You are on page 1of 35

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA

Integrated Curriculum for Primary Schools

Curriculum Specifications

SCIENCE
Year 2

Curriculum Development Centre
Ministry of Education Malaysia
2002
Copyright © 2002 Curriculum Development Centre
Ministry of Education Malaysia
Pesiaran Duta
50604 Kuala Lumpur

First published 2002

Copyright reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilization of this work in
any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented,
including photocopying, and recording is forbidden without the written permission from the
Director of the Curriculum Development Centre, Ministry of Education Malaysia.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Preface xi
Introduction 1
Aims and Objectives 1
Scientific Skills 2
Thinking Skills 3
Scientific Attitudes and Noble Values 7
Teaching and Learning Strategies 7
Content Organisation 9
Learning about Living Things
Learning Area: 1. Living Things and Non-living Things 11
2. Ourselves 12
3. Animals 14
4. Plants 15
Learning about the World Around Us
Learning Area: 1. Long or Short 17
2. The Magic of Batteries 18
3. Mixing Things 20
4. Push and Pull 21

iii
THE NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY

Our nation, Malaysia, is dedicated to achieving a greater unity of all her peoples; to maintaining a
democratic way of life; to creating a just society in which the wealth of the nation shall be equitably
shared; to ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and diverse cultural traditions; to building a
progressive society which shall be oriented toward modern science and technology;

We, her peoples, pledge our united efforts to attain these ends guided by these principles:

BELIEF IN GOD
LOYALTY TO KING AND COUNTRY
UPHOLDING THE CONSTITUTION
RULE OF LAW
GOOD BEH AVIOUR AND MOR ALITY

v
NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort toward developing the potential of individuals in a holistic
and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and
physically balanced and harmonious based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is
designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high
moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level personal well being
as well as being able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the family, society and the nation
at large.

vii
NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY

In consonance with the National Education Philosophy,
science education in Malaysia nurtures a
Science and Technology Culture by focusing
on the development of individuals who are competitive,
dynamic, robust and resilient and able to
master scientific knowledge and technological competency

ix
PREFACE

The aspiration of the nation to become an industrialised In a recent development, the Government has made a
society depends on science and technology. It is decision to introduce English as the medium of instruction
envisaged that success in providing quality science in the teaching and learning of science and mathematics.
education to Malaysians from an early age w ill serve to This measure w ill enable students to keep abreast of
spearhead the nation into becoming a know ledge society developments in science and technology in contemporary
and a competitive player in the global arena. Tow ards this society by enhancing their capability and know-how to tap
end, the Malaysian education system is giving greater the diverse sources of information on science w ritten in the
emphasis to science and mathematics education. English language. At the same time, this move w ould also
provide opportunities for students to use the English
The Science curriculum has been designed not only to language and hence, increase their proficiency in the
provide opportunities for students to acquire science language. Thus, in implementing the science curriculum,
know ledge and skills, develop thinking skills and thinking attention is given to developing students’ ability to use
strategies, and to apply this know ledge and skills in English for study and communication, especially in the
everyday life, but also to inculcate in them noble values early years of learning.
and the spirit of patriotism. It is hoped that the educational
process en route to achieving these aims w ould produce The development of this curriculum and the preparation of
well-balanced citizens capable of contributing to the the corresponding Curriculum Specifications have been the
harmony and prosperity of the nation and its people. work of many individuals over a period of time. To all those
who have contributed in one w ay or another to this effort,
may I, on behalf of the Ministry of Education, express my
The Science curriculum aims at producing active learners.
sincere gratitude and thanks for the time and labour
To this end, students are given ample opportunities to
expended.
engage in scientific investigations through hands-on
activities and experimentations. The inquiry approach,
incorporating thinking skills, thinking strategies and
thoughtful learning, should be emphasised throughout the
teaching-learning process. The content and contexts
(Dr. SHARIFAH MA IMUNAH SY ED Z IN)
suggested are chosen based on their relevance and Director
appeal to students so that their interest in the subject is
Curriculum Development Centre
enhanced.
Ministry of Education Malaysia

xi
INTRODUCTION AIMS

The aim of the primary school science curriculum is to develop
As articulated in the National Education Policy, education in
pupils’ interest and creativity through everyday experiences and
Malaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential of investigations that promote the acquisition of scientific and
individuals in a holistic and integrated manner to produce
thinking skills as w ell as the inculcation of scientific attitudes and
individuals w ho are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and
values.
physically balanced and har monious. The primary and secondary
school science curriculum is developed w ith the aim of producing
such individuals.
OBJ ECTIVES
The Level One Pr imary Science curriculum is designed to
stimulate pupils’ curiosity and develop their interest as w ell as
enabling pupils to learn more about themselves and the w orld The level one science curriculum aims to:
1. Stimulate pupils’ curiosity and develop their interest about
around them through activities.
the w orld around them.
The curriculum is articulated in tw o documents: the 2. Provide pupils w ith opportunities to develop science
process skills and thinking skills.
syllabus and the curriculum specifications. The syllabus presents
3. Develop pupils’ creativity.
the aims, objectives and the outline of the curriculum content for a
period of 3 years for level one primary science. The curriculum 4. Provide pupils w ith basic science know ledge and concepts.
5. Inculcate scientific attitudes and positive values.
specifications provide the details of the curriculum. w hich includes
6. Create an aw areness on the need to love and care for the
the aims and objectives of the curriculum, brief descriptions on
thinking skills and thinking strategies, scientific skills, scientific environment.
attitudes and noble values, teaching and learning strategies, and
curriculum content. The curriculum content provides the learning
objectives, suggested learning activities, the intended learning
outcomes, and vocabulary.

1
SCIENTIFIC SKILLS

Science emphasises inquiry and problem solving. In inquiry and Predicting Making a forecast about what
problem solving processes, scientific and thinking skills are will happen in the future based
utilised. Scientific skills are important in any scientific investigation on prior know ledge gained
such as conducting experiments and carrying out projects. through experiences or collected
data.
Scientific skills encompass science process skills and
manipulative skills. Comm unicating Using w ords or graphic symbols
such as tables, graphs, figures
Science Process Skills or models to describe an action,
object or event.
Science process skills enable students to formulate their
questions and find out the answ ers systematically. Using space-time Describing changes in
relationship parameter w ith time. Examples
Descriptions of the science process skills are as follows: of parameters are location,
direction, shape, size, volume,
Observing Using the sense of hearing, weight and mass.
touch, smell, taste and sight to
find out about objects or events. Interpreting data Giving rational explanations
about an object, event or pattern
Classifying Using observations to group derived from collected data.
objects or events according to
similarities or differences. Defining Defining all variables as they are
operationally used in an experiment by
Measuring and Making quantitative describing w hat must be done
Using Num bers observations by comparing to a and w hat should be observed.
conventional or non-
conventional standard. Controlling Naming the fixed variable,
variables manipulated variable, and
Making Using past experiences or responding variable in an
Inferences previously collected data to draw investigation.
conclusions and make
explanations of events.

2
THINKING SKILLS

Making Making a general statement Thinking is a mental process that requires an individual to
Hypotheses about the relationship betw een a integrate know ledge, skills and attitude in an effort to understand
manipulated variable and a the environment.
responding variable to explain
an observation or event. The One of the objectives of the national education system is to
statement can be tested to enhance the thinking ability of students. This objective can be
determine its validity. achieved through a curriculum that emphasises thoughtful
learning. Teaching and learning that emphasises thinking skills is
Experim enting Planning and conducting a foundation for thoughtful learning.
activities to test a hypothesis.
These activities include Thoughtful learning is achieved if students are actively
collecting, analysing and involved in the teaching and learning process. Activities should be
interpreting data and making organised to provide opportunities for students to apply thinking
conclusions. skills in conceptualisation, problem solving and decision- making.

Thinking skills can be categorised into critical thinking skills
Manipulative Skills and creative thinking skills. A person w ho thinks critically alw ays
evaluates an idea in a systematic manner before accepting it. A
Manipulative skills in scientific investigation are psychomotor skills person w ho thinks creatively has a high level of imagination, is
that enable students to: able to generate original and innovative ideas, and modify ideas
and products.
x Use and handle science apparatus and substances.
x Handle specimens correctly and carefully. Thinking strategies are higher order thinking processes
x Draw specimens and apparatus. that involve various steps. Each step involves various critical and
x Clean science apparatus. creative thinking skills. The ability to formulate thinking strategies
x Store science apparatus. is the ultimate aim of introducing thinking activities in the teaching
and learning process.

3
Critical Thinking Skills

A brief description of each critical thinking skill is as follows:

Attributing Identifying criteria such as Analysing Examining information in detail
characteristics, features, by breaking it dow n into
qualities and elements of a smaller parts to find implicit
concept or an object. meaning and relationships.

Com paring and Finding similarities and Detecting Bias Identifying views or opinions
Contrasting differences based on criteria that have the tendency to
such as characteristics, support or oppose something
features, qualities and in an unfair or misleading w ay.
elements of a concept or
event. Evaluating Making judgements on the
quality or value of something
Grouping and Separating and grouping based on valid reasons or
Classifying objects or phenomena into evidence.
categories based on certain
criteria such as common Making Making a statement about the
characteristics or features. Conclusions outcome of an investigation
that is based on a hypothesis.
Sequencing Arranging objects and
information in order based on
the quality or quantity of
common characteristics or
features such as size, time,
shape or number.

Prioritising Arranging objects and
information in order based on
their importance or priority.

4
Creative Thinking Skills

A brief description of each creative thinking skill is as follows:

Generating Ideas Producing or giving ideas in a Synthesising Combining separate elements
discussion. or parts to form a general
picture in various forms such
Relating Making connections in a as writing, draw ing or artefact.
certain situation to deter mine a
structure or pattern of Making Making a general statement
relationship. Hypotheses about the relationship betw een
a manipulated variable and a
Making Using past experiences or responding variable to explain
Inferences previously collected data to an observation or event. The
draw conclusions and make statement can be tested to
explanations of events. determine its validity.

Predicting Making a forecast about what Making Analogies Understanding a certain
will happen in the future based abstract or complex concept
on prior know ledge gained by relating it to a simpler or
through experiences or concrete concept with similar
collected data. characteristics.

Making Making a general conclusion Inventing Producing something new or
Generalisations about a group based on adapting something already in
observations made on, or existence to overcome
some information from, problems in a systematic
samples of the group. manner.

Visualising Recalling or forming mental
images about a particular idea,
concept, situation or vision.

5
Relationship between Thinking Skills and
Science Process Skills Science Process Skills Thinking Skills

Science process skills are skills that are required in the process of Predicting Relating
finding solutions to a problem or making decisions in a systematic Visualising
manner. It is a mental process that promotes critical, creative,
analytical and systematic thinking. Mastering of science process Using Space-Time Sequencing
skills and the possession of suitable attitudes and know ledge Relationship Prioritising
enable students to think effectively.
Interpreting data Compar ing and contrasting
The mastering of science process skills involves the Analysing
mastering of the relevant thinking skills. The thinking skills that are Detecting bias
related to a particular science process skill are as follow s: Making conclusions
Generalising
Evaluating
Science Process Skills Thinking Skills
Defining operationally Relating
Making analogy
Observing Attributing Visualising
Compar ing and contrasting Analysing
Relating
Controlling variables Attributing
Classifying Attributing Compar ing and contrasting
Compar ing and contrasting Relating
Grouping and classifying Analysing

Measuring and Using Relating Making hypothesis Attributing
Numbers Compar ing and contrasting Relating
Compar ing and contrasting
Making Inferences Relating Generating ideas
Compar ing and contrasting Making hypothesis
Analysing Predicting
Making inferences Synthesising

6
x Daring to try.
Science Process Skills Thinking Skills x Thinking rationally.
x Being confident and independent.

Experimenting All thinking skills The inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values generally
occurs through the follow ing stages:
Communicating All thinking skills
x Being aw are of the importance and the need for scientific
attitudes and noble values.
x Giving emphasis to these attitudes and values.
SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLE VALUES x Practising and internalising these scientific attitudes and noble
values.
Science learning experiences can be used as a means to
inculcate scientific attitudes and noble values in students. These
attitudes and values encompass the follow ing: Inculcating Patriotism
x Having an interest and curiosity tow ards the environment. The science curriculum provides an opportunity for the
x Being honest and accurate in recording and validating data. development and strengthening of patriotis m among students. For
x Being diligent and persevering. example, in learning about the earth’s resources, the richness and
x Being responsible about the safety of oneself, others, and the variety of living things and the development of science and
environment. technology in the country, students will appreciate the diversity of
x Realising that science is a means to understand nature. natural and human resources of the country and deepen their love
x Appreciating and practising clean and healthy living. for the country.
x Appreciating the balance of nature.
x Being respectful and w ell-mannered.
x Appreciating the contribution of science and technology. TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES
x Being thankful to God.
x Having critical and analytical thinking.
x Being flexible and open- minded. Teaching and learning strategies in the science curriculum
x Being kind-hearted and caring. emphasise thoughtful learning. Thoughtful learning is a process
x Being objective. that helps students acquire know ledge and master skills that w ill
help them develop their minds to the optimum level. Thoughtful
x Being systematic.
learning can occur through various learning approaches such as
x Being cooperative.
inquiry, constructivism, contextual learning, and mastery learning.
x Being fair and just.
Learning activities should therefore be geared tow ards activating

7
students’ critical and creative thinking skills and not be confined to The follow ing are brief descriptions of some teaching and learning
routine or rote learning. Students should be made aw are of the methods.
thinking skills and thinking strategies that they use in their
learning. They should be challenged w ith higher order questions Experiment
and problems and be required to solve problems utilising their
creativity and critical thinking. The teaching and learning process An experiment is a method commonly used in science lessons. In
should enable students to acquire know ledge, master skills and experiments, students test hypotheses through investigations to
develop scientific attitudes and noble values in an integrated discover specific science concepts and principles. Conducting an
manner. experiment involves thinking skills, scientific skills, and
manipulative skills.
Inquiry-discovery emphasises learning through
experiences. Inquiry generally means to find information, to In the implementation of this curriculum, besides guiding
question and to investigate a phenomenon that occurs in the students to carry out experiments, w here appropriate, teachers
environment. Discovery is the main characteristic of inquiry. should provide students with the opportunities to design their ow n
Learning through discovery occurs when the main concepts and experiments. This involves students draw ing up plans as to how to
principles of science are investigated and discovered by students conduct experiments, how to measure and analyse data, and how
themselves. Through activities such as experiments, students to present the results of their experiment.
investigate a phenomenon and draw conclusions by themselves.
Teachers then lead students to understand the science concepts Discussion
through the results of the inquiry. Thinking skills and scientific
skills are thus developed further during the inquiry process. A discussion is an activity in w hich students exchange questions
How ever, the inquiry approach may not be suitable for all teaching and opinions based on valid reasons. Discussions can be
and learning situations. Sometimes, it may be more appropriate conducted before, during or after an activity. Teachers should play
for teachers to present concepts and principles directly to the role of a facilitator and lead a discussion by asking questions
students. that stimulate thinking and getting students to express
themselves.
The use of a variety of teaching and learning methods can
enhance students’ interest in science. Science lessons that are Simulation
not interesting w ill not motivate students to learn and
subsequently w ill affect their performance. The choice of teaching In simulation, an activity that resembles the actual situation is
methods should be based on the curriculum content, students’ carried out. Examples of simulation are role-play, games and the
abilities, students’ repertoire of intelligences, and the availability of use of models. In role-play, students play out a particular role
resources and infrastructure. Different teaching and learning based on certain pre-determined conditions. Games require
activities should be planned to cater for students with different procedures that need to be follow ed. Students play games in
learning styles and intelligences. order to learn a particular principle or to understand the process of

8
decision-making. Models are used to represent objects or actual Computer simulation and animation are effective tools for the
situations so that students can visualise the said objects or teaching and learning of abstract or difficult science concepts.
situations and thus understand the concepts and principles to be Computer simulation and animation can be presented through
learned. courseware or Web page. Application tools such, as word
processors, graphic presentation software and electronic
Project spreadsheets are valuable tools for the analysis and presentation
of data.
A project is a learning activity that is generally undertaken by an
individual or a group of students to achieve a particular learning
objective. A project generally requires several lessons to CONTENT ORGANISATION
complete. The outcome of the project either in the form of a report,
an artefact or in other forms needs to be presented to the teacher
and other students. Project w ork promotes the development of The science curriculum is organised around themes. Each theme
problem-solving skills, time management skills, and independent consists of various learning areas, each of w hich consists of a
learning. number of learning objectives. A learning objective has one or
more learning outcomes.
Visits and Use of External Resources
Learning outcomes are written in the form of measurable
The learning of science is not limited to activities carried out in the behavioural ter ms. In general, the learning outcomes for a
school compound. Learning of science can be enhanced through particular learning objective are organised in order of complexity.
the use of external resources such as zoos, museums, science How ever, in the process of teaching and learning, learning
centres, research institutes, mangrove sw amps, and factories. activities should be planned in a holistic and integrated manner
Visits to these places make the learning of science more that enables the achievement of multiple learning outcomes
interesting, meaningful and effective. To optimise learning according to needs and context. Teachers should avoid employing
opportunities, visits need to be carefully planned. Students may be a teaching strategy that tries to achieve each learning outcome
involved in the planning process and specific educational tasks separately according to the order stated in the curriculum
should be assigned during the visit. No educational visit is specifications.
complete w ithout a post-visit discussion.
The Suggested Learning Activities provide information on
Use of Technology the scope and dimension of learning outcomes. The learning
activities stated under the column Suggested Learning Activities
Technology is a pow erful tool that has great potential in enhancing are given w ith the intention of providing some guidance as to how
the learning of science. Through the use of technology such as learning outcomes can be achieved. A suggested activity may
television, radio, video, computer, and Internet, the teaching and cover one or more learning outcomes. At the same time, more
learning of science can be made more interesting and effective. than one activity may be suggested for a particular learning

9
outcome. Teachers may modify the suggested activity to suit the
ability and style of learning of their students. Teachers are
encouraged to design other innovative and effective learning
activities to enhance the learning of science.

10
Learning about Living Things

Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Activities
Living Things and Non-living Things
Pupils should learn Pupils

to make observations Pupils w alk around the x make a list of the things Pupils must be living things
and use these to school compound and list they see. supervised during the non-living things
group things into living out the things that they walk around the grows
things and non-living see. Pupils group them x group w hat they see into school compound. food
things. into living things and non- living things and non-living water
living things. things. Allow pupils to group breathe
living and non-living move
x record the groups in the things according to produce
form of a table. their ow n
understanding.
Pupils give reasons w hy x state the characteristics of
they say something is a living things, i.e.: Discuss w ith pupils
living thing e.g. it needs ƒ they need food and why they say
food and w ater, it water something is a living
breathes, it moves, it ƒ they breathe thing.
grows and it can produce ƒ they can move
young. ƒ they grow Have them look back
ƒ they can produce young. at grouping that they
Pupils look at the grouping did to see if they still
that they did earlier. Pupils agree w ith it. Allow
redo their grouping based pupils to redo the
on the characteristics of grouping according to
living things their new
understanding of
living things.

11
Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Activities
Pupils w atch videos of x recognise humans, animals
animals eating, moving, and plants as living things
grow ing and producing
young.

Pupils discuss that plants:
a) need food and w ater,
b) grow
c) can grow new plants.

Ourselves
Pupils should learn Pupils

that they need to food Pupils talk about w hat will x state that they need to eat Discuss w ith pupils
and w ater to stay alive happen if they do not eat and drink to stay alive. what w ill happen to
and drink for a few days. them if they do not
eat and drink for 1
day, 2 days, 3 days.
that they need to eat Pupils list out the foods x list some of the different
different kinds of food that they eat for breakfast foods that they eat.
to be healthy. or lunch over one w eek.

Pupils present the list of x present the list of foods they rice
foods they eat in a w eek in eat in the form of a fish
the form of a pictograph. pictograph and say w hat chicken
this shows e.g. the food that eggs
Pupils talk about w hat the is eaten most. meat
pictogragh show s e.g. the vegetables
food that is eaten the most fruits
in one w eek healthy

12
Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Activities
Pupils talk about the x recognise that they need to
importance of eating eat different foods to stay
different foods to stay healthy.
healthy.
x state the kinds of food that:
Pupils talk about food that: ƒ give energy
a) give energy, e.g. rice, ƒ help you grow
bread ƒ help you stay healthy
b) help you grow , e.g.
fish, chicken
c) help you stay healthy
e.g. fruits, vegetables

that w e grow and Pupils look at photographs x describe changes in taller
change as w e grow of themselves since birth themselves since birth. craw ling
older. to the present. Pupils walking
suggest w ays in which x state that they grow in running
they have changed since height, size and w eight. jumping
they w ere born. Pupils talk talking
about how they might size
change as they grow older. height
weight
Pupils compare clothes
and shoes w hich were
worn when they were
younger to the clothes and
shoes they wear now.
Pupils compare
handprints/footprints
among members of their
families.

13
Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Activities
Pupils compare records of heavier
their w eight and height bigger
from birth to the present.
Anim als
Pupils should learn Pupils

what animals need to Pupils bring some pets or x state that animals need food
live. pictures of pets to food, w ater and air to stay water
classroom. Pupils talk alive. air
about the needs of pets.

Pupils discuss the needs
of different animals.

the different foods that Pupils w atch videos of x list the foods eaten by some plants
animals eat. animals eating. Pupils list animals. grass
dow n the names of the leaves
animals and the food they x state that some animals: seeds
eat. ƒ eat plants animals
ƒ eat other animals. meat
Pupils visit a zoo at ƒ eat plants and other
feeding time to observe animals
what animals eat.

that animals grow Pupils are given a set of x state that animals grow in calf
pictures of animals from size and w eight. chick
baby to adult. Pupils duckling
arrange them in order from x state that animals change kitten
baby to adult. as they grow.

14
Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Activities
Pupils match picture of x identify baby animals that Have pupils release
animals to their babies. look like their parents. the frogs in a suitable
Pupils listen to stories place.
accompanied by pictures x identify baby animals that
about animals changing as do not look like their
they grow e.g. The Ugly parents.
Duckling.
x describe in w hat w ays the
Pupils keep tadpoles to baby animals are different
observe the changes from from their parents.
tadpole to frog. Pupils
record the changes.

Pupils visit a butterfly farm
to observe the different
stages of grow th of a
butterfly , from egg to
butterfly.

Plants

Pupils should learn Pupils

that plants need the Pupils grow a plant x Measure a specific volume Teachers can guide taller
right amount of w ater from seeds e.g. beans. of water. pupils on how to bigger
for healthy growth Pupils w ater the plants measure a specific more
with different volumes x observe and measure a volume of w ater, e.g.
of water. grow ing plant 1 teaspoon,
2 teaspoons etc

15
Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Activities
Pupils observe a plant x record the observations in a .
grow ing and record the chart.
height, number of leaves.
x State that plants need w ater
to grow but too much w ater
may kill them.

that flow ering plants Pupils observe a plant, x recognise that flow ering Have pupils collect fruit
produce seeds which with fruit. e.g. balsam plants produce seeds w hich seeds from different seeds
grow into new plants. plant. can grow into new plants. plants.

Pupils cut open the fruit to x Identify seeds and the
look at the seeds. plants.

Pupils plant the seeds to
grow a new plant.

Match seeds to plants ,
e.g. balsam, papaya,
rubber, tomato.

16
Learning about the World Around Us

Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Activities
Long or Short
Pupils should learn Pupils

to observe and Pupils look at tw o objects x state w hich object is longer taller
compare lengths to compare their lengths or or taller. longer
heights. shorter
straw
Pupils look at pictures of string
objects to compare their
lengths or heights.

Pupils compare their
heights by standing next to
each other.

to measure length Pupils suggest w ays to x describe w ays to measure
using non-standard measure the length or length.
tools. height of an object.

Pupils measure length or x measure the length of an
height using non-standard object using a non-standard
tools e.g. using a straw , a tool.
piece of string etc.
x record the length or height
Pupils record the length or of an object in non-standard
height of and object in non- measurement in a table.
standard measurement
e.g. tw o straws long.

17
Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Activities
Pupils compare their
heights by using non-
standard measurement.

The Magic of Batteries
Pupils should learn Pupils

about things that use Pupils discuss in groups x identify things that use battery
batteries. and make a list of things batteries. toys
that use batteries. radio
x list things that use batteries. torchlight
Pupils are given
pictures/video and are
asked to identify the things
in the picture that use
batteries.

how to use a battery. Pupils are given a battery x are able to use batteries Use alar m clocks or
and are asked to insert correctly. toys that need only
batteries into an alar m one battery.
clock or toy. x recognise that batteries
need to be inserted Ensure that the toy is
Pupils observe the change correctly for them to sw itched on.
to the alar m clock or toy function.
when the battery is Ensure that the alar m
inserted. clock is set to ring
x describe how to insert a when the battery is
Pupils observe w hat battery correctly inserted.
happens if the battery is
reversed.

18
Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Activities
Pupils are asked to state If pupils have
how to correctly insert a inserted the battery
battery. wrongly, have them
try again.

how to make a Pupils are given a battery, x describe different ways in Allow pupils to try bulb
complete circuit. wire and a bulb. which the battery, w ir e and different w ays of wire
bulb can be connected. connecting the
Pupils draw possible w ays battery, w ire and bulb
of connecting the battery, x are able to make a until they get the bulb
wire and bulb to make the complete circuit using a to light up.
bulb light up. battery, w ire and a bulb.

Pupils test out their x are able to draw their
draw ings by building the working circuit and explain
circuit. their draw ing.

Pupils draw and explain
what they did to make the
bulb light up.

19
Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Activities
Mixing things
Pupils should learn Pupils

that some materials Pupils are given materials x are able to recognise that Taste only solutions water
can dissolve in w ater such as sugar, salt, coffee, some mater ials can dissolve of edible materials. salt
and some cannot. flour, pepper, sand. in w ater. sugar
coffee
Pupils are asked to add a x record their observations in pepper
glass of water to each of a table. curry pow der
the materials and to stir it. dissolve

Pupils are asked to
observe and state their
observations.

Pupils check their
observations by:
a) tasting the solutions
b) filtering the solutions.

20
Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Activities
Push and pull
Pupils should learn Pupils

that pushing and Pupils are given a variety x describe w hat they did to A tw is t is a push
pulling can change the of materials, e.g. change the shape of combination of a pull
shape of objects plasticine, sponge, dough. mater ials. push and a pull tw ist
Pupils are asked to change stretch
the shape of the mater ials squeeze
and describe the action
they used to do so, e.g.
pull, tw ist, stretch. Pupils
say whether each action is
a push or a pull, e.g.
stretching is a pull,
squeezing is a push.

that pushing or pulling Pupils are given a toy car x describe w hat they did to faster
can make things or a ball and asked to make things speed up, slow slow er
speed up, slow dow n make it move faster, dow n or change direction. direction
or change direction slow er or to change faster
direction. Pupils say how slow er
they made the toy car or
ball move faster, move
slow er or change direction,
e.g. the car moves faster
when I push it harder.

21
Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary
Activities
to make predictions Pupils are given toy cars of x predict w hich toy car w ill
and to test them different sizes and are travel the furthest.
asked to predict w hich car
will travel the furthest. x measure distances in
Pupils test their predictions appropriate units.
by making the toy cars
move and measuring the
distance traveled by each x suggest and give reasons
car in standard or non- whether a comparison w as
standard measurement. fair or not.

Pupils discuss whether
their compar ison w as fair,
e.g. I pushed the big toy
car harder so the
comparison w as unfair.

22
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Advisors Sharifah Maimunah Syed Zin ( Ph.D) Director
Curriculum Development Centre

Rohani Abd. Hamid ( Ph.D) Deputy Director
Curriculum Development Centre

Editorial Ahmad Hozi H.A. Rahman Principal Assistant Director (Science and Mathematics)
Advisors Curriculum Development Centre

Yeap Chin Heng ( Ph.D) Assistant Director (Head of Core Science Unit)
Curriculum Development Centre

Cheah Eng Joo Assistant Director (Head of Elective Science Unit)
Curriculum Development Centre

S. Sivagnanachelvi Assistant Director (Head of English Unit)
Curriculum Development Centre

Editor Salina Hanum Osman Mohamed Assistant Director
Curriculum Development Centre

26
PANEL OF WRITERS

Ahmad Hozi H.A. Rahman Curriculum Development Centre Rosli Suleiman Curriculum Development Centre

Yeap Chin Heng ( Ph.D) Curriculum Development Centre Rusilaw ati Othman Curriculum Development Centre

Cheah Eng Joo Curriculum Development Centre Salbiah Mohd. Som Curriculum Development Centre

Salina Hanum Curriculum Development Centre Salehuddin Mustafa Curriculum Development Centre
Osman Mohamed

Aizatul Adzwa Mohd. Basri Curriculum Development Centre Zaidah Mohd. Yusof Curriculum Development Centre

Johari Shamsudin Curriculum Development Centre Zaidi Yazid Curriculum Development Centre

Norani Abdul Bari Curriculum Development Centre Zainon Abdul Majid Curriculum Development Centre

Arif Fadzilah Mohd. Said SK Bandar Baru Serting Mohd. Azman Mohd. Ali SK Lui Sealatan (F) Jempol

Mariam Ibrahim SK Pantai, Seremban Tan Man Wai Maktab Perguruan Teknik

27
Curriculum Development Centre
Ministry of Education
2002