . . . . . 50, 90 Times Roman . . . . 17, 89 Type 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Utopia . . . . . . . . . . 17, 29 Zapf Chancery . . . . . . . 65 Zapf Dingbats . . . . 71, 73 \fontsize . . . . . . . . . . . 87, 89 \Football (o) . . . . . . . . . . . 76 \forall (∀) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \forall (∀) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Force (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \Forward (·) . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \ForwardToEnd (¸) . . . . . . . 79 \ForwardToIndex (¹) . . . . 79

` a b d

\FourAsterisk ( ) . . . . . . . 74 \FourClowerOpen ( ) . . . . . 74 \FourClowerSolid ( ) . . . . 74 ) . . . . . . . . . 35 Fourier transform (F) . . . . see alphabets, math \FourStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 74 \FourStarOpen ( ) . . . . . . . 74 \fourth (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 fraktur . . . see alphabets, math Frege logic symbols 47, 52, 62, 64 \frown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \frown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 frown symbols . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \frowneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \frowneqsmile ( ) . . . . . . . 48 \frownie ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \frownsmile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 48 \frownsmileeq ( ) . . . . . . . 48 \Frowny (§) . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \FS ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \FullFHBO (Ž) . . . . . . . . . . 80 \fullmoon (w) . . . . . . . . . . 68 \fullmoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 68 \fullnote ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \fourier ( c \Fourier (

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c . . . . . . . . . 35 )

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G \G (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Ÿ g (esvect package option) . . . 59 \Game (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Game ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Gamma (Γ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \gamma (γ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \gammaup (γ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Ganz (¯ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \GaPa (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Garamond (font) . . . . . . 17, 29 \gcd (gcd) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \ge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \geq \Gemini (‚) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \Gemini (â) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \gemini ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 genealogical symbols . . . . . . 78 \geneuro (A ) . . . . . . . . . . . 17 C \geneuronarrow (B ) . . . . . . 17 C \geneurowide (C ) . . . . . . . . 17 C gensymb (package) . . . . . . . . 67 \Gentsroom (x) . . . . . . . . . . 76 geometric shapes . . . . . . 74–76 \geq (¥) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \geq (≥) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 38 \geq (≥) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \geqclosed ( ) . . . . . . . 39, 40 \geqdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \geqq (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \geqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \geqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \geqslant ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 37 \geqslant ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \geqslantdot ( ) . . . . . . . . 39

german (keystroke package option) . . . . . . . . . 69 \gets . . . . . . . see \leftarrow \gg (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \gg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \ggcurly (Ï) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \ggg (Ï) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \ggg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \ggg ( vs. Ï) . . . . . . . . . 88 \ggg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \gggtr . . . . . . . . . . . see \ggg \gggtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 ghosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Gibbons, Jeremy . . . . . . . . 106 \gimel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \gimel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \girl (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \glotstop (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \glottal (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \gluon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 67 gluons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \gnapprox (Ë) . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gnapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 37 \gnapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \gneq (­) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \gneqq (³) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \gneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \gnsim (Å) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gnsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \gnsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Go boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Go stones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 goban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 \Goofy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 graphics (package) . . . . . . . . 90 graphicx (package) . . . 16, 87, 90 \grave (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \gravis (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 ` greater-than signs . . . . . . . see inequalities Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49, 50 blackboard bold . . . . . . 65 bold . . . . . . . . . . 49, 100 upright . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Gregorio, Enrico . . . . . . 91, 92 \GS ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \gtr (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \gtrapprox (Ç) . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gtrapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . 37 \gtrapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 39 \gtrclosed ( ) . . . . . . . 39, 40 \gtrdot (Í) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gtrdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \gtrdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \gtreqless (½) . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gtreqless ( ) . . . . . . . . . 37 \gtreqless ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 39 \gtreqlessslant ( ) . . . . . . 39 \gtreqqless (¿) . . . . . . . . . 38

116

\gtreqqless ( ) . . . . . . . . . 37 \gtreqqless ( ) \gtrless (») . . \gtrless ( ) . . \gtrless ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 38 37 39

\HB (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \Hb (b) . . . \HBar ( ) . . \hbar ( ) . . \hbipropto ( \HC (C) . . . .

\Hman (ˇ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \Hmillion (7) . . . . . . . . . . 84 \Hms (´) \HN (N) \Hn (n) \HO (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 84 84 84

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\gtrneqqless ( ) . . . . . . . . 39 \gtrsim (Á) . . . . . . \gtrsim ( ) . . . . . . \gtrsim ( ) . . . . . . . \guillemotleft («) . \guillemotright (») \guilsinglleft (‹) . \guilsinglright (›) \gvertneqq (µ) . . . . \gvertneqq ( ) . . . \gvertneqq ( ) . . . . . . . 38 . . . 37 . . . 39 9, 102 9, 102 9, 103 9, 103 . . . 38 . . . 37 . . . 39

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\Hc (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \hcrossing ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \HCthousand (6) . . . . . . . . 84 \HD (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \Hd (d) . . . . . . . . . \hdotdot ( ) . . . . . . \hdots ( ) . . . . . . . \Hdual (¸) . . . . . . . \HE (E) . . . . . . . . . \He (e) . . . . . . . . . heads . . . . . . . . . . . \Heart (Œ) . . . . . . . hearts (suit) . . . . . . \heartsuit (♥) . . . . \heartsuit ( ) . . . . Hebrew . . . . . . . . . . Helvetica (font) . . . . \HERMAPHRODITE (€) \Hermaphrodite (}) \hexagon ( ) . . . . . \Hexasteel (’) . . . . \hexstar ( ) . . . . . \HF (F) . . . . . . . . . . \HF (F) . . . . . . . . \Hf (f) . . . . . . . . \hfil . . . . . . . . . . . \HG (G) . . . . . . . . . . \Hg (g) . . . . . . . . . \HH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 . 23, 61 . . . . 61 . . . . 84 . . . . 84 . . . . 84 see faces . . . . . 80 62–64, 77 . . . . . 62 . . . . . 63 . . 50, 65 . . . . . 17 . . . . . 70 . . . . . 70 . . . . . 74 . . . . . 70 . . . . . 73 . . . . . 67 . . . . . 84 . . . . . 84 . . . . . 92 . . . . . 84 . . . . . 84 . . . . . 79 . . . . . .

\Ho (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Holt, Alexander . . . . . . . 1, 104 \holter ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 60

holtpolt (package) . . . . 60, 104 \hom (hom) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Home ( Home ) . . . . . . . . . 69

H \H (˝) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a h (esvect package option) \h ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \HA (A) . . . . . . . . . . .

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13 59 13 84

\Ha (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 h´ˇek . . . . . . . . . . see accents ac \Hail ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \Halb (˘ “ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 half note . . see musical symbols \HalfCircleLeft ( ) . . . . . . 75 \HalfCircleRight ( ) . . . . . 75 \HalfFilledHut ( ) . . . . . . 81 \halflength (p) . . . . . . . . . 16 \halfnote ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \HalfSun ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Hamiltonian (H) see alphabets, math \HandCuffLeft ( ) . . . . . . . 72 \HandCuffLeftUp ( ) . . . . . 72 \HandCuffRight ( ) . . . . . . 72 \HandCuffRightUp ( ) . . . . 72 \HandLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 72 \HandLeftUp ( ) . . . . . . . . 72 \HandPencilLeft ( ) . . . . . 72 \HandRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . 72 \HandRightUp ( ) . . . . . . . 72 hands . . . . . . . . . . . . . see fists \Handwash (Ü) . . . . . . . . . . 80 \HaPa (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 harmony (package) . 79, 104, 105 harpoons . . . . . . . . . . 41, 43, 46 \hash (5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 hash mark . . . . . . . . . . . see \# \hat (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \hateq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \hausaB (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \hausab (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \hausaD („) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \hausad (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \hausaK (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \hausak (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 

s

1

r 

... \Hone (|) . . . . . . . . . . \hookb (¨) . . . . . . . . \hookd () . . . . . . . . \hookd (h) . . . . . . . . \hookdownminus (⌐) . \hookg ()) . . . . . . . . \hookh (6) . . . . . . . . \hookheng (7) . . . . . . \hookleftarrow (← ) . \hookleftarrow ( ) . \hookrevepsilon (&) . \hookrightarrow ( →) \hookrightarrow ( ) \hookupminus ( ) . . . Horn, Berthold . . . . . \HP (P) . . . . . . . . . \Hp (p) . . . . . . . . . . . \Hplural (˙) . . . . .

   \Homer (¤)

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85 84 12 12 12 63 12 12 12 41 44 12 41 44 63 66 84 84 84  

   "

\HH (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \Hh (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \Hhundred (3) . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \HI (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \Hi (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \Hibl (˝) . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \Hibp (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \Hibs (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \Hibw (˜) . . . . hieroglf (package) hieroglyphics . . . Hilbert space (H) math \hill (a) . . . . .
{

\Hplus (+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \HQ (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \Hq (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \Hquery (?) \HR (R) . . \Hr (r) . \HS (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 84 84 84 



\Hs (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \Hscribe (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \Hslash (/) \hslash ( ) \Hsv (˚) . \HT (T) . . \HT ( ) . . . \Ht (t) . . \Hten (2) . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 51 84 84 69 84 84

. . . . . . . . . 84 . 84, 104, 105 . . . . . . . . . 84 see alphabets, . . . . . . . . . 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 84 84 84 93 84 84 84

\HJ (J) . . . \Hj (j) . . \HK (K) . . . \Hk (k) √. . \hksqrt ( \HL (L) . . \Hl (l) . . \HM (M) . .

. . . . ) .. .. ..

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\Hthousand (4) . . . . . . . . . . 84 \Htongue (˘) . . . . . . . . . . 84 \HU (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \Hu (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Hungarian umlaut . see accents \Hut ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 

\Hm (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

\HV (V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

117

\Hv (v) . \hv (4) . . \Hvbar (|) \HW (W) . .

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84 12 84 84

\Hw (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \HX (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \Hx (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \HXthousand (5) . . . . . . . . . 84 \HY (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \Hy (y) . . . . . . . . . hyphen, discretionary \HZ (Z) . . . . . . . . . \Hz (z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 103 . 84 . 84

I \i (ı) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \ialign . . . . . . . . . . 91, 93, 95 \ibar (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 i IBM PC . . . . . . . . . . . 69, 101 Icelandic staves . . . . . . . . . . 85 \IceMountain ( ) . . . . . . . . 81 . \iddots ( . . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \iddots () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \idotsint ( ··· ) . . . . . . . 25 \idotsint ( ) . . . . . . . . 27 \idotsint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 29 \iff . see \Longleftrightarrow ifsym (package) . 67, 75, 80, 81, 88, 90, 104, 105 igo (package) . . . . . . . . 76, 104 \igocircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 76 \igocircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 76 \igocross ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 76 \igocross ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 76 \igonone ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 76 \igonone ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 76 \igosquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . 76 \igosquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . 76 \igotriangle ( ) . . . . . . . . 76 \igotriangle ( ) . . . . . . . . 76 \iiiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . 25 \iiiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 ˇ \iiiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \iiiint µ ) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 ( \iiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \iiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \iiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . 25, 27 ˝ \iiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \iiint ´ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 ( \iint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \iint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \iint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 27 ˜ \iint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \iint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \Im ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \im (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \imath (ı) . . . . . . . . . . . 51, 56 \impliedby see \Longleftarrow

"

} } | |     ~ ~

 

\implies see \Longrightarrow and \vdash impulse train . . . . . . . . see sha \in (€) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \in (∈) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \in (∈) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \in (∈) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 inches . . . . . . . see \second and \textquotedbl \incoh (˚) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 independence probabilistic . . . . . . . . . 93 statistical . . . . . . . . . . . 93 stochastic . . . . . see \bot \independent (⊥ . . . . . . . . 93 ⊥) \Industry (I) . . . . . . . . . . 76 inequalities . . . . . . . . . 8, 37–39 inexact differential . . see \dbar \inf (inf) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 infinity (∞) . . . . . . . see \infty \Info (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 information symbols . . . . . . 76 informator symbols . . . . . . . 82 \infty (V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \infty (∞) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \infty (∞) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \inipartvoice (a) . . . . . . . 15 –ˇ \inipartvoiceless (a) . . . . 15 – ˚ \injlim (inj lim) . . . . . . . . . 49 \inplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \Ins ( Ins ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 ³ \int ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \int ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \int ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \int (∫) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \intclockwise ( ) . . . . . . . 29 integers (Z) see alphabets, math integrals . . . . . 25–29, 63, 92–93 integrals (wasysym package option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \intercal ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \intercal ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \interleave ( ) . . . . . . . . . 21 intersection . . . . . . . . see \cap \Interval ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 81 \inva ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \invamp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \invbackneg ( ) . . . . . . . . . 63 \invdiameter ( ) . . . . . . . . 78 \inve ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \InversTransformHoriz ( ) 35

\invscr (u) . . . . . . \invscripta (£) . . . \invv (¤) . . . . . . . . \invw () . . . . . . . . \invy (’) . . . . . . . . \iota (ι) . . . . . . . . . \iotaup (ι) . . . . . . . \ipagamma (2) . . . . . \IroningI (¯) . . . . \IroningII (°) . . . \IroningIII (±) . . irony mark (? ) . . . . . \Irritant ( ) . . . . \ismodeledby (=|) . . ISO character entities isoent (package) . . . . 

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12 12 12 12 12 49 50 12 80 80 80 90 81 90 103 103

J \j () . . . . . . . . \JackStar ( ) . \JackStarBold ( Jewish star . . . . \jmath () . . . . . \Joch ( ) . . . . . \Join ( ) . . . . . \Join ( ) . . . . . \joinrel . . . . . \Jupiter (i) . . \Jupiter (Å) . . . \jupiter ( ) . .

P

Q

&

.. .. ) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

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. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . 13 . . . 74 . . . 74 73, 74 51, 56 . . . 81 . . . 30 . . . 23 . . . 90 . . . 68 . . . 68 . . . 68

™

\InversTransformVert ( ) . inverted symbols . 10–12, 16, \invf (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \invglotstop (d) . . . . . . . . \invh (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \invlegr (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . \invm (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \invneg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \invneg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \invr (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

¡ £

K \k ( ˛) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \kappa (κ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \kappaup (κ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \ker (ker) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 ket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \Keyboard (Ï) . . . . . . . . . . 69 keyboard symbols . . . . . . . . 69 keys, computer . . . . . . . . . . 69 keystroke (package) 69, 104, 105 \keystroke ( ) . . . . . . . . 69 king . . . . . . . see chess symbols knight . . . . . . see chess symbols Knuth, Donald E. . . 7, 100, 106 symbols by . . . . . . . 76, 79 \Kr ( l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 ) \kreuz ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \kside (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Kutline (R) . . . . . . . . . . . 71 L \L (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \l (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \labdentalnas (R) . . . . . . . 11 \labvel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \Ladiesroom (y) . . . . . . . . . 76 Lagrangian (L) . see alphabets, math \Lambda (Λ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \lambda (λ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \lambdabar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 63

35 90 12 12 12 12 12 30 63 12

118

\lambdaslash ( ) \lambdaup (λ) . . Lamport, Leslie . \land . . . . . . % . . \landdownint ( )

. . . . . . . . 63 . . . . . . . . . 50 . . . . . 104, 106 . . . see \wedge . . . . . . . . 28

\landdownint ( ) . . . . . . . . 29 # \landupint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 28 \landupint ( ) \Langle (<) . . \lAngle ( ) . . . \langle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 . . . 65 . . . 55 20, 53

\langle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \langlebar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 54 \laplace ( c Laplace transform (L) . . . . see alphabets, math Laplacian (∆) . . . . . see \Delta Laplacian ( 2 ) . . . . see \nabla \largecircle ( ) . . . . . . . . 74 \largediamond ( ) . . . . . . 74 \largelozenge ( ) . . . . . . . 74 \Laplace ( s

c . . . . . . . . . 35 ) s . . . . . . . . . 35 )

\largepencil (

W)

. . . . . . . 72

\largepentagram ( ) . . . . . 74 \largesquare ( ) . . . . . . . . 74 \largestar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 74 \largestarofdavid ( ) . . . 74 \largetriangledown ( ) . . 40 \largetriangleleft ( ) . . 40 \largetriangleright ( ) . 40 \largetriangleup ( ) . . . . 40 \LArrow ( ← ) . . . . . . . . . . 69 \larrowfill . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 \Laserbeam (a) . . . . . . . . 70 A L TEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 7, 25, 49, 53, 61, 62, 71, 82, 87, 90–96, 99–101, 103, 104, 106 A L TEX 2ε . 1, 7, 8, 18–20, 30, 36, 41, 57, 61, 62, 66, 87, 88, 90, 93, 94, 98–103, 106 latexsym (package) 20, 30, 36, 41, 62, 87, 104, 105 \latfric (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Latin 1 . . . . . . 7, 101, 103, 104 table . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 laundry symbols . . . . . . . . . 80 \Lbag ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \lbag ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \lbrace ( ) \Lbrack ([) . \lBrack ([[) . LCD digits . \lCeil ( ) . . \lceil ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 65 55 67 55 53

\lceil ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \lcirclearrowdown ( ) . . . 43 \lcirclearrowleft ( ) . . . 43 \lcirclearrowright ( ) . . 43 \lcirclearrowup ( ) . . . . . 43 \lcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . . 29 \lcirclerightint ( ) . . . . . 29 \lcm (lcm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 \lcorners (v) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \lcurvearrowdown ( ) . . . . . 43 \lcurvearrowleft ( ) . . . . 43 \lcurvearrowne ( ) . . . . . . 43 \lcurvearrownw ( ) . . . . . . 43 \lcurvearrowright ( ) . . . . 43 \lcurvearrowse ( ) . . . . . . 43 \lcurvearrowsw ( ) . . . . . . 43 \lcurvearrowup ( ) . . . . . . . 43 \ldbrack (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \ldotp (.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \ldots (. . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 \le . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \leq \leadsto ( ) . . . . . . . . 30, 41 \leadsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 44 leaf . . . . . . . . . . see \textleaf \Left . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \left . . . . . . . . . 53, 55, 87, 89 \LEFTarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 78 \Leftarrow (⇐) . . . . . . 20, 41 \Leftarrow (⇐) . . . . . . . . . 43 \leftarrow (Ð) . . . . . . . . . 42 \leftarrow (←) . . . . . . . . . 41 \leftarrow (←) . . . . . . . . . . 43 \leftarrowtail ( ) . . . . . 41 \leftarrowtail ( ) . . . . . . 44 \leftarrowtriangle ( ) . . 42 \leftbarharpoon (Ü) . . . . . 43 \LEFTCIRCLE ( ) . . . . . . . . . 78 \LEFTcircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 78 \Leftcircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 78 \leftevaw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 32 32 23 23 46 46 43 41 43 41 42 41 44 43 44 44 32 32 68

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\leftfilledspoon ( ) \leftfootline ( ) . . . \leftfree ( ) . . . . . . \lefthalfcap ( ) . . . . \lefthalfcup ( ) . . . . \leftharpoonccw ( ) . \leftharpooncw ( ) . . \leftharpoondown (â) \leftharpoondown ( ) \leftharpoonup (à) . . \leftharpoonup ( ) . . \leftleftarrows (Ð) . \leftleftarrows ( ) . \leftleftarrows ( ) . \leftleftharpoons (Ø) \leftlsquigarrow ( ) \leftmapsto ( ) . . . . . \leftModels ( ) . . . . . \leftmodels ( ) . . . . . \leftmoon (u) . . . . . . .

\leftmoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 68 \leftp (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \leftpitchfork ( ) . . . . . . 47 \leftpointright ( ) . . . . 72 \leftpropto (∝) . . . . . . . . . 32 \Leftrightarrow (⇔) . . . . . 41 \Leftrightarrow (⇔) . . . . . 44 \leftrightarrow (Ø) . . . . . 42 \leftrightarrow (↔) . . . . . 41 \leftrightarrow (↔) . . . . . 44 \leftrightarroweq ( ) . . . . 42 \leftrightarrows (Ô) . . . . 42 \leftrightarrows ( ) . . . . 41 \leftrightarrows ( ) . . . . 44 \leftrightarrowtriangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 42 \leftrightharpoon (à) . . . 43 \leftrightharpoondownup ( ) . . . . . . . . . 46 \leftrightharpoons (è) . . 43 \leftrightharpoons ( ) . . 41 \leftrightharpoons ( ) . . . 46 \leftrightharpoonsfill . . . 60 \leftrightharpoonupdown ( ) . . . . . . . . . 46 \Leftrightline ( ) . . . . . . 32 \leftrightline ( ) . . . . . . 32 \leftrightsquigarrow (ú) 42 \leftrightsquigarrow ( ) 41 \leftrightsquigarrow ( ) . 44 \leftrsquigarrow ( ) . . . . 44 \Leftscissors (S) . . . . . . . 71 \leftslice ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 21 \leftslice ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \leftspoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . 47 \leftsquigarrow (ø) . . . . 42 \leftsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . 42 \leftt (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \lefttherefore ( ) . . . 23, 61 \leftthreetimes (6) . . . . . 63 \leftthreetimes ( ) . . . . . 21 \leftthreetimes ( ) . . . . . . 23 \leftthumbsdown ( ) . . . . 72 \leftthumbsup ( ) . . . . . . 72 \lefttorightarrow (ü) . . . 42 \Lefttorque (&) . . . . . . . . 70 \leftturn ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 78 \leftVdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \leftvdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 32

R

D U

\leftwave ( ) \leftY ( ) . legal symbols \legm (T) . . \legr (i) . . \length (q) . \Leo (ä) . . . \leo ( ) . . . \leq (¤) . . . \leq (≤) . . . \leq (≤) . . . \leqclosed ( .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. )

. . . . . . . . . . 55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 8, 18, 102 . . . . . 11 . . . . . 11 . . . . . 16 . . . . . 68 . . . . . 68 . . . . . 38 . . 37, 38 . . . . . 39 . . 39, 40

119

\leqdot ( ) . . . . . . . \leqq (®) . . . . . . . . \leqq ( ) . . . . . . . . \leqq ( ) . . . . . . . . \leqslant ( ) . . . . \leqslant ( ) . . . . . \leqslantdot ( ) . . \less (<) . . . . . . . . less-than signs . . see \lessapprox (Æ) . . . \lessapprox ( ) . . . \lessapprox ( ) . . . \lessclosed ( ) . . . \lessdot (Ì) . . . . . \lessdot ( ) . . . . . \lessdot ( ) . . . . . . \lesseqgtr (¼) . . . . \lesseqgtr ( ) . . . \lesseqgtr ( ) . . . . \lesseqgtrslant ( ) \lesseqqgtr (¾) . . . \lesseqqgtr ( ) \lessgtr (º) . . \lessgtr ( ) . . \lessgtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . 39 . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . 37 . . . . . . 39 . . . . . . 37 . . . . . . 39 . . . . . . 39 . . . . . . 39 inequalities . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . 37 . . . . . . 39 . . . 39, 40 . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . 37 . . . . . . 39 . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . 37 . . . . . . 39 . . . . . . 39 . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 38 37 39

\lesseqqgtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . 37

\lessneqqgtr ( ) . . . . . . . . 39 \lesssim (À) . . . \lesssim ( ) . . . \lesssim ( ) . . . . \Letter ( ) . . . . \Letter (B vs. ) \Letter (B) . . . . letter-like symbols letters . . . . . . . . . barred . . . . . non-ASCII . . slashed . . . . variant Latin . . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . 37 . . . . . . . 39 . . . . . . . 81 . . . . . . . 88 . . . . . . . . 69 . . . . . 51, 52 see alphabets . . . . . . . . 91 ......... 9 . . . . . . . . 92 . . . . . . . . 50

 

\lhookrightarrow ( ) . . . . 44 \lhooksearrow ( ) . . . . . . . 44 \lhookswarrow ( ) . . . . . . . 44 \lhookuparrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 44 \Libra (æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \libra ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Lie derivative (L) see alphabets, math life-insurance symbols . . . . . 95 \lightbulb (A) . . . . . . . . . . 98 lightbulb.mf (file) . . . . 96, 97 lightbulb.sty (file) . . . 98, 99 lightbulb10.2602gf (file) . . 97 lightbulb10.dvi (file) . . . . 97 lightbulb10.mf (file) . . 96–98 lightbulb10.tfm (file) . . . . 98 \Lightning (E vs. ) . . . . . 88 \Lightning ( ) . . . . . . . . . 80 \Lightning (E) . . . . . . . . . . 69 \lightning ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 42 \lightning ( vs. ) . . . . . . 88 \lightning ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 44 \lightning ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 78 \lim (lim) . . . . . . . . . . . 49, 99 \liminf (lim inf) . . . . . 49, 100 limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \limsup (lim sup) . . . . 49, 100 linear implication see \multimap linear logic symbols . . 20, 30, 36 \Lineload (L) . . . . . . . . . . 70 linguistic symbols . . . . . 10–13  

 

\lJoin ( ) \ll (3) . . . \ll ( ) . . \ll ( ) . .

   \Lisa (¢)
. . . . . . . . \llangle ( )

. . . .

. . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

85 31 38 37 39

. . . . . . . . . . . 54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 53 52 52 52

\levaw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \LF ( ) . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \lfilet (7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 7 \lFloor ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \lfloor ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \lfloor ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \lg (lg) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 . \lgroup () . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \lgroup ( ) . . . . . \LHD ( ) . . . . . . . . . \lhd ( ) . . . . . . . . . \lhd ( ) . . . . . . . . . \lhdbend ( ) . . . . \lhookdownarrow ( ) \lhookleftarrow ( ) \lhooknearrow ( ) . \lhooknwarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . ... ... 20, 39, ... ... ... ... ... 54 21 21 40 76 44 44 44 44
7

\llap . . . . . . . \llbracket ( ) \llceil ( ) . . . \llcorner (z) . \llcorner ( ) .

\llcorner ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \llcurly (Î) . . . . \Lleftarrow ( ) . \Lleftarrow ( ) . \llfloor ( ) . . . . . \lll (Î) . . . . . . . . \lll ( ) ....... \lll ( vs. Î) . . \lll ( ) . . . . . . . \llless . . . . . . . . \llless ( ) . . . . \llparenthesis ( )  \lmoustache () \lmoustache ( . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 . . . . 41 . . . . 44 . . . . 52 . . . . 38 . . . . 37 . . . . 88 . . . . 39 see \lll . . . . . 39 . . . . . 52

. . . . . . . . 53

) . . . . . . . . 54

\ln (ln) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \lnapprox (Ê) . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lnapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 37 \lnapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \lneq (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \lneqq (²) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \lneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \lnot . . . . . . . . . . . . see \neg \lnot (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \lnsim (Ä) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lnsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \lnsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 local ring (O) . . see alphabets, math \log (log) . . . . . . . . . . . 49, 99 log-like symbols . . . . . . 49, 100 logical operators and . . . . . . . . . see \wedge not . . . see \neg and \sim or . . . . . . . . . . . see \vee \logof ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 lollipop . . . . . . . see \multimap long division . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 longdiv (package) . . . . . . . . . 57 \Longleftarrow (⇐=) . . . . . 41 \Longleftarrow (⇐ ) . . . . . 43 \longleftarrow (← ) . . . . . 43 \longleftarrow (←−) . . . . . 41 \Longleftrightarrow (⇐⇒) 41 \Longleftrightarrow (⇐⇒) 43 \longleftrightarrow (←→) . 43 \longleftrightarrow (←→) 41 \Longmapsfrom (⇐=) . . . . . . 42 \longmapsfrom (←−) . . . . . . 42 \Longmapsto (=⇒) . . . . . . . 42 \longmapsto ( →) . . . . . . . . 43 \longmapsto (−→) . . . . . . . 41 \LongPulseHigh ( ) . . . . . 67 \LongPulseLow ( ) . . . . . 67 \Longrightarrow (=⇒) . . . . 41 \Longrightarrow ( ⇒) . . . . 43 \longrightarrow ( →) . . . . 43 \longrightarrow (−→) . . . . 41 \looparrowdownleft (î) . . 42 \looparrowdownright (ï) . . 42 \looparrowleft (ì) . . . . . . 42 \looparrowleft ( ) . . . . . . 41 \looparrowleft ( ) . . . . . . 43 \looparrowright (í) . . . . . 42 \looparrowright ( ) . . . . . 41 \looparrowright ( ) . . . . . 43 \Loosebearing ($) . . . . . . . 70 \lor . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \vee \LowerDiamond ( ) . . . . . . . 75 lowering . . . see \textlowering \lozenge (♦) . . . . . . . . 62, 63 \lozenge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \Lparen (() . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \lrcorner ({) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \lrcorner ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 52

8 9

o

120

\lrcorner ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \lrJoin . . . . . . . . . see \Join \lrtimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \lsem ( ) . . . \lsemantic . . . \Lsh (è) . . . . . \Lsh ( ) . . . . . \Lsh ( ) . . . . . \Lsteel (™) . . \ltimes () . . \ltimes ( ) . . \ltimes ( ) . . \ltriple . . . . Luecking, Dan . \lVert ( ) . . . \lVert (||) . . . . \lvert (|) . . . . \lvertneqq (´) \lvertneqq ( ) \lvertneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 54 see \ldbrack . . . . . . . . 42 . . . . . . . . 41 . . . . . . . . 43 . . . . . . . . 70 . . . . . . . . 22 . . . . . . . . 21 . . . . . . . . 23 . . . . . . . . 55 . . . . . . . . 93 . . . . . . . . 53 . . . . . . . . 55 . . . . . . . . 53 . . . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . . 37 . . . . . . . . 39

\manpenkidney ( )

. . . . . . . 79

\manquadrifolium ( ) . . . . 79 \manquartercircle ( ) . . . . 79 \manrotatedquadrifolium ( ) . . . . . . . . . 79 \manrotatedquartercircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 79 \manstar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \mantiltpennib ( ) . . . . . . 79 \mantriangledown ( ) . . . . . 79 \mantriangleright ( ) . . . . 79 \mantriangleup ( ) . . . . . . 79 \manvpennib ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 79 \Mappedfromchar () . . . . . . . 48 \mappedfromchar () . . . . . . . 48 \Mapsfrom (⇐) . . . . . . . . . . 42 \mapsfrom (←) . . . . . . . . . . 42 \Mapsfromchar (û) . . . . . . . . 49 \Mapsfromchar () . . . . . . . . 48 \mapsfromchar (ß) . . . . . . . . 49 \mapsfromchar () . . . . . . . . 48 \Mapsto (⇒) . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \mapsto (→) . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 \mapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \Mapstochar (ú) . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Mapstochar () . . . . . . . . . . 48 \mapstochar (Þ) . . . . . . . . . . 49

\lwave ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \lWavy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

\lwavy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \lz (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 M ... ... ... ... ... .... (a) . ¯ . . . .

\M . . . . \M ( ´) \m . ¯. . . \m ( ) \ma (¯¯) × macron \macron

\Maggie ( ) . . . . . . . . . 85 magical signs . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 majuscules . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \makeatletter . . . . . . . . . . 94 \makeatother . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \MALE ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \Male (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \male (♂) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \MaleMale (ƒ) . . . . . . . . . . 70 \maltese ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \maltese ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \manboldkidney ( ) . . . . . . . 79 \manconcentriccircles ( ) 79 \manconcentricdiamond ( ) 79 \mancone ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \mancube ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \manerrarrow ( ) . . . . . . . 79 \manfilledquartercircle ( ) 79 manfnt (package) 76, 79, 104, 105 \manhpennib ( ) . . . . . . . . . 79 \manimpossiblecube ( ) . . . 79 \mankidney ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 79 \manlhpenkidney ( ) . . . . . . 79

   

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . .

... ... ... ... ... see ....

.... 9 . . . 82 .... 9 . . . 82 . . . 82 accents . . . 16

\Marge ( ) . . . . . . . . . 85 \markera (x) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \markerb (y) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 married . . . . . see \textmarried \Mars (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \Mars (Ä) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \mars (♂) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \MartinVogel (ÿ) . . . . . . . . 80 marvosym (package) . 17, 62, 64, 68–71, 76, 79, 80, 88 matbbol (package) . . . . . . . . 65 \mate (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 material biconditional . . . . . . . . see \leftrightarrow and \equiv material conditional . . . . . . see \rightarrow and \supset material equivalence . . . . . . . . . see \leftrightarrow and \equiv material implication . . . . . . see \rightarrow and \supset math alphabets . . . . . . . . . . 65 math-text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 mathabx (package) . . 22, 24, 26, 30–32, 36–38, 40, 42, 43, 49, 51–54, 56, 58, 62, 63, 68, 76, 87, 88, 104, 105, 107 \mathaccent . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \mathbb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \mathbbm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

   ¨

\mathbbmss . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \mathbbmtt . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 mathbbol (package) . . . . . . . 65 \mathbf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 \mathbin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 \mathbold . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 mathcal (euscript package option) . . . . . . . . . 65 \mathcal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \mathcent (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \mathchoice . . . . . . . . . 92, 93 \mathclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 mathcomp (package) . . . . . . 62 mathdesign (package) 17, 23, 29, 51, 55, 64, 104 \mathdollar ($) . . . . . . . . . 20 mathdots (package) . 56, 61, 62, 94, 104, 105 \mathds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \mathellipsis (. . .) . . . . . . 20 mathematical symbols . . 20–66 \mathfrak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \mathit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \mathnormal . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \mathop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 \mathopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 \mathord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 \mathpalette . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \mathparagraph (¶) . . . . . . 20 \mathpunct . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 \mathpzc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \mathrel . . . . . . . . . . . 90, 99 \mathring (˚) . . . . . . . . 56, 57 \mathrm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 mathrsfs (package) . . . . 65, 104 mathscr (euscript package option) . . . . . . . . . 65 \mathscr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \mathsection (§) . . . . . . . . 20 \mathsterling (£) . . . . . 20, 51 mathtools (package) . 34, 58, 59, 104, 105 \mathunderscore ( ) . . . . . . 20 \max (max) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . see \DH \maya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \Mb ( ¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ´ ˘ \mb ( ¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ˘ \Mbb ( ¯ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ´ ¯ ˘ ˘ \mBb ( ¯ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ´ ¯ ˘ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ˘ \mbB ( ¯ ¯ ˘´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ˘ \mbb ( ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ mbboard (package) . . . . 65, 104 \mbbx ( ¯ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ¯ ˘˘ ˘. ¯ \mbox . . ¯ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \measuredangle (b) . . . . . . 63 \measuredangle ( ) . . . . . . 63 \measuredangle ( ) . . . . . . 63 mechanical scaling . . . . . 96, 98 \medbackslash ( ) . . . . . . . 23 \medbullet ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 21

121

\medcirc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \medcircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \meddiamond ( ) . . . . . . . . . 24 \medlozenge ( ) . . . . . . . . . 74 \medslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \medsquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \medstar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \medstarofdavid ( ) . . . . . 74 \medtriangledown ( ) . 24, 40 \medtriangleleft ( ) . 24, 40 \medtriangleright ( ) . 24, 40 \medtriangleup ( ) . . . 24, 40 \medvert ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \medvertdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . 23 \Mercury (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \Mercury (Â) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \mercury ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \merge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 METAFONT . . . . . 66, 96, 97, 99 METAFONTbook symbols . . . 79 metre (package) . 16, 56, 82, 104, 105 metre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 metrical symbols . . . . . . . . . 82 \mho ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 62, 63 micro . . . . . . . . . . see \textmu \micro (µ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Microsoft® Windows® . . . 103 \mid (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 54 \middle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \midtilde ({) . . . . . . . . . . . 16 millesimal sign . . . . . . . . . see \textperthousand \min (min) . . . . . . . . . . 49, 99 minim . . . . see musical symbols minus . . . . . . . see \textminus \minus (−) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \minusdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \minushookdown (¬) . . . . . . 63 \minushookup ( ) . . . . . . . . 63 \minuso ( ) . . . . . . . . . 21, 91 minutes, angular . . . see \prime miscellaneous symbols . . 62–64, 77–86 “Missing $ inserted” . . . . 20 \Mmappedfromchar ( ) . . . . . . 48 \mmappedfromchar ( ) . . . . . . 48 \Mmapstochar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 48 \mmapstochar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 48 MnSymbol (package) 23, 24, 29, 32, 33, 37, 39, 40, 43–48, 50, 51, 54, 56–58, 61, 63, 64, 74, 104, 105 \Mobilefone (H) . . . . . . . . . 69 \mod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \models (|=) . . . . . . . . . 30, 90 \models ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 moduli space . . . see alphabets, math monetary symbols . . . . . 17, 65 \moo ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \Moon (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

\Moon (Á) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \morepawns (S) . . . . . . . . . . 82 \moreroom (U) . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Mountain ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 81 mouse . . . . see \ComputerMouse \MoveDown (») . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \moverlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \MoveUp (º) . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \mp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \mp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \mu (µ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \multimap ( ) . . . . . . . 30, 31 \multimap ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 47 \multimapboth ( ) . . . . . . 31 \multimapbothvert ( ) . . . . 31 \multimapdot ( ) . . . . . . . . 31 \multimapdotboth ( ) . . . . 31 \multimapdotbothA ( ) . . . 31 \multimapdotbothAvert ( ) . 31 \multimapdotbothB ( ) . . . 31 \multimapdotbothBvert ( ) . 31 \multimapdotbothvert ( ) . . 31 \multimapdotinv ( ) . . . . . 31 \multimapinv ( ) . . . . . . . . 31 multiple accents per character 94 \Mundus (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Museum of Icelandic Sorcery and Witchcraft . . . . . . . . . 86 musical symbols 19, 62, 63, 78, 79 musixtex (package) . . . . . . . . 79 \muup (µ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \MVAt (@) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \MVEight (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \MVFive (5) . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \MVFour (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \MVNine (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \MVOne (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \MVRightarrow (:) . . . . . . . 80 \MVSeven (7) . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \MVSix (6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \MVThree (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \MVTwo (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \MVZero (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

!

N \nabla ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \nabla (∇) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \NAK ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \napprox (') . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \napprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \napproxeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 31 \napproxeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \nasymp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nasymp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 nath (package) . . . . . 52, 55, 104 \natural ( ) . . . . . . . . . 62, 78 \natural ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 natural numbers (N) . . . . . see alphabets, math navigation symbols . . . . . . . 79 \nbackapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . 33 \nbackapproxeq ( ) . . . . . . . 33

\nbackcong ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \nbackeqsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nbacksim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \nbacksim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \nbacksimeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nbacksimeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nbacktriplesim ( ) . . . . . . \NBSP ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nBumpeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nBumpeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nbumpeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nbumpeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \ncirceq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \ncirclearrowleft ( ) . . . \ncirclearrowright ( ) . . \nclosedequal ( ) . . . . . . . \ncong ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ncong ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ncong ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ncurlyeqprec (¸) . . . . . . . \ncurlyeqprec ( ) . . . . . . . \ncurlyeqsucc (¹) . . . . . . . \ncurlyeqsucc ( ) . . . . . . . \ncurvearrowdownup ( ) . . . \ncurvearrowleft ( ) . . . . \ncurvearrowleftright ( ) \ncurvearrownesw ( ) . . . . \ncurvearrownwse ( ) . . . . \ncurvearrowright ( ) . . . . \ncurvearrowrightleft ( ) \ncurvearrowsenw ( ) . . . . \ncurvearrowswne ( ) . . . . \ncurvearrowupdown ( ) . . . \ndasharrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . \ndasheddownarrow ( ) . . . . \ndashedleftarrow ( ) . . . . \ndashednearrow ( ) . . . . . \ndashednwarrow ( ) . . . . . \ndashedrightarrow ( ) . . . \ndashedsearrow ( ) . . . . . \ndashedswarrow ( ) . . . . . \ndasheduparrow ( ) . . . . . . \ndashleftarrow ( ) . . . . . \ndashrightarrow ( ) . . . . \nDashV (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nDashv (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . \ndashV (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . \ndashv (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . \ndashv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \ndashVv (G) . . . . . . . . . . . \nddtstile ( ) . \ndiagdown ( ) . \ndiagup ( ) . . . \ndivides ( ) . . . \nDoteq ( ) . . . . . \ndoteq ( ) . . . . . \ndoublefrown ( ) \ndoublefrowneq ( \ndoublesmile ( ) \ndoublesmileeq ( \nDownarrow ( ) . \ndownarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) . . . ) . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33 33 31 33 31 33 33 69 31 33 31 33 33 46 46 33 32 30 33 32 33 32 33 44 46 44 44 44 46 44 44 44 44 46 44 44 45 45 45 45 45 45 46 46 32 32 32 32 34 32 35 34 34 34 33 33 48 48 48 48 45 45

122

\ndownarrowtail ( ) . . \ndowndownarrows ( ) . \ndownfilledspoon ( ) \ndownfootline ( ) . . . \ndownfree ( ) . . . . . . \ndownharpoonccw ( ) . \ndownharpooncw ( ) . . \ndownlsquigarrow ( ) \ndownmapsto ( ) . . . . \ndownModels ( ) . . . . \ndownmodels ( ) . . . . \ndownpitchfork ( ) . \ndownrsquigarrow ( ) \ndownspoon ( ) . . . . . \ndownuparrows ( ) . . \ndownupharpoons ( ) . \ndownVdash ( ) . . . . . \ndownvdash ( ) . . . . . \ndststile (

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45 45 47 33 33 46 46 45 45 33 33 47 45 47 45 46 33 33

) . . . . . . . . . 35

\ndtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 35 \ndttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \ne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \neq \ne (≠) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \Nearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \Nearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \nearrow (Õ) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \nearrow ( ) . . . . . . 41, 93, 94 \nearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \nearrowtail ( ) . . . . . . . . 43 \nefilledspoon ( ) . . . . . . 47 \nefootline ( ) . . . . . . . . . 32 \nefree ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \neg (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \neg (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 negation . . . see \neg and \sim \neharpoonccw ( ) . . . . . . . 46 \neharpooncw ( ) . . . . . . . . 46 \nelsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . 43 \nemapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 43 \neModels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nemodels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nenearrows ( ) . . . . . . . . 43 \nepitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . . 47 \Neptune (r) . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \Neptune (È) . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \neptune ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \neq ($) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \neq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \neq (≠) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \neqbump ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \neqcirc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \neqdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \neqfrown ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \neqsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \neqslantgtr (¹) . . . . . . . . 38 \neqslantgtr ( ) . . . . . . . . 39 \neqslantless (¸) . . . . . . . 38 \neqslantless ( ) . . . . . . . 39 \neqsmile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \nequal (≠) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \nequalclosed ( ) . . . . . . . 33

\nequiv ( ) . . . . . . . \nequiv ( ) . . . . . . . . \nequivclosed ( ) . . \nersquigarrow ( ) . \nespoon ( ) . . . . . . \Neswarrow ( ) . . . . \neswarrow ( ) . . . . \neswarrow ( ) . . . . \neswarrows ( ) . . . \neswbipropto ( ) . . \neswcrossing ( ) . . \neswharpoonnwse ( ) \neswharpoons ( ) . . \neswharpoonsenw ( ) \Neswline ( ) . . . . . \neswline ( ) . . . . . \Neutral ({) . . . . . . \neVdash ( ) . . . . . . \nevdash ( ) . . . . . . \newextarrow . . . . . . \newmoon (x) . . . . . . \newmoon ( ) . . . . . . \newtie (a) . . . . . . . . \nexists (i) . . . . . . . \nexists ( ) . . . . . . . \nexists ( ) . . . . . . . \nfallingdotseq ( ) . \nfrown ( ) . . . . . . . . \nfrowneq ( ) . . . . . . \nfrowneqsmile ( ) . . \nfrownsmile ( ) . . . \nfrownsmileeq ( ) . . \NG (Ŋ) . . . . . . . . . . . \ng (ŋ) . . . . . . . . . . . \ngeq (§) . . . . . . . . . \ngeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . \ngeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . \ngeqclosed ( ) . . . . \ngeqdot ( ) . . . . . . . \ngeqq (±) . . . . . . . . \ngeqq ( ) . . . . . . . . \ngeqq ( ) . . . . . . . . \ngeqslant ( ) . . . . \ngeqslant ( ) . . . . . \ngeqslantdot ( ) . . \ngets ( ) . . . . . . . . \ngg ( ) . . . . . . . . . \ngg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \nggg ( ) . . . . . . . . \ngtr (£) . . . . . . . . . \ngtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . \ngtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . \ngtrapprox (É) . . . . \ngtrapprox ( ) . . . . \ngtrclosed ( ) . . . . \ngtrdot ( ) . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . 31 . . 33 . . 33 . . 43 . . 47 . . 43 93, 94 . . 43 . . 43 . . 23 . . 33 . . 46 . . 46 . . 46 . . 32 . . 32 . . 70 . . 32 . . 32 . . 60 . . 68 . . 68 . . 13 . . 51 . . 51 . . 51 . . 33 . . 48 . . 48 . . 48 . . 48 . . 48 ... 9 ... 9 . . 38 37, 38 . . 39 39, 40 . . 39 . . 38 . . 37 . . 39 . . 37 . . 39 . . 39 . . 46 . . 38 . . 39 . . 39 . . 38 . . 37 . . 39 . . 38 . . 38 39, 40 . . 39

\ngtreqless ( ) . . . . . . . . . 39 \ngtreqlessslant ( ) . . . . . 39 \ngtreqqless ( ) . . . . . . . . 39 \ngtrless ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \ngtrless ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 39

\ngtrsim (Ã) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \ngtrsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \nhateq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \nhookleftarrow ( ) . . . . . 46 \nhookrightarrow ( ) . . . . 46 \ni ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51, 92 \ni (∋) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \nialpha (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \nibar . . . . . . . . see \ownsbar \nibeta (©) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \NibLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \NibRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 72 nibs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \NibSolidLeft ( ) . . . . . . . 72 \NibSolidRight ( ) . . . . . . 72 nicefrac (package) . 64, 104, 105 \nichi (‘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \niepsilon ($) . . . . . . . . . . 12 \nigamma (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \niiota (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \nilambda (P) . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \nin (∉) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \niomega (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \niphi (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \niplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \nisigma (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \nitheta (ƒ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \niupsilon (†) . . . . . . . . . . 12 \niv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \nj (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \nlcirclearrowdown ( ) . . 45 \nlcirclearrowleft ( ) . . 45 \nlcirclearrowright ( ) . 45 \nlcirclearrowup ( ) . . . . 45 \nlcurvearrowdown ( ) . . . . 45 \nlcurvearrowleft ( ) . . . . 45 \nlcurvearrowne ( ) . . . . . 45 \nlcurvearrownw ( ) . . . . . 45 \nlcurvearrowright ( ) . . . 45 \nlcurvearrowse ( ) . . . . . 45 \nlcurvearrowsw ( ) . . . . . 45 \nlcurvearrowup ( ) . . . . . . 45 \nleadsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 46 \nLeftarrow (ö) . . . . . . . . 42 \nLeftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 41 \nLeftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 45 \nleftarrow (Ú) . . . . . . . . 42 \nleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 41 \nleftarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . 45 \nleftarrowtail ( ) . . . . . 45 \nleftfilledspoon ( ) . . . 47 \nleftfootline ( ) . . . . . . 33 \nleftfree ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \nleftharpoonccw ( ) . . . . 46 \nleftharpooncw ( ) . . . . . 46 \nleftleftarrows ( ) . . . . 45 \nleftlsquigarrow ( ) . . . . 45 \nleftmapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . 45 \nleftModels ( ) . . . . . . . . 33 \nleftmodels ( ) . . . . . . . . 33 \nleftpitchfork ( ) . . . . . 47 \nLeftrightarrow (ø) . . . . 42

0 )

2 1

123

\nLeftrightarrow ( ) . . . . 41 \nLeftrightarrow ( ) . . . . 45 \nleftrightarrow (Ü) . . . . 42 \nleftrightarrow ( ) . 20, 41 \nleftrightarrow ( ) . . . . 45 \nleftrightarrows ( ) . . . . 45 \nleftrightharpoondownup ( ) . . . . . . . . . 46 \nleftrightharpoons ( ) . . 46 \nleftrightharpoonupdown ( ) . . . . . . . . . 46 \nLeftrightline ( ) . . . . . 33 \nleftrightline ( ) . . . . . 33 \nleftrightsquigarrow ( ) 46 \nleftrsquigarrow ( ) . . . . 45 \nleftspoon ( ) . . . . . . . . 47 \nleftVdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . 33 \nleftvdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . 33 \nleq (¦) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \nleq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 38 \nleq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \nleqclosed ( ) . . . . . . 39, 40 \nleqdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \nleqq (°) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \nleqq ( ) . . . . . \nleqq ( ) . . . . . \nleqslant ( ) . \nleqslant ( ) . . \nleqslantdot ( ) \nless (¢) . . . . . \nless ( ) . . . . . \nless ( ) . . . . . \nlessapprox (È) \nlessapprox ( ) \nlessclosed ( ) \nlessdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 39, ... 37 39 37 39 39 38 37 39 38 38 40 39

\nlesseqgtr ( ) . . . . . . . . . 39 \nlesseqgtrslant ( ) . . . . . 39 \nlesseqqgtr ( ) . . . . . . . . 39 \nlessgtr ( ) . . . . . . . \nlessgtr ( ) . . . . . . . \nlesssim (Â) . . . . . . \nlesssim ( ) . . . . . . . \nlhookdownarrow ( ) . \nlhookleftarrow ( ) \nlhooknearrow ( ) . . \nlhooknwarrow ( ) . . \nlhookrightarrow ( ) \nlhooksearrow ( ) . . \nlhookswarrow ( ) . . \nlhookuparrow ( ) . . . \nll ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \nll ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \nLleftarrow ( ) . . . . \nlll ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nmapsto ( ) . . . . . . . \nmid ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \nmid ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \nmodels ( ) . . . . . . . . \nmultimap ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 39 38 38 45 45 45 44 44 44 44 44 38 39 44 39 46 30 34 34 47

\nndtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \nNearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 44 \nnearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \nnearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 44 \nnearrowtail ( ) . . . . . . . 44 \nnefilledspoon ( ) . . . . . 47 \nnefootline ( ) . . . . . . . . 33 \nnefree ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \nneharpoonccw ( ) . . . . . . 46 \nneharpooncw ( ) . . . . . . . 46 \nnelsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . 44 \nnemapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . 45 \nneModels ( ) . . . . . . . . . 33 \nnemodels ( ) . . . . . . . . . 33 \nnenearrows ( ) . . . . . . . 45 \nnepitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . 47 \nnersquigarrow ( ) . . . . . 45 \nnespoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 47 \nNeswarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 45 \nneswarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 45 \nneswarrows ( ) . . . . . . . 45 \nneswharpoonnwse ( ) . . . 46 \nneswharpoons ( ) . . . . . . 46 \nneswharpoonsenw ( ) . . . 46 \nNeswline ( ) . . . . . . . . . 33 \nneswline ( ) . . . . . . . . . 33 \nneVdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \nnevdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \nnststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \nntstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nnttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 34 \nNwarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nnwarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \nnwarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nnwarrowtail ( ) . . . . . . . 45 \nnwfilledspoon ( ) . . . . . 47 \nnwfootline ( ) . . . . . . . . 33 \nnwfree ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \nnwharpoonccw ( ) . . . . . . 46 \nnwharpooncw ( ) . . . . . . . 46 \nnwlsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . 45 \nnwmapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . 45 \nnwModels ( ) . . . . . . . . . 33 \nnwmodels ( ) . . . . . . . . . 33 \nnwnwarrows ( ) . . . . . . . 45 \nnwpitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . 47 \nnwrsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . 45 \nNwsearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 45 \nnwsearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 45 \nnwsearrows ( ) . . . . . . . 45 \nnwseharpoonnesw ( ) . . . 46 \nnwseharpoons ( ) . . . . . . 46 \nnwseharpoonswne ( ) . . . 46 \nNwseline ( ) . . . . . . . . . 33 \nnwseline ( ) . . . . . . . . . 33 \nnwspoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 47 \nnwVdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \nnwvdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \NoBleech (Ì) . . . . . . . . . . 80 \NoChemicalCleaning (¨) . . 80 nointegrals (wasysym package option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

\NoIroning (²) . . . . . . . . . 80 non-commutative division . . 60 nonbreaking space . . . . . . . . 69 norm . . see \lVert and \rVert \NoSun ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 not . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \neg \not . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32, 92 not equal (= vs. =) . . . . . . . 32 \notasymp (0) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \notbackslash (−) . . . . . . . 68 \ \notbot (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \notdivides (1) . . . . . . . . . 32 \notequiv (%) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \notin (‚) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \notin ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \notin (∈) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \notin (∉) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \notni ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \notowner (ƒ) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \notowns . . see \notowner and \notni \notperp (w) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \notslash (−) . . . . . . . . . . 68 / \notsmallin ( ) . . . . . . . . . 51 \notsmallowns ( ) . . . . . . . . 51 \nottop (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \NoTumbler () . . . . . . . . . . 80 \novelty (N) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \nowns ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \nparallel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 30 \nparallel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nperp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \npitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . . . 47 \nplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \nprec (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nprec ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \nprec ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \nprecapprox (È) . . . . . . . . 32 \nprecapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . 31 \nprecapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . 33 \npreccurlyeq (¦) . . . . . . . 32 \npreccurlyeq ( ) . . . . . . . 31 \npreccurlyeq ( ) . . . . . . . 33 \npreceq (ª) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \npreceq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \npreceq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \npreceqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nprecsim (Â) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nprecsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nprecsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \nrcirclearrowdown ( ) . . 45 \nrcirclearrowleft ( ) . . 45 \nrcirclearrowright ( ) . 45 \nrcirclearrowup ( ) . . . . 45 \nrcurvearrowdown ( ) . . . . 45 \nrcurvearrowleft ( ) . . . . 45 \nrcurvearrowne ( ) . . . . . 45 \nrcurvearrownw ( ) . . . . . 45 \nrcurvearrowright ( ) . . . 45 \nrcurvearrowse ( ) . . . . . 45 \nrcurvearrowsw ( ) . . . . . 45 \nrcurvearrowup ( ) . . . . . . 45 

124

\nRelbar ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nrelbar ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nrestriction ( ) . . . . . \nrhookdownarrow ( ) . . . \nrhookleftarrow ( ) . . \nrhooknearrow ( ) . . . . \nrhooknwarrow ( ) . . . . \nrhookrightarrow ( ) . . \nrhooksearrow ( ) . . . . \nrhookswarrow ( ) . . . . \nrhookuparrow ( ) . . . . . \nRightarrow (÷) . . . . . . \nRightarrow ( ) . . . . . \nRightarrow ( ) . . . . . . \nrightarrow (Û) . . . . . . \nrightarrow ( ) . . . . . \nrightarrow ( ) . . . . . . \nrightarrowtail ( ) . . \nrightfilledspoon ( ) \nrightfootline ( ) . . . \nrightfree ( ) . . . . . . . \nrightharpoonccw ( ) . . \nrightharpooncw ( ) . . \nrightleftarrows ( ) . . \nrightleftharpoons ( ) \nrightlsquigarrow ( ) . \nrightmapsto ( ) . . . . . \nrightModels ( ) . . . . . \nrightmodels ( ) . . . . . \nrightpitchfork ( ) . . \nrightrightarrows ( ) . \nrightrsquigarrow ( ) . \nrightspoon ( ) . . . . . . \nrightsquigarrow ( ) . . \nrightVdash ( ) . . . . . . \nrightvdash ( ) . . . . . . \nrisingdotseq ( ) . . . . . \nRrightarrow ( ) . . . . . \nsdtstile ( ) . . . . \nSearrow ( ) . . . . . \nsearrow ( ) . . . . . \nsearrowtail ( ) . . \nsefilledspoon ( ) \nsefootline ( ) . . . \nsefree ( ) . . . . . . \nseharpoonccw ( ) . \nseharpooncw ( ) . . \nselsquigarrow ( ) \nsemapsto ( ) . . . . \nseModels ( ) . . . . \nsemodels ( ) . . . . \nsenwarrows ( ) . . \nsenwharpoons ( ) . \nsepitchfork ( ) . . \nsersquigarrow ( ) \nsesearrows ( ) . . \nsespoon ( ) . . . . . \nseVdash ( ) . . . . . \nsevdash ( ) . . . . . \nshortmid ( ) . . . . . \nshortmid ( ) . . . . . \nshortparallel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34 34 46 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 42 41 45 42 41 45 45 47 33 33 46 46 44 46 44 44 33 33 47 44 44 47 46 33 33 33 44 34 44 44 44 47 33 33 46 46 44 45 33 33 45 46 47 45 45 47 33 33 30 33 30

\nshortparallel ( ) . . . . \nsim (&) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \nsimeq (() . . . . . . . . . . \nsimeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \nsimeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \nsmile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \nsmileeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nsmileeqfrown ( ) . . . . . \nsmilefrown ( ) . . . . . . \nsmilefrowneq ( ) . . . . . \nsqdoublefrown ( ) . . . . \nsqdoublefrowneq ( ) . . \nsqdoublesmile ( ) . . . . \nsqdoublesmileeq ( ) . . \nsqeqfrown ( ) . . . . . . . \nsqeqsmile ( ) . . . . . . . \nsqfrown ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nsqfrowneq ( ) . . . . . . . \nsqfrowneqsmile ( ) . . . \nsqfrownsmile ( ) . . . . . \nsqsmile ( ) . . . . . . . . . \nsqsmileeq ( ) . . . . . . . \nsqsmileeqfrown ( ) . . . \nsqsmilefrown ( ) . . . . . \nSqsubset ( ) . . . . . . . . \nsqSubset (–) . . . . . . . . \nsqsubset (‚) . . . . . . . . \nsqsubset ( ) . . . . . . . . \nsqsubset ( ) . . . . . . . . \nsqsubseteq (†) . . . . . . \nsqsubseteq ( ) . . . . . . \nsqsubseteq ( ) . . . . . . \nsqsubseteqq (Ž) . . . . . \nsqsubseteqq ( ) . . . . . \nSqsupset ( ) . . . . . . . . \nsqSupset (—) . . . . . . . . \nsqsupset (ƒ) . . . . . . . . \nsqsupset ( ) . . . . . . . . \nsqsupset ( ) . . . . . . . . \nsqsupseteq (‡) . . . . . . \nsqsupseteq ( ) . . . . . . \nsqsupseteq ( ) . . . . . . \nsqsupseteqq () . . . . . \nsqsupseteqq ( ) . . . . . \nsqtriplefrown ( ) . . . . \nsqtriplesmile ( ) . . . . \nsquigarrowdownup ( ) \nsquigarrowleftright ( \nsquigarrownesw ( ) . . \nsquigarrownwse ( ) . . . \nsquigarrowrightleft ( \nsquigarrowsenw ( ) . . \nsquigarrowswne ( ) . . \nsquigarrowupdown ( ) . \nsststile (

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ) .. .. ) .. .. ..

33 32 30 33 32 31 33 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 37 37 37 36 37 37 36 37 37 37 37 37 37 36 37 37 36 37 37 37 48 48 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45

\nsubset (‚) . . . . . . \nsubset (⊄) . . . . . . . \nsubseteq (†) . . . . . \nsubseteq ( ) . . . . \nsubseteq ( ) . . . . . \nsubseteqq (Ž) . . . . \nsubseteqq ( ) . . . . \nsubseteqq ( ) . . . . \nsucc (£) . . . . . . . . \nsucc ( ) . . . . . . . . \nsucc ( ) . . . . . . . . \nsuccapprox (É) . . . \nsuccapprox ( ) . . . \nsuccapprox ( ) . . . \nsucccurlyeq (§) . . \nsucccurlyeq ( ) . . \nsucccurlyeq ( ) . . \nsucceq («) . . . . . . \nsucceq ( ) . . . . . . \nsucceq ( ) . . . . . . . \nsucceqq ( ) . . . . . . \nsuccsim (Ã) . . . . . \nsuccsim ( ) . . . . . . \nsuccsim ( ) . . . . . . \nSupset (—) . . . . . . \nSupset ( ) . . . . . . . \nSupset ( ) . . . . . . . \nsupset (ƒ) . . . . . . \nsupset ( ) . . . . . . . \nsupseteq (‡) . . . . . \nsupseteq ( ) . . . . \nsupseteq ( ) . . . . . \nsupseteqq () . . . . \nsupseteqq ( ) . . . . \nsupseteqq ( ) . . . . \nSwarrow ( ) . . . . . \nswarrow ( ) . . . . . \nswarrowtail ( ) . . \nswfilledspoon ( ) \nswfootline ( ) . . . \nswfree ( ) . . . . . . \nswharpoonccw ( ) . \nswharpooncw ( ) . . \nswlsquigarrow ( ) \nswmapsto ( ) . . . . \nswModels ( ) . . . . \nswmodels ( ) . . . . \nswnearrows ( ) . . \nswneharpoons ( ) . \nswpitchfork ( ) . . \nswrsquigarrow ( ) \nswspoon ( ) . . . . . \nswswarrows ( ) . . \nswVdash ( ) . . . . . \nswvdash ( ) . . . . . \ntdtstile ( ntheorem (package) \nthickapprox ( ) \nto ( ) . . . . . . . . \ntriangleeq ( ) . \ntriangleleft (š) . . . . . . . . .

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37 37 37 36 37 37 36 37 32 30 33 32 31 33 32 31 33 32 30 33 31 32 31 33 37 36 37 37 37 37 36 37 37 36 37 45 45 45 47 33 33 46 46 45 45 33 33 45 46 47 45 47 45 33 33 62 31 46 40 40

) . . . . . . . . . 34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 37 36 37

) . . . . . . . . . 34

\nststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nsttstile ( ) . \nSubset (–) . . . \nSubset ( ) . . . . \nSubset ( ) . . . .

125

\ntriangleleft ( ) . . . . . . \ntriangleleft ( ) . . . . 39, \ntrianglelefteq (ž) . . . . \ntrianglelefteq ( ) . . . . \ntrianglelefteq ( ) . . 39, \ntrianglelefteqslant ( ) \ntriangleright (›) . . . . . \ntriangleright ( ) . . . . . \ntriangleright ( ) . . . 39, \ntrianglerighteq (Ÿ) . . . . \ntrianglerighteq ( ) . . . \ntrianglerighteq ( ) . 39, \ntrianglerighteqslant ( ) \ntriplefrown ( ) . . . . . . . \ntriplesim ( ) . . . . . . . . . \ntriplesmile ( ) . . . . . . . \ntststile (

39 40 40 39 40 40 40 39 40 40 39 40 40 48 33 48

) . . . . . . . . . 35

\nttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 35 \ntttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \ntwoheaddownarrow ( ) . . . 45 \ntwoheadleftarrow ( ) . . . 31 \ntwoheadleftarrow ( ) . . 45 \ntwoheadnearrow ( ) . . . . 45 \ntwoheadnwarrow ( ) . . . . 45 \ntwoheadrightarrow ( ) . . 31 \ntwoheadrightarrow ( ) . . 45 \ntwoheadsearrow ( ) . . . . 45 \ntwoheadswarrow ( ) . . . . 45 \ntwoheaduparrow ( ) . . . . . 45 \nu (ν) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 nuclear power plant . see \SNPP \NUL ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 null set . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62, 63 number . . . . . see \textnumero number sets see alphabets, math numbers . . . . . . . . . . see digits circled . . . . . . . . . . 73, 76 \NumLock ( Num ) . . . . . . . . 69 \nUparrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nuparrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nuparrowtail ( ) . . . . . . . 45 \nUpdownarrow ( ) . . . . . . . 45 \nupdownarrow ( ) . . . . . . . 45 \nupdownarrows ( ) . . . . . . 45 \nupdownharpoonleftright ( ) . . . . . . . . . 46 \nupdownharpoonrightleft ( ) . . . . . . . . . 46 \nupdownharpoons ( ) . . . . . 46 \nUpdownline ( ) . . . . . . . . 33 \nupdownline ( ) . . . . . . . . 33 \nupfilledspoon ( ) . . . . . . 47 \nupfootline ( ) . . . . . . . . 33 \nupfree ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \nupharpoonccw ( ) . . . . . . . 46 \nupharpooncw ( ) . . . . . . . 46 \nuplsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . 45 \nupmapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 45 \nupModels ( ) . . . . . . . . . 33 \nupmodels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 33

\nuppitchfork ( ) . . \nuprsquigarrow ( ) . \nupspoon ( ) . . . . . . \nupuparrows ( ) . . . \nupVdash ( ) . . . . . \nupvdash ( ) . . . . . . \nuup (ν) . . . . . . . . . \nvargeq («) . . . . . . \nvarleq (ª) . . . . . . \nvarparallel ( ) . . \nvarparallelinv ( ) \nVDash (B) . . . . . . . \nVDash ( ) . . . . . . . \nVDash ( ) . . . . . . . \nVdash (F) . . . . . . . \nVdash ( ) . . . . . . . \nVdash ( ) . . . . . . . \nvDash (B) . . . . . . . \nvDash ( ) . . . . . . . \nvDash ( ) . . . . . . . \nvdash (8) . . . . . . . \nvdash ( ) . . . . . . . \nvdash ( ) . . . . . . . \nVvash (F) . . . . . . . \Nwarrow ( ) . . . . . . \Nwarrow ( ) . . . . . . \nwarrow (Ô) . . . . . . \nwarrow ( ) . . . . . . \nwarrow ( ) . . . . . . \nwarrowtail ( ) . . . \nwfilledspoon ( ) . \nwfootline ( ) . . . . \nwfree ( ) . . . . . . . \nwharpoonccw ( ) . . \nwharpooncw ( ) . . . \nwlsquigarrow ( ) . \nwmapsto ( ) . . . . . \nwModels ( ) . . . . . \nwmodels ( ) . . . . . \nwnwarrows ( ) . . . \nwpitchfork ( ) . . . \nwrsquigarrow ( ) . \Nwsearrow ( ) . . . . \nwsearrow ( ) . . . . \nwsearrow ( ) . . . . \nwsearrows ( ) . . . \nwsebipropto ( ) . . \nwsecrossing ( ) . . \nwseharpoonnesw ( ) \nwseharpoons ( ) . . \nwseharpoonswne ( ) \Nwseline ( ) . . . . . \nwseline ( ) . . . . . \nwspoon ( ) . . . . . . \nwVdash ( ) . . . . . . \nwvdash ( ) . . . . . . O \O (Ø) . . . . . . \o (ø) . . . . . . . o (o) . . . . . . . . \oast ( ) . . . . \oasterisk (f)

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.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 41, .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

47 45 47 45 33 33 50 38 38 31 31 32 30 34 32 31 34 32 30 34 32 30 34 32 42 43 42 93 43 43 47 32 32 46 46 43 43 32 32 43 47 43 43 93 43 43 23 32 46 46 46 32 32 47 32 32

\obackslash (n) . . . . . . . . . 24 \obackslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . 24 \obar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \Obelus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \obelus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Obelus* ( · ) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 · \obelus* ( · ) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 · \oblong ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \obot (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \obslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \oc () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \ocirc (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \ocirc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \ocircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \ocoasterisk (g) . . . . . . . . 24 \octagon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \Octosteel (‘) . . . . . . . . . . 70 \od (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 ˚ \odiv (™) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \odot (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \odot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \odot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \odplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \OE (Œ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 103 \oe (œ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 103 \officialeuro (e) . . . . . . . 17 \offinterlineskip . . . . . . . 91 ogonek . . . . . . . . . see accents \ogreaterthan ( ) . . . . . . . 21 { \ohill (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 ohm . . . . . . . . . . see \textohm \ohm (Ω) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \Ohne (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 / \OHORN (Ơ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \ohorn (ơ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \oiiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \oiiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \oiiintclockwise ( ) . . . . 27 \oiiintctrclockwise ( ) . 27 · \oiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \oiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 25, 27 ‚ \oiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \oiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

¨

\oiint ( ) . . . . . . . . \oiintclockwise ( ) \oiintctrclockwise ( ¶ \oint ( ) . . . . . . . . . \oint ( ) . . . . . . . . .

... ... ) ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29 27 27 26 25 29 27 28 29 27 28 29 18 18 24 21

. . . . .

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. . . . .

. . . . .

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. . . . .

. . . . .

. 9 . 9 49 24 24

\oint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \ointclockwise ( ) . . ı \ointclockwise ( ) . . . \ointclockwise ( ) . . . \ointctrclockwise ( ) \ointctrclockwise ( ) \ointctrclockwise ( ) old-style digits . . . . . . . \oldstylenums . . . . . . \oleft (h) . . . . . . . . . \olessthan ( ) . . . . . .

126

\Omega (Ω) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \omega (ω) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \omegaup (ω) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \ominus (—) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \ominus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \ominus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \onlymove (F) . . . . . . . . . . 82 \oo ( ◦◦) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \oo (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \ooalign . . . . . . . . . . . 91, 92 \open (z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 open unit disk (D) . . . . . . see alphabets, math \openJoin ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \openo (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \openo (™) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \openo ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \opentimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 31 operators binary . . . . . . . . . . 20–24 logical see logical operators set . . . . . see set operators unary . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \oplus (–) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \oplus (⊕) . . . . . . . . . . 20, 90 \oplus (⊕) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \opposbishops (o) . . . . . . . 82 \opposition ( ) . . . . . . . . 68 optical scaling . . . . . . . . . . . 96 options . . . see package options or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \vee \oright (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \OrnamentDiamondSolid ( ) 77 orthogonal to . . . . . . see \bot \oslash (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \oslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \oslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \ostar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \otimes (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \otimes (⊗) . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \otimes (⊗) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \otop (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \otriangle ( ) . . . . . . . 24, 40 \otriangleup (o) . . . . . . . . 24 ovals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 \ovee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \overarc (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

\overline ( ) . . . . . . . . 20, 57 \overlinesegment ( ) . . . . 58 \overparenthesis ( ) ⇒ \Overrightarrow (= ) . overrightarrow (package) → \overrightarrow (− ) . \overrightharpoon ( ) \overring (x) . . . . . . \overset . . . . . . . . . . \overt ( ) . . . . . . . . . \ovoid (l) . . . . . . . . . \owedge ( ) . . . . . . . . \owns . . . . . . . . . . . . . \owns () . . . . . . . . . . \owns ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \owns (∋) . . . . . . . . . . \ownsbar (‡) . . . . . . . . . 95, 96 . . . . 57 57, 104 . . . . 57 . . . . 58 . . . . 16 . . . . 91 . . . . 24 . . . . 24 . . . . 21 see \ni . . . . 51 . . . . 51 . . . . 51 . . . . 51

q

hk ik j k k

\overbrace ( \overbrace (

) . . . . . . . 58 ) . . . . . . . . 58

\overbrace ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 58 \overbrace ( ) . . . . . . . . 57 \overbracket ( ) . . . . . . . . 58 \overbracket ” ) . . . . . 95, 96 ( \overbridge (a) . . . . . . . . . 15
hk k j k

\overgroup (

) . . . . . . . . 58 . . 58 . . 57 . . 58 . 58

\overgroup ( ) . . . . . . . − \overleftarrow (←) . . . . \overleftharpoon ( ) . . → \overleftrightarrow (← )

P \P (¶) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 102 \p ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \p@ ˙ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 . package options a (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 59 b (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 59 bbgreekl (mathbbol) . . . 65 c (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 59 crescent (fge) . . . . . . . . 56 d (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 59 e (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 59 f (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 59 g (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 59 german (keystroke) . . . . 69 h (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 59 integrals (wasysym) . . . . 25 mathcal (euscript) . . . . . 65 mathscr (euscript) . . . . . 65 nointegrals (wasysym) . . 25 sans (dsfont) . . . . . . . . . 65 varg (txfonts/pxfonts) . . 50 packages longdiv . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 accents . . . 56, 94, 104, 105 amsbsy . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 amsfonts 20, 30, 36, 41, 62, 65 amsmath . 7, 49, 56, 91, 99 amssymb . 7, 20, 30, 36, 41, 56, 62, 65, 104, 105, 107 amstext . . . . . . . . . 92, 93 ar . . . . . . . . . . . . 67, 104 arcs . . . . . . . . 16, 104, 105 arev . . . . . 64, 78, 104, 105 ascii . . . . 69, 101, 104, 105 bbding . 71–75, 77, 88, 104, 105 bbm . . . . . . . . . . . 65, 104 bbold . . . . . . . . . . 65, 104 bm . . . . . . . 100, 104, 105 braket . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 calligra . . . . . . 65, 104, 105 calrsfs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

cancel . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 cclicenses . . . . 18, 104, 105 centernot . . . . . . . . . . . 92 chancery . . . . . . . . . . . 104 chemarr . . . . . 59, 104, 105 chemarrow . . . . 47, 60, 104 cmll . . . 20, 23, 30, 36, 104 dblaccnt . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 dictsym . . . . . 84, 104, 105 dingbat 72, 77, 88, 104, 105 dsfont . . . . . . . . . 65, 104 epsdice . . . . . . 81, 104, 105 esint . . . . . . . . . . 28, 104 esvect . . . . . . . . . 59, 104 eufrak . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 eurosym . . . . . 17, 104, 105 euscript . . . . . 65, 104, 105 extarrows . . . . 60, 104, 105 extpfeil . . . . . . 60, 104, 105 extraipa . . . . . . . . 15, 104 fc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 13 fclfont . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 feyn . . . . . . . . 70, 104, 105 fge . 47, 52, 56, 62, 64, 104, 105 fixmath . . . . . . . . . . . 100 fontenc . . . . . 7, 9, 13, 103 gensymb . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 graphicx . . . . . . . 16, 87, 90 harmony . . . . . 79, 104, 105 hieroglf . . . . . 84, 104, 105 holtpolt . . . . . . . . 60, 104 ifsym 67, 75, 80, 81, 88, 90, 104, 105 igo . . . . . . . . . . . . 76, 104 isoent . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 keystroke . . . . 69, 104, 105 latexsym . 20, 30, 36, 41, 62, 87, 104, 105 manfnt . . . 76, 79, 104, 105 marvosym 17, 62, 64, 68–71, 76, 79, 80, 88 matbbol . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 mathabx . . . . . . 22, 24, 26, 30–32, 36–38, 40, 42, 43, 49, 51–54, 56, 58, 62, 63, 68, 76, 87, 88, 104, 105, 107 mathbbol . . . . . . . . . . . 65 mathcomp . . . . . . . . . . 62 mathdesign . 17, 23, 29, 51, 55, 64, 104 mathdots 56, 61, 62, 94, 104, 105 mathrsfs . . . . . . . . 65, 104 mathtools . . 34, 58, 59, 104, 105 mbboard . . . . . . . . 65, 104 metre . 16, 56, 82, 104, 105 MnSymbol . . . . 23, 24, 29, 32, 33, 37, 39, 40, 43–48, 50, 51, 54, 56–58, 61, 63, 64, 74, 104, 105

127

musixtex . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 nath . . . . . . . . . 52, 55, 104 nicefrac . . . . . 64, 104, 105 ntheorem . . . . . . . . . . . 62 overrightarrow . . . . 57, 104 phaistos . . . . . 83, 104, 105 phonetic . . . 12, 15, 90, 104 pifont 9, 71–75, 77, 90, 104, 105 polynom . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 protosem . . . . 83, 104, 105 psnfss . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 pxfonts . . 20, 21, 27, 30, 31, 36, 38, 41, 42, 48, 50, 51, 62, 63, 65, 87, 101 rotating . . . . . . . . . 18, 69 savesym . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 semtrans . 13, 16, 104, 105 simplewick . . . . . . . . . . 96 simpsons . . . . . . . 85, 104 skak . . . . . . . . 82, 104, 105 skull . . . . . . . . 76, 104, 105 slashed . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 staves . . . . . . . . . 85, 104 stmaryrd . . . . . . 21, 25, 30, 36, 40, 42, 48, 52, 53, 88, 91, 104, 105 t4phonet . 13, 16, 104, 105 textcomp . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 8, 13, 17–19, 41, 56, 64, 67, 78, 87, 101, 103–105 timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 tipa . 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 90, 104, 105 tipx . . . . . . . . 11, 104, 105 trfsigns . . . . 35, 51, 60, 104 trsym . . . . . . . 35, 104, 105 turnstile . . 34, 35, 104, 105 txfonts 20, 21, 27, 30, 31, 36, 38, 41, 42, 48, 50, 51, 62, 63, 65, 87, 89, 101, 104, 105 type1cm . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 ulsy . . . . . . 24, 48, 90, 104 underscore . . . . . . . . . . . 8 undertilde . . . . 59, 104, 105 units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 universa . . 76, 80, 104, 105 universal 71, 73, 76, 80, 104, 105 upgreek . . . . . 50, 104, 105 upquote . . . . . . . . . . . 101 url . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 vietnam . . . . . . . . . . . 104 vntex . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 13 wasysym . 12, 17, 19–21, 25, 30, 36, 38, 41, 61–63, 67, 68, 70, 73, 74, 78, 88, 104, 105 wsuipa 11, 15, 16, 88, 90, 94, 104, 105 yfonts . . . . . . 65, 104, 105 yhmath 57, 59, 62, 94, 104 Pakin, Scott . . . . . . . . . 1, 104 \PaperLandscape ( ) . . . . . 81

¤

\PaperPortrait ( ) . . . . . . 81 par . . . . . . . . . . . . see \invamp paragraph mark . . . . . . . see \P parallel . see also \varparallel \parallel ( ) . . . . . . . . 30, 54 \parallel ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \ParallelPort (Ñ) . . . . . . . 69 \parr (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \partial (f ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \partial (∂) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \partialslash (g ) . . . . . . . 51 \partialvardint ( ) . . . . 64 \partialvardlanddownint ( ) 64 \partialvardlandupint ( ) 64 \partialvardlcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \partialvardlcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \partialvardlcirclerightint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \partialvardlcirclerightint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \partialvardoiint ( ) . . . 64 \partialvardoint ( ) . . . . . 64 \partialvardrcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \partialvardrcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \partialvardrcirclerightint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \partialvardrcirclerightint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \partialvardstrokedint ( ) 64 \partialvardsumint ( ) . . . 64 \partialvartint ( ) . . . . . 64 \partialvartlanddownint ( ) 64 \partialvartlandupint ( ) 64 \partialvartlcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \partialvartlcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \partialvartlcirclerightint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \partialvartlcirclerightint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \partialvartoiint ( ) . . . 64 \partialvartoint ( ) . . . . . 64 \partialvartrcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \partialvartrcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \partialvartrcirclerightint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \partialvartrcirclerightint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \partialvartstrokedint ( ) 64 \partialvartsumint ( ) . . . 64 particle-physics symbols . . . . 70 parts per thousand . . . . . . see \textperthousand \partvoice (a») . . . . . . . . . . 15 –ˇ \partvoiceless (a») . . . . . . . 15 – \passedpawn (r) ˚ . . . . . . . . 82 .

£

$) . . . . . . . . () . . . . . \PencilLeftUp (&) . . . . . . . \PencilRight (#) . . . . . . . \PencilRightDown (') . . . . \PencilRightUp (%) . . . . . .
\PencilLeft ( \PencilLeftDown (

pawn . . . . . . see chess symbols \Peace ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 72 72 72 72 72

!

72 pencils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \pentagon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 74 \pentagram ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 24 people . . . . . . . . . . . . see faces percent sign . . . . . . . . . see \% \permil ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \Perp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \perp (⊥) . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 93 \perp (⊥) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \perthousand (‰) . . . . . . . 67 \Pfund (£) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \PgDown ( Page ↓ ) . . . . . . . 69 \PgUp ( Page ↑ ) . . . . . . . . . 69 phaistos (package) . 83, 104, 105 Phaistos disk . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 pharmaceutical prescription see \textrecipe \PHarrow (J) . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHbee (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

\PHbeehive (X) . . . . . . . . 83 \PHboomerang (R) . . . . . . . 83 \PHbow (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHbullLeg (b) . . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHcaptive (D) . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHcarpentryPlane (S) . . . 83 \PHcat (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHchild (E) . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHclub (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHcolumn (W) . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHcomb (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHdolium (T) . . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHdove (f) . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHeagle (e) . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHflute (o) . . . . . . . . . . . 83

\PHgaunlet (H) . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHgrater (p) . . . . . . . . . . 83

\PHhelmet (G) . . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHhide (a) . . . . . . . . . . . 83

128

\PHhorn (Z) \Phi (Φ) . . \phi (φ) . . \phiup (φ)

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

83 49 49 50

\PHlid (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHlily (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 . . . . . . . . 83

\PHmanacles (N)

\PHmattock (O) . . . . . . . . . 83 \Phone ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 \phone ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \PhoneHandset ( ) . . . . . . . 77 phonetic (package) 12, 15, 90, 104 phonetic symbols . . . . . . 10–13 \photon (¬¬¬¬) . . . . . . . . . 67 photons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

¨

©

\PHoxBack (n) . . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHpapyrus (k) . . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHpedestrian (A) . . . . . . 83 \PHplaneTree (i) . . . . . . . . 83 \PHplumedHead (B) . . . . . 83 \PHram (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHrosette (l) . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHsaw (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHshield (L) . . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHship (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHsling (V) . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHsmallAxe (r) . . . . . . . . 83 \PHstrainer (q) . . . . . . . 83

pitchfork symbols . . . . . . . . 47 \piup (π) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \planck (¯ h) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \Plane ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 planets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 playing cards . . . . see card suits Plimsoll line 91, see also \minuso \Plus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \plus (+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 plus-or-minus sign . . . . see \pm \PlusCenterOpen ( ) . . . . . 72 \pluscirc (©) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \PlusOutline ( ) . . . . . . . . 72 plusses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \PlusThinCenterOpen ( ) . . 72 \Pluto (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \Pluto (É) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \pluto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \pm (±) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \pm (±) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \pm ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ˙ \pmb ¯ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 . \pmod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \pod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \pointer ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 pointing finger . . . . . . . see fists \Pointinghand (Z) . . . . . . . 76 \polishhook (~) . . . . . . . . . 16 

9

8

@

A

\polter (

) . . . . . . . . . . . 60

\PHtattooedHead (C) . . . . 83 \PHtiara (I) . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHtunny (g) . . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHvine (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHwavyBand (s) . . . . . . . . . 83 \PHwoman (F) . . . . . . . . . . . 83 physical symbols . . . . . . . . . 67 \Pi (Π) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \pi (π) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Pickup (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 pifont (package) 9, 71–75, 77, 90, 104, 105 pilcrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \P pipe . . . . . . . . . see \textpipe \Pisces (ë) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \pisces ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \Pisymbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \pitchfork (8) . . . . . . . . . . 63 \pitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 30 \pitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 47

polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 polynom (package) . . . . . . . . 57 polynomial division . . . . . . . 57 PostScript 50, 66, 71, 81, 90, 99 PostScript fonts . . . . . . . 71, 90 \pounds (£) . . . . . . 8, 102, 103 power set (P) . . see alphabets, math \powerset ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Pp ( ˙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \pp ( ˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \ppm ( ˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ˙˙) \Ppp ( ¯ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ˙ ˙ \ppp ( ˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ˙ \Pppp ( ˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ˙ ˙ \pppp ( ˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ˙ \Ppppp ( ˙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ˙ \ppppp ( ˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ˙ ˙ \Pr (Pr) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \prec ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \prec ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \precapprox (Æ) . . . . . . . . . 31 \precapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . 30 \precapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . . 32 \preccurlyeq (¤) . . . . . . . . 31 \preccurlyeq ( ) . . . . . . . . 30 \preccurlyeq ( ) . . . . . . . . 32 \precdot (Ì) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \preceq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \preceq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \preceqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

\precnapprox (Ê) . . . . . . . . 32 \precnapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . 30 \precnapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . 33 \precneq (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \precneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 31 \precnsim (Ä) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \precnsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 30 \precnsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \precsim (À) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \precsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \precsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 prescription . . see \textrecipe \prime ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \prime (′) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \Printer (Ò) . . . . . . . . . . . 69 printer’s fist . . . . . . . . see fists probabilistic independence . . 93 \prod ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \prod (∏) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \projlim (proj lim) . . . . . . . 49 pronunciation symbols . . . . see phonetic symbols proof, end of . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \propto (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \propto (∝) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \propto (∝) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 proto-Semitic symbols . . . . . 83 protosem (package) 83, 104, 105 \ProvidesPackage . . . . . . . 104 \PrtSc ( PrtSc ) . . . . . . . . . 69 \ps ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Psi (Ψ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \psi (ψ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \psiup (ψ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 psnfss (package) . . . . . . . . . . 73 \Pu (‰ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 pulse diagram symbols . . . . . 67 \PulseHigh ( ) . . . . . . . . . 67 \PulseLow ( ) . . . . . . . . . 67 punctuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \pwedge (…) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 pxfonts (package) 20, 21, 27, 30, 31, 36, 38, 41, 42, 48, 50, 51, 62, 63, 65, 87, 101 \Pxp ( ˙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \pxp ( ˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

6 7

˙

Q Q.E.D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \qside (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Quadrad (]]) . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \quadrad (]]) . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \Quadras ([[) . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \quadras ([[) . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 quarter note see musical symbols \quarternote ( ) . . . . . . . . 78 \quarternote ( ) . . . . . . . . . 78 quaternions (H) see alphabets, math quaver . . . see musical symbols queen . . . . . . see chess symbols \quotedblbase („) . . . . . 9, 103 \quotesinglbase (‚) . . . 9, 103

129

R \R ( ∼) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \r (˚ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 a) \r ( ∼) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Radiation ( ) . . . . . . . . . 81 radicals . . see \sqrt and \surd \Radioactivity (j) . . . . . . 70 \Rain ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \RainCloud ( ) . . . . . . . . . 80 raising . . . . . see \textraising \RaisingEdge ( ) . . . . . . . . 67 \Rangle (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \rAngle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \rangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 20, 53   

2

\rangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \ranglebar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 54 \RArrow ( → ) . . . . . . . . . \rarrowfill . . . . . . . . . . . rational numbers (Q) . . . . . alphabets, math rationalized Planck constant \hbar \Rbag ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rbag ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rbrace ( ) \Rbrack (]) . \rBrack (]]) . \rc (a) . . . . © \rCeil ( ) . . \rceil ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 . 60 see see . 52 . 52 . . . . . . 54 65 55 15 55 53

\Rectsteel (”) . . . . . . . . . . 70 reduced quadrupole moment see \rqm \reflectbox . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 registered trademark . . . . . see \textregistered relational symbols . . . . . . . . 30 binary 30–32, 34–39, 47, 48 negated binary . . . . 30–33 triangle . . . . . . . . . 39, 40 \Relbar (=) . . . . . . . . . 48, 90 \Relbar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \relbar (−) . . . . . . . . . 48, 90 \relbar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \resizebox . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \Respondens (∼) . . . . . . . . . 82 \respondens ( ∼) . . . . . . . . . 82 \restoresymbol . . . . . . . . . 87 \restriction . . . . . . . . . . see \upharpoonright \restriction (æ) . . . . . . . . 42 \restriction ( ) . . . . . . . . 46 retracting see \textretracting \Return ( ← ) . . . . . . . . . . 69 return . . . . . see carriage return \revaw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \revD (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . \revddots ( . . ) . . . . . . \reve (#) . . . . . . . . . . \reveject (f) . . . . . . . \revepsilon (%) . . . . . reverse solidus . . . . . . . \textbackslash reversed symbols . . . . . \reversedvideodbend ( \revglotstop (™) . . . . \Rewind (¶) . . . . . . . . \RewindToIndex (´) . \RewindToStart (µ) . . ?
?

\rhoup (ρ) . . . . . . . . . . . \right . . . . . . . . 53, 55, \rightangle ( ) . . . . . . . \RIGHTarrow ( ) . . . . . . . \Rightarrow (⇒) . . . . . \Rightarrow (⇒) . . . . . . \rightarrow (Ñ) . . . . . . \rightarrow (→) . . . . . . \rightarrow (→) . . . . . . . \rightarrowtail ( ) . . . \rightarrowtail ( ) . . . \rightarrowtriangle ( ) \rightbarharpoon (Ý) . . \RIGHTCIRCLE ( ) . . . . . . \RIGHTcircle ( ) . . . . . . \Rightcircle ( ) . . . . . . \RightDiamond ( ) . . . . .

c

.. 87, .. .. 20, .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

50 89 64 78 41 43 42 41 43 41 43 42 43 78 78 78 75

\rightevaw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 55 \rightfilledspoon ( ) \rightfootline ( ) . . . \rightfree ( ) . . . . . . . \righthalfcap ( ) . . . . \righthalfcup ( ) . . . . \rightharpoonccw ( ) . \rightharpooncw ( ) . . \rightharpoondown (ã) \rightharpoondown ( ) \rightharpoonup (á) . . \rightharpoonup ( ) . . \rightleftarrows (Õ) . \rightleftarrows ( ) . \rightleftarrows ( ) . \rightleftharpoon (á) \rightleftharpoons (é) \rightleftharpoons ( ) \rightleftharpoons ( ) \rightleftharpoons ( ) \rightleftharpoonsfill \rightlsquigarrow ( ) . \rightmapsto ( ) . . . . . \rightModels ( ) . . . . . \rightmodels ( ) . . . . . \rightmoon (v) . . . . . . . \rightmoon ( ) . . . . . . . \rightp (w) . . . . . . . . . . \rightpitchfork ( ) . . \rightpointleft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 32 32 23 23 46 46 43 41 43 41 42 41 43 43 43 41 41 46 60 43 43 32 32 68 68 16 47 72 72 32 42 41 43 43 43 71 21 32 47 42 41 44

. . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . .

. . 12 . . 94 . . 12 . . 12 12, 90 . . see . . . . . . 90 76 12 79 79 79

\rceil ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \rcirclearrowdown ( ) . . . 44 \rcirclearrowleft ( ) . . . 44 \rcirclearrowright ( ) . . 44 \rcirclearrowup ( ) . . . . . 44 \rcircleleftint ( ) . . . . . . 29 \rcirclerightint ( ) . . . . . 29 \rcorners (w) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \rcurvearrowdown ( ) . . . . . 44 \rcurvearrowleft ( ) . . . . 44 \rcurvearrowne ( ) . . . . . . 44 \rcurvearrownw ( ) . . . . . . 44 \rcurvearrowright ( ) . . . . 44 \rcurvearrowse ( ) . . . . . . 44 \rcurvearrowsw ( ) . . . . . . 44 \rcurvearrowup ( ) . . . . . . . 44 \rdbrack (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \Re ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 real numbers (R) see alphabets, math recipe . . . . . . see \textrecipe \recorder ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \Rectangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 75 \RectangleBold ( ) . . . . . . . 75 rectangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 \RectangleThin ( ) . . . . . . . 75 \Rectpipe (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . 70

... ) ... ... ... ...

\rfilet (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 ? \rFloor ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \rfloor ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \rfloor ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 54  \rgroup () . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \rgroup ( ) . . . . . . \RHD ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \rhd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \rhd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \rho (ρ) . . . . . . . . . . \rhookdownarrow ( ) . \rhookleftarrow ( ) \rhooknearrow ( ) . . \rhooknwarrow ( ) . . \rhookrightarrow ( ) \rhooksearrow ( ) . . \rhookswarrow ( ) . . \rhookuparrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. ... ... 20, 39, ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 54 21 21 40 49 44 44 44 44 44 44 43 43

L

u

v t

\rightpointright ( ) . \rightpropto ( ) . . . . . . \rightrightarrows (Ñ) . \rightrightarrows ( ) . \rightrightarrows ( ) . . \rightrightharpoons (Ù) \rightrsquigarrow ( ) . . \Rightscissors (Q) . . . . \rightslice ( ) . . . . . . . \rightslice ( ) . . . . . . . \rightspoon ( ) . . . . . . \rightsquigarrow (ù) . \rightsquigarrow ( ) . . \rightsquigarrow ( ) . .

N

. . . . . . . . . . .

130

\rightt (o) . . . . . . . . . \righttherefore ( ) . . \rightthreetimes (7) \rightthreetimes ( ) \rightthreetimes ( ) . \rightthumbsdown ( ) \rightthumbsup ( ) . \righttoleftarrow (ý) \Righttorque (') . . . . \rightturn ( ) . . . . . \rightVdash ( ) . . . . . \rightvdash ( ) . . . . .

d u

. . . . . . . . . .

... 23, ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

16 61 63 21 23 72 72 42 70 78 32 32

\rtriple . . . . \rVert (||) . . . . \rVert ( ) . . . \rvert (|) . . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

55 55 53 53

\scy (“) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \sddtstile ( \sdststile ( \sdtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 ) . . . . . . . . . 35 ) . . . . . . . . . . 35 . . . . . . . . 35 \textseagull . . . . . . . . 42 . . . . . . . . 43 . . . . . . . . 42 . . . . . 41, 93 . . . . . . . . 43 . . . . . . . . 43 . . . . . . . . 49

\rwave ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \rWavy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

\rwavy ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 S \S (§) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 102 safety-related symbols . . . . . 70 \Sagittarius (è) . . . . . . . . 68 \sagittarius ( ) . . . . . . . . 68 \samebishops (s) . . . . . . . . 82 sans (dsfont package option) . 65 \satellitedish ( ) . . . . . . 77 \Saturn (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \Saturn (Æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \saturn ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 savesym (package) . . . . . . . . 87 \savesymbol . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \Sborder ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 77 \scalebox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 scaling mechanical . . . . . . . 96, 98 optical . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 \scd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \scg (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \schwa (!) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \schwa (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Schwartz distribution spaces see alphabets, math \sci (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 scientific symbols . . . . . . 67–70 \ScissorHollowLeft ( ) . . 71 \ScissorHollowRight ( ) . 71 \ScissorLeft ( ) . . . . . . . 71 \ScissorLeftBrokenBottom ( ) . . . . . . . . . 71 \ScissorLeftBrokenTop ( ) 71 \ScissorRight ( ) . . . . . . . 71 \ScissorRightBrokenBottom ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \ScissorRightBrokenTop ( ) 71 scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \scn (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \scoh (˝) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \Scorpio (ç) . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \scorpio ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \scr (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 script letters see alphabets, math \scripta (¡) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \scriptg (() . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \scriptscriptstyle . . . 92, 93 \scriptstyle . . . . . . . . 92, 93 \scriptv (‰) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \Scroll ( Scroll ) . . . . . . . . 69 \scu (‡) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

\rightwave ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 55 \rightY ( ) . . . . . \ring (˚) . . . . . . . ring equal to . . . . . ring in equal to . . . \riota ( ) . . . . . . . \rip (y) . . . . . . . . \risingdotseq () \risingdotseq ( ) \risingdotseq ( ) \rJoin ( ) . . . . . . \rlap . . . . . . . . . .  \rmoustache () . . . . . . . 23 . . . . . . . 57 see \circeq see \eqcirc . . . . . . . 12 . . . . . . . 76 . . . . . . . 31 . . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . 31 . . . . 75, 93

\sdttstile ( ) . seagull . . . . . see \Searrow ( ) . . . \Searrow ( ) . . . \searrow (×) . . . \searrow ( ) . . . \searrow ( ) . . . \searrowtail ( ) \sec (sec) . . . . . .

I

ˇ \SechBL (= “ ) =

\Sech (ˇ “) )= . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 =

= = = ) \SechBl ( ˇ “ = = ˇ “ =) \SechBR ( = = \SechBr ( ˇ “ )

. . . . . . . . . . . . 79

. . . . . . . . . . . . 79 . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

S

. . . . . . . . 53

\rmoustache ( ) . . . . . . . . 54 rook . . . . . . . see chess symbols roots . . . . . . . . . . . . see \sqrt \rotatebox . . . . . . . . . . 16, 90 rotated symbols . . 10–12, 16, 90 rotating (package) . . . . . 18, 69 \rotm (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \rotOmega () . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \rotr (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \rotvara (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \rotw (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \roty (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \RoundedLsteel (Ÿ) . . . . . . 70 \RoundedTsteel () . . . . . . . 70 \RoundedTTsteel (ž) . . . . . . 70 \Rparen ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \rqm (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 \rrangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 52 52 42 43 52 69

¤

§ ¦

\rrbracket ( ) . . . \rrceil ( ) . . . . . . \rrfloor ( ) . . . . . \Rrightarrow ( ) \Rrightarrow ( ) . \rrparenthesis ( ) \RS ( ) . . . . . . . . . \rsem ( ) . \rsemantic . \Rsh (é) . . . \Rsh ( ) . . . \Rsh ( ) . . . \rtimes () \rtimes ( ) \rtimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 

¡

¥

£

¢

. . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \second (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 seconds, angular . . see \second \secstress (i) . . . . . . . . . . . 16 section mark . . . . . . . . . see \S \SectioningDiamond ( ) . . 81 \see (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \sefilledspoon ( ) . . . . . . 47 \sefootline ( ) . . . . . . . . . 32 \sefree ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 segmented digits . . . . . . . . . 67 \seharpoonccw ( ) . . . . . . . 46 \seharpooncw ( ) . . . . . . . . 46 \selectfont . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 \selsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . 43 semantic valuation . . . . . . . see \llbracket/\rrbracket and \ldbrack/\rdbrack \semapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 43 semibreve . see musical symbols semidirect products . . 21, 22, 63 semiquaver see musical symbols semitic transliteration . . 13, 16 \seModels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \semodels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 32 semtrans (package) . 13, 16, 104, 105 \senwarrows ( ) . . . . . . . . 43 \senwharpoons ( ) . . . . . . . 46

¡

. . . . . . . . 54 see \rdbrack . . . . . . . . 42 . . . . . . . . 41 . . . . . . . . 43 . . . . . . . . 22 . . . . . . . . 21 . . . . . . . . 23

\SePa ( @ ) . . . . . . . . . \separated ( ) . . . . . \sepitchfork ( ) . . . \seppawns (q) . . . . . \SerialInterface (Î) \SerialPort (Ð) . . . . \sersquigarrow ( ) . \sesearrows ( ) . . . \sespoon ( ) . . . . . . set operators intersection . . . . union . . . . . . . . . \setminus (\) . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

79 32 47 82 69 69 43 43 47

see \cap see \cup . . . . . 20

131

\setminus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \seVdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \sevdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 SGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 sha ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \sharp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 62, 78 \sharp ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \Shift ( Shift ⇑ ) . . . . . . . . 69 \shift (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \Shilling (¡) . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \shneg (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \shortdownarrow ( ) . . . . . . 42 \ShortFifty (×) . . . . . . . . 80 \ShortForty (Ù) . . . . . . . . 80 \shortleftarrow ( ) . . . . . 42 \shortmid ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \shortmid ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \ShortNinetyFive (Ô) . . . . 80 \shortparallel ( ) . . . . . . . 30 \shortparallel ( ) . . . . . . 32 \ShortPulseHigh ( ) . . . . . 67 \ShortPulseLow ( ) . . . . . . 67 \shortrightarrow ( ) . . . . 42 \ShortSixty (Ö) . . . . . . . . 80 \ShortThirty (Û) . . . . . . . 80 \shortuparrow ( ) . . . . . . . 42 \showclock . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \shpos (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \SI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \Sigma (Σ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \sigma (σ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \sigmaup (σ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \sim (∼) . . . . . . . . . 30, 91, 101 \sim (∼) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \simeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \simeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 simplewick (package) . . . . . . 96 simpsons (package) . . . . 85, 104 Simpsons characters . . . . . . . 85 \sin (sin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \sincoh (ˇ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \sinh (sinh) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \SixFlowerAlternate ( ) . . 74 \SixFlowerAltPetal ( ) . . 74 \SixFlowerOpenCenter ( ) . 74 \SixFlowerPetalDotted ( ) 74 \SixFlowerPetalRemoved ( ) 74 \SixFlowerRemovedOpenPetal ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \SixStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \SixteenStarLight ( ) . . . 74 sixteenth note . . . . see musical symbols \sixteenthnote ( ) . . . . . . 78 skak (package) . . . . 82, 104, 105 skull (package) . . . . 76, 104, 105 \skull ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 \slash (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 \slashb (§) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \slashc () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \slashd () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

X

4 5

‘

y … w  v

q

u

A

\slashdiv ( ) . . . . . . . . . slashed (package) . . . . . . . \slashed . . . . . . . . . . . . slashed letters . . . . . . . . . slashed.sty (file) . . . . . . \slashu (…) . . . . . . . . . . . \Sleet ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \sliding (a . . . . . . . . . . ¯) \smallbosonloop (2) . . . . . \SmallCircle ( ) . . . . . . \SmallCross ( ) . . . . . . \smalldiamond ( ) . . . . . \SmallDiamondshape ( ) \smallfrown ( ) . . . . . . . \smallfrown ( ) . . . . . . . \SmallHBar ( ) . . . . . . . \smallin ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \smallint ( ) . . . . . . . . . \SmallLowerDiamond ( ) \smalllozenge (◊) . . . . . . \smallowns ( ) . . . . . . . . \smallpencil ( ) .... \smallprod ( ) . . . . . . . . \SmallRightDiamond ( ) \smallsetminus ( ) . . . . \smallsetminus ( ) . . . . \smallsmile ( ) . . . . . . . \smallsmile ( ) . . . . . . . \SmallSquare ( ) . . . . . . \smallsquare ( ) . . . . . . \smallstar ( ) . . . . . . . . \SmallTriangleDown ( ) \smalltriangledown (™) . \smalltriangledown ( ) \SmallTriangleLeft ( ) \smalltriangleleft (š) . \smalltriangleleft ( ) \SmallTriangleRight ( ) \smalltriangleright (›) \smalltriangleright ( ) \SmallTriangleUp ( ) . . \smalltriangleup (˜) . . . \smalltriangleup ( ) . . \SmallVBar ( ) . . . . . . . \smile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \smile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . smile symbols . . . . . . . . . \smileeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \smileeqfrown ( ) . . . . . \smilefrown ( ) . . . . . . . \smilefrowneq ( ) . . . . . \Smiley (©) . . . . . . . . . . \smiley ( ) . . . . . . . . . . smiley faces . . . . . . . . 69, \sndtstile ( ) . . . . . . . \Snow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \SnowCloud ( ) . . . . . . . \Snowflake ( ) . . . . . . . \SnowflakeChevron ( ) . 

i 

p

(



P

y

d

g f

h

e

1  

–

”

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 24, .. .. 24, .. .. 24, .. .. 24, .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 78, .. .. .. .. ..

23 92 92 92 92 12 80 15 70 75 75 24 75 30 48 75 51 63 75 74 51 72 23 75 21 23 30 48 75 24 24 75 24 40 75 24 40 75 24 40 75 24 40 75 30 48 48 48 48 48 48 80 78 80 35 80 80 74 74

\SnowflakeChevronBold ( ) 74 snowflakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \SNPP ( ) . . . . . . . . \snststile ( ) . . . . \sntstile ( ) . . . . . \snttstile ( ) . . . . \SO ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \SOH ( ) . . . . . . . . . . space thin . . . . . . . . . . space, visible . . . . . . . \Spacebar ( ) spades (suit) . . . . . . . \spadesuit (♠) . . . . . \spadesuit (♠) . . . . . \Sparkle ( ) . . . . . . \SparkleBold ( ) . . . sparkles . . . . . . . . . . “special” characters . . \SpecialForty (Ú) . \sphericalangle (c) \sphericalangle ( ) \sphericalangle ( ) \SpinDown () . . . . . . . \SpinUp () . . . . . . . .  \spirituslenis (a) . . \spirituslenis () . . \splitvert (¦) . . . . . spoon symbols . . . . . . \spreadlips (a) . . . . ˙ \sqbullet () . . . . . . \sqcap (‘) . . . . . . . . \sqcap ( ) . . . . . . . . \sqcap ( ) . . . . . . . . \sqcapdot ( ) . . . . . . \sqcapplus ( ) . . . . . \sqcapplus ( ) . . . . . \sqcup (’) . . . . . . . . \sqcup ( ) . . . . . . . . \sqcup ( ) . . . . . . . . \sqcupdot ( ) . . . . . . \sqcupplus ( ) . . . . . \sqcupplus ( ) . . . . . \sqdoublecap (”) . . . \sqdoublecup (•) . . . \sqdoublefrown ( ) . . \sqdoublefrowneq ( ) \sqdoublesmile ( ) . . \sqdoublesmileeq ( ) \sqeqfrown ( ) . . . . . \sqeqsmile ( ) . . . . . \sqfrown ( ) . . . . . . . \sqfrowneq ( ) . . . . . \sqfrowneqsmile ( ) . \sqfrownsmile ( ) . . \sqiiint ( ) . . . . . \sqiint ( ) . . . . . . . ” \sqiint ( ) . . . . . . . \sqint ( ) . . . . . . . . › \sqint ( ) . . . . . . . . .

¡

•
. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

85 35 35 35 69 69

“

’

A

B

. . . . 100 ...... 8 . . . . 69 62–64, 77 . . . . . 62 . . . . . 63 . . . . . 74 . . . . . 74 . . . . . 74 ...... 8 . . . . . 80 . . . . . 63 . . . . . 63 . . . . . 63 . . . . . 75 . . . . . 75 . . . . . 56 . . . . . 56 . . . . . 69 . . . . . 47 . . . . . 15 . . . . . 22 . . . . . 22 . . . . . 20 . . . . . 23 . . . . . 23 . . . . . 21 . . . . . 23 . . . . . 22 . . . . . 20 . . . . . 23 . . . . . 23 . . . . . 21 . . . . . 23 . . . . . 22 . . . . . 22 . . . . . 48 . . . . . 48 . . . . . 48 . . . . . 48 . . . . . 48 . . . . . 48 . . . . . 48 . . . . . 48 . . . . . 48 . . . . . 48 . . . . . 27 . . . . . 27 . . . . . 28 . . . . . 27 . . . . . 28

132

√ \sqrt ( ) ....... \sqsmile ( ) . . . . . . \sqsmileeq ( ) . . . . \sqsmileeqfrown ( ) \sqsmilefrown ( ) . \Sqsubset ( ) . . . . . \sqSubset (”) . . . . \sqsubset (€) . . . . \sqsubset ( ) . . . . \sqsubset ( ) . . . . . \sqsubseteq („) . . . \sqsubseteq ( ) . . . \sqsubseteq ( ) . . . \sqsubseteqq (Œ) . . \sqsubseteqq ( ) . . \sqsubsetneq (ˆ) . . \sqsubsetneq ( ) . . \sqsubsetneqq () . \sqsubsetneqq ( ) . \Sqsupset ( ) . . . . . \sqSupset (•) . . . . \sqsupset () . . . . \sqsupset ( ) . . . . \sqsupset ( ) . . . . . \sqsupseteq (…) . . . \sqsupseteq ( ) . . . \sqsupseteq ( ) . . . \sqsupseteqq () . . \sqsupseteqq ( ) . . \sqsupsetneq (‰) . . \sqsupsetneq ( ) . . \sqsupsetneqq (‘) . \sqsupsetneqq ( ) . \sqtriplefrown ( ) . \sqtriplesmile ( ) . \Square (

H)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57, .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

93 48 48 48 48 37 37 37 36 37 37 36 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 36 37 37 36 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 48 48

\SquareShadowTopRight (

\SquareSolid ( ) . . . . . . . . 75 \Squaresteel (“) . . . . . . . . 70 \squarewithdots ( ) . . \squigarrowdownup ( ) \squigarrowleftright ( \squigarrownesw ( ) . . \squigarrownwse ( ) . . . \squigarrowrightleft ( \squigarrowsenw ( ) . . \squigarrowswne ( ) . . \squigarrowupdown ( ) . \squplus (“) . . . . . . . . \SS (SS) . . . . . . . . . . . . \ss (ß) . . . . . . . . . . . . .

g

i)
.. .. ) .. .. ) .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

\staveLXV ( \staveLXVI ( \staveLXVII (

) . . . . . . . . . 86 ) . . . . . . . . 86 ) . . . . . . . . 86

B

77 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 22 . 9 . 9

\staveLXVIII ( ) . . . . . . . 86 staves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 staves (package) . . . . . . 85, 104 \staveV ( \staveVI ( \staveVII ( \staveVIII ( \staveX ( \staveXI ( \staveXII ( \staveXIII ( \staveXIV ( \staveXIX ( \staveXL ( \staveXLI ( \staveXLII ( \staveXLIII ( \staveXLIV ( \staveXLIX ( \staveXLV ( \staveXLVI ( \staveXLVII ( \staveXLVIII ( \staveXV ( \staveXVI ( \staveXVII ( \staveXVIII ( \staveXX ( \staveXXI ( \staveXXII ( \staveXXIII ( \staveXXIV ( \staveXXIX ( \staveXXV ( \staveXXVI ( \staveXXVII ( ) ) ) ) . . . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . 85 . . . . . . . . . . 85 . . . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . . 86 ) . . . . . . . . . . 86 ) . . . . . . . . . 86 ) . . . . . . . 86

\ssdtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \ssearrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \sslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \ssststile ( \sststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 ) . . . . . . . . . . 35 .. .. 91, .. 20, .. 73, 73, .. 35 42 95 91 94 24 74 74 93

\ssttstile ( ) . . . . . . . \sswarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . \stackrel . . . . . . . . . 20, standard state . . . . . . . . . \star ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \star ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . Star of David . . . . . . . . stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63, statistical independence . . \staveI ( \staveII ( \staveIII ( \staveIV ( \staveIX ( \staveL ( \staveLI ( \staveLII ( \staveLIII ( \staveLIV ( \staveLIX ( \staveLV (

) . . . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . 85, 86 ) . . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . 86 ) . . . . . . . . . 86

) . . . . . . . . 86 ) . . . . . . . 86 ) . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . . 86 ) . . . . . . . . 86 ) . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . . 86 ) . . . . . . . 86 . . . . . . . . . 86 ) . . . . . . . . 86 ) . . . . . . . . 86 ) . . . . . 86 ) . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . 85

. . . . . . . . . . . . 75

\Square ( vs. vs. ) . . . 88 \Square ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \Square ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 \square (¥) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \square ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \square ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 square root . . . . . . . see \sqrt hooked . . . . . see \hksqrt \SquareCastShadowBottomRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

f

f H

k

\SquareCastShadowTopLeft ( . . . . . . . . . 75 \SquareCastShadowTopRight ( ) .............. \Squaredot (÷) . . . . . . . . . . \squaredots ( ) . . . . . . 23, \Squarepipe (—) . . . . . . . . . squares . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75,

m)

l

\SquareShadowA ( \SquareShadowB (

 ) ¡) ¢)

75 64 61 70 76

\staveLVI ( \staveLVII ( \staveLVIII ( \staveLX ( \staveLXI ( \staveLXII ( \staveLXIII ( \staveLXIV (

. . . . . . 75 . . . . . . 75

\SquareShadowBottomRight ( . . . . . . . . . 75 \SquareShadowC ( \SquareShadowTopLeft (

h)

. . . . . . 75

j) .

75

133

\staveXXVIII ( \staveXXX ( \staveXXXI ( \staveXXXII ( \staveXXXIII ( \staveXXXIV ( \staveXXXIX ( \staveXXXV ( \staveXXXVI ( \staveXXXVII ( \staveXXXVIII ( \stdtstile ( ) )

) . . . . . . 85 . . . . . . . . 85

) . . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . 85 . . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . . 85 ) . . . . . 85 ) . . . . 85

) . . . . . . . . . 34

\steaming ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 64 sterling . . . . . . . . . see \pounds stmaryrd (package) . . 21, 25, 30, 36, 40, 42, 48, 52, 53, 88, 91, 104, 105 stochastic independence see \bot \StoneMan ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Stopsign (!) . . . . . . . . . . 70 

˜) . . . . . . . \StopWatchStart (—) . . . . .
\StopWatchEnd ( \stress (h) . . . . \strictfi ( ) . \strictif ( ) . \strictiff ( ) \strokedint ( ) \StrokeFive ( ) \StrokeFour ( ) \StrokeOne ( ) . . \StrokeThree ( ) \StrokeTwo ( ) . ◦ \stst (− ) . . . . .

81 81 16 31 31 31 29 81 81 81 81 81 91

Y XXXX X XXX XX

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\stststile ( \sttstile ( \stttstile (

) . . . . . . . . . 34 ) . . . . . . . . . . 34 ) . . . . . . . . . 34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 69 70 15 15 15 15 15 92 37 36 37 37 36 37

\STX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \SUB ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . subatomic particles . . . . \subcorner (a) . . . . . . . ^ \subdoublebar (a) . . . . ¯ \subdoublevert (a) . . . . \sublptr (a) . . . "". . . . . . ¡ \subrptr (a) . . . . . . . . . subscripts ¿ new symbols used in \Subset (”) . . . . . . . . . \Subset ( ) . . . . . . . . . \Subset ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \subset (€) . . . . . . . . . \subset (⊂) . . . . . . . . . \subset (⊂) . . . . . . . . . .

\subseteq („) . . . . . . . \subseteq (⊆) . . . . . . . \subseteq (⊆) . . . . . . . . \subseteqq (Œ) . . . . . . . \subseteqq ( ) . . . . . . \subseteqq ( ) . . . . . . . \subsetneq (ˆ) . . . . . . . \subsetneq ( ) . . . . . . \subsetneq ( ) . . . . . . . \subsetneqq () . . . . . . \subsetneqq ( ) . . . . . . \subsetneqq ( ) . . . . . . \subsetplus ( ) . . . . . . \subsetpluseq ( ) . . . . subsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . \succ ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \succ ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \succapprox (Ç) . . . . . . \succapprox ( ) . . . . . . \succapprox ( ) . . . . . . \succcurlyeq (¥) . . . . . \succcurlyeq ( ) . . . . . \succcurlyeq ( ) . . . . . \succdot (Í) . . . . . . . . \succeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . \succeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \succeqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . \succnapprox (Ë) . . . . . \succnapprox ( ) . . . . . \succnapprox ( ) . . . . . \succneq (­) . . . . . . . . \succneqq ( ) . . . . . . . \succnsim (Å) . . . . . . . \succnsim ( ) . . . . . . . \succnsim ( ) . . . . . . . . \succsim (Á) . . . . . . . . \succsim ( ) . . . . . . . . \succsim ( ) . . . . . . . . . such that . . . . . . . . . . . \suchthat (− ) . . . . . . . − \sum ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \sum (∑) . . . . . . . . . . . . \sumint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \Summit ( ) . . . . . . . . . \SummitSign ( ) . . . . . . \Sun (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . \Sun (À vs. vs. d) . . \Sun ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \Sun (À) . . . . . . . . . . . . \sun (☼) . . . . . . . . . . . . \SunCloud ( ) . . . . . . . \SunshineOpenCircled ( \sup (sup) . . . . . . . . . . superscripts new symbols used in supersets . . . . . . . . . . . . \Supset (•) . . . . . . . . . \Supset ( ) . . . . . . . . . \Supset ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \supset () . . . . . . . . . \supset (⊃) . . . . . . . . .  

 

„

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 36, ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 90, ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ) . ... ... 36, ... ... ... ... ...

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37 36 37 37 36 37 37 36 37 37 36 37 36 36 37 30 32 31 30 32 31 30 32 31 30 32 31 32 30 33 32 31 32 30 33 31 30 32 92 92 25 29 29 81 81 68 88 80 68 78 80 77 49 92 37 37 36 37 37 36

\supset (⊃) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supseteq (…) . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supseteq (⊇) . . . . . . . . . . 36 \supseteq (⊇) . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supseteqq () . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supseteqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . 36 \supseteqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supsetneq (‰) . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supsetneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . 36 \supsetneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 37 \supsetneqq (‘) . . . . . . . . . 37 \supsetneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . 36 \supsetneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . 37 \supsetplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . 36 \supsetpluseq ( ) . . . . . . . 36 ` \surd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \SurveySign ( ) . . . . . . . . . 81 \Swarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \Swarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \swarrow (Ö) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \swarrow ( ) . . . . . . 41, 93, 94 \swarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \swarrowtail ( ) . . . . . . . . 43 \swfilledspoon ( ) . . . . . . 47 \swfootline ( ) . . . . . . . . . 32 \swfree ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \swharpoonccw ( ) . . . . . . . 46 \swharpooncw ( ) . . . . . . . . 46 \swlsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . 43 \swmapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 43 \swModels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \swmodels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \swnearrows ( ) . . . . . . . . 43 \swneharpoons ( ) . . . . . . . 46 \swpitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . . 47 \swrsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . 43 \swspoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \swswarrows ( ) . . . . . . . . 43 swung dash . . . . . . . . see \sim \swVdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \swvdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \syl (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \syllabic (j) . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Symbol (font) . . . . . . . . 50, 90 symbols actuarial . . . . . . . . . . . 95 alpine . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 APL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 astrological . . . . . . . . . 68 astronomical . . . . . . . . 68 biological . . . . . . . . . . . 70 body-text . . . . . . . . . 8–19 bold . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 chess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 communication . . . . . . . 69 computer hardware . . . . 69 contradiction . . . . . 20, 48 currency . . . . . . . . 17, 65 dangerous bend . . . . . . 76 definition . . . . . . . . 20, 95 dictionary . . . . . 10–13, 84 dingbat . . . . . . . . . 71–77

%

134

dot . . . . . . . . 8, 61, 62, 94 electrical . . . . . . . . . . . 67 engineering . . . . . . 67, 70 extensible 57–60, 89, 94–96 Feynman diagram . . . . . 70 Frege logic . . 47, 52, 62, 64 frown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 genealogical . . . . . . . . . 78 general . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Go stones . . . . . . . . . . 76 information . . . . . . . . . 76 informator . . . . . . . . . . 82 inverted . . . . 10–12, 16, 90 keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Knuth’s . . . . . . . . . 76, 79 laundry . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 legal . . . . . . . . . 8, 18, 102 letter-like . . . . . . . . 51, 52 life insurance . . . . . . . . 95 linear logic . . . . . 20, 30, 36 linguistic . . . . . . . . 10–13 log-like . . . . . . . . 49, 100 magical signs . . . . . . . . 85 mathematical . . . . . 20–66 METAFONTbook . . . . . 79 metrical . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 miscellaneous 62–64, 77–86 monetary . . . . . . . . 17, 65 musical . 19, 62, 63, 78, 79 navigation . . . . . . . . . . 79 non-commutative division 60 particle physics . . . . . . 70 Phaistos disk . . . . . . . . 83 phonetic . . . . . . . . 10–13 physical . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 pitchfork . . . . . . . . . . . 47 proto-Semitic . . . . . . . . 83 pulse diagram . . . . . . . 67 relational . . . . . . . . . . . 30 reversed . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 rotated . . . . 10–12, 16, 90 safety-related . . . . . . . . 70 scientific . . . . . . . . 67–70 Simpsons characters . . . 85 smile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 spoon . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 staves . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 subset and superset 36, 37 technological . . . . . 67–70 TEXbook . . . . . . . . 76, 79 transliteration . . . . . . . 13 upside-down . 10–12, 16, 90, 100–101 variable-sized 25–29, 87, 89 weather . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 zodiacal . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 symbols.tex (file) . . . . 87, 104 \SYN ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 T \T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \T ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \T ( ⊗) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 a

\t (a) . . . . . . . . . \t ( ⊗) . . . . . . . . t4phonet (package) 105 →→ \Tab ( −− ) . . . −− \tabcolsep . . . . . tacks . . . . . . . . . . \taild () . . . . . \tailinvr (r) . . . \taill (H) . . . . . . \tailn (W) . . . . . \tailr (p) . . . . . . \tails (v) . . . . . . \tailt (€) . . . . . . \tailz (•) . . . . . \Takt . . . . . . . . . \talloblong ( ) . tally markers . . . . \tan (tan) . . . . . . \tanh (tanh) . . . . \Tape ( ) . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . . 82 . 13, 16, 104, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ... 30, ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 69 91 51 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 79 21 81 49 49 77 

\Taschenuhr ( ) . . . Tate-Shafarevich group \tau (τ ) . . . . . . . . . . \Taurus () . . . . . . . \Taurus (á) . . . . . . . \taurus ( ) . . . . . . . \tauup (τ) . . . . . . . . . \tccentigrade ( ) . . \tcmu (µ) . . . . . . . . . \tcohm (Ω) . . . . . . . . \tcpertenthousand ( \tcperthousand (‰) . \td (a) . . . . . . . . . . . .. \tddtstile ( ) ... \tdststile ( \tdtstile ( )

–

. . . . . 81 see sha . . . . . 49 . . . . . 68 . . . . . 68 . . . . . 68 . . . . . 50 . . . . . 62 . . . . . 62 . . . . . 62 ) . . 62 . . . . . 62 . . . . . 15 . . . . . 34

) . . . . . . . . . 34 . . . . . . . . . 34

\tdttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . 35 technological symbols . . 67–70 \Telefon (T) . . . . . . . . . . . 69 \Telephone ( ) . . . . . . . . 81 Tennent, Bob . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \Tent ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Terminus (⊗) . . . . . . . . . . 82 \terminus (⊗) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Terminus* (⊕) . . . . . . . . . . 82 \terminus* (⊕) . . . . . . . . . . 82 \tesh () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 testfont.dvi (file) . . . . . . . 98 testfont.tex (file) . . . . 97, 98 TEX 40, 61, 87, 90–99, 101, 106 TEXbook, The . . . . . . 90–95, 99 symbols from . . . . . 76, 79 \text . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 92, 93 \textacutedbl ( ) . . . . . . . 17 \textacutemacron (´) . . . . . 13 a ¯ \textacutewedge (´) . . . . . . 13 a ˇ \textadvancing (a) . . . . . . . 14 ffi \textaolig (") . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textasciiacute ( ) . . 17, 102

@

(

\textasciibreve ( ) . . . . . . 17 \textasciicaron ( ) . . . . . . 17 \textasciicircum (ˆ) . . 8, 101, 103 \textasciidieresis ( ) 17, 102 \textasciigrave ( ) . . . . . . 17 \textasciimacron . . . . . . . 103 \textasciimacron ( ) 17, 102 \textasciitilde (˜) 8, 101, 103 \textasteriskcentered (∗) . 8, 19 \textbabygamma (È) . . . . . . . 10 \textbackslash (\) . . . . 8, 101 \textbaht ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \textbar (|) . . . . . . 8, 100, 101 \textbarb (b) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textbarc (c) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textbard (d) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textbardbl ( ) . . . . . . . . . 19 \textbardotlessj (é) . . . . . 10 \textbarg (g) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textbarglotstop (Ü) . . . . . 10 \textbari (1) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textbarl (ł) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textbaro (8) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textbarrevglotstop (Ý) . . 10 \textbaru (0) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textbeltl (ì) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textbenttailyogh (B) . . . . 11 \textbeta (B) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textbigcircle (○) . . . . . . 19 \textbktailgamma (.) . . . . . 11 \textblank ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 19 \textborn ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \textbottomtiebar (a) . . . . 14 < \textbraceleft ({) . . . . . . . . 8 \textbraceright (}) . . . . . . . 8 \textbrevemacron (˘) . . . . . 14 a ¯ \textbrokenbar (¦) . . . 19, 102 \textbullet (•) . . . . 8, 19, 103 \textbullseye (ò) . . . . . . . 10 \textcelsius ( ) . . . . . . . . 67 \textceltpal ( ) . . . . . . . . . 10 \textcent (¢) . . . . . . . 17, 102 \textcentoldstyle () . . . . 17 \textchi (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textcircled ( ) . . . . . . . . 13 \textcircledP ( ) . . . . . . 18 \textcircumacute (Ż) . . . . . 14 a \textcircumdot (ˆ . . . . . . . 14 a) ˙ \textcloseepsilon (Å) . . . . 10 \textcloseomega (Ñ) . . . . . . 10 \textcloserevepsilon (Æ) . . 10 \textcolonmonetary (₡) . . . 17 \textcommatailz (Þ) . . . . . . 10 textcomp (package) . . . . . . . 7, 8, 13, 17–19, 41, 56, 64, 67, 78, 87, 101, 103–105 \textcopyleft ( ) . . . . . . 18 \textcopyright (©) . 8, 18, 102 \textcorner (^) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textcrb (ă) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

135

\textcrd (ą) . . . . . . . . . \textcrd (ž) . . . . . . . . . \textcrg (g) . . . . . . . . . \textcrh (è) . . . . . . . . . \textcrh (§) . . . . . . . . . \textcrinvglotstop (Û) \textcrlambda (ň) . . . . \textcrtwo (2) . . . . . . . \textctc (C) . . . . . . . . . \textctd (ć) . . . . . . . . . \textctdctzlig (ćý) . . . \textctesh (š) . . . . . . . \textctinvglotstop (D) \textctj (J) . . . . . . . . . \textctjvar (2) . . . . . . \textctn (ő) . . . . . . . . . \textctstretchc (%) . . . \textctstretchcvar (&) \textctt (ť) . . . . . . . . . \textcttctclig (ťC) . . . \textctturnt (@) . . . . . . \textctyogh (ÿ) . . . . . . \textctz (ý) . . . . . . . . . \textcurrency (¤) . . . \textdagger (†) . . . . . . \textdaggerdbl (‡) . . . .

. . . 10 . . . 13 . . . 10 . . . 10 . . . 13 . . . 10 . . . 10 . . . 10 . . . 10 . . . 10 . . . 10 . . . 10 . . . 11 . . . 10 . . . 11 . . . 10 . . . 11 . . . 11 . . . 10 . . . 10 . . . 11 . . . 10 . . . 10 17, 102 . 8, 19 . 8, 19

\textdbend ( ) . . . . . . . . . 76 \textdblhyphen ( ) . . . . . . . 19 \textdblhyphenchar ( ) . . . . 19 \textdblig ()) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textdctzlig (dý) . . . . . . . . 10 \textdegree (°) . . . . . 64, 102 \textdied ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \textdiscount ( ) . . . . . . . 19 \textdiv (÷) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \textdivorced ( ) . . . . . . . 78 \textdollar ($) . . . . . . . 8, 17 \textdollaroldstyle () . . 17 \textdong (₫) . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \textdotacute (§) . . . . . . . 14 a ˙ \textdotbreve (˘) . . . . . . . 14 a \textdoublebaresh (S) . . . . 10 \textdoublebarpipe (}) . . . 10 \textdoublebarpipevar (H) . 11 \textdoublebarslash (=) . . 10 / \textdoublegrave (‚) . . . . . 14 a \textdoublegrave (a) . . . . . 16 Ÿ \textdoublepipe ({) . . . . . . 10 \textdoublepipevar (G) . . . 11 \textdoublevbaraccent (İ) . 14 a \textdoublevbaraccent (a) . 16 ¼ \textdoublevertline (Ş) . . 10 \textdownarrow (↓) . . . . . . . 41 \textdownfullarrow (ˇ) . . . 11 \textdownstep (Ť) . . . . . . . . 10 \textdyoghlig (Ã) . . . . . . . 10 \textdzlig (dz) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \texteightoldstyle () . . . 18 \textellipsis (. . . ) . . . . . . . 8 \textemdash (—) . . . . . . . . . 8 \textendash (–) . . . . . . . . . . 8 \textepsilon (E) . . . . . . . . 10

\textepsilon (¢) . . . . . . . . 13 \textesh (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textesh (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textestimated (℮) . . . . . . 19 \texteuro ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \texteuro (€) . . . . . . 17, 103 \textexclamdown (¡) . . . . . . . 8 \textfemale (7) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textfishhookr (R) . . . . . . . 11 \textfiveoldstyle () . . . . 18 \textfjlig () . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textflorin (ƒ) . . . . . . . . . . 17 \textfouroldstyle () . . . . 18 \textfractionsolidus (⁄) . . 64 \textfrak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \textfrbarn (5) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textfrhookd (’) . . . . . . . . 11 \textfrhookdvar (() . . . . . . 11 \textfrhookt (?) . . . . . . . . 11 \textfrtailgamma (-) . . . . . 11 \textg (ě) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textgamma (G) . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textglobfall (Ů) . . . . . . . 11 \textglobrise (Ű) . . . . . . . 11 \textglotstop (P) . . . . . . . 10 \textglotstopvari (T) . . . . 11 \textglotstopvarii (U) . . . 11 \textglotstopvariii (V) . . 11 \textgoth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \textgravecircum (Ž) . . . . . 14 a \textgravedbl ( ) . . . . . . . 17 \textgravedot (đ) . . . . . . . 14 a \textgravemacron (`) . . . . . 14 a ¯ \textgravemid (Ź) . . . . . . . 14 a \textgreater (>) . . 8, 100, 101 \textgrgamma (,) . . . . . . . . 11 \textguarani ( ) . . . . . . . . 17 \texthalflength (;) . . . . . . 10 \texthardsign (ż) . . . . . . . 10 \textheng (0) . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \texthmlig (4) . . . . . . . . . 11 \texthooktop (#) . . . . . . . . . 10 \texthtb (á) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \texthtb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \texthtbardotlessj (ê) . . . . 10 \texthtbardotlessjvar (3) . 11 \texthtc (Á) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \texthtc (°) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \texthtd (â) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \texthtd (¡) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \texthtg (ä) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \texthth (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \texththeng (Ê) . . . . . . . . . 10 \texthtk (Î) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \texthtk (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \texthtp (Ò) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \texthtp (±) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \texthtq (Ó) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \texthtrtaild (č) . . . . . . . 10 \texthtscg (É) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \texthtt (Ö) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \texthtt (º) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \texthvlig (ß) . . . . . . . . . . 10

\textifsym . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \textinterrobang ( ) . . . . . 19 \textinterrobangdown ( ) . . 19 \textinvglotstop (Û) . . . . . 10 \textinvomega (;) . . . . . . . 11 \textinvsca (p) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textinvscr (K) . . . . . . . . . 10 \textinvscripta (!) . . . . . . 11 \textinvsubbridge (a) . . . . 14 „ \textiota (Ì) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textiota (à) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textlambda (ń) . . . . . . . . . 10 \textlangle (〈) . . . . . 56, 101 \textlbrackdbl ( ) . . . . . . . 56 \textleaf ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 78 \textleftarrow (←) . . . . . . 41 \textlengthmark (:) . . . . . . 10 \textless (<) . . . . 8, 100, 101 \textlfishhookrlig (I) . . . 11 \textlhdbend ( ) . . . \textlhookfour (#) . . . \textlhookp (<) . . . . . \textlhookt (ş) . . . . . \textlhti (1) . . . . . . . \textlhtlongi (ę) . . . . \textlhtlongy (ű) . . . \textlira (₤) . . . . . . . \textlnot (¬) . . . . . . . \textlonglegr (Ô) . . . . \textlooptoprevesh (>) \textlowering (a) . . . fl \textlptr (¡) . . . . . . . \textlquill ( ) . . . . . \textltailm (M) . . . . . \textltailn (ñ) . . . . . \textltailn (©) . . . . . \textltilde (ë) . . . . . \textlyoghlig (Ð) . . . \textmarried ( ) . . . . \textmho ( ) . . . . . . . \textmidacute (Ÿ) . . . a \textminus (−) . . . . . . \textmu (µ) . . . . . . . . . \textmusicalnote (♪) . \textnaira ( ) . . . . . . \textnineoldstyle () \textnrleg (6) . . . . . . \textnumero (№) . . . . . \textObardotlessj (Í) \textObullseye (9) . . \textohm (Ω) . . . . . . . \textOlyoghlig (ŋ) . . . \textomega (ř) . . . . . . \textonehalf (½) . . . . \textoneoldstyle . . . . \textoneoldstyle () . \textonequarter (¼) . . \textonesuperior (¹) . \textopenbullet (◦) . . \textopencorner (_) . . \textopeno (O) . . . . . . \textopeno (ª) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 . . . 11 . . . 11 . . . 10 . . . 11 . . . 10 . . . 10 . . . 17 64, 102 . . . 10 . . . 11 . . . 14 . . . 10 . . . 56 . . . 10 . . . 10 . . . 13 . . . 10 . . . 10 . . . 78 . . . 67 . . . 14 . . . 64 67, 102 . . . 19 . . . 17 . . . 18 . . . 11 . . . 19 . . . 10 . . . 11 . . . 67 . . . 10 . . . 10 64, 102 . . . 18 . . . 18 64, 102 64, 102 . . . 19 . . . 10 . . . 10 . . . 13

. . . .

136

\textordfeminine (ª) 8, 19, 102 \textordmasculine (º) . . 8, 19, 102 \textovercross (‰) . . . . . . . 14 a — \textoverw (a) . . . . . . . . . . 14 \textpalhook (%) . . . . . . . . . 10 \textpalhooklong (ˆ) . . . . . 11 \textpalhookvar (˜) . . . . . . 11 \textparagraph (¶) . . . . 8, 19 \textperiodcentered (·) . 8, 19, 102 \textpertenthousand ( ) . 19 \textperthousand (‰) 19, 103 \textpeso ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \textphi (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textpilcrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 19 \textpipe (|) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textpipe (|) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textpipevar (F) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textpm (±) . . . . . . . . 64, 102 \textpmhg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 \textpolhook (a) . . . . . . . . 14 ˛ \textprimstress (") . . . . . . 10 \textproto . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \textqplig (=) . . . . . . . . . 11 \textquestiondown (¿) . . . . . 8 \textquotedbl (") . . . . 9, 100 \textquotedblleft (“) . . . . . 8 \textquotedblright (”) . . . . 8 \textquoteleft (‘) . . . . . . . . 8 \textquoteright (’) . . . . . . . 8 \textquotesingle (') . . . . . 19 \textquotestraightbase ( ) 19 \textquotestraightdblbase ( ) . . . . . . . . . 19 \textraiseglotstop (ij) . . . 10 \textraisevibyi (ğ) . . . . . . 10 \textraising (a) . . . . . . . . 14 fi \textramshorns (7) . . . . . . . 10 \textrangle (〉) . . . . . 56, 101 \textrbrackdbl ( ) . . . . . . . 56 \textrecipe ( ) . . . . . . 19, 89 \textrectangle (¨) . . . . . . . 11 \textreferencemark ( ) 19, 20 \textregistered (®) 8, 18, 102 \textretracting (a) . . . . . . 14 ffl \textretractingvar (˚) . . . 11 \textrevapostrophe (\) . . . . 10 \textreve (9) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textrevepsilon (3) . . . 10, 90 \textreversedvideodbend ( . . . . . . . . . 76 \textrevglotstop (Q) . . . . \textrevscl (v) . . . . . . . . \textrevscr (z) . . . . . . . . \textrevyogh (ź) . . . . . . . \textrhooka ( ) . . . . . . . . \textrhooke (*) . . . . . . . . \textrhookepsilon (+) . . . \textrhookopeno (:) . . . . . \textrhookrevepsilon (Ç) \textrhookschwa (Ä) . . . . . ) . . . . . . . . . . 10 11 11 10 11 11 11 11 10 11

\textrhoticity (~) . . . . . \textrightarrow (→) . . . \textringmacron (˚) . . . . a ¯ \textroundcap (“) . . . . . a \textrptr (¿) . . . . . . . . . \textrquill ( ) . . . . . . . \textrtaild (ã) . . . . . . . \textrtaild (ð) . . . . . . . \textrtailhth (/) . . . . . \textrtaill (í) . . . . . . . . \textrtailn (ï) . . . . . . . \textrtailr (ó) . . . . . . . \textrtails (ù) . . . . . . . \textrtailt (ú) . . . . . . . \textrtailt (») . . . . . . . \textrtailz (ü) . . . . . . . \textrthook ($) . . . . . . . . \textrthooklong (´) . . . . \textsca (À) . . . . . . . . . . \textscaolig (q) . . . . . . \textscb (à) . . . . . . . . . . \textscdelta (r) . . . . . . \textsce (ď) . . . . . . . . . . \textscf (s) . . . . . . . . . . \textscg (å) . . . . . . . . . . \textsch (Ë) . . . . . . . . . . \textschwa (@) . . . . . . . . \textschwa (¡) . . . . . . . . \textsci (I) . . . . . . . . . . \textscj (ĺ) . . . . . . . . . . \textsck (t) . . . . . . . . . . \textscl (Ï) . . . . . . . . . . \textscm (w) . . . . . . . . . \textscn (ð) . . . . . . . . . . \textscoelig (Œ) . . . . . . \textscomega (ś) . . . . . . \textscp (x) . . . . . . . . . . \textscq (y) . . . . . . . . . . \textscr (ö) . . . . . . . . . . \textscripta (A) . . . . . . \textscriptg (g) . . . . . . \textscriptv (V) . . . . . . \textscriptv (¬) . . . . . . . \textscu (Ú) . . . . . . . . . . \textscy (Y) . . . . . . . . . . \textseagull (a) . . . . . . \textsecstress ( ) . . . . . \textsection (§) . . . . . . \textservicemark ( ) . . . \textsevenoldstyle () . \textsixoldstyle () . . . \textsoftsign (ž) . . . . . . \textspleftarrow (˝) . . . \textsterling (£) . . . . . \textstretchc (Â) . . . . . \textstretchcvar ($) . . . \textstyle . . . . . . . . 92, \textsubacute (a) . . . . . › \textsubarch (a) . . . . . . “ ....... \textsubbar (a) ¯ \textsubbridge (a) . . . . . ” \textsubcircum (a) . . . . . \textsubdot (a) ˆ . . . . . . . ˙

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, .. .. .. .. .. 8, .. .. 93, .. .. .. .. .. ..

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11 41 14 14 11 56 11 13 11 11 10 10 10 10 13 10 10 11 10 11 10 11 10 11 10 10 10 13 10 10 11 10 11 10 10 10 11 11 10 10 10 10 13 10 10 14 10 19 18 18 18 10 11 17 10 11 99 14 14 14 14 14 14

\textsubdoublearrow (˙) . . 11 \textsubgrave (a) . . . . . . . 14 ‹ \textsublhalfring (a) . . . . 14 – \textsubplus (a) . . . . . . . . 14 ff \textsubrhalfring (a) . . . . 14 » \textsubrightarrow (¯) . . . 11 \textsubring (a) . . . . . . . . 14 ˚ « \textsubsquare (a) . . . . . . . 14 \textsubtilde (a) . . . . . . . 14 \textsubumlaut ˜ ) . . . . . . . 14 (a \textsubw (a) . . ¨ . . . . . . . . 14 — . \textsubwedge (a) . . . . . . . 14 ˇ \textsuperimposetilde (a) . 14 & \textsuperscript . . . . . . . . 15 \textsurd (√) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \textswab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \textsyllabic (a) . . . . . . . 15 " \texttctclig (tC) . . . . . . . . 10 \textteshlig (Ù) . . . . . . . . 10 \textteshlig (œ) . . . . . . . . 13 \texttheta (T) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textthorn (þ) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textthornvari (P) . . . . . . . 11 \textthornvarii (Q) . . . . . . 11 \textthornvariii (R) . . . . . 11 \textthornvariv (S) . . . . . . 11 \textthreeoldstyle () . . . 18 \textthreequarters (¾) 64, 102 \textthreequartersemdash () . . . . . . . . . 19 \textthreesuperior (³) 64, 102 a) . . . . . . . 15 \texttildedot (˜ ˙ \texttildelow ( ) . . . 19, 101 \texttimes (×) . . . . . . . . . . 64 \texttoneletterstem (£) . . . 10 \texttoptiebar (> . . . . . . . 15 a) \texttrademark (™) . 8, 18, 103 \texttslig ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textturna (5) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textturncelig (ŕ) . . . . . . 10 \textturnglotstop (E) . . . . 11 \textturnh (4) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textturnk (ľ) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textturnlonglegr (Õ) . . . . 10 \textturnm (W) . . . . . . . . . 10 \textturnmrleg (î) . . . . . . 10 \textturnr (ô) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textturnrrtail (õ) . . . . . . 10 \textturnsck (u) . . . . . . . . 11 \textturnscripta (6) . . . . . 10 \textturnscu ({) . . . . . . . . 11 \textturnt (Ø) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textturnthree (C) . . . . . . . 11 \textturntwo (A) . . . . . . . . 11 \textturnv (2) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textturnw (û) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textturny (L) . . . . . . . . . . 10 \texttwelveudash ( ) . . . . . 19 \texttwooldstyle . . . . . . . . 18 \texttwooldstyle () . . . . . 18 \texttwosuperior (²) . 64, 102 \textuncrfemale (8) . . . . . . 11

137

\textunderscore ( ) . . \textuparrow (↑) . . . . \textupfullarrow (˘) . \textupsilon (U) . . . . \textupstep ( ) . . . . . \textvbaraccent (IJ) . . a \textvbaraccent (a) . . ¿ \textvertline (Š) . . . . \textvibyi (ğ) . . . . . . \textvibyy (ů) . . . . . . \textvisiblespace ( ) \textwon ( ) . . . . . . . \textwynn ( ) . . . . . . . \textyen (¥) . . . . . . . \textyogh (Z) . . . . . . . \textyogh (¶) . . . . . . . \textzerooldstyle () \TH (Þ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \th (þ) . . . . . . . . . . . . Th`nh, H`n Th´ . . . . . a a ˆ e \therefore (T) . . . . . . \therefore (∴) . . . . . . \therefore (∴) . . . . . . \Thermo . . . . . . . . . . . \Theta (Θ) . . . . . . . . . \theta (θ) . . . . . . . . . \thetaup (θ) . . . . . . . . \thickapprox (≈) . . . . \thicksim (∼) . . . . . . \thickvert (~) . . . . . . thin space . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

\ThinFog ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \thinstar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \third (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 thirty-second note . see musical symbols \Thorn (Þ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \thorn (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \thorn (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \thorn (þ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 thousandths . . . . . . . . . . . see \textperthousand ∼ \threesim (∼) . . . . . . . . . . 91 ∼ tilde 8, 10, 11, 13, 16, 19, 56, 57, 59, 94, 101 extensible . . . . . . . 57, 59 vertically centered . . . 101 \tilde (˜) . . . . . . . . . . 56, 94 \tildel (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 time of day . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \timelimit (T) . . . . . . . . . 82 \times (×) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \times (×) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Times Roman (font) . . . 17, 89 timing (package) . . . . . . . . . 67 tipa (package) 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 90, 104, 105 tipx (package) . . . . 11, 104, 105 \tndtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . 35 \tnststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \tntstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 

.... 8 . . . 41 . . . 11 . . . 10 . . . 10 . . . 15 . . . 16 . . . 10 . . . 11 . . . 11 .... 8 . . . 17 . . . 11 17, 102 . . . 11 . . . 13 . . . 18 9, 102 9, 102 . . . 94 . . . 31 30, 61 . . . 61 . . . 80 . . . 49 . . . 49 . . . 50 . . . 30 . . . 30 . . . 54 . . 100

\tnttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . 35 \to . . . . . . . . see \rightarrow \ToBottom (½) . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \tone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \top ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51, 92 \top ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \topbot (⊥) . . . . . . . . . 92, 94 \topdoteq () . . . . . . . . . . 31 torus (T) . see alphabets, math \ToTop (¼) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 trademark . see \texttrademark \TransformHoriz ( ) . . . . 35 transforms . . . . 35, 60, see also alphabets, math \TransformVert ( ) . . . . . . 35 transliteration semitic . . . . . . . . . . 13, 16 transliteration symbols . . . . 13 transversality . see \pitchfork trfsigns (package) 35, 51, 60, 104 \triangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 62 \triangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 40 triangle relations . . . . . . 39, 40 \TriangleDown ( ) . . . . . . . 75 \TriangleDown ( vs. ) . . 88 \TriangleDown ( ) . . . . . . . 75 \triangledown ( ) . . . . . . . 63 \triangledown ( ) . . . . . . . 40 \triangleeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . 40 \TriangleLeft ( ) . . . . . . . 75 \triangleleft (˜) . . . . . . . 40 \triangleleft ( ) . . . . . . . 20 \triangleleft ( ) . . . . . . . 40 \trianglelefteq (œ) . . . . . 40 \trianglelefteq ( ) . . . . . 39 \trianglelefteq ( ) . . . 39, 40 \trianglelefteqslant ( ) . 40 \triangleq ( ) . . . . . . 20, 39 \triangleq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 40 \TriangleRight ( ) . . . . . . 75 \triangleright (™) . . . . . . 40 \triangleright ( ) . . . . . . . 20 \triangleright ( ) . . . . . . 40 \trianglerighteq () . . . . 40 \trianglerighteq ( ) . . . . 39 \trianglerighteq ( ) . . 39, 40 \trianglerighteqslant ( ) 40 triangles . . . . . . . . . . 63, 75, 76 \TriangleUp ( ) . . . . . . . . 75 \TriangleUp ( vs. ) . . . . 88 \TriangleUp ( ) . . . . . . . . 75 \triple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \triplefrown ( ) . . . . . . . . 48 \triplesim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \triplesmile ( ) . . . . . . . . 48 trsym (package) . . . 35, 104, 105 \tsbm ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

\tsststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \Tsteel (œ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \tststile ( \tsttstile ( \ttdtstile ( \ttststile ( \tttstile ( \ttttstile ( ) ) . . . . . . . . . 35 ) . . . . . . . . 35 ) . . . . . . . . 35 ) . . . . . . . . . 35 . . . . . . . . . 35 ) . . . . . . . . 35

\TTsteel (š) . . . . . . . . . . . 70

  ¢

Q

o Q o
P

TUGboat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \Tumbler () . . . . . . . . . . . 80 turnstile (package) . 34, 35, 104, 105 \TwelweStar ( ) . . . . . . . . 74 \twoheaddownarrow ( ) . . . . 43 \twoheadleftarrow ( ) . . . 41 \twoheadleftarrow ( ) . . . 43 \twoheadnearrow ( ) . . . . . 44 \twoheadnwarrow ( ) . . . . . 44 \twoheadrightarrow ( ) . . 41 \twoheadrightarrow ( ) . . 44 \twoheadsearrow ( ) . . . . . 44 \twoheadswarrow ( ) . . . . . 44 \twoheaduparrow ( ) . . . . . . 44 \twonotes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 78 txfonts (package) 20, 21, 27, 30, 31, 36, 38, 41, 42, 48, 50, 51, 62, 63, 65, 87, 89, 101, 104, 105 type1cm (package) . . . . . . . . 87 Type 1 (font) . . . . . . . . . . . 99

t

R

I

n I n

U \U (a) . . . . . . ˘ \U (a) . . . . . . ¼ \u (˘) . . . . . . a \UArrow ( ↑ ) \UB (< . . . . . ) \ubar (u) . . . ubulb.fd (file) \udesc (u) . . \udot (¤) . . . . \udotdot ( ) . \udots ( ) . . \udtimes ( ) \UHORN (Ư) . . \uhorn (ư) . . \ulcorner (x) \ulcorner ( )

.... .... .... ... .... .... ... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . 16 . . 13 . . 13 . . 69 . . 79 . . 12 98, 99 . . 12 . . 22 23, 61 . . 61 . . 23 ... 9 ... 9 . . 52 . . 52

\ulcorner ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \ullcorner ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 54 \ulrcorner ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 54 ulsy (package) . . 24, 48, 90, 104 \Umd ( a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 umlaut . . . . . . . . . see accents unary operators . . . . . . . . . . 20

\tsdtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . 35 \tsmb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \tsmm ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

138

\unclear (k) . . . . . \underaccent . . . . . \underarc (a) . . . . . \underarch (a) . . . .  \underbrace (lo mo n) o o \underbrace ( \underbrace (

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

82 94 16 15 58

\underbrace ( ) . . . . . . . . . 58 ) . . . . . . . 58 ) . . . . . . . 57 . . . . . . . 58 . . . . 95, 96

\underbracket ( ) \underbracket ( )

\underdots (r) . . . . . . . . . . 16 \undergroup (lo o n) . . . . . . . 58 o \undergroup ( ) . . . . . . . . 58 \underleftarrow (←) . . . . . 58 − \underleftrightarrow (← ) 58 → \underline ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 57 \underlinesegment ( ) . . . . 58 \underparenthesis ( ) 95, 96 \underrightarrow (− ) . . . . 58 → \underring (y) . . . . . . . . . . 16 underscore . . . . . . . . . . see \_ underscore (package) . . . . . . . 8 \underset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 undertilde (package) 59, 104, 105 \undertilde (|) . . . . . . . . . 16 \underwedge (}) . . . . . . . . . 16 union . . . . . . . . . . . . see \cup unit disk (D) . . . see alphabets, math \unitedpawns (u) . . . . . . . . 82 units (package) . . . . . . . . . . 64 unity (1) . . see alphabets, math universa (package) . 76, 80, 104, 105 universal (package) 71, 73, 76, 80, 104, 105 \unlhd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 20, 21 \unlhd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 39, 40 \unrhd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 20, 21 \unrhd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 39, 40 \upalpha (α) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \UParrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \Uparrow (⇑) . . . . . . . . . 41, 53 \Uparrow (⇑) . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \uparrow (↑) . . . . . . . 41, 53, 87 \uparrow (↑) . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \uparrowtail ( ) . . . . . . . . 44 \upbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \upbeta (β) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \upbracketfill . . . . . . . . . 95 \upchi (χ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Updelta (∆) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \updelta (δ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Updownarrow ( ) . . . . . 41, 53 \Updownarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . 44 \updownarrow ( ) . . . . . 41, 53 \updownarrow (↕) . . . . . . . . 44 \updownarrows (Ö) . . . . . . . 42

\updownarrows ( ) . . . . . . . 44 \updownharpoonleftright ( ) 46 \updownharpoonrightleft ( ) 46 \updownharpoons (ê) . . . . . . 43 \updownharpoons ( ) . . . . . . 46 \Updownline ( ) . . . . . . . . . 32 \updownline ( ) . . . . . . . . . 32 \upepsilon (ε) . . . . . . . . . . 50 \upeta (η) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \upfilledspoon ( ) . . . . . . . 47 \upfootline ( ) . . . . . . . . . 32 \upfree ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Upgamma (Γ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \upgamma (γ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 upgreek (package) . 50, 104, 105 \upharpoonccw ( ) . . . . . . . . 46 \upharpooncw ( ) . . . . . . . . 46 \upharpoonleft (ä) . . . . . . . 43 \upharpoonleft ( ) . . . . . . . 41 \upharpoonright (æ) . . . . . . 43 \upharpoonright ( ) . . . . . . 41 \upiota (ι) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \upkappa (κ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Uplambda (Λ) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \uplambda (λ) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \uplett . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \uplsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . 44 \uplus () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \uplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \uplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \upmapsto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \upModels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \upmodels ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \upmu (µ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \upnu (ν) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Upomega (Ω) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \upomega (ω) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \upp (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \upparenthfill . . . . . . . . . 95 \Upphi (Φ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \upphi (φ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Uppi (Π) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \uppi (π) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \uppitchfork ( ) . . . . . . . . 47 \uppropto ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Uppsi (Ψ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \uppsi (ψ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 upquote (package) . . . . . . . 101 \uprho (ρ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 upright Greek letters . . . . . . 50 \uprsquigarrow ( ) . . . . . . . 44 upside-down symbols . . 100–101 upside-down symbols 10–12, 16, 90 \Upsigma (Σ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \upsigma (σ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Upsilon (Υ) . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \upsilon (υ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \upsilonup (υ) . . . . . . . . . . 50 \upslice ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \upspoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \upt (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \uptau (τ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

\uptherefore (∴) . \Uptheta (Θ) . . . . \uptheta (θ) . . . . . \uptodownarrow (þ) \upuparrows (Ò) . . \upuparrows ( ) . \upuparrows ( ) . . \upupharpoons (Ú) \Upupsilon (Υ) . . . \upupsilon (υ) . . . \upvarepsilon (ε) . \upvarphi (ϕ) . . . . \upvarpi (ϖ) . . . . \upvarrho (ρ) . . . . \upvarsigma (σ) . . \upvartheta (ϑ) . . \upVdash ( ) . . . . \upvdash (⊥) . . . . . \Upxi (Ξ) . . . . . . . \upxi (ξ) . . . . . . . \upY ( ) . . . . . . . . \upzeta (ζ) . . . . . . \Uranus (q) . . . . . \Uranus (Ç) . . . . . . \uranus ( ) . . . . . . \urcorner (y) . . . . \urcorner ( ) . . . .

.... .... .... ... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23, .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

61 50 50 42 42 41 44 43 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 32 32 50 50 23 50 68 68 68 52 52

\urcorner ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 54 url (package) \US ( ) . . . . \usepackage \ut (a) . . . . ˜ \utilde ( ) . \utimes ( ) \utimes ( ) Utopia (font) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 . . 69 ... 7 . . 15 . . 59 . . 23 . . 23 17, 29

V \v (ˇ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 a \vara (—) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \varangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 63 \varbigcirc ( ) . . . . . . . . 21 \VarClock ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 81 \varclub ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \varclubsuit ( ) . . . . . . . . 63 \varcurlyvee ( ) . . . . . . . . 21 \varcurlywedge ( ) . . . . . . 21 \vardiamond (♦) . . . . . . . . . 64 \vardiamondsuit ( ) . . . . . . 63 \varEarth (t) . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \varepsilon (ε) . . . . . . . . . 49 \varepsilonup (ε) . . . . . . . . 50 \VarFlag ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 varg (txfonts/pxfonts package option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \varg ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \varg (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \vargeq (©) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \varhash (5) . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \varheart (♥) . . . . . . . . . . 64 \varheartsuit ( ) . . . . . . . 63

›

)

139

\varhexagon ( ) . . . . . . . . . 74 \varhexstar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 73 \vari (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 variable-sized symbols 25–29, 87, 89 \VarIceMountain ( ) . . . . . 81 \varinjlim (lim) . . . . . . . . . 49 − → \varint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \various (R) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \varkappa (κ) . . . . . . . . . . 49 \varleq (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \varliminf (lim) . . . . . . . . . 49 \varlimsup (lim) . . . . . . . . . 49 \varmathbb . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \VarMountain ( ) . . . . . . . . 81 \varnothing (∅) . . . . 20, 62, 63 \varnothing ( ) . . . . . . . . . 63 \varnotin („) . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \varnotowner (…) . . . . . . . . 51 \varoast ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \varobar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \varobslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . 21 \varocircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 21 \varodot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \varogreaterthan ( ) . . . . 21 \varoiiintclockwise ( ) . 27 \varoiiintctrclockwise ( ) . . . . . . . . . 27 ! \varoiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 28 \varoiintclockwise ( ) . . 27 \varoiintctrclockwise ( ) 27 \varoint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \varointclockwise ( ) . . . . 27 ff \varointclockwise ( ) . . . . 28 \varointctrclockwise ( ) . 27 fl \varointctrclockwise ( ) . . 28 \varolessthan ( ) . . . . . . . 21 \varomega (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \varominus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 21 \varopeno (g) . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \varoplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 21 \varoslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 21 \varotimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 21 \varovee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \varowedge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 21 \varparallel ( ) . . . . . . . . 31 \varparallelinv ( ) . . . . . . 31 \varphi (ϕ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \varphiup (ϕ) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \varpi ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \varpiup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \varprod ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \varprojlim (lim) . . . . . . . . 49 ← − \varpropto (∝) . . . . . . . . . 30 \varpropto (∝) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \varQ ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \varrho ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \varrhoup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \varsigma (ς) . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \varsigmaup (ς) . . . . . . . . . 50 \varspade ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 64

$

#

\varspadesuit ( ) . . \varsqsubsetneq (Š) \varsqsubsetneqq (’) \varsqsupsetneq (‹) \varsqsupsetneqq (“) \varstar () . . . . . . . \varsubsetneq (Š) . . \varsubsetneq ( ) . . \varsubsetneq ( ) . . \varsubsetneqq (’) . \varsubsetneqq ( ) . \varsubsetneqq ( ) . . \VarSummit ( ) . . . . \varsupsetneq (‹) . . \varsupsetneq ( ) . . \varsupsetneq ( ) . . \varsupsetneqq (“) . \varsupsetneqq ( ) . \varsupsetneqq ( ) . .

0

ƒ

\VarTaschenuhr ( ) . . \vartheta (ϑ) . . . . . . . \varthetaup (ϑ) . . . . . \vartimes ( ) . . . . . . . \vartriangle ( ) . . . . \vartriangle ( ) . . . . \vartriangleleft (˜) \vartriangleleft ( ) \vartriangleleft ( ) . \vartriangleright (™) \vartriangleright ( ) \vartriangleright ( ) \varv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \varw ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \vary ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \VBar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \vbipropto ( ) . . . . . . \vcentcolon (:) . . . . . . \vcenter . . . . . . . . . . \vcrossing ( ) . . . . . . \VDash (@) . . . . . . . . . \VDash ( ) . . . . . . . . . \Vdash (D) . . . . . . . . . \Vdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . \Vdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . \vDash (@) . . . . . . . . . \vDash ( ) . . . . . . . . . \vDash ( ) . . . . . . . . . \vdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . \vdash ( ) . . . . . . . . . \vdotdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . .) \vdots (. . . . . . . . . . . \vdots ( ) . . . . . . . . . . \vec ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \vec ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . \Vectorarrow (p) . . . . . \Vectorarrowhigh (P) . . \vee (•) . . . . . . . . . . . \vee (∨) . . . . . . . . . . . \vee (∨) . . . . . . . . . . . \veebar (‰) . . . . . . . . \veebar ( ) . . . . . . . .

”

... ... .. ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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63 37 37 37 37 22 37 36 37 37 36 37 81 37 36 37 37 36 37 81 49 50 21 63 40 40 39 40 40 39 40 50 50 50 75 23 34 91 32 31 33 31 30 33 31 30 33 30 33 61 61 61 56 56 64 64 22 20 23 22 21

\veedot ( ) . . . . . \veedoublebar (‘) \Venus (f) . . . . . . \Venus (Ã) . . . . . . \venus (♀) . . . . . . \vernal ( ) . . . . . \Vert ( ) . . . . . . . \vert (|) . . . . . . . . \vertbowtie ( ) . . \vertdiv ( ) . . . . . \VHF ( ) . . . . . . . . \Vier (ˇ “ ) . . . . . . . vietnam (package) .

\Village ( ) . . . . . . . . 81 \vin ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 vinculum . . . . . . see \overline \ViPa (> ) . . . . \Virgo (å) . . . \virgo ( ) . . \VM (>) . . . . . . vntex (package) \vod (v) . . . . . ˚ \voicedh (h) . . \vppm ( ) . . . . ˙ \vpppm (¯˙ ) . . . ˙. \VT ( ) .¯ . . . . #») . . . . . \vv ( \VvDash ( ) . . \Vvdash (D) . . \Vvdash ( ) . . \Vvdash ( ) . . \vvvert (~) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 79 68 68 79 13 12 12 82 82 69 59 31 31 30 32 54 



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. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . .

. . 23 . . 22 . . 68 . . 68 . . 68 . . 68 53, 54 53, 54 . . 23 . . 23 . . 67 . . 79 . 104

0

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 39, .. .. 39, .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 23, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

W \WashCotton (‰) . . . . . . . . 80 \WashSynthetics (Š) . . . . 80 \WashWool (‹) . . . . . . . . . . 80 \wasylozenge (◊) . . . . . . . . 78 \wasypropto ( ) . . . . . . . . . 30 wasysym (package) . . . . . . . 12, 17, 19–21, 25, 30, 36, 38, 41, 61–63, 67, 68, 70, 73, 74, 78, 88, 104, 105 \wasytherefore (∴) . . . . . . 61 wavy-line delimiters . . . . 54, 55 \wbetter (f) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \wdecisive (h) . . . . . . . . . 82 \weakpt (J) . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \WeakRain ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 80 \WeakRainCloud ( ) . . . . . . 80 weather symbols . . . . . . . . . 80  

\Wecker ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \wedge (”) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \wedge (∧) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \wedge (∧) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \wedgedot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Weierstrass ℘ function . see \wp \Wheelchair (w) . . . . . . . . . 76 \whistle (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \whitestone . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 whole note see musical symbols

š

140

Wick contractions \widearrow (t) . . \widebar (s) . . . . \widecheck (q) . . \widehat ( ) . . . . \widehat ( ) . . . . \wideparen (u) . . \wideparen ( ) . . \wideparen (Û) . . \widering (˚) . . . Û

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

96 58 58 58 58 57 58 58 57

Xdvi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 − \xhookleftarrow (← ) . . . . . 59 \xhookrightarrow ( − ) → \Xi (Ξ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \xi (ξ) . . . . . . . . . . . . \xiup (ξ) . . . . . . . . . . =) \xLeftarrow (⇐ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 49 49 50

\xrightharpoonup (− ) . . . . 59 \xrightleftharpoons (− ) . 59 − \xrightleftharpoons (− ) . 59 − Xs . . . . . . . . . . . \XSolid ( ) . . . . \XSolidBold ( ) \XSolidBrush ( )

5

. . . . . . . . 59

. . . . . . . . 58

\xleftarrow (← . . . . . . . . 59 −) \xleftharpoondown ( −) . . . 59 \xleftharpoonup ( −) . . . . . 59 \xLeftrightarrow (⇐ ⇒) \xLeftrightarrow (⇐ ⇒) →) \xleftrightarrow (← \xleftrightarrow (← →) . . . 60 . . . 59 . . . 60 . . . 59

6 7

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

73, 76 . . . 73 . . . 73 . . . 73 60

\widering (˚) . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Û \widetilde (̃) . . . . . . . . . . 58 \widetilde ( ) . . . . . . . 57, 59 \widetriangle (Ê) . . . . . . . 57 \wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Windows® . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 \with (&) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \with (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \withattack (A) . . . . . . . . . 82 \withidea (E) . . . . . . . . . . 82 \withinit (C) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \without (v) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \wn (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \Womanface (þ) . . . . . . . . . 80 won . . . . . . . . . . see \textwon \wp (℘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \wp (℘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \wr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \wr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \wreath ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 wreath product . . . . . . see \wr \Writinghand (b) . . . . . . . . 76 wsuipa (package) 11, 15, 16, 88, 90, 94, 104, 105 \wupperhand (c) . . . . . . . . . 82 X \x ( ˙˙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ˙ \XBox˙ ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

\xtwoheadleftarrow ( − −) −

− \xtwoheadrightarrow (− − ) 60 X -pic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Y Y \Ydown ( ) . . . . yen . . . . . . . . . . yfonts (package) . yhmath (package) 104 \Yinyang (Y) . . \Yleft ( ) . . . . \yogh (–) . . . . . \yogh (x) . . . . . \Yright ( ) . . . \Yup ( ) . . . . . .

− \xleftrightharpoons (− ) . 59 \xlongequal (==) . . . . . . . . 60 = \xlongequal (==) . . . . . . . . 60 = \xLongleftarrow (⇐=) . . . . 60 = − \xlongleftarrow (←−) . . . . 60 \xLongleftrightarrow (⇐=⇒) = . . . . . . . . . 60 \xlongleftrightarrow (←−→) − . . . . . . . . . 60 = \xLongrightarrow (=⇒) . . . 60 \xlongrightarrow (−→) . . . 60 − →) \xmapsto (− . . . . . . . . . . 59 \xmapsto (− →) . . . . . . . . . . 60 XML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 \xRightarrow (= ) . . . . . . . . 59 ⇒ \xrightarrow (− →) . . . . . . . 59 \xrightharpoondown (− ) . . 59

. . . . . . . . . 21 . see \textyen . . 65, 104, 105 57, 59, 62, 94, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 21 12 12 21 21

Z Zapf Chancery (font) Zapf Dingbats (font) \Zborder ( ) . . . . . \zeta (ζ) . . . . . . . . \zetaup (ζ) . . . . . . . \Zodiac . . . . . . . . . zodiacal symbols . . .

Z

) \ztransf ( c ... s . . . . . . . . . 35 \zugzwang (D) . . . . . . . . . . 82
.

. ) \Ztransf ( s ... c . . . . . . . . . 35

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

... 71, ... ... ... ... ...

65 73 77 49 50 68 68

\Zwdr (ˇ “* ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \ZwPa ( A ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

141

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