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Int Gtr277 Vascular Flora of West Central Montana Karl Lackschewitz

Int Gtr277 Vascular Flora of West Central Montana Karl Lackschewitz

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United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Intermountain Research Station General Technical Report INT-277 May 1991

Vascular Plants of West-Central Montana— Identification Guidebook
Klaus Lackschewitz

THE AUTHOR
KLAUS LACKSCHEWITZ is a volunteer botanist at the Intermountain Research Station in Missoula, MT, and is retired from the University of Montana’s Department of Botany. Mr. Lackschewitz is of Baltic German origin. He emmigrated to the United States in 1952, coming to Missoula in 1960. After having been involved in horticulture, he began field investigation of the flora of west-central Montana in 1964. He has studied this region intensively since then and has contributed over 11,500 specimens to the Herbarium of the University of Montana (MONTU). In the course of his investigation, he has found several new taxa in western Montana.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Many individuals aided in developing this report. Jaculyn Cory made available her extensive collections, including the new species Arabis fecunda. Tor Fageraas aided in the botanical exploration and collection. John Pierce allowed us to incorporate his extensive collections from the Rattlesnake drainage. Wally Albert provided many first collections. Judy Hoy reported on a refugium for rare dryland species, especially grasses. Ken McBride, Bitterroot National Forest, and Steve Shelly, Montana Natural Heritage Program, refined the distributions of several rare species—two of which were first found by Shelly. From its inception this project was supported by the

staff and faculty of the University of Montana’s Department of Botany, including Herbarium (MONTU) curators L. H. Harvey, Sherman Preece, and Kathleen Peterson. Botanical authorities at the New York Botanical Garden and at several universities provided identifications of difficult taxa. Peter Stickney, curator of the Intermountain Research Station’s Herbarium in Missoula (MRC) provided helpful suggestions for the development of this publication. Botanist Peter Lesica and ecologist Stephen Cooper carried out the large task of technical editing. They constructed the keys, assembled the illustrations, and thus helped develop a uniquely comprehensive flora understandable to nonbotantists. Funding for editing was provided by the Range, Air, Watershed, and Ecology Program, Northern Region, USDA Forest Service, with technical guidance by Angela Evenden. The Intermountain Research Station’s Fire Effects Unit managed the development of this publication; ecologist Ann Bradley provided technical advice, Jan Bixler edited the species descriptions and keys, and Jim Menakis prepared the final copy for the descriptions, keys, and illustrations. The University of Washington Press generously granted permission to reproduce the drawings from Hitchcock and others (1955-69) to illustrate species. The cover illustration of the bitterroot (Lewisia rediviva), first described from our area by explorers Lewis and Clark, was donated by artist Deborah McNeil, Yaak, MT.

Intermountain Research Station 324 25th Street Ogden, UT 84401

FOREWORD
Several years ago the opportunity arose to develop and present unusually detailed information on the distributions and ecological characteristics of all vascular plants inhabiting a major river drainage in western Montana. This area includes the Bitterroot National Forest and much of the Missoula Ranger District of the Lolo National Forest. Botanist Klaus Lackschewitz had studied the area’s flora intensively for over 20 years and was willing to prepare his findings in book form to be published by the Forest Service. Personnel of the Forest Service’s Intermountain Research Station and Northern Region recognized that this unique information would be useful for land management and planning; for example, for assessing biological diversity and identifying sensitive species. It would also enhance both scientific and general knowledge of the environment. The first installment of this information was published (Lackschewitz 1986) as an annotated checklist of the more than 1,500 species (taxa), categorizing the abundance, habitat relationships, and geographic distribution of each. The remainder of this information, presented here, consists of keys and illustrations for identifying each species and brief descriptions of each plant’s distinctive morphological and ecological features. This guide can be unusually definitive because it concentrates on the flora of a small region—about 7,800 square kilometers (3,000 square miles)—rather

than an entire State. Another advantage to the user is that the identification aids are the work of field-oriented botanists (Lackschewitz and technical editors Lesica and Cooper) who have focused on the most easily observable diagnostic features of each species. We suspect that similarly detailed botanical information could be developed for other public lands by working with local botanists. Stephen F. Arno, Fire Effects Unit Intermountain Research Station

CONTENTS
Page The Setting ................................................................. 1 Flora ........................................................................... 4 Early Botanical Exploration ........................................ 5 References ................................................................. 6 How to Use This Manual ............................................ 7 Glossary ..................................................................... 8 The Manual .............................................................. 12 Division Lycopodiaphyta, Clubmosses and Allies .................................................................. 24 Division Sphenophyta, Horsetails ......................... 28 Division Pterophyta, Ferns and Fern Allied .......... 31 Division Coniferophyta, Conifers ..........................43 Division Anthophyta, Flowering Plants-Class Magnoliopsida, “Dicots” ..................................... 53 Division Anthophyta, Flowering Plants-Class Liliopsida, “Monocots” ...................................... 466 Index to Families, Genera, and Common Names .. 639

Vascular Plants of West-Central Montana— Identification Guidebook
Klaus Lackschewitz THE SETTING
This report identifies and describes the more than 1,500 species and varieties (taxa) of plants found in the Bitterroot River drainage and adjacent small watersheds in the vicinity of Missoula in westcentral Montana (fig. 1). This area includes all of Ravalli County and part of Missoula County. About two-thirds of this land area lies within the Bitterroot and Lolo National Forests. It is located between lat. 45°27' and 47°6' N. and between long. 113°31' and 114°31' W. The study area consists of a large mountain valley extending 113 km (70 mi) southward from Missoula (elevation 975 m; 3,200 ft), surrounded by high, forested mountain ranges. The crest of the Bitterroot Mountains forms the western and southern boundaries of the area, the Continental Divide forms a portion of the southeastern boundary, and the crest of the Sapphire Range forms the eastern boundary. The crest of the Rattlesnake/Jocko Mountains serves as the extreme northern boundary. The high ridges and peaks generally exceed 2,130 m (7,000 ft) in elevation, and numerous summits in the Bitterroot Range surpass 2,740 m (9,000 ft), sufficient for development of an alpine zone above the limit of erect trees. Conversely, the lower portions of the major valleys are near or below the lower limits of the coniferous forest (Arno and Hammerly 1984). The Bitterroot and Missoula Valleys of westcentral Montana and their surrounding mountain ranges experience an inland mountain climate moderated considerably by the intrusion of air masses originating over the northern Pacific Ocean. As the Pacific air masses push eastward (inland), they are forced to rise over the Cascade Range and the mountains of northern Idaho, releasing much of their moisture in these areas. Thus, west-central Montana lies in a rain shadow that is often dominated by “dried out” Pacific air. Missoula, Stevensville, and Hamilton in the valley bottoms receive an average of only 33 cm (13 in) of precipitation annually, although cloudiness is prevalent and relative humidity is moderately high except in the warm, dry summer months of July and August.
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Figure 1—Outline map of the area of westcentral Montana covered in this report.

Autumn is cool and relatively dry. Winters are consistently cold and rather moist. During most winters there are occasional, usually short periods when extremely cold (below –18 °C [0 °F]) continental polar air masses dominate. This arctic air enters from the north and east. Winter snowfall is moderate at lower elevations, but very substantial in the subalpine zone, where snow depth reaches 1.5 to 3 m (5 to 10 ft) in April. Spring is usually cool and moist, with numerous rain showers in May and June. At lower elevations these are the months

receiving the greatest precipitation. Finklin (1983) provides a detailed description of the area’s weather and climate. Microclimate is greatly influenced by the mountainous topography, resulting in diverse environments for vegetation. For instance, the mean temperature of the warmest month (July) is 19 to 20 °C (65 to 68 °F) at major valley stations from Missoula at an elevation of 975 m (3,200 ft) to Darby at 1,183 m (3,880 ft); whereas the July mean is only about 10 °C (50 °F) in the alpine zone atop Saint Mary Peak (2,927 m [9,365 ft]) west of Stevensville and about 12 °C (53 °F) in the timberline zone at the 2,440-m (8,000-ft) elevation (Arno and Habeck 1972). Not only is the growing season at high elevations much cooler, it is also only about half as long as in the valleys. Conversely, precipitation increases with elevation, with the timberline zone receiving an average annual precipitation of perhaps 100 to 130 cm (40 to 50 in) in the western part of the study area and 75 to 100 cm (30 to 40 in) in the eastern portion. The effectiveness of this precipitation in supporting moist-site vegetation is reduced by the abundance of rockland and coarse stony soils. The microclimate on steep south-facing slopes is much warmer and drier than that on north-facing slopes at a given elevation, and this dramatically affects vegetation. Also, wind-exposed ridgetops support desiccation-tolerant vegetation in contrast to the bottoms of mountain canyons, which support moist-site species, including disjunct populations of Pacific Coast maritime plants. Mountain canyons often serve as collection areas for cold air drainage in which high mountain plants extend to unusually low elevations. In the Tertiary Period, the Bitterroot and Clark Fork river valleys were deeply filled with alluvial material; during the Pleistocene this was partially covered with till from large alpine glaciers in the surrounding mountains. During the Pleistocene, until about 12,000 years ago, Glacial Lake Missoula inundated the valleys up to an elevation of 1,326 m (4,350 ft) (Alt and Hyndman 1986). The lake alternately drained and refilled at least 36 times as its ice dam, a lobe of the continental glacier, alternately washed out and redeveloped. The fillings were to varying depths and are marked by shorelines of different elevations. Extensive layers of glacial lake sediments, notably silts, were added to the valleys during this period. Today, alluvial soils of different depths and qualities cover the bottomlands, terraces, and lower slopes. The major valleys are primarily devoted to small farms and ranches, rural communities, and small cities. As of 1990 nearly 100,000 people live in the area, about 70,000 of them in the greater Missoula
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vicinity. Much of the farm and pasture land is irrigated to some extent with snow-melt water diverted from mountain streams. Since the 1870’s, irrigation and subirrigation has increased the valley land area suitable for moist-site vegetation, and has resulted in some downslope spread of mountain plants along ditches. The higher mountains exhibit rugged features characteristic of alpine glaciation, although only the Bitterroot Range, from Lolo Creek to the West Fork of the Bitterroot River, was heavily sculptured, with a succession of parallel glacial troughs emptying eastward into the Bitterroot Valley. Vegetative zonation in west-central Montana is illustrated in figure 2. The zones of potential climax vegetation or habitat types (Mueggler and Stewart 1980; Pfister and others 1977) begin with bottomland ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa) and broadleaf (Populus spp., etc.) communities on moist sites in the major valleys. Dry sites in the major valleys represent bunchgrass habitat types (Agropyron, Festuca) or ponderosa pine/ bunchgrass habitat types. Substantial amounts of the major valley habitat have lost their native vegetation and are being used as pasture or for urban, suburban, or rural developments. Most of the mountain landscape lies within forest habitat types where Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca), grand fir (Abies grandis), or subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) represent the potential climax, and native vegetation predominates. As a result of past fires, extensive stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) cover the broad slopes at middle and upper elevations. Most lower and many mid-elevation forests have been logged, starting in the late 1800’s, but native tree and undergrowth species regenerated. Although geology varies substantially among the mountain ranges (Ross and others 1955), its effect on vegetation is subtle and largely unknown, unlike some mountainous areas farther east in the Rockies in more continental climates (Pfister and others 1977). In the mountains north of Missoula (fig. 1), the main drainage, Rattlesnake Creek, flows through a glaciated valley and has carved a course through different layers of rock, exposed in many places. These are mostly strata of the Missoula Group of Precambrian sedimentary layers, with differently colored argillites and quartzites; but one broad band of Precambrian limestone is also evident in the lower part of the drainage. The higher ridges and peaks in this area reach elevations of 2,200 to 2,620 m (7,200 to 8,600 ft) and are covered by timberline vegetation. The Sapphire Mountains (fig. 1) border the east side of the Bitterroot Valley. These mountains rise up gradually via broad gentle slopes, but south of

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Upper Subalpine h.t.’s

Lower Subalpine h.t.’s
1,680 m (5,500 ft)

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MOIST SITES

Picea, Abies grandis, & Thuja series
DRY SITES

MAJOR

VALLEY
DRY SITES

Pseudotsuga menziesii series Pinus ponderosa series Bunchgrass habitat types (Agropyron, Festuca) Bottomland hardwood communities (Populus, etc.)

MOIST SITES

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1,070 m (3,500 ft)

Figure 2—General distribution of vegetation zones in west-central Montana and the relationship of these zones to the Montana habitat type classifications (Pfister and others 1977; Mueggler and Stewart 1980), based on the potential climax dominant tree species.

Stevensville several high summits attain elevations between 2,400 and 2,740 m (8,000 and 9,000 ft). Skalkaho Pass (2,213 m [7,258 ft]) on the Sapphire crest is crossed by Montana Route 38, which is snow-plowed open each year in June. Extensive moist meadows occur within the subalpine forest south of Skalkaho Pass. In contrast, the lowest slopes of the Sapphire Range east of Darby are some of the driest habitats in west-central Montana because they lie in the rain shadow of the highest peaks in the Bitterroot Range. The geology of the Sapphire Mountains is complex (Ross and others 1955). Starting in the vicinity of Missoula and proceeding southward, first we find assorted Tertiary valley fill sediments, then Precambrian sedimentary rocks, especially quartzites and argillites. Some limestone appears near Miller Creek. From Three Mile Creek southward to Ambrose Creek, granitic rocks dominate, followed by Precambrian quartzite and siliceous shale. From the latitudes of Victor to Corvallis, a wide stretch of Precambrian limestone appears. From Willow Creek to Sleeping Child Creek, the parent rock is again granite, with a few small areas having rock of volcanic origin, mostly rhyolite. Sleeping Child Hot Springs is located in one such place. In the upper Bitterroot River drainage, south of the forks of the Bitterroot River (fig. 1), the mountains are rugged and heavily forested. The parent rock is divided into expanses of granite and

Precambrian Belt Series sedimentary layers. There are occasional interruptions by volcanic rock masses, and historically there was considerable prospecting and mining activity in the contact areas between rock masses. Hot springs appear in three locations. The eastern slope of the heavily glaciated Bitterroot Range rises spectacularly above the west side of the Bitterroot Valley. This escarpment is a fault block at the eastern edge of the granitic mass known as the Idaho batholith. This block of rugged, glacially sculptured granite extends nearly 113 km (70 mi) from Lolo Peak (in the north) to Nez Perce Pass above the West Fork of the Bitterroot River. Forty-six peaks in this range exceed 2,740 m (9,000 ft) in elevation, and thus support alpine vegetation. Twenty-nine of these peaks are concentrated in a 24-km (15-mi) segment west of Darby. Forest Service maps show about 140 small lakes and ponds, mostly in glacial cirques, and in the deeply gouged valleys below them. The rocks in the greater part of the range belong to the Bitterroot lobe of the Idaho batholith, which was emplaced during late Cretaceous time. The batholith is composed of faintly gneissic granite rocks. The mountains north of Big Creek consist of high-grade metamorphic rocks, mostly gneiss and schist, locally penetrated by granitic rocks (Ross and others 1955). Generally, soils in the Bitterroot Range are very shallow and stony (skeletal). A moderate degree of

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soil horizon development occurs locally, generally at lower elevations. Continuous sods have developed only in small areas of the timberline and alpine zones. More often, Carex nigricans and other species form a sod locally in moist subalpine basins. In rocky, nonforested areas at high elevation, most vegetation appears in cracks and crevices and in fellfield-like situations. Soils developed from the Idaho batholith granites are strongly acidic. The Lolo Creek, O’Brien Creek, Blue Mountain area west of Missoula (fig. 1) is characterized by mountains of modest height, with few summits reaching 2,130 m (7,000 ft) in elevation. The Lolo Creek valley provides a major low-elevation route up to the Bitterroot/Clearwater River divide at 1,585-m (5,200-ft) Lolo Pass. Highway U.S. 12 follows the general route of explorers Lewis and Clark up Lolo Creek to the pass. Immediately west of the pass lies the moist inland-maritime forest of the Clearwater River drainage, in northern Idaho, where Pacific coast conifers are abundant. These include western redcedar (Thuja plicata), grand fir, Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia), western white pine (Pinus monticola), and mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana). Little of this maritime vegetation extends eastward into the Lolo Creek drainage or elsewhere into west-central Montana (Arno 1979). From the Lolo Creek valley north to the Clark Fork River, most of the country is underlain by layers of the Precambrian Belt sedimentary rocks. These rocks surface also on Mormon Peak and the northeastern tip of the Bitterroot Range. In the vicinity of Lolo Hot Springs a distinctive granitic intrusion is known as the Lolo batholith. Although it has a relatively mild, Pacificinfluenced climate, this region’s forests are generally drier than those of either northwestern Montana or adjacent northern Idaho (Arno 1979). Thus, west-central Montana has only small amounts of Pacific Coast forest species such as western redcedar, western white pine, Pacific yew, Clintonia uniflora, Adenocaulon bicolor, and Tiarella trifoliata, and these species are largely restricted to moist canyon-bottom sites or seepage areas. Some of these small populations may be remnants of extensive distributions that occurred during a wetter climatic period. Grand fir is locally common, but is much less abundant than it is farther west. West-central Montana is, however, characterized by an abundance of intermountain forest species, which become rare farther east. These include western larch (Larix occidentalis), alpine larch (Larix lyallii), Pacific ponderosa pine (var. ponderosa), Xerophyllum tenax, Menziesia ferruginea, and Luzula hitchcockii. Prior to 1900, fires were very frequent at lower and middle elevations (Arno 1980), with the result
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that seral fire-resistant and fire-initiated species (trees, shrubs, and herbs) were abundant. For instance, open parklike stands of fire-resistant ponderosa pine occupied much of the zone in which Douglas-fir represents the potential climax (Gruell and others 1982). On north-facing slopes and at middle elevations fire-initiated forests were made up largely of seral western larch (in the northern half of the area) and lodgepole pine. Fire suppression since the early 1900’s has allowed the more shade-tolerant, potential climax species to increase in abundance. Forest managers are attempting to again stimulate seral tree and shrub species through silviculture and prescribed burning. To sum up, the mountainous landscape of westcentral Montana supports a complex mosaic of vegetative communities. Macroclimatic differences are represented in the elevation-related zonation pattern (fig. 2). Microclimate also has a pronounced effect related to the rugged topography. Edaphic effects are superimposed upon those of climate and microclimate; these include patterns of talus or exposed bedrock sites among those with residual soils or alluvial deposits. Disturbance patterns related to fire, snow avalanches, grazing, logging, or land development add a successional dimension to the site mosaic. This mosaic of sites and disturbances results in diverse vegetation.

FLORA
In this area of west-central Montana, 1,607 taxonomic entities (taxa) have been collected. These include 1,501 species and 106 well-defined varieties, representing 485 genera and 106 families. Introduced species total 250. These are most numerous in the populated valleys. In contrast, in the timberline and alpine zones only one introduced species was found—common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) (Lackschewitz 1970). Although this list is the result of considerable investigation, users may well find additional species in the study area; and in that case, the author would appreciate being informed of such discoveries. Of the 12 species strictly endemic to Montana, five occur in our study area (Lesica and others 1984). These are: Arabis fecunda Rollins Draba daviesii (C.L. Hitchc.) Rollins Lesquerella humilis Rollins Saxifraga tempestiva Elvander & Denton Trisetum orthochaetum Endemic in western Montana Restricted to the Bitterroot Mountains Restricted to the Bitterroot Mountains Endemic in western Montana Endemic in Missoula

Hitchc. County In addition to the endemics mentioned, 22 species occur in Montana only in our study area of Ravalli County and southwestern Missoula County: Agrostis borealis Allium acuminatum A. parvum A. simillimum Athysanus pusillus Castilleja covilleana Chrysosplenium tetrandrum Erigeron evermannii Eriogonum pyrolifolium v. coryphaeum E. umbellatum v. stellatum Eupatorium occidentale Idahoa scapigera Lewisia columbiana Linanthastrum nuttallii Lomatium bicolor Mertensia bella Penstemon payettensis Saxifraga tolmiei Sedum debile Synthyris missourica Trifolium eriocephalum T. gymnocarpon The main distributions of these species lie to the west of Montana. In fact, the vegetation of the Bitterroot Mountains is similar to that of the Cascade Mountains of Washington and Oregon in several respects: an abundance of plants of the heath family (Ericaceae), the dominance of Carex nigricans in moist sites at high elevations, and the appearance at and above timberline of two tall herbaceous plants, Angelica roseana and Polygonum phytolaccaefolium. Seven species common and widespread in Montana mountain ranges, including the Sapphire Range, could not be found in the Bitterroot Mountains. These are: Agropyron latiglume, Poa alpina, Anemone multifida, Oxytropis (all species), Bupleurum americanum, Androsace septentrionalis, and Viola canadensis.

EARLY BOTANICAL EXPLORATION
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were the first European explorers and botanical collectors in west-central Montana. They traversed the Bitterroot River and Lolo Creek valleys twice; first on their journey west in early September 1805, then on the return trip in June and July 1806. According to Cutright (1969), Cypripedium montanum, the white lady’s slipper orchid, was first collected and described by Lewis at or near Lolo Hot Springs on June 30, 1806. Four species were collected July 1,
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1806, at “Traveller’s Rest” at the mouth of Lolo Creek. These collections were later described and named by German botanist Frederick Pursh: Lewisia rediviva (bitterroot, the Montana State flower), Sedum stenopetalum (stonecrop), Orthocarpus tenuifolius (owl-clover), and Trifolium microcephalum (small-head clover). (Thompson [1985] provides a more detailed account of Lewis and Clark and other botanical collectors in Montana prior to 1865.) Nathaniel Wyeth was the next plant collector to travel through west-central Montana. Born in 1802 in Cambridge, MA, Wyeth became a friend of Thomas Nuttall, the famous Harvard University botanist. When Wyeth prepared an overland expedition to the Oregon country, Nuttall asked him to bring back a few plants. Traveling south from the Flathead Valley, Wyeth entered the Bitterroot Valley near the present city of Missoula in the spring of 1833 and departed it from the south across Gibbons Pass. Although he collected a great number of plants, most of them were lost or spoiled by accidents. Still, Wyeth delivered 113 species to Nuttall, who described the genus Wyethia in his honor. In 1843, Karl Andreas Geyer collected here. Geyer was born in 1809 in Dresden, Germany—a gardener’s son who became a gardener himself. He developed a keen interest in botany and corresponded for years with Sir William Jackson Hooker, a leading English botanist who profoundly influenced him. On his second expedition to the American West, Geyer traveled through the Beaverhead Valley and across Gibbons Pass to the Bitterroot Valley. He stayed at Father Pierre DeSmet’s newly established St. Mary’s Mission at today’s town of Stevensville. Geyer was hospitably received and used the Mission as a base camp for exploring and collecting. He remained until midwinter 1843-44, when he left for Spokane. In his reports, he praised the beauty of the Bitterroot Valley and the surrounding mountains and forests. He wrote eloquent accounts of the area’s gigantic old ponderosa pines and of the majestic Thuja trees (western redcedar) in the mountain canyons to the west. He also described the Indian (Salish) inhabitants and their methods of collecting camas (Camassia quamash) bulbs and bitterroots. About a dozen species were named after Geyer, including the following plants common in our area: Carex geyeri, Allium geyeri, Physaria geyeri, and Salix geyeriana. He also named several frequently occurring species, including Melica bulbosa, Viola orbiculata, Ranunculus alismaefolius, and Microseris nutans. Sereno Watson first named and described about three dozen of our common plant species, including

Aquilegia flavescens, Lomatium cous, Lonicera utahensis, and Saxifraga occidentalis. Watson also established three new genera—Hesperochiron, Lesquerella, and Orogenia; however, this was only a minor part of the scientific contributions of this selftaught botanist. Watson came first to the West with the King expedition in 1867. He then served as a general handyman and horse wrangler. In 1880 he traveled from Dillon through the Bitterroot Valley to Missoula and then westward over Lolo Pass. On this trip he was collecting for the Gray Herbarium, now located at Harvard University. From 1880 to 1923, Marcus E. Jones lived in Salt Lake City and collected mainly in the Great Basin; but his wide-ranging collecting expeditions led him at least once into the Bitterroot Valley. This is documented by his 1910 collection of Trifolium gymnocarpon, hollyleaf clover, from the valley of the West Fork of the Bitterroot River. Marcus Jones became a leading botanist, discovering and naming several plants native to western Montana. During the 19th century, botanists and plant collectors in our region were explorers, mostly from the cultural centers of the eastern United States. In the late 1800’s, the founding of the State university at Missoula (now the University of Montana) and the agricultural college at Bozeman (now Montana State University) ushered in the era of resident botanists. The history of floristic exploration in the western United States has always been closely connected to the personalities teaching botany and the curators of the herbaria. Morton G. Elrod, who joined the University of Montana in 1897, was a biology professor and an active botanical collector in western Montana. By 1909 he had obtained about 7,000 botanical specimens, which he entrusted to his colleague J. E. Kirkwood. Kirkwood became an immensely active botanist and forest ecologist. He formally established the University of Montana herbarium and collected extensively even in the rugged mountains, traveling by horseback and afoot. For instance, he was the first botanist on Lolo Peak and Trapper Peak. In 1932, C. Leo Hitchcock took over as curator of the University of Montana herbarium. A nationally known botanist and leading author of today’s standard Pacific Northwest floras (Hitchcock and others 1955-69; Hitchcock and Cronquist 1973), he devoted much of his time to exploration and collecting throughout western Montana, from bottom lands to mountain summits. By 1937, when Hitchcock left for a similar position at the University of Washington in Seattle, he had helped broaden and modernize the mission of the herbarium, striving to build a complete representation of the native flora to serve both science and the public.

REFERENCES
Alt, David D.; Hyndman, Donald W. 1986. Roadside geology of Montana. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press. 427 p. Arno, S. F. 1979. Forest regions of Montana. Res. Pap. INT-218. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 39 p. Arno, S. F. 1980. Forest fire history in the Northern Rockies. Journal of Forestry. 78: 460-465. Arno, S. F.; Habeck, J. R. 1972. Ecology of alpine larch (Larch lyallii Parl.) in the Pacific Northwest. Ecological Monographs. 42: 417-450. Arno, S. F.; Hammerly, R. P. 1984. Timberline— mountain and arctic forest frontiers. Seattle, WA: The Mountaineers. 304 p. Cutright, P. R. 1969. Lewis and Clark: pioneering naturalists. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press. 279 p. Davis, R. J. 1952. Flora of Idaho. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press. 835 p. Dorn, R. D. 1984. Vascular plants of Montana. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 276 p. Finklin, Arnold I. 1983. Weather and climate of the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness. Moscow, ID: University Press of Idaho. 144 p. Gleason, H. A.; Cronquist, A. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand. 810 p. Gruell, G. E.; Schmidt, W. C.; Arno, S. F.; Reich, W. J. 1982. Seventy years of vegetative change in a managed ponderosa pine forest in western Montana—implications for resource management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-130. Ogden, UT: U.S. Depart-ment of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 42 p. Harrington, H. D. 1954. Manual of the plants of Colorado. Authorized by the Colorado State Board of Agriculture and prepared with the cooperation of Colorado A&M College. Denver, CO: Sage Books. 666 p. Hermann, Frederick J. 1970. Manual of the Carices of the Rocky Mountains and Colorado Basin. Agric. Handb. 374. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 397 p. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur; Ownbey, Marion; Thompson, J. W. 1955-69. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 5 vols. Hitchcock, C. L.; Cronquist, A. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Seattle, WA: University of

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Washington Press. 730 p. Kuijt, Job. 1982. A flora of Waterton Lakes National Park. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta Press. 684 p. Lackschewitz, Klaus H. 1970. Alpine and timberline flora in the Bitterroot Mountains, Montana. In: Proceedings of the Montana Academy of Sciences. 30: 1-30. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1986. Plants of west-central Montana—identification and ecology: annotated checklist. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-217. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 128 p. Lesica, Peter; Moore, G.; Peterson, K. M.; Rumely, J. M. 1984. Vascular plants of limited distribution in Montana. Monogr. No. 2, Montana Academy of Sciences, Supplement to the Proceedings. Vol. 43. 61 p. Moss, E. H. 1959. Flora of Alberta. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press. 546 p. Mueggler, W. F.; Stewart, W. L. 1980. Grassland and shrubland habitat types of western Montana. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-66. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 154 p. Pfister, R. D.; Kovalchik, B.; Arno, S.; Presby, R. 1977. Forest habitat types of Montana. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-34. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 174 p. Ross, C. P.; Andrews, B. A.; Witkind, I. J. 1955. Geologic map of Montana. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey. Thompson, L. S. 1985. Montana’s explorers: the pioneer naturalists 1805-1864. Helena, MT: Montana Magazine, Inc. 109 p. Weber, W. A. 1976. Rocky Mountain flora. Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated University Press. 479 p.

HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL
To identify an unknown plant, first use the Key to Plant Families (page 12). Once the correct family has been determined, use the key to the genera which follows the description of the morphological characters of the family. After identifying the genus, use the key to species within the genus. The keys are dichotomous, consisting of a series of paired alternatives, each preceded by the same number. The two statements are designed to be mutually exclusive. Examine the specimen and its habitat and decide which alternative is true. Be sure to read both alternatives before making a decision. At the end of the chosen alternative there is a number or a name. A number directs you to another couplet (pair of alternatives) in the key. Repeat the above procedure, choosing the appro7

priate statement in each couplet until a name is arrived at. Verify the family, genus, and species indicated in the keys by reading the descriptions of that family, genus, and species following the keys. To avoid excessive repetition, words used in species descriptions are usually explained in the descriptions of the family or genus. Technical terms are also explained in the Glossary (page 8). To aid identification, some of the larger genera have been divided into subgeneric groups based on similarity of appearance or habitat (for example, species with yellow flowers, species of meadows). Within genera and the subgeneric groups, species followed by their descriptions are presented in order of their decreasing commonness in west-central Montana. The distribution listed at the end of each description is for the species, not any particular variety or subspecies. Taxonomic nomenclature used here generally follows that of Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973). Dichotomous keys have often been adapted from those in Hitchcock and others (1955-69), Dorn (1984), and Kuijt (1982). Species descriptions were developed by the author based on field experience and Davis (1952), Dorn (1984), Harrington (1954), Hermann (1970), Hitchcock and others (1955-69), Moss (1959), and Weber (1976), and were edited to follow the style and order of Hitchcock and others (1955-69). Species are grouped by division, and divisions are organized phylogenetically, with the more primitive plants first. Thus the nonflowering plants (clubmosses, horsetails, ferns, and conifers) are placed first, followed by the flowering plants, which are further divided into dicots (broad-leaved plants) and monocots (grasses, sedges, lilies, etc.). Within these groups, species are arranged alphabetically by family, genus, and species. Scientific names follow the nomenclature of “Flora of the Pacific Northwest” by Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973). A small number of species in the checklist are not found in Hitchcock and Cronquist, and references must be sought in the recent literature or in a flora of the eastern United States, such as Gleason and Cronquist (1963). Scientific names that have widespread use but are considered incorrect by Hitchcock and Cronquist (synonyms) are placed in brackets and follow the accepted name. Each scientific name (taxon) is followed by a common name, most of which are also taken from “Flora of the Pacific Northwest.” Two additional species were found so recently that they could not be incorporated in this manual. They are Atriplex heterosperma and Suaeda depressa, both members of Chenopodiaceae. Both are rare in our area and were found on the east side of the Bitterroot Valley. They are indicators of alkaline soil.

GLOSSARY
A-. A prefix denoting a lack or without. Achene. A dry, 1-seeded fruit that does not open along regular lines. Acuminate. With concave sides long tapering to a point. Acute. With mostly straight sides tapering to a sharp point. Adventitious. Arising not from the usual place. Alpine. Occurring above treeline in mountains. Alternate. Arranged with one structure (leaf, stem, etc.) per node. Amphibious. With the potential to inhabit water or land, but not removed from surface water. Annual. A plant, usually with slender taproot, completing its life cycle in a single growing season. Anther. The pollen-bearing portion of the stamen, remote from the point of attachment. Anthesis. That period when a flower is open for pollination. Apex. The furthest or highest point, the tip. Apical. At the top or tip. Appressed. Pressed close to another organ or surface. Aquatic. Growing (anchored or floating) in water. Armed. Exposed surface having thorns, prickles, or spines. Aromatic. Giving off a strong, usually agreeable odor. Ascending. Rising/growing upward at an oblique angle relative to structure to which attached. Awl-shaped. A cylinder tapering at one end. Awn. A slender, stiff, and generally terminal bristle. Axil. The angle formed at intersection of two structures, usually referring to the junction of petiole with stem. Axillary. Located in axil of structure named. Banner. The upper, medial, and usually enlarged (largest) petal of pea family (Fabaceae) flowers. Beak. A prolonged, slender, and tapering projection. Bearded. Set with hairs, usually stiff ones. Berry. Strictly defined, a fleshy or pulpy fruit developed from a single ovary with more than one seed, such as a grape or blueberry; loosely applied to any fleshy or juicy fruit. Bi-. Prefix denoting two or twice. Biennial. Plant completing its life cycle in two growing seasons; usually forming basal rosette 1st season and flowering in the 2nd. Bisexual. Flower with both stamens and pistil. Blade. A leaf ’s flat, expanded portion, distinguished from the petiole. Boreal. Of or pertaining to forests and tundra of the North Temperate and Arctic regions. Bract. Modified, usually reduced leaf, mostly associated with the flower or inflorescence. Bracteate. Having bracts. Bud. Growing tip of a stem or branch or in leaf axil; usually dormant and scale covered. Bud-scale. Scalelike modified leaf covering a dormant bud. Bulb. Underground organ constituted mostly of fleshy storage leaves and scale covered, as in onions.

Bulbil. Small, bulblike organ for vegetative reproduction, usually in leaf axil in place of a flower. Bundle scar. Minute traces within leaf scar where vascular bundles passed from stem or branch to the petiole. Caespitose (or cespitose). Growing in dense, usually low tufts. Calcareous. Limey, with high concentrations of calcium carbonate. Calyx. A flower’s sepals considered as a unit. Capillary. Hair- or threadlike. Capsule. A dry fruit of more than one carpel that splits along regular lines. Carpel. The modified foliar unit of angiosperms which bears ovules; a pistil is composed of one or more carpels. Catkin. In willows, birches, and alders, an elongate, pendulous or conelike flower cluster with minute flowers that lack, or nearly so, petals and sepals. Caudex. A short, mostly vertical, persistent stem at, or just below, the ground surface from which new stems arise yearly. Cauline. On the stem. Chaff. Thin, dry scales. Circumboreal. Plant occurring in lands encircling North Pole. Clasping. Partly surrounding the stem. Cleft. Cut midway, or slightly deeper, to the base or midrib. Compound (leaf). One which is divided into two or more distinct leaflets. Concave. With a hollowed out surface, like the inner surface of a bowl. Cone. A dense cluster of modified, leaflike organs bearing pollen, spores, or seeds as in the horsetails, club mosses, and conifers (pine cone). Cone scale. The modified leaf- or bractlike organs of conifer cones, upon which are borne the seeds. Convex. With a surface that curves outward from viewer’s perspective, like outer surface of a bowl. Cordate. A stylized heart-shape, with the point at the apex and notch at the base. Corolla. All the petals considered as a unit. Corrugated. Surface with many folds or wrinkles. Cotyledon. An embryonic leaf of a seed’s embryo that often expands at germination. Crown. In herbaceous perennials, the persistent base or top portion of root; the topmost leafy portion of a tree. Culm. The stem of a grass or sedge. Deciduous. Falling off once a year, especially at end of growing season. Decumbent. With the base prostrate or gently upcurving and tips erect or ascending. Dehiscent. Opening along predesignated lines. Determinate (inflorescence). One in which the terminal flower opens first and stops further growth of the axis. Dioecious. Having male and female flowers or cones borne on separate plants. Disk. In Asteraceae, the central portion of the head giving rise to the disk flowers.

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Disk flower. In Asteraceae, the flowers with slender, tubular corollas at central part of the head. Dissected. Divided into multiple lobes or segments. Distal. Positioned toward tip or end opposite attachment point. Dorsiventral. The direction in which leaves are commonly flattened, distinguished from lateral flattening. Elliptic. Widest at the middle and tapering to both ends. Emergent. With lower portion in the water, the upper portion extending out. Endemic. Found only within a circumscribed geographic area. Entire. With margins not cleft, cut, or otherwise toothed. Epidermis. The outermost cell layer of plant organs. Ephemeral. Lasting for only a short time. Exserted. Projecting beyond an enveloping structure, as stamens from a corolla. Family. A grouping of related genera. Fertile. Describing organs associated with the production of spores, pollen, or seed in distinction to similar ones that do not. Fibrous rooted. With several to numerous branch roots all about the same size, lacking a larger central axis. Filament (of stamen). The thin stalk of a stamen, the tip of which bears the anther. Floral tube. A tubelike structure consisting of the fused lower portions of the sepals, petals, and stamens. Floret. A little flower, one of a definite cluster; in Poaceae, the highly modified flower consisting of lemma and palea and enclosed stamens and pistil (if fertile). Foliaceous. With leaflike texture. Frond. The leaf of a fern. Fruit. Mature ovary, including attached external structures and enclosed seeds. Galea. The hoodlike, usually elongated upper portion of the perianth of certain species, as in the upper corolla lip of Castilleja spp. Genus (pl. genera). A grouping of related species. Glabrous. Smooth, lacking hairs. Gland. A location on an organ’s surface or expanded tip of hair which secrets minute, sticky drops. Glandular. Having secretory structures, especially hairs. Glaucous. Having a fine, waxy, easily wiped-off powder that results in surfaces with a whitish or bluish cast. Globose. Shape approaching that of a sphere or globe. Glume. One of usually two chafflike bracts located at the base of a grass spikelet subtending the aggregate of florets, not individual floret. Gymnosperm. A member of the plant group characterized as having ovules not enclosed in an ovary. Habit. The general appearance or growth form of a plant. Habitat. The environmental conditions or kind of place in which a plant grows. Head. Type of inflorescence with mostly sessile flowers densely set on a very short axis or disk, thus having a round outline. A terminal collection of flowers sur-

rounded by an involucre (Compositae!). Herb. Plant with the aerial portion nonwoody, dying back to ground at end of growing season. Herbaceous. Not woody, dying back at end of growing season; leaflike in texture and color. Hirsute. Having coarse, stiff, but not sharp-pointed hairs. Host. The plant from which parasite obtains nutrients. Hypanthium. Tube or cup around ovary formed by the fusion of the lower parts of the calyx, corolla, and androecium; if petals and stamens look to arise from calyx tube then the hypanthium is that portion of the tube below the petals’ insertion. Indeterminate (inflorescence). Not terminating in a flower and continuing to grow at the apex. Indihiscent. Not normally opening, at least not along regular or predetermined lines. Indusium. In certain ferns a thin, membraneous epidermal flap or folded leaf margin that covers a sorus. Inferior ovary. Ovary that has floral tube fused to its top. Inflorescence. The flowering portion of a plant or the arrangement of flowers along the axis. Internode. That part of a stem between two adjacent nodes (points of leaf or branch origin). Involucre. Any set of structures that surround the base of another structure, usually bracts or microphylls attached below a flower(s). Irregular (flower). Characterized by bilatal symmetry, that is, can be divided into two equal parts in only one plane. Jointed. With conspicuous or swollen nodes or points of articulation. Keel. A prominent, longitudinal ridge; in Fabaceae the boat-shaped structure formed from partial fusion of two lower petals. Lanceolate. Lance-shaped, that is, widest at base, with straight sides long-tapering to a point. Leaflet. One of several distinct portions of a compound leaf. Leaf scar. Following a leaf’s abcission, the trace left on stem or branch just below the bud. Legume. Member of Fabaceae; dry fruit of this family form a single carpel opening along two sutures (lines of fusion). Lemma. One of two (lemma and palea) bractlike structures subtending the individual flowers (florets) of grass spikelets; the one on the side away from main axis. Ligulate (inflorescence). In Asteraceae, a head possessing only ray (ligulate) flowers. Ligule. In graminoids, a small, erect projection or fringe, which is a continuation of the sheath; located at the junction of blade and sheath. Linear. Long and narrow with nearly parallel margins. Lip. The prominent lower portion of a flower, as the lower petal of orchids. Lobe. Any projecting segment of an organ, usually part of leaf blade, with sinuses to either side. Megasporangium. Receptacle containing megaspores.

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Having both female (pistil) and male (stamen) parts. Perfect flower. and scales. broadest at the tip and tapering. underground. A plant with little or no chlorophyll and so obtaining nutrients from dead organic matter by a root association with a fungus. Radiate. The common. Petiole. Pod. Prostrate. and generally horizontally oriented stem. that is. Radial symmetry. Root. usually yellow. stiff outgrowth of epidermal layer.Megaspore. Scale. as a naked flower lacking a perianth. Rotund. Underground part of plant that lacks nodes. generally with one seed. A creeping. The female. Having prominently raised veins or nerves. Regular flower. Corolla and calyx considered collectively. Spongy tissue at stem center. Rhizomatous. The male. The symbiotic combination of a fungus and a plant root. Petal.or downward bend. Pedicel. usually basal. with the widest point near the apex. Round or rounded. Opposite. seed-producing cone of conifers. Set with hair of any kind.) distributed along a central axis. cluster of leaves radiating in all directions from stem. Indeterminate inflorescence type with single and stalked flowers arrayed along main unbranched axis. Ray (flowers). bristles. Organ formed from the combination of ovary. unique to Carex and Kobresia spp. Mycorrhiza. Saprophyte. Capable of being divided through the center by into two mirror images by at least two planes of symmetry. Panicle. leaflets. Egg-shaped in outline. Ovary. and flat structure. divisible into two mirror halves in at least two planes. That part of the pistil containing ovules. Pubescent. Scabrous. A prominent vein of leaves or other organs. Perennial. Stalk of an inflorescence (flower cluster) or individual flower when only one per plant. Prefix meaning in a reverse direction or upside-down. A member of the whorl of floral organs. Seed cone. the sides converging at an angle of >90 degrees. and later in development. flexible. Oblong. Lacking various organs or appendages. creeping stem. both sexes borne on the same plant. Ovate. Longer than wide in outline. usually whitish and translucent. Pollen. Condition in Asteraceae of having the head’s marginal flowers be ligulate and those of the center be tubular. Egg-shaped in outline (flat organs). A dry. Having pistils but lacking stamens. especially that of Fabaceae. One of a whorl of typically green or greenish. Curved back. following fertilization. Pistillate. thin. Drooping or hanging. Pinnate. Possessing rhizomes. A dense. Node. With an abrupt back. style. Underground. Pistil. Thin. with somewhat parallel margins. the seeds. Peduncle. in Asteraceae the enlarged stem tip to which the head is attached. Pendant. Ribbed. usually the most showy. Pappus. Monoecious. develops into a seed. Recurved. etc. Ovule. Raceme. A slender. Rootstalk. Defining position near middle of inferred moisture gradient. Naked. One of numerous small structures in ovary (flowering plants) or female cone (conifers) that. Nodes having two leaves or branches set directly across from each other. just interior to the sepals and below the stamens. as distinguished from the blade thereof. Reflexed. usually expanded point of attachment of floral organs. Plant with potential to live more than 2 years. Sepal. Having unisexual flowers. pollen-producing cone of gymnosperms. Indeterminate inflorescence in which from each stalk arising from the main axis nodes there is borne more than one flower. Oblanceolate. Lance-shaped. prostrate stem that roots at the nodes or tip. In Asteraceae. One in which all the members of each set of parts are similar in size and shape. The uppermost and main axis-facing of paired bractlike structures subtending the individual flowers (florets) of grass spikelets. leaflike. Palea.. Lying flat on the ground. Rhizome. Obtuse. Runner.or downward. cells produced in anther (flowering plants) or microsporangia (gymnosperms). Ob-. The larger of two spore sizes produced by some plants. Sheath or sac-like structure. 10 . neither very moist nor dry. or short crown at achene tip. Stalk of leaf. A mature ovule which following germination gives rise to new plant. With a circular outline. Prickle. awns. Blunt. widest at the middle. Stalk of an individual flower. Perianth. Rosette. enclosing ovary and fruit. A joint or point of origin for leaves or branches. Membranous. hard-walled and indehiscent fruit. Any kind of dry. Seed. Having 2 rows of lateral appendages (lobes. leaves. Mesic. Nerve. Oval. Obovate. the highly modified calyx composed of scales. Any small. radially symmetrical. Pith. Perigynium (plural perigynia). Nut. floral organs originating below the petals. almost to a point at the base. and stigma. Receptacle. dehiscent fruit. A sharp. Dustlike. Pollen cone. Outline broadly elliptic. Rough to the touch from having very short and stiff hairs. In Asteraceae the ligulate flowers attached to the disk. Orbicular.

bulblike offshoot in some spp. scaly. Umbel. Turion. median petal) of the pea family (Fabaceae). Possessing long. Ventral.to leaflike. Concerned with conduction of water and nutrients. Sub-. more than quantity to the right of symbol. bracts. usually externally obvious. including anther sacs and supporting filament. Vascular. Tendril. Readily transmitting light but not sufficiently thin to see through. gaining support for climbing plants. Stipule. streaks. Symbols. usually one-celled and wind-dispersed reproductive structure. Especially in ferns and allied taxa. Taproot. and sedge families. clasping outgrowth of the leaf or stem that twines about contacted structures. A type of inflorescence with numerous stalked flowers that appear to radiate/ascend from a single point. Lacking reproductive structures. but not both. generally with several stems originating from the base. Striate. Viscid. Sterile. A slender. a simple. or single. Possessing either stamens or pistil. rush. or side toward axis. Generally a tubular structure that partly or wholly surrounds a plant part. or scales. Shrub. usually at cliff face. Whorl. A small. lower (under). The male organ (pollen producing) of a flower. the smallest unit of a flower cluster. Verticil. or pointed projection (as on leaf margin). Surpass. Lacking a stalk. or occurring in the spring. sharp-tipped structure derived from a modified leaf or stipule. Teeth. Sheath. 11 . or lines. upper. Pattern in which veins are arranged. Spike. Said of prostrate stems that do not root. Another term for the banner (large. Valve. variety. The typically slender portion of the pistil connecting ovary to stigma. which is a slender. Having stamens but lacking pistil (female portion). That portion of the plant not producing reproductive structures like cones or flowers. fleshy. a cluster of sporangia. inner side. The primary plant root which is considerably larger than any other root system branches. Superior ovary. Woody plant (sometimes only at base). To be borne directly below and close to. Woolly. Stem. above ground or below. Any taxonomic entity. Subtend. gland. Vein. Short. A whorl of leaves or flowers.) radiating from the same point or level. Plant adapted to dry environments. of Epilobium. Spikelet. mutually parallel groves. Three-ranked. Simple. Standard. Condition of being thick. An elongate stem that grows along ground and roots at the nodes. An appendage. pollen-receiving and usually sticky portion of pistil. Prefix indicating almost.Sessile. The terminal. Succulent. buds. Xerophyte. Translucent. Unisexual (flower). Uncritically. specifically in the grass. Sac-like container in ferns and allied taxa within which spores are produced. nearly. <. undivided. A perianth part when the perianth is not clearly differentiated into calyx and corolla. Three or more organs (leaves. Style. To go beyond or exceed. Talus. Vernal. and juicy. Stigma. A slope of rock rubble. That portion of the corolla at the junction of the limb and tube of united corolla that is somewhat wider than the tube itself. Trailing. Venation. A main axis of a plant. etc. consisting of one to multiple florets (flowers) and their subtending glumes (usual case). as a leaf subtending its axillary bud. Bearing teeth. Thorn. Taxon (plural taxa). In ferns. Spine. >. Urn shape. woody and sharp-pointed modified stem. Tepal. at the junction of petiole with stem. Of. Staminate. as vascular plants being those with xylem and phloem. the lower stem-clasping portion of a leaf. Toothed. Originating in threes from a common point or level. or under. differentiated from roots by having nodes. Pertaining to location on front. Sorus. In the grasses. Throat (of corolla). species or family). interwoven hairs. Twining. Unbranched. Stamen. less than quantity to right of symbol. Vegetative. Growth mode of partly creeping and partly coiling and climbing on other objects. any structure having the appearance of a true spine. One having the perianth parts originating directly below it. Having fine. regardless of rank (for example. rounded. Sporangium. Ovoid and with a small opening at the tip. An inflorescence type with stalkless (sessile) flowers arrayed along a main axis. A bundle of vascular tissue in leaf or flower part. Sticky or greasy. Spore. One of the two or more portions into which a capsule or pod separates at maturity. rigid. ranging from upright to trailing. A stout. Stolon.

....e............................. e n t i r e plant f l o a t i n g and diameter) Plants larger and usually with obvious stems Plants herbaceous with undivided leaves that are often narrow and have the main vein p a r a l l e l t o each other..... ....................................... ......... 603 ............ 43 .. 4's.......... PINACEAE p. or woody vines........................ TAXACEAE p ........... usually with ANGIOSPERMS (see below) broad leaves that are mostly not evergreen 9 Plants lacking flowers................ spores borne a t the top i n conelike structures 6 7 Leaves larger and usually lobed o r divided (fern1 ike)... petals and sepals 3 usually i n 2's....... Plants trees....................................................... 45 ANGIOSPERMS.... spores borne i n a pocket a t the base of each leaf............................................................... generally occurring on rocks or i n rocky or d r y s o i l Plants usually >2 cm t a l l .......8 Stems jointed and grooved lengthwise......... leaves reduced t o papery scales.................. 4 Plants consisting o f a c l u s t e r o f long narrow leaves united a t the base......................... horsetails) Plants reproducing by seeds (conifers and flowering plants) ........................ more o f ten.......................................... herbaceous plants......................... .................. Leaves small and scalelike............ ................. R .................................. fern a l l i e s ........... or 5's o r multiples thereof (Dicots) ....... i t i s necessary t o have flowering material may also be necessary Uhen possible....... SELAGINELLACEAE p 26 Plants <2 cm (1 i n ) t a l l ........ .............................................. .......................... spores not borne i n cones .......... shrubs........................ the stem or needlelike and ................................. clubmosses....LYC0PODIACEAE p 24 Spores borne on a specialized branch that r i s e s from the base of the vegetative leaf H L O S S A C E A E p 31 Spores borne on Leaves that usually are s i m i l a r t o the vegetative leaves...... mostly evergreen leaves ............. narrower................ leaves present though sometimes small 3 ............................. ....... I n some cases f r u i t Plants reproducing by spores (ferns..................GROUP I V ........... petals and sepals i n 3's or multiples thereof (Monocots) GOP I 1 RU Plants herbaceous o r woody with simple or divided............................... ...... ...............................s u p r t i n g stems are not included) I Plants emergent or non-aquatic 2 .. 53 Trees with seeds borne i n cones ......... or not always f l o a t i n g ...or scalelike.......... around Leaves scalelike and pressed f l a t to branches Leaves needlelike.................... ......5 V petals or ..................2 ....................... Flowers without two d i s t i n c t whorls o f parts d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t o petals and sepals (i sepals or both lacking or petals and sepals i n a single undifferentiated series) Both petals and sepals present and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from each other Petals separate from each other a l l the way t o the base Petals united..10 Shrubs with blue seeds surrounded by a juicy......... ........ examine numerous specimens ..............G O P 111 RU 4 Plants herbaceous o r woody only a t the base.... trees or shrubs with needle.......... a t least toward the base GOP I RU Stems lacking........................ often e a s i l y pulled apart a t the nodes........................... borne on the ends o f long p e t i o l e s and f l o a t i n g f l a t on the surface of the water (water l i l i e s ) NYMPHAEACEAE p 291 3 Leaves smaller............................K Y TO T E FAMILIES E H I n order t o use the following key. ................................... ........ often borne i n clusters ........ .......2 ......................... stems o f t e n resembling small juniper or cedar branches..... plants growing i n water or m d u ISOETACEAE p 24 Plants not as above 5 .....................................LEMNACEAE p............ Leaves l i k e a 4-leaf clover ... CUPRESSACEAE p ........ Plants with flowers (sometimes inconspicuous)................................ ............. in Leaves large (>I0 cm) and round t o broadly e l l i p t i c i n outline. .......................................................... and both kinds of leaves a r i s e d i r e c t l y from the roots POLYPIACEAE p 33 ......... a large p o r t i o n o f the above ground stems woody ................ ........... red b e r r y l i k e structure ................... mostly i n moist s o i l o f forests or occasionally meadows................................. plants apparently consisting only of simple or branched stems EQUISETACEAE p 28 Stems not as above...... ...... FLOWERING PLANTS whorled the Plants t r u l y aquatic with submerged or f l o a t i n g leaves that become limp when withdrawn from the water (emergent plants with s e l f ............. .. woody or.......... ARSLEACEAE p .................................... 31 Leaves not as above ..........ROUP V I G smaller (usually much smaller than 2 c m ...... usually net-veined leaves..

. .............................................. Glyceria p 558) ........ Leaves not d i v i d e d i n t o 4 l e a f l e t s ........ resembling a 4 ...........................POTAMOGETONACEAE p ...2 .... ...................................3 3 . SPARGANIACEAE (vegetative forms) p 635 Leaves flattened................................. ZANNICHELLIACEAE p .................................................................. 12 Leaves a l t e r n a t e o r opposite (1 o r 2 per node) .................. leaf shape various ......................................... n o t needlelike ............................................. 16 Leaves a t least 2 cm long .....................................................................................................19 ARSLEACEAE p ....20 Leaves on o r near the surface shaped l i k e an arrowhead .......8 .............................................. ..... w i t h ye1 low o r white p e t a l s Leaves whorled (*2 per node).....4 ........6 blade......................... 21 a pale membranous appendage (stipule) that surrounds the Base of leaves Y-shaped i n cross section..................... Najadaceae.............. stems u s u a l l y green .... 637 Leaves <2 cm long ................ 354 ....................... without p e t a l s .............................. 590 Submersed leaves opposite (2 per node) ............ 628 ..................... POTAMOGETONACEAE p .......d i f f e r e n t i a t e d Leaves with a petiole Leaves grasslike.......... have r e c e n t l y been discovered i n west c e n t r a l Montana b u t are not described i n t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n See Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973) f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the fami l y .................................................ALISTACEAE p ...... 628 Leaf veins branching o f f of the m i d r i b.........10 U l t i m a t e l e a f l e t s w i t h toothed margins..................... 108 Margins o f u l t i m a t e l e a f l e t s smooth... 15 Submersed leaves a l t e r n a t e ( 1 per node) b..................... ................... 248 Leaves mostly 3 o r 4 per node ........ 466 Surface leaves l i n e a r o r g r a s s l i k e ......... egg-shaped bladders among the l e a f l e t s ........................ 24 Leaves without spore-sacs a t the base ... NAJADACEAE' Leaves >1..................................................................... 285 Leaves without bladders .............7 Leaves w i t h a sac o f white spores a t the base .....................HYDROCHARITACEAE p ..............CALLITRICHACEAE p .... stems o f t e n reddish .............................. flowers conspicuous....... ...................... male above female Flowers not as above ................................ without a w e l l ............................................... 248 Leaves whorled (>2 per node) ................................................................................................................................ . .......................................POLYGONACEAE (Polygonurn) p ................. . flowers inconspicuous............................................................5 mn wide ................. Plants without l e a f y stems..................................... flowers and fruits not in round clusters GMINEAE (Alopecurus p 531...... a l l leaves g r a s s l i k e and attached a t the base Plants w i t h l e a f y stems..... 9 Leaves 1 per node.....l e a f clover .................d i f f e r e n t i a t e d blade .......................... 286 ....... HIPPURIDACEAE p ..... 5 we1 1 ...........4 ' Members o f the water nymph family.....SCOPHULARIACEAE (Limosella) p .......... broader than the long Leaves needlelike and round i n cross section CYPERACEAE (Eleocharis) p..3 Flowers unisexual........................... borne i n dense globose o r c y l i n d r i c a l clusters..........................................................13 Leaves mostly 6 per node ........................... Underwater leaves h i g h l y dissected i n t o h a i r l i k e Underwater leaves l i n e a r t o e l l i p t i c but not dissected .......LENTIBULARIACEAE p .......................HALORAGACE p ......... Plants l e a f l e s s and p a r a s i t i c on stems and branches o f trees Plants not p a r a s i t i c on trees ......... 18 Leaf veins p a r a l l e l t o each other o r nearly so ........................................................... 423 ...... 31 Leaves w i t h 4 l e a f l e t s ....... 320 Base o f the l e a f expanded i n t o stem Base o f the l e a f without s t i p u l e s ..........................ISOETACEAE p .................................................11 Leaves w i t h small.............................LORANTHACEAE p .........14 Leaves scarcely 1 mn wide .....510 ALISMATACEAE p 466................. flowers and fruits borne in round SPARGANIACEAE p 635 clusters Leaves nearly flat at the base w i t h a pale.................... 79 Submersed leaves narrowly e l l i p t i c t o n e a r l y r o d i n o u t l i n e (mostly <5 times as long as wide) Submersed leaves l i n e a r and g r a s s l i k e (mostly >10 times as long as wide) ...... membranous appendage on the inner surface (ligule) where it joins the stem................................... .................... G O P II RU .RANUNCULACEAE (Ranunculus) p ..............17 ......... segments .... CERATOPHYLLACEAE p .....

......................................... 390 Leaves not more than 3 per node........................VITACEAE p............. per 4 stems or modified leaves that grasp the supporting plant (tendrils) Small... 466 G O P I 1I RU of 6 small (4 inn) undifferentiated petals and sepals (tepals) that are brown or Plants twining or clinhing.............12 F r u i t a berry. leaf sheaths (grasses) G N E A E p 516 Stems hollow and usually round i n cross section with conspicuous swollen nodes............6 Leaves alternate (1 per node) ..................................... erect o r prostrate krt not climbing or twining .................................. ........................................................ each flower subtended by 1 ( r a r e l y 2) bract(s).......................... 11 F r u i t a many-seeded capsule ................... 86 with or without a wing......... SCHEUCHZERIACEAE p ....... ALISTACEAE p ........13 Leaves p i m a t e l y divided i n t o l e a f l e t s LIMNANTHACEAE (a d i c o t with flower parts i n 3's) p 285 Leaves sometimes lobed a t the base but not divided i n t o l e a f l e t s 8 Flower green Petals long ................................9 Base of petals and sepals (or tepals) attached t o the top o f the ( i n f e r i o r ) ovary .......... 3 Leaves opposite or whorled (>I node) ............................. 11 ........................... ....7 Leaves and branches alternate (1 per node) or clustered a t the base ............................. 592 o r tepals white...................................... 605 F r u i t a globose cluster of achenes ................................................................................................................................................................... 350 Leaves sometimes lobed but not divided i n t o l e a f l e t s . p e t i o l e s lacking or very short .... inflorescence not as above.............................. 590 Base of petals and sepals a r i s i n g from base o f the (superior) ovary ....................................................................10 Sessi l e flowers borne on an unbranched spike a t the top o f a leaf less stem...................................... each flower subtended CYPECEAE p 468 by 2 bracts ....................... .... 350 Plants trees >1 m (3 f t ) t a l l ........RANUNCULACEAE (Clematis) p .................................... .............................................. ........LLACEAE p ...................................Flowers borne i n a c y l i n d r i c a l spike ( c a t t a i l ) F lowers borne i n globose clusters ................. 5 Leaves lobed or toothed with long p e t i o l e s ........................... 443 Leaves divided i n t o leaf l e t s ............. a globose c l u s t e r of 1-seeded achenes................................... yellow.............................. flowers F r u i t d r y and 1.....TYPHACEAE p ........ 635 F r u i t a berry o r globose c l u s t e r of achenes ...seeded.................. 2 ......................JUNCAGINACEAE p ..................... ..............R U B I C E (a d i c o t with flower parts i n 3's) p ...... 10 Fruit a berry...... blue.....................IRIDACEAE p ........................ curling present Tendr i1s absent .CAPRFOLIACEAE (Sarhucus) p ............ petals and sepals lacking o r reduced t o b r i s t l e s or scales (grasses and sedges) 5 Flowers with sepals and petals or undifferentiated tepals 6 ...................... 603 Inflorescence not as above .....................................o r 2-seeded capsules ( f o l l i c l e s ) ..................... JUNCACEAE p ....................................... ........................ or i f brown or green then >8 mn ....................................................... 635 Stamens and ovaries enclosed by bracts... at least 1 petal different than the other 2 ORCHIDACEAE p 621 (orchids) 7 Flowers r a d i a l l y symnetrical................ 8 Leaves sometimes lobed or toothed but not divided i n t o l e a f l e t s .CAPRIFOLIACEAE (Lonicera) p ....................LLACEAE p ................ 85 Leaves and branches opposite or whorled (>I per node) ..... 9 Plants shrubs usually <30 cm (12 i n ) t a l l ................or 2-seeded capsules ( f o l l i c l e s ) .............. inflorescence f l a t .......................................................................... Stems mostly s o l i d and o f t e n 3-sided............. ............................................................................ a l l 3 petals or 6 tepals s i m i l a r i n size and shape ......................... 291 Leaves with e n t i r e margins................... 637 .................................... RANUNCULACEAE (Clematis) p .................................ORACEAE p ........................................26 Leaves divided i n t o l e a f l e t s ............................... o r orange.. Leaves > 3 per node .............................. woody vines Plants tress or shrubs.......................... ..SOLANACEAE (So 1anurn) p ...14 F r u i t a berry ............................SPARGANA C E p .. 466 .......topped or pyramid-shaped with numerous ............................................................................. or 1...... Flowers bilaterally symnetrical................................................................. 605 F r u i t a group o f 3 1........

....... and winged ......... 16 Flowers tubular and >2 cm Flowers not as above Leaves covered surfaces Leaves not m a l y . stems h a i r y....................... 88 Leaves s c a l e l i k e and 4 per node...........15 Leaves with pointed teeth on the margins .............31 .... Petals minute o r lacking............................................................................................... ROSACEAE p .. Leaves not indented a t the base.............................................................................................................. Year-old twigs red.............. ............................................. 1.......................................................... 108 Inflorescence with 4 2 flowers ........................................ 131 Leaflets with spine-tipped teeth on the margins .................. 190 Twigs usually not red 3 main veins starting at or near the bass......................................... 29 Leaf 1e t s spine.....CAPRI FOLIACEAE (Viburnun) p... ................................................. leaves >3 cm long HYDRANGEACEAE p 248 Stems lacking spines or p r i c k l e s Leaflets toothed or Lobed Leaflets with e n t i r e margins ..............POLEMONA C E (Leptodactylon) p .. 227 14 Leaves not as above ....................................................................................... lacking sharp-pointed teeth ........l i k e Lower l e a f l e t s with a t least 1 shallow lobe as well as toothed margins Lower leaf l e t s f i n e l y toothed ...................... f r u i t b e r r y l i k e ......................... Leaves divided i n t o l e a f l e t s ................... Leaves with mountains Leaves with valleys .......... 262 Leaf l e t s mostly 3..................25 ..27 Leaves sometimes lobed but not divided i n t o l e a f l e t s ................... f r u i t berry......................24 Flowers with united petals..........22 Long............. 431 Flowers tubular and >2 cm long ............... ELAEAGNACEAE (Shepherdia) p...........19 Plants creeping...............seeded.................................................................tipped .. f r u i t a capsule ............ 35 Leaves divided i n t o l i n e a r segnents ...................................................................................C A P FOLIACEAE (Linnaea) p..........................................................CAPRIFOLIACEAE (Viburnun) p................. 57 Leaflets mostly 5..........LEGINOSAE p . 367 ....................................... 367 Leaves <3 cm (ca 1 i n ) Long Leaves mostly >4 cm Long ..................................................... OLEACEAE p ......................... 23 Flowers not as above...17 ...........................C A P OLACEAE p.......................20 Inflorescence with >12 flowers ....... ANACARDIACEAE p........................................7 ........ tubular t o urn.......................................................................................................................... 18 ........................................ 248 Petals 10-20 mn long...................................................30 Stems with spines o r p r i c k l e s ..... brownish or silvery scales on 1 or both Leaves with e n t i r e or wavy margins........................RHAMNACEAE (Ceanothus) p .................................................................................................................... ......... 88 SCROPHULARIACEAE (Penstemon) p .....................E R E R I D A C E A E p.......................................................COMPOSITAE (Artemisia) p ...................................32 .......................... Leaves leathery and <3 c ( 1 i n ) Long ERICACEAE (Kalmia) p 228 Plants >30 cm t a l l .................. 83 Plants w r i g h t or spreading but not creeping............................................................ 431 .....E R I C A (Cassiope) p .........ROSACEAE p ................................34 Leaflets mostly 3 .... <5 mn long ......................................................... ........................................................... 53 Leaves indented a t point where p e t i o l e i s attached......................................... 367 only 1 main vein a r i s i n g a t the base.....................ACERACEAE p..... 311 Leaflets not spine-tipped.. 13 ACERACEAE p...................RHNACEAE (Rhamnus) p .. 21 HYDRANGEACEAE p...................................................... 224 with mealy......... occurring i n d r y t o moist areas... stems glabrous or nearly so ..... introduced and rare i n the . f o l i a g e aromatic ................ 53 .......... 367 ............................................................. 28 Leaflets lance-shaped or wider ........................................SCROPHULARIACEAE (Penstemon) p ........................... 33 Leaflets mostly 9 o r more........................................................................................................ 293 At Least some leaves with 3-5 Lobes ................................................shaped Petals separate ..........7 .......... 61 Leaflets without spine-tipped teeth on the margins ........................................ 83 m Plants ~ 3 0 cm (1 f t ) t a l l and f o m d i n moist t o wet areas............................................................CELASTRACEAE p ...... plants native in the ................C A E p ..12 Leaves with toothed o r e n t i r e margins but not Lobed.......... f r u i t d r y ....

. or spine..................... 57 .......................................................... flowers with separate petals .............................. ERICACEAE (Ledum) p ...................................................POLYGONACEAE (Eriogonum) p ...................................shape................................................................... each head surrounded by bracts forming a cup....................................... ....................... 61 .................... shrubs of wet or moist habitats Flowers bisexual Leaves a l l basal or with a stem Stem leaves present and alternate ..........ARALACEAE p ................................................................ 115 Leaves not succulent.............34 34 35 35 36 36 ............ 42 Leaves with e n t i r e margins .................... 228 Leaves not as above ...... prickles........................... 395 .............BERBERIDACEAE p .........ROSACEAE p......................ELAEAGNACEAE (Elaeagnus) p ................ resinous dots ..............53 Leaves covered with s i lvery scales. f r u i t densely reddish-hai r y Flowers usually with >10 stamens..........................GROSSULARIACEAE p ...................52 whorl of leaves in the middle of the otherwise spike1 i k e inflorescences (catkins) on separate wet Male and female flowers borne i n dense........................... POLYGONACEAE (Eriogonum) p ...... .... 37 Leaves with toothed or lobed margins ...................tipped branches ......................... ........... ...... ..................................... f r u i t not reddish-hairy lB Spines mostly branched..................................o r vase............................................ 230 ...................................t i p p e d Leaves or t h e i r Leaves or t h e i r ................... ..shape......ROSACEAE p .............. 367 Leaf margins e n t i r e o r nearly so ............ plants................ 243 Flowers with 10 o r fewer stamens......................... 38 Petals separate............46 Few t o many flowers clustered i n heads....... POLEMONIACEAE (Phlox) p ........................................-57 (>20) flowers............................. ELAEAGNACEAE ( E laeagnus) p ........................................................................... 108 SOLANACEAE (Lycium) p ...ANACARDIACEAE p....................... plants generally of d r y habitats .. 56 Inflorescence of numerous above Inflorescence o f fewer than 20 flowers Few t o many flowers clustered i n heads................................................. Flowers with *10 stamens .................................... sometimes only s l i g h t l y so .... ..................... 443 Petals mited................... teeth o f leaves tipped with a slender b r i s t l e Spines not branched...... c y l i n d r i c a l .... 223 Leaves not covered with s i l v e r y scales ............. ............. 36 Plants unarmed.......SALICACEAE (Salix) p .....RHAMNACEAE (Ceanothus) p .....SALCACEAE (Salix) p .................. 39 Leaves s i l v e r y with h a i r s or scales on the lower surface ....................................................... 367 p r i n c i p l e lobes <3 mn wide ......................................ROSACEAE p ....................................................................... stems more-or-less round i n cross section............. each head surrounded by bracts forming a cup............................................... resembling needles of a fir ............49 with .... -54 naked ....................................... s t m angled and grooved ........ nearly r o d i n cross section .......... shrubs of Male and female flowers borne in catkins areas Flowers bisexual........................................................... 367 ............. 367 Plants with thorns........ 59 Leaf blades mostly 4 cm ( 3 i n ) long ....CHENOPODIACEAE (Suaeda) p ......................................... 316 Plants not as above ............ 41 Blades of many leaves >10 cm ( 4 i n ) long. 45 Plants low and cushion-forming with grayish-hairy leaves ................. 43 p r i n c i p l e lobes >3 mn wide ................ERICACEAE (Phyllodoce) p ................. 51 ................. 367 Stamens 10 or fewer .......................................................... ..................................... -40 Leaves mostly not lobed.......................or vase.........................................50 Leaf margins toothed or lobed................................. Leaves with 3-9 palmate ( l i k e a maple) lobes ............... flowers with united petals .........CELASTRACEAE (Glossowtalon) p ........................................................ mostly f l a t ... each c l u s t e r appearing l i k e a single flower COMPOSITAE p 115 Flowers not as above 55 ...................................................... each cluster appearing l i k e a s i n g l e flower COMPOSITAE p 115 Flowers not as above 47 Leaves evergreen tree Leaves not as above 1 or 2 grooves beneath...48 Plants prostrate or nearly so........ 311 Plants r a r e l y prostrate.......... teeth of leaves not b r i s t l e ..............44 Leaves succulent.................................... ........................ROSACEAE p ..... 316 ......................................................... especia 1l y beneath ............ 395 .... 58 Leaves pale beneath with yellow.............. leaves paler beneath than .............................................................. on separate plants..... 223 Leaves green on both surfaces ...........................................

............ Middle stem leaves with entire..................... 4. Stamens 4................... 286 Plants not as above .. f l o w e r s c o n s i s t i n g o f a c u p w i t h 5 conspicuous lobes.... 69 ......................1obed .. 115 P l a n t s p a r a s i t i c o n c o n i f e r s ..... 443 Some leaves with 1 or 2 narrow lobes a t the base ....... introduced species of disturbed areas Flower parts colored or white...................65 Flowers without petals.............................. .................11 . 69 .. 3.... URTICACEAEp.......... f r u i t a wingedseed (samara)..............................................................4 Stems and leaves not green..o r vase...................... male and female catkins borne on the same plant ........................... crushed leaves with a sage odor Leaves not as above ................... ....... Middle and lower Leaves opposite or whorled (2 or more leaves per node) ..... 66 66 ......62 Flowers not borne i n catkins ........... ..................GROSSULARIACEAE p .......... 6... 5..........................60 n Plants not as above ........ c y l i n d r i c a l ............. 224 Flowers with 5 stamens ................. ........U Shrubs and subshrubs ...................ROSACEAE (Dryas) p ..................................................................... c o r o l l a mostly 5-lobed o r with only 1 strap-shaped Lobe................................ 60 61 61 62 62 63 63 57 57 ............ 64 ....... ........... 58 ............ stalked ovary EUPHORBIACEAE p 234 Plants not as above 6 ... each head surrounded by bracts forming a cup................ plants of wet to aquatic Plants w i t h m i l k y s a p ................................................. 221 Stamens 5............ 60 .................... ..............'. 66 Leaves toothed but not palmately l obed........................ 393 Female catkins more b r i t t l e and conelike............. 63 Catkins s o f t and somewhat fleshy.....L C p ....................... COMPOSITAE p .................................. c o r o l l a 4........... 7............. ERICACEAE p ...... 67 ......... 7 Middle and lower leaves alternate or a l l basal or nearly so .............................................................................. Introduced shrubs o f disturbed areas or r i p a r i a n habitats i n the valleys Native plants mostly i n forested areas i n the mountains Many leaves with 3 lobes a t the t i p ........ .........SOLANACEAE p ............. 67 .........ERICACEAE p ......................... ..................... 224 ............ anda3.................................................. 371 Flowers unisexual and borne on separate plants........ 445 Flowers with petals..... O A E E p ..........................SALICACEAE (Sal i x ) p ................... DIPSACACEAE p ... 67 Flowers with 5 stamens................................................... 224 4.................... 1 ................................................................ 367 R Leaves palmately lobed ( l i k e a maple) .................69 SOLANACEAE (Solanurn) p .................. BETULACEAE p................. 9 9.... 2............... Plants not as above .................................... 7............................ 367 Flowers with 10 o r more stamens ......... 59 ................................. RHNACEAE p .............. ............... flower parts green.............. 59 .......... stems jointed...... 68 68 ....................................... 3............................ 131 ...........................................459 8. ..... .........shape. 13 10 10 .. 367 R SCA Petals united a t least a t the base .... Leaves without Lobes ......... .......................LORANTHACEAEp.. 365 ROSACEAE p ..........17 Plants with whorled habitats Plants not as above leaves and sessile flowers in Leaf axils....................................... 248 ................COMPOSITAE (Arternisia) p ...... 65 65 ................... 243 Flowers with >5 stamens . GRWP I V .........................................SALICACEAE p .......................................... 68 Petals separate ......... .. 395 Flowers without petals and borne i n dense.... 1....... 62 Trees ..................................................... 61 Flowers bisexual with showy white petals ........... petals lacking ........ 2. O S A p .........HPPURDACEAE p ............. 442 .................................... -2 each c l u s t e r appearing l i k e a single flower Flowers not as above 3 ......................................... .......... 12 .................... leavesreducedandscalelike .................. toothed or wavy margins .. 6...................... Flowers small................. stamens.59 Plants alpine mostly 4 0 a (4 i n ) t a l l .....1obed................... native species . leaves reduced t o scales ... 10 9.......... .................................................... 5 5 Few t o many flowers clustered i n heads................. 8........................... 64 ............................................................................................... ............ f r u i t fleshy and b e r r y l i k e or applelike............... ERICACEAE p ........................ 58 .............. male and female catkins on separate plants ........................................8 P l a n t s w i t h s h a r p s t i n g i n g h a i r s o n t h e s t e m s a n d l e a v e s .... Plants with green leaves or s t ems .............. spikelike inflorescences (catkins) ........................... Middle stem Leaves divided or lobed............

............ 291 ... 343 Flowers with 1 p i s t i l and 1-4 stamens ................ Leaves deeply 3-7 palmately lobed............................................ 387 Inflorescence not as above ..................... flowers b i l a t e r a l l y symnetrical.......................................SANTALACEAE p ..... 61 Flowers r a d i a l l y symnetrical............... 55 31 Flower bracts and sepals lacking spine-tips ..... flowers b i l a t e r a l l y symnetrical ...................19 Leaves deeply lobed (>1/2 way t o midvein) or divided .......... 343 Stamens and p i s t i l s 10 or fewer each ........................................................... ................................................................ 61 .....................23 Petals m i t e d ....................................... plants rhizomatous ....P .......... 419 .................................... purple ................................................ attached a t the top o f the ( i n f e r i o r ) ovary . 237 24 Petals separate................................................ stem leaves sessile ........................CARYHYLLACEAE p ..... a t least toward the base...............................14 Leaves whorled (>2 per node) ................................................... 316 Plants without sheathing stipules ............ reddish............................................................................. flowers with n m r o u s p i s t i l s ........ CUCURBITACEAE p .... nearly so Plants not as above ........ 83 P i s t i l s and stamens n m r o u s ....... 28 .............. 18 Plants not as above .......CHENOPOIACEAE (Chenopodiurn) ....... lacking colored petals.......t i p ..........................RANUNCULACEAE p ........ stem leaves with short petioles A GINACEAE p 291 VALERIANACEAE 459 Plants annual........ M O R E p ........................................................POLYGONACEAE p ........... flowers with 1 p i s t i l ................. Flower 3............. introduced areas Plants with clear sap............... ............... 459 Stamens and p i s t i l s >10 each ........... 110 ..................................... ................... plants usual l y twining Leaves palmately divided i n t o 5-9 leaflets....................SCROPHULARIACEAE (Besseya) p ...............CANNABINACEAE p.................................... or pink Flowers green..... ARANTHACEAE p........... sometimes tinged purple ..... coarse annual herb Plants perennial.........33 Flowers colored white................................................32 F r u i t berrylike......................... 27 Flowers b i l a t e r a l l y symnetr i c a l one of the sepals sac1ike ..............20 .................. flowers r a d i a l l y symnetrical...............parted......26 plants o f disturbed AVERACEAE p 305 RANUNCULACEAE p 343 and laying on the ground............. annual p l a n t s o f t e n i n disturbed soi 1 CRUCI FERAE (Lepidium) p 212 30 F r u i t s not as above .........RANUNLACEAE p ............................................ 390 Leaves opposite (2 per node) ...... ....... attached a t the base of the (superior) ovary ......purple.. 316 34 ....... 221 Plants vines with thin.............. 404 Plants not as above F r u i t s disc-shaped and broadly e l l i p t i c t o nearly round i n o u t l i n e with a notch a t the top......................................... VALERIANACEAE p ............. p ........................................................ . stamens 3.............. .................... UMBELLFERAE p ................................................................................................. Flower bracts o r sepals with a s p i n e ...22 ................ ..................29 green sepals..RUBIACEAE p ..... leaves spade-shaped and wider than long or Leaves with entire.................................. mostly native species Flowers green............................ color due entirely to the strongly exserted. flowers r a d i a l l y symnetrical . 212 Petals 4.........ROSACEAE (Sibbaldia) p .. c u r l y t e n d r i l s f o r climbing ........... f o l i a g e usually fleshy Flowers with colored petals.............25 CRUCIFERAE (Lepidiurn) p ........BALSAMINACE p .. I 5 Petals absent and sepals green ............................................................. RANUNCULACEAE p ..POLYGONACEAE (Erioqonurn) p ....... toothed or wavy margins........................................................................................... a l l o f the petals o r sepals s i m i l a r i n shape ................................................................................................21 .............. 343 ......... ye1 low................ not deeply lobed or divided Stamens >I0 per flower Stamens 10 or fewer ....................... Flowers with 2-4 stamens Flowers not as above ................... Stamens >10 i n each flower Stamens 10 or fewer ...... 445 Petals 5.. f o l i a g e usually not fleshy ..........ARISTOLHIACEAE p... Flowers and f r u i t s borne i n a dense c y l i n d r i c a l spike ...................................... Plants with colored or milky sap............ stamens mostly >4....................................................FUMARIACEAE p ....................... Membranous appendages (stipules) sheathing the stems above attachment o f p e t i o l e ............ leaves fleshy or leathery..... 88 16 Colored (not green) petals present or sepals petal1 i k e and nongreen................................................

......... Basal p a r t of sepals united t o form a cup that i s united t o the lower p o r t i o n of the ovary .... Flowers with 5 stamens ( v i o l e t s ) ......................-20 RANUNCULACEAE p ..........................S A X E p ................. petals a l l the same shape and size .............................. 404 ............... ......................................ONAGRACEAE p .................. 4 Flowers with 4 petals ......................PAPAVERACEAE p ........................................... 404 Stems thick......... sessile ....... 293 FUARIACEAE p ............... flowers borne an stalks .......................................................17 ........... f o l i a g e sometimes covered with s i l v e r y scales GOP V RU .................... HYPERICACEAE p ...............LYTHRACEAE p ...................................... not united t o the ovary ......... usually l y i n g on the ground........................ ............. flowers strongly b i l a t e r a l l y syrrmetrical.................. .....19 RANUNCULACEAE p ..............................................................................................................................CHENOPODIACEAE p .. Basal p a r t of sepals united t o form a cup that i s united t o the lower p o r t i o n of the ovary ............... 3 Flowers r a d i a l l y symnetrical..14 Flowers with 4 small.. 343 Sepals usually separate t o the base................. petals not a l l the same shape and size ............................................................................. f o l i a g e not covered with s i l v e r y scales Stamens 2-6.......ERICACEAE p ............SAXIFRAGACEAE p ................ 288 Petals yellow and usually 5................................... 108 .......... 286 Stem leaves alternate ( 1 per node) or clustered a t the base Foliage not adhering t o c l o t h l i k e velcro ....................................................................27 ......Stamens 10.......................... Flowers with >10 stamens ................. and stamens appearing t o a r i s e from the top of the ( i n f e r i o r ) ovary Sepals..............LOASACEAE p ............. Stamens not fused i n t o a tube ............... 9 Flowers with > I 0 stamens .................. leaves spade................... 305 Plants with clear sap .....................................shaped..................................................................................7 . 16 Foliage covered with recurved h a i r s that cause i t t o s t i c k t o c l o t h l i k e velcro .... Petals attached a t the base o f the ovary .................................... 6 Petals attached on top of the ( i n f e r i o r ) ovary ......... 262 Flowers not as above................. and spiny.......................18 ..... 463 Flowers with 10 stamens . leaves minute or lacking ............... green.................................. ...................ROSACEAE p .5 Flowers with 5 petals ........................................................ 237 Petals attached a t the base o f the (superior) ovary .......... resembling those of a pea LEGUMINOSAE p ............. 367 Flowers with >1 p i s t i 1 Sepals............... fleshy.....................................................................................................10 ............ PTULACACEAE p ........... petals. Flowers with 3 long sepals and 12 stamens.................. 343 Flowers with 10 o r fewer stamens ..............VIOLACEAE p ........... at least ARISTOLOCHIACEAE p 61 as wide as long Plants not as above 11 .......22 ......... 224 A p o r t i o n o f the ovary below the point where petals are attached .............ROSACEAE p .................. white petals.............................. 21 13 Stem leaves opposite (2 per node) .................................. Flowers b i l a t e r a l l y symnetrical............ 343 Sepals usually separate t o the base..................... petals....................................................................................... and stamens appearing t o arise from the base of the (superior) ovary ....................................... each with united petals) CPOSITAE p 115 Flowers not as above 2 ........ ........................ 252 MALVACEAE p ....................CACTACEAE p ........................... 334 Leaves divided i n t o l e a f l e t s Leaves lobed or with e n t i r e o r toothed margins but not divided i n t o l e a f l e t s ....................... introduced plants o f disturbed areas .............. not united t o the ovary ........15 Plants with white o r colored sap........................................ 367 Flowers each with 1 p i s t i l and 3-8 stigmas ..................................... 79 Plants not as above Lower 2 petals united t o form a canoe-shaped 88keelllpetal........................... 12 Stamens 10 or fewer or absent ......................................................................... 288 Anther filaments fused i n t o a tube that surromds the style(s) ....... RANUNLACEAE p .............................................................................................................. petals nearly the same size and shape 8 Flowers resembling a daisy or dandelion (these are not single flowers but a c t u a l l y clusters o f flowers.......

................................ white... 45 Flowers with 2 or 4 petals....... each flower with 4-5 so Leaves f l a t . not united t o the ovary ............ 59 F r u i t dry....................................................23 ............................. 39 Flowers with 5 petals .... Leaves fleshy.............................. Leaves fleshy...............................................................CRASSULACEAE p......... CRUCIFERAE p ....ONAGRACEAE p ............................ CRASSULACEAE p ..... 36 Leaves with 3 l e a f l e t s ....... p e t a l ...................... 240 Sepals united a t least below .............................................. f r u i t b e r r y l i k e ................................................................................ not lobed or divided ...... reddish h a i r s tipped with s t i c k y secretions that capture insects............ 25 Leaves with e n t i r e or toothed margins...... ......................... f r u i t a n u t l e t or capsule ............................................... S R A C E A E p .............................CARYOPHYL A C E p... 88 separate ovaries that are separate or nearly Leaves covered with long... 31 Flowers with 2 or 3 sepals ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 83 CRUCERAE p ............................. 293 Leaves divided or lobed a t least 1/3-way t o the midvein ..........................UMBELLIFERAE p .................................................... OXALIDACEAE p ................................ .............................. ...... 194 41 Leaves opposite or uhorled (>I per m>de) ........................................... 224 40 Stems and leaves green............................. Petals y e l l o ............................................... 35 Flowers with 5 petals .................................................................... 26 Inflorescence h r e l l a l i k e ..................... or yellow but not green ..... SAXIFRAGACEAE p .. 192 ............. each with a rounded notch a t the t i p ................ nearly round i n cross section ............................................................................................. ...S I F R A C E A E p ....... each flower with 4-5 ovaries that are separate or nearly so .............. pink................................................ 29 Sepals usually separate t o the base.........................................38 Flowers with 4 petals .. Leaves alternate (1 per node) or a l l basal .................. 190 ONCA Flowers not subtended by petal...................PORTULACACEAE p ..... GERANACEAE p .24 Clusters of flowers subtended by 4 white............34 Lower leaves lobed less than 1/2-way t o the midvein or with e n t i r e or toothed margins but not divided i n t o l e a f l e t s ....... plants of DROSERACEAE p 223 SDhagnum bogs Plants not as above 46 .................................. not p a r t i c u l a r l y fleshy ............................................ 445 Inflorescence sometimes headlike but flowers not borne on stalks joined a t a c m n point ....................................... 367 w Petals white or purplish .................................. .............................. 316 Lower leaves divided i n t o l e a f l e t s or a t least >1/2-way t o the midvein..... 285 32 Leaves with e n t i r e margins or with a p a i r i f lobes at the base.......................l i k e bracts...............CAPPARIDACEAE p .................................. Leaves with 3 leaflets........ 88 Leaves f l a t .............................C R A E E p ............ 42 Stems and leaves red............................................. 33 Leaves pinnately divided or lobed................CRASSULACEAE p ...................................................... 192 CARYOPHYLLACEAE p.......... flowers borne on stalks joined a t a comnon point ............................. 343 30 Styles 1-5 per flower or lacking .................... 194 Leaves not as above ............................... ROSACEAE p ............................... each flower with a s i n g l e ovary .................... a t least i n p a r t ......... 44 Flowers bisexual ................................................................................................. Flowers with only stamens ......................... ERICACEAE p ......... not b e r r y l i k e .......................................................... 303 Leaves not as above .................................... 404 Flowers with 4 petals ........... ARALIACEAE p ........................................RANUNCULACEAE p . 27 F r u i t fleshy and b e r r y l i k e ......POLYGONACEAE p .....................LIMNANTHACEAE p ........................................ and stamens each Flowers with 5 petals and sepals and 5 or 10 stamens Leaves fleshy........................ 404 28 Basal p a r t of sepals united t o form a c q that i s joined t o the lower p o r t i o n o f the ovary .......... sepals................................................... 37 Sepals separate t o the base ........................ 404 Styles >5 per flower .................................................................................22 22 .............l i k e bracts................. Flowers with 4 or 5 sepals .............. 334 Petals green or brownish ................................... 192 43 Plants not as above .... Petals white or pinkish ....

. 227 with spines........CUSCUTACEAE p ............ each flower with 5 hornlike appendages surrounding the s t y l e ..... ............................................48 ................................................. 240 ..............8 Plants with watery sap ..................... leaves opposite (2 per node) and CARYOPHYLLACEAE p 88 entire-margin ed Plants not as above 12 ...................... not attached t o f o l i a g e of other plants ............... .......... green........................CAMPANULACEAE p ....... brown..... Corol l a attached on top of the ovary ( i n f e r i o r ovary) ........................................... 80 Corolla attached a t the base of the ovary .................. 404 G O P VI RU Leaves deeply palmately lobed o r divided...4 6 Plants with green leaves and stems......................................... 24 Flowers r a d i a l l y symnetrical (petals a l l the same size and shape) ........ 7 Plants with milky sap . red..... 221 Flowers mostly with 5 stamens.......................... 303 Leaflets i r r e g u l a r l y shaped................................................................S I F C E A E p ............................. 2........or (mostly) 5................ twining stems attached t o foliage o f other plants ............................... ...... twice as long as the sepals Plants not as above f r u i t s with a beak at least ........................................................... 79 ....OLIDACEAE p ..........ERICACEAE p .............................................................................9 Corolla r e f lexed.........10 Plants erect with opposite leaves .......... 50 Flowers with 1 s t y l e and a shallowly 5-lobed ovary .............. ......LINACEAE p ...............DPSACACEAE p ... Anthers as numerous o r fewer than petals or c o r o l l a lobes Leaves d i v i d e d with sepals Plants not as above with 2 . 288 ......................... flowers with 5 stamens ..... c o r o l l a urn-shaped and 5-8 mn long Stems thick.......... pink...... CACTACEAE p ....... 15 Flowers b i l a t e r a l l y symnetrical (petals of d i f f e r e n t size o r shape) ...............OROBANCHACEAE p ..........................................GERANIACEAE p .......................Leaves opposite o r whorled (*I node) per Leaves alternate (1 per node) o r a l l basal ........... 285 Plants not as above ...........49 Leaves linear......................... c o r o l l a 1.... 190 Flowers a l l unisexual........ COMPOSITAE p ................................. yellow. 224 Flowers with 2 or more styles...............................................PORTULACACEAE p ...1obed ............................................................. 115 Plants with white.........................or vase................................................... sepals separate t o the base....... covered Few t o many flowers clustered i n heads.................. petals attached t o top o f the ovary Flowers not as above 3 .............. each head surrounded by bracts forming a cup..............................lobed...............................CONVOLLACEAE p ........47 ..........MALVACEAE p ........... APOCYNACEAE p ................................ e n t i r e margins. usually with united anthers........ lacking green tissue ... or purple stems and leaves.............................. 301 ................shape...................... .............................. 2 each c l u s t e r appearing l i k e a s i n g l e flower............ flowers r a d i a l l y symnetrical (petals a l l alike) ... 13 14 Anthers more numerous than petals o r lobes of the c o r o l l a ...ASCLEPIADACEAE p .. ....... petals a r i s i n g from base o f ovary............................................................................................................................................................. Leaves f i n e l y transluscent-dotted ( t h i s feature can best be seen by holding a leaf up t o the l i g h t and HYPERICACEAE p 252 looking f o r nunerous small llholesll i n the blade Leaves without t r a n s l u c e n t dots CARYHYLLACEAE p 88 . ovary 2-10bed........................... leaves alternate ....................................................................................... r a r e l y 4......... leaves lacking or ........................ Flowers with 4 stamens and a 4-lobed c o r o l l a ................................... c o r o l l a tubular and * 8 mn long Plants mostly >l5 ( 6 i n ) t a l l ............21 Leaves divided i n t o l e a f l e t s Leaves lobed or with toothed t o e n t i r e margins but not divided i n t o l e a f l e t s ............... stamens 10.................... 16 .......................... Plants with orange................. and spiny....................... minute Plants not as above succulent........................................................ 221 Stems not twining...........................................17 Leaves divided i n t o 3 l e a f l e t s l i k e a shamrock ........................................ 334 ........ 61 11 Corolla be1l-shaped t o tubular ............................ 57 Plants twining....ERICACEAE (Pteros~ora)p ....... a t least i n p a r t ........................................... not l i k e a shamrock ................................. 5 Plants 4 2 cm (5 i n ) t a l l ..................

......................................................29 RUBIACEAE p ....................... 35 Plants with a cluster of stem Plants with leaves only on the stem Flowers corolla Flowers corol l a usually bright Leaves divided i n t o 3 leaf lets..30 Plants climbing vines with t e n d r i l s ( c u r l i n g modified stems o r leaves) ...... 22 Flowers with 9-10 anthers ... 437 ............................... leaves opposite (2 per node)............................................................. Ovary and f r u i t with hooked h a i r s .. -38 or whorled..................... 25 Ovary superior (corolla attached a t the base of the ovary) ..................................................... opposite.. 34 Flowers yellow or orange ........................SCROPHULARIACEAE (Verbascum) p ...................................................................less f [at........................ tendr i 1s lacking ....................................................................................SCROPHULARIACEAE p ..................... 262 Flowers with 4-8 anthers ..............................CAPRIFOLIACEAE (Linnaea) p .... 221 Plants not vines.............................. angled Ovary 4-lobed......ERICACEAE p .......... 39 33 Flowers with 5 anther-bearing stamens .......................... 83 Stamens nunerous........................................ 23 Flowers with 6 anthers .... not fleshy and succulent ........... stamens not protruding beyond the mouth o f the .............. 417 Flowers with 4 (or apparently 8) anthers .............. 289 .... petals nearly the VERBENACEAE p 461 same size and shape Anthers d e f i n i t e l y shorter than t h e i r stalks.......................................................CUCURBITACEAE p ....................................................................................................... 36 Flowers with 2-4 anther-bearing stamens ..... Flowers not yellow or orange ....................................................... 338 Sepals mostly 5 ..MALVACEAE p ........ 80 32 Flowers b i l a t e r a l l y symnetrical (petals o f d i f f e r e n t size or shape) ................................................................................................................... 61 blue................ Ovary i n f e r i o r (corolla attached a t the top o f the ovary) .................RANUNCULACEAE p ............VALERIANACEAE p .............. 417 ................................... 237 SCROPHULARIACEAE p .................................... 390 28 Ovary and f r u i t lacking hooked h a i r s ................................................... ........ Flowers with 3 stamens ........ 459 Stamens 2-4 ..... 70 pale with purple spots................ SOLANACEAE (Hyoscyamus) p ..........................................CRASLACEAE p ........................................................................... ... BORANACEAE (Echiun) p ............... 459 Flowers with 4 stamens .............. .......................................................... Flowers r a d i a l l y symnetrical (petals a l l the same size and shape) ........................ not united t o form a tube ............................................................................... leaves alternate.......MEMYANTHACEAE p ......37 Ovary not 4-lobed............... 343 Flowers with 10 o r fewer stamens .............................................20 Sepals 2 ...LEGINOSAE p ........................ 288 ............................... c o r o l l a nearly r a d i a l l y symnetrical.... BALSINACEAE p ........................................................................... 26 Leaves alternate (1 per node) .... 31 Leaves opposite or whorled (>I per node) ...............................18 19 Leaves fleshy and succulent ...................PTULACACEAE (Portulaca) p ...................................................................................................... 390 Leaves whorled (>2 per node) a t least i n part ..................................... united t o form a tube that surrounds the style(s) Stamens 10 or fewer.................... 442 Flowers with 3 stamens ..........CAMPANULACEAE p ........................ c o r o l l a often 2............. .............................................................. petals covered with short h a i r l i k e scales Leaves with lobed t o e n t i r e margins but not divided i n t o l e a f l e t s . 88 Leaves alternate (1 per node) o r a l l basal ........................................... RUBIACEAE p ............................................. 27 Leaves opposite (2 per node) ...........angled ..................................lipped with the c o r o l l a lobes obviously o f d i f f e r e n t sizes LABIATAE p 254 ................................VALERANACEAE p . stamens exserted beyond the mouth of the leaves at the base as well as on the ..............................................................CARYHYLLACEAE p ............ Leaves more-or.. stems 4................................ stems mostly not 4- Anthers as long as or longer than t h e i r stalks............ 224 Flowers with >I0 stamens ........................................ 192 Leaves opposite (2 per node) ....................................... FARIACEAE p ................

..... 48 Flowers with 2 sepals....... L A ATE p................PORTULACACEAE p . 442 ............................................... 254 A1 1 leaves basal................................... s p l i t t i n g i n t o 4 n u t l e t s a t maturity Ovary not 4-lobed o r 4.................................. Flowers with a s t y l e that i s 2-Lobed a t the t i p ...... 258 .................................. ................................................................................ unlobed s t y l e ....... 61 Sepals united a t the base f o r 1/3 t h e i r length or Less ................ 41 Flowers with 4 anther-bearing stamens ..4....................................................... 51 ........ leaves opposite (2 per node)...................................... fewer than the lobes of the c o r o l l a Anther bearing stamens as many as c o r o l l a lobes or a t least 5 .............PLANTAGNACEAE p............................... 49 Ovary 4-lobed o r 4................ ......... 308 GENTIANACEAE p ..................................... .......... 340 Sepals united f o r 1/2 t h e i r length or more ............ Leaves alternate... 308 Flowers with a s t y l e that i s 3-lobed a t the t i p . t e n d r i l s lacking ......................... 54 Leaves alternate or a l l basal ............. 47 F r u i t and ovary 4-lobed...... Stamens...........................................BORAGINACEAE p .......PORTULACACEAE p .LABIATAE (Mentha) p ......................52 Flowers with 2 sepals .... 461 Anthers d e f i n i t e l y shorter than t h e i r stalks ...................................... 390 Flowers with an ovary .. 190 Plants not as above ...............CONVOLWLACEAE p ..........................55 Flowers with a 3-branched s t y l e (3 stigmas) ............... Leaves alternate (1 per node) a t least i n part .......VALERIANACEAE p ................. 56 POLEMONACEAE p ..... 437 Stamens not h a i r y ....................... PRMUACEAE p .................................................. Flowers without an ovary ......... leaves with e n t i r e margins.......................... 334 Plants not as above ................................................................................ 459 Flowers with 2 stamens...................... stems mostly not 4- .........................................SOLANACEAE p.. opposite. 334 Flowers with >2 sepals ................................... petals not noticeably t h i n and papery ....RUBIACEAE p ................................. or angled Ovary 4-lobed.............SCROPHULARIACEAE p ...................... join LABATAE (Lycopus) p 256 SCROPHULARIACEAE p 417 F r u i t and ovary not 4-lobed...................................................................PLANTAGNACEAE p ............. o f t e n somewhat fleshy ..................... 305 Plants mostly with leafy stems............shaped ......................... stems 4-angled ....................................................PRIMULACEAE (Lysimachia) p ..........40 .....grooved.... 221 Plants climbing vines with tendri 1s ( c u r l i n g modified stems or leaves) .....Anther-bearing stamens 2.................... flowers i n dense clusters surrounding the stem just above where the leaves ..................... 249 SOLANACEAE p ................................ 237 Flowers with an unbranched s t y l e ........44 ................. 340 Leafy stems present ....................... 417 whorled........ Plants not vines......... 305 Flowers not as above........................................................43 Anthers as long as or longer than t h e i r stalks ........................HYDROPHYLLACEAE p .................................POLEMIACEAE p ........................................................... leaves arrowhead............................... 46 Flowers with 3 stamens.....................................SCROPHULARIACEAE (Verbascum) p ............... 442 Sepals united f o r 1/2 t h e i r length or more........................................ not s p l i t t i n g i n 4 a t maturity Stamens 4.................42 Flowers with 2 or 3 anther-bearing stamens ..... 53 Leaves opposite o r whorled (>I per node) ......................58 Flowers with a simple................. 45 CUCURBITACEAE p ........... flowers borne on naked stems .... inflorescence not as above Ovary not 4-lobed. ............................................................................................................ 57 Flowers with an undivided or 2-lobed s t y l e ................ Leaves opposite (2 per node) Stamens 5............................grwved.. petals t h i n and papery ......................................... Flowers with 4 stamens...................................................VERBENACEAE p ..... or a t least some o f them........ petals t h i n and papery.................................50 ................... 65 Plants creeping and twining around adjacent vegetation.59 Sepals united a t the base f o r <1/3 t h e i r length .......................................... densely h a i r y.................................................................60 Leaves a1 1 basal...............................................

. ... This p l a n t has been c o l l e c t e d i n South Kootenai Lake a t 1910 m (6.. [I...1 Howell's Q u i l l w o r t Howellls q u i l l w o r t has Leaves t h a t are o f t e n greater than 15 cm (6 i n ) long... The outermost and imermost leaves are o f t e n s t e r i l e ...... WA t o CAI east t o MT and UT.. B. 2. The translucent margin t o 5 cm ( 2 i n ) beyond the mgasporangia. Translucent margin o f sporophylls extending less than 2 cm above the megasporangi u . east t o Alta.setacea Lam...... 3... The surface o f the megaspores has o f the sporophylls e x t h burps o r low ridges.. p l a n t s u s u a l l y i n montane o r lower subalpine zone.. Isoetes L. 2 Surface o f megaspores w i t h spines............... Lycopodium L. ......ISOAETACEAE DIVISION LYCOPODIOPHYTA CLUBMOSSES A D ALLIES N ISOETACEAE Q u i l l w o r t Family Qui l l w o r t s are perennial aquatic o r amphibious herbs w i t h simple... Quillwort the family. The leaves have a broadened base t h a t bears 1 o f 2 kinds of spores.... h o w e l l i i n.... This species has been c o l l e c t e d i n Lower Twin Lake southwest o f Hamilton i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains.. 1.. 1.... while the microspores are borne on the inner f e r t i l e leaves...] B r i s t l e .... south t o CAI CO. C i r c u b o r e a l . I t covers the lake bottom l i k e a sod-forming grass on the east shore o f Lost Horse Lake I t a l s o occurs i n scattered colonies i n sane meltwater ponds t h a t d r y by l a t e a t 2170 m (7...255 f t ) . .. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of species requires Translucent margin o f sporophylls extending more than 2 cm above t h e megasporangi u .. evergreen... 2....125 ft)...... M . Isoetes bolanderi Engelm. o n i o n l i ke leaves clustered on the 2..... The translucent margin o f the sporophylls extends about 1 cm above the megasporangium.. and AZ. .... t o CA. Bolandergs Q u i1lwort This q u i l l w o r t has leaves up t o 10 cm (4 i n ) long t h a t taper t o a f i n e p o i n t ... ... The outermost f e r t i l e leaves (sporophylls) bear p o c k e t l i k e s t r u c t u r e s t h a t contain t h e large spores (megasporangia). 2. slender t i p ........ ...... Members of t h e genus have the characters of microscopic examination o f the megaspores... The trapslucent margin o f the sporophylls does not extend more than 1 cm above the megasporangia... e n t i re. .... ......... ...... uncomnon 3 I echinospora . n....... Surface o f megaspores w i t h bunps o r short ridges.... The spore-bearing leaves (sporophylls) are s i m i l a r t o the vegetative leaves o r are i n c l u s t e r s resembling cones a t the end o f erect stems..t o 3-lobed rootstock.. N LYCOPODIACEAE C l h s s Fami l y Clubmosses are low..l i k e Quillwort The s o f t leaves o f t h i s species taper t o a Long. . A1 1 o f our species occur i n cool...... They a l l have p a r t l y o r who1 l y c i r c h r e a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s .. perennial herbs t h a t resemble large moss plants.... sumner..... (2) I.... e i t h e r a l t e r n a t e o r opposite on the stem.. Isoetes h o w e l l i i Engelm.. [I. p l a n t s comnon i n the upper subalpine and t i m b e r l i n e zones 1 I bolanderi . and NJ. .C. C l h s s Members o f the genus have the characters o f the family.. melanopoda Gay & Dur... The surface of the megaspores has bunps o r short ridges..... The surface of the megaspores i s covered with short o r 2-pronged spines.. mostly t r a i l i n g ...... 1. Isoetes echinospora Dur. shaded h a b i t a t s t h a t have snow cover during the winter and r e l a t i v e l y high humidity during the s m r . Bolanderls q u i l l w o r t i s comnon i n shallow water along the margins o f many lakes i n t h e subalpine and t i m b e r l i n e zones.. . The 1-nerved leaves are needlelike o r scalelike..

echinospora . I. I. howellii c.leaf base a lsoetes bolanderi b.

.. Thus......SELAGINELLACEAE 1.. Boreal i n North America and Asia... Clintonia u n i f lora...... 2... south t o OR. and species of moss....... Circumboreal...4 not i n a d i s t i n c t terminal L. often with Linnaea borealis... 5.... and VA... The small leaves are overlapping and are d i f f e r e n t shades of green depending on the p l a n t ' s s t a t e o f hydration..... t o OR and MT... rooting from the points of branching.... MT...... horizontal stems that creep along the surface or j u s t below the surface o f the ground. This plant has been collected i n moist forests along Lost Horse Creek and the East Fork of Lolo Creek i n the montane and lower subalpine zones i n the B i t t e r r w t Mountains.. sitchense C... annotinurn 3 Cones elevated above the densely leafy branches on sparsely leafy stalks ...d i f f e r e n t i a t e d stalks.... evergreen herbs with branched. The spores are borne a t the base o f the sporophylls.. 2.. clavatum Horizontal stems scaly or only sparsely Leafy . 3..3 .. Elk Moss The main stems o f e l k moss are l e a f y and prostrate or arching. leafy branches that often d i v i d e and have elongated clusters (cones) of moderately d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f e r t i l e leaves a t the tips.. The f e r t i l e leaves are borne i n 1-3 d i s t i n c t cones a t the ends o f well-defined scaly stalks........ 3... Cones d i r e c t l y above the densely leafy stems... Horizontal stems densely leafy and s i m i l a r t o the erect stems .... appressed..... F e r t i l e leaves are s i m i l a r t o the vegetative leaves and are borne i n alternating zones.(2) L..... 2-3 mn long. giving r i s e t o more-or-less erect F e r t i l e leaves are branches.. Locally comnon i n moist subalpine f i r forests and beneath alder i n creek bottoms i n the subalpine zones.... which are clustered i n cones ( s t r o b i li)a t the ends of branches.... Spore-bearing leaves (sporophylls) s i m i l a r t o the vegetative leaves........... leafy stems...... The f r e e l y branched... giving r i s e t o densely branched a e r i a l stems. are not g r e a t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the vegetative leaves. The vegetative leaves are 3-8 mn long with a h a i r l i k e t i p up t o 2 mn long. from a short underground base..... They are l i g h t brown or greenish.brown... The spore-bearing leaves are triangular and clustered a t the ends of sparsely leafy stems.. S t i f f Clubmoss The main stems of t h i s species are prostrate or arching and give r i s e t o erect. Alaskan Clubmoss This species has sparsely leafy or scaly... The e n t i r e length o f the stems i s leafy......... SELLAGINELLACEAE Lesser Clubnoss Family Plants i n t h i s family are t r a i l i n g .....( 5 ) C.. Alaskan clubnoss i s known from moist meadows on the bank of Lower Twin Lake....... cornplanaturn 1...... south t o CAI MT.... southwest of Darby. cluster Sporophylls clustered i n t o d i s t i n c t cones a t the top of the stems.... 1... The Vegetative leaves o f the branches are 5-11 mn long and appear t o be i n whorls o f 4 on the stem................. Lycopodiun complanatun L... The spore-bearing leaves (sporophylls).. southwest of Hamilton and Grizzly Lakes.. 2.... f e r t i l e leaves that form the cones are pale o r greenish-brown...... Cornus canadensis.. Lycomdiun s i tchense Rupr.... west o f Darby i n the subalpine zones o f the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. and NC... A 4 ..S.... scalelike leaves..... F i r Clubmoss F i r clubmoss has erect or ascending stems.. south t o OR......... U. west of Stevensville and Sugarloaf Peak....... C i rcunboreal. south i n w... L y c o d i u n clavatun L.... Pyrola spp.. Aerial vegetative stems appearing flattened Aerial vegetative stems appearing t o have whorls of ascending leaves . usually less than 20 crn (8 i n ) t a l l . Lycopodi un amot inun L ..... CO. 3......... M I and NC...... forming we1 1-differentiated cones.... borne i n d i s t i n c t cones a t the end o f w e l l .....(1) C......... G r o d cedar i s known only from moist lower subalpine forests along the East Fork o f Lolo Creek and near Granite Creek west o f Lolo.. south t o U and MT.. selago 2 4. Lycomdiun selago L... .... ........... MN. Vegetative leaves are mostly 2-3 mn long and less than 1 mn wide.... there are no d i s t i n c t cones.. S t i f f clubmoss i s comnon i n moist forests o f the lower creek bottoms i n the montane and lower subalpine zones o f the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. 4 .. Ground Cedar This species has scaly main stems that creep along or just below the ground surface....... a e r i a l stems appear flattened with narrow.... Circumboreal. Circunboreal.. 4... and up t o 3 mn wide. sparsely leafy s t a l k not present ... I t has also been collected beneath krumholz f i r trees a t timberline on the north slopes of the Heavenly Twins.....

a Lycvpodium annotinum b. L clavatum C. L sitchense 27 . L selago e. L cornplanaturn d.

exposed habitats from the v a l l e y t o the alpine zone throughout our range. The sporophylls are s i m i l a r t o the vegetative leaves but are s l i g h t l y wider and have a keel on the back........ .. without a terminal point ......... Leaf sheaths usually with 3 teeth... ...7 ....... east t o the Great Plains.. X f e r r i s i i Clute (a hybrid between E.. laevigatum.... .. A t o CA. stems usually more than 1 mn i n diameter... and united t o form a sheath a t each node.... scopulorum (Maxon) The two v a r i e t i e s o f t h i s species i n our area are d i f f i c u l t t o distinguish. The branches are longer and set farther apart than i n S. ...... .. (a hybrid between E..............2 ........... t o CA........ Eat...... Stems loosely branched............. Eauisetun L. ( 6 ) E. Plants without regularly whorled branches..... ...... scirpoides Leaf sheaths with more than 3 teeth. Tryon has sporophylls with e n t i r e margins....... Laevigatum Stems greater than 4 mn i n diameter with 14-40 longitudinal ridges....... ...A.. . I t i s loosely branched and does not form dense cushions. a1 1 our species have a circunboreal d i s t r i b u t i o n ....(2) S.... i n our area.. ......8 E. east t o Alta....... . ......... variegatum and E...... Uallace's Lesser Clubmoss This species has stems up t o 20 cm (8 i n ) long...... ...... Var... .. DIVISION SPHENOPHYTA HORSETAILS EWISETACEAE Horsetai 1 Fami l y The stems have Plants i n t h i s family are p e r e m i a l herbs with rhizomes and dark-colored rootstocks........... ... .. conspicuous nodes and are l o n g i t u d i n a l l y grooved.... E.... Horsetai 1... ...... (7) l variegatum .. densa... (4) E..... .. The evergreen or annual stems are hollow and simple or with whorls of branches a t the nodes..... Compact Clubmoss Plants are low-growing and compactly branched. . I t i s abundant i n dry... I t requires more hunid and protected habitats than S. . laevigatum) have They appear t o be rare...... hyemale . .. sheaths united i n t o 2-5 lobes .C. densa Members o f t h i s genus have the characteristics of the family.. .......... o f t e n dark-colored....... ... ... . .. K 2.... The spores are borne i n a terminal cone ( s t r o b i lus)... ...... Scouring Rush Members o f t h i s genus have the characters o f the family. Var.. 1.( 2 ) l sylvaticum not m i t e d i n t o lobes ....... Selaginella densa Rydb. ...... resemble mosses........... stems up t o 1 nrn i n diameter...... forming cushionlike mats. ... . ............. ...... Stems less than 3 n i n diameter with 3-12 longitudinal ridges Whorled branches branched again.... The cones are 4sided. sheaths then with a scalloped margin Teeth o f leaf sheaths persistent Cones ( s t r o b i l i ) Cones pointed a t ... With the exception of E..... but l i t t l e i s known of t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n been collected i n the B i t t e r r o o t Valley.EWISETACEAE Selaginella Beaw.. and MT... I n addition t o the following species. Sporophylls are s i m i l a r t o the vegetative leaves but are wider and have a shorter b r i s t l e ...( 1 ) 1.. .. Lesser Clubmoss They are Low and mat-forming and wallacei S. a t least towards the t i p ..... . . I t i s local l y common along the e n t i r e east f r o n t o f the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains.... X nelsonii (A...) Schaffn. Plants with regularly whorled branches on the green stems. timberline zone throughout our area. B. . hyemale and I laevigatun) and E............ densa has sporophylls with minutely I t i s less comnon i n s i m i l a r habitats from the v a l l e y t o the toothed margins a l l the way t o the t i p .... . 4 b l m t on top.. ... The leaves are up t o 2.......... densa........ ...... The leaves are crowded and appressed t o the stem.. The Leaves are scalelike...t i p ... Selaginella wallacei Hieron..... The cones are 4-sided.................( 3 ) E. moist spruce forests ............ f l u v i a t i l e 5 the top ...... ............... ......... teeth of leaf sheaths .. not forming dense cushion-like mats Stems closely branched...... .5 mn long and are tipped with a short b r i s t l e ......... They are up t o 2... . Uallacels lesser clubmoss occurs i n open t o more often p a r t i a l l y shaded habitats i n the montane and subalpine zones.. 1............. usually forming cushion-like mats .. 6 ..... various habitats 3 Teeth o f Leaf sheaths soon deciduous.... ...........5 mn long and taper t o a terminal b r i s t l e ....... The top of the sheath i s divided i n t o dark-colored teeth...... teeth of leaf Whorled branches sinple.

3-7 mn long. Smooth Scouring Rush This species has sinple or sparsely branched. F e r t i l e stems are margined teeth....400 f t ) .. t o Baja Cal... The leaf sheaths are green with black teeth up t o 3 mn long. membranous lobes. The f i r s t group contains 2 species with amual stems. cavity cavity. I n our area t h i s species was collected i n moist. MT.. 7... Comnon Horsetai 1 Comnon h o r s e t a i l has erect o r decunbent........ open or p a r t i a l l y shaded habitats from the v a l l e y t o the timberline zone throughout our area..... photosynthetic...... ... and a t 2500 m (8. 4/5 the diameter of the outside o f the s t em. B.. Cones have only a short s t a l k and are rounded.. Marsh Horsetai 1 This plant has densely branched. Circunboreal. palustre rare of the stem greater than 1/3 diameter o f the outside o f the stem. E.. Eauisetun laevisatun A.... I n our area... up t o 60 cm ( 2 f t ) long.... Ca.. south t o B... with nunerous. The brown or black.. and PA. The teeth are united i n t o 3-4 l i g h t brown......C. Cone-bearing stems are l i g h t brown and simple a t f i r s t but become branched and photosynthetic with age. I t o f t e n becomes an obnoxious weed i n c u l t i v a t e d soils. south o f Darby a t 1340 m (4... branches without a comnon 1 E. pointed t i p . . Cone-bearing stems arp l i g h t brown and up t o 30 cm (1 f t ) t a l l .. MN... a m w l vegetative stems... F e r t i l e stems are present only e a r l y i n the season. G r o q I. west o f Lolo.EaLl I SETACEAE 7. becoming brown with age.... Cones are blunt-tipped with a short... and persistent.. east t o the Great Plains.. 8. I t i s the only horsetail occurring a t high elevations i n our area.. Swamp Horsetai 1 Swanp horsetai 1 has erect... WY... I t i s o f t e n found i n disturbed habitats.... south t o UA. i t has been collected a t 2620 m (8.8 E..... branches with a small 5 E.. Wood Horsetai 1 This horsetail has erect.. blunt-tipped cones are borne on a stalk... west of Lolo... The teeth are black... fluviatile of the stem less than 1/3 diameter o f the outside o f the stem.... Br. SO. whorled... 8. terminated by 2-3 branchless nodes topped by a blunt-tipped cone. Circunboreal. arvense i s our most comnon horsetail.. The second group contains species with f e r t i l e and s t e r i l e stems that are s i m i l a r i n appearance.. west o f Darby. I t occurs i n many sloughs along the B i t t e r r o o t River and has been collected a t 1900 m (6.. The leaf sheaths are green... This species i s c m n i n standing water of lakes and along streams or wet s o i l s of boggy habitats from the v a l l e y t o the lower subalpine zone... Cosmopolitan. NE.. erect stems up t o 45 a (18 i n ) t a l l . 4. The stems have 5-10 Longitudinal ridges.... Central central Central central cavity cavity. sometimes with a short. arvense and i s probably more comnon than co l l e c t i o n s indicate... ID. Central c a v i t y o f the stem large. Eaui setun arvense L... The cones are borne on brownish stems d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from the green.. and KY...... evergreen stems i n which both the f e r t i l e and s t e r i l e stems are alike..... Eauisetun palustre L.. Stems have 9-25 longitudinal ridges..... MT.200 f t ) above Carlton Lakes. mostly simple branches a t the nodes. clustered stems up t o 80 cm (32 i n ) t a l l . Leaving only the dark bases a t the top o f the sheaths.. p a r t l y shaded s o i l along Hughs Creek. A The dark..... 5.. s t e r i l e stems. wood horsetail i s known only from the Lp e West Fork o f Lolo Creek... 1.. . lpr Circuboreal.. south t o W.. In the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains.. and q u i c k l y deciduous.600 f t ) above Chaffin Creek... The leaf sheaths are mainly green. clasping sheaths of the rootstocks are a good diagndstic character f o r t h i s species Group 111. and PA. 3.230 f t ) i n Lower Kidney Lake southwest o f Hamilton. Eauisetun sylvaticun L..... I t could be confused with E.. Stems have mostly 16-30 Longitudinal ridges.. -- 2. such as roadside ditches. Cones are blunt-tipped on long stalks..C. the branches simple and n ascending... simple or branched stems up t o 1 m (3 f t ) t a l l . The teeth o f the nodal sheaths are 1-3 mn long. arvense . Group 11... less than 2 mn long.. Eauisetun f l u v i a t i l e L.. Smooth scouring rush i s c m n i n shallow water and wet soi 1 i n the v a l l e y zone throughout our area.. Comnon i n moist t o wet. (4) Central c a v i t y of stem mostly less than 2/3 the diameter of the outside of the stem. Leaf sheaths are green with persistent.. The t h i r d group consists of species with perennial... a m w l vegetative stems up t o 50 a (20 i n ) t a l l with whorls o f branches n that are themselves branched.. sturdy stalk.. whiteThe s t e r i l e stems are without branches a t the top..

. scopulorum a Selaginella densa b. sylvaticum 30 . E. S. wallacei c. ' rporophyll var. Equisetum arvense d.

The spores are enclosed i n nwnerous... that are branched from the base and appear tufted.. Our plants are var..... Botrychiun Sw. wet meadows i n the subalpine zones o f the I t i s uncomnon i n the valley zone and does not occur i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains.. Sheaths are green with a black band a t the top. bearing a vague resemblance t o bunches of grapes. Generally only one fleshy. They are branched from near the base. lower subalpine forest i n the Skalkaho Basin... erect rootstocks and few t o several coarse roots.. The slender teeth are 2-4 mn long. Circunboreal. Grape Fern Members of the genus have the characters of the family. Variegated Horsetai 1 This species has erect o r ascending stems... Eauisetun s c i r m i d e s Michx. The small. Our species have lobed or 1-4 times pinnately dissected s t e r i l e blades and branched f e r t i l e spikes with numerous sporangia. the nodes o f the rhizome. A 7. The The blades are slender petiole. 1.. up t o 30 cm (1 f t ) t a l l ..... emergent or f l o a t i n g leaves are borne on a conposed of four leaf l e t s and resemble a 4-Leaf clover. Spores are borne i n hair-covered. S t e r i l e blade once pimate. 93 i n the B i t t e r r o o t Valley and north o f Leaves o f comnon pepperwort a r i s e s i n g l y o r more submersed. t o CA. The sheaths t are short with a green base and black tips.. A and Mex.2 .. S t e r i l e blade 2-4 times pinnately divided. The 3-4 triangular teeth are 1-2 m long and white-margined... Sedge1ike Horsetai 1 The dark green stems of t h i s species are slender and flexuous. A l l our species have a circunboreal d i s t r i b u t i o n .. plants usually less than 10 cm (4 i n ) t a l l . B. Variegated horsetai 1 i s comnon i n more-or-less calcareous... Eauisetun hyemale L. This species i s c m n i n moist meadows and forests i n the v a l l e y and montane zones throughout wr area.M R ILEACEAE AS 6. The sharp-pointed cones have only a short stalk.. ... I t s upper d i s t r i b u t i o n a l l i m i t coincides with that o f black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). unbranched stems ~p t o 1. 2-15 mn long. glabrous leaf i s produced each year. south t o WA. ... round sporangia borne on the simple or branched f e r t i l e spike ( f e r t i l e leaf segment).Hook. h a i r l i k e b r i s t l e . UT. The leaves consist o f a f e r t i l e and s t e r i l e segment u n i t e d below i n t o a comnon stalk.... variegatun. DIVISION PTEROPHYTA FERNS A D F R ALLIES N EN MARSILEACEAE Pepperwort Family Plants i n the Pepperwort Family are herbs with alternate leaves a r i s i n g from s u p e r f i c i a l rhizomes.. The stems have 5-12 longitudinal ridges. C i r c h r e a l . south through C and FL.. IL. sharp-pointed cones have a short stalk.. Spore capsules a r i s e s i n g l y on short stalks from Hwy. N K OPHIOGLOSSACEAE Adder's..tongue Fami l y Members o f t h i s family are perennial herbs from short. and PA. Marsi lea vest it a -.... Sedgelike h o r s e t a i l i s known only from one location i n a moist. The stems have 6 longitudinal grooves.. Pepperkrt Comnon Pepperwort o f t e n i n t u f t s from a horizontal rhizome. Eauisetun variegatun Schleich. Marsi lea L. > 1. Leaf sheaths are black-banded a t the t i p and i n the middle. and ~po 15 cm (6 i n ) long...& Grev.3 . The d i s t i n c t l y white-margined teeth are up t o 2 mn long and tipped with a deciduous... east t o M .. prostrate t o ascending.C. U n c m n but l o c a l l y abundant i n ditches along Missoula. Species are aquatic or semiaquatic.5 m (5 f t ) t a l l . east of Hamilton a t 1460 m (4. single or clustered on branched rhizomes. plants usually greater than 10 cm t a l l . egg-shaped capsules (sporocarps). 8. Comnon Scouring Rush Comnon scouring rush has dark green. The s t e r i l e blade i s e n t i r e or more comnonly lobed or 1-3 times p i m a t e l y divided. The stems have 18-40 longitudinal ridges.800 f t ) . Sapphire Range.

E. hyemale e. fluviatile c. E. E. palustre d.a Equisetum laevigatum f. variegatum 32 . E. Equisetum scirpoides b.

3..... I t has been collected above Coffee Gulch.. evergreen leaves up t o 30 cm (12 i n ) t a l l ... .. ultimate leaf segments r ournled. mostly i n the montane zone.... The terminal f e r t i l e spike i s usually branched.. NM. Hitch..... the lowest p a i r o f lobes only shallowly 4 0.. Rattlesnake f e r n i s widely scattered but l o c a l l y c m n i n moist t o f a i r l y dry.. A Group 11... 3... . east t o MT and N . the lowest pinnately divided.. S t e r i l e blade longer than wide and usually < 6 cm long .... Botrychiun virginianun (L. Circunboreal...... ultimate leaf segments pointed...... rounded lobes...... A t o OR..... 4. This species has been collected a t 2350 m (7...... south t o CA. ...4 S t e r i l e blade attached a t or near ground level. 4. 2..... Evergreen Grape Fern This species has deep green. UY.. more often.. IA.. IA... t pinnatum St...POLYPODIACEAE 2...... The s t e r i l e blade has a short p e t i o l e and i s divided i n t o 3-6 p a i r s of overlapping. Vegetative and f e r t i l e leaves may be alike. the lowest p a i r o f lobes deeply divided again 3 B..... Joseph Peak. and 3 times p i m a t e l y divided with rowded m ultimate segments and a long petiole..700 f t ) on East St. and NC. Botrychiun [ m a r i a (L.) Swartz Moonwort Moonwort species usually has the s t e r i l e blade attached t o the comnon stem well above ground level... or the f e r t i l e leaves are longer and have narrower segments.... m species are e a s i l y overlooked and may be more c m n than our few collections indicate... Occasional plants have 2 f e r t i l e blades. Vi r g i n i a Grape Fern These plants have amual leaves 10-30 cm (4-12 i n ) t a l l .... Botrychiun boreale Milde. Evergreen grape f e r n i s infrequent i n open t o p a r t i a l l y shaded. The s t e r i l e blade i s 2-4 times p i m a t e l y divided with pointed ultimate segments that are triangular i n o u t l i n e and 7-20 c (3-8 i n ) long.... southeast o f Hamilton..... The f e r t i l e blade i s erect and 1-6 cm long.. The f e r t i l e s t a l k i s longer than the s t e r i l e blade..... (2) B multifidum .. S t e r i l e blade attached a t or near ground level... 3... The second group contains small species.... I t i s divided i n t o 3-6 p a i r s o f fleshy... . South t o M .. This grape f e r n occurs i n well-drained but moist habitats on cool slopes i n the montane and subalpine zones............ The s t e r i l e blade branches near ground level..... POLYPODIACEAE Comnon Fern Family True ferns are leafy perennials from creeping.... and the f r u i t i n g spike i s simple or. o f t e n twice pinnate... west of Stevensville and i n the Rattlesnake Mountains north of Missoula...... Botrychiun multifidum (Ginel.. The s t e r i l e blade i s broadly triangular i n outline....... lunaria. Petioles (stipe) and stem (rhizome) are often covered with scales ( t h i n membranous appendages resembling ....... John1 L Northern Grape Fern m Northern grape f e r n i s 3-15 c (1-6 i n ) t a l l with the erect s t e r i l e blade attached above the middle o f the plant.C. 4.. compound. leathery............. t o Newf....... Occurs also i n the Southern Hemisphere. These L i t t l e Grape Fern L i t t l e grape f e r n i s generally 3-10 cm (2-4 i n ) t a l l with the s t e r i l e blade attached t o the comon stem a t o r near ground level..... and VA. Our plants are var. 4-20 c (2-8 i n ) long... each u n f u r l i n g from a crooklike shape (fiddlehead).. The f e r t i l e blade i s 5-15 cm (2-6 i n ) long and 2-3 times pinnately branched. Leaves (fronds) are spaced or clustered along the rootstock. The oblong o r egg-shaped s t e r i l e blade i s sessile or nearly so and up t o 5 cm (2 i n ) long.. usually not over 10 e (4 i n ) t a l l . The f e r t i l e s t a l k i s usually longer than the s t e r i l e blade and has a simply branched f r u i t i n g spike.. S t e r i l e blade attached well above ground level. ID..... Botrychiun simplex E. and m pinnately divided. K V Europe and Asia....... open forests... 1. the louest p a i r of lobes are lobed again and usually larger than the others. mainly i n the montane and lower subalpine zones...(5) B. The f i r s t group contains two species..) Swartz Ratt lesnake Fern. simplex S t e r i l e blade attached well above the ground level.... moonwort has been collected near the head o f Gray Horse Creek and above Coffee Gulch Road i n the Sapphire Range. The f e r t i l e blade i s 2-8 cm (1-3 i n ) long.... fan-shaped lobes........ B... m It branches from the main stem well above the ground with o r without a short petiole............... d r g r o u r x l rootstocks (rhizomes).....) Trevis. ... Grow I. open forests near streams and aspen groves..(l) virginianum gB....... A 2. and MT and a t scattered stations t o Mex. The nearly sessile s t e r i l e blade i s usually about 6 c (2 i n ) long... south t o C ........ 5.. moist t o wet habitats such as meadows. lunaria divided.. I n our area. usually well over 10 cm (4 i n ) t a l l .. boreale S t e r i l e blade usually as wide as long and > 8 cm long......

a. lunaria f. B. boreale 34 . B. simplex e. Marsileavestita b. 0. 6. virginianum d. Botrychiummultifidum c.

.......POLYP DI O ACEAE f i s h or r e p t i l e scales).............................. divided i n t o two recurving parts... F e r t i l e leaves are d i s t i n c t l y more nunerws and have p e t i o l e s much longer than the 3-times divided........................... I t i s notable that these populations are a t the eastern extreme of t h i s species' d i s t r i b u t i o n and occupy habitats q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from those inhabited i n the center of the range.... leaves Wodsia clustered and t h e i r bases remaining persistent on rootstock........... Sori are borne on and covered by reflexed pinnule margins. ...........4 4............. a r i s i n g s i n g l y o r i n loose clusters from a Leaf blades are short rootstock..... Athyrium shaped i n o u t l i n e ........... r a r e l y r o l l e d .... spreading segments... woolly hairs) Sori borne on along veins between leaf l e t or segment margin and i t s midrib (costa)... 3........... Indusia (coverings t o s o r i ) present 8 Indusia lacking ..Adiantum leaflets often Leaves over 25 cm (10 i n ) t a l l dispersed along a rhizome.................. Sori disoontinuws................ leaves once or sometimes twice divided...... 3.. glossy-brown p e t i o l e bases.................. stalked..... much branched... 10.Cr Leaves mostly a l i k e ....... 1.................... ) Copel.... 9. 5....... A l l occurrences are associated with perennial seeps..... 11.500 ft)........... rhizome with persistent............................. use hand lens) t o crescent Sori r o d i n o u t l i n. i n a boulder f i e l d above Kerlee Lake............................. Leaves a t least twice divided........ Cystopteris leaves scattered or small clusters and p e t i o l e bases not persistent .................... the blades of s t e r i l e leaves (sometimes missing) are much shorter and broader than those of f e r t i l e ones............ 5................. leaf l e t s glabrous............. ... Both forms are glabrous......... 1............... Sori continuous a r o d the margins of leaflets........Chei lanthes Leaves < 25 cm (10 i n ) t a l l densely clustered (often i n rock crevices)....... 2.... r o d or horseshoe-shaped i n o u t l i ne............. Indusia attached t o side of s o r i cluster and covering them l i k e hoods which are reflexed a t maturity.. Dryopteris Polystichum Indusia lacking a c l e f t ................. 8.............. Maidenhair Fern Maidenhair Fern Adiantun pedatun L.......................................... Sori elongated (minute......................000 t o 7........l i k e segments or else covering the s o r i from below l i k e hoods 9 10 Indusia mostly above the sori.................. covered by r e f lexed t i p s of leaf l e t margins........ Maidenhair f e r n i s know from three subalpine zone locations on the Selway-Bitterroot Divide and one large population of very small plants................ elevations 2135 t o 2285 m (7. Aspidot i s densa (Brackenr ) Lel 1inger Podfern Podf ern .. 6.... 7.............. A s ~ i d o t i s(Nutt..... l e a f l e t margins f l a t ..... Ultimate f e r t i l e l e a f l e t s have mrcronate (small..7 e..... .......... ................ Adiantun L........ They are fan.. Indusia attached a t center of s o r i cluster and divided i n t o narrow................. 7....... and o r i g i n a t e from a short............. Asia. Indusia mostly uxler the s o r i and divided i n t o t h r e a t ... ............ egg-shaped t o oblong blades...... tufted.. the f e r t i l e mostly longer than the margins ... 4..Pteridium ...................... ........ Leaves with shining purple-black petioles are a l l alike.. o f t e n forming large colonies.... 6....... 11.......................................... about 15 cm (6 i n ) t a l l .... Three-times p i m a t e l y divided and egg-shaped t o triangular i n outline.. The 1inear t o lance-shaped ultimate leaf segnents are nunerws and crowded with r e f lexed.................... covered by r o l l e d margins.............. Sori near l e a f l e t margins......... Spore-cases (sporangia) are minute... 9.... h a i r y . Indusia with a c l e f t on one side.............................. .................... menbranous ................. spore-discharging structures grouped i n round t o elongatedd clusters cal led s o r i These are naked or more usually covered with a delicate f l a p (indusiun) or r e f lexed leaf margin ( f o r those s o r i borne a t leaf margin)......Gmnocarpium Leaves a t least twice divided......... 2... ....... Widespread i n temperate woodlands of North America and e.t o kidney-shaped i n w t l i n e and oriented horizontally..P o l w d i u m . Leaves are simple t o several times p i m a t e l y divided... each consisting of 3-6 l e a f l e t s (pimae) which are dissected i n t o 15-40 ultimate l e a f l e t s (pimules).............................. Leaves simple o r once divided .......... sori i n o u t l i n e 7 mostly r o d but occasionally elongated.............. 10... ..........3 vegetative and having inrolled yptograma Leaves o f 2 kinds... appearing elongated and a t least p a r t i a l l y covered by the i n r o l l e d o r 2 reflexed margins (lower leaf surface r a r e l y densely covered by long...... whitish..... .Aspidotis ............... 8... ..... densely Leaves o f podfern are 15-18 cm (6-7 i n ) long and of two forms.......... tooth-like) t i p Ultimate f e r t i l e l e a f l e t s lacking a mucronate t i p .........

. ... B.000 f t ) on north. are so densely covered with long. 1 C.. A O . One such display can be seen on Bare Peak southwest of Darby....... Cheilanthes gracillima D...f e m i n a (L. Sori are borne a t the end of forked veins and a t least p a r t i a l l y covered by reflexed p i m u l e (ultimate leaf segment) margins. mostly on moist... Circunboreal. I t i s f w n d i n fissures of g r a n i t i c bedrock from montane canyons t o timberline.. s t a b i l i z e d s l i d e s or i n fissures o f g r a n i t i c bedrock. tapering t o tip 2 disentifolium ... R . Ultimate pinnules are only 1-3 mn long... Athyriun f i l i x ....... t o C east t o e.. MT.... erect t o ascending stalks growing from scaly.. long hairs. americanun (Butters) Cronq....... Where i t occurs i n dense populations without competing vegetation of s i m i l a r size... the 20-150 cm (8-60 i n ) long leaves of the c m n lady f e r n are 2-3 times pinnately divided and taper a t both ends... tawny h a i r s on t h e i r underside that the surface i s obscured. D i s t r i b u t i o n i s circunboreal and nearly cosmopolitan.. short rootstocks. t o 2530 rn (8............. . The rachis and i t s divisions are set (mostly on mderside) with narrow brown scales and white t o rusty-brown. south i n w.. not scaly.... NV and CO....C.. Pinnule venation i s obscure. they quickly recover following rain.. Dense. attractive.. terminate a t the s o r i are obvious on undersides o f the unstalked.300 f t ) on E... toothed pinnules with 10x magnification..) C m n Lady Fern Arranged i n a fountainlike formation.. 1.... ultimate leaf segments about as long as 2 C. Ath~riun Roth Lady Fern Mediun t o large i n stature. North America t o CA.. I t i s associated with boulder o r scree slopes near late-thawing snowbanks.. Alpine lady-fern becomes increasingly cmmon toward the Selway-Bitterroot Divide and occurs throughout the range a t elevations greater than 2135 m (7.... blackish scales occur on the lower stem as Veinlets that well as leaves i n the budding stage. smellest v e i n l e t s c l e a r l y v i s i b l e from below.POLYPODIACEAE margins covering two continuous and para1 l e t l i n e s of s o r i Podfern i s l o c a l l y comnon i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains.. and w..... 1.. (1) A. MT and disjunct i n UT... This species i s found from v a l l e y r i p a r i a n environments t o the subalpine zone from very moist t o the wettest o f forest and non-forest habitats. From s.. ID...000 f t ) t o over 2740 m (9. The lance-shaped t o egg-shaped Leaf blades......C.. Joseph Peak.... obscuring the surface. Eat... I t also occurs i n the Rattlesnake Mountains.. 2.. t o s.... w. and Que......... 1....... ultimate leaf segments about 2 times longer than wide. 1.. graci llima Leaf undersides hairy......... St......... The yellowish-green. L i p Fern F e r t i l e and s t e r i l e leaves o f these small ferns are a l i k e and usually no more than 12 cm ( 5 i n ) long.......... lady-ferns have succulent. Roth 1.. i t i s also the only fern i n our range t o occas iona 11y have insect damage.. 2-4 times pinnately divided leaves curve gracefully outward. and the ultimate leaf segments are more f i n e l y dissected or lobed and set further apart on the lower end o f the pimae than those of A. Cheilanthes Sw.. f i l i x ... Lace L i p Fern Leaves are slender with narrowly lance-shaped blades and oblong t o triangular pinnae that are set apart below and crowded above. B... These small.. The central leaf axis (rachis) i s also dark and b r i t t l e ... f i l i x . Lace l i p f e r n i s comnon i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains but infrequent i n the other two mountain ranges.f e m i n a . Petioles are dark..f e m i n a Indusiwn lacking... leaves widest a t midpoint.... though scaleless...C... .. Ont. leaves widest a t the base....... 1.. s h r i v e l i n g and losing t h e i r color i n drought periods.. Firm...... Blades are usually h a i r y or scaly and 2-4 times pinnately divided.. n..... From s. surface e a s i l y visible. t i g h t l y tufted. slender and wiry.. Indusiun crescent-shaped and frayed on the margin........ Chei lanthes feei Moore Feels L i p Fern Feels l i p f e r n i s closely simi tar t o Cheilanthes graci llima... I n the f a l l t h i s i s the f i r s t f e r n t o succunb t o frost....3 & Alpine Lady Fern Leaves of alpine lady f e r n are smaller... evergreen ferns grow i n dry...... Athyriun d i s t e n t i f o l iun Tausch I alpestre (Hoppe) Clairev..... Our plants are var.. CA.... v e i n l e t s mostly obscure viewed from below.. Leaf mdersides both long-hairy and scaly............ straw-colored.... Sori that lack an indusiun are located i n the sinus of the pinnulesl incisions. crescent-shaped indusia cover the sori.... The upper surface i s merely sparsely long-hairy......and east-facing slopes........ east t o central ID.. alpine lady-fern forms an impressive display. feei wide ... t u f t e d leaves a r i s e from a branched rootstock with dark brown scales and many persistent p e t i o l e bases...... Elongated.... rocky sites. 2... tapering t o either end...

A. Athyrium fiiix-femina d. Adiantum pedatum b. Cheilanthes gracillima c. Aspidotis densa e.a. distentifolium .

..... t h i s f e r n occurs from montane canyons t o protected s i t e s i n the alpine zone. Cystopteris Bernh.... branched and densely brown-scaly rootstocks... usually growing i n vernally moist rock crevices and scree slopes. blades divided 3 times . I t more frequently occurs i n This species i s widespread but not comnon i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains.uk. Br. and up t o 70 cm (28 i n ) long (one 1/2 o f which i s scaly petiole).. ..... moist t o wet forests and r i p a r i a n areas i n the subalpine zone than a t lower elevations but ranges t o .. 1.. D r ~ o p t e r i s austriaca (Jacq. and Alta... Widespread and comnon i n our area. This fern may d r y up as e a r l y as mid-July but e a r l y f a l l rains often i n i t i a t e new growth.... brown scales and dark green.m a s wing (q1.... the larger ones arching... ranging from r i v e r valleys t o alpine s m i t s . widestnearthe. Br. midrib o f pimae broader (2.) Bernh.1ike 2 D.. stand erect. ..middle. Petioles that are dark brown and b r i t t l e below and straw-colored t o green above are shorter than the blade and originate from creeping.... l a s t i n g through the winter.. but pressed down and broken by snow.. with pinnae i n nearly opposite p a i r s set well apart on the lower rachis and more crowded and reduced toward the s m i t. The pinnules pointing toward the leaf base are evidently longer than those pointing toward the t i p .. b l a d e s m o s t l y 2 t i m e s d i v i d e d ... WY. S t e r i l e blades are 3 times pinnately divided and egg-shaped t o oblong i n outline.. Widespread i n the Northern Hemisphere. 2. i n North America t o n. i t s f r e e l i p arched over. t w i c e pinnately divided... elongated blades that are widest a t midpoint and taper toward both ends.) Woynar [D.1 Rock-brake..) R... 2. The s o r i are borne a t the end of veins on both sides of the pinnules' (ultimate l e a f l e t s ) midrib. Br. [C. clustered on short rootstocks have p e t i o l e s with coarse. sturdy rootstock that i s The indusiun i s round or set with chaffy scales and the persistent p e t i o l e bases o f previous years.. f i l i x . Parsley Fern There i s one c o l l e c t i o n Light t o yellowish-green.. Dryopteris Adans... A Leaves are semi-evergreen.. Habitats are a t least vernally moist but welldrained and have various degrees of wind protection and shade. C r y p t o g r a m R. somewhat hoodlike. C w t o ~ t e r i sf r a g i l i s (L. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f a l l three species i s circunboreal. dense... anplitt. r i n North America throughout the western mountains. d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from the s t e r i l e ones. midrib o f pinnae extended i n t o narrow and inconspicuously f o l i a r ...) Schott Male Fern Leaves Male f e r n i s the t a l l e s t (blades alone t o 1 m (40 i n ) ) and sturdiest f e r n o f t h i s genus. and glabrous t o weakly glandular leaves.... 2 Leaf b l a d e s e l l i p t i c i n o u t l i n e . densely branched rootstock beset with scales and o l d petiole-bases. I t i s l o c a l l y c m n i n montane t o subalpine zones and has been collected at timberline. The indusium i s thin.. Exposure t o sun and wind causes leaves t o be almost continuously inrolled. Mex. Bladder Fern B r i t t l e Bladder Fern Thin.t i p p e d and very f i n e l y serrate. Leaves twice p i m a t e l y divided. have petioles as long as the s t e r i l e leaves and blades 5-15 cm (2-6 i n ) long.. Circunboreal and extending south. Dryopteris f ilix-mas (L.... c r i s t a t a . a r i s e from a short.. ei The semievergreen t o deciduous leaves.. south t o TX and n.. Shield Fern. ( 3 ) D. B... The erect f e r t i l e leaves... F e r t i l e blades are 2-3 times pinnately divided and have Linear t o oblong ultimate leaf l e t s and r e f lexed margins covering the sporangia.(l) austriaca D.. acrostichoides R. widest near the base.. Leaf blades roughly triangular. widest a t the base (excellent f i e l d character). I t i s t y p i c a l l y found on rotten. 1. .. s t e r i l e leaves. 1. C r y p t o g r a m crispe (L.. d i l a t a t a (Hoffm. Pinnules are b l u r t ...... Interruptedly circunboreal... t o I L and W I . from the Rattlesnake Range. less than 20 cm (8 i n ) t a l l . The o u t l i n e o f the pinnae and shape o f the ultimate l e a f l e t s i s q u i t e variable. a r i s e from a short.... broadly spade-shaped.) Gray1 Mountain Wood Fern The triangular t o elongated leaves are 2-3 times pinnately divided..POLYPOD I ACEAE Feels l i p f e r n i s r a r e and i n our area found only on calcareous substrates.. Ultimate l e a f l e t s (pinnules) are oblong with rounded teeth.. Wood Fern Wood ferns are m dm t o t a l l species of moist and a t least semi-shaded environments.. This f e r n requires more moisture than most other ferns o f our area. t o 25 cm (10 i n ) long.. I t has a broad ecological B r i t t l e bladder f e r n i s perhaps the most comnon o f a l l our ferns. C and nu.. but only incorrpletely covering the sorus.5 mn) Leaves not q u i t e twice divided (compound)... bunched or scattered.C. moss-covered wood... Midribs of the pinnae have a narrow margin o f l e a f l i k e texture.. 2. 2-3 times p i m a t e l y divided. Leaf blades are lance-shaped i n o u t l i n e and 2-3 times pinnately divided....5 t o 5 mn)..

..... 1 P. one c o l l e c t i o n i s recorded from the sw..) Nem. ......... nw. Z Circunboreal extending south i n North America t o O ... (3) P andersoni i .. ID... Though local l y comnon i n the northern B i t terroot Mountains.... south t o OR..... ... spiny teeth o f p i m a e more or less strongly spreading o r ascending-spreading.. rmni turn ..... the l e a f l e t s incised Less than halfway t o midrib Leaves twice divided. 1... t o n.. Gymocarpiun dryowteris (L. Crested s h i e l d f e r n r a r e l y occurs i n our area.... roundlonger than the smooth petiole.. ground blanketing populations & not occur as they do i n more favorable envirorments on the Idaho side o f the Divide...... This species also frequently occurs i n the Rattlesnake and Sapphire Mountains.. P scopul inum . IA.. undergrowth species cannot exist. 2.... It does well i n shade so deep that most other zones....... the deciduous f e r t i l e ones (with s o r i ) are more erect.. Between Big Creek and Bear Creek. Yuk.. e n t i r e t o weakly-toothed leaf l e t s with confluent.... Dryopteris c r i s t a t a (L.. These habitats are apparently d r i e r than those i n mountains t o the west and north... leathery. Two rows o f large.... Circunboreal. the basally scaly petioles are smooth above with a dark purple-brown t o black sheen. shaded...... Leaves have scaly petioles and blades that are 1-2 times pinnately divided i n t o mmerous toothed or lobed segments. and divided i n t o elongated.300 t o 6.. dark green blade i s somewhat I t i s broadly lance-shaped i n outline. and sporadically t o R Gray Crested Shield Fern 3.. Each pinnae has a wide.. deciduous leaf blades have petioles 10-30 c (4-12 i n ) Long... The pinnae are incised but not s u f f i c i e n t l y deep t o create pinnules.... 3.... and NC... M A wid N .. 2 P.... Leaves only once divided. tipped.. densely scaly rootstock. the basal p a i r of which i s evidently the largest.. and i n t e r i o r AK..... v e r t i c a l rhizome. o r i f once compound. t h i s species i s less dissected (aalacyll) than other Dryopteris spp... The glabrous t o s l i g h t l y glandular blade i s broadly triangular i n o u t l i n e and d i s t i n c t i v e l y divided i n t o 3 triangular l e a f l e t s that are 1-2 times pinnately divided i n t o paired asynrnetric pinnae. and are oriented p a r a l l e l t o the ground. 3. slender and creeping rootstock.. Leaf l i k e midrib.500 f t ) ......... n. larger....2 ..... ID... and longer st& than the evergreen s t e r i l e ones... a lone population e x i s t s at Lost Horse Creek Observation Pt..WLY P DI O ACEAE timberline sites. MT....... B i t t e r r o o t Mountains and one from the Rattlesnake drainage..3 2. [& vulgare L. lonchi tes Lowest several pimae not much reduced. less than 20 cm (8 i n ) long.. i n aspect....... ID. polypody occurs on montane. Sword Fern.. and VA.. . The membranous indusiun arises from the center o f the s o r i . Oak-fern i s l o c a l l y comnon and indicative of moist t o wet forests o f the montane t o lower subalpine I t also occurs i n shrubby r i p a r i a n stringers..... Lowest several p i m a e progressively reduced..... Leaves mostly more than 35 cm (14 in) long.... Circunboreal and extending south a t appropriate elevations t o OR.. Only near base o f lower and middle primary are l e a f l e t s incised more than halfway t o the midrib.) Crested s h i e l d f e r n has two nearly d i s t i n c t leaf fonns.. thus.... The firm... glabrous. sessile bases... extending south i n A .. Oak Fern Oak Fern m Oak f e r n i s small and delicate...... m A .... MT.. spiny pimae teeth appressed o r closely ascending.. and i r r e g u l a r l y t o Baja Cal...... naked s o r i run p a r a l l e l t o the midrib... R Gmocarpiun Neum... n...... M Polystichun Roth Holly Fern.. AZ. Longest p i m a e are near the middle of the leaf blade..1 Comnon Po1ypody The short.... nw.... The Light green.. Lower and middle primary Leaflets incised more than halfway t o the midrib f o r much o f t h e i r length...... and N ....... 1......... there are four large populations a t elevations ranging from 1615 t o 1980 m (5........... 4 leaves mostly Less than 35 c (14 i n ) Long. The s o r i are borne i n rows on the veins on e i t h e r side o f the midnerve.... AZ...... evergreen leaves of comnon polypody originate a t short i n t e r v a l s from a thick.. I n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains....... MT. Christmas Fern These ferns have evergreen Leaves clustered on a short. then incised more than halfway t o midrib ................... p r i m a r i l y east-facing slopes i n r e l a t i v e l y d r y crevices o f g r a n i t i c o r metamorphic substrates. PolyDodiun hesperiun L......... Arising s i n g l y and scattered along an elongated. m .......

Cystopteris fragilis j. Dryopteris filix-mas k. Gymnocarpiurn dryopteris i.f. cristata I. D. Cryptogramma crispa h. Cheilanthes feei g. Dryopteris austriaca .

C. ascend and arch outward. One or more scaly buds set i n the a x i l of the pinnae are a unique i d e n t i f y i n g feature. Ont. Eat. Populations are d r a s t i c a l l y reduced on forested s i t e s as the forest begins t o close. and shrub thickets. an elevational disjunct occurs a t 2425 m (7. MT.500 t o 5. B i t t e r r o o t Mountains from Lolo Peak south t o Watchtower Peak and becomes increasingly better represented toward the Selway-Bitterroot Divide. H and south t o n. and i t i s poisonous t o livestock. Circunboreal. and n. . Joseph Peak i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. l o n c h i t i s and i s covered with reddish-brown scales that extend up the underside o f the rachis. The dark green blade i s lance-shaped i n outline. p a r t i c u l a r l y following f i r e . This species i s predominantly a coastal species from AK t o Baja Cal..950 f t ) above Chaff i n Lakes. T 4. 1830 t o 2640 m (6. having a prominent basal tooth.. Western Sword Fern The densely t u f t e d leaves o f t h i s fern. Dense populations i n h i b i t establishment o f trees and other vegetation.000 f t ) . usually i n moist Engelmann spruce/subalpine f i r forests having an undergrowth o f Menziesia ferruainea and Rhododendron a l b i f lorun. between South Kootenai Lake and the Heavenly Twins there i s an extensive population i n association with Dryopteris filix-mas. n. and D. I t i s always found on moist. Cosmopolitan. UT. and nu. The large. Pteridiun Gled.) Roth Mountain Holly Fern Mountain h o l l y f e r n has very short petioles. and the lower pinnae are The undivided and f i n e l y serrate pimae are asymnetrical a t the base. austriaca i n an alder thicket. OR. AK t o B. From s. From s. Pteridiun aquilinun (L. B. the elevation range i s 1065 t o 1525 m (3. The conspicuous indusia have margins with a f r i n g e o f coarse hairs. t o s. M .) Maxon Rock Sword Fern Leaves o f rock sword f e r n are 10-30 cm (4-12 i n ) long. lonqchitis i n color and o u t l i n e but d i f f e r s by having longer petioles with only the lower h a l f densely scaly and the lower pinnae set apart on the rachis and deeply cut i n t o 1-3 p a i r s of lobes. Polystichun muni tun (Kaulf. Only the middle t o upper p i m a e have s o r i that are covered by indusia with toothed margins. nu. bracken i s our most robust and vigorous fern. 3. Polystichun scopulinun (D. Sori are continuously d i s t r i b u t e d along the pimules1 margins and covered by folded-over l e a f l e t edges. I t grows from h i g h l y branched. and east t o central ID and n.200 f t ) on the lower south slope o f St. Dense populations may be established a f t e r disturbance.. south i n North America t o Que. Across i t s broad elevational range. s o l i t a r y . The blades are oblong o r linear lance-shaped and widest near the middle.P L P DI O Y O ACEAE 1. the lowest p i m a e reach almost t o the rachis base. NV. t h e i r segnents (pinnules) are f i n e l y serrate and set with minute spines.) Presl Comnon Christmas Fern. deep-seated rhizomes. and i r r e g u l a r l y t o CO. The upper p o r t i o n o f the leaves resembles P. shaded and forested slopes t o boulder f i e l d s and c l i f f crevices. This i s the rarest f e r n of t h i s group with only one c o l l e c t i o n from a moist. Western sword f e r n has been recorded from Bear Creek i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains and Sleeping Child I t has been collected so exhaustively a t Charles Waters Memorial Hot Springs i n the Sapphire Range.. dark green. the upper side s l i g h t l y shortened. I t i s found i n the This a t t r a c t i v e circunboreal f e r n i s the most comnon Polvstichun i n our area. i t s size decreases with increasing elevation and varies with the nature of the habitat. from moist. however. avalanche chutes.000 t o 8. including the Cascades and extending east t o n. UT. Polyst ichun andersoni i Hopkins Anderson's Sword Fern Compared t o the two previously c i t e d species. deciduous leaves have broadly triangular t o egg-shaped. 30-60 cm (12-24 i n ) Long. Bracken i s l o c a l l y comnon t o aburdant a t lower t o mid-elevations. Campgromds that the population was extirpated. shaded c l i f f crevice a t 2195 m (7. MI. The length of the blades (including the petiole) i s 10-50 cm (4-20 in). The deeply pinnately dissected pinnae are lance-shaped (lowermost triangular) and well separated along the rachis.. h o r i z o n t a l l y oriented blades that are divided i n t o 3 nearly equal pinnae.C. Anderson's sword fern has s o f t e r and more "lacy1' appearing Leaves (due t o being twice pinnately dissected). 2. CA.) Kuhn Bracken Fern Bracken Fern With heights reaching 1 m (40 i n ) or more. The leaves are 30-50 cm (12-20 i n ) long with blades that are broadly lance-shaped i n o u t l i n e and evidently narrowed toward both ends.650 ft).C. central ID. Single plants o r small colonies of t h i s a t t r a c t i v e f e r n occur infrequently on north. urdivided pinnae have prominent teeth set with minute spines and are gradually reduced toward the blade base. ne. forested sites. steep. For example. ID. ID and nu. The p e t i o l e and rachis are densely scaly throughout. UA.and east-facing slopes of the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. Polystichun l o n c h i t i s (L. Indusia with toothed margins cover the s o r i borne on pimae o f the middle and upper blade. T C A . S t i f f . n. The p e t i o l e i s much longer than t h a t of P. The lowest p i m a e are roughly triangular. sw. This species i s also found along streambanks.

m. P. P. andersonii q. munitum p. Polypodium hesperium n. P. Polystichum lonchitis o. scopulinum 42 .

white.. U. ... K Cordilleran species... oregana ........ This comnon shrub occurs sparsely i n a1 1 vegetation zones.... Uoods ia The p i m a e o f t h i s species tend t o be triangular t o elongated-triangular (not lance-shaped)........ while female cones are borne terminally..... s c o w l i n a 2 Rocky Mountain Woodsia 1.... plants erect and >2 m t a l l . Circular patches form and occasional l y die-back a t the center r e s u l t i n g i n r i n g l i k e patches.. I . Appalachian Mountains.. . The p i m a e of Rocky Mountain woodsia are more lance-shaped than those o f & oregana.....C.. from s c a l e l i k e .CUPRESSACEAE Woodsia R.. Leaves o f the various ale cones are small. Eat.l i k e leaves opposite i n pairs. Uoodsia Ferns o f t h i s genus are small t o mediun-sized. Indusia o f h a i r s or segmented discs cover the s o r i which are located over the pinnule veins.. U.. Juniperus comnunis L.. DIVISION CONIFEROPHYTA C N FERS O1 CUPRESSACEAE Cedar Family ...... and s.. Juniper Branches rather bushy.. C and N .. with l i g h t green leaves that whither early........ short stalks.. 1. and persist through the following winter... 1. and widespread i n various d r y habitats ( i n d i r e c t sur or shade)... Leaf blades glabrous or with only glands Leaf blades with both glands and septate h a i r s Eat.... and the underside o f the blade i s studded with both flattened..small trees 2 (3) Thuja p l i c a t a Branches flattened... Rootstocks are set with nunerous prominent and persistent dark p e t i o l e rermants o f d i f f e r e n t lengths and ye1 lowish t o dark brown scales............. C and NM and A with isolated occurrences i n e...... shrubs o r ... Male cones are a x i l l a r y . 1. The undersides of the blade lack h a i r s but are set with scattered short-stalked glands.C.... and Can. leaves are r i g i d . Robust forms have nunerous depressed and decunbent branches. but i n our area may be abundant on dry.. south t o s....... See habitat description above.. towards both ends of the rachis...... and east i r r e g u l a r l y t o Que. large forest trees This genus includes aromatic.. bearing small.... from A t o Alta. Pinnae are triangular t o oblong i n o u t l i n e and t h e i r length i s reduced Teeth o f the p i m u l e s are directed outward and rounded a t the apex.... mostly on scree/talus slopes or i n c l i f f crevices from the montane t o the subalpine zone. bearing buw b l u i s h berry-like..... and Alta.. usually less than 20 cm (8 i n ) t a l l ... spray-like... C m n Juniper C o m n juniper i s a low.... Even above timberline a given plant may survive f o r exposed s i t e s a t middle and upper elevations... needlelike.. 1 W. dioecious evergreen shrubs and small trees... persistent p e t i o l e s and has crescent-shaped...(2) Juniperus scopulorum Juniperus L....... south t o s.. evergreen shrub 15-100 cm (6-40 i n ) t a l l ..... F r u i t s are consuned i n the winter by waxwings and s o l i t a i r e s . Leaves are ascending t o erect and arching with lance-shaped blades that are 2-3 times pinnately divided.. I t has many growth forms and i s found i n diverse habitats centuries. and about 1 cm long. sharp-pointed. Arranged i n whorls o f 3......... Ours i s the v a r i e t y montana A i t ... throughout northern North America and Eurasia.. A M 2... The following t w o Uoodsia species are s i m i l a r i n appearance........... shrubs mostly decunbent ... These woodsias (especially & oregana) are e a s i l y confused with Cystopteris f r a g i l i s which lacks conspicuous. woody cones....( 1 ) Juniperus comnunis Tiny s c a l e . not flattened.... a c o r d i l l e r a n species from B. p a r t i t i o n e d h a i r s and glands set on slender. mature &ring the second season... inconspicuous and borne alone a t species are-linear..Br. Awl-or needle-like leaves arranged i n threes......S.. branch tips............. Woodsia scopulina D. The roundish and b e r r y l i k e female f r u i t i n g bodies have 1-3 seeds and are composed of 2several fleshy scales with a waxy bloom.....t o needlelike. pea-sized f r u i t s ..C. Woodsia oregana D.... with a whitish central s t r i p e on the upper surface. hooded i d i s i a ..

Woodsia scopulina t. W.indusium r. Pteridium aquilinum s. oregana 44 .

......... The seedling and yomg shoots bear awl-shaped......l i k e see Taxaceae below Twigs o f current year turning brown............. reddish-brown....... p l i c a t a may l i v e a thousand years.4 ................... 4 per cluster... Foliage i s drooping.. needles f l a t with slender.................... r i g i d ..... The yellowish-green s c a l e l i k e leaves are arranged i n overlapping pairs.... and deciduous a f t e r pollen shedding. shredding bark.... and fragrant. most borne i n small dense clusters................ K PINACEAE Pine Family Our representatives o f t h i s family are woody....... the upper and lower are flattened.....(6) Pinus ponderosa . Needles s i n g l y attached t o twigs Needles 2 t o a bundle... tools..........4 Larix occidentalis or 5 (pines)..... and Alta............................... and clothing.. r e l a t i v e l y hard or tough.. s p i r a l l y arranged scales bearing the seeds on t h e i r upper surface............ Male cones are small............. those borne on more mature growth are small. strongly flattened and lacelike.3 Larix l y a l l i i twigs with few or no hairs...S.... Rocky Mountain Juniper This j m i p e r i s an erect shrub or small tree................. I t occurs throughout most of the I n t e r i o r West from the Mexican border t o s.............. needles bluish-green.. Thuja L. A t o CA.. n Needles mostly i n M l e s o f 3.. i f clustered............................. Needles deciduous each f a l l .. Seeds are small.. Juni w r u s scowlorun Sarg .5-3 i n ) long..... This shrubby tree i s most comnon i n dry or rocky s i t e s a t lower elevations (Lower timberline) where i t has l i t t l e competition from other conifers. Twigs o f the current year remain green. tan-brown. The bole f l a r e s strongly a t the base i n f l u t e d root buttresses... resinous trees with evergreen or deciduous needlelike leaves and both male and female cones on the same tree......... f r u i t small.... female cones are more robust with woody... pressed against twigs or spreading but short and awllike. tiny.......... ropes...... Bark i s thin..5 i n ) long......... cones 8-13 cm (3-8 i n ) long Needles mostly i n bundles o f 5....... ............. Current year's timberline growth (tips of branches) with wool l y hairs . ... about 8 cm (3 i n ) long............. with paired l a t e r a l wings.. 4-8 cm (1...... r e s u l t i n g i n the characteristic spraylike foliage.7 Mature cones purple-brown.... and the l a t e r a l ones are keeled....... soft.. .... B....................... Tree growth form i s compactly elongate-cylindrical t o conical.... Trees have both male and female cones..... the eastern l i m i t of i t s range.... The low-density wood i s soft.25 cm......................... canoes. ..C. intensely aromatic f o l i a g e ( l i k e that o f cedar) and thin. tall tree not near ... MT. red and b e r r y ..... Current year's tree..... I n our area i t i s r e s t r i c t e d t o a few watercourses and ravines........... with yellowish t o bluish-green....See Cupressaceae above Needles evergreen.3 (tomentun). Researchers have found that i n favorable envirorments T. up t o 6 m (20 f t ) i n our area.........5 ......... about 5 c m (2 in) long... but generally only up t o 30 m (100 f t ) i n our area. t h i s tree i s intolerant of low s o i l moisture.. ......... straight.. 15-25 cm (6-10 i n ) long.... slender and f l e x i b l e tree montane and lower subalpine zones (rare i n our area) (9) Pinus m n t i c o l a ... Both winged and non-winged seeds have evolved depending on the reproductive strategy o f the species................ ID............ s o f t (lax). cones about long Needles mostly more than 2 per bundle.............. and spreading leaves.. . ... needles yellowish-green... bluish-purple f r u i t s are covered by a whitish bloom and contain 1-2 seeds...... abruptly narrowed points....... Arborvitae Uestern Redcedar Western redcedar i s one o f the largest conifers i n the Northwestern U................. sharppointed..... ................... female reproductive structure a cone..5 i n long) 2 Leaves scaly..6 ........ timberline .................. remaining on tree unless animal harvested..... The root system i s shallou and wide spreading...... scalelike... 6-7 rrm long... Leaves needlelike (more than 1...3.. .... cones more than 6 a (2........ needles not as above....5-2 in) Needles attached i n %undlesll (fascicles) o f 2........ Thuja p l i c a t a Donn. especially near timberline 8 Pinus a l b i c a u l i s Mature cones deciduous.. ......8 3-5 c m (1........ 0... n........... .... s t r i n g y (peeling i n strips)...... Though strongly shade-tolerant. of high elevation...... cinnamon red when young and gray on older trees. stout and r i g i d ..9 ..... The t i n y cones (female ones t o 1 cm long) consist o f several p a i r s o f brown spine-tipped scales....... berrylike........... 7 Pinus contorta .... and appressed t o the twig.PINACEAE 2........ I t was widely used among native American t r i b e s f o r making shelter.... and w................ The pea-sized.

a. Juniperus communis c. Thuja plicata b. J. scopulorurn .

cones borne i n uppermost branches.C.... Abies lasiocarpa (Hook... Subalpine Larch. 1........ spire-crowned t r e e up t o 40 m (130 f t ) t a l l on favorable sites. Where snowpacks are deep and long-persisting........ ( 1 0 Pseudotsuga menziesi i needles pointed but not p r i c k l y t o the touch. I n autum.. I t i s widespread i n the high mountains of western North America.......... buds not sharp-pointed...... buds sharp-pointed.. v e r t i c a l l y furrowed. needles e i t h e r blunt o r p r i c k l y 10 .. They open and release winged seed i n the f a l l but p e r s i s t on the t r e e through winter........ Foliage i s intensely dark green t o bluish-green.... Upper branches are short and s t i f f . Male and female cones are dark purple-blue. female (seed) cones are borne erect a t the t i p s o f l a s t seasonas growth..... and whitish below..... B... Grand F i r I n west-central MT t h i s t r e e i s up t o 40 m (130 f t ) t a l l with a broadly pyramidal crown that becomes domelike with age. Male cones are small and pendant from the Lower side of branchlets near mid-crown..... At the top o f the crown.. 2 Abies lasiocarpa . evergreen trees with the bark of imnature stems having "resin blisters..... b r i g h t and l i g h t green... 2-ranked (needles spreading i n horizontal plane..... needles f a l l o f f a t the base leaving round scars...... c y l i n d r i c a l . bark rough but not scaling off. Unisexual male and female cones appear on the short l a t e r a l spurs of the upper branches..25-2 i n ) long........... Grand f i r i s confined t o north-facing slopes and moist t o wet s i t e s p r i m a r i l y i n the montane zones here a t i t s eastern range l i m i t s ..... ...... Abies grandis (Dougl. I t becomes furrowed and reddish-scaly with age.. dark and shiny yellowish-green above.5 un ( 1 i n ) long.......... 3..... Male cones are small.... I t i s most abundant i n n..... leaving 1 Abies grandis upper side of twigs bare) Needles mostly less than 2.... flattened.... The bark of yomg trees i s smooth and gray with evident r e s i n b l i s t e r s ...... Crowns are broad and i r r e g u l a r with drooping branches that t u r n up a t the ends. Larch. Leaves are conspicuously clustered on short spur shoots (woody knobs on the branches) or..... the lowest branches remain appressed t o the ground where they may take root (layering) and develop a %kirtnl of bushy..P I NACEAE Cones with three-pronged bracts between and projecting beyond the cone scales.. yellow....... giving o f f a pungent odor when crushed... the lower ones are drooping...... green on both sides with a conspicuous white stomata1 s t r i p e along the midvein. Abies M i l l ....... not erect and not confined t o the uppermost branches 11 branches smooth a f t e r needle f a l l .. are grooved... and blunt-tipped.. New shoots are covered with wooly hairs.... Needles s t i f f .. Subalpine F i r At Subalpine f i r i s a slender.. and leaf arrangement i s decidedly whorled when viewed from the branch t i p .... and pendant while seed cones are erect....... Needles generally 3-5 cm (1.. and up t o 11 cm (4.. Buds are rounded and orange-brown. When these cones have ripened i n the a u t m of the f i r s t season....... i t has a prostrate form (4 m tall). bark with loose surface scales....Il The needlelike leaves are linear... they disintegrate leaving an upright........ Young cones Young erect branches rough or warty where the needles have been shed... not giving o f f odor........ arranged s i n g l y i n s p i r a l s on new growth and on seedlings.. as a conponent of krumnholz (shrub-like growth form o f t r e e species)... They are twisted toward the upper side o f the twig.... mature female cones are about 10 cm (4 i n ) long.. disintegrating there leaving upright woody a x i s 12 .... I t s narrow s p i r e l i k e crown minimizes snow damage and i t s p l a s t i c i t y o f form and vegetative spreading a b i l i t y allows i t t o survive a t tree l i n e (as krumnholz forms)........... t i p of mature crown 1 Tsuga rnertensiana noddi ng...... Cones lacking three-pronged bracts.. reddish-brown....... yellow-green.........5 i n ) long with scales broader than long. a ..... 2-5 cm (1-2 i n ) long.. I D and ranges from nw C t o s... Tamarack Larches are t a l l trees with deciduous. The blunt-tipped needles. needle f a l l leaves a small woody base....) Nutt...... A 2.. Needles are blunt or notched...... Larix -Adans.... turning upward and not confined t o horizontal p l ane.. L y a l l l s Larch Alpine larch i s r a r e l y more than 25 m (80 f t ) t a l l with a trunk that tapers upward... The grayish-brown bark of ywng trees has prominent r e s i n b l i s t e r s .... Alpine Larch.......... needlelike leaves..... persistent..... leaves t u r n b r i g h t ye1 low... bare central axis.. . p r i c k l y t o the touch........ Seed cones develop from blood................. ascending t o erect branches. t i p o f crown upright 5 Picea engelmannii Needles blunt and not s t i f f ..... timberline.. 2-5 un (1-2 i n ) long... They are arranged on opposite sides of branches i n 2 rows creating flattened sprays.................. Male cones are ye1 lowish-green and short-1 ived............ and ridged beneath... and moderately t h i c k with age..... Fir F i r s are t a l l . Subalpine f i r i s the comnon I f i f i r 8 lo f high (subalpine) elevations and cool canyon bottoms...) Lindl.. I t becomes hard..( .. Larix l y a l l i i Parl. l i g h t e r colored than other needle-leaved conifers.or b r i g h t magenta-red imnature structures i n one season...

lasiocarpa . A. Abies grandis b.a.

and shrublike. They consist of many scales arranged about a central axis. The crown i s conical and conposed of s t w t branches. occurring i n mixed stands i n the northern part o f our region. The seed cones. Male and female cones are borne on the same tree. l i k e those o f alpine larch. They are s p i r a l l y arranged. The male cones are small. yellow. cones o f both sexes are reddish-orange. This species i s found i n the montane and subalpine zones but i s most abundant and competitive i n s i t e s with high s o i l moisture. This i s a comnon tree. sharp-pointed. Mature seed cones are up t o 4 c long with nearly orbicular scales. Pinus ponderosa Dougl. egg-shaped. and deeply furrowed i n long plates. i s clear o f Lower branches. peg-like base. Male cones are yellowish and soon deciduous.PINACEAE good i d e n t i f y i n g f i e l d character. Uhen imnature. I t i s long-lived and very resistent t o surface f i r e s . south t o Baja Cal. reddish-brown bark and a long. orange-brown. and have scales thickened a t t h e i r d i s t a l end i n t o a curved prickle. s l i g h t l y tapered trunk clear of lower branches when grown i n dense stands. clear trunk. scowlorun occurs east o f the Continental Divide and i n the sw.. Female cones are pendant and 4-6 cm (2 i n ) long. and ripen and shed seed the f i r s t season. g r e a t l y exceeded by the dark purple long-tai led bract. open stands o f t h i s species represent lower timberline conditions i n our valleys. Pine Pines are evergreen trees with Long. thick. Mature seed cones are tan-brown. t h i s species has a straight. Needles up t o 20 cm (8 i n ) long occur i n clusters of 3. The Lower branches droop t o the ground on open-grown trees. or p i r s on the current yearns growth. 5. up t o 14 cm ( 6 i n ) long. firm. Western Yellowpine. with a straight. Var. Picea engelmannii Parry Dietr. and attached t o a small (1 mn). gnarled. and bear a stout recurved p r i c k l e a t the thickened scale t i p . they are arranged i n bundles of 2.200 f t ) . Our v a r i e t y i s ponderosa. deeply furrowed. i n extensive. such as r i p a r i a n areas and seeps. Female cones are borne singly. broadly ovate. Spruce Engelmam Spruce Engelmam spruce i s up t o 60 m (195 f t ) t a l l and evergreen. Bark i s t h i n and orange-brown t o dark grey and scales o f f i n small flakes. These pines o f t e n grow Ponderosa Pine. yellowish-green and 3-5 cm long. Lodgepole Pine I n our area. s l i g h t l y tapering trunk that. 4. Pure. a t maturity. Needles are s l i g h t l y twisted. 3. At timberline i t becomes dwarfed.C. with a rather narrow crown. slender. Pinus contorta Dougl. 6. Pinus -L. Female cones are brown-tan. Restricted t o high mountain ranges o f the inland P a c i f i c Northwest. and they mature the f a l l of the second year. Group I. pure and nearly uniform stands. the male cones as short. shedding plates that range from brownish-red t o purplish. forms a %econdnl and f i n a l timber1 ine above the k r d o l z (shrub-like forms) o f whitebark pine or subalpine fir. Male and female cones are borne on the same tree. . bile t h a t o f mature trees i s thick.t o p p e d . I t i s widespread i n such habitats i n the inland p o r t i o n of the P a c i f i c Northwest. and four-sided. curved toward the upper surface of the twig. borne i n clusters. occasionally 50-60 m (165-195 f t ) i n our area. Picea -A. Cones appear i n l a t e spring or e a r l y s m r . narrow and r o d . c a t k i n l i k e bodies i n clusters a t the base o f new growth. Bark i s composed o f thin. with a conical crown. t o 55 m (180 ft). where i t i s characteristic o f north-facing slopes and other moist s i t e s a t low t o middle elevations. Western Larch. needlelike Leaves growing i n W l e s (fascicles) o f 2. This i s the only t r e e that frequently subalpine and timberline zones. Tree height only infrequently exceeds 35 m (115 f t ) . Tamarack Western Larch i s a t a l l tree. Alpine larch i s a long-lived. i n clusters. I n these s i t e s i t i s dwarfed and gnarled but maintains i t s upright stature. up t o 5 cm long. The needles are yellowishm green. or 5.C. Included here are Inhardnn pines with needles i n clusters of 2-3. t o s. firm. U.S. sporadically d i s t r i b u t e d but l o c a l l y abuxlant component o f the upper I t o f t e n occurs on t a l u s slopes. They mature t o 1ight brown. AZ. B u l l Pine Ponderosa pine i s a large tree. 7. densely h a i r y scales. The strength o f the deep taproot renders the t r e e resistent t o high winds. have ragged. Needles are deep bluish-green. B. I t inhabits high mountains of the inland West from central B. Bark o f vigorously growing trees i s brownish-black. Ponderosa pine i s an inportant e a r l y successional species i n lower montane forests and ascends south-facing slopes as high as 1900 m (6. and deciduous soon a f t e r shedding pollen. small. D i s t r i b u t e d from s. Larix occidentalis Nutt. and the crown i s short. Our pines are divided i n t o the 2 o r )-needled (nnhardnn) pines and the 5-needled (%oftnn) pines. 3-5 cm (1-2 i n ) long.

.

9. Included here are the 5-needled 'Isof tB1 8. Bark. MT. up t o 45 m (150 f t ) t a l l . I D and from s. Many of these caches r e s u l t i n extensive germination of whitebark pine (multiple-stemned i f several seeds survive) a t considerable distances from the parent tree. when broken or sliced. Tsuga Carr. soon followed by cone abscission. and sharp-pointed.) Franco. the vast majority are harvested i n our area by Clark's nutcrackers and red squirrels. Needles are nearly c i r c u l a r i n cross section. Our v a r i e t y i s glauca (Beissn. Rigid. branch-free. They radiate from a l l sides o f densely . b r i g h t red. Pinus monticola Dougl. bark i s cinnamon-brown and broken i n t o small. The crown i s narrowly pyramidal when young. western white pine i s an u n c m n . Mature seed cones are egg-shaped. Bass Creek. i s aburdant i n the Inland West from Yuk. seldom exceeding 30 m (100 ft). perceptibly curved seed cones. much tapered. corky. spreading tree. A variable proportion of the cones remain on the t r e e unopened (with v i a b l e seed) f o r many years. reddish-brown. round-tipped. and lax ( s o f t t o the touch). although i t does not ascend t o upper tree l i n e nor i s i t found i n poorly drained sites. pines. s l i g h t l y curved needles. with crowns that are a t f i r s t pyramidal but becane round. pure stands as a r e s u l t of past f i r e s . Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco Douglas-Fir Douglas-f ir Douglas-fir i s an evergreen tree. and grayish tanbrown with fewer and smaller r e s i n b l i s t e r s than those o f subalpine f i r . Grow II. while the female ones are pale purple and i n ) long. l a t i f o l i a Engelm. or low shrub (krumholz) forms predominate. Whi tebark Pine Whitebark pine i s a small t o mediun-sized tree. and 5-8 cm long. 10..9. drooping. Imnature. mediun-sized forest tree. c a t k i n l i k e bodies. Mature trees have thick. These characters have apparently coevolved with animal foraging behavior. brown. are erect and green a t f i r s t . Can.PINACEAE This species t y p i c a l l y forms dense. 11. The bark of juvenile stems i s thin.C. slender trunk and a narrow.C. crown with drooping branches. I t has a short. WY. Hemlock Mountain Hemlock I n our area mountain hemlock i s up t o 30 m (100 f t ) t a l l with luxuriant f o l i a g e and a gracefully drooping leader. Bark on older trunks i s fissured i n t o narrow l i g h t brownish-gray scales and i s generally s i m i l a r t o that of lodgepole pine. thus re-establishing the population. I t i s broadly d i s t r i b u t e d through most of the forested elevations. Pinus a l b i c a u l i s Engel. and female ones are green with a reddish tinge. I n closed stands i t has a long. Light gray.l i k e and wingless. i t i s comnon throughout much of i n t e r i o r western North America from central B. Mex. Cone production i s h i g h l y variable by year. Most are harvested by red squirrels or Clarks Nutcrackers. Young male and female cones are small. 12-38 cm (5-15 i n ) long. This i s the most abundant t r e e i n w. conical. with t h i n scales that are rmch shorter than the conspicuously protruding 3-forked bracts. On young trees the bark i s thin. egg-shaped. 4-7 cm (2-3 i n ) long. The apical buds are shiny. and deeply furrowed bark without r e s i n b l i s t e r s . Under the most severe timberline conditions gnarled. but they mature t o l i g h t brown and become pendulous on curved stalks. NV. Widely scattered individual trees can be fowxl growing i n some o f the cool mountain canyons i n the northern and western parts of our area (e. Needles are flattened i n cross-section with 2 whitish longitudinal bands below. on o l d trees. t o s.) Carr. On exposed slopes the nutcrackers cache a variable nunber of seeds (usualiy 1-5)just below the s o i l surface. and 12-20 mn long. and 4-7 cm long. This species becomes a major forest component t o the northwest i n the more hunid montane forests o f n. are clustered i n 5's. This species i s susceptible t o both white pine b l i s t e r rust (Cronartiun r i b i c o l a ) and bark beetle (Dendroctonus Donderosae). Pseudotsuga Carr. n u t . where i t dominates a t treeline. CO. Mature seed cones are dark purple-brown. and frequently multiple-st& trunk and an open. south t o CA and extreme w. Seeds have large wings and are released i n e a r l y f a l l . Seeds are large. Needles i n clusters o f 5 are bluish-green. t o CA and nu. I t i s the hardiest t r e e o f cold.o r flat-topped with age. Tsuga mertensiana (Bong. seldom more than 30 m (100 f t ) t a l l . Western White Pine I n our area. even-aged. Slender. c a t k i n l i k e cones are b r i g h t red. Our variety. t o n. Bark of young trees i s s i lvery-gray and smooth. arranged a t the ends of upper branches. B. t h i c k plates i n a checkered pattern. This i s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c tree o f exposed ridges. The few cones l e f t on the t r e e through winter remain essentially closed. smooth. male. Many o f these trees are infected by the introduced white pine b l i s t e r rust which causes extensive damage t o the upper crown (noted as p i t c h y wounds) and eventually death. and smooth.and west-facing slopes a t the highest elevations. They ripen on the tree by l a t e August or September o f the second year. near the abandoned dam pond). Crown f i r e s cause these serotinous cones t o open and shed seed. becoming i r r e g u l a r with age. d r y s i t e s i n the high mountains o f the inland West from s. i r r e g u l a r crown o f wide-spreading branches. has alternating l i g h t brown and dark brown bands. 5-10 cm (2-4 Male flowers are yellow. south. these pathogens are responsible f o r mass m o r t a l i t y i n some stands.

albicaulis . contorta c. P. P.a Pinus ponderosa b.

a t elevations up t o 1800 m (6..000 f t ) .. becoming heavily furrowed on o l d trees... opposite.... Leaves simple . The simple. i n the mountains of north-central ID... The f l a t . A K and s... ID. A t o K n.... sharply and doubly-serrate.. The seeds when r i p e are s u r r o u x k d by a fleshy red. south t o CA.... 2.. Flowers are regular ( r a d i a l l y symnetrical) and misexual. Flowers are arranged i n racemes... N . and palmately divided leaves have 3-5 lobes. I n our region yew occurs mainly i n moist habitats along major canyon bottoms.. Though not touched by deer. This species becanes abwdant i n the subalpine zone north of Lolo Pass i n nu... l i g h t t o mid-brow..... This shrub i s comnon on open t o closed montane forests and as a corrponent o f r i p a r i a n stringers. releases the wide-winged seeds i n Septentxr o r October and then abscises... b e r r y l i k e a r i l .. Though needles are s p i r a l l y arranged they are twisted so as t o form f l a t sprays... Imnature male flowers are purple... f t a t topped cluster.... i t i s l o c a l l y abundant. Foliage i s said t o be extremely poisonous t o c a t t l e and horses..... Berries. The twigs are b r i g h t purplish-red and the older bark i s gray.. . with 5 sepals.... Single trees are known i n the v i c i n i t y of Lolo Peak and they become more comnon westward atop high ridges i n the Lolo Pass area. They bloom a t nearly the same time that leaves are unfurled. t o 10 m (35 f t ) t a l l .. .. terminal leaf l e t stalked... and 5 separate petals (or none). deciduous shrubs or trees with male and female flowers on the same or separate plants.. CA..... 1.. that become windborne I1helicoptersl1 when dispersed... Yew P a c i f i c Yew P a c i f i c yew i s an evergreen shrub with spreading branches and drooping twigs. M .. and a prominent midrib... and drooping. the margins doubly dentate o r serrate (1) A... s o l i t a i r e s and waxwings. This i s a P a c i f i c Coast species. MT and n... .. and NE.... Further west...... slender petioles. Male and female flowers are borne on the same o r separate plants..... are eaten by thrushes. glabrum Leaf sinuses rounded and broad.....2 . and our area forms the eastern l i m i t s o f i t s distribution... Leaves c o n p o d with 3-5 leaflets. glossy dark green (above) and yellowish-green (below) needles have sharp-tips... A smell isolated grove i s also f o d on Point Six i n the Rattlesnake Mountains north o f Missoula.. corymbs o r unbels..... Both sexes are often borne on the I t opens and same branch.. growing as a small t r e e i n the forest mderstory... Alta... TAXACEAE YW FAMILY E Taxus -L.. stamens subtended by roundish bracts. The seed cone i s c y l i n d r i c a l . Male cones are round and consist o f a t i g h t bundle o f Female cones are borne on brachlet undersides. Rocky mountain maple i s a frequently multiple-stemned and r a p i d l y growing t a l l shrub or small tree.. platanoides Rocky Mountain Maple 1..L. separate or united. Bark i s dark reddish-brown with narrow ridges. Male and female cones are borne on separate plants..... poisonous t o hunans. negundo Leaf sinuses terminating i n a an acute angle.... Maple Maples are t a l l .... The d i s t i n c t i v e f r u i t s (samaras).... Acer glabrun Torr. 1.. 2..... the margins coarsely toothed o r lobed (3) A..(2) A... Large winged achenes united a t the base.. Flowers are borne i n leaf axi 1s i n a loose... This t r e e i s p r i m a r i l y associated with hunid coastal mountains (subalpine zone) from s. i t i s heavily browsed i n winter by moose. I t s leaves are smaller than those o f other maples o f t h i s area and t h e i r f a l l coloration runs t o pale yellows and browns. DIVISION ANTHOPHYTA FLOUERING PLANTS A CLASS M G O I A N L OPSID IUDC TSt@ IO ACERACEAE Map1e Fami 1y Acer . 3-6 cm long. consist o f 2. The very t h i n bark i s comprised o f outer purplish scales covering the newly formed reddish t o red-purple i m e r bark..TAXACEAE f o l i a t e d branchlets. while female ones are green t o purple... Taxus -brevi f o l i a Nutt ...

Pseudotsuga menziesii c. Taxus brevifolia 54 .a. Tsuga mertensiana d. Pinus monticola b.

....... Boxelder was once a popular planting i n our area. 3. south t o Mex.. ..... . sepals equal or nearly so... powel lii 1... Acer platanoides L. The leaves are pinnately divided i n t o mostly 3.. apetalous flowers arranged i n dense....... hybridus ............(5) A.5-4 mn long... coarsely serrate and ovate t o lance-shaped leaf lets.the....... the sharp-tipped.................. Pigweed.... 2.....S..(3) Stamens usually 3.. 5..... Can.. 6. membranous.. sepals of p i s t i l l a t e flowers very unequal .... s c a l e l i ke sepals.. I t grows up t o 25 m (80 f t ) t a l l i n our area.... terminal P i s t i l l a t e sepals 2... 4...5 . Assemblage conprising erect or nearly erect forbs... with the Lowest branches decunbent and ascending and then curving inward t o give plants a rounded out line...... and rough t o the touch. i t i s a widespread native east o f the Continental Divide. t o ovate o r inversely egg-shaped i n outline..... A..C.......... (Not i1lustrated).......... This i s a very comnon weed of c u l t i v a t e d and waste land. 3.. The inflorescences are subtended by one o r more straw-colored or greenish.................. sepals o f p i s t i l l a t e flowers gradually tapered t o spiny t i p ..... alternate or opposite..( 2 ) A. The winged f r u i t s f a l l i n the winter o r spring. gray trunk bark... 6... B.... and east t o most o f s..... I t has a spreading.....5-2 mn long... oblong-lanceolate bracts are a t least twice as Long as the narrow....... Many thousands o f seedlings appear every spring and t h r i v e with i r r i g a t i o n . Male and female flowers are borne on the same plant. eaten by grosbeak and several small mamnal species. seeds 1.. retroflexus .. bracts of inflorescence mostly ovate and <3 mn long ....... 5....... Norway Maple Norway maple i s a large..............(7) californicus ...... 1..... these trees may succeed t o dominate the climax c m n i t y ...... or i n small clusters i n the leaf axi 1s.2-2mnlong ............2 . Plants dioecious.....t o 5-lobed. popular shade t r e e o f our towns..... I n both sexes... Specimens have established i n Greenough Park with no a r t i f i c i a l i r r i g a t i o n . i s a valuable browse plant f o r e l k and moose.. Given the considerable understory shade tolerance o f t h i s species.... A l l our members o f t h i s genus are ubiquitous weeds native t o North America....AMARANTHACEAE This. kinds of disturbed soi 1s and are among our "rough...touchl1 weeds....... Stamens 5.. and green twigs.. ....... AMARANTHACEAE Amaranth Fami l y Amaranthus L... 2.... arenicola Plants monoecious (staminate flowers o f t e n few)...6-1 mn long S e p a l s 4 o r 5 . petiolate............ drooping clusters appear before the leaves... ... The 2-5 sepals of the calyx are separate... Their pattern of They occur exclusively on various d i s t r i b u t i o n and population sizes are determined by hunan a c t i v i t i e s . Tunbleweed White pigweed i s an annual t o 60 cm (24 i n ) t a l l . Acer nesundo L..(1) A......6 spike slender and c y l i n d r i c a l . White Pigweed. o f Lolo).. .. Amaranthus albus L... The 4 c m long! t h i c k margined and white-veined leaf blades are e l l i p t i c ........ 4....... 1.....to...3 ................ albus Plants mostly erect.. 3.... Manitoba Maple Boxelder has a coarse branching habit. and strong-smelling bracts... 6A.. Flowers are borne i n small clusters between leaves and stem.. Unisexual..graecizans Plants prostrate....5 2.. and U... our only n a t i v e species of maple..... The leaves are e n t i r e o r nearly so.. Trees escaped from c u l t i v a t i o n may be as t a l l as 12 m (40 f t ) but c u l t i v a t e d trees can be rmch Larger.... The inconspicuous apetalous flowers are sessile on terminal or a x i l l a r y branches. Flowers i n small clusters i n the leaf axis. i n dense racemes..... Male and female flowers are borne on the same or separate plants.....(4) A.. inflorescence bracts >4 mn and narrowly lanceolate..... branched habit..... persistent.... leaf blades only r a r e l y over 3 cm long m Flowers both a x i l l a r y and terminal clusters... Amaranth Pigweeds are anmral herbs with erect t o prostrate stems...... terminal spike robust and thickened near base Group I.. There are several escaped populations i n the lower reaches of creeks of the Bi t t e r r o o t Valley (as along MacClain Creek sw.... Leaf blades longer than 3 c Sepals 3. seeds 0. Seeds are Boxelder..... sepals o f p i s t i l l a t e flowers rounded or truncate below the spine-tipped apex P i s t i l l a t e sepals 1..

The crown may be as much as 1 m (40 i n ) i n diameter. simple t o branched and sometimes over 1 m (40 i n ) t a l l . herbage i s green t o reddish-purple and glabrous t o hairy. KS. axi l l a r y clusters. Amaranthus r e t r o f lexus L . Powel 1I s Amaranth Stems of Powellis amaranth. south t o the tropics . 4. and glabrous t o pubescent. have s t i f f . [A. Prostrate Pigweed 6. retroflexus. or s l i g h t l y exceeds. Redroot Amaranth Redroot amaranth i s a much branched. 7. Flowers are borne sessile i n axi l l a r y or terminal compound inflorescences. M east t o the ND. Great Plains region. prostrate pigweed.S. glabrous t o pubescent. an erect annual. U. This species has been collected near the o l d r a i l r o a d s t a t i o n i n Missoula. Group 11. slender conparnd spikes (flowers a l l sessi le). 530 mn long.t o diamondshaped blades up t o 10 cm (4 i n ) long. sharp point a t the apex. The short sepals o f A. 5. rouKkd or s l i g h t l y notched a t the t i p . The nunerous glabrous leaves have lance. Both the thickened. Prince's Feather The erect t o ascending stems of t h i s annual are mostly branched. This i s a very cornnon weed i n our area. south t o Mex. The leaf blades. t h i s i s our most u n c m n pigweed. glabrous t o s l i g h t l y hairy. b l itoides Vats.AMRANT HACEAE 2. t o 60 cm (24 i n ) long. The 4-5 sepals of female flowers are spoon-shaped t o lance-shaped. Male and female f lowers occur on the same or separate plants. Linear t o lance-shaped. From Can. From Can. I n other areas i t occurs on a r i d From e.S. . have a short. Amaranthus graecizans L. Blades are usually prominently crhite-veined below.5 m (60 i n ) tall. s t r i a t e . 1-3 cm long. erect and not much branched. The largest of the nunerous leaves are 10 cm (4 i n ) long with diamond-shaped t o broadly lanceshaped blades that narrow abruptly toward the p e t i o l e of roughly the same length. introduced i n t o much of the w. Bract length equals. evidently hairy. Male and female flowers are borne on the same plant. Flowers are densely packed i n axi l l a r y and terminal. are reddish.5 m (60 i n ) t a l l . and with or without a protruding micherve. prostrate stems of C a l i f o r n i a amaranth form mats up t o 60 c (24 i n ) broad. introduced i n t o much o f the rest o f the U. subtend 4-5 sepals.S. C a l i f o r n i a Amaranth m The The spreading. 2-5 mn long. Amaranthus hybridus L. and South America. sharp apex and are abruptly narrowed t o a slender petiole. are branched from the base. i t i s much more slender and erect growing than the c o r n species. that are narrowed abruptly t o petioles o f about the same length. Sand pigweed i s e a s i l y recognized. i r r e g u l a r l y curled t o s l i g h t l y wavy leaf margins and nerves on the underside are whitish. that o f the 3 translucent sepals. The terminal spike i s prominently the largest. Flowers lacking pedicels are arranged i n prominent clusters. small. Amaranthus arenicola Johnson Sand Pigweed The stem o f sand pigweed i s slender. Leaf blades are diamond-shaped t o lance-shaped with rounded or r a p i d l y tapering t i p s and wedge-shaped or r o w bases. with which i t has many features i n comnon. amual with a main stem up t o 1. sharply pointed. This appears t o be the most comnon Amaranthus species around Missoula. Green t o purple tinged flowers are borne sessile on simple o r c a n p o d terminal or a x i l l a r y stalks.] The pale green t o reddish stems o f t h i s amual. which are no longer than the ovary.) Vats. Amaranthus c a l ifornicus (Moq. The lance-shaped and spine-tipped bracts are about twice as long as the sepals. Plants growing prostrate o r nearly prostrate are included here. such as sagebrush grasslands. Petioles are as long as the blades. o f t e n seen along sidewalks. thickened margins and are spoon-shaped t o egg-shaped with wedge-shaped bases and t i p s that are rounded with a small. Eurasia. weed elsewhere i n U. hybridus help distinguish i t from A. and TX as a native and an introduced A sites. Amaranthus p o w e l l i i Vats. Barely extending i n t o our area from the east and south. bracts. (Not i1lustrated). The narrowly lance-shaped and sharp-pointed bracts subtend and are s l i g h t l y longer than the 3 sepals. Great Plains Region. (Not i1lustrated). 3. and approaching 1. Male and female flowers are borne on separate plants. Leaf blades are ovate-lanceolate o r roughly diamond-shaped t o ovate and blunt-tipped with slender petioles that are shorter than the blade. Flowers are arranged i n dense. The egg-shaped t o lance-shaped leaf blades. o f t e n more than 15 cm (6 i n ) long. This species i s one o f our more uncomnon amaranths. Male and female flowers are borne on the same plant.

.... leaves of main stem petioled and o f t e n not heart-shaped a t the base 3 canabinum Seed pods less than 12 cm Long.. N and GA.... 2.... c o r o l l a pink.... and one-seeded f r u i t s ( d r w ) are borne i n congested a x i l l a r y inflorescences....... Rhus glabra L.... H F a l l leaf colors are the brightest and deepest reds o f a l l our n a t i v e shrubs.... side o f the Cascade Mountains through OR... spreading from a creeping rootstock and forming open colonies. Seed pods usually more than 12 cm long... The large leaves are pinnately form extensive thickets............ opposite............ Rhus radicans L..... c o r o l l a Flowers more than Lobes spreading o r Dogbane 5 mn Long..... south on the e...... The f r u i t i s a b e r r y ....... radicans R...3 .. deep green leaves are divided n They are r o w a t the base and each has a d i s t i n c t i v e i n t o 3 egg-shaped leaflets. 1. The shiny.... From A A A D IACEAE Sunac Fami l y NCR Rhus . [Toxi codendron rycbergi i (Sma 11 Greenel Poison Ivy This i s an erect or t r a i l i n g shrub.. and abandoned homesteads throughout the valleys) than This d i s t r i b u t i o n might be due t o greater hums accunulation caused by man and/or animals i n the wilds.. I n our area.. 5-12 cm (2-5 i n ) long.. compound with 7-29 leaflets. Grosbeaks and other finches feed on the berries. . 2..... Leaf Lets 3 F r u i t profusely red-hairy... Apocynun L........... small... The few people imnune t o the t o x i n should beware o f transferring the toxins t o sensitive people through touch... Poison ivy occurs more frequently on the o u t s k i r t s of our settlements (lower slopes of Mount Jumbo and Sentinel.. ... The l e a f l e t s are Lax.......... graecizans... 10 a (4 i n ) long... poison i v y i s seldom more than 150 cm (60 i n ) t a l l ... and N and south t o CA. are borne i n conpound panicles. yellowish o r greenish. The small greenish-white flowers and the smooth..... cedar waxwings....C... UA east t o Alta.. t h e i r drooping habit i s not assuned by any other of our plants... fleshy... Sumac does not grow beneath the canopy or near the roots o f other tree species.. MT. The calyx i s 5-Lobed and there are 5 petals... lower leaves of main stem usually sessile or subsessi l e and with 4 A.. Smooth Sumac Smooth sunac i s a smooth-barked.. F r u i t not red and nearly or c q l e t e l y glabrous..... some are s t r i c k e n with v i o l e n t s k i n reactions. i f unisexual. white... downy woodpeckers and other birds...... Poison Ivy This genus includes decidous native shrubs and subshrubs...... leaves not drooping 2 5 mn long......... .. most leaves drooping.......... B... e n t i r e leaves. shallow roots and tends t o I n the w i l d i t i s not more than 2 m (6 f t ) t a l l ....... ....... The o i l secreted by leaves and stems i s t o x i c t o many people. yellowish flowers and the flattened berries.s i b i ricum heart-shaped bases. someuhat a l k a l i n e f l a t s or shore lines......... 1. perennial herbs. c o r o l l a r e f lexed... f tickers....... 1.. The d r p e s are relished by robins. east t o disappearing.... They have a m i l k y juice....l i k e drupe. and borne i n terminal or axi l l a r y inflorescences.. Where once l o c a l l y comnon. glabra 1.. 2... and Mex. The small.... mainly i n l a t e winter...... ... c a l i f o r n i c u s i s hardly distinguishable from A...... e........... Coast and south t o Hex... males and females are on separate plants... densely set with reddish hair... V With cursory examination A.... . Flowers are unisexual or bisexual.. 1.1 R.. ...... i t i s From s. and usually more than twice as Long as calyx. Flowers less than the calyx..L.... Leaves are alternate and pinnately o r palmately c v n d .... Sunac.......... NV... From e. deciduous shrub that spreads by long.... U and ( 2 east t o A t l a n t i c A 3 and also by concentrated b i r d a c t i v i t y near settlements i n winter......... A O Y NACEAE Dogbane Fami 1 PC y Dogbane Family consists o f rhizomatous.... Flowers are inconspicuous. such as on the Lower slopes of Mount Junbo and Mount Sentinel. midvein that runs i n t o the pointed t i p ....(2) ..... Leaf l e t s 7-29.........A A A DI N C R ACEAE This species i s associated with vernal pools and moist....... u n b r e l l a l i k e inflorescence o f small flowers with tubular or bell-shaped corollas. c o r o l l a greenish-white t o white and usually less than twice as long as Lobes erect. and an open... Rattlesnake Valley north o f Missoula.

a Acer glabrum b. californicus d. Amaranthus albus f. A. Amaranthus graecizans g. A. powellii 58 . retroflexus e. negundo c. A. A.

.. canabimwn. 5-14 cm (2-5 i n ) long.. often on o r near the banks o f the Clark Fork and B i t t e r r o o t rivers... (Not i l l u s t r a t e d ) . branched.... Distributed throughout U. The s+ Comnon i n the wooded or dry. and the apex has a t o o t h l i k e t i p . single stems. A r a l i a mrdicaulis L... Wild sarsaparilla i s a perennial f o r b with widely branching rhizomes from which a r i s e short woody rootcrowns that barely reach the s o i l surface.... . 1. 5-12 cm Long.... heart-shaped and clasping leaf bases ( a t least the lower Leaves) and seedpods that are 4-11 c (1-4 i n ) long and nearly m straight. Our v a r i e t y i s punilun Gray which has upright f o l l i c l e s and c o r o l l a lobes. Solidago occidentalis. This species i s Locally comnon along our r i v e r s below high water marks.. I t often occurs on j u s t the f i r s t bench or terrace above a stream. but d i f f e r i n g by having sessile or subsessile. From valleys of western U. D i s t r i b u t e d throughout s. ADOCmun canabi nun L . From e.. Included here are plants with erect or ascending leaves.. B. on islands..... 3. Both the base and t i p s are rounded or acute.. Creeping Dogbane These are perennials with erect. are twice divided... I n our area i t has been recorded only from the southwest section....C.. 2........... The inflorescence consists of 3-7... I t i s o f t e n associated with Populus spp. Siberian Dogbane Very s i m i l a r t o A.. Calyx with narrowly lanceolate lobes usually more than 1/2 as long as the corolla. . 20-50 cm (8-20 i n ) t a l l ... Uestern dogbane i s Locally comnon on moist s o i l . ARALIACEAE Ginseng Fami l y Aralia W i l d Sarsapari 1l a Aralia L.. up t o 50 cm (20 i n ) t a l l .. glabrous. but i t i s t a l l e r .. Leaves 1 A..S. leaves mostly ascending 2 A....... The opposite leaves. MA.. and Can... and U. Apocmun s i b i r i c u n Jacq... and low banks. On d r y slopes i t s Leaves t u r n a s o f t yellow before those of associated species. The seed pods are pendulous...... obliquely erect and yellowish-green leaves are short petiolate.... F r u i t s are 6-8 mn long... pinkish c o r o l l a with nearly erect lobes. and egg-shaped t o lance-shaped... nearly spherical inflorescences bearing nunerous yellow-green 5-merous flowers. and Can.. moist woods usually confined t o v a l l e y and lover montane zones.... t h i s species i s i n d i c a t i v e of r e l a t i v e l y warm.. open areas i n the f o o t h i l l s o f the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains.. are held erect. f r e e l y branched... pods ( f o l l i c l e s ) ... The scaly flowering stem i s much shorter than the leaves..S.. C m n Dogbane m The spreading t o Plants are erect. Collected on a northern exposure of Waterworks H i 11 on gravelly. 4. Group I. with spreading (not drooping) Leaves. east the through north-central states t o the A t l a n t i c Coast and south t o CO... Apocmun mediun Greene Western Dogbane Similar t o A.. Seed pods are 12-18 cm (5-7 i n ) long and sickle-shaped.. androsaemifoliun. 3. are drooping and p e t i o l a t e t o nearly sessile. androsaemifol i u n mostly drooping or spreading......... v e r n a l l y moist and disturbed s i t e . . t o 1 m (40 in).... and e... I t i s o f t e n i n h a l f shade beneath cottonwood and willow canopies.. I n northwestern Montana and northern Idaho.. toothed leaflets. the terminal inflorescence. Apocmun androsaemifoliun L. and a bell-shaped c o r o l l a that has spreading lobes........ Can.. berry1ike drupes. and a white or greenish corolla.. t o the A t l a n t i c Coast. and Arnica chamissonis.. purplish-black.. medium Calyx with lanceolate t o ovate o r d e l t o i d lobes usually less than 1/2 as long as the corolla. Included here are species with drooping or spreading leaves and flowers that are pinkish o r have pink veins. Much of U... up t o 6 cm (2 i n ) long....S. slender-stalked... t o 10 cm (4 i n ) long..ARAL I ACEAE 3. and 30-100 c (12-40 i n ) t a l l . f i r s t i n t o 3 ' s and then i n t o 3-5 e l l i p t i c ... S o l i t a r y leaves. l a t e r a l branches that surpass Group 11. Flowers have a c y l i n d r i c a l ..S.

Apocynum androsaemifolium d. sibiricum 60 . R. Rhus radicans f. glabra c. Aralia nudicaulis b.a. A. cannabinum e. A.

. Flowers are mostly bisexual.... Known from several colonies along an i r r i g a t i o n d i t c h i n Grass Valley.... t o 1 m (40 in).. The unbranched stems r i s e from thick.. perfect and fragrant flowers are composed of f l o r a l elements i n 5 whorls o f 3. yellow... Flowers with 5 rose-purple and sharply reflexed petals are arranged i n wnbrella-shaped inflorescences. Oregon Grape This genus includes shrubs with yellow or yellowish-green inner bark and often yellow wood and roots. sinple o r compound.. The yellow t o orange flowers Lack spots but have a small recurved spur. and willows...1 . and not r a d i a l l y symnetrical.. and shortp e t i o l a t e Leaves are lance-shaped. south t o non-mountainous p o r t i o n o f CA. I t i s always found on Occurs scattered i n the B i t t e r r o o t River Valley between Missoula and Darby... 1. MT. entire.. The paired flowers are pale yellow t o orange and 1-2 cm long. BERBERIDACEAE Barberry Family Berberis L. persistent (not evergreen i n our area). and the other 2 are greatly reduced. This species i s usually reported t o occur i n moist forests. 3-12 cm (1-5 i n ) long. growing t o 120 c (48 i n ) m tall. The paired..C. a t Least temporarily... K R Inmatiens ecalcarata Blank. west o f Missoula. 10-20 cm (4-8 i n ) Long. deciduous or evergreen. have e l l i p t i c t o egg-shaped blades with coarsely toothed and spine-tipped margins. woolly-haired. east t o MT. Spur less jewel weed This a m w l species i s much Like I aurella but t a l l e r .. kidney-shaped t o heart-shaped leaves are deep green above and l i g h t e r below with the odor of ginger when crushed... leathery capsules. The They are small. arranged i n pendulous o r erect clusters. The alternate leaves. BALSAMINACEAE Touch-Me-Not Family Impatiens L.. are borne s i n g l y i n the Leaf axils. alternate leaves have p e t i o l e s and t h i n e l l i p t i c t o lance-shaped and toothed blades. F r u i t s are succulent.. purplish-black or red berries. t r a i l i n g .. t o standing water. podlike and when touched. milky-juiced perennial. tubular extension of f l o r a l organ). south t o Santa Cruz Mountains... and o f t e n set with small spines... flowers are not sprrred. I t i s more branched.. I t i s i n d i c a t i v e o f moist forest environments o f the montane zone (occasionally t o the lower subalpine zone)... Perfect flowers.. w i l d ginger i s capable o f forming large mats from extensive. there are 8 perianth parts: 1 sepal i s saccate and spurred (hollow. Sepal bases are pouched-out with a tubular spur Sepal bases are saccate but lacking spur aurella .. The 4-5 petals are united i n t o 2 lateral... widespread rhizomes. The seed capsule i s 5celled. . B. deeply lobed pairs. Asarun caudatun -. From B... A south t o O and east t o I D and MT... f r e e l y branched a m w l s growing t o 60 cm (24 i n ) t a l l . entire.C... 1.. The opposite. and prominently transverse-veined.AR I STOLOCHI ACEAE ARISTOLOCHIACEAE Birthwort Fami l y Asarum L.... F r u i t s are dry.. flared.... Occurs infrequently i n the B i t t e r r o o t Valley....C. and the . This shade-tolerant species i s found i n the western p o r t i o n of our area.... Barberry.....Lindl. C and east t o n. Contrary t o f i r s t appearances.. that Lack a c o r o l l a but have a brownish-purple... t o OR. speciosa Showy M i 1kweed Showy milkweed i s a stout..... ID and nw. ecalcarata Orange Touch-Me-Not I m t i e n s aurel l a Rydb. A population from Upper M i l l e r Creek i n the northern Sapphire Mountains i s an eastern o u t l i e r o f the species..... Leaves are alternate. Jewelweed This genus contains succulent a m w l herbs with thickened nodes and watery juice. wet s i t e s i n the shade o f alder. 3-lobed calyx t h e . fleshy. Touch-me-not. The petioles may be up t o 20 cm (8 i n ) long.. Milkweed A s c ~ ~ D ~ ~ s Torr. A ASCLEPIADACEAE Milkweed Family Asclmias L... and aromatic rootstocks. U i l d Ginger Ui l d Ginger A perennial forb.. dogwood. Plants are succulent. mostly i n roadside drainage ditches. a x i l l a r y . East side of Cascades from B..2 I... Plants are exposed. bursts t o eject the r i p e seeds.... east t o the central states. The simple..

.. sinuata .... woody bracts t o produce a cone... juicy.. Catkins appear on growth of the previous season before the leaves u n f u r l i n e a r l y spring... Clustered catkins composed i n p a r t of hardened.. NV.... Their leaves are eggThe long and pendulous male catkins are grouped near the branch ends and shaped and serrate or dentate. globose or ovoid and conelike.. NM... Flowers are borne i n pendulous......8 m (70 i n ) t a l l .... Alnus H i l l Alder Alders are small trees or shrubs with smooth........ b r i g h t red.... occidentalis (Dippel) Hitchc. The deciduous..... reddish or gray-brown bark. stalked female catkins are erect........ floodplains and f o o t h i l l s . For t h i s reason i t may be eradicated by now. and ne... M s Alnus mostly stalked Bracts o f catkins not woody and deciduous with the mature nutlets....... F r u i t s are flattened achenes with l a t e r a l wings o r just a membranous border... i t grows mostly as s i n g l e shrubby clunps or small t r e e groves......1 B........ mostly i n d r y t o moist open forests o f the f o o t h i l l s and montane zone.....2 B...... 1............. .. female catkins w i t h peduncles longer than body of c a t k i n (2) A....BETULACEAE 1... twigs withaut b l i s t e r ... incana (Ikone~~~).. cone1ike............ yellow flowers are clustered i n terminal. Catkins (inflorescences) appear on previous years growth before leaves unfurl.... ................. erect narrow inflorescences...... Berberis vulgaris L... t o 1.... Comnon Barberry Rootstocks produce many Cammn barberry i s an introduced deciduous shrub. 2..... When freshly cut the p i t h and cambiun t u r n a rust color.. Berries are b r i g h t scarlet-red and acidic...... and not sticky........... erect. glaucus... BETULACEAE B i rch Fami 1y The b i r c h family includes trees and shrubs with branches that grow from the upper a x i l l a r y buds..... and winged nutlets. Gray Alder From a single rootcrown.... 1......... ...... persistent. borne near the base of the males... up t o 30 cm (1 f t ) t a l l .. one-seeded......... Our plants are var.... elongated clusters (racemes)...... Male and female flowers are born on the same plant. A[nus incana ( L ) Moench .... near streams i t o f t e n forms more continuous stands. lance-shaped t o egg-shaped... petioled. They remain on the shrub throughout winter.... egg-shaped.l i k e structure that p e r s i s t s a f t e r ripened n u t l e t s are shed.. F r u i t s are dark purpl ish-blue.. F r u i t s are wingless nutlets. The unisexual minute flowers are densely crowded i n t o catkins (aments) that shed and receive pol len before the leaves expand..... (1) A........ female catkins... F r u i t s are small.. vulgaris Oregon Grape 1. stems spiny .. and south t o TX.... This dwarf shrub i s extremely comnon and widespread i n our area... Thinleaf alder i s associated with r i p a r i a n and I t does not occur i n the subalpine zone... Betula .. The male catkins are pendent while the female catkins are erect or pendulous.. Leaves pinnately divided (compound). simple and a l t e r n a t e l y arranged leaves have toothed margins and are p i m a t e l y veined (on e i t h e r side o f midvein the secondary veins run p a r a l l e l and obliquely t o the leaf margin). Berberis repens Lindl. buds not s t a l k . (Not i1lustrated)..... b l i s t e r l i k e eruptions generally lacking....... and acidic berries...... Stalked........ stein not spiny Leaves simple. t h i s shrub i s now known as an alternate host f o r blackstem rust of wheat... and sharply toothed leaves t u r n reddish-orange i n the f a l l .... The winter buds are stalked... borne on pedmcles much shorter than length of body Catkins and leaves appearing simultaneously on twigs o f current season. The short. petiolate... Though introduced f o r h o r t i c u l t u r a l purposes. Simple. drop a f t e r shedding pollen. CA..l i k e eruptions o f the bark.. Thin-leaved Alder... I n the wetland s i t e s o f the valleys and lower montane zones. 1........ thinleaf alder produces a clunp o f gray-barked stems up t o 10 m (40 f t ) t a l l .... sparsely branched stems with outward-curving tops.. o r i g i n a t i n g from creeping and sparsely branched rootstocks.... Glossy (upper surface only) or d u l l leaves are pinnately divided i n t o 3-7 sessile..... Don1 ... The berry i s suitable f o r preserves... doubly-toothed leaves are 3-7 cm (1-3 i n ) long.. Oregon grape i s a low-growing evergreen shrub.......... 1... M east t o Alta.... Birds feed on the berries i n spring..... and spine-toothed leaflets... d u l l green on both sides........ The alternate.... A Some o f the f o l i a g e assunes a d u l l purplish o r red color i n winter... From e.... 1.... [Mahoni a repens (L indl ) G.. and have a rounded apex.... r m s ....

dark purple.... CO... U.. 1. The narrowly ovate t o rotund leaf blades.... m wings as wide as or wider than n u t l e t 2 B occidentalis .... The leaf buds are sessile..... aging t o a gray-green with prominent Lenticels (breathing pores).... and b l u n t l y toothed margins. c r i s p white associated with t h i s species i n other Locals.. and Rattlesnake Mountains.... From A south K environments include mires. Catkins with misexual flowers expand i n e a r l y spring. wings much narrower than m 1 B.. peeling bark (copper-colored when young).... Male and female flowers are borne on the same plant.. bog b i r c h i s r e l a t i v e l y uncmn Characteristic i n our area and does not occur a t elevations greater than about 2200 m (7.... Betula occidentalis Hook.. Leaves are alternate.. I n keeping with i t s c m n name... The s w t h e r m s t populations are believed t o be those along Big Creek near Victor... wet meadows.... NM.... 1..... K and AZ.... 2. and even conpacted logging roads.. Leaves with wedge-shaped bases and long tapering t i p s .... Cylindrical.. simple.. t o ne.. Can.. dry. south t o OR...(3) & p a ~ y r i f e r a Bog Birch. Branchlets are often set with resinous.000 f t ) associated with I t may also establish p r o l i f i c a l l y on s c a r i f i e d clearcuts..s t e m tree.... Betula L..... Swamp Birch 1. road water courses or subsurface moisture.. Leaves mostly 1-2 c long with rounded teeth and oval t o obovate i n outline. but i n our area the bark of older stems i s l i g h t gray t o yellowish or even tall.. petiolate......... and NC..... mostly o f K the f o o t h i l l and lower montane zones. 4 B... The small.. alders are very comnon r e l a t i v e t o w i 1lows. 3.. 3. have ovate blades. somewhat leathery leaves have blades 15-25 mn Long.... I n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains Sitka alder i s c m n a t 1200-2100 m (4. t o 12 m (45 f t ) t a l l . and pointed a t the apex.. glandulosa nutlet.. PA... Plants mostly shrubs i n habit or trees without white bark.S. and sharply toothed. cuts.BETULACEAE A lnus s inuata (Regel --i r i d i s ( V i l lRydb.. The shiny leaves develop simultaneously with the catkins. and pendulous male catkins are borne i n clusters o f 2 or more.200 f t ) .... The base of the blade i s abruptly contracted i n t o the petiole......... elongated..... Plants trees with white.... Thick.. 4-7 cm (2-3 i n ) long. . while c y l i n d r i c a l t o cone-shaped female catkins are borne s i n g l y and erect. Betula papyrifera Marsh Paper B i rch I n our area paper b i r c h i s the only b i r c h occurring o f t e n as a s i n g l e ... I n t h i s momtain range. A t o e. v ... Nutlets have a winged margin....2 .. often with m u l t i p l e stems from the same root. with dul gray t o dark reddish-brown bark that i s not separable i n t o t h i n layers.... swamps. The atypical coloration o f our trees may be due t o hybridizing with & occidentalis. 3. mostly less than 2 m ( 6 f t ) t a l l i n our area.. .. and areas receiving Late snownelt waters. [A. Only smell populations of paper b i r c h are known along the streams flowing i n t o the B i t t e r r o o t River i n the northwest part of our area......) Sitka Alder..... Some have bark that peels n a t u r a l l y i n t h i n layers..1 The Sitka alder grows as a multiple-stemned bush with upward-curving stems 2-4 m (6-12 f t ) t a l l .. alba Leaves narrowly ovate t o rotund.. some with cordate bases.3 2.. Typically t h i s i s an e a r l y successional species i n our moister coniferous forest...... MY..... wartlike glands and winter buds have several scales..... resinous glands. bark i s smooth and reddish-brown.. Young branches are densely set with minute h a i r s and wartlike. aromatic.. r i v e r b i r c h occurs almost exclusively i n r i p a r i a n e n v i r o k t s and also on perennial seeps. Sapphire. SD... Mountain Alder & DC. bogs and r i p a r i a n habitat i n mountains Leaves mostly longer than 2 c with various shapes (mostly subcordate t o ovate) and pointed teeth. occasionally have heart-shaped bases and are abruptly shortaccuninate with toothed margins....... The sharp toothed Leaves...Lam.... . . Though i t occurs i n the B i t t e r r o o t . t o Sierran CA and scattered occurrences i n western U... From A t o CA (wholly e.... CO. 2-5 cm (1-2 i n ) long..... Betula glandulosa Michx. t i p s short-accuninate ... 1-seeded f r u i t s have winglike margins. UT..... o f the Cascades) and east t o Sask. reddish and not the peeling. with a rounded t i p . 2...... and Greenl. Birch Birches are deciduous trees or shrubs.. mostly with blunt t i p s .000-7..S.. tapering base. Bog b i r c h i s a low and spreading t o erect shrub...... River Birch River b i r c h i s a multi-stemned shrub or short tree.... t o 15 m (50 f t ) I t s twigs are dark brown....

Alnus incana g. Asclepias speciosa f. I. Berberis repens . Asarum caudatum b. ecalcarata e. Impatiens aurella d. sir~uata c.a. A.

10 Plants peremial.. ... Betula alba L. ... .. Cryptantha I m e r side of n u t l e t smooth or with a ridge .. ... ........... ... ... 7........... 3........ b r i g h t yellow t o orange flowers are borne i n a s p i r a l l y coiled. .. .. ..... .... . 14....... ... ....... ...... ......... .. ..... ..h a i r y herbage. ............... . .. .. 10.. .. ....... ... ..... .... ...... .... Flowers blue. .. .. .... 12 . plants usually annual ... . ..... . .. 13... .... ... ... . ........ The flowers are bisexual with 5 u r i t e d petals and (4)s separate t o united sepals........ . nut lets......... The f r u i t i s a d r y capsule containing 4 tube and lib join.. p l a n t s u s u a l l y less than35 cm t a l l Myosotis . .Hackelia F r u i t i n g calyx thickened and g r e a t l y enlarged.... ....... . .Lithospermum ..... ..... I d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s not possible without 10X magnification.... Mertensia Corolla limb abruptly f l a r e d perpendicular t o the tube...... 11.. .... o f t e n small but not mat-forming... flower s t a l k erect i n f r u i t .... ...... . yellow or orange Corolla blue or white ... . . . ...... ...... ............. .. ..... Amsinckia Lehm.... ... .......... .. .......... . 14..... . . .........Lappula Only the lowest flowers subtended by a bract.. ...... White b i r c h i s a popular European h o r t i c u l t u r a l species that seeds i t s e l f profusely and sometimes successfully i n t o i r r i g a t e d pastures i n the lower Rattlesnake drainage. .... A s r u F r u i t i n g calyx not as above 5 ..... ... 6...6 .. ..Cynoslossun o f f i c i n a l e 2 Nearly a l l flowers subtended by a bract................ 1. Lithospermm Plagiobothrys scouleri Fiddleneck Species i n t h i s genus are taprooted annuals with b r i s t l y ........ ......... ... . ....... . ..... plants usually found at low elevations . . . .....Amsinckia ...... .... ..... . . ...... .... .... ... .... . . . .. . ... ..h a i r y herbage... .... . .... ..... Nutlets bearing d i s t i n c t hooked o r barbed p r i c k l e s on the margi n...... .. ..Anchusa officinalis Fornicesnot hairy... .. ... ... .. . ... ... Upper 2 c o r o l l a lobes d i s t i n c t l y longer than the lower 3..... ..... . 9...... ........... ...... Corolla greenish-yellow.... ... .. . I m e r side i f n u t l e t with a d i s t i n c t groove (10X magnification) .. . ..... ..... ... ...... .... 11.. ..... Amsinckia i s a genus of 88weedy81 species native t o w North and South America.... .... ... ... .. s..... .. ... There are o f t e n small appendages (fornices) on the insides o f the petals near the point where the The flowers have 5 stamens and 1 style.. . flower s t a l k recurved i n f r u i t .... ....... ... .. .... ......... . ... ...... European White Birch.. ...... ....... ..... ..... low and mat forming.. ......... ...... . ....... coarse weeds of disturbed areas. Appendages a t top o f c o r o l l a tube (fornices) densely hairy.. ...B R GI O A NACEAE 4. 5........... ........ .. .. 13... Cutleaf Birch This species i s a t a l l t r e e with white bark that peels o f f i n t h i n layers...... .... .. 4.. .. .. ......... .. . .. .... ... 2.... ... ...... ....l Nutlets obviously r w g hee... 2.. ... ... . ......... ... ............. ..... ... . .. .. (Not i l l u s t r a t e d ) .. .. .... .... ... .. ........... .. ... stamens protruding well beyond the mouth o f the c o r o l l a .... ... . . . . ... ..... . ..... . .... .... . ... 8... ... ... plants biennial o r perennial ........a.. ..... ... . c o r o l l a usually greater than 10 mn l ong... BORAGINACEAE Borage Family Members of t h i s family are amual or perennial herbs with sinple. 12. 4... ... . Nutlets smooth or roughened but without marginal prickles.... .. ... narrow inflorescence... plants o f high elevations E r i t r i c h i nanum Plants annual o r peremial............ .. . .... .. .. .. ....... ...... usually alternate leaves and mostly b r i s t l y ......... ... ...... ............ .. . ....... .... herbageusuallybristly-hairy Plants peremial. ..... .... ...... ............ ..... .... ..... ... .. .. The small........ 9.. .. u l t i m a t e l y composed of 2 toothed segments up t o 2 cm go procwnbens wide . ......... ............. ... . . ... c o r o l l a usually less than 10 mn long. . .. 3... . ... .. Our v a r i e t y i s dalecarlica Rehd. .. .. sometimes with a b l u i s h cast Corolla limb f l a r e d upward a t an oblique angle.. .. .. .. .... .......... . ... .. .... . .. . ...... 5........ . plants usually greater than 35 cm (14 i n ) t a l l . .. .. ......... .... wedge-shaped a t the base... 12........... . .. . ... . .......... ......... .... .... .. ... herbage not b r i s t l y 6. The leaves are deeply and i r r e g u l a r l y sharp-toothed.. .. . and long-tapered t o a pointed apex. s p i k e l i k e inflorescence that unwinds as the flowers mature........ . 8 Plantsannual. . . .7 7. Flowers reddish purple... .... ..... .................Echim wlgare Corolla lobes o f equal length .. .. ....... 3 .. ... ......4 Corolla greater than 4 mn long Corolla less than 4 mn l ong.... . ... ....... . .. . Myosotis nd.... 9 Flowers white. . 10........ ............ .............13 Nutlets smooth and shining . .... I n many species the c o r o l l a consists of a lower narrow tube and an expanded upper p o r t i o n c a l l e d the limb.......... . ...... .....4 .... .... The flowers are most often borne i n a s p i r a l l y coiled...... . . .... .. . ... .. 1..... . Mature f r u i t i s o f t e n necessary f o r r e l i a b l e species i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n t h i s family. . . ......... 8...... .. . ....... ... Flowers blue or u h i t e .. . ........ .... . ..... ......... .... . ...... .... ......... .... ......

The roughened n u t l e t s are 3-4 mn long..... Cryptantha.. tips 2 interru~ta .5-3.... the l i n h 4-8 mn wide. .... about n 2......... celosioides o f t e n spoon-shaped with obtuse or indented t i p s basal leaves usually lance-shaped with pointed Corolla smaller....& Macbr...... Amsinckia lycopsoides Lehm..t o egg-shaped. B.....5 mn long... biennial.. greenish t o black... introduced throughout much o f the U...... Native t o the Mediterranean region...... The e n t i r e p l a n t i s s t i f f ........................ Miner's Candle Members o f t h i s genus are annual.... 1. are smooth with a checkered pattern. 2... Amsinckia menziesii (Lem................ The corollas are small and white with well-developed The calyx segments are united only a t the base..... Annual species cannot be i d e n t i f i e d without mature f r u i t ...... Anchusa o f f i c i n a l i s L.. The coarsely toothed calyx has a prominent n e t l i k e pattern o f veins and becomes enlarged t o 1-2 a wide i n f r u i t .S.. The nutlets..... 3 2..... Tarweed f iddleneck This species has sinple o r few-branched stems 10-60 cm (4-24 i n ) t a l l .C. 3..rnenziesii ... Madwort i s urcomnon i n moist t o d r y disturbed habitats....... and roughened......... spreading-hai ry........ ........ 3....... U...... The blue flowers are 2-3 TI long and borne on short.............. stamens attached on bottom 1/2 of the c o r o l l a tube (1) lyco~soides Fornices not well-developed o r hairy. ambigua .... 2................ s t i f f b r i s t l e s .. basal leaves few and soon deciduous .............. Asperuso ~rocunbensL. 1.. greenish t o dark brown..... curved stalks from the base o f the leaves. Florence.... spi r a l l y coi led branches...... east t o MT and NV...............2 . The flowers are borne i n a series of s p i r a l l y coiled................ The inflorescence usual l y consists of many narrow. The p e t i o l a t e lower leaves are lance-shaped and become smaller and lack petioles upward... 1... Nutlets with scattered small bumps (10X magnification)... Nutlets smooth or very l i g h t l y roughened Groove on the back of Groove on the back of 4.. the length across the expanded upper p o r t i o n (limb) 8-12 mn...... usually with narrow leaves and h a i r y or b r i s t l y ......h a i r y foliage. AK t o CA. east t o MT and NV...... This tarweed i s l o c a l l y comnon i n moist..... roughened.......... The stems and leaves are sparsely covered with fine.............. As~erugoL. I t has been collected along roadsides near Hamilton and This species i s uncomnon i n our area....... Appendages on the inside of the petals below the lobes (fornices) well-developedand hairy. The b r i g h t blue flowers are fumel-shaped and 6-11 mn long..BORAGINACEAE 1.........................4 C. stamens attached on the top 1/2 o f the c o r o l l a t h 2 A...... are smooth or variously roughened.... Madwort Madwort Madwort i s an annual with weak............... Corolla r e l a t i v e l y large.......... Menzies' Fiddleneck Menzies' fiddleneck has stems 15-70 cm (6-28 in) t a l l that are simple or many-branched.. This species i s l o c a l l y comnon i n moist.... East o f the Cascades. f e r t i l e s o i l s of gardens and barnyards i n the valley.... and somewhat and up t o 10 cm (4 i n ) long.... the blade 3-11 cm (1-4 i n ) long...... The lower leaves are p e t i o l a t e and lance.5 .... Bugloss C m n bug1oss Comnon bugloss i s a taprooted p e r e m i a l with 1-several stems 30-80 cm (12-32 i n ) t a l l .........) Nels.0 mn long...... t o CA....... Nutlets are 2-3......... f e r t i l e s o i l s of gardens and barnyards i n the valley. The upper leaves are smaller and without petioles...... basal leaves ( 1 C..S.... widespread i n the n.. Anchusa L.4 the n u t l e t o f f s e t from the center ...........5 mn long...... ....(3) C... Introduced from Eurasia.. The leaves are lance-shaped or oblong and up t o 12 cm (5 i n ) long....... 4..... Plants biennial o r p e r e m i a l with t u f t e d basal leaves........ ........ The n u t l e t s appendages inside below the lobes (fornices)... or perennial herbaceous species.... Leaves are l i n e a r o r oblong The n u t l e t s are 2....... Cryptantha Lehm......................... Plants annual...... climbing or t r a i l i n g stems up t o 60 cm (2 f t ) long.... a f f i n i s the n u t l e t i n the center ...... Cryptyantha i s native t o western North and South America.. narrow branches or occasionally single i n the leaf bases. 1.........

A. Asperugo procumbens d. Anchusa officinalis b. papyrifera g. B. B. Amsinckia lycopsoides e.!I a var glonaulosa a. Betula glandulosa f. occidentalis c. menziesii .

C. t o O .. The second in) t a l l .1 mn long and smooth with sharply angled margins. East of the Cascades.. B. Torrey's cryptantha occurs i n disturbed soi 1 of grasslands and open forest i n the v a l l e y zone.. Cryptantha interrupta (Greene) Pays.. The n u t l e t s are 1. I t i s comnon on the h i l l s a r o d Missoula such as Mount Sentinel. Cryptantha watsoni i (Gray) Greene Watson's Cryptantha Watson's cryptantha has leaves and stems with s t i f f .. very L i g h t l y roughened and have scattered and sometimes obscure bumps. B. t o CA. I t has been collected near Missoula and Lolo. east t o MT and CO.. t o CA. lance-shaped and usually broadly pointed t o rounded. 5.. B. or occasionally indented.. The stem leaves are reduced and few..... east t o MT.. The flowers are small and o f t e n surpassed the calyx. watsonii 5 C.. simple or branched stems 5-30 cm (2-12 are linear t o narrowly oblong..2-2.. B. ND. L C ... A Grocp 11. W t o OR.. with o r without a branched cadex.t o spoon-shaped.. I t has been collected once along McClain Creek Road southwest o f Lolo.3 mn long.. Margins o f the n u t l e t rounded....BORAGINACEAE 5.C. and UT.. Rare o r uncomnon i n our area. has been collected near M i l l e r Creek south of Missoula and i n B i t t e r r o o t Wildflower Area west o f Hamilton.. A 5... It Obscure cryptantha occurs i n disturbed soi 1 o f grasslands and open forests i n the v a l l e y zone.. spreading hairs... This species occurs i n d r y grasslands i n the v a l l e y and montane zones i n the northern p a r t o f our area........ s t i f f ones. 1. This group contains 2 biennial and s h o r t .. MT. Miner's Candle n Miner's candle i s a b i e m i a l o r s h o r t ........ Hound's Tongue Hound's Tongue Hound's tongue i s a taprooted p e r e m i a l with s i n g l e stems that are leafy t o the top and more than 1 m (3 f t ) t a l l . The basal leaves are lance. group contains annuals with slender..C. The inflorescence consists of 3-several narrow branches with flowers on short s t a l k s that become . upper p a r t of the c o r o l l a i s 8-12 mn.. very s i m i l a r t o Cryptantha celosioides.. torreyana Grolp I.l i v e d perennial species that are conspicuously h a i r y with 1-several r e l a t i v e l y stout stems... appressed h a i r s as well as s t i f f . The lower leaves are long-petiolate and 10-30 cm (4-12 i n ) long with lance-shaped blades.. of the B i t t e r r o o t B r i s t l y miner's candle i s a perennial... The n u t l e t s are 2 n long and smooth or very f i n e l y roughened.... Cryptantha a f f i n i s (Gray) Greene Slender cryptantha has herbage with mainly short... and NV. The leaves by the s t i f f h a i r s of texture and shape of known.. upper p a r t of the c o r o l l a i s 4-8 mn. 6. The species can be distinguished only by differences i n the the nutlets.......C...... Mount J W and Waterworks H i l l .0 mn long.l i v e d peremial... t o 50 a (20 i n ) t a l l .. The basal leaves are nunerous and tufted... east t o MT and CO.. The n u t l e t s are 3-5 mn long and obviously roughened. s p i c u l i f e r a (Piper) Pays. usually rounded o r indented a t the t i p . The corollas are r e l a t i v e l y large and have a yellow throat... Cmoslossun o f f i c i n a l e L.. U t o NV... WY. Cryptantha torreyana (Gray) Greene Torrey's Cryptantha The plant has herbage with short. t o C . The n u t l e t s are 1. east t o Alta. The n u t l e t s are 2-4 mn long and obviously The plant occurs i n d r y grasslands i n the v a l l e y and montane zones on both sides Valley. smooth and shining t o very f i n e l y roughened. The lPper leaves are smaller and without petioles. 4.. The length across the expanded..... The stem and leaves are covered with long spreading hairs. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f these species i n our area i s not well Slender Cryptantha 3.... spreading hairs.5-2. Margins of the n u t l e t sharply angl ..... R 2. east t o Sask. The expanded.] B r i s t l y Miner's Candle Basal leaves are length across the roughened... east t o MT and MY.) Pays. .. Cryptantha celosioides (Eastw.. A Cynoglossun L.5-2.. Cryptantha anbigw (Gray) Greene Obscure Crypt antha This plant usually has a branched stem and herbage covered with s t i f f spreading hairs.( 6 ) C..... appressed h a i r s as well as some longer... and NE.. The n u t l e t s are 1. This species i s l o c a l l y comnon i n disturbed s o i l of grasslands and open forests i n the v a l t e y zone throughout our area..

C. interrupts c. torreyana e. C. C. C. C.a Cryptantha celosioides b. watsonii f. affinis d. ambigua 69 .

) Schrad...... This i s one o f the most beautiful and well-known alpine species. and near Painted Rock Reservoir...... Members inflorescence o f t e n with a have p r i c k l e s 1.. 2.... The stems are 30-100 c (1-3 m f t ) t a l l and covered with s t i f f .....L. The n u t l e t s along the margins and sometimes over the e n t i r e surface. windswept habitats i n the alpine zone.... basal Leaves soon withering. The appendages i n the throat o f the c o r o l l a are well-developed... The inflorescence i s The shorter and more open than i n H... Leafy branches that elongate i n f r u i t . Viper's Bugloss Viper's Bugloss Viper's bugloss i s a taprooted biennial with single stems up t o 70 a (28 i n ) t a l l ........ 2. The narrow inflorescence consists o f nunerous s h o r t l y c o i l e d branches.. 1.C..... Hackelia floribunda (Lehm.) J. west of Stevensville i n the B i t t e r r o o t Movrtains... C i r c h r e a l arctic-alpine. Flowers white Flowers blue with a yellow or white center. cinerea . Wild Forget-me-not.... The abundant "sticky" b u r r l i k e f r u i t s f a m i l i a r t o everyone are spread by livestock....... south i n the Rocky Mountains t o NM... ..) Johnst. E r i t r i c h i u n nanun (Vi 11.... The compact inflorescence bears clear blue.... dry...2 & micrantha Many-flowered Stickseed 1. Joseph and St. The corollas are blue with a yellow center and 4-7 mn wide across the top....... The stem i s covered with s t i f f spreading hairs... Stem leaves are well-developed and numerous.. the branches densely beset with flowers......... Hackelia Opiz......... I t occurs on many o f the high peaks o f the B i t t e r r o o t Range including Lolo Peak....... fragrant flowers 4-8 mn across the c o r o l l a Limb... spreading hairs. The stems and Leaves are rough-hairy t o b r i s t l y .... Mary's peaks. The persistent basal Leaves are up t o 35 un (14 i n ) Long and covered with appressed hairs...... The The herbage i s densely Leaves are oblong and up t o 5 mn long....5 mn Long and s l i g h t l y roughened...BORAGINACEAE spreading i n f r u i t .......l H.. Alpine Forget-me-not Alpine Forget-me-not This i s a dwarf.. Hackelia micrantha (Eastw.... comnon throughout the U.. This species i s comnon i n disturbed areas.. The upper Leaves become smaller and are without m petioles... flowers usually 7-11 mn wide across the tp. The basal leaves are persistent or may whither early......... The inflorescence i s narrow. and Trapper Peak... Gentry IH. Plants from our area are a of t h i s genus are taprooted b i e r n i a l o r perennial herbs with e n t i r e leaves. yellow center....S.. The blue corollas are 12-20 mn long with the anther s t a l k s protruding beyond the mouth.. silvery-hairy. floribunda with the flowers clustered a t the ends o f branches.. The ovate n u t l e t s are 5-7 mn long and densely covered with short... I t has been collected along roadsides near Florence and Darby. and hurters alike............. floribunda Prickles present on both the face and margins of the nutlet. established throughout the U. The n u t l e t s are smooth and glabrous... The stem leaves are well-developed and 4-20 cm (1-8 i n ) long........ flowers 4-7 mn wide across the tp... more nunerous a t the base of the plant........) o. The flowers are blue o r white. and NM...... ...... The p e t i o l a t e n basal Leaves are lance-shaped and 6-25 c (2-10 i n ) long.. This biennial i s usually single-stemned and 30-100 cm (1-3 f t ) t a l l ...... basal Leaves persistent. The i s composed o f narrow....... Native o f Europe.... The 5-sided n u t l e t s are about 2. Introduced from Europe. t o CA.. Echiun vulgare L.. recreationists.................. Echiun L. St... Stickseed.. p a r t i c u l a r l y small form.........() o. rocky. east t o Sask. jessicae (McGregor) Brand1 Blue Stickseed Blue stickseed i s a perennial with several sterns from a large taproot.2 Prickles on n u t l e t s confined t o the margins........ The n u t l e t s are 3-4 mn long with p r i c k l e s mostly confined t o the margins and united only a t the base...... Gash Point.S... B. I t has been collected along M i l l e r Creek i n the Sapphire Range..... This species i s mcomnon i n our area.... The flowers are a d u l l reddish-purple and about 1 cm across the top. t u f t e d perennial with a branched caudex and stems up t o 5 cm (2 i n ) t a l l ..... hooked prickles. 2...... Many-flowered stickseed occurs i n moist or wet habitats i n the montane zone. Ward Movrtain. E r i t r i c h i u m Schrad...... especially along logging roads and i n heavily grazed pastures i n the v a l l e y and montane zones throughout our area..... Alpine forget-me-not i s comnon i n open..3 H..

. Marginal p r i c k l e s o f n u t l e t s i n 2-3 rows.... M .. The corollas are yellow t o white.. echinata redowskii 1...... greenish yellow. plants usually greater cm (12 i n ) 2 L. The inflorescence i s narrow.. Western stickseed i s comnon i n disturbed. and WY...... and 1-6 cm long...... The flowers are borne i n the Flowers are white. on the margin. redowskii. Lithos~ermun L ... This species occurs i n moist t o seasonally moist habitats from the montane t o timberline zones.. l e a f y branches o r i n the leaf bases......... East o f the Cascades i n M . It has been collected i n Rattlesnake Canyon north of Misswla and a t elevations up t o 2590 m (8..(2) L.. Members o f t h i s genus resemble the weedy species of Myosotis and Cryptantha..... Lithospermun arvense L. Native t o Eurasia and perhaps w. The n u t l e t s have marginal prickles that are united f o r 1/3-1/2 t h e i r length...... Flowers are borne i n terminal.... 3.. The l i n b i s 2-4 mn wide..... L a m l a echinata G i l i b .as well as spreadinghairy... I t has been collected i n the h i l l s around Missoula and along the f r o n t o f the B i t t e r r o o t Homtains from west of Lolo south t o Painted Rock Reservoir. flowers white or bluish white. Puccoon Species are amual o r perennial herbs. the tube of upper flowers 15-30 mn long. Gray's stickseed occurs i n dry..... Gray's Stickseed This perennial has 1-several stems up t o 80 cm (32 i n ) t a l l that are appressed... 2..... myosotis Wolf B r i s t l y Stickseed The 1-feu stems of b r i s t l y stickseed often have wider leaves than L...... forming a cup-like r i m .. 1...... usually up t o 40 cm (16 i n ) t a l l ....C....BORAGINACEAE corollas are blue with a yellow or whitish center and usually 7-11 mn wide across the top... Hackelia cinerea (Piper) Johnst. (Not i l l u s t r a t e d ) . incisum our area .... p i t t e d . The n u t l e t s are 3-4 mn long with few t o several p r i c k l e s on the body as well as on the margins... . The leaves m The basal leaves whither early.. Leaves are linear t o narrowly lance-shaped i n outline.. and up t o 6 c (2 i n ) long....... A ID.. occasionally with scattered kmps...) Greene Western St ickseed The stems of t h i s species are s o l i t a r y and often branched above... The n u t l e t s are wrinkled and p i t t e d ... t o CA. ruderale b r i g h t yellow... sometimes leaf axils... The c o r o l l a i s usually 7-12 mn wide across the top... The are nunerous.500 f t ) i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains south of Lost Horse Creek.. The inflorescence consists of few t o several narrow branches that Flowers are blue.......... [L..5 mn wide across the top...... the c o r o l l a barely surpassing the calyx... The f r u i t s have 1-few rows of hooked p r i c k l e s became elongated with age........ L a m l a redowskii (Hornem..... flowers b r i g h t or greenish y e l l ....... plants usually less than 30 c t a l l ... the tube formed by the united petals 4-6 mn long..... 1... m 3 L.... Stem leaves are mostly n without p e t i o l e s and are reeked w a r d s . The flowers are up t o 4 mn wide across the top... becoming open with age.. L....or strap-shaped. dry habitats i n the v a l l e y and montane zones throughout our area.. T Lawula G i l i b ..... r a r e l y white...... The inflorescence i s crowded a t f i r s t .. 1. ........ and w.. Gramwe11.... sometimes united a t the base t o form a cuplike border. Flowers are white with a ye1 low center. arvense 2 2. Native t o Eurasia and w. Marginal p r i c k l e s o f the n u t l e t s are i n 2-3 rows and are not united a t the base.. The flowers are 1......5-2...... Stickseed The species are taprooted annuals or r a r e l y biennials... .. 1.. or wrinkled. herbage i s densely h a i r y throughout.. Marginal p r i c k l e s o f the n u t l e t s are i n a single row. This species occurs i n the same habitat as redowskii but i s less c m ... The persistent basal leaves are 5-20 a (2-16 i n ) long and densely hairy. east t o Alta.... lance.....1 L..... Flowers than 30 Flowers rare i n ...... with a bluish cast...... North America. 2..... sparsely t o densely hairy......... The n u t l e t s are mostly oval and smooth. 1..... but never b r i s t l y .. only s l i g h t l y united a t the base Marginal p r i c k l e s i n 1 row... Plants perennial..... Amual plants. usually without petioles..... open habitats such as talus slopes or open ponderosa pine forest i n the v a l l e y and montane zones....... North America.......... ..(1) . B. often united at the base . narrow. F i e l d Gromwell This species has 1-several simple or branched stems 10-70 cm (4-28 i n ) t a l l .. Stoneseed.......

redowskii Cynoglossum officinale b. Echium vulgare c. L redowskii d. Hackelia floribunda .' var. Lappula echinata g. Eritrichium nanum Hackelia cinerea f.

Lithoswrmun ruderale Dougl. ... bell-shaped Corolla with a well-defined tube and lid Stem Leaves.. 15-30 mn long.... trmpet-shaped... They are linear t o oblong... Puccoon i s comnon i n d r y grasslands and open forests i n the v a l l e y and montane zones... The c o r o l l a i s 9-16 mn long........ Nutlets are generally roughened.2 times as long as the tube.... oblongifolia Group I.. the plants become more branched and leafy... The corollas are The n u t l e t s are gray.. while the upper ones lack petioles and are gradually reduced........ southeast o f Victor...S........... usually without petioles..... west t o B.......6 times longer than the tube... perplexa M... Stem leaves mostly petiolate.... caudex........... appressed hairs.5-3 mn long ... B...C... c i l i a t a .. the limb usually 1... ............... 2 Plants usually greater than 30 cm (12 i n ) tall.. Puccoon The basal This p e r e m i a l has several stems up t o 60 cm (2 f t ) t a l l clustered on a woody taproot....) G. The inflorescence i s branched and open...8-1.... The nunerous stem leaves are linear t o narrowly lance-shaped and without petioles. The f i r s t group contains two t a l l species........... and CO. 5 Anther filaments short.... and NM..... Comnon i n moist habitats i n the montane and subalpine zones i n the Sapphire Range and southern B i t t e r r o o t Momtains... east t o Alta.... Mertensia c i l i a t a (Torr... Eurasia.. Lithoswrmun incisun Lehm.... OR t o CA..........5 M.......... Flowers are blue. shallow root .. except the lowest.. Don Mountain Bluebells Mountain bluebells has nunerous stems from a branched....t o bell-shaped. and Mex. By l a t e spring and s m r .. b r i g h t yellow.... c i l i a t a as the tube......... The s t y l e o f t e n protrudes beyond the mouth o f the corolla.. east t o MT.................. The basal and lower ones are petiolate. and covered with short....... non-opening flowers that are produced l a t e r are usually f e r t i l e ....3 Plants usually less than 30 cm t a l l ....... o r corm... Wayside Gromwe 11......... Smaller....C................ The s t y l e often protrudes beyond the mouth of the corolla... 5-30 cm (2-12 i n ) t a l l from a woody taproot.. 2-6 cm long................... ....... and shiny......2 times as long 1 M.. Stems from a tuberous-thickened.... and sparsely pitted.... to CA.... .. shiny...... gray........ but the basal leaves are more-or-less heart-shaped........ I n our area i t occurs well below timberline... The foliage i s usually glabrous t o sparsely hairy.. Collected only i n d r y grasslands near upper Birch Creek........ The flowers are crowded i n the upper leaf axi 1s... Don T a l l Bluebells This species i s s i m i l a r t o M. Native of 2. The large taproot...... . Mertensia Roth Bluebells The members o f t h i s genus are p e r e m i a l herbs with 1-several stems from a rhizome.. woody caudex or stout rhizome......... Mertensia paniculata (Ait....6 times as long as the tube (2) paniculata ................... but not b r i s t l y ............ MT......2-1......... adjacent Can.......... Flowers are borne i n small clusters a t the base of the upper leaves... ......... Anther filaments 1. The corollas are greenish yellow and 7-13 mn wide across the top............. The leaves are alternate and entiremargined... was eaten by Native Americans. Yellow gromwell Yellow g r m e l l i s a perennial with 1-several stems. The n u t l e t s are smooth............... corolla limb usually 1....4 Corolla f l a r e d from the base. which i s said t o have medicinal properties........ b e l l a . A l l the leaves are on the stem and are reduced upwards... The leaves are e l l i p t i c t o egg-shaped..... and UT... and the stem leaves usually have petioles...... The c o r o l l a i s 10-17 mn long..4 & l o n g i f l o r a Stems clustered on a stout branched caudex ......... consisting o f a narrow tube and an expanded limb..... c o r o l l a limb mostly 0....................) G............. The inflorescence consists o f 1-many drooping t o erect clusters i n the a x i l s of leaves and terminating the branches.. introduced i n most o f U..... The corolla..... The petals are united almost t h e i r f u l l length....8-1...... i s trunpet........B R GI O A NACEAE This introduced plant i s comnon i n f i e l d s and disturbed pastures i n the v a l l e y zone................ CO.. 3. These plants occur i n moist t o wet habitats. and 10-15 mn wide across the top. the limb usually 0.... The conspicuous flowers produced e a r l y i n the season r a r e l y bear f r u i t ...... 40-150 cm (1-5 f t ) high and generally with several stems.......... Great Plains............ The appendages a t the base of the limb (fornices) are usually apparent.. 2......3 6 M..2-1.. up t o 1 mn l ong....... 1... leaves are lacking or whither early..........

a. Lithospermum arvense b. paniculata 74 . L. Mertensia ciliafa e. M. L. ruderale c. incisum d.

6. The tube of the c o r o l l a i s glabrous inside and 1. 5-25 cm (2-10 i n ) t a l l .. 1.. The c o r o l l a i s bell-shaped and 6-10 mn long. The s t y l e i s approximately the length o f the corolla.. I t occurs i n moist o r seasonally moist.........C. The n u t l e t s are smooth and shiny.. scorpioides . . v i --r i d i s . Don Leafy Bluebells Leafy bluebells has many erect stems a r i s i n g from stout black roots. terminal.. v i r i d i s (A..5-4 mn long. Anther filaments are usually less than 1 mn long...3-2 times as long as the limb. . B........BORAGINACEAE T a l l bluebells i s infrequent i n moist habitats from the v a l l e y occasionally t o the t i d x r l i n e zone.... often curved a t the base........... stems rooting along the ground.....(2) M..) A.... Anther filaments are 1. The stem leaves are oblong. Flowers are clustered i n a drooping inflorescence a t the top of the unbranched stems. The nunerws stem leaves are mostly without petioles and are gradually reduced upwards...... with progressively reduced petioles.... Basal leaves are absent. stems not rooting where they are i n contact with the gr ound. Mertensia o b l o m i f o l i a (Nutt... and without petioles.... Southwest MT south t o CO. The flowers are borne i n narrow. Nels. occurring i n wet s o i l or standing water. The basal leaves are absent.. 3. while an unusually small specimen was collected near timberline on the southern Selway-Bitterroot Divide. The s t y l e i s shorter than the corolla...... t o n. occurring i n moist t o d r y habitats.. AK t o O . The nunerws basal leaves are lance-shaped t o e l l i p t i c and 2-15 cm (1-6 i n ) long with a well developed petiole. The ample stein leaves are gradually reduced upwards. East o f the Cascades.. Forget-me-not Members o f t h i s genus are annual t o perennial herbs with glabrous or h a i r y but not b r i s t l y foliage. Myosot is L.. that are rare i n our area.5-3 mn long. Flowers are clustered i n a terminal inflorescence. This i s the only location f o r t h i s plant i n Montana. Occurs on moist t o wet...) G..... The basal leaf blades are lance-shaped t o e l l i p t i c and 1-5 crn long with well-developed petioles. east t o MT and MY. The t h i r d group consists of species. and IA.. There are no collections from the Sapphire Range.. ... The open inflorescence consists of few t o several branches with the flowers clustered toward the ends. East of the Cascades.. t u b e r l i k e root. Obscure bluebells i s comnon i n moist t o dry meadows near timberline i n the Anaconda-Pintlar Range. calyx with spreading or curved h a i r s 3 1. south of Lolo..... usually less than 30 crn (1 f t ) t a l l .. Mertensia perplexa Rydb. 2. which d i f f e r s by having anther filaments 1. Flowers are clustered i n a drooping inflorescence a t the top of the unbranched stems. calyx without spreading h a i r s 2 Plants erect.. IM.... i s comnon just t o the south and may eventually be found i n our area. 2-6 cm long... Grolp 111. east t o I D and MT.. open or p a r t i a l l y shaded habitats from the v a l l e y t o the subalpine zones.. 3-8 cm (1-3 i n ) long. A 4. U t o NV.. This i s the most comnon and widespread species of Mertensia i n our area. The anther filaments are 1. The second group contains species that are less than 30 crn (1 f t ) t a l l and comnon o r l o c a l l y c m n from the v a l l e y t o the subalpine zones. Mertensia b e l l a Piper Oregon B1uebe 11s Oregon bluebells has s o l i t a r y stems from a cormlike root..( 1) M... The s t y l e i s s l i g h t l y shorter than the corolla..... 5. . rounded or obtuse a t the t i p .. Small bluebells is Locally com~wm i n vernally moist meadows of the B i t t e r r o o t Wildflower Area west o f Hamilton. The tube of the c o r o l l a i s glabrous w i t h i n and usually 2-3 times as long as the limb... R An exceptionally t a l l ecotype occurs near the B i t t e r r o o t River..1 Obscure B1uebe 11s I n t h i s species nunerous p a r t i a l l y erect stems... Southwest OR and rare i n central ID and adj acent MT .5-3 mn long. CA.. laxa Corolla 1 imb 5-10 mn wide. Mertensia Longif l o r a Greene Small B l u e ~ l l s This species i s usually single-stemned from a shallow.. 2. open slopes i n the lower subalpine zone near the Idaho Border southwest o f Lolo.. The sparsely d i s t r i b u t e d stem leaves have thin. The s t y l e i s approximately equal t o the c o r o l l a i n length. The c o r o l l a i s 9-14 mn long and has a r i n g o f h a i r s near the base o f the tube. a r i s e from a branching caudex... The corollas are blue o r white and divided i n t o a d i s t i n c t tube and limb. east t o Que. veiny....... Nels.. s p i r a l l y c o i l e d branches o r i n the axi 1s of the upper leaves... ovate blades. Corolla limb 2-5 mn wide. Plants lax with weak stems. M... Grolp II.

.

...... Circurboreal.. Smaller Forget-me-not This species i s a b i e m i a l or s h o r t .. b r i g h t blue corollas i s less than 2 m wide. The lower leaves are lance-shaped and up t o 6 cm (2 i n ) long.. north o f Missoula... Myosotis s c o r ~ i o i d e sL... The limb of the c o r o l l a i s 5-10 mn wide. open. calyx....... . mostly branched from near the base.. c o r o l l a limb 1-4 mn wide. 3....... south of Lolo and i n Rattlesnake Creek Valley..5 (3) M... sylvatica I n fruit... Slender Forget-me-not Slender forget-me-not i s an annual... The c o r o l l a limb i s 2-5 mn wide. The c u l t i v a t e d forget-me-not belongs t o the European var. 5.. and the calyx lobes are longer than the united portion.S........ The c o r o l l a limb i s 4-8 mn wide... The herbage i s sparsely hairy. This forget-me-not i s comnon i n wet s o i l or standing water i n the floodplain o f the B i t t e r r o o t River.. the length of the flower s t a l k s i s equal t o the length of the calyx.. I t i s introduced from Eurasia and i s n o w establ ished throughout much of n. often disturbed habitats i n the v a l l e y zone throughout our area... M.. verna Corolla blue..S... Chile.... a l p e s t r i s (Schmidt) Koch.. U.. Group 11....... 10-40 cm (4-16 i n ) long... Myosotis arvensis (L. micrantha Group I. Can..... In f r u i t . white o r blue flowers.. r e l a t i v e l y d r y habitats...... 4. The c o r o l l a limb i s 2-4 mn wide...... the upper ones without petioles.. Introduced from Europe...... . The leaves are narrowly oblong or lance-shaped and 1..... Our plants belong t o var....... c o r o l l a limb 1-2 mn wide... U.. Mvosotis micrantha Pall. flower stalks equal or longer than calyx... 5 .......... Introduced from Europe and widespread i n North America. Flowers are blue. and the flowers are pale blue with a yellow center.. The stalks of mature f r u i t s are equal t o o r longer than the mature calyx. e. The f i r s t group'contains biennial o r p e r e m i a l species with r e l a t i v e l y large flowers that r e s e h l e the well-known h o r t i c u l t u r a l forget-me-nots. sylvatica.. and occasionally e 1sewhere....... which occurs a t high elevations i n many o f Montanans mountain ranges..5-8 cm (1-3 i n ) long..... and adjacent Can.. t h i s species occurs i n moist meadows i n the montane zone. and CA. Comnon Forget-me-not This fibrous-rooted perennial has stems up t o 60 c ( 2 f t ) t a l l that are creeping a t the base and m produce runners (stolons)......... comn>n ..h a i r y . [ a l p e s t r i s Schmidt1 I & W o Forget-me-not od Wood forget-me-not i s a fibrous-rooted p e r e m i a l with 1-many stems up t o 40 cm (16 in) t a l l from a branched caudex..... The herbage i s usually densely s t i f f .. comnonly established i n e........... U. This species i s comnon i n dry. Circunboreal south t o ID.. that are curved or reclined a t the base. Myosot i s laxa Lehm.l i v e d perennial with weak stems. and SD... 2.. F i e l d forget-me-not i s u n c m n i n our area. corolla limb uncmn I n f r u i t ... arvensis M... north o f Missoula. the flower stalks are shorter than the the tiny..(4) 2-4 mn wide...... flower s t a l k s shorter than the calyx..... I n our area. 1. north of Missoula...... south t o ne..4 Corolla white. I t has been collected i n sloughs of the B i t t e r r o o t River...... . The flower buds are often pink. The 1imb o f I n f r u i t .. This species occurs i n wet soi 1 or standing water i n the v a l l e y zone.S. The herbage i s covered with s t i f f hairs. I t i s known from Tin Cup Creek Meadows west of Darby a t an elevation of 1160 m (3........ the flower s t a l k s are equal t o or longer than the calyx.. corolla l i n b 4-8 mn w i d....... Amual or b i e m i a l species of disturbed habitats....... but not stoloniferous... I t has been collected i n gardens and i n Greenough Park.. calyx lobes equal .... The leaves are narrowly lance-shaped t o e l l i p t i c and up t o 8 c (3 i n ) long.B R GI O A NACEAE Perennial plants o f montane meadows... They occur mostly i n disturbed.... UY........) Hill F i e l d Forget-me-not This i s a fibrous-rooted annual o r biennial with stems up t o 40 cm (16 i n ) t a l l .....(6) M... The herbage i s sparsely hairy.800 f t ) and from Marshall Creek. The leaves are lance-shaped and generally less than 2 cm long. The second group contains amual or b i e m i a l species with r e l a t i v e l y small. Myosotis sylvatica Hoffm. m mostly without petioles... two lobes of calyx lobes longer than other three. and up t o 20 cm (8 i n ) t a l l .. The basal leaves are narrowly lance-shaped t o e l l i p t i c and up t o 13 cm (5 in) long including the petiole. though usually much smaller.. I n f r u i t .

a. M. M. 78 d. M. arvensis . scorpioides C M. Myosotis laxa b. micrantha e. sylvatica .

... Albert. terminal inflorescence that i s leafy a t the base and elongates with age............ flower bracts usually present . p e n i c i l l a t u s (Greene) Cronq......... entire.... and sometimes b r i s t l y surface...... anceps ....... heterorhylla F r u i t s usually more nearly round....... the lower ones opposite... Owntia f r a g i l i s (Nutt. The lower leaves are lance-shaped and up t o 5 cm (2 i n ) long including the short petiole..... The small flowers are borne i n a narrow..C.........3 C.................. ......C. Plaaiobothr~s scouleri (H........ I n f r u i t . usually lax stems...... ascending......4 with slight winged margin on F r u i t s usually widest above the middle... this genus have the characters Water Starwort of the family.. .......... Myosotis verna Nutt.. verna ...... Sepals and petals are lacking. These inconspicuous plants occur i n standing water or drying d C a l l i t r i c h e L... Native t o e. The leaves are simple.. This plant has been collected a t Lolo Hot Springs and most recently j u s t west o f Stevensville by U....... Chol l a Jump Cactus. probably introduced i n our area. The corollas are white with a ye1 low center and a limb 1-4 mn wide... Early Forget-me-not This i s an annual species with simple or branched stems up t o 40 cm (16 i n ) t a l l ........... B................ f l o a t i n g or emergent leaves ovate and o f t e n more than 5 m wide 1 C.... f l o w e r b r a c t s a b s e n t .. f r u i t s usually top F r u i t sectionsabout as Longas broad.. This species i s infrequent on d r y grassland slopes i n the f o o t h i l l s of the Sapphire Range and on the h i l l s imnediately north and west of Missoula...................3 F r u i t sections 1/5-1/3 longer than broad.C....... P r i c k l y Pear.. S c o u l e r ~ spopcorn flower i s one o f our most comnon native amuals. The stem leaves are linear and up t o 6 cm (2 i n ) long...... wingedmarginsabsent ......... The minute flowers are borne i n the axi 1s o f the leaves and are generally misexual.. U... t o O and ID...... CALLITRICHACEAE Uater S t a r w r t Family Members o f t h i s family are small annual or perennial herbs with slender.. or nearly erect stems up t o 20 cm (8 i n ) long................ B.. f l o a t i n g or emergent leaves nearly linear........ s p l i t t i n g i n t o 4 sections upon maturity...... stagnalis ... The fruits are essential for F r u i t conspicuously winged around the e n t i r e margin Winged margins of f r u i t inconspicuous or absent ... 3.............. Our plants are var. h e r r n a p h r o d i t i c a Upper leaves o f t e n broader............. The j o i n t s of the stem are nearly round and are easily detached.... 2.....& M......... The calyx i s asymnetrical and I t appears large compared t o the small. The herbage i s sparsely covered with short hairs.) Haw...... They bear long spines as well as short bristles.. Popcorn Flower Scoulerls Popcorn Flower This i s a taprooted o r fibrous-rooted annual with 1-nunerous prostrate............. 1............ pear-shaped.. 2. and sparsely spiny.. less than 5 mn wide 4 C......& A .... the flower s t a l k s are equal t o or smaller than the calyx...... The flowers are 3-5 c (1-2 i n ) long with numerous stamens and yellow petals.. The c o r o l l a (in& i s 1-2 mn wide..... o f t e n compacted s o i l and are wet i n the spring but d r y by surmer.... east t o N and the Great Plains. Basal leaves are essentially absent.............. east t o the Great Plains......... The n u t l e t s are egg-shaped and 1-2 mn long with a roughened........... R Plagiobothrvs F. and opposite or whorled.... . t o CA...2 C.... 3.. white flowers............ B r i t t l e P r i c k l y Pear Plants of junp cactus are mostly prostrate and mat-forming with stems up t o 10 cm (4 i n ) t a l l ..... I t i s M comnon i n the v a l l e y and montane zones.. I t occurs i n open o r shaded habitats which mostly have heavy......CACTACEAE 6........ 1...... t o CA... The f r u i t i s small and 4-lobed........... and adjacent Can..... Members o f identification.. ) Johnst... m The f r u i t i s about 2 cm long. also from B.( C ... s t i f f l y hairy.................S. 4 4...... CACTACEAE Cactus Fami l y Opuntia M i 11.... m y ..................2 Leaveslinear..

.... The 1-nerved... 1. and 5-20 mn long... This species occurs i n aquatic t o t e r r e s t r i a l habitats....... and up t o 2 cm long................5 cm long... The o r b i c u l a r f r u i t has narrow winged margins a t the top and shallow p i t s on the faces. C a l l i t r i c h e anceps Fern....(3) C..... The stigma i s 3-lobed........... 3-nerved.. l i n e a r leaves clasp the stem and are inconspicuously white-margined............. u s u a l l y less than 50 cm t a l l . 3.. 2... r a n s p e r f o l i a t a T Cammnula L. C a l l t r i c h e hermarhroditica L.S........ seed capsules nodding ..... The s t y l e s f a l l e a r l y from the f r u i t ...... Call it r i c h e heterorhyl l a Pursh Comnon Water Starwort The emersed leaves are l i n e a r and 0.. Harebell.. and i r r i g a t i o n ditches i n the v a l l e y zone throughout our area.... Foliage l i g h t l y rough t o the touch... Flower bracts are present.... lower leaves with long h a i r s on the lower margin.. C a l l i t r i c h e stagnalis Scop..... r o t u n d i f o l i a 3 Corolla u s u a l l y Less than 15 mn long.. The f r u i t i s a d r y capsule... 2.... without winged margins..........few 1. 5.. seed capsules erect . Plants introduced garden weeds... 1.(1) C..... Flowers are subtended by bracts..... p a r r y i .... scattered i n the west... Eurasia and North America north o f Mex. This species i s comnon i n shallow water and drying d o f ponds....... Bellflower A l l our species are alternate-leaved perennials from rhizomes.... Northern water starwort has been c o l l e c t e d i n a shallow slough near Stevensville... and may be more widespread...(2) C... C a l l i t r i c h e verna L. with an inconspicuous winged margin above.. scabrella Foliage smooth..... ........ The emergent and f l o a t i n g leaves are egg-shaped.... leaves without long h a i r s on the lower rrargin . CAMPANULACEAE Harebell Family Members o f t h i s family are annual........ linear.... The flowers and f r u i t s lack small.. 2. rapunculoides 2 Native species............ 2... The fruit sections are round or oblong without winged margins...... The c o r o l l a i s u s u a l l y blue t o occasionally white. Europe............... and up t o 1 cm wide....t o many-flowered inflorescence......... green bracts a t the base........ 3...... I t has been c o l l e c t e d i n the area around Como Lake south o f Hami lton..... stems erect .... Spring water starwort has been found along the Bi t t e r r o o t River near the confluence w i t h Bass Creek.. U...... Northern Water Starwort This p l a n t has tender stems up t o 30 cm (12 i n ) long... 2. flowers 1.... The f r u i t sections are oval i n o u t l i n e and wing-margined a l l around................ Throughout much of North America... Greenl........ Plants o f d r y habitats.. 1............ o r perennial (ours) herbs w i t h simple and a l t e r n a t e leaves...... .. biennial........ Two-edged Water Starwort The leaves o f t h i s species are mostly l i n e a r and r e l a t i v e l y crowded. CamanuIa . 3-nerved..... The flowers are subtended by bracts....2 H e r rariflorum stems slender and l a x .. b e l l .......... r i v e r s and streams. Europe and coastal North America...... (Not i1lustrated). notched a t the t i p ...... Pond Uater Starwort The leaves o f pond water starwort are l i n e a r and 1-nerved t o egg.. The flowers have 5 sepals and 5 united petals.o r spoon-shaped and 3-nerved.. Flower bracts are inconspicuous o r absent.... 1. and North and South America...1 Spring Uater Starwort This starwort has submersed leaves t h a t are 1-nerved........... The f r u i t i s a capsule (ours) o r occasionally a berry.. 4.....or cup-shaped and borne on s t a l k s i n a narrow....5-2. They are regular (with r a d i a l symnetry) o r i r r e g u l a r (with b i l a t e r a l symnetry).. Cormon i n e. The f l o a t i n g and emergent leaves are spoon-shaped... and up t o 4 mn broad....CAMPANULACEAE 1.... Plants p e r e m i a l from rhizomes and a branched caudex Plants annual with a small ephemeral root system Plants o f wet habitats. The f r u i t sections are egg-shaped and widest above the middle...... p a l u s t r i s L.. Ue have one c o l l e c t i o n from the southwestern p a r t of our area...... Corolla u s u a l l y greater than 15 mn long..... u s u a l l y greater than 50 cm (20 i n ) t a l l with many flowers per stem 4 C.... The sections o f the f r u i t s are egg-shaped and widest above the middle.............. The flowers are tubular. . 3.

C. Opuntia fragilis e. stagnalis g.leaf a Myosotis verna b. Callitriche anceps f. verna d. C. Plagiobothrys scouleri c. Callitriche heterophylla .

The herbage i s glabrous t o pubescent. The f r u i t i s short and broad and opens a t the base. spreading h a i r s and appears grayish-green. simple t o sparsely branched stems up t o 60 c (2 f t ) t a l l . i t becanes increasingly alpine zones i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. The herbage i s glabrous or with short. The erect or nodding flowers are 1. The basal and lower stem leaves often whither early. i n g r a n i t i c derived s o i l s i n the montane t o alpine zones i n the Bi t t e r r o o t Mountains and Sapphire Range. and on Sweeney Peak i n the B i t t e r r o o t Momtains. The nodding capsule i s 5-8 mn long and opens near the base.200 f t ) . The blue flowers are 3-6 mn long and bet\-shaped. Creeping bellflower has invaded many gardens i n Missoula and i s d i f f i c u l t t o eradicate. s t i f f h a i r s on the leaf margins and stem angles. This plant occurs along the Bass Creek Trai 1 a t the mouth of the canyon. 1-flowered form o f t h i s species i s comnon on the surmit of Lolo Peak. Scotch Harebel 1 Scotch harebell has sinple stems up t o 30 cm (1 f t ) t a l l from branching rhizomes. Creeping Bellflower Creeping bellflower i s a coarse perennial with unbranched stems. 1-sided. Heterocodon Heterocodon This small annual has lax stems less than 10 cm (4 i n ) t a l l . Upper stem leaves are usually linear i n o u t l i n e and up t o 8 cm (3 i n ) long. lance-shaped. The seed capsule i s cup-shaped and about 7 mn long. opposite leaf l i k e bracts i n a narrow inflorescence terminating the stem. and without petioles. Wenatchee Z Mountains o f central M . 2. The nearly m round leaves and bracts clasp the stem and are toothed and up t o 3 c long.000 f t ) and above Bear Creek F a l l s a t 1280 m (4. Introduced from Europe. C i r c h r e a l . The stem Leaves become sessile and reduced upwards. Sapphire Range. MT. B. collected i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mowrtains i n seeps above Chaffin Creek T r a i l a t 3130 m (7. Heterocodon Nutt. up t o 1 cm long. but the basal and Lower stem leaves are e l l i p t i c i n o u t l i n e with e n t i r e margins and long h a i r s toward the base and on the short petiole. sporadic i n the west. often on mesic north slopes. reduced w a r d s .. more comnon southward. such as f e l l f i e l d s and fractured bedrock. TX.0 cm long and few t o many i n an open inflorescence. C a m n u l a r o t u n d i f o l i a L. terminal branches. and CA. Venus1 Looking-glass Venus Looking-glass This amual species has erect. C a m n u l a p a r r v i Gray Idaho Harebel 1 This species i s s i m i l a r t o Canpanula rotundifolia. A small. The toothed leaves are nearly round i n outline. 4. Comnon i n open habitats i n the f o o t h i l l s of the non-granitic northern B i t t e r r o o t Mountains and The plant i s more sparsely d i s t r i b u t e d i n shaded s i t e s i n a l l zones throughout our area. They are borne on short stalks.CAMPANULACEAE 1. and rounded t o heart-shaped a t the base. The numerous blue flowers are borne i n narrow. The seed capsule i s 5-7 mn long and opens near the top.200 f t ) . 30-100 cm (1-3 f t ) t a l l . Sweeney Peak i s also the location of a white-flowered population. toothed on the margins. Cascades of W t o CA and i n ID and w.. The nunerous pet i o l a t e basal leaves are broadly lance-shaped. and up t o 4 cm long. They have a p e t i o l e and a toothed. from a taproot and a much-branched caudex. The s t y l e i s as long as the corolla.C. U. idahoensis McVaugh. 5. Triodanis Raf. The 1-5 erect flowers are 6-12 mn long and t y p i c a l l y pale blue. opening a t the base. south t o Mex. I t has been I n our area. The erect seed capsule i s 7-11 mn long and opens near the top. A The largest population with the most v a r i a t i o n i n flower color occurs on a f e l l f i e l d west of Tamarack Lake a t 2800 m (9. east of Stevensvi 1le.5-3. Triodanis p e r f o l i a t a (L. egg-shaped or round blade up t o 2 cm long. The taproot i s carrot-shaped and edible. rocky habitats. Rough Harebell Rough harebell has 1-several stems up t o 6 cm ( 3 i n ) t a l l from a taproot and branched rootcrown. heterocodon i s rare i n wet s o i l i n the montane and subalpine zones. Comnon i n dry. central ID. Campanula scabrella Engelm. (Not i l l u s t r a t e d ) . A Our plants are var.5-3. The f o l i a g e i s rough t o the m . The blue corolla i s 9-15 mn long.) Nieuwl. Heterocodon r a r i f l o r u n Nutt. comnon i n e. t o CAI east t o MT and WY. i n the upper subalpine t o From Sweeney Peak. single-stemned.S. The f o l i a g e i s densely covered with short.5 cm long. Canpanula rapunculoides L. Idaho harebell occurs i n moist meadows and open forests. on the saddle between the Heavenly Twins. but vary from deep blue t o nearly uhite. and adjacent MT south t o A and NM. Plants growing on near-neutral or calcareous soi 1s are generally t a l l e r and have larger flowers than those on granite-derived soi 1s. The corollas are be11-shaped and 1. The The stem leaves are linear and basal leaves are entire-margined.

..) Cannabis sativa -... Venus' looking-glass i s uncomnon i n small disturbed areas of grasslands i n the v a l l e y zone... coarse. L... or a d r y capsule (as i n Linnaea borealis).......S...2 Leaves p i mate1y divided (compound).... Leaves are p e t i o l a t e and palmately canpound with 3-9 leaflets... they are lance-shaped t o e l l i p t i c .... Indian henp Mari jwna... r a i l r o a d A M right-of-ways)... fragrance that i s most intense on s m r evenings....... less than 10 a (4 i n ) t a l l ... Family Cannabis (Tourn. 4 0 cm ( 4 i n ) high... Marijuana.... merely bulged on middle o f one side. a r i s e a t frequent intervals..... .. i n out1 ine....... woody stems (nnrunnersnn) from which nunerous stems...... are shortpetiolate.Viburnum Leaf margins e n t i r e o r sinuately lobed.... and south t o CA.. shallowly-toothed t o entire... (Not i l l u s t r a t e d ) ... o i l ) ......... and aromatic a m w l ( i n our area) growing t o a t most 180 a (70 in)... The f r u i t s are a fleshy berry Plants t r a i l i n g on ground.. e n t i r e l e a f l e t s that are longer than the petioles. The capsules are oblong...... now c u l t i v a t e d ( i l l e g a l l y ) f o r the euphoria-inducing properties o f i t s herbage....... The stem i s forked at the These emanate a unique and piquant s m i t .... CANNABINACEAE Herrp. The corollas are blue t o v i o l e t and 8-13 n long.... ..................... Leaves are alternate and divided i n t o 3 lance-shaped... 3 Leaf margins with serrations. and abruptly narrowed t o a 1 mn long claw. Indian hemp n Mari j w n a i s an unbranched... Sepals o f the 4-lobed calyx are basally united.S~~oricarms .... long-tapered t o a pointed apex.... 4-10 mn long.. U. and leathery... and open near the top.. slender. Lower stem leaves are opposite and the upper ones are alternate............ nodding. W east t o Sask....... introduced i n Europe.......... n The Inevergreen" leaves.... and f i n e l y h a i r y beneath...CANNABINACEAE touch and o f t e n spreading-hairy below.... whereas the 4 petals are separate. pendulous capsules.... ..... marijuana was c u l t i v a t e d i n Europe f o r f i b e r (herrp) and seeds (hemp-butter.. stalked flowers are arranged i n prominently bracteate and dense.... not serrated...... .. Sambucus Leaves not divided (simple) .......... and dense packed spikes (female flowers) o r i g i n a t i n g i n a x i l s of upper stem leaves... east of Misswla.... t r a i l i n g .. f r e e l y branched................ f r u i t with 2 hard seeds......... bearing 2 short-stalked.. Numerous reddish-purple t o pink.... green flowers are borne i n drooping inflorescences (male flowers) or short. bell-shaped flowers. coarsely toothed..... CAPRI FOLIACEAE Honeysuckle Fani 1y Members of t h i s family are shrubs or woody vines with opposite leaves... Native t o Asia..... Plants upright or i f dec-t or twinging then >10 cm high..... and Mex.. I t has been collected once on Mount Sentinel...... rough on the upper surface... sharp-pointed teeth............. flowers not as above . nearly t o the bottom of the stem......L..... a f r a c t i o n of i t s p o t e n t i a l height. Male and female flowers are occur on separate plants..... C l e m serrulata Pursh Beeplant Rocky Mountain Beeplant This species i s an erect.......Linnaea . Twinf lower Twinflower has long... CPA I A P R DACEAE Caper Fami l y C l e m L........ f r u i t with 1 seed. l i n e a r t o lance-shaped stamens extend much beyond the petals...... t o 1 m (40 i n ) t a l l .. and adjacent Can. 8-25 mn long. t o 11 mn long.. erect.................... showy annual forb with herbage ranging from glabrous t o sparsely long-hairy.. Linnaea L. Twinflower Linnaea borealis -....4 Corotl'a i r r e g u l a r (not r a d i a l l y symnetrical) with e i t h e r 2 Lips o r spurred or swollen on one side. AZ. paired flowers nodding on a long peduncle... This plant occurs mostly on disturbed substrates of v a l l e y and f o o t h i l l zones (roadsides. terminal inflorescence. From e....... Lmicera f r u i t with more than two seeds Corolla regular ( r a d i a l l y symnetrical).... f r u i t with >1 seed....... e l l i p t i c t o egg-shaped. 6 F r u i t s are long-stalked...L. and N .. F r u i t i s an achene enclosed i n the calyx and covered by a persistent bract..... pink.. Small.......... The flowers are without s t a l k s and are borne s i n g l y a t the base o f the leaves and bracts. narrow......

a. Heterocodon rariflorum e. parryi c. C. Triodanis perfoliata 84 . Campanula rotundifolia b. C. scabrella d.

....(3) L. yellow. 2.. WY.. not appearing t o be a honeysuckle without careful inspection. Bracts subtending flower a t least 5 mn wide. They are subtended by 2 pairs of u n l i k e bracts that are green a t f i r s t but become purplish-red and reflexed a t maturity... Utah Honeysuckle I n our area t h i s shrub's height does not exceed 2 m (7 f t ) .. average i t i s much smaller. garden lubush-honeysuckles..... t a t a r i c a G r o q I.. Sweet. The 2 almost r o d berries are glossy blue-black.000 f t ) .. Paired.. 1....... Cornus canadensis.... 1. and PA............. 5-50 mn long. 3.... Clintonia uniflora. From s.. caerulea I m e r b r a c t s inconspicuousor lacking. The twin sets of berries are b r i g h t red. MT.3 I m e r bracts fused t o form a cup which encloses the two ovaries or f r u i t s . and W.... B.. 3..5-4 m (1.... NV. Rattlesnake and Sapphire Ranges i n wet.... persistent...... o f t e n Carex scopulorun. (1 f t ) high... Occurs i n the B i t t e r r o o t ... a r i s i n g from leaf axils. and south t o CA. c i l i o s a terminal Leaves Flowers paired i n leaf axils.(in L. and i t decreases.... Outer bracts a t the top o f the peduncle narrow and mostly small. Only a single species. I t sometimes occurs i n close proximity t o Vacciniun occidentale... F r u i t s are fleshy.. .berry Honeysuckle When growing t o the same height.. Good f i e l d characters are the nearly equal lengths o f tube and lobes. MN.. 1. upright shrubs.... always i n very moist t o wet s o i l s and usually associated with toeslopes and r i p a r i a n areas.... .... Honeysuckle This genus i s conposed of shrubs and woody vines with entire..... with increasing elevation. . IN.:.. east t o Alta.. 4.) Banks I t i s showy a d Twinberry This shrub i s 0... narrow canyons of the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains... Utah honeysuckle i s widespread i n our area. 4.. The sparse f r u i t s are red... t h i s species may s u p e r f i c i a l l y resenble L utahensis... ... 3 mn).. G r o q 11..CAPRI F L I O ACEAE Found throughout our area from the montane t o lower subalpine zones. as does the branching. This honeysuckle i s comnon from the major valleys t o the subalpine zone.. and the upper p a i r i s even smaller.. several-seeded. From A south t o CA and Mex.... The lower p a i r of f l o r a l bracts i s The l i g h t yellow flowers open i n e a r l y May a t very small (ca. lower elevations.. d i s t i n c t . uppermost flower blooms e a r l i e s t ... 2.(I) involucrata L .... east t o MT K and NM and i r r e g u l a r l y t o M I and Que.. utahensis Branches having hollow pith. Lonicera utahenesis Uats.3 m ( 4 f t ) .. the Itblack twinberry bush". t o 1.. but on the . A Loni cera L . inedible berries..4 Branches with a s o l i d white pith.. Circunpolar. from Can. south t o CA. Lonicera involucrata (Rich.. stems apparently passing through 5 L.. utahensis the tube i s appreciably longer) and the d i s t i n c t l y longer (6-80 mn)..(2) L. NM. not more than 30 cm Circhreal. paired bracts subtending each flower.... The t a l l e s t specimens. Bracts a t the peduncleus sunnit are small and narrow t o nearly nonexistent. twinflower i s especially abundant i n the deep.. I t i s profusely branched with e l l i p t i c t o egg-shaped or oblong leaves blunted t o broadly rounded a t the t i p .. Red Twinberry. occur i n r i p a r i a n willow thickets. usually only linear bracts obvious a t ovary base.dominated.... mostly less than 0...a r r i v i n g hummingbirds. and UT..f lowered axi l l a r y s t a l k s or terminal clusters i n which the i n vines)... glandular-pubescent flowers are borne on stalks. south t o C . vines or scrambling shrubs. caerulea i s reduced t o an unbranched ulwhipuu.5 m (1. bracts both linear and short and broad Flowers mostly i n terminal clusters. These shrubs look 1i k e typical......... moist t o wet uoods and thickets. o p s i t e leaves (upper leaf p a i r fused I n f loresences are borne as e i t h e r 2 . subalpine meadows and r i p a r i a n stringers..C...5 f t ) t a l l .... ...(4) L. where i t i s associated with conifershaded and moss-covered s i t e s that also support Pyrola spp.5-12 f t ) t a l l and has quadrangular young twigs and short-petiolate.. belongs here. Shrubs included here have rounded or blunt leaf tips. L..... and Chimahila Lmbellata. but the red berries are not c o n s d by any birds.ul 2. from the montane t o mid-subalpine zones usually on moderately t o densely wooded slopes that are only vernally moist.. 3. At elevations above 2135 m (7.... I t s flowers constitute an important food source f o r e a r l y . Lonicera caerulea L.. Shrub height i n our area barely exceeds 2 m ( 7 f t ) .. terminal leaves not p e r f o l i a t e 2 .. notenclosing t h e e a s i l y o b s e r v e d f r u i t s . WY.... inconspicuous and < 5 mn wide . More uncomnonly i t occurs i n shrubfields and r i p a r i a n stringers.. e l l i p t i c t o egg-shaped and glabrous (upper surface) leaves that abruptly taper t o a point..

8 m (9 f t ) t a l l ... p e t i o l a t e leaves are glaucous beneath.... The shortTrunpet honeysuckle i s a twining vine that grows t o a length o f over 8 m (26 f t ) .. The 5-7 l e a f l e t s are d i s t i n c t l y more acuninate than those of cerulea.. The e l l i p t i c a l t o egg-shaped leaves have short petioles and are e n t i r e or with a few i r r e g u l a r teeth or lobes. The powdery bloom covering the dark blue t o black berries causes them t o appear pale blue... This i s our only vine honeysuckle. 1.... racemosa the lowest branch.. MT..... AZ... Light.. Blue Elderberry 1. F r u i t i s edible and stronger t a s t i n g than that o f & cerulea.. Southern B. T r l m p e t Honeysuckle 5. The compound... (Not i l l u s t r a t e d ) ..C. Smhoricarpos Duhamel Snowberry Snowberries are erect.. and arranged i n large..... sharp-pointed..... 1. not exerted.. I t blooms p r o l i f i c a l l y . longer than wide.... The white.. especially bears...... scarcely..CAPRI F LI O ACEAE 4. stem p i t h webby... avalanche chutes) o r open forest.... not h o l l ow. 2. F r u i t s not glaucous.. inflorescence pyramidal or obviously convex and extending considerably beyond ... Succulent young growth i s highly palatable t o cattle......... Elderberry Elderberry shrubs have nunerous p i t h y stems and soft... longer than wide. mostly i n moist forest openings (e.... 2 S. broad and short-canpanulate. Locally comnon from the montane t o upper subalpine zones.. Lonicera t a t a r i c a L.. glaucous young twigs.... This i s a comnon r i p a r i a n species and also occurs upslope i n moist openings and open forest of the montane zone....... (1) 2. b e r r y l i k e f r u i t contains 2 n u t l e t s each o f which contains a seed......... perhaps by birds. south t o CA.... Style longer than 3 mn.. t o other Montana towns. but i t i s more coarse and vigorous.. S a k u s cerulea Raf... The uppermost p a i r of leaves on each branch i s sessile and fused t o surround the stem. Berries are eaten by hunans and various w i l d l i f e species... divided i n t o leaflets.. and have serrate leaf l e t s that come t o an abrupt point... I n our area t h i s vine occurs north and east of Missoula i n open t o moderately dense forests or shrubfields o f the major valleys and montane zone. south through most of the Rocky Mountains..... occidentalis S... cone-shaped or pyramidal inflorescence bears glossy. 3 S... Lonicera c i l i o s a (Pursh) DC.. Tatarian Honeysuckle This shrub has a habitat s i m i l a r t o that of L.... The pink t o white flowers are bell-shaped with 5 rounded lobes..... dense clusters.... e l l i p t i c t o egg-shaped.. no webby p i t h (2) S..g. o r e o h i lus Corolla short. The d i s t i n c t l y f l a t ... white or creamy-white. Tatarin honeysuckle i s an often-cultivated. exerted past c o r o l l a lobes... The p e c u l i a r l y scented flowers are small... 1.... and has been distributed. Black Elderberry Black elderberry i s s i m i l a r t o S..... S t y l e <3 mn long.....C... . purple-black berries that lack a bloom.... i f ever... stems with sol i d pith.(l) cerulea S.... Our v a r i e t y i s melanocarpa (Gray) McMinn.......... albus . 2... older stems hollow...... elk.. t o CA.... Eurasian species. individual shrubs not evidently rhizomatous. and mountain goats.... where i t i s winter-hardy.. Flowers are rose-pink or white with a pink flush..t o deeporange flowers are more showy than those of other species. and sharply toothed Leaf lets...topped inflorescence i s 1i k e that of a mdxr of the carrot family. east t o w... shrubs evidently rhizomatous 2 .. Corolla r e l a t i v e l y long and narrow. t o 4 m (13 f t ) i n our area.. and rounded o r abruptly narrowed a t the t i p .. inflorescence f lat-topped and extending past main branches.. MT Flowers are v i s i t e d by h m i n g b i r d s and b u t t e r f l i e s .... F r u i t s decidedly glaucous. Leaves are conposed of 5-9(11) lanceshaped.. Circunboreal... cerulea i n growth habit but i s generally smaller. deer.... up t o 3 m (10 f t ) t a l l . The large leaves are petiolate..... .. t o w. Sambucus racemosa L.. Blue elderberry i s a t a l l shrub... utahensis. an elongated bell-shape.... 1. and NM. I n our area the berry clusters are blue or purplish-black... From s... .... Group 111.. bear. The high p a l a t a b i l i t y o f herbage and berry can lead t o decimation of Local populations. B... densely branched shrubs u p ' t o 1............ I t i s an escapee i n Missoula..... Sambucus L...

Lonicera involucrata d. L caerulea . L utahensis e. Lonicera ciliosa b.a. Linnaea borealis c. Cleome serrulata f.

and MO. and n. ID. I t s leaves are e l l i p t i c t o egg-shaped and s l i g h t l y smaller.. borne i n a large. Viburnun opulus L. I t has been collected near the Lee Metcalf W i l d l i f e Refuge and reputedly occurs north of M i s s w l a and i n Greenough Park... In the B i t t e r r o o t and Sapphire ranges. The corolla i s evidently longer than wide. S m h o r i c a r m occidental i s Hook. and have a flattened stone. CARYOPHY LLACEAE Pink Fami l y Members of the Pink Family are annual or perennial herbs with simple. 1. N . 1. but i n southern Ravalli County... The acidic f r u i t s are suitable f o r preserves i f taken a f t e r the f i r s t frost. and the lobes are mostly shorter than the tube.5 m (3-4. not projecting above the c o r o l l a lobes.(l) V. t The lower (and larger) leaves o f s t e r i l e shoots are o f t e n toothed or lobed. Stems are often swollen a t the Leaf nodes.. where i t reaches 2 m (6 f t ) . Leaves are toothed and oblong t o eggshaped. lower Blodgett Creek and along the B i t t e r r o o t River near Missoula. mountain snowberry i s d i s t i n c t l y nonrhizomatous (individual shrubs q u i t e recognizable) and more densely branched. It i s often associated with Rosa woodsii i n both shrub thickets and open t o closed canopy forests. especially along main veins.CARYOPHYLLACEAE 1. ID. Mex.. unbrella-shaped inflorescence. 30-100 cm (12-40 i n ) t a l l . and lower montane zones. The corolla i s densely h a i r y within. From s. s t e l l a t e hairs . east t o Man. The tube i s short-hairy within. below the point where the anther stalks are attached. wholly east of the Cascade sumnits.found along stream banks. IL.. Stems.. N .. The densely h a i r y (within) c o r o l l a has f l a r e d lobes that equal or s l i g h t l y exceed the tube length. . 10-35 mn long. Leaves are mostly 15-40 mn long. The young twigs and leaves are densely covered with minute.C. with s t i f f hairs. Viburnum The small 5-parted flowers are lobed or simple leaves. The leaves are conspicuwsly 3-veined and deeply 3-lobed with i r r e g u l a r l y toothed or wavy margins. WY.. The marginal flowers o f the gleaming white inflorescence are s t e r i l e and much enlarged (15-25 c across) compared t o the perfect flowers (3-4 mn m across). 1. and NB.. south A M t o MT. Viburnun L... Svrrohoricarpos a l b (L. C . i t occurs well i n t o the subalpine zone. and PA. mostly s t e r i l e shoots are larger and coarsely and i r r e g u l a r l y toothed. C . M 3. Wayfaring-tree Wayfaring-tree i s a t a l l shrub or small tree. From A east K O t o We. o w l u s (2) V. 2. star-shaped h a i r s that impart an ashen cast t o the foliage. e n t i r e leaves that are usually opposite but occasionally alternate or whorled on the stem..C. more frequently. This species i s u n c m n t o rare i n our area but a characteristic component o f wooded draws and plains i n MT east o f the Continental Divide. The broadly e l l i p t i c t o egg-shaped leaves.. Circunboreal. From B. 2. except i n r i p a r i a n habitats. American High-bush Cranberry High-bush cranberry i s a sturdy shrub..5 f t ) t a l l . The s t y l e of comnon snowberry i s 2-3 mn long. F r u i t s are b r i g h t red. Leaf blades glabrous or. (Not i l l u s t r a t e d ) ..) Blake C m n Snowberry Comnon snowberry i s a rhizomatous and medium-sized shrub. 2-4 m (6-12 f t ) t a l l .. SD. B.. south i n North America t o MA.. i t i s widespread on d r y slopes. Western Snowberry Western snowberry has branched rhizomes and forms dense colonies. MI. and the tube i s longer than the lobes.. Viburnun lantana L. Our v a r i e t y i s arnericanum A i t .. lanata Leaf blades (and twigs) densely covered with minute. This shrub i s rare and. F a l l foliage i s a deep purple-red. This genus includes shrubs with opposite. Throughout most o f our area. 25-80 mn long. I t has escaped t o establish on islands i n the Clark Fork River near the University of Montana. I n our area i t i s known from Rattlelsnake Canyon. albus. south t o CA. but those of the young. often growing associated with Philadelphus l e w i s i i a t lower reaches of talus slides. This species i s Eurasian and o f t e n planted here. f o o t h i l l .. have petioles ~p o 10 mn long. The f r u i t s are black and berrylike. are less branched than those of S. south t o n. elongated... This species i s o f t e n the most comnon shrub o f valley. UT. mountain snowberry i s uncomnon. The s t y l e i s long-hairy i n the middle. The anthers and s t y l e extend beyond and are v i s i b l e between the c o r o l l a lobes. Svrrohoricarpos oreophi 1lus Gray Mwntai n Snowberry Though approximately the same size as the previous 2 species. WA. 1-1.

Sambucus cerulea f. S. Viburnum opulus b.a. S. S. racernosa c. occidentalis e. Symphoricarpos albus d. oreophilus .

.......................3 Sepals pointed a t the t i p ............................Silene ........... Clusters of secondary leaves are often borne a t the leaf bases........ 3........... i f annual..............2 ........ 2... 4.......a paniculata ................ then petals 1/2-2/3 as long as the sepals .......................................... The (415 petals are separate or lacking and frequently lobed or toothed........................... The f r u i t i s a 1-celled capsule...................... l a t e r i f l o r a Leaves lance-shaped t o egg-shaped i n outline.. .. (415 sepals are free or united i n t o a tube............ larger ones a t least 3 mn wide Leaves linear... plants usually greater tall Sepals separate a t least 2/3 t h e i r length............ 8 Leaves without prominent stipules a t the nodes.Cerastium Species i n t h i s genus are annual or perennial herbs with opposite leaves that lack stipules and petioles....... f r e e p o r t i o n less than 1/3 the t o t a l length Sepals separate most of t h e i r length .....................Saponaria o f f i c i n a l i s ................... The f r u i t i s a capsule which opens a t the top and has few t o many seeds..................... n Blade o f petal 10-15 m long with 2 appendages a t the base........................... Sepals rounded a t the t i p ......... lacking appendages a t the base..........(5) A...... inspect several flowers)......... .... 4.............. s p l i t t i n g nearly t o the base a t maturity Mature seed capsule c y l i n d r i c a l ................... macrophylla Sepals rourded a t the t i p .................................. leaves not appearing whorled ...................... ( 1 O ~ s e r ~ y l l i f o l i a Plants perennial from rhizomes and branched rootcrown... ..................... calyx tubular......... leaves appearing d i s t i n c t l y whorled on the s t e............. r a r e l y more than 2 mn wide..... .... 4 Flowers imnediately subtended by 1-several p a i r s of tapering..........................CARYOPHYLLACEAE which may also have l e a f l i k e appendages (stipules). somewhat f lat-topped.......... The 3-10 stamens often have d i s t i n c t l y colored anthers................. loosely branched a t the base...... 13 Sepals united ca.................. plants often erect........... flowers e i t h e r male or female and on separate plants .................................Vaccaria segetalis ...................... The ovary i s sessile o r stalked. 2 times as long as the sepals .............Lychnis alba S m u l a arvensis Leaves with prominent membranous or papery stipules a t the nodes where the leaves j o i n the s t e.......... The flowers are bisexual or unisexual and r a d i a l l y They are borne i n compact o r open inflorescences or are s o l i t a r y i n the axi 1s o f leaves........ ............... terminal or axi 1l a r y inflorescences...........................Holosteun m i x 1 latum Arenaria Plants perennial................... 1...... petals equaling or exceeding the sepals........ Sepals united t o form a tube... Styles usually 3..............................5 times as long as the sepals . 7 .........(4) A... Sandwort ......... 7 Plants usually less than 10 c (4 i n ) t a l l .................... plants prostrate or ascending.... ..2 .................... ...........3 Styles 3-5 ....S t e l l a r i a ..................................................... 12 Plants annual......... o f t e n united bracts.............. Plants usually prostrate......... 1/2 of their length............... m........... often densely matted.................... 1................................. -10 Petals 2-lobed a t the t i p or absent ....11 Styles usually 5........ Mature seed capsule more or less egg-shaped............................. calyx angled...... opening just a t the t i p by means o f reflexed teeth..... There are usually 10 stamens and 3(2-5) styles....... 5.................... The symetrical....... petals less than 1.. Dianthus Flowers not imnediately subtended by bracts.................... ............. The flowers are usually borne i n open t o congested.................5 Styles usually 2 (sometimes 3.... 2.......... plants often less than 40 cm t a l l than 40 cm (16 in) ........ 3........................................... or..... Calyx greater than 5 mn long Blade o f petal 5-8 mn long..................... S w r g u l a r i a rubra Petals e n t i r e or s l i g h t l y wavy on the margins................................................................. The 5 petals are white and mostly entire-margined or occasionally absent................. The 5 sepals are separate or united a t the base........... basal leaves mostly greater m than 10 mn long 8 ........ . m............ ................ basal leaves mostly less than 10 mn m long 5 Plants usually greater than 10 c t a l l ........ ...............................9 ..4 P l a n t s a n n u a l f r o m a w e a k t a p r o o t .......................................... 6 Sepals sharply pointed at the t i p ........... flowers mostly with both styles and stamens Styles usually 5.................... 5................... petals ca... Arenaria L....... Plant erect........................ ..... 5 a paniculata Calyx 1-3 mn l o..................................Sagina Styles usually 3..

r m t t a l l i i .. plants not forming dense cushions. 2... 9 A..... Ballhead Sandwort Ballhead sanduort has slender...... west o f Sula.... I t i s comnon i n dry.. s t i f f and straight ......... lit h h i l a Rydb.. There are generally only 1-2 p a i r s o f stem Leaves. most flower stalks shorter than the sepals Inflorescence open. 3 A.... east t o MT and CO........... .............. Arenaria macroDhvlla Hook. ...... east t o sw... Arenaria c a p i l l a r i s Poir..... The basal leaves are erect or ascending and usually 2-4 cm long with f i n e h a i r s on the margins and a pointed t i p .. I t i s c m n i n dry... i t forms a s t r i k i n g display with the deep blue flowers of Veronica c u s i c k i i .. usually less than 5 cm (2 i n ) long and acute a t the t i p .... The leaves increase i n size upward and are soft....... open habitats i n the subalpine t o timberline zones..) Davis... cephaloidea (Rydb... but the basal leaves are shorter. Var......... This species has three v a r i e t i e s i n our area..... There are 2-4 p a i r s o f stem Leaves.... often woody caudex..... A....... americana (Mag.. Var... thin-textured and widely spaced on the stem.. Circunboreal..... open habitats a t a l l elevations throughout our area.... t o CA..... and MT. up t o 5 mn long. The petals are up t o 2........ 3...... rubella Plants forming loose mats.. The mature capsule i s oval-shaped and longer than the sepals. 9 Inflorescence mostly without glands .. m and more s t i f f and pointed.... 1 A... 1.. flower stalks much greater than the sepals Group I.... The sharp-pointed Leaves are glabrous or sparsely h a i r y on the margins and up t o 8 cm (3 i n ) long. They are branched towards the top i n t o dense clusters o f flowers.... I t i s rare i n our area and has been collected only i n the alpine zone o f the southern B i t t e r r o o t Range. stems usually curved a t the base and not reddish be1. Our plants are var... equal t o the sepals... south t o OR and N and V east t o Alta.. The flowers o f t h i s species vary considerably i n size. such as the crest of the Selway-Bitterroot Divide. The inflorescence i s open.. Species i n the f i r s t group are t u f t e d peremials with needle....... aculeata m Leaves o f t e n greater than 2 cm Long....(2) A.... Stems t r a i l i n g ... obtusiloba sajanensis n Plants forming dense cushions up t o 10 a (4 i n ) broad.... Sepals have a broad...C R O H LLACEAE AYPY Stems erect... The stems are densely glandular-hairy above. 4............. stems erect and o f t e n reddish be1... and only the basal leaves have secondary leaves i n the axils.. Arenaria conqesta Nutt...... . Locally c o r n i n dry.... congesta ...... congesta also has obtuse sepals but the inflorescence i s densely congested....... There are few t o several flowers i n an open inflorescence. Great Basin..... has obtuse or rounded sepals and a r e l a t i v e l y open inflorescence i n which the flower stalks are longer than the sepals.. plants forming cushions...... 8 A.. congesta Inflorescence glandular . MT and UT.............. c a p i l l a r i s .. P r i c k l y Sandwort P r i c k l y sanduort i s s i m i l a r t o A....... Var............... south and east t o the Continental Divide...........or grass-like leaves. The stems are curved a t the base and usually less than 10 cm (4 i n ) t a l l .......... petals shorter than the sepals.. A Group 11... The herbage i s l i g h t l y h a i r y and rough t o the touch.... petals equal t o or greater than the sepals........ open habitats i n the subalpine and timberline zones of the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains from Mount Jerusalem... Large leaf Sandwort This species has narrowly e l l i p t i c t o lance-shaped leaves. The leafy flowering stems are we1 1-elevated above the mass of basal leaves. (6) (7) A... East o f the Cascades... membranous margin and are blunt t o acute a t the t i p . and the flower petals are about twice as long as the sepals... 10 Leaves mostly less than 2 c long. r e l a t i v e l y s o f t and often somewhat curved.... The foliage generally has a waxy coating and i s glabrous below and glandular-hairy i n the inflorescence..... petals much greater than the sepals.... There are usually 2-4 p a i r s o f stem leaves.... Yuk................ petals ca.......... I n our area mountain sandwort i s l o c a l l y abundant i n d r i e r rocky. Arenaria aculeata Wats..5 times as long as the sepals... usually 1-2 c long.....) Maguire has pointed sepals and a congested inflorescence.. The sepals are o f t e n tinged with purple and have membranous margins and blunt o r pointed tips.... The 2-5 flowers are borne i n an .. OR t o C .. Mountain Sandwor t This species forms Loose mats up t o 20 cm (8 i n ) broad with stems up t o 30 cm (1 f t ) t a l l . I n a mature whitebark pine-alpine larch forest on Ward Mountain.... erect stems up t o 30 cm (12 i n ) t a l l from a branched. c a ~ i l l a r i s Inflorescence congested.. The petals are longer than the calyx.....(1) A.... Species i n the second group are low-growing perennials with both flowering and s t e r i l e stems from rhizomes and branched rootstocks. The flowers are borne i n dense t o open inflorescences....... The flowers do not greatly surpass the uppermost leaves.. open habitats from the v a l l e y through the alpine zone....

Arenaria congesta b.var: lithophila a. capillaris c. A. A. aculeata 92 .

d r a m u s . A r c t i c sandwort occurs i n cool. dry. I n our area N u t t a l l ' s sandwort i s known only from an open slope i n the upper subalpine zone of the SapphireRange. Arenaria obtusi l o b (Rydb. Largeleaf sandwort i s comnon i n moist or. K M t o Greenl. Secondary leaves are present i n the leaf a x i l s . Thyme-leaved Sandwort 10. and petals are usually about as long as open inflorescence. The seed capsule i s r o d . east t o Alta. Bluntleaf Sandwort Blunt leaf sandwort has leaves that are widest above the middle and rounded a t the t i p . The herbage i s l i g h t l y h a i r y and o f t e n rough t o the touch. The erect flowers are s o l i t a r y or 2-3 per stem. and sharp-pointed. Alpine Sandwort Alpine sandwort forms mats up t o 40 cm (16 i n ) broad with flowering stems up t o 6 cm (2 i n ) high. The t h i r d group contains dwarf. often-forested habitats from the v a l l e y t o the lower subalpine zone throughout our area. and o f t e n purplish. but i t usually forms loose mats. The seed capsule i s oval t o cylindrical. I t i s less comnon i n the Sapphire and Rattlesnake ranges. U. This species i s comnon i n dry. Circunpolar. Flowers are . B. becoming glandular above. 1 Fern. Arenaria rubella (Wahlenb. the sepals. Arenaria s e r ~ v l l i f o l i a L. This plant occurs i n mesic habitats. Arenaria n u t t a l l i i Pax N u t t a l l ' s Sandwort This species i s loosely matted. .. the b r i t t l e stems are often t r a i l i n g and up t o 15 c (6 i n ) long. n u t t a l l i i . Sepals are 3-4 m long. The herbage i s h a i r y and rough t o the touch. Flowers are borne i n an open inflorescence. I n our area. obtusi loba. Sepals are 4-6 tmn long and pointed o r sharp-pointed. MY. mat-forming perennial plants with a branched caudex and taproot. t o C and N . more comnonly. Circunpolar. menbranous-margined. The open inflorescences are few t o several flowered. forming cushions up t o 10 cm (4 i n ) broad. Old discolored leaves o f t e n persist on the lower stems. south i n the w.1 A r c t i c Sandwort This species i s s i m i l a r t o and often intergrades with A. pointed a t the t i p . The stems are erect. and the petals are more-orless equal t o the sepals. n The petals are about the same length as the sepals. east t o Alta.E. 7.) Schinz.m a r g i n e d . rounded a t the t i p . 5-30 a (2-12 i n ) t a l l . meadows and margins of moist forests. The glandular sepals are usually 4-5 mn long. t o C .& Thell. Petals are up t o twice as long as the sepals. and o f t e n reddish a t the base. t o CA. that are o f t e n branched a t the base.S. The sepals are white-margined and rounded a t the t i p . such as streambanks. A t o OR. and Lab. 6. Arenaria l a t e r i f l o r a L. Smith Reddish Sandwort Reddish sandwort i s densely tufted. (Not illustrated). east t o NM and the A t l a n t i c . 8. macrophylla occasionally intergrade i n our area. and the petals are shorter than the sepals. These are plants o f upper subalpine t o alpine zones. obtusiloba by Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973.l a t e r i f l o r a and A. rocky habitats near or above timberline i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. B. The leaves are narrowly linear i n o u t l i n e and usually sharp-pointed. m The foliage i s glandular-hairy. Group 111. south i n the Rocky Mountains t o CO. and UT. The stems and usually the leaves are glandularhairy. and the flowering stems are o f t e n t r a i l i n g .C. from the v a l l e y t o the Lower subalpine zone throughout our area. Flora of the P a c i f i c Northwest). The stems are erect t o prostrate and less than 10 cm (4 i n ) t a l l .C R O H LLACEAE AYPY Sepals are 3-6 mn long and pointed a t the t i p . and petals are usually twice as long as the sepals. moist habitats i n the alpine zone of the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. [Minuartia b i f l o r a (L. The foliage i s variously h a i r y or glandular below and glandular-hairy above. up t o 10 cm (4 in) t a l l . known only from rocky or sandy alpine s i t e s i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. and 3-7 mn long. Our plants are var. The flower s t a l k s are b r i t t l e and break e a s i l y a t the joints. Included i n A. and N and across Can. Arenaria saianensis Willd.C. I t has been f o d i n late-melting snow depressions with Chionophila tweedyi and Lewisia w m e a and i n moist rock crevices with Saxifraga d e b i l i s . south on the east side of the Cascades t o C and NM and i n the Appalachians t o PA.) J. The petioles are short or lacking. Circmboreal. The l a s t group contains an amual species of disturbed habitats. n Thyme-leaved sandwort i s a slender annual with erect stems. Group 1V. A 5. The leaves are egg-shaped. The capsule i s oval or round. A A. A M 9. The sepals are thickened on the back. The foliage i s less glandular.

A. A. obtusiloba bd A.f c A. nuttallii . obtusiloba d. Arenaria ssrpyllifolia b. rubella e. Arenaria macrophylla f. A. rubella a. lateriflora c. A.

... The sepals are narrowly lance-shaped.... and the petals are up t o 2 times as long as the sepals (occasionally shorter or lacking). plants o f disturbed habitats......... lawns and gardens i n the v a l l e y and montane zones...... 1..... 1... flower s t a l k s shorter than the ...l i v e d perennial species. The sepals are 4-7 mn long and have whitish.. The petals are 4-5 n long and s l i g h t l y shorter than the sepals. Group I.... The f o l i a g e i s densely h a i r y and sticky-glandular. less so i n the montane zone... This species i s frequent i n sandy s o i l s and dry. The petals are shorter than the sepals. The bracts below the ............. plants from timberline and above 5 C. The upper leaves are more linear or lance-shaped and up t o 3 a long... 2 C....(3) C. Cerastiun viscosun L. flower s t a l k s longer than the sepals ... biennial.... 3..S. widespread i n temperate and boreal North America. 2. nutans Plants biennial o r perennial. The few t o several ( r a r e l y s o l i t a r y ) flowers are borne i n There are 5 sepals and 5 petals.. U... Flowers are borne i n a terminal..... mainly of mdisturbed habitats.. The herbage i s glabrous t o n densely h a i r y and glandular......... F i e l d Chickweed 4.. The herbage i s densely glandular and h a i r y throughout. arvense usually below timberline... less abundant i n the montane zone.. Uidespread i n tenperate North America... native peremials.... 3......5-3 times as long as the sepals..CARYOPHYLLACEAE borne i n r e l a t i v e l y narrow.... Nodding Chickweed Nodding chickweed i s an annual with weak.. an open inflorescence..... 2....... The leaves are lance. occurring i n disturbed gromd such as a g r i c u l t u r a l fields.. The petals are shorter than the sepals...... Cerastiun L..... up t o 30 cm (12 i n ) t a l l ..... The petals are white and deeply lobed at the t i p ...... Introduced from Eurasia i n t o most o f tenperate North America....... widespread i n North America. open inflorescence. simple or branched a t the base and up t o 30 cm (12 i n ) long...4 Flowers i n r e l a t i v e l y dense clusters i n an open inflorescence.... and perhaps introduced i n our area.. mostly 20-40 cm (816 i n ) long and o f t e n rooting a t the nodes... The upper leaves are larger and without a petiole. 2 Petals subequal t o the sepals. matted and rooting a t the nodes .. and gradually narrowed t o the petiole. that are branched above. Petals usually 1.. The herbage i s usually h a i r y and often sticky. comnon i n e.......3 Plants annual....... Chickweed Species i n t h i s genus are annual or perennial herbs with entire-margined leaves opposite on the stem...... 1..............l i v e d perennials... Flowers are borne on noddingstalks.. 3. Cerast i u n nutans Raf . disturbed areas i n the v a l l e y zone and along roads i n the montane zone throughout our area...... beeringianum o f the inflorescencewith paperymargins. Sticky chickweed i s comnon i n the v a l l e y zone. annual t o s h o r t . .. This species i s comnon i n the v a l l e y zone......... viscosum .. Sepals are narrow and about 3 mn long with pointed tips..1 C.... papery margins.. not matted o r rooting a t the nodes ........ ..... leafy-bracted inflorescences... The lower leaves are oblong t o spoon-shaped.. 8-15 mn long.l i v e d perennial with Lax or ascending stems.. less comnon i n the montane zone... Group 11.... vulgatum Bracts i n the Bracts axils... lower leaves without secondary leaves and shoots axils......1 Mouse-ear Chickweed This species i s a biennial or s h o r t . F i e l d chickweed i s t u f t e d and matted with t r a i l i n g or ascending stems.. The upper leaves are larger...... lower leaves with secondary leavesand stems i n t h e 4 C........... or s h o r t ....... The seed capsule i s c y l i n d r i c a l and often s l i g h t l y curved a t maturity.. sepals Flowers not i n clusters... fontanun Baung.. They are mostly introduced weeds. 2. The lower leaves are egg-shaped i n o u t l i n e with secondary leaves or stems i n the axi 1s.t o spoon-shaped and up t o 3 cm long..... o f the inflorescence without papery margins..... Cerastiun vulgatun L... This group contains two native perennial species... 4.. Cerast iun arvense L. Flowers are borne i n t i g h t clusters i n an open inflorescence..... 4. Sticky Chickweed This annual plant has 1-several lax or ascending stems up t o 30 cm (12 i n ) long... ascending stems......... This plant i s a troublesome weed i n our lawns and gardens.. Introduced from Eurasia.. This f i r s t group contains annual.. Introduced from Eurasia.. The lower leaves are oblong t o broadly lance-shaped and 10-25 mn long.... Mouse-ear chickweed i s comnon i n the v a l l e y zone....

a biennial with 1-several erect stems up t o 40 cm (16 in) t a l l . Petals are white and longer than the sepals. slender. Flowers are subtended by 1-several pairs o f enfolding bracts. Jagged Chickweed Jagged Chickweed This annual has simple or basally branched stems t y p i c a l l y less than 15 c (8 i n ) t a l l and usually m much smaller.. B.... and usually 2-5 cm (1-2 i n ) long.. The plant i s s i m i l a r t o Cerastium arvense...... open habitats i n the valley and montane zones.. The plant i s comnon i n dry. The capsule i s egg-shaped and exceeds the calyx. open habitats i n the alpine zone. I t has been collected near Missoula and Hamilton.... Holosteun -1 latun L... 5. Stem and bracts o f the inflorescence h a i r y Inflorescence glabrous... usually 40-80 cm (16-32 i n ) t a l l ..... but can be distinguished by i t s lower and more compact growth form and by the lack o f papery margins on the flower bracts.... usually lobed or wavy-margined blade and a long... I t i s less comnon i n s b a l p i n e areas... west o f Lolo and around former homesteads i n the Rattlesnake Val ley..... and AZ. The herbage i s g l a b r w s or sparsely h a i r y above.. Petals are longer than the sepals and consist of a wide... i t i s comnon above timberline... narrow lower p o r t i o n (claw). sharp-pointed bracts. The petals are up t o 3 times as long as the sepals...... The species i n our area are introduced... NM... Stem nodes are prominent. and the herbage i s glabrous. This species has many ecotypes. Dianthus armer i a L . Cerastiun beeringianun Cham. Gwsophila uaniculata L...CARYOPHYLLACEAE flower s t a l k s have whitish.. without petioles. and GA. Holosteun L.(2) D.... This species i s l o c a l l y comnon on roadsides and i n abandoned f i e l d s i n the M i s s w l a and Hamilton area. The leaves are linear t o lance-shaped. Petals are 20-25 mn long. The herbage i s glandular and densely short-hairy. The linear leaves are held nearly erect and are reduced upwards.& Schlecht.. Introduced throughout the P a c i f i c Northuest.. Petals are 20-25 mn long.. Alpine Chickweed This i s a mat-forming plant with t r a i l i n g stems.... The basal m leaves are oblong lance-shaped and up t o 10 c ( 4 i n ) long.. I t i s comnon along Hwy. The sepals are oblong lance-shaped and 4-6 mn long... disturbed habitats i n the v a l l e y and montane zones. I n some o f the s t a t e u s limestone momtain ranges. The basal leaves are oblong lance-shaped and 1-2 cm long. Babyus-breath i s frequently used by c m r c i a l f l o r i s t s i n d r i e d flower arrangements.... Mountain southwest of Hamilton and Sugarloaf Peak southwest of Derby.. Leaves are lance-shaped t o spoon-shaped and mostly 10-15 mn long. Deptford pink i s an annual or..... Sepals are 4-6 r long and o f t e n tinged with m purple... east t o Alta...... Circunboreal. 2. The sepals are united i n t o a tube....1 D. t o CA.. The pink flowers are borne i n a congested inflorescence and are subtended by long. papery margins... barbatus Dept f ord Pink 1.. mostly less than 10 cm (4 i n ) long and without secondary leaves and shoots i n the leaf a x i l s ... .. The genus i s native t o Eurasia. Sweet William i s a fami l i a r garden plant that occasionally escapes on roadsides and other disturbed areas.. Flowers are borne i n an open.... Dianthus barbatus L. more comnonly.. The bracts below the flowers do not have papery margins.C. Sweet Ui 11iam A p e r e m i a l with nunerws stems that are n curved a t the base and up t o 60 cm (2 f t ) t a l l .. I t has been collected on Ward Alpine chickueed occurs i n moist. 12.. freelybranched inflorescence the shape of a hemisphere.. The herbage i s glabrous and more-or-less covered with a thin. The nunerous flowers are white t o dark red and densely clustered i n the terminal inflorescence.... 1... The 2-3 p a i r s o f stem leaves are . CO. Baby's-breath Babyus-breath i s a perennial herb with much-branched stems... Dianthus L... Pink Species i n t h i s genus are annual t o perennial herbs with stems that are s i q l e or branched above. south t o CA. Introduced from the Mediterranean region i n t o much o f the P a c i f i c Northwest. This species occurs i n open.. The stem leaves are l i t t l e reduced upwards. armeria .. 1. waxy coating.. The sepals have papery margins and are about 2 mn long.... The terminal inflorescence has 1-few flowers. The petals are up t o 2 times as long as the sepals.

.

This introduced species i s comnon i n moist... usually less than 6 cm (2 in) long.. There i s no apparent basal rosette of leaves... Rosette of numerous basal leaves present.. Campion The genus contains biennial o r perennial herbs with 1-few stems and opposite...... the upper ones are without petioles and are gradually reduced. Species o f Lychnis are s i m i l a r t o members o f the genus Silene but can be distinguished by having 5 s t y l e s rather than 3. The capsule i s 1-2 times as long as the sepals. The calyx i s enlarged i n f r u i t . Native t o Europe........ leaf a x i l s without secondary leaves.) Desr. stem usually have petals..... There especially i n f r u i t . The petals are deep red with a heart-shaped blade.... Sepals are separate and about 3 mn long.... and f i e l d s ... M I .. glabrous.. The herbage i s covered with dense.. I t i s most abundant i n gardens. Sagina L.. Rose Carrpion Rose canpion i s a perennial with several unbranched stems.... .... Circunpolar...1 C......... The t h i n stems are prostrate t o ascending and 5-15 cm (2-6 i n ) long. Widely scattered i n moist... The herbage i s coarsely h a i r y below and glandular above.. i t appears i n great masses i n overgrazed pastures. The seed capsule i s nearly twice as long as the sepa 1s... This species i s a c m n garden flower.. The petals are white and 7-10 mn long with a deeply lobed blade.. I n years with a wet spring... The 1-2 flowers per are 5-15 mn long... The lower leaves are petiolate. open habitats such as streambanks or t r a i l s i n the montane and subalpine zones..... are o f t e n appendages on the petal where the broad upper portion (blade) joins the narrower lower segment There are usually 5 styles. south t o CA.. Lychnis L........ Pearlwort Members of t h i s genus are low growing... 2. Jagged chickweed i s comnon i n moist or vernally moist................. Petals are longer than the sepals and are usually lobed or notched a t the t i p ... The leaves are lance-shaped and 5-10 cm (2-4 i n ) long..... Flowers are borne i n an open inflorescence... Flowers white.. The white petals are jagged a t the t i p s and s l i g h t l y longer than the sepals. The a t t r a c t i v e and more-or... 1... procumbens ... Flowers are borne i n a flat-topped inflorescence a t the top of the stem. disturbed habitats i n the v a l l e y zone.. and the stem leaves often have clusters o f secondary leaves i n the axils....... less c m n i n the montane zone...... coronaria Uhite Campion 1. Sagina procurbens L. ..&g .... The numerous basal leaves Stem leaves are generally without secondary leaves i n the a x i l s ....) B r i t t .... (claw).... Sagina sasinoides (L.............. The leaves are oblong lance-shaped t o e l l i p t i c and up t o 10 cm (4 i n ) long... Prostrate Pearlwort m This plant has prostrate stems up t o 15 c (6 i n ) long that often root a t the nodes. entire-margined leaves.. Alpine Pearlwort This species has many ascending stems..... lawns.. and the lobes are twisted... whitish hair. Lychnis coronaria (L. rn 1. I t has escaped and persists i n o l d f i e l d s and other disturbed areas near Hamilton and Missoula. The small flowers are borne on the @ of long s t a l k s a t the end o f the stems o r i n the a x i l s o f leaves............ plant densely whi te-hai ry..less fragrant flowers open i n the evening and close the next day before noon... 1.. The seed capsule usually has a short stalk......2 L.. Lychnis alba M i l l . plant coarsely h a i r y but not white-hairy Flowers red. open. v a l l e y or occasionally montane zones 2 S..... They lack petioles and become smaller and spaced further apart upwards on the stem........... from a branched m rootcrown... The 4-5 petals are shorter than the sepals or lacking... saginoides Basal rosette absent.. 2.... Uhite campion i s a coarse perennial with 1-several stems up t o 1 m (3 f t ) t a l l from a strong root system surmounted by a branched rootcrown...... 40-100 c (16-39 i n ) t a l l .... Native of Europe. secondary leaves usually present i n the leaf axi ls. widely d i s t r i b u t e d i n North America. Introduced from Eurasia and established throughout much o f North America.. occasionally escaping i n the P a c i f i c Northwest.. 1... 1..... The two sexes are borne on d i f f e r e n t plants (dioecious)... The foliage i s s o f t h a i r y below and glandular h a i r y above.. t u f t e d or matted biennials or perennials. montane and above 1 S.. The leaves are linear and united a t the base opposite each other on the stem.. open habitats i n the v a l l e y and montane zones. ..CARYOPHYLLACEAE wider....... and Que... Mex... The sepals are united i n t o a tube that i s often inflated..

.. The herbage i s glabrous t o densely short-hairy..... The p e t a l s are u s u a l l y lacking ( i n our area)............. douglasi i ... 9 T i p of petals divided into 2 lobes..... weedy species o f disturbed h a b i t a t s ..........( .... open............... comnon i n e... U.................................... S.. cucubalus Plants annual........ congested inflorescence.... Flowers are s o l i t a r y o r several i n an open inflorescence.... a n t i r r h i n a Plants p e r e m i a l ............. S.... without stalks........ The greenish calyx i s bell-shaped a t the base w i t h 5 lobes above.......... calyx u s u a l l y greater than 10 mn long ... flowers................................... Saponaria o f f i c i n a l i s L........................... Petals are lacking. There are u s u a l l y 10 stamens and 3(4) styles.. Flowers are borne i n a terminal............ T i p o f p e t a l s d i v i d e d i n t o 4 or 6 lobes... Plants low... Plants annual........... i n the v a l l e y zone and has been c o l l e c t e d a t three places i n the Missoula area........ The sepals are u n i t e d i n t o an o f t e n i n f l a t e d .... o r perennial herbs w i t h opposite. stems mostly less than 6 cm (2 i n ) 10) acaulis long Plants not forming dense mats........... The minute flowers are borne. Silene L.................................2 .......... There are 2 styles................. The capsule has 6 teeth a t the t o p when i t opens t o release the seeds. The f r a g r a n t flowers have 5 o r 10 white o r pale pink p e t a l s w i t h spreading and wavymargined blades........................ . The calyx tube i s nearly c y l i n d r i c a l and 15-20 mn long....... conoidea ............ introduced i n the P a c i f i c Northwest found i n gardens as w e l l as along small streams....... Soapuort Bouncing Bet Bouncing b e t i s a rhizomatous perennial t h a t forms large c l u r p s o f unbranched stems up t o 90 cm (36 i n ) t a l l ......... flowers i n a more open inflorescence... u s u a l l y occurring a t t i m b e r l i n e o r below... The leaves are lance-shaped... stems more than 6 cm long........... borne on one s i d e o f the 5) S....... ...... pointed a t the t i p and tapered a t the base............ I t i s l o c a l l y comnon i n moist...................................... Knawel Annual Knanel This species i s a low............ There are 2 1inear appendages a t the base o f the blade. calyx mostly less than 10 mn long...................................... established i n much o f North America....9 6 S............... u s u a l l y greater than 15 mn long..... Catchfly.....CARYOPHY LLACEAE There are 2-several flowers per stem............... and occasional i n the West..... forming mats i n a l p i n e habitats. 5-lobed tube w i t h nunerous nerves............ 6 Calyx w i t h 25-30 nerves Calyx w i t h 10 nerves . Calyx glabrous Calyx h a i r y and/or glandular .......... P r o s t r a t e pearlwort seems t o have increased during the recent past...S....... The l i n e a r leaves are hard-pointed and u n i t e d opposite each other on the stem.. entire-margined leaves................... mostly less than 15 mn long..(1) S......... 7 ......................... short-stalked.3 4 ... This i n t r d c e d species occurs i n moist................................................ and ne..... menziesii Calyx u s u a l l y greater than 10 mn long ....................... I t has been Native t o Eurasia...................... n o c t i f l o r a .............. Native t o Europe....... 4 S..... Styles are 2 o r occasional l y 3............. i n the a x i l s o f the upper leaves................. Saponaria L............ Scleranthus a m w s L..... 9 Calyx less than 10 mn long .............. disturbed The introduced species i s a comnon garden plant.............. I t occurs i n open....... The seed capsule i s 1- 2 times as long as the sepals.................. U..... Native t o Europe.. spreading annual with p r o s t r a t e o r ascending stems up t o 10 cm ( 4 in) long....... g r e a t l y enlarged i n f r u i t ............. ........... h a b i t a t s i n t h e v a l l e y and has been c o l l e c t e d near Missoula and Victor........... 5 Plants n a t i v e perennials .. dichotoma inflorescence branches Calyx broadly tubular..........3 S...... Campion The species i n t h i s genus are annual.... Scleranthus L...S.. The f o l i a g e i s n e a r l y glabrous. The 5 p e t a l s are u s u a l l y lobed a t the t i p and have appendages a t the p o i n t where the broader upper p o r t i o n (blade) j o i n s the narrower lower segment (claw)............... Calyx narrowly tubular..... .. open h a b i t a t s i n the v a l l e y and montane zones................................... disturbed ground A m w l knawel has j u s t r e c e n t l y been introduced i n t o our area...... densely tufted.... biennial.

Sagina procumbens e. saginoides 100 . Lychnis alba c. coronaria g. Saponaria officinalis a. S.f. L. Holosteum umbellatum b. Scleranthus annuus d.

.. Night-flowering s i lene was collected once near Hamilton.8 S.... This plant i s l o c a l l y comnon on roadsides and gravelly riverbanks i n the v a l l e y zone... Si lene cucubalus Wibel [S. greatly i n f l a t e d i n f r u i t . I t i s tubular i n flower but becomes swollen i n f r u i t .. The basal leaves and those o f s t e r i l e shoots are numerous.... Silene n o c t i f l o r a L.. i n f l a t e d and up t o 30 mn i n f r u i t .... Several t o many flowers are borne on slender s t a l k s i n the inflorescence.. whi l e the upper p o r t i o n i s glandular. The 1-3 flowers are subtended by linear bracts and borne a t the end of the stems. Conoid Catchf l y This species i s an annual with sirrple or branched stems up t o 80 cm (32 i n ) t a l l .. Group 11... Night-f lowering Si lene This coarse annual has 1-few simple or branched stems up t o 60 c (2 f t ) t a l l . The lower part o f the stem has downward-pointing hairs.. Sleepy Catchf l y m This species i s an annual with mostly branched stems up t o 60 c (2 f t ) t a l l ....C R O H LLACEAE AYPY 9. usually found i n the montane zone or above. perennial plants o f medium height. The herbage i s long-hairy and s t i c k y glandular throughout. widespread but uncomnon i n North America. sometimes tinged with green or pink. The short calyx lobes are o f t e n purplish. Herbage i s glabrous and'covered with a t h i n waxy coating. widespread i n North America.. This plant has been collected once i n d r y grasslands on the slopes o f the Sapphire Range. Introduced from Europe and widely d i s t r i b u t e d i n North America. widespread i n North America. narrower and without petioles above... 4-10 mn long....... Introduced from Eurasia. and wavy... Introduced from Europe... 2. S i lene d w g l a s i i Hook. The foliage i s densely h a i r y throughout.. vulgaris (Moench) Garckel Bladder Campion Bladder canpion i s a perennial with stems that are curved w a r d a t the base and are 20-50 cm (8-20 in) t a l l ... The white t o pinkish petals are lobed and have a p a i r of appendages a t the base of the blade.. globose and prominently net-veined i n f r u i t . The plant i s glabrous above and short-hairy below..... Silene dichotoma Ehrh. up t o 30 c (12 i n ) t a l l .... The calyx i s bell-shaped The petal blades are 4-6 during bloom.. Petals with 2 appendages on the inside below the lobes Petals with 4 appendages . becoming i n f l a t e d and bell-shaped i n f r u i t ..... 4. p a r r y i S.... m The leaves are broadly lance-shaped and p e t i o l a t e below... Flowers have short stalks i n a r e l a t i v e l y open inflorescence. The leaves are lance-shaped and 3-8 cm (1-3 i n ) long with the lower ones united opposite each other on the stem..... and the appendages are lacking. The leaves are linear t o lance-shaped. The m leaves are lance-shaped. 1. mostly introduced from Europe and occurring i n disturbed habitats i n the valleys and f o o t h i l l s . The stem leaves are narrower.. Silene conoidea L..... The petals are white or tinged with red and have small appendages. while those above are without petioles. Petals are white...or entire-margined. but becomes inflated. open habitats i n the v a l l e y zone... Forked Catchfly m Forked catchfly i s a coarse annual with erect. 12-15 mn long.. and without petioles above... The basal leaves are lanceshaped and 3-13 cm (1-5 i n ) long. m The petals are white t o purplish. The 10-nerved calyx i s 10-15 mn long.. Throughout tenperate North America... mn long and deeply 2-lobed. Stem leaves are narrower and gradually reduced upward.. The calyx i s tubular... 10nerved and s l i g h t l y contracted a t the top. They are shallowly 2-lobed a t the t i p with two lance-shaped appendages. 6. p e t i o l a t e below.. Basal leaves are lance-shaped t o spoon-shaped and 3-6 c (1-2 i n ) long. I n our area i t i s known only from the foothi 11s of the Sapphire Range. east of Corval lis.. rounded.. They are deeply forked. This species was collected once near Missoula.. the blade 8-12 mn long. The f i r s t group contains species of medim height. branching stems up t o 80 c (32 i n ) t a l l . Sleepy c a t c h f l y i s u n c m n i n dry. The herbage i s f i n e l y h a i r y and sparsely glandular above. that are curved upward a t the base. Petals are white o r pink and about the same length as the calyx or lacking. the 2 lobes s l i g h t l y wavy-margined a t the t i p . 9......7 . The lower are petiolate. Silene a n t i r r h i n a L. The second group contains native.. 5.. The calyx i s 23 c long with 25-30 nerves.. oregana Group I. The 10nerved calyx i s tubular and about 15 mn long i n flower. 3. Flowers are sessile or on short stalks i n narrow 1-sided branches of the inflorescence... Native t o Europe. There are s t i c k y dark m bands on the upper stem between the nodes. The calyx i s glabrous. Douglast Catchf l y This species has unbranched stems... ...

WY and NV. Few t o several flowers are borne i n a narrow. i s replaced by S. Petals are pink t o purple with e n t i r e t o lobed t i p s .or 6-lobed and has four appendages just below the lobes. t o timberline are considerably dwarfed. and the blade i s deeply c l e f t with 2 small appendages a t the base o f the blade. 30-50 cm (12-20 i n ) t a l l . The plant has been collected i n open ponderosa pine woodland on Mount J w b just north of Missoula. This plant i s sometimes confused with Arenaria macroDhylla but i s e a s i l y distinguished by i t s tubular. The white petals are e n t i r e and equal t o or shorter than the sepals. very d i f f e r e n t i n appearance from the above species. B. east A t o MT and W. Spry SpurrY Plants are annuals with slender. Plants occurring near B i t t e r r o o t Mourtains. The f o l i a g e i s densely short-hairy and glandular. Our plants are var. long-petioled. Silene acaulis L. t h i s species from the montane zone t o timberline i n the Sweeney peaks west of Stevensvi l l e . The basal leaves are lance-shaped t o spoon-shaped. and a constricted base. W t o C . native p e r e m i a l species. A A Grow I 1 I. The 1-several flowers are borne i n a narrow. and obscurely 10-nerved. south o f Lost Horse Creek. exscapa (A1 l i o n i ) DC. and W . 8. The o l d leaf bases remain on the stem f o r many years.) Hitchc. The 2-3 p a i r s o f stem leaves are narrower and gradually reduced upward. Silene oresana Wets. terminal inflorescence. from a branched caudex. u r i t e d calyx. The linear and s l i g h t l y succulent leaves are 1-4 cm long and clustered a t the nodes i n two opposing groups. 2-6 cm long. The inconspicuous flowers are borne on long s t a l k s i n an open. 10. Si lene menziesii Hook. The petals are white. open habitats northern B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. warm slopes. douglasii. east t o Alta. 9. Spergula arvensis L. 3-10 mn long. linear leaves are 4-10 n n long and without petioles. NM. The nunerous basal leaves are linear t o lance-shaped. often matted plant with nunerous lax or ascending stems. acute a t the t i p . and 3-8 cm (1-3 in) long. from a branched rootstock.C. Herbage i s short-hairy and stickyglandular above. Flowers are borne on slender stalks f rom the upper leaf axi 1s or terminating the stems. I t occurs near the Continental Divide and i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains from Darby south. widely introduced i n North America. especially on S t . The herbage i s sparsely h a i r y and o f t e n sticky-glandular. erect t o ascending stems cp t o 40 cm (16 i n ) t a l l . Spergula L. and rockslides i n the subalpine t o alpine zones. The blade i s deeply 4.C. The t h i r d group consists of two low-growing. southwest of Darby. south t o OR. The tubular calyx i s 10-15 mn long. parryi. The 5 sepals are 2-4 mn long and separate t o the base. I t i s l o c a l l y comnon only above Chaff i n Lakes Basin. B. The m crowded. The calyx i s oblong.CARYOPHYLLACEAE Douglas' c a t c h f l y i s comnon i n drier. east t o M and UT. Menzies' Catchfly This species i s a low-growing. I n the 7. The stem leaves are narrower with shorter petioles. 10-30 cm (4-12 i n ) t a l l . Petals are white with a pinkish tinge. Silene p a r r y i (Wats.C. Joseph and CA. obscurely nerved. 4-8 cm (2-3 i n ) long with long petioles. t o CA. This introduced species occurs i n disturbed s o i l of gardens and f i e l d s .t o egg-shaped. from slender rootstocks. and 5-8 mn long. Oregon catchf l y Oregon c a t c h f l y i s a taprooted p e r e m i a l with 1-few simple stems. open. Uncomnon i n rocky. They are 4-lobed with two appendages a t the base of the blade. Petals are white. Native t o Europe. mat-forming cushion plant usually less than 6 c (2 i n ) t a l l . I t has been collected around o l d homesteads i n the B i t t e r r o o t Valley. and NM. and NH. p a r t i a l l y shaded woodland habitats i n the v a l l e y t o lower subalpine zones. Circunpolar. This species i s comnon i n d r y meadows. terminal inflorescence. exposed habitats above t i n t e r l i n e i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains I t i s rare i n the northern part of the range and infrequent south of Lost Horse Creek. Parry's Catchf l y Parry's c a t c h f l y i s a perennial with few t o many unbranched stems. Menziesl catchfly i s comnon i n moist. often tinged with green o r purple. Moss Canpion! Moss campion i s a densely tufted. The tubular calyx i s 12-16 mn long with 10 prominent purple o r dark green nerves. The calyx i s tubular t o bell-shaped. . with 10 purplish nerves. compact inflorescence.& Mag. The leaves are lance. east t o MT. Flowers are s o l i t a r y a t the end of the short steins. T Our plants are var. and tapered t o the base. usually up t o 20 cm (8 i n ) long. B.

S. antirrhina c. S. S. conoidea d.a. noctiflora 103 . Silene cucubalus b.

S. oregana e. menziesii 104 . acaulis f. douglasii c.a Silene dichotoma b. S. S. parryi d. S. S.

......6 Leaves usually glabrous. erect...(1) S............ 1..................C R O H LLACEAE AYPY Smrqularia (Pers. freely-branched annual with prostrate stems up t o 30 cm (12 i n ) long...................... Slender.. 2.. c r i s ~ a Leaves with h a i r on the lower margin............ and glandular....... The purplish-red petals are shorter than the sepals and open only i n d i r e c t sun1ight. media 2 ... This group contains species that are most comnon i n the valleys and f o o t h i l l s ..... Sepals are about 5 mn long.......................... 5 S... Stel l a r i a L............... Circunboreal. Comnon i n moist............. Stel l a r i a nitens Nutt.......... The linear t o f i l i f o r m leaves are usually 5-15 mn long and clustered a t the papery............. Both the petals and the seed capsules are longer than the sepals.... ascending t o erect stems up t o 40 cm (16 i n ) long.... petioles and flower stalks with h a i r i n longitudinal Lines d..........................) Cyrill...............................& central Presl.. bracts of the inflorescence leafy....... Shining Chickweed An anrmal species with slender.6 S....... Stel l a r i a l o n s i f o l i a Muhl.. The hairy.. ....... The stem leaves are narrowly lance-shaped and without petioles.... 3. Flowers are i n terminal bracted .............................. simcoei Stem glabrous ...... l o n s i ~ e s Leaves broadly lanceolate t o egg-shaped..... ...... Herbage i s glabrous t o hairy... The foliage i s h a i r y and glandular. nitens ...... erect stems....... white-bracted nodes... .. Plants perennial...... annual or p e r e m i a l herbs with flowers i n open....... The flowers are borne i n open...... Comnon Chickweed Comnon chickweed i s a low amual with d i f f u s e l y branched... terminal... the lower ones petiolate.... Petals are deeply divided i n t o narrow lobes shorter than the sepals... amual plants....... wavy-margined.......& central Presl..... south t o CA............500 f t ) along logging roads..... bracts o f inflorescence menbranous and papery.....3 S t e m pubescent. longitxs S........ open disturbed habitats i n the v a l l e y t o the lower subalpine zone.. leafy-bracted inflorescences....... stem leafy only on the lower 1/2................. t r a i l i n g stems that root a t the nodes and are up t o 50 a (20 i n ) long. densely hairy..................... Long...........5 Flowers i n many-flowered inflorescences........ The capsule i s egg-shaped.......... basal leaves are p e t i o l a t e with a blade 3-8 mn long..........(4) S.. I t can be found t o 1980 m (6.... introduced throughout much of North America.... Sand Spurry Red Sand Spurry Red sand spurry i s a small....... n The leaves are egg-shaped and usually 10-25 mn long.... and the seed capsule i s egg-shaped t o c y l i n d r i c a l ..... a t least above .. bracteate inflorescences i n the leaf a x i l s o r a t the ends of the stems.. l o n g i f o l i a Group I....... There are 3 styles.leaved Starwort This species i s a perennial with long................8 S........................... Plants o f montane zone or be1. Herbage glabrous or with h a i r more evenly d i s t r i b u te............ NM.. This plant i s comnon i n dry.. Flowers are borne on long....... ... S t e l l a r i a media (L...... 4-angled. 7 S.................... widely introduced i n North America.......8 2 Plants occurring a t timberline or above ....... Stem.................. The petals are white and deeply lobed or lacking..................) J.... Spergularia r h r a (L........................) J.............. usually leafy throughout ... spreading or reflexed stalks subtended by papery bracts.......... the upper without petioles... The linear t o narrowly lance-shaped leaves are 1-4 cm long and glabrous or with h a i r s on the margins. ......... Native t o Eurasia......(3) S...........7 Leaves linear t o narrowly lanceolate ..............4 Flowers s o l i t a r y i n leaf axils......... 5-20 c (2-8 i n ) t a l l . The stems and petioles are short-hairy i n longitudinal lines..................6 S............ Starwort..... g l a h l a r sepals are 4-5 mn long........ that are sinple or branched a t the m base.... and SC. p a r t i a l l y shaded disturbed habitats such as lawns and gardens. The lance-shaped sepals are 3-4 mn long.... obtusa Petals shorter than the sepals......... .. Chickweed Our species are mostly low... Flowers are borne on slender s t a l k s i n leafy bracted inflorescences from the leaf a x i l s and the ends of the stems....... The egg-shaped.... The 5 sepals are separate t o the base. calycantha Petals longer than the sepals.. Long-leaved starwort usually occurs i n moist meadows from the valleys t o the lower subalpine zone.......... Native o f Europe..

The oblong seed capsule i s about as long as the sepals. usually 10-30 cm (5-12 i n ) long. The narrowly lance-shaped leaves are 1-3 cm long and without petioles. The foliage i s glabrous o r sparsely hairy. east t o Alta. Petals are minute or lacking. 1 Bong. Petals are lacking. 8. 7. UY. i s usually less than 15 cm t a l l with 1-3 flowers from the Lpper leaf a x i l s .. monantha Hultenl Longstalk Starwort Longstelk starwort has several. The white-margined sepals are 2-4 mn long and prominently 3nerved. The thin. Circunboreal. the lower p a i r s united around the stem. Flowers are on slender s t a l k s i n the leaf a x i l s or i n a terminal. The second group i s composed of native p e r e m i a l species found i n the mountains. WY. The l-many flowers are borne on long. MN. The 4-5 glabrous and white-margined sepals are 2-3 mn long. eggshaped leaves are 8-15 mn long with short petioles. Stel l a r i a calycantha (Ledeb. from creeping rootstocks. I t i s not known t o occur i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. The petals are much shorter than the sepals o r lacking. 5-20 c (2-8 m i n ) long. Var. from branching rootstocks. AK t o CA. 4-angled. Simco Mtn. The broadly lance-shaped leaves are 4-9 cm (2-4 i n ) long and without petioles. Stel l a r i a simcoei (Howel 1) H i tchc. Bluntsepaled chickweed i s comnon i n moist. S t e l l a r i a obtusa Engelm. B luntsepa led Chickweed These are low.] Cowherb Cowherb Cowherb i s a taprooted annual with steins. simple o r branched stems. 4. south t o CA. Northern Starwort Plants have several prostrate t o erect stems. and 3-4 mn long. t o C . & Schlecht. open or p a r t i a l l y shaded habitats i n the montane t o t i h e r l i n e zones. Crisped Starwort This i s a low plant with prostrate t o ascending stems. NM. I t has been collected south o f Hamilton and on Mount Sentinel east of Missoula. Petals are minute or lacking. B. The white-margined sepals are about 4 mn long and evidently 3-nerved. 6. The egg-shaped capsule i s much longer than the sepals a t maturity. Our plants are var. leafy inflorescence. 5-20 cm (2-8 i n ) long. and NY. S t e l l a r i a longipes Goldie [S. Vaccaria segetal i s (Neck. I t i s r a r e i n our area. and up t o 40 cm (16 i n ) t a l l . branched above. Petals are shorter than the sepals or lacking. 3-nerved. bongardiana Fern. s t r a i g h t stalks i n an open inflorescence or i n the Llpper leaf axi 1s. The f o l i a g e i s glabrous with a few h a i r s on the leaf margins. east t o Alta.C R O H LLACEAE AYPY inflorescences. Foliage i s glabrous except f o r h a i r s o f t e n on the lower leaf margins. The mature. open s o i l i n the upper subalpine t o alpine zones. south t o C . B. Flowers are s o l i t a r y on long stalks i n the upper leaf a x i l s . Circumpolar. slender pedicels (often reflexed a t maturity) i n leafybracteate inflorescences. Foliage i s spreading-hairy throughout. The egg-shaped m leaves are 5-10 mn long and mostly without petioles. shaded or p a r t i a l l y shaded. The delicate. gravelly or grassy habitats i n the valleys. without white margins. 5. The plant has been collected once i n our area. erect o r ascending. Shining chickweed i s uncomnon i n open.C. east t o MT and nw. This species occurs i n moist. ) Garcke tL p y r m i d a t a Medic. and UY. east t o MT. Northern starwort i s comnon i n moist. subalpine habitats i n the A O Sapphire Range. A A Vaccar i a Medic. Flowers are borne on long. G O P 11. from slender rootstocks. The lance-shaped sepals are white-margined. The sepals are 2-3 mn long. Starwort This starwort has numerous. Var. egg-shaped capsule i s longer than the sepals. prostrate t o ascending stems. ID and UT. and NY. disturbed. leaf margins. The lance-shaped t o e l l i p t i c leaves are 1-5 cm long. U t o C . open o r p a r t i a l l y shaded habitats i n the subalpine and timberline zones. The egg-shaped capsule i s longer than the calyx. The sepals are 2-5 mn long and white-margined. Comnon i n moist. longipes i s usually greater than 15 cm (6 i n ) t a l l with many flowers i n an open inflorescence. on a gravel bar on Reimel Creek southeast o f Darby. matted plants with nunerous. and C . egg-shaped leaves have short petioles (or lacking) and blades that are 10-20 mn long with wavy margins. t o Baja Cal. up t o 15 cm (6 i n ) long. never RU i n the valleys. S t e l l a r i a c r i s m Cham. The deeply 2-lobed petals are longer than the sepals. A Two v a r i e t i e s occur i n our area. a l t o c a u l i s (Hulten) Hitchc. The f o l i a g e i s glabrous except f o r h a i r s on the lower Flowers are s o l i t a r y on long stalks from the upper leaf axils. .C. M I . prostrate stems 3-10 c (1-4 i n ) long.

S. Stellaria calycantha g. S. Stellaria media d. Spergularia rubra f. S.inner sqml wtrr repal Spergulorio rubra p '// lower surface loof a. Spergula arvensis b. nitens . longifolia e. crispa c.

lax.... Pachistima myrsinites (Pursh) Raf. A Pachistima Raf. Native o f Europe.. Plants and flowers m y have one or both sexes present. The 4 petals are reddishpurple and 1-2 mn long... Both male and female flowers occur on the same plant. The f o l i a g e i s o f t e n ilmealyll with thin. The spreading........ introduced i n t o most o f North America. usually broadly lance-shaped. The herbage i s completely glabrous. UT.Pachistim Glossopetalon Gray Green-bush Glossopetalon nevadense Gray [Forsel l e s i a s t i p u l i f e r a ( S t . usually 20-60 un (8-24 i n ) long... F r u i t s are achenes with two divergent basal spines and a straight. The 4-5 sepals are united a t the base. Hornwort i s comnon i n the valleys i n standing or slowly flowing water of rivers.. I D t o C . filamentous segments whose shape varies according t o t h e i r p o s i t i o n on the plant.. MT.. and 11-14 mn long. rmchbranched stems up t o 4 m (13 f t ) long..... occurs on steep c l i f f s near Painted Rock Reservoir.. spreading. east t o w..... terminal spine ( t o 12 mn long) formed from the persistent style. The f r u i t i s a capsule with 1-2 fleshy-covered seeds. The opposite. CERATOPHYLLACEAE Hornwort Family Hornwort Comnon Hornwort Cerato~hyllun L. and there are 5-8 stamens. 1. The alternate... 5-ribbed.. The f r u i t i s a capsule... spine-tipped branches have green bark and are grooved lengthwise.. The leathery capsule i s grooved lengthwise and about 3 mn long. .. CELASTRACEAE Staff Tree Family Our members o f t h i s family are shrubs with small.. . grayish green leaves are entire. The 1-many small flowers are clustered i n the leaf axi 1s or i n narrow t o open terminal inflorescences. Mountain lover i s c m n i n d r y t o moist....f l o a t i n g aquatic f o r b with slender.... Minute.. leafy-bracted inflorescence. Ceratouhyllun demersun L.. north of Missoula. east t o the Rocky Mountains.... [Paxistima myrsinites (Pursh) Raf ... suhersed or f r e e ... while others are native species occurring i n calcareous or saline s o i l s .. Many of our species are cosmopolitan weeds. Flowers are borne i n an open.... (Not i l l u s t r a t e d ) . and ponds... The pink petals are shallowly notched and g r e a t l y exceed the petals. shiny..C... The flowers have 2-5 usually green sepals.. CHENOPODIACEAE Goosefoot Family Members of the Goosefoot Family are ( i n our area) annual o r perennial herbs with simple. male and female flowers... alternate or occasionally opposite leaves and often angled or jointed stems... petals white Leaves opposite..... and the petals are separate. evergreen shrub with prostrate t o ascending stems. I t i s usually purplish and becomes greatly enlarged and angled a t maturity. A population of these shrubs.. and deep green with toothed margins. John) Ensign1 Green-bush i s a densely branched. This species occurs i n open. The white petals are 4-9 mn long. without petals are borne i n the leaf a x i l s .. Myrtle Boxwood This i s a low.. I n our area i t has been f o d i n overgrazed pastures near Hamilton and on Waterworks H i 11.. t o C ...... and AZ... deciduous shrub that may grow up t o 3 m (10 f t ) t a l l .. have blades that are 1-2 times dissected i n t o linear. i n whorls o f 5-12. inconspicuous flowers borne i n the a x i l s o f the leaves.Glossomtalon ....... sloughs.... 1. flat-topped.. and 3-15 mn long... a l l less than 1 m (3 f t ) t a l l .. I n forest s i t e s that have recently been cleared. shaded habitats i n the montane and lower subalpine zones...... f l a k y scales. o f t e n subtended by 2-5 bracts that enlarge upon maturity.... I Mountain Lover. B. Comnon hornwort i s a rootless. Mountain Box Mountain Lover. petals reddish... This i s a cosmopolitan species..... The t i n y flowers are borne a t the base of the upper leaves and bloom i n the l a t e spring. Leaves alternate... A This species seem t o occur only i n s i t e s that have a r e l a t i v e l y high winter snow cover and are a t least p a r t i a l l y shaded from the afternoon winter sun. Sessile leaves.......CELASTRACEAE The herbage i s glabrous.. Pachist ima shows extensive damage probably caused by repeated freezing and thawing o f exposed tissue during l a t e winter and e a r l y spring. broadly lance-shaped leaves are 1-3 cm long. disturbed habitats i n the valleys. The leaves maintain t h e i r color during the winter. The t u k r l a r calyx i s 10-nerved..

obtusa c. Pachistima myrsinites . simcoei d. S. e. Stellaria longipes b. S. Vaccaria segetalis Glossopetalon nevadense f.a. Ceratophyllum demersum if.

... Larger leaves greater F r u i t i n g bracts less than 6 mn wide... hastata (L.... p l a n t s mostly amuals .. more-or-less opposite...... leaves less than 7 cm l ong.rnaturity.. French spinach i s a c u l t i v a t e d vegetable... Sal tbush These p l a n t s are annual (ours) o r perennial herbs or shrubs w i t h mostly a l t e r n a t e leaves and glabrous o r scaly herbage...2 Leaves narrowly l i n e a r .. the males mostly above the females.. A.. t r i p l e x A Flowers w i t h 1-5 sepals..t o egg-shaped blades. The hardened. The prominent f r u i t i n g bracts (sometimes lacking) are e l l i p t i c and 6-12 mn wide at.. perennial from a woody rootcrown... .... The leaves are broadly lance... Greasewood. toothed o r lobed. 1.. Upper leaves and flower b r a c t s s p i n e .. f r u i t i n g bracts are sessile........... A t r i p l e x hortensis L........ few bumps.. A t r i p l e x p a t u l a L...... . The flowers are unisexual......... Introduced from Eurasia and widely introduced i n t o much o f North America.. annual herb w i t h green stems up t o 1 rn (3 f t ) t a l l t h a t are o f t e n branched from the base...... and in) long..... not glandular ............. Flowers are c l u s t e r e d i n the leaf a x i l s o r i n r e l a t i v e l y narrow terminal inflorescences.... once c o l l e c t e d i n a neglected garden below Mount Sentinel i n Missoula.. Chenopodiun L... 1............ The s e s s i l e o r short-pet-iolate leaves are covered w i t h grayish scales and have lance....4 Flowers lacking sepals....... . rosea .................. 1....... 2.... This species i s an annual w i t h s i n p l e or branching stems t h a t are erect o r curved a t t h e t o 1 m (3 f t ) t a l l ..... Garden Orache.... Leaves and bracts not spine-tipped ...............CHENOPODIACEAE 1....) Gray............... There are 5 stamens. R e d Orache Red orache i s an erect............ u n i t e d below middle. 2.... 2.. 3.. mostly alternate. Pigweed Species i n t h i s genus are annuals (ours) w i t h mealy or occasionally glandular foliage...... R a v a l l i County indicates.. The herbage may be t h i n l y s c a l y when young but i s u s u a l l y glabrous........ . The females are without a calyx o r c o r o l l a but are subtended by 2 o r more b r a c t s t h a t enlarge i n f r u i t ..... ........ 2.... Flowers have both sexes and are borne i n dense c l u s t e r s i n l e a f a x i l s o r terminal inflorescences..5 --a l i Salsola k At r i p l e x L ...(2) A.. Orache... Eurasia and North America.. and i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t s have one o r both sexes... w h i t i s h mealy o r with glandular hairs. f r u i t not enclosed i n swollen bracts..2 than 7 cm (3 i n ) long .........t i p p. 2-5 cm (1-2 i n ) long... Throughout album or C.... This species i s o f t e n confused w i t h Chenopodiun hybridun but can be distinguished by the enlarged bracts.. Our p l a n t s are var.......... This p l a n t occurs mainly on disturbed s o i l i n open h a b i t a t s o f the v a l l e y zone....... I t may be more comnon than the s i n g l e c o l l e c t i o n from ne. The f o l i a g e i s covered w i t h t h i n scales I n f r u i t ........ the b r a c t s are t r i a n g u l a r w i t h e n t i r e o r toothed margins.. The lower leaves are t r i a n g u l a r or arrow-shaped. 2.. The a l t e r n a t e leaves are u s u a l l y p e t i o l a t e and e n t i r e ... u n i t e d below and sometimes fleshy.. Plants grayish with a covering o f mealy scales a t maturity........... They have 2-5 green or red sepals........ 3. ..3 Leaves w i t h s t r a i g h t h a i r s on the margins and s o f t h a i r beneath.... sparsely o r not a t a1 1 covered w i t h grayish scales....Suaeda intermedia Leaves not c y l i n d r i c a l .. 4...... and 5-20 cm (2-8 i n ) long.... the surface smooth o r w i t h a Spearscale i s a comnon weed on deep f e r t i l e s o i l s o f gardens and f i e l d s i n the v a l l e y ..... f r u i t enclosed i n a p a i r of swollen.. Flower b r a c t s are lacking........... Native t o Asia and occasionally escaped i n North America..c y l i n d r i c a l . Goosefoot.. becoming lance-shaped and a l t e r n a t e above.. hortensis (1) patula Spearscal e base and up 2-7 cm (1-3 when young... 4. e l l i p t i c t o t r i a n g u l a r b r a c t s . French Spinach This p l a n t i s an erect annual w i t h angled stems t h a t may be over 1 m (3 f t ) t a l l ........t o spade-shaped... 1....... F r u i t i n g bracts 6-12 mn wide...... 3.. This p l a n t has separate male and female flowers t h a t are borne i n spikes a t the end of a x i l l a r y branches and the main stem..Kochia scoparia Leaves e i t h e r glabrous.... A t r i d e x rosea L...... w i t h toothed margins and a wedge-shaped base.. Plants greenish a t maturity...... The b r a c t l e s s male flowers have 2-5 tepals and 5 stamens.. and 4-6 mn long w i t h toothed margins.

............. murale Leaf blades 2-6(8) cm (1-2 i n ) long............ toothed o r lobed...... stems usually not prostrate ...(7) C........................... except i n the inflorescence... Nett l e ........... Native o f Eurasia... I t has been collected on dry......... glaucun .....5 m (5 f t ) t a l l . introduced throughout North America.. . 1........4 Sepals becoming fleshy and reddish i n f r u i t ....... Native t o Eurasia...................... 2...... uncomnon. .......... usually green on both surfaces 5 Leaves e i t h e r lance-shaped and/or whitish-mealy on both surfaces.. roadsides... they can be found along logging roads...........6 C............... This group contains introduced weeds comnonly associated with man-caused disturbances i n the v a l l e y zone..................... The second group consists of mostly native species o f t e n found i n the montane zone as well as the valleys................. leptophyllun Leaves 1-10 mn wide........ This species i s comnon i n gardens and fields......... Group I.. The inflorescence i s made up of small flower clusters on narrow......7 ........... 9 C.............. and around o l d homesteads and overgrazed pastures... glabrous above....... The sepals are united only a t the base and are not ridged on the back.... [C....... (213-20 cm (1-8 i n ) long......... Maple.............. capitatun Sepals not becoming reddish and fleshy..... hybridun................. and has erect and o f t e n branched stems up t o 1 m (3 f t ) tall... i n recent clearcuts..2 Leaves and inflorescences glabrous or nearly so... hybridurn C.................................... hardened soi 1 along boardwalks on the university campus i n Missoula.. stems prostrate or occasionally erect Calyx whitish-mealy............... Chenopodiwn hybridun L... Leaf blades (5)7-20 cm (3-8 i n ) long. The seed has minute grooves o r pits............... The leaves are egg..... plants more comnon i n disturbed areas o f grasslands 5 C........ and waste areas i n the valley 1 C.............................. The flowers are clustered on short branches i n the leaf a x i l s and i n a compact terminal inflorescence. I t i s t y p i c a l l y associated with C... The leaves are succulent and mealy below and often above.............. rubrun Leaves large.. 6 Plants glandular and aromatic Plants not glandular ...... 3................... ................. Chenopodiun mrrale L........ introduced i n t o most of North America....... Seeds are d u l l with minute ridges or p i t s ............. Leaves mostly more than 10 mn wide or less than 3 times as............ and 3-10 cm (1-4 i n ) long............. ......1eaf Goosef oot Sowbane i s glabrous. Besides occurring i n gardens and f i e l d s ............ coarsely toothed. The spade-shaped o r triangular leaves are b r i g h t green............. This species may be more widespread than our collections indicate. egg-shaped t o triangular.. introduced i n t o much of North America....... spikelike branches.....CEOO I H N P D ACEAE ALL our members o f t h i s genus occur on n a t u r a l l y or man-caused disturbed habitats............ The flowers are borne i n clusters i n narrow inflorescences........ gisantos~ermun Aellenl Sowbane... and sparsely mealy beneath....1ong as wide Leaves o f t e n lobed near the base but not toothed......... .. a t least 3 times as long as w i d.. album .............. The sepals are mealy and united only a t the base.......................... s l i g h t l y o r not a t a l l whitishmealy.. inflorescence mealy..................... This plant i s comnon i n gardens and f i e l d s ........8 (4) C....(3) ... A t r i p l e x patula and Sonchus spp.....3 Leaves or inflorescences mealy (covered x i t h f l a k y scales)............. The seeds are shiny black. Leaf blades are spade-shaped t o triangular.. 8 C............... Chenopodim a l h L......................................... up t o 20 cm (8 i n ) long and variously toothed or lobed... hybridurn............. 2-6 cm (1-2 i n ) long.. inflorescence l i t t l e o r not whitish mealy.. e...... Mature plants o f t e n become tinged with red.. comnon 2 C............ Lanbls Quarters Lambls quarters has erect stems up t o 1....... albun or C... Nettle-leaved goosefoot i s mrch less c m n than C. flowers not i n d i s t i n c t globose clusters ................... Sepals glabrous...... plants of gardens............or spade-shaped... The sepals are mealy and have a ridge on the back......... flowers i n globose clusters . Group 11.....1eaved Goosef oot Plants of t h i s species are b r i g h t green with stems t h a t ' a r e simple or branched from the base and up t o 50 cm (20 i n ) t a l l ........ fremontii Leaves of lower stem usually coarsely toothed...... Native o f Eurasia............. botrys .....

a. hybridurn e. Atriplex rosea b. hortensis c. C. murale . Artiplex patula f. C. A. Chenopodium album 112 d.

Foliage i s g l a b r w s below the inflorescence. i t occurs i n dry.C. B. mealy beneath. Flowers are crowded on narrow branches i n the leaf axils. open soi 1 around ponds and on r i v e r banks and gravel bars. lance-shaped and entire. Jerusalem Oak. terminal branches. Flowers are i n dense clusters i n the leaf axils. C. m becoming much smaller upwards. [C.) A.) Asch. green and glabrous above. This desert species occurs i n dry. Oakleaf Goosefoot This species i s strongly aromatic and f r e e l y branched from near the base with stems up t o 60 cm (2 ft) tall. The t h i r d group contains native and introduced species most comnonly occurring i n wetland and r i p a r i a n habitats i n the valley.. short petioles. The triangular leaves are toothed or shallowly lobed and petiolate. Introduced from Eurasia. 8. t o CAI east t o the A t l a n t i c Coast. more often. East o f the Cascades. a s i m i l a r species. L C . Chenopodiun capitatun (L. with e n t i r e or few-lobed margins. narrow branches i n a leafy infloresence. A f r i c a and Australia. This plant usually occurs i n seasonally wet. comnon i n much of temperate North America. Nels. The oblong t o egg-shaped leaf blades are g l a b r w s above. The sepals are separate t o the middle or below. Sepals are white-margined and evidently ridged on the back. B. The seed i s black.) Wats. I n our area. The leaf petioles are long and o f t e n reddish a t the base. The flowers are i n compect clusters on short spikelike branches i n the leaf a x i l s . one plant was collected i n rmd on an island i n the Clark Fork River near the University o f Montana..C. The seed i s smooth and shiny.1 Slim-leaf Goosefoot These are slender plants with erect. Oakleaf Goosefoot Plants are c h l l bluish-green with spreading or prostrate stems that are o f t e n reddish and up t o 30 crn (12 in) long. The sepals are divided nearly t o the base. heavy. Flowers are borne i n small clusters on narrow. The f o l i a g e i s densely sticky-glandular throughout. t o OR. The sepals are separate t o the base. The leaves i n the inflorescence are smaller.C E OO I H N P O ACEAE 4. The spade-shaped t o triangular leaf blades are 1-6 cm long with shallow teeth. occurs just east of our area and may be expected i n moist. Chenopodiun frernontii Wats. . The seed i s oblong. The leaves are broadly lance-shaped t o triangular. Kochia scoparia and Salsola k a l i . Flowers are clustered i n short. Native t o Eurasia. with blades up t o 10 c (4 i n ) long. atrovirens Rydb. Chenopodiun LeptoPhyllun (Moq. Red Goosefoot Red goosefoot i s a fleshy. east t o the Great Plains. It i s comnonly found with Polygonun aviculare. The 3-5 sepals are fleshy and b r i g h t red a t maturity. 7. e n t i r e or lobed a t the base. The seeds are shiny and dark brown.C. spikelike branches. I t also occurs along roadsides. The seeds are d u l l and wrinkled. subglabrun (Wats. f r e e l y branching stems 4 t o 80 cm (32 i n ) t a l l .~alcareous. The Leaves are l i n e a r n o r narrowly lance-shaped. introduced i n t o much o f North America. 6. Elsewhere. montane zones. also i n Eurasia. and sparsely mealy beneath. Strawberry B l it e Strawberry b l i t e i s a glabrous plant with erect. North America. branched stems 20-60 a (8-16 i n ) t a l l . Ael len.1 Fremontls Goosefoot Fremontls goosefoot has erect. disturbed habitats such as road shoulders and walkways. a l k a l i n e soils. spreading plant with branched stems up t o 50 cm (20 i n ) t a l l that are o f t e n tinged with red. I n our area. Monolepis nuttalliana. Sepals are mealy and ridged on the back. p a r t i a l l y shaded habitats i n the Sapphire Range. and blades 1-4 cm long. only small specimens o f t h i s plant have been found below the high water mark on the banks of the Clark Fork River. Chenopodiun botrys L. and i r r e g u l a r l y lobed with wavy m margins. Ue have one c o l l e c t i o n from the Rattlesnake Mountains. and sharply toothed (resembling an oak leaf i n outline). Oakleaf goosefoot i s comnon i n moist t o wet. disturbed s o i l . east t o the Great Plains. Occurs i n seasonally or permanently moist habitats with r i c h s o i l i n the v a l l e y or. usually 1-4 cm long. Chenopodiun r u b r q L. B. occasionally approaching the subalpine zone. 9. Alta. north of Missoula. t o Baja Cal. East o f the Cascades. oblong t o oval i n outline. This plant i s most o f t e n found i n areas of grasslands and open ponderosa pine forest disturbed by livestock i n the v a l l e y and montane zones. branched stems up t o 80 cm (32 i n ) t a l l . 1-3 cm long. The foliage i s usually mealy throughout. Group 111. Flowers are clustered on leafy. east t o the Great Plains. t o Baja Cal. 5. . introduced i n t o e. Chenopodiun glaucun L. The leaves are mostly 2-4 c long. chenopodioides (L.

botrys f. C. Chenopodium leptophyllum b. leptophyllurn a. C. C. C.var. fremontii c. C. rubrum . glaucum e. capitatum d.

The f r u i t i s cup-shaped. i t i s most c m n i n open disturbed habitats. S m r cypress i s comnon i n open. flattened and usually bent segment above. broadened and lobed a t the base. spreading stems up t o 30 cm (12 i n ) long and forms rosettes o f leaves i n the f a l l . T a l l sea b l i t e occurs i n open. scales. and 5-30 mn long.C. Flowers are borne i n dense clusters a t the leaf bases. Monolepis n u t t a l l i a n a (Schultes) Greene Povertyweed Povert weed Povertyweed i s a low-growing winter annual that has prostrate or ascending. the ray flowers are always on the outer edge e n c i r c l i n g the disk flowers.) Schrad. I t seems able t o establish i n nearly every s o i l type* Monolwis Schrad. This flattened p o r t i o n of the c o r o l l a i s c a l l e d the ray or ligule. e n t i r e leaves are narrowly Lance-shaped. 1 moauini i (Torrey) Greenel % Sea B l i t e T a l l Sea B l i t e Plants are perennials with mwnerous. from a woody rootcrown and a strong taproot. east t o Man. and these heads are termed radiate. membranous sepals are separate almost t o the base. and roadsides.i c a Senn. Individual flowers are of 2 d i s t i n c t types: Ray or l i g u l a t e flowers have a c o r o l l a that i s tubular a t the base with a long. Native of Eurasia. B. Petals o f the c o r o l l a are united. pastures.S. tapered a t both ends. spreading t o erect stems. and NM. The whole plant becomes r i g i d a t maturity when i t breaks o f f a t the ground level and becomes a tttwbLeueed. leafy-bracted branches i n the leaf axils. w. North America. The seeds are smooth. the anthers elevated above them.g.S. surf lower [He1 ianthusl 1. This weed i s r a p i d l y spreading throughout w.& IS. tansy [Tanacetuml) are termed discoid. and the sepals are lacking or represented by a series o f hairs.g. The sepals are h a i r y with papery wings a t maturity. East o f the Cascades. i t has been collected once i n a l k a l i n e s o i l along a road southeast of Darby. Heads composed of only ray flowers (e.C MO I O P S TAE Kochia Roth Mock Cypress r Kochia s c w r i a (L. and NM. up t o 60 cm (24 i n ) t a l l . The f o l i a g e i s glabrous or sometimes covered with a t h i n waxy coat. t o the casual observer. a l k a l i n e o r saline soi 1 but i n our area. The s o l i t a r y sepal i s often reddish. The herbage i s glabrous or covered with hair. 1-2 c long. Suaeda intermedia Vats. Aster or Daisy Fami l y I n t h i s family.1 Russian T h i s t l e Russian T h i s t l e This species i s a many-branched annual with purplish-striped stems up t o 1 m (3 f t ) t a l l . Surmer Cypress Plants are f r e e l y branched. U. The inflorescence i s composed of 1-many variously . e n t i r e leaves are lanceshaped. Heads composed of a l l disk flowers (e. i n the I t was introduced from the steppes of Russia i n the 1890's and i s now widespread i n most o f v a l l e y zone. disturbed habitats. bushy a m w l herbs with erect stems ~po 1 m (3 f t ) t a l l . Flowers are s o l i t a r y or i n clusters on spikelike. gardens. Russian t h i s t l e i s comnon i n open. p a r t i c u l a r l y a g r i c u l t u r a l fields. The lower leaves are 1-6 cn long and threadlike. and up t o 6 cm (2 i n ) long. or awns (pappus). WA t o C . disturbed habitats such as a g r i c u l t u r a l fields. Each head i s enclosed by a few t o many bracts that c o l l e c t i v e l y are known as the involucre. Salsola k --ai lbi eL. Disk flowers have a tubular c o r o l l a with 5 terminal lobes or teeth. I n our area." Flowers are s o l i t a r y i n the leaf a x i l s and subtended by spiny bracts. some turning t red l a t e r i n the season. usually appear as s i n g l e flowers. I f both flower types occur i n one head (e. upper leaves are awl-shaped and spine-tipped. a l k a l i n e or saline habitats. r Pau. The 5 purplish. and Can. . M . The alternate. introduced throughout the U. The alternate. east t o Alta. moist t o wet. A COMPOSITAE (Asteraceae) Sunflower. the flowers are clustered together i n heads which. e n t i r e leaves are linear t o long-cylindrical. m and reduced upwards. 1-seeded achene. The f r u i t i s a dry. The seed i s dark brown. The 5 sepals are rounded on the back. such as road shoulders and around buildings and sidewalks. Herbage i s glabrous r o r pubescent. t o CA. Occurs i n dry. Flowers are borne i n clusters of 1-3(5) a t the base of the leaves. O Salsola L.g. The somewhat succulent.. Suaeda Forsk. dandelion [Taraxacunil) are c a l l e d ligulate. Flowering heads are borne on the enlarged end o f a flowering s t a l k or peduncle.

Salsola kali c. Kochia scoparia b. Suaeda intermedia . Monolepis nuttaliiana d.n a.

.... ...... .. ... ... .......... .....Crepis runcinata gracile .... .. a t least the upper p o r t i o n white . or absent............. .............. ....... plants sometimes p r i c k l y on the leaf margins.......... .. .. ... involucre1 bracts usually greenish 3 Flowering heads composed e n t i r e l y of disk flowers. ... .................4 Corolla o f disk flowers yellow or orange ... achenes without spines or points. ... .. .... . .... . .................... .....Hieraciun Leaves with e n t i r e or shallowly-toothed but not p r i c k l y margins Leaves usually deeply lobed...... Achenes usual l y flattened... .. ............ .......14 ..........9 Stems with leaves a t least on the lower p o r t i o.... ............................Microser i s Pappus b r i s t l e s not broad and flattened toward the base..........GRWP Ray flowers purple....... . . . ..... achenes of ten with a narrow beak between the body and the pappus. ......... .................. ....... ........... ...........4 Involucral bracts i n 2 d i s t i n c t series. .. .... ........Hieracim Involucral bracts glabrous . ... nutans comnunis .. . ....... .... These are p r i n c i p a l l y a m w l and p e r e m i a l herbs and a few shrubs... i f not...C MO I O P S TAE This i s the largest family of flowering plants... .Laana Stem leaves l i n e a r ......... ........ ........Microseris Involucral bracts hairy..... the outer often r e f lexed... ........ .. ... ... .. .. ...... .. Flowering heads with both ray flowers and disk flowers ........................ ....... ....... ............. .......... .........Agoseris Achenes with a slender beak between the body and the pappus.... ... leaves a l l basal... . . .. ... .................... . ....... ........... ...... . ....... ............. .......... .. .... . ... ... ..... ... Key t o the Groups o f Genera Flowering heads composed e n t i r e l y of ray flowers......... . ... ... ........... ..... ......... .. involucral bracts papery..... ........ white. .... native species . .. .12 Stem leaves triangular or spade-shaped..... Xanthiw... ... sap not milky... ..... ........ ............ which has inconspicuous D flowers enclosed i n burs. ......... ...................... ....................... ..... ....... .8 some leaves usually with backward-pointing lobes...... ....... .. ... ... ..GRP B Plants without the above combination of characters.. . ... .. pink or white . ................ . .... . Involucre 6-8 mn high... .. .... ... achenes without a narrow beak between the body and the pappus..... ray flowers absent ....... .. ... blue.. . .......... .l i k e bracts i n the inflorescence.......... .....I3 ... .... . u n c m n weed o f areas ..GROUP A . ............ . ........... . .... ...... . ... ..... ......... . .. .......-2 White-woolly herbs with discoid flowering heads... .. ........ .. . ...... . .. . ....... ... ...........Tragopogm Achenes not flattened.......... . .... ..Microseris Stems leafy t o the top ...... ...... .. . ... sap milky Flowering heads composed p a r t l y o r e n t i r e l y of disk flowers...... . ........... . ......... ........... .. ........ ..... . ...... ....... pink.... .... . .. ... ....... ........ .......... . ... ................. ...................... ..10 Involucral bracts h a i r y ... .......... .. .................. plants not prickly. .... without backward-pointing Lobes.. .... or white .. .. ....... . .... .... ... .............. .... . . .........2 Flowers purple.... . ....3 n. . .. Pappus b r i s t l e s broad and flattened toward the base........... ............... ...... ............ . ....... . .. .. then margins p r i c k l y ........ ...... .... ... ..... . never r e f lexed........... ............ .... . ......... ... ...... H ~ c h a e r i s Achenes without a conspicuous beak. . .............. .. -5 ............... ... .......... ... . . ............ .. ............ . ... . .. ...... .. . ........... .... . ... . .. .... .. ... .... i s included i n t h i s group ........... Flowering heads s o l i t a r y on the naked stem Flowering heads 2-many i n a branched inflorescence. . .. ... ...15 Stems e n t i r e l y leafless or with a few l e a f ...... ...... ..... ...... ... G R P Ray flowers yellow or orange .................. ...... ... . .... ........ ................. .......... ................ . ........ . achenes with spines or points near the s m i t of the body.......... I n our area i t i s represented by 56 arranged heads... 6 E F ... . blue... .... 5 .......... pink. ........ ... ... ..7 Involucral bracts glabrous ... disturbed radicata Involucre 8-21 n high... ... . . ....Taraxacun Involucral bracts i n 1 or more overlapping series.Crepis ..... Stems leafy on the lower 1/2 only ...... .... .... .... leaves e n t i r e or toothed..... ... ........... ....... .................. ... ..... .. ........GROUP GOP A RU Flowers yellow or orange .... ......... .............GRP C Corollas o f d i s k flowers purple.... genera and over 200 species.. .............. ............ ....... blue..... disk flowers absent....... ..... ...

........... stolons o f t e n present ..................2 ... Leaf blade deeply lobed i n t o 1inear segments......................................................................................... 4 I n v o l u c r a l bracts not spiny ............................................. pappus b r i s t l e s unbranched............................... p l a n t s annual........................ Arnica Leaves a l t e r n a t e .....l i k e b r i s t l e s ............................................................................................... e t r a cansecens T Involucre o f 6-many b r a c t s ................... heads nodding ........................................ ................................. Flowering heads c l u s t e r e d touard the t o p o f the stem F i l a g o arvensis ......................................................... i f white............................................6 7 Pappus consisting o f a low r i d g e a t the t o p o f the achene o r lacking ..... h a i r ....................... 5 Leaves w i t h spines a t l e a s t 2 mn long on the margins Leaves without spines on the margins........ a t r i c a r i a matricarioides M Heads many i n an inflorescence.................................. .......................-3 Flower s t a l k s s t r a i g h t ................................ ........ ... Spines of involucre hooked ..................... a n a c e t vulgare T Shrubs w i t h woody stems above ground level......... C i c h o r i m intybus Pappus of thin................................ without t u f t e d basal leaves .................................... r t m i s i a Leaves e n t i r e ................. Plants herbeceous GOP D RU ... ............COMWSITAE Mature achenes without a slender beak between the body and pappus............................ 8 Inflorescence narrow o r spreading....... leaves not deeply lobed .......................... Prenanthes s a q i t t a t a Pappus o f minute scales ............................2 ................................................ ....3 Plants perennial.E r e r o n c m s i tus Senecio Leaf blade shallowly lobed o r e n t i r e .....H e r a c a l b i f l o r u n Lower stems and leaves glabrous ..............................................4 Involucre of 4-5 bracts .. ...... i r s i m C Flower s t a l k s bent.... a r d s nutans C -I n v o l u c r a l bracts spiny. heads h e l d erect ............ pappus b r i s t l e s branched and feather-like....... m..... ....Sonchus .......S t e h a n m r i a Flowers b l u e o r white........................ then leaves deeply lobed............................2 Plants annual...........Lactuca Mature achenes with o r without a beak........... Flowering heads mostly s o l i t a r y a t the ends o f branches.......... 5 Pappus o f slender b r i s t l e s .. b l u e or pink........... f r u i t of some species a krr .......................... heads with 11-56 flowers........................t o p p e d ................................................. not f l a t ...........Anaphalis .............................4 I n v o l u c r a l bracts almost e n t i r e l y white and papery.......... o f t e n i n disturbed areas... .........................17 Lower stems and leaves long h a i r y ............... 3 A Leaves deeply d i v i d e d o r lobed a t the t i p .. heads w i t h 85-250 flowers........................................ without h a i r s I n v o l u c r a l bracts w i t h a p o r t i o n t h a t i s colored or h a i r y .................................. 6 Cmtaurea Spines o f involucre s t r a i g h t ................................. 18 Flowers pink............................ n a h a l i u n G Plants with fibrous roots...............................................................................................................................................................Lactuca GOP B RU ......................................................... ... Antemaria GOP C RU Flowering heads i n the a x i l s o f the leaves along the upper 1/2-1/3 o f the s t e .......................................................... A r t m i s i a Inflorescence f l a t ......................................................................................G n a h a l i m Plants w i t h a taproot......................... Chrysothamus Leaves opposite on the stem .................................................... p l a n t s b i e n n i a l o r p e r e m i a l ......... Flowers white.................. ..............................t o p p e d ................ ..............16 Flowers u s u a l l y purple...... h a b i t a t s various .............................................................................................................................................................................

...................-11 Pappus b r i s t l e s branched and feathery ...................... .........................9 d........ mostly greater than 3 mn wide ....... ........... ....... ........... p l a n t s p e r e m i a l ... .............. less than 1 cm t a l l ... ..... Adenocaulon b i c o l o r Leaves not white beneath.8 Pappus b r i s t l e s unbranche...... ................................... flowers 2. ................. a p l o u s uni f lorus H Flowering heads several t o many .......................................................... ........ rays greater than 1... ........ GROUP E Pappus composed o f s i q l e o r branched h a i r ...... a l a r da aristata .........Haplomwus .......... ............. . ........... ...... H e un autunna l e Rays not r e f lexed... ..........................................................-15 Rays r e f lexed downward...... ........................................................ .... wider than h a i r ............. ..........-14 .......... ... .............Arnica Leaves a l t e r n a t e o r basal ............5-4 cm t a l l ...... Leaves lance-shaped......... ................................... .................l i k e b r i s t l e s ............. . Leaves mainly basal.......lobed a t the tip..............Xanthim ..... .............................................. inconspicuous I n v o l u c r a l bracts separate.... rays less than 1................. ........... ........................... .... u t o r occidentale E I n v o l u c r a l bracts not equal i n length...... .......... black a t the t i p .Senecio I n v o l u c r a l bracts i n 2-several series.............................. ... o f t e n overlapping 4 ..... plants annual . ...................................13 Plants covered with dense white h a i r ................. i n 2-several series ......... ....H a l o u s acaulis I n v o l u c r a l bracts hairy.....B r i c k e l l i a g r a n d i f l o r a Leaves p i m a t e l y d i v i d e d or deeply lobed......................... 6 I n v o l u c r a l bracts glabrous.5 cm long.... ................1 ........ll Rays lobed a t the t i p ........... 3 I n v o l u c r a l bracts o f equal length (except f o r a few small ones a t the base o f the involucre)................. Rays e n t i re-margined a t the tip.. .. .............................................. r o s i a W Corollas present... .. d i s k flowers purple.................... toothed or lobed margins. ......... green throughout...... .............. . plants of forested habitats .. stem leaves reduced.. r e r o n 1inear i s E Involucre 2-6 mn high.............................. ...... ..... .. less than 1 cm wide .............. ....... ................................... Lower stem leaves w i t h entire............ = ...................... . Chaenactis Leaves conspicuously white beneath.................... ................................... flowers many.................l i k e b r i s t l e s Pappus a low crown o r lacking o r conposed o f scales o r awns.......... plants occurring along r i v e r s Rays e n t i r e o r with minute teeth a t the t i p ............ .. ............ .. . .......5 Stem Leaves conspicuous....... ...................................... ......... ............................ rays mostly less than 6 mn long .........L i a t r i s punctata Petasites f r i g i d u s Basal leaves large and conspicuous a t flowering t i me......... these sometimes branched and feathery ....................... not much overlapping . ... .........2 Lower stem leaves p i n n a t e l y d i v i d............... ......... ................... Plants shrubs o r herbaceous w i t h persistent basal leaves .............. 7 scales (broader than b r i s t l e s ) or lacking .. not deeply lobed or divided .................. .. Pappus o f Pappus o f ..................................... .......... .2 .13 Flowers without corollas.....12 Leaves toothed or entire....................... ......... .......Ratibida colunnifera Flowering heads more disk-shaped.....Saussurea americana ..................... . ....... .......... ....................................Solida go Chrysopsis v i l l o s a 10 ............ ...........Arct iun h a i r l i k e b r i s t l e s ...... ......E r i o h y l lanatun Plants not densely white-hairy ...................5 cm long...... d i s k flowers ye1 low........... .. plants o f sunny habitats ........ ................... ......... many greater than 1 cm wide Leaves linear...... Basal leaves mostly deciduous by flowering time ............... Plants herbaceous w i t h basal leaves deciduous by flowering t i me...... 1...... ............ ..Anthemis t i n c t o r i a Rays 3........................................... not deeply divided............. rays greater than 6 mn long ........... ................................................... .10 I n v o l u c r a l bracts mostly o f equal length .. apparent.........COMPOSI TAE I n v o l u c r a l bracts u n i t e d t o form a s o l i d bur........ .......... ..................... .... ......... 8 F lowering heads usual l y s o l itary............ Coreopsis atkinsoniana Flowering heads c o l u m a r i n shape...........9 Leaves opposite on the stem . 7 Involucre greater than 6 mn high........... ...... ............. less than 3 mn wide ..

...... Flowering heads are borne i n flat-topped........................... .......... 9 1............. 20............................ .................................................... ........ and f i n e l y dissected i n t o many l i n e a r segnents.. heads (not including rays) generally more than 2 cm wide........................................................... 7 ......... 8........... white-woolly beneath.. rays 7-15 mn long Involucral bracts not resinous............. or sometimes branched below the inflorescence...............a canadensis Plants biennial o r perennial...... 6 1.... rays greater than 1 cm long ............. more than 2................. The heads are radiate............ 15........... ......... involucre 2-4 mn high ....... 19 narrow bracts present.............. 1 21............................................................................. ..Helianthm Flowering heads small...............................G r e l a ssuarrosa .......................1 1 Rays less than 5 mn long .....y e t h i a arrplexicaul i s ......................... plants not i l l . less than 2 cm l ong....... plants o f disturbed meadows grasslands and roadsides ......................... 3. . ................ involucre greater than 4 mn high Flowering heads without flowers.................................. narrowly oblong i n outline................... Yarrow Yarrow........ 8 1..s m e l l i ng................................ Teeth o f leaf margins spine-tipped Leaves without spines on the margins Basal Basal 5.. 11............ True r a y flowers present true rays....... 9................. Involucre u s u a l l y more than 1 cm high.................................. 1................................. .. Rays greater than 5 mn l ong........................ 1. then leaves different.................................................... s c a l e ............................................ Centaurea ....................... Plants have 1-several stems t h a t are The stems and f o l i a g e are variously upright............. 9 Leavesentire.......................... I n v o l u c r a l bracts h a i r y Involucral bracts glabrous .. 2...... and the leaves are alternate................... 6 ......................... plants a t lower elevations u s u a l l y flowering before mid-surmer Erigerm I n v o l u c r a l bracts i n 2-several series and overlapping........... ........... 17 Plants occurring a t t i m b e r l i n e or above ...... 4..Bidens c e r n w -Lower stem leaves alternate.............. 7 18............................. o n l y 1-2 shaped Stem leaves not g r e a t l y reduced triangular ................... but and resembling ray .................. u e a a l s i d a Plants occurring i n the montane zone or below .... 7................s m e l l i n g 11.. p l a n t s a t Lower elevations u s u a l l y flowering i n mid-surmer o r l a t e r Aster 8 ........................................... 1........ i f as large............ Both the d i s k and ray flowers are white or occasionally pinkish..... 6 17........B a r h z a s a g i t t a t a ............................................ c h l e a m i l l e f o l i u n A 10 Anthemis cotula 10.............. u s u a l l y occurring i n lawns .......... t o o t h e d o r lobed.................. 2..............................................................Chrysanthemum leucanthemun Achi 1lea L..........................................l i k e b r i s t l e s ......20 Rays large............................1 8 Flowering heads large.................. rays mostly 2-3 mn long.............................. basal leaves large and 1....................... 9 20...8 Plants annual.. Bracts between the d i s k flowers lacking.... I n v o l u c r a l bracts resinous.......... ... sirrple................. 6 6............5 cm long............Leaves pinnately divided..Machaeranthera canescens . n o t d e e p l y d i v i d e d............. 9.. p l a n t s i l l ...................... rays less than 5 mn l ong. M i l f o i 1 A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o i l u n L. Papery...... 7.....................................C MO I O P S TAE 15..... 10.. e t a s i t e s a g i t t a t u s P leaves narrower i n outline...... ..... e l l i s perennis B Stems leafy........4 4........ terminal c l u s t e r s and appear from May u n t i l e a r l y f a l l ................... woolly-hairy..............Gut i e r r e z i a sarothrae marginal disk flowers enlarged 21 2..l i k e bracts between the d i s k flowers...................................M a t r i c a r i a rnaritima Stems leafless....... 3 Pappus o f scales or awns (wider than b r i s t l e s ) or lacking ... 5.......... M i l f o i l i s a fibrous rooted and o f t e n rhizomatous perennial.. 2 Pappus of s i n p l e or branched h a i r .......................... Involucral bracts subeqwl and not much overlapping... .................. 1................................ basal leaves nunerous and l i n e a r lance-shaped Townenda p a r r y i Flowering heads u s u a l l y smaller. Madia Lower stem leaves o m i t e .........5 leaves t r i a n g u l a r i n outline................... GROUP F Stem leaves lacking............ Rays smaller.......... u s u a l l y not white-woolly ........16 ...................... 3................

. This species occurs i n the bottoms of the lower canyons on both sides of the Bi t t e r r o o t Val ley..........3 oy. Pathfinder Pathfinder This i s a slender. Members o f the related genus Microseris may be confused with A....... however......) Jones i s generally t a l l e r than the previous v a r i e t y and has deeply incised leaves and p a r t i a l l y pinkish involucral bracts....... or oblong i n o u t l i n e with margins that are entire. agrestis (Osterh.... involucre greater than 10 m high n .... The leaves of var.. The achenes have stalked glands above which cause them t o s t i c k t o passing hikers and w i l d l i f e .C... thus the name bicolor. Leaves are basal or confined t o the Lower stem. a l p i c o l a (Rydb. the plants vary i n height from 10-30 c (4-12 in). that extends a t the top i n t o a slender beak.. False dandelion.. Var.. beak of achene 2-4 times as Long as the body or less than 1/2 as long as the bd.(4) A. erect and leafless (scapose) herbs with milky juice. Pathfinder i s endemic t o moist A N evergreen forests o f w...... Asoseris glauca (Pursh) Raf. I n a nunber o f locations. 3.... The e n t i r e plant i s more or less h a i r y throughout and up t o 20 cm (8 i n ) t a l l ......... while the l a t t e r have only basal leaves and no h a i r on the pappus b r i s t l e s .) Piper i s the comnon form throughout our area. 2... glauca Beak o f mature achene 2-4 times as long as body. B... and the pappus i s composed of numerous soft. Var.. The flowers are yellow and fa& t o pink or purple upon drying.... North America........ n..C..... Man. arrow-shaped leaves are alternate and a r i s e mostly near the base of the plant.. and MN.. Agoseri s Raf .... east t o MT.. Yarrow i s d i s t r i b u t e d throughwt the northern hemisphere from valleys t o above timberline. The large..2 Flowers orange when fresh. Ademcaulon b i c o l o r Hook. taprooted....... single-st& perennial herb up t o 90 cm (3 f t ) t a l l ... 2.... l a c i n i a t a (D....... There are two v a r i e t i e s i n our area....... This species i s an aromatic and b i t t e r . such as the B i t t e r r o o t Wildflower Area west o f Hamilton and the Painted Rock C l i f f s .... These plants may be referred t o the var. Mountain Dandelion.... .. Eat. dasycephala (T...... Flowers are a l l l i g u l a t e (ray flowers).... and HI. glauca.. and s o l i t a r y a t the end of elongated stalks (peduncles).. They are deep green and glabrous above and densely white-woolly beneath...... peremial. I t i s most c m n i n areas dominated by western red cedar and western larch..C... ......) Smiley.. t o C .. Agoser i s These are amual or perennial.. w t e r involucral bracts d i s t i n c t l y broader and shorter than the inner 3 A. t h i n branches o f the open inflorescence. outer involucral bracts narrow.. h e t e r o h y l l a .. Trai 1-plant.. This v a r i e t y i s uncomnon i n our area.. Foliage i s often glabrous and bluish-green but may also be white hairy.... aurantiaca Flowers yellow when fresh. (2) A... The beak i s evident only when the f r u i t i s mature...... i t s l i g h t reddish-brown t o burnt orange flowers that t u r n pinkish or purple with age or upon drying.. where i t grows up t o 30 cm (1 f t ) t a l l . Agoseris aurantiaca (Hook... Ademcaulon Hook...... 1. lance-shaped.. with i t s many varieties. The achene i s conspicuously about 10-nerved.... glauca i s represented by small plants with green involucral bracts i n two length classes. are e n t i r e or weakly toothed near the base and oblanceolate o r broader i n outline... east t o AZ. the former generally have stems with a t least a few leaves near the base and pappus b r i s t l e s with some Long hairs. False Dandelion The leaves o f t h i s species are linear.....) Garrett.. entire-margined and pointed a t the t i p . The involucres are bell-shaped t o c y l i n d r i c a l .t a s t i n g plant used medicinally by native peoples. 2. h a i r l i k e b r i s t l e s ...... which has dark brown margins on the involucral bracts.. toothed o r deeply dissected... involucre less than 13 mn high Plant larger.... and flowers are without a pappus..... M . grassy habitats. Depending m This i s a conspicuous plant because of on elevation.. but they may also be a t r a n s i t i o n a l form between the l a t t e r two varieties... B..) Jeps.... divergent lobes toward the base.... The corollas are white.... . lanulosa (Nutt. 1.... The discoid heads are small and inconspicuous and borne on long. white. glauca has mostly glabrous and e n t i r e leaves that are pointed a t the t i p ... The f r u i t i s an achene. grandiflora 3. beak o f achene 1/2-2 times as long as the body.& G.C MO I O P S TAE The species i s conposed o f many d i f f e r e n t ecotypic forms. Var.... Beak o f mature achene less than 1/2 as long as body...... 1..... ) Greene Orange Agoser i s The leaves of t h i s species are usually narrow.(1) A... Plant a small annual.. A.. t o CA... i s the most comnon member of the genus i n our area... Var. occurs only i n the t i t h e r l i n e zone of the high peaks south o f Lost Horse Creek..... I t i s widespread at lower elevations i n open.... This v a r i e t y occurs i n scattered locations i n the southern part of our area i n the subalpine zone.. They resemble dandelions.... Occasional plants have Leaves that are more rounded or with a few slender.

. usually 3-5 lobed. A n a ~ h a l i sDC. Ragweed Species i n t h i s genus are amual (ours) or perennial herbs with opposite or alternate leaves... Leaves palmately 3-5 lobed or occasionally e n t i r e Well developed leaves 1-2 times pinnately divided . and NC. white involucral bracts. east t o A2 and Alta. papery. Flowers of the two sexes are born on separate plants (dioecious).C. I n t h i s l a t t e r s i t e i t occurs i n dense colonies m g s t Balsamorhiza. AZ. Cauline leaves are small.C MO I O P S TAE Orange agoseris i s found i n moist.. south t o CA.. Annual agoseris i s a small ( t o 15 cm or 6 in).. variously toothed o r lobed... turning pinkish with age. Agoseris grandiflora (Nutt. mat-forming habit.. t o CA.. Pearly Everlasting Pearly Everlasting Plants are vigorously rhizomatous perennials with d i s t i n c t i v e white.. without petioles. Ambrosia t r i f i d a L. Pussy. and e l l i p t i c a l or ovate i n outline.. I t can be distinguished from species i n the genus Gnaphaliun (cudweed) by i t s strongly rhizomatous habit and i t s b r i g h t white amarance.. A very a t t r a c t i v e plant.... Found i n open ponderosa p i n e ' f o r e s t s only i n the B i t t e r r o o t Wildflower Area west o f Hamilton and on east-facing r h y o l i t e outcrops near the mouth of Gash Creek Canyon. pearly everlasting i s c m n i n disturbed ground of clearcuts and along logging and mining roads i n the montane and subalpine zones throughout our area. are uncomnon and do not appear t o be spreading...& H. Throughout U. B. herbaceous species with persistent basal f o l i a g e and o f t e n with a stoloniferous... Asia and North America. Both species have been f o u x l along the Northern P a c i f i c r a i l r o a d tracks west of the Missoula s t a t i o n near the cemetery. Flowering heads are small. t r i f i d a .C. Ambrosia a r t e m i s i i f o l i a L.... e a s i l y extracted taproot.) Greene Large-flowered Agoseris The leaves are e n t i r e or This i s a t a l l e r and coarser plant than other members o f the genus.. Throughout North America east o f the Rocky Mountains and occasionally introduced t o the west. I n our area t h i s species i s known t o occur only i n Cold Creek Meadows near Lolo Hot Springs... covered p a r t l y o r e n t i r e l y with white.. The heads are borne i n a flat-topped t o rounded terminal cluster. Flowers are without a pappus.) Greene Amua 1 Agoser i s This i s the only annual member of the genus i n our area. The few basal leaves are soon deciduous. Flowering heads are discoid with ye1 low flowers surrounded by conspicuous.. The leaves are opposite below and alternate above. t o C .S. B. Asoseris heterodrylla (Nutt. turning pink with age.. 1.. t o C . Two annual species.. 2..(1) A. The f r u i t i n g involucre i s closed and nutlike. The r e l a t i v e l y large size o f the flowering heads and the contrasting short w t e r and long..... leaf shape. The large leaves are opposite. woolly hair. . alternate and entire-margined... and linear o r oblong i n outline. Leaves are deeply lobed o r dissected. and rough t o the touch.. 10-100 cm ( 4 in-3 f t ) high... Ambrosia L.. woolly leaves and stem. usually twice pinnately divided. Stem leaves are alternate.. Leaves are p i m a t e l y divided t o e n t i r e margined. Anaphalis i s distinguished from members of the closely related genus Antennaria (pussy-toes) by i t s r e l a t i v e l y large and spreading stem leaves and lack o f persistent basal foliage. ' Giant Ragweed Giant ragweed may have stems over 2 m (6 f t ) i n height.... The flowers are yellow.. B.. east t o NM and Que. e n t i r e margined. 1. and s. The wind-pol 1inated ragweeds are a notorious cause of hay fever i n areas where they are comnon.. AnaDhalis margaritacea (L. Plants are usually 20-40 cm (8-16 i n ) t a l l but vary considerably i n height. A 3. slender plant with a weak... The flowers are yellow. a r t e m i s i i f o l i a Annual Ragweed 1. discoid and unisexual and are born i n a spikelike inflorescence.) B. open or p a r t i a l l y shaded slopes from montane t o timberline zones throughout our area... that branch above...C... This species has stems. Antennaria Gaertn. pointed inner involucral bracts are good diagnostic characters. except the desert Southwest.toes Plants are perennial.... east t o NE and MT A 4. and plbescence. probably introduced i n our area...2 A. Can..

Adenocaulon bicolor c.a. grandiflora . aurantiaca e. A. Ambrosia artemisiifolia h. A. Agoseris heterophylla g. Achillea millifolium b. A. trifida d. Agoseris glauca f.

..................... racernosa A. with a conspicuous base Membranous t i p s o f involucral bracts without dark spot a t the base ............ a t lower elevations......... o f t e n white a t the margins.1 inflorescence open and elongated.....9 Flowering heads r e l a t i v e l y large........(10) A... anaphaloides Plants usually greater than 20 cm t a l l ......... The involucral bracts of the staminate (male) heads are p a r t l y blackish-green or brown... Group I... and CO..... stoloniferous....... Membranous t i p of outer and middle involucral bracts white o r pink..... Plants usually greater than 5 cm high........... s i l v e r y foliage forms small mats............... overgrazed benchlands and f o o t h i l l s i n the v a l l e y and montane zones throughout our area.... The small. rosea Greenel Rosy Pussy-toes Rosy pussy-toes has slender stems that.... plants o f high elevations 7 Membranous t i p of outer and middle involucral bracts l i g h t brown or d u l l yellowish......... and intermediate forms.. 5 Plants not forming mats......... basal leaves o f t e n blunt-tipped and oblanceolate o r broader.(4) 9 p a r v i f l o r a ............. Leaves nuch smaller...e........... 2......... can be up t o 30 cm (1 f t ) t a l l ...... u h r i n e l l a ......... NE... I n l a t e surmer the dry.. dark spot 1....................... small stem leaves....... 10-12 cm.... 8 ....4 Leaves large and broad (up t o 6 X 2........... B......( 2 ) & microphylla Involucral bracts membranous throughout and hairless or nearly so .............................. Membranous t i p of outer and middle involucral bracts brownish t o blackish green... usually sharp pointed.... usually rounded...... while the p i s t i 1l a t e (female) heads have narrower involucral bracts that are nearly twice as long as those o f the males and tinged with brown or reddish brown.. media near the . plant o f a l l elevations 6 A........................... Antemaria microphylla Rydb........... mat-forming plants of mediun height (ca.... the involucre usually 7-11 mn high ............................. lower elevations .. someti-mes with a black spot toward the base.. 4-5 i n ) with predominantly dense...& G...................... The pappus consists o f runerow h a i r y b r i s t l e s ............ stolons few or absent...... Flowering heads are borne i n a compact or m .......COMPOS I TAE The discoid flowering heads are s o l i t a r y o r clustered a t the ends o f the stems... ........................................ The second group consists of species usually thought of as lltypicalll pussy-toes.. Group 11....... Dwarf Pussy-toes This species i s not rhizomatous.. many of them apomictic (producing seed asexually) are c m n and may be d i f f i c u l t t o identify....... h a i r y foliage............. alpina A....... lanata (8) A. Several of these species tend t o hybridize.... These heads appear i n e a r l y spring on very short........................ dimorpha 2 Upper leaf surface of older basal leaves d i s t i n c t l y greener Upper and lower surfaces of mature basal leaves scarcely d i f f e r e n t i n color o r amount o f pubescen%e. . This group contains only one species... white..... Leaf t i p s o f Lpper stem leaves with dry........(l2) A................................... papery (scariose) appendage (11flag11)... Plants less than 5 cm (2 i n ) high.... east t o MT.... white flowers are surromded by bracts that are t y p i c a l l y h a i r y below with a glabrous and membranous p o r t i o n varying i n color from white or pink t o dark brown or black............ The Leaves are narrowly oblong t o spoon-shaped and up t o 3 c long.. LA....... dwarf plants with an inflorescence of a s o l i t a r y flowering head.......... but the dense......... leafy stems.... and r e l a t i v e l y conpact inflorescences... basal leaves long and slender 10 ............. .................. 2 X 1 in)................-11 Plants mostly less than 20 cm t a l l ..... corynbosa .... several t o many heads per stem heads on the 1 ends o f the A... 3 .................(7) A...5 crn.................... with s o l i t a r y flowering stems.......) T..............C...... alpine or subalpine ..... i.. and less h a i r y than the lower surface ................. luzuloides Involucral bracts with basal p o r t i o n h a i r y and non-menbranous........... the involucre 4-7 mn high ........ leafy stolons usually present.3 A...... 6 Membranous t i p of outer and middle involucral bracts brownish t o blackish green..... t o CA..... This l i t t l e plant i s comnon on dry....(5) Leaf t i p s o f Lpper stem leaves sharp pointed t o acuminate without papery appendage Membranous t i p s o f involucral bracts white or pink...... Flowering heads smaller.. Antemaria dimorpha (Nutt........ I t i s the only species of t h i s genus i n our area with an inflorescence consisting o f a s o l i t a r y flowering head..... s h r i v e l led basal leaves resemble a lichen more than a flowering plant...... neglecta Plants forming mats.......9 A. inflorescence compact .

This species i s scattered i n moist or seasonally wet meadows i n the montane and subalpine zones on O R the west side o f our area. 6. From Canadian Rocky Mountains t o C and CO.C MO I O P S TAE occasionally more open inflorescence. var. branched.toes A small.. I t i s q u i t e variable. . A. mourtain plant looking much l i k e A.microohylla frequently hybridizes with A. alpina. B.1 Mountain Pussy. alpina. s l i g h t l y upturned stolons that bear the clusters of flowering heads on r e l a t i v e l y short sterns. Antemaria anarhaloides Rydb. Stems are short and stout. The basal leaves are either completely covered with dense white h a i r or white-hairy below and green above. This species occurs i n small. 7. white The involucral bracts are blunt a t the tip. f l a t inflorescence. The upper cauline leaves are tipped by a scarious appendage.including hybrids. t o NV. shaped. but often represented by forms that are assumed t o by hybrids with A. meadow pussy-toes has linear t o narrowly lance-shaped basal leaves. o f t e n with a small. and the t u f t e d basal leaves are lance-shaped and d i s t i n c t l y 3-nerved.toes are d i s t i n c t l y woolly groundi s clear white meadows i n the This species i s also s i m i l a r t o A.i s f a i r l y comnon i n the timberline and alpine zones of the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. and no hybridization i s known t o occur. microphylla. meadows i n upper A cirques. unbrinella and occasionally with A. unbrinella i s one of our most comnon and widespread species. Antemaria media Greene [A. Meadow Pussy. . B. The i m e r bracts are usually d u l l white. N u t t a l l I s Pussy. A The t h i r d group contains species that are usually t a l l e r and with better developed G r o p 111. open. The involucral bracts are white. moist habitats such as high north slopes.C. east t o Ont.) Gaertn. microphylla. and the involucral bracts sometimes are washed with pink or red. Across Can. media (Greene) Jeps. The leaves look much l i k e The outer involucral bracts are rounded a t the t i p and yellowish or grayish-brown or those o f the former. not forming regular mats. Eastern O t o CA. A. south t o C and CO. 5.toes Similar t o the previous species. AK t o CA. media -. subalpine and timberline zones i n cool. Nels. Antemaria alpina (L. east t o CO and MT. alpina. p a r v i f l o r a i s a Great Plains species and i s comnon only on open slopes and i n d r y valleys and f o o t h i l l s . The involucral bracts are green and woolly a t the base and white and membranous above with a conspicuous dark spot a t the base o f the membranous portion. This i s a d i s t i n c t i v e species not known t o hybridize i n our area. Antemaria unbrinella Rydb.t o spoonAlpine pussy-toes i s usually Less than 10 c (4 i n ) t a l l . The species are a l l d i s t i n c t . and NM. These plants develop short. alpina (L. and the m&ranous p o r t i o n carpeting foliage. Subalpine plants are more conpact than those from Lower elevations. The stems are up t o 50 a (20 i n ) t a l l . 3. sometimes green a t the base. east t o C and MT Hybrids involving t h i s species have not been found i n our area. Flowering heads are nunerous i n a wide. t o OR.toes This species appears intermediate between A. Ta 11 Pussy. Plants are white-woolly throughout.) Gaertn. and the plant often forms large mats o f a t t r a c t i v e . The leafy stolons are spreading and upturned a t the ends. east t o NM and Great Plains. 8. south t o CA and AZ. open habitats from the valley f l o o r t o the alpine zone throughout our area. The membranous p o r t i o n of the involucral bracts i s blackish-green o r occasionally brown. alpina. or o f t e n pink. but the lance. The involucral bracts are b l u r t a t the t i p and completely white or o f t e n various shades of pink. Umber Pussy.t o spoon-shaped leaves wider.C. A. Circudmreal. with green-black or brown involucral bracts. (Not i l l u s t r a t e d ) . stem leaves. dark spot a t the base. A. This species i s comnon i n dry. 4. Plants that are woody a t the base are c m n i n sagebrush grasslands and open ponderosa pine forests. Antemaria p a r v i f l o r a Nutt. A1pine Pussy. microphylla and A. unbrinella. The involucres of these heads are d i r t y yellow t o golden brown throughout.toes m The basal leaves are lance. Antemaria corMnbosa E. The upper cauline leaves are sharped pointed and not tipped by a rough-textured appendage (liflagll) as i n A. widely scattered colonies from open ponderosa pine forests t o dry subalpine meadows. I t occurs i n small populations mainly i n the This species i s rare i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. I t s many forms. The i m e r bracts are mostly slender and pointed. and i n l a t e melting snowbeds. can be found forming large populations from grasslands i n the valleys up t o d r y s m i t s i n the alpine zone.toes n This species does not have rhizomes. less comnonly with A.

. The white involucral bracts are narrow and pointed a t the t i p .. The nunerws.... lance. The erect basal leaves are t u f t e d and persistent with 3-5 obscure veins. Antemaria lanata (Hook... pale brown or reddish above.. which i s odorless and has broader.. and clear.... and subalpine forests.. Flowering heads have white rays and resemble a daisy... Flowering heads are borne i n a conpact inflorescence.. Anthemis t i n c t o r i a L..... and the generally t u f t e d basal leaves are narrowly lance-shaped... Mayweed.. Involucral bracts are greenish-brown a t the base and white above. Rush Pussy.. Golden Charnomi l e This i s a short. montane forests and occasionally i n the f o o t h i l l s .... i s o f t e n confused with t h i s plant. usually branched above and with long-hairy herbage... pale green below. 2.& G. narrow leaves... Raceme Pussy-toes This species has leafy stolons and stems up t o 50 cm (20 i n ) t a l l .. MT and MY.. The flowering heads are borne on slender peduncles i n a very open arrangement. I n our area.C.... east t o Range.. dark green and nearly glabrous above.. Plants from high elevations have a more crowded inflorescence.. 12.... cotula ...1 A.. racemosa i s the only shade-loving member of the genus i n our area. Alta.. Dog fennel i s a t a l l ( t o greater than 50 cm.C. but i t does not appear t o be established...l i v e d perennial herbaceous plants with radiate flowering Ray flowers are yellow or white. MT. The stolons are usually short and leafy.. east t o MT and CO. and both stems and f o l i a g e are densely and n p e r s i s t e n t l y white-woolly throughout.. there i t i s o f t e n associated with species of heather (Phyllodoce.. t h i s plant occasionally escapes. The plant occurs sporadically i n d r y meadows and open forests i n the v a l l e y t o the lower subalpine zones i n the northern p a r t of our area.) Greene W o 11y Pussy..... The persistent basal leaves have short p e t i o l e s and are e l l i p t i c a l t o almost round i n outline. Matricaria maritima.... B. and UY.. A t o Newf. east t o Alta.. 1... heads.... Antennaria neslecta Greene F i e l d Pussy-toes F i e l d pussy-toes has 3-nerved. Our species are introduced European weeds. This species i s l o c a l l y c m n i n dry..t o spoon-shaped basal leaves that are white-woolly beneath and green and nearly glabrous on the upper surface.. Ray flowers white Ray flowers yellow .. and VA. Antennaria luzuloides T........ Antennaria racemosa Hook. Ray flowers are yellow....l i v e d perennial.. The menbranous p o r t i o n o f the outer involucral bracts i s dark brown t o greenish black........... open. south t o C I AZ. The bracts o f the involucre are nearly glabrous.. but the t i p s of the inner bracts are white. The stems are up t o 40 cm (16 i n ) t a l l with sessile. t o OR.... I t i s comnon i n cool montane A. Dog Femel Species i n t h i s genus are annual or s h o r t ..... B. Cosmopolitan. ....2 A.... t o CA. 20 i n ) and o f t e n profusely branched annual with illsmelling herbage.. t i n c t o r i a Dog Fennel 1... woody caudex.. I n Europe t h i s a t t r a c t i v e plant was o r i g i n a l l y a noxious weed o f clover f i e l d s but has since been brought i n t o c u l t i v a t i o n f o r h o r t i c u i t u r a l purposes.toes The sterns o f rush pussy-toes are 15-30 cm (6-12 in) t a l l and clustered on a branched.. 1. This species i s occasionally introduced along roads and i n other disturbed areas i n the v a l l e y and montane zones...... The leaves are pinnately divided i n t o lobed or toothed segments. K A Male plants are rare i n the P a c i f i c Northwest.. Cassiope).. The plant i s r e s t r i c t e d t o the subalpine zone and above. Widespread but scattered i n North America......C U O I TAE OPS 9... p a r t i c u l a r l y on north slopes where i t can o f t e n be found along roads and i n other disturbed areas.toes o This species has stems up t o 20 a ( 8 i n ) t a l l ...C..... small flower heads are borne i n a compact or somewhat expanded inflorescence.. Anthemis cotula L.. They are densely white-hairy beneath and d u l l . The leaves are alternate and 2-3 times pinnately dissected i n t o countless very n a r r w segments. The herbage i s white-woolly. Flowering heads are numerous i n a dense t o somewhat open inflorescence.... Anthemis L. The bracts o f the involucre are narrow and taper t o a long point.. romded involucral bracts. t o OR. 10. I t i s comnon i n open forests and meadows where snow l i e s l a t e i n our high mountains. I t i s more comnon i n the northern p a r t o f the B i t t e r r o o t B... 11.....

umbrinella . alpina h. corymbosa e. anaphaloides i. Antennaria microphylla c. racemosa kk A. A.f. A. luzuloides g. A. A. A. A. Antennaria parvifolia a. A. Anaphalis margaritacea b. dimorpha d. lanata j. neglecta k. A.

......... 1. p l a n t s of mesic habitats..... are r a d i a t e o r discoid..... ........... l o n g i f o l i a elevations.......... flowers are yellow t o orange and o f t e n showy..................... less than 3 times as long as wide............ the lower surface i s t h i n l y hairy....................... A l l our species are natives............. rydberqii G r o w I......... . Var..ong h a i r s a t the t i p .o r heart-shaped....... p u n i l a (Rydb......... ...........2 ...................... The dwarf.... basal leaves are comnon.... The as broad) t h a t comnonly found comnon species....... The k r r s seem t o be a t t r a c t i v e t o children.. some u s u a l l y toothed..o r be1 1-shaped. The heart-shaped leaves are up t o 30 cm n long and 25 a wide (12 X 10 in)....... 5 Pappus white................ The leaves are generally long-petioled w i t h heart-shaped blades..... not s t i f f ..... the h a i r s on the b r i s t l e s short and s t i f f ............................ l a t i f o l i a lowest ones ......... Clusters o f s t e r i l e ......................... p a r t i c u l a r l y i n deeply shaded areas....... c o r d i f o l i a i s abundant i n f o r e s t s i n the montane zones but becomes less comnon w i t h increasing elevation....... p l a n t s o f lower elevations Old l e a f Old l e a f Leaves mostly heart-shaped..... well-drained s o i l s .....S....... d i v e r s i f o l i a 8 A....................... K . The flowering heads are large and c q ................. and t h i s may be the reason t h a t the species i s more comnon i n s u b u r b o f our towns than anywhere else......... both are generally found i n forested areas from v a l l e y s t o t i h e r l i n e .......... p l a n t s of t i m b e r l i n e and above ..............3 A... ...... p l a n t s o f high 9 A........ ................... Heartleaf Arnica A................ conical Heads broader.... p l a n t s o f d r y h a b i t a t s ...... Leaves are s i n p l e and opposite...3 Heads hemispheric............... 4 .........(6) A. bracts without a d i s t i n c t t u f t of h a i r s a t the t i p . I ...... This i s a t a l l . hemispheric i n shape. The above............... Heads w i t h mostly 7-10 ray flowers.... 7 Basal leaves narrow t o lance-shaped.............. .. Generally 20-40 cm (8-16 i n ) t a l l ..... Arnica These p l a n t s are fibrous-rooted.. more than 3 times as long as wide.... lowest stem leaves the largest (1) A.................................(5) A..... p l a n t s o f low e l e v a t i o n r i p a r i a n habitats 7 A.... The rootstock produces a c l u s t e r o f leaves one year and a flowering s t a l k the next... These bracts spread i n f r u i t and form the %tickyti burs t h a t are so fami l i a r ...................... 1 o r occasional l y 3 on each stem..............................................................9 bases w i t h t u f t s o f brown h a i r s a t the base.... t h i s species has the lower stem leaves l a r g e r than the middle o r upper ones............ p a r r y i Pappus straw-colored o r tawny.... s o r o r i a f i r s t group contains species w i t h r e l a t i v e l y wide leaves ( l e s s than twice as long have pinnate o r palmate venation and u s u a l l y w i t h teeth on the margins.. stems o f t e n with t u f t s o f basal leaves 6 Heads r e l a t i v e l y narrow.............. flowering stems u s u a l l y without t u f t s o f basal leaves................. single-stemned perennials from a rhizome o r caudex.. the h a i r s on the b r i s t l e s r e l a t i v e l y long....... Burdock i s a Eurasian weed now comnon throughout most o f the U............ hooked-tipped i n v o l u c r a l bracts...A r c t i u n L..................... i n shape.. The i n v o l u c r a l bracts are green and i n 1 series.. white t o tawny i n color. The bracts o f the involucre are about 5 mn long and e v i d e n t l y h a i r y ....... middle stem leaves the largest o r as large as the 2) A......................(10) Heads w i t h mostly 10-23 r a y flowers.... The pappus i s o f f i n e b r i s t l e s .......... u s u a l l y entire-margined o r n e a r l y so 8 .... m o l l i s 4 A.. chamissonis Heads bell-shaped.. Arnica c o r d i f o l i a Hook............ east t o NM and M I ...... .. The pappus i s white. the upper surface i s n e a r l y glabrous.................... bracts w i t h a t u f t o f 1.........................) Maguire occurs on moist.. r a r e l y 1 o r 2 heart-shaped.. Flowering heads without rays and nodding i n the bud.... They are These are our most growing i n moist t o seasonally moist.................5 m (5 f t ) high.. Stem leaves u s u a l l y 5-12 p a i r s Stem Leaves fewer than 4 p a i r s .. A t o CA.... ....... The large d i s c o i d heads have purple flowers and narrow............ open slopes and has been c o l l e c t e d once on U h i t e Mountain i n the southern B i t t e r r o o t Mountains..... The stems are simple o r branched Flowering heads...... Flowering heads r a d i a t e . coarse b i e n n i a l up t o 1. high e l e v a t i o n var............s e v e r a l per stem................ fulgens bases without brown h a i r s a t the base........ Basal leaves broadly arrow... ..................... c o r d i f o l i a Leaves mostly ovate....... Arnica L................. A r c t i u n minus -(Hill) Burdock Comnon Burdock Bernh.

east t o Alta. and C . and A. mature plants appear leaf less on the lower portion. t o CA. Leaves are lance-to egg-shaped. with a cluster of large.C. c o r d i f o l i a or A. A t o CA. generally found i n dry. basal leaves and 2-4 p a i r s o f small. K Group 111. lettuce green color and have f a r less prominent venation. that are long-hairy below and glandular m above. Flowers are pale t o deep yellow. The basal leaves are s i m i l a r t o those of A. east t o Alta. however. but the middle p a i r of cauline leaves i s without petioles and a t Least as large as the lowest pair. the basal leaves have t u f t s of brown h a i r s where they meet the stem. The pappus i s b u f f o r straw-colored. and UT. I t occurs sporadically i n open forests from mid. low-elevation habitats such as bare h i llsides. slender. t h i s v a r i e t y occurs i n a dwarf. These species are most c o m n i n open habitats from the v a l l e y bottom up i n t o the upper montane zone. This v a r i e t y i s l o c a l l y comnon on c l i f f s and open. This i s our most comnon species i n t h i s group. K T O 3. with the middle p a i r evidently the Largest. with p a r a l l e l venation. a l l are found through the subalpine zone and occasionally t o above timberline. B. mesic slopes i n the montane and lower subalpine zones i n the southern p a r t o f our area. Basal leaves are absent and the lowest p a i r of stem leaves are soon deciduous. lance-shaped t o narrowly e l l i p t i c a l i n outline. Occurs i n seasonally flooded and o f t e n permanently moist habitats. t u f t e d plant with greatly shortened rhizomes. u in or . usually 30-50 c (12-20 i n ) t a l l . c o r d i f o l i a . and the upper lack petioles. has two p a i r s of cauline leaves that are often entire-margined. m o l l i s o r A. l a t i f o l i a as the other (A. A t o CA. This species i s widespread but u n c m n i n rnesic s i t e s such as moist meadows. and CO. MT. B. Arnica p a r r y i Gray Nodding Arnica Nodding arnica has stems. Arnica d i v e r s i f o l i a Greene Sticky Arnica The leaves of t h i s species vary i n shape from ovate t o e l l i p t i c a l . and protected depressions a t low t o mid-elevations. I n our area i t i s l o c a l l y c m n on grassy banks and i n willow thickets and cottonwood forests on the floodplains of the Clark Fork and B i t t e r r o o t rivers. Ray flowers are pale yellow. Arnica l a t i f o l i a Bong. c o r d i f o l i a but are a Lighter. Petioles are short and often winged. thus. This i s our only Arnica species with several discoid (lacking rays) flowering heads that nod while i n M. The second group consists of species with r e l a t i v e l y narrow leaves. I n our high mountain forests. sagebrush slopes. that gradually decrease i n size upward. occurring i n open. A t o CA. Vascular Plants o f the P a c i f i c Northwest Part 5. and UT. The flowering heads are s l i g h t l y smaller and more vase-shaped. rocky slopes i n the southern B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. l a t i f o l i a . represented by var. open north slopes. a m l e x i c a u l i s as one parent. Flowering heads are r e l a t i v e l y f l a t . t o CA. The heads are narrow and the involucral bracts are glandular and s t i c k y t o the touch. The pappus i s white o r nearly white. Var. O 7. Group 11. K 4. sororia.) Cronq. occurring most frequently i n the montane zone. I t has several flowering heads per stem. east t o NM and Ont.C. Leafy Arnica Stems o f leafy arnica are 20-100 c (8-40 i n ) t a l l . although they may be s l i g h t l y hairy. The lowest are the largest. with 5-8 p a i r s o f narrowly lance-shaped leaves m held a t a r e l a t i v e l y wide angle. M . The t h i r d group consists of species which have few s i m i l a r i t i e s except that. and C . with ray flowers up t o 2. g r a c i l i s (Rydb. t o CA. The heads are bell-shaped. 6. This species i s uncomnon. Arnica fulgens Pursh Orange Arnica Similar i n appearance t o A.5 cm (1 i n ) long. i s more comnon than any Near or above t i h r l i n e .C.C MO I O P S TAE 2. sororia. i s a lowgrowing. area. and there are o f t e n 2-3 per stem. east t o Sask. east t o Alta. very aromatic form that other species o f Arnica. 1955). east t o Alta. Mountain Arnica This plant resembles A. Cronquist. Plants generally have 3 flowering heads per stem. t h i s species. 5. The flowering heads are generally s o l i t a r y and are somewhat larger and showier than those o f A. Arnica sororia Greene Twin Arnica This species has stems 20-60 cm (8-24 i n ) t a l l .t o high elevations i n the mountains. petioled. and the involucral bracts have a t u f t of white h a i r s a t the t i p . The f o l i a g e i s variously h a i r y and/or glandular and appears d u l l t o grayish-green. This h i g h l y variable species i s thought t o be a group o f hybrids involving A. lance-shaped leaves. B. The involucral bracts appear glabrous. The pappus i s tawny. Lower leaves are somewhat larger and more p e t i o l a t e than those above. and open ponderosa pine forests. Arnica chamissonis Less. There are general l y 3 flowering heads per stem.

A sororia d. tinctoria c. Anthemis cotula b. Arctium minus f. Arnica latifolia e.a. A. Arnica diversifolia g. cordifolia . A. parryi h. A.

. and perennial herbs and shrubs.. t o CAI east t o Alta.. This species does not occur i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains... species.......10 6 Stems and s t e r i l e shoots a r i s i n g s i n g l y from a creeping underground stem (rhizome) ................ Uncamnon i n our area.. but has been found i n extreme southern Ravalli County and i n the Rattlesnake Mountains...... usually with...................... and CO.. and CO..... 3 perennial spreading on rhizomes or clustered on a caudex or taproot. tridentata .. ...C..... ultimate leaf segments small.............. and CO... ... Although the flowering stems have no leaves a t the base. .......... m o l l i s i s comnon i n meadows around lakes and on cool slopes i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains up t o timber1 ine......... The pappus i s straw-colored t o tawny.. Wormwood These are annual.. discoid... and i t o f t e n grows i n large patches.... Seep-Spring Arnica This i s a t a l l .. ludoviciana 7 Leaves glabrous and green above .. B................ Large plants can be found a t lower elevations i n many o f the deep.. vase-shaped heads. .(10) Ultimate d i v i s i o n s o f leaves lance-shaped and coarsely toothed......................... are moist e a r l y i n the season but dry by l a t e r i n the s m r ........ ultimate leaf segments oblong and wider... absinthiun Inflorescence narrow......... ...... and borne i n variously shaped inflorescences. michauxiana A............C MO I O P S TAE 8........... The 1-3 flowering heads are yellow t o somewhat orange........2 A. The involucre i s broadly vase-shaped... with stems from 30-60 cm (12-24 i n ) t a l l ..... and the herbage i s variously pubescent t o glandular.. B.... Artemisia L..... and known only from the southern B i t t e r r o o t Range............ leafy stems among the flowering ones... Leaf margins are e n t i r e t o dentate......(8) A... This species can be distinguished from the s i m i l a r A.......... Arnica l o n g i f o l i a D. biennial.............(7) A... F e r t i l e stems generally have 5-7 pairs of sessile or short-petiolate leaves that are narrowly The several t o many flowering heads are small compared t o those of other Arnica lance-shaped i n outline........ B i t t e r r o o t canyons... Stems and s t e r i l e shoots a r i s i n g from caudex or taproot. and many o f the small buds never develop t o maturity........... plants glabrous Ultimate divisions of the leaves narrower and entire-margined..... 10.......... plants of the mountains ...... A. d i v e r s i f o l i a by the broad..... entire.... Basal and lower stem leaves pinnately lobed . and numerous...... Inflorescence with many side branches............ weedy plants of low elevations ....1 A...................C...... or with a p a i r o f basal lobes...... UA t o CA.................... vulgaris Inflorescence narrow....................... linear...l i v e d perennial with a d i s t i n c t basal rosette from a taproot. The 1-3 r e l a t i v e l y large flowering heads are b r i g h t yellow........................ Arnica m o l l i s Hook.......... conspicuous plant... east t o Alta.. The pappus i s white....... Sagewort. biennis plants often 9 4.. they are clustered with short s t e r i l e stems that resemble basal leaves.. hemispheric rather than narrow.. 5 Basal and lower stem leaves entire....9 Inflorescence with many side branches. o r dissected leaves..6 A.. Arnica rydbergi i Greene Rydbergls Arnica An a t t r a c t i v e plant.... Plants obviously shrubby Plants herbaceous or occasionally woody a t the base Plants nearly Plants absent. michauxiana Plant mat-forming.. and the pappus i s tawny. ..... plants of low elevations................. t o CA. -- 9.. I t i s l o c a l l y c m n a t or above timberline i n habitats t h a t This i s our smallest Arnica species...2 biennial or s h o r t .................. and evidently 3-5 nerved leaves..6 A.......... .................................. Eat........C............... The ray flowers are l i g h t yellow...... 8 Leaves densely white hai r y above.. f r i g i d a Plants not mat-forming..... odorless o r so................. even a t high elevations.... 3 p a i r s of lance-shaped entiremargined...... plants often matted .. toothed. The plants bloom l a t e i n the sumner.............................. ...... c a m ~ e s t r i s . d i s t i n c t basal rosette plants often odorous 4 ............... .. mostly aromatic with alternate............. and the bracts are woolly.............. with many s t e r i l e ....... I t i s densely tufted........... plants of the mountains ..................... Hairy Arnica A variable species. I t occurs at high elevations i n habitats with permanently moist s o i l such as small drainages and rockslides where snow l i e s late................ the stems are 20-60 cm (8-24 i n ) t a l l with 2-4 p a i r s of broadly lance-shaped t o ovate leaves. pubescent ...........(5) A........ Sagebrush............. Flowering heads are small.... east t o Alta.......... The shape o f the involucre i s hemispheric..... i t i s 10-30 cm (4-12 i n ) t a l l ......

Artemisia tridentata Nutt... the shrubs appear d i s t i n c t l y f lat-topped because of the nearly equal height o f the flowering stalks.5-4. stout rhizomes. Sagebrush does not dominate large areas o f rangeland i n the B i t t e r r o o t Valley. along r i v e r s . East of the Cascades. Var. Big Sagebrush A heavily aromatic shrub with persistent silvery-gray foliage. This species occurs occasionally i n d r y habitats a t low elevations throughout our area... 5. Along the C o l h i a . sharply toothed segments with 1 or 2 p a i r s of small leaf l e t s near the base. The p r i n c i p a l leaves are wide with several unequal. incompta (Nutt..r a t h e r i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n i s scattered on both sides o f the v a l l e y on benchland and i n the f o o t h i l l s up t o ca.. They are green and glabrous above and densely white h a i r y beneath..100 f t ) i n southern Ravalli County south o f McCart Lookout on the t r a i 1 t o Johnson Peak. c a l l e d mountain b i g sagebrush. East o f the Cascades. lindleyana Group I. h Gray Sagewor t .. are from rhizomes that also produce many shorter. Artemisia dracunculus Green Sagewort.. regardless of the p o s i t i o n o f the f o l i a g e from which they arise. semi-woody below. vigorous rhizomes.. s t e r i l e shoots. This plant. Leaves densely white-hairy beneath.. The f i r s t group contains true shrubs and has only one species. 0... The inflorescence i s broad and leafy.5 m (5 f t ) i n our area. but occasionally from a root crown o r taproot. The leaves are smaller and greenish or glabrous above and always lobed or dissected.. sagebrush i s usually less than 1.0 cm long and 3-parted a t the t i p ... From afar. This v a r i e t y i s l o c a l l y comnon on outcrops and rockslides a t higher elevations i n the mountains.. The inflorescence i s narrow and unbranched... east t o Ont. Yuk. I L and AR. Foliage i s white-hairy. Another high elevation stand occurs a t about 2160 m (7..) Beetle. and green and glabrous ( r a r e l y pubescent).COMWS I TAE 10 10.. non-tufted herbs with several t o many stems and s t e r i l e shoots from short and stout or long and creeping rhizomes. A l l the forms o f b i g sagebrush i n our area are referable t o ssp. i ~~ I1True ~ n m o o d s introduced from Europe and has become a serious weed i n the eastern U. the lobes occasionally toothed o r lobed. dry habitats.S. west o f Missoula. l a t i l o b a Nutt. small populations a t higher elevations. There are two varieti........800 f t ) . M Big sagebrush and bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata) do not occur together i n our area.... but ...... Var. east t o N and ND. Eurasia.. disturbed areas only i n M i s s w l a and near Hami 1ton.. Artemisia lindleyana Bess. Wormwood has not become a serious pest i n our area and i s known t o occur on roadsides and i n other open. Big sagebrush b l o o m i n l a t e sumner.5 m (5 f t ) high. Leaves glabrous or with sparse long hairs. Clusters o f smaller leaves o f t e n occur a t the base o f the p r i n c i p a l leaves.. 4. One o f the largest of these i s below Lolo Peak on the d i v i d e between the headwaters of F a l l Creek and Meadow Creek a t about 2380 m (7. Leaves are mostly 1-11 cm long and e n t i r e t o deeply lobed. dracunculus A. I t i s comnon i n d r y meadows i n the main valleys. up t o 80 cm (3 f t ) t a l l . usually from a rhizome. Group two consists of native and introduced. W i l d Tarragon Stem of t h i s species are t a l l .. B.C... The lower leaves wither e a r l y i n the season. Riverbank Sagewort Stems of riverbank sagewort are 20-50 c (8-20 i n ) high.. mostly entire-margined.. a r i s e from simple or branched.. A spectacular colony of t h i s plant thrives on the lower slope of Mount Sentinel above the u n i v e r s i t y campus i n Missoula. 2.500 ft). feathery inflorescence. The leaves are linear o r s l i g h t l y broader. (including forms that are t r a n s i t i o n a l t o var.. vasseyana (Rydb. 1.(4) . e n t i r e t o coarsely toothed and green above with dense white h a i r beneath. Wormwood Stem. The inflorescence i s large and branched with a multitude of small flower heads. densely white-hairy below and grayish or d u l l green above. Artemisia vulgaris L.5 m (2-5 f t ) t a l l ... t o Mex. The p r i n c i p l e leaves are 1.. has shorter stems and rhizomes and a more congested growth form. 3... east t o the Great Plains.5-1. comnon along the Clark Fork River. Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.. B.. Flowering heads are borne i n an open. The plants are strongly odorous or nearly odorless. The inflorescence i s narrow t o somewhat spreading.. Probably the northerrmost population i n our area occurs on a few small h i l l s i n Grass Valley... ... up t o 1. W it e Sagewort The stems. The leaves are deeply divided or occasionally entiremargined. Fraser and Yellowstone r i v e r s and t h e i r tributaries... Group 11. i s ' r e s t r i c t e d t o rock crevices and gravel bars i n a m u a l l y flooded zones along our major rivers. I t also occurs i n scattered.. from a stout rhizome..3 A. and clustered from the m base. ludoviciana) has long. t o Baja Cal.es i n our area. t o Baja Cal. Rhizomes are o f t e n unintentionally shipped with nursery material.. The leaves are narrow.C. 1370 m (4..) Cronq.

A. Artemisia tridentata g. A. lindleyana e.a. A. chamissonis c. mollis d. longifolia f. Arnica fulgens b. rydbergii 133 . ludoviciana h. A. A. A.

The Leafy inflorescence i s dense and narrow. so information on habitat and rooting habit should always be c a r e f u l l y noted. This plant i s of considerable ornamental value. The ray flowers are p i s t i l a t e (female function only) and various shades of blue. Artemisia b i e m i s Willd. Artemisia michauxiana Bess. Michaelmas Daisy Our species are perennial herbs with alternate. east t o Alta. Michaw Sagewort Michaw sagewort has several stems up t o 40 cm (16 in) t a l l from a woody rootstock and a rhizome or occasionally a taproot. t u f t e d plants bearing only one flower per stem. WY and UT. After maturing seed..S. towards the top. Bi enni a1 Sagewort B i e m i a l .. or matted growth form. Group 111. The inflorescence i s long and narrow. t h i s species varies greatly i n height. Artemisia absinthiun L. 10. r a r e l y subglabrous above. t h i s species develops a conspicuous winter rosette o f basal Leaves the f i r s t year and flowers with a narrow inflorescence on a s o l i t a r y reddish stem up t o 70 cm (2 f t ) t a l l the second or t h i r d year. Asters can be d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y . and foliage that i s odorless or nearly so. U. from 30 cm t o over 1 m (1-4 f t ) . The fourth group consists of biennial or s h o r t . The pappus i s o f f i n e IBcapi l a r y " b r i s t l e s . now established across n.s m r . (Not i l l u s t r a t e d ) . I n our area. Two uncomnon higher elevation species and some less comnon forms o f more widespread species are low growing. Native i n w. which i s formed the f i r s t year. south t o OR. with ample basal foliage. This shrublike plant. i s frequently seen on roadsides i n the valleys and occasionally as a garden weed. U.S. ludoviciana var. and selected forms are i n the nursery trade. The inflorescence i s large and branched.C. Sageweed Sageweed i s a robust. The bracts o f the involucre occur i n many overlapping series l i k e shingles. Fleabanes (Erigeron spp. K Z introduced elsewhere. The involucre i s composed o f only 1-2 series of equal bracts. Our asters generally flower f r a n l a t e s m r i n t o f a l l . and adjacent Can. the stems d i e back. consists o f dark green and glabrous p i m a t e l y divided Leaves with lance-shaped. i t occurs i n dry. i n c m t a . silvery-gray. Most of our asters are t a l l -stemned. exposed habitats i n Fringed sagewort has a circunboreal d i s t r i b u t i o n . With 1 exception. Fringed Sagewort 7. Aster L. m A woody perennial o r subshrub with stems up t o about 30 c (12 i n ) t a l l and densely clustered on a stout caudex. The leaves are f i n e l y dissected and pleasantly fragrant. aromatic perennial with stems up t o 1 m (3 f t ) t a l l . Species of Erigeron generally flower from l a t e spring t o m i d . Included are herbs of carpact.) Cronq. they have fibrous roots or a taproot. the valleys and f o o t h i l l s . bare f o o t h i l l s . 9. tufted. Artemisia f r i g i d a W i l l d . occurs sporadically i n our area i n open. up t o 10 cm (4 i n ) Stem leaves are smaller and become e n t i r e long. The lower are up t o 5 cm (2 i n ) long and twice divided. Var. The disk flowers i n the center of the head are yellow o r reddish-purple.l i v e d perennial species with taproots Group IV. 8. e n t i r e o r toothed leaves and s o l i t a r y t o nunerous flowering heads. High densities often indicate severely overgrazed range. The bracts subtending the flower heads are nearly glabrous and entire-margined. o f t e n very d r y habitats on benchland. This species requires arrple moisture and often occurs on r i v e r sandbars and other vernally flooded areas such as ditches and i r r i g a t e d fields. and 2-3 times pinnately divided i n t o narrow segments. and the rays are narrower and more nunerous r e l a t i v e t o those o f Aster. scouleriana (Bess. C i r c h r e a l . from a taproot t h a t often has a woody base. but widely introduced elsewhere. P r a i r i e Sagewort A b i e m i a l or short-lived perennial. while the upper leaves are smaller and less divided. The leaves are white-woolly beneath and grassy green above. Artemisia c a m s t r i s L.) are o f t e n confused with asters. and VT.h a i r y or r a r e l y glabrous. M I . The basal rosette. Infrequent i n the mountains o f southern Ravalli County where i t intergrades with A. . AZ. Aster. and along the west slopes o f the Sapphire Range. sharply toothed segments. rhizomatous plants with branched inflorescences 1 and many small flowering heads. The whole plant i s f i n e l y h a i r y and The inflorescence i s r e l a t i v e l y narrow and open. B. The lower leaves are 2-3 times p i m a t e l y lobed and r e l a t i v e l y large. The basal leaves are s i l k y . The f o l i a g e i s nearly odorless. A t o A and WI. but the dense foliage o f the lower s t e r i l e shoots i s persistent. often with a reddish stem. The upper leaves are progressively less divided.C HO I O P S TAE 6. purple and white t o pink (never yellow). Introduced from Europe. The leaves are silvery-gray and f i n e l y h a i r y on both surfaces. t o CA.

A. A. biennis 135 . absinthium e.a. Artemisia dracunculus b. campestris f. A. A. A. vulgaris c. frigida d.

... . ....... ........ .. ......... ........... . ... . . A.............. ........ ... f a l c a t u s Stems s o l i t a r y from a creeping rhizome...... 7 I n v o l u c r a l bracts glandular . ... 2 Leaves lance-shaped o r broader.. ..... ........ .... ........ . .... ... .... ..... ... ..... p l a n t s subalpine and below ................ . .. . .. . ..... ............ .... ........... .. .. ........... perelegans Ray flowers few... ...... ...... ...... upper leaves and lower i n v o l u c r a l bracts usual l y not s t r o n g l y clasping....... ................. ..... blades o f broadest leaves a t l e a s t 8 times as long as wide ..... .... .. ..... ........... ..... ................. ... ........... .. .... .... a 1p i genus Plants from a rhizome o r branched caudex...... ....................... ....1 A..... leaves genera 1l y toothed.. . ...... . .... .. ........................... ...... ... ................. .. . .... .. ............... conspicuus teeth.. ......... ... ................ not 1inear.... ..... ...... .. .. .5 Stems clustered from a caudex o r short rhizome......... ....... ........ . .. ............. achenes u s u a l l y h a i r y ... . 1 A. ... ............. .COMPOSI TAE Leaves e s s e n t i a l l y strap-shaped............13 Involucre not glandular .... . .... .... ..... ...... ...... leaves mostly e n t i r e .. . .... subspicatus Outer i n v o l u c r a l b r a c t s without a conspicuous menbranous margin.... .... ........ ...... .......... . ................. the papery basal p o r t i o n yellowish o r brounish........... . ...... ..... . .. entire-margined o r w i t h areas .. ... ... ... ... subspicatus Outer i n v o l u c r a l bracts not as above ............... .... .... branches o f the inflorescence w i t h many flowering heads 6 A.. ..... ................ Leaves lance-shaped o r narrowly e l l i p t i c a l ................ ......... ........... ... ... ........... .... ...1 2 A. .... . .... ......... .... ............ Pubescence o f stems more uniform o r l a c k i ng.... ..... .......... ....3 ................ . . .... .... ....l i k e Outer i n v o l u c r a l bracts not enlarged ........ ... .... ...... .. ...... . ............ montane forests........ . .... p l a n t s o f t i m b e r l i n e and above... ........ ....... ......... o r some o f them... ......... . .... ..... and roadsides... . ......... ... ........ ...... ........ .. ..... I n v o l u c r a l bracts d i s t i n c t l y purple-margined o r suffused with purple ..... meadows....... ......... ..... . ... the outer ones u s u a l l y a t l e a s t 1/2 as long as the i m e r ... ... ..... ... coarsely o r f i n e l y tooth . 1 A................ .. ......... A... . pansus (5) A.. .... ...... 8 .1 fine Involucre glandular ...... ........5 Rays more nunerous....... ......... A.. ... ... ............ .. ... upper leaves and (1) A........ generally 5-8....... flowering heads s o l i t a r y ... leaves mainly basal. ....... .. ...... . .. Outer i n v o l u c r a l b r a c t s w i t h a conspicuous ye1 lowish or brownish papery basal p o r t i o n and membranous margins.... ... .... ....... ... subspicatus Outer i n v o l u c r a l bracts w i t h a w h i t i s h or greenish papery basal p o r t i o n o r none and without 8 A.. the outer ones not more than 1/2 as long as the inner ones . . ... .................. branches of the inflorescence w i t h 1-3 heads .. ... ....... . ......... .... ........................... .. 4 .... ............. ....... ... . e a t o n i i conspicuous membranous margin .......... .......6 Plants w i t h a taproot....... ........ ...... . .......... ...8 Pubescence o f stems mostly i n l i n e s running down from the l e a f bases............... ...... s t reambanks..... .... . ..... .. ...... ... ... .. achenes smooth and without h a i r Fol iage not glaucus........... ............ .... ............ integrifolius 14 Leaves mostly ovate t o obovate.. ........ ...... .. .......1 A........... ................. moist 7 A..... . (1 A.. . heads s o l i t a r y o r several basal leaves soon deciduous...................... ......... 1 A.................. ..... ....... .. .. .. .. campestris I n v o l u c r a l bracts without glands ..... .. ... . sharply and coarsely toothed............ .. o c c i d e n t a l i s Group I.. ..12 Stem leaves mostly less than 5 mn wide Stem leaves mostly greater than 5 rrm wide ..... .......... ........ ...... . ........15 Leaves e n t i r e o r w i t h f i n e h a i r on the margin Leaves. . The f i r s t group consists o f 2 widespread and comnon species t h a t occur throughout the v a l l e y s and the montane zones i n a wide v a r i k t y o f h a b i t a t s including sagebrush grassland............ ............ ....... Outer i n v o l u c r a l bracts u s u a l l y enlarged and l e a f ...... ... stenomeres ....... ....... 2 Aster c h i l e n s i s I n v o l u c r a l bracts not s t r o n g l y graduated.. the papery basal p o r t i o n w h i t i s h o r greenish... .. ..... .. . .... . ... ... ...... ... . 16 . . though sometimes tapering t o the t i p . l a e v i s lowest i n v o l u c r a l b r a c t s clasping the stem.... .... ...9 A........ s i b i r i c u s I n v o l u c r a l bracts without d i s t i n c t purple margins . .... ... .... ... ...... . ..... ............ .. f o r e s t margins...l7 Outer i n v o l u c r a l bracts with evident membranous margins.. u s u a l l y more than 10.. ........... ........ ....(3) .... ...... . ...... blades of broadest leaves u s u a l l y less than 6 times as long as wide .................hesperius I n v o l u c r a l bracts s t r o n g l y graduated.... ..... ... foliaceus .... ..9 10 Outer i n v o l u c r a l b r a c t s w i t h a conspicuous papery ye1 lowish or brownish basal p o r t i o n and membranous margi ......... .................. Flowering heads s o l i t a r y on the ends o f stems Heads several i n a branched inflorescence . . .......... .. ........ .. ........................ ....... .... .......... ....... ... ............... .. . .... ...... ................ modestus Foliage with a t h i n w h i t i s h o r b l u i s h waxy coating t h a t can be rubbed o f f (glaucus).. ... . .....................(14) A.. ......

Most of the U. and Can. The clasping upper leaves w i t h a b l u i s h green cast. Leaves are firm. open o r p a r t i a l l y shaded h a b i t a t s from the v a l l e y s t o the lower subalpine zone. The i n v o l u c r a l bracts are glandular w i t h long. The i n v o l u c r a l bracts are narrow and pointed with dark green t i p s . The upper leaves are without p e t i o l e s and e l l i p t i c a l o r ovate i n The upper 2/3 o f the blades are sharply toothed. Western Meadow Aster Stems. a character most evident on the s t e r i l e shoots. pansus which has clustered.C. Aster c a m e s t r i s Nutt. The large.leaved Aster This a s t e r has stems up t o 60 cm (2 f t ) t a l l from a rhizome o r elongated branching caudex. The e n t i r e t o s l i g h t l y toothed leaves are thick. I n many h a b i t a t s t h i s species i s an aggressive competitor. . B. and u s u a l l y several much shorter s t e r i l e shoots r i s e from extensive creeping rhizomes. The second group contains one species. The heads are small. The pappus i s reddish. A. A Our p l a n t s are ssp. changing t o orange-red a f t e r a u t u m f r o s t s . The b r a c t s o f the i n v o l u c r e are green-tipped. spreading t i p . t o ne. low-elevation h a b i t a t s i n the northern p a r t o f our area. A. pansus. t o CA.b l u e . up t o 1. n e a r l y f l a t .C. Aster f a l c a t u s L i n d l . p l a n t s w i l l be large and h i g h l y branched w i t h many flowers. east t o MT and UT. The outer i n v o l u c r a l bracts are spine-tipped. east t o Sask. our o n l y aster comnon i n t r u e f o r e s t habitats. unbranched p l a n t s w i t h j u s t a few flowering heads. Showy aster has r i g i d flowering stems. and mostly s e s s i l e o r n e a r l y so. The inflorescence i s open. while t h e d i s k flowers are deep a petiole. ascendens Lindl.. This species i s h i g h l y variable. green. This group contains species t h a t occur i n d r y grassland and shrubland h a b i t a t s i n the v a l l e y and lower montane zones. I t i s uncomnon i n moist v a l l e y bottoms but i s more comnon i n the d r y v a ~ e montane zones. The inflorescence i s narrow w i t h r e l a t i v e l y few. Rays are v i o l e t . Northwest Great P l a i n s west t o A and south i n the mountains t o N and AZ. Branches of the inflorescence are short and s t r a i g h t . and 4-7 mn long. introduced f u r t h e r east.0 m (3 f t ) high. i t w i l l o f t e n form lowgrowing. east t o Sask. OR. ~ z 5. develop from creeping rhizomes. i t produces a l o t o f vegetative growth and less flowering stems. the outer are shorter and of d i f f e r e n t lengths w i t h rounded o r b l u n t t i p s . Aster c h i l e n s i s Nees CA. short p e t i o l a t e . a white. the lower leaves are p e t i o l a t e and soon deciduous. East o f the Cascades. I n d r y p r a i r i e o r sagebrush grassland. and a red midvein are good diagnostic f i e l d characters. Aster l a e v i s L. open. hairy. Both the stem and leaves are rough t o the touch. and n.8 mn long. The r a y flowers are a b r i g h t v i o l e t . f i r m and entire-margined. U t o CA. small flowering heads. glabrous and mostly glaucus. f a l c a t u s has creeping rhizomes. MY. This d i s t i n c t i v e a s t e r i s most comnon i n the montane zones. e s p e c i a l l y i n p a r t i a l shade of Douglas f i r forests. Group 11.o r purplish-blue. The shape o f the leaves i s variable. linear.S. The i n v o l u c r a l bracts are t h i n and papery. c s t r i s occurs i n grasslands. U i t h increasing shade. pointed t i p s . tapering t o a pointed. but i t may a l s o be found i n forested areas o f the v a l l e y and lower subalpine zones.C MO I O P S TAE 1. densely s h o r t . while the remaining basal p o r t i o n i s e n t i r e o r outline. narrowed toward the base. and have pointed t i p s . This aster i s scattered i n dry. L i t t l e Gray Aster This p l a n t has stems t h a t are seldom over 50 cm (20 i n ) t a l l from a long creeping rhizome. glandular. and sparsely short-hai ry.) Cronq. Smooth b l u e aster i s c m i n moderately moist. I n more mesic h a b i t a t s such as d i t c h banks i n the v a l l e y o r along logging roads high i n the Sapphire Range. waxy coating t h a t can be rubbed o f f . 30-60 cm (1-2 f t ) t a l l . and NM. 10-50 cm (4-20 i n ) t a l l . adscendens (Lindl. has f i b r o u s roots from a short rhizome o r caudex. K M The species i s very s i m i l a r t o A. while the upper leaves clasp the stem without Rays are pale t o medium blue. 1inear t o lance-shaped. and grayish-hairy. 2. The leaves are ent ire-margined.1 Long. Smooth Blue Aster This tall-stemned plant. n e a r l y so and o f t e n reduced a b r u p t l y i n width.h a i r y below. w i t h only 1-2 flowering heads toward the t i p . however. yellow. showy flowering heads bloom i n l a t e sumner and are born i n an open. The lower stem leaves are r e l a t i v e l y small. Rays are white and 3 . stems t h a t a r i s e s i n g l y and grow upward. 4. Group 111. The stem and f o l i a g e are glandular above. The leaves are l i n e a r o r narrowly oblong.t o p p e d inflorescence. and q u i c k l y deciduous. B. The middle stem leaves are the largest. Rays are white t o lavender. outward-spreading stems a r i s i n g from short rootstocks and branches w i t h numerous heads. and a1 1 leaves are rough t o the touch (scabrous). Aster conspicuus L i n d l . while the inner are longer. and branches w i t h few and somewhat larger heads than A. Showy Aster 3. and broad a t the base.

10. The involucre i s glandular. east t o ID. low-elevation habitats i n the northern p a r t o f our area. The upper leaves are s i m i l a r but not oblong. Grolp IV. The inflorescence i s Leafy and spreading with long branches and numerous flowering heads. U t o UT. hesperius resen-bles both A. 30-80 cm (12-32 i n ) t a l l . This species has stems that are 30-80 cm (12-32 i n ) t a l l from creeping rhizomes. Leaves are linear t o broadly lance-shaped and entire-margined o r r a r e l y toothed. chilensis and i s best distinguished by the Lines of pdxscence on the stem that are e a s i l y v i s i b l e under 10X magnification. A. green and pointed above. Features of the involucral bracts are the best distinguishing characters. Bass. This species i s s i m i l a r t o A. while the inner are purplish. Heath-leaved Aster Similar t o the previous species. Leafy Aster The flowering stems. Alta. zones. pansus i s scattered i n dry. The are narrow t o The pappus i s near Missoula east t o Alta. The inflorescence i s elongated and short-branched with nunerous flower heads. and Ont. The involucral bracts are t h i n and Leafy with spreading o r recurved tips. peregrinus has one series of narrow . Aster pansus (Blake) Cronq. I t o f t e n flowers i n t o l a t e October. t i n y flowering heads. leaves are o f t e n toothed and are narrower than i n I foliaceus. entiremargined. A t o OR. eatonii or A. leafy. A. t o C . Rays are whitish t o pinkish Lavender or purplish blue.C. 8. and pointed a t the t i p . The ray flowers are pink t o lavender and 5-12 mn Long. The Lower ones are short p e t i o l a t e and soon deciduous. E. A.5 m (5 f t ) . Stems are o f t e n s l i g h t l y pink. e n t i r e o r weakly toothed. around sloughs and r i v e r channels. Aster eatoni i (Gray) Howel 1 EatonusAster Stems. The large. This group contains species that occur i n moist habitats i n the mountains. uhich a r i s e from a rhizome or caudex. and sharp-pointed. Aster modestus Lindl. the Lower ones are smaller and soon deciduous. and 7-13 times as long as wide. Aster h e s ~ e r i u s Gray Marsh Aster The long stems. The leaves are e n t i r e or shallowly and i r r e g u l a r l y toothed. and willow and alder thickets throughout our area. Douglas1 aster has been found only below the high water mark along the Clark Fork River and along the Blackfoot River near Bonner. Lolo and Rattlesnake creeks. while the upper ones are without petioles.C. which are soon deciduous. generally montane and subalpine meadows. t h i n Leaves are lance-shaped. Ray flowers are deep purple o r v i o l e t . Great Plains. foliaceus has wide and Leaf-Like outer bracts. t o CA. This aster i s c m i n permanently wet areas such as creek banks. 5-15 cm (2-6 i n ) Long. The outer bracts are green. M . and o f t e n occur i n the same habitat. are oblong lancet o egg-shaped i n o u t l i n e and petiolate. 11. I occidentalis has 2-many series of narrow bracts of unequal length. Flowering heads are . B.C MO I O P S TAE 6. vary greatly i n length. a r i s e from creeping rhizomes. K and MT Grow V. foliaceus and may occasionally resemble A. The stem i s pubescent with Lines of short white h a i r s running down from the Leaf bases. the narrow bracts are pointed and a l l of approximately the same length. east t o NM and n. Both species i n t h i s group and Erigeron peregrinus are s i m i l a r i n appearance. The involucral bracts are whitish below. and N . Eatonas aster has been found along the banks o f Lost Horse. flower a t the same times. 43 t o 1. broad with an evident straw-colored or brownish Lower p o r t i o n and ascending or recurved t i p . A t o CA. M 9. or the lower are p e t i o l a t e and soon deciduous. Great Plains. A Knorm from wet meadows along the B i t t e r r o o t River between Lolo and Hamilton. The leaves are strap-shaped. a r i s e from creeping rhizomes. Aster ~ ~ b s ~ i c a Nees tus Doug1as Aster laevis. This speci&occurs i n moist s a l i n e or a l k a l i n e s o i l s i n eastern Montana and t h e o r e t i c a l l y could also be f o m d A i n s i m i l a r habitats i n our area. They are without petioles and clasp the stem. B. east t o Sask. Species i n the fourth group occur i n moist t o wet habitats i n the v a l l e y and montane Few-flowered Aster 7. equal i n length. and e. The r e l a t i v e l y few flowering heads are born i n an open. The t h i c k involucral bracts . eatonii and A. novae-angliae) but i s d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from a l l other native asters i n our area. The Lower ones. Aster f o l iaceus Lindl. open. bracts. K N The plant resembles the o f t e n c u l t i v a t e d New England asters (A. nearly f tat-topped inflorescence. east t o the nu. They are sessile. heart-leaved aster has s t e m that are 30 cm t o over 1 m (1-3 f t ) t a l l and clustered from a short rhizome or caudex. The branches of the open inflorescence are long and recurved-ascending with nunerous. reddish a t maturity.

conspicuus g. A. A. modestus i. falcatus f. Aster eatonii h. A. A. A. hesperius d.a. A. laevis c. A. pansus . campestris e. Aster chilensis b.

I t i s uncomnon o r r a r e i n the B i t t e r r o o t Range.) Gray and Plants of t h i s species i n our area can be placed i n 4 v a r i e t i e s . Aster perelegans Nels. Western Mountain Aster S i m i l a r i n most respects t o the previous species. K T M 12. Var. A This species resembles A. intermedius Gray generally occurs a t lower elevations and has a wider and more l e a f y inflorescence. & Macbr.000 f t ) and two Locations near Lolo Hot Springs. w i t h s t r o n g l y clasping upper stem leaves. A Northern Great Basin species. Thickstem Aster This i s a sturdy plant. and l i n e a r t o narrowly e l l i p t i c a l i n o u t l i n e . ID. south t o C and C . 40-80 cm (16-32 i n ) t a l l . Aster i n t e g r i f o l i u s Nutt. p u r p l ish. 20-40 cm (8-16 i n ) t a l l . meritus A. W t o C east t o M and CO. flowering p l a n t s are not greater than 50 cm (20 i n ) t a l l w i t h stems t h a t are unbranched below the inflorescence a r i s i n g from a rhizome o r caudex. Var. The clasping upper stem leaves are narrowly egg-shaped and without petioles. Nels. o f t e n growing i n moist. and WY. [A. A t o CA. Var. meritus (A.h a i r y above. has stems. l y a l l i i (Gray) Cronq.) T. Circunboreal.1/2 i n ) long and rose purple t o blue o r violet. These v a r i e t i e s are comnon i n the montane and subalpine zones on the west s i d e o f our area.& G. lance-shaped t o e l l i p t i c a l i n outline. Flowering heads are few t o several i n a compact and showy inflorescence. o f t e n grading i n t o the small leaves o f the upper stem. The s i x t h group o f asters occurs i n the montane and subalpine zones i n h a b i t a t s t h a t are r e l a t i v e l y dry. clustered on a fibrous-rooted caudex. Leaves are entire-margined and.C. lower subalpine zones. The i n v o l u c r a l b r a c t s are pointed t o b l u n t . p a r r y i (D. u n b r e l l a l i k e inflorescence. The outer i n v o l u c r a l bracts are green and l e a f l i k e . l e a f l i k e b r a c t s below the involucre. Ray flowers are deep v i o l e t . I n the B i t t e r r o o t Range. and entire-margined t o v a r i o u s l y toothed.b l u e . Large-basal leaves g r e a t l y reduced upwards. var. east t o U and southwest MT. well-drained s o i l of mountain slopes. They are green throughout except f o r a minute purple t i p . Both are 25-50 cm (10-20 i n ) t a l l w i t h 1-few heads per stem. The lower ones are small and soon deciduous. Flowering heads are few t o many i n an open. A A T The combination o f habitat. Aster s i b i r i c u s L. occurs i n moist meadows i n the subalpine and t i m b e r l i n e zones. while the inner ones are narrower and involucre i s 8-14 mn high and glandular. I t occurs on d r y slopes i n open p i n e f o r e s t s i n t h e montane and The p l a n t i s uncorrmon i n our area.C M O ITAE OPS s o l i t a r y o r few i n an open c l u s t e r . The coarse and o f t e n abundant basal and lower stem leaves are oblong lance. a t l e a s t during the l a t t e r h a l f o f the growing season. sandy. A r c t i c aster occurs i n open. I t occurs i n m i s t meadows and open subalpine f o r e s t s a t Skwkum B u t t e and along the Granite Lake T r a i l . Var. I t has a broad ecological amplitude. and o f t e n have a purple margin. Western Can. They are e n t i r e margined and without petioles. o r rocky h a b i t a t s i n the mountains on both sides o f the B i t t e r r o o t Valley. a t elevations o f 1800 rn (5. Our p l a n t s are var. rough t o the touch. The Leaves are firm. The lowest leaves are u s u a l l y much smaller than those above. intergrade.1 A r c t i c Aster I n our area t h i s species occurs as a robust.t o egg-shaped w i t h obtuse o r acute t i p s .000 f t ) . short-hairy. Var. and glandular involucre make t h i s an e a s i l y distinguishable species. They are green above. w i t h f i b r o u s r o o t s from a short rhizome or caudex. a m i c u s Gray i s u s u a l l y less than 15 cm ( 6 i n ) t a l l w i t h l a x o r ascending stems. Ray flowers are shades o f b l u e o r purple. s l i g h t l y smaller than those o f A. Nels) Raup. foliaceus. Each flower s t a l k (peduncle) i s beset w i t h many small. The herbage i s densely glandular and o f t e n s h o r t . The r a y flowers are purplish-blue. Eat. The Outer bracts are leafy. west o f Missoula. The i n v o l u c r a l b r a c t s have purple t i p s and margins. OR t o NV.t i p p e d and l i n e a r t o oblong. 13.p u r p l e and 10-15 mn long. They become smaller toward the top. c u s i c k i i (Gray) Crorq. a r i s i n g from rhizomes. on the average. east t o M and N . The flowering heads are few i n an open c l u s t e r . 30-60 cm (1-2 f t ) t a l l . This v a r i e t y occurs near o r above timberline.t o egg-shaped w i t h short petioles. south t o W . conspicuous but can be distinguished by i t s eglandular involucre. Aster o c c i d e n t a l i s (Nutt. The veins are conspicuous. i t i s known only from above Peterson Lake a t 2130 m (7. A O Group VI. . 20-40 cm (8-16 i n ) t a l l . The r a y flowers are deep v i o l e t . 14. Elegant aster has been c o l l e c t e d a t School Point and above Como Lake. Elegant Aster This species has several erect stems. The i n v o l u c r a l bracts are lance. but becomes more comnon j u s t south of our area. as described above. Leaves are firm. The b r a c t s o f the involucre are i n several s e r i e s and are straw-colored w i t h a pointed green t i p . This i s the most comnon aster i n the group. The i n v o l u c r a l b r a c t s are i n several s e r i e s and are somewhat spreading and o f t e n recurved a t the t i p . occidentalis. low-elevation form w i t h flowering stems. 15. East o f the Cascades. Flowering heads are large and few i n a short-branched i n f lorescence.900 f t ) i n the southern B i t t e r r o o t Range and i n the Anaconda-Pintler Wilderness above Orphan T Creek a t 2130 m (7. The r a y flowers are 1-2 cm (ca.

Balsamorhiza s a g i t t a t a (Pursh) Nutt. unequal i n length. Balsamorhiza Nutt. m Leaves are mainly basal. A.000 f t ) and on Uest P i n t l e r Peak i n the extreme southeast corner o f Ravalli County. Can. and entire-margined. ft). The stems are 4-10 cm (1-4 i n ) t a l l with a few. with stems that are simple or branched above i n larger plants. C m n i n wet habitats i n the v a l l e y zone. The involucral bracts are overlapping and o f t e n purplish toward the t i p . Beggar. Aster stenomeres Gray Northwest Aster Northwest aster i s a t u f t e d p e r e m i a l with a woody crown and fibrous roots. The glandular-hairy bracts o f the involucre are pointed and overlapping. Once established. Balsamroot Arrowleaf Balsamroot This i s a p e r e m i a l herb with a massive branched taproot and l-many flowering stems t o 50 cm (20 i n ) tall. B.C MO I O P S TAE 16. and spreading. The outer involucral bracts are green. and CO. and i t s presence i n lawns here gives them a c e r t a i n llOLd World charm.t i c k s This i s an annual. 5-15 c (2-6 i n ) high. The leaves are mostly basal and long-petiolate.& G. south t o central I D and adjacent H A T The s o l i t a r y heads and crowded 1inear leaves distinguish northwest aster from a1 1 others i n our area. The stems. the only s i m i l a r species i n the Northern Rockies occurs t o the south and east of us. Established throughout n. and usually toothed on the margin. and parts o f s.or heart-shaped blades up t o 30 cm (1 f t ) long. Rays are deep yellow and 2. beggar-ticks grows large i n ponds and ditches without seasonal water level fluctuations. scowlorun.5-4 cm (1-2 i n ) Long. The feu t o several erect stems are 20-30 a (8-12 i n ) t a l l and bear a single. from a short. This species occurs on grassy s m i t s and ridge crests i n the southern B i t t e r r o o t Range. which o f t e n have 1-2 small lance-shaped leaves. . the blades are e l l i p t i c a l t o nearly round i n o u t l i n e and minutely toothed with a p e t i o l e equal i n length t o the blade. 5-100 cm (2-40 i n ) t a l l . and well-known species. A The s t r i k i n g l y b r i g h t colors of t h i s species with blue lupines. The stems have many linear. This European introduction occurs sporadically as a weed i n Missoula area lawns. The pappus i s lacking. large. including Bare Cone Peak (2440 m 8. showy. B. Widespread i n temperate regions o f the Northern Hemisphere. Rays are 7-15 mn Long and deep v i o l e t . branch t o form l-several flower stalks. narrowly lanceshaped.C. The involucre i s white-woolly on the lower part. Daisy English Daisy English daisy i s a dwarf perennial. SD. fibrous-rooted caudex. Rays are yellow o r sometimes lacking. B e l l i s L.780 ft). Aster alwigmus (T. comnonly occurring on open or l i g h t l y forested. purple larkspur and scarlet paintbrush g i l d the grasslands throughout our area.. The nunerws ray flowers are white. but i s dwarfed i n vernally moist s i t e s such as drying.S. . WY and NV.000 . t o C I east t o Alta. with broadly arrow. large flowering head. and alpine zones. flower head. i t persists f o r many years. They are silvery-gray with dense short hairs. The flowering heads are hemispheric o r nearly so. English daisy i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y planted i n European lawns.000 ft). Plants i n our area are var. U. each bearing a single. nearly linear. d r y slopes and f l a t s i n the v a l l e y and montane zones. . The basal Leaves are persistent.. muddy shores. Leaves are sessile. and the involucre i s hemispheric. The rays are violet-blue.C. The heads become nodding with age.I1 Bidens cernua --L. 17. narrow Leaves and a s o l i t a r y flowering head. Haydenii (Porter) Cronq. The flowering heads are s o l i t a r y .) Gray Alpine Aster This i s a dwarf plant with a taproot and a simple or few-branched caudex. Balsamroot i s a widespread. Bellis ~ e r e m i s L. 1n nerved leaves that lack a petiole. and near Castle Rock (2130 m 7. narrowly t o broadly lance-shaped. The species i s comnon on Trapper Peak a t 2800-3050 m (9. Saddle Mountain (2370 m 7. whi l e the disk flowers are yellow. small. U A t o CAI east t o MT. Eastern W and se. This l a s t group contains one species that occurs i n open habitats i n the timberline Group V I I .200-10.

A. occidentalis d. A. alpigenus i. A. Bellis perennis j. A. Balsamorhiza sagittata a . A. foliaceus c. perelegans h. integrifolius e. Aster subspicatus b. sibiricus f. A. A. stenomeres g.a.

....... greater than 1 cm wide. Flowering heads terminate the branches o f open..... Knapweed.000 f t ) .....t h i s t l e ...... entire-margined t i p .. . Only C. The leaves are alternate. Centaurea L.. I t occurs This introduced plant has become our most comnon. tuberlike roots.. Less than 1 c wide.. A . Herbage i s o f t e n densely white-hairy when young but becomes glabrous with age............ and N ..... turning the plains and h i l l s purple when i t flowers from July i n t o September. 2.. I t i s scattered i n small colonies i n the montane and subalpine zones i n both the B i t t e r r o o t and Sapphire A mountains. large-flowered... The Leaves are deeply Lobed t o p i m a t e l y divided... g r a v e l l y or sandy slopes... the marginal ones are enlarged and resemble rays.... t h i s species has spread through the western h a l f of Montana and adjacent states.... but the marginal flowers are often s t e r i l e with an enlarged c o r o l l a that resenbles a ray flower.. The marginal disk flowers are enlarged..... Nodding T h i s t l e This species i s a b i e m i a l with a strong....... 4...... mostly nodding........... a t least lower ones... and smaller spines are d i s t r i b u t e d along the margins..3 nonn... weedy t h i s t l e ... The involucral bracts have black s t r i p e s and dark tips. not divided i n t o many segments. Spotted knapweed i s perhaps the most serious noxious weed i n our area....... The disk flowers are cream t o s l i g h t l y purplish............ discoid heads are s o l i t a r y a t the ends of branches...... The The Large...... annual. Flowers are white t o various shades o f The involucral bracts overlap i n several series and have an appendage or spine a t the blue and purple. s o l s t i t i a l i s C.... Flowers are pinkish purple.. B r i c k e l l i a .... especially disturbed areas. o r the Lower ones with a feu narrow lobes.. while the outer are shorter with a s o f t slender appendage a t the t i p ... ... Carduus nutans -... leafy inflorescences. E R M Carduus L.. 5... Cornflower Species i n t h i s genus are annual... the i m e r have a translucent margin.. Our species are a l l introduced from Europe or Asia......... W t o Baja Cal... This plant i s abmdant i n open habitats....... ft) t a l l .. ucmo.. the wings beset with spines.4 C. east t o N ...C MO I O P S TAE Brickellia Ell. This i s a s h o r t . p a r t i c u l a r l y logging roads...... d i f f u s a Spotted Knapweed 5.... Widespread throughout most of U..S..... Involucral bracts are green-striped... 2.. and the lower leaves are p i m a t e l y divided i n t o narrow lobes. bracts without a long spine 1..... Cornflower.....(5) C...... 3.. Flowers cream o r sometimes purplish..... Bachelor's Buttons An a m w l or winter-annual. i n the v a l l e y and montane zones... somewhat f lat-topped inflorescence..........(3) (6) C.. Brickel lbush Tasself lower The herbaceous p e r e m i a l arises from thick. The 1-several stems are up t o 60 cm (2 The leaves are p e t i o l a t e and mostly alternate. Leaves... open habitats such as rocks1ides or steep..... simple or sparingly branched stem up t o 2 m (7 f t ) t a l l .... allegedly with grain from Russia... Stems are winged.... frequently along roads......... pink or purple..L.... This plant occurs i n dry. sometimes purplish tinged ...... Stems are 30-100 cm (1-3 f t ) t a l l . S t a r ...... The broad involucral bracts are spinetipped and spreading or reflexed.. . t i p ... usually from a taproot.... Introduced i n t o Ravalli County during the second decade of t h i s century. maculosa ...... This species may not be as uncomnon as our few collections indicate.. C. maculosa has become a serious weed i n our area.... The heads are discoid.. and i n other disturbed areas up t o 1830 m (6. 1. 1. 2..l i v e d perennial...... involucral bract tipped by a long spi ne. or perennial herbs with branched stems.. lobes are tipped with a strong spine....(1) 3.... The upper stem leaves are smaller and e n t i r e margined...... cyanus ... very comnon Lower leaves Lobed or toothed..... Thistle Musk Thistle. but may be various shades of white............ The discoid flowering heads are s o l i t a r y or i n small g r o w a t the ends of branches of a short and broad. 4. pratensis Flowers purple.. Centaurea maculosa Lam.. perennial ....2 4 C.. B r i c k e l l i a arandiflora (Hook. not enlarge..... I t dominates large expanses of rangeland. e n t i r e m Flowers are usually blue. Marginal flowers enlarged and resembling ray flowers Marginal flowers s i m i l a r t o those i n the center of the head..... repens 5 Flowers yellow or cream. Centaurea cyanus L...... t h i s species has stems 20-100 c (8-40 i n ) t a l l and narrow leaves. Disk flowers are purple. Widely established i n North America... and s.. Blades are toothed on the margin and triangular or arrow-shaped i n o u t l i n e with a slender.. d........ m Leaves linear or nearly so... Can. Lower Leaves deeply pinnately divided i n t o many linear segments..... Flowers yellow.. ........... the outer ones have comblike appendages along the upper margin..... b i e m i a l ......) Nutt...

douglasii Douglas1 Dusty Maiden 1.l i v e d perennial. established across m c h o f U.(2) C. rockslides and outcrops throughout our area i n the v a l l e y and montane zones. the marginal ones enlarged as i n & maculosa... i s r a r e i n our area.250 f t ) .C. open h a b i t a t s i n the t i m b e r l i n e and a l p i n e zones. alpina . nigra. The flowers are purple. Flowers are pinkish-purple. I n our area i t has been c o l l e c t e d only once i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. Leaves a l l basal. 3. outer ones s t r i p e d and rounded above. 20-80 cm (8-32 i n ) t a l l . Dusty Maiden Our species are biennial o r perennial herbs from a taproot. Native o f the Mediterranean region.. maculosa.. The involucral bracts are glandular.. plants from t i h r l i n e o r above. while the upper are mostly entire.& A. creeping. Centaurea s o l s t i t i a l i s L. Flowers are yellow. a c h i l l e a e f o l i a (H. and flowering heads are discoid. the p i n n a t e l y lobed leaves are smaller.C MO I O P S TAE Rare on roadsides o r i n waste areas... Chaenactis douglasii (Hook. p l a n t s of v a l l e y and montane zones . and the marginal ones are not enlarged. Meadow Knapweed This i s a p e r e m i a l w i t h toothed or shallowly ldsed lower leaves and mostly e n t i r e upper leaves. Flowering heads are s o l i t a r y .... Russian knapweed i s a serious noxious weed i n many areas of the western U.. C.t h i s t l e has been c o l l e c t e d once i n R a v a l l i County. T h l e Knapweed I t resembles C. 40-80 cm (16-32 i n ) t a l l . 1. Yellow s t a r . Flowering stem with leaves... 4. Flowers are cream t o occasionally pinkish. the lower are up t o 15 cm (6 i n ) long and few-lobed. Centaurea d i ffusa Lam.. The p l a n t was c o l l e c t e d once along the lower Bass Creek T r a i l not f a r above Charles Uaters Memorial Campground.. the marginal ones not enlarged. A few small colonies o f t h i s p l a n t have been f o m d along the highways west o f Misswla. This p l a n t i s comnon i n open. flowering stems naked. 6. seasonally wet habitats. and stem and f o l i a g e are densely grayish long-hairy. The involucral bracts are tipped by long. such as road cuts. from near the c r e s t o f East Boulder Peak a t an elevation o f 2820 m (9. The involucral bracts are green t o straw-colored. 1... becoming l i n e a r and entire-margined upward. the broad. Chaenactis alpina (Gray) Jones Alpine Dusty Maiden Similar i n appearance t o C. The flowers are pale flesh-pink t o b r i g h t rose colored.. the u l t i m a t e small segments are curled. The t i p s o f the involucral bracts are dark brown and i r r e g u l a r l y c l e f t along the margins.. O 2.. C ...& A . .S. mostly i n one equal series.f e w stems are erect. Presunably i t i s a h y b r i d between the two. The lower leaves are pinnately divided..S.t h i s t l e This annual o r b i e n n i a l species has stems. The Flowers are white t o pink o r rose. This i s a popular garden flower. black roots. Ye1 low Star. Centaurea pratensis L. from deep-seated. Leaves are pinnately dissected... Alpine dusty maiden occurs i n dry.( 1 ) C. Douglas1 dusty maiden i s a b i e n n i a l o r s h o r t ... Flower heads are borne i n an open.. . The outer and middle i n v o l u c r a l bracts are tipped w i t h a slender spine.. A Chaenactis DC. The l . east t o MT and CO. the inner ones narrow and tapering t o a f i n e point. OR t o UT. the lower soon deciduous.. where i t occurs mostly i n alkaline. Most of our c o l l e c t i o n s probably represent garden escapes rather than introductions from a g r i c u l t u r a l areas. The stems are l e a f y a t the base and naked above.. This species . Centaurea repens L.. 5. Russian Knapweed Russian knapweed i s a profusely branched peremial. The nunerous flowering heads are smaller and o f t e n cream-colored. Nels... Chaenactis. Ours plants are var. and AZ. but plants are smaller and perennial from a taproot and branched root crown.. t o CAI east t o MT. spreading spines.. rocky.. ) A.pratensis i s intermediate between C. jacea and C. The leaves are small. but This i s a h i g h l y branched annual or b i e n n i a l 10-60 cm (4-24 i n ) t a l l .. U t o CA and east t o much o f U. rocky habitats.S. f lat-topped inflorescence i n which the outer branches are occasionally t a l l e r than the inner. D i f f u s e Knapweed.) H. I t has been c o l l e c t e d west o f Misswla. B. with wings going down the stem from the leaf bases. Cosmopolitan. Outer flowers are not enlarged. douqlasii. Flowering heads are broad a t the base. Involucral bracts are narrow. The leaves are twice divided.S.. This genus i s endemic t o the western U. green.

C. repens h. solstitialis d. Centaurea diffusa b. C.a. cyanus . Centaurea maculosa e. C. Bidens cernua f. Carduus nutans g. Brickellia grandiflora c.

glabrous or f i n e l y shorthairy.5 m (5 f t ) t a l l with young twigs that are covered with a f e l t . Introduced from Eurasia. Hairy golden aster blooms from m i d . Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pall. This species i s c m n on the west slopes o f the Sapphire Range i n open.. was collected south of Darby. and n. Stem leaves are smaller and o f variable shape. Chicory C icory h A herbaceous peremial.. woody shrubs t o 2 m (6 f t ) t a l l with more-or-less f i n e l y woolly involucral bracts and leaves and twigs covered with dense. a small plant. atratus (A.. 1. The spreading stems The alternate are usually clustered and 10-30 cm (4-12 i n ) t a l l . Chrysothamnus Nutt.... Almost a l l o f our plants belong t o var.. The involucral bracts are narrow and overlapping i n about f i v e series... The twigs are whitish. Cichoriun intybus L.. Stems densely covered with white hair. B. Britt. leaves s p i r a l l y t w i s t e. Our plants are var.. t o CA.. a r i s i n g from a long. The flowers are yellow and bloom i n l a t e s m r or f a l l . Winkler and central L.) E l l ... The var. open habitats i n the valleys and foothi 11s throughout our area... with rounded teeth or lobes on the margin. A east t o N and NM. t o C .) Nutt. This species i s comnon i n moist t o dry.. Warbolt provided information on the v a r i e t i e s of C. o f ssp.. The rays are 6-10 mn long. nauseosus. Chrysothamus v i s c i d i f l o r u s (Hook.. open inflorescence. D Green rabbi tbrush also increases with overgrazing. leaves are evenly d i s t r i b u t e d on the stem and l i t t l e reduced upward.) Cronq. Chrysopsis v i 1losa (Pursh) Nutt [Heterotheca v i 1losa (Pursh) Shin..000 f t ) throughout our area. The stems are branched and leafy.. 1. Cichorium L. mostly below 1520 m (5..] Golden Aster Hairy Golden Aster .. The discoid flower i heads are elongated and nunerous i n open or -conpact inflorescences.. The lower leaves are petiolate.. Oxeye daisy i s such a popular flower that most people refuse t o think o f i t as an exotic weed. Stems are usually unbranched and up t o 80 cm (32 i n ) t a l l . Comnon throughout our area i n sandier soi 1s of open habitats i n the val ley and montane zones. lance-shaped...0 mn wide was collected i n a l k a l i n e s o i l i n Ravalli County. persistent. The linear leaves are also o f t e n densely gray-hairy. albicaul i s (Nutt.. B.. with single stems. leaves not s p i r a l l y twisted..s m e r t o l a t e f a l l . Chrrsanthemun leucanthenun L. They are sessile or with short petioles. shrublands and other dry. The linear leaves are green. open habitats. Rubber rabbit-brush i s c m i n grasslands. The radiate flowering heads are borne i n a short. and often s p i r a l l y twisted. l i g h t gray o r nearly white hairs. Daisy Oxeye Daisy Oxeye daisy i s a p e r e m i a l generally from a weLl-developed rhizome. tough.. minutely glandular hairy.COMPOSI TAE Chrysanthemun L. elongated inflorescences and leaves 0.. Rubber rabbitbrush increases with overgrazing but i s e a s i l y destroyed by f i r e .. The flowering heads are borne i n an open rounded inflorescence. The large flowering heads are radiate and s o l i t a r y . Gray Rabbi t-brush A shrub up t o 1.. Ray m flowers are pure white. 30-150 cm (1-5 f t ) t a l l . Chrysopsis (Nutt.l i k e hairiness. lanceolatus (Nutt.. east t o Sask. TX. naturalized throughout most o f temperate North America.5-1. The flowering heads are borne i n flat-topped t o rounded in f lorescence... L. Nels. Mex..) Rydb..(I) nauseosus L(2) C. East of the Cascades.C.. strap-shaped and entire-margined. Stems glabrous or sparsely hairy. Rabbi t-brush Our species are shrubs with alternate.) Rubber Rabbi t-brush. narrow. d r y habitats i n the v a l l e y and montane zones. with glabrous involucral bracts. v i s c i d i f l o r u s 1. G. nauseosus. Plants are low-growing peremials from a taproot that often has a woody base. The center of yellow disk flowers i s q t o 2 c wide.C. The narrow involucral bracts over la^ each other i n several series. e n t i r e and l i n e a r leaves.brush This shrub i s usually less than 1 m (3 f t ) t a l l . . IL.) Greene. The basal leaves are broadly or narrowly spoon-shaped.... Both the disk and ray flowers are b r i g h t yellow. and TX. Green Rabbit. 2. d. and p i m a t e l y . 1060 cm (4-24 i n ) t a l l and woody only a t the base.. consimi l i s (Greene) Hal 1 & Clem. B t o CA. Herbage i s h a i r y and mostly glandular. east t o Sask. Var. the upper ones without petioles. deep taproot. sessile..

Native of Eurasia.(5) C...l i v e d perennial from a branched taproot.... borne i n more open inflorescences .......(3) C..h a i r y beneath. milky juice upon injury. 4.. east t o AZ and the Great Plains..... Several t o many heads are borne i n an open inflorescence... at the base o f leaves and branches i n the upper p a r t o f the plant......... and densely and p e r s i s t e n t l y whi te-hairy.. 2 C..... The stems are 30-150 c (1-5 f t ) t a l l and h i g h l y m branched above.5-4 cm (1-2 i n ) long. dark... U..... These are the only menhers of t h i s genus occurring i n residential and a g r i c u l t u r a l areas..) Scop. 4 Plants densely white-hairy on the stem and lower leaf surface ........ Cirsiun M i l l .... .... Thistle Species i n t h i s genus are b i e m i a l or peremial.... 3..... scariosum Group I. vulgare Involucre of Largest flowering heads less than 2....... open inflorescence........S... 4.. 2...... some are usually spine-tipped..... widely established throughout North America. more pronounced below than above.. Comnon i n pastures..C MO I O P S TAE lobed or toothed. The involucral bracts are usually overlapping i n several series... and they never open i n rainy weather.. f loodmanii i s comnon east o f the c o n t i n e n t 2 Divide but i s not known here... The pale pink flowering heads are borne i n a fewThe outer involucral bracts are 25-40 mn (1-2 i n ) long with a t o several-flowered.) Spreng... Both leaf surfaces are covered with smaller spines. This i s the only species i n our area that has become a I t prefers rich.... Flowers are white t o purple.... 3.... O r i g i n a l l y from the Mediterranean region. plants from a taproot Involucral bracts tapered t o a p o i n t I m e r involucral bracts d i l a t e d t o a fringed appendage at the t i p . and other disturbed habitats i n the v a l l e y and montane zones throughout our area. (1) C...... 1. The inner bracts have only a papery t i p . Native of Eurasia...... undulatum from a l l other species i n our area.. foliage green. The grayish green leaves and whitish stem distinguish C. hookerianum ... glandular ridge on the back that ends i n a spine... . 93 i n Ravalli County. The flowers are a f a v o r i t e of bees and b u t t e r f l i e s .. Canada T h i s t l e A perennial from deep-seated.. Wavy-leaf T h i s t l e Wavy-leaf t h i s t l e i s a s h o r t . comnon i n disturbed habitats. 3 Flowering heads mostly without stalks (sessile) i n terminal clusters. sometimes branched taproot.... The roots of t h i s plant were a popular substitute f o r coffee i n Europe.es i s comnon i n well-drained s o i l o f grasslands a t lower elevations throughout our area.... Leaves are mostly glabrous or green above and usually densely whi t e . The large purple-flowered heads are borne i n a few-f lowered. Cirsiun urdulatun (Nutt. entire-margined... The s i m i l a r C.. The leaves are p i m a t e l y lobed. This speci.5 cm (1 i n ) high.... The flowers are sky blue and up t o 2 cm long. 3....... The roots and herbage exude an acrid... a l k a l i n e s o i l s as we1 1. The coarsely-toothed or pinnately divided leaves are also white-hairy... open inflorescence....... the flowers close by mid-day.. and each lobe i s tipped by a long spine. Plowing or r o t o t i 11ing only cuts the rhizomes and further spreads the plant...... Sterns are 30-100 cm (1-3 f t ) t a l l .. They are 8-25 cm (3-10 i n ) long and 1-7 cm (1-3 i n ) wide. roadsides... spiny herbs from a taproot or deep-seated rhizome. arvense 2 Involucre of largest flowering heads greater than 2..5 cm high. and without petioles. On sunny days.. weedy species. The second group contains the only native species that occurs mainly i n the v a l l e y and lower montane zones... Plants are unisexual (dioecious).. branched. Flowering heads not sessile.. Cirsiun w l g a r e (Savi) Tenore Bull Thistle This i s a biennial with spiny stems 30-150 cm (1-5 f t ) t a l l from a stout.. t h i s cosmopolitan weed i s uncomnon i n waste places i n wr area... and adjacent Can. 2. moist s o i l but can grow i n flooded and serious problem f o r farmers and gardeners. disturbed habitats throughout our area i n the valley zone..... composed e n t i r e l y o f ray flowers.....C. . introduced i n n.. The f i r s t group contains introduced. B.. The flowers are pinkpurple and 1-2 cm high. I t occurs on the o l d r a i l r o a d embankment north of Florence and along Highway. t o OR. There are 1-3 flowering heads.. creeping rhizomes. plants rhizomatous. 1.. 2... Canada t h i s t l e i s comnon i n open...... Canada t h i s t l e i s e a s i l y distinguished from a l l other true t h i s t l e s by the rhizomatous habit and r e l a t i v e l y small and more nunerous flowering heads. Cirsiun arvense (L.... The involucral bracts are spine-tipped and 2..... Upper leaves are smaller.......... Leaves are alternate and p i m a t e l y lobed or toothed. 1.4 C... moist. East of the Cascades.. The flowering heads contain only disk flowers...... mdulatum Plants without dense white hairs... Group 11....

Chaenactis alpina b. Chrysothamnus nauseosus f. C. viscidiflorus g. C. Cirsium alvense i. C. vulgare 148 . douglasii c. Cichorium intybus h. Chrysopsis villosa e.a. Chrysanthemum leucanthemum d.

the outer bracts are l i n e a r and reduced. scariosun can be distinguished from C.s m r i n t o the f a l l .l i v e d perennial or b i e m i a l from a taproot. 5. Flowers are mostly pale pink. hookerianum by i t s more succulent stem. Elk T h i s t l e This plant i s a s h o r t . they may be i r r e g u l a r l y d i s t r i b u t e d along the qy>er t h i r d o f the stem. east t o Alta. I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y comnon i n recently disturbed soi 1. Cirsiun hookerianun Nutt.COMWS I TAE Grolp 111. these h i g h l y palatable plants branch profusely when b i t t e n o f f by livestock or w i l d l i f e . however. Heads The involucral bracts are are 3-4 mn high with inconspicuous white ray flowers and white disk flowers. r a r e l y pink. the inner are broadly lance-shaped and joined a t the base. and red-veined upper Leaves. The outer bracts taper t o a short spine. glabrous and over lapping. from a stout taproot. The leaves are strap-shaped and coarsely toothed o r lobed. This introduced species i s comnon i n fields. The involucral bracts are narrow and sparsely long-hairy and do not overlap. elongated inflorescence. east t o Sask. Though i t i s more comnon a t lower elevations. C. B. ) Horseweed Horseweed. small. east t o Sask. however. whi t e . the top head the Largest. CO. The nunerous. This a t t r a c t i v e plant has become rare i n our area and should not be picked. on roadsides. I n the Lolo Creek Valley from Lee Creek Campground southwest along Highway 12 t o Packers Meadows a t the Idaho State Line. The outer have a short. The species are s i m i l a r i n appearance and intergrade i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. s. Uhite Thistle. Flowers are creamy white. 20 t o over 100 cm (8-40 i n ) t a l l . occasionally creamy white o r reddish purple.h a i r y leaves. Coreopsis atkinsoniana Dougl. while are small and dark. and parts o f t r o p i c a l America. Horseweed i s an arnual with leafy stems up t o 1 m (3 f t ) t a l l . slender stalks i n an open inflorescence. Cirsiun scariosun Nutt. and i n open forests i n the v a l l e y and montane zones throughout our range. and denser covering of hairs. a p a r t i a l l y reddish stem. there i s an e l k t h i s t l e with red-purple flowers. while the i m e r are unarmed and often twisted. t o CA. East o f the Cascades. i t has been collected a t 2590 m (8. The sessile flowering heads are mostly clustered below the larger terminal one. The succulent stems taper very l i t t l e toward the top. The leaves are 7-2 times pinnately divided i n t o thin. and sparsely t o densely hairy. Yuk. long.. especially i n the inflorescence. more closely spaced and l o i e r leaves. while the inner are unarmed with an expanded. are p e t i o l a t e and oblong lance-shaped. linear segments that are widely spaced on the stem. flowering heads are borne i n an open. This t a l l t h i s t l e i s comnon i n meadows i n the montane and lower subalpine zones throughout our area. The stem tapers gradually touard the top. Conwa canadensis (L.S. glabrata (Gray) Cronq. Conyza Less. The upper Leaves are narrower and lack petioles. Elk T h i s t l e A b i e m i a l or s h o r t . The disk flowers m Involucral bracts are i n two series. Canada Fleabane Cronq. The taxonomic i d e n t i t y of these plants i s unknown.C. erect spine t i p . 30150 cm (1-5 f t ) t a l l . the large flowering heads are i n the center of the rosette of long. I n these plants. fringed t i p . Horseweed blooms from m i d . scariosun can be almost stemless. Throughout the U. and AZ.l i v e d perennial.C. They are sparsely h a i r y above and sparsely t o densely white-hairy beneath with spines a t the t i p o f the teeth o r lobes. . Stems and leaves tend t o be covered with dense. L C .500 f t ) i n the southern B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. The succulent stems are erect. Infrequent i n g r a v e l l y s o i l along the banks of the Clark Fork River west o f Missoula. The Leaves are strap-shaped and coarsely toothed or lobed with spines a t the t i p s of the lobes. East o f the Cascades. which wither and f a l l before the plant blooms. t o UA. tangled white hairs. Elk t h i s t l e i s l o c a l l y comnon i n moist meadows from the montane zone t o t i h e r l i n e throughout our area. At high elevations. t i h c t o r i a Nutt. The large flowering heads are sessile and clustered a t the top o f the stem. B. as frequently happens. Our plants are var. 4. The lower leaves. C.1 Tickseed Colunbia Tickseed This species i s a b i e m i a l o r winter annual with stems that are frequently branched above and up t o 1 m (3 f t ) t a l l .. and SD. The t h i r d group has two species usually found i n moist meadows i n the montane t o timberline zones. The conspicuous flowering heads are borne on long. The involucral bracts are broad and overlapping. Can. and MT Stems o f ungrazed plants are unbranched. Ray flowers are orange-ye1 low with reddish-brown bases and 1-2 c long. t o OR. Coreopsis L.

. grassy h a b i t a t s i n the v a l l e y and montane zones..... B........1 ........ The lobes are about 2/3 the width o f the leaf......... acuninata.. A r e l a t i v e l y d i s t i n c t species it..... The lobes are narrowly l i n e a r and mostly entire-margined..... The heads have 10-40 flowers each and are borne i n an inflorescence o f 3-40 heads....3 C.. and C .... Crepis intermedia Gray Gray Hawksbeard Plants have 1-2 stems up t o 70 cm (28 i n ) t a l l and herbage t h a t i s grayish-hairy........... Flowers are 10-18 mn long.3 Heads w i t h mostly less than 12 flowers..... I t has been c o l l e c t e d on the slopes o f Maclay Mountain and Mormon Peak i n the northern B i t t e r r o o t Mountains and west o f Missoula and Hami lton.... The 1-4 stems are erect and usual l y branched above..... As a result. r e l a t i v e l y more nunerous and smaller flowering heads... yellow... .. and i n Pattee Canyon east o f Missoula...... A become mostly glabrous with age. but the leaves are more deeply lobed............... The inflorescence has 10-60 heads w i t h 7-12 flowers each. 4................ menbers o f t h i s genus are infrequently c o l l e c t e d and are probably more comnon than our herbariun records would indicate... occidentalis 28 i n ) and Grow I........... occidentalis. The involucral bracts are 8-15 mn long and grayish-hai ry...... up t o 35 cm (14 i n ) t a l l . 1. o r i g i n a l i s Babc.. plants of moist meahws.... 2.. The lobes are c l e f t ......... Gray hawksbear occurs i n d r y grassland h a b i t a t s i n the lower f o o t h i 11s of the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains O between Darby and Victor....... Crepis acuninata Nutt... u s u a l l y 30-70 cm (12-28 i n ) high.... not a t a l l densely hairy..... East o f the Cascades....... The involucral bracts a r e 8-16 mn long and mostly glabrous.... atrabarba some o f them u s u a l l y ......... C.. acuninata C... generally h a i r y below and nearly glabrous above..C.. east t o MT and NM... atrabarba and C.. 4 Heads w i t h more than 10 flowers...... containing o n l y 5-10 flowers. Hybridization.. Stern leaves are reduced upward....... east t o Alta..... i s c m i n dry. the outer ones less than 1/2 as long as the i m e r ones. 5 Involucral bracts glabrous I n v o l u c r a l bracts obviously h a i r y ( 6 ) C.C MO I O P S TAE Crepis L. generally a t least 4/5 o f the leaf width... atrabarba.... toothed or entire-margined. ...... The involucre i s bell-shaped t o c y l i n d r i c a l . Flowers are 10-18 mn long. Crepis atrabarba Heller Slender Hawksbeard This p l a n t i s s i m i l a r t o C. mostly e n t i r e Leaves lobed 2/3 of width o r less.... 5. 3. Tapertip Hawksbeard This species has 1-3 stems up t o 70 cm (28 i n ) t a l l . 3... 4.. e Smaller plants..... p l a n t s o f d r y grassland or open forest. plants r a r e l y with more than 40 heads.. 3. The f i r s t group consists of species with t a l l e r stems (up t o 70 cm...... 2... lobes broader. East of the Cascades................. becoming b r a c t l i k e near the inflorescence......... 5............5 C.... acuminata with 1-2 stems up t o 70 cm (28 i n ) high and grayish-hairy foliage... a t least when young... east t o Alta.modocensis Basal p a r t of stem without conspicuous setae ... The bracts are i n 1-2 series.. T a l l e r plants... C.(2) C........ W t o CA.... Tapertip hawksbeard i s comnon i n dry.(4)C.... Leaves are p i n n a t e l y d i v i d e d with e n t i r e o r toothed lobes.................... B a s a l p a r t o f t h e s t e m w i t h c o n s p i c u o u s s t i f f ..... lance-shaped or triangular. modocensis... Joseph Peak.......... runcinata Stem and leaves glabrous.... plants o f t e n with more than 40 heads ........ The i n v o l u c r a l bracts are 10-16 mn long... O W have two forms o f C.... Hawksbeard Our species are perennials t h a t have m i l k y sap and a simple o r branched taproot. WA t o CA...... C... Stem and leaves w i t h u s u a l l y with some dense hair. intermedia i s a name of convenience f o r a group o f asexually reproducing p o l y p l o i d hybrids involv& C...... on the lower slopes o f East St........... 1.......... toothed ... apomixis (asexual seed production) and polyploidy ( m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o f e n t i r e chromosome compliments) are comnon i n t h i s genus and obscure differences between species making them d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y ....& Stebb... black b r i s t l e s on the involucral bracts are ssp.. 2. The basal leaves are large and p i m a t e l y lobed or toothed w i t h backwardp o i n t i n g teeth... Flowers are 14-30 mn long..... open grassland and open f o r e s t h a b i t a t s i n the v a l l e y and montane zones....... lobes linear................. w i t h fewer than 18 heads and some s t i f f .. and are borne i n a large inflorescence t h a t bears up t o 100 heads.. I t has been c o l l e c t e d near V i c t o r and Hamilton. 2 . The heads are Ray flowers are composed o n l y o f r a y flowers and are borne i n open... t o NV. The herbage i s grayish-hairy when young but may Leaves are pinnately lobed no more than 2/3 the width o f the leaf. The heads are small......... East o f the Cascades......t o p p e d inflorescences.... and C ...... 1.. with up t o 40 heads and few o r no b r i s t l e s on the bracts are ssp.... d a r k b r i s t l e s ( s e t a e ) .. atrabarba i n our area... intermedia Leaves lobed more than 2/3 o f width. nearly f l a t ..

Crepis acuminata g. Conyza canadensis e. Coreopsis atkinsoniana f. Cirsiurn undulatum b. C. C. atrabarba . hookerianum c. C. scariosum d.-- var glabrata a.

....... toothed. 6... .... Plants perennial with a rhizome o r well-developed woody caudex..... Crepis occidentalis Nutt.. overlapping and nearly equal i n length. o r perennial herbs with a l t e r n a t e or basal. black b r i s t l e s ....... f l a r e d t o the horizontal....... Western Hawksbeard Uestern hawksbeard has mostly s o l i t a r y stems that are 10-40 cm (4-16 i n ) t a l l . and N .2 3 Involucral bracts more-or-less glandular..... lonchophyl lus ...... and root systems. Daisy These plants are annual............. The pappus i s generally o f white. purple... NE.. . o f t e n with some gland-tipped b r i s t l e s ..1 ... glandular h a i r s ) should be noted......... Flowering heads are u s u a l l y r a d i a t e with few or.....C MO I O P S TAE n The second group contains plants that are generally less than 30 a (1 f t ) t a l l with Grow 11....500 ft). exceeding the involucre by more than 2 mn... e n t i r e or divided leaves. The herbage i s green...... The herbage i s s i l v e r y gray-hairy throughout....... see comnents under Aster. leaves.. I t has been c o l l e c t e d a t 2000 m A (6... ... The leaves are deeply pinnately d i v i d e d i n t o toothed lobes. not grayish hairy. Plants with a taproot Plants f ibrws-rooted.......... The inflorescence has 1-30 heads with 20-50 flowers i n each...... r e l a t i v e l y fewer and larger flowering heads. o r lobed segments...& Stebb. The presence o f c l e a r or ambercolored globular cells.... Involucral bracts are 11-16 mn long...... The lobes o f t e n p o i n t toward the base o f the leaf......................... For a discussion o f the u differences between the two genera.1ived p e r e m i a l w i t h w t a rhizome or we1 1-developed woody caudex.. narrow rays o f various shades o f white. B. The inflorescence has 2-25 heads w i t h 10-40 flowers each. The i n v o l u c r a l bracts are narrow........ the basal p o r t i o n covered w i t h stout bristles........ t h i n (capillary) bristles......... nunerws... Fleabane..... Group 111...... The u l t i m a t e teeth or lobes are tipped w i t h a short spine.... Crepis modocensis Greene Low Hawksbeard Low hawksbeard has 1-4 stems mostly 15-30 cm (6-12 i n ) t a l l ........ .. Pappus of the ray flowers o f well-developed b r i s t l e s a t least 2 mn l ong... more often...... and N . 4..... The p l a n t has be^ c o l l e c t e d on a d r y bunchgrass slope i n the northern B i t t e r r o o t Mountains a t an elevation o f 1680 m (5.1 Plants annual..C.& G. It Meadow Hawksbeard This hawkbeard species has mostly leafless steins 20-70 cm (8-28 i n ) t a l l from 1-several strong roots.. 1 E. 9 & divergens E glabellus ............. ... Disk flowers are numerous and ye1 low....4 .. U t o CAI east t o Man..............p h i ladelphicus Middle stem leaves petiolate.C. and provided with stout.. East o f the Cascades. Ray flowers inconspicuous. Plants i n our area are r e f e r r e d t o ssp. Uhen t r y i n g t o i d e n t i f y species i n t h i s group..... t o CAI east t o M and C ......... less than 2 mn longer than the involucral bracts. t o CAI east t o Alta.. B. The i n v o l u c r a l bracts are 11-19 mn long.............. The basal leaves are lance-shaped t o e l l i p t i c a l i n o u t l i n e and e n t i r e o r more o f t e n toothed or lobed with the lobes p o i n t i n g down toward the base o f the leaf. M Er igeron L ... M This species occurs i n d r y grasslands o f the v a l l e y zone... pay c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n t o the i n v o l u c r a l bracts.......(I11 &...... T O 5... costata (Gray) Babc. Ray flowers conspicuous. occurs i n moist rather than d r y habitats.. A t lower elevations..... a c r i s Involucral bracts h a i r y but not glandular........ h a i r l i k e ... Plants occurring on the west slopes o f the Sapphire Range appear t o be a d i s t i n c t i v e form of the species.. not clasping the stem . clasping the stem..... flower s t a l k s longer than subtending leaves (7) E....7 Middle stem leaves w i t h w t petioles...... Crepis runcinata (James) T.. strisosus Pappus of the ray flowers inconspicuous o r absent.............. e i t h e r s e s s i l e or a t the t i p o f h a i r s (glands....... grayish-hairy...... biennial o r short. 6 .... This i s a large genus with d a i s y l i k e flowering heads.. simi l a r t o the asters. The leaves and stems are grayish-hairy when young. lower flower s t a l k s shorter than subtending leaves. o r perennial fleabanes flower from e a r l y May (Lcanpositus) t o mid-sumner........ SD............ The basal and lower stem leaves are pinnately d i v i d e d i n t o lance-shaped.. The p l a n t occurs i n moist meadows i n the v a l l e y and montane zones......500 f t ) above the Trapper Creek T r a i l i n the southern B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. This t h i r d group contains a s i n g l e d i s t i n c t species w i t h n e a r l y l e a f l e s s stems. The Inflorescence has 1-9 heads with 10-60 flowers each........................ or occasionally yellow.. biennial...... The involucre i s broadly bell-shaped and 8-21 mn high......... pink.. 5 E. blue. erect...

d r y rangeland........ pink...... At least the lower leaves generally tooth e........ and l i g h t l y glandular.................. ..... exposed habitats such as rock r a r e l y over 30 cm (1 f t ) t a l l ...... l i n e a r i s Ray flowers white........ ray flowers.... The rays are up t o 12 mn long and mostly white......... a t least 5 mn wide................ d............... hairs of petioles less than 1 mn long.. cornpositus. corymbosus Involucral bracts glandular (use 10X hand lens).... t u f t e d plant.... Group I............... wmilus ............1 Ray flowers blue ........................or gray-green and sparsely covered with hair........................ ....... outcrops......................................... with largest leaves that are 3-4 times divided i n t o long......C M O ITAE OPS Middle stem leaves well-developed..... blue..... rydbergii Involucral bracts not glandular...... speciosus Ray flowers yellow .......... plants often less than 30 cm t a l l ... The leaves and stem are blue.......... Plants of upper subalpine t o alpine zones ......... E... peregrinus Ray flowers less than 2 mn wide...................................15 ..... Nearly a l l of wr plants are var.. Involucral bracts are 5-10 mn long and glandular hairy. 1 ..... has been collected on gravel bars along the B i t t e r r o o t River.... There are 50100 l i g h t blue........................ 1 E.............. 2............. .. AK t o CA.......... plants usually more than 30 a t a l l n Middle stem leaves reduced...(1) E............ or purple... ............ .............. The blade i s deeply divided i n t o several groups o f 3 linear segments............................... subtrinervis Hairs on leaf blades short and curly. 1 E...... dry.......(3) E...... This i s our only Erigeron species with dissected leaves........... Flower heads are s o l i t a r y ...................... Var........ll E...................14 Plants occurring mainly i n the v a l l e y and montane zones......... caespitosus Hairs on leaf blades not curled.......... Ray flowers 2-4 mn wide... The stems are branched above...(8) E.......(5) E..... SD...... simplex Plants with an evident taproot or central underground axis ...... basal leaves r a r e l y with three nerves 2 E............ rocky habitats..... Upper leaves are small and lobed t o entire....................... These plants occur i n dry. The heads do have rays...... Erigeron punilus Nutt................................................ evermanni i Ray flowers white.............................. with lower leaves up t o 6 cm (2 m i n ) Long. The f i r s t group consists o f perennial species from a taproot and branched caudex.. or occasionally white or pink............ hairs of petioles greater than 1 mn and spreading.............. ............. rocky habitats from the valley f l o o r t o alpine s m i ts...(6) Upper leaves glabrous or h a i r y only on the margins............. The leaves are narrowly lance-shaped and gradually reduced upwards.. stem usually purplish a t the base......................................................... Both leaves and stems are covered with spreading gray hairs.. ............................ 1........................ stems h a i r y below................. Ray flowers less than 2 mn w i .... caespi tosus Plants with many fibrous roots from a simple'rootstock ............. Michigan State University..................... 12 Basal and lower stem leaves divided i n t o linear segments .. c o u l t e r i 9 .......... the p e t i o l e i s often twice the Length of the blade................. moist meadows and subalpine forests ... spreading hairy.......... Comnon and widespread i n dry. personal cormmication).. but they are g r e a t l y reduced and are v i s i b l e only on close examination.................................. glabratus Macwn.............................. ....... less than 5 mn wide... d........ Involucral bracts are 4-7 mn long...4 E..19 Involucral bracts obviously glandular Involucral bracts not glandular or obscurely so E.........18 . basal leaves o f t e n with 3 nerves 1 E... compositus ..... Plants that appear t o be without ray flowers are l o c a l l y c m ..................... lower stem glabrous......17 E.. forming an inflorescence with few t o several flowering heads................. east t o Green1 Que. with leaves that are 2-3 times divided i n t o 3's......................8 ..... and AZ.... These plants are suspected of being apomictic (producing seed without sexual recombination) (John Beaman.. and roadsides..... Shaggy F 1eabane This species has stems up t o 30 cm (1 f t ) t a l l from a taproot and caudex... stems not purplish .....peresrinus m 10 Upper leaves pubescent.......... Leaves e n t i r e o r sometimes s l i g h t l y tooth e.... sometimes l i g h t blue or pink. Erigeron c m s i t u s Pursh Cutleaf Daisy This i s a small.................... l i n e a r segments................... r a r e l y more than 20 c (8 i n ) high........16 Ray flowers more than 2 mn wide.(14) E......................13 Leaves e n t i r e o r toothed........... not divided.

C. E. C. Crepis intzrmedia b. modocensis c. Erigeron cornpositus f.a. occidentalis 154 e. pumilus .

asteroides (Andrz. and NM.C. The involucral bracts are 5-7 mn long with Long. open forests. I t occurs i n open forest habitats i n the v a l l e y and montane zones. 6. but the herbage i s spreading h a i r y and the leaves tend t o be more ovate. Group 11. The second group has three t a l l e r species which occur i n open t o p a r t i a l l y shaded habitats with moist but well-drained soils. 2-9 cm (1-4 i n ) Long. conspicuous (Rydb. t a l l . Upper leaves are smaller and without petioles.C. var. WY.. east t o Sask. . I t has not been collected on the v a l l e y floor. The few t o several large flowering heads are borne i n a nearly flat-topped inflorescence. This i s our only Erigeron with yellow rays.C.700 f t ) . white or Light pinkish-purple ray flowers are inconspicuous and barely longer than the pappus. and M . 7. F o o t h i l l Daisy F o o t h i l l daisy has nearly erect stems. east t o Alta. This plant occurs i n d r y grassy habitats. 5. The numerous. and NM. The upper Leaves are more linear. 3. Three-veined F leabane This fleabane i s very s i m i l a r t o E. south t o C . speciosus. I t has been collected once i n our area. B i t t e r Fleabane These inconspicuous biennial o r s h o r t . on a ridge above A V Sheafman Creek i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains northwest of Hamilton. 4. The several t o many (occasionally s o l i t a r y ) flowering heads are borne on long stalks. up t o 25 cm (10 i n ) Long. The stems m Basal leaves are narrowly lance-shaped. t o OR and N . Var. The p e t i o l e s o f the basal Leaves and the base of the stem are hardened and straw-colored o r purplish. The stem leaves are gradually or considerably reduced upwards. Erigeron a c r i s L. comnon on soi 1s derived from sedimentary rock than on those on the west side of the B i t t e r r o o t Valley derived from granite. Small populations o f t h i s v a r i e t y are widely scattered i n open. The t h i r d group of Eriqeron species occurs i n mesic habitats such as moist meadows. NE. east t o N and nu. Erigeron swciosus (Lindl.l i v e d perennial plants have s o l i t a r y o r small clusters of stems 5-80 cm (2-20 i n ) t a l l . east t o MT. Our plants are ssp. Involucral bracts are 4-7 mn long with short. petiolate. i s usually a t least 30 cm (1 f t ) t a l l with several t o many flower heads. streambanks. The lower Leaves are spoon-shaped with long petioles. The rays are ye1 low and 4-11 mn long.. Involucral bracts are 6-9 mn long and glandular. The flowering heads are s o l i t a r y t o many i n an open inflorescence. white hairs. B. and 3-nerved. s t r a i g h t hairs. and evidently )-nerved.) Cronq. and forested slopes with seasonally or permanently wet s o i l . The leaves and stem are short hairy. Flower heads are mostly s o l i t a r y . B. This plant occurs i n dry.COMPOSI TAE This species i s comnon i n grasslands and open ponderosa pine forests i n the v a l l e y and montane zones. and gradually reduced toward the top. B. 10-50 c (4-20 i n ) t a l l . I t i s reported f o r the west slopes o f the Sapphire Range. Erigeron Linearis (Hook. but & not appear gray. A circunpolar species. Rays are 7-13 mn Long and deep blue t o v i o l e t . I t i s more Comnon i n moist grasslands and open forests from the v a l l e y t o Lower subalpine zones.) Piper Ye1 low Daisy The stems are erect and 5-20 cm (2-8 i n ) Yellow daisy i s a perennial from a deep-seated taproot. KN. Erigeron subtrinervis Rydb. CO. They can be found from the v a l l e y up through the subalpine zones. t o UT. Rays are held erect rather than being f l a r e d t o the horizontal as i n most other species. A E -- Group 111. but i s known from Locations i n the f o o t h i l l s o f the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains such as Maclay Mountain southwest o f Lolo a t 1740 m (5. The f o l i a g e i s covered with short. E. open forest habitats. from a woody caudex. t o CA. euintermedius Cronq. narrow. The white t o tan pappus i s longer than the d i s k flowers. Our plants are var. d e b i l i s Gray i s usually less than 30 cm high with s o l i t a r y heads. t o C . gray hairs. a c r i s has two v a r i e t i e s i n our area. V D Several h o r t i c u l t u r a l forms have been derived from t h i s a t t r a c t i v e native. Herbage i s o f t e n covered with s t i f f .) Bess. Leaves are linear. Erigeron corymbosus Nutt. 30-50 cm (12-20 i n ) t a t 1. are purple a t the base and branched above or occasionally simple. and NM. The purplish-blue or v i o l e t rays are nunerous and 9-18 mn Long. without petioles. They are often found growing with grasses and t a l l f orbs. Var. Showy F 1eabane Showy fleabane has clustered stems. intermedius Cronq. The numerous basal and lower stem leaves are narrowly Lance-shaped.) DC. B.C. The plants are glabrous below the inflorescence. I t i s a rare plant i n Montana. The involucral bracts are long-pointed and up t o 4 mn i n length. moist habitats i n the subalpine t o alpine zones. from a taproot or caudex. Three-veined fleabane occurs i n dry. spreading hairs. S . and mainly basal.

but i t can no longer be found there. The upper ones are reduced and clasp the stem without petioles. the Lower surpassed by the subtending leaves. broadly lance. Involucral bracts are 7-11 mn long. Erigeron peregrinus (Pursh) Greene Wandering F Leabane Uandering fleabane has mostly s o l i t a r y stems. Rays are white and 9-24 mn long. smooth daisy occurs i n scattered small populations i n moist r i v e r bottom meadows such as i n Lee Metcalf Refuge near Stevensvi l l e and on the islands i n the Clark Fork River K west o f Missoula. The f o l i a g e has a sparse covering of white hairs. i n the t i h e r l i n e and alpine zones. i t was collected near Lolo Hot Springs.t o spoon-shaped and usually toothed. The nunerous leaves. east t o Alta. east t o W I and SD. while the d i s k flowers are b r i g h t yellow. and petiolate. brownish midvein and white margins. eucallianthemus Cronq. and s. m slender rhizome o r branched caudex. Cutleaf Daisy See description above. from a fibrous-rooted. The white rays are only 2-3 mn Long. The nunerous blue (ours). Upper Leaves are gradually The Large flowering heads are s o l i t a r y or few per stem.S. I n our K M area i t i s uncomnon and has been f o d only i n the Sapphire Range. purple tips. Many years ago. E r i geron Lonchophyl lus Hook. and blue i n our area. spreading-hai ry.COMWSITAE 8. east t o Que. Herbage i s long.f e w erect. those o f the stem without petioles The involucral bracts are f i n e l y glandular but nearly hairless. sometimes sparsely so. . and N . 12. A t o CA. callianthemus (Greene) Cronq. 11. A t o CA. scaposus (T. OR t o CA. The lower leaves are up t o 9 c (4 i n ) long. The flower s t a l k s are mostly erect. pink or white rays are up t o 10 mn long. Erigeron c o u l t e r i Porter Coulter's Daisy This i s a perennial with mostly single stems. The flowering heads are s o l i t a r y or few per stem. and can be placed i n two varieties. Rays are 8-15 mn long reduced and lack a petiole. The lower leaves are p e t i o l a t e and o f t e n toothed. i s usually 20-60 cm (8-24 f t ) t a l l with stem Leaves not much reduced upwards. I n the northern part of our area. The involucral bracts are equal and 7-10 mn long with dense Long hairs. Herbage i s mostly glabrous and dark green. Erigeron glabellus Nutt. This fleabane i s found i n moist t o wet. Our plants belong t o ssp. The h a i r y but eglandular involucral bracts are 9 mn Long with pointed. Spearleaf Fleabane Spearleaf fleabane i s a b i e m i a l or s h o r t . The leaves are up t o 9 cm (4 i n ) long. I t i s c m n and g r e a t l y reduced w a r d s . K 9. Coulter's daisy i s Locally c m o n i n meadows i n the montane and subalpine zones south of Lost Horse Creek i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. The leaves are lance. The rose-purple o r v i o l e t rays are 8-25 mn long. Our plants belong t o var. I t i s comnon i n the montane and subalpine zones. Var. becoming much reduced and clasping the stem upwards.. up t o 40 c (16 i n ) t a l l . narrowly lance-shaped with a prominent midvein. Erigeron cornpositus Pursh Comnon i n d r y habitats up t o the highest elevations. Involucral bracts are 4-6 mn long with a hairy. up t o 50 cm (20 i n ) t a l l . l i g h t l y disturbed habitats i n the v a l l e y zone. and NM. up t o 60 cm (2 f t ) t a l l . ID and MT south through ne. A t o UT. while stem leaves are linear. Erigeron Philadelphicus L.l i v e d p e r e m i a l with l . from a rhizome or short caudex with nrmerous fibrous roots. Var. i s generally less than 20 cm t a l l with broader leaves. glabellus. I t i s also sparsely d i s t r i b u t e d i n montane and subalpine forests. open habitats i n the mountains. Smooth Daisy This species i s a b i e m i a l or perennial with l-few erect stems. The pappus i s longer than the disk corollas. Throughout most o f the U. open. The plant i s abmdant i n montane.& G. linear and equal i n Length. The 1-several flowering heads are borne i n an open inflorescence. The basal leaves are broadly Lance-shaped. 1.l i v e d p e r e m i a l with a fibrous root system and stems up t o 70 c m (28 i n ) t a l l . both basal and stem. from a m fibrous-rooted caudex. Philadelphia fleabane occurs i n moist. spreading h a i r y stems 225 cm (1-10 i n ) t a l l . Grocp IV. I n our area i t i s known from the banks and the islands of the Bi t t e r r o o t and Clark Fork r i v e r s near Misswla. The involucral bracts are 5-9 mn long and h a i r y bt not glandular. 10. are broadly lance-shaped t o narrowly spoon-shaped and blunt o r rounded a t the t i p .t o egg-shaped i n outline. The large. ND. Philadelphia Fleabane This species i s a b i e m i a l o r s h o r t . neutral or alkaline. subalpine and alpine meadows throughout our area.) Cronq. Can. flowering heads are mostly s o l i t a r y or few per stem. and h a i r y on the upper surface. The fourth group contains species that occur near or above timberline. The Lower leaves are up t o 15 c m ( 6 i n ) long and petiolate.

speciosus e. subrinervis f. E. Erigeron peregrinus h. E. acris g. E. E. philadephicus 157 . coulteri i. corymbosus d. glabellus j. E.a. linearis c. E. E. E. Erigeron lonchophyllus b.

are unbranched and usually s o l i t a r y . rocky.800-9. occurs i n meadows near or above timberline. Evermannl s Daisy This dwarf p e r e m i a l species stems up t o 10 cm (4 i n ) t a l l from a branched caudex and long. Stem and leaves are covered with short. spreading hairy. Erigeron caespi tosus Nutt . purplish blue. caespitosus intergrade i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. The glabrous basal leaves are up t o 4 cm ( 2 i n ) long. The f i f t h group contains annual. This species i s l o c a l l y c m on barren s m i t s o f the B i t t e r r o o t Range above 2740 m (9.l i v e d perennial. 5-6 mn long.000 f t ) i n the southern part o f the range.C MO I O P S TAE 7. Erigeron divergens T. The few t o nunerous flower heads are borne i n an open inflorescence. The leaves are grayish short-hairy. rydbergii and E. - 16. blue rays are 5-15 mn long. east t o the Great A Plains. The basal leaves are narrowly lance-shaped and up t o 5 cm (2 i n ) long. are f i n e l y h a i r y and sticky. Southwest MT and adjacent WY and ID. The several stem leaves are linear i n o u t l i n e and greatly reduced. and usually l i g h t . and spreading hai ry. MT south t o N and NM. The usually muchbranched stems are up t o 70 c (28 i n ) t a l l and o f t e n curved a t the base. The involucral bracts are 4-5 mn long. Rays are 5-10 mn long and l i g h t blue or v i o l e t . m The p e t i o l a t e basal leaves wither e a r l y and are up t o 25 mn ( 1 i n ) long. Early i n the season.& G. covered with long. comnon a t lower elevations i n disturbed s o i l and overgrazed grasslands. Central ID and adjacent MT. 15.) 13. lance. though occasionally white or pink. Basal leaves are up t o 8 cm (3 i n ) long and broadly lance-shaped t o narrowly spoon-shaped with petioles and blunt or rounded t i p s . Stem leaves are linear t o egg-shaped. The few stem leaves Flower heads are s o l i t a r y on the end o f the stems. Rydbergls Daisy Rydbergls daisy i s a perennial with steins less than 8 c (3 i n ) t a l l clustered on a branched caudex m and taproot. deepseated taproot. 17. and usually glandular. and rounded a t the tip. I n wr area.o r spoon-shaped. Erigeron evermami i Rydb. Stems and leaves are usually densely short hairy. description above. 14. glandular.000 f t ) . Joseph Peak. Erigeron simplex Greene Cronq. AK t o M . The nunerous stem leaves are reduced i n size and l i n e a r i n outline. s t i c k y hairs. The flower heads are s o l i t a r y . d e b i l i s Gray occurs i n widely scattered locations i n mesic habitats a t high elevations. Grow V . The stem and Flower heads are mostly s o l i t a r y or occasionally up t o 3 per stem. Stem leaves are g r e a t l y reduced or lacking. The involucral bracts. The basal leaves are narrowly spoon-shaped with 3 veins (outer 2 sometimes obscure) and blunt or rounded t i p s . This species i s comnon i n seasonally moist or wet meadows and open forests i n the upper subalpine t o V alpine zones i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. Uandering Daisy See description above. E. there i s an impressive display of alpine daisies on the long ridge crest of St. open habitats i n the mountains throughout our area. fibrous-rooted caudex. Tufted Daisy Plants of t h i s p e r e m i a l species are up t o 15 cm (1 f t ) t a l l with stems that curve a t the base and are clustered on a branched caudex and taproot. on bare bedrock a t 1520 m (5. The rays are 6-10 mn long and white o r occasionally l i g h t blue. The rays are 7-11 mn long are linear and much smaller. t h i s plant occurs on mineral s o i l s of unstable slopes a t elevations o f 2680-2930 m (8. It i s p a r t i c u l a r l y common on the steep east-facing slopes of the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. Spreading Fleabane Spreading fleabane i s a biennial or short. .l i v e d p e r e m i a l from a weak taproot. scaposus (T. Tufted fleabane i s comnon i n dry. species. Erigeron ereg grin us (Pursh) Greene Var. Alpine Daisy Alpine daisy i s a dwarf p e r e m i a l from a short. Erigeron rycbergii Cronq. Involucral bracts are 5-8 mn long. native. 8. Rays are 6-9 mn long and violet-blue. and thickened on the back. The erect stems. B i t t e r Fleabane See Var. Involucral bracts are 5-8 mn long and moderately t o densely covered with white-wool l y hairs. Flower heads are s o l i t a r y . Erigeron a c r i s L.000 f t ) t o over 2740 m (9. biennial. spoon-shaped.& G. occasionally white or pink. Tufted Fleabane. or s h o r t .600 f t ) on Trapper Peak and Bare Peak i n the southern B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. densely shorthairy. but not thickened on the back. The overlapping involucral bracts are 4-7 mn high. spreading h a i r s and appear graygreen. glandular.

l i k e i n the inflorescence.) Smiley i s distinguished by entire. Widespread throughout U.C MO I O P S TAE This fleabane i s comnon i n grasslands and disturbed areas i n the v a l l e y and montane zone throughout K our area. Narrow. F i e l d f i l a g o i s a recently introduced European weed that appears t o be spreading i n Ravalli County through invasion of overgrazed pastures. UT. 18. hairy. entire. Filago Field f ilago This simple or f r e e l y branching annual i s up t o 40 cm (16 i n ) t a l l and e n t i r e l y white-woolly. Leaves are mostly alternate. open forests and disturbed areas i n the v a l l e y and montane zones. Our plants are var. OR. A Eupatorium L.C. The central and 2 Lateral nerves are more prominent than the other netted veins.400 f t ) . Leaves are highly variable. blanket flower i s a perennial with 1-several simple or branched stems up t o 50 cm (20 i n ) t a l l . throughout. mostly alternate leaves. sunny. septentrionalis. dry. Can. reduced above. and SD. flat-topped inflorescence. Foliage i s h a i r y and grayish-green. p e t i o l a t e below. east t o Alta. ID.. Gaillardia a r i s t a t a Pursh Gai 1l a r d i a Blanket Flower Arising from a slender taproot. and erect. B. strigosus. and an o u t l i n e that i s roughly triangular t o egg-shaped. and often steep slopes and roadcuts a t elevations up t o 1830 m (6. Ranging from B. i t ranges from B. (depending on variety). UY. ErioDhyllm Lag. and becoming linear and b r a c t . small ( t o 5 m high). toothed. The involucral bracts are 2-5 mn long. Uncomnon i n grasslands. south t o n. and UT. 1-8 cm long and e n t i r e t o pinnately lobed Both ray and disc flowers of the nunerous heads are b r i g h t yellow-orange. t o CA. Eriophyllum ErioPhyllun lanatun (Pursh) Forbes Oregon Sunshine Plants are densely woolly-hairy perennials. 6 mn long. and MT.000 f t ) . Eu~atorim occidentale Hook. MT. with a petiole. w. divergens. I t occurs from central U t o ID.S.C. This v a r i e t y ranges south i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains from Mormon Peak t o Painted Rocks Reservoir. Most o f our plants are referable t o var. A Filago L. Var. has pinnately lobed leaves. are about 40 cm (16 i n ) t a l l and a r i s e from a woody base. Leaves are narrowly lance-shaped. From se. Boneset Pink Boneset The few t o many stems of pink boneset. and sparsely glandular. distinguished by having longer and more spreading stem hairs. CO. up t o 12 cm (4 i n ) long. and s. and i n the Sapphire Range above the Skalkaho-Rye Creek Road. a south-facing rockslide above Chaffin Creek T r a i l a t 1950 m (6. alternate leaves are e n t i r e or more comnonly coarsely toothed t o pinnately divided. Numerous. and uniquely structured flower heads are borne on each stem. Dai sy F leabane This species i s an annual o r biennial with 1-several erect stems 4 t o 60 cm (2 f t ) t a l l that are . a rhizomatous perennial.C. The compact. and Mex.000 f t ) on Mount Jerusalem. t o Sask.500 f t ) . This a t t r a c t i v e plant i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y found on rocky s i t e s a t various elevations.C. I t has been recorded from a south-facing boulderf i e l d a t 2135 m (7. Arising from a branched and rounded o r elongated infloresence.100 f t ) i n alpine comnunities on East Boulder Peak. the b r i g h t rose-pink flower heads are composed of disc flowers only. has been collected i n the montane zone. This c o l o r f u l species i s comnon i n the open f o o t h i l l s and also mountain grasslands t o 2290 m (7. scattered locations south of Trapper Peak and above 2775 m (9. Filago arvensis L. A Gai 1l a r d i a Foug. dwarf v a r i e t y I t i s known from i n t e g r i f o l i u n (Hook. The 1-few flower heads are comprised of purple or brown ( r a r e l y yellow) disc flowers and yellow ray flowers twice notched a t the t i p and suffused with red a t the base. n. t o adjacent W .. Erigeron strigosus Muhl. t o C . Leaves are linear. B. The f o l i a g e i s f i n e l y h a i r y Rays are white and up t o Flower heads are few t o many i n an open. . Oregon sunshine blooms from June t o August. branched i n the upper h a l f . O . south t o CA and east t o UT. whitish. east t o w. I t always occurs on The t a l l e r and more open-growing v a r i e t y lanatum. Stems that branch f r e e l y from the base are usually no more than 25 cm (10 i n ) t a l l .

a. E. Gailardia aristata 160 . E. strigosus g. Erigeron simplex b. E. E. Eriophyllum lanatum h. caespitosus c. evermannii f. rydbergii d. divergens f. Eupatorium occidentale i. E. Filago arvensis j.

. Flower heads are conposed of only disc flowers (ye1 low....... ....... Leaves are broadly linear o r lance-shaped with the winged p e t i o l e adhering t o the stem past i t s point o f insertion..... i t o f t e n occurs on logged or burned forested areas.... dry..or be11-shaped with bracts that are thin. Gnaphaliun microcephalun Nutt.... and many-headed.. south This plant generally occurs i n m i s t e r habitats than do the following species. 1..... and Alta........ cudweeds have both sexes on the same plant (monoecious) a d are mostly taprooted. 2. G microcephalum ...... Gnaphaliun palustre Nutt.......... Uhite Cudweed White cudweed.. B... 4. .... Sticky Cudweed Sticky cudweed i s 40-90 cm (16 t o 35 i n ) t a l l and an annual or biennial distinguished from the above 2 species by f o l i a g e with glandular h a i r s ( s t i c k y feel).... whitish infloresence.. Cudweed Cudweeds are annuals....B. 2... t o s... 1.... a1ternate leaves resembl ing those of Antemaria (pussytoes)... and TX............... plants often over 20 cm t a l l and not branched. This species i s found a t lower elevations on m i s t ....... microcephalun i s distinguished by i t s taproot...COMPOSITAE Gnaphali u n L.... chilense..... I n contrast t o the pussytoes... or o f f white).. Involucral bracts are yellowish t o grayish-white and sharply acute.. and OR.. south t o TN. taprooted perennial... 2. Flower heads are arranged i n 1-few dense clusters. Sometimes confused with Antennaria luzuloides..... cream.... The involucre i s more yellowish than those o f the following 2 species...... Involucre mostly 2-4 mn high.. Lowland Cudweed Stems of lowland cudweed r a r e l y exceed 15 cm (6 i n ) and are usually much shorter................. C and NM.K.. 2 . though s i m i l a r t o G........ 3 leaves lobed and clasping the stem..2 C.........l i v e d peremials with mostly white-woolly herbage and entire.. The leaves o f t h i s a m w l o r b i e m i a l have ear-shaped lobes that are somewhat clasping. This plant occurs on well-drained soi 1s o f open areas w i t h i n the forested f o o t h i l l s . Mex...... mostly manybranched.. Pointed bracts o f the involucre have an evident midrib......C... with o f t e n scant and e a r l y deciduous lower foliage.. Flower heads are arranged i n many dense clusters t h a t form a broad.. and membranous throughout....... Plants g l d l a r hairy.... biennials.... plants usually less than 20 cm (8 i n ) t a l l .. f o l i a g e s t i c k y when crushed Plants not glandular h a i r y 3.. G O P 11..... 4 G.. This group has three species that are much t a l l e r than G. the involucre being egg.... interwoven. Bracts of the obscured involucres are brown with whitish tips.......C.... Leafy-bracted clusters i n leaf a x i l s and a t the ends o f branchlets..... Gnaphaliun viscosun H...C... t o Que....C......... This species grows on well-drained s o i l s (dry habitats).... GROUP I ....... Leaves are oblong or. fibrous roots.. or a t least a t the t i p ....... viscosun ... much branched a m w l has weakly developed. G.... The infloresence i s branched. oblong. south t o CA and east t o MT and CO...... The regularly overlapping involucre bracts g l i s t e n with a gumny .. and sessile leaves are resinous and coarsely toothed t o serrate or even entire. From B. sou* t o s.. lanceshaped (2 t o 4 times longer than wide).... Alternate... chi lense 3 This group represents the smallest and most comnon species. palustre with stems up t o 70 RU cm (28 in).... From B.. and tangled h a i r s o f the cotton-batting plant appear more dense than those o f the other species. sometimes elongated. Cotton-batting Plant The nonglandular.. open areas such as vernal pools and mudflats o f A streams and ponds.... 3...... This densely woolly-haired.. palustre Involucre mostly more than 4 mn high... C ... Flower heads are arranged i n small.. Middle and Lpper leaves clasp the stem..... short-lived. Gnaphaliun chilense Spreng.. Grindelia W i 1ld.. From sw.. A 3. 1.... From B...... Gumweed Grindelia sauarrosa (Pursh) Dmal Gumweed Gunweed i s a taprooted biennial o r short-lived perennial with several stems 10-100 cm (4 t o 40 i n ) tall..... Base of Base o f leaves not lobed and claspi ng.... or short. i s usually a rmlti-stemned.

...8 Leaves soft.............. aberrans Rays usually present ..... The margins o f the Leaves are e n t i r e o r with spine-tipped teeth....... Aggregates of clusters form a somewhat f t a t . without h a i r ........... 4....... Stem leaves are reduced i n s i z e and without petioles above..7 Involucral bracts mostly obtuse or rounded..... 1......................... 3.. color and disposition.... Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh) B r i t t ...... often white-hairy .......... I t increases From Sask........... conprised o f only short.... habit o f the plants.. The dark green.......... 4.. & Rusby Snakeweed Broom Snakeweed Broom snakeweed i s a dwarf shrub with erect branches 20-50 cm (8-20 i n ) Tall. 2..... Gutierrezia Lag...... 2....... Group I............. t o se......... 8.. 7............ Lance.. ....... yellow ray flowers........................ south t o CA.......... occurring i n d r i e r habitats ........ From B.....& G... 6 Leaves usually entire-margined .... Haplopappus lanceolatus (Hook.............. 3 Plants not mat-forming......... lanuginosus Leaves s t i f f ........(1) H. These species occur a t low t o moderate elevations.. OR.topped i n f loresence... are borne i n clusters...leaved Goldenueed The f o l i a g e o f t h i s species i s green and only s l i g h t l y hairy........... 5... 1........................ Snakeweed grows on we1 1-drained soi 1s i n open habitats o f v a l l e y and montane zones........ ...... ... Goldenweed Members of t h i s genus are taprooted or occasionally rhizomatous perennials and low shrubs....... armerioides Involucral bracts mostly acute..................... lanceolatus Plantsrhizomatous............... Haplopapws Cass....4 H.. 6....... Mex......5 Flower heads generally s o l i t a r y ......4 Plants usually forming mats o r cushions with a much branched caudex o r rhizome. woody well above ground level Plants herbaceous....(3) H.. G..... A considerably with overgrazing or disturbance.................. sometimes woody a t the base... 2 Rays absent ... 7..(5) H........) T....... pmgent odor...7 H.. acaulis Plants shrubby... t o 1830 m (6.................. u n i f l o r u s Usually more than 2 heads per stem on well-developed plants .......... 6................... . Flower heads are radiate with yellow disk and ray flowers......... The 1045 rays are 5-10 mn long& . green bracts are evidently reflexed............ The involucral bracts vary i n texture.... The herbage i s nearly glabrous and green t o grayish with dense.. l y a l l i i Plants from a branched caudex. reflexed bracts imnediately beneath the involucre.................... occasionally 2 per stem....... The stem Leaves are alternate and reduced upwards..................................... east t o MN and south t o CA and TX........... but i t has not yet been cot lected.... The members of t h i s genus are divided i n t o 4 groups based on size.................... 2 H..... Grindelia i s s i m i l a r but distinguished by having smaller heads and several Leaflike........ 1-several flower heads are borne on Long s t a l k s i n a flat-topped inflorescence....CWPOSI TAE resin......... and KN.. This plant i s a comnon native weed o f disturbed sites............ Basal leaves are often mmerous and we1 1-developed... Ray and disc flowers are b r i g h t ye1 low.......... Plants bloom i n l a t e surmer........... The outer........... the source of the p l a n t ' s strong... 8... nana could also be found i n our area... The s o l i t a r y or few stems are curved a t the base and a t least 12-30 cm (5-12 i n ) t a l l ....... Nunerous small flower heads......000 f t ) .... 1......... usually occurring below timberline.. i n t e g r i f o l i u s At least some leaves usually toothed.................................... 5. 3..............C..... suffruticosus ........... o c c u r r i n g a t t i n h r l i n e o r a b o v e ............ and habitat........ The overlapping involucral bracts are 5-10 mn Long and conspicuously green-tipped..... long hairs..............6 H... .................8 H.......... occurring i n moist meadows........ purctate leaves are narrowly linear......... M and e........9 H................ The Lanceshaped t o narrowly e l l i p t i c a l basal leaves are nunerous and tufted........ T h i s f i r s t group consists o f species that are r e l a t i v e l y t a l l and taprooted...... I t i s frequently encountered along logging roads on the east slopes o f the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. and Alta.............

viscosum e. Gutierrezia sarothrae g. microcephalum f.a. G. Grindelia squarrosa 163 . G. G. Gnaphalium palustre b. chilense c. Haplopappus lanceolatus d.

They are green or green-tipped. The 2550 rays are 6-10 mn long. lanceshaped and entire-margined. Our plants are var. The taproot i s very large and sturdy. R . Uoolly Goldenweed 6. andersoni i (Rydb.COMWS I TAE CA. east t o ID and w.) Gray T h r i f t Goldenweed This goldenweed has well-developed stem leaves. f o o t h i l l s o f the Sapphire Range east of Victor. and entire-margined.C. OR t o CA. overlapping and subequal. lance-shaped. O Grow 11. Haplopawus lanuginosus Gray The Uoolly goldenweed i s densely t u f t e d from a branched caudex that tends t o be fibrous rooted. 3. The 25-50 rays are 1-2 cm long.000-9. Group 111. The 6-15 rays are 8-12 mn long. mostly 3-nerved. The b l u r t or rounded involucral bracts are 8-13 mn long with prominent green tips. and C . The involucral bracts are 6-10 mn long and not much overlapping. 1 Cronq. The basal leaves are 2-7 a (1-3 i n ) long and lance-shaped. Hawlopapuus armerioides (Nutt. The plant i s not comnon i n our area. One-flowered Goldenweed One-flowered goldenweed i s generally a smaller plant than the previous 2 species. I t occurs on dry. basal leaves are erect. The involucral bracts are 6-12 mn long and subequal. The flower heads are s o l i t a r y . The The 13-35 rays are 6-11 mn s b q u a l involucral bracts are 6-12 mn long and usually suffused with red. and CO. Our plants are var. UY. densely t u f t e d species with stout taproots.c m n i n our area. The plant occurs i n dry. U and OR.. stems are up t o 20 cm ( 8 i n ) t a l l with leaves reduced upwards. The involucral bracts are 6-10 mn long and sharp-pointed. 1-2 smaller heads may occur i n the axi 1s o f the upper leaves. moist meadows i n the B i t t e r r o o t Valley near Lolo. MT. 4. glandular hairs. The involucral bracts are 10-15 mn long. I t occurs i n dry. . and This goldenweed i s l o c a l l y comnon i n lush. shallow.& G. The flower heads are s o l i t a r y . There are several collections from the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains south of Trapper Peak a t A elevations o f 1520-2770 m (5.) T. uniflorus. The basal leaves are 3-8 cm (1-3 i n ) long and resinous-glandular. Southeastern ID. however. The leaves are usually 1-5 cm long and glabrous t o sparsely hairy. Haplopawus acaulis (Nutt. east t o Sask. OR t o 2. NE. or oblong. This group consists of low-growing. Hawlopawus u r i f l o r u s (Hook. smaller flowering head on a s t a l k from the base of an upper stem leaf. The leaves are o f t e n f i n e l y toothed and usually densely covered with long h a i r that gives the f o l i a g e a gray appearance. The basal leaves are erect. east t o Sask. I t occurs i n moist meadows i n the v a l l e y zone. This group contains species that occur from montane t o alpine elevations. mineral s o i l s of ridge crests or rock outcrops from the montane zone t o timberline.leaved Goldenweed The leaves of t h i s species are sparsely h a i r y and entire-margined. The 7-20 rays are 8-12 mn long.100 f t). The crowded. t o O and NV. nu. 5. calcareous outcrops i n the v a l l e y and lower I t has been collected near the Continental Divide i n southern Ravalli County and i n the montane zones. 1ong Comnon i n open. The Large flower heads are usually solitary. n The foliage i s d i s t i n c t l y odorous and covered with short. The nunerous stems are usual l y about 10 cm (4 i n ) t a l l with few leaves. Hawlopawus l y a l l i i Gray Lya 11 s Go1denweed L y a l l l s goldenweed i s a dwarf perennial with a weak taproot and usually some creeping rhizomes. Cushion goldenweed i s comnon east of us but i s rare i n our area. Great Plains west t o MT and AZ. dry t o moist habitats i n the timberline and alpine zones throughout our area. The herbage i s glandular and covered with dense white hair. and CO. The flower heads are s o l i t a r y . spoon-shaped.) Gray Cushion Goldenweed The stem leaves of t h i s species a r e greatly reduced. Ravalli County near the Continental Divide. I t occurs i n m i s t meadows of the lower subalpine zone i n southern This plant i s rare i n our area. east t o Alta. B. OR t o CA. Occasionally there i s a second. The small flower heads are s o l i t a r y and variable i n size. open habitats on shale and limestone outcrops i n the Sapphire Range i n the v a l l e y and lower montane zones. The mostly single stems have well-developed leaves and are less than 10 cm (4 i n ) t a l l . Haplopawus i n t e g r i f o l i u s Gray Entire. and w. MT. This species i s v r . MT. The 8-13 rays are 10-14 n long. east t o Sask. 7.

. tuberosus Comnon Sunflower 1. and i s now widespread as a weed.. terminal infloresence has few t o many flower heads. and south t o NM and AZ.. bracts are green and herbaceous.. alternate. The leaves are 1-4 a Long n and lance-shaped t o oblong. Disk flowers are yellow. I t i s comnon along the Clark Fork River and B i t t e r r o o t River downstream from Hamilton... entire. Ray flowers are yellow. Smf lower lower ones Involucral These are coarse. flat-topped. disturbed areas...5 m (59 in)....... The plant graces roadsides and other disturbed areas.. and r e f lexed. south t o A and FL.. Central I D and adjacent M . Haplo~swussuffruticosus (Nutt. r i p a r i a n habitats. 1. O t o CA.. native habitats (2) H. and linear t o lance-shaped leaves are rough t o the touch.. with rough-hairy herbage. Middle stem leaves narrowly lance-shaped. I t i s uncomnon i n our valleys occurring i n This i s a plant of moist. involucral bracts abruptly contracted t o a long narrow t i p Rhizomatous perennial.. . The disk flowers are 6-8 n mn high and o f t e n reddish-orange. involucral bracts gradually tapered t o a point . soon turning brown. occasional l y hairy. Haplo~swusaberrans (A. moist. opposite. Z Sneezeweed i s poisonous t o livestock. I t has been collected on St. and shallowly toothed t o entire. annuus . Idaho goldenweed has foliage that i s glandular-hairy and odorous. and White Mountain west of Darby a t 2500-2600 m (8... Uing-like appendages extend down the stem from the base o f the leaves.& G. The leaves have sharply toothed margins. east t o MT and R . a m w l and perennial herbs. o f t e n with wavy margins. terminal i n f loresence. and has a spicy odor. ..2 . Rays are absent.) Hall Idaho Goldenweed A p e r e m i a l with several stems up t o 20 cm (8 i n ) t a l l . The flower heads are s o l i t a r y or few-clustered a t the ends o f twigs.. opposite.. Comnon sunflower i s n a t i v e i n the western U.. Helianthus n u t t a l l i i T.. often with t a l l stems. 2. Known from c l i f f s near Painted Rock Reservoir. 1.... The sparingly branched..500 f t ) . p e t i o l a t e and cp t o 10 cm (4 i n ) long. Leaves are p e t i o l a t e and alternate with blades that are narrowly t o broadly eggshaped. Leaves are simple. o f t e n p a r t i a l l y shaded areas.. characterize t h i s perennial. the ridge north above Lost Horse Creek.200-8. the plant has been grown f o r i t s edible seeds since pre-Colwbian times. t o Sask.. (Not i l l u s t r a t e d ) ... The lower ones are narrowly e l l i p t i c a l . B... others sometimes alternate. Sneezeweed Sneezeweed Sneezeweed usually has single stems up t o 1 m (39 i n ) t a l l a r i s i n g from a fibrous root system... three-lobed. alternate. Leaves are sessile.COMPOSITAE 8. .. Ray flowers are b r i g h t golden yellow. Short.. He1ianthus L. 2.. From se. native. Amual. 9.. . The 1-few flower heads are surpassed by the subtending. p r i n c i p a l l y along rivers... 2. and the disc flowers are darker. The ancestor of numerous comnercial f i e l d and garden cultivars. o f t e n r i s i n g more than 1 m (39 i n ) from rhizomes with tuberous thickened roots.. l e a f l i k e bracts. The involucral bracts are 10-16 mn long and glandular.C. I n our area t h i s species i s exclusively riparian. From B. t o Que.. flowering from l a t e s m r t o e a r l y f a l l .... The 3-8 rays are up t o 2 a long. Joseph Peak west of Florence. petiolate. Nels.(1) H... The Iqper ones have shorter p e t i o l e s and are reduced i n size.. these have a d i s t i n c t l y convex receptacle and thus appear hemispherical. The overlapping involucral bracts are about 1 a long and glandular with sharp.. n u t t a l l i i Middle stem leaves mostly broadly lance-shaped t o spade-shaped.. green tips. always growing below the high water mark. n Shrubby goldenweed i s uncomnon on talus slopes and other open habitats i n the upper subalpine and timberline zones. often with heart-shaped bases.C.) Gray Shrubby Goldenweed w This plant i s a small shrub up t o 40 cm (16 i n ) t a l l with b r i t t l e twigs. N u t t a l l I s Sunflower S o l i t a r y stems. Usually several flower heads with yellow ray flowers are arranged i n a branched..(3) H. The herbage i s glandular.. T H leni un L e Heleniun a u t m a l e L.. annual sunflower o f t e n exceeds 1.S.. Flower heads are showy with b r i g h t yellow ray flowers. Helianthus a m w s The height of the branched stem o f t h i s comnon.

H. armerioides e.a. Helianthus annuus j. uniflorus c. H. suffruticosus h. Haplopappus integrifolius b. H. acaulis d. H. lyallii g. Helenium autumnale i. H. H. H. lanuginosus f. nuttallii .

.... 7 Basal and lower Leaves small and deciduous by flowering time.... 5.. and Alta.. C m n on open t o sparsely wooded. 3... Jerusalem artichoke i s generally r a r e i n our area and the western U....... black. excessively drained soi 1s............. slender stems are terminated by a f lat-topped o r convex i n f loresence or a single flowering head...... The leaves are alternate or a l l basal....... albertinum. 5..... winged petioles............. and WY.. canadense Lower stem lacking long.. The stems are up t o 1 rn (39 i n ) t a l l and terminated by a branched............... whereas the middle and upper ones are much reduced.................... 4...... Leaves are e n t i r e and elongated.... Hieraciun albertinun Farr Western Hawkweed A l l the herbage and the involucre i s conspicuously and densely long-hairy........ 1. usually glandless b r i s t l e s .......2 .......... 6........COMWSITAE 3......... There are several t o rwnerous flower heads on each plant............ Helianthus tuberosus L..3 H....... The involucre i s c y l i n d r i c a l t o hemispheric with over 1appi ng bracts. The often s o l i t a r y ................................. B..... 1....... Characteristic of moist s i t e s and waste places...... spreading from tuber-bearing rhizomes.. 2...... O ..... ranging from f o o t h i l l elevations of 1005 m (3.. often grassy slopes... scouler i Upper stem leaves densely long-hairy . wholly east of the Cascade by H..........(1) H.. central ID... I t resembles H.... g r a c i l e Stem leaves apparent. though never so densely covered as i n H. south t o ne... albertinun.............................. 4.................... 6.. and toothed on the margins with short...... ranging t o white or reddish-orange.... Hieraciun cynoglossoides Arv..... reduced upwards Involucre densely long-hairy........... gracile.. ............ li.............. albiflorum Flowers yellow or orange ..5 H...... This species has been c u l t i v a t e d since pre-Colwbian times f o r i t s edible tubers..... R I n m i d s m r i t s b r i g h t yellow flowers complement the deep v i o l e t ... Jerusalem Artichoke An introduced perennial...... but the stem height o f t e n exceeds 2 m (6 f t ) ..................... Herbage ranges from scarcely t o densely long-hairy.........C........ albertinwn........ Hawkweed Hawkweeds are perennial herbs with milky juice and rhizomes with fibrous roots... s l i g h t l y or not a t a l l glandular Involucre moderately or sparsely long-hairy....... 4 Flowers red-orange..... Most of the densely h a i r y rosettes noticed along t r a i 1s and roads (dry open places) i n the montane forests are H.......S.C.. 3. basally 3-nerved.S............................ From s......... 1.... Hieraciun L........ usually with some long hairs ....................... UT. MT... and Alta......6 Upper stem leaves nearly glabrous. H... I t i s replaced a t higher elevations by H. south t o n...................3 Lower stem with long... 5 Leaves mainly basal............ OR..000 f t ) on grassy %aldsnl i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains... The involucre has a dark cast due t o the density o f black-based. and the leaves are broadly lance-shaped.......... 6 H. though less so than H.........(7) H. gland-tipped b r i s t l e s . This group includes 3 species that are closely related. I t i s a widespread weed of the eastern U..... ....p u r p l e ones o f Aster i n t e g r i f o l i u s on open montane and subalpine slopes.... .......... aurantiacun 8 Flowers yellow .. ) H.......(2) .. 2.. A l l 3 species occur on dry... Flower heads have ray f l o r e t s only. they are mostly yellow........ glabrous o r short-hairy ...... Hound's Tongue Hawkweed This hawkweed i s sparsely t o rather densely long-hairy.. The involucre i s set with nunerous.............. spreading h a i r s .. scabrous above.. (Not i l l u s t r a t e d ) .. 2..... a l b i f l o r u n and a t highest elevations From s. n u t t a l l i i ..300 f t ) t o about 2135 m (7. wnbellatum 4 Flowers white ....... and w.... 7.. e n t i r e or shallowly toothed............. albertinum cynoglossoides Group I. often many-flowered infloresence....... those of the base and lower stem are large.... and o f t e n hard t o identify...... conspicuously glandular ....... spreading hairs .......... Range................-Tow... I t has persisted on some abandoned dumps o f the upper Rattlesnake Valley and on a ranch i n the B i t t e r r o o t Valley....... middle leaves the largest Basal and lower leaves the Largest.................... very similar. B... 7.....

S. I n our area. From A south t o C and NM. OR. open habitats from the f o o t h i l l s t o openings i n subalpine forests.000 f t ) . B.. black. Luzula hitchcockii. OR and south t o ne. are much reduced and b r a c t . densely glandular and long-hairy. on average. ID. t o B. and glabrous (upper stem leaves only). and Antennaria lanata. Orange Hawkweed Stems r i s e 15-30 cm (6-12 i n ) from r a p i d l y spreading stolons and rhizomes. inU. toCO. red-orange flower heads are crowded i n a terminal cluster. andnw. s. t o CA. The single. scouleri i s infrequent i n dry. and showy flower head i s b r i g h t yellow. lack o f long h a i r s on the lower p o r t i o n of the stem. h a i r y leaves are confined t o a basal rosette. 7. t o Sask.C. Can.C. sparingly long-hairy. C A . Vacciniun scopariun. The inflorescence i s f o r d o f 1-few flower heads that are yellow. and especially MT.700 t o 10. ALpine Hawkweed Alpine hawkweed i s 5-25 cm (2-10 i n ) t a l l . I t colonizes neglected lawns south o f the Clark Fork River. above. glabrous t o short-hairy. the d i s t a l t h i r d toothed o r shallowly lobed. Hieraciun scouleri Hook. This group includes three d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t and e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d species. spreading h a i r s that are absent i n leaves o f H canadense are also broader and thinner. depending on elevation. IA. 5. Leaves are nearly glabrous and o f t e n glaucous The involucre i s sparsely set with short. (Not i l l u s t r a t e d ) . moist habitats such as r i p a r i a n corridors. Leaves are linear and reduced i n Mmber above. s t o u t l y taprooted p e r e m i a l with stems t o 25 a (10 i n ) t a l l r i s i n g from a branched caudex. surmi t s ranging i n elevation from 2650 t o 3050 m (8. The infloresence i s many-headed and flat-topped. UA. The This plant south t o NJ. NV and e. gland-tipped b r i s t l e s . H. Mostly moderate elevations east of the Cascades.l i k e . fading t o creamy-white. Yuk. Entire. This European weed was recently introduced t o Missoula from the Flathead Lake v i c i n i t y . though inconspicuous species occurs i n dry. Uool ly-weed This plant has sparsely long-hairy herbage below. These 2 s i m i l a r and u n c m species o f moist s i t e s are. Uhite Hawkweed Group 111. Persistent. From e. The inflorescence i s conposed of several t o many small. occurs i n open or shaded. Chiefly of Cascades and Sierra Nevada from s. Hieraciun canadense Michx. tufted. the shortest species w i t h i n Hieracium. Hulsea T. Basal and lower stem leaves are small and soon deciduous. creamy-white flower heads. not collected i n subalpine habitats. n. more so on g r a n i t i c (acidic) than on calcareous substrates. MT t o ne. K A 8.C M O 1TAE OPS 3. I t ranges from montane t o alpine habitats but i s most comnon just below or a t timberline i n open stands of I t i s o f t e n associated with undergrowth species such as Phyl lodoce spp. This species of Loose g r a n i t i c gravel substrates i s known from f i v e B i t t e r r o o t Mtn. This plant i s comnm on mesic sites. Uhite hawkweed flowers from June t o e a r l y September. Stems of white hawkweed are 20-50 cm (8 t o 20 i n ) t a l l with leaves that are persistent. The succulent and b r i t t l e Lower leaves are n lance-shaped t o oblong. t a l l e r than species of group I. i n or subtending the infloresence. such as r i p a r i a n shrub thickets. south t o C A and CO. The lower d x l l a t u n . large. lance-shaped t o e l l i p t i c a l o r spatula-shaped leaves are borne only a t the base of slender stems. while the others are nunerous and nearly o f the same size and shape. . -- Group 11. This widespread. 4. Hieraciun unbellatun L. narrow-leaved hawkweed i s Narrow-leaved hawkweed i s distinguished by i t s This species i s mostly f o d i n open C i r c u b r e a l . or p a r t l y shaded places. Hulsea algida Gray Hulsea Alpine Hulsea Alpine hulsea i s a strongly aromatic. whi tebark pine and alpine larch. From sw. Hieraciun g r a c i l e Hook. Canadian Hawkweed stem o f Canadian hawkweed has evident long. daisy shaped. Showy. Leaves have mostly coarse and i r r e g u l a r teeth and are sparsely h a i r y a t most. Narrow-leaved Hawkweed the more comnon of these 2 apparently intergrading species. Hieraciun a l b i f l o r u n Hook. Hieraciun aurantiacun L..& G. 6. open woods and sagebrush slopes. . The few uppermost leaves.

. Marsh Elder These are amual or perennial species with opposite Leaves (or upper ones alternate).. Upper leaves are e n t i r e and progressively reduced upward.. K 2...... 1... b r i t s t l e l i k e h a i r s and a multiple-headed inflorescence (excepting depauperate specimens)..... south t o e...... Native o f Europe now widely d i s t r i b u t e d i n U...... Perennial... Marsh-elder Marsh-elder i s a robust annual....C MO I O P S TAE H~mchaeris L..... nodding n flower heads are borne s i n g l y i n the angle between stem and leaf. 3 L. The inflorescence i s composed o f nwnerous...... usually growing on disturbed s i t e s with alkaline o r high clay content (g-) s o i l s . The t o 20 cm (8 i n ) long. This species i s l o c a l l y comnon i n moist meadows. 1. 1. x a n t h i f o l i a Nutt..... UA........ I t resembles dandelion by having leaves i n a basal rosette heads of yellow ray flowers.... biennials. From s... K N The showy flowers close i n l a t e afternoon.C.. t o Man... Lower leaves are sessile and coarsely toothed with the teeth pointing toward the leaf base.... t o 50 a (20 i n ) t a l l . small flower heads have bluish. .. M Lactuca L.. i t s height occasionally exceeding 1... A weed i f disturbed s i t e s only recently collected on a Missoula i n d u s t r i a l s i t e ..( 1 ) L. narrow inflorescence. 1.L....... Leaves are large. . 2. T a l l Blue Lettuce 1.... . Cat's Ear Cat's Ear Cat1s ear i s a weedy.. and south t o C and OK......... leafy-stemned annuals...2 L pulchella . The heads remain ooen i n a l l kinds o f weather...... Lettuce These plants are mostly t a l l .......... Lactuca pulchella (Pursh) DC........ Flowers are sessile and borne i n narrow....weed Iva a x i l l a r i s Pursh Poverty-weed i s a perennial with an unpleasant odor and creeping rootstocks..) Fern..... t h i c k and pale green leaves. bear sessile.. t h i s i s a spectacularly large roadside weed o f low and moist habitats........ 2. yellow.......... fibrous-rooted p e r e m i a l with stems 15-60 cm (6-24 i n ) t a l l ..... oblong t o linear.... This species i s only l o c a l l y comnon i n our area...... and CA. and coarsely toothed.. or white rays barely r i s i n g above the involucre.... C oblongifolia Nutt. t o s. involucre 9-15 n high ... The blue ray flowers o f the large heads have a white pappus... From A and CA t o M and MO... This weed occurs i n moist habitats from Newf. CO.. The branched steins. terminal inflorescence... The pappus i s brownish...S....5 m (59 in)... Iva ... but i t d i f f e r s by having leaves with s t i f f ...... l i g u l a t e ( a l l ray flowers)... Uncomnon i n our area.. They are glabrous o r h a i r y only on the main veins o f the underside.. Leaves p r i c k l y beneath on the midrib....... 1........ a x i l l a r i s . leaves spade-shaped t o triangular with long petioles .2 Flower heads small.. involucre 15-25 mn high . Lactuca biennis (Moench. alternate-leaved...... Leaves are 10-40 cm (4-16 i n ) long and pinnately divided and coarsely toothed. and long-petiolate with both surfaces velvety textured. A and south t o NC.1 L Blue Lettuce Usually not t a l l e r than 50 c (20 in). leaves broadly linear t o oblong without long petioles Amual. blue. H m h a e r i s radicata L. blade shape ranges from broadly egg-shaped t o triangular or s l i g h t l y heart-shaped... Poverty Weed. small heads consisting o f greenish-whi t e disc f 1owers that lack a pappus (modified calyx that forms a crown a t sumnit of achene). blue lettuce i s a perennial a r i s i n g from deep-seated. yellow... From Alta......... Small.(2) I x a n t h i f o l i a Poverty. Nunerous.. B... biennis Flower heads larger... A 2... or whitish flower heads are arranged i n a milky juice..... s e r r i o l a ..(1) I. creeping m rootstocks....5-2 m (20-80 i n ) t a l l ... and TX.. The pappus (modified calyx at apex of achene) i s white t o brownish... Leaves not p r i c k l y beneath.. N .. o r perennials with Nunerous. entire. T a l l blue lettuce i s a robust amual or b i e m i a l 0........

albertinum c. Hieracium albiflorum a. Hieracium cynoglossoides b. gracile h. H. canadense 170 . umbellatum g.f. H. Hypochaeris radicata e. H. H. H. scouleri d. Huisea algida i.

.p u r p l e rays and yellow t o reddish disc flowers.2 Middle and upper leaves mostly alternate.... . purple disc flowers........... There i s 1 Often associated with sandy soils. Machaeranthera Ness Aster Machaeranthera canescens (Pursh) Gray Viscid Aster Viscid aster i s a taprooted.. The several t o many flower heads. A1ternate. south t o n. borne i n a f t a t . O AZ..... and Man.. The p i m a t e l y lobed... Mex.. naked stalks.... firm.. arranged i n a crowded s p i k e l i k e inflorescence. The inflorescence has nunerws small. . reflexed or spreading t i p s that are occasionally suffused with red.. branched... MT. Tarweed A l l our species are amuals possessing a t a r scent o f varying intensity. inconspicuous rays and are borne s i n g l y on f iliform. a s t e r l i k e flowers have deep v i o l e t . ye1 low ray flowers.. gardens....C... the base i s usually twisted o r i e n t i n g the blade surface v e r t i c a l t o the ground. and several-stemned biennial or s h o r t . Madia Mot. glomerata .. Pappus i s lacking or consists o f a few scales. and narrowly Linear... a slender amual. glabrous stems of t h i s perennial r i s e t o 40 c (16 i n ) from a stout rhizome....l i k e Leaves...... n.. Lactuca s e r r i o l a L. branched above u i t h glandular and coarsely h a i r y herbage.... This species i s comnon on dry... t h i s i s a comnon species o f the Great Plains..... and evidently keeled involucre bracts that remain erect a t maturity... Native t o China and Japan and established i n scattered Locations i n the U...... i s up t o 30 cm (12 i n ) t a l l .(3) M.. erect stem 15-150 cm (6-60 i n ) t a l l .. as a weed o f disturbed areas ( f i e l d s . L i a t r i s Schreb..S..l i v e d perennial 10-50 cm (4-20 i n ) t a t 1. Flowering c m n c e s i n June and may l a s t t o September.. Lapsana L. From s. sessile........ B....... entire.. c o l l e c t i o n from near the Continental Divide south o f Ross1 Hole.... The inconspicuous flower heads are composed of few... Usually there are 8 r e l a t i v e l y narrow. basally clasping Leaves are spiny on the midrib. ID.. The nunerws. minima Flower heads larger... The narrow involucre bracts have short green. The ray f l o r e t s o f the yellow flower heads have a white pappus.. terminating i n a b l m t or rounded t i p . From s. E....... t o Sask and south t o C ... 1.C MO I O P S TAE 3.. Madia exigua (J.... Thin... B.. clearcuts) . I t generally occurs i n open woods and grasslands of the f o o t h i l l s t o moderate elevations i n the mountains. rays minute.. P r i c k l y Lettuce P r i c k l y l e t t u c e i s a winter annual or biennial up t o 1. Baja Cal. usually opposite below... Leaves are narrowly linear..... more f i n e l y so on the margins. entire..... 2.. Leaves mostly opposite ............ Lapsana Nipplewort Nipplewort i s an annual with a single....... and s.... Gay-feather Spotted Gay-feather The strong. m The nunerous....topped inflorescence. south t o n....... and r i g i d Leaves are alternate..... CA. are corrposed o f only yellow ray flowers. . involucre greater than 5 mn high Flower heads small.(I) exigua M. 1. and alternate above.S. and progressively shorter-petioled and narrowed upwards. open slopes o f the f o o t h i l l s .... p e t i o l a t e leaves are egg-shaped t o r o d ..... Alta... dotted.5 m (59 i n ) t a l l . ... and nw... Flower heads are composed s o l e l y o f tubular shaped.(2) M. Lacsana cornrunis L. involucre 2-5 mn high... Smith) Gray L i t t l e tarweed. The involucre appears deeply furrowed because the bracts enfold and usually completely enclose the ray achenes. Small flower heads have short. 2.. L i t t l e Tarweed 1... r e l a t i v e l y short and broad. b r a c t ....... L i a t r i s punctata Hook......... Nippleuort i s a weed of c u l t i v a t e d f i e l d s and disturbed areas.C... A weed o f European o r i g i n now naturalized throughout U.. This species has been collected once above the Blodgett Creek T r a i l i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains... 1inear t o inversely lance-shaped or spatula-shaped leaves have teeth with minute spiny tips...

e n t i r e o r p i m a t e l y divided a t least halfway t o midrib..... densely pubescent herbage i s strongly tar-scented... O 3. From s... Microseris Don Microseris These species are taprooted perennials w i t h m i l k y juice........... nigrescens Plants with more or less leafy stems... ............ whereas Agoseris spp... Our leafy.. 2............ From B.... and Can. Leaves are mostly basal.. Typical o f v e r n a l l y moist............. Single p l a n t s o r small populations o f t h i s European weed have been observed on both sides o f the B i t t e r r o o t Valley along logging roads and i n pastures and orchards.. cuspidata Leaves narrow.. 1........... 3.. a (2) M.. greenish-yellow.. Involucre bracts are mostly subequal and overlapping........f i l i f o r m segments. Matricaria These are widely introduced (now nearly circurrboreal) annual o r b i e n n i a l herbs t h a t most o f t e n have a branched h a b i t and are extremely v a r i a b l e i n size........ ID..... 2 Modified calyx (pappus) o f 10 t o 30 slender.. U... mostly 20-50 times as long as wide.. matricarioides... troximoides Leaves mostly 5-20 times as long as wide................. n.800 t o 5............ nutans ... This species i s t a l l e r and more robust than M.................. and introduced eastward. small......... 3 Pappus of 30 t o 80 members.. annual p l a n t s average less than 15 cm ( 6 i n ) t a l l ... east t o MT and AZ.............. and shallow substrates such as roadsides and K h n k m e n t s . maritima ..... Madia minima (Gray) Keck Small-head Tarweed n The l i n e a r t o Spreading and mostly opposite branching d i s t i n g u i s h t h i s 10 a (4 i n ) t a l l a m w l . 3..... and sparingly i n the P a c i f i c states. and n...C... elongated achene......... M a t r i c a r i a maritima L....... Flower heads are borne i n the stem f o r k s and i n small terminal clusters... 2...... Scent less May-weed Scentless may-weed i s an annual o r b i e n n i a l up t o 60 cm (24 i n ) t a l l ..... o f t e n branched and heads Plants lacking stem leaves..1 M... Clustered Tarweed Clustered tarweed i s an erect.......1 M............... some o r a l l of which are so narrow as t o be b r i s t l e s ( s t i f f .... gradually tapering scales .... open forests along Boulder Creek Trai 1 and the South Fork o f Lost Horse Creek a t elevations ranging from 1460 t o 1585 m (4. This germs i s distinguished from Agoseris by a rather technical character. t h i n beak.... Leaves are a l t e r n a t e and pinnately lobed or d i v i d e d a t least halfway t o the midrib.... Linear-oblong leaves are mostly opposite........ M.200 ft)............ unbranched........ simple-stemned o r moderately branched annual t o 50 cm (20 i n ) tall......... w i t h margins wavy o r i r r e g u l a r l y curled 3 M.............. t o Sask. branched........ Ray f l o r e t s are pure white and without scent.. The small t o mediun-size...... d i s c o i d (lacking ray flowers) and cone-shaped flower heads have a d i s t i n c t pineapple aroma..... 1. M a t r i c a r i a L. Madia g l m r a t a Hook..... Small-head tarweed has been c o l l e c t e d i n dry. From A t o Baja Cal... Flower heads with white rays Flower heads lacking rays .. and C ... and having s i n g l e flower heads having several flower .... matricarioides Pineapple-weed 1...C MO I O P S TAE 2......... have the pappus attached t o the achene v i a a r e l a t i v e l y long. Microseris has a pappus attached t o the end o f the narrow. M a t r i c a r i a matricarioides (Less) Porter The numerous...S......C.. . The d u l l green... Pineapple-weed occurs on disturbed. t h i s species has been noted f o r many years on the banks o f Lolo Creek and roadsides o f Highway 12 east o f Lolo Hot Springs...... t e r m i n a l l y arranged f Lower heads are composed o f d i s c or r a y flowers... slender... open areas..... AZ..2 M...... Leaves are l i n e a r t o lance-shaped....... 2... h a i r 1ike). south t o CA..... south t o CA. Leaves are 2-times p i m a t e l y d i v i d e d i n t o Linear or l i n e a r ........... 1......... This aromatic amual o f P a c i f i c North American o r i g i n has been introduced t o northern Europe and p a r t s o f Asia..... n u t r i e n t poor.. Flower heads are borne i n very small clusters a t stem t i p s and i n the angle between l e a f and stem.. elongated. w i t h margins scarcely crisped o r w vy... Flower heads are always l i g u l a t e (only r a y f l o r e t s ) and yellow.. .... 1. Established i n e.................. B....

Lapsana communis g.a lva axillaris b. M. Machaeranthera canescens i. Liatris punctata h. xanthifolia c. L pulchella e. I. glomerata . L serriola f. Lactuca biennis d. Madia exigua j.

4. Microseris nutans (Geyer) Schultz-Bip. Involucre bracts are mostly notably three-nerved. Microseris nigrescens Hend. Prenanthes L. MT and n. s w t h t o n. small forms are only 10 cm (4 i n ) tall. [Nothocalai s cuspidata (Pursh) Greenel Toothed Microseris Toothed microseris i s s i m i l a r i n size and habit t o the above 2 species. B. The terminal . 3. [Nothocalais nigrescens (Hend. This plant has been collected near Gibbons Pass on the north slopes o f the Continental Divide. 2. Microseris cuspidata (Pursh) Schultz-Bip. They are borne i n t u f t s separate from the flowering stem and expand s h o r t l y flowering. B. but i t d i f f e r s by having a pappus conposed o f 30-80 b r i s t l e s . A Near M i s s w l a c o l t s f o o t flowers i n April. The large basal leaves. egg-shaped o r broadly lance-shaped and abruptly narrowed toward a f i n e point. not scales. Upper leaves are narrow and much reduced. The alternate leaves are thin. Petasites M i l 1 Petasites sagittatus (Banks) Gray Coltsfoot Sweet Coltsfoot Sweet c o l t s f o o t i s a perennial with creeping rhizomes and thick. densely h a i r y stems 20-40 cm (8-16 i n ) t a l l . and narrow. This i s a species o f the Great Plains that reaches the western l i m i t o f i t s range i n our area. 1. The numerous. rattlesnake-root i s a perennial with milky juice. east t o MT and CO. Grolp 11. From s. t o 2620 m (8. and only the lower ones have wing-margined petioles and an arrowhead-shape with lobes that sometimes f tare outward. I t occurs i n our area on islands (gravelly substrates) i n the lower B i t t e r r o o t River and the Clark Fork River near i t s confluence with the B i t t e r r o o t River. less than 1 c m wide with wavy o r crisped margins. The pappus i s composed of 10-30 gradually tapering scales (not bristles). Nels Rattlesnake-root Ratt lesnake-root Single-stemned and 15-50 cm (6-20 i n ) t a l l . A t o K Labrador south t o ne. tuberlike roots. MT. not known from the B i t t e r r o o t Momtains. heads per stem. Coltsfoot plant occurs i n wet habitats. Prenanthes sagi t t a t a (Gray) A.600 f t ) . s t o u t l y rooted perennial d i f f e r s from the others by having less crowded and wider Leaves with margins that are not wavy. mostly narrowly lance-shaped o r l i n e a r and e n t i r e but ranging t o pinnately lobed or divided. up t o 30 c (12 i n ) long. These species have s o l i t a r y flower heads borne on naked s t a l k s and the leaves are densely clustered a t the base. Heads are composed of white or purplish ray and disk flowers. t o CA. convex-shaped inflorescence. CA and east of the Cascade Range t o MT and UT. This species has stems with sparsely d i s t r i b u t e d leaves. and conspicuously blackish-purple dotted. Narrow leaves. have Long petioles and m arrowhead-shaped blades with toothed margins. There may be 1-several flower Nodding Microseris Nodding microseris i s a perennial with fleshy. UY. north ID. large flower heads are arranged terminally i n a dense.C. succulent. and CO. This species occurs i n moist montane and subalpine meadows o f the Sapphi r e Range. thin-margined. Small plants with a curved or decurbent base. a single flower head. Microseris troximoides G'ray [Nothocalais troximoides (Gray) Greenel The stem of false-agoseris r i s e s 5-30 cm (2-12 i n ) above a stout root. curved Leaves are c m n on grassy. The lance-shaped t o Linear bracts generally have a dark midrib. Nodding microseris occurs c h i e f l y i n open and moist habitats from valleys upward. I t can be found i n willow or alder thickets such as i n the meadows along the B i t t e r r o o t Rivers south of Lolo. are crowed a t the base of the naked flowering stem.C. often where there i s standing water i n the spring. W. The outer involucral bracts are much smaller than the inner. From central I D t o w. vernally moist timberline habitats. Black-hairy Microseris He1l e r l This 5-30 cm (2-12 i n ) t a l l .C MO I O P S TAE Grolp I. Leaves are densely clustered a t the base and h i g h l y variable i n shape.

.....C. 2..... The p l a n t i s comnon i n moist. The unique flower heads are borne on long. A Saussurea DC..... N O Rudbeckia L..t o cone-shaped disks ( c e n t r a l p o r t i o n o f the flowering head) and mostly reflexed or spreading involucre bracts. Rucbxkia occidentalis Nutt.. Saussurea amer icana Eat... Coneflower Coneflowers are t a l l b i e m i a l s or perennials with a l t e r n a t e leaves.. Black-eyed Susan The f a m i l i a r black-eyed Susan i s a biennial o r s h o r t ......300 f t ) .. r e f lexed ray flowers......... UY... The p o r t i o n o f the receptacle supporting the d i s c flowers has the shape o f a slender cone and i s d u l l yellow a t f i r s t . Leaves are large... M . Flowerheadswithout ray Ray flowers present and conspicuous .. hemispheric t o egg-shaped d i s c encircled by b r i g h t orange-yellow.. From Que.2 R..) Woot. erect....... The large flower heads have hemispheric. T a l l Conef lower T a l l coneflower........ ID... and CA...t o many-f lowered heads are composed o f d i s c and Large.S. the segments e n t i r e and lance-shaped t o t o 80 cm (32 i n ) t a l l . and reflexed r a y florets.......... egg..... or occasionally p i m a t e l y divided.... and naked s t a l k s and have a jet-black. 2.. lance-linear t o oblong and predominantly sessile. Rat ibida Raf Ratibida c o l u m i f e r a (Nutt....... UT.... From se... soon becoming dark brownish-purple.... t h i s species i s f o m d i n disturbed areas o r open meadows..... open t o p a r t l y shaded h a b i t a t s i n montane and subalpine woodlands.. E a r l y i n developnent the herbage i s covered with cobwebby. From s.. while the upper are narrow..... s.... south t o FL and west t o MT........C MO I O P S TAE inflorescence i s narrow and elongated w i t h nodding flower heads conposed of only white (fading t o purple) r a y flowers... Sawwort Saussurea. p i m a t e l y d i v i d e d or cut i n t o narrow t o broad segments..... Flower heads terminate long s t a l k s and have a dark brown t o purplish. ID and MT. and east t o M and M ...h a i r y herbage t h a t i s rough t o the touch...... 1.... but with time only the .. inversely lance-shaped t o e l l i p t i c a l .. This species i s found along streanbanks and i n other moist places.p e t i o l a t e above...... Western coneflower i s a coarse perennial with densely l e a f y stems t h a t are o f t e n more than 1 m (39 in) t a l l ..l i v e d perennial about 80 cm (32 i n ) t a l l w i t h s h o r t ...... branched above.. . 3 R. e n t i r e o r toothed. Introduced from eastern and c e n t r a l North America.. 1. American Sawwort Saussurea i s a fibrous-rooted.. short-petiolate... Rudbeckia l a c i n i a t a L... Ray flowers are b r i g h t yellow and soon r e f lexed. B... 3. conef lower has been c o l l e c t e d on Mount Sentinel and noted spreading along highway and r a i l r o a d rights-of-way. south mountain ranges..... elongated. Lower leaves are long-stemned... a long-lived perennial with glabrous t o glaucous foliage. cone-shaped d i s c up t o 6 cm (2..2 Leaves deeply lobed..... This species i s l o c a l l y comnon on shaded streambanks and other moist t o wet substrates o f a l l our I n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains i t occurs as high as 2225 m (7..... The several..... Only a few populations o f t a l l coneflower are known i n our area: along an i r r i g a t i o n d i t c h and among shrubs along the Clark Fork River near Missoula.. and CA.. broadly egg-shaped t o e l l i p t i c a l ... Alta. erect stems up t o 1 m (39 i n ) t a l l ..... 2... and AZ. west t o B.......... C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y a p l a n t o f Great Plains p r a i r i e s ... Rudbeckia h i r t a L. very broad. tangled t o woolly hairs... coarse perennial with stout....C.. MT and nu. t o FL..... I t ' s stems are woody a t the base.... and up t o 2 m (78 i n ) t a l l ..... Leaves are nearly glabrous...... linear.. Conef lower Conef 1ower P r a i r i e coneflower... The grayish t o greenish o r ye1 low d i s c matures t o an egg-shape.5 i n ) wide a t maturity... h i r t a Western Conef lower 1.. & Standl. Saussurea.. u s u a l l y has several branching stems up Leaves are a l t e r n a t e and pinnately divided... long-petiolate below t o s h o r t ..... l a c i n i a t a Leaf margins e n t i r e o r toothed .... a taprooted perennial with a short caudex............. From UA south and east t o sw.. From N... A population along the lower Skalkaho Road has persisted f o r more than 20 years.( 1 ) ~ o c c i d e n t a l i s ...... . t o n... south t o TX and Mex.

M. maritima d. Petasites sagittatus i. Matricaria matricarioides c. nutans g. cuspidata h. Microseris nigrescens e. M. Prenanthes sagittata 17 6 .a Madia minima f. Microseris troximoides b. M.

14.....5 ....... (llaltherbosall) with Senecio triangularis...( 1 1 ) S.............. whereas the upper ones are more lance-shaped and sessile... ........................... foetidus P l a n t s g l a b r o u s a t flowering time 6 Plants with some hairiness a t flowering t i... ........ This group includes the two t a l l e s t species............. 9 .. vulgaris ........ ... margins deeply toothed .......9 .... ....... ) Basal leaves tapering a t the base t o the petiole....... .. (10) 7.. ... but i n c o l d timberline habitats...... .. 5 S...... ... o r reddish.. ..... Flower heads 1-4.......... cymbalarioides Flower heads usually 3-many ......... Plants native perennials............... ..... .................................. broad....... t u f t o f basal leaves usually present Stem leaves well developed..................(12) Sr megaceDhalus .. ...... ..14 Leaves entire.. ....... ... fibrous rooted perennial.......... t r i a n g u l a r i s Grolp I..... . Leaves lance-sha ped.... 5......... Delphinium occidentale... .................. 6...... 14........ Lower ones are petiolate.. not Lobed 3.................... Butterweed Members o f t h i s genus are often q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from one another... As the f l o r e t s mature......7 Basal Leaves with a flattened or somewhat lobed base.. 7 S. 4 S.....8 Leaves...... shorter hair. ...... and egg-shaped t o triangular....... .... ...... herbage with long tangled white hair............ 1........ Leaves are a l l sharply toothed and gradually reduced upward................ .............. . Stem heights o f low elevation plants exceed 1....... t u f t of basal leaves usually lacking Leaves........... the white pappus becomes increasingly prominent......... ......... orange.... 7........... involucre greater than 10 mn high Flower heads usually more than 4........................... rays lacking............................ 2.. 3.......... only gradually reduced upwards............... . .... ......12 Involucral bracts with conspicuous black tips............... herbage with denser. The The c o r o l l a i s red-purple.............. ........ 4....... rays often present Stem Leaves reduced on the upper part o f the stem....... convex-shaped inflorescence.. S.. Saussurea occurs i n moist lake or headwater basins along the Selway-Bitterroot Divide and on the north I t i s a comnon and prominent member o f t a l l herb associations slopes of the Continental Divide............... 9.........8 % indecorus Rays present (occasional plants i n a population may be rayless) ........ .. margins more shallowly toothed......4 ..........( & c a n u s Leaves glabrous a t flowering time.. .. Leaves toothed or sometimes entire.... 12................. Ar row1eaf Groundse1 Arrowleaf groundsel i s a several-stemned.... .2 Rays lacking ........ 13.............. ............... .. Flower heads are mostly medim-size o r small......... Senecio L.......... The outer ones.10 Plants with fibrous roots from a rootcrown............. a t least the upper ones........ Leaves triangular ............are much shorter and egg-shaped........ .............. 6........ ... .......... ... 8....... and mostly acute.. ... ......... ..........at Leastbelow.................... 8........... 10......... . 12.......... .... Senecio t r i a n g u l a r i s Hook... rocky habitats....3 Plants annual weeds.... Herbage i s ....... lobed Leaves e n t i r e o r toothed on the margins..... ............. 4... . and Rudbeckia occidentalis............................ but they do not occur together... o f t e n with small b r a c t l e t s a t the base............ .. ... ...................... Involucre bracts are mostly herbaceous and arranged i n one row.......... h a i r y a t f l o w e r i n g t i m e . lugens Involucral bracts with minute black t i p s ..... 1..........(13) & fremontii Plants greater than 20 cm t a l l .. ..................... . ...... 1.... ..... yellow..... 10.... ... c a w s ........... i m e r involucre bracts overlap and are pale with dark margins...C MO I O P S TAE Leaf undersides remain so..13 5... plants of moist or wet meadows. ............. .... S.... ... ........... 13...... Groundsel........ involucre generally less than 10 mn high .. .. .... Heads may have both disk and ray flowers o r only the former.............. Leaves are alternate or a l l basal. stems barely reach 20 cm (8 in)............... They include perennial herbs and a s i n g l e introduced and weedy amual...1 2 S......................6 Flower heads 1-2 . often sparse a t flowering time..... 3 Sr i n t e g e r r i m s Plants with an evident rhizome or horizontal caudex. 1 4 ) S............. Discoid (tubular flowers only) flower heads are packed i n a dense.. .............. ......... .... ........ and sharply pseudaureus pau~erculus S.. .................. .. ...... terminal..... 9.... They are comnon and e a s i l y identified.ll ........ ... broad... 11.... plants o f dry...... ~Dhaerocephalus Plants usually less than 20 cm (8 i n ) t a l l .. serra S......5 m (59 in)..................... Disc f l o r e t s have a pappus of white b r i s t l e s ... 11..... .. 2...

The others are l a n c e . . I t has stems t o 60 a (24 i n ) t a l l . the herbage changes from long-hairy t o nearly glabrous. This species occurs i n a l l western Montana mountain ranges. Senecio sphaerocephalus Greene Mountain-marsh But terweed This perennial species i s fibrous rooted from a short. Marsh-butterweed occurs i n the Sapphire Range i n moist t o wet. T a l l Butterweed grows on deep. A l l leaves are normally sharply toothed. south t o n. i t has r e l a t i v e l y broad involucre bracts. The terminal. This group includes perennial species that have short. From A and Yuk. south t o central OR and east t o sw. The black-brown involucre bract t i p s are much less than 1/4 the t o t a l bract length. t r i a n g u l a r i s i s f a r m r e comnon and has a wider elevational range. From B. n The lower ones are well-developed. Black-tipped Butterweed This species s u p e r f i c i a l l y appears indistinguishable from S. Senecio integerrimus Nutt. Leaves are evenly distributed. I n addition. 3. and a short. MT. The Lower ones wither e a r l y and are short p e t i o l a t e and inversely lance-shaped. the terminal infloresence i s congested and flat-topped. Senecio serra Hook. 5. 2. inversely lance-shaped t o egg-shaped or e l l i p t i c a l . and b r i g h t yellow rays. t h i c k rhizome. Senecio lugens Rich. The elongated infloresence i s broad and i r r e g u l a r l y round-topped. but c e r t a i n l y not confined to. south t o CO and NV. W t o C . fibrous roots and stems that are 20-40 cm (8-16 i n ) tall. and s w t h t o CA. flat-topped i n f loresence consists o f few t o nwnerous. small. pointed or rounded Lobes. elongated-triangular blades with trurcate o r heart-shaped bases. Arrowleaf groundsel i s especially comnon on. This species i s comnon i n the moist t o wet montane meadows of the Lolo Creek drainage where i t s yellow flowers contrast with the blue o f the camas l i l i e s . ye1 low-f lowered heads. Senecio foetidus Howell Sweet -marsh But terweed Marsh-butterweed i s glabrous and fibrous rooted from a short. Our v a r i e t y i s hydrochiloides (Rydb. Composed of few t o many flower heads. and narrow. radiate. Our v a r i e t y i s exaltatus (Nutt. T a l l Butterweed T a l l butterweed i s a coarse. 6. integerrimus.e l l i p t i c a l and nearly sessile above. east t o MT and CO. Light yellow ray and disc f l o r e t s and c y l i n d r i c a l involucres comprise the small flower heads. t h i c k root crown o r a short. serra. From A t o Sask. they are petiolate. Stem height may exceed 60 cm (24 in). Group 111. t h e i r s i z e not much reduced upward along the stem. F r o m B. Uppermost leaves are sessi l e t pinnately divided or have margins cut i n narrow. and a r i s e from a short. A A Group 11. Leaves are e n t i r e t o i r r e g u l a r l y toothed. however. Basal and lowest stem leaves are the largest. from the f o o t h i l l s t o near t i h e r l i n e . The black upper p o r t i o n o f the involucre bracts i s conspicuous.) Cronq. Larkstongue Groundsel Lambstongue groundsel i s a perennial with fleshy. fibrous rooted. S. open or p a r t l y shaded places. Flower heads have both ray and disk flowers or only the l a t t e r . I t i s less frequent on calcareous soils.COMPOSIT E A glabrous t o obscurely short-hairy. the stems are generally shorter. thin. The f r e e ends o f the involucre bracts are more-or-less black-tipped. east t o Sask. Involucre bracts have minute black tips. Known from the Sapphire Range and elsewhere but not i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. The d i s t a l 1/4 of the involucral bracts i s abruptly narrowed and evidently blackened. slender stems and glabrous herbage. The uppermost leaves are sessile. radiate flower heads.C. erect crown. south t o NM and K CA. Compared t o S. glabrous t o minutely pubescent perennial with clustered stems that are branched above and 20-200 cm (20-78 i n ) t a l l . strong rhizome. the a c i d i c soi 1s of the Idaho Batholith (much o f the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains). They are arranged i n a terminal in f lorescence. Less leafy. while the others are progressively reduced and nearly sessile. but occurs i n moist meadows and on high open slopes of A K other western Montana mountain ranges. I n the course o f maturing. Habitat includes r e l a t i v e l y d r y t o moist open places and open woods. From MT t o ne. W and Olynpic Mountains o f M . Lower Leaves have Long petioles. This high-elevation species i s the smallest member of t h i s group. This species i s diagnostic o f very moist t o wet forested s i t e s and also occurs i n wet meadows and r i p a r i a n shrubfields. stout stems. A l l leaves are e n t i r e o r toothed but never pinnately dissected or lobed. The lower and middle stem leaves are larger than the basal leaves.) Barkley. short. and horizontal rhizome. Leaves are mostly i r r e g u l a r l y and sharply toothed. whereas ones o f the middle and upper stem are few.C. I t has only been collected a t 2710 m (8. the leaves are more Lance-shaped and have margins that have f i n e or coarse teeth that are tipped with a hardened protuberance.. giving the stem a naked appearance. The Leaves are e n t i r e or f i n e l y toothed. 4. m i s t s o i l s derived from neutral o r calcareous rocks. OR.900 f t ) on Ward Mtn i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. This group i s composed o f perennial plants with s o l i t a r y .

.

C. south t o CA and NM. Infloresence has s i x t o numerous. woody base. 8. and Alta. 12. Few t o many radiate heads comprise a dense o r open convex infloresence. This species occurs i n widely scattered locations i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains and i n the Skalkaho Basin o f the Sapphire Range. persistent. Leaves of upper stem are reduced and sessi le. the basal ones nearly round o r broadly inversely egg-shaped with d i s t a l .. woody base. The basal leaves are e l l i p t i c a l or nearly c i r c u l a r . persistent. entire. mostly s o l i t a r y flower heeds are b r i g h t orange-yellow. sharp. south t o n. Leaves are small. such as on Waterworks H i l l north of Missoula. Senecio pseudaureus Rydb. I D . t o Labrador. sharply and evenly dentate or shallowly incised. This species i s known from a few locations i n the Lolo Creek drainage and i n the moist meadows o f the Skalkaho Basin o f the Sapphire Range. Rayless mountain butterweed has been collected from smell. Both species t y p i c a l l y occur i n dry habitats. From B. S treanhnk Grwndsel Streambank groundsel i s 20-40 cm (8-16 i n ) t a l l and fibrous-rooted from a short rhizome or persistent. From the Yuk.or round-toothed t o nearly entire.U.200 t o 8. and showy. 11.headed But terweed The stems o f t h i s species are 20-50 c (8-20 i n ) t a l l and grow from a strong. or r a r e l y pinnately lobed. upper subalpine forests. Large. s i l v e r y groundsel i s several-st& from a branched. Balsam groundsel has been collected i n meadows along the B i t t e r r o o t River south of Lolo. and WY. t o OR. s.C. a l l stem leaves are sharply and i r r e g u l a r l y cut t o pinnately divided (lobes again few-toothed). cushion phlox. Flower heads are usually several and generally have ray flowers. including open forest. t o CA and NM. N . The sessile stem leaves are mostly deeply c l e f t t o pinnately divided 1/3-2/3 o f the t h e i r basal portion. with elevations ranging from 2380 t o 2680 m (7. Yukon. Basal leaves are r e l a t i v e l y t h i n and usually truncate or nearly heart-shaped a t the base. Grow IV. Leaf shape varies from normally elongated and pointed t o roundish. The middle and upper stem leaves are strongly reduced. The feu stem leaves are reduced i n s i z e and mostly i r r e g u l a r l y toothed or lobed. The basal leaves are e l l i p t i c a l t o inversely egg-shaped.C. The inversely lance-shaped t o narrowly e l l i p t i c a l basal and lower stem leaves taper gradually t o a winged petiole.C. Senecio pauperculus Michx. A comnon plant o f d r y exposures. The several t o many heads have ray flowers. Senecio canus Hook. I D . rises from a slender. i t always inhabits d r y and sunny sites. and long-petiolate. From B. large. .or long-petiolate and mostly tufted. A 9. Balsam Grwndsel Balsam groundsel i s 10-40 cm (4-16 i n ) t a l l and fibrous. discoid (ray flowers r a r e l y present) flower heads surrounded by purple. the uppermost sessile. t o Alta. branched. south t o CA and CO. Terr. It i s usually associated with wetlands or moist t o wet forests. and Douglasia. From B. The b r i g h t orange-ye1 low radiate heads are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y s o l i t a r y . From B. rounded teeth. t o Sask. south t o MT and n. Elsewhere t h i s species i s found along streambanks and i n aspen groves.800 f t ) . From the Yukon and N. s. woody base and a short taproot. Senecio indecorus Greene Rayless Momtain Butterweed This species i s fibrous rooted from a sinple or branched. r a r e l y as t a l l as 20 cm (8 in). A t maturity plants may appear green and nearly glabrous.C MO I O P S TAE 7. Senecio c ~ l a r i o i d e s Nutt. Plants appear silvery-gray with t h i n and tangled t o densely flocked hairs.tipped involucre bracts. short rhizome. but the upper leaf surfaces often become glabrous a t maturity. I t i s t y p i c a l l y associated with Erioqonum ovalifoliun. approaching a b r a c t l i k e condition.rooted or sanetimes short stoloniferous from a short. The basal and lowermost stem leaves are short. The stem leaves from the middle of the stem upward become pinnately divided and sessile. W . Alpine butterweed i s comnon i n moist t o wet montane t o alpine meadows and i s occasionally fourd i n moist. t o M V A .C. wet meadows o r swamps i n the lower canyons o f Lost Horse Creek and Rock Creek above Como Lake and occasional l y noted i n montane forests. s i l v e r y groundsel occurs from valleys t o alpine rocklands. t o Sask. Alpine Butterweed A s o l i t a r y stem. B. A l l leaves are t h i n and nonsucculent... Herbage i s more or less white-hairy. 10. S i l v e r y Grwndsel About 10-30 cm (4-12 i n ) t a l l . persistent. woody m stem-base or short rhizome. The radiate. Senecio megacephalus Nutt. This group includes 2 species with densely white-hairy herbage that may become p a r t l y glabrous a t maturity. woody base and stem height ranges from 20 t o 40 cm (8 t o 16 in).

Senecio serra b. foetidus .S. sphaerocephalus a. S. S. cymbalarioides c. S. S. sphaerocephalus e. integerrimus f. S. lugens d.

.. rays usually less than 15 Plants usually greater than 50 cm (20 i n ) t a l l ..... From B....(3) $. The pappus (modified calyx) exceeds the length o f the corolla. ... Terminating the many branches are radiate flower heads on short naked stalks.. on favorable s i t e s i t s height exceeds 150 cm (60 in)........ The involucre i s suffused with purple..... n e t t l e s and t a l l Aster spp. mostly on scree/talus slopes. a t r u l y alpine peremial.or egg-shaped.. h i s distinguished by having h a i r y stems below the .. the short-hairiness ... Leaves are somewhat succulent. such as snowberry. Comnon Groundsel 14. This high mountain species occurs i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains.. woody base and taproot.......... Canada goldenrod i s s i m i l a r t o $ gigantea... (4) S.... B............ I t i s o f t e n associated with species o f s i m i l a r height...... t h i s t l e s . Flowers are crowded i n t o a pyramidal infloresence with spreading o r recurved branches. scarcely reduced upwards..... Stem leaves are nunerous........ gigantea i s much less comnon i n our area. sometimes t a l l and r i g i d ....2 . and G A ............ This group includes plants that have slender rhizomes.C......... sessile. The v a r i e t y occurring i n our area i s serotina (Kmtze) Cronq....() Lowermost leaves without long.... NM... This group i s conprised of the only introduced.......1 S.C...... mostly woody base........ 1.... 13 5 $ multiradiata . lower stem leaves the largest ... annual. Alta...... This species occurs on moist soi 1.COMPOSI TAE G O P V.... Fremont Groundsel 13.. inflorescence simple or nearly so Plants from long creeping rhizomes... Erect...... developed basal leaves.. showy infloresence...... and AK.... inflorescence usual l y branched. tapering t o a short petiole............. i r r e g u l a r l y toothed... Species i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s f a c i l i t a t e d by having lower stem and v K k r g r o v l d parts f o r examination.... confined t o the infloresence which i s recurved and bears flower heads on only one side of the branchlets........ Senecio v u l s a r i s L.. canadensis Stems glabrous below the inflorescence.. and toothed or e n t i r e leaves.. This weed o f disturbed areas i s native t o Europe but i s now widespread i n temperate North America.... crowded.... .... south t o C and CO. The sinple. b r i g h t yellow flower heads have a few.... Groy........e l l i p t i c a l .... Plants from a short rhizome o r caudex. V I ....... and spatula-shaped t o inversely lance. . The several t o m r o u s .... Can....-5 Leaves usually dotted with depressions or glands.... weedy Senecio spp........ ...... leafy stems o f comnon groundsel are 10-40 cm (4-16 i n ) t a l l from a weak taproot. south t o OR. Goldenrod Goldenrods are peremials with fibrous roots from slender and elongated o r short rhizomes and/or a persistent.. . and s..... small. stem leaves not much reduced upward..3 Lowermost leaves with long.. I t has many stems from a persistent. Late goldenrod and & canadensis occur i n s i m i l a r habitats but S. s t r a i g h t h a i r s on the margins o f the petioles........ n 2... ...S... Leaves not dotted..... Late Goldenrod This plant i s s i m i l a r t o $ canadensis but has stems with a t h i n waxy coating.... Senecio fremontii T... Leaves are pinnately divided or coarsely and i r r e g u l a r l y toothed. Plants are t a l l ... simple... Solidaso canadensis L... rays mostly 8 ... The upper leaves are sessile and clasping....... Solidago gisantea A i t . occidentalis ... and sharply serrate t o entire...& G.. rays usually more than 15................. .. Sol idaqo L.......... rays usually ca.... s i t e s A that may remain moist throughout the growing season... misswriensis Plants mostly less than 50 cm...... The nunerous heads are conprised of disc f l o r e t s only. s. stems bear alternate..... growing i n deep and moist s o i l of r i v e r valleys and r i p a r i a n conditions......... and lower stem leaves are shed e a r l y i n the growing season. rose.... t i f lorescence... narrowly lance-shaped t o l a n c e .. RU This group has only one member.... Throughout U.. Canada Goldenrod Canada goldenrod i s robust.. They lack o r have poorly Group I. lower leaves usually deciduous a t flowering time.... s t r a i g h t hairs on the p e t i o l e margins.. 2 $ gisantea ..... Both the upper and lowermost leaves are reduced and the lower part of the stem i s naked........... 4 Stems covered with small hairs below the inflorescence..... short ray f l o r e t s and are arranged i n a terminal.. t o Que.... Fremont groundsel i s glabrous and up t o 10 cm (4 i n ) t a l l ... 6 & spathulata .

canus 183 e. S. S. S . S. megacephalus f. fremontii . pauperculus d.a. pseudaureus c. Senecio indecorus b. S.

. Our plants are var... Solidago missouriensis Nutt..... and larger than the stem leaves that are gradually much reduced w a r d s ...) T..... especially i n the basal leaves and roots.. Mountain Goldenrod Stems o f the mountain goldenrod are only 5-30 c (2-12 i n ) t a l l .. 3........... Group 11.. oleraceus .. (6.. Habitats of the locations are similar.. This species i s o f t e n abundant i n mid-montane t o t i k r l i n e envirorments on dry.... Sow-thistle A l l our representatives o f t h i s genus are introduced. 1..... and waste areas........ Missouri Goldenrod 4.. leaf bases have ear-shaped lobes (auriculate) and the margins are p r i c k l y ... These species are shorter and often occur i n d r i e r habitats... 5..... 1... Plantsannualfromataproot .. 3. P e t i o l e length i s gradually shortened and leaf size reduced toward the stem t i p ... A c l u s t e r of stems r i s e s 20-80 cm (8-32 i n ) from a persistent....C.. calyx modified t o a white... seasonally wet substrates with an overstory of willow and black cottonwood...... The infloresence i s narrow..... Missouri goldenrod has mostly glabrous foliage and i s rhizomatous but i t s other characters are highly variable (4 recognized varieties)..... Lobes a t the base o f leaves sharp-pointed Lobes a t the base o f leaves rounded 1.1 S. and the lower ones are pinnately divided with a terminal segment that i s large and triangular t o i r r e g u l a r l y .... e n t i r e t o pinnately divided......... Plants perennial. I t has been collected i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains a t the 1980 m This plant i s uncomnon i n our area.....3 Involucral bracts with long.... Leaves are inversely lance-shaped m t o spatula-shaped and usually toothed toward the t i p but e n t i r e near the base. I t also has a more elongated and interrupted infloresence..... south. I t occurs i n a wide v a r i e t y of habitats from the Yuk.. and persistent. Sticky Goldenrod Stem height i n s t i c k y goldenrod ranges from 20-40 cm (8-16 in).( 4 S. From s. t o TX and AZ............ This group.........& G. The most r e l i a b l e character f o r i d e n t i f y i n g t h i s species i s the obvious s t i f f .. ..... from the valleys and f o o t h i l l s t o lower montane envirorments. Basal leaves are often petiolate..2 ....... The flower heads of the recurved infloresence are arranged on 1 side of the branches.... multiradiata... The i n f loresence i s short and somewhat rounded a t the top.h a i r e d p e t i o l e margins on the basal and lower stem leaves.... I t d i f f e r s from the 2 species i n t h i s group by being glabrous throughout and having narrower leaves that are marked with minute translucent p i t s . They are harmless compared t o others because they are e a s i l y destroyed and. Sonchus L ...... and Alta.. 2.......... and south. t o CA and NM. and pointed.. open o r forested...... and NE.. gardens.C... B.... elongated. t h i s i s the most comnon goldenrod o f d r y and open slopes... s t i f f ..... glad-tipped hairs .. Solidago multiradiata A i t .... south.......... WA t o Ch-tt...... and w.. From s... but not appreciably i n size.... arvensis 3 S. AZ. weedy perennials and anrmals with glaucous foliage. woody base. Leaves are alternate... 3nerved. scowlorum Gray.COMPOSI TAE 3... south t o CA... t o We. Solidago s w t h u l a t a DC. Solidago occidentalis (Nutt...2 S. neomexicana (Gray) Cronq.. east t o K Que..... spreading by deep.... when young.. asper Group I. From A and adjacent Siberia. Sonchus oleraceus L...... south t o CA.. uliginosus Involucral bracts glabrous .... A l l leaves are s o f t l y prickle-margined..... Our plants are var.. long-petioled.... the annual sow-thistles......... Western Goldenrod This species i s usually more than 50 cm (20 i n ) and often about 180 cm (70 i n ) t a l l ..... The s o l i t a r y t o numerous flower heads are conposed e n t i r e l y of yellow ray flowers. Locally......... Extensive populations occur on an island i n the Clark Fork River west of Missoula and along the B i t t e r r o o t River between Hamilton and Victor..... includes the most comnon cosmopolitan weeds of fields........ TN.500 f t ) level on the south slope of Sweeney Peak...... and VA.. rhizome-like roots.. inversely lance-shaped. NM.... toothed t o nearly entire......... I n alpine envirorments flower heads are g r e a t l y reduced i n nunber.... NM.. The prominently veined basal leaves are mostly inversely lance-shaped. I t gives way a t higher elevations t o S.... c r i s p l y b r i s t l e d structure (pappus)........... 6.... eaten by livestock.. B.o r west-facing slopes........ 2. C m n Sow-thistle Comnon sow-thistle has a stem 10-100 cm (4-40 i n ) t a l l .

a l l of which are s o f t prickle-margined. flowering from m i d s m r t o f i r s t f r o s t . Slender wire-lettuce i s known from very dry habitats. deeply c l e f t . near Painted Rocks Reservoir. t o CA. Stems are topped by s o l i t a r y flower heads conposed exclusively of b r i g h t ye1 low ray f l o r e t s . b r i g h t yellow flower heads. Stephanomeria Nutt. short-petioled t o sessile. spicy odor. and Can. uliginosus i s the s t i c k y . 2. a r i s e from a vigorously spreading sturdy rhizome. The glabrous herbage emanates a peculiar. Dandel i o n This genus includes introduced and native taprooted perennials with milky juice. B. branching b r i s t l e s . Group 11. Marsh Sow-thistle Marsh sow-thistle has variable leaves. Stephanomeria t e n u i f o l i a (Torr.) Hill P r i c k l y Sow. mowing.t h i s t l e P r i c k l y sow-thistle closely resembles S. deep green. and hollow. I t i s the opinion o f Arthur Cronquist that S. rhizome1i k e roots with nunerous buds. tapering slenderly t o a winged base. Tanacetun L. leaf auricles. Field Milk-thistle The only consistent. S. tangible difference between S.) Hall Slender Wire-lettuce This i s a g l a b r w s or f i n e l y h a i r y perennial herb with numerous slender stems up t o 70 c (28 i n ) m t a l l from a stout taproot and branched root crown. are arranged i n a dense. arvensis. This species i s found along ditches and cattail-framed bodies o f stagnant water i n the valleys. Basal ones are narrowed t o a winged petiole. basal. but the former has rounded. It i s associated with Canada t h i s t l e and t a l l grasses. not acute. East o f the Continental Divide S. This species i s a cosmopolitan weed native t o Europe.S. Sonchus arvensis L. naked. such as o l d I t i s Less c m n i n recent times due t o right-of-way homesteads and along fence rows and highways. This i s a cosmopolitan weed native t o Europe. The b r i g h t yellow flower heads are nearly twice as wide as those o f the annual species. arvensis and & ulisinosus are not d i s t i n c t a t the & arvensis has been collected only i n the v i c i n i t y o f Missoula and i s believed t o be species level. I t i s a widespread weed native t o Europe. Sonchus asper (L. T a l l e r than the annual sow-thistles.5 m (60 i n ) t a l l . Involucral bracts are glabrws. oleraceus. v e r t i c a l root systems while others have extensive. arvensis and S.h a i r y involucral bracts of S. The pointed involucral bracts are 7-11 mn long. c i r c u l a r l y arranged clusters (rosette) a t the base of a simple. I t i s well established across most of U. The heads. Tanacetun vulgare L. the p e r e m i a l species i n t h i s group o f t e n are more than 1. Leaves are alternate. composed o f only d i s k f l o r e t s . 4. Nunerous flower heads are arranged i n a loose. Pappus i s composed o f white. Sonchus uliginosus Bieb. often a t the base of c l i f f s . nearly f lat-topped i n f loresence. Upper stem leaves are sessile and clasping with large. Marginal p r i x l e s are more nwnerous and sharper. prominent lobes a t the base. They form dense. An escaped species of Eurasian origin. up t o 1. are composed of 4-5 pink ray flowers.C. e n t i r e t o p i m a t e l y divided. c m n tansy i s mostly found on disturbed sites. fleshy and b r i t t l e . The upper leaves are small and scale1 ike. terminal infloresence. east t o MT and TX. The leaves are both gradually less divided and reduced upwards. . Taraxacun Hal 1. Small. and deeply cut again t o give a fine-toothed appearance.CCHPOSI TAE lobed or only toothed. Tansy C m n Tansy The many r i g i d stems. Stem leaves are sessile and clasp the stem with rounded lobes a t the base. Herbage i s without h a i r s or may be Long-hairy i n parts. erect stem (scape). borne s i n g l y on the branch tips. Leaves are elongated. arvensis i s the more c m n of these 2 species.5 m (60 i n ) t a l l . (Not i l l u s t r a t e d ) . 3. uncomnon i n our area. p i m a t e l y divided with lobes pointing toward the leaf base. terminal infloresence. (Not i1lustrated). The achenes are ribbed lengthwise. The e n t i r e or weakly toothed leaves are linear and alternate on the stem. Some peremials develop deep. asper also has leaves that are more inversely egg-shaped and toothed instead o f lobed. flattened. Several flower heads are arranged i n a terminal.

Solidago spathulata g. Sonchus oleraceus . occidentalis d. S. S. e. Solidago canadensis c. missouriensis 186 . Senecio vulgaris b. Solidago multiradiata h. S.a. gigantea f.

The inner bracts are longer. laevigatun i s shorter and more slender..... 1/5 length 1 T. and the Leaves are less lobed than those o f the other species.. Taraxacun laevigatun ( W i l l d .... dwarf alpine dandelion i s the smallest o f the genus. involucral bracts without crown-like appendages (4) T.. ) DC......... rare.. Introduced plants. Dwarf Alpine Dandelion With stems Less than 10 cm (4 i n ) t a l l and flower heads less than 1 cm (0.. and CA... producing a feathery. Camon dandelion i s a cosmopolitan weed o f lawns and disturbed sites.. i t extends south a t higher elevations t o NH... a t the northern end o f the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains). ......... a t least as f a r up as c a t t l e are regularly grazed. This plant was collected i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains above Chaffin Lakes Basin a t 2775 m (9.. less than 1 m (39 i n ) t a l l (mostly 20-60 cm).. ...C MO I O P S TAE 1... The seeds are straw-colored o r brownish..... This species i s h i g h l y regarded by beekeepers. whereas i n the mountains. Smooth Dandelion .. the involucre appearing smooth. ... o f f i c i n a l e of the leaf Achenes o l i v e o r l i g h t brown.. T laevigatun i s by f a r more comnon.. t h i s species has been collected only once on Boulder Peak 2620 m (8.. Gray horse-brush i s an unarmed shrub............ 2.... and on Trapper Peak a t 2710 m (8. 1...... horned dandelion has broadly winged petioles.. I n the Sapphire Range i t has been reported t o occur i n meadows with calcareous substrates.... Seeds are dark brown o r blackish.... Achenes dark brown t o black. o f f i c i n a l e i s the more abundant species i n lawns and gardens....... Tet radymia DC..... T o f f i c i n a l e was the only one o f these found i n alpine or timberline habitat (above Carleton Lakes ... the lobes point back toward the stem and the terminal one i s the largest. 3.........100 f t ) Both locations were on steep and moist north-facing slopes.. The points o f the slender involucral bracts are minutely widened and the seeds are mostly reddish-brown a t maturity. 3.. Horned Dandelion ..) DC.... not becoming reflexed u n t i l the flower head matures.... ) DC. Leaves usually with an d i v i d e d terminal segment ca........... The inner bracts rather abruptly narrow t o a pointed t i p ...4 i n ) wide. Taraxacun o f f i c i n a l e Weber Comnon Dandel i o n Leaves are inversely lanceScape height of the comnon dandelion varies from 5-50 cm (2-20 in)....... laevigatun Achenes reddish o r purple a t maturity......... i n disturbed areas a t higher elevations.. I n our area T.. mostly i n v a l l e y and montane zones.. The leaves are lance-shaped i n o u t l i n e and deeply incised with the triangular and nearly equal lobes pointing toward the base....... Associated with meadows and other moist places i n the mountains. leaves usually deeply divided t o the t i p Achenes o l i v e o r brown a t maturity..........2 Native species from upper subalpine t o a l p i .. .a t l a n t i c d i s t r i b u t i o n ........... MA.. with abruptly narrowed t i p s . 1...900 f t ) .t o grayish-hairy... The involucre i s smooth with few appressed and blackish outer bracts.. and upright. The outer involucre bracts are appressed.. Taraxacun lyratun (Ledeb. Tet radymia canescens DC Horse-brush Gray Horse-brush . white b a l l of long-beaked achenes.. The outer involucre bracts are short and bent back toward base..... Sane f i n d the young rosettes make good salad greens.... This group i s composed of 2 very simi t a r Eurasian weeds.. Taraxacun ceratophorun (Ledeb.. A l i t t l e less robust than T o f f i c i n a l e ..... shaped i n o u t l i n e and pinnately lobed. AZ.. Though .. tapering t o a sharp point... Smooth dandelion i s distinguished from T o f f i c i n a l e by only a few minor features.. with foliage and twigs that are densely white. f o r i t s e a r l y flowering... Sometimes a cluster o f shorter and comparatively broad leaves are borne i n .. i t has more deeply dissected leaves and the segments are a l l about the same size......... 2. i m e r involucral bracts with a crown-like appendage at the tip 3 T ceratophorun .. lyratum .. 4.. NM....... A circumboreal species.... Group I.... These are pale green or brown. 2.. Leaves are linear t o narrow and inversely lance-shaped..... 3............. The inner bracts have a small.. Grow 11.. somewhat blunt appendage a t the slender tips. 3 (2) T. and CO. On the average T. This species i s a r c t i c and circunpolar extending south i n alpine envirorments t o NV..600 f t ) i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. This group includes 2 uncomnon t o rare species of t r a n s .

Goatsbeard Introduced from the Old World and now widely d i s t r i b u t e d i n North America.. south t o MT. such as open west-facing slopes.. I t also occurs i n scattered locations... m Mule's-ear has just recently been collected i n our area f o r the f i r s t Highway 93 i n m i s t s o i l along a small creek just northwest of Missoula.2 T pratensis . petiolate. Townsendia Hook.S. . A Xanthium L... At maturity the plumelike b r i s t l e s of the pappus form an ephemeral.. s o l i t a r y flower heads are 6-8 cm (2-3 i n ) i n diameter and have v i o l e t .. up t o 10 cm (4 i n ) i n diameter. yellow disk flowers form heads that are arrayed i n dense. MT and CO. dubius.. They are overlapping and p a r t i a l l y cover the whole length of the pinkish. W t o NV. Trasomgon pratensis L. dubius ... gradually becoming reduced flower M i n the center e a r l y i n the season... rainy days.. simple or branched... . Uyethia Mule's-ear basal leaves are e l l i p t i c a l and without petioles.....700 ft)... Heads open e a r l y i n the day. and NM. Leaves are alternate... W~ethiaa m l e x i c a u l i s Nutt.. Tragomgon L.. I t i s e a s i l y eradicated... Small. whitish t o tawny globe. and Can.1 T. Stem below the flowering head swollen and hollow Stem not enlarged below the flowering head. i n the Sapphire Range. The stems are simple or branched..... 2. and p a r a l l e l veined with a clasping basal portion. where by recent roadwork... i t i s an early-flowering plant of dry exposures from valleys t o rather high elevations i n the mountains.COHPOSITAE the angle between stem and larger leaves. meadow s a l s i f y i s uncomnon i n our area though widely established i n the U.C. West of the B i t t e r r o o t River t h i s species occurs only i n the f o o t h i l l s . Alta... The m and up t o 60 cm (2 f t ) long with short petioles.. I n our area they occur infrequently on the floodplains. 1... Found i n m i s t e r habitats than T. Ye1 low s a l s i f y i s one of our most widespread and conspicuous.. taprooted perennial up t o 80 c (32 i n ) t a l l . taken early. Wyethia Nutt.t o purplishblue ray f l o r e t s and a b r i g h t yellow center o f disc f l o r e t s . i Parry Townsendia Parry townsendia i s a taprooted b i e m i a l with 1-few stems up t o 25 cm (10 i n ) t a l l .. 1. I n our area i t occurs only on the Corvallis Big Game Winter Range and east of Victor i n the f o o t h i l l s o f the Sapphire Range.. Parry townsendia i s our largest "blue daisy".... The heads are large with yellow time. upwards... terminal clusters on many short branches. s a l s i f y s are taprooted b i e m i a l herbs with milky juice. Leaves are alternate. CA. Meadow S a l s i f y Meadow s a l s i f y i s very s i m i l a r t o T.t o gray-hairy stem. dubius. S o l i t a r y flower heads composed of only pale yellow ray flowers are borne a t the end o f the stems. Leaf ends are recurved or twisted. The grayishhairy... now of cosmopolitan d i s t r i b u t i o n . This i s a comnon species o f d r y rangelands from B.. The stems are up t o 1 m (39 i n ) t a l l . though harmless.. This plant i s a large. Townsendia Townsendia p a r r ~ Eat.. Ye1 low S a l s i f y 1. Stem height ranges from 30-100 cm (12-40 in).. Stem leaves are smaller herbage i s glabrous and coated with a varnishlike resin. introduced weeds. The 1-several flower rays up t o 5 c (2 i n ) long. Domestic and w i l d animals eagerly consume the young shoot and the s o f t taproot. t o I D aml WY.. Cocklebur Mule's-ear.. Tragowgon dubius Scop.. narrowly linear. narrowly lance.... but the length of the ray f l o r e t s i s equal t o or longer than that o f the involucre bracts. Leaves are so linear and p a r a l l e l veined as t o resemble those of grasses..... The involucral bracts are broad and green. close a t noon and remain closed on cloudy... shaped approximately l i k e pea tendri 1s. f o r example on Maclay Mountain a t 1740 m (5... east t o sw. I t was found near i t may have been introduced Cockleburs are coarse annual weeds o f uncertain origin.t o spoon-shaped basal leaves form a dense winter rosette that bears a The stem leaves are alternate..... entire... The Large and showy.. Salsify. The involucre bracts extend beyond the outer rays of the flower head. Involucre bracts are equal i n length and arranged i n a s i n g l e series. i s edible.

S. Sonchus asper f. Tetradymia canescens i. Taraxacum laevigatum b. officinale g. arvensis c. T. Tanacetum vulgare d. T. Taraxacum ceratophorum e. Townsendia parryi . lyratum h.a.

.... and semi-woody perennial... and gardens. 1.... The 4 broadly egg-shaped... The long-petiolate leaves are q u i t e variable i n shape. and densely set with prickles..... opposite or whorled.... sepium 2) Comnon Bindweed 1. The r a d i a l l y symnetrical flowers bear both stamens and p i s t i l s and have a 5-lobed calyx and corolla... ye1 low. Seedlings o f t h i s species are very poisonous t o livestock. e n t i r e or lobed leaves.... excepting seedling much greater than 20 cm ( 8 i n ) high . Bracts linear... Hedge Bindweed In general aspect hedge bindweed i s very simi tar t o c m n bindweed but i t has with even longer t r a i l i n g stems that bear larger flowers (petals 4-7 cm versus 1. Plants herbaceous o r woody only a t the base.....t o 4-seeded capsules..5-2. Stems are t r a i l i n g o r twining and up t o 2 m ( 6 f t ) long.. Xanthiun s ~ i n o s u n L. spinosum .. canadensis . usually inversely egg-shaped t o nearly orbicular or broadly triangular... 1... Spiny Cocklebur The spiny cocklebur i s only 30-120 cn (1-4 f t ) t a l l a n d n o t as robust as X. This cosmopolitan weed of waste places has been found only once i n Ravalli Coounty.. Convolvulus L. Comnon cocklebur has stems up t o 2 m (80 in)... o f t e n twining on r i p a r i a n s h r h s or Apocynun spp. hooked prickles. arvensis . 1. pastures.. widely spreading from deep and b r i t t l e rhizomes. t r a i l i n g ....( C.. often heart-shaped and generally close t o and concealing the calyx . and i t has lance-shaped..(2) X. 3-pronged spines.... White or pinkish fumel-shaped flowers are borne on long stems a r i s i n g from the a x i l s of arrowhead-shaped leaves. Perfect flowers that mature i n t o red or white drupes are borne i n a hemispherical t o nearly f l a t topped inflorescence.. The bur (seed) has conspicuous.... 1.. Convolvulus sepiun L... C R A E E Dogwood Family ONCA Cornus L. strunarium Comnon Cocklebur 1.. f l a t or lobed a t the base ..5 c long) subtended by broader bracts m (as opposed t o linear ones). The burs are brownish.Flower heads are s o l i t a r y or clustered i n the leaf axi 1s. 1.. CONVOLVULACEAE Morning Glory Fami l y Morning g l o r i e s are alternate-leaved (reduced t o scales i n Cuscuta) plants with t r a i l i n g or twining stems. Morning Glory Members o f the genus possess no unique characters beyond those of the family.. strunariun. Bindweed i s very damaging t o crop plants and d i f f i c u l t t o eradicate....... 1. Convolvulus arvensis L.. I t i s an evergreen. dogwoods are shrubs or semi-woody peremials.(1) X.. entire. slender.. Dogwood I n our area. The c o r o l l a i s twisted i n the bud stage.. stolonifera Bunchberry 1. o f t e n somewhat removed from calyx Bracts broader. with leaves arranged i n whorls on s o l i t a r y stem t i p s .. This European weed i s well established throughout North America.... I t i s frequently seen on roadcuts and abandoned fields. o f t e n shallowly lobed and having a heart-shaped base. and Leaves lance-shaped..... white and conspicuous bracts are o f t e n mistaken f o r petals....(2) C. The leaf axi 1s are armed with conspicuous.. tapering a t the base t o the p e t i o l e Leaves spade-shaped o r triangular... Cornus canadensis L. egg-shaped t o almost globe-shaped....(1 ) C. Comnon bindweed i s a peremial.... 2.. F r u i t s are 1. Leaves are simple.. Xanthiun strunariun L.. Bunchberry arises from long rhizomes.1 C.... Plants shrubby throughout... less than 20 cm (8 i n ) high.. This pernicious weed has been noted imnediately west and east o f our area. The true petals are a c t u a l l y small (only 1 mn long) ... 2.. up t o 20 cm (8 i n ) t a l l .......

X. T. pratensis c. Xanthium strumarium e. Wyethia amplexicaulis d.a. Tragopogon dubius b. spinosum 191 .

..... Leaves a t the base of and along the flowering stem are s i g n i f i c a n t l y larger ( t o 24 mn long) and less crowded than those o f the rosette... t h i s species d i f f e r s i n having leaves that do not taper t o a point and are r o d or nearly r o d i n cross-section.... Petals yellow (sometimes drying t o pink).... I D and MT.. Big Creek Canyon... Like the above species.... I t occurs i n the valleys t o the subalpine zone. Cornus stolonifera Michx. NM.......... roseum Petals pink........ preferring p a r t i a l shade and raw huws substrates......... above Bass Creek F a l l s and i n the A v i c i n i t y of Kootenai Lakes... Sedum lanceolatun Torr...and red-stemned (younger branches) shrub that spreads by the rooting o f prostrate branches..... associated with mesic t o wet conditions from r i v e r v a l l e y floodplains t o subalpine meadows......... the red branches are exhibited t o best advantage... ......... The white flowers. mostly rocky areas i n mountains ...5 S..... A south t o CA.... found i n the boreal forests and the mountains of North America.. o f t e n having a b l u i s h cast..... ... lanceleaf stonecrop can t h r i v e i n dry conditions... and minutely roughened.. bunchberry i s comnon i n our more moist mountain Bnd f o o t h i l l forests.... 2............. Bunchberry i s widely distributed............ K 3... t y p i c a l l y invasive on waste areas ............. and Selaginella densa.... The f l a t topped.......6 S............. where i t i s o f t e n associated with Draba spp.. s p e c i f i c a l l y ...... lanceolatum 1... and east t o NE. and Lack a keel.t o spatula-shaped o r broadest beyond the midpoint 3 Leaves o f flowering stems alternate and linear t o lance-shaped 4 Leaves with a sharp ridge and tapering t o a slender point..... acre Leaves mostly opposite. borschi i (Clausen) Clausenl Leiberg's Sedm I n t h i s species. only r a r e l y do upper stem leaves have b u l b l i k e flowers i n the a x i l s (2) 3. After i t s purplish-red autum foliage has fallen.... S e c h s t e n o ~ e t a l u n Pursh. An a t t r a c t i v e plant..........CRASSULACEAE and white or purple tinged. Stonecrop Fani l y Stonecrop Sedun -L... Stonecrops are low-growing perennials with succulent stems and foliage.......... from s.. Red ozier dogwood i s c o r n i n wr area....... Uormleaf Stonecrop A glabrous perennial with nunerws s t e r i l e shoots a r i s i n g from rootstocks. alternate. i t s shadiest habitat i s open ponderosa pine forests..... m r l t i ..... A f t e r flowering the bracts f a l l ........ I t i s not tolerant of shade......... The f r u i t i s a d r y capsule of 4-5 chambers.....000 f t ) on p a r t i a l l y shaded.. l e i b e r g i i Plants with well developed t o stout rootstocks or rhizomes .. most leaves arranged on creeping stems or s t e r i l e shoots. ........................ debile Plants with a weak taproot or fibrous roots.. and a c l u s t e r of b r i g h t red t o orange %erriesn4 develops t o grace the purple discolored foliage. Lanceleaf Stonecrop Morphologically s i m i l a r t o S... develop i n t o white berries................................... a1ternate... The simple....2 ..... CRASSULACEAE L .... ..c...... I n our area lanceleaf stonecrop i s comnon i n subalpine t o alpine habitats......(4) S... The opposite leaves are mostly broadly lance-shaped....... Leaves alternate...5 . egg... The narrowly linear or lance-shaped leaves are strongly keeled....... purple....3 2. stenowtalum Leaves lacking a sharp ridge and not tapering t o a point..... and gradually narrowed a t the tip... .. few-flowered inflorescence has yellow or reddish petals.... most leaves arrayed on flowering stem.. Broadly d i s t r i b u t e d across North America............ p a r t l y c i r c h r e a l ...... upper stem leaves with b u l b l i k e flowers i n their axils 1 S....... opposite or whorled leaves lack s t i p u l e s (membranous appendages a t the base of the leaf). Leaves of flowering stems opposite or alternate and oval. steep and mossy slopes.. Ranges from central U s w t h t o n.. CO.. slender rootstocks produce a few weak branches with small (<5 mn long) leaves crowded i n t o a basal rosette... OR and east t o w...... o r greenish-purple. IS. Red Ozier Dogwood Red ozier dogwood i s a dense.. such as rocky slopes and i n s o i l accunulated i n rock cracks... This stonecrop i s comnon i n various d r y t o excessively drained habitats... I t has been noted i n the Rattlesnake Mountains and northern p o r t i o n o f the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains......... Sedum l e i b e r g i i B r i t t ........ 2........ Leiberg's sedun occurs generally below 1850 m (6............ stenowtalum.. near the mouth of McClain Creek Canyon.... arranged i n short flat-topped inflorescences.... .....

lanceolatum d. S. Sedum stenopetalum b. C. C. Sedum acre . stolonifera e. Convolvulus arvensis f.a. sepium c. Cornus canadensis g.

gravelly upper slopes of Pyramid Buttes. Ueak-st& Stonecrop Stems of t h i s species o r i g i n a t e from slender rootstocks and are more prostrate than those o f the other species i n t h i s genus................. and strongly flattened but fleshy leaves y............. 2........... .......... .... from the moist.................... 3-5 This species i s a glabrous........... but i t becomes l o c a l l y comnon on moist slopes of the high ridges south of Lost Horse Creek.... Sedun acre L..Group B F r u i t linear with a seedless beak >5 mn long a t the t i p F r u i t linear t o nearly round i n outline......a l p i n e species inhabiting s i t e s that are moist............. Each flower has 6 stamens... mn long.... pinnately divided o r deeply lobed ...... Leaves d i f f e r by being more fleshy and conspicuously b u w and spatulashaped........... evergreen............. 1.. the outer 2 shorter than the inner 4.... white or pinkish t o purple petals (sometimes lacking)..... 5. separated by a t h i n wall (replun)....... and sessile..... CRUCIFERAE (Brassicaceae) Mustard Family Members o f t h i s family are annual o r perennial herbs with simple o r compound.....) Scop. alternate o r basal leaves........................... The inflorescence i s usually composed o f l-many stems bearing stalked flowers. Members o f t h i s family tend t o be Specimens with both flowers and mature f r u i t s are fifiweedy(fiand occur i n open soi 1 of disturbed habitats.. becoming a garden pest.....7 Stem leaves without clasping lobes a t the base .................... The podlike f r u i t consists of 2 c a v i t i e s with l-many seeds i n each...... not appearing grayish .................... ........................... S e c h roseun (L..... ... ... 2. This i s a circurpolar a r c t i c ..... .............................................. W e a k .....................2 Leaves..CRUCI FERAE 4............ L F r u i t e l l i p t i c a l t o nearly round i n outline.000 f t ) along the B i t t e r r o o t Selway Divide.............................. I t s most d i s t i n c t i v e feature are the brownish. Flowers are bisexual and cross-shaped with 4 sepals and 4 yellow... fleshy rootstocks... Rorima At least some o f the stem leaves sessile with small lobes a t the base that clasp the stem.......................... petals usually yellow or sometimes tinged with purple ...................................6 4 F r u i t s notched or shallowly concave on top . Stems usually with >1 f r u i t .....Brassica F r u i t s nearly round t o broadly lance-shaped i n out1 ine............ mat-forming perennial with stems t o 10 cm (4 i n ) t a l l .. and south t o R T Watchtower Pass...... are alternate........ east t o U and MY....................... [& i n t e g r i f o l i u n (Raf. I n our area t h i s Eurasian species i s knowni from a c o l l e c t i o n near Woocfnan.. 2 .. Nels................. 5 F r u i t s tapered t o a rounded or pointed t i p .........1 Roseroot Roseroot d i f f e r s from the above species by having a t h i c k root... not deeply dissected .. I t ranges from central I D and se........ Ranger Peak........... 3.........4 Plants covered with gland-t ipped hairs....................................3 Leaves with e n t i r e or toothed margins....12 F r u i t round i n outline..............................) A... Bright yellow flowers develop i n t o capsules with widely divergent lobes when mature........s t e d stonecrop has been collected a t elevations above 2100 m (7........... a t least e a r l y i n the season.....t o rose-red flowers crowded i n t o small headlike cymes.. thick... known from only Sweeny Peak.... The foliage i s glabrous or pubescent with simple or (more comnonly) branched or star-shaped hairs.......... .......... s o l i t a r y a t the t i p o f a leafless stern.........Raphanus F r u i t s shallowly or not a t a l l constricted between the seeds ............... 4.......................... 6..... petals purple.....Idahoa . 1...................... Sedun & b i l e Wats........... the beak <5 mn long Group A ...Group A F r u i t s linear t o narrowly lance-shaped i n outline....... 3........................ Roseroot i s rare i n the northern p o r t i o n of the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains.... 3 F r u i t s deeply constricted between the seeds.....Choriswra Plants without gland-tipped hairs.... O t o NV. i t i s invasive and enduring.. 4.. This i s a large and d i f f i c u l t family with many s i m i l a r species....... Foliage glabrous t o moderately hairy.. ... smooth.......... Wal lpepper The leaves.... o f t e n necessary f o r p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ... e p i d i m Smelowskia Foliage grayish with a dense covering o f sirrple and branched h a i r s ...Capsella F r u i t triangular i n outline..... t o 20 mn long............... a t least those near the base...

..................... ...................... higher than wide F r u i t s more nearly r o d i n outline.... ..... f r u i t s sometimes i n f l a t e d .............Cmlina Plants rhizomatous peremials ....... ..... ..... ........ ..... ...................Lepidium F r u i t rounded on top without a notch..............Cardamine Barbarea At least some leaves with e a r . .... .... ........ 4 1.............Descurainia Petals 6-8 n long ......... the tapered end attached t o the s t a l k F r u i t s more rounded i n o u t l i n e ... .... 2 1.. . .................. ............... ......... .. 21.... . Idahoa F r u i t more e l l i p t i c a l o r egg-shaped........................ ........... . ..... ....... ... ......... petals a l l equal 1................................... 5 16..... .... ............. ........... Plants f o d Lower i n the mountains or f o o t h i l l s ..........Lesquerella ......... ......Dr Plants from near or above timberline i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains... ........ 5 .......... 2 1.... ... . 8 9.. .............. outer 2 petals larger than i m e r 2.. ... .... 7 18................. . . .5 Plants grayish with a dense covering of sinple and branched hairs.. ..................... .......Smlowskia Plants glabrous o r h a i r y but not grayish or t u f t e d 4 ......... ........ ........ ...... Stem leaves without clasping bases...19 ............ ................... ......... 0 ... .......... .. .............. ................ ............. .Roripa Plants usually erect occurring i n wet habitats but not aquatic .... .... 5 ......... ................... ..... ... 2 ........................... 7 1.................... .. ..... ..l i k e lobes at the base that clasp the stem....................8 .. ........CRUCI FERAE 7 .. ....... Athysanus F r u i t s borne on nodding s t a l k s .. ......... F r u i t s erect or spreading but not noddi ng.....21 F r u i t s notched or Lobed a t the top..........Thlas Foliage h a i r y .... Alyssum 18 Beak a t t i p o f f r u i t ( s t y l e ) a t Least 2 mn long......l i k e lobes a t the base that clasp the stem.......... ........ ...... 8........................... . F r u i t s lance-shaped o r narrowly e l l i p t i c a l .. ..Lesquerella Group B Leaves........................ the small s t y l e usually apparent i n the notch... .......................................... .........7 usually t u f t e d or mat- 2 . . ........ ........ .. ....... ............ F r u i t a t Least somewhat inflated................... ................... .................................................... 1.. ......20 ............. ..... ............. .I b e r i s ................................................. 6 1................ ..... -15 F r u i t strongly flattened and nearly round i n outline.....................................Isati .......... ........................... . 4 ............ .............................................. ........ 11....... ............ 9 F r u i t w i t h a shallow notch a t the top.......... . ....... ....... ..... momnon introduction Plants h a i r y a t Least near the base............. ..........Lwidiw Plants glabrous.......... ..................... 6...9 ... ... ..............................Thlaspis . s t y l e not apparent..... Berteroa At Least the Lower leaves with toothed margins . . .. 8..... 1.... ..16 Leaves with e n t i r e margins ...................10 Plants anrmal ........... .. 3......................... Stem Leaves without clasping bases ..... ...... . Cardaria pi 11............ 1..... ........... .......... . ....... ................... 1......... ......... a t least those near the base.. 7................... ....... . 2.... ................ ..... 3 1........ ........ 9 .......... . .. ..... ...... .......................................... not notched ................ 9 20.......... 21.... .......Lesquerella aba 20...... Foliage glabrous .......Physaria F r u i t s rounded or pointed a t the t i p .......... ....... ... ..................................... ..........................m............ 0 1........ formi ng........... 14 Basal Leaves conspicuous and persistent...... ......... ......... F r u i t f l a t t e n.........................13 Basal leaves withered and f a l l i n g as the plant matures ........... . .. .............. ..............4 Plants usually semi-aquatic with lax stems that root a t the nodes................ ..... ... mbrim 7 .................... Flowers yellow ........ F r u i t flattened o r rounded on top.............. ............................................. ... ...... Beak a t t i p o f f r u i t <2 mn Long..... 3 .............. not strongly flattened.............. ... broader than high....................... 5 1.. ......... 6..... ..................... .. ... ..................... ........ 7....... F r u i t s narrowly lance-shaped..... 9 1... 3 1......... ....... .. . ..... ................... ... .................. .... ......... 4 1............. 8 1.... -17 F r u i t with a notch a t the top...... pinnately divided Leaves with e n t i r e or toothed margins 1.... ............ Flowers white or pinkish t i n ge.......... .. .................. .. ..3 d.....Sis Some of the leaves with e a r ............. .. 6 Petals 2-4 n Long........ ....

........... The narrow petals are 3-4 mn Long.............. This a very d i f f i c u l t group. Arabidopsis (DC........ white.... or purple....... 8. petals usually >4 mn Long........... Mature f r u i t i s necessary. The basal leaves have petioles and are o f t e n densely clustered i n Flowers are borne on s t a l k s i n the terminal p o r t i o n o f the stems.11 leaves broadly Lance-shaped or e l l i p t i c a l i n o u t l i n e often held f l a t on the ground... desertorum 1. ........... Petals are white........ Mouse-ear Cress This arnual plant has simple o r branched stems..(2) ........ 9..... The white petals are about 3 mn long..... l i g h t yellow petals that quickly fade t o white..........Arabis F r u i t s linear F r u i t s lance-shaped........ The f r u i t s are egg-shaped or round i n o u t l i n e with winged margins and a short style. 3 mn long. ..l i v e d perennials with simple or branched stems from a taproot with a simple or branched root crown.t o spoon-shaped basal leaves are shallowly toothed toward the t i p and covered with simple o r forked hairs.......... .... The herbage i s pubescent with simple or branched h a i r s or occasionally glabrous...... F r u i t s are 3-4 mn long and have a dense covering of star-shaped hairs.......... 11....... Desert alyssun i s also a native o f Eurasia and i s the more comnon o f the two species i n our area.... Alyssun These are small. 10-30 cm (4-12 i n ) t a l l .................. The entire-margined m Leaves are narrowly lance-shaped and 5-25 mn long.... Flowers are short-stalked on the terminal portion o f the stems...... 9..... Tower Mustard Plants i n t h i s genus are biennial or (mostly) s h o r t .......5 2 . They have tiny... f r u i t s not flattened ...... ... but not a l l specimens........ Schur..... sepals f a l l i n g as f r u i t develops ......... North America..... The lance. The small flowers are borne on slender.......... I t has been found i n This European introduction i s widespread but only l o c a l l y comnon i n our area.............. F r u i t s are also glabrous...) Schur....... a l ~ s s o i d e s A...) Arabidomis thaliana (L........ Pale Alyssum Pale alyssun has erect stems.... gardens and i n clearcuts i n the subalpine zones......... Stem leaves are nearly sessile and reduced upwards........ Alvssun alyssoides L............. 10... F r u i t hairy.. as flowering progresses... Arabis ........... 2.. sepals persistent a t base of mature f r u i t F r u i t glabrous. ..................... .. 5-25 c (2-10 i n ) t a l l . or purple.Arabidwsis Plants biennial o r peremial... 10..................... Alvssun desertorun Stapf Desert Alyssum alyssoides but tends t o be smaller and less branched... Cress Thale Cress... 1.. Rockcress.................. 1... purple or occasionally white . The Leaves are simple and alternate........... the tapered end attached t o the stalk.........................1 A. 2.... 2... Widespread throughout most of the U............. yellow..S.... The sepals are This species i s s i m i l a r t o glabrous and f a l l as the f r u i t develops....... The h a i r y sepals are persistent around the mature f r u i t .. 11.......................C U IFERAE RC 8.... Arabis L..... ascending o r a t r i g h t angles t o the s t e...... Alyssun L... t h a t are h a i r y below and glabrous above.... pinkish....... The following key w i l l enable correct determination of most... 1.... m...... 11 Plants annual.. The f r u i t s are l i n e a r with 1 or 2 rows of seeds i n each o f the 2 chambers.10 F r u i t s 4 times as long as broad.. D r a b F r u i t s usually >8 times as Long as broad.......... Widespread i n much of North America.. 1... Mature f r u i t s held erect........3 leaves narrowly lance-shaped and more erect.. I s a t i s Petals >I5 mn long............... f r u i t s flattened................. annual plants with foliage that appears d u l l grayish due t o the dense covering of star-shaped hairs......... petals ca........... that branch from the base.. w a r d arching s t a l k s on the terminal p o r t i o n of the stems..... ....... This Eurasian weed i s o f t e n abundant i n overgrazed grasslands i n the valleys and f o o t h i l l s . These inflorescences elongate rosettes...........Heswris Petals 4 2 mn long......... Widespread i n w.............................. The linear f r u i t s are held erect or spreading and are 10-15 mn long and less than 1 mn wide..... Mature f r u i t s drooping or reflexed downward Basal Basal ....

... Stem leaves without small Lobes a t the base...................... c q l e t e l y glabrous plants have been found i n a moist.. flattened f r u i t s ... ... linear f r u i t s are 3-7 cm long and 1-2 mn wide......(11) A. ( A.. This v a r i e t y i s l o c a l l y c m n i n the f o o t h i l l s ....(2) Seeds i n 2 rows i n each chamber o f the f r u i t Seeds i n a single row i n each f r u i t chamber .............. spreading pedicels on the upper p o r t i o n o f the stems......... 3....... has stem Leaves with r o l l e d margins and densely pubescent basal leaves........... The narrow......) Rydb........ reflexed stalks. hirsuta A... Flowers are borne on short.. p a r t i a l l y shaded s i t e above Skalkaho F a l l s i n the Sapphire Range........... n u t t a l lii ..) Rollins has stem leaves with small basal lobes that often clasp the stem towards the top... The species i n t h i s group are most comnon i n the valleys and f w t h i l ls.................... spreading hairs a t the base .) Scop.... 1-4 c long.. ................ plants mainly montane and blw...... MT....... drumnondii ...... m and mostly glabrous on the upper surface but coarsely h a i r y below......... and the stem leaves lack Lobes a t the base.... The f r u i t stalks are abruptly reflexed.......( 8 A.... 8 Stems usually several from a branched root crown. F r u i t s straight. The flowers are borne on slender........................ The f r u i t i n g stalks are abruptly reflexed........ open habitats a t a l l elevations.... east t o Alta....................... mostly >30 cm t a l l .. The petals are white t o (more c m n l y ) pinkish-purple and 5-10 mn long. divaricarpa A.... pendulocarpa (Nels... h o l b o e l l i i A. fecunda F r u i t s glabro......... and 1-6 cm long... 1............. sparsif l o r a A.. Holboel 1 s Rockcress Holboell's rockcress i s a biennial or perennial with simple or branched stems up t o 70 cm (28 i n ) t a l l from a simple or branched root crown......7 F r u i t s densely covered with branched hairs .. h a i r s a t the base of the stem 3-branched F r u i t s curved...... coarse h a i r s a t the base but are glabrous above.. east t o Que............. lemnonii (10) A...... but can be f o d i n mesic.. UA and NV..... glabra .................) Rol l i n s i s usually less than 30 cm (12 i n ) t a l l ..............(5) .. The clustered basal leaves are 1-6 c long and lance-shaped or narrowly spoon-shaped with a broad p e t i o l e m ..(11) Grocp I..........(6) A..........CRUCI FERAE Seeds i n 2 rows ( a t least below) i n each chamber of the f r u i t Seeds i n a single row i n each f r u i t chamber stem Leaves with small lobes a t the base. Hairy Rockcress Hairy rockcress i s a taprooted biennial or short-lived perennial........... M I ........ f r u i t s not secund.. This i s the most ccnnnon v a r i e t y i n the open grasslands around Missoula. The clustered basal leaves are linear or narrowly spoon-shaped........ Stems usually s i n g l e from a simple root crown...... The leaves are moderately t o densely covered with simple or branched hairs...... The f r u i t stalks arch downward........... 2................ lemnonii Stems usually >20 cm (8 i n ) t a l l ....... c o l l i n s i i (Fern...9 A.... and MY.... t o CA..... h a i r s a t the base of the stem more f r e e l y branched....... entire-margined... plants of upper m ....................... r e t r o f r a c t a (Grah... Petals are white and 6-8 mn long......... Var.. leaves densely hairy.(4) A... f r u i t s ascending outward from the stem... .... The sessile stem leaves are narrowly lance-shaped and lack small lobes a t the base......... N u t t a l l ' s rockcress i s comnon i n moist or vernally moist s o i l i n grasslands of the valleys and f o o t h i l l s ...........6 Stems with unbranched.... of the Sapphire Range and was once collected a t 2985 m (9.......... e n t i r e or shallowly toothed............... plants subalpine and above ... plants most comnon i n the valleys and montane zone 10 Basal Basal leaves usually glabrous or nearly so... Arabis h i r s u t a (L... Var. The s t r a i g h t o r s l i g h t l y curved..........4 f r u i t s erect................... Arabis h o l b o e l l i i Hornem...........l eo... The clustered basal leaves are broadly lance-shaped.....7 A......... . Arabis n u t t a l l i i Robins......() Stems usually <20 cm t a l l ......... are held nearly erect.... most o f t e n with s o l i t a r y ... The lance-shaped stem leaves o f t e n have small lobes at the base........ NE.... They have petioles below but may clasp the stem above.. Var.......... microphylla Stems glabrous or with branched h a i r s a t the base ........ f r u i t s borne on one side of the stem (secmd) . This i s the comnon v a r i e t y fourtd i n open ponderosa pine forests i n the f o o t h i l l s ..... Large.. N u t t a l l ' s Rockcress This perennial species produces 1-several slender stems up t o 25 cm (10 i n ) t a l l from a simple or branched root crown............... but they may also occur i n the montane zone...........800 f t ) on Trapper Peak i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains B.... There i s a single row of seeds i n each chanter o f the f r u i t .... 12-20 mn long and 1-2 mn wide........ Seeds are i n a single row i n each f r u i t chamber... unbranched stems up t o 80 cm (32 i n ) t a l l that have s t i f f ....... 9 subalpine t o a l p i ...... mostly <30 c (12 i n ) t a l l .................................. and CO.....C............ l y a l l i i ........

desertorum m. Arabis holboellii o. A. A. S. Sedum debile i. A. leiber~li j. roseum k. Alyssum alyssoides I. nuttallii p.var. S. Arabidopsis thaliana n. hirsuta . retrofracta h.

narrow f r u i t s . Arabis fecurda Rol l i n s Sapphire Rockcress This p e r e m i a l rockcress has 1-few simple stems up t o 30 cm (12 i n ) high from a simple or branched root crown. This species i s infrequent i n meadows and forest openings from the valleys up through the subalpine zones. and the ne. broadly lanceshaped. North America t o CA. stem leaves are mostly glabrous. The narrow. and the . Group 11. pointed tips. Circwpolar. This species i s widespread but infrequent i n open habitats from the f o o t h i l l s through the subalpine zones. Sapphire rockcress i s l o c a l l y comnon i n sparsely vegetated s o i l derived from h i g h l y calcareous. are borne on spreading densely hairy. down-curved stalks.) Bernh. Beaverhead. The white petals o f t e n fade t o blue and are 9-13 mn long. L i t t l e l e a f rockcress i s a perennial with 1-numerous. L i t t l e l e a f Rockcress 8. A t o C . AZ.l i v e d p e r e m i a l with mostly simple stems up t o 100 cm (40 i n ) t a l l that The clustered basal leaves are 2-9 cm (1-4 i n ) long. The herbage i s grayish with dense. Petals are 6-14 mn long and pink t o reddish-purple. WY. Spreadi ngpod Rockcress Spreadingpod rockcress i s a biennial or s h o r t . and e n t i r e or shallowly toothed margins. ponderosa pine forests but may be found up t o the lower subalpine zone. and NM. and broadly lance-shaped with toothed margins. I n our area. basal leaves are 3-14 cm (1-6 i n ) long. short hairs. and UT. whi l e the lrpper ones are o f t e n glabrous. stem leaves are sessile and narrowly lance-shaped with small lobes a t the base.l i v e d perennial. that are f i n e l y and densely h a i r y a t the base. B. Usually two d i s t i n c t types o f basal Leaves can be distinguished: larger. and broadly lance-shaped with small lobes a t the base. crowded. The herbage i s densely covered with branched hairs. metamorphosed parent material i n . The numerous. 5. strongly curved f r u i t s . and have usual l y shallowly toothed margins with long petioles. Arabis alabra (L. The creamy-white petals are 4-9 mn long.. and the creamcolored petals are 5-6 mn long. are crowded and held erect. and e n t i r e or toothed margins. Across s.) Rollins. U. erect. branched stems 4 t o 70 cm (28 i n ) t a l l that are h a i r y a t the base and glabrous above. usually with several simple o r . are densely h a i r y behow and o f t e n glabrous above. (Not i l l u s t r a t e d ) . The nunerws. 3-6 cm (1-2 i n ) long. The clustered basal leaves are 2-3 cm long and lance-shaped with long petioles.CRUCI FERAE They may be glabrous or h a i r y and generally wither as the plant matures. MT. The sessile stem leaves are lance-shaped and entire-margined with spreading lobes a t the base. are only s l i g h t l y flattened and held s t r i c t l y erect. The inflorescence i s densely flowered. K A 6. The linear f r u i t s are 3-8 cm long and 1-2 mn wide and held erect and pressed close t o the stein. The lower leaves are hairy. Seeds are i n a single row i n each f r u i t chamber. This Montana endetnic was f i r s t discovered i n 1975 by Jaculyn Cory o f Hamilton. The clustered basal leaves are lance-shaped or narrowly spoon-shaped. the foothi 11s of the Sapphire Range east of Victor and Corvall is. The sepals are glabrous. east t o Alta. sessile. The r e l a t i v e l y few. broader ones produced i n the f a l l and narrower ones produced i n the spring. The sessile stem leaves are broadly lance-shaped and mostly entire-margined without lobes a t the base. 7. and CO. Can. are held a t a widely spreading. t h i s introduced plant has been f o m only i n the montane zone o f the Sapphire Range near Missoula. upward angle t o the stem. AZ. 6-10 cm (2-4 i n ) long and 1-2 mn wide. south t o CA. Deer Lodge. The clustered basal leaves are about 2-4 cm long and narrowly lance-shaped with e n t i r e o r shallowly toothed margins and long petioles. and Raval li counties. Seeds are i n a s i n g l e row i n each f r u i t chamber. 4. The straight. The slender petioles have simple. t o CA. south i n w. and i n the A t l a n t i c states t o GA. 10-70 cm (4-28 i n ) t a l l . 3-5 cm (1-2 i n ) long and 1-2 INTI wide. 4-12 cm (2-5 i n ) long and 1-2 mn wide. often with a t h i n waxy coating. coarsely hairy. densely h a i r y a t least on the lower surface. Arabis sparsif lora Nutt. MT. subvillosa (Vats. and mostly entire-margined with narrow petioles. Our plants are var. Sicklepod rockcress i s widespread and l o c a l l y c m n i n open. Arabis divaricarpa Nels. stems. s t r a i g h t h a i r s on the margins.C. Sepals are glabrous. Native t o Europe.S. Our plants are var. Seeds are i n a single row i n each f r u i t chamber. The nunerws stem leaves are sessile with small lobes a t the base. Seeds are i n 1-2 rows i n each f r u i t chamber. Tower Mustard Tower mustard i s usually a b i e m i a l and has s o l i t a r y stems up t o or sometimes greater than 100 cm (40 i n ) t a l l that are usually coarsely h a i r y below and glabrous above.) Rollins. east t o Alta. The pink t o reddishpurple petals are 6-9 mn long. Arabis microphylla Nutt. pycnocarpa (Hopk. NM. The linear f r u i t s . The narrow f r u i t s .. The inflorescence may be simple or branched. The Mmerws stem leaves are lance-shaped with small lobes a t the base. 3-8 cm (1-3 i n ) long and 1-3 mn wide. Seeds are i n 2 rows ( a t least below) i n each f r u i t chamber. The species i n t h i s group are most abundant i n the montane t o alpine zones. Sicklepod Rockcress This i s a b i e m i a l o r s h o r t .

erect stems and glabrous Leaves that are p i m a t e l y divided with a large r o w terminal Lobe.. 10-25 cm (4-10 i n ) t a l l . 11. and C . Foliage i s usually fleshy. Mary's Peak west of Stevensville.. Foliage has a covering o f 4-branched hairs. MT.. The straight or s l i g h t l y curved f r u i t s .l i k e covering of f i n e hairs. 3-9 cm (1-4 i n ) long and 2-3 mn wide. b r i g h t green and glabrous but i s occasional l y densely pubescent. Barbarea R. vulgaris . Br. t o CA.) Greene Sandweed This small annual has slender stems up t o 25 cm (10 i n ) t a l l that branch near the base and are pubescent below with forked hairs. l y a l l i i i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains 10. about 2-6 cm long and 1-2 mn wide. stem leaves are linear t o narrowly lance-shaped with small The lobes a t the base. I t occurs most frequently on d r y open or sparsely forested slopes i n the f o o t h i l l s o f the B i t t e r r o o t Range. and covered with hooked hairs.. petiolate. The small flowers are well separated and borne on nodding s t a l k s along most o f the upper p o r t i o n of the stems. The glabrous f r u i t s are 2-6 cm (1-2 i n ) long and held erect or spreading.. The clustered basal leaves. The f r u i t s .. The several sessile stem leaves are lance-shaped with small lobes a t the base. . North America. The seeds are i n two rows i n each f r u i t chamber..lylla usually has several slender stems from a f r e e l y branched root crown and o f t e n fewer than 6 recurved o r pendent f r u i t s per stem. basal leaves with >1 p a i r s of l a t e r a l lobes.. t o OR. I t has been found above timberline on Bare Peak i n the southern B i t t e r r o o t Mountains B. Lemnonls rockcress i s infrequent i n subalpine areas of the Sapphire Our plants are var. Range. . L y a l l ' s Rockcress L y a l l ' s rockcress i s a t u f t e d p e r e m i a l with several erect stems. linear f r u i t s are 4-angled and sometimes have a small beak a t the t i p . The s t r a i g h t or s l i g h t l y curved f r u i t s . The lower leaves are 6-30 mn long and broadly lance-shaped with short petioles and i r r e g u l a r l y toothed margins. The rose t o purplish-red petals are 6-10 mn long. basal Leaves are 2-7 cm (1-3 i n ) long. and Lance-shaped o r narrowly e l l i p t i c a l with e n t i r e margins. east t o Alta.. B. basal leaves with 1 p a i r of Lateral lobes F r u i t not conspicuously beaked. vernal l y moist soi 1 of sunny slopes west of Hami Lton and above Como Lake i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains B...C.. saximontana R o l l i n s has a sparingly branched root crown with 1-few stronger stems and 6-15 spreading or ascending f r u i t s that are o f t e n more than twice as long as those of the other variety.C. are held erect or s l i g h t l y spreading from the stem. Seeds are i n a single row i n the f r u i t charbers. t o CAI east t o Alta. Numerous yellow flowers are borne on short stalks on the upper p o r t i o n of the stems. O This species appears t o intergrade with A.C. This i s our most comnon alpine rockcress.(l) orthoceras B. Sandweed has been found i n open.CU I R C FERAE pinkish t o purplish-red petals are 5-8 mn long. sessile. Arabis d r d i i Gray Drumnondls Rockcress The clustered This short-lived p e r e m i a l has 1-few. The white petals are 1-2 nun Long or sometimes Lacking. east t o I D and w.. east MT and WY.C. The clustered basal leaves are 15-30 mn Long and narrowly e l l i p t i c a l with e n t i r e margins.. The seeds are i n a single row i n the f r u i t chamber. Densely pubescent plants occur on S t . Lemnonl s Rockcress This i s a small. east t o MT and CO. F r u i t with a beak a t the top. t o C . flattened on both sides. flattened and glabrous f r u i t s . Sepals are glabrous and the white t o purplish-pink petals are 7-12 mn long.. UT. microd. lemnonii. are held erect. Wintercress Members o f t h i s genus are biennial or perennial herbs with more-or-less angled. from a branched root crown.C. t u f t e d perennial with a branched root crown and several stems up t o 20 cm (8 in) tall. 15-20 mn long. 1.. B. are nearly r o d i n outline.. 9. Arabis Lemnonii Wats. Seeds are i n a single row i n each of the 2 chambers of the f r u i t .. Seeds are i n a single row i n the f r u i t chambers. I t occurs i n d r y or mesic habitats as well as l a t e snomelt areas. shallowly notched a t the top. and i n ne. The several sessile stem leaves are lance-shaped with small lobes a t the base. The foliage has a f e l t . about 3-4 cm long and 1-2 mn wide. B. The few upper leaves are smaller and sessile. spread nearly h o r i z o n t a l l y on one side of the stem.(2) B. Var.. Var.. and shallowly toothed on the margins. usually simple stems up t o 70 cm (28 i n ) t a l l . DrumKxldls rockcress i s comnon i n the upper subalpine and timberline zones. 23 mn Long.. glabrous or sparsely hairy. Petals are 4-7 mn long and l i l a c t o rose-purple.. t o CA. A Athysanus Greene Athysanus Athysanus pusi 1lus (Hook... and WY. 1. are narrowly e l l i p t i c a l . The crowded. The long. Arabis l y a l l i i Uats.

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... The stem leaves have a s i m i l a r shape but are mostly sessile and are reduced uowards.. nigra F i e l d Mustard 1. a t least on the lower portion...... The seeds are nearly r o d and i n a single row i n each chamber of the f r u i t . prominent terminal lobe....... The leaves are sessile o r petiolate.... B i t t e r Wintercress ... terminal lobe......3 B campestris . The stein Leaves are shallowly lobed. and the lower ones are pinnately divided with a large.... They are ascending t o spreading from the axis o f the inflorescence....... are crowded i n the inflorescence... Brassica kaber (DC.. south i n w. Beak of f r u i t conspicuously f l a t t ee........ This species i s s i m i l a r t o B orthoceras but i s usually a Larger and coarser plant.. Widespread i n much o f North America.... Br. branched stems and glabrous or pubescent foliage.. nd.. 5-7 mn long.S...... persistent s t y l e a t the t i p .. The basal Leaves have slender p e t i o l e s and 1-2 pairs of l a t e r a l Lobes and a Large.......... A large population o f t h i s introduced plant occurs i n a moist meadow near K e l l y Island along the Clark Fork River west o f Misswla. and entire-margined with short petioles.. Beak of f r u i t round o r nearly so i n cross section ..... Barbarea orthoceras Ledeb.. The upper stem leaves are sessile and nearly entire-margined with basal lobes that clasp the stem.. 1. nearly r o d .. The basal leaves have a single p a i r of Lateral lobes and an e n t i r e or weakly toothed. Berteroa Berteroa This arnual species has stems up t o 80 cm (32 i n ) t a l l that are branched both a t the base and above.. F i e l d mustard i s a taprooted annual with sinple o r branched stems up t o 100 cm (40 i n ) t a l l .. This introduced species i s infrequent i n f i e l d s and along roads i n the valleys.. oleracea. shallowly toothed terminal Lobe....... 2.. This introduced species i s generally u n c m n i n o l d f i e l d s and on roadsides i n the north part o f our area. A l l o f our species are introduced. I n addition t o the three species l i s t e d below.. B... rounded terminal lobe that i s toothed o r entire-margined... 2..... Foliage i s glabrous with a thin.......7 seeds i n two rows i n each f r u i t chamber.. 2.. . s t i f f hairs... 1... There are 3 . F r u i t s are c y l i n d r i c a l with a prominent beak a t the t i p . waxy coating... Yellow Rocket.. B.. Mustard Mustards are annual or p e r e m i a l herbs with erect. C i r c h r e a l ... montane meadows. The petals are b r i g h t yellow...... The notched petals are white and 4-6 mn long. Berteroa DC..... 1-5 cm long and 1-3 mn wide. B kaber and B... was collected along a road near Lolo. The upper Leaves are few... 2... 3-5 cm long.... egg-shaped.. c u l t i v a t e d crops... a waxy-leaved species with l i g h t yellow flowers and probably a v o l m t e e r from garden-grown cabbage plants....... ... campestris are the w i l d progenitors of many . The petals are 35 mn long...... The f r u i t s are 3-7 mn (1-3 i n ) long and 2-4 mn wide with a beak 1/3-1/2 as long as the body.... The s l i g h t l y i n f l a t e d f r u i t s are e l l i p t i c a l with a prominent. They are borne erect i n a crowded inflorescence.. O .. Flowering stems are often borne i n the a x i l s of the upper Leaves. These wither as the plant matures.2 1) 2 B.... The flowers are borne on short s t a l k s on the terminal p o r t i o n of the stem. The Lower Leaves are mostly pinnately divided with a large terminal Lobe.) Wheeler Charlock This species i s an annual or biennial with simple or branched stems up t o 80 cm (32 i n ) t a l l . U t o N.. The upper leaves are smaller and sessile. south t o NJ.... l a t e r a l Lobes and a broad. The lower Leaves are broadly Linear. kaber Upper stem leaves with basal lobes that clasp the s t em. American W i ntercress American wintercress has mostly s o l i t a r y stems ~p t o 70 a (28 i n ) t a l l . Basal leaves are up t o 12 n cm (5 i n ) long with short p e t i o l e s and several p a i r s o f narrow. The plants are covered with short.. Europe..... Berteroa incana (L.. ID.. The f r u i t s have a small beak a t the t i p .. O .. Widespread i n temperate North America.... The erect f r u i t s .. Barbarea vulqaris R..) -DC... This species i s comnon i n moist..lobed t o The shallowly toothed.( Upper stem leaves not clasping . and CA.CRUCI FERAE 1......... Eurasia... Flowers are stalked and borne on the terminal p o r t i o n of the stems i n a showy inflorescence.... North America t o CA and N M Ungulates often graze these plants causing them t o branch from the base and flower l a t e r i n the season.. Brassica canmestris L..... The f o l i a g e i s grayish with a dense covering o f branched hairs.. A H K Brassica L. The petals are 6-10 mn Long.

2 Lateral l e a f l e t s of stem leaves nearly linear. Flowers are borne i n a f lat-topped inflorescence.... f i e l d s and other disturbed habitats i n the v a l l e y zone. f r u i t s q1........ The white petals are 1-4 mn long. Capsella Medic. The f o l i a g e has simple or branched h a i r s below and i s glabrous above........ Flowers are borne on s t a l k s that elongate i n fruit. breweri 1. Bittercress These are annual o r perennial. Petals are 8-14 mn long. The clustered basal leaves are 3-6 cm (1-2 i n ) long. or branching stems....... The seeds are i n a single row i n the 2 c h a h r s of the f r u i t .....5 mn broad........... Widespread i n North America.... Plants perennial with rhizomes... Ca~sella bursa-uastoris (L. This introduced species i s infrequent i n f i e l d s and along roads i n the valleys.... The f o l i a g e i s sparsely o r densely covered. They are erect or ascending i n the inflorescence.... mostly glabrous herbs with e n t i r e t o pinnately divided leaves that are alternate and o f t e n basal... annual herb has simple or branched stems up t o 70 cm (28 i n ) t a l l without a cluster o f basal leaves.. The erect f r u i t s are 2-3 cm long and 2-3 n wide.. somewhat sandy s o i l i n the valleys.. and a base that tapers t o a s t a l k longer than the f r u i t .. The f r u i t s ...... Camelina Crantz Camel ina m i crocarm Andrz. This rhizomatous perennial has erect. Widespread i n North America. Stem leaves are mostly pinnately divided with 1-2 pairs o f l a t e r a l lobes and a larger terminal lobe with wavy margins... Hairy f a l s e f l a x i s introduced from Europe and has becane a very comnon weed i n dry. are broadly e l l i p t i c a l i n o u t l i n e and rounded on top with an evident beak.. 4-8 INTI long.. Cardamine L.. The stalked flowers are clustered o r well-separated on the terminal p o r t i o n o f the stems. pensvlvanica Lateral leaflets of stem leaves lance-shaped to nearly round..... Fruits.. Cardamine breweri Wats. oligosperma Brewer's Bi ttercress (1) C. that are glabrous o r s l i g h t l y h a i r y a t the base... branched or star-shaped hairs. Petals are white (ours) or pink. .. Plants annual or r a r e l y b i e m i a l without rhizomes.. f r u i t s are 4-5 cm long and 2 mn broad with a flattened beak about 1/2 as long as the body. 10-40 cm (4-16 i n ) t a l l ... False Flax Hairy False Flax This erect. The f r u i t s are 10-25 mn long and 1-2 mn wide with a beak less than 1/4 the length of the body. with short... Petals are usually about 5 mn long.. 3... The body o f the f r u i t i s i n f l a t e d and wing-margined. This i s a widespread European weed.. Europe... The foliage i s beset with simple... Shepherd's Purse s Shepherd1 Purse Shepherd's purse i s an annual with mostly branched stems up t o 50 cm (20 i n ) t a l l .... Brassica nigra (L...(3) C.) Koch Black Mustard Black nustard i s an annual with branched stems o f t e n more than 100 cm (40 i n ) t a l l . They are held erect and appressed t o the a x i s of the inflorescence... 1. petals mostly 5-7 mn l ong.5 mn wide . 5-7 mn long............ The sessile... The sessile stem leaves are lance-shaped with shallowly toothed margins and small lobes a t the base that clasp the stem.. 2. are flattened and triangular i n o u t l i n e with the small s t y l e persistent on the shallowly concave top........) Medic. The f r u i t s are linear and flattened with a small but evident beak (style)........... a t least toward the base.. upper leaves are smaller and e l l i p t i c a l with sharply toothed margins. ... The pale yellow petals are 4-5 mn long. Each f r u i t has nunerous seeds. simple.... The glabrous basal leaves are spade-shaped with long petioles. Widespread i n North America.. The basal leaves are p e t i o l a t e and pinnately divided with 1-2 pairs o f small l a t e r a l lobes and a large terminal lobe... Widespread i n North America..... s t i f f hairs.. This species i s c u l t i v a t e d f o r the o i l obtained from the seed...... ..2 C. petiolate.. Charlock i s introduced from Europe and i s infrequent i n f i e l d s and along roads i n our area.CRUCI FERAE The s t r a i g h t o r s l i g h t l y curved inflorescence i s usually profusely branched.. and nearly e n t i r e t o pinnately lobed. The petals are about 5-7 mn Long. comnon i n gardens. fruits >1. petals mostly 2-4 mn long 2. 1.. The lance-shaped leaves are mostly sessile and 2-8 cm (1-3 i n ) long with e n t i r e or toothed margins and small lobes a t the base that often clasp the stem.

Athysanus pusillus y. Arabis lyallii w. kaber d.v. B. nigra e. Camelina microcarpa . lemmonii x. Brassica campe~tris c. Berteroa incana b. B. B. vulgaris a. A. Barbarea orthoceras z.

that branch from the base.. The white petals are about 3-4 mn long. Herbage i s h a i r y throughout.S. 4-10 c long. branched stems. Cardaria pubescens (Mey. This species i s widespread and comnon i n f e r t i l e .. small lobes a t the base. This Eurasian weed i s c m n along roads.) Hitchc. 1 Jam. oligosperma.. Europe. Cardamine pensylvanica Muh 1.. d i f f e r s by having stem leaves with nearly linear l a t e r a l l e a f l e t s and f r u i t s that are mostly about 1 mn broad. l e i b e r g i i (Holz. The glabrous. usually s l i g h t l y concave a t the base F r u i t f i n e l y hairy. more-or-less flat-topped inflorescence.. and short... The narrow.. The sessile stem leaves are s i m i l a r but gradually reduced upwards. Purple Mustard Purple Mustard This amual species has stems... more frequently. Widespread i n w... 2. Globepod White-top This species i s s i m i l a r t o C.. disturbed s o i l s i n the valleys... The f r u i t i n g pedicels spread a t an ascending angle t o the stein... W..top. Chorispora R. AK south t o much of w.CRUCI FERAE I t i s comnon i n Var. The clustered basal Leaves are pinnately conpund with 2-5 pairs of nearly orbicular. Cardaria Desv.. Cardaria draba ( L .. open or p a r t i a l l y shaded habitats i n the valleys.. Widespread i n the a r i d regions of the P a c i f i c Northwest. m are lance-shaped t o narrowly e l l i p t i c a l with coarsely toothed margins.. draba. i n f l a t e d f r u i t s are 3-5 mn long and nearly round but with both the top and bottom s l i g h t l y concave... wing-margined petioles. Cardamine oligosperma Nutt... F r u i t glabrous. Herbage i s covered with simple and g l a n d .. terminal leaf l e t . curved f r u i t s are 35-45 mn long with a 720 mn beak and constrictions between the seeds. and i n disturbed a g r i c u l t u r a l areas i n the valleys. North America..... 1.. 2. neutral or alkaline... Basal leaves... . shallowly lobed.... This species i s comnrn i n moist or wet. has a terminal lobe that i s d i s t i n c t l y 7-11 toothed. AK t o CA. f r u i t not concave a t the base Desv. ) White. .. around farm yards. Stem leaves are smaller with narrower l a t e r a l leaflets. Pennsylvania Bi ttercress It This species i s a winter annual o r biennial and i s s i m i l a r i n most respects t o C... native t o Eurasia... The erect f r u i t s are 15-25 mn long and about 2 mn wide...2 . Chorispora tenel l a (Pal 1. 1. The f r u i t s are egg-shaped t o nearly round with a persistent s t y l e a t the top. pubescens 1. 3.... but the strongly i n f l a t e d f r u i t s are f i n e l y h a i r y and nearly globose without a concave base... U.1) C.t i w e d hairs.top The 2 members of t h i s genus are rhizomatous perennial herbs with erect or ascending stems and simple alternate leaves. that are sparsely h a i r y a t the base or occasionally throughout... east t o Alta. Globepod white-top occurs i n the same habitats as C. breweri has stem leaves with the terminal lobe not d i s t i n c t l y toothed. Widespread i n North America. and NM... The stalked flowers are borne on the upper p o r t i o n o f the stems i n a crowded.. Flowers are borne on short stalks on the upper p o r t i o n o f the stems. Hoary Cress White-top has stems that are branched above and 20-50 cm (8-20 i n ) t a l l .. ) DC. The e l l i p t i c a l o r m lance-shaped leaves are 3-8 cm (1-3 i n ) long. White. The purple petals are about 8 mn long.. 10-40 c (4-16 i n ) t a l l ... Small Western Bi ttercress Small western b i t t e r c r e s s i s a taprooted annual or biennial with 1-few simple or... 10-40 cm (4-16 i n ) t a l l . Herbage i s pubescent with simple hairs.. draba but i s much less comnon and has been found only i n the northern part o f our area. Uidespread i n rmch o f North America.. Pennsylvania b i t t e r c r e s s i s a comnon plant i n moist habitats i n the valleys and o f t e n becomes a weed i n gardens and greenhouses... subalpine wet meadows and openings i n spruce-fir forests.. draba C.. I t has been collected i n meadows near Medicine Hot Springs. The white petals are 2-4 mn Long... northwest o f Sula. Siberia. Both species are introduced from Eurasia and are serious a g r i c u l t u r a l weeds. Br. This plant seems t o do best i n habitats with l i g h t t o moderate disturbance.. and mostly p e t i o l a t e with coarsely toothed margins. Var.. l a t e r a l l e a f l e t s and a larger...

pensylvanica j. Chorispora tenella i. Cardamine breweri h. Capsella bursa-pastoris g.f. oligosperma k. C. Cardaria pubescens I. Cardaria draba . C.

The pale yellow petals are about 1-4 mn long. Britt... roundedontop F r u i t s more linear..... 1.) Western tansy mustard i s an annual with branched stems up t o 60 a (24 i n ) t a l l that lack clustered n basal leaves.... Lower leaves 2-3 times pinnately divided.... I t i s believed that these plants represent an undescribed species.... The f o l i a g e i s covered with simple. The small but o f t e n showy flowers are borne on short stalks on the terminal p o r t i o n o f the stems. p i m a t a and D.. paysonii. The yellow petals are about 2 mn long and usually shorter than the sepals... Peck i s glandular and occurs more frequently i n recently disturbed ground i n subalpine forest....2 ... plants s i m i l a r t o D... 2-3 cm long and 1-2 n wide. richardsonii l i s t e d below. s t r a i g h t or s l i g h t l y curved f r u i t s .. are somewhat r o W a t the top and shorter than the ascending stalks on which they are borne.. .. Foliage i s d u l l green and often glandular hairy... f r u i t s with >20 seeds Lower leaves mostly once pinnately divided. 210 cm (1-4 i n ) long. The s t r a i g h t or s l i g h t l y curved f r u i t s . Herbage i s nearly glabrous t o grayish with dense f i n e h a i r s and sometimes with glandular hairs..2 2. The long.. Draba Members o f t h i s genus are annual... They w i l l key t o either D. 10-20 mn long.. Descurainia richardsoni i (Sweet) Schulz Mountain Tansy Mustard This amual or biennial species has stems that are branched above and up t o 100 cm (40 i n ) t a l l .. Fruitsclub-shaped........ the terminal lobe no wider than the l a t e r a l ones. but they are not as aggressive as many introduced species. or short gland-tipped hairs. f r u i t s mostly with <20 seeds. or perennial herbs with l e a f y or leafless stems and clusters o f Leaves a t the base. Var. The inflorescence i s o f t e n 1/2 as long as the stems.. The petiolate... somei (Robins.... Our plants are var.. The lance-shaped leaves.. Whi tlow-grass.. e l l i p t i c a l .... are 2-3 times pinnately divided with narrow ultimate segments about 1 mn wide.... viscosa (Rydb...... Var. l i g h t l y t o heavily disturbed soi 1 of grasslands and forest openings i n the vat l e y and montane zones.. Flowering stems with 2-many leaves Leaves a l l basal.. or club-shaped and sometimes twisted. Descurainia sophia (L. 1. flowering stems leafless or with 1 leaf near the base .... The ye1 low cushion-forming members of t h i s genus are very simi tar...5 . sophia .. and a hand lens or microscope may be necessary f o r p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . broadly lance-shaped leaves.) Webb F1ixweed Flixweed i s an annual o r biennial with stems up t o 70 cm (28 i n ) t a l l that branch above and sometimes a t the base.....( 1 ) ~ p i n n a t a ......... These plants are somewhat llweedylt and most often occur i n disturbed s o i l ..... They are without a basal cluster o f leaves.. are contracted between the seeds and tapered t o the small beak...... Widespread i n North America.. lacks glands on the stems and f r u i t s t a l k s and i s widespread but infrequent i n open soi 1 i n the v a l l e y t o lower subalpine zones.. The seeds are i n 1 o r sometimes 2 rows i n each chamber o f the fruit. Petals are usually cream-colored o r l i g h t yellow......3) D.......... 1.... richardsoni i Uestern Tansy Mustard 1............. Tansy Mustard Plants i n t h i s group are annuals or biennials with simple or branched stems and leaves that are 1-3 times pinnately divided........ more gradually tapered a t the tip. Foliage i s o f t e n grayish with a dense covering of f i n e hairs.... are not noticeably contracted between the seeds and are borne on short stalks that arch away from the stem.... Descurainia p i m a t a (Walt. The f r u i t s are egg-shaped........ 2... This European introduction has been collected once near Missoula. The f r u i t s ..... variously branched h a i r s are l o c a l l y comnon near or above timberline i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains.. 2. The lance-shaped Leaves..... branched..... I n addition t o the v a r i e t i e s o f D.... They are borne on stalks that arch away from the stein... narrow f r u i t s are 3 sided t o nearly round i n cross section. other v a r i e t i e s may be expected i n our area.......... biennial... This plant i s l o c a l l y comnon i n open... 3-10 cm (1-4 i n ) long. Herbage i s nearly glabrous t o covered with simple or branched hairs. Draba L...... f i l i w s (Gray) Peck. The yellow petals are 1-4 mn long.. oligosperma or D... 1.. Petals are white or a yellow that fades t o white with age..... are p e t i o l a t e and pinnately divided with the primary divisions e n t i r e or toothed.... Widespread i n tenperate North America............ . The erect.) Hitchc.... oligosperma i n size and shape o f the f r u i t but d i f f e r i n g by having the Leaves covered with longer.. The small flowers are borne on s t a l k s on the long upper p o r t i o n of the stems. Widespread i n North America.... 2-10 cm (1-4 i n ) long.... 3..... I n addition t o the species described below... are 1-2 times pinnately divided i n t o shallowly toothed ultimate lobes...CRUCI FERAE Descurainia Webb & Berth.(2) D.. 5-17 mn Long and about 1 mn wide......

...... that are n glabrous above and beset with branched h a i r s below................... 1-3 cm long.......... and CO........ They are much shorter than the ascending stalks that bear them...................... 411 mn long... 7 Surface o f leaves densely h a i r y ............................... verna ...... ..... The yellow petals are about 4 mn long.................................... Eurasia............ Surface o f Surface o f 10 ..... ........... petals white. reptans Surface o f leaves mostly glabrous . Draba nemorosa L.......... 5 times as long as the f r u i t s ..... They flower and mature f r u i t very r a p i d l y and have completely disappeared by July.... leaves mostly 4 ... praealta ................. The oblong f r u i t s .........t o The e l l i p t i c a l t o egg-shaped f r u i t s The white petals are 2-3 mn long and deeply 2-lobed..5 mn w i de. Throughout rmch o f North America.. bloods Draba Wood d r a b i s an annual with simple or sometimes branched stems. Petals not mtched.......... Clustered basal leaves are 1-4 cm long. 5 D............................. B....................7 a t least some of the leaves densely h a i r y....... 10-25 mn long......................8 Petals deeply notche....11 Pubescence on leaf surfaces............... 3 D...... e n t i r e or shallowly toothed margins.. 8-12 mn long............ of ten branched inflorescence......... 5 Hairs branching s l i g h t l y above the leaf surface............................... Vernal whitlow-grass i s widespread and l o c a l l y abundant i n open s o i l of d r y grasslands i n the val leys............ t o CA. Our plants are var.... This i s one of the f i r s t plants t o bloom i n the spring... Numerous flowers are borne i n an elongated... c r a s s i f o l i a D. Vernal Whit low-grass These are d e l i c a t e amuals with 1-few leafless stems about 5 cm (2 i n ) t a l l although occasionally up The clustered basal leaves................... 2 D............. They are usually shorter than the stalks that bear them............. 9 Petals y e l l .. ................ 4 Leaves entire-margined ..............................l2 10) D... 4 D....... and CO.. The few stem leaves are narrowly e l l i p t i c a l and without petioles........... and broadly lance-shaped with shallowly toothed margins.. paysonii Hairs on leaves simple or variously branched but not double-comb shaped Hairs closely appressed t o leaf surface...(9) D..... leaves mostly >1................... covered with simple or branched hairs......... east t o Alta....................... lonchocarpa .............. ................. petals yellow or white. .... branched stems up t o 30 c (12 i n ) t a l l that are m glabrous above and h a i r y below..... 1 D. 2...3 Stalks of mature f r u i t >1. are e n t i r e or toothed on the margins and covered with s i r p l e and branched hairs.............1 D............ Herbage i s covered with branched hairs... The inflorescence has 10-40 stalked flowers...... a t least i n part..CRUCI FERAE Upper p o r t i o n of the stem and usually the flower stalks h a i r y Upper p o r t i o n o f the stem glabrous ......... Plants biennial or s h o r t .. 3..C.. 5-25 a (2-10 i n ) t a l l . are lance-shaped or narrowly spoon-shaped with t o 20 cm ( 8 in).................... c r a s s i f o l i a Petals h i t e . ........... ........................... nemorosa ( Stalks of mature f r u i t 4 .......... 1............. reptans Leaves mostly toothed .. The inflorescence i s 3........ many-flowered...... The yellow petals are about 3 mn long................................. stenoloba 6 Plants annual.5 D..... verna............ are beakless and glabrous or sparsely hairy. Slender Draba This winter amual or biennial has mostly s o l i t a r y . olisosmrma (8) D.......... .... ........... Draba stenoloba Ledeb....l i v e d perennial............................ are glabrous and o f t e n have a minute beak.................................. d......... east t o Alta.......... ... are glabrous and about 7 mn long.............5 times as long as the f r u i t ... of h a i r s shaped l i k e a comb with teeth on two sides......... davi esiae the leaves mostly glabrous.. incerta Group I..........................................( mn wide ........................ Eurasia.............( 6 ) D...... Draba verna L..4 D.... Surface o f leaves densely h a i r y Surface o f leaves mostly glabrous........... K ..... The broadly lance-shaped leaves............ Slender draba i s infrequent i n moist or vernally moist habitats from the v a l l e y t o near timberline.. These species are small annual plants found mainly i n the valleys and open f o o t h i l l s .. The e l l i p t i c a l t o broadly lance-shaped f r u i t s . without well-developed root system.............. A t o CA... This plant i s l o c a l l y c m n i n moist or vernally moist habitats i n the foothi 11s and montane zone but has also been found i n open s o i l of subalpine meadows............

t o OR. are lance-shaped and greenish glabrous with e n t i r e margins that are beset with short. The clustered. and s. B. Flowers are borne i n a dense inflorescence a t the top o f the stem. clustered basal leaves. The white petals are 2-4 mn long. apiculata Hitchc. 8. southwest o f Hissoula many years ago. Can. The clustered basal leaves are e l l i p t i c a l with e n t i r e margins and dense.) Fern. while specimens collected near t i n h e r l i n e i n the B i t t e r r o o t Range southwest of Darby seemed t o be biemials. and longer than t h e i r stalks. t h i s plant has been found only i n moist or vernally moist habitats near or above timberline i n the southern B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. less h a i r y foliage. The 2 species i n t h i s group are biennials o r s h o r t . B. The yellow petals fade t o white and are 4-5 mn long. The 1-2 sessile stem leaves are s i m i l a r and borne near the base o f the plant. NV and UY.) Roll ins [D. This species i s endemic t o the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. leafless stems. The clustered basal leaves. simple hairs. The egg-shaped t o e l l i p t i c a l f r u i t s are glabrous or h a i r y and 6-10 mn long. east t o Alta. 10-30 mn long. Thick-leaved Draba ID.C.t o 10-flowered inflorescence i s nearly flat-topped i n flower. are entire-margined and covered with branched hairs. 7-13 mn long. Carolina Uhit low-grass This species i s an annual with stems up t o 15 cm (6 i n ) t a l l that are simple or branched a t the base. daviesiae Hitchc. Draba incerta Pays. exposed habitats near o r above t i h e r l i n e . Draba daviesiae ( H i tchc. t o CA. They are found a t low t o high elevations i n the mountains. The numerous flowers are borne i n a conpact inflorescence that elongates as the plant matures. though some may be f o d i n dry. The many-flowered inflorescence i s more than 1/2 the height o f the plant. often cushion-forming species with branched root crowns and unbranched. albertina Greenel Thick-leaved draba i s a biennial or s h o r t . The few. simple or star-shaped hairs on both surfaces. The narrowly lanceshaped f r u i t s . Yellowstone Draba This i s a loosely matted species with stems up t o 20 cm (8 i n ) t a l l . simple o r usually branched stems up t o 30 cm (12 i n ) t a l l . cushion drabas. alpine. Carolina whitlow-grass i s rare i n our area. 10-25 INTI long. l i n e a r f r u i t s are 5-20 mn long and held erect on short stalks. some o f which resemble a comb with teeth on both sides. matted plant with erect stems less than 5 cm ( 2 i n ) t a l l . Draba c r a s s i f o l i a R. tufted. and CO. east t o Alta. D r a b praealta Greene T a l l Draba T a l l draba i s a b i e m i a l o r s h o r t . The loosely clustered basal leaves. s t i f f . The pale yellow petals are about 4 mn Long. The yellow petals fa& t o white and are 2-3 mn long. 4. 5-12 mn Long. glabrous above and sparsely h a i r y beneath. . are lance-shaped with e n t i r e or. Draba reptans (Lam. 5. Herbage i s densely covered with a mixture of simple and branched hairs. Widespread i n the U. open gravelly s o i l near o r above tinherline. andUY.C. but i t i s usually found i n more mesic s i t e s such as north and east slopes and t a l u s f i e l d s .CRUCI FERAE Plants observed near the B i t t e r r o o t River south of Lolo appeared t o be annuals or winter a w l s .C. Grocp 11. Group 111. open habitats lower i n the mountains. are linear t o narrowly lance-shaped. where i t i s comnon i n d r y or vernally moist. The white petals are 3-5 mn long and barely exceed the sepals. 7.. This species was once found i n moist s o i l above Skalkaho F a l l s i n the Sapphire Range east o f Hamilton. B. The glabrous f r u i t s are lance-shaped or e l l i p t i c a l . 4-8 mn long. Stem leaves are few o r lacking. This i s the largest of the yellow-flowered. The densely clustered basal leaves. about as long as t h e i r stalks.S.l i v e d perennial with 1-few. This species may occur with other drabas. The 1-6 stem leaves are sessile and more e l l i p t i c a l i n outline. They occur mainly near or above t i h e r l i n e . This group contains low. I t can be distinguished by i t s greener. more often.l i v e d perennial with 1-several stems up t o 8 cm (3 in) t a l l from a simple or few-branched root stock. Grah. 6. The narrowly e l l i p t i c a l f r u i t s are glabrous and 3-8 mn long. I t was collected Although comnon i n eastern Montana. Yellowstone draba i s widespread but never abundant i n dry. east t o A l t a . MT. 8-14 mn long. .1 B i t t e r r o o t Draba The densely B i t t e r r o o t d r a b i s a low. are densely short h a i r y and longer than t h e i r stalks. The inflorescence i s congested a t f i r s t but elongates as the f r u i t s mature. var. west of Florence south t o Trapper Peak southwest o f Darby. toothed margins.l i v e d perennials with simple o r few-branched root stocks.. I n our area. I n Montana i t occurs from Sweeny Peak. andUA.

D. nemorosa s.a u. D. Descurainia pinnata n. sophia p. D. crassifo. D. D. daviesiae w. D.m. Draba reptans t. D. incerta r. praealta v. stenoloba . Draba verna q. D. r~chardsonii o.

... A t o OR.. Erysimm cheiranthoides L.. Widespread i n w.... sandy s o i l s o f I t has also been found on scree near timberline on Mount Jerusalem i n the southern ponderosa pine forests. t o CA.CRUCI FERAE 9... and OK........ t r e l e a s i i (Schulz) Hitchc... WY.. Stem leaves are s i m i l a r but reduced upwards... The white petals are 2-5 mn long.. The stem leaves are 4 t o 8 c (3 i n ) long and lanceshaped with e n t i r e or f i n e l y toothed margins..... and o f t e n twisted. taprooted herbs with simple.. The f r u i t s are l i n e a r and 4-sided i n cross section with a small stems....... forked hairs.( 2 E. Leaves are linear or lance-shaped. The yellow petals are 2-5 mn long.C. alternate leaves. and the U.. B i t t e r r o o t Mountains.... The clustered basal leaves are 3-12 cm (1-5 i n ) long and narrowly t o broadly lance-shaped u i t h slender petioles and e n t i r e or toothed margins.. 5-15 mn long... Ervsimum L.. Treacle Mustard Treacle mustard i s a 'sparsely h a i r y annual herb with sinple or branched stems up t o 70 cm (28 i n ) .. ...... 3-8 mn long.... Draba o l i g o s p e m Hook..... B.. The Light yellow petals are 3-6 mn long............. beak a t the t i p . east t o Alta. This biennial or..... The herbage Flowers are borne on s t a l k s on the upper p o r t i o n o f the i s covered with closely appressed. The f r u i t s are 1-3 cm long and about 1 mn wide and nearly erect t o spreading.. I t has been This species i s uncommm.. and UT...... Snow draba i s o f t e n associated with Saxifraga debi l i s ...... a t higher elevations.... 1.... m t a l l ... Payson's draba occurs i n sandy o r rocky s o i l a t about 1220 m (4. asmrum . KS.. shorter than t h e i r stalks.......000 f t ) near the Curlew Mine and i n the Gash Creek drainage west o f Victor. 2. Snow Draba The clustered basal Snow d r a b forms Loose t u f t s or mats and has stems up t o 12 cm (5 i n ) t a l l . east t o MN. and densely covered with branched and star-shaped hairs... This showy plant i s one our e a r l i e s t spring wildflowers. are egg-shaped with a short beak and densely covered with simple and branched hairs....S.. t o CA..... 10... The s l i g h t l y i n f l a t e d f r u i t s . 2....... The 1inear f r u i t s are 3-10 cm (1-4 i n ) long and 1-2 mn wide and held a t a spreading angle t o the stem..... and CO... inconspicum Plains Ual l f lower 1..2 Petals 3-6 mn long. S......... occurring i n moist.... Draba lonchocarpa Rydb..l i v e d perennial species has erect...... The ye1 low t o orange petals are 15-25 mn long.. biennial.. 2. simple o r branched stems y... The densely clustered basal Leaves are sparsely t o t h i c k l y covered with branched h a i r s that resemble a comb with teeth on both sides and are closely appressed t o the surface of the leaf.. brown leaves are persistent a t the base o f the plant. 1. mertensiana..... o f t e n disturbed s i t e s i n the valleys.. collected along roads i n the B i t t e r r o o t Valley..C. Petals >12 mn Long Petals 4 0 mn long .. B.. but i t i s a more compact p l a n t with stems that are usually less than 10 cm (4 i n ) t a l l ....) DC... or perennial. The few.. The h a i r y or glabrous f r u i t s are 2-8 mn long...... s h o r t . open slopes o f the Sapphire Range...... Payson's draba This strongly t u f t e d and mat-forming species has stems up t o 6 cm (2 i n ) t a l l .. I t i s rare i n the northern B i t t e r r o o t Mountains but more comnon i n the southern K part. Plains wallflower i s c o m n on d r y exposures i n f o o t h i l l l s grasslands and i n open. Our plants are var.......... The linear or very narrowly lance-shaped f r u i t s are mostly 10-20 nun long.. and Phacelia l y a l l i i ... Draba pavsoni i Macbr . The petals are yellow or orange..... east t o Alta. WY.. The old... Erysimun asperun (Nutt. This species i s widespread but infrequent i n moist microsites on north and east slopes and rock crevices near o r above timberline..t o 10-flowered inflorescence i s nearly f tat-topped i n bloom...... Few-seeded draba does not occur i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains but i s infrequent on dry..... plants more grayish-hairy .. Wallflower These are annual. glabrous or sparsely hairy..... 1 E. cheiranthoides Petals 7-10 mn long. Uidespread i n North America and Eurasia. Feu-seeded Draba This species i s very s i m i l a r t o incerta..... Can..... The densely clustered basal leaves are linear o r narrowly lance-shaped with a raised midvein and greenish-gray with a t h i c k covering o f simple and branched hairs...(3) E. 11. They Lack a d i s t i n c t c l u s t e r of basal leaves. plants mostly sparsely h a i r y .. t o 70 cm (28 i n ) t a l l and grayish-hairy foliage.....

) Nels. Flowers are s o l i t a r y a t the t i p s o f the stems. and most of the U. branched stems that are nearly 4-sided i n cross section. I s a t i s L. L. up t o 18 cm (7 i n ) long. open.S. 4-10 cm (2-4 i n ) long. have long p e t i o l e s and lance-shaped blades with shallowly toothed margins. & Macbr. east t o MT. 6-12 mn long. simple hairs. The linear f r u i t s are 2-5 cm long and 1-2 mn t h i c k and are held erect or nearly so. Dyer's Woad Dyer s Woad Dyer's woad i s a biennial or perennial with usually s o l i t a r y . I n Montana t h i s species i s known only from vernally moist. and succulent leaves are linear t o Lance-shaped and mostly sessile. Foliage i s covered with long. The stalked flowers occur on stems borne i n the a x i l s o f the upper leaves. The lance-shaped. The white petals are of 2 sizes. Idahoa scapisera (Hook. are somewhat constricted between the seeds and held nearly erect t o spreading. Erysimurt inconspicum (Wets.L. The clustered basal leaves have long petioles and egg-shaped blades. B. semi-woody. east t o central Can. while the upper leaves are smaller and sessile. Lower leaves have petioles. Flowers are . The leaves are 5-20 cm (2-8 i n ) long and lanceshaped with inconspicuous teeth on the margins. The alternate. t o OR. and U. Hesperis L. The flattened f r u i t s have net l i k e nerves on the face and are egg-shaped with winged margins and a deep notch a t the t i p i n which the persistent s t y l e i s borne. glabrous annual with slender leafless stems up t o 12 cm (5 i n ) t a l l that arch upward a t the base. waxy coating. WA t o CA. sessile o r petiolate. disturbed s o i l i n the valleys. fragrant garden plant that sometimes escapes and can be found i n moist. Flowers are borne i n a nearly flat-topped inflorescence that elongates as the plant matures.C.S. This European plant was formerly c u l t i v a t e d as a source o f blue dye. the outer larger than the i m e r . Scalepod Sca 1epod Scalepod i s a small. This introduced species has persisted f o r many years on the lower southwest slope of Mount Sentinel above the u n i v e r s i t y campus i n Missoula. o r p a r t i a l l y shaded habitats i n the f o o t h i l l s o f the Sapphire Range. Dame's v i o l e t i s a showy. wing-margined f r u i t s are 1218 mn long and are pendulous on reflexed stalks that are swollen where they connect the f r u i t . Dame's V i o l e t Dame's Violet. The b r i g h t yellow petals are 3-4 mn long. Le~idiun Pepper Grass Members of t h i s genus i n our area are annual or b i e m i a l herbs with simple or branched stems and simple o r 1-3 times pinnately divided. 5-15 mn long. I b e r i s L. I b e r i s amara -. I D and NV. Both the basal and stem leaves are 43 t o 8 cm (3 i n ) long and linear t o narrowly lance-shaped with smooth margins. Widespread i n temperate North America. & Macbr. MacM. purplish-rose t o occasionally white petals are 18-25 mn long. glabrous p e r e m i a l 4 t o 40 cm (16 i n ) t a l l with several . Native t o Europe and infrequent i n North America. The pale yellow petals are 7-10 mn long. The clustered basal leaves. The round f r u i t i s f l a t . dark green. The stalked flowers occur on the terminal portions of nunerous branches o f the inflorescence. Southern Can. Candytuft Candytuf t Candytuft i s a dwarf. Foliage i s sparsely covered with simple hairs. The The linear f r u i t s . greenish t o s l i g h t l y grayish herbage. Small Wal l f lower This species i s a b i e m i a l or perennial with simple or branched stems 4 t o 60 cm (24 i n ) t a l l and . Sweet Rocket This biennial o r p e r e m i a l plant has 1-several simple o r branched stems up t o or exceeding 1 m (40 in) t a l l . This introduced garden escape has persisted f o r several years above Warm Springs Creek i n the southern B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. Idahoa Nels. Hes~eris matronalis L. alternate and basal leaves. The sessile stem leaves are lance-shaped t o e l l i p t i c a l with small lobes a t the base that clasp the stein. branched stems t o about 1 m (40 i n ) t a l l that are glabrous with a thin. open s o i l on a south-facing slope a t the mouth o f Blodgett Canyon west o f Hamilton. I s a t i s t i n c t o r i a L. that are e n t i r e or with a p a i r o f lobes a t the base. evergreen. Small wallflower i s infrequent i n dry. and wing-margined. The white petals are about 2 mn long and f a l l quickly a f t e r blooming. Introduced from Eurasia.CRUCI FERAE 3.

D. lonchocarpa a.x. Draba oligosperma y. E. Aesperis matronalis e. pajsonii z. Erysimum inconspicuum d. cheiranthoides c. Erysimum asperum b. D. ldahoa scapigera f. lsatis tinctoria .

Widespread i n North America and Eurasia........... are narrowly lance-shaped and pinnately Lobed but are mostly withered by flowering time... about 3 mn long and narrowly margined with a small notch a t the t i p . pubescens (Greene) Hitchc.... 4-12 cm (2-5 i n ) long.2 . 5...(I) densif lorun L.. The yellowish petals are 1-2 mn long.. Branched Pepper Grass Branched pepper grass i s a biennial or occasionally an amual with profusely branched stems up t o 5 Q cm (20 i n ) t a l l with f i n e l y h a i r y foliage. 5-15 cm (2-6 i n ) long............ The f r u i t s t a l k s are longer than the glabrous t o sparsely h a i r y f r u i t s that are egg-shaped with an inconspicuous notch a t the tip..S.CRUCI FERAE borne on stalks on the upper p o r t i o n o f the stems........ Clasping Pepper Grass This i s an amual with branching steins up t o 40 cm (16 i n ) t a l l with herbage that i s sparsely h a i r y below and glabrous above............. They are flattened a t r i g h t angles t o the p a r t i t i o n that separates the 2 seed charrbers.. 4 L... The broadly e l l i p t i c a l f r u i t s . flowering stems i n the a x i l s of the upper leaves.... Comnon pepper grass i s an annual with branching stems up t o 50 cm (20 i n ) t a l l with f i n e l y h a i r y n herbage. Lepidiun p e r f o l i a t u n L......... 4 F r u i t s widest above the middle.. F i e l d Pepper Grass This species i s an annual with sinple or branched stems up t o 50 cm (20 i n ) t a l l with densely s o f t hairy... 1. and the sessile upper Leaves are spa&-shaped and entire-margined with the base completely surrounding the stem................ 2.......... p e r f o l i a t u n 1...... 4... 2. or greenish... stem leaves are broadly lance-shaped with minutely toothed margins and small lobes a t the base that clasp the stem.... Lepidiun camoestre (L......... comnon............... 3.... 2.. f i e l d pepper grass i s ~ncomnoni n dry......... yellow.... ramosissimum Comnon Pepper Grass L....... F r u i t s widest a t or below the middle..... widely d i s t r i b u t e d i n North America. The lower leaves.... Upper leaves are l i n e a r and entire-margined..... V i r g i n i a Pepper Grass A f r e e l y branched annual.......(3) L.. 1.. The upper stem leaves are smaller and lance-shaped t o linear with e n t i r e or toothed margins.... ......... The nunerous.. The white petals are 2-3 mn long.... The glabrous f r u i t s are oblong t o egg-shaped.... often heavy s o i l o f roadsides and disturbed grasslands i n the valleys and f o o t h i l l s .... The small petals are white...... 3 2) 3.( Stem leaves with bases that clasp the stem but are not wrapped a r d i t ..... open.. Br....... Lepidiun ramosissimm Nels.. 3-10 a (1-4 i n ) long................ Widespread i n most of the U... The loosely clustered basal leaves....... Widespread i n much of temperate North America.......... The loosely clustered basal leaves..... A l l o f our species are I1weedyu1 and occur mostly i n disturbed habitats.. 2-4 mn long... Lepidiun densi f lorun Schrad. grayish foliage....... open habitats throughout the valleys and f o o t h i l l s . A European introduction. 4.) R. F r u i t s are nearly r o d t o narrowly e l l i p t i c a l with a wing-margined and notched t i p ... The smaller stem leaves are narrowly lanceshaped o r nearly linear with e n t i r e or toothed margins.... The white petals are 1-3 mn Long... The glabrous or pubescent f r u i t s are 5-6 mn long and egg-shaped with narrow winged margins and a s l i g h t l y notched t i p ... sessile.... The whitish petals are up t o 1 mn long or lacking.... Our most comnon pepper grass occurs i n dry........ The inflorescence consists o f nunerous short flowering stems i n the a x i l s o f the upper leaves and a longer ... Basal leaves are p i m a t e l y divided with toothed lobes....... Base o f upper stem leaves clasping or wrapping around the stem. Our plants are var.. V i r g i n i a pepper grass i s 15-50 cm (6-20 i n ) t a l l with f o l i a g e that i s sparsely h a i r y towards the base and glabrous above.. This species has been collected near Missoula.. are broadly lance-shaped with deeply toothed or lobed margins. v i r s i n i c u n Petals 4 mn long or lacking .... disturbed soi 1 i n the valleys. 3. . These inflorescences are conpact a t f i r s t but elongate as the plant matures... Base of stem leaves not clasping or wrapping around the stem. Upper stem leaves with bases that wrap around the s t em. macrocarpun Mull....... are lance-shaped with mostly e n t i r e margins and long petioles......... Lepidiun v i r g i n i c u n L... c a m s t r e Petals 1-3 mn long .... The lower stem leaves are once p i m a t e l y lobed.. elongated. (5) L... A native of Europe........ rare ...... Our plants are var.. Clasping pepper grass i s comnon i n dry or vernally moist... longer than the sepals.. 4. The inflorescence consists of numerous.. Basal leaves are 2-3 times pinnately divided i n t o linear segments....... have a very shallow notch a t the apex and are shorter than t h e i r stalks.........

about 45 mn Long. are Linear t o narrowly lance-shaped with e n t i r e margins.. have broad petioles and egg-shaped o r rhombic blades with . The egg... notched a t the base o f the style.. 5-40 mn long.. Lesauerella alpina (Nutt. They are borne on S-shaped stalks. The inflated.. Alpine bladderpod forms small t u f t s with erect or ascending stems.. and w. Alta. Mary's Peak and St. prostrate or ascending stems. 1. have petioles and blades that are broadly e l l i p t i c a l with e n t i r e margins. Joseph Peak west of Stevensville.. The several stem leaves m are smaller and lance-shaped. taprooted perennials with usually prostrate stems and clustered basal leaves that have e n t i r e or toothed margins.. geyeri Geyerls Twinpod 1.... dry..(1) P... Physaria didvmocarua (Hook... didvmocarpa .. o f t e n on steep roadcuts such as above the upper M o m Creek Road and Nez Perce Pass i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains and along the Lower Swift Creek T r a i l i n the Sapphire Range..) Gray Twinpod Twinpods are tuft-forming. BLadderpod Members o f t h i s genus are low perennial (ours) herbs with short... The yellow petals are 5-11 mn long. Petals are yellow.. MT.. The clustered basal Leaves. This early-blooming species i s Locally comnon i n open.. 1. The few. The clustered basal Leaves.. 2-5 cm long...... F r u i t higher than wide. south t o N and NH. near or above t i n b e r l i ne. The densely clustered basal leaves.. are i n f l a t e d a t the base and compressed toward the top.. They are borne on s t r a i g h t o r s l i g h t l y curved stalks.. Fruits. N . star-shaped hairs. 3-6 c Long. and about as long as t h e i r stalks..) Wats. (1) L alpina . (2) L.. They are borne on spreading. are wing-margined.. and the stalked flowers are borne on the terminal p o r t i o n of the stem.. east t o Sask. B i t t e r r o o t bladderpod i s a Montana endemic known from open gravelly s o i l of exposed. See note urder Lesauerel la.. not a t a l l compressed F r u i t s conpressed a t r i g h t angles t o the p a r t i t i o n between the two Lobes . This species i s infrequent i n dry. The 3-5 flowers have yellowish sepals F r u i t s are wider than high. and NE... have a deep notch on the top and are compressed a t r i g h t angles t o the p a r t i t i o n between the seed c h a h r s . unbranched stems 10-20 cm (4-8 in) Long..... The foliage i s covered by star-shaped hairs. from a simple or branched root crown. shorter than the sepals... shallowly notched a t the tip.... Physaria (Nutt. M . 1. Lesauerella h u n i l i s R o l l i n s B i t t e r r o o t Bladderpod This i s a t u f t e d perennial with 1-several prostrate steins... Foliage appears s i l v e r y with a dense covering of closely appressed hairs........t o lance-shaped f r u i t s .. F r u i t s g r e a t l y inflated. 10-15 cm (4-6 i n ) long. Stems arch outward from the base. and shallowly and b r i g h t yellow petals 7-9 mn long..CRUCI FERAE terminal stem. 2-lobed f r u i t s are wider than high (ours) with a notch a t the top between the two Lobes... The e l l i p t i c a l f r u i t s . leaf bases. s l i g h t l y compressed. 2 P.. D This species was once collected near Missoula.. stalked flowers are borne a t the ends of stems that barely protrude above the basal leaves.. The 3-6 stem leaves are narrowly spoon-shaped.. Stem leaves are s i m i l a r but smaller... and simple. montane and be1ow. Pyremid Buttes. D 2.) Gray Geyerls twinpod has 1-several decunbent t o nearly prostrate. Lesauerel l a and Physaria are very simi tar and species o f one genus could be mistaken f o r a member o f the other. A 2.. Physaria geyeri (Hook. sandy or gravelly s o i l ... shallowly notched a t the apex.. 2-8 cm (1-3 i n ) long.. 2-17 cm (1-7 i n ) Long. Lesauerel l a Wats.) Gray Comnon Twinpod This tuft-forming perennial has nunerous. t o Alta. straight t o S-shaped stalks. The clustered basal leaves. unbranched stems. from a taproot and mostly branched root crown beset with o l d leaves a t the base.. F r u i t wider than high. alpine ridges I t has also been reported t o occur on near St. The nearly round t o oblong f r u i t s are compressed o r i n f l a t e d with a slender persistent s t y l e a t the apex.... 2-4 mn long. Man. The white petals are Less than 1 mn Long.. humilis Alpine Bladderpod 1.... from a simple root crown that i s covered with old.. have long petioles and egg-shaped blades.. The showy flowers have yellow petals that are longer than the sepals.. 5-7 mn long.. alternate and basal leaves that are covered with appressed. 1.. t o CO.. ID.. (Not illustrated).. 15-25 mn Long. pointed a t the tip. open s o i l i n the f o o t h i l l s of the Sapphire Range...

... The yellow petals are 15-20 mn long.... The white or purplish tinged petals are 3-4 mn long.... sinuata Stalks of mature f r u i t 3-13 mn long.... 6-20 cm (2-8 i n ) long.. The plant has several simple or branched stems up t o 40 cm (16 are nearly prostrate.. The lance-shaped leaves... Radish Jointed Charlock Jointed charlock i s a coarse annual or b i e m i a l with a weak taproot and simple or branched stems o f t e n over 1 m (40 i n ) t a l l .. C m n twinpod has been collected on a steep....1 Watercress has mostly glabrous foliage and creeping or f l o a t i n g stems up t o 80 c (32 i n ) long that m root a t the nodes........ open slope i n the f o o t h i l l s o f the Sapphire Range......Br... The Lower leaves...(4) R....S.... 1.... here............ 4.. ..... winged petioles. The glabrous f r u i t s ..... Yellowcress Species o f yellowcress are taprooted annuals or rhizomatous perennials with alternate.............. Rorippa Scop.. Rorippa nasturtiun-aquaticun (L....(1) R. The yellow petals are .. The stem leaves are smaller and lance-shaped with e n t i r e margins......... The l i n e a r f r u i t ...4 Petals white.. Watercress i s an excellent salad green. are simple and oval-shaped or p i m a t e l y divided with narrow l a t e r a l lobes and a broad terdinal segment. an occasional weed i n the P a c i f i c Northwest.. Spreading Yellowcress i n ) t a l l that arch long.... Watercress ( 3 R....... The yellow petals are 9-12 mn long.... usually shorter than the fruits.... Flowering s t e m are borne i n the a x i l s of becoming sessile. south t o I D and MY.....2 R............ 2. Charlock....CRUCI FERAE e n t i r e o r few-toothed margins.. This species has been collected i n disturbed s o i l i n the B i t t e r r o o t Valley east of Hamilton.......... dry... I& o f f i c i n a l e R........ aquatic habitats... The closely related R.. 1.. sativus i s the progenitor of the c u l t i v a t e d radish and has purplish flowers I t i s comnon west and south of our area and i s t o be expected and f r u i t s that are beaked only a t the t i p .. 3..... are i n 2 rows i n each charrber o f the f r u i t . . are egg-shaped t o broadly lanceshaped and deeply pinnately divided with a large terminal lobe. .... standing or moving water i n t h e v a l l e y s a n d montane zone...... s i w l e or pinnately divided leaves and foliage that i s glabrous or covered with unbranched hairs.. eventually Foliage i s sparsely covered with s t i f f hairs... The p e t i o l a t e leaves..... plants usually aquatic or semi-aquatic ... c u r v i s i liqua Group I.5 Stalks of mature f r u i t 1-5 mn long. i s constricted between the seeds and grooved along the length with a long beak a t both ends. ..) A..... 2.... 2......... has a deep notch between the two lobes............ plants o f moist habitats but not aquatic ..... 3-8 cm (1-3 i n ) toothed segments......... The upper leaves are smaller.. They are borne on s t r a i g h t or s l i g h t l y curved stalks... 5.......... islandica .... The g r e a t l y inflated. 10-25 mn Long and about 2 mn wide. ( R.. Members o f t h i s genus occur i n moist. 3... are pinnately while the upper are 4-5 mn long. This group contains rhizomatous perennials that root a t the nodes....... 3 Plants rhizomatous peremials Plants taprooted annuals or b i e m i a l s Beak of f r u i t 1 mn long or less..... F r u i t s narrowly e l l i p t i c a l (2-6 rrm long and 2-3 mn wide) ........ Introduced from Eurasia....(6) R.. 5....... petals 3-4 mn l ong.. petals 4-5 mn long. obtusa F r u i t s more linear (6-15 mn long and 1-2 mn long).. usually longer than the f r u i t s .... 4...... Seedlings often establish along large streams o r r i v e r s and flower i n l a t e s m r before being destroyed by i c e scour and spring flooding.. nasturtium-aquaticun Petals yellow. 2 ..... .... are s t r a i g h t or curved and borne on s t a l k s that spread outward from the stem..... Beak of f r u i t > I rrm.... Schinz & Thell....... the upper leaves. Widespread i n North America... This rhizomatous outward a t the base or divided i n t o e n t i r e or sessile with clasping Hitch....... .......... The seeds petals are yellow or white....... wet.. The louer leaves have short. 45-60 mn long and 3-6 m broad. Foliage i s mostly glabrous. 4-12 cm (2-5 i n ) long......... RaDhanus L... s y l v e s t r i s 1.... bases....................... or. The stalked The small flowers are borne on stalks a r i s i n g from the end o f the stem or a x i l s of the upper leaves...... fresh.. Rorippa sinuata (Nutt.. This European species i s comnon i n permanent....... WA t o Alta........... 2-lobed f r u i t .. 1-2 cm long...... F r u i t s are e l l i p t i c a l t o Linear and 3-sided t o s l i g h t l y compressed...... RaDhanus r a h a n i s t r u n L...........

L virginicum I. L ramosissimum k.g. L densiflorum i. P. Lepidium campestre h. L perfoliatum j. Lesquerella alpina m. Physaria geyeri n. Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum 217 . didymocarpa o.

Marsh Yellowcress 4. obtusa has pinnately divided lower leaves and stems with a t Least the terminal p o r t i o n ascending. The l i n e a r f r u i t s ..) Borbas t& p a l u s t r i s (L. Basal leaves are p i m a t e l y divided and usually withered by flowering time. The yellow flowers have petals 6-10 mn long and are borne on s t a l k s on the terminal p o r t i o n of the stems.) Besser Creeping Yellowcress Creeping yellowcress has erect stems up t o 50 cm (20 i n ) t a l l from slender.C. open soi 1 along the Clark Fork and B i t t e r r o o t r i v e r s and i n the lower slrbelpine zone o f the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. Flaxleaf plainsmustard has been collected on an island i n the Clark Fork River west o f Missoula. are broadly lance-shaped i n o u t l i n e and pinnately divided or deeply toothed. are toothed or pinnately divided i n t o shallowly toothed lobes. IL. mostly branching stems 25-70 un (10-28 i n ) t a l l . 6-15 mn long and 1-2 n wide. Var. a l k a l i n e s o i l i n the valleys and was once collected along the Clark Fork River near the u n i v e r s i t y cwpus i n Missoula. o f t e n near lakes or streams from the v a l l e y t o subalpine zones. B. lobed or toothed. This species i s l o c a l l y comnon i n moist or vernally inundated habitats. The p e t i o l a t e lower leaves. t o NV. lower leaves. up t o 17 cm ( 7 i n ) long. . B. petiolate. The yellow petals are 1-2 mn long. 25-50 mn long and about 1 mn wide. The narrowly e l l i p t i c a l f r u i t s are about 3-6 mn long and wider a t the base than the t i p . alpina (Wats. sharply toothed lobes.) B r i tt. I t i s uncomnon i n moist. 2-7 cm (1-3 i n ) long. The upper leaves become sessile with toothed or lobed margins. TX. Upper leaves are smaller and sessi l e with the base clasping the stem. I t i s as comnon as the former v a r i e t y and occurs i n the same habitats. a t Least the Lower p o r t i o n often Lying on the ground. are e l l i p t i c a l i n o u t l i n e and p i m a t e l y divided with a terminal lobe larger than the laterals. and clasping a t the base.CRUCI FERAE glabrws. Var. are h e l d nearly erect. Rorippa s y l v e s t r i s (L. hispida (Desv. The foliage i s glabrous or hairy. are s t r a i g h t with a short beak and are held a t spreading o r ascending angles t o the stem.) B r i t t . east t o Sask. 2-6 cm long.) Greene Flaxleaf Plainsrmstard This i s a profusely branched. 6. and AZ. Upper leaves are smaller. t o C I east t o M I . A Schoenocrambe Greene Plainsmustard Schoenocrambe L i n i f o l i a (Nutt. m). The l i n e a r or narrowly lance-shaped stem leaves are 2-9 cm (1-4 i n ) long. The linear f r u i t s . Var. about as Long as t h e i r stalks. branched rhizomes. B.C. Rorima c u r v i s i l i s u a (Hook. sessile. The yellow petals are 3-4 mn long. Rorima obtusa' (Nutt.) Butters & Abbe has f o l i a g e with s t i f f hairs. 5. perennial herb with stems up t o 50 cm (20 i n ) t a l l from long creeping rhizomes and branched root stocks. The pale yellow petals are 1-2 mn long. Spreading yellowcress i s l o c a l l y comnon i n moist or wet. The species i n t h i s group are taprooted m a l s and biennials. 8-10 mn -long and 1-2 mn wide. I t was once collected a t Lake C a m southwest of Hami l t o n where the two v a r i e t i e s seem t o intergrade. Grow 11. are s l i g h t l y curved and nearly 3-sided with a prominent beak (style) a t the t i p . Herbage i s glabrous above but h a i r y below. glabrata ( L u m e l l ) Butters & Abbe with glabrous foliage i s comnon i n open s o i l along r i v e r s and streams but also can be found i n grassy. are curved with a short beak a t the t i p . and TX. The p e t i o l a t e Leaves are 4-10 cm (2-4 i n ) long and p i m a t e l y divided i n t o narrow. that spread outward from the base. The inflorescence consists of numerous flowering stems i n the leaf axils. Var. east t o MT and NM. They are longer than the stalks that bear them.C.) Besser] The This i s an amual o r b i e m i a l with erect. The Linear f r u i t s . east t o MT and CO.) Bessey Western Yellowcress Western yellowcress i s a glabrous t o s l i g h t l y h a i r y amual o r b i e m i a l with stems 10-30 cm (4-12 i n ) t a l l that are simple or branched above. lower Leaves. The yellow petals are about 2 mn long. curvipes Greenel Blunt-leaved Watercress This i s a glabrous annual or winter annual with branching stems. Circumboreal south through most o f temperate North America. Herbage i s glabrous and often covered with a t h i n waxy coating.. North America and sporadic i n the west. moist o r wet meadows i n the v a l l e y and montane zones. This Eurasian introduction has recently become established along the Clark Fork River from Missoula west t o Grass Valley. i s a smaller plant with prostrate stems and Lobed o r toothed lower Leaves. The petiolate. UA t o CA. t o Baja Cal. Rorima islandica (Oed. Comnon i n e. 15-30 cm (6-12 i n ) long. linear f r u i t s . 3. The oblong or narrowly e l l i p t i c a l f r u i t s are 3-8 mn long. 5-12 mn long.

Rorippa obtusa q. R. R. Raphanus raphanistrum u. curvisiliqua . islandica t. R. sylvestris s. Rorippa sinuata r.p.

.... I t also occurs i n disturbed s o i l of f i e l d s and grasslands i n the valleys.. tapered a t both ends. o f t e n with a purplish tinge. The stalked flowers are borne on the bractless. Plants i n shady s i t e s where snow l i e s l a t e produce lax stems and elongated leaves and bloom l a t e r or not a t a l l .... 1. This a r c t i c .... The basal leaves. winged margin and a deep notch a t the top with the minute s t y l e a t the base.. Fanweed Members o f t h i s genus are glabrous... The p e t i o l a t e leaves are p i m a t e l y divided with numerous toothed o r e n t i r e l a t e r a l lobes t h a t are narrowly lance-shaped (below) t o linear with a small. usually 4 0 mn t a l l . The stalked flowers are borne on the bractless......... The large. They have short p e t i o l e s near the base but become sessile above. triangular terminal Lobe and toothed. Pennycress. that are h a i r y toward the base and mostly glabrous above. Flowers are yellow.. 1-10 c long. 1.. Plants annual weeds..a l p i n e plant i s comnon i n stony.. i n our area i t i s more comnon than S. f r u i t s held nearly erect.. occurs i n disturbed s o i l of f i e l d s and grasslands i n the valleys.. The linear t o awl-shaped f r u i t s are straight o r s l i g h t l y curved...(2) S. t u f t e d or mat-forming p e r e m i a l with stems up t o 15 cm (6 i n ) t a l l from m semi-woody. Jim H i l l Mustard Jim H i 11 rmstard has erect. are c y l i n d r i c a l . Petals are white. It Tunblemustard i s a conspicuous roadside weed. sometimes more than 1 m (40 i n ) t a l l . branched stems. Sisynhriun altissimun L. The glabrous f r u i t s . s t r a i g h t or s l i g h t l y curved f r u i t s . The yellow petals are 6-8 mn long. Asia. S i s w b r i u n l o e s e l i i L. f r e e l y branched stems up t o 150 cm (60 i n ) t a l l that are h a i r y a t the base and glabrous above. l o e s e l i i F r u i t s t a l k s nearly as t h i c k as the f r u i t .. open habitats. The sweet-scented flowers are borne i n headlike clusters that elongate as the plant matures. The flattened f r u i t s are egg-shaped t o narrowly e l l i p t i c a l with a notch a t the top and broad or narrow winged margins. lance-shaped l a t e r a l lobes that curve backward.... much thinner than the f r u i t .. The spreading f r u i t s .. pemy-shaped f r u i t s are d i s t i n c t i v e .. Widespread i n North America. Th 1aspi L . terminal p o r t i o n o f the stems. pointed lobe a t the base..... Tunblemustard This species has erect.. 20-35 mn long. a l t i s s i m m stem .... have a broad bases. This species i s a conspicuous roadside weed i n our area.. They wither as the plant matures.. Smelowskia Meyer Smelowskia calvcina (Steph.... Widespread i n w. and a weak taproot. Th laspi arvense L. 2-6 cm (1-2 i n ) long. The sessile stem leaves are reduced upward. f r u i t with narrow winged margin.. open s o i l o f windswept ridges and sumnits near o r above timberline i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. m They are about as broad as the stout s t a l k s that bear them.(1) T. terminal p o r t i o n of the stems.. 2. Alpine smelowskia flowers i n May or June i n dry.. . arvense ...... f r u i t broadly wing-margined.. are round i n cross section and borne on stalks that are noticeably narrower.. and held nearly erect. branched root crowns that are covered by o l d leaf bases..... North America and e.. Meyer Smelowskia Alpine Smelowskia Alpine smelowskia i s a dwarf..CRUCI FERAE Tunblemustards are annual or biennial herbs with densely h a i r y t o glabrous herbage and deeply lobed or p i m a t e l y divided leaves.. are pinnately divided with narrow lobes.. f r u i t s held a t a spreading angle t o the 1 S. Fanweed 1.. are s l i g h t l y 4-angled.......... 5-11 mn long and 1-3 mn wide. altissimun..... Pennycress i s an amual herb with simple or branched stems. Stalks of mature f r u i t slender. 10-17 mn Long... 10-50 cm (4-20 i n ) t a l l .. The petals are 3-4 mn long.. 1.. The yellow petals are 6-8 mn long... 1. Widespread i n North America. .. amual o r p e r e m i a l herbs with leaves that have e n t i r e o r toothed margins.. (2) T. have a short p e t i o l e and are broadly lance-shaped with wavy margins. Petals are 4-8 mn long and white.. Our two species are widespread Eurasian weeds... This introduced species i s most c m i n c u l t i v a t e d or formerly c u l t i v a t e d s o i l s but also occurs along roads and i n other disturbed habitats i n the valleys.. 5-10 c (2-4 i n ) long. 1.. The nearly erect... >10 mn high Plants native perennials. The p e t i o l a t e basal leaves. The stem leaves become smaller and sessile with clasping The nearly round t o egg-shaped f r u i t s . Widespread i n temperate North America...... The stem leaves have small lobes a t the base that clasp the stem. The p i m a t e l y divided leaves have a large..... fendleri Pemycress ....... The herbage i s grayish with a dense covering o f sinple and branched hairs.

has nunerous stem leaves and i s usually a t least 10 a (4 i n ) t a l l . and subtended by conspicuous bracts. F r u i t s are pea-sized black berries. Foliage i s glabrous and often has a t h i n The petals are 4-6 mn Long. Dodder. This species was collected i n Missoulals Greenough Park. petiolate. twining peremials with slender. glabrous stems colored pink. have been i d e n t i f i e d from western Montana beyond the bounds of our area. Love Tangle Dodders are Leafless. and C. montanun L. Var. So uncomnon i s dodder i n our area that only a single l a t e season (non-identifiable) c o l l e c t i o n from Centaurea maculosa has been taken. from N. CUSWTACEAE Dodder Family Cuscuta L. 4-10 mn long. carrotlike. p r i c k l y f r u i t s . idahoense (Pays. B. but never green. o r yellowish. grooved stems. (Not i l l u s t r a t e d ) .B. I t n i s a l o c a l l y cannon spring flower i n v a l l e y grasslands and also occurs near timberline i n the southern B i t t e r r o o t Mountains.) Hitchc. both sexes on a plant. and the c o r o l l a i s i r r e g u l a r l y 4-Lobed. woody taproot. broadest a t the top and tapered t o the base. east t o Alta. each parasitizes a d i f f e r e n t flowering plant host. whitish. glaucun (Nels. The opposite Leaves are The perfect flowers are borne sessile i n dense clusters. the lobes triangular-shaped and acute. The top i s f l a t o r shallowly notched with a slender. Balsam Apple. globose i n o u t l i n e e n t i r e or pinnately divided. o f supporting the only known population of t h i s Eurasian cucurbit. Flattened seeds are procluced i n d r y o r fleshy f r u i t s . and AZ. F r u i t s are achenes (seeds with a t h i n covering). persistent style. The alternate Leaves are palmately 5-lobed. This curcubit o f moist bottomlands i s widely d i s t r i b u t e d across North America. (Not i l l u s t r a t e d ) . 15-40 mn long. and NM. or the sexes borne on separate plants. W il d Mock Cucunber Wild mock cucunber i s a high-climbing vine with angular. i s smaller (less than 10 an) with fewer (about 1-5). t o FL and west t o Sask. MT. The calyx i s cup-shaped. Echinocystis T. DIPSACACEAE Teasel Fami l y The teasel family includes perennial and biennial herbs with stout stems. stem Leaves. have lance-shaped or narrowly e l l i p t i c a l blades with e n t i r e or weakly toothed margins. ID. & G. .) Hitchc.C. t o CA. As a consequence species can be i d e n t i f i e d only with a microscope o r hand lens. Wild Cucmber Echinocystis lobata (Michx. are narrowly waxy coating. The small flowers with greenish-white corollas develop i n t o egg-shaped. e~ithvmumMurr. The s l i g h t l y wing-margined f r u i t s . The small. Var. O f the several species occurring i n Montana. The coarsely serrate leaves have 5 i r r e g u l a r lobes that taper t o a point. basal leaves.) T. triangular. simple o r sparingly branched sterns up t o 20 cm (8 i n ) t a l l from a sinple or branched root crown. However. The clustered. The two v a r i e t i e s appear t o intergrade i n our area. CUCURBITACEAE Cucmber o r Gourd Family The t r a i l i n g or climbing vines of the Cucunber Family include perennial and amual L i f e forms that bear unisexual flowers.CUCURB I TACEAE 2. Cuscuta approximata Bab. Both the leaves ( t i n y scales) and pink t o white flowers are h i g h l y reduced. a t least i n the Northwest. Thlasrsi fendleri Gray C .1 T W i l d Candytuf t Wild candytuft forms Loose t u f t s or mats with few t o several. Bryoni a Bryonia i s a p e r e m i a l climbing vine with a thick. & G. leathery. Bryonia alba L. The several stem leaves are sessile with bases that clasp the stein. yellowish-green flowers are borne i n narrow inflorescences a r i s i n g from the leaf axils. I t has been found on Mount Jerusalem and Watchtower Peak southwest of Darby i n the B i t t e r r o o t Momtains. The east Rattlesnake Creek area north of Missoula has the d i s t i n c t i o n ..

Thlaspi fendleri b. Echinocjstis lobata x.v. loeselii y. Thlaspi arvense 222 . S. Smelowskia calycina z. Sisymbrium altissimum a. Schoenocrambe linifolia w.

.. DROSERACEAE Sundew Family Drosera L...C. 2. i n HT... south i n North America t o C .. stalked glands that t r a p and digest small insects.. up t o 2 m (6 f t ) t a l l . other stem Leaves gradually becane more pinnately dissected above. joined a t t h e i r bases around the stem and d i s t i n c t l y p r i c k l y on the lower surface o f the midrib..) Coult. F r u i t s are egg-shaped.. The huge egg-shaped heads that terminate the stem are armed with nunerous. This p e r e m i a l has stems y t o 1 m (39 in) t a l l from a branching caudex and taproot. r o t u n d i f o l i a D.. .. Leaves heldupuard.. The petioles 2-5 cm (1-2 i n ) long....DROSERACEAE Dipsacus L. 1...(L... that i s increasingly p r i c k l y upward.. Drosera r o t u n d i f o l i a L.. Knautia arvensis -..... IL. teasel has a coarse and several-angled. Lance-shaped stem leaves are sessile. stem.... nonrhizomatous small t r e e (large shrub) t o 8 m (25 f t ) t a l l .. Great Sundew E l o n g i f o l i a L.. Can.... Surdew These are perennials with basal rosettes of leaves covered with viscid. Unarmed.. 1.. IL... leaves are usually j u s t toothed. Teasel Dipsacus s y l v e s t r i s Huds. Knaut ia The lowermost ... but especially Russian olive..2 .. sharp-pointed bracts..(1) E.. 1ilac-purple. A ELAEAGNACEAE Oleaster Family Elaeagnus L. Circunboreal. ID... and a few places Job Corps Center v i c i n i t y ) .. 1. hemispheric heads terminate the stem. and e. 1-4 m t a l l Armed... Both our species.. t h i s showy plant i s established i n B... Each flower has 5 petals and sepals that are separate t o the base or nearly so.. The 3-10 flowers are borne on a stem that i s white or pinkish petals are 5-10 mn Long.. The opposite... naked stem. This species has been known f o r 50 years along the West Fork B i t t e r r o o t River highway (Trapper Creek European i n origin.......... anglica 1..... south i n North America t o CA. Both Drosera species occur i n our area only i n association with Shagnun moss.. The ovary i s superior or s l i g h t l y i n f e r i o r . Snowy. widest near the t i p ..... E...... Few t o several short-stalked flowers are borne on 1 side a t the end o f an erect.... i t now occurs throughout North America. Great sundew i s known from a small bog near Lost T r a i l Pass. D.... and also silvery-gray. The lance-shaped basal leaves d r y and drop e a r l y i n the second surmer.1 L This species has erect o r ascending leaves with narrowly lance-shaped blades....... Silverberry These are shrubs o r trees bearing alternate and s i lvery-gray Leaves and bisexual flowers..(2) 1 D. Roundleaf Sundew Roundleaf sundew has spreading leaves with a round blade that i s about 1 cm i n diameter and stout t o 15 cm (6 i n ) Long. comnutata angustifolia ...... Drosera anglica Huds. fullonun L. the blades as broad as Long. There are 420 stamens and 3-5 deeply divided styles...... r o t u n d i f o l i a i s known from Mary's Frog Pond west of Lolo i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains and a t shoo-fly Meadows i n the Rattlesnake Mountains.. and FL. Huge quantities come i n t o the trade from 'Isouth of Hamiltonl1 and i t i s known from roadsides northeast o f Missoula... Small. Knautia L.. ID. and the f r u i t i s a d r y capsule with m r o u s seeds. strongly rhizomatous shrub. Plants occur mostly on disturbed s o i l s with appreciable water holding capacity.. that taper t o petioles that are 2-8 cm long.... Native t o Europe. 1. bluish-purple flowers gradually open from the base upward... are used h o r t i c u l t u r a l l y . C i r c h r e a l .1 Tease 1 Stoutly taprooted. ID. 1-3 cm long. The 2-7 flowers are borne on the naked stem that i s up t o 18 cm ( 7 i n ) t a l l . The lower 1/3 of the calyx Lobes are united. The mature plants are much sought a f t e r f o r d r y flower arrangements. the blades2-several timesas long as broad Leaves spreading.....

.....C. I t quickly reestablishes following f i r e . and unarmed shrub about 1-4 m (3-16 f t ) t a l l .2 . mealy berries about 1 a long. Sporadically occurring south from B. Pollen i s shed from terminal anther pores. The berries are b i t t e r and though not palatable t o man are sought a f t e r by w i l d l i f e ... not known from U or I D and i n MT found c h i e f l y east o f Rocky Mountains.. Elaeagnus comrutata L........ Elaeagnus a n s u s t i f o l i a L.. Shecherdia argentea (Pursh) Nutt. Buffaloberry. Si lverberry Russian o l i v e i s a small tree. Silverberry i s adapted t o d r y s o i l s but i n northwestern Montana i s associated with r i p a r i a n s i t u a t i o n s which may be seasonally d r y and gravelly.......... arsentea .. 2.. They are evergreen and deciduous species and saprophytic plants lacking green parts with leaves reduced t o bracts.......... i s yellow t o red. 4-6 mn long and e l l i p t i c a l i n outline. yellowish t o b r i g h t red berries.. Narrowly oblong t o lance-shaped leaves have scalelike p a r t i c l e s on both sides...... Old records indicate a population on lower Skalkaho Creek near Hani 1ton.... F r u i t i s a berry or d r y capsule.t o vase... t o s............ C and east t o MN and A -central Can..... lance-shaped t o oblong....... though conspicuous.. Russian 01 ive f t ) t a l l . SheDherdia Nutt.. 1. were themselves repeatedly next t o e x i s t i n g plantings 2.. ... The urn.5 Flowers lacking corolla....... introduced t o produce e f f e c t i v e windbreaks...... Shepherdia canadensis (L. Thorny Buffaloberry.... 2......... however. and shrubs........ The f r u i t .. with spine-tipped branches and narrow.. The s i l v e r y leaf blades are 2-7 an long.................... ....... brown-scaly below. 3... 3....... Soapberry i s an unarmed.... F r u i t s are fleshy.. branches unarmed. They seed and have the a b i l i t y t o e x i s t wholly on t h e i r own.. This i s a very comnon shrub i n forested envirorments. .. 3 Corol l a urn-shaped and mature stem red....... leaves reduced t o scales or bracts Plants having green parts and leaves not reduced t o scales or bracts... The edible berries were used by Native Americans. soapberry i s an important surmer component of bear diets......... strongly rhizomatous.. semi-shrubs.... 4 Fleshy plants lacking green parts.. ..... I n our area t h i s r i p a r i a n species i s rare....... The single s t y l e i s s t r a i g h t or curved with a globular or lobed t i p .......... and covered with s c a l e l i k e particles.. Soapberry These are opposite-leaved shrubs or small trees bearing female and male flowers on separate plants. 2............... Leaves are simple with e n t i r e or toothed margins.. Ranging from A south t o O and east through the Rocky Mountain states t o K R the A t l a n t i c Coast... branches often spine-tipped Leaves green above.. Silverberry i s an erect....Pterospora Corolla not urn-shaped and lacking red stem.... Asian i n origin. Sepals are united t o varying degrees. 1-3 rn (3-9 f t ) t a l l spreading shrub that appears brownish-green due t o the star-shaped h a i r s on the foliage..... The nunber of stamens i s that o f or double the mrnber of c o r o l l a lobes..... I t i s known t o occur n a t u r a l l y i n the Blackfoot River Valley about 28 km (17 m i ) east of Missoula and i m t u r e plants were noted on two islands i n the Clark Fork River near Missoula..( r a r e l y furnelor unbrella-) shaped corollas range i n color from white t o yellow and greenish-yellow t o red...(1 ) 2. The paired leaves have a b r i g h t green upper surface and paler lower surface with minute..... Flowers are arranged s i n g l y o r paired i n the leaf a x i l s or terminally i n few-f lowered clusters...... Rabbitberry Buffaloberry i s a large shrub t o small tree with s i l v e r y young twigs covered with minute..... ... Soapberry 1. These populations apparently & not occur as extensive colonies t y p i c a l of the species.) Nutt.... 1... brown scales..... and 2 plants were fouml on islands i n the Clark Fork River near Missoula.. and long axis of stem s t r i p e d pink and white ...... especially montane t o subalpine lodgepole pine forests............. F r u i t s n are dry. (2) S. The inconspicuous yellow-green flowers mature t o b r i g h t fleshy red (or yellow) 1-seeded berries. 1. linear or that appear silvery... Flowers clustered on short branches o f t e n blossom p r i o r t o leaf expansion.... canadensis Canada or B i t t e r Buffaloberry........... scalelike p a r t i c l e s and older branches that are brown and often spine-tipped.... There are 4-5 sepals and petals. Uhen huckleberry production i s down... l l o t r o ~ a A Flowers with c o r o l l a and stem not pink or white s t r i p e d ......E ICACEAE R 1... 1... Leaves s i l v e r y on both surfaces.. A ERICACEAE Heath Fami l y Members of the Heath Fami l y include perennial herbs... t o 8 m (25 oblong lance-shaped leaves and juvenile branches Russian olives.

S. Shepherdia argentea j. anglica h. Drosera rotundifolia f. Elaeagnus angustifolia 225 . Elaeagnus commutata i.c. canadensis g. Knautia arvensis e. Dipsacus sylvestris d. D.

....................... The whitish leaves taper gradually t o a point that curves outward................................................. 8..................... Leaves alternate Perianth parts i n fours........ Their seasonal regrowth i s no more predictable than that of mushrooms............ leaves with yellowish resinous glands beneath............... ......5 f t ) high........ but may possess one o r more o f the characters................. a l l collections have been above 2100 m (7... 13. Indian Pipe Monotropa u n i f l o r a L.......................... ex.. 11....... petals drying t o brown........... leafy beyond base with some occurring i n whorls.................M o n o t r w ... 7... 10. When picked and dried. Flowers are borne i n the a x i l s o f upper leaves............ 6 Evergreen shrubs of various sizes........... 5...........Arctostaphylos Leaves opposite (some may be alternate or whorled).............Ledun Petals united.... . i t fades t o a d u l l black.... leaves not as above..... As saprophytes they grow i n association with mycelia of c e r t a i n fungi on decaying plant parts. i n our area where i t i s rare...... white o r brownish sepals......... 6. the spikelike raceme i s s t i 11 c o l o r f u l due t o pink................. crowded on stem......... 11 Leaves scale-like....................10 ... Indian Pipe They Indian pipe has a cluster o f waxy-white stems......... 7...Gaultheria Leaves deciduous.. sessile.................................... & G...... ........... 4....Menziesia Saprophytic Species (Monotropaceae) A l l species have unbranched stems........... anthers with 2 spurs ........ and east slope o f the Cascades south t o the Sierra Nevada and coastal ranges of CA.... Candystick Allotropa virgata T.. Gray Candyst ick The white and pink s t r i p e d stem up t o 40 cm (16 i n ) t a l l renders candystick a d i s t i n c t i v e plant i n the wild............. Monotrwa L........14 t Plants prostrate or creeping shrubs Less than 30 cm (1 f t ) high ............... Perianth parts i n fives..... Though elsewhere i n i t s range t h i s species occurs i n lower elevation coniferous forest............... 12 Flowers i n a x i l l a r y or other clusters .......................... 14 ........ ..... H m p i t y s H i l l ..HYDOD~ tys Perennial evergreen o r semi-evergreen forbs and dwarf subshrubs (woody only near base) ... 10..................... 8 Flowers s o l i t a r y and terminal... & G. 5-25 cm (2-10 i n ) t a l l ............................. Plants uoody a t base.000 f t ) i n the w r subalpine zone.. usually associated with subalpine stands o f lodgepole pine..C............. .......... ...... larger and having short petioles ................... 13 Leaves evergreen.. c o r o l l a 6-9 mn long..... c o r o l l a 10-22 mn long ........Rhododendron ... Pinesap i s urcomnon i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mtns.ERICACEAE 4......................9 8. anthers without horns....... Pinesap H m i t ~ monotrow Crantz s P i nesap This saprophyte i s straw-colored t o pale pink and 10-25 cm (4-10 i n ) t a l l ............................. ALlotrma T.......... 14........... petals drying t o black color Flowers mu1t i p l e i n racemes...... Ranges from B.......................Chimaphi l a Petals not united................ appressed................. Kalmia Flower single i n leaf a x i l e ... 12..... 6............ Vacciniwn Plants ~ p r i g h shrubs....... petals urn-shaped...................... . ......... 9.......... 5. I t has a c i r c u n h r e a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and i s usually found i n hunus r i c h soils. 9......... The inflorescence i s curved while i n flower but becomes s t r a i g h t a t maturity........ ........... mature specimens a t least 50 cm (1.. 7 Pyrola Plants herbaceous.. Leaves nunerous..... that blacken with age................... scalelike leaves and are not green (lacking chlorophyll)......... 13................ overlapping end covering brachlets................................. are capped by single nodding flowers that mature t o an erect capsules.. Cassiope Leaves fewer.... petals not urn-shaped............... .. strap-shaped (smaller than 2 x 10 mn) with margins r o l l e d under Phylldwe Leaves lacking the complex of above-cited characters.. 11.. leaves a t or near base and not whorled ..... . Though lacking a corolla... 12.

glabrous leaves are whorled. Northern Mountain Heather I n gross appearance and habitat.. Bearberry i s comnon i n open areas with dry o r well-drained soils. The delicate. making them the t a l l e s t of our saprophytes. be1 l-shaped corollas are set o f f by reddish sepals.t o lance-shaped...... This lone meher o f the genus i s confined t o North America.. Prince's Pine These are short. hence our best known. s p e c i f i c a l l y Lolo. i n our area usually ponderosa pine...... Sweeny.. Don. . Western white heather occurs throughout the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains a t the highest reaches o f open subalpine forests and moist alpine meadows.a l p i n e species occurs on the northerrmost sumnits of the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains.. I t occurs with the other heathers t o form a dark green carpet i n old-growth a l p i n e larch stands..) D..) G.. flavorless... each drooping from the a x i l o f a linear bract... This i s a mat-forming shrub 5-30 cm (2-12 i n ) high.. and b r i g h t red berries often persist through the winter... white. Joseph's (most extensive population) and St. evergreen semi-shrubs (only the base woody) o r i g i n a t i n g from long. Spreng.. creeping and evergreen shrubs o f high mountain envirorments. Bearberry forms mats 5-20 cm (2-8 i n ) t a l l . K Non-Saprophyti c Species Arctostaphylos (L. V Ranging from A south t o CA and N and east t o MT and the Canadian Rockies..2 C... Flowers with 5 rootstocks with sinple t o branched stems. tetragona . This i s the most arresting o f the f i v e heathers native t o Montana..u r s i (L.. Pterosmra andromeda Nutt. somewhat leathery leaves are spoon. S t .. Phyllodoce glandulifera above i n the more wind and sun exposed envirorments..... I n our area i t i s most o f t e n found i n ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir forests. s c a l e ... ruptured capsules attached... Leaves prominently grooved on the back and short-hairy with f r i n g e o f margins Leavesnotgroovedbut k e e l e d o n b a c k a n d h a i r l e s s o r w i t h o n l y a h a i r y m a r g i n .. persistent sepals and petals are pendent on short terminal stalks.l i k e leaves and white. have small. Though i n i t i a l l y fleshy. Mary's Peaks... Don. Don.... Pinedrops P i nedrops Indian pipe grows on t Pinedrops has brounish-red.) Arctostaph~losw a . These colonies may be the southerrmost o u t l i e r s of the species.. This circunboreal a r c t i c . t h i c k hums i n deep shade o f coniferous forests. The mealy.. stems dry and remain standing a year o r more with globose. northern mountain heather i s much l i k e white heather.. I n a zonation o f heather comnunities i t dominates the mid-zone. Chimaphila Pursh. nodding and terminal clusters.. Cassiope D. Flowers are urn-shaped and arranged i n few-flowered. Moss.... The alternate. I t i s associated with Pinedrops i s our most comnon and robust saprophyte. A l l colonies are found i n the alpine on north.. CA and east t o the A t l a n t i c Coast. 4-ranked. Uhite or Mountain Heather They Mountain heathers are low-growing. reddish t o brown stems that root at the nodes..and east-facing slopes.. I n other areas t h i s c i r c h r e a l shrub i s a conponent o f the alpine flora.... There are as many as 60 pale yellow flowers. Cassiope tetragona (L.E I R CACEAE A circmtmreal species that i s r a r e i n our area (one sighting near Hamilton)... but the scalelike leaves of northern mountain heather are grooved the f u l l length o f the lower surface.. coniferous forest. Cassiope mertensiana (Bong...( 1 ) L m e r t e n s i a n a Western Uhite Heather longer h a i r s on the 1. bell-shaped flowers... and dense enough t o obscure the stem. densely branched with t r a i l i n g . K 2. 1. The scalelike sessile leaves are grooved a t the very base.f lowered Phyl lodoce empetriformis below and the yellow heath.. Pipsissewa.... Manzanita Bearberry...... ranging from A t o s.... Kinni k i m i c k This plant i s a low shrub. becoming rare near timberline. creeping The leathery... the p i n k . Pterosmra Nutt. s t i c k y stems ~p o 1 m (3 f t ) t a l l ... Spreng. 1...

. The e l 1iptical-oblong t o egg-shaped. Our v a r i e t y i s glandulosun..) Prince's Pine..E I R CACEAE 1. red stalks... They mature t o scarlet berries about 5 mn i n diameter. False Azalea Fool's huckleberry i s an erect t o spreading. There are 1-3 stalked. Alternate leaves are crowded on stem t i p s giving a whorled ..L m e n z i e s i i 1 C.t o upper subalpine zones.. that spreads by m short rhizomes and layering.) Heller Laurel Alpine o r Mountain Laurel Alpine laurel i s a much-branched. I n the Cascades ranging south from B.) Rydb. C. L i t t l e Prince's Pine Where they co-occur.. up t o 60 cm (24 i n ) t a l l . u k l l a t a .8 m (6 f t ) t a l l on favorable sites. flowering s t a l k s 5-10 cm l on. Ranging from B. and A central ID. From A south i n the K Y O Cascades t o C east t o Rocky Mountains and south from Alta. Ledun -glandulosun Nutt.. They are green above and grayish beneath... Wintergreen... Several deep rose-colored... A l l plant parts smell of turpentine when crushed. Labrador Tea Glandular-leaved Labrador Tea.... Gaultheria hunifusa (Grah. Flowers 1-3.. 1. f l o w e r i n g s t a l k s 2 ..... C and east i n Rocky Mountains from A1ta.C. lance-shaped t o e l l i p t i c a l leaves o f t e n have i n r o l l e d margins and are shiny dark green above and grayish beneath due t o dense. wet t o moist subalpine envirommts...( Flowers 5-15... f i n e hairs. glossy green leaves that are widest a t or s l i g h t l y below the middle.... a c i d i c substrates such as mountain lake margins and moss-dominated (especially Sphagnun) cormuni ties. Pipsissiwa Pipsissewa i s t a l l e r ( t o 30 cm. menziesii i s generally d i s t i n c t l y smaller. The leathery... dwarf.... 2. acidic soils. whorled leaves are inversely lance-shaped o r egg-shaped with sharply toothed margins. ranging from B. with serrate t o entire...) Spreng. with short. evergreen shrub. The e n t i r e t o minutely toothed leaves are broadly egg-shaped t o e l l i p t i c a l .. This c i r c h r e a l species i s comnon i n our coniferous forests with the exception o f the dry.......... shallowly 5-lobed flowers are arranged a t the end of upright. bowl-shaped.. alternate leaves are clustered near stem t i p s t o give a whorled effect..C. swol len bases.. 5-15 cm (2-6 in)... C and east t o ID and MT. n.C. o f t e n along creeks.... A Ledun -L.. t o n. f o o t h i l l ponderosa pine stands and the Lpper subalpine zone. Br. and lower leaf surfaces.5 c m l o n g g. Chimahila menziesii (R. Alpine laurel i s found from montane t o upper subalpine zones associated with wet... pink flowers borne i n an mbranched inflorescence. Chimaphila h l l a t a (L... .. dwarf evergreen shrub (scarcely 3 c high) whose creeping stems form small mats. south on the east side o f Cascades t o M . deciduous shrub with shredding grey-brown bark. dark. evergreen shrub.... 12 i n ) and a more robust sub-shrub than L menziesii... white t o pinkish and bell-shaped flowers are borne s i n g l y i n the leaf a x i l s . Trapper Tea Labrador tea i s a mid-sized. F r u i t s are hard.. up t o 20 c (8 i n ) t a l l . somewhat r o d and deeply lobed capsules. t o CO.... UY. and east i n the Rocky Mountains t o MT. I n the alpine zone i t i s found on boulderfields. A Gaul theria L.. and more d e l i c a t e than C. t o U and C .. Uhite flowers are arrayed i n rounded clusters a t stem tips. south t o s. Flowers are deep pink t o rose with stamen stalks bearing h a i r s only on the margins of the swollen base. petioles.. I n the mid.. Anther stalks have hai ry. growing t o 1. unbellata 1.. Menziesia Smith Menziesia ferruginea Smith Menziesia Menziesia.. f i n e h a i r s and glands on young branches. Salal Alpine or Matted Wintergreen m Alpine wintergreen i s a delicate. t h i s species occurs on permanently moist t o wet... The small ( t o 4 n long).. L i t t l e prince's pine i s scattered i n forests throughout the subalpine zone i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains.. I n our area t h i s species i s found most frequently i n mossy. From A south t o C and east t o the Rocky Mountains of K A CO and t o the A t l a n t i c Coast... The opposite. Kalmia -microphylla (Hook. Bart. A Kalmia L. Fool's Huckleberry.

tetragona r. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi p. Monotropa uniflora n. C. Gaultheria humifusa u. Allotropa virgata I. Ptersospora andromeda o. Chimaphila menziesii s.k. C. Ledum glandulosum . Kalmla microphylla v. Hypopitys monotropa m. Cassiope mertensiana q. umbellata t.

usually longer than 2 m . Phyllodoce Salisb.............. Pyrola a s a r i f o l i a and P..... elevation sites).(8) P........... 10-30 cm (4-12 in) t a l l ....... secunda Flowers not turned t o one side o f stem.... K Y See P.5 Leaves prominently white-mottled along the main veins o f the Lpper surface .C. Ranges south from A t o C and east t o I D and MT.. n 3 F Lowers turned t o one side of stem (secund) ..... t o Alta..... 3............ Single flower terminal on 3-15 Flowers 2-nunerous 4........ u n i f l o r a . dentata and P........ 4.... o f ten associated with Vacciniun globulare and Rhododendron a1b i f lorun (on higher Our plants belong t o the v a r i e t y glabella which ranges from B..... u n b r e l l a l i k e clusters. has a glandular-hairy stem that becomes glabrous with age.. P.. urn-shaped........... leathery and persistent leaves clustered a t the base of an erect........... MY........ herbaceous perennials with shiny. They are thin... pink t o rose colored and h a i r l e s s outside Corolla scarcely 2 times as Long as calyx....... This i s our most comnon heather....... yellowish t o greenish-uhite.. I t i s most comnonly associated with open whitebark pine and alpine larch stands. pointed leaf t i p and a skunky odor when crushed.. The needlelike leaves are glabrous except f o r minutely glandular margins....... wooded north...... Distributed i n the Rocky Mountains south from A and Yuk.....) Camp.... 2 Style s t r a i g h t or nearly so.. ID. Mountain Heath. Pyrola L. d u l l blue-green above.6 ... but above timberline (usually with P... The waxy........... These plants have intermediate characteristics. . south t o MT........ e m e t r i f o r m i s hybridizes with P..... and o b l o n g ... . .. egg-shaped or nearly round. 2.(7) P..... P...... tapering t o an acute base . minor.... t o the upper reaches of the spruce-fir forest.. alternate and linear Leaves.........E I R CACEAE effect.... The most d i s t i n c t i v e leaf features are a small...... minor Style curved. matted. 1... e l l i ~ t i c a seed and P..... . outer surface glandular and hairy 2 glanduliflora ... 1. g l a n d u l i f l o r a i s distinguished by having more glandular t o minutely pubescent leaves....and east-facing slopes o f the mid......... e.. u n i f l o r a are circvnboreal........ empetriformis Corolla >2 times as long as calyx............ such as apple-blossom pink flowers (ranging from This l o c a l l y comnon hybrid occurs below the alpine habitat of P....... and e.......... l i g h t cinnamon-pink flowers are borne i n terminal cluster on the previous yearns growth.. broadly e l 1i p t i c a l . X intermedia (Hook......... and i t s range extends t o much lower elevations than those of the other heathers.. and 5-petaled flowers mature t o capsules.. 1........... 3.... 5...... 2..... g l a n d u l i f l o r a t o produce plants known as P... Wintergreen........... Phyllodoce g l a n d u l i f l o r a (Hook.......... dwarf shrub.... Pyrola chlorantha................. Pink or Red Mountain Heather A h i g h l y branched... flowers are borne i n terminal.... The small.. - 2.... Most species are dependent on wood-rotting f m g i t o some degree........ 5.. The flowers o f g l a n d u l i f l o r a are yellow t o greenish-white and densely glandular t o minutely hairy............. t o U and i n the Cascade Range t o OR... The areal extent of yellow mountain heather i s much less than that of red or white heather............. Pyrola Propagating by Long slender rhizomes. m t r i f o r m i s f o r note on hybridization...... alpine meadows....4 Leaf blades mostly inversely Lance-shaped..... dn scape (bare s t a l k ) .... unbranched flowering stalk....... p i c t a Leaves not as above . whereas P......... (5) P... Flowers are bell-shaped with pink t o rose-colored petals....... Phyllodoce enpetriformis (Sw) D..... greatest tolerance of exposure and least dependence on snow cover......... .......... Light green beneath.. (1) P.. pyrolas are glabrous. dentata Leaf blades usual l y rounded a t base.. 1 . Menziesia i s an undergrowth dominant on moist.. Vegetatively P... UA.... and snow glades... evergreen shrubs have crowded............) Cov........and K A east-facing slopes where snow i s l a t e t o melt.. F r u i t i s an oval capsule..........t o bell-shaped These dwarf.... but i t I t i s evidently our heather with the probably occurs on every alpine sumnit i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains.. 5........ Ye1 low Mcuntain Heather I n gross aspect yellow mountain heather i s much l i k e pink mountain heather... 1...... Don... g l a n d u l i f l o r a near white t o s h e l l pink)..... .. nodding.. The genus i s widely d i s t r i b u t e d i n the Northern Hemisphere... forming expanses on north.. Length 2 mn or less.... Mountain Heather The urn...t o upper subalpine zone... are North American species. ........(3) P....... m t r i f o r m i s ) ....( 1 P.......... 1.. p i c t a are endemic t o the P a c i f i c Northwest.e l l i p t i c a l t o egg-shaped..

..... p a l e yellow t o cream o r greenish-white... I n other ranges i t may occur near timberline.. Lesser pyrola i s found i n protected......... greenish-white t o yellowish ... Pyrola e l l i p t i c a Nutt.. Pink o r Alpine Wintergreen This i s t h e most robust member of the genus w i t h stems q~ t o 30 cm (12 i n ) t a l l .3 4 P. branched rhizome... Leaf blades are leathery.... U and east across Can. and generally inversely lance-shaped t o narrowly e l 1i p t i c a l shape.. Var.. Pyrola chlorantha Sw.... o l i v e green leaves and more than twice t h i s n d x r o f small bracts are arranged on t h e lower p a r t o f each creeping and ascending stem.... bluish-green cast....... Var. A 7....... and UY........ p u r w r e a (Bunge) Fern... Flowers are cream t o greenish-white and borne on a naked s t a l k . 7. chlorantha P.... 4.. The 6-20 small.. vegetative s t a t e i t i s e a s i l y confused w i t h P.. From A south t o C and east i n Can. Of our pyrola species.. Pyrola dentata Smith Toothleaf Pyrola The leaves o f toothleaf p y r o l a d i f f e r from those of our other pyrolas by having a w h i t i s h .. t h a t sets t h i s pyrola apart... Leaves are dark Flowers are pink t o rose o r green above and p u r p l i s h below with p e t i o l e s a t least as long as the blades....t o excessively-drained s i t e s .... The white t o greenishwhite flowers are m i l d l y and pleasantly aromatic. chlorantha. 2.5 cm (3. Ranging from B... From A south t o Mex.... a s a r i f o l i a . Leaf blades less than 2.. south t o n. K A t o the A t l a n t i c Coast. are borne on a s t a l k t h a t i s upto 18 cm (7 i n ) t a l l ... Though Flora o f the P a c i f i c Northwest does not note the presence o f t h i s species i n MT.. 5......... Toothed o r dentate leaf margins are u s u a l l y present but not diagnostic. n o t . egg-shaped ... a s a r i f o l i a i n B i t t e r r o o t Valley r i p a r i a n areas associated w i t h poplar comnunities.... [ O r t h i l l a secmda (L.. even p u r p l ish-red.. One-sided Wintergreen Sidebells p y r o l a has stems up t o 15 cm ( 6 i n ) t a l l clustered from a long.. Pyrola a s a r i f o l i a Michx. Several broadly lance-shaped t o e l l i p t i c a l .. and w. 6. Green p y r o l a i s Less dependent on moisture than P... e l l i p t i c a Sidebells Pyrola... Its m S range stretches from A t o most o f w......) House1 . i t has been found with P.f i r and lodgepole p i n e forests.. white flowers w i t h p e t a l s t h a t f a l l s h o r t l y a f t e r opening are d i s t i n c t i v e l y arranged on 1 s i d e o f the s t a l k (hence name secunda. south i n Rocky Mountains t o CO..... Green Wintergreen.C... moist (not wet) envirorments ( o f t e n bottomlands) of the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains.... Northeast North America west t o B...... thin.... From A south t o s. K A 6.C..5 cm) long Most l e a f blades longer than 3.0 .......E ICACEAE R 6.. from montane Douglas-fir f o r e s t s t o near timberline. have a short. Lesser Wintergreen.... t y p i c a l l y ponderosa I n our area toothed p y r o l a i s uncomnon t o rare........ Pyrola ~ i c t a Smith Uhite-veined Wintergreen The w h i t i s h m o t t l i n g along the main veins o f the upper surface contrasts w i t h dark green background and serves t o d i s t i n g u i s h the leaves of t h i s species from a l l others. Pyrola minor L.... N.... a s a r i f o l i a . C and east t o MT.. s t r a i g h t style. I t occurs i n d r i e r habitats. The blades are broadly e l l i p t i c a l o r inversely egg-shaped and longer than the petioles. t o ne...... White Wintergreen The leaves o f white wintergreen are less leathery than those o f the 3 species described above.....waxy coating. Corolla p i n k t o p u r p l i s h Corollas white. C east t o the A t l a n t i c Coast........ I t i s comnon from lower e l e v a t i o n Douglas-fir t o mid-subalpine s p r u c e . has pointed leaf blades t h a t are f i n e l y toothed......7 7. ID... MT... one-sided). mostly l i g h t p i n k t o n e a r l y white.2 P....... higher than the mid-subalpine zone... pine-Douglas-fir and lodgepole p i n e f o r e s t s of w e l l .. and east t o the K A t l a n t i c Coast. Green Pyrola Green p y r o l a has o r b i c u l a r t o broadly oval leaves w i t h blades t h a t are darker green beneath than above and shorter than the p e t i o l e .. Pyrola secunda L.... K 3. 1.. a s a r i f o l i a has broadly oval t o spade-shaped l e a f blades t h a t are rounded a t the t i p ... The flowers...... t h i s i s the most comnon and d i s t r i b u t e d across the greatest nunber o f wooded habitats. .. Flowers.... A .. Lesser Pyrola In Lesser p y r o l a has broadly e l l i p t i c a l t o rotund l e a f blades about the same length as petioles. This c m n p y r o l a i s found i n wet t o moist h a b i t a t s from r i p a r i a n poplar stands of the v a l l e y s up t o mid-sublalpine c o n i f e r forests...

elliptica d. minor z. P. Menziesia ferruginia x. demata c.vac asarlfolia w. Pyrola asarifolia . P. P. Phyll~doce empetriformis y. glanduliflora a Pyrola chlorantha b. P.

and lake margins 2 Flowers u s u a l l y o n l y one per leaf a x i l on twigs o f the current year ... well-drained s i t e s t h a t produce the dark blue t o purple huckleberries... e l l i p t i c a l t o inversely lance-shaped leaves up t o 8 cm (3 i n ) long have e n t i r e t o undulating margins and dark green upper and l i g h t e r lower surfaces.. erect.... 1. west t o A and south t o C and i n the Rocky Mountains t o N . Uoodnynph... and deciduous. i f branches w i t h narrow angles then leaves >I5 mn l ong.... From e.... our most comnon Vaccinium spp.... Uhi te-veined p y r o l a i s uncomnon t o r a r e i n our area...... south t o OR and east t o w..(3) y. Blue Huckleberry Younger twigs o f t h i s 0...... broadly e l l i p t i c a l t o inversely egg-shaped... F r u i t s are edible...E I R CACEAE P........... N.. MT. Close inspection w i l l reveal a mucronate t i p .500 f t ) level.. b u t leaves of rhododendron are a shiny green.........5 m (20-60 i n ) t a l l shrub are s l i g h t l y angled and yellowish-green..C... A ...... i s widespread. leaves 4 5 mn long.. m y r t i l l u s ( e l l i p t i c a l t o lance-shaped t o egg-shaped) Branches n o t green o r sharply angled and leaves widest beyond midpoint (mostly i n v e r s e l y lance-shaped ( 2 ) y. 4... Menziesia i s u s u a l l y the undergrowth dominant except a t the highest elevations...... white flowers develop from l a t e r a l buds and blossom i n the l a t t e r p a r t o f July...... S i m i l a r i t i e s i n general size. rounded o r abruptly acute a t the t i p . ....... e s p e c i a l l y i n successional shrub f i e l d s . 1. . Plants over 30 cm (12 i n ) t a l l and t h e i r branches not narrowly angled.. Rhododendron L..... serrated leaves.. 2..... The 1-4 bell-shaped........ Flowers one o r more per a x i l and a r i s i n g d i r e c t l y from a bud on a t w i g o f t h e previous year. Though not comnon... 10-25 cm (4-10 in) t a l l ......... Coarse reddish h a i r s cover young twigs. It i s easily .... white rhododendron i s one o f our t a l l e s t ( t o 2 m 7 f t ) subalpine zone . Pyrola u n i f l o r a L..... The thin... growth p a t t e r n and l e a f shape cause confusion between menziesia and white rhododendron. developing i n t o bluish-purple b e r r i e s 6-8 mn broad...... occidentale swanps... Vacciniun globulare Rydb. They are clustered a t stem t i p s and appear t o be whorled.. t o broadly e l l i p t i c a l .... deciduous leaves..... Plants less than 30 cm t a l l o r t h e i r branches narrowly angled. Mountains from Alta.. Huckleberry T y p i c a l l y growing i n a c i d i c s o i l s . . U and OR through ID t o M and nu...... b e r r y a b r i g h t red... 4. and widest a t o r below the middle.... Bilberry. urn-shaped flowers are u s u a l l y borne s i n g l y i n l e a f a x i 1s. Vaccinium L. Blueberry..... b u t arranged on a reddish-brown stem. caespi tosum t o inversely egg-shaped) .... O 8.(I) globulare y.. Branches b r i g h t green or yellow-green w i t h narrow angle between stems. UY... Group I.... Globeshaped flowers are pinkish-yellow. confused w i t h and thought t o intergrade w i t h 1 membranaceun. This group contains species o f upland... Vaccinium spp. which apparently i s absent from our area............ g i v i n g a broom-like aspect t o p l a n t s u s u a l l y not exceeding 2... From e. .. Rhododendron Rhododendron a l b i f l o r u n Hook. white...3 Branches green and angled (not so narrowly as i n 2) w i t h leaves widest a t o r before midpoint 4 y....... I t i s fastened t o pieces o f r o t t i n g wood by roots w i t h L i t t l e I1sucking cupsI1 a t their tips......and east-facing slopes..300 f t ) on wooded north.. whi l e those o f menziesia are d u l l bluegreen....... 3... dentata and chlorantha. i n bogs....f a c i n g slopes i n t h e colder p o r t i o n s layer....... and calyx.. known from o n l y a few open lodgepole pine and From B.... A T ... south t o s. Elevational range of both species i s roughly 16752225 m (5. C and east t o Rocky A l a r c h dominated stands a t about t h e 1600 m (5.C.. star-shaped and d e l i c a t e l y fragrant flower nodding a t the stem t i p ..... o f the Douglas-fir s e r i e s t o mid-subalpine f o r e s t s where a c m n associate i s menziesia.........50 cm (10 in). longer than petioles. lower l e a f surfaces.500-7. Ranging from B..... Most leaves are oblong t o e l l i p t i c a l .... 5 y...... The yellowish flowers are s i m i l a r t o those o f P....... One-flowered Uintergreen ) Gray1 Our smallest p y r o l a has stems less than 10 cm (4 i n ) t a l l w i t h small.. Cranberry. 3... Uhi t e Rhododendron Slender.. o f t e n dominating the mid-sized shrub I t occurs from n o r t h ... are mid-sized t o dwarf shrubs w i t h alternate... 1.. shrubs....... woodnymph can be found i n deep shade of moist t o wet c o n i f e r stands i n the montane m K A M t o subalpine zones.. many-seeded berries... scoparium 3 Plants not as above. 2.5-1. the older ones having grayish and shredding bark.. [Moneses mif l o r a (L.. Small. Lower surfaces are glandular and glaucous... Blue huckleberry....... t o C . Most d i s t i n c t i v e i s t h e single... and o f t e n angled twigs....

. Grouse Whort leberry Smaller than other Vacciniun spp...... Ranging from A south t o CA and east t o ID and Rocky Momtains... globulare... K shrubs assune f a l l coloration.2 . glaucous berries are very acidic and ripen late.. Leaves are egg... dark purple with a b l u i s h waxy bloom. and lance-shaped. and south on the east side of the Cascades. globe-shaped... reduced t o a single stamen............ Leaves are mostly less than 15 mn long. The branches are narrowly angled and greenish.C. They are distinguished from those o f 1.....7 E.. 2. t o nu. This i s the comnon lfblueberryl of Europe and large areas of northern Asia...... Flowers are twice as long as wide and tubularly urn-shaped. A l l leaves opposite Leaves... sharp teeth on the margins... birds. south............ The elongated bell-shaped flowers are less than 4 mn long and mature t o red.. the mat-forming grouse uhortleberry i s 10-25 a (4-10 in) t a l l n with nunerous..........t o lance-shaped and have fine....... however. Uncomnon i n our area. y.. more woody and less densely branched version o f 1........ erect. Flowers borne 1-4 per axi 1. Western Blueberry Western blueberry i s a small shrub... t o the A t l a n t i c Coast. Circunboreal... scopariun..... I t s mere presence on a s i t e can denote areas I t changes t o a v i v i d red before most other where c o l d a i r ponds....... Low blueberry Dwarf b i l b e r r y looks l i k e a coarser.. Vacciniun occidentale Gray Western Huckleberry. bears... and acutely-angled branches that form a broomlike shrub.. widest beyond midpoint.. occur i n small clusters surrounded by a c a l y x l i k e involucre.. The unisexual flowers are usually borne on the same plant... Flowers of both sexes are g r e a t l y reduced... I t i s seldom found f r u i t i n g .......... 4.. sweet and thin-skinned berries that are too small or uncomnon f o r picking.... From B. and SD and A south i n the Rocky Mountains t o CO.... caespitosun by the lack o f strong cross veins on the lower surface and a whitish.. 2. Whort leberry.. Vaccinim scopariun Leiberg Grouseberry..... Group 11. Berries are romdish.... From B....t o egg-shaped and d i s t i n c t l y widest beyond the m i w i n t with the d i s t a l end pointed or blunt.... Vaccinium m y r t i l l u s L.............. scopariun.......... i n Can..... Berries are purplish-blue t o dark red and lack a waxy bloom.. dwarf huckleberry i s a t u f t e d t o mat-forming shrub. 20-60 c (8-24 i n ) t a l l ... sweet..... These shrubs occur i n bogs ( o f t e n with Sphagnum moss).. occurring most often a t higher elevations (upper subalpine) intermingled and sometimes apparently intergrading with 1. with angular t o roundish twigs.. swamps. Dwarf huckleberry i s comnon on well-drained s i t e s o f the Douglas-fir series and lower subalpine zone.t o egg-shaped with small..E P O BI U H R ACEAE 2..... The small..... and rodents h i g h l y p r i z e and imnediately harvest them. Spurge Members of t h i s genus include annual and perennial herbs with milky j u i c e and simple leaves... Leaves are inversely lance. o r wet meadows and especially high mountain lake perimeters.... I t i s uncomnon here.. 10-25(30) cm (4-10 in) t a l l ........ F r u i t s are 3-celled capsules with a s i n g l e seed per c e l l .. m y r t i l l u s and menziesia..... 3.. Veins beneath are pronounced... f i n e teeth....... i s i n d i c a t i v e of severe subalpine climatic regimes... t o n. C and east t o M and n... The berries ripen s l i g h t l y e a r l i e r but are not as f l a v o r f u l as those o f y. 1.. o f t e n with Sphagnum.C... blue. waxy coating. 1... Male flowers. species with d e l i c i o u s l y aromatic.. alternate .. throughout the subalpine zones (almost exclusively on nonA T forest sites). l i g h t green........ Dwarf Huckleberry Spreading by rootstocks... a cupshaped fusion o f bracts..... and aromatic berries. i n North America from the Rocky Mountains from Alta.. mostly east side o f the Cascades........... lance. such as basins or r i v e r i n e terraces.. This i s a very comnon Vaccinium sp. t o NM and west t o B..C.. and alpine larch stands. Group I 1I.4 Plants h a i r y .... green stems lacking angles.... Dwarf Bi lberry.. UT.. green.. with dense.. Vacciniun caespitosun Michx..... whitebark pine...... western blueberry i s known t o form low dense even-topped thickets i n wet acid s o i l s of pond margins.3 .. C east through I D t o Alta... EUPHORBIACEAE Spurge Fami l y Euphorbia L....... 5. m Leaves are entire.. nearly continuous ground cover i n open lodgepole pine........ o r a t least the lower ones.. I t s occurrence without i t s comnon associates. supina Plants lacking hairs (glabrous) ..... Included here are the grouseberries or bilberries...

e. occidentale . Rhododendron albiflorum i. Vaccinium caespitosum k. P. uniflora h. Pyrola picta f. V. myrtillus m. V. secunda g. V. Vaccinium globulare j. scoparium 1. P.

. 6 Leaves mostly <5 times longer than wide..... (2) E...... U.. collected i n gardens north of Missoula... i t i s an occasional weed i n ID.... MN. not linear or oblong... Leafy spurge i s possibly the most troublesome o f our rangeland weeds. 5........ Corrugate-seeded spurge occurs on east side o f Cascades from B.S............. NY... Leaves of the lower stem are scalelike.... 10-30 cm (4-12 i n ) t a l l . 3... 4 1. Euphorbia esula L. ( 3 ) E... m.. 5. such as the h i l l s imnediately north o f Missoula and the v i c i n i t y of Hamilton. those of the upper stem are entire.. length >2 c....EUPHORBI ACEAE 3...... esula i n gross aspect..... A1 1 species occur on dry... cypress spurge could also and on roadsides. Seeds having coarse transverse ridges. OR.. 4.. I t occurs on d r y substrates from the plains t o lower mountains east o f the Cascades from B.) Small Rocky Mountain Spurge Rocky Mountain spurge i s a perennial. robusta Leaf width mostly 3 mn or less... Petty spurge i s glabrous with many-branched stems 10-30 cm (4-12 i n ) t a l l ...... The erect stems are simple below but branched i n an umbrellalike mamer above... These are annuals that usually grow prostrate with much-branched stems t h i c k l y set with small.... of ten on roadsides.. hard. and N.. sessile.. cypress spurge has become established i n neglected gardens Possessing many o f the same characteristics as leafy spurge. 2-6 a long......... This European weed i s now commxr on wasteland i n most of North America.... esula Grocp I. 5 Leaves mostly 5 times longer than wide.. C and Baja Cal...... Cypress Spurge Cypress spruge i s s i m i l a r t o E.... w....... 6. Euphorbia robusta (Engelm.. Though uncomnon as a weed o f rangelands.. but taprooted . and somewhat fleshy leaves... Euphorbia peelus L.. Group 111....(6) E.. becim a serious weed.... This species of This spurge has been collected on Mount Sentinel but i t may no longer occur there..................C....... Thyme. CA east t o central states and M . opposite and round-tipped oval t o lance-shaped leaves. and ne.. with coarse transverse wrinkles.. This Eurasian weed i s well-established i n a l l states o f the Northwest...... length 2 cm or less ... g l y ~ t o s ~ e r m a .. 36 i n ) perennial weed growing from deep-seated rootstocks.... Leaves n imnediately below the flowers are heart. cyparissias Leaf width mostly >3 mn.. and east t o Alta...seeded Spurge This species i s distinguished by i t s seeds which are about 1.. ... r a r e l y e l l i p t i c a l ..... and TX... Seeds wrinkled or dotted with depressions.. 3....... 4............ and oblong t o narrowly lance-shaped... A ...... Petty Spurge 4.... This i s an annual with erect stems. p l u s Plants p e r e m i a l with a t h i c k woody base .2 mn long and grayish.(5) E. D Group 11... 5... The lower leaves are alternate with egg-shaped and e n t i r e blades 1-3 cm long and slender petioles 3-10 cm (1-4 i n ) long. but i s much smaller and has narrower Leaves 13 mn broad..... 6...... I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o eradicate and g r e a t l y reduces pasture productivity... Introduced from Eurasia... leaf margins not thickened. with deep.. 1 E............. 1.. Euphorbia s e r p y l l i f 0 1i a Pers.. linear or oblong or narrowly e l l i p t i c a l .... UA.. Euphorbia glmtosperma Engelm.. Euphorbia c y m r i s s i a s L..... s e r ~ y l l i f o l i a Plants annual..leaf Spurge south Thyme-leaf spurge has d i s t i n c t i v e l y p i t t e d and grayish-brown seeds about 1 mn long. NM.... I t spreads r a p i d l y from many local populations.... sun-baked soi ls.. entire...t o egg-shaped. Leafy Spurge Leafy spruge i s a t a l l ( t o 90 cm.. 2.. Corrugate..... t o n. MT... v e r t i c a l thickened roots and egg-shaped t o oblong. This group includes those species with linear t o f i l i f o r m leaves... ... leaf margins thickened. E 6..C...B. the f o o t h i l l s and lower mountain slopes i s comnon east o f the Continental Divide i n Montana and extends t o S and south t o NM......

.F M RI U A ACEAE 7.. F r u i t s are 2-valved capsules. whi te-margined...... fleshy roots.. -Steer's Head Steer's Head The naked flowering stalk........900 f t ) .......1 1...0 mn broad. . Corydal i s aurea U i 1ld.. They are borne i n simple or branched inflorescences. f l a r i n g limb. some with the tube f l a r i n g i n t o lobes.. Stem leaves arranged opposite. Flowers have wheel. purple....... Steer's head appears t o be less c m n than i t is.. Stem leaves lack petioles. while a larger population i s known from Elk Meadows Road near A A the ID border (1830 m 6. f r e e l y branched stems as much as 40 cm (16 i n ) long........S. deeply lobed t o divided leaves a r i s e separately from spindle-shaped. interrupted raceme. 15-50 cm (6-20 i n ) t a l l ......... From U south t o the Sierra Nevada o f C and east t o ID. Collected on welldrained sites.. M i 1kspurge Leaves of mi 1ksplrge bear a d i s t i n c t i v e ... U.. a l b i c a u l i s . Corollas wheel-shaped with short tube and wide.... 1... Dicentra Bernh. p i t s 1 per petal. elongated... wine-colored spot. and 1-3 p a i r s of smaller stem leaves are prominently 3-nerved.... Golden corydalis has a broad ecological amplitude and a puzzling way of appearing i n small populations i n a given locale and then disappearing f o r several subsequent years..... The f r u i t i s a 2-valved capsule with many seeds.... Leaves are alternate o r basal and several times divided. flower parts i n fours ..... I t occurs on I t i s found on well-drained s i t e s from the f o o t h i l l s t o alpine larch forests near tinherline. GN I E T ANACEAE Gent ian Fami l y The gentian family includes mostly glabrous annual and perennial herbs with b i t t e r juice and simple. 1.......... Flowers. 2...... Corydalis Medic... . Stem leaves whorled.Gentians ... p i t s 2 per petal ........ and UT... i r r e g u l a r (not r a d i a l l y symnetrical) and bisexual flowers have 4 petals and 2 sepals..... The c o r o l l a i s white t o pinkish with a cordate base and outer petals that are s l i g h t l y pouched. Frasera a l b i c a u l i s Dougl.. and introduced as a weed t o the west coast and the u n i v e r s i t y campus i n Missoula. e n t i r e leaves that are opposite t o whorled.... 5-10 c (2-4 i n ) t a l l ... a r i s e from a mostly branched caudex.. o f t e n near creeks........... these not greater than tube length.... I t i s native t o the e..t o be1 1-shaped. and white o r yellowish-green corollas....Swertia Style slender.. 2.... or i n clusters. The many basal leaves... long-petioled (as long as flower m stalk).. 1.. densely short-hairy t o glabrous flowering stems. as above Lolo Creek... barely 1 mn long. e n t i r e leaves that are joined a t t h e i r bases..2 Style thick.. Joseph's Peak a t 2400 m (7. C m n over much of North America. 4-lobed. Several. 1. and the 1-several........ s o l i t a r y and terminal... Because of i t s diminutive size and e a r l y blooming.... flowers parts i n fives. Corollas tubular....... r a d i a l l y symetrical. The arresting..... .. Flowers are bisexual.. WY....5-2... 5-30 cm (2-12 i n ) long.. Flowers are densely aggregated i n t o pyramid-shaped panicles. biennial.. Flowers have a yellow c o r o l l a 12-18 mn long with a spur that i s 3-6 mn long. speciosa Whi te-stemned Frasera 1. Corydalis Golden Corydalis Golden corydalis i s mostly a biennial or sometimes a winter amual with sprawling.... FUMARIACEAE Funitory Family Plants i n the Funi t o r y Fami l y include annual... Frasera Members of t h i s genus are perennial herbs with 1-several flowering stems and opposite or whorled... The 4-5... .......... EuPhorbia supina Rat.. blue t o white o r even greenish petals are united p a r t or nearly a l l of t h e i r length. are arranged i n a conpound.. Dicentra m i f lora Kell.. Leaves are highly dissected i n t o ultimate segments mostly 0.... and perennial herbs with glabrous or glaucous (with a whitish.Frasera Frasera Walt... pale blue t o dark blue o r purplish..000 f t ) ... waxy coating) f o l i a g e and watery sap... a t least 2 mn long....2 1.. and narrowly spatula-shaped t o 1inear lance-shaped.. East St.

? 6 -?Y seed n. E. E. glyptosperma 238 . peplus s. robusta q.fruit involucre fruit . Corydalis aurea r. Euphorbia serpyllifolia t. E. E. E. cyparissias p. supina u. '\ 0 " r. Euphorbia escula o.

.5-4 a long.... calycosa Mountain Gentian..... Gentiana a f f i n i s Griseb......C.or purple-striped flowers.... Bright t o deep blue.... 4.. t o 1.t o inversely egg-sha@. 2-5 cm long. 1. a f f i n i s flowers l a t e r and occurs on drier. p e t i o l a t e o r clasping..000 f t ) .... 2...... Those of the stem are mostly narrowly t o broadly lance-shaped..C.. A Station and Sula Peak..... .. Comnon habitats are moist montane and subalpine meadows and streambanks.... funnel-shaped flowers are borne a t stem t i p s and i n adjacent leaf axi 1s. near Sula. a f f i n i s Leaf length mostly less than 2 times width.. M h r s are annual.. MT. i s known only from subalpine meadows i n the Sapphire Range... leaves width about 8 mn o r less............ though s t i 11 moist. 4.... erect branches 5-25 cm (2-10 i n ) t a l l ..... then 4-parted or with lacerate or fimbriate lobes.. not e a s i l y confused with any other...GN I E T ANACEAE Uhite-stemned frasera occurs south of Darby on dry... ....... a r e l a t i v e l y r e s t r i c t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n . algida Corolla blue or purple.... . and ours have 4.... yellowish roots. i f a t a l l egg-shaped or inversely egg-shaped then the stem i s f i n e l y h a i r y i n l i n e s below the leaves 2 G... most species usually occurring on moist o r wet s o i l ..... east t o Rocky Mountains from Alta. blades linear t o narrowly lance-shaped and 6 times longer than w i de.. and some forms are s i m i l a r t o G...... south on the the east side o f Cascades t o C and AZ.. sometimes biennial. are 25-50 cm (10-20 i n ) long and 3-15 cm (1-6 i n ) wide..... Mountain gentian i s the only comnon and widespread. Flowers with yellowishgreen o r purple-spotted greenish corollas are borne i n a long spikelike inflorescence........... amarella 3.......(I) G.. Mountain gentian i s a glabrous perennial..... Clustered basal leaves. Petals are 2....... o r i f the rare yellow or whitish forms obtain. south on east side of the Cascades t o NV and C .... most have corollas <2 cm (0.... 2 Corollas e i t h e r <2 cm long or not deep blue and sometimes 5-part ed..... grassy ridges and %aldal ridges a t elevations Typical locations are School Point near West Fork Ranger between 1525 m (5..(5) G... (4) G. may be streaked with purple o r blue.. Plants perennial...8 i n ) long 3 Plants annual. The 2-several n flowers are s o l i t a r y on stalks a r i s i n g from the uppermost leaf axils... From e...... sinplex (3) G. 15-30 c (6-12 i n ) t a l l ...... mostly s o l i t a r y ............. whereas stem leaves are whorled (3-5) and gradually reduced w a r d s ...... 10-20 cm (4-8 i n ) t a l l ......... corollas folded f a n l i k e between sinuses.... egg. I t i s especially numerous around mountain lakes.... 2.............. Green Gentian The single.. ) Northern Gentian. ranging from the f o o t h i l l s t o the lower subalpine of the Sapphire Mountains and Ross Hole...5 rn (60 i n ) t a l l . Pleated gentian i s h i g h l y variable i n s t r u c t u r a l features. The 3-8 p a i r s o f e l l i p t i c a l t o broadly ...l i k e a t sinuses... There are prominent... [Gentianella amarella ( L .. deeply c l e f t folds between the corol l a lobes... arises from a simple caudex. south t o CA.. tubular..... P r a i r i e Gentian Pleated gentian i s a t u f t e d perennial. 2. then less than 6X longer than 4 wide. generally 5-parted and >>2 cm (0..... Gentiana L. Leaves are opposite...... Frasera speciosa Doug1 .. funnel-shaped.... UA t o the Dakotas.... ...... Leaves generally 2 times longer than broad.. at least m twice as long as wide..... deep blue gentian i n our area. green....8 i n ) long and 4-parted ..... with leaves.... have been collected i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. A 3.. I n our area i t Green gentian i s an arresting and unique plant. The conspicuously 3-veined leaves are shiny They are usually less than twice as long as broad.. Gentian This i s a large genus of temperate and a r c t i c regions....... Gentiana amarella L..... i f longer... 1. and can range t o timberline environments as a t Carlton Lakes Basin below Lolo Peak... calycosa...000 f t ) and 2135 m (7.. e l l i p t i c a l t o spatula-shaped. 3..... From B. Pleated Gentian..t o 5-lobed... 2. with several erect t o decumbent stems that a r i s e i n loose t u f t s from thick. Color variants... or even elongated bell-shape corollas with f o l d s between the lobes... and range from egg-shaped t o broadly e l l i p t i c a l ............ or perennial herbs from fleshy roots o r slender rhizomes. Corolla deep blue.... Felwort Bornerl Northern gentian i s an erect. corolla not folded f a n ... Corolla greenish-white t o yellowish......... I t inhabits open areas however... Mex...... G. Gentiana calycosa Griseb.... Explorer's Gentian 1.. e n t i r e l y glabrous (except leaf margins and calyx lobes) annual t o b i e m i a l with nunerous. coarse and unbranched flowering stalk...... Mex.8 i n ) long... From B. east t o I D and w... considering how c m n i t i s east o f the Continental Divide.... t o n. usually >2 cm (0. sites. N M and n....... mostly deep blue and usually mottled or streaked with green.... biennial.

. such as along Big Creek Road and the B i t t e r r o o t Valley near Hamilton.. of ten with sane b r i g h t red or fading leaves beneath.. One-flowered Gentian Hiker's Gentian i s a small. I t i s a n u t r i t i o u s and palatable stock feed.... Gentiana alqida Pall.. U..000 f t ) on the moist. a variable..... erect flowering stems 10-30 cm (4-14 i n ) t a l l ... Uhite Gentian Uhite gentian i s a tufted. Their color i s mostly d u l l purplish-blue but o f t e n varies t o lavender..... with mostly basal. The prominent s t y l e i s persistent on the ripening capsule. are borne i n the leaf axils..... naked stalk...... and above the Chaffin Lakes Basin. 5-20 cm (2-8 i n ) t a l l peremial. 5.. Erodiun c i c u t a r i u n (L.. i n s p i r i n g the comnon names "crane's b i 11'' o r %torkls b i 11. star-shaped.. The lowermost stem leaves are only 3-6 mn long.. f e r t i l e stamens 10 Erodiun LIHer. 4. North America from A t o Mex..) LIHer.. I t has been reported from the Sapphire Range and collected near the confluence o f South Fork of Lolo Creek and Lolo Creek and i n the Uoodman School v i c i n i t y o f lower Lolo Creek Val ley.. Leaves p i m a t e l y compound..S... Only 2 small colonies of t h i s alpine...I1 1. .. I n w. This Old Uorld native was introduced here long ago and has become widespread on d r i e r .. Usually numerous. Flowers are bisexual and r a d i a l l y symnetrical with 5 d i s t i n c t sepals and petals... Several 5-petaled. Swertia L. pale yellow. deep blue terminal flower with lobes nearly 1/2 the length o f the c o r o l l a i s borne on a long. small..s t e d annual up t o 15 cm (6 i n ) t a l l . Stem leaves are smaller. m fern. bloom several times on short s t a l k s i n the plant's center.. Basal leaves are 4-12 cm (1-5 i n ) long and linear t o lance-shaped.. Swertia Short. muted bluish-purple flowers are borne terminally i n an open inflorescence. i n the w.G R NI E A ACEAE lance-shaped stem leaves clasp a t the base and are as nuch as 6 cm (2 i n ) long. disturbed s i t e s (often roadsides) of the western U. Lobes o f the narrowly fumel-shaped. pungent-smelling and f i n e l y dissected leaves that are either p i m a t e l y compound or palmately lobed ( a l l Lobes o r i g i n a t i n g from a central point a t the base). This species was recently collected from the banks of Granite Creek near the Idaho border I t occurs i n mountain bogs and meadows of the OR Cascades south t o the Sierra Nevada of c... 3-10 c (1-4 i n ) t a l l . .. Plants appear as dense mounds of dark green leaves. Filaree S t o r k ' s .like. the upper are 10-25 c (4-10 i n ) Long.S. Leaves palmately divided or lobed.. but has not been found i n the higher.. rocky shelves of Bedrock Mountain's northeast K slope... ID.. CA and east t o c... The 3-5 p a i r s on the stem are united a t t h e i r bases and l i n e a r t o lanceshaped..b i l l i s a low-growing annual. 1. white t o yellow c o r o l l a are blotched o r streaked with purple on the outside.. i s rare i n our area... Stork's-bill....... Small magenta-pink flowers.. pinnately compound Leaves. Swertia Swertia ~ e r e n n i sL. Gentiana s i m l e x Gray [Gentianopsis simplex (Gray) I l t i s l HikerlGentian.. narrowed t o petioles o f about the same length.... they occur i n the B i t t e r r o o t Momtains above 2745 m (9. i t ranges from A t o CA. 10-15 mn wide. 1-2 cm long. s i n g l e . Populations may explode imnediately following pasture overgrazing by sheep... more i n t e r i o r portions of the B i t t e r r o o t K Mountains. sessile. tubular flowers.E r d i m .. A t o CO... oblong with rounded or acute tips... and even white. t h i c k rhizomes give r i s e t o single. f e r t i l e stamens 5.. The basal leaf blades are narrowly e l l i p t i c a l t o inversely egg-shaped and 5-12 cm (2-5 i n ) long.Geranium Crane's-bill.... circumboreal species c o r n i n meadows and moist areas o f Montana's calcareous mountain ranges. and opposite t o alternate. f i n e l y dissected.. east through the Rocky Mountains K G R NI E A ACEAE Geranium Fami l y Members of the Geranium Family include annual and perennial herbs with alternate or opposite. and east from P a c i f i c Coast t o the Rocky Mountains. circunpolar gentian are know from our area... especially t o sheep.. they r a p i d l y mature t o %torkls-bi 11'' f r u i t s .. m The single.. A circun-boreal species.. Swertia i s l o c a l l y comnon i n moist t o wet subalpine meadows o f the Sapphire Range. Northern gentian..

zgida c. G. Dicentra uniflora w. F. Gentiana calycosa a Gentiana amarella b. speciosa y. G. Frase-a albicaulis x. Swertia perennis z.v. G. affinis . simplex d.

.. Another species......... 2 g... This native i s uncomnon i n lower elevation woodlands........ 3.... i f smooth then not b r i s t l e .... Geraniun viscosissinn~nF...... b i c k n e l l i i are 2....G R NI E A ACEAE Geraniun L.... molle Beak o f s t y l a r c o l m .. and deeply palmately divided i n t o mostly 5 wedge-shaped segments.. Only one p e r e m i a l species has been reported............... . This i s a well-established European weed of moist ground and waste sites............ but has yet t o be found i n our area.3 F e r t i l e stamens 5...... sepals b r i s t l e . W i l d Geraniun Our geraniuns are perennial or amual.. petal length 8 mn or less Plants peremial..... hairy............ I t also occurs i n wet meadows and open........ carpels usually hairy.. Glandular h a i r s of the sepals and flower s t a l k s are yellow-tipped.. Crane's-bi 11... Geraniun pwi 1l u n Burm. Geraniun carolinianwn L.... UT......t i p p e d n .. East of Cascade Mountains from B..... including stigmas 4-7 mn long.... ..2 ...... 4. but i t appears a f t e r f i r e i n c e r t a i n forest types.... s t r a i g h t hairs.. Geraniun molle L.......... 4-12 i n ) and spreading with kidney-shaped blades that are incised about 1/2 t h e i r length i n t o 3-5 lobes.. 4 Sepals not b r i s t l e ...........(1) G.......... b i c k n e l l i i Beak of s t y l a r c o l m ... t o n........... B i c k n e l l n s Geranium Bicknellls geraniun i s a white-hairy t o glandular annual or biennial with erect t o decwbent stems 10-50 cm (4-20 i n ) t a l l ............. x. CA..... Grow 11... Geraniun b i c k n e l l i i B r i t t ......... and with exception o f g......... including stigmas mostly under 3 mn long............... Flowers have b r i s t l e . i f a t a l l .... sepals strongly b r i s t l e .......... s t i f f ....... & M..... f r u i t i n g pedicel usually much longer than c a l y... sepals not b r i s t le-tipped.... associated with lupines and balsamroot. (6) Petal length 7-11 n carpels smooth or hairy. Leaf blades are less than 6 cm broad. The following s i x species are annuals....... .. b i c k n e l l i i ... f r u i t i n g pedicel usually s l i g h t l y ......... I t has been collected near Medicine Hot Springs ( v a l l e y of East Fork B i t t e r r o o t River) and i n Missoula gardens... but i t can be found a l l the I t s presence i n c e r t a i n grassland comnunities i s i n d i c a t i v e o f productive way t o open timberline sites........ Petals are pink and s l i g h t l y longer than the sepals..... 5 g.. viscosissinun G.........t i pped...... heart shaped a t the base.... appressed h a i r s or glandular pubescence.................. mostly purplish-red t o pinkish-lavender..... and up t o 80 cm (32 i n ) t a l l .... Sticky V i l d Geranium 1.... and i t occurs throughout our area.......... introduced.. Stems are erect t o prostrate and 10-40 crn (4-16 i n ) long with heart-shaped t o somewhat round leaf blades . Small-f lowered Geranium This annual geraniun has foliage covered with short......... east t o Sask... d r i e r forest types............. g.. Large basal leaves are up t o 30 c m (12 i n ) long. Carolina Geraniun Carolina geraniun i s very s i m i l a r t o g.. and NV. Petal length mostly <7 m ..... Broadly d i s t r i b u t e d across North America t h i s weedy species of waste areas and woodlands has been collected along the r a i l r o a d tracks i n Darby and a t Lolo Hot Springs..... leafy herbs with h a i r y foliage.... Flower color i s variable......t i p p e d or not . mostly clustered basal leaves and conspicuous appendages a t the base of the petioles (stipules)...t i p p e d sepals and pinkish petals........ I t often colonizes disturbed ground a t lower elevations....... and south t o CO. Plants annual or biennial..... Sepals b r i s t l e ..... i s comnon t o the east......... Sticky geranium i s an attractive.t i p p e d G...4 ... sites. The inner petal surfaces have long.............. comnon plant o f lower elevation grasslands............. petal length a t least 12 mn .... Flowers are showy...C...... richardsonii..... but the former has f r u i t s t a l k s that are no longer than the calyx.. ............... 5 ... 5. carolinianwn Groclp I.... pusi 1lun F e r t i l e stamens 10... with 5 petals and sepals and 10 stamens that change from recurved t o s p i r a l l y c o i l e d by the time f r u i t s have matured.. Sticky geraniun i s stout. robertianun . notched a t the tip........ Dovefoot Geranium This densely h a i r y and somewhat glandular amual i s low (10-30 cm......t i pped.. longer than calyx 3 g..

...( 7) R.5...3 Stamens twice o r more the length of petals and prominently extended beyond. Squaw currant i s a spreading o r rounded. o f t e n with spines a t the stem The armed species are termed gooseberries and the unarmed ones are c a l l e d nodes and internodal b r i s t l e s ... odoratun usually less than twice the length o f sepals ....... plants mostly erect ...1..................................... ye1 low glands. leaves lacking glands or glands stalked and not g l i s t e n i n g y e l l ow.. p u s i l l u n favors moist or waste areas such as Misswlais Greenwgh Park..or 5-lobed with toothed margins.. GROSSULARI C A AEE Ribes L. not prominently projecting beyond corolla....(2) R. and attached t o the top o f the hypanthiun............ turning grayish................. G....6 Hypanthiun (see genus description) saucer............... . R. (1) R. The a x i l s of nearly a l l the upper leaves bear s t a l k s with two purple flowers..... toothed segments. The smooth...or reddish-brown........7 mn long and more than 2 times as long as hypanthi un. spreading..... or both...... palmately veined. hendersonii n Petals 2-4 mn long....... Leaves are alternate..... ye1 low..5 m long...... usually h a i r y or glandular....... Individual flowers are subtended by a bract....or shal lowly cup-shaped. underside o f blades with stalkless.............. ...(9) R...... hudsonianum ............ pinkish-tinged flowers with a nearly c y l i n d r i c a l hypanthiun 6-8 mn long..... d r y f l o r a l parts............... 15-25 mn wide.... setosum ...... usually narrowed t o a clawlike base....t o shallowly cup-shaped.... Geraniun robertianun L... wedge-........ The f r u i t i s a berry...(6) Stamen length about that of petal.... aureum W x or Squaw Currant a Group I..... ........ 9 Calyx lobes 1..... Ovary lacking glands. These four species are taxonomically d i s t i n c t and e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d ........ Ribes cereun Dwgl...GROSSULARIACEAE that are c l e f t 1/2-3/4 t h e i r length i n t o 5-9 broad.... . This obnoxiously aromatic weed has reddish stems and a t t r a c t i v e pink flowers. topped by persistent. I t has been collected i n Misswlals Greenwgh Park........... inerme . Petals 1-1... about 3 times longer than wide. .. Leaves...... 3.(11) R........... i t bears 28 greenish-white t o white.. prostrate...... Gooseberry Fami 1y Robert I s Geranium Gooseberries and Currants These shrubs have ascending....... The blade o u t l i n e i s somewhat r o d with variously shaped bases. The e n t i r e inflorescence i s both h a i r y and sticky. less than 1/2 as long as hypanthi un... 1....... o r Foliage i s glabrous t o downy...... leaf blades mostly > I 5 mn wide... Stalked flowers are s o l i t a r y o r arranged i n wrbranched inflorescences.............(4) R...5 m (20-60 i n ) t a l l with new branches that are f i n e l y hairy... leaves only with stalked glands.. i r r i g w m Hypanthiun tubular-bell-shaped or narrowly cylindrical... i f any Hypanthiun width >I0 m ..... s a t i m about twice the length o f sepals.. not greater than 2 times longer than wide.. and shallowly t o deeply... (3) R............ Introduced throughout much 07 North America. Ovary and leaves copiously studded with stalkless. smooth.............. both leaf surfaces are somewhat glandular...... unarmed shrub 0....... smaller than the sepals............. mostly wider than long ..5 Hypanthiun approximately bell-shaped.. Leaf Lobes rovlded. lacustre Hypanthiun bell-shaped t o tubular-bell-shaped or c y l i n d r i c a l .....5-3 mn long.. mostly longer than wide ........ and shining glands...... The calyx consists o f The 5 petals are a 5-lobed f r e e p o r t i o n while basally i t i s united with the ovary t o form a hypanthiun.......(8) R... 6......... Calyx lobes 3 ......... americanum Leaf Lobes sharply pointed. plants gnarled .... leaf blades mostly 4 5 mn wide.... ............... are kidney-.......(5) R.ll 8 'Flowers not b r i g h t yellow.... ........ petal occasionally reddish tinged.... cereum viscosissimg ..(lo) R.... not glandular.. 4-6 n long.2 ..(12) R...4 Hypanthiun c y l i n d r i c a l .. ....... but usually fan-shaped and shallowly 3.........7 Hypanthiun saucer..10 Flowers b r i g h t yellow....t o 5(7)-lobed and variously toothed........ b r i g h t red berries are b i t t e r and unpalatable............ currents. Steins with spines o r p r i c k l e s Steins lacking spines and p r i c k l e s ..... or erect branches.......... n Hypanthiun width 4 0 mn........ .......... ........

t o NM and east t o the A t l a n t i c Coast. marmed shrub. Foliage o f t h i s species turns a warm yellow i n a u t m . Ribes aureun Pursh. These four Ribes spp. erect. The flowers are an important food source f o r e a r l y a r r i v i n g h m i n g b i r d s . Golden currant i s an erect or rounded. with pink t o reddish fan-shaped petals. east t o MT. dwarfed. with grayish (deep red under-surface). The black. on rockslides and boulderfields. flaky. erect t o spreading shrub mostly less than 1.8 rn (32-70 i n ) t a l l .GROSSULARIACEAE The elevational range of squaw currant i s as great as i t s morphological v a r i a b i l i t y . s i n g l e plants or small groups. stream banks. and rocky. 3.8-1. shining.C. viscosissimun p r i c k l y gooseberry i s both c m n and d i s t r i b u t e d along a broad elevational range. south t o CA. This i s the only native Ribes spp. Berries are dark purple with stalked glands and are barely palatable. of ornamental value. stems are stout. 1-2 m (40-80 i n ) t a l l . P r i c k l y Gooseberry P r i c k l y gooseberry i s a somewhat erect shrub with stems that are sparsely t o densely set with slender.2 rn (48 in) t a l l The lax. L i k e R. being most comnon on north. A Z . 3-9 cm (1-4 i n ) wide. more infrequently. The nmaple leafnn-shaped leaves. I t i s known from r i v e r v a l l e y floodplains. Ascending inflorescences bear nunerous flowers. Leaves. b i t t e r tasting. NE. Whi te-stemned Gooseberry White-st& gooseberry i s a sprawling shrub. Mostly on east side of the Cascades from B. and mpalatable. south and west exposures i n the upper subalpine. The glabrous. I t may be an important component o f early-successional cut-over lands. are borne i n a drooping cluster. are 3-5 lobed. Uestern or Northern Black Currant Foliage i s covered with Northern black currant i s 0. A and east t o MT. the source of a sweet. t o nu. Alta. This plant depends upon a permanently moist rooting mediun. with reddish and glabrous t o f i n e l y h a i r y young stems that age t o glabrous. south t o n.t o obscurely 5-lobed and toothed leaves have dense. and MN. The 5-18 fragrant flowers are borne i n ascending inflorescences that equal or exceed the highest leaves. Ribes inerme Rydb. shorter than the leaves. The 6-15 flowers.) Poir.5 rn (60 i n ) t a l l .and east-facing slopes. dark gray. From A t o K the A t l a n t i c Coast. w. Sticky currant i s not tolerant o f wet substrates. I t occurs from d r y slopes of the f o o t h i l l s . ye1 low. but i t i s comnon on moist t o d r y mountain slopes. The b r i s t l y . CA.C. and PA. whi l e the nodes are armed with several larger spines. nu. From the east slope of the Rocky Mountains. never glandular. yellow t o orange or reddish petals. CA.t o heart-shaped bases. glabrous calyx with spreading lobes. where i t i s the f i r s t shrub t o e x h i b i t spring green-up. UT. are disagreeable i n taste and smell. saucer-shaped and l i n e d with a pinkish disk on which the petals are inserted. I t occurs most abundantly on moist slopes or bordering reaches o f r i p a r i a n habitat. round. stalkless glands. and densely armed with robust spines. mostly 3-lobed t o less than 1/2 t h e i r length. and sparsely h a i r y on the upper. CO. UT.t o 8-flowered inflorescences are erect t o s l i g h t l y drooping. The upper surface i s deep green and so glossy as t o have a Indipped i n honeynnappearance. . and marmed. and mostly smooth bark except f o r occasional t h i n b r i s t l e s and. and copiously hairy. Leaves. oval. The round. with stalked glands. each with white sepals and a widely f l a r e d and saucer-shaped hypanthiun. sharp p r i c k l e s between the nodes. red t o black berries are edible. t o ponderosa pine forests. CO. pungent end unpleasant odor. Group 11. B. The 3. s o f t h a i r s and glands on both surfaces or are sparsely glandular and nearly glabrous. and i t i s comnon on a v a r i e t y o f r i p a r i a n habitats. SD. They occur mostly as Golden Currant 5. from the f o o t h i l l s and lower t i h e r l i n e t o open alpine boulderfields. C and n. Leaf surfaces are glabrous t o sparsely h a i r y along the veins. At lower elevations i t grows i n considerable shade and Looks l i k e other currants. have a wide. The f l o r a l tube (hypanthiun) i s broadly be11-shaped and about 6 mn long with the oblong lobes that are pointed and s l i g h t l y shorter than the hypanthiun. Swamp Gooseberry. glabrous berries are red t o black or even yellow. from the montane t o the upper subalpine zone. 4. always on moist t o wet substrates. 3. 2-5 cm broad and somewhat n9naple-leafnn-shaped. MY. WY. Flowers have a golden yellow. less than 1. 6. NM. and moist ravines o f the lower f o o t h i l l s . F r o m east slopes of the Cascades. but a t higher elevations. The hypanthiun i s short (about 1 mn long). Ribes hudsonianun Richards. pale and very h a i r y on lower surface. rowdish berries are glabrous t o glandular. and a narrowly tubular hypanthiun. 2.h a i r y . Ribes lacustre (Pers. CO. M I . but scattered d i s t r i b u t i o n . are mostly 5-lobed with 1-2 series o f rounded t o pointed teeth. especially i n jams. 10-12 mn long. south t o s. have broad wedge. From A t o K Hudsonns Bay. and blue-black berries. and AZ. Ribes viscosissimm Pursh Sticky Currant Sticky currant i s an marmed. o f t e n p a r a l l e l i n g mountain watercourses i n the shade of trees and t a l l e r shrubs.

molle . Ribes cereum I.e. hudsonianum h. G. bicknellii j. R. G. G. Geranium pusillum k. Gerznium viscosissimum g. carolinianum i. Erodium cicutarium f.

The prominence of the 1-7. stalkless. oxyacanthoides. but d i f f e r s by having b r i s t l y (sometimes densely so) stems. while the o l d bark i s reddish-brown. They are generally wider than long. The 1. Leaves are usually f i n e l y h a i r y on both surfaces but may be glabrous or with hairs only on the margins. and are arranged on drooping. Beaverhead.t o kidney-shaped leaves that are glandular and minutely pubescent. bedrock outcrops. WY.5-1(2) m (20-40 i n ) t a l l .5 m (70 i n ) t a l l . M 7. Lemhi. other mountain ranges of eastern ID and the Anaconda. rubrun L. and habitat as R. with blades lobed 1/2 t h e i r length i n t o 5 wedge shapes. i s the most s t o u t l y armed o f wr Ribes spp. This species has been collected along B i t t e r r o o t River near Missoula. This shrub occurs a t higher elevations on rockslides and outcrops i n the southern part o f the Sapphire Mountains. The berries are smooth. reddish-purple. Ribes americanun M i l l . east t o M I . Reddish. From ne. a European native.C. The hypanthiun i s columar with spreading t o recurved lobes. B. slender. setosml Missouri Gooseberry This shrub. and south t o MY. are glabrous t o f i n e l y h a i r y on upper surfaces and usually f i n e l y h a i r y and glandular on the lower. o f t e n protected lower mountain slopes and meadows. Mary's Road and the moist meadows south o f Lolo. glabrous inflorescences. and densely branched. and rockslides. south slopes. CO. confused with R.6 i n ) long. and e. [R. bluish-purple. sprawling. 0. Flowers are more d i s t i n c t l y bell-shaped. with branches that are densely covered by yellowish. n s t r a i g h t t o recurved spines up t o 1. I n wr area i t i s associated with d r y sites. glabrous f r u i t s are about 10 mn i n diameter. I t i s easily This species overlaps i n habitat with R. shining glands that age t o gray-black. 3 mn long. hendersonii and R. 8.. 7-9 mn i n diameter. MT and se. flower shape. Henderson's Gooseberry This gooseberry i s d i s t i n c t i n form. egg-shaped. A cream t o greenish-white calyx with oblong t o spatula-shaped lobes crouns a tubular t o bell-shaped hypanthiun. bell-shaped hypanthiun. 1. i t i s usually less than 80 cm (30 i n ) t a l l .t o 3-flowered inflorescences are much shorter than the leaves. Comnon Currant 9. Ribes i r r i s u u n Dougl. east t o u. Leaves. From c. such as along i r r i g a t i o n ditches near S t . Short inflorescences support 1-2 flowers that have a 2. inerme and extends t o d r i e r slopes as well. Species escaped from cultivation. and N . On east slopes o f the Cascades from B. a t the western edge o f i t s range i n our area. east t o MT. Ribes setosun Lindl. irr isum1 Idaho Gooseberry This gooseberry has s i m i l a r leaves. [& oxycanthoides var. The elevational range of Missouri gooseberry stretches from f o o t h i l l s t o the high subalpine. m. and -latable. . Sierra Nevada. i s crisp-hairy and glandular on the young growth. south t o the n.C. Mostly from eastern edge o f Rocky Mountains eastward t o the A t l a n t i c Coast. Ribes sativun (Reichb. with spreading. The 2-4 flowers have a tubular t o bell-shaped hypanthiun. Group IV. R. t& oxycanthoides var . unpalatable berry i s about 1 cm i n diemeter. less than 1 m (40 i n ) t a l l . The internodes are usually densely b r i s t l y ( t o lacking) and nodes have 1-5. Older specimens are gnarled and gray-barked. The round. regularly armed with s t i f f . arched branches. OR and adjacent UA.oxycanthoides var hendersoni iI . but sour. The comnon currant.5 mn long. This group contains species that are rare i n our area. Leaves are hairless (except f o r margins) and have blades that are 5-lobed a t least halfway t o the center with toothed margins. Found i n the Lost River. and Rocky Mountain Front i n MT. The smooth. The 10-12 mn long. The 9naple-leafB1-shaped leaves are mostly 4-8 cm (1-3 i n ) broad and sparsely h a i r y on veins of the mderside. This species i s l o c a l l y comnon from v a l l e y r i p a r i a n s i t e s t o moist. T Group 111. The hypanthiun i s saucer-shaped and about 1 mn long.5 a (0. The red berries are edible. 11.1 This unarmed currant. Ribes hendersonii Hitch. I D north through H t o Alta. Stalkless glands and coarse h a i r s t h i c k l y cover a t least lower surfaces o f leaves that are incised about 1/2 t h e i r length i n t o 3 prominent lobes (sometimes 2 lesser ones). Coast Range and s. not east of Continental Divide. 1 cm long berries are not palatable. 1 cm long nodal spines. r i g i d and yellow nodal spines i s accentuated by the diminutive heart.GROSSULARIACEAE 1-3 nodal spines. Black Currant 10.) Syme tR. Black currant i s an erect t o spreading shrub. inerme. F l i n t Creek. purple-black berries are the most f l a v o r f u l o f our gooseberr ies. has established i n several moist t o wet places.

m. R. Ribes sativum t. americscnum u. R. R. R. irriguum r. inerme q. setosum . aureum s. lacustre o. R. R. hendersonii p. R. Ribes viscosissimum n.

linear... I t was found along the Clark Fork River i n Missoula... exalbescens (Fern. 1-4 cm long. The plant has simple o r branched stems up t o 1 m (39 i n ) long with 3-4 leaves. v i l l o s u n D.. Our plants are var.. Unisexual flowers are borne s i n g l y i n the a x i l s o f upper leaves... A comnon species... 1.. The f r u i t s p l i t s i n t o 4 nut1 i k e achenes.. deciduous shrub up t o 3 m (10 f t ) t a l l . HALORAGACEAE Uater M i l f o i 1 Family L... Syringa Mockorange i s a t a l l . and central ID and w. and whorled leaves. Throughout rmch of North America. Comnon mare's t a i 1 usually occurs a t least p a r t l y s h r g e d i n shallow water of bodies from lakes t o ponds t o streams. CA and inland t o n. H i w r i s w l q a r i s L. the male flowers above the females. The flowers and f r u i t s are larger than the subtending. M states.. Spiked water m i l f o i l i s l o c a l l y very c m n i n standing or slow moving water o f ponds.. The white flowers. I t occurs mostly i n the f o o t h i l l s and montane zone. aureun. aurem Pursy var. (Not i l l u s t r a t e d ) . From B. r i v e r s and sloughs i n the valleys. MT. c d l i k e divisions... Phi ladelDhus lewisi i Pursh Mockorange. HIPPURIDACEAE Mare's T a i l Family The family includes aquatic and amphibious. Circumboreally distributed... Myriophyllun spicatun L.HALORAGACEAE 12..(I) spicatun M. creeping rhizomes with erect branches 5-30 cm (2-12 i n ) t a l l ..( & b r a s i l i e n s e Spiked Water M i l f o i l 1. 1-2 mn by 10-35 m are arranged 6-12 per whorl. o f t e n i n open ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir dominated forests and on both dry. southward i n North America t o CA. are sweetly-scented. There are 4 or 8 stamens. eggshaped and smooth t o s t i f f l y h a i r y leaves have a few t o many rounded teeth and 3 d i s t i n c t veins. bractlike. Mare's T a i l Comnon Mare's T a i l This smooth perennial has extensive.... Eurasia. 2. e n t i r e t o minutely toothed leaves. t o n.. Wriophyl l u n brasi 1iense Camb. usually emergent spike up t o 10 cm (4 i n ) long. erect t o spreading. while the g r e a t l y reduced emersed leaves may be dissected or undivided. entire. 1. Submersed leaves are dissected i n t o many fine. Introduced from South America throughout much o f the world. rootless... Syringa Mockorange. aquatic perennials with slender stems.. Ribes odoratun Wendl. South American Water M i l f o i 1 South American water m i l f o i l has stems up t o 90 cm (3 f t ) long and 4-6 leaves. rocky. moist streamside habitats.. Flowers are borne i n an interrupted. The opposite. with h a i r l i k e divisions. perennial herbs with simple. Each flower has 4 small petals that quickly f a l l a f t e r opening. Flowers are borne i n the a x i l s o f submersed leaves.. whorled a t each node.. The leaves. This species has been collected i n a pond southeast of Missoula. sessile. I t i s native t o the east slope o f the Rocky Mtns i n WY and eastward and i s probably introduced i n our area. [R.. ~lowersborneintheaxilsof unreducedstemleaves .C. b r a c t l i k e leaves. . terminal... .) Jeps. whorled a t each node.1 Golden Currant This golden currant i s very s i m i l a r t o R.. The flowers bear both sexes with an ovary fused t o an obscurely lobed calyx but lacking a corol la...... H i w r i s L. . more abundant i n the B i t t e r r o o t than the Sapphire Mountains.C. Myrioph~llwn Uater M i l f o i l These are floating. Flowers borne i n a spikelike inflorescence with reduced. 10-25 mn long. and the 4-lobed calyx surrounds the ovary. HYDRANGEACEAE Hydrangea Family Phi ladelphus L.. N and central and ne.. 2-3 an long..

.. 1. N a p h i l a Flowers arranged s i n g l y o r i n a few-flowered.. east t o MT and CO. lacks a main stein but produces rhizomes from the short above-ground root crown........ south t o c............C...... CA....... the blade kidney-shaped t o roundish. Plants with fibrous roots.H D O H LLACEAE YRPY HYDROPHYLLACEAE Uater leaf Family The Uaterleaf Family includes amual and p e r e m i a l herbs with leaves that are mostly alternate. UT....... bell-shaped... Nemorhila Nutt...... Single flowers are borne on short basal stalks......... Hesperochiron 4... Flowers bloom progressively from base t o t i p .) Porter Dwarf Hesperochiron This small taprooted perennial..t o purple-veined. montane t o lower subalpine From s....... ... Flowers not s o l i t a r y ......... .. Leaves are fringed with s t i f f hairs.. i n d e f i n i t e inflorescences........... Hydrophyl lum L.......... branching inflorescences........... 4. .. or e n t i r e l y basal... I t occurs on moist... Uaterleaf Bal lhead Uaterleaf Ballhead waterleaf has stems. alternate. short rhizome...... . inflorescence r a r e l y b a l l .... The 5-parted flowers have stamens extending beyond the c o r o l l a and are arranged i n inflorescences that are s p i r a l l y c o i l e d and congested a t f i r s t but elongate with maturity.......... wholly east of the Cascades t o A ID..... flowers densely arranged i n a headlike (globose) Hdrobyllm cluster below leaf blades Plants taprooted....... and Alta..... HydroPhyl lun capi tatun Dougl.. B...... on short petioles.. and pinnately c l e f t i n t o 2 p a i r s o f oblong t o lance-shaped lobes... 2..... Scorpion Ueed.... Phacelia Juss. less than 6 cm (2 i n ) t a l l .. .... 8 i n t a l l . CO..... Phacelia . and peremials with alternate leaves and various degrees of pubescence...... Leaves mostly a l l basal........... 2................ Several t o many white flowers are reddish... . and not longer than the calyx lobes........ From U south t o CA.o r bell-shaped corollas are s o l i t a r y or borne i n open o r crowded. b i e m i a l s .. angled... and AZ. or purplish-blue corollas...... Phacelia Phacelias include herbaceous annuals............. Nemophila i s an uncornnon species.... ....... They are simple or divided and e n t i r e t o coarsely toothed........... s l i g h t l y a f t e r the more nunerous glacier l i l y and shooting stars.. but i t s herbage does not wither so quickly.. .......... River... 2 . lavender..... t o 20 cm.. 10-40 cm (4-16 i n ) t a l l . lavender colored.... r a r e l y opposite. t o n.. terminal inflorescence......................... palmately lobed o r coarsely toothed.... MT.. The c o r o l l a i s up t o 3 mn long....... Ballhead waterleaf blooms e a r l y i n the spring.3 Leaves e n t i r e o r barely toothed... Hesperochiron Vats. 3.... Leaves not as above 4 3.. Hesperochiron punilus (Griseb.. collected a t Fales Flats near the Nez Perce Fork o f the B i t t e r r o o t Distributed wholly east o f the Cascades from B................C. or i n moist meadows.......... are sparsely set with prickles. 5-parted flowers with funnel... This a t t r a c t i v e plant occurs i n some canyons of the southern B i t t e r r o o t Mountains.. Hesmrochi ron Leaves coarsely toothed t o p i m a t e l y divided. The leaves are glabrous and spatula.... I t i s found i n seepage areas o f open o r wooded slopes and areas that have abundant moisture i n the spring such as Fales Flats on the Nez Perce Fork o f the B i t t e r r o o t River............ 1.... Radially synnetrical.... exclusively east of the Cascade Range.. F r u i t i s a capsule. CA and CO almost woodlands ( i n sun or shade)............or lance-shaped. prostrate to'ascending stems....... R m n z o f f ia the lobes o r teeth rounded.............. The few large leaves have blades 43 t o 15 cm (6 i n ) long that are pinnately divided almost t o midrid and extend beyond the round flower clusters..... Nemophi l a brevi f l o r a Gray Nemophila Nemophil a The weak. from a deep-seated...l i k e when expanded and always above leaves.. The stamens project much beyond the white............ the main branches thick...

..... long and lavender t o d u l l purple flowers................... and east t o Lake Super ior.. .......... .. Sand Phace1ia 1.. especially i n ponderosa pine forests............ o r purplish flowers are borne i n an elongated.. some leaves lower on stem with l e a f l e t s a t base of blade... i t has a single... than 10 cm (4 i n ) long... 5... short hairs......5 Plants perennial with a branched caudex ... 5. P... 1. Frank1i n ' s Phacel i a 2........ t o C and east t o CO and w. ...... This i s a species o f d r y sites... has prostrate stems. has erect o r ascending stems approaching 15 cm ( 6 i n ) t a l l and flowers that are a l l d u l l yellow.... I n our area these species are usually biennial (occasionally annual). These are t r u e perennials...... east t o MT.. north t o Yuk... yellowish... Phacelia f r a n k l i n i i (R.C.. sturdy.. 1 Gray This biennial i s 15-50 cm (6-20 i n ) t a l l and usually has a single.2 P... less short-hairy stems. This a t t r a c t i v e plant has been collected north of Missoula i n the Rattlesnake Valley. erect stem from a taproot... Herbage i s glandular-hairy. 3 4. roadsides t o rockslides... ID. shorter than or equal t o corolla. g r a v e l l y s o i l s of lower t o middle elevations...... o r i g i n a t e from a taproot and branched caudex...or west-facing slopes.. and UY...... and Alta....... alpina (Rydb.. i n the valleys and f o o t h i l l s . Stamens included... and Alta.. and short-hairy inflorescence...... up t o 60 cm (24 i n ) t a l l ... Two v a r i e t i e s are recognized: var leptosepala (Rydb.... 4...... MT 'to n..2 . generally not over 15 cm ( 6 i n ) ft). narrow segments.. densely b r i s t l y ..... 2... f r a n k l i n i i Group I.. The short....... f o l i a g e not silver/grayhairy 3 P....... and Ross1 Hole i n southern Ravall i County..HYDROPHYLLACEAE 1...... glandular that the herbage can appear grayish-green......... B... Phacelia l i n e a r i s (Pursh) Holz....... both of the basal rosette and the m Inflorescences bearing stem.. .. CA............000 Var.. and lobed i n t o 1-4 divergent.. 3..... b r i g h t blue... blue-purple flowers a r i s e from leaf a x i l s along the stem's Length.. UT... l i n e a r i s Ovules 4 per ovary....Br.... Herbage i s s i lvery due t o the dense. I t i s widely d i s t r i b u t e d from the f o o t h i l l s t o above timberline....... l y a l l i i 5) Plants annual or biennial with a simple taproot.. b i e m i a l or perennial .. S i l v e r l e a f Phacelia Usually several prostrate t o almost erect stems... mostly on south. Leaves............. 1 E... or some with 1 or 2 p a i r of e n t i r e lobes or l e a f l e t s below middle Leaves coarsely toothed o r p i m a t e l y lobed or divided Plants usually having a single. A . plants annual. From w.. or nearly so..... Group 111..500 ft). Phacel i a hastata D w g l . Mostly east o f the Cascades from s. NE.........) Cronq........ i t does not occur above 1830 m (6......... .. and NM..( 1 P.. B. B.... unbranched and erect stem t h a t may be ringed by several lesser stems..... Sand phacelia i s mostly less than 30 cm (12 i n ) t a l l with simple o r h i g h l y branched and densely Leaves are confined t o the main stem.... Both v a r i e t i e s grow mostly on sandy or gravelly...... Showy.. CA... fine....) Cronq... hastata mostly entire... 1inearis Stamensprojectingbeyondtipof c o r o l l a ............ occasionally with several lesser stems...... d r y sites. 2.................. t o n...... This i s our only amual species... south t o c. Group 11....... .........4 Ovules 6 or more per ovary... heterophylla Plants usually with several suberect....... They are sessile or with short petioles. narrow. AZ..... condensed inflorescence bears flowers with white t o lavender o r purplish corollas. t o 50 cm (20 i n ) t a l l .... From s. 4..... i n the I t usually occurs on southeastern p a r t o f the Sapphire Range... r a r e l y found above 1675 m (5.. erect stem often I t i s so densely h a i r y (both short lax and longer b r i s t l e s ) and ringed by several ascending smaller stems.. MY and c....... leaves 4 P. are pinnately divided and less than 9 c (4 i n ) long by 5 cm (2 i n ) wide..... Leaves usually have 1-2 p a i r s o f l a t e r a l lobes a t the blade's base........ d r y mineral substrates....... Sand phacelia i s very c m n on lower elevation. Leaves are a1 1 e n t i r e o r r a r e l y with a small l a t e r a l lobe. the alpine phacelia.....C.. From s...... f o l i a g e mostly silver/gray-hairy 3.....C..... somewhat equally Long stems from a branched caudex........ Normally. Phacelia heterophylla Pursh Vi rgate Phacel ia A taprooted b i e m i a l or perennial............. 3 Leaves a l l entire. broadly b e l l shaped flowers are borne i n narrow axi 1l a r y inflorescences........ The greenish-white........

v. Phacelia linearis 251 . Hesperochiron pumilus a tlydrophyllum capitaturn b. Hippuris vulgaris y. Philadelphus lewisii z. Nemophila breviflora c. brasiliense x. M. Myriophylllum spicatum w.

......... i s t y p i c a l of subalpine and timberline envirorments. Leaves are very coarsely few-toothed t o pinnately lobed.... i s t a l l e r .. All flowers are yellow.. St. Hytxricun anagalloides C.B...... John's-wort Uestern St.. Goatweed i s a taprooted perennial with short rhizomes and many-branched stems 30-80 (12-32 i n ) t a l l .... projecting rmch above the leaves.. mist maiden....... T most high ridges.. leaves usually ~ 1 ....lobed and be11-shaped flowers are arranged on naked stalks. white.... Var. Mex . John's-wort Family Hypericum L...... K HYPERICACEAE S t .. The numerous flowers o f the conpound inflorescences have conspicwusly blackdotted margins and petals that are twice as long as the sepals. Phacelia l y a l l i i (Gray) Rydb..... 8 i n ) one.. or blackish glandular (dotted) along the margins 3 Stems t r a i l i n g .... with branched stems and occurs a t lower elevations........ a glabrous perennial.. erect stems..... 5-10 c (2-4 i n ) high and branched above. mostly less than 40 c m (16 i n ) t a l l ..... There are 5 sepals and petals.. but with a b i t t e r taste...K.. twice the length o f sepals. resembles some species o f saxifrage.... disturbed areas . Hypericun f o m s u n H.300-8.......... John's-wort Four p e r e m i a l species occur i n our area.... 3........ Bog St.... leaves usually ~ 1 . over 10 cm (4 i n ) t a l l ..) Hitchc... and c. Goatweed i s an introduced... John's-wort i s a dwarf. t o Baja CA.... Mist Maiden I n gross appearance.... moist areas Sepals mostly linear t o lance-shaped. Johnas-wort Bog St. creeping perennial forming dense mats from stems that root a t t h e i r Some stems are nearly erect. connected basally by wing1 i k e structures.. The delicate. up t o 25 c (10 i n ) t a l l with sparsely h a i r y and m glandular foliage.... scouleri (Hook...... ... over 2800 m (9...... L y a l l a s Phacelia L y a l l ' s phacelia i s a s e v e r a l . 15 cm (6 i n ) long... Ue have two varieties: the comnon and shorter (less than 20 cm.. Sepals mostly triangular........ Rananzoffia sitchensis Bong... east t o Alta... nortoniae (Jones) Hitchc..... & S.s t e d peremial.. var.. They are borne on stalks a t or near the t i p o f the stem.. a l l with undivided.. and purplish-black dotted... UY....HYPERICACEAE 5... John's-wort i s a glabrous perennial with many sinple. Poisonous t o livestock.. formosum .. Leaves are narrowly spatula-shaped t o inversely Lance-shaped. ... The c o r o l l a i s deep blue-purple t o v i o l e t with stamens extending much beyond i t .... but not t o the degree experienced i n the Pacific Coast states and CO. that a r i s e from creeping rhizomes.. east t o MT.. F r u i t s are capsules with 1 or 3 chambers.. Petals mostly <6 mn long and scarcely longer than the sepals and lacking black dots along the margin 2 Petals mostly *6 mn long and usually much longer than sepals...... The egg-shaped t o e l l i p t i c a l m .. 5..(2) H.. shallowly lobed blades...C. 2. Rornanzoff ia Cham... European weed that i s d i f f i c u l t t o eradicate and has become a problem i n places. 3..... 1. M and Alta. and r a d i a l l y symnetrical. opposite and sessile leaves.. I t s d i s t r i b u t i o n i s mainly confined t o w.... perforatum Goatweed 1. From B........ Hywricun m r f o r a t u n L... 5cm long .... 2. It is up t o 15 cm (6 i n ) t a l l with only basal leaves...... 3-5 times as Long as wide. e l l i p t i c a l petals.. and MT......( 3) .200 f t ) and north slopes o f Uhite Momtain and Sugarloaf Peak a t 2530-2650 m (8.. Those near the base are short-petioled and about 10 cm long....... matted. This u n c m n plant occurs on moist t o wet rock outcrops and ledges w i t h i n the alpine zone o f the I t i s known from the north face of West Como Peak and Hount Jerusalem at southern B i t t e r r o o t Mountains... 1. 2.. The few flowers have yellow.. bisexual..t o lance-shaped. b u l b l i k e thickened bases... These have petioles.. (4) 1 majus 1 anagalloides .... 3.(1) H... L y a l l ' s phacelia i s f o d on t a l u s slopes and i n rock crevices on north..... 5cm l ong.... Leaf margins are dotted with minute purple-black glands and are egg. This species i s most comnon on north-facing slopes i n the wetter.... i t i s grazed only when animals are starving.700 f t ) .... nodes. Stems erect.... Uestern St..... less than 3 times as long as wide.... whereas those o f the upper stem are sharply reduced i n w h e r and size and lack petioles..and east-facing slopes near I t i s d i s t r i b u t e d i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains from the Pyramid Buttes southward on o r above tinherline. northern p o r t i o n o f the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains.... A t o CA...... and kidney-shaped.

Hypericum perforaturn L' sepal f. heterophylla i. P. Phacelia franklinii e. lyallii h. hastata g. P. Romanzoffia sitchensis . P.f' d.

but the species i s known t o occur i n moist montane t o subalpine meadows from B............. ....... 12......... .. 15......... flowers s o l i t a r y i n leaf a x i l s .... 3... 3..... flowers various. 7. 4..... the l i p s e n t i r e with an appendage on upper side.. ... ....... ..Phwostegia .. mostly 2 ................... ................Monarda Calyx teeth 10. .... A l l the known collections o f bog St. Leaves lacking petioles.... 11...... hooked a t the tip................ .............. ...... Stamens bearing 2 anther sacs Stamens bearing 4 anther sacs 5..... . . ... sporadic and r a r e i n the west. ............ lacking appendage on upper l i p ................... .... 12. flowers s o l i t a r y .......... 3-30 mn long...................... ........... ... H m r i c u n majus (Gray) B r i t t ...... .... near middle.............. not hooked a t tip......................... LABIATAE (LAMIACEAE) Mint Family Mints are herbs with 4-angled stems and usually opposite (or whorled) leaves.7 Tooth o f ~ p p e r calyx 2 times or more as wide as others Tooth of cpper calyx <2 times as wide as others .. ......... .... ........................Gateomis Lamium .. ........... ..................Scutellaria I f calyx 2-lipped then obvious teeth on a t least one l i p .............. 6........ ...... .. ..... 4........... flowers various...... . the central p o r t i o n o f the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains.. ... forming small........ .................... Inflorescences i n leaf axi 1s and overtopped by leaves.......... ............................. .................. L e a f l i k e bracts below the flowers abruptly narrowed t o a long point . .Lycopus ......C........ Inflorescences a t stem ends and not overtopped by leaves .....12 Upper p a i r of stamens Longer than lower pair................ ......... our m r s nearly always have a 2-lobed corolla............. ............... .. 1.... 15.... ..................8 Plants annuals ...10 blades mostly widest near base................6 6....... .............. ... stamens mostly not extending beyond c o r o l l a l i p s Leaves with petioles.. i n habitats that are wet or moist only i n the spring................................ The small............ ......... A l l of our collections have been made south of Lolo a t various charnels and sloughs of the B i t t e r r o o t River floodplains.. ... ....4 Corolla nearly r a d i a l l y symnetrical and 4 lobed... ....... 10.. 10.LABIATAE leaves.. .. Canada St......... .... .. ...... barely clasp the base.. 9 Plants peremials Leaf Leaf blades roughly triangular t o heart-shaped t o almost r ound... 11. ... .. ... 4...................Agastache Leaf margins nearly completely lacking teeth or Lobes ..... ..... ....2 ... ... ... 8...... .. ..... ........ without black dots..........3 Corolla 2-lipped ( b i l a t e r a l l y symnetrical) and usually 5-lobed.Glecoma Upper p a i r of stamens equaling o r shorter than lower pair. open colonies. Anther sacs widely divergent or placed end t o end......................S atureja Anther sacs para1 l e t (nearly so) and glabrous (nearly so).................... .. ..... ................ . .... ............. Leaves are oblong t o Lance-shaped. Flowers are bisexual and b i l a t e r a l l y symnetrical.. John's-wort n It has short Canada St.... ..........5 Corolla r a d i a l l y symnetrical or nearly so....... 16 .. ........... 1. ........ ................... ........................ 13. ....... . ........... 9............... 8.. .......1ipped. Dracocephalm ... ..l i v e d perennial and less than 25 a (10 i n ) t a l l .. Eastern North America..... 5. and upturned flowers are 2-4 mn across and have yellow petals that are s l i g h t l y longer than the sepals. .. ....... 5-15 mn long.. ... ................... 9............................ll . m w r u s L Leaves having rounded teeth ... . flowers longer than pedicels.13 Leaves deeply and sharply Lobed.. dotted with glands secreting aranatic o i l s ............. 14............ 2...........-14 15 .............. stems nearly always white-woolly ......... .. lance.. Johnas-wort i s a s h o r t .................................... flowers densely clustered i n leaf a x i l s . inconspicuous flowers are about equally long...... shorter than pedicels .. .. 2.. rhizomes and grows erect.....Prunella Leaves toothed..........Salvia Bracts without a long point .. Petals and sepals o f the pale yellow. .. .................. .... . 7.........t o egg-shaped......... s t r i k i n g l y attractive............. Mentha Corolla b i l a t e r a l l y symnetrical .................... 13....... ... Calyx 2-lipped..... . stamens prominently extending beyond c o r o l l a ...stems not white-woolly .............. .. and east t o MT.. t o Baja Cal.. 14.....................5-7 mn long ............................................ ...... .... 1... ................................ occasionally with h a i r s on margi ns.... .Marrubiun Calyx teeth 5 o r fewer......................... .... ...... several per axil...... John's-wort come from the v i c i n i t y o f Lost Horse Creek.

I t sprouts from slender.. b r i s t l e l i k e h a i r s and stalked glands cover leaves and stems and are especially long and dense below the upper nodes. Growd I v y This plant i s a Lax-stemned t o prostrate.. Dragonhead f DracoceDhalun ~ a r v ilorun Nutt...C. decunbent or semi-prostrate stems sprout from short. Lami un L. Calyx with 15 raised nerves and non-glandular h a i r s <<I mn Long (non-stalked glands may be present) . Glecoma L. This plant requires disturbance.. Leaves are triangular t o somewhat heart-shaped and r e s d l e those o f stinging nettle.. B. up t o 1. The terminal inflorescence of small purple flowers i s dense and spikelike. Lower stem Leaves are reduced and wither early.l i v e d p e r e m i a l are y t o 60 cm (24 i n ) ... up t o 50 cm (20 i n ) t a l l .C. Ground i v y i s a comnon garden weed native t o Eurasia... the uppermost subtended by much reduced Leaves. with rounded teeth.... D ragonhead The s o l i t a r y or clustered sterns o f t h i s biennial o r s h o r t .. Leaves have petioles and blades with coarse.. low-elevation moist sites.leaved Horsemint Nettle-leaved horsemint i s a fibrous-rooted p e r e m i a l with m u l t i p l e stem.... From s. prominently veined. anplexicaule ..... MN and w. qqxr leaves are Lance-shaped or oblong t o e l l i p t i c a l with spine-tipped teeth. and i t i s not u n c m n around Big Creek Lake and along several t r a i l s i n the northern p o r t i o n o f the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains... I t has been collected near Missoula.. purpureum C. rough t o the touch. Henp Nettle Henp N e t t l e This amual has sinple or branched steins... Known from n.. Galeopsis t e t r a h i t L.. A few v i o l e t .. I t i s now well-established across the U... Galemsis L....... The flowers. ground-hugging and nodally rooting stems or shallow rhizomes. The glabrous or h a i r y leaf blades are b l u n t l y heart-shaped t o kidney-shaped..... Otherwise i t i s an occasional garden weed i n the B i t t e r r o o t Valley and Missoula... Giant -hyssop Agastache u r t i c i f o l i a (Benth.. Agastache C Layton Horsemint.(l) Leaves subtending lowest flower clusters have petiole.(2) C.. H e n p n e t t l e i s n a t i v e t o Europe and occurs here as a weed o f meadows and other moist sites. and s.. Leaves subtending lowest flower clusters are sessile.. 1. The stalked. B. b l u r t teeth. w.. a t Medicine Hot Springs and i n the f o o t h i l l s o f the Sapphire Range... perennial.... w..S... Dracocmahalun L.... with d i s t i n c t i v e bracts that are large.. t o germinate.) Kuntze Nett l e . 1. ID..LAB I ATAE 16. The prominently nerved calyx has 5 f irm.. Dragonhead occurs i n open.. are crowded i n t o a dense.. From se. glandular hairs. I n our area i t t h r i v e s i n the protection o f shrubs of gardens and parks... t a l l and r i s e from a taproot. This plant has a strong minty fragrance... Spreading. Pinkish-purple flowers are borne i n whorls and are sessile i n upper leaf axi ls.5 m (60 i n ) t a l l ... and s p i k e l i k e inflorescence... weak taproots..b l u e flowers are whorled i n leaf axi 1s..N e t a Stachys Calyx lacking 15 raised nerves but having same stalked... h a i r of galea purple or rose. Pinkish-purple flowers are whorled i n a x i l s o f ordinary o r modified leaves (bracts). whorled...... with white c o r o l l a and purplish-tinged calyx.. over 1 mn l ong... and MT south t o CO and CA (where i t reaches the coast)... I t i s comnon i n lush meadows from the f o o t h i l l s t o the s b l p i n e . Sask... 16. B... NE... WA... such as f i r e or scarification... Ground I v y Glecoma hederacea L.... spiny lobes. surviving without i r r i g a t i o n . Henbi t Our representative of t h i s genus are a l l weedy annuals of Eurasian o r i g i n . O and east through R most of ID t o s.C. and toothed with a s t i f f b r i s t l e a t the t i p . Several ascending. t o n. galea hairs usually white . A Large population i s known from North Kootenai Lake t r a i l .

. seeds mostly 4 . and NC...C... encountered frequently on the shores o f the B i t t e r r o o t River..... which i s usually simple or occasionally branched... 1. comnon i n eastern MT on a l k a l i n e f l a t s .... from a short rhizome or rootstock......2 Leaves with short petiole. east t o Newf.... east N t o CO. The weedy red henbit has a spotty d i s t r i b u t i o n across the U...... From B.. a r i s e from a h a i r y base... outward o r forward directed teeth. Flowers are white and 3-5 mn long.. A l l leaves are borne on the stem and are palmately c l e f t and coarsely toothed. 20-60 cm (8-24 i n ) t a l l .. calyx lobes merely pointed. Motherwort Motherwort Motherwort i s a fibrous-rooted perennial with several stems.... The pale pink flowers have an upper l i p that i s prominently white-hairy.....S. The white or pinkish corolla... t o CA....LABIATAE 1.. ... Red Henbi t A l l leaves of red henbit have petioles and rounded teeth o r serrations... 1... Motherwort.... CA........ Leaf l i k e bracts subtending the margins. From A east t o Newf. Corollas are white and 2-3 mn long... well established i n North America.......5-1. and Sask...... americanus Leaves sessile or nearly so and having coarsely serrate margin. coarse..... Wholly east o f the Cascades. A 2... M ... asper mostly >l. Our collections were taken on the banks o f M i l l e r Creek..... 5 mn long (1) C.. n... not longer than the mature seeds Calyx lobes tapered t o a long point... They a r i s e from thickened. They are gradually reduced and less divided above so that uppermost ones are small and o f t e n entire.. MT..... non-aromatic. Leaf blades have i r r e g u l a r l y spaced...... Lycows m i f l o r u s Michx. a r i s e from sturdy rhizomes. Water Horehomd Leaves with short petioles and Stems. Habitat i s comnonly wet t o moist substrates of lake shores and r i v e r banks.. Bugleweed Water horehomds are native.. Calyx lobes blunt o r b l m t l y acute. 2...5 m (20-60 i n ) t a l l .. i s a frequent feature o f our gardens and f i e l d s but i s only sporadically established across the U... irregular.. and whorled i n the a x i l s of reduced upper stem leaves. rounded teeth on the The flowers are borne mostly on the lower portion of the stem. Lycows a s w r Greene Rough B u g l e w d Stems are 20-80 cm (8-32 i n ) t a l l with spreading h a i r s along the 4 angles. Northern Bug1weed This plant has d i s t i n c t tubers and s o l i t a r y stems that are s l i g h t l y roughened and f i n e l y h a i r y with slender runners near the base.. Those o f lower stem have a broader base and are separated by 1-few elongated internodes from the uppr leaf p a i r s that are more heartshaped with shorter petioles. B....C... i r r e g u l a r l y incised t o toothed or pinnately divided.. surpassing the mature seeds .. slender teeth or pinnate lobes.... A .. They are densely whorled i n the a x i l s of the upper 1eaves.. I t i s uncomnon here but more Rough bugleweed has been collected only along the Clark Fork River. 3.. Lamiun amplexicaule L...5-5. Lamiun purwreun L....... and clasping....... K south t o nw.. south t o C and FL.S...... tuberlike rhizomes. Leaves are broad-based.. 2... flower clusters are broad-based.. and coarsely toothed. without stalks.. The white o r pinkish-purple flowers are small.. IA. Leaf p e t i o l e s are very short o r nearly absent. ID.. south of Missoula... calyx lobes somewhat awn-tipped. Comnon Henbi t Camnon henbit has p e t i o l a t e leaves that are r o W t o cordate with shallow... 3. seeds ( 2 ) L.......... 0. from s. i s d i s t i n c t l y longer than the calyx... without petioles. Our most comnon water horehound. . rhizomatous perennials with a1 1 leaves set on the main stem. 1... 2. an Asian weed..5 mn l ong.. Comnon henbit i s a ubiquitous weed of f i e l d s and waste places. R .. sessile. u n i f l o r u s .5 mn long.(3) C... Lycows m r i c a n u s Muhl. Leonurus L Leonurus cardiaca L -. Water Horehound. Lycopus L..

$$ ?.C-. anagalloides I. H. Gleccrna hederacea q.? raI- j. Dracocephalum parviflorum 257 . majus m. Hypericum formosum k. Lamium amplexicaule n.& . ! *. H. Agastache urticifolia o. Galeopsis tetrahit p.

. r Mint Leaves serrate and borne on the main stein. I t i s known from waste areas i n the v i c i n i t y of Missoula and Victor. Small. with 10 recurved and hooked teeth that become burs a t maturity... Leaves are p e t i o l a t e and broadly e l l i p t i c a l t o nearly round... bottom lands. d r y t o moist foothi 11 slopes. I t can be confused with 2 other mints. up t o 1 m (40 i n ) t a l l . Wild mint i s a c o r n native plant o f wet s o i l s o f our valleys... t o 70 cm (28 i n ) t a l l ... This i s a c i r c h r e a l species.......... I t i s found on stream and d i t c h This vigorous European species i s an escapee from cultivation. a t t r a c t i n g bees and b u t t e r f l i e s o f many kinds.. s ~ i c a t a . I t i s used as an herb i n t r e a t i n g c e r t a i n diseases and as an additive t o beer and wines.... a r i s i n g from shallow spreading rhizomes.. Horehound Horehound Several stems.t a s t i n g and heavily aromatic weed o f Eurasian origin.. that could occur i n the v i c i n i t y o f abandoned homesteads. Catnip Catnip Catnip i s a taprooted perennial with several.... I t s f o l i a g e i s so thoroughly densely h a i r y as t o be l i k e f e l t ..... 30-100 cm (12-40 i n ) t a l l ...... The upper c o r o l l a l i p i s 2-lobed. bluish..... with short t o long.... Pink t o white flowers are densely clustered i n whorls a t the end o f stems. t o 1 m long. white hairs.. Wild Bergamot.... Wild Mint. e l l i p t i c a l .. 1... the top o f which has 5 short. F i e l d Mint Wild mint i s a simple or sparsely branched peremial. Monarda L... spiny lobes covered with dense. A l l leaves are confined t o the stem and are p e t i o l a t e with triangular t o egg-shaped blades that are coarsely toothed. y.... always a t lower elevations. leaf undersides that are h a i r y along main veins. . .. Lavender flowers are arranged i n whorls i n leaf a x i l s of the middle and upper stem. i n U. sloughs and i r r i g a t i o n ditches. separated by normal internode distances and subtended by ordinary leaves.. N w established throughout North o America..... A l l herbage.... Sepals are fused i n t o a ribbed tube. This handsome native i s strongly aromatic. and VA. 2. Mentha arvensis L. rounded teeth. Widespread worldwide.... Nepeta c a t a r i a L. small. Beebalm Wild bergamot has many. most dense along rivers. mostly prostrate. Horehound i s a b i t t e r ...... Horsemint. Horsemint.. and on rocks1 ides and forest A openings.... .. white or purplish flowers are arranged i n dense whorls i n upper leaf axils.. All h 1....... i n open ponderosa pine stands.. Whorls of flowers crowded i n t o terminal.. sparse marginal teeth and lance-shaped t o e l l i p t i c a l blades that taper t o the apex. 1 r o t u n d i f o l i a gnd M. Marrubiun vulgare L. unbranched. This Eurasian species was introduced long ago and i s now widespread across North America... and erect stems. spikelike inflorescences and subtended by inconspicuous bracts 2 Mentha p i w r i t a Whorls o f flowers not terminal but set i n leaf axi ls. banks. Monar& f i s t u l o s a L. extending south as f a r as CA... especially the undersides o f leaves...... Lavender or rose-purple flowers are aggregated i n dense terminal heads. branched. I t generally occurs no more than 2 miles upstream beyond canyon mouths. Scattered populations occur i n waste places i n our valleys..... 1.. spikelike inflorescences.. erect stems.S. Mentha -L.. Calyx tubes are less than 6 mn long.... 1 1 arvensis .o r yellowish-white flowers are less than 6 inn long and set i n terminal..LABI ATAE Marrubiun L. The densely whorled. south t o G and west t o the Rocky Mountain region.. and ascending a t the tips.... Leaves are sharp-tipped... s are d i s t i n c t l y aromatic p e r e m i a l herbs from creeping rhizomes. spreading hairs...... while the lower i s broad with small.. Peppermint Peppermint i s a smooth t o glandular perennial... profusely glandular and confined t o the main stem.. NM.. Mentha p i w r i t a L.. Flowers are arranged i n whorls. i s white-woolly.. . It i s comnon on open. shallowly toothed. Monarda Wild Bergamot.. Leaves have short petioles. From Que.. a r i s e from a stout taproot... t o 50 cm (20 i n ) t a l l .. Nepeta L. and moist roadsides.. MO.

Lycopus americanus u. Marrubium vulgare s. asper v. Leonurus cardiaca t. L. Lamium purpureum w. L uniflorus 259 .r.

The few leaves are petiolate. Showy pink or purple flowers. and lance. 20-60 cm (8-24 i n ) t a l l . This species occurs infrequently i n moist. B. Lowermost leaves have long p e t i o l e s that wither and f a11 early. and the inflorescence i s subtended by conspicuous. C i r c h r e a l . I t i s a Mediterranean native found i n the U. clear blue with white pencilled Lines. wet and g r a v e l l y banks of the B i t t e r r o o t and Clark Fork rivers. Our A populations are the eastern o u t l i e r s of the species. Self-heal.t o narrowly egg-shaped leaves. t o Lush meadows and pastures and open t o moderately dense woodlands. Prunella w l s a r i s L. with spreading hairs. Ph~sostegiam r v i f l o r a Nutt. extending i n North America as f a r south as CA and AZ. on the B i t t e r r o o t Valleyas west side. Savory The woody rhizome o f yerba buena gives r i s e t o prostrate. 10-12 mn long.S. and mostly eggshaped t o rotund. Clear-eye Clary i s a coarse biennial. from lawns and roadsides. Whorled. ascending branches. Satureja douslasi i (Benth. Skullcap i s known i n our area from several locations on Low. Flower shape i s s c p e r f i c i a l l y l i k e that o f Penstemon. terminal. acuninate and red-tinged bracts 1-3 cm Long. Salvia L. Savory Yerba Buena. Prune1l a L. are arranged s i n g l y i n the a x i l s o f small bracts i n a terminal. The upper Leaves are progressively reduced and shorter-petioled toward the stem t i p . I t has a broad amplitude. where i t i s a weed. ID. Dragonhead Purple Dragonhead Purple dragonhead i s a peremial. closely related species with larger flowers.C. sessi le.) Briq. . are 1.tipped. virginiana. Mostly east o f the Cascade Range. up t o 1 m (40 i n ) Long. spikelike inflorescence. Salvia sclarea -. mostly wet meadows. P. Heal-a1 1 This plant has 1-several decumbent t o prostrate steins from a fibrous rooted. and the upper ones gradually decrease i n size toward stem tips. white or purplish flowers are borne s i n g l y i n the leaf a x i l s . Scutellaria galericulata L. t h a t bear short. short rhizome or caudex. Leaves are blunt-toothed. have very short petioles. Flowers.5-2 cm Long and s o l i t a r y i n the Leaf a x i l s . nearly sessile.L. Self-heal i s a cosmopolitan plant o f mesic habitats. i s o f t e n planted i n gardens. many o f which (especially i n inflorescence) are gland. as i n c a t t l e pastures. Skul lcap Sku1lcap Skullcap i s a rhizomatous perennial with single or branched stems t o 50 cm (20 i n ) t a l l . south t o C and as f a r east as n. Small. Satureja L.5-1. nodally rooting stems. lance. bracteate.t o broadly egg-shaped. The blunttoothed. Population levels are highest where disturbance i s comnon. These e n v i r o m n t s are consistent with i t s general a f f i n i t y f o r wet sites. aaobedientplantla. i n disturbed areas. The plant has been collected only near the road along lower Fred Burr Creek. Low areas and wet meadows along the B i t t e r r o o t and Clark Fork rivers. Sage Clary. e n t i r e or obscurely toothed. 3-5 cm (1-2 i n ) long.LAB I ATAE Physostegia Benth. blue flowers are d i s t r i b u t e d on the upper branches. headlike cluster. A l l Leaves are confined t o the stem and are sessile and Linearly oblong t o oblong-elliptical. 0. Occasionally the stem forks j u s t below the inflorescence giving i t a 2-forked appearance. A very similar. The lower ones wither early. Heal-all Self -heal.5 m (20-60 i n ) t a l l . They are d i s t r i b u t e d a t the base and along the stem or sometimes only on the stem. Scutel l a r i a L. with sturdy stems a r i s i n g s i n g l y from a rhizome. Yerba h a has been collected on disturbed s o i l near Trapper Creek T r a i l i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains Normally t h i s plant i s found i n coniferous forests from w. I t a s f o d along B i t t e r r o o t pack t r a i l s as high as the mid-subalpine zone. Blue-violet flowers are whorled i n a dense.

piperita z. Monarda fistulosa a Nepeta cataria b. M.x. Mentha arvensis y. Physostegia parviflora 261 .

.......4 4 o r more pinnately attached l e a f l e t s per leaf ............ flowers i n rounded clusters or 6 narrow. have an obvious midvein extending t o t i p and sometimes bear t e n d r i l s (slender..... ............... downward-pointing h a i r s on the angles....... only r a r e l y trees or annuals.......... .... r a r e l y shrubby and then without spines or p r i c k l e s ......... Leaves with grasping....................... calyx lobes awl-(needle) shaped 13 Plants not Like above.. which are spikelike...... the lower ones are a x i l l a r y t o the Leaves. a c i r c u n b r e a l species.. P e t i o l e o f terminal Leaflet longer than that of other leaflets........ NV.. pod with hooked prickles :..................... 11 ........... s t y l e long-hairy only a t the tip.. 5 Creeping or erect plants. cushionlike plants.........Meli lotus Plants are trees or shrubs with spines or prickles.......... Stachvs p a l u s t r i s L....................... petals white o r ye1 low........... the largest upper one termed the %annerll........................... are arranged i n elongated...... They have mostly alternate or basal and compaud leaves subtended by stipules....... which covers the stamens and style.............Coronilla Flowers mostly i n racemes......... Pods straight.... A and NM....8 Plants herbaceous.......... Plants with stem leaves...... long clusters. sometimes s o l i t a r y or paired when plants lack stem leaves 10 ..... petals pink t o Lavender with reddish-purple lines......3 Flowers pale yellow....... l e a f l e t s mostly 4 cm broad..... Z LEGWINOSAE ( FABACEAE) Pea Fami l y Our members o f the pea family include mostly perennial herbs and shrubs........ 2 . ..... Hedge nettle. green and fused a t the base but with f r e e tips... The inflorescence consists o f whitetriangular lance-shaped t o e l l i p t i c a l .................... conspicuously hairy............. lacking s i l v e r . c o i l e d outgrowth o f stem o r f o l i a g e used as support organ)....Robinia Flowers a l l a r i s i n g from one point.... ....... . reddish-purple flowers i n several whorls. petals yellowish o r blue-purple....... stalkless and crowded i n a convex head... .... ........ wings < 1/2 as long as Onobrynchis keel...........) valleys where i t competes successfully with graminoids...9 ............. east t o New England... 20-70 cm (8-28 in) t a l l ............ headlike o r unbranched clusters.. t o OR.... Leaves are nearly sessile...... .. Keel petal narrowed a t t i p t o a slender beak................................ rounded clusters............... i s most comnon on floo*lain wet s i t e s of our lower r i v e r Our plants belong t o the v a r i e t y p i l o s a (Nutt..5-9 cm (1-4 i n ) long. the 2 Lateral ones are the I8wingsl1 and the 2 lowermost petals are fused a t t h e i r Lower margins t o form a b o a t l i k e structure..................... P e t i o l e o f terminal l e a f l e t absent o r not Larger that those o f other leaflets................... petals white or yellowish... The f r u i t i s a 1............. o r short................ thimble1 ike.. Sepals are 5... bisexual and b i l a t e r a l l y symnetrical......................... ................ not tufted. Leaflets are usually entire...... and 3... ..... Leaves with silvery-white h a i r s ........ shrubs........t o many-seeded pod (legume) that opens along the 2 fusion l i n e s o f the ovary wall.............. under magnification leaves obviously dotted with glands.....Caraqana Leaflets nunber mostly 5-13.......................... Hedge nettle......Stachys L......... Flowers.. inflorescence not over 5 cm long...5 cm broad.........3 palmately attached l e a f l e t s per leaf ......... ........................ Plants with 1-seeded pods.... trees....... pods variously oriented 12 .... s t y l e long-hairy along whole upper side.............. Medicago Pods curved o r coiled.................... I n North America from AK.................. simple t o branched t e n d r i l s a t the t i p Leaves Lacking tendrils..................................... flowers i n &me .............. often glandular perennial...................... dotted............ plants may or may not have stem leaves.... with stems that have Long............................... a t least a t bud base.. 7 Astragalus Densely tufted........ inflorescence i s a Loose raceme >5 cm long..Lathyrus Vicia Flowers purple-blue........... .. Fern. while the upper ones are subtended by progressively reduced bracts....................... Most corollas consist o f 5 petals...................... leaf l e t s o f t e n >1....... cushionlike......... T r i f o l iurn spherical...... Uounduort Hedge Nettle Hedge n e t t l e i s a rhizomatous......w h i t e pubescence..............Glycyrrhiza Plants lacking the above features... Leaflets nunber mostly 11-21..... the ltkeelll....................................................... plants lacking stem leaves or having pods reflexed Ox~tropis toward base o f stem Keel petal not beaked..................................

Salvia sclarea g. Stachys palustris e.c. Prunella vulgaris d. Satureja douglasii f. Scutellaria galericulata .

....... Astragalus L.... Leaf l e t s spine-tipped and ca......... membranous o r leafy appendages a t the juncture of the Leaf with the stem (stipules)........ sometimes Lined or spotted with blue..........(9) A..... Pods are variously shaped and textured and are o f t e n a t least p a r t i a l l y divided i n t o two seed chanbers................ .. drumnondii Flowers 6-12 mn Long... flowers not tinged with blue or purple ......... hairy 6 A... lavender................ There are 10 stamens............... The drooping................................... 8-12 mn Long................ i t i s m l i k e l y that any of these species are poisonous here.... h y l o d r i l u s (Rydb..............11 Flowers 6-8 mn long....... canadensis Flowers 18-25 mn long.............................. Flowers sometimes yellow or cream............13........... but the stems are greater than 15 c (6 i n ) t a l l .......3 Flowers mainly blue.............. Astrasalus miser Dwgl....... thus the comnon name.......... miser Flowers 20-30 mn long.. Flowers white with blue penciling..... Stems erect o r s l i g h t l y curved a t the base. pod s t r a i g h t and broadly c y l i n d r i c a l At Least some o f the stems prostrate a t the base. valleys and montane zones and occurs up t o the subalpine zones i n the northern 3/4 o f our area... ...... plants of dry grasslands ..... and the united lower petals (keel) are rounded or broadly pointed......... ( 3 ) A.....(8) A..(5) adsurgens A................. Keel usually longer than or equalling banner and wing petals.. 1 mn wide. pod crescent-shaped 1. miser ....... The 3-10 spreading flowers are borne i n each Loose inflorescence...............) Barneby has sirrple.. The few o r numerous...... 5-30 mn Long... plants mostly of forest openings ...t o gray-hairy... flowers tinged with blue or purple.. M i lkvetch. .. basifixed h a i r s on the foliage. Locoweed Our species o f mi lkvetch are p e r e m i a l herbs mostly with Leaves that are pinnately divided i n t o several or numerous Leaf lets.... aleinus Pods glabrous t o sparsely hairy....................... ..........6 Flowers 12-18 mn long..7 Foliage and f r u i t s densely white... Since seleniferous s o i l s are rare o r absent i n our area................ only 11 occur i n our area..Astragalus ......(lo) A..9 Pods densely black-hairy. inflexus Flowers 13-20 mn long............ cibarius Weedy M i [kvetch This variable species has prostrate t o erect stems up t o 30 cm (12 i n ) t a l l from a simple t o extensively branched root crown................. microcystis ...... and m ............ stems usually erect or nearly so pods densely Stems usually a r i s i n g s i n g l y a t the ends o f long.... 8-12 mn l ong................ pealike flowers are borne on short stalks of narrow inflorescences that a r i s e from the a x i l s o f the cpper Leaves....(2) A.( 8) ............. Var................ stems often erect or merely curved a t the base ..... The upper petal (bamer) i s usually the longest.................... Var. serotinus (Gray) Barneby also has basifixed hairs............7 A... plants Low and mat-forming..........(1) A........ Many o f the species w i 11 extract seleniun from the soi 1 and concentrate t h i s poisonous element i n t h e i r foliage... f r u i t s pendulous............. The leaves are 3-16 cm (1-6 i n ) long with 9-17 linear t o nearly oval Leaflets.. pod not constricted between seeds..(11) A. 2-Lobed i n cross section..... The f o l i a g e i s glabrous or covered with sinple h a i r s that are attached a t the base (basifixed) or near the middle (dolabriform) and thus appearing 2-branched.... Locoweed...................(4) A............4 (1) A.......... or purple............. Although there are approximately 50 species o f Astragalus i n Montana..................... kentrophyta .......... woolly i n appearance................ not woolly .. Flowers 13-30 mn l ong.. >I2 mn Long ............................. 2 Flowers mainly white or yellow.. ..... rhizomelike rootstocks.. f r u i t s erect. H&sarm Keel shorter than both bamer and wings.. a t Least a t the base.......... pods nearly glabrous t o sparsely h a i r y 12 .... There are small...... pod conspicuously constricted between the seeds....... f lattened-cylindrical pods are glabrous or h a i r y and 20-30 mn long... The white flowers............ pods more elongated.. agrestis Stems clustered on a short-branched rootcrown.............................. stems mostly Less than 15 I t i s comnon i n grasslands and open forests i n the cm (6 i n ) t a l l ....... pods egg-shaped. Foliage i s sparsely t o densely covered with simple or dolabriform hairs................. and Lower petals (keel) 8-10 mn long. 13........ A.. and only 1 i s cannon and widespread..5 Inflorescence short and headlike.......... Leaflets >1 mn wide and not spine-tipped ........ have blue lines on the upper petals and purple tipped Lower petals.. stems prostrate... appressed-hairy. stems prostrate f o r much of t h e i r length Flowers 7-12 mn long..... e l l i p t i c a l i n cross section . cibarius Inflorescence much longer than wide......... purshii Foliage and f r u i t s nearly glabrous t o sparsely...............

U. with curved or erect bases a r i s i n g from creeping underground rootstocks. N . egg-shaped i n outline. Much o f Can. spreading o r drooping flowers are 12-18 mn long.the southeast p a r t I t i s l o c a l l y comnon i n of our area. t o CA. 2-lobed. They are 10-30 mn long and yellow with a purple spot on the t i p o f the lower petals. and w. The 10-30 flowers are borne a t a spreading angle i n the open inflorescence.C. They a r i s e s i n g l y from the ends o f long. m r t o n i i (Nutt. I t i s infrequent i n the montane and lower subalpine zones i n . The 30t o 100-flowered inflorescence i s congested i n flower. North America t o OR. Flowers are bluish-purple and 14-18 mn long with a s l i g h t l y reflexed upper petal. and M . Foliage i s densely covered with long. p r a e t e r i t u s Barneby has dolabriform h a i r s and narrow leaflets. 2. The foliage i s covered with appressed hairs. Leaves are 4-10 cm (2-4 i n ) long with 11-19 lance-shaped leaflets. Foliage i s grayish-hairy. .C.LEGUMIN S E OA the keel i s 6-8 mn long.1 Standing M i lkvetch Standing milkvetch has clustered stems. and i t may occur elsewhere i n our area. Purple milkvetch i s infrequent i n moist meadows on both sides o f the B i t t e r r o o t River. 10-30 c (4-12 i n ) t a l l . Our plants are var. The upper petal i s reflexed and h a i r y on the back. and much wider than high i n cross section. purshii. I t i s more camnon i n the northern part o f our area.. east t o Man. concinnus Barneby. c. east t o Alta. and f o l i a g e that i s nearly glabrous m t o grayish with dolabriform hairs. Locally c m n i n grasslands around Missoula i s the above described var. Yuk. long. 3. The b r i g h t magenta t o deep purple flowers are 20-30 mn long and spreading t o ascending. A 5. dasyglottis Fisch. more or less c y l i n d r i c a l . I D t o w. grayish hairs.Hairy milkvetch has several prostrate or ascending stems up t o 50 cm (20 i n ) t a l l from a branched root crown. south t o MA. and 2-lobed i n cross section. [A. the montane and lower subalpine zones i n the southeast part of our area. Canada milkvetch has been found i n open forests i n some of the lower B i t t e r r o o t Momtain canyohs. I n the south-easterly part o f the B i t t e r r o o t Valley occurs the reddish-purple flowering D M var. t o CA. s t r i a t u s Nutt. 4. Astragalus p u r s h i i Dougl. [A.t o 19-flowered inflorescence i s somewhat congested and headlike. densely long. l i g h t grayish hair. Leaves are 10-20 cm (4-8 i n ) long with 13-29 broadly lance-shaped leaf lets. U t o Alta. east t o w. Var. Wool ly-pod M i [kvetch Woolly-pod milkvetch forms mats with prostrate stems up t o 10 cm (4 i n ) long from a branched root crow. and heart-shaped i n cross section. U and OR. and the foliage i s mostly glabrous.) Wats.. Astragalus adsurgens Hook. The 3-10 flowers are crowded i n a headlike inflorescence. and 3-4 mn wide. naked stalks. Astragalus canadensis L. underground rootstocks that may appear t o be rhizomes. The drooping. becoming more open i n f r u i t . black-hairy pods are 8-12 mn long. sausage-shaped. and SD. V CO. 10-30 cm (4-12 i n ) t a l l .1 Purple M i lkvetch This milkvetch has stems. Canada M i lkvetch t Stems ~po 80 cm (32 i n ) t a l l a r i s e s i n g l y or clustered from mdergrourd rootstocks. Occurs scattered i n grasslands of the f w t h i 11s on both sides o f the Bi t t e r r o o t Valley. B. Hairy M i (kvetch . The 6.c. The s l i g h t l y curved pod i s 15-30 mn long. The 7t o 20-f lowered inflorescence i s congested and headlike a t the ends of long. NV.. Alpine M i lkvetch Alpine m i lkvetch has stems. Leaves are 5-15 cm (2-6 i n ) long with 13-23 e l l i p t i c a l leaflets. The bluishThe black-hairy pod i s about 10 mn purple flowers are 13-19 mn long and held a t a nearly erect angle. The 15. ne. Astragalus aqrestis Dougl. B. Leaves are 4-12 cm (2-5 i n ) long with 9-23 b l u n t l y e l l i p t i c a l leaf lets. and heart-shaped i n cross-section.S. Astragalus alpinus L. and N . south i n w. The crescent-shaped pod i s 10-25 mn long and densely covered with long. IA and KS. MT. 8-12 mn long. This species i s infrequent i n moist meadows i n the B i t t e r r o o t Valley. Asia. This plant i s u n c m n i n meadows and on rocky ridges and slopes i n the subalpine zone of the M Sapphire Range south t o the Continental Divide. S . and N . that are usually curved a t the base. The f o l i a g e i s sparsely t o densely covered with appressed gray hairs. t o Alta. Circunpolar. erect pods are 8-20 mn yellowish.. The clustered leaves are 2-15 c (1-6 m i n ) long with 7-19 e l l i p t i c a l leaflets. 5-20 cm (2-8 i n ) t a l l . Astragalus inflexus Dougl. The thin-coated pods are f lattened-cylindrical. MN. white-hairy. south t o A N N M . 6. 7. The flowers are 7-12 mn long with l i g h t b l u i s h or lavender upper petals and darker lower petals. MT. The leaves have 15-29 broadly lance-shaped l e a f l e t s 7-18 mn long. The creamy-white o r The sparsely hairy. long.t o 80-flowered inflorescence i s congested and spikelike with the flowers held a t an ascending angle.

A. purshii d. A. Astragalus miser b. A. A.a. canadensis c. agrestis 266 . adsurgens f. inflexus e. A.

Siberian pea t r e e i s a stout shrub with p r i c k l e s near the base of buds. I t was collected i n the south of our area. along Hays-Moose Creek Road. DrumKwrdls m i lkvetch i s known only from grasslands on Mount Junbo north o f Missoula. raised here as a garden perennial and roadbank s t a b i l i z e r . (Not i l l u s t r a t e d ) . 11. Astragalus d r d i i Hook. This shrub i s o f t e n planted as a hedge i n towns but has been noted as scattered escapees.t o 15-flowered inflorescence i s congested and headlike. Mary's Peak west o f Stevensville and on Boulder Peak southwest of Darby. 25-35 mn long. Astragalus microcystis Gray Least Bladdery Milkvetch Least bladdery milkvetch has many prostrate t o ascending stems. The Leaves have 13-19 e l l i p t i c a l l e a f l e t s that are 5-15 mn long. CO and NE. east t o MT. Leaves have 5-9 Linear.C. The glabrous. Browse M i lkvetch Browse mi lkvetch has clustered stems up t o 30 cm (12 i n ) t a l l that are prostrate or curved a t the base. B. and wider than high i n cross section. This inconspicuous species has been found i n dry. Leaves are p i m a t e l y divided i n t o 11-15 l e a f l e t s that are oblong or e l l i p t i c a l . The leaves have 9-15 The have 5-12 spreading flowers that are pink t o deep purple narrowly e l l i p t i c a l Leaflets 5-15 mn long. This i s the only legme found i n the alpine zone o f the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. The The curved sharp-pointed flowers are 15-20 mn Long and v i o l e t . White t o pink corollas are 10-12 nin long. Astragalus cibarius Sheld. The f o l i a g e i s covered with appressed. t o ND. f r a n a widely branching root crown. D r d ' s M i lkvetch This milkvetch has several clustered stems up t o 80 cm (32 i n ) t a l l from a branched root crown. Astragalus kentrophyta Gray [A. Alta. A Caragana Raf. with 14-20 stalkless flowers emanating from a s i n g l e point. north of Missoula and Lantern Ridge above Lolo Creek. bean-shaped f r u i t s hang pendulous and are 20-40 mn long with a heart-shaped cross section. south t o CA. Crown vetch i s European.L GMN S E E U1 OA 8. The 1-4 yellow flowers are borne per leaf a x i l . O 9. I n our area. The f o l i a g e i s sparsely. The 4. and 6-8 mn long.. 3-10 mn Long. Leaves have 13-31 narrowly e l l i p t i c a l Leaflets 20-35 mn Long. The purple flowers. east t o MT and C . I D t o NV and UT. Foliage i s nearly glabrous t o appressed grayish-hairy. r i s e above the Leaves. The egg-shaped pods are 3-5 mn long and sparsely black-hairy. Coronil l a v a r i a L. and 1-2 cm Long.t o 3-flowered inflorescences. spine-tipped Leaf lets. This mi lkvetch occurs i n grasslands on the h i 11s north o f Missoula where i t begins t o bloom i n A p r i l . such as those on the Lee Metcalf National W i l d l i f e Refuge near Stevensville. are borne i n 1. and W . gently curving and up t o 5 cm (2 i n ) long. and Sask.p u r p l e t o nearly white with a dark keel. white or l i g h t yellow flowers 18-25 mn long. The long inflorescence has 20-50 spreading. gravelly soi 1 on Mount Junbo. 10-50 cm (4-20 i n ) long. The foliage i s grayish-hairy. Alta. The tpper petal i s l i t t l e reflexed f r a n the l a t e r a l petals. gray. gray hairs. . Coronilla L. T 10. Caragana arborescens Raf Pea Tree Siberian Pea Tree . T h i s t l e milkvetch has been found above t i h e r l i n e i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains on St. The papery. herbaceous perennial with spreading stems up t o 50 cm (20 i n ) Long. Our plants are var. The several-seeded pods are round i n cross-section. appressed h a i r y and somewhat fleshy. Flowering stems. acute t o trmcate. pods are glabrous o r sparsely hairy.] T h i s t l e Milkvetch This d i s t i n c t i v e milkvetch forms mats o f prostrate stems up t o 40 cm (16 i n ) wide and 3 cm (1 i n ) high. The upper petal i s reflexed nearly perpendicular t o the l a t e r a l petals. 3-7 mn Long and less than 1 mn wide.o r black-hairy pods are egg-shaped and 8-12 mn long. Crown Vetch Crown Vetch Crow vetch i s a hairless. inflated. south t o U and NM. F r u i t s (loments) are 4-angled. inplexus (Canby) Barneby.tesetarius Vats.

large and sheathlike on lower stem and narrow and pointed on upper stem. The typical pealike flowers have a keel much longer than wings and bamer.. Peavine.. r i g i d stems. found over the northern h a l f o f the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains and also i n the Sapphire Range.... From B.S. brownish pods are dense y set with hooked bristles.. and constricted between seeds..L G MI O A E U N SE Glycyrrhiza L.. up t o 80 c (32 i n ) t a l l . Sweetvetch Sweetvetches are ascending or erect.. extensive rhizomes give r i s e t o erect.. showy perennial with several stems. This species i s comnon i n open forest t o meadows o f subalpine and timberline habitats o f the Anaconda-Pintler Wilderness. Pods are 4-7 cm long and 4-7 mn broad.. The 20-100 flowers are pale yellow t o whitish.. are lance-shaped and up t o 14 cm (6 i n ) long with well developed tendrils.C. Hedysarun accidentale Greene Western sweetvetch i s an upright.... This n a t i v e o f Europe tends t o escape from cultivation.5-4 i n ) long.... Short... Mex.. found only i n moist.. This hairless....... Leaflets n u h e r i n g 2-4... Sweet Pea Sweet peas are vines...t o lance-shaped or e l l i p t i c a l and 3 . south t o WY and C . Yellow-brown glands also dot the underside o f the 11-19 lance-shaped leaf lets. Flowers are pink t o red.5-7...... r a r e l y white . mostly 2. ID..... 1.. The 9-21. From I D and MT.... Pods are f l a t .. from a sturdy root crown...(1) L. Flowers pale yellow t o whitish Flowers purple t o . not winged m stems... up t o 120 a (48 i n ) t a l l .... 80-200 cm (32-80 i n ) t a l l . s l i g h t l y hairy.. Lathyrus l a t i f o l i u s L... The 6-14 flowers are usually cream-colored ( t o greenishwhite)..... are egg.... 1... hairless. egg-shaped leaf l e t s are 1-3 cm long and upper surfaces have minute. branched stems. usually t a l l ...... 1. c o r o l l a red or purplish.. east t o Alta.. and UY.... A c m plant o f the subalpine zone.. brown translucent glands. open woodlands o f the Sapphire Range and lush meadows east o f the Bi t t e r r o o t River... t o Ont. erect. sulDhurescens 1 occidentale ... MA. n... naked s t a l k a r i s i n g from the upper leaf axils..... from open forests t o rocky ledges. N A Hedvsarun L..5 i n ) long with well developed and branching tendri 1s...... and TX.. East slope of Cascade Mountains from B. A 2. prominently veined... The pads have prominent network veination and a narrowly (mostly less than 1 mn) winged margin.. 1..... Wild l i c o r i c e i s comnon along lower creek bottoms and banks o f the B i t t e r r o o t R i ver and occurs scattered i n disturbed areas... woody crown. 2. (2) C.. persistent roadside populations e x i s t near Hamilton.. 30-60 cm (12-24 i n ) t a l l . They rupture a t these constrictions i n t o several 1-seeded segments. climbing o r supporting themselves on other vegetation from tendri 1s a t the ends o f thei r leaves. MT. Leaflets. Flowers are borne i n loose clusters well above the leaves. Licorice root n Deep.. that are covered with stalked or sessile glands.. Pods are 6-10 cm (2........ The 20-80 pendent flowers are b r i g h t purplish-red. south t o C .......... Fomd across Can. and the central states..... and rhizomatous with angled.. Leaves are as i n 1... and M . also i n the O W Cascades and the Olynpic ranges. Western Sweetvetch 1. and sparsely b r nched peremials... AZ. Leaflets...Pale ye1 low t o greeni-sh-white flowers are crowded along the t rminal p x t i o n ' o f the long.... Lathyrus ochroleucus Hook....... .. south t o ne. mostly 6 (4-8) i n nuher. . Appendages a t the base of the p e t i o l e s (stipules) are usually brown. rhizomatous perennial..7 cm (1....... Cream-flowered Peavine Cream-colored peavine i s 30-80 c (12-32 i n ) t a l l ... MT... each 1. Sulphur Hedysarun Sulphur hedysarun bears several... Hed~sarun sulDhurescens Rydb. . Glycyrrhi za l e ~ i d o t a Pursh Licorice Licorice... Lathyrus L. Established along railroads and highways across U. from m a taprooted. has broadly winged and c l i n b i n g stems.. c o r o l l a white o r cream-colored Leaflets nunbering 4-8.... This species approaches being rare i n our area. 2 H.5 X 4 cm.. ochroleucus .....C... l a t i f o l i u s Everlasting Peavine 1. occidentale except without glands......

v a r argenteus n. L ochroleucus r. H. Hedysarum occidentale o. Lupinus argenteus 269 . Lathyrus latifolius q. sulphurescens p.

....... t h e i r height surpassed by that of flowers.. but up t o 3 species may sometimes co-occur (e....... Lupinus l a x i f l o r u s Dwgl...... Both v a r i e t i e s occur i n t e r m i t t e n t l y from Blue Mountain.... lepidus .. blue........LEGUMIN S E OA Lwinus L..... collected on a l l the f o o t h i l l s around Missoula............ t h e i r petioles <3 times as long as petioles (1) L........... Group I.......... h e r e balsamroot i s also blooming................... along the east f r o n t of the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains south t o the Upper West Fork and the Continental Divide............. saclike tubular extension) or enlarged on one side........ sulphureus Basal leaves usually not present a t time o f flowering..... ...... t o C .. usually only a single lupine species i s dominant.. Lupinus sericeus Pursh Blue-bonnet Lupine.... t o NM... long and appressed hairs giving a s i l k y texture... flower stalks 0....... The calyx has a conspicuous spur or sac.......... (8) C. arbustus Dougl ....... or rose....6 Flowers i n loose racemes..(3) C.. The 7-11 l e a f l e t s are inversely lance-shaped with acute t o abruptly pointed or even rounded tips.............. often grayish steins.. 3... flower stalks often >4 mn long.......... I L . C...2-4 TI Banner only s l i g h t l y reflexed from wings t o form a narrow V opening o f <45 degrees Banner greatly reflexed from wings t o form a wide V opening o f 60 degrees o r more .. Most comnon flower color i s dark blue. The banner i s usually densely h a i r y on the back. p u s i l l u s 9 ......... Habitats include ponderosa pine forests t o subalpine R ridges....... Llpine Lupines are showy p e r e m i a l o r amual plants... Flowers.........I Spurred Lupine Spurred lupine i s a perennial with numerous erect t o spreading.......... 6 ) 1 w e t h i i ( ..... From O northeast t o Alta... 2.... s o f t hairs) on upper surface ... Several of our most comnon and broadly d i s t r i b u t e d species are included here............. i n our area reaching m a x i m development by l a t e spring Leaves are palmately divided i n t o 5 or more l e a f l e t s ........... ....... l a x i f l o r u s 4 .......... on Mount Jlmbo.... mostly 2-3 c Flowers are from white t o deep blue but long......... argenteus ....................5 I.... .... and the banner i s not g r e a t l y reflexed and mostly copiously h a i r y on the back t o above the center.......... blue and yellow........ t h e i r height surpassing that o f flowers .. whole h i l l s i d e s may appear blue or.... with petioles just shorter than t o about twice as long m as the blade........................ argenteus has greenish foliage....8 Basal leaves generally present when flowers are open and t h e i r petioles 3-5 times as long as leaflets (4) L.... On the open slopes above r i v e r valleys and i n the adjacent ponderosa pine stands.... depressus (Rydb.. east t o A the Rocky Mountains from Alta......... When profusely blooming.....) Hitchc.. MT............... are borne i n elongate narrow inflorescences......... The 6-9 l e a f l e t s are narrowly lance-shaped t o broadly inversely lance-shaped... Var.. Wholly east of the Cascades from B.. Magnification o f the flowers and hairiness of leaves and stems i s necessary f o r p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ..... apparently intergrading with i t ........ purple.. Calyx lacking a spur and not strongly swollen on one s i ........ ........(2) C.....3 Leafing mostly from stem... Plants annual.................. leucophvl lus Flowers densely clustered i n spikelike racemes. 2 Leaves nearly a l l basal...... Pods are flattened and hairy.(7) C.......... simple t o sparingly branched stems 30-50 cm (12-20 i n ) t a l l ........ . Lupinus argenteus Pursh S i l v e r y Lupine S i l v e r y lupine i s 15-40 cm (6-16 i n ) t a l l with simple t o f r e e l y branched...C..... o r e a r l y surmer and then fading....... west of Missoula. polyphyl lus Leaflets d e f i n i t e l y h a i r y (short..... north o f Missoula)............. Mount Sentinel and Waterworks H i l l ...7 .. Flower colors i s variable... 1.... has s i l v e r y foliage.... 5 ... r a r e l y white t o cream.... always with a hairless banner..... whi l e var.. Calyx with a spur (hollow... but tending on average t o have more and longer leaflets......... pods with 2 seeds Plants not annual..... . pods with >2 seeds. ............ These are s i m i l a r plants that are separated only with d i f f i c u l t y i n the f i e l d ..g....... argenteus..... t o along the eastern f r o n t o f the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains t o the Nez Perce Pass v i c i n i t y ... sericeus long..... It has been S i l k y lupine i s found from moist t o dry grasslands t o open upper subalpine sites.................. and SD..... S i l k y Lupine S i l k y lupine i s very s i m i l a r t o I....... with soft.................. Nearly a l l leaves are on the stem.... densely long-hairy.... Back surface of banner prominently h a i r y Most o f back surface of banner lacking or with inconspicuous hairs...... AZ......... Leaf l e t s lacking h a i r s on upper surface..

Astragalus alpinus h. kentrophyta k. A. drummondii I.g. A. A. microcystis . Coronilla varia m. A. Glycerrhiza lepidota j. cibarius i.

having been collected only twice. velvet lupine d i f f e r s from our other species by the very dense pubescence (tomenturn) of the stems and both leaf surfaces. WY. tapered inflorescence. burkei (Mats. Leaves are mostly basal.L. Backs o f the bamers are hairless t o inconspicuously hairy. from 3-6 times the blade length t o shorter than the blade.LEGUMINOSAE Our variety. Sulfur lupine i s rare i n our area. 5-20 cm (2-8 i n ) t a l l . 4. The 9-13 l e a f l e t s are e l l i p t i c a l t o inversely lance-shaped. some color variations occur. I n the high subalpine meadows o f the Selway-Bitterroot Divide. UY. and densely set i n i n d i s t i n c t whorls t o form a Long. polvphyllus. Our populations are disjunct from the main range o f the species.) C. Mount Junbo. Our plants are var. P r a i r i e Lupine. pseudoparviflorus (Rydb. also scattered near Burnt Fork o f the Bi t t e r r o o t River east o f Stevensvi 1l e and Victor. Vyeth's lupine has a robust.5-1. P e t i o l e length o f stem leaves i s sharply reduced upward. east t o ID.C. w. 4-10(15) cm (1. I t may occur as high as subalpine forests. The inflorescence i s long (15-40 cm).L. the lower ones with short. but most abundant i n MT and ID. From c. t o C I east t o Alta. utahensis (Uats. on Lantern Ridge i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. This native i s the f i r s t lupine t o flower and i s most comnon on the open. Plants appear whitish t o l i g h t gray and l i k e velvet t o the touch. grading with r i s i n g elevation t o the subalpine variety. . 8. MT. 9. M i l l e r Creek pine and Douglas-fir stands. East of the Cascades from W t o C . A 7. 40-60 cm (16-24 i n ) t a l l . A l l locations are i n the f o o t h i l l s and open woodland of the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains.. Shorter. I t i s the species from which the garden forms were derived. long. Bigleaf Lupine. ID.6-4 i n ) long. From B. I t i s also known from Lost Horse Creek south toward Lake C m and again south of Darby. grassy slopes around Missoula. i t occurs i n moist montane and subalpine meadows throughout our mountain ranges. Here are species that can be e a s i l y distinguished one from another i n the f i e l d .C. Bigleaf lupine i s a s t a t e l y plant with mbranched stems 0. Hitchc. and smooth on the upper surfaces. tapering t o a point and composed o f bluish t o v i o l e t flowers with smooth banners. Our variety. i t i s t y p i c a l o f hay meadows and other wet open habitats. Lupi nus tepidus Doug1 . Larger populations are knaun on the lower slopes of the B i t t e r r o o t A A Mountains. Washington Lupine 5. Wyethls Lupine L i k e C. up t o 20 cm (8 i n ) t a l l . The banners are only s l i g h t l y r e f lexed and t h i c k l y h a i r y over much o f the back. and south t o CO.and soft-hairy. 6. Mary's Road. East base of the Cascades t o central OR.5 m (20-60 i n ) t a l l . a t the head o f Rye Creek 'southeast o f Darby and north of Lolo Hot Springs. bigleaf lupine i s s t i l l our most lush and robust native species. Scattered populations occur near the o l d Stevensville r a i l r o a d s t a t i o n and along St. with short flowering stems. narrow. C and from the east slope A A Cascades f o o t h i l l s t o MT.) Smith & St. south t o C and east t o A MT. s i l v e r . polyphyllus) are somewhat dwarfed compared t o the western forms. and east end o f the Colunbia River Gorge. Group 11. I t occurs from the meadows south o f Missoula and Buckhouse Bridge t o the upper ends o f Lolo Creek and B i t t e r r o o t River Valleys. Flowers are blue or purple i n our area.) C. Hitchc. and CO. s t i f f and appressed hairs. smaller and e n t i r e l y smooth. south t o the northern f o o t h i l l s o f the B i t t e r r w t Mountains between Lolo and Florence.h a i r y peremial. Velvet Lupine U i t h simple t o branched stems from 30-70 cm (12-30 i n ) t a l l . P a c i f i c Lupine P r a i r i e lupine i s a dwarf. Lupinus w ~ e t h i iUats. unbranched stem. Flowers are small (8-10 mn long). Usually f o d i n moist habitats on both sides o f the Cascades from B. Rusty Lupine I t i s dwarfed. has inflorescences so short as t o be surpassed and almost concealed a t flowering time. but d i f f e r s by having leaves that are short-hairy on both surfaces and stems that are not hollow. John i s comnon i n lower elevation. spreading t o mat-forming. open ponderosa Populations are known from the Lower Rattlesnake. I t has been collected but once. and more d e l i c a t e appearing than other lupines. and NV. and southward along the Sapphire Range. Lupinus leucophyllus Dougl. from the usual blue-purple t o pink and even white. Sulfur Lupine Sulfur lupine i s distinguished from the above species by having basal leaves a t flowering time and leaf p e t i o l e s 3-5 times longer than the Leaflets. Flowering stalks are short with the tops o f . L u ~ i p s i 11us Pursh nus Rusty Lupine i s our only a m w l species. Flowers are deep blue with a hairless and sharply reflexed banner. UT. L u ~ i n u s sulphureus Dougl. and nw. NV. Even though the forms from east o f the Cascades (var. Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl. copiously h a i r y on both surfaces and have petioles 2 t o 5 times longer than blades. Requiring more moisture than other lupines. M t o ne. subsaccatus (Suksd.) Hitchc.

laxiflcrus u. sulphureus v. Lupinus sericeus t. L. L polyphyllus 273 .s. L.

. Flowers t y p i c a l o f legunes.. Plants deep-rooted peremials.. D E Medicago L. .... Melilotus o f f i c i n a l i s (L......... Pods are twisted. and W ...... branching perennial and amual plants with several erect t o decwbent stems. ..... toothed on the d i s t a l end.. Black medic has profusely branched. are inversely Lance. Me1ilotus M i 11. Inversely egg-shaped.. gromd.. Corol1ayellow.. 1.. and Can...( 2 ) M .L E UI O A N SE inflorescences s t i g h t l y exceeding t o considerably shorter than Leaf heights.. o f t e n nodding on f i n e individual stalks. Light blue t o deep bluishpurple flowers are crowded but not whorled i n the inflorescence. Mature blunt and toothed t i p . N .. are loosely arranged i n an inflorescence up t o 15 cm (6 i n ) long... rounded heads Less than 1 c long...(1 1 B.. the terminal segment evidently longer-stalked than the other 2. knobby surface.. Sweet Clover. i n our area i t i s fovd on roadcuts and other disturbed I t has been collected along the Elk Meadows Road. Flowers..... Lucerne A l f a l f a i s a more or less erect multiply-branched p e r e m i a l 30-100 cm (40 i n ) t a l l . with lance-shaped..... with reddish4 purple.......... Establ ished throughout U........t o wedge-shaped and narrowly tapered t o the base and have a r o w t o Stipules are entire.... Alfalfa.. Yellow Sweet Clover Physical characteristics of yellow sweet clover are those o f the genus description and key.. Medic This genus includes hairless. Corollas are pink t o lavender o r rose-red prominently ~ i ....... Leaves. A l f a l f a . m Mature pods are black and prominently veined with a s l i g h t s p i r a l twist. are divided i n t o 3 fine-toothed e l l i p t i c a l t o wedge-shaped Leaflets.. that end i n an abrupt slender t i p ... MT.. A l f a l f a i s comnonly planted f o r hay and has escaped along roads and i n pastures.. 1-3 times coi led. mostly 2-4 cm long..... creeping or d e c m t m t stems up t o 50 cm (20 i n ) long... about 3 mn long... Hop Clover 1. flowers 4 n long. Holy-clover Sainfoin i s a t u f t e d peremial. Leaves are divided i n t o 3 leaflets..... This Mediterranean native i s an abundant weed of roadsides and wasteland.. copiously branching and leafy annual and biennial plants with stems t o 2 m (80 i n ) t a l l .. Corolla white. Onobrychis Adans. 1.. . Onobrychis v i c i a e f o l i a Scop. pointed appendages (stipules) attached t o p e t i o l e bases.. Medicago L w l i n a L. pods are brown.. From c.. This European native has been introduced as stock feed...S. The terminal one i s wedge-shaped... o f f i c i n a l i s White Sweet Clover Characteristics o f white sweet clover are those o f the genus description and key.. 20-40 cm (8-16 i n ) t a l l . 2. a small population has become established near the Lower Skalkaho Road southeast of Hamilton. and have prominent net-patterned veinat ion.... Pods are t h i c k l y spindle-shaped.. 2..... Leaflets.. This European introduction i s a noxious lawn and garden weed and i s also l o c a l l y established i n waste places.. There are small... Yellow flowers are borne i n congested... east t o Alta....... Me1il o t This genus includes strongly taprooted... 1-2 cm long.... flowers 6-10 mn long . Leaf l e t s are mostly e l l i p t i c a l t o inversely egg-shaped and 5-20 m long. hairless. MA south t o CA and AZ.... Plants somewhat shallowrooted annuals... long-tapered t o the apex.. sometimes useful as pioneer plants on recently disturbed sites. Though generally f o m d i n sandy desert s o i l ..(I) l u x l l i n a 1 . Medicago sativa L. 1.. reddish-brown stipules. and attached t o petiole.) Lam.. 1-seeded f r u i t s are strongly h a i r y with a wrinkled. Leaves are p i m a t e l y divided i n t o 11-17 e l l i p t i c a l t o inversely lance-shaped Leatlc4c.S....podsmostlyobscurelycross-corrugated . This Eurasian native i s widely d i s t r i b u t e d as a weed over most of the U....... with a net-veined surface. with slender appendages (stipules) attached a t the base of the petiole.... sativa Black Uedic. Sainfoin Sainfoin..2 1.. 1.... pods net-veined..

L leucc~hyllus y. L. lepidus z.w. Medicago lupulina b. pusillus a. sativa 275 . Lupinus wyethii x. L. M.

... Leaves and stems a r i s e crowded from strong root crouns and taproots. pinkish or reddish... Simple. Granite and Beaverhead Counties meet.... are 3-20 cm (1-8 i n ) long.... that are 6-12 mn long and fused t o the p e t i o l e f o r over 1/2 t h e i r Length.. Several flowering stalks.. e i t h e r fleshy or bony Only 1 population i s recorded from our area.... pods are erect t o n spreadi ng. or cream (ochroleucus)....(1) Q besseyi ... the bamer i s obliquely erect and the keel i s prominently beaked.. Stipules united with p e t i o l e f o r a t Least 4 m or f o r > 1/2 t h e i r length..LEGW I O A N SE Oxytropis D.............. spikelike inflorescences... Both var.. Besseyls Crazyweed 1.. 2..... M 4........ spicata (Hook.....) Pendent-pod Crazyweed Pendent-pod crazyweed. purple.. and none occur i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains.. 2 Plants glanclular........ I n i t s overall range normal habitats range from lower elevation p r a i r i e t o t i h e r l i n e meadows. This species i s f o d on the west slopes o f West P i n t l e r Peak i n the Anaconda-Pintler Wilderness.3 Corolla white.. a l l clustered a t the base....... viscida . From M and c..... t u f t e d perennial. Si 1ky Crazyweed S i l k y crazyweed i s an erect............. 15-27 mn long and mostly b r i g h t yellow ( t o white)... . yellow...... besseyi.. with populations known from Three-mile.. especially on calyx lobes Plants not g l a n b l a r 3.. the free p o r t i o n usually longer.. well-drained meadows that may be wet i n e a r l y spring or flooded f o r short periods. Flowers are a b r i g h t magenta-purple............. less than 20 cm (8 in)..... Soft Rock.. a slender. O x ~ t r o p i s besseyi (Rydb.... Light purplish-blue flowers are borne i n narrow inflorescences.... has stems so short that usually a l l leaves are basal (some forms have l e a f y stems t o 30 cm t a l l ) ....... on both slopes of the Rocky Mountains. .) Barneby with lemon t o s u l f u r yellow corollas are p o t e n t i a l l y present i n our area. 1. are united with the p e t i o l e f o r 3/4 of t h e i r length..... Oxytropis i s s i m i l a r t o Astragalus but d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y by having a beaked keel and v i r t u a l l y lacking stem leaves............ where Raval t i .tufted. i n f l a t e d t o membranous o r leathery..... Locoweeds are tufted......... This t u f t e d perennial i s s i lvery-gray with appresssed h a i r s throughout.... Stipules are leafy and green.. Locoweed... Sticky Crazyweed This h i g h l y variable... Stipules f r e e or united with p e t i o l e f o r 1-4 mn... 2-7 cm (1-3 i n ) long... 2. are borne i n corrpact. the crest o f Mount J h .. occurs on the east side o f the Bi t t e r r o o t River on f o o t h i l l s o f the Sapphire T Range. Oxyt r o ~ i s e r i cea Nutt s .......... 3....... Oxytropis viscida Nutt........ white t o bluish-purple with the beak o f keel short and blunt...... with copious Long..... 3.... t u f t e d perennial with long.... Can. 10-30 mn long....... Pod walls are t h i c k (about 1 mn).C............. s i l k y h a i r s that give grayish cast t o the foliage.... usually less than 20 cm (8 i n ) t a l l .. Stemless Loco . with s t i p u l e s calyx) due t o wartlike glands. Corollas are y.... 2 Q........ The membranous stipules... sericea Corolla colors not as above...... t o 7 mn long. I t also grows on creek or r i v e r banks.. From AK t o Que.. Leaves are 2-11 cm long with 7-21 leaflets.. i s comnorr i n our area. pointed l e a f l i k e appendages (stipules) are fused with p e t i o l e bases....... Grayish t o black pods are round i n cross-section and usually nodding.. mostly blue.....4 Q... Our variety.. From N t o n. Crazyweed......... Broadly lance-shaped leaf l e t s decrease i n size toward the leaf tip. O 2... 3 Q. Our variety... ... Pods... Stipules are united t o the p e t i o l e f o r over 1/2 t h e i r length............. a condition recognized i n the comnon name. low-growing perennial i s h a i r y and s t i c k y throughout (especially on Leaves. project from the midst o f decunbent t o prostrate stems.. Flowers are t y p i c a l l y leguninous.... Not a s i n g l e Oxytropis spp. &flexa pendulo......... Widely d i s t r i b u t e d i n Siberia and North America... I D t o C.. h a i r y perennials lacking leafy flowering stems (except 0 def lexa).. Birch. occurs i n gravelly....... f o l i o s a (Hook...... are stalkless or with short stalks.) Blank...... sericea with cream t o white corollas and var............ and southward. mostly i n the Rocky Mountains t o CO and west t o the Sierra Nevada o f CA and the Olympic Range o f UA. pods .. s o f t and wavy h a i r s producing a grayish-green cast....) Barneby..... and Skalkaho Creeks..... 1. ..... Some of the species are poisonous t o livestock. Flowers.. on stalks that just exceed the leaves... Leaflets of pinnately divided Leaves occasionally have asymnetrical bases... O x v t r o ~ i s deflexa (Pall.

Oxytropis besseyi g. visc. Onobrychis viciaefolia Oxytropis sericea i. M. 0.da f. officinslis e. deflexa .Melilotus alba d. 0.

. T r e f o i l This genus contains annual and perennial. soft.......... Yellow Locust.... Buck-bean.............. ......... Lower elevation forests.. Foliage i s glabrous t o densely long-hairy......... if Flowers mostly 11-18 mn long. Golden-pea..... egg--... or lance-shaped and as wide as l e a f l e t s ....t o inversely lance-shaped... Flowering heads subtended by involucres (set of bracts) ...... wings and keel. a t most. Flowers subtended by a true involucre o r by s t i p u l e s appearing t o be an involucre .....8 Plants mostly densely t u f t e d (cespitose) with a l l ......... upright and leaf-bearing stems or the stems creeping o r decmbent and usually rooting a t the nodes... well-drained s o i l t o wet meadows or open.(10) 1 fragiferum ... has been widely planted i n our area......... or some of them..... ... pratense Flowers subtended by a involucre of t r u e bracts (reduced or modified leaves) ......................... calyx smooth nearly so.......... Seed pods are globose t o elongated......... east t o the Rocky Mountains............................... ........ pink....... divided i n t o several linear projections.............(5) T... Golden-banner........... MT t o CO...( f ..... s o f t and loose hairs...... 10-70 flowers per head...... From B. Terminal l e a f l e t s t a l k length about equal t o those of l a t e r a l l e a f l e t s 4) 1................. yellow..................... Occurring i n sandy. Flowers are pea-like with banner.( Plants having prominent..................... This native o f the eastern U............ calyx tube not bulged...C......2 ................ cyathiferum Calyx teeth linear but not divided i n t o segments ....... Thermopsis Momtain Thermopsis Mountain thermopsis i s a rhizomatous and mostly hollow-stemred perennial up t o 90 cm (36 in) t a l l ............. The yellow flowers s m h a t resemble those of lupines.................. red...... 11 or .. False Acacia Black locust i s a s t a t e l y tree....................3 Flowering heads not subtended by involucres .... l e a f l e t s mostly egg... t o CA................... (13) L........................ ........... long-hairy and erect t o ascending i n narrow inflorescences..Robinia L.. mostly 3-30 . and fragrant flowers are borne i n narrow inflorescences 10-15 cm (4-6 i n ) long... with short............ Robinia pseudo-acacia L.. or almost a l l . They usually lack s t a l k s and are densely aggregated i n t o globe...........................10 Flowers subtended by f a l s e involucre of s t i p u l e s from one or many leaves ..... Plants perennial Terminal leaf l e t s t a l k 2 times or more times as Long as those o f l a t e r a l leaflets. the internodes usually obscure............. Of the 14 species occurring i n our area........ Calyx teeth (lobes) densely set with long. 13 .. with s t i p u l e s modified i n t o large thorns... often subtended by a series o f bracts united f o r most of t h e i r length and completely e n c i r c l i n g the base o f the clusters (involucre) Flower colors are white............ Pods are straight. variegatum Width o f pressed flowering heads mostly 8 mn or less...... flowers 4-7 mn long............... .. Large l e a f l i k e appendages (stipules) are heart-.... 6 Plants annual (slender taproot or few fibrous roots).. Locust Black Locust. t o 25 m (80 f t ) t a l l . are pinnately divided i n t o 11-21 lance-shaped leaflets.. o r broader. ..... 1 1 eriocephalun .. agrarium ... The 3 l e a f l e t s are broadly e l l i p t i c a l t o egg-shaped or l i n e a r e l l i p t i c a l and up t o 10 cm (4 i n ) Long.. only occasionally escaping t o establish near dwellings or along rivers.......... 7..........(6) 1 procumbens ... o r purple... the internodes conspicuous..... .. Several small colonies are known from the north side of Hellgate Canyon.... white. Thermorxis R. There are small membranous appendages p a r t l y surrounding the stem a t the base o f the p e t i o l e (stipules)......................... Calyx lobes set.. Leaves................... t h i s species with leathery and prominently toothed leaf lets... calyx tube abruptly swollen on one side due t o the flowers being ref lexed (bent back)..... dubium Width of pressed heads mostly > 8 mn...... loose hairs...... seven are introduced...... ....................(7) 1. gyrmocarpon ....... ..... The 30-70 showy.. the calyx h a i r y Flowers 5-10 mn long.or head-shaped clusters....... 2 1.... l e a f l e t s mostly e l l i p t i c a l ....... T r i f o l i u n L.... 3 1.. No native alpine species are found i n our area........... the leaves basal.....S........ Br.4 1) Calyx teeth (lobes)................. .............12 ..5 Involucre bracts with long hairs. flowers 3-4 mn long....... 2-4 cm long..... Clover.. east o f Missoula....t o inversely egg-shaped t o almost r o d .. lance..... mostly rhizomatous herbs with leaves that are divided i n t o 3 o r more l e a f l e t s .... microcephalwn Involucre bracts hairless (glabrous) or nearly so ........... 9 Flowers not subtended by an involucre o f any sort .. Thermopsis montana Nutt....

t o CA...... h a i r s on calyx 8 1........ 2....S. conical heads are Longer than the Leaves and lack an involucre.......... 6. and weedy annuals with ye1 low flowers.......t o inversely egg-shaped and r a r e l y over twice as Long as w i d ... The glabrous 5-nerved calyx i s about 1/2 the length of the yellow corolla.. Cup Clover Cup clover i s a smooth. f i n e point..... t o C . with egg-shaped. etc. sandy s o i l . long-hairy annual with prostrate t o erect stems 10-50 cm (4-20 i n ) long........ collected se. This species i s found i n seepage areas o f montane and subalpine meadows o f the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains A and west of M i s s w l a i n vernally moist.. 1 T lonsipes . T r i f o l i u n dubiun Sibth... This European native i s widely d i s t r i b u t e d i n the U...... east t o MT.... i s uncomrxxr i n our area....... Included here are native annuals that are mostly mcomnon and seldom weedy. whereas the 3-30 flowered.. with 6-12 shallow.... .S..C...... White-tip Clover The annual w h i t e .. ..... This weedy European native..C.... Uholly east of Cascades from B..... narrower heads... sometimes exceeding the lower flowers... i n dry. e n t i r e lobes that narrow t o a long..... .. t h i s species was only recently rediscovered i n our area by W... and AZ. o f Missoula..... Low Hop Clover .... o f t e n whitetipped....... 5.. T r i f o l i u n procunbens L. densely-flowered.. The calyx i s glabrous and about 1/2 the Length of the yellow corolla... 3.... Outside our area i t i s found from d r i e r h i l l s i & s t o moist meadows and sandy r i p a r i a n sites. l o c a l l y abundant...... cup-shaped or f l a r e d bract (involucre)... O r i g i n a l l y collected i n Montana by Lewis and Clark..... These are introduced. From B.. sandy places. Least Hop Clover The 1-several stems o f t h i s sparsely h a i r y annual are prostrate or decumbent t o erect and 10-40 cm (4-16 i n ) Long... Flowers are white t o pinkish. erect t o ascending m a 1 10-25 cm (4-10 i n ) t a l l ... axi l l a r y heads are borne on slender s t a l k s considerably Longer than the Leaves.. o r d u l l yellow t o pink....) o f the U......... waste places such as roadsides....... 6.. east t o I D and MT. mostly west of the Cascades and Sierra Nevada but occasionally east t o MT and UT..... hvbr idum especial l y near base of lobes... calyx with or without hairs. calyx hairy 1 T latifoliun ..C. deeply incised appendages a t the base of the petioles (stipules)........ the flowering stems a r i s i n g from or near ground level...t i p clover has prostrate t o erect stems..t o 14-lobed..... Group I......... T r i f o l i u n cyathiferun Lindl... Corolla i s purplish... Petioles are usually shorter than the leaf blade......... I t i s t y p i c a l l y found on moist meadows t o dry.... The a x i l l a r y ... From sw.. and egg-shaped stipules that are united t o the p e t i o l e f o r about 1/2 t h e i r length. area i t occurs along the Lower Skalkaho Road and Local r a i l r o a d rights-of-way........... Hop Clover Hop clover has several erect t o ascending stems 20-40 cm (8-16 i n ) Long.... I..... The involucre i s shallowly cup-shaped. the flowering stems a r i s i n g from well above ground Level. In o r u This European species i s now widely d i s t r i b u t e d on waste areas (roadsides... In our area i t occurs i n Pattee Canyon and other Missoula roadsides and south of Darby... 13. 10-40 cm (4-16 i n ) Long... NV. Group I 4. Stems creeping and rooting a t the nodes. Low hop clover i s much l i k e 1 agrariun i n habit and structure but has shorter and generally more decunbent t o prostrate stems.. 12. ... and aging t o brown. Leaflets mostly egg. . Leaflets mostly narrower..... T r i f o l i u n agrariun L.......... Albert i n meadows near Stevensvi l l e ... The inflorescence i s Flowers are white subtended by a f i n e l y toothed.... T r i f o l i u n microcephalun Pursh Woolly Clover Woolly clover i s a sparsely t o copiously. T r i f o l i u n variesatun Nutt.. comnon on waste places throughout the U... White-tip clover has been collected near Missoula and Hamilton.......... B......... Leaf petioles are usually shorter than the stipules. usually without h a i r s Stems usually not creeping....LEGUMIN S E OA 12..... mostly over 2 X as Long as wide.. 13.. south t o Baja Cal.....S... The involucre i s widely f l a r e d and saucer-shaped.. 1. calyx 9 1 repens ... i r r e g u l a r l y lobed and incised about 1/2 i t s length..

T. Thermopsis montana I. Trifolium variegatum o. agrarium p. procumbens m. T. Robinia pseudo-acacia k. T. Trifolium cyathiferum n.j. microcephalum . T. dubium q.

5 cm diameter heads are borne on stalks t o 30 cm (12 i n ) long. I t i s uncomnom i n This European native i s widely introduced i n the eastern U. that root a t the nodes. A l s i ke Clover The multiple. mid-subalpine zone. repens. Red Clover 7. T r i f o l i u n longipes Nutt. o f Hami 1ton. Leaves have petioles up t o 20 crn ( 8 i n ) long with white stipules that are fused f o r more than h a l f t h e i r length. A f t e r flowering. 20-40 cm (8-16 in) t a l l . occasionally tinged with pink. This rhizomatous perennial has a strong taproot and a sparingly branched crown. i s known from Fales Flat Meadows along the Upper Nez Perce Fork o f the I t i s on the eastern edge of B i t t e r r o o t River and the meadows of Blue Joint Creek near the Idaho border. shorter than the leaf canopy. repens except that the stipules are longer. T r i f o l i u n gymnocarpon Nutt. T r i f o l i u n f r a g i f e r u n L. a r i s e from a rhizome o r runner. has long. longipes has ascending or erect flowers and var. Longstalk Clover 11. Nels. Blue Mountains of OR and WA and adjacent I D and w.t o short-hairy perennial with 1-several stems. Woolly-head Clover Woolly-head clover i s a long. CA and east t o the s. T r i f o l i u n h h r i d u n L. MT. Group IV. This European n a t i v e i s comnon on lower elevation waste places but less comnon i n the mountains than . Flowers are mostly purplish-pink t o white and subtended by bracts. wherever stock have been t r a i l e d or the substrate has been disturbed. ascending or erect stems. Spherical. This group includes our native perennial species. Our var. strongly taprooted perennial has a grayish cast due t o the short. lanceshaped leaves. s l i g h t l y pouched-out on the upper side. Deep red flowers are borne i n a dense head that i s sessile or borne on a s t a l k shorter than the leaf petioles. Widely d i s t r i b u t e d i n western North America from B. p i p e r i Martin. sparsely hairy. The long-tapered stipules are white and membranelike. Stalks of the flowering head vary from shorter than the leaves t o several times t h e i r length. clustered. borne on stalks that considerably exceed the upright. with green veins fused around the stem. Rocky Mountains. The c o r o l l a i s creamy white.S. the calyx tube has t u f t s of h a i r near i t s top. our area. OR t o C and n. T r i f o l i u n eriocephalm Nutt. and the flowers are a deeper pink.LEGUMIN S E OA Group 111. the lowest of which are united i n t o an involucre. I t occurs i n dry soi 1s of sagebrush desert t o ponderosa pine forest from ne. reflexum A. This plant resembles 1. soft. nodally rooting stems 5-30 cm (2-12 i n ) t a l l . the calyx tube i n f l a t e s causing the head t o resemble a strange b i g berry. taprooted. Foliage i s sparsely t o profusely h a i r y and stems are lax or creeping and 5-30 cm (2-12 i n ) long. Includes perennial clovers o r i g i n a l l y introduced f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes. I t occurs on moist substrates from the f o o t h i l l s t o subalpine meadows and forests. 10-50 (4-20 i n ) long. The needle-like calyx lobes are about as long as the t h e i t s e l f . south t o s. White Clover A perennial with creeping stems. The 1-3 c long white stipules are conspicuously greenish veined. The calyx.S. 50 cm (20 i n ) or more long. 10. 13. T r i f o l i u n repens L. east t o MT and NM. The 3-15 greenish t o ye1 lowish-white flowers are clustered i n t o terminal heads that are appressed hairs.C. and P a c i f i c states. has lower flowers that bend down toward stem. I n our area i t i s comnon along A c u l t i v a t e d European native introduced widely across the western U. mountain roads and pack t r a i l s mostly i n the f o o t h i l l s t o lower subalpine zone. T r i f o l i u n pratense L. The 20. Var. a r i s i n g from a branched crown. This robust.S.l i v e d p e r e m i a l has m u l t i p l e erect stems 20m 100 cm (8-40 i n ) t a l l . straight. This i s our most c m n and widespread species o f T r i f o l i u n . wooded ridges south o f the Painted Rock Reservoir of the West Fork of the B i t t e r r o o t River. known from K e l l y Island downstream from Missoula on the Clark Fork River. 22. I t i s comnon i n our area from the f o o t h i l l s t o Red clover has been widely introduced across the U. 9. The plant i s l o c a l l y well represented on. terminal heads are somewhat rounded t o oval. lance-shaped s t i p u l e s are e l l i p t i c a l or lance-shaped t o almost linear. o f t e n i n open lodgepole pine stands. vegetative parts are more hairy. AZ. 8. mostly erect hairs. dry. Hollyleaf Clover Foliage o f t h i s tufted. and s h o r t . A . Strawberry Clover Strawberry clover has decunbent t o creeping. and from ne. e i t h e r 1 pratense or 1. 12. i t s range i n our area. Leaflets subtended by entire. sparsely soft-hairy.t o 100-flowered.

..... 2... g...... This Eurasian native i s widely naturalized i n the eastern U..2 .. often red. . The 10 stamens are mostly arranged i n 2 unequal groups.... B i r d Vetch B i r d vetch i s a glabrous t o f i n e l y short-hairy p e r e m i a l up t o 1 m (40 i n ) t a l l ... v i llosa American Vetch 1.... It i s widely introduced t o much o f the U... 5 y..... Stipules are linear........ 3.. Mostly 10 o r fewer flowers per inflorescence...... 1-3 per a x i l Flowers... i t i s uncomnon here.. round s t y l e s are densely bearded j u s t below the stigmatic t i p .. and the wings are a deeper shade....... soft. and M .... rhizomatous p e r e m i a l with stems 10-40 cm (4-16 in) tall... MT.. At a distance i t resembles 1.... somewhat wavy hairs.. 3.. with s i p l e t o h i g h l y branched and grasping tendrils...... Vicia cracca L. but have prominent.... 4 t o 3 borne s i n g l y and apparently sessile i n the leaf axils.5-2 m (20-80 i n ) t a l l .. I t has been collected i n the Lolo Creek drainage near Fort Fizzle. 2.L G MINOSAE EU 14..4 Length o f flowers about 6 mn or less..t o reddish-purple pealike flowers are arranged i n a loose inflorescence and develop i n t o hairless pods 2....... Comnon Vetch Comnon vetch i s a 20-80 cm (8-32 i n ) t a l l p e r e m i a l with deeply toothed t o arrowhead-shaped stipules...5-3... This European introduction has comnonly escaped.. roadsides...... .. Hex. Mostly > 10 flowers per raceme..... para1 l e l veins.. south t o CA...) Greene Twin Clover Twin clover i s a moderately appressed-hairy. 4................ This native occurs from Wallwa County..... linear l e a f l e t s that abruptly narrow t o a pointed t i p .. and abandoned orchards and waste areas.... This species i s only sparingly d i s t r i b u t e d from the h i l l s surrounding Missoula t o the west slopes of the Sapphire Range.. annual/biemial with long... are longer than the leaves... u n l i k e y.... The flowers.. hybridun i n growth-form and pink flower heads... reddish-purple flowers are densely arrayed on 1 side of the stalk.... 0.... V i c i a arnericana Muhl.. sativa arnericana Longest calyx teeth about 2 mn. 1. and the slender..... and e n t i r e but with a basal tooth. 1 y.S. tetrasperma Flower length 12 mn o r more. 5.. The 4-8(10) bluish.... The 20-60. The 10-20 l e a f l e t s are narrowly oblong t o l i n e a r lance-shaped. R Vicia -L........ spreading hairs..(3) .. sessile or with very short stalk.... .. cracca y... T r i f o l i u n l a t i f o l i u n (Hook. The 8-10 leaf l e t s are l i n e a r t o oblong. O 2.. 3.) Moench... n.... Smooth Tare Smooth t a r e i s a very slender-stemned a m w l ..... 3 Flowers............. perennial with mostly short............ Stipules are green.......... ... O t o Missoula County... From s........... Our o l d records indicate that t h i s European species once occurred i n the Bi t t e r r o o t Valley...... establishing along our r a i l r o a d lines.... 4-10 borne on s t a l k a r i s i n g i n leaf a x i l s .. 1.... extremely variable perennial ranging from subglabrous t o densely hairy......... V i c i a v i l l o s a Roth Hairy Vetch Hairy vetch i s a robust annual or biennial.. Plants are from 15-80 cm (6-36 i n ) t a l l .... The 8-16 l e a f l e t s are variable i n size..... .... V i c i a tetrasperma (L. 4.. curled or glabrous Longest calyx teeth about 4 mn long.....(4) appressed h a i r s or V. e n t i r e t o arrowhead-shaped appendages a t the base o f the leaf p e t i o l e s (stipules) and p i m a t e l y divided leaves that have a t e n d r i l i n Typical legminous flowers are borne s o l i t a r y or i n narrow inflorescences... V i c i a sativa L.... but the calyx i s conspicuously h a i r y o r a t least not h a i r y just on sinuses o f the calyx as i n 1. that i s densely set with mostly long..... 2 ..... with 1-3 l i l a c ........ hybridun..S...... are bicolored with bamers l i g h t orchid t o purple..... narrowing abruptly t o a short point... crescent-shaped and deeply c l e f t or toothed. .... calyx base abruptly bulged-out. 2-4 mn long..... place o f a terminal leaflets... 30-70 cm (12-28 i n ) t a l l ..b l u e flowers..... American vetch i s a mostly single-stemned... v i l l o s a ... Flowering stalks.. AK east t o Ont. but....... slender... calyx not pouched-out a t base.. Vetch Vetches are amual or perennial herbs with t r a i l i n g t o climbing stems.. 4. texture and shape...5 cm long... The 20-40 v i o l e t and pendulous flowers are congested on an inflorescence that i s longer than the supporting stalk.. that i s glabrous t o sparsely long-hairy......... Stipules are e n t i r e t o toothed. The leaves are mostly 6-12 cm (2-5 i n ) long with 12-18..... both i n moist meadows and open t o closed forests..

T. T. latifolium u. longipes w. T. T. T. fragiferum v. T. eriocephalum 283 . Trifolium pratense s. repens x. hybridum t. Trifolium gymnocarpon y.r.

villosa d. V. V. V. sativa c. tetrasperma 284 . V.z. cracca b. Vicia americana a.

.. minor feu Stouter plants with flowers ~ 1 mn long.. The 2-9 ye1 low flowers. 5-petaled flowers on slender s t a l k s are s o l i t a r y along the sparsely branched upper stem. Leaves are only 3-10 mn long. f t a t segments. i t i s comnon i n slowly-moving or stagnant waters. i s r e l a t i v e l y rare. Flowers are ye1 low or orange and 2. i t i s known only from the Lee Metcalf W i l d l i f e Refuge near Stevensville.... and thereafter 2-parted i n t o slender. Throughout most o f U... LIMNANTHACEAE Meadowfoam Family Floerkea W i 1 ld.. 1.. Linun -perenne L..... 1.. are arranged on an emergent s t a l k 4-15 cm (1... bladders many. Floerkea proserpinacoides Willd. f i n e l y 3-parted a t the base. have slender p e t i o l e s and blades pinnately divided i n t o 3-5 narrowly oblong l e a f l e t s . and unevenly 2-parted and progressively reduced i n t o c y l i n d r i c a l segments f o r the remainder o f t h e i r length. A circlmboreal species.... Leaves are alternate. resembling a snapdragon flower. somewhat rocky slopes t o productive grasslands and open ponderosa and Douglas-fir forests.... Leaves....... glabrous..f l o a t i n g species with stems 1 mn or more thick.LENT1BULARIACEAE This European n a t i v e i s an escapee p r i m a r i l y west o f the Cascades.. are 2.. Stem Leaves are alternate.. LENTIBULARIACEAE Bladderwort Family U t r i c u l a r i a L.. There are 3 or 6 stamens. . False mermaid i s rare i n wet t o moist. 4 ..... C o r n Bladderwort Comnon bladderwort i s a submersed. f r e e .. This circunboreal plant. northeast of Misswla and i n the northwest p a r t o f the B i t t e r r o o t Valley.. several-stemned and mostly unbranched p e r e m i a l up t o 60 cm (24 i n ) t a l l .........5-6 i n ) long. LINACEAE Flax Family Flax Wild Blue Flax Linun -L. 1... I t has been cot lected along Deer Creek. Bright blue. Wild blue f l a x i s a slender. though inhabiting the same type of e n v i r m n t s as U.. mostly 2-parted a t the base.. False Mermaid False Mermaid False mermaid i s a slender annual with succulent stems.. are borne emergent on a stout stalk. Leaves act as traps f o r minute aquatic animals by means o f small.. and has been found a t upper timberline but i s u~comnon there... often shaded habitats i n the valleys and foothi 11s... and sharply pointed.. L i t t l e Bladderwort L i t t l e bladderwort i s a very delicate submersed plant with creeping stems...... Bladderwort Bladderworts are aquatic and carnivorous.. Fomd throughout western North America and Eurasia.(I) vulgaris U. alternate or h o r l e d .S.. t o 20 mn long. Stalked flowers are borne s i n g l y i n the a x i l s o f the leaves. U t r i c u l a r i a w l g a r i s L.. only 4-8 mn long...Lipped with a sac or spur. The alternate leaves.. linear.. F r u i t i s a small pod with many small wrinkled seeds. The f r u i t i s 2-4 mn long and consists o f 2 rounded. valve-lidded bladders... Bladders of leaves are 1-3 mn wide.. . but i t has been repeatedly fomd i n hayfields i n the northwest p a r t of our area. 1-6 cm long..... twice as Long as the white petals. The l-few flowers are borne i n a simgle. bunpy Lobes joined a t the base. and s. Can.... . 1. lower l i p >2 times longer than spur. Yellow flowers.o r 3-parted from the base and then i r r e g u l a r l y and a d d i t i o n a l l y 2-parted.. vulgaris. normally with most of t h e i r parts submerged. such as sloughs o f the B i t t e r r o o t River f looc@lains... that are o f t e n branched below.. 2-10 cm (1-4 i n ) Long.. Each bisexual flower has 3 sepals.. lower Lip <2 times spur.. exposed.. I t i s more comnon i n the f o o t h i l l s of the Sapphire Range than i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains.. 2-3 mn Long. 2. bladders 2 U. U t r i c u l a r i a minor L. This species i s found on dry.. erect and emergent inflorescence. Delicate plants with flowers 4 mn long.

.... simple.. 2. conspicuous b i e m i a l plants.. and borne s i n g l y or i n convex o r flat-topped clusters...... a l b i c a u l i s 3. 3. 5 o f w t e r stamens o f t e n flattened...) T.. however..... This species i s confined t o hot and dry sites.. p e t a l s < 1.. Leaves are alternate.. found only on southern f o o t h i l l s of the Sapphire Range. m The bracts subtending the inflorescence are narrowly t o broadly lanceshaped. Mentzelia decapetala (Pursh) Urb. Evening Star...... This group includes t a l l . 8 Gilg....... The l i t t l e known amuals are d e l i c a t e and inconspicuous... B i e m i a l s t o peremials with showy flowers.. (1) 1 laevicaulis Flower bracts mostly egg-shaped and inflorescence congested. Flowers o f both sexes lack a calyx. & G.. south t o CA and east t o MT and N ....C.. Smal 1-f lowered Blazing-star The f l o r a l bracts of small-f lowered blazing-star are egg-shaped..... 1. It c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y occurs on dry s i t e s from the valleys t o the lower mountain slopes from U south t o s. Blazing-star Hentzelia Blazing-star mentzelia i s a robust. unisexual flowers are borne s o l i t a r y i n the leaf a x i l s ...... our dwarf mistletoes are shrubs lacking chlorophyll (non-green) and having leaves reduced t o scales. Very small. This plant i s r e l a t i v e l y rare i n our area.. 1. Their presence causes swellings and d i s t o r t i o n s i n the host tissue. The seeds are prism-shaped (having d i s t i n c t faces) and lack a roughened surface ( a t least a t 10X magnification).... r a d i a l l y symnetrical....... leaves mostly e n t i r e t o merely toothed. and CO.. W t o MT and south t o CA. e n t i r e t o p i m a t e l y c l e f t and b r i t t l e leaves adhere t o any foreign object contacted........... UT. 2. flowers are lemon yellow. sometimes stinging hairs... Seeds are i r r e g u l a r l y shaped and bearing minute conical projections.. whitish stems.... d i s ~ e r s a Flower bracts mostly linear t o lance-shaped and inflorescence not congested............... and gray-green foliage....... From B.. 30-100 cm (12-40 i n ) t a l l . This group includes two small............ 2..2 M........ decapetala Petats 5. The alternate.... with a strong taproot....... 3 ..5-8 cm (1-3 i n ) Long.5-8 cm long Annuals with inconspicuous flowers... and e.. inconspicuous annuals that are d i f f i c u l t t o distinguish. a c t u a l l y modified stamens. the 5 outer stamens are p e t a l l i k e ... Herbage i s generally rough t o the touch o r with barbed.. Positive i d e n t i f i c a t i o n requires seeds. I t i s found mostly east o f the Rocky Mountains but occurs sporadically i n w..... while the upper ones are sessile and less deeply lobed.... . Both have yellow and very small flowers. I t i s usually found on d r y sandy s i t e s of desert valleys and f o o t h i l l s from B... Blazing-star The c o r n name........ Whi te-sterrmed Blazing-star This simple t o f r e e l y branched annual i s 10-40 cm (4-16 i n ) t a l l with e n t i r e o r shallowly toothed leaves 2-10 c (1-4 i n ) long... The Lower ones are inversely lance-shaped and deeply pinnately and sinuately c l e f t . Mentzelia dispersa Wats.... the male (staminate) .. the i m e r 5. Open only during daylight hours. yellowish t o green. C A A and east t o MT. MT and ID. almost invariably occurring on south-facing coulee A slopes on the open western face o f the Sapphire Range........ 1. Male and female flowers are borne on separate plants. I n addition.... I t i s known t o be i n the v i c i n i t y o f Painted Rocks Reservoir of the B i t t e r r o o t ' s West Fork...... i t s flowers open only i n l a t e afternoon and are fragrant. MY...... much narrower than t r u e petals . sometimes with a long-tapering t i p ............ and MY... 2..... laevicaulis. are s l i g h t l y narrower than outer 5.. petals 1...... Group I.. M 4...... Mentzelia a l b i c a u l i s Dougl....... ..5cm long .... sturdy plant. a c t u a l l y describes only the t w t a l l and showy biennials or shortl i v e d perennials.C......... 3.... Mistletoe Family Dwarf Mistletoe Being exclusively p a r a s i t i c on trees and shrubs....... LORANTHACEAE (VISCACEAE) Arceuthobium Bieb. Mentzelia laevicaulis (Dougl... White-stem blazing s t a r has been collected on M o m Creek Road southwest of Lolo.... Sand L i l y I n general aspect evening s t a r i s s i m i l a r t o M...2 ..... 4 M...LOASACEAE LOASACEAE Blazing-star Family Mentzel i a L.. Group 11.... blazing star.... Flowers are bisexual. Petals apparently 10.. (3) M. and are borne a t the ends o f the numerous branches....

M.a. albicaulis c. Mentzelia decapetala f. minor z. Utricularia vulgaris b. U. M. Mentzelia laevicaulis e. Linum perenne g. dispersa . Floerkea proserpinacoides d.

stems often more than 2 mn t h i c k and seldom shorter than 3 a. I t i s widespread but not know t o be an especially serious pest t o our lodgepole po......t o several-seeded segments o f the ovary are united i n a r i n g around a central axis... F r u i t s are berries. with small appendages a t the base o f the p e t i o l e (stipules).. Though the parasite i t s e l f i s inconspicuous..... swollen.... From B........ Numerous stamens are united below t o form a tube around the style. MT... Paired leaves are reduced t o s c a l e .. glabrous......... ascending o r lax stems.. Flowers sessile or with female ones with slender pedicels up t o 1 mn long......... Arceuthobiun canvylopodum Engelm... stembetweennodesat least l m n t h i c k . Greenish t o yellow flowers are paired a t the nodes on short pedicels. americanum plants not p a r a s i t i c on Pseudotsusa. from A t o Mex. 3....or head-shaped) . usually 2 per node...... C .. (2) A.... From B.. and N .. camwlomdm Flowers terminal on short l a t e r a l branches.. orange.. 2. and 1-2(4) mn t h i c k a t the internodes.. .. are alternate..3 ...2 . or green male flowers are paired a t the nodes and sessile...... not fanlike... yellow-green. stems (3) A.... and severe infestations can cause m o r t a l i t y and a s i g n i f i c a n t loss i n production..... l a r i c i s (Piper) G i l l .. erect t o proc-t.. mostly lobed or incised..... 2.. usually tufted. and i t sometimes lands and germinates on subtending branches... 1. The 5 fused sepals form the calyx and the 5 petals are fused t o various degrees from the base upwards.......... east t o Alta.. orange-yellow t o olive-green or brownish.......... f l a t o r fan-like.LYTHRACEAE (staminate) flowers have a 3-parted c o r o l l a and 3 stamens......... . The 1...plations. White flowers are inconspicuous........ thus considered as a mit.. south t o CA. Stigmas f i l i f o r m (long and slender) Stignas capitate (globe. s t i c k y seed o f the small. bluish-green berry i s f o r c i b l y expel led. americanun....l i k e organs......... Nels.. occurs on western larch i n Lower Bass Creek Canyon o f the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains Uestern dwarf mistletoe i s widespread.........douglasii between the nodes scarcely 1 mn thick.. ... The 1-2 female flowers with pedicels less than 1 mn long are borne a t the nodes.. 1... 2.. The single.... branched shrub i s p a r a s i t i c on lodgepole pine. Our form..... Nels] & Western Dwarf M i s t letoe Sterns of western dwarf mistletoe are highly-branched and whorled.. These separate a t maturity. The often showy flowers are borne i n narrow inflorescences o r i g i n a t i n g from the leaf axils. I t i s t u f t e d or spread along the host branches..) A...... and from the P a c i f i c Coast t o the east slopes of the K Rocky Mountains... Several forms o f t h i s species are recognized according t o the species they parasitize. Douglas1 dwarf mistletoe i s a comnon parasite o f Douglas f i r . borne s o l i t a r y i n the leaf axi 1s.. Pine Dwarf Mistletoe This smooth. Leaves...... those bearing male flowers with more than 2 per node.. uhereas female flowers have a c o r o l l a divided i n t o 2 parts...... I c v a n o c a r m (A.......... Abies or Picea.... east t o MT and south i n the Rocky Momtains t o NM....... MALVACEAE Mallow Family The mallow family includes annual and perennial herbs with erect.... n..... south t o CA.... Douglas1 Dwarf Mistletoe This dwarf mistletoe i s s i m i l a r t o A....C... (1 6.. plants not p a r a s i t i c on Pinus spp Secondarybranchesof twigsprominentlywhorled.) Toothcup Toothcup Koehne Toothcup i s small........ s t e m scarcely 2 mn t h i c k and often <3 mn long 2 1.. 1. i t was collected a t one of the small ponds on the east bank of the B i t t e r r o o t River near M i l l e r Creek... 1. primary branches t o form a fan... Secondary branches o f twigs l y i n g i n one plane. the excessive growth (witches brooms) i t stimulates i n the host plant gives notice t o i t s presence. but the stems are more greenish or bluish-green and Accessory branches arise i n the same plane as the with shorter and thinner segments barely 1 mn wide...... and predominantly round t o kidney-shaped i n outline.......... simple or branched annual..... The yellou. A plant of wet sites. Arceuthobiun americanun Nutt .C.... The flower c l u s t e r i s open and branching. ex Rydb... Arceuthobiun douglasi i Engelm... Rotala ramosior -(L. O M LYTHRACEAE Loosest r if e Fami 1y Rotala L.

t o a Lesser degree. Upper leaf surfaces are yellow-green.. Cheeseweed A l k a l i mallow i s a sparsely t o densely short-hairy perennial with prostrate t o spreading stems 20-60 cm (8-24 i n ) long. Mallow Both our species are introduced amual or b i e m i a l European weeds...... They are inconspicuous.. east t o MT and south t o CO. stamens mostly i n groups o f 2-6. The leaves have Long petioles and are a l l basal..... A secondary involucre [whorl o f bracts/leaves subtending flower(s)l above the primary one i s lacking but 1-2 bracts may occur a t base of flower stalk. petals shorter t o s l i g h t l y calyx .. Leaf shape i s variable with a t least some reminiscent o f 3.t o heart-shaped... 2-5 cm (1-2 i n ) long.... and. Globe-ma1low Red Globe-mallow R e d globe-mallow i s a spreading and rhizomatous perennial 10-20 cm (4-8 i n ) t a l l . MENYANTHACEAE k k ...... A l k a l i Mallow. Bogbean....... MT as f a r as a e Powell. I t i s found on d r y grassland and shrubland cormunities o f the west slope o f the Sapphire Range (Corvallis Big G m Winter Range)...5 m (60 i n ) t a l l . small.(1) 1. t h r i v i n g mainly i n gardens. Buck. ..... i n deep..... 20-150 mn long.... Carpels rounded and smooth c the back.... Malva neslecta Wallr.... .... moist but well-drained s o i l . The s t i p u l e s are soon deciduous...t o 7-lobed blades.with calyx Malva 3...... I t occurs throughout our area. Mostly east of the Cascades from B.... and whitish. SDhaeralcea Petals l i g h t rose-purple t o pinkish. whereas the lower are grayish.. stockyards. The species i s more c m n i n eastern MT..bean The prostrate stems o f bogbean are fleshy and grow from long shallow rhizomes.. south t o OR.. Bright orange t o rusty-red flowers are arranged i n short terminal inflorescences subtended by l e a f l i k e . on wasteland and along roadsides.. Granite and Ravalli Counties... are crowded i n t o a short inflorescence.... Menyanthes t r i f o l i a t a L.........b e a n Fami l y Menyanthes L... The purple-tinged Flowers. 1.C...) Mountain hollyhock i s a unique and s t a t e l y perennial with 1-several stems t t o 1. 2. The lavender t o pink flowers are arranged on stout s t a l k s i n rather dense a x i l l a r y o r terminal clusters. This i s p r i m a r i l y a Great Plains species extending i n t o w...MENYANTHACEAE 2.. c o r o l l a Lobes are covered with short scales that extend down i n t o the tube. short-hairy perennial has stems mostly 20-60 cm (8-24 i n ) t a l l .. . Malva -L. Flowers are pale blue-lavender t o white with a shallowly lobed calyx that i s 1/2 t o 1/4 the length o f the about 10 mn long corol la. Malva p a r v i f l o r a L... petals 2-4 times longer than calyx k Carpels flattened and wrinkled on the back. H i 1... Sphaeralcea St. 3..2 M.. neglecta Longer than the . Leaves compound t o merely toothed.. This plant i s o f t e n found along stream courses. parviflora..... Petals red t o deep salmon.. and shallowly lobed t o toothed blades are about 1/2 the length of the petioles...... . ... 5-40 mn Long. P e t i o l e length exceeds that of the kidney.Sidalcea A secondary involucre of 3 bracts near base o f or p a r t i a l l y fused..t o 7-lobed maple leaves. The dwarf mallow i s much more comnon i n our area than M. p a r v i f l o r a Dwarf Mallow 1..... star-shaped. The palmately 3parted Leaves are again c l e f t t o lobed... .. Lavender flowers are unstalked t o long-stalked i n the Leaf axils. p A l l green plant parts are set with star-shaped hairs....... leaves shallowly lobed. I t can also be found on disturbed s i t e s such as clearcuts.. The naked flowering branches are ascending. 2. This spreading... divided i n t o 3 leaflets... I l i a m a Ilianna Greene Hollyhock Greene Mountain Hollyhock l l i a t n m r i v u l a r i s (Dougl...t o heart-shaped and inconspicuously 5.... but i s not comnon. Sphaeralcea coccinea (Pursh) Rydb.. reduced bracts......... Blooming occurs from Jme through August..... Buck-bean Bogbean... b e t t e r distinguished by t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e f r u i t s and seed than by flowers and leaves........ 1. The kidney..

parviflora o. Sphaeralcea coccinea 290 . douglasii k. Mahra neglecta n. A. M. Arceuthobium americanum i. llliamna rivularis m.h. Rotala ramosior I. A. camplyopodum j.

Four-onclock Heart. Both the stem and leaves are very rough t o the touch.leaved Four-onclock This stout perennial has thick. A native of eastern Montana.. east t o the A t l a n t i c . except the upper Leaf surface. From B. Leaf blades are very broadly e l l i p t i c a l o r nearly r o d and a r i s e mostly near the stem tops. A l l exposed portions. fleshy roots and several branched. and C. 1. rostrata. heart-shaped and usually f l o a t i n g leaves that a r i s e d i r e c t l y from the rhizomes.. Leaves are attached t o the p e t i o l e i n the center.. . leaves with heart-shaped bases. This i s a widely c u l t i v a t e d Eurasian plant... K M R C A Mulberry Fami l y OAEE Huwlus L. CO. 3. NYCTAGINACEAE Four-onclock Family M i r a b i l i s L.... Each bract subtends two flowers.. IN. unisexual flowers are borne i n a x i l l a r y clusters. There i s a large population on a r a i l r o a d embankment south o f Hami 1ton. Water-shield has been collected i n Mudhole Lake above Watchtower Creek Canyon i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. F r u i t s are leathery... Single flowers with 3 similar.. M i r a b i l i s nyctaginea (Michx.. Water-shield... east over most of U.. petioles attached t o leaf center (leaves rounded) Sepals and petals a t least 4. large. greenish. Showy flowers are borne s o l i t a r y .target Water-shield . Lost T r a i l Pass Bog and scattered Locations i n the Sapphire Range. Smith C w L i l y .. 3. A circunboreal plant. Brasenia Schreb.lobed. or white. Groqs o f 3 bisexual flowers.5 cm long. Carex Limosa. Yellow Water L i l y o These aquatic. are covered with a gelatinous sheath. and CA.M RCA OAEE Bogbean t y p i c a l l y occurs on saturated substrates.t o shield-shaped leaf blades... leafy stems up t o 1 m (3 f t ) t a l l . The calyx and enclosed achene (small. subtended by a membranous. I n our area t h i s species i s uncomnon.5-3.. many-seeded capsules.S. o f t e n associated with Shagnun mosses.) MacM.... stamens mostly reddish o r purplish . stamens yellow Sepals generally 9. purplish petals and sepals are borne on s t a l k s 5-20 cm (2-8 i n ) long. known only from Marysns Frog Pond on Elk Meadows Road. Hop Hops are strongly twining... . The small.... Three (four) purplish sepals and petals. Brasenia schreberi Ginel. green. 2.. mostly f l o a t i n g flowers are bisexual and s o l i t a r y on Long peduncles.. herbaceous vines with steins ~p t o 4 m (17 f t ) long..C. glandular undersides. The showy. Nuphar J.. i t was once collected along a r a i l r o a d embankment i n Missoula. enlarge t o form a cone-shaped hop..t o 7-lobed Leaves are opposite with heart-shaped bases.. and.. are borne i n open inflorescences a t the ends of branches.Nwhar . t o Hex. The opposite leaves have short p e t i o l e s and egg-shaped t o triangular. The 5-12 egg-shaped sepals and 10-20 much smaller petals are regularly arranged around the flattened. P i s t i l l a t e flowers droop i n a bracteate spike.. entire-margined leaves.. Serrate... 1-celled and 1-seeded f r u i t ) are dotted with yellow resinous granules. There are both 5 sepals and stamens. cotrposed o f 5 united. NYMPHAEACEAE Waterlily Family The family includes aquatic. Sepals usually nunbering 6. The narrowly egg-shaped f r u i t i s about 5 mn Long with 5 longitudinal r i b s . dry. a t maturity.. p e t a l . F r u i t i s an oval-shaped achene 6-8 mn long. perenniai herbs have long-petiolate. 1..l i k e sepals. Can.5-6 cm long.(1) variegatum 1 polysepalum . Water.. cup-shaped bract. P o t e n t i l l a palustris. 5.. and s. t o Central America and other continents except Europe. subsessile and scalloped-margin p i s t i 1. Alta.. The trumpet-shaped flowers. 1. t o CA.. I n North America from A south t o PA. and long-petioled with deeply heart. yellow.(2) N..E. perennial herbs producing a l l basal leaves that are large. The 3-5 stamens extend beyond the sepals.. and blades longer than the petioles.Brasenia Water-shield i s anchored t o the substrate by slender rootstocks.. are pink and about 1 cm Long.. 1. entire.

.

up t o 30 cm (12 i n ) t a l l ..C. (Not i l l u s t r a t e d ) . s t i f f . 10-40 cm (4-16 i n ) long. with subentire t o sharply toothed margins and narrow. Yellow Uater L i l y . The o f t e n showy ( r a r e l y apetalous) flowers are bisexual and borne i n leaf a x i l s or i n narrow terminal inflorescences.OLEACEAE 1. and many of the northern t i e r o f states. mrch l i k e those of maples. MT. or rare. Circaea Enchanter I s Nightshade. B. Indian Pond L i l y Spatterdock has mostly f l o a t i n g leaves. t o e. pointed tips. Fraxinus pensylvanica Marsh. K D 2. ID. Circaea alpina L. F i r s t collected i n the v i c i n i t y of Kooskia. Can. Flowers are inconspicuous with tiny. Prominently ribbed f r u i t s are 5-9 a long. Enchanter's Nightshade. On the east side of the Cascades from s.2-2 in) long. Leaves range from opposite t o alternate and simple t o pinnately divided. n. F r u i t s are elongated capsules. east t o Alta. and 1-8 n broad. The leaves are l i n e a r t o narrowly lance. S . Ash Green Ash Green ash i s ' a deciduous tree. The f l o a t i n g leaves of yellow water l i l y are much l i k e those o f 1 polysepalun but have flattened Flowers have yellow stamens and yellow t o greenish petals (sometimes petioles and are s l i g h t l y smaller. rather i t occurs predominantly i n montane and lower subalpine zone of the Bi t t e r r o o t Mountains and some of the canyons of the Sapphire Range. ID by the Lewis and Clark Expedition.6-2. forming 3 lobes. 3. Heart-shaped leaves are 2-6 cm (1-3 i n ) long... B. appressed h a i r s throughout. short. t o se. MT and the Great Plains i n general. Godetia Clarkia pulchel l a Pursh Pink Fairies. matched i n nunber by the petals. Spatterdock. Ragged Robin. and G . This species i s apparently rare i n our area.o r spatula-shaped. with reddish t i p s ) . MT. I n North America from A t o Newf. with d i s t i n c t l y round petioles ~p t o 2 m (80 i n ) long. south t o CA. coloring whole h i l l s i d e s . Relative t o the 4-6 cm (1. having been collected only once. t o 15 m (50 f t ) t a l l . Nubar polysepalun Engelm. south t o ne. The 5-9 l e a f l e t s are lance-shaped and are often obscurely lobed. Alpine C i rcaea Enchanter's nightshade i s a d e l i c a t e perennial. OLEACEAE Ash or Olive Family Fraxinus L. with glandular h a i r s i n the upper portions and very slender rootstocks. Circaea L. F r u i t s are 3-5 cm (1. I n flower. moist and shaded s i t e s along the east Despite the name. i t i s most o f t e n associated with cool. Elkhorn Clarkia This simple t o branched a m w l has fine. The calyx i s Both the petals and sepals mostly 4-parted (occasionally 2. or r a r e l y subshrubs (herbs with woody bases). Occasionally i t increases with disturbance. not an alpine species. t h i s annual i s one I t i s considered comnon. p i m a t e l y F r u i t s are winged compomd leaves. 2-petaled corol las. with a slender trunk and opposite. OR and east t o I D and w. i t i s f r o n t o f the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. n u t l e t s (samaras). CA.200 f t ) i n Lake Jerusalem i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. From A t o n. ONAGRACEAE Evening Primrose Family The Evening Primrose Family includes a m w l or perennial herbs. A circunboreal species. but the number of plants that germinate varies o f our best known native plants. I t may seem abundant. the 4 b r i g h t rose-purple petals are deeply notched. a r i s e from the top of the ovary. t h i s i s a unique and a t t r a c t i v e plant.8 i n ) long. when only a few plants flower. o r 5). 2-7 cm (1-3 in) long. H o r t i c u l t u r a l specimens have been the Green ash i s native t o e. and CO. the petals are n inconspicuous and ye1 lowish-green t o purplish-tinged. t o an elevation o f 2195 m (7. Spatterdock i s comnon i n the shallow portions of many ponds and lakes. A Clarkia Pursh Clarkia. K CO.C. source of escapees seen along the Clark Fork River and Missoulals neighborhoods. Nubar variegatun Engelm. from year t o year. . mostly b r i g h t yellow sepals.

s. N. variegatum u. Fraxinus pennsylvanica 294 . Nuphar polysepalum t.

...... The bisexual flowers are borne stalked i n elongated inflorescences......... Extremely dense populations o f robust plants may r e s u l t the f i r s t few seasons following forest f i r e s on moist middle I t may p e r s i s t as a somewhat dwarfed.................. then sparingly so near the base................ s t i f f ....4 Plants peremial... Plants d i f f e r e n t from above...... W i llow-weed This genus includes amual and p e r e m i a l plants....... from rhizome1i k e roots............................ The plant i s a very comnon species o f disturbed areas..... east t o the A t l a n t i c Coast.... nonflowering component of closed forest sites.. and lance-shaped or e l l i p t i c a l .......... anagall i d i f o l im Lam..... such as logging and burned sites..5 Lower stem leaves opposite.................. angustifoliwn Plants annual and taprooted......... with simple............ Shrubby Willow-herb From the d i s t i n c t l y woody and spreading base r i s e many stems..... that are densely covered throughout with short...... Includes perennial............... creamy-white t o yellow and 7-10 mn long.............. entire. The mostly a1ternate leaves are narrowly lance-shaped... From central I D t o MT. generally rhizomatous....... palustre Group 111 description).. b u l b . 6 ....... Circumboreal...... g l a b e r r i m Plants generally h a i r y and not glaucous ......... I t has ascending stems mostly less than 20 cm (8 i n ) t a l l . general l y present....... The showy rose t o purple flowers are borne i n terminal..... Grolp 11. Ovaries are long and narrow and crowned by a short flower tube with 4 d i s t i n c t petals and sepals....7 Plants glaucous and hairless............ This i s the only rare Epi lobiun spp.. .. Turions lacking. plants mostly 4 0 cm t a l l .. densely white-hairy......... i n North America from A t o CA............. 2 3 ........ bearing simple h a i r l e s s stems.......... One needs the whole plant.. many-flowered inflorescences..... plants 30-100 cm t a l l ... 3.... minuturn Nearly a l l leaves alternate..... glandulosum ...... suffruticosun 2 ..... W i l low-herb..... I t i s known from c o l l e c t i o n s made on rocky t o gravelly banks of the B i t t e r r o o t River near Hamilton and the Clark Fork River west of Missoula... sessile t o petiolate....... K 2......... mostly mat-forming decunbent-stem plants less than 15 a ( 6 i n ) n t a l l that lack turions (scaly.......... a l ~ i r m m . Fireweed can also occur as high as upper timberline as s t e r i l e shoots...... They are notched a t the t i p and are borne i n the a x i l s of barely reduced upper-stem leaves.... white hairs...... rhizomes short o r lacki . about 25 cm (10 i n ) t a l l ..250 ft).. Leaves are 1-5 cm long............... rhizomes usually extensive and plants matted 3 E.. E..... stems matted. i n our area......................................... o r only inflorescence minutely hairy......ONAGRACEAE ED^ lobiun L.... Epilobiun a n g u s t i f o l i m L.... E ~ i l o b i u n alpimnr L.............. leaves linear t o narrowly lance-sha ped.......... .. F r u i t s are long narrow pods that open by 4 s l i t s t o release the m r o u s ................ and WY. and w i l l o w l i k e leaves that are opposite below and become mostly alternate above..(7) E.............. Stigna 4-cleft...........1 E......... elevation sites.............. small. Group I..... and sessile....... watsonii Stem r a r e l y >30 cm (12) t a l l and i f branched........... seeds often with . Stigma generally e n t i r e but i f short lobed then petals never yellow and r a r e l y as much as 10 mn. Fireweed i s the t a l l e s t species o f the genus.. petals yellow o r a t least 10 mn long or.. paniculatum Plants generally having gray cast due t o very short.......... 9 E..........5 E...... and wind-disseminated seeds. .... 1-3 cm long... The mostly opposite leaves are sessile. seeds less than 1 mn long............ matted perennial spreading by rhizomes and stolons........ Petals are wedge-shaped....... especially roots and pods t o make p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s .... 1.] Alpine Willow-herb A low... 8 Turions (see Group III &script ion) projections............(4) E. 1-2 m (40-80 i n ) t a l l . .................................. flowering specimens have been reported from alpine larch stands a t elevations approaching 2515 m (8.....l i k e o f f s e t s of rootstocks giving r i s e t o succulent shoots)..... seed length at least 1 mn................ appressed hairs. seeds various minute nipple-1 i k e Stems mostly 30-100 cm (12-40 i n ) t a l l and f r e e l y branched above midlength... nodding t o erect flowers have l i l a c t o rose-pink o r white petals... producing turions (see (6) E.... linear t o egg-shaped..........(8) E. These are perennial species not e a s i l y confused with any others....... [E........ Their arrangement s h i f t s from a l l opposite below t o a l l alternate above.... The few... mostly on we1 1-drained soi 1. both. on mostly moist t o wet shstrates....... Epilobiun suffruticosun Nutt.... Petals yellow Petals pink t o p r r p l e ........

Circaea alpha w. suffruticosum z. E.var l a c t ~ f l o r u m var clavaturn v. Epilobium angustifolium y. E. alpinum 296 . Clarkia pulchella x.

Stems are glabrous below the inflorescence and the foliage has a whitish bloom. T a l l Annual Willow-herb This f r e e l y branched amual i s s u p e r f i c i a l l y s i m i l a r t o E. has Linear capsules. T a l l annual willow-herb i s comnon on d r y s o i l s and t y p i c a l l y occurs i n open ponderosa pine stands. 6. south i n the Olympic and Cascade Momtains t o s. 5. c i l i a t u n Raf. and rootstocks that lack turions. Leaves are paired below and rather closely spaced. and up t o 12 cm (6 i n ) long. Epilobiwn glanduloswn Lehm.ONAGRACEAE Alpine willow-herb i s found on steamsides. Swamp W i 11ow. i s usually not over 10 cm (4 i n ) t a l l and has rose-pink flowers and club-shaped capsules. K lower elevations. t o C and east t o MT.) C. From B.) Trel. W have v a r i e t i e s e that d i f f e r i n the following ways: Var. . east t o ID. Var. The e n t i r e t o f i n e l y toothed leaves are narrowly lanceshaped t o Linear. short-petiolate. Small-f lowered W i llow-herb This i s a much-branched.) C. paired Leaves are somewhat clasping and crowded on the stem. responsible f o r the gray t o s i l v e r y cast o f the foliage. as f a r south as south C and CO and east t o the n. C . entire. Epilobiun minutun Lindl. i n the Rocky Mountains as f a r south as CO. talus slopes and high mountain meadows.S. shallowly toothed. few-flowered inflorescences terminate numerous branches. Lax. 10-50 cm (4-20 i n ) t a l l . and the leaves are unpaired throughout. The are broadly Lance-shaped with rounded tips.) Hitchc.. From A south t o the UA Cascades. This group includes perennial. minutun.. slender annual that i s 30-40 c (12-16 i n ) t a l l and appressed-hairy m throughout. pink t o purple or white petals mature t o gray-hairy pods 3-6 cm (1-2 i n ) Long.herb Swamp w i llow-herb has small turions a t the ends o f slender rhizomes and slender. Epilobiun w l u s t r e L. The var. Flowers with notched. non-matted plants bearing turions ( l e a f y winter M s g i v i n g r i s e t o succulent shoots).C. sandy t o gravelly or rocky soi 1s a t predominantly lower elevations.5 cm Long. and east t o the A t l a n t i c Coast. but i s more comnon i n the subalpine zone and below. nutans (Hornem. As indicated by the comnon name. Our c o r n variety. e n t i r e Leaves than does the var. I t i s d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the w. 8. from B. while those o f the main stem are 3-7 cm long. and narrowly strap.) Hitchc. Hitchc.North America throughout the mountains. glaberrimun (which i s never matted). Group 111. tenue (Trel. 4. [E. macounii (Trel. A This species can be confused with Gayophytum spp. w. our most comnon high elevation Epi lobiun. Our var. l a c t i f l o r u n (Hausskn. t h i s species grows i n swamps. 12-40 in). n A C i r c h r e a l . A t l a n t i c Coast. The lower stem leaves are mostly opposite. t a l l e r than the other v a r i e t i e s and has stronger venation and wider leaves that are up t o 5 a (2 i n ) long. From A south t o s. Hitchc. but i t i s much t a l l e r (30-100 cm. appressed h a i r s i s branched stems up t o 40 cm (16 i n ) t a l l .3 i n ) long. flowering a t the end of t h e i r f i r s t year. and have blades 1-2. and east t o the A t l a n t i c Coast. and i s t a l l e r than the above variety.C. The stems are o f t e n clustered or branched above and rather glandular-hairy i n the upper parts. The mostly paired. does not have the stem h a i r s K A arranged i n Lines and i s r a r e i n our area. mostly a t I t i s uncomnon t o rare i n the B i t t e r r o o t Mountains. Both v a r i e t i e s occur on wet sites. glaberrimun. marshes. Flowers are 1ilac-pink. simple t o sparingly The high density o f short. Var. alpinun.1 Comnon Ui 1low-herb Careful excavation w i 11 reveal the globe-shaped turions that are the surest way of discriminating comnon willow-weed from the very s i m i l a r f . MT.L. These are amual or perennial plants.. e n t i r e leaves are 5 mn or less wide and 2-6 cm (0. clavatun (Trel. which i s more comnon t o the west. slender growth. C and i n the Rocky Mountains south t o CO.4 i n ) long. may be weedy. Epilobiun paniculatun Nutt. white. The whitish t o pink flowers are borne i n the a x i l s of the s l i g h t l y reduced and unpaired upper stem leaves.8-2. Individual flower s t a l k s are up t o 3 cm (1. Var. has diffuse. Small-f lowered willow-herb i s widespread on dry. in.) Hook. but has much longer capsules. Epilobiun glaberrimm Barbey Smooth Willow-weed This plant has clustered stems. end A UT. and wet meadows. f a s t i g i a t u n (Nutt. I t occurs mostly a t or above t i h e r l i n e . occurs a t higher elevations and has more numerous and crowded. much Larger than those borne i n bunches i n the main leaf a x i l s . The sessile. barely petiolate. U. Group IV. mostly i n the subalpine zone and i s white o r very Light pink flowers.L. occurs on moist s i t e s from the montane t o timberline. fine.t o lance-shaped. They 7. has I t occurs w h below timberline.

...4 Ovary hairless or minutely glandular. 3. These are species with stalked capsules...... A 2.ONAGRACEAE 9..... i t often flowers the f i r s t season......... The small flowers have d i s t i n c t .( Petals 4 ... Gayophytun Juss. Groundsmoke.. Spreading Groundsmoke This annual i s 15-60 cm (6-24 i n ) t a l l with stems that are branched above and vary from h a i r l e s s t o densely mantled with s o f t spreading o r short.. The showy blossoms are arranged i n many-f lowered spikes and range i n color from uhi t e t o pink or red.......... Typical s i t e s include open slopes that may have abundant e a r l y season moisture........... C and east t o ID. 3... swamps. f r a g i l e . The 30-100 cm (12-40 i n ) t a l l stems vary from hairless t o densely pubescent and are usually The f i n e l y toothed leaves are highly variable but mostly opposite below end narrowly t o glandular above.. reflexed sepals.... Gayophytun d i f f u s u n T.... alternate...... The Linear lower stem leaves are mostly 10-35 mn long.. Gaura cocci nea -. The twisted........h a i ry... Gayophytun This genus i s comprised o f inconspicuous.... 3 .... Butterfly-weed Scarlet But t e r f ly-weed This p e r e m i a l has several........ Petals mostly 3-5(7) mn Long... 5 mn Long.. & G... ..300 f t ) a t the head of Martin Creek i n the Sapphire Range. mostly east of the Cascade crest. diffusum Group I...... The u p a i r e d Leaves are sessile and l i n e a r t o oblong lance-shaped.. Pods are narrow....... appressed hairs. From UA. and 4-8 cm Long........ Stalks o f mature f r u i t s (capsules) <3 mn Long Stalks Length o f mature capsules 3 mn or more .. and the internodes 1......... broadly Lance-shaped....... are longer than the leaves......) Pursh Gaura.. and e n t i r e leaves.. 1... capsules are 4-12 mn long..... I t spreads by short rootstocks t h a t produce rosettes of Leaves.... weedy-looking.... ... and pointed upward. threadlike...... Long axis o f seeds oblique t o main axis o f capsule Ovary hairless or pubescent.. Scarlet butterfly-weed i s a well-known Great Plains species.... Length o f capsule s t a l k equal or exceeding capsule ..... Hairstem g r o d m o k e has been collected i n the dry f o o t h i l l s near Darby........ From U A east of the Cascades south t o s........ 15-40 cm (6-16 i n ) t a l l ......... Pedicels are fine............ 4........500 f t ) a t Wheeler Creek West Fork B i t t e r r o o t River drainage) t o 2225 rn (7.... 15-50 mn long andy 1-2(7) mn broad. and 8 stamens...1 Watson's Yi 1low-herb Though Watson's w i llow-herb i s about as t a l l as the above species but coarser i n a l l features. Ga~ouhytun ramosissimum T....... capsule s t a l k shorter than capsule i t s e l f ... Petals mostly less than 3 mn l ong... racemosum 4.... i s f r e e l y and d i f f u s e l y branched.. This plant i s comnon i n marshes.. Leaves are Linear t o inversely lance-shaped....... 2... white t o pink petals............ I t has been recorded from the Mount Sentinel... Our collections o f spreading groundsmoke range from 1675 m (5... Long axis of seeds oriented p a r a l l e l t o capsule main axis 4) G.. I t i s the most comnon Ewilobiun i n the meadows o f the floodplains and has become a weed i n many areas. Typically clusters o f smaller leaves occur i n the a x i l s o f the lower main stem Leaves..... small amuals that are much more camnon than our collections indicate.. Hai rstem Groundsmoke This glabrous arnual.. Ewilobiun watsonii Barbey [E....... F r u i t s are linear t o club-shaped capsules..(1) G.......(2) 5.......... flower color changes with developmental stage.............. south t o O s......... diffusum 2 ...... hunile maturity.. glabrous t o sof t . usually decunbent t o ascending stems.. Mount Junbo and Dean Stone Mountain east of Missoula..... 2 opposite o f the 4 valves remain attached t o septun a t (3) G........ and spreading t o erect during flowering but d i s t i n c t l y bent downward i n f r u i t . ...... r a m o s i s s m Petals 1-3 mn Long..... 2... CA and east t o MT and C ..... stalked.. They are branched above.S... 1 G.... 1.... and leaf size i s gradually reduced up the stem t o the linear f l o r a l bracts.. a1 1 4 valves f r e e from septum a t maturity. K Gaura L. & G.. Stems are f r e e l y branched and slender with lance-shaped t o linear...... straight.. Well-distributed from A south throughout U...(Nut t .... c i l i a t u n Raf... perennial.... and other s i t e s with mostly saturated s o i l ( a t least i n the e a r l y growing season).....

paniculatum f. E. minutum a. E. E. jucundum vor. E. E. Epilobium glaberrimum g.vor tenue vor. palustre d. Gaura coccinea e. paniculaturn vor porishii '1 b. glandulosum c. watsonii .

.... and 4-sided with barely raised wings........... hairy.... P i n t l e r Pass a t 2665 m (8745 f t ) ......... and s t i f f hairs........ Gayophytun huni 1e Juss. & G.. 4-celled.... c a e s ~ i t o s a .............. a l l perennials 2 Flowers on leafy stems........... The white or yellow. subacaulis Leaves p i m a t e l y divided (more than 1/2 way t o midrib).. CA....... 3.tubed Evening-primrose The leaves of t h i s t u f t e d perennial are 5-20 c (2-8 i n ) long and up t o 5 cm (2 i n ) broad...... woody capsule i s prominently 4-winged.5 .......... west t o I D and CA................. leathery-textured.............. 10-40 mn long 4 p.. south of Missoula........ biennial. F l o r a l bracts nearly as large as stems leaves nearly conceal the flowering spikes....leaved Eveni ng-pr imrose Tansy-leaf evening-primrose i s a t h i c k l y taprooted.. often nocturnal and/or fragrant flowers are borne i n various types of inflorescences.... 10-50 mn long. and perennial herbs often lacking Leafy stems.... collected a t Fairview..... aging t o a purple hue.... 4 sepals. mostly narrowly lance-shaped and simple t o pinnately divided..... This low-growing annual i s 5-20 an (2-8 i n ) t a l l and smooth t o gray-hairy... 6 8..ONAGRACEAE Group 11..... tanaceti f o l i a ........ f o l i a g e with short....... aging t o pink or purple. Petals are about 1 mn long......................... perenni s .. 2 0... peremial... hairless or nearly so (only on margins and veins). capsules hairy.. These species are branched from the base and have unstalked capsules and leaves longer than the internodes.... Oenothera flava (A...... i f any.. plants grayish with appressed....... mostly >3 mn.. and 5-30 mn long by 1-2 mn broad................. ~ 2 0 long..... o r annual....... ... The egg-shaped...... generally fading t o reddish cast.. south t o Mex..75 mn long......... 25-45 mn long........ Nels...... GayoDhytun racemosun T...... 10-20 mn long....... l i n e a r t o narrowly spatula-shaped.. s t i f f and appressed hairs..............3 Petals yellow and not aging t o purple.... Racemed Groundsmoke This species i s s i m i l a r t o G.. Petals up t o 5 mn long.5 0... woody capsules with winged margins... biennial....... From Sask. Dwarf Groundsmoke Leaves are densely set...6 Petals mostly 10-20 mn long.......... and several other high elevation sites.. short... plants with s t i f f ...) Garrett Long...... capsules smooth 3 0. From M east of Cascades south t o s... The Leaves are a l l basally clustered or alternate........ short and concealed by the leaves and flowers.. m The evening-blooming flowers have yellow petals. Group I.... Petals white..... 7 p. east t o MT and CO...... plants biennial or perennial ................. Oenothera t a n a c e t i f o l i a T..... Dwarf groundsmoke has been collected from 1645 m (5.... capsules angled....... and the seeds are 0. hypanthium o f t e n shorter than ovary..... stigma lobes linear. stigma globe. hunile but d i f f e r s by having longer seeds ( t o 1 mn) with t h e i r long axis p a r a l l e l t o that o f the capsule and having a l l 4 chambers free from the central axis a t maturity... Flowers borne on or among basal rosettes of leaves. CA (and Chile) and east t o ID and w.... There are 8 stamens................ aging t o purple.. and s t r a i g h t t o somewhat c o i l e d capsules. Petals white or yellow............ plants annual .... .. Leaves margins e n t i r e t o rounded-toothed or lobed..5-0............ 10-20 mn long 1 Q flava .. upright hai rs....... 2........... I n our area i t has been This plant i s usually associated with vernal pools and hard-packed soils... Mostly east o f the Cascade crest i n W south t o s..... Racemed groundsmoke has been collected i n the d r y f o o t h i l l s near Darby and from the Selway-Bitterroot Divide a t 2350 m (7............ A 4..400 f t ) near Victor and 2135 m (7....000 f t ) a t Burnt Fork Lake..710 ft)......................... not winged.. flowering stems.. hypanthium several times longer than the ovary......... Tansey. t u f t e d perennial with yellow petals that age t o a reddish hue....... seldom fading t o reddish cast............ The following species are perennials with flowers that are borne sessile o r nearly so from the top of the rootstock... the stigma i s globe-shaped t o deeply 4-lobed and the hypanthiun (elongation or enlargement o f the f l o r a l a x i l s below the calyx) i s prominent. MT..... F r u i t s are woody t o membraneous.. The oblong t o egg-shaped capsules are 15-20 mn long......o r disc-shaped mn 4 ...... Petals yellow. and 4 petals....... . andina Petals >10 mn long................. Evening-primrose This genus includes annual........ ........ 1....... A Oenothera L........... strigosa Petals mostly 25-40 mn long. aging t o pink or purple.. & G. .

yellow flowers open i n the evening..1 Comnon evening-primrose i s a grayish-hairy.. Group 111. This most comnon o f our evening-primroses i s found on a broad v a r i e t y o f habitats. ) Ravenl This small annual i s wider than t a l l with flowering stems up t o about 15 cm ( 6 in) t a l l ..... moist i n spring t o e a r l y swrmer and d r y by midsunmer. v i l l o s a Thunb.... Obscure Evening-primrose 5. Long.. not winged.. Roots o f the f i r s t year rosettes make delicious vegetables when harvested i n the f a l l or spring..S. Oenothera peremis L.. on talus and d r y h i l l s . 2 1. The yellow petals are 15-25 mn long. handsome flowers open i n the evening t o perfune the a i r .. crowded.S. Flowers a l l somewhat long-stalked and lacking small subtending bracts.. but occasional plants may be up t o 25 a (10 i n ) t a l l .. where i t i s a comnon weed of pastures... Group 11. A native t o e. . dispersing a d e l i c a t e fragrance. Can... Rockrose.. 6. . U. The linear t o narrowly spatula-shaped. east t o ID and MT.. white petals that age t o pink. Nunerous minute seeds are borne i n pods... Tufted Eveni ng-primrose The rockrose usually lacks stems. but drying i n sunmer. Generally found on substrates moist i n spring or e a r l y s m r .. are borne sessile i n short. .. OROBANCHACEAE Broomrape Family Orobanche L. east t o MT and CO.. Sundrops This weedy p e r e m i a l has erect stems t o 25 c (10 i n ) t a l l and a nodding inflorescence that becomes m erect with the blooming o f each flower. 7. about 2 mn long. the blade pinnately c l e f t t o merely toothed or nearly entire... East of the Cascades from B.. The large.... Oenothera caespi tosa Nut t . F r u i t s are egg-shaped and angled (not winged) capsules 10-40 mn long. M t o the Sierras of CA... The upper ones are progressively reduced.. They have heart-shaped. The Large. but the lower branches are nearly leaf less.. south-facing slopes o f Mount Sentinel.. alternate leaves are mostly basal.... from r i p a r i a n zones t o roadsides and wastelands throughout most of the Northwest and t o the A t l a n t i c Coast. These fleshy annuals are yellowish.....t o purplecolored and have leaves reduced t o alternate. From M east of Cascades south t o the Sierras o f CA. The calyx i s 4-5-lobed and the c o r o l l a i s tubular and s l i g h t l y curved with 5 lobes formed i n t o two l i p s . Our only record f o r t h i s species i s a population on the dry. The simple o r forked branches are ascending... The Lemon ye1 low flowers. I n our area i t has been recorded i n the f o o t h i l l s east of Victor... such as sagebrush steppe and A open ponderosa pine forests... The lance-shaped leaves are mostly sessile and up to 10 cm (4 i n ) Long. Leaves are lance-shaped and 10-25 mn broad with e n t i r e or undulating margins.leaf evening-primrose i s known from B e r t i e Lord Creek near i t s confluence with the East Fork B i t t e r r o o t River.... south t o CA.. strongly taprooted biennial 30-100 cm (12-40 i n ) tall... A 4.. [Camissonia andina (Nut t... Capsules are d i s t i n c t l y 4-angled.. and ne. Flowers sessile o r on pedicels ~ 3 0 long and i n addition t o the subtending bract have a p a i r o f mn b r a c t l e t s just below the calyx 3 0 corynbosa . From e. bracteate spikes. on a f o o t h i l l slope east o f Victor. This i s our only annual species. Broomrape A l l species p a r a s i t i z e the roots o f other plants. ieafy stems and yellow flowers. b r a c t .....C. (Not i l l u s t r a t e d ) . & Bush 10. Our only c o l l e c t i o n i s from a barrow p i t near Hamilton. n The 10-25 cm (4-10 i n ) long basal leaves are slenderly petioled and inversely lance-shaped i n outline..leaf Evening-primrose This plant d i f f e r s from the above two by having flowers that do not open i n the evening and yellow petals that do not fade t o purple with age... Oenothera subacaulis (Pursh) Garrett [Cami ssonia subacaul is (Pursh) Ravenl Long. 3. east t o UY and UT. Oenothera andina Nutt. This species i s generaily f o m d i n open habitats.. erect.... Oenothera strigosa Mkze..OROBANCHACEAE This species has only been collected once i n our area....l i k e scales. 1.. These two species have erect... Rockrose occurs over much o f the western U...

h. subacaulis o. Oenothera flava . G. ramosissimum j. Oenothera tanacetifolia n. humile I. G. caespitosa k. 0 . 0 . Gayophytum diffusum i. G. racemosum m.

This species i s a native weed widespread i n the eastern U... Oxalis These herbaceous perennials have basal.. east t o w.... A Saxifraga i n t e g r i f o l i a and Boykinia). Three weedy species have been introduced i n Missoula and v i c i n i t y .... One-f lowered or Naked Broomrape The 1-3 Leafless flower stalks.... 2........ . that f r e e l y root a t the nodes... b i l a t e r a l l y symnetrical and borne s o l i t a r y or i n a short........... mountainous e n v i r o m t s ..... Orobanche u n i f l o r a L. the Missoula v i c i n i t y ..... Seeds with transverse whitish ridges.. Oxalis d i l l e n i i Jacq.... p a r t i t i o n e d hairs. and l o c a l l y c m n i n gardens o f the Lower Rattlesnake Creek drainage.. I t i s believed t o o f t e n seepy....... This weed o f European origin... s t i p u l e s present 2 . Creeping Ye1 low Wood-sorrel Creeping yellow wood-sorrel... petals rovrded.. the short stems remaining mderground... south t o C and FL...C.. Transverse ridges o f seeds not white...... From B. parasitize a great v a r i e t y o f host plants... i t has been collected A only once near Misswla. but may be decuhent or matted.......... and the capsules are 15-25 mn long with gray.... Flowers no more than 2-3.. Clustered Broomrape This species i s glandular throughout and produces s o l i t a r y o r clustered............S. sepals triangular 2 0 fasciculata .. petals pointed. alternate o r nearly opposite. the only known locations are near C o r v a l l i s and on Blue Mountain i n f r i g i d a and A.. and whitish crests on the small cross-ridged seeds.. 2...... 3...... 2... south (wholly east o f Cascades) t o C . vrckrgromd Narrowly pointed sepals subtend a yellowish t o bluish-purple c o r o l l a tube with rounded Lobes. From s.... B. .. each with 2-several flowers. sometimes a t high elevations. t o Newf. ~p t o 9 cm (4............. bracteate flower stalks. The stems are t h i c k and sturdy and bear pedicels up t o 3 cm Long with purplish flowers. Ferris Flat-topped Broomrape 3..... comnonly p a r a s i t i c on Artemisia tridentata... stipules Lacking Hairs of stem and petioles not septate and pointed a t tip.. plants with t u f t e d growth-form.. usually 1. plants rhizomatous. reddish o r purple. the top of stems emerging from ground.. east t o Sask.... 0 corniculata ..... These bear several 1-flowered stalks that are not longer than the main Flowers are yellowish or pinkish....OXAL IDACEAE 2.C.. Orobanche fasciculata Nutt.. less t r a i l i n g growth form........ such as Senecio triangularis. Calyx and c o r o l l a (always yellow) have 5 petals and sepals and 10 stamens. open v a l l e y and f o o t h i l l habitats. 3 Q stricta .... From Yuk......... occurring i n moist t o wet... spreading rhizomes that range from hairless t o having blunt-tipped. . 1.... appressed....... 3-parted Leaves....... p a r t l y shaded....... foliage. MT and UT.. Suksdorf i a ranuncul i f 0 1 ia. M I ...... Upright Ye1 low Wood-sorrel Stems are usually upright and up t o 50 c (20 i n ) t a l l ..... Wood-sorrel... and I N and south t o NM and CA.. 2. tridentata.. stems......... OXALIDACEAE Oxal i s Fami l y Oxalis L. blunt a t t i p .....(2) 0 d i 1l e n i i .... Oxalis s t r i c t a L... . Orobanche corvmbosa (Rydb. main stems creeping and rooting ..... 1..... Oxalis corniculata L..... stems stem... This i s a rare plant o f d r y sites. plants more stoloniferous than rhizomatous...... They a r i s e m from fleshy.. D i l l e n ' s wood-sorrel i s very simi tar t o 0 corniculata... 1. I n our area i s parasitizes Artemisia However......... capsule with 5 lobes and chambers. not t a l l e r than 10 cm (4 in).........) Flat-topped broomrape has several short.... 2.. narrow and slender Flowers more than 3.... are borne on short... broad and somewhat flat-topped Fruit i s a inflorescence..... Leaflets are inversely heart-shaped. Flowers are mostly bisexual..(1) . d i f f e r i n g by always having l i g h t green .......... This i s a species o f dry. This f r a g i l e plant i s sparsely d i s t r i b u t e d throughout our mountain ranges.. Herbage i s mostly brownish...... mostly fleshy and s t w t about 6 cm (2 i n ) Long.. The 5 very narrow and Linear calyx lobes considerably exceed the length of the calyx tube and are themselves subtended by two narrow bracts.. and short hairs. a hairless t o short-hairy perennial has t r a i l i n g stems... Hairs o f stem and p e t i o l e s usually a t least p a r t l y septate.............. The peduncles are 2-5 flowered...... sepals 1 0 uniflora .3 i n ) long... now widespread i n North America... 1... a more erect.. has escaped from greenhouses t o become persistent i n lawns and gardens o f Misswla.. fleshy.

Orobanche uniflora s. fasciculata t. 0. corymbosa u.p. Oxalis corniculata v. 0. 0. Oenothera andina q. stricta . strigosa r. 0 . 0. dillenii w.

. The capsules are smooth.. The scarlet petals have a dark blotch a t t h e i r base..... Papaver L. pinnately divided and coarsely toothed.. Elongated. Capsules ( f r u i t s ) nearly r o d t o broadly egg-shaped and without hairs............ Plantain Characteristics o f t h i s lone genus are detailed i n the family description above..... and 10-15 nm Long.. pinnately dissected..... branched. 15-50 cm (6-20 i n ) t a l l annual has coarse.(2) P.......... making i t a troublesome n a t i v e weed.... oblong........................ The bisexual flowers are arranged i n a condensed spike (flowers sessi l e on axis) subtended by bracts.. yellow. .. PAPAVERACEAE Poppy Fami 1y Members o f the poppy family are annual t o p e r e m i a l herbs o f t e n having colored o r milky juice and alternate or basal... with s t i f f hairs................... This i s a European annual that o f t e n escapes from c u l t i v a t i o n but seems not t o p e r s i s t except a t scattered locat ions.. Leaves are cornpod with 2-5 i r r e g u l a r l y lobed and toothed leaflets.. are set with s t i f f b r i s t l e s ....... 1.. Long P r i c k l y ... F i e l d poppy i s a widely c u l t i v a t e d species that has been introduced i n our area i n grain seed near Hamilton...PAPAVERACEAE Petioles lack appendages (stipules) a t the base.. 1. an exotic from Europe. I n our Rhizomes o f t h i s species are d i f f i c u l t t o eradicate.. rhoeas Capsules narrowly oblong t o egg-shaped....... corolla...Pawver .. F r u i t s are capsules that open a t the t i p t o release the several seeds. and the c o r o l l a lobes are united. PLANTAGINACEAE Plantain Fami l y Our species are amual or perennial herbs with sinple...... Celandine i s a biennial or s h o r t ....... seed pods have a rouxled base and pointed t i p and open lengthwise i n 2 sections. Showy. Chelidonim Chelidoniun L. 1..(l) arqemone fl............... has been collected a t the Montana Power Rattlesnake Creek Reservoir north o f Hissoula.4 . e n t i r e t o palmately or pinnately dissected leaves... petals 15-20 mn long..... 1....... Leaf blades b r i s t l y h a i r y Leaf blades glabrous t o sparsely h a i r y .. e n t i r e o r toothed............ Flowers are s o l i t a r y t o several with 2-3 sepals shed as the flower opens and mostly 4 (6-12) petals that are white.. Celandine....h a i r y amual 30-70 (12-28 i n ) t a l l . The calyx.............. Plantago L... Egg-shaped petals are scarlet with black bases.. nearly round t o egg-shaped..... petals 40-70 mn... 1.. b r i s t l y ......... Leaf l e t s are 10-50 mn long and h a i r l e s s or with h a i r s confined t o the margins............ s t i f f h a i r s throughout.. and mostly basal \eaves. 4-petaled flowers are s o l i t a r y and borne on the ends o f the stems..... red... .......2 . Corn o r F i e l d Poppy Leaves are once F i e l d poppy i s an erect.. 2.. and stamens are generally i n 4's. 15-20 mn long. Capsules... Pamver rhoeas L. and prominently ribbed... Flowers are yellow and 4-petaled. o r bluish... Celandine Celandine Chelidoniun majus L. Poppy Poppies are amual or perennial herbs with colored or milky juice and alternate or a l l basal leaves that are lobed o r pinnately dissected. I t s capacity t o p e r s i s t i s unknown...... Pamver a r g m n e L..headed o r Sand Poppy Leaves are twice This erect........ (Not i l l u s t r a t e d ) ....... 1.. area i t has been collected only northeast o f Hamilton.....................l i v e d perennial ~po 60 cm (24 i n ) t a l l with stems and roots that t exude a orange-yellow sap when cut... 1.............. The stamens are usually abundant but occasional l y only 3.. Plants evidently p e r e m i a l Plants p l a i n l y annual .

..l i k e pattern.. have 1(2) blackish.. s t i f f l y erect.. and s p l i t s a t about the middle or below.. From s.. Young leaves are o f t e n h a i r y but become glabrous with age. 5-25 cm long and about 10 mn wide. 3. plants often wool l y a t base... The flowering s t a l k i s longer than the Leaves.......... less than 1 cm wide.... Plantago major L... and concave seeds..(4) P..... short. The species ranges from South America along the P a c i f i c Coast as f a r north as Grays Harbor County.... major. major.. Leaves narrower. tapered bracts has been collected only once near Missoula........ with long........ 6 P. This group includes annual plants widespread i n the U.. soft...... a r i s t a t a Group I. English plantain..... Ovules and seeds 6-30.... Leaves are 10-40 cm (4-16 i n ) long and have lance-shaped or e l l i p t i c a l blades that are e n t i r e or minutely toothed and taper gradually t o the petiole... i s believed t o occur i n several places along the B i t t e r r o o t River..... gardens........ with appressed. overgrazed f o o t h i l l s . naked.... and about the same length as the petiole. Plantago elongata Pursh Slender Plantain Slender plantain i s a small..... 2. pachyphylla Pilger. slender... ... Included here are the cosmopolitan weeds o r i g i n a l l y introduced from Eurasia.. and TX. flower s t a l k s about 30 c m (12 i n ) t a l l ..... annual herb.. 2..... east t o Sask.. the blade well-defined and b r o a d l y e l l i p t i c a l t o heart o r egg. Leaves seldom as m x h as 3 mn wide.. The capsules........ o f t e n occurring i n large populations o f very small plants..... English Plantain This fibrous-rooted perennial has a short............ 5. ...... 5-20 cm (2-8 i n ) t a l l . southeast of Hamilton... inflorescence completely hairless.... .. 2.... a cosmopolitan species.. shaped..... t o Sask. 4..... Bracts are fleshy and triangular t o egg-shaped. UA.... seeds >1 mn long and not net-veined...... Var. more usually i t i s associated with somewhat saline sites. i n our area i t has been recorded from Sleeping Child Hot Springs. inflorescence sparsely t o densely Longhairy 5 1..K. Plantago Lanceolata L. .C... closed beak over the capsules.. lanceolata .. distinguished by thicker.. t o s... The Leafless flower stalks............ i s a cosmopolitan weed of lawns.. Leaves are mostly 3-nerved and linear t o inversely lance-shaped and tapered gradually toward both ends. stout.C..5-10 times wider than long. Leaves are succulent..... that sheaths the stem and an e n t i r e t o toothed blade that i s egg-shaped.. This species i s comnon on the dry.. B........... s ~ i n u l o s a (Dcne. -3 ... far exceeding the flowers of the spike and blackening i n drying. wavy hairs. less than 20 cm (8 i n ) t a l l . Group 11.. 2-4 mn long...... and moist meadows. giving them a grayish-green cast. M ........ The several... about 10 cm (4 i n ) long... 5-40 cm (2-16 i n ) t a l l .. The c o r o l l a lobes form a persistent. 3-4 mn long. that i s densely thatched with Long..... narrowly linear. elotwata Capsules with 2 seeds...... Our comnonly occurring var... Bracts mostly inconspicuous and not much elongated. the blades e l l i p t i c a l or narrower.... patagonica Bracts very elongated..(I) major P..PLANTAGINACEAE 2.. The densely crowded spike i s 1.... The native var.... CA..... s t i f f hairs and a dense c y l i n d r i c a l spike a t maturity. The surrounding basal leaves are sanewhat appressed t o the ground... and woody base t h a t i s woolly a t the crown. w... A 5... 3... stamens 4... 4. 3. h i r t e l l a ...... From s. seeds 2-4. leafless flowering stems are 15-60 cm (6-24 i n ) t a l l .. Indian-wheat i s a weakly taprooted amual..S.... The plant was collected on the t h i n l y vegetated west-facing slopes of the Sapphire Range east of Victor. bracts generally narrowed t o a point Outer sepals free.........(2) P. and the spike i s 1-10 cm (1-4 i n ) long and less than 5 mn wide.......... seeds with n e t . succulent Leaves.... not blackening i n drying .. Mexican Plantain Mexican plantain has e l l i p t i c a l or inversely lance-shaped and f i r m t o succulent leaves that have copious..... leaves broad... narrow.... Indian-wheat 4. 5..... Comnon o r Nippleseed Plantain Capsules ( f r u i t s ) with 4-6 seeds.... Ovules....B.... shining.. south t o C and TX and introduced t o points further east. and has a f e l t o f long woolly hairs..... The capsule i s egg-shaped. 5 P..... and 2-10 cm (1-4 i n ) long.. Plantago patagmica Jacq.) Gray....5-10 cm long...... N ...... plants not woolly a t base.... A Large mass o f fibrous roots gives r i s e t o several. Outer 2 sepals united... are topped by dense spikes...... stamens mostly 2. Leaves have a purplish petiole.. but tends t o occur a t higher elevations and on more exposed sites.... s t i f f t o very r i g i d hairs....... B... Plantago h i r t e l l a H........ bracts mostly blunt or rounded t o acute... prominently veined.. leaves o f t e n >3 mn wide.. occupies the same habitats as does P.... Flowers are densely aggregated or so loosely flowered that the stem i s exposed...(3) P.... i r r i g a t e d land.

lanceolata b. Plantago elongata y. Plantago major a. P. hirtella c. patagonica 307 .x. P. Papaver argemone d. P. P. rhoeas z.

......... leaves never without p e t i o l e and palmately divided t o near base. east t o Ont... .. ................. .......... The simple or branched stems of narrow-leaf collomia are up t o 40 cm (16 i n ) t a l l and f i n e l y shorth a i r y on the lower portions and long-hairy................ grandif lora C o r o l l a u s u a l l y p i n k .................... slender and short lobed corol las...............................C............. and NM.......... -2 Calyx tube with green r i b s a l t e r n a t i n g with transparent areas or i f m i f o r m l y greenish........Leaves sessile..... Plants p e r e m i a l with often sprawling stems........... lower elevation habitats....2 Corolla usually salmon or ye1 lowish and >20 mn long............................. lobes 1 .... .. slopes of the Cascades. then the 3 Leaves lacking petioles and palmately divided t o near base ...5 opposite and e n t i re............... or even s t i c k y on the upper parts..... but i t has mrch longer f l o r a l bracts......... lavender... blue.. giving the inflorescence a conical shape....P L M NI O E O ACEAE 6............. Collomia Nutt...Linanthastrurn Plants of t h i s genus are annuals or perennials with funnel-shaped or tubular corollas with the throats that abruptly f l a r e i n t o an expanded ti&................ The main stem and each of the branches terminate i n a dense............ . :.................6 ...... Leaves p i m a t e l y c wnd....... Leaves are opposite or alternate and undivided with e n t i r e margins t o corrpound o r variously divided.............................. leaves e n t i r e or with f r i n g e o f h a i r s on margins..... These bracts are gradually reduced toward the apex..... This i s our most comwn and widespread species... and sessile..............1 5 m n long.............. that extend 5-25 mn beyond the flowers and become black ~ p o n drying....e l l i p t i c a l t o lance-shaped.. Narrow-leaf Collomia ........ Collomia ........... P L M NIACEAE Phlox Fami l y OE O Members o f the Phlox Family include annual and perennial herbs and low-growing...G i l i a Plants annual .. These are slender annual species. Col l m i a grandif l o r a Dougl................. ............... Limnthus Plants p e r e m i a l ... ............... i t i s now naturalized over most of dry.. & b i l i s 1... Both sepals and petals are 5-parted and p a r t i a l l y fused......... Collomia l i n e a r i s Nutt............... WI. Plants annual. patagonica.... WE.. Calyx tube of nearly m i f o r m texture............................ l i n e a r i s but i s more robust and up t o 60 c (24 i n ) t a l l ... Plantago a r i s t a t a Michx... Can........ or w h i t e a n d 4 ....... woody-based subshrubs......3 m n ..... leafy-bracteate c l u s t e r o f mostly sessile flowers with pink. leaves p r i c k l y Plants woody only a t base. 4 some or a l l o f them o w s i t e A l l stamens attached t o c o r o l l a a t same Level........ are larger and cream..................................................t o apricot-colored or yellow.......S. infrequent a t high elevations ......f lowered Cot lomi a Flowers m This amual i s very s i m i l a r t o C.( 3) C...... and se......... and as f a r west as the w...(2) C........................ l i n e a r i s Group I.C o l l m i a Polmim Stamens attached t o c o r o l l a a t d i f f e r e n t levels.................... .... b l u i s h or white....... From B............ .......................... 7 Leaves not both sessile and palmately c l e f t t o near the base Plants woody nearly throughout or else matted...... 1.................. open places. The bisexual and r a d i a l l y symnetrical flowers are s o l i t a r y o r open t o congested inflorescences.. 1......... south t o CA.... 2.. then the leaves not both . leaves mostly opposite or densely crowded on stem.......... - 2.... Large-bracted plantain has been collected only once near Hissoula...... glandular. ~ p p e rleaves usual l y a1ternate.... The alternate leaves are l i n e a r .............. i t i s normally associated with Native t o the midwest... palmately divided t o near base..... U.. growing i n open or p a r t l y shaded.. especially disturbed sites........ the 5 stamens are p a r t i a l l y fused t o the c o r o l l a tube......l i v e d p e r e m i a l herb simi t a r t o P..Microsteris Phlox Plants peremial... or i f a t d i f f e r e n t levels..... 2... ........ the e.. Large-bracted Plantain This species i s an annual or occasional l y short.. often single stemned and erect..(1)C..... dry............ Leaves s o f t or not especially p r i c k l y ......... lobes 5-10 mn............. Large.. F r u i t s are capsules.. often on high elevation t a l u s slopes Plants annual.. not matted. Leaves sinple and mostly e n t i r e o r t r i l o b e d ......LeptdacWLon ..

.. ) Grantl Spiked G i l i a Spiked g i l i a i s a taprooted.. than t h e more c m var..... head. never b r i g h t red. Leaves are basal or a l t e r n a t e and mostly p i m a t e l y and f i n e l y dissected. Skyrocket 1... Flowers arranged i n one o r more very dense. R . mostly crowded near stem t i p s .. G i l i a spicata Nutt... CA. UY. 2.) Greene The deep-seated taproot o f a l p i n e collomia gives r i s e t o low-growing. tubular flowers are borne i n aggregations i n the a x i l s o f upper Leaves. Plants are beset throughout w i t h matted.... The l a t t e r occurs on rockslides a t lower elevations such as the mountains between the East and Uest f o r k s o f t h e B i t t e r r o o t River.. 2.