51452302 108 Up Ani Shads English | Brahman | Upanishads

1.

Adhyatma Upanishad
2. Advaya Taraka Upanishad
3. Aitareya Upanishad
4. Aksha Malika Upanishad
5. Akshi Upanishad
6. Amrita Bindu Upanishad
7. Amrita Nada Upanishad
8. Annapurna Upanishad
9. Aruni Upanishad
10. Atharvasikha Upanishad
11. Atharvasiras Upanishad
12. Atma Upanishad
13. Atma-Bodha Upanishad
14. Avadhuta Upanishad
15. Avyakta Upanishad
16. Bahvricha Upanishad
17. Bhasma-Jabala Upanishad
18. Bhavana Upanishad
19. Bhikshuka Upanishad
20. Brahma Upanishad
21. Brahma Vidya Upanishad
22. Brihad Jabala Upanishad
23. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
24. Chandogya Upanishad
25. Dakshinamurti Upanishad
26. Darsana Upanishad
27. Dattatreya Upanishad
28. Devi Upanishad
29. Dhyana-Bindu Upanishad
30. Ekakshara Upanishad
31. Ganapati Upanishad
32. Garbha Upanishad
33. Garuda Upanishad
34. Gopala Tapaniya Upanishad
35. Hamsa Upanishad
36. Hayagriva Upanishad
37. Isavasya Upanishad
38. Jabala Upanishad
39. Jabali Upanishad
40. Kaivalya Upanishad
41. Kalagni Rudra Upanishad
42. Kali Santarana Upanishad
43. Katha Upanishad
44. Katharudra Upanishad
45. Kaushitaki Brahmana Upanishad

46. Kena Upanishad
47. Krishna Upanishad
48. Kshurika Upanishad
49. Kundika Upanishad
50. Maha Narayana Upanishad
51. Maha Upanishad
52. Maha Vakya Upanishad
53. Maitrayani Upanishad
54. Maitreya Upanishad
55. Mandala Brahmana Upanishad
56. Mandukya Upanishad
57. Mantrika Upanishad
58. Mudgala Upanishad
59. Muktika Upanishad
60. Mundaka Upanishad
61. Nada Bindu Upanishad
62. Narada Parivrajaka Upanishad
63. Narayana Upanishad
64. Niralamba Upanishad
65. Nirvana Upanishad
66. Nrisimha Poorva Tapaniya Upanishad
67. Nrisimha Uttara Tapaniya Upanishad
68. Paingala Upanishad
69. Pancha Brahma Upanishad
70. Para Brahma Upanishad
71. Paramahamsa Parivrajaka Upanishad
72. Paramahamsa Upanishad
73. Pasupata Brahmana Upanishad
74. Pranagnihotra Upanishad
75. Prasna Upanishad
76. Rama Rahasya Upanishad
77. Rama Tapaniya Upanishad
78. Rudra Hridaya Upanishad
79. Rudraksha Jabala Upanishad
80. Sandilya Upanishad
81. Sannyasa Upanishad
82. Sarabha Upanishad
83. Sarasvati Rahasya Upanishad
84. Sariraka Upanishad
85. Sarva Sara Upanishad
86. Satyayaniya Upanishad
87. Saubhagya Lakshmi Upanishad
88. Savitri Upanishad
89. Sita Upanishad
90. Skanda Upanishad
91. Subala Upanishad

92. Suka Rahasya Upanishad
93. Surya Upanishad
94. Svetasvatara Upanishad
95. Taittiriya Upanishad
96. Tara Sara Upanishad
97. Tejo Bindu Upanishad
98. Tripadvibhuti Mahanarayana Upanishad
99. Tripura Tapini Upanishad
100.
Tripura Upanishad
101.
Trisikhi Brahmana Upanishad
102.
Turiyatita Avadhuta Upanishad
103.
Vajrasuchika Upanishad
104.
Varaha Upanishad
105.
Vasudeva Upanishad
106.
Yajnavalkya Upanishad
107.
Yoga Chudamani Upanishad
108.
Yoga Kundalini Upanishad
109.
Yoga Sikha Upanishad
110.
Yoga Tattva Upanishad

108 Upanishads
RIG-VEDA:
1. Aitareya Upanishad
2. Aksha-Malika Upanishad
3. Atma-Bodha Upanishad
4. Bahvricha Upanishad
5. Kaushitaki-Brahmana Upanishad
6. Mudgala Upanishad
7. Nada-Bindu Upanishad
8. Nirvana Upanishad
9. Saubhagya-Lakshmi Upanishad
10. Tripura Upanishad
SUKLA-YAJUR-VEDA:
11. Adhyatma Upanishad
12. Advaya-Taraka Upanishad
13. Bhikshuka Upanishad
14. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
15. Hamsa Upanishad
16. Isavasya Upanishad
17. Jabala Upanishad
18. Mandala-Brahmana Upanishad
19. Mantrika Upanishad

20. Muktika Upanishad
21. Niralamba Upanishad
22. Paingala Upanishad
23. Paramahamsa Upanishad
24. Satyayaniya Upanishad
25. Subala Upanishad
26. Tara-Sara Upanishad
27. Trisikhi-Brahmana Upanishad
28. Turiyatita-Avadhuta Upanishad
29. Yajnavalkya Upanishad
KRISHNA-YAJUR -VEDA:
30. Akshi Upanishad
31. Amrita-Bindhu Upanishad
32. Amrita-Nada Upanishad
33. Avadhuta Upanishad
34. Brahma-Vidya Upanishad
35. Brahma Upanishad
36. Dakshinamurti Upanishad
37. Dhyana-Bindu Upanishad
38. Ekakshara Upanishad
39. Garbha Upanishad
40. Kaivalya Upanishad
41. Kalagni-Rudra Upanishad
42. Kali-Santarana Upanishad
43. Katha Upanishad
44. Katharudra Upanishad
45. Kshurika Upanishad
46. Maha-Narayana (or) Yajniki Upanishad
47. Pancha-Brahma Upanishad
48. Pranagnihotra Upanishad
49. Rudra-Hridaya Upanishad
50. Sarasvati-Rahasya Upanishad
51. Sariraka Upanishad
52. Sarva-Sara Upanishad
53. Skanda Upanishad
54. Suka-Rahasya Upanishad
55. Svetasvatara Upanishad
56. Taittiriya Upanishad
57. Tejo-Bindu Upanishad
58. Varaha Upanishad
59. Yoga-Kundalini Upanishad
60. Yoga-Sikha Upanishad
61. Yoga-Tattva Upanishad
SAMA-VEDA:

62. Aruni Upanishad
63. Avyakta Upanishad
64. Chandogya Upanishad
65. Darsana Upanishad
66. Jabali Upanishad
67. Kena Upanishad
68. Kundika Upanishad
69. Maha Upanishad
70. Maitrayani Upanishad
71. Maitreya Upanishad
72. Rudraksha-Jabala Upanishad
73. Sannyasa Upanishad
74. Savitri Upanishad
75. Vajrasuchika Upanishad
76. Vasudeva Upanishad
77. Yoga-Chudamani Upanishad
ATHARVA-VEDA:
78. Annapurna Upanishad
79. Atharvasikha Upanishad
80. Atharvasiras Upanishad
81. Atma Upanishad
82. Bhasma-Jabala Upanishad
83. Bhavana Upanishad
84. Brihad-Jabala Upanishad
85. Dattatreya Upanishad
86. Devi Upanishad
87. Ganapati Upanishad
88. Garuda Upanishad
89. Gopala-Tapaniya Upanishad
90. Hayagriva Upanishad
91. Krishna Upanishad
92. Maha-Vakya Upanishad
93. Mandukya Upanishad
94. Mundaka Upanishad
95. Narada-Parivrajaka Upanishad
96. Nrisimha-Tapaniya Upanishad
97. Para-Brahma Upanishad
98. Paramahamsa-Parivrajaka Upanishad
99. Pasupata-Brahmana Upanishad
100. Prasna Upanishad
101. Rama-Rahasya Upanishad
102. Rama-Tapaniya Upanishad
103. Sandilya Upanishad
104. Sarabha Upanishad
105. Sita Upanishad

106. Surya Upanishad
107. Tripadvibhuti-Mahanarayana Upanishad
108. Tripura-Tapini Upanishad
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1]Adhyatma Upanishad
Translated by Dr. A. G. Krishna Warrier
Published by The Theosophical Publishing House, Chennai
Om ! That (Brahman) is infinite, and this (universe) is infinite.
The infinite proceeds from the infinite.
(Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe),
It remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone.
Om ! Let there be Peace in me !
Let there be Peace in my environment !
Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !
In the cave of the body is eternally set the one unborn. The earth is His body. (Though)
moving within the earth, the earth knows Him not. The water is His body. (Though)
moving within the water, the water knows Him not. The fire is His body. (Though)
moving within the fire, the fire knows Him not. The air is His body. (Though) moving
within the air, the air knows Him not. The ether is His body. (Though) moving within the
ether, the ether knows Him not. The mind is His body. (Though) moving within the mind,
the mind knows Him not. The intellect is His body. (Though) moving within the intellect,
the intellect knows Him not. The ego is His body. (Though) moving within the ego, the
ego knows Him not. The mind-stuff is His body. (Though) moving within the mind-stuff,
the mind-stuff knows Him not. The unmanifest is His body. (Though) moving within the
unmanifest, the unmanifest knows Him not. The imperishable is His body. (Though)
moving within the imperishable, the imperishable knows Him not. The Death is His
body. (Though) moving within Death, Death knows Him not. He, then, is the inner-self
of all beings, sinless, heaven-born, luminous, the sole Narayana.
1. Superimposition is the thought, ‘I am and mine are the body, the senses, etc., which are
all other than the Self. Through devotion to Brahman, the wise man should repudiate it.
2. Knowing oneself to be the subject, the witness of intellect and its operations, reject the
idea of the Self being other than the subject, identifying the ‘I’ with that (the subject).
3. Rejecting conformity with the world, the body, and the Shastras, remove
superimposition on the Self.
4. The mind of the Yogin perishes as he stays without intermission in the Self alone,
knowing, through reasoning, Shruti, and experience, that one is the Self of all beings.
5. Without granting for a moment even a toe-hold for sleep, gossip, verbal exchanges,
etc., and self-forgetfulness, meditate on the Self in the self.
6. Casting the body far aside, the offspring of parental exudations, as its status is no better
than that of an outcast, and becoming Brahman, seek fulfilment.

7. Dissolve the self in the supreme Self as the pot-space is dissolved in infinite space;
then, as the Infinite be silent for ever, O sage !
8. Having become the self-luminous Substratum, as Being, reject both the macrocosm
and the microcosm which are but abodes of impurities.
9. Locating the body-bound I-sense in the ever-blissful spiritual Self, renounce the subtle
body; eternally be the Absolute.
10. Knowing ‘I am that Brahman’ in which this world appearance (exists) like a city
reflected in a mirror, find fulfilment, O sinless one !
11. Liberated from the grip of egoism, like the moon (after the eclipse), full, ever blissful,
self-luminous, one attains one’s essence.
12. The destruction of actions leads to that of thought; thence results the dwindling of
innate impulses (to act). The obliteration of innate impulses is liberation; it is held to be
freedom in life.
13. At all places and by all means, perceiving everything as Spirit, one achieves the
dissolution of innate impulses as it strengthens the attitude of universal good will.
14. Never should one be heedless in devotion to Brahman; ‘heedlessness is death’ so aver
the philosophers of Brahman in regard to (this) science.
15. Just as a pulled-up water-reed stays not still, even for a moment, so does Maya
(ceaselessly) envelop even a wise man if he averts his face (from the Truth).
16. Whosoever wins absoluteness while alive continues to be absolute even after death.
Rooted in concentration, O sinless one, remain steadfast.
17. With the vision of the non-dual Self through unwavering concentration comes the
dissolution without residue of the knots of ignorance in the heart.
18. Strengthening the sense of Self vis-à-vis this vision, and rejecting it vis-à-vis the ego,
etc., remain indifferent to them all, as to objects like pots and clothes.
19. All things from Brahma down to clumps of grass are nothing but unreal adjuncts.
Distinct from the, see one’s Self existing as the immutable plenum.
20. One’s Self is Brahma, Vishnu, Indra and Shiva; this entire world is one’s Self; other
than this Self, there is nothing.
21. After repudiating all objective appearances superimposed on one’s Self, one remains
alone as the supreme Brahman, full, non-dual, stirless.
22. The world is a postulation, as good as non-existent, in the one Reality that is
immutable, formless, unqualified; whence is difference ?
23. (In the one Reality) devoid of distinctions like the percipient, perception, and the
perceived, and of all sufferings, in the absolutely full, spiritual, Self, like unto the ocean
at the time of cosmic dissolution, (whence is difference) ?
24. Darkness implicit in It as in light is the cause of delusion. Whence is difference in the
supreme non-dual and unqualified Reality ?
25. In this uniform and supreme Reality, how can the agent of differences dwell ? In deep
sleep that is nothing but bliss who has perceived difference ?
26. This perception of difference is rooted in the mind (of the percipient); there is none of
it in the absence of the mind. Therefore, concentrate the mind on the supreme Self as the
subject.
27. Upon realizing the Self that is impartite bliss as one’s own essence (there follows) the
savouring of the timeless bliss that is the Self, both externally and internally.

28. Of detachment the fruit is knowledge: of knowledge the fruit is withdrawal.
Experience of Self as bliss leads to peace; again, peace is the fruit of withdrawal.
29. Without the consequent states, the precedent ones are fruitless, indeed. Cessation is
supreme satisfaction; matchless bliss is spontaneous.
30. The expressed sense of the word tat (God) has Maya for His adjunct; He is the worldcause. He is characterised by omniscience, etc.; is tinged by transcendence, and is
essentially Truth and so forth.
31. The expressed sense of the word ‘Tvam’ shines forth as the content of the idea and
expression ‘I’; it is awareness blended with the mind (the inner organ of perception).
32. Only through the exclusion of Maya and avidya, the adjuncts of God and Jiva is the
supreme Spirit, the impartite Being, Consciousness and Bliss, indicated.
33. ‘To listen’, thus is to pursue by means of sentences their import. On the other hand,
‘thinking’ consists in perceiving its consistency with reason.
34. ‘Meditation’ is indeed the exclusive attention of the mind fixed on (the import)
rendered indubitable through listening and thinking.
35. ‘Concentration’ is said to be the mind which, outgrowing the dualism between the
meditator and meditation, gradually dwells exclusively on the object (of meditation) and
is like a flame in a windless spot.
36. Mind’s modifications in regard to the Self are uncognized in that state; they are (only)
inferred as past, after quitting the state of Samadhi.
37. Crores of karmans, accumulated in this beginningless transmigratory life, are
dissolved by means of concentration: (then) pure virtue begins to flourish.
38. The best knowers of Yoga call this concentration the cloud of virtues, since it rains
the flood-waters of virtue in a thousand streams.
39-40. When the load of innate impulses is dissolved without residue by means of this
(cloud of virtues) and heaps of karmans, good and evil, are totally eradicated, the major
text, which at first shone forth immediately, now unobstructed, yields immediate
awareness as (clear) as the myrobalan in the palm (of one’s hand).
41. The non-occurrence of the impulse (to enjoy, etc.,) in regard to the objects of
enjoyment marks the acme of detachment. The highest pitch of awareness is (marked by)
the non-occurrence of the egoistic sense.
42(a). The acme of withdrawal is (marked by) the non-occurrence of (even) the latent
impulse (to enjoy).
42(b). He is the ascetic of steadfast wisdom who enjoys bliss for ever;
43-44(a). Whose self is merged in Brahman alone; who is immutable and quiescent.
Wisdom (prajna) is defined as the unwavering spiritual mode whose content is the unity
of Brahman and Atman purged (of all adjuncts).
44(b). Whosoever possesses it (wisdom) without a break is liberated in life;
45. Who has no conceit of ‘I’ in regard to body and senses; nor the conceit of objects in
regard to things other than them – who is free from these two conceits in regard to
anything whatsoever is liberated-in-life;
46. Who, in his wisdom, perceives no difference between the subject and Brahman; who
neither refers to the creator nor creation is liberated in life.
47. Whose attitude is the same both when he is honoured by the virtuous and when he is
persecuted by the wicked is liberated in life.

48. He who has realized the truth of Brahman no longer transmigrates, as hitherto; if he
does, this truth has not been realized by him; he is but an extrovert.
49. As long as the experience of pleasure, etc., lasts, so long operative karmans from the
past are held to persist. (Causal) actions precede the occurrence of effects; never is this
unpreceded by actions.
50. Consequent on the experience ‘I am Brahman’, karmans accumulated in the course of
aeons are dissolved, even as the actions in dreams are, upon waking up.
51. Just as nothing clings to space, so to the sage, who knows the Self to be unattached
and indifferent, future actions cling not in the least degree.
52. Just as space is unaffected by the smell of liquor though it touches the pot (containing
the liquor), so is Self unaffected by the attributes of Its adjuncts.
53. Karmans done before the dawn of knowledge perish not as a result of that knowledge;
they must produce their proper effect even as an arrow shot to hit a target (stops not
before hitting it).
54. The arrow discharged (to hit) what was taken for a tiger stops not, though, alter, (the
target) is known to be a cow; the target is hit with full force.
55. ‘I am un-ageing’; ‘I am immortal’ – how can one who knows his Self to be such and
lives that knowledge fabricate operative past actions ?
56. Then only is operative past action real when one mistakes one’s Self to be the body.
The treatment of the body as Self is improper; therefore reject (the notion) of operative
past action.
57. The fabrication of operative past actions is also, indeed, a delusion due to this body.
58. How can the superimposed be real ? How can the unreal be born ? How can the
unborn perish ? How can the unreal own operative past actions ?
59-60. To answer the dull-witted (who) doubtfully ask how this body persists if the entire
effects of nescience with their cause are destroyed by knowledge, Shruti, with an outward
eye, propounds the theory of operative past actions; not to suggest to the wise that the
body, etc., are real.
61. A total plenum, without beginning and end, measure and change.
Massed being and intelligence, massed eternal bliss, undiminishing,
62. With the sole savour of the subject, full, endless, behold all,
Neither to be shunned nor seized, neither to be held nor propped;
63. Beyond inert forces and actions, subtle, certain, unblemished;
Whose essence is beyond thought, beyond mid and words;
64. Existent, a plenitude, self-proven, pure, awake and matchless.
One only is non-dual Brahman; here is no plurality at all.
To Apantaratamas was this science imparted. He imparted it to Brahma, who passed it on
to Ghorangiras. The latter gave it to Raikva and Raikva to Rama. Rama imparted it to all
beings. This is the injunction in regard to Nirvana; this is the injunction of the Vedas, of
the Vedas. This is the secret teaching.
Om ! That (Brahman) is infinite, and this (universe) is infinite.
The infinite proceeds from the infinite.
(Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe),
It remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone.

Om ! Let there be Peace in me !
Let there be Peace in my environment !
Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !
Here ends the Adhyatmopanishad belonging to the Sukla-Yajur-Veda.
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2]Advaya Taraka Upanishad
Translated by P. R. Ramachander
Published by celextel.org
Om ! That (Brahman) is infinite, and this (universe) is infinite.
The infinite proceeds from the infinite.
(Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe),
It remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone.
Om ! Let there be Peace in me !
Let there be Peace in my environment !
Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !
That which helps you cross from the fear of birth, aging and death is called Tharakam
(Tharayathi means Crosses). Understanding the appearance of the living being and God
as separate entities is due to illusion and then examining and understanding the
differences which exist in the world by the method of, “It is not this”, “It is not this” and
at last what remains at last is the Adhvaya Brahman (which does not have two forms). To
get it we have to practice three aims. 1
In the middle of body there exists the Sushumna Nadi which is as bright as the sun and as
cool as the moon. It starts from Mooladhara and goes up to Brahmarandra which is in the
top middle of the skull. It is well known that in the middle of it there exists Kundalani
which is as bright as crores of suns and as thin as the lotus thread. The man who sees that
with his mind’s eye attains salvation by getting rid of all sins. 2
One who sees constant light in the top portion of his, in the middle of his forehead has
attained mastery of yoga. 3
Wherever it is, if there is light above the head of a one, he is a yogi. 4
The yoga within is of two types viz Poorva (pre) and Uthara (post). The pre yoga is
tharaka and the post yoga is amanaska (beyond mind). 5
That which can be realized by sensory organs is one which has a form. That which is in
between the eye lids is without form. Always for understanding the things within,
practice with deep application of mind is necessary. In Tharaka yoga, the concepts like
Daharakasa are understood only by the mind’s eye. The Uthara (post) yoga is without
form. It is beyond the mind. 6

Without batting the eye lids to see inside and outside, what we are aiming to see is called
Sambhavi Mudra. The place where an expert in that type of mudra lives becomes very
holy. 7
By the help of a great teacher one tries to find the Thuriya state hidden in either the
sahasrara (thousand petal lotus) or the cave of the heart or end of the 12 Nadis. Ability to
see it is only through the help of a great teacher. 8
If the teacher, who is a scholar in Vedas, who is a devotee of Lord Vishnu, who does not
have jealousy in his mind, who is a great expert in yoga, who practices Yoga and who is
the personification of Yoga blesses us, all the ties imposed by birth will vanish. At that
moment all the sins committed in all the births will be destroyed. The Upanishad tells that
he will achieve all the Purusharthas. 9
Om ! That (Brahman) is infinite, and this (universe) is infinite.
The infinite proceeds from the infinite.
(Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe),
It remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone.
Om ! Let there be Peace in me !
Let there be Peace in my environment !
Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !
Here ends the Advaya-Tarakopanishad belonging to the Sukla-Yajur-Veda.
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3]Aitareya Upanishad
Translated by Swami Gambhirananda
Published by Advaita Ashram, Kolkatta
Om ! May my speech be based on (i.e. accord with) the mind;
May my mind be based on speech.
O Self-effulgent One, reveal Thyself to me.
May you both (speech and mind) be the carriers of the Veda to me.
May not all that I have heard depart from me.
I shall join together (i.e. obliterate the difference of) day
And night through this study.
I shall utter what is verbally true;
I shall utter what is mentally true.
May that (Brahman) protect me;
May That protect the speaker (i.e. the teacher), may That protect me;
May that protect the speaker – may That protect the speaker.
Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace !
I-i-1: In the beginning this was but the absolute Self alone. There was nothing else
whatsoever that winked. He thought, “Let Me create the worlds.”

I-i-2: He created these world, viz. ambhas, marici, mara, apah. That which is beyond
heaven is ambhas. Heaven is its support. The sky is marici. The earth is mara. The worlds
that are below are the apah.
I-i-3: He thought, “These then are the worlds. Let Me create the protectors of the worlds.”
Having gathered up a (lump of the) human form from the water itself, He gave shape to
it.
I-i-4: He deliberated with regard to Him (i.e. Virat of the human form). As He (i.e. Virat)
was being deliberated on, His (i.e. Virat'’) mouth parted, just as an egg does. From the
mouth emerged speech; from speech came Fire. The nostrils parted; from the nostrils
came out the sense of smell; from the sense of smell came Vayu (Air). The two eyes
parted; from the eyes emerged the sense of sight; from the sense of sight came the Sun.
The two ears parted; from the ears came the sense of hearing; from the sense of hearing
came the Directions. The skin emerged; from the skin came out hair (i.e. the sense of
touch associated with hair); from the sense of touch came the Herbs and Trees. The heart
took shape; from the heart issued the internal organ (mind); from the internal organ came
the Moon. The navel parted; from the navel came out the organ of ejection; from the
organ of ejection issued Death. The seat of the procreative organ parted; from that came
the procreative organ; from the procreative organ came out Water.
I-ii-1: These deities, that had been created, fell into this vast ocean. He subjected Him
(i.e. Virat) to hunger and thirst. They said to Him (i.e. to the Creator), “Provide an abode
for us, staying where we can eat food.”
I-ii-2: For them He (i.e. God) brought a cow. They said, “This one is not certainly
adequate for us.” For them He brought a horse. They said, “This one is not certainly
adequate for us.”
I-ii-3: For them He brought a man. They said “This one is well formed; man indeed is a
creation of God Himself”. To them He said, “Enter into your respective abodes”.
I-ii-4: Fire entered into the mouth taking the form of the organ of speech; Air entered into
the nostrils assuming the form of the sense of smell; the Sun entered into the eyes as the
sense of sight; the Directions entered into the ears by becoming the sense of hearing; the
Herbs and Trees entered into the skin in the form of hair (i.e. the sense of touch); the
Moon entered into the heart in the shape of the mind; Death entered into the navel in the
form of Apana (i.e. the vital energy that presses down); Water entered into the limb of
generation in the form of semen (i.e. the organ of procreation).
I-ii-5: To Him Hunger and Thirst said, “Provide for us (some abode).” To them He said,
“I provide your livelihood among these very gods; I make you share in their portions.”
Therefore when oblation is taken up for any deity whichsoever, Hunger and Thirst
become verily sharers with that deity.
I-iii-1: He thought, “This, then, are the senses and the deities of the senses. Let Me create
food for them.
I-iii-2: He deliberated with regard to the water. From the water, thus brooded over,
evolved a form. The form that emerged was verily food.
I-iii-3: This food, that was created, turned back and attempted to run away. He tried to
take it up with speech. He did not succeed in taking it up through speech. If He had

I-iii-9: He wanted to take it up with the procreative organ. He did not succeed in taking it up with the eye. That is its first birth. That which is the semen is extracted from all the limbs as their vigour. ejecting by the procreative organ. feeling by the sense of touch. He did not succeed in taking it up with the mind. they call Him indirectly Indra. this one is an abode. When he sheds it into his wife. hearing by the ear. for the gods are verily fond of indirect names. This entrance is known as vidriti (the chief entrance). . This one is an abode. I-iii-7: He wanted to take it up with the sense of touch. thus: “I have realised this”. smelling by the sense of smell. then one would have become satisfied by merely by hearing of food. thinking by the mind. Although He is Idandra. He manifested all the beings. then he procreates it. then one would have become satisfied by merely ejecting food. the gods are verily fond of indirect names. then one would have become satisfied by merely thinking of food. Therefore (the foetus) does not hurt her. Of Him there are three abodes – three (states of) dream. If He had taken it up with the eye. He holds that self of his in his own self. for did He speak of (or know) anything else ? He realised this very Purusha as Brahman.succeeded in taking it up with the speech. seeing by the eye. “If utterance is done by the organ of speech. I-iii-5: He wanted to take up the food with the eye. She nourishes this self of his that has entered here (in her womb). I-iii-10: He wanted to take it up with Apana. This is the devourer of food. I-iii-11: He thought. then everyone should have become contented merely by smelling food. then one would have become satisfied by merely seeing food. I-iii-8: He wanted to take it up with the mind. “How indeed can it be there without Me ?” He thought. If He had succeeded in grasping it by smelling. That vital energy which is well known as dependent of food for its subsistence is this vital energy (called Apana). II-i-2: That becomes non-different from the wife. just as much as her own limb is. I-iii-14: Therefore His name is Idandra. He did not succeed in taking it up with the procreative organ. If He had taken it up with the procreative organ. I-iii-6: He wanted to take up the food with the ear. He did not succeed in taking it up with the ear. “Through which of the two ways should I enter ?” He thought. He caught it. then who (or what) am I ?” I-iii-12: Having split up this very end. This one is an abode. the most pervasive. He did not succeed in taking it up with the sense of touch. I-iii-13: Being born. If He had taken it up with touch. then one would have become contented merely by talking of food. Hence it is delightful. II-i-1: In man indeed is the soul first conceived. He is verily known as Idandra. I-iii-4: He tied to grasp that food with the sense of smell. then one would have become been satisfied merely by touching food. the act of drawing in (or pressing down) by Apana. He entered through this door. If He had taken it up with the ear. He did not succeed in grasping it by smelling. If He had taken it up with the mind.

and having (then) ascended higher up after the destruction of the body. That is his (i. air. lifeactivities. . It is sentience. of moisture of the earth. accord with) the mind. and this is all these (big creatures). mantra): “Even while lying in the womb. space. together with the small ones. or that by which one tastes the sweet or the sour ? III-i-2: It is this heart (intellect) and this mind that were stated earlier.e. just after birth. He became immortal. he takes birth again. of wombs. Om ! May my speech be based on (i. the son) is substituted (by the father) for the performance of virtuous deeds. He (the father) protects the son at the very start. that are the procreators of others and referable in pairs – to wit. O Self-effulgent One. or that by which one hears. the nourisher. rulership. presence of mind. and all the creatures that there are which move or fly and those which do not move. or that by which one utters speech. earth. Vamadeva said this while still lying in the mother’s womb. elephants. obliterate the difference of) day And night through this study.II-i-3: She. cattle. ascertainment resolution. departs. III-i-3: This One is (the inferior) Brahman. having got his duties ended and having advanced in age. and getting all desires fulfilled in that heavenly world. All these verily are the names of Consciousness. and attained all desirable things (even here). or that by which one smells odour. viz. and this is these five elements. genius. The wife bears that embryo (before the birth). II-i-5: This fact was stated by the seer (i. this is all these gods. III-i-1: What is It that we worship as this Self ? Which of the two is the Self ? Is It that by which one sees. That he protects the son at the very beginning. passion and such others.e. Then this other self of his (that is the father of the son). As soon as he departs. viz. he became immortal. sense-perception. That is his second birth. soon after his birth. horses. becomes fit to be nourished. May not all that I have heard depart from me. All these have Consciousness as the giver of their reality. mental suffering. II-i-4: This self of his (viz. men.e.e. secular knowledge. fire. fortitude. thereby he protects his own self for the sake of the continuance of these worlds. the son’s) third birth. in the world of the Self. he ascended higher up from this world. hankering. those that are born of eggs. retentiveness. III-i-4: Through this Self that is Consciousness. he became immortal. all these are impelled by Consciousness. memory. I shall join together (i. like a hawk. II-i-6: He who had known thus (had) become identified with the Supreme. thinking. this is Prajapati. the universe has Consciousness as its eye and Consciousness is its end. A hundred iron citadels held me down. I forced my way through by dint of knowledge of the Self”. May my mind be based on speech. I shall utter what is verbally true. For thus is the continuance of these worlds ensured. I came to know of the birth of all the gods. Consciousness is Brahman. he became immortal. water. this is Indra. Then. May you both (speech and mind) be the carriers of the Veda to me. reveal Thyself to me.

Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! 1. The face of a bead should face. May my mind be based on speech. Silver. O Self-effulgent One. Conch.e. obliterate the difference of) day And night through this study. May that (Brahman) protect me. the tail. I shall join together (i. I shall utter what is mentally true. 3. accord with) the mind. may That protect me. Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace ! Here ends the Aitareyopanishad. Guha replied: “(It is made of any one of the following 10 materials) Coral. Each head must be devoted and thought of as presided over by the deities of Akàra to Kshakàra. May That protect the speaker (i. Crystal. The face must be thought of as Sarasvati and the tail as Gayatri. What is its characteristic ? How many varieties of rosaries are there ? How many threads (does a rosary) contain ? How should it be made ? What are its colours ? How is it consecrated ? Who is its presiding deity ? And what is the benefit (of using it) ?” 2.e. May that protect the speaker – may That protect the speaker.e. May you both (speech and mind) be the carriers of the Veda to me. Advaya Taraka Upanishad << Home >> Aksha Malika Upanishad ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 4]Aksha Malika Upanishad [The Upanishad of Rosary Beads] Translated by K. May That protect the speaker (i. Putra-Jìvikà. I shall utter what is verbally true. On its right silver (caps) and left copper. The internal thread must be thought of as Brahma (the Supreme Being). (please) tell me the rules regarding the rosary of beads. The hole is . the face of another head and tail. as contained in the Rig-Veda. Thus a circular formation must be made. May that protect the speaker – may That protect the speaker. May that (Brahman) protect me. the teacher).org Om ! May my speech be based on (i. Then the Prajapàti (Creator) asked Guha: “Oh Sir. the teacher). may That protect me. Golden thread should bind the beads through the holes. Lotus or Rudràksha. reveal Thyself to me. May not all that I have heard depart from me.I shall utter what is mentally true. Gold. Srinivasan Published by celextel. Pearl. Sandal.e. The right side silver cap must be considered to be the place of Shiva and Copper caps belonging to Vishnu.

cow’s urine. the (base) of entire speech. ghee. attracting.). be established in the 4th head! Om Uëkàra. eternally pure. the remover of all poison. be established in the 16th head ! Om Kaëkàra. the conqueror of death. be established in the 15th head! Om Aãkàra. be established in the 5th head! Om Ùëkàra. and then in Pancha-gavya (a sanctified liquid prepared from the cow-dung. curd and milk) and darbha grass immersed in water and then in the individual Pancha-gavya (in the aforesaid 5 things separately) and in sandal water. the devourer of everything else (or one who conceals everything). He who puts dows all obstacles. the giver of ………. be established in the 7th head ! Om Íëkàra. be established in the 10th head ! Om Eëkàra. be established in the 21st head ! Om Caëkàra. be established in the 22nd head ! . be established in the 9th head ! Om Îëkàra. One who disturbs the (the dis-order). the tormentor (or disturber) spreading everywhere. Suddha-sattva. giver of auspiciousness. The balance must be red in complexion (since they are Ràjasic). the destroyer of ……… (abhichara). the effulgent and shining. be established in the 1st head ! Om Àëkàra. the deluding one. He who of the nature of attracting. Besmear it with eight fragrant (pastes) of eight (sweet-smelling substances like Sandal. the intolerable. cruel. Then (after thus meditating the presiding deities in different part of the rosary) bathe it (or clean it) in the milk got from 5 types of cows (like Nanda).. Those which represent mutes-consonants must be yellowish (since they are the result of mixture of Sattva and Tamas). Place it on flowers. the essence of everything. be established in the 17th head ! Om Khaëkàra. capable of attracting the peaceful. be established in the 14th head ! Om Aëkàra. The knot must be thought of as nature. Then sprinkle water with darbha grass uttering Omkàra. (sanbhasya). Kasturi etc. the hater. the moving One. Om Aëkàra. be established in the 8th head ! Om Îëkàra. be established in the 20th head! Om Ñaëkàra. be established in the 11th head! Om Aiëkàra. The Beads representing vowels must be white (since they represent Sàttvika Guna). capable of attracting elephants etc. Meditate (all) the letters in the rosary (or each letter in each bead). the sharp. be established in the 13th head ! Om Auëkàra. the Pure and Noble (Suddha-sattvika). the deluding one. the giver of strength. be established in the 19th head ! Om Ghaëkàra. capable of destroying death terrible. stupefier. be established in the 12th head ! Om Oëkàra. attracting human beings. the greatest. 5. be established in the 18th head ! Om Gaëkàra. be established in the 3rd head ! Om Ìëkàra. found everywhere. One who attracts everyone. One who drives away evil spirits. of the nature of speech. be established in the 2nd head ! Om Iëkàra.Knowledge. the destroyer of all poisons. be established in the 6th head ! Om Äëkàra. the maker of clarity in speech and clear One. the giver of wealth and firmness. Omnipresent.. 4.

the burning One.abhichara). the destroyer of poison and obstructions. the giver of all results. the giver of eight siddhis. be established in the 32nd head! Om Thaëkàra. be established in the 35th head ! Om Naëkàra. the giver of enjoyment and liberation. the destroyer of mundane suffering (visajvara).. One who yokes with dharma. be established in the 23rd head ! Om Jaëkàra. faultless one. be established in the 25th head ! Om Ñaëkàra. the base of all speech. the giver of wealth and grains. be established in the 41st head ! Om Yaëkàra. the sanctifier. the deluder of haters. the giver of all power. be established in the 33rd head! Om Daëkàra. the pure One. be established in the 38th head ! Om Baëkàra. be established in the 36th head ! Om Paëkàra. be established in the 45th head ! Om Éaëkàra. the remover of all diseases. the undercurrent of all letters. nescience and the bodily perils like hunger etc. terrifying. be established in the 44th head ! Om Vaëkàra. the deluder. be established in the 48th head ! Om Haëkàra. the remover of all defects. Hence ajnana. the destroyer of ……. the hearer of the world. of the nature of Supreme effulgence. be established in the 50th head ! Om Kçaëkàra. be established in the 34th head! Om Dhaëkàra. be established in the 37th head ! Om Phaëkàra. be firmly established in the crest gem ! Mrityu not only means death but carelessness..Om Chaëkàra. be established in the 39th head ! Om Bhaëkàra. be established in the 26th head ! Om Âaëkàra. be established in the 24th head ! Om Jhaëkàra. with pleasing looks. be established in the 28th head ! Om Áaëkàra. the peaceful One. be established in the 27th head ! Om Âhaëkàra. the destroyer of ……. the purifier. the good One. the giver of righteousness. the odd shaped. the terrifying One. be established in the 43rd head ! Om Laëkàra.. the giver of all successes (siddhis). the churner of ……… (mrityu). of the nature of moon. the noblest One. ………. the Omnipresent. the developer of growth. be established in the 40th head ! Om Maëkàra. non-alertness consequent swerving from the path of spirituality.. who pleases one. the good One. unstoppable. remover of poisons. (bhutas). . the expansive One. too are referred to as Mrityu. (krityas . be established in the 46th head ! Om Çaëkàra. the all-pervading One. like atomic form. the One who instructs on the main and subsidiary categories of the world. taking capacity. One who quietens the goblins. the effulgent. be established in the 29th head ! Om Áhaëkàra.. be established in the 31st head ! Om Taëkàra. be established in the 42nd head ! Om Raëkàra. the cause of everything. the soul of Garuda. the giver of all wealth. wealth and pleasure. the destroyer of goblins. be established in the 47th head ! Om Saëkàra. the effulgent nature etc. the Supreme One. the Evolved One. be established in the 30th head ! Om Åaëkàra. be established in the 49th head ! Om Laëkàra. the auspicious One.

Vaishnavites and Saktas (and seek their blessings and permission to use the rosary). life giver for all world. all knowledge. 10. Then one must say: “Salutations to Brahma. the remover of Abhicharas. Then one must say: “Salutations to those gods who are on and move about in earth ! Be firmly established in this rosary and bless us and forefathers too after getting established in Aksha-malika permit us for auspiciousness and good !” 7. Let you all make me happy. should start touching eastwards. If one studies this in morning. conqueror of nescience. 11. shining everywhere always. Then one must say: “Salutations to those gods who are in and move about in heaven ! Be firmly established in this rosary and bless us and forefathers too after getting established in Aksha-malika permit us for auspiciousness and good !” 9. Then one must say: “Salutations to those gods who are in and move about in atmosphere! Be firmly established in this rosary and bless us and forefathers too after getting established in Aksha-malika permit us for auspiciousness and good !” 8. sins done in day are destroyed. the sins of night are destroyed. of the nature of all good. Invocation must be done circularly and end in crest jewel. the illuminator of everything. rosary of beads. Then one must say: “Salutations unto the powers of Mrityu. mover to other worlds. 12. One who reads this both in the morning . Then getting up.Such invocation of sacred syllables (avahana). placing it (on flowers) circumambulating utter the following incantation: “Om. ordainer of the day. Then one must say: “Salutations to seven crore mantras and 64 arts” and invoke their powers in rosary. mover to other islands. Salutations ! Oh goddess. ordainer of the night. attended to by sage Visvamitra ! 16. He who attracts everyone. mover to the other rivers. praying to them to make the rosary capable of yielding the desired fruit like a divine-cow (Kamadhenu). Oh goddess. rosary of beads. 15. be pleased and permit me to use”. Then one must say: “Salutations unto Hundreds of Thousands of Saivites. If one studies this in evening twilight. protector of the all world. mover to other places. Vishnu and Shiva” and invoke their powers in rosary. Then meditating on the rosary as representing everything as the form of God. Salutations ! Oh goddess. happy !” 14. stupefier of everything. salutations. Salutations ! Oh goddess mantra matrike. of the nature of all powers. feeling grateful to its help and touch the heads (beads) 108 times. their spirits and the deity who confers a particular boon and of the nature of a particular form must be invoked in the first head right of central head. creator of everything. eternal One. 13. worshipped by sage Vasistha. Then one must say: “Salutations unto the 36 Tattvas (the fundamental categories)” and invoke the presence of the best Tattvas in it. mother of all mantras of the forms of letters. 6. she who illumines all hearts ! Salutations to you of the form of Parà ! Salutations to you of the form of Paéyanti ! Salutations to you of the form of Madhyamà ! Salutations to you of the form of Vaikhari ! Salutations ! Salutations to you of the nature of all Tattvas.

May That protect the speaker (i. May our study be vigorous and effective. A. to the Power of the eye.” Thus said Guha to Prajapati. I shall utter what is verbally true.e. Thus ends the Upanishad. Om. Salutation to the Sky-Wanderer. Salutation to Energy.and evening. Salutation to the Commander of the Army (of light). ------------------------------------------------------------------ 5]Akshi Upanishad Translated by Dr. Salutation to darkness (excess of light). May my mind be based on speech. I shall join together (i. lead me from death to Immortality. May that (Brahman) protect me. becomes rid off sins. I shall utter what is mentally true.e. Bowing down to the sun. as contained in the Rig-Veda. accord with) the mind. Salutation to the blessed Lord. obliterate the difference of) day And night through this study. . Om. Om! May my speech be based on (i. May you both (speech and mind) be the carriers of the Veda to me. the glorious Sun. reveal Thyself to me. even if a sinner. Lead me from the unreal to the Real. The mantras recited with rosary immediately gives benefits. Om. the teacher). May that protect the speaker – may That protect the speaker. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). G. may He nourish us both together. Chennai Om ! May He protect us both together. May we work conjointly with great energy. O Self-effulgent One. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! PART-I Then the blessed Samkriti repaired to the solar world. he glorified the Sun by means of the science of the Wise: Om. Krishna Warrier Published by The Theosophical Publishing House.e. Om. Salutation to Light. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Aksha-Malikopanishad. May not all that I have heard depart from me. may That protect me. lead me from darkness to Light. Om.

tranquil. (The adepts) know Yoga to be the non-knowing (of plurality). PART-II 1. nevertheless. Om. omniscient. Aversion is felt everyday to inborn tendencies (to act). Coming to the next stage of Yoga. 10(b)-11. the Offspring of the Infinite.Of the essence of Purity. averse (to all actions). having mastered all that has to be learned. As a snake sheds its Slough. one tends to plunge into noble actions with gusto. Teaching this to eight Brahmanas one becomes perfect in this science. Whoever entertains such thoughts as regards the crossing of transmigratory life is said to have attained a state of Yoga. Rooted in Yoga. I shall set forth the knowledge of Reality. be tranquil and at ease. well-known for their serious interpretations of Sruti and Smriti. or. As a house-holder (knows) his homestead. perform (them) not at all. perform actions. He said: Whichever Brahmana studies without break this science of the Wise never contracts any eye-disease. Such a one’s speech is informed by affection and love. Getting them from all conceivable sources. unborn. All is one. good conduct. intolerance. The blessed Swan. See Reality as Spirit. contemplation and activities. of the essence of Purity. the sadhaka comes to know the categories. is the Prototype (of the bound soul. thousand-rayed. listen. . Here rises the Sun. greed and delusion. with due regard to time and place. endless. 3. one waits upon the virtuous. immutable. existent in myriad ways. (so). (I meditate on Him who is) omniform. The Sun told him: Samkriti. the Jiva). Always one hesitates as regards the instinctive actions of the unregenerate. the life of all animate beings. With a mind disciplined through devotion to the Shastras. 8. 14. by which knowledge alone will you become liberated while living in the body. the Scorcher. one studies the Shastras. of the essence of light. 12. Then one attains the first stage of Yoga. teach me Brahma-vidya. 9-10(a). so sheds he even a slight attachment to external objects when intensified by pride. so hard to come by. The flood of days ! The flood !! All Hail ! Thus glorified by means of the science of the Wise the-Lord-in-the-form-of-the-Sun was highly gratified. Whosoever knows this is magnified. Then verily Samkriti said to the Sun: Blessed One. 2. it is lovely and fit. 7. the sadhaka resorts to the foremost scholars. and the company of the virtuous. teacher. None is born blind in his family. the Power of the eye. 5-6. the blessed One scorches (the sins of the sinful). act and speech. 4. and the doctrines. the Sun. certain. one never refers to what may compromise others. 13. One does gentle deeds that pain none. fixed attention. but attends to their righteous deeds. Salutation to the blessed Lord. The rest are said to be just ‘noble’ (arya). conceit. ambrosial. always dreads sin and avoids all forms of sense-gratification. vis-à-vis what has to be done and avoided. the spontaneous attrition of the (object-seeking) mind. compassionate. With proper thought. he truthfully masters the entire body of knowledge including the secret doctrines. called ‘Analysis’ (vichara).

one stays consolidated in deep sleep. he expends his long life. 18. possessions are great disasters. 20. 32. 23. those who have reached the fourth stage look upon the phenomenal world as a dream. one general and the other. The first is an ambrosial sprout. being extremely exhausted. All contacts just promote separation. birth-place of the other stages. all dual appearances gone. the sadhaka remains as pure non-dual being. 29. The general non-attachment is non-involvement in objects. the all-pervading third (stage) is superior. seated on a bed of stone or a slab. 30. 33. 21. the fourth is called the dream state. the superior non-attachment in the case of the magnanimous (sadhakas) supervenes. It is said to be silence. cleansed. The first stage that occurs is sweet on account of the satisfaction and joy (that attend it). One’s perception of reality becomes clear only in due course. he (the sadhaka) proceeds to the third state styled Non-attachment. superior. diverting himself with ramblings in the forest. Just as a lover repairs to a spotless bed of flowers. Thence one attains the second and third stages. The first stage is the internal. 16-17. be it pleasure or pain. experiences this for himself. When non-duality is established and duality dissolved. 19. As a result of his meritorious actions. reaching the third stage. joyful.15. Due to the dissolution of the mind in this stage the world-manifold does not present itself at all. The sadhaka (puman) has just stepped into the sequence of states. 36. ‘Enjoyments and non-enjoyments are dread diseases. 22. The enlightened one. the righteous (sadhaka) passes his time in the delights of detachment. ‘Everything. ‘I am no agent. inwardly awake. By cultivating this sequence (of stages). the agent is God or my own prior actions’. Here the sadhaka has outgrown all proneness to imagine (and get ensnared). I do nothing in regard to it’. Looking inwards. Fixing his steady mind on the truthful import of the Shastras and busy with the recitation of spiritual texts proper to the hermitages of the ascetics. Among these. 31. even when attending to outer things. everything is under the sway of the Lord. 24. Those who reach the fourth (stage) after the dwindling of nescience through the exercises of the three stages look on all things with the same eye. He who reaches the fifth stage survives but as bare being. Reaching the fifth stage called ‘deep sleep’. repose and quiescence. 28. all particulars having completely vanished. Sufferings are diseases of thoughts’. 25-26. And the mind dissolves like the fragments of an autumnal cloud. Having reached the fifth stage. For speech and import have been flung far away in the light of the truth. from the second. Non-attachment is of two kinds: listen to the distinction as it is being drawn. . neither the sublater nor the sublated’. 35. The first three states are said to be the waking state. This non-attachment is of two-kinds. made beautiful by his placid mind. ‘Time is ceaselessly fashioning all things’ – so the general non-attachment of (the sadhaka) who has grasped the import of (the major texts) consists in being averse to all things and in not dwelling on them mentally. he appears always indrawn. (based on the perception) ‘I am neither agent nor enjoyer. is fashioned by prior deeds. 27. repeatedly studying the positive Shastras. 34. or.

lifted above mind and words. before Concentration (Samadhi) sets in. 44. devoid of imaginations. solid Intelligence and Bliss.. May our study be vigorous and effective. may He nourish us both together. etc. This is the acme of all stages. middle and end. All that is (here). . neither of these two is known. he shall reach the seventh. beyond the darkness of ignorance. beyond words. May we work conjointly with great energy. though unextinguished yet extinguished. free. in non-duality. free from all innate impulses. he is like a painted flame. with all doubt vanquished. 40. neither the ‘I’ nor the non-‘I’. The Prajna is the letter ‘m’. 41-42(a). the Vishva is just the letter ‘a’ and ‘u’ is said to be the Taijasa. the prajna. Think: I am Brahman. May we work conjointly with great energy. 42(b). In this due order the concrete and the subtle should all be dissolved in the spiritual Self and the spiritual Self (should be dissolved) perceiving ‘I am the Om Vasudeva. Om! May He protect us both together. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Akshyupanishad belonging to the Krishna-Yajur-Veda. This is the secret doctrine. May our study be vigorous and effective. the vishva. free from impurity. as a matter of course. Avoiding conformity with the ways of the world. is nothing but Om. and the ways of the body. totally fearless. the sixth stage named ‘the Fourth’. be devoted to Truth. awake. because all this (objective world) is pain in the beginning. may He nourish us both together. 39. and because. renouncing everything. Thus know in order. liberated in life. thou sinless one. Therefore. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). Practising in this fifth stage. one reaches. Kolkatta Om ! May He protect us both together. holy. existent. non-dual massed and supreme bliss’. ever pure. beyond all appearances. with all analytic thinking gone. Where there is neither the non-existent nor the existent.37. 47-48. 38. The state of disembodied liberation is called the seventh stage of Yoga. as distinct from each other. one stays alone. Beyond knots. discriminating with great effort. Because there is non-difference between import and expression. quiescent. 45-46. get rid of all superimpositions on the Self. ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6]Amrita Bindu Upanishad Translated by Swami Madhavananda Published by Advaita Ashram. Having dwelt in the sixth stage. avoiding conformity with Shastras. 43.

It being then Itself only sees the unity. Being the one. (Brahman is) without doubt. 4. That alone is Brahman. The mind is chiefly spoken of as of two kinds. supreme Bliss Itself). neither am I a seeker after liberation. 7. nor is It to be thought of (as being of the form of sense-pleasure). and dreamless sleep. For him who has transcended the three states there is no more rebirth. The mind that is attached to sense-objects leads to bondage. and the pure is that which is devoid of desire. The mind should be controlled to that extent in which it gets merged in the heart. The impure mind is that which is possessed of desire. 2.May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). beyond all proofs and causeless knowing which the wise one becomes free. while dissociated from sense-objects it tends to lead to liberation. 9. Just as it is the jar which being removed (from one place to another) changes places and not the Akasa enclosed in the jar – so is the Jiva which resembles the Akasa. When ignorance is rent asunder. nor unworthy to be thought of (as something unpleasant to the mind). with its attachment for sense-objects annihilated. . When the mind. nor one-who has attained liberation”. (The Supreme State) is neither to be thought of (as being something external and pleasing to the mind). Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! 1. 12. endless. “There is neither control of the mind. 11. know the Akasa (the Blissful one). the universal Soul is present in all beings. 14. One should duly practise concentration on Om (first) through the means of its letters. This is Jnana (realisation) and this is Dhyana (meditation) also. that Brahman which is free from all partiality is attained in that state. dreaming. So they think. the mind should always be made free of such desire. by the seeker after liberation. 3. Being covered by Maya. nor its coming into play”. Realising “I am that Brahman” one becomes the immutable Brahman. The highest Truth is that (pure consciousness) which realises. Though one. “Neither am I bound. but He knows perfectly. It does not. When various forms like the jar are broken again and again the Akasa does not know them to be broken. then that Supreme State (is gained). 6. 13. which is a mere sound. It is seen as many. eternal. 5. 8. nor am I a worshipper. without doubt and without taint. 15. It is indeed the mind that is the cause of men’s bondage and liberation. pure and impure. 10. Since liberation is predicated of the mind devoid of desire for sense-objects. beyond reason and analogy. therefore. is fully controlled within the heart and thus realises its own essence. all else is argumentation and verbiage. the idea of the non-entity is attained as entity. Finally on the realisation with this latter form of meditation on Om. Verily the Atman should be known as being the same in Its states of wakefulness. then meditate on Om without regard to its letters. like the moon in the water. through darkness. without component parts. but to be thought of (as the essence of the ever-manifest.

Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Amritabindupanishad. should abandon them all like a fire-brand. may He nourish us both together. Having ascended the car of Om with Vishnu (the Higher Self) as the charioteer. May our study be vigorous and effective. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). Taking hold of the rope of knowledge. I am that Soul of the Universe. thus it is thought of. After studying the Vedas the intelligent one who is solely intent on acquiring knowledge and realisation. May we work conjointly with great energy. having studied the Shastras and reflected on them again and again and having come to know Brahman. The Om as Word is (first looked upon as) the Supreme Brahman.16. that imperishable Brahman (remains). (the intelligent one) regards Jnana as the milk. one should bring out. and the many-branched Vedas as the cows. In Whom reside all beings. the Supreme Brahman. May we work conjointly with great energy. the Pure Consciousness resides in every being. Like the butter hidden in milk. immutable. 22. May our study be vigorous and effective. should discard the Vedas altogether. Of cows which are of diverse colours the milk is of the same colour. 17. After that (wordidea) has vanished. the Supreme Being. may He nourish us both together. I am that Brahman indivisible. 20. 18. and Who resides in all beings by virtue of His being the giver of grace to all – I am that Soul of the Universe. The wise one should meditate on that imperishable Brahman. one wishing to go to the seat of Brahmaloka intent on the worship of Rudra. Om ! May He protect us both together. if he desires the peace of his soul. like fire. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! 1. should go in the . ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7]Amrita-Nada Upanishad Translated by K. 2-3. as the man who seeks to obtain rice discards the husk. and calm. the Supreme Being. One having mastered the Word-Brahman attains to the Highest Brahman. The wise. as contained in the Krishna-Yajur-Veda. Narayanasvami Aiyar Om ! May He protect us both together. That ought to be constantly churned out by the churning rod of the mind. 19. Two kinds of Vidya ought to be known – the Word-Brahman and the Supreme Brahman. 21.

The union as stated (done) by remaining without tremor in the hallow stalk (viz. he attains the subtle Pada (seat or word) without vowels or consonants by means of the letter ‘M’ without the Svara (accent). That is called Pratyahara when one merely thinks of the five objects of sense. through Pratyahara. 18-20. one should think of Ruchira (the shining). This is the characteristic of one that has attained much quiescence. viz. the heart) and making the body void (of Vayu) and empty and uniting (the soul) to the state of void. through Dharana. Svastika. Tarka and Samadhi are said to be the six parts of Yoga. That is called Samadhi in which one. the godless qualities. one should inspire through the other nostril and retain breath inside and preserve the Agni (fire). 4. Through this divine mantra (Om). 13. Just as the impurities of mountain-minerals are burnt by the blower. beginning with the navel upwards in the gross. is called Rechaka (expiration). the one letter is Brahman. etc. thinks (all) equal. so the stains committed by the organs are burned by checking Prana. having protected himself mentally (from all evil influences). Linga and Pada. he reaches the place of the Lord of the car. Puraka and Kumbhaka) expiration. 5. Dhyana (contemplation).. 7. 12. Pratyahara (subjugation of the senses). That is called Kumbhaka (cessation of breath) when there is no expiration or inspiration and the body is motionless. Then he should think of the sound (Om) alone. Dharana (concentration). or Bhadra posture or any other which can be practised easily. Then abandoning the car. 8. 11. 22. on attaining it. Om. Pranayama (control of breath). Ruchira (cessation). 24. Having destroyed the sins. the primary (or less) gross and subtle (states). That is called (one) Pranayama when one repeats with a prolonged (or elongated) breath three times the Gayatri with its Vyahritis and Pranava (before it) along with the Siras (the head) joining after it. as also the very unsteady mind as the reins of Atman. 14. remaining still in one state.. 9. and through Dhyana. inspiration and cessation of breath. as a man would take water into his mouth through the lotus-stalk. contemplates upon his Atman (alone). Then as said before. the sins. 23. 6. it should be done many times to rid himself of impurity. Having given up Matra. the (bad) associations. facing the north and closing the nostril with the thumb. uttering Ratha-Mandala. That is called Dharana when the wise man regards the mind as Sankalpa and merging Sankalpa into Atman. Seating himself on the ground on a seat of Kusa grass which is pleasant and devoid of all evils. up or down and should practise Yoga always being motionless and without tremor. 10. The greatly wise should give up all (sight) seeing across. Om should not be breathed out. That is called Tarka when one makes inference which does not conflict with the Vedas. such as sound.. the Mantra-knowing wise should regularly meditate. expiration and inspiration – these three are Pranayama of (Rechaka. 16. 21.chariot so long as he can go. 17. . Susumna) alone is Dharana. Then he sees forms like the blind. The Yoga with the ordained duration of twelve Matras is called (Dharana). assuming either Padma. Through Pranayamas should be burnt the stains. 15. Raising up the Vayu from the Akasa (region. hears sounds like the deaf and sees the body like wood. That is called Puraka (inspiration) when one takes in Vayu.

nasal. one should contemplate upon Atman by means of Atman. in five months. Prana is pervading the heart. 34. vowel. 30. all parts of the body. three Matras.180 [or 21. Apana which is in the middle is of the colour of Indragopa (an insect of white or red colour). If the above rule be well and strictly practised each day.13. fourth and fifth letters from 'K’). palatal. anger.25. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). Having united Atman with Manas. 27. Therefore it should be practised daily. one. may He nourish us both together. There is no doubt. In four months.600 . Om ! May He protect us both together. through the opening of the head and through the opening of Moksha. Prana is thirty digits long.. he sees the Devas. But he should think of that which is with no Matras. Prana travels through (or goes by) that path through which this Akshara (Om) goes. They call it Bila (cave). too much sleep or waking and too much food or fasting. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8]Annapurna Upanishad . Apana. through the opening of Vayu (probably navel). That which is of the earth is of five Matras (or it takes five Matras to pronounce Parthiva-Pranava). And of Akasa. Then come the colours of the five Pranas in order. and truly in six months he attains Kaivalya at will. Samana is between the colour of pure milk and crystal (or oily and shining). or Mandala (wheel). Samana. (Of the Pranas) the first viz. 39. Udana is Apandara (pale white). Such is the position (of range) of Pranas. and Vyana resembles the colour of archis (or ray of light). two. 29. guttural. 28. 33. between both (Prana and Apana). That is called Prana which is the seat of the external Pranas. 38. May our study be vigorous and effective. of Vayu. laziness. That man is never reborn. of Agni. The breaths by day and night are numbered as 1. That which is of water is of four Matras. That man is never reborn wherever he may die. the navel. the throat. 26. Udana. That which never decays is Akshara (Om) which is without Ghosha (third. in order to pass along that (course).?]. 36. whose breath goes out of the head after piercing through this Mandala (of the pineal gland). Sushira (hole). 37. consonant. letter ‘R’ and sibilants. (Then about the obstacles of Yoga): A Yogin should always avoid fear. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Amritanada Upanishad belonging to the Krishna-Yajur-Veda. he knows (or becomes) BrahmaNishtha. 32. Prana is said to be of the colour of a blood-red gem (or coral). spiritual wisdom will arise of itself in three months without doubt. May we work conjointly with great energy. 35. And Vyana. It is through the opening (or hole) of the heart. 31. the anus.

supporting the syllable ‘aim’. Due to the first delusion. her lotus-face beaming with a smile. O divine Annapurna. I-15. ‘You have done well. the ruler of the world (‘srim’). Jiva and God appear to have different forms. independent (‘hrim’). Nidagha. it will be presently set forth. Delusion appears five-fold. Nidagha ! Listen to the eternal science by the knowledge of which alone will you be liberated life. aum namo bhagavatyannapurne mamabhilashitam annam dehi Svaha. rising. Then. (at once) desire (‘klim’). I-5-7. srim. ‘Namely. through the perception of the world’s variety the idea (mati) arose in me. Due to the second. ‘I begged of Her. Then. I-10. The third (consists in) deeming the Jiva associated with the three bodies as having attachment. klim. child. renowned. A.” I-11. “Well. From then on have I established myself in (this) discipline. I-8. aim. prostrated flat (like a rod) before Ribhu. wide-eyed. by what kind of adoration have you. may we hear with our ears what is auspicious. that ascetic respectfully said. ‘When many days passed thus. Lodged in Om that envelopes the Root of phenomena (Brahman). . is the divine Annapurna. also. Then. ‘Eternal bliss. I-12. Saying ‘be it so’ she vanished. using the celebrated and quintessential incantation of 27 syllables. Praising them with our body and limbs steady ! May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda. delay not. bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! I-1-2. [Salutation. in the mind flashes the cessation of the five-fold delusion. G. The king of Yogins. fulfilment. May we see with our eyes what is auspicious. you have done well. Mahalakshmi. The fifth delusion ascribes reality to the world as distinguished from its cause. Oh Brahmana. I-14. I-9. Krishna Warrier Published by The Theosophical Publishing House. and (then) stood up with folded hands. best of sages ! Thus hidden by the wide-eyed (deity) I spoke: ‘O Daughter of the mountain. and humanity. Oh (Nidagha). with streaming stresses (‘sauh’). I-13. there appeared in front of me Annapurna. the thunderbolt for evil. ‘Teach me the truth about the Self. the attribute of agency dwelling in the Self appears to be real. Chennai Om ! O Devas. I prostrated flat on the ground. cultivated by hosts of female ascetics. O ye worthy of worship ! May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas. that preeminent knower of Brahman. vouchsafe the food I desire]: ‘Thus have I been instructed by my father.Translated by Dr. persisting in the activities of my station (in life) and have given myself up to the daily practice of this incantation. The fourth takes the world-cause (God) to be mutable. ask of me a boon. Teach me that grand science which yields sovereignty over the empire of emancipation. attained this state ? I-3-4. sauh. then and there. hrim. may the truth of the Self dawn on my mind’. ‘Seeing her.

I-22. I-34. From that moment. beholds a city. I-26. I-27. abundant and partless. or village as if it were no other than a forest (i. the same is (the state of) contemplation. I-30. is not given (as an object). there supervenes the exceedingly transparent being-in-general that resembles non-being. too. As crowds in a market. Be a mighty agent. Due to the absolute contemplation of absence (or nihil). devoid of all objective tinge. integral. be happy. I-21. the mind. it is all like ‘the city in the sky’ and ‘water in the desert’.. beyond the range of the sixth sense.I-16. I-18. The inner cool (calm repose) of him who perceives this multitude of gunas as nonSelf is said to be Concentration. first. spontaneously. what is nowhere seen. thus may you. With humility and respect (Nidagha spoke to Ribhu: impart to me. this does not happen for the ignorant alone. the mind’s imagination of being the doer is replete with latent impulses. attains the status of the non-doer. replete. the Self of everything. to the knower is a village like unto a forest. Next. I-31. pure. secure knowledge of reality. etc. Grasp: I am That which is the indestructible. When the imagination of unity with all objects is mentally discarded. the knower. I-33. I shall impart to you the knowledge of reality. mind. his face steeped in the lovely light of Brahmic bliss. it is nothing but perpetual quiescence. there is no room for the slightest dallying with aught else’ – thus think. are as good as non-existent (to the observer) when he is not related (to them). when consciousness (chit) subsides. of that whose essence is unqualified consciousness. Being inwardly withdrawn. without such impulses.assimilate yourself to That. country-side. I-29. therefore attenuated latent impulses. this occurs in the case of the knower both when he has risen from Concentration (Samadhi) and when he is established in it. . I-25. I-19. Ribhu said: ‘so be it’. being born of awareness. Spirit. I-28. Having this investigated your own real nature. at all. when the mind dwindles. having faith (in you). Surely. O sinless one. awake. though active. there results the state of the being-in-general (satta-samanya). due to its constant introverted state. having become blemishless. I-23. surely there occurs this ultimate perception known as the state-beyond-the fourth. The mind with attenuated latent impulses is said to be bound for the highest state.e. ever manifest. On the other hand. walking or reading. infinite. so too. achieve Nirvana (permanent peace) having purified and quietened all movements of the mind. The steady mind is empty of latent impulses. all things are resolved into empty space. endless. either asleep. the peerless science of Brahman. I-24. I-17. and a great renouncer. both embodied and disembodied. Gratified. it causes all sufferings. All waverings between states of reasoning. O Nidagha. For the liberated Self. The same also is Aloneness. Know that none of the things seen here is there. my mind was assimilated to Brahman. Besides. having vanished long since. ardent enjoyer. On the other hand. (the sage) attains the blessed state through right knowledge alone. I-20. I-32. with total disinterestedness). ‘I am Brahman. O sinless one. O sage -.

alone sees aright. Your mind will shed its (discursive) form and quietly win repose. I-37. as a matter of course and not through fear. dwelling in the fast-evolving mind that is quietened externally. The term Concentration denotes the stable. I-54. I-36. you comprehend your real nature. . I-39. I-51. just as a battered mosquito does. eternally appeased. Let death come now or at the end of cycles. due to the sway of even-mindness (takes place) the ineffable transformation into the Self’s substance. beholds all beings as one’s own Self and others’ possessions as clods of earth. then dawns the auspicious and superbly splendid light. I-40. your mind. win that fourth and stable perception that is fashioned solely through a part of the light of the Spirit. I-38. cured of its feverishness. I-43. choiceless and goalless. in order to realize the Self. mountain-like. Therefore. the supreme Self. He who. O Brahmin. Having cast off all (objects). I-42. in the case of the very best. he remains unblemished as gold (fallen) in mire. I-47. I-46. I-48. in the water collected in the hollow made by a cow’s hoof. and unrelated to dualities. once. renounce everything. that state – that supremely divine blissbody – is automatically won. The best of the knowers of the Vedas. I-52. as an elephant does not. So long as all objects are not renounced. it denotes the perfected flow of the mind that is sure. the world is cool. Whatever object is beheld in the world around is but the vibration of Consciousness. in the hollow made by a cow’s hoof. it is nothing permanent. the world is afire. After liquidating the mind with the mind. unegoistic. I-55. alone remains. does sink in any petty affair. the transcendent light. But the lover of the inner Self. I-53. Once the inner cool is won. O Brahmin. O best of ascetics. I-45. What remains after the renunciation of the entire objective manifold is said to be the Self. and then. Directly experienced indeed as the God of gods and Self of all entities. status (of the self) that is unagitated. and is cognisant of things as they are. though operating through the organs of action. by the term Samadhi (Concentration) the wise denote transcendent understanding that is concentrated. But a petty mind. (It is) lodged in the heart of all things and not altogether unlike dreamless slumber. O Brahmin. Consider in your mind: who am I ? How is all this (brought about) ? How do death and birth (happen) ? Thus (considering) will you earn the great benefit (of investigation). I-41. no more sinks in empirical activities. the Self is not won. I-50. O Brahmin. For all (unliberated) beings what is within is projected externally. Thence follows the obliteration of all cravings for objects. to the extent all objects are readily renounced. I-49.I-35. To those scorched by the inner thirst. assimilate yourself to that which remains. I-44. moving and stationary is this total and infinite reality of the Self. he is said to be concentrated. the great ones. through investigation. when the mind and the ego subside. is unaffected by joy and sorrow.

one reaches a nonblissful poise (as it were). liberation is said to supervene. is. That which is the trans-empirical and experiential reality. II-15. the great sage (abides) as the blissful being of the supreme Self like a salt-crystal in water. neither manifest nor hidden. the time-less Yogin. One who mentally. neither this nor the non-other exists. II-3. abide you. present in the (contrasted) perceptions of the material and the conscious. The quiescent state of the attenuated mind. (Ribhu): Imagination. to wanderings and reckonings of time.I-56. revels in the Self. as stabilised Consciousness. II-1. here. II-17. I am not. neither spiritual nor material. is said to be liberated. reaching the state beyond the fourth. That develops into the Fourth. station your gaze on That. neither does he cling to activities. fully developed through practice. II-10. the tranquillised Jiva abides in the Self like a radiant gem. II-18(a). none. other than me. by nonindulgence in imagination. II-7. discriminated in the link between the substance and perception. he is said to be the non-attached. its nature being invariably delightful. Brahman is said to be that. II-12. II-8-9. whose mind dwells on the blissful (Brahman) may or may not act externally. and controlled mind is not in evidence in the worldings. Or. neither non-being nor being. Resting in that unvexed experience. his true occupation is Self-delight. is the essence. but reposes in Consciousness alone. The Self is neither gross nor subtle. steady. and things. thus one attains the (peace) of deep sleep. free from all objective reference. of all his activities – that adept is said to be non-attached. With all bonds of birth loosened. giving up even that objective element. II-16. I-57. He. the attached mind. Thence lifted above all relativities. and not in the concrete act alone. Bondage is encompassed by the object. doing or non-doing. altogether bound. as it were. finding no delight anywhere. like non-bliss and great bliss. Nidagha: What is attachment like ? What kind of it leads to human bondage ? And what kind of it is said to liberate ? How is this (attachment) cured ? II-2. thoughts. The mind that clings not to acts. the renouncer. never can he be either agent or experiencer. thus promote well-being. II-4. II-5. etc. ‘I am Brahman’. Having attained the indestructible status in this fourth stage. All this is Self: what shall I seek here and what avoid ? Know this to be the position of non-attachment that the Jivanmukta fosters. Imaginations and the manifold activities issuing (therefrom) are cured. . always maintaining. II-6. II-14. This state of slumber. renounces fruits. II-18(b)-19. II-20. and all Tamasic conceits dissolved. is said to be the deep sleep in wakefulness. II-11. ignoring wholly the distinction between the body and the embodied (Self) – the exclusive faith in the body – is the attachment that is said to bind. Let him perform or not all this empirical activity. is styled the Fourth by the best knowers of Truth. though subjected to long-drawn austerities is. is the superbly equable (in outlook). even when turned toward some objects. He does not approve of inactivity. This (attitude) is said to be non-attachment. O Nidagha.. The unattached. on release from this. The man free from inner clingings. II-13.

holy in mind. bent on imagination (of differences) where are you ? II-40. (present) at the beginning and end of things and yourself. With the thought. II-26. With mental distinctions of duality and non-duality and delusions of old age and death. II-29.II-21. not in the nether world. the Self alone. What is bondage and what is liberation in respect of the Self that transcends all things or that pervades all forms ? Think freely. II-34. All is the one supreme Sky. II-37. yourself. II-32. the mind is wholly dissolved. II-31. devoted to the devotees. What is liberation ? What is bondage ? This is the great Brahman. what are the (empirical) states being and non-being ? Where have they fled ? Where are those notions of bondage and liberation ? What stands out is Brahman alone. II-36. he does not bank on the present. II-41. He craves not for what is yet to be. polished. simple and sweet. never given to self-pity. when the throb of vital breaths ceases. having won the incomparable state of repose. That non-dual indestructible one which has become the object. II-28. II-24. II-39. II-27. Whence all discursive speech turns back. II-23. neither one nor many. Ever unattached to those who cling to him. II-38. there is not even a shadow of difference. in its (phases of) waves. its cleansing alone. in the pure Being that sustains all. blissful. II-25. is said to be liberation. the Self alone shines in its phases (atmabhih) just as the sea. within. nothing (in itself). All is Self alone. Liberation is not on the top of the sky. the wise hold this luminous certitude to be the right knowledge. with extended form. always be That. lamenting amidst those who lament. as it were. wise. The dwindling of mind in which all desires dry up is held to be liberation. the impersonal bliss (Nirvana) remains. Here is the supreme Self whose essence is the light of Consciousness without beginning or end. The plenitude due to the knowledge ‘all the world is Self alone’ is the right measure of Self-realization everywhere in the world. a youth amidst the youthful. This imperishable and tranquil essence. he is harsh. is neither ‘I’ nor another. II-35. the indubitable Spirit that is the Self. With the obliteration of all of one’s mental constructions that (Brahmic) status abides. be you. established mightily. Through discipline. bold amidst the bold. He is called the Jivanmukta (Liberated in life) who lives. Steadfast. A child amidst children. he seeks nothing here. lifted above all hopes. yet he does all work. on the other hand. duality has vanished far from It. II-33. the ground of mind and all sense-organs. Loving the Spirit. II-30. stone and cloth is seen aright. adult amidst adults. That real joy (experienced) in the relation between the object and perception is the transcendental state. therefore it is. as it were. . this worldly bondage is firm in the mind agitated with thought. full. of holy speech. to the harsh. II-22. he remembers not the past. unattached. When the form of a stock. not on the earth. The mere non-cleansing of the mind reduces it to a state of prodigious transmigration. ‘let me have liberation’ the mind springs up.

II-42. once upon a time. with his sinless mind. I am watching carefully with my mind. attaining the unqualified state of Consciousness – the state of pure Being – resorting. the witness of all. III-5. have all. he has stayed immovable like a mountain. with eyes half-closed. he has terminated the proneness of consciousness to attach itself to objects. not really. I have comprehended (the nature of) eyes. I remain within the body with a stable status. III-16. to the pure Self that fells the tree of dangers. It wanders from a cloth to a pot and thence to a big cart. to the status of bliss supreme ? II-43. The five openings. the divine spiritual Self. external and internal. Ribhu: In the region of Sumeru the celebrated sage Mandavya resorting to Truth (imparted by) Kaundinya became liberated in life. for flying in the sky. eyes and so forth. Then. within. . I remain equable. Then he. III-3. III-8. O you sense-organs ! Slowly give up your mood of agitation. subsided within. Mental enjoyments are the foes of one who has thought extensively. been extinguished. it blazed forth but now is extinguished – the blazing fire has. III-9. With that all-knowing Self. when the fuel has been consumed. as it were. who dwells steadfast. ever wedded. Having attained the status of Jivanmukti. Having been purified utterly. What enjoyment of the desired (fruits) can disturb him. leaves the net (in which it was enmeshed). ‘Plurality exists in diverse imaginings. they move him not in the least just as gentle breezes move not a hill at all. the great sage sheds (his) identification with the sense-organs. The mind wanders among objects as a monkey does from tree to tree. He has won the knowledge of a new-born infant. though withdrawn. III-15. I am completely secure and at peace. etc. I am awake though in deep sleep. having abandoned. (Nidagha): What is the nature of liberation without the body ? Who is the great sage in possession of it ? Resorting to which Yoga has he achieved that supreme status ? III-2. I am awake. as if the air should give up its power to vibrate. just as there is nothing but water in a lake’ – a man filled with this one certitude is said to be liberated. III-10. III-7. III-6. though in deep sleep. Resorting to the Fourth. slowly avoiding contacts (with objects). the Fourth. III-13-14. objects in all the three worlds fashioned by imagination. Incessantly I rest in my Self. that great sage. III-17. that foremost knower of Brahman. (as it were). indeed. (I am) as a fire with its multitudinous flames. III-4. to the state of dreamless slumber. in thought. to withdraw all his sense-organs (from their respective objects). known as the sense organs of cognition. III-11. II-44. then (he sheds) his awareness of limbs which has become illusory. together with the long thread of sound reaching upto OM. Luckily I am fearless. my vital breaths. III-1. this mind of mine is extremely restless’. As a bird. made up his mind. in due order. (reflected on) the (degree of) steadiness of his mind: ‘clearly. its extensions. III-12. enjoying all alike. he who has perceived the Real. He sat in the lotus-posture. Here I am.

V-1. How can the great Yogin. Which is the All. The perfect man. In (the state of) liberation in life it is determinate. That which is unborn. yield Yogic powers all right. the illuminator even of lights. one by one. plunge into them ? IV-5. IV-6. The destruction of mind is twofold. the knots of whose hearts have been cut. IV-7.. as the snake is on the rope. IV-3. etc. Only influenced by some desire does man work for miraculous powers. he has become both being and non-being. and whom nothing jerks out of equality. III-22. Dead is the mind of one who is undisturbed by danger. the final doctrine of all Shastras. deathless. IV-11. through set practices. in that of disembodied liberation it is indeterminate. (he is) still blissful. the unuttered. IV-8. III-19. still in bondage. instrumental to them. and what conforms to every heart. the moon scorching rays or the fire to blaze downwards. Substances. IV-4. actions applied at (the right) time. whole and impartite – he has remained as That. whose intellect is great. No curiosity is aroused as regards these superimposed wonders. IV-14. Has the Jivanmukta characteristics like the power to fly in space. III-23. When all desires dry up. . Those indeed who have known what is to be known and shed all attachments. energy. who has dispelled nescience. III-21. the all-pervading Reality. the Ground. The Shiva of the Shivagamas. One having contentment in one’s Self never hankers after (the phenomena of) nescience. He has become That. IV-13. it is not present in the perfected man (described above). incantations. ? If so. achieves (the powers) to fly in space. though living in the body. determinate and indeterminate. III-20. This is not the concern of the Self-knower. he has become the hallowed God. the Purusha of the Sankhyas and Ishvara of the Yogins. the Time of those who affirm Time alone (as the basic principle). by virtue of (specific) substances. Whatever objects are present in the world are (held to be) of the stuff of nescience. How can the mindless (sage) desire miraculous powers ? IV-9.. O Brahmin.III-18. The man liberated in life would feel no surprise were the sun to radiate cool light. IV-2. Then he becomes that which is beyond even the range of words which is the nihil of the nihilist and Brahman of the knowers of Brahman. Dead is his mind who is unmoved in joy and sorrow. Which is the pure blemishless cognition of the knowers of cognition. The Principle whose sole proof is one’s experience of It – he has remained as That. beginningless and the First immaculate state. though gone beyond bliss. are free. III-24. great sage. O sage. etc. resourcelessness. None of them lifts man to the status of God. a state subtler than that of the sky. the Truth. or great rejoicing. dullness. IV-12. Whichever confounded person or man of little understanding desires the group of Yogic powers achieves them. In a moment. seeking nothing. the moveless. the Self is won. a non-knower of the Self. hilarity. Winning the stability of dreamless sleep he has attained the Fourth. (The whole world) is superimposed on the supreme Reality. incantations. practices and potencies of time. IV-10. can have no desire whatsoever. even as breaths stir not a mighty mountain.

‘I am the one Brahman’. IV-31. is rich in noble impulses. they are immaterial. As massed Intelligence It is the ground of all beings. This ‘destruction’ of the Jivanmukta’s mind is determinate. is dissolved. concentrate your mind forcefully. IV-26. As the unity of the Spirit is established through reasoning and means of right knowledge. Nidagha. with disembodied liberation comes indeterminate destruction. the Self of all. Nidagha. In that state dissolve the remnants of their mind. IV-33. IV-34. knowledge. immobilized in bliss. without participation. is like the sky. the winds blow not. nor is one deluded. its destruction promotes joy. Through Maya is set up the difference between them. IV-28-29. IV-27. once that unity is comprehensively known. neither glory nor its absence. mindlessness. one no more sorrows. This divinity alone shines forth as being. neither qualities nor their absence. supreme. totally quiescent. IV-20-21. The knot of the heart is split. The presence of mind makes for sorrow. The mind of one liberated in life. etc. free from rajas. non-being. of the essence of being. The nature of mind. is alone the witness of this world. O great sage. IV-17. The spacious status of those (who are liberated in disembodiment). and none of the gods (are there). it is never reborn. IV-19. having qualities like friendliness. IV-24. not the great Lord. Alone as the Witness. his mind. as It does not dwindle. IV-22. IV-32. the abode of all excellent qualities as it was. nothing (whatsoever) of the world. just nothing remains. is (won). IV-18. That non-dual Brahman characterised by truth. O sinless one ! When that perishes one’s real essence. the abode of the winds. intelligence. IV-25. One liberated in disembodiment is he who realizes the partless Self. all their sufferings are cured. (Brahman is) the ground of all. day nor night. . dwelling together. neither being. neither light nor darkness. called the Jiva and the Lord. who have gone beyond intellect and the pomp of worldly life. all doubts are cut asunder. Spirit is other than Its form. marked by ‘mindlessness’. who is both here and beyond. illuminating the world. blemishless status of disembodied liberation. the Spirit is non-different (from all objects). The sage fulfils his duty with the realization. in that state of indeterminate destruction of the mind. Neither sunrise nor sunset.. neither sensations of joy or anger. The great (Jivanmuktas) whose bodies are the subtle ether become disembodied there (in the state of disembodied liberation). the pure One. There shine not the forms of the moon and the sun. In this body are the birds. nor centrality marks the status (of disembodied liberation). beyond the range of word and mind. beyond Rajas and Tamas. IV-30. That eternally self-shining Light. and bliss. eternal. the great Lord shines by Himself. IV-23. rid your mind of all latent tendencies. and go beyond all mental constructions. is seen. All his actions dwindle when He. neither twilight. In that supremely holy. IV-16. pure by itself. Attenuate the existent mind and bring about its destruction. is folly. and bliss is the object of knowledge. Of them the Jiva eats the fruit of action.IV-15. non-dual. know.

IV-42. Knowing Him alone. IV-40. Having mastered both Brahman-knowledge and childlikeness. though in modifications. having their potencies latent (in the body). the seed is the mind conforming to cravings. It is better to suppress the awareness (of objects). Being continuously free from latent impressions. one is the vibration of the vital breath. Know the supreme cause yielding the fruit of mental peace: (namely) the joyful Self-abidance of cognition that is known as breath-control. The tree of the mind has two seeds. the sage may dispel (all) sorrow. incapable of sprouting any more. They indeed are deemed liberated in life whose latent. Latent impression is said to consist in the seizing of an object (by the force of) entrenched imagination. both the vibrations of vital breaths and latent impressions swiftly perish as does a tree whose root is cut off. IV-37. despite all considerations of cause and effect. at once the mind is transformed into a mass of sensations. IV-36. Having the certain knowledge. less harmful is the vibration of the vital breath. vibrates. they have gone beyond the farther shore of knowledge. they are said to be mindless. a casket holding the gem of pain.IV-35. the Yogins suppress vital breaths through breath-control. let him not dwell on a multitude of words that only makes for verbal weariness. IV-48. the other. let the intelligent Brahmana build up wisdom. When the vital breath. IV-51. the mind remains (in itself). Of this body. solid Truth and Knowledge’. IV-53. after the inner rejection (of all objects). Having mastered the knowledge of Brahman let him live in childlikeness alone. IV-49. That all-pervading awareness is aroused by the vibration of the vital breath. IV-43. With the fall of their bodies they become sky-like. Due to rejection of objects. when the mind ceases to ponder there arises mindlessness that yields supreme tranquillity. the sage possesses the Self. whose essence is self-luminous Being. etc. not those others who are encompassed by Maya. aroused by nervous contacts. When no aspect of objects in the world is imagined how can the mind be born in the empty sky of the heart ? IV-50. IV-44. now is the mind unborn. The mind abiding coolly in itself. obstinate imagination. unenjoyed. IV-46. mindlessness is posited with reference to the object-as-such. is (still) held to have the form of non-being. For mental peace. Rejecting everything and imagining nothing. meditation and practices dictated by reasoning. . Know the elemental body as the seed of the creeper of samsara (the transmigratory life) with its immense sprouts. IV-47. IV-41. IV-54. it is a sheath of active and quiescent moods. Those whose flaws have (all) been attenuated realize in their own bodies the Witness of all. The conception of a thing’s absence is based on its non-being. IV-52. IV-39. Their minds have acquired the form of Sattva. ‘I am the ground of the whole world. impressions are like the fried seeds. IV-38. good and evil. either to be chosen or rejected. IV-45.

Contemplating but one unqualified universal Being. the being of entities. A man who reaches That returns to pains no more. must be meticulously wiped out by every one whose knowledge is sound. in that indestructible status. devoid of all clingings. . he becomes one with it. IV-76. IV-73. touching. IV-65. rejecting all pleasures and cognitions. the being of instants. filling up all space. when that is known the mind is tranquillised. all these perceptions of objects are reflected as the trees on the bank are reflected in the lake. through knowledge. Having. because he resorts to this vision even in the midst of vexed activities. IV-68. itself has no cause. The vast transmigratory life is (due to) the failure to obliterate them. Due to the absence of latent impressions in the mind when nothing is imagined. liberation is held to be just their obliteration. that status you will attain with somewhat greater effort. in the Infinite even that is dissolved. IV-63. without beginning and end. It is the cause of all beings. is causeless. whatever appears either as experienced before or as altogether new. he is at peace. at this very moment you achieve it all right. He is said to be liberated in life. IV-57. supremely blissful. A shoreless ocean of excellences. Cognitions dissolve there. walking. IV-59. be solely devoted to pure Being. Though standing. IV-72. IV-58. IV-56. at the very summit of universal being. pure Being is one vast essence – That is held to be the abode of (immutable) existence. well. even for a moment. gets rid of (fluctuating) pleasures. By the application of the remedies mentioned by me for the causes of suffering. for he resorts to the vast intelligent nonknowing (in the objective mode). Or. the clear sphere of whose emotions is not in the least affected by objects. Rejecting distinctions like the being of time. smelling. IV-69. IV-70. In this state of cognition. one having no knowledge is noncognitive. Now the sage is no longer affected. Be immaterial (spiritual). O knower of Truth ! If by manly endeavour you forcefully eschew latent impressions and establish yourself. That is the pure unobscured Truth of the Self. full. It is the quintessence of all essences. In that vast mirror of Intelligence. IV-60. it remains steady with cognitions similar to those of children and the dumb. IV-67. and the cognitions (of the particulars). nothing is more quintessential that It. on the contrary. be omnipresent. IV-61. if you sedulously cultivate the status of universal being. It remains beyond the possibility of doubts. he crosses the sea of sufferings. IV-64. that remains at the fringe of universal Being. IV-66. rejecting all latent impressions. the intelligent sage. that (supreme) status is attained. IV-74-75. won Its essence you become truly free from the fear of samsara. Devoid of all particular the stainless. his knowledge is spiritual. all alone. Through the concentration of modelessness. though he performs a hundred actions. IV-71. The pristine inconceivable Status. IV-62.IV-55. he is held to be non-inert. Knowledge depends on the states of objects.

the attenuation of latent impressions. Or. has slain his mind has achieved the object of his life. Through behaviour without attachment. Truth-knowers know that breath-control corresponds to the eschewal of latent impressions. defiled through contact with poison. contemplating without conceptions the pristine. also by obstructing the vibrations of the vital breath (it does so). well-cooked or stale. IV-83. Attachment is held to be the impure impressions causing reactions like joy and indignation when the objects sought after are present or absent. do (the one or the other) as you choose. the latent impressions. the tough knots of the heart are shattered without residue as are their threads when the lotus stalks are crushed. are not attenuated. they are indeed hard to accomplish. when he is awake or sleep. also. by breath control. IV-92. V-3. IV-84. the mind is not tranquillised. IV-90. Know the Spirit-in-Itself to be of the nature of the light of right knowledge. flinging far from you the desire for enjoyment. Nidagha. and the destruction of the mind are held to prove effective. IV-86. Resorting to pure cognition and rejecting attachment. IV-78. avoidance of contemplation of birth (and empirical life) and the perception of the decline of the body. practise this latter too. whence can come mental tranquillity ? IV-80. so long as the knowledge of Truth is not won whence can mental tranquillity come ? IV-81-82. unwholesome. High-souled one ! Sought for long and simultaneously. knowledge (of Truth). V-1. having achieved the status of inactivity in the blaze of tranquil glory. IV-88. O sinless one ! V-5. . matchless and indubitable status of cognition without objects. Give up attachment to objects. too. single. IV-87. but perform action. in however small a measure. The knower digests (whatever) food he eats – (whether it is) impure. O great-souled one ! Abide solely in the heart. cultivated aright. through (still) greater effort you will win that exalted status. It is fearless. therefore.e. Therefore. as though it were ‘sweet’ (i. the practice of Yogic postures and the regulation of diet. if you stay meditating on the principle of cognition.IV-77. latent impressions cease to operate. be steady. The intelligent man should strive hard to conquer vibrations of the vital breath. IV-91. By means of these three. attenuation of latent impressions – (these) mutually cause one another. the vibration of breath is obstructed. a hearty meal). V-2. IV-85. sir. He is said to be dead whose mind is not given over to investigation when he walks or stands. be liberated in life. By eschewing latent impressions the mind ceases to be. The (wise) know liberation to be the renunciation of (all) attachment: non-birth results from it. as long as the knowledge of truth is not won. if you strive to shed latent impressions (know) that till the mind is dissolved. the exercise of reasoning taught by the teacher. mind’s destruction. IV-79. cultivate this triad. Truth cannot be known. The man who. By the steady practice of breath-control. Knowledge of Truth. As long as the mind is not tranquil. neither subjugated nor depressed. through ratiocination. As long as the latent impressions are not attenuated. V-4. IV-89. Without sound reasoning it is impossible to conquer the mind. The vibration of the vital breath is indeed the same as mind’s vibration.

V-9. O Nidagha ! Pains do not depress you. of fire. the silent man. the immaculate. the vital breath has the ceaseless power of vibration. V-16. neither nescience nor Jiva. the down breath too is similar. continues as long as the I-sense is bound up with the body. V-14. . there is but Brahman. it always moves. vanish for one who. ‘Undetermined by space and time. all-pervading awareness (that remains). Brahman is the adversary of the Spirit. V-24. ‘this is Brahman’. beyond the purview of ‘is’ and ‘is not’. in the fire of the Spirit. V-18. Where the impressions are seedless. all curiosity. objects are mistaken for the Self. by virtue of knowledge. be (liberated). ceases to operate in regard to the alien. Brahman is myself. V-8. I have neither cause not effect. The decision. Manifest is the one Brahman alone. with or without a body. as it is pure universal Being. With the seeds of latent impressions consumed. O Brahmin. all vehemence of feelings. contemplated within. The illusory perception of mind. man is Brahman indeed ! One experiences the omnipresent Spirit that is peace. without beginning or end. be unattached. V-17. joys do not elate you. I am the Self that is the Spirit. there is ‘the Fourth’ that yields perfection. abandoning servitude to desires. Brahman is the world. the deadly disease of craving dwindles as does mist in autumn. Thus thinking. V-20. V-25-26. V-12. am I. there is nothing else’. Where latent impressions remain in solution there is ‘deep sleep’. debt. I am impartite. having discarded all speculations. the pure indestructible Spirit. V-19. V-10. In this body with its ins and outs. quiescent and one. uniform. Sage ! Illusory perceptions of mind. V-11. When the mind. the guide of unregenerate senses. is the status of Aloneness. expressed as ‘this is mine’. disease and adversaries. V-15. V-7. Brahman is the allies and friends of the Spirit. with a body at once present and absent. (The sages) hold that the best (form of) renunciation. There is neither mind -stuff nor mind. namely that of latent impressions.. equanimous. Brahman is the congregation of beings. with quiescent mind delighting in the Self. it does not make for perfection.V-6. only it is stationed below. this up going vital breath is placed above. do not be finitized. V-22. neither applaud nor condemn either life or death. Brahman is Spirit. V-13. By means of the mantra (incantation) of the spiritual science. internally burns up. ‘This is not Brahman’. the dry grass that is this three-fold world. is the sum total of nescience. through introversion. and the sense of possession. Even a very small residue of latent impressions. V-23. enmity and poison affects one adversely. and conformed to universal Being. like the sea. with full knowledge. Remember your vast (infinite) form. Resort to that intelligent Self. etc.. with minds rid of all attachment. whose extinction consists in (the opposite) decision. etc. one no more partakes of sufferings. V-21. persists. Thus intelligent beings. through memory. Once it is realized that Brahman is all. the Brahman-Intelligence. of attachment. Pure is the impression latent in the bodies of the liberated in life which does not lead to rebirth and is untainted by elation or depression.

the wise maintain. V-33. V-40. V-39. too. Through drill and application. remain what you are. reject desire. V-38. Due to the activity and the inactivity of the mind does empirical life start and subside. V-46. let mind grow into mindlessness in the process of your life without attachment. (the consequent) renunciation of all concern with an other.V-27. let conceptions cease. at the tip of the nose where the breaths revolve. The mind of the knower is not called mind. By a mere quiver of the non-objective knowledge or by the suppression of vital breaths is mind reduced to mindlessness. Resort to the spiritual identity of the down-and-up breaths that dwells near the point where the up-breath dwindles and the down-breath rises. Due to the active and passive phases of ignorance do activities get started and cease. you would not alter though there be a thousand disturbances. V-31. Through the suppression of latent impulses and the vital breath. infallibly directed to it (bliss). Resort to that spiritual. wedded to the Yoga of renunciation. in the Fourth state. before the down-breath sets while the up-breath has done so. V-41. and with a quiescent mind. That indeed is the non-factitious bliss which the mind does not reach. O welldisciplined sage ! The up-breath is the sun or the fire which internally warms the body. That best breath control that operates in the expert. it remains at the end of all mental processes. reduce it to inactivity. V-29. . Acting through sense organs. V-36. Having renounced all mental constructions. Noble Brahmin ! Even this appearance is distorted by the mirror of the mind. neither existent nor non-existent. it is free from decline and growth. that is the supreme status. Resort to that spiritual impartite Principle. equable. Due to the activity and inactivity of the vital breaths does empirical life start and subside. This satisfaction lasts only till discontent (sets in). behold that real bliss occasioned by the visioning of the knowable (as Brahman). Uprooting this fearful demon of the mind. V-37. V-42. mind indeed is the Truth of Spirit. V-30. is right knowledge. Reduce desire to desirelessness. V-43. like the sky. it neither rises nor sets. free from (the force) of latent impulses. it transcends that state. Through the perception of Brahman. V-35. whether awake or asleep – listen to (an account of) that for better being. be rid of all appearances. the up-breath has not yet arisen. V-34. Apana (the down-breath) is the moon that keeps the body in well-being. Dissolve it (ignorance) forcefully by winning a teacher and the instructions of the Shastras. The satisfaction (felt) at the moment of desire is caused by that very desire. be a sage. for a moment. reduce the mind to inactivity. Puraka is the contact of the body with the up-breaths that move forwards (from the nostrils) through the space of twelve finger-breadths. impartite Principle when the down-breath has set and. be steadfast. therefore. giving up that. V-32. V-28. detrimental to the essence of steadiness. V-45. V-47. These three worlds are only an appearance. Therefore. possessing both knowledge and freedom. The Spirit that is beyond cause and effect and is likened to the (boundless) sky is incapable of confrontation by any (real) object. V-44. Therefore.

you yourself are the supreme Status. pure. When one of them is perfected. that is a stranger’ – this sort of knowledge does not occur to me. V-59. By securing right knowledge. V-61.V-48. V-50. V-52. There is but one great Spirit. V-49. which is called the Being. It is described by many names. Undetermined by space. Through self-destruction they produce that best of products. and untrammelled. V-65. V-67. O Brahmin. V-60. V-63. superlatively pure. the control of breaths. All is unborn. When the mind is rejected. unageing. unborn. the dwindling of the mind. I laud not. V-54. omnipresent. etc. it is flawless. that is a foe. Intelligence. V-62. ‘All is this tranquil one. It is tranquil. both Being and non-being' – so thinking. I am free from duality. (It is what remains) when mental activities completely die down and all masses of latent impulses have been liquidated. ‘This have I won today. bliss. be happy. Therefore I am hale. wholly spirit. those who become enlightened in the wisdom of the Upanishads are the Sankhyas and the others are the Yogins. even. What is required to be won by all is the uncaused and still status. Those are the Yogins. this duality on all sides is dissolved. . the contemplation of the one changeless Real. The supreme Brahman is that which conforms to no act of mentation. ever arisen. achieve the status above sufferings. The vital breaths and mind of living beings are all concomitant. who. If.. Rid of all latent impressions. O Nidagha. versed in Yoga. time. I am being. tranquil. V-68. this one End is all-in-all. I never think of the past or the future. beginningless and endless. I am indeed the untrammelled Brahman. you reject all this by understanding. V-58. it helps perfect the others (also). the ever risen. knowing for creation ‘I am That’. remaining steady. the supreme Self. having done what had to be accomplished. the waverings of my mind have been totally stilled. the mind is liberated from old age and death. V-64. pure. The endless. devoid of beginning. Mind with latent impressions inherent in it is knowledge. it is rod of all sorrow. middle and end. subtler far than the sky. Sage. unlapsing. as Brahman. unmanifest. I cling wholly to the vision that is present here (and now). pure and untrammelled. devoid of beginning and end. the same. be thou that pure Spirit. thou art that Brahman indubitably. non-dual. One. but remains the tranquil supreme One. etc. free from the I-sense. namely. this is mind. It is cured of all wantings. on the cessation of the I-sense. ‘This is a friend. and by unremitting concentration. evil betiding me does not sadden me. V-56. The gaining of the good does not gladden me. I shall achieve this beautiful’ (thing). I am not bound nor liberated. V-53. V-57. liberation. the pure. beginningless and endless which (nevertheless) is the first Apprehension. V-66. Like the container and the content they perish when only one is present. neither do I condemn. It shines forth but once. Nothing other than the self is anywhere. V-51. What is to be known is the mind rid of all latent impressions. no affection touches me. then. pervasive. V-55. after the quiescence of the breaths through ascetic practices.

omnipresent. is the self called Jiva and Ishvara in two ways. In contrast the sixth which is non-cognitive is named the Fourth State. When that is burned in the fire of impartiality. The true. your mind all cooled.V-69. Nirvana in its essence. V-79. So also is It neither coarse nor spaced. The seventh plane is (marked by) equability. V-73. atoned with the Supreme. the fourth is the solvent as it consists in the dissolution of latent impressions. and identified with the self-luminous Being. no manifold. is styled deep sleep. is the transcendent and developed seventh plane. is the cure for all forms of transmigratory life. V-74. it is purely cognitive. V-83. be you ever devoted to the Self. The first three constitute but the wakeful life. it does not come within the purview of mortals. generating the desire for liberation. verily. ‘This is fine. V-85. is marked by the practice (of discipline) and detachment due to intimacy with the Shastras and the company of the holy. The second is marked by investigation. V-88. eternal. utter purity. The Self. the quiescent Fourth State. V-78. The fifth is the rapturous. This is the station of the Liberatedin-life who is. It is tasteless and scentless. not in Its essence. this is not ! -. The transcendent state beyond the Fourth. V-81. one beholds no beings. Keeping far away the entire multitude of objects. one then is the Alone. The sixth plane is non-cognitive. Verily. when one beholds all beings in one’s own Self. having the nature of pure and massive bliss.such (feeling) is the seed of your extended sorrow. V-77. V-75. The most excellent seventh plane is the state beyond the Fourth. Concentration is the origination of knowledge in regard to the unity of the Supreme and the Jiva. . V-70. tenderness. immutable and flawless. as it were. is eternal. Being (but) one. The fifth. due to delusion. and one’s Self in all beings. half awake and half asleep. Therefore the nondual alone is. superlatively pure. one should meditate on the bodiless Self that is Brahman . no empirical life (is there). the third by contemplation with (all) its accessories. beyond the range of mind and words. one becomes Brahman. When the all-pervading spirit shines always without a break in the mind of the Yogin then one becomes one’s Self. real and ultimate Brahman. without beginning and end. V-87. V-76. Just as space is called ‘Pot-space’ (and) ‘great space’. V-82. V-89. The first plane. conforming to massive bliss. so. where is the occasion for sorrow ? V-71. neither tangible nor visible. unknowable and peerless. it is indeed unqualified liberation. through Maya it splits up.Being consciousness and Bliss without end – as ‘I am (That)’. the fourth is called the dream (state) where the world is regrettably dream-like. Well disciplined (sage) ! For achieving liberation. It is the station similar to deep sleep. V-86. First augment wisdom by means of familiarity with the Shastras and by seeking the company of the holy. V-80. V-72. V-84. In the state of concentration.

In the multitude of objects. Having renounced all constructions. called the fourth state. V-105. V-108. so is the b-Knower inwardly unstained by actions’ fruits. V-101. Beyond praise and change. let there be nothing that gives you pleasure. one becomes Jnanin (a knower) of Brahman. ever content. inempirical usage. dwell on the thought ‘I. V-94. at once conforming and indifferent to all codes of etiquette. indeed. ‘Rid of the I-sense. the free. Just as a mirror is not stained by reflections. and the gods’. In the context of objects. ‘I die not. pure. V-95. ‘I am one with Him who dwells at the tips of grass. give that up. Renouncing all actions. identify with what remains. upto the living bodies. (the veritable) Spirit-sky’. V-97. V-100. for there is no room for mental constructions. rid of the predicament of hankering after objects. he knows neither pains nor pleasures when his body is tortured or honoured. as if these are directed to (one’s) reflections. etc. (one) is liberated. sin nor aught else is he stained. for the unawakened it stands changeless (as it is in its plurality). rising well above them. The cause of bondage is mental construction. V-92. awake. being preponderantly non-existent. That superlatively pure sameness. then (indeed) are you liberated here. neither do I live. moving and stationery. what remains unattached. then in a state of bondage are you in empirical life. In the absence of the I-sense and its negation. neither identify (yourself) with the sense-organs. unagitated even by the flavour of climatic bliss. V-93. so thinking he sorrows not. is dissolved. for no inertness is involved in this. V-98. extending from grass. the state of the spectator is. at once existent and non-existent. unageing. in the sky. Freely moving amidst the masses. with latent impressions all tranquillised. he delights in the Self by himself. V-102. if nothing pleases you. unageing and unattached. V-104. V-109. neither by virtue. V-107. Do not succumb to objects. I am impartite. ‘I am nothing (but) Spirit’. self-same. so thinking the intelligent Jivanmukta sorrows not. I am existent neither. so thinking he sorrows not. This world as it is.. V-106. recognising neither worship nor its object. ‘Stainless am I. Neither is this the state of deep sleep. the mountain. V-99. the quiescent status of liberation-in-life. This is neither wakefulness nor dream. V-91. Discarding all mental constructions about objects. in the Sun. V-110. am the supreme Brahman that remains’. practise it intelligently. If due to the withdrawal (of the cognitive organs) into (one’s self) no object is perceived.V-90. and steadfast is said to be the Fourth. perpetually and steadily avoiding states of mental construction. Let him give up his body either in a holy spot or in the hut of an eater of dog’s flesh: Once knowledge is won. indubitably by that mighty sameness (of vision). immortal peaceful (am I). Beyond the purview of words. V-103. so thinking he sorrows not. all appearances have been quietened for me’. Liberation comes through the absence of mental construction. in man. independent. V-96. and then it is the Fourth State for those who are tranquillised and rightly awakened. superlatively pure. free from all latent impressions of Karma.. If anything please you. . sense-organs and their contact by wary.

remaining in deep slumber in wakefulness itself. may we hear with our ears what is auspicious. taught in bygone ages. with mind attenuated and intellect becalmed. irremovable – thus. The repudiation of the objective manifold is the doctrine of the Shastras setting forth the Spirit. Prana. Kolkatta Om ! Let my limbs and speech. Therefore. May I never deny Brahman. V-114. superlatively pure. through one’s own effort. One is inevitably tranquillised in the clear sky of the Spirit. May the virtues that are proclaimed in the Upanishads be in me. Here is neither avidya nor Maya. Giving up everything. V-115. the giving up of the mind alone is joy. V-120. . Whoever studies the Annapurnopanishad with the blessing of (one’s) teacher become a Jivanmukta. ears. known as Brahman whose essence is quietude and equability and which is resplendent with all powers. the thunderbolt for evil. and equability dominates. V-112. V-118. What is hidden in the Vedanta. O sinless one ! Plunged into Nirvana. as contained in the Atharva-Veda. O ye worthy of worship ! May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas. perform acts. V-113. All existence is the Brahman of the Upanishads. --------------------------------------------------------------------- 9]Aruni Upanishad Translated by Swami Madhavananda Published by Advaita Ashram. With a tranquillised mind abide in the Self. May we see with our eyes what is auspicious. ever turned inward. eyes. act externally as occasion arises. V-119. Seeing that the beautiful or the ugly always remains. Om ! O Devas. this is the tranquil Brahman. neither to one who is not a son or pupil. unfatigued.V-111. like one dumb. V-117. is empirical existence conquered. Mind’s being alone is suffering. blind and deaf. Let there be no denial at all: Let there be no denial at least from me. Praising them with our body and limbs steady ! May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda. When the aspect of I-sense is given up. should not be offered to one who is not established in peace. vitality And all the senses grow in strength. and by himself altogether Brahman – This is the Upanishad. lifted above ratiocination. through non-cognition (of objects) attenuate the mind in the sky of the Spirit. O twice born. and the mind disintegrates. the Fourth State comes on. bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Annapurnopanishad. like a stone. nor Brahman deny me. V-116. Having internally renounced everything. with brimming inner wisdom. be wedded to an immense silence.

3. ye all who are concerned) your chastity (in thought. or deed) to any being. aye. Sutala. noon. etc. avarice.). and the straining-cloth. a single companion. or a wooden bowl. in all seen and unseen danger thou art the Thunder of the Lord of the Universe”. Svar. Verily one who has realised the (true) import of the Vedas may give up those things (previously enumerated) after the investiture with the holy thread. The Sannyasin should stay at one place during the four months of the rainy season and during the remaining eight months wander alone. and reaching there said. as if it were medicine. aye. your scriptures. thought. and from amongst the (whole range of the) Vedas should repeat only the Aranyakas. so protect me (from cows. they should give up lust anger. viz. The Kutichara living a Brahmachari’s life should give up his relatives. Jana. 2. haughtiness. Bhuvar. bathe at the beginning of the three meeting-points of the day. The householder. non-injury. Om. jealousy. Carefully guard (oh. Rasatala. aye. ostentation. I have renounced. the Creator. or the Vanaprashta should commit the fires that lead to the different spheres to the fire that is in the stomach. and must take on the staff and the scanty clothing of the Sannyasin. you must renounce everything else. everything else. only the Upanishads. attachment to objects. and discard his begging bowl. egotism. I myself am the sutra because I am a man of realisation – the wise one who has realised this should give up his triple holy thread. for from me everything has proceeded”. and Satya. do guard ! 4. may they reside in me. Those having already taken the vow of chastity etc. Mahar. Patala. your sacrifices and books regulating them. and the (seven nether) spheres. to the fire that is in his own speech. serpents. Tapas. and the fires that lead to particular spheres. Vitala. he should hold up high the bamboo staff and put on the loin-cloth.. friends. falsehood and the like. Henceforward he should behave like one who has got no Mantra to repeat. should throw the holy thread on the ground or into water.. brothers. non-thieving and truthfulness – guard them by all means. or with a single companion. 5. “Lord. nothing but the Upanishads. Gayatri. Verily I am Brahman. He should take food as if it were medicine. thou art strength and my friend. morning. in what way can I relinquish work altogether ?” Brahma said to him: You must give up your sons.. Uttering the Mantra – “That art my friend. or the Brahmachari. and evening. Aruna’s son went to the sphere of Brahma. the Sutra. (So said Prajapati). must give up the (seven upper) spheres entitled Bhur. your hair-tuft and the holy thread. aye. should effect a union with his Atman through the highest concentration. infatuation. together with the (whole) universe. Talatala and Mahatala.. and consign the sacred Mantra. or he may do so even . etc. should use an earthen bowl or one made of gourd. should give up his triple staves. “I have renounced. word and deed). Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! 1. and the rest. I have renounced” – uttering this thrice he should declare – “From me there is no fear (in word. the Sutra is Brahman for It originates (the cosmos). should give up the desire to go to the higher spheres. viz. aye. Now then the duties of the highest class of itinerant monks – the Paramahamsa Parivrajakas (are as follows): They must sit and lie down on the ground. Atala. nonacceptance of (superfluous) gifts.Who am devoted to the Atman.

” Such indeed is the injunction of the scriptures leading to liberation – the injunction of the Vedas. Bilva (Marmelos). that supreme state of the all-pervading Deity. his works. vitality And all the senses grow in strength. nor Brahman deny me.org Om ! O Devas. of the Vedas. He who knows this (and is a Brahmachari taking on the monastic vow) should give up the staff made of the wood of the Palasha (Dhak). his skin and girdle and the holy thread. O ye worthy of worship ! May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas. Prana. May I never deny Brahman. He who realises the Truth in this manner is really the wise one.. may we hear with our ears what is auspicious. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Arunyupanishad. Uttering “Om” “Om” “Om”. aye. kindle that Truth (in the minds of the enquirers). All existence is the Brahman of the Upanishads. the Upanishad. bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! . his sacrificial fires. Ramachander Published by celextel. R. in the different parts of their body. son. Who am devoted to the Atman. May we see with our eyes what is auspicious. they should mentally place this Mantra. May the virtues that are proclaimed in the Upanishads be in me. and thus be a hero. Sannyasins enter a village for begging purposes only. ears. and the holy thread. Praising them with our body and limbs steady ! May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda. who have awakened from the sleep (of ignorance). his wife and all else that he may possess. or Audumbara (Fig) trees.. included in the Sama-Veda. may they reside in me.” “Sages purged of all impurities like anger etc. etc.before that ceremony – (give up) his father. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10]Atharvasikha Upanishad Translated by P. the thunderbolt for evil. eyes. Let there be no denial at all: Let there be no denial at least from me. with their palms or their stomach as the receptacle for food. Om ! Let my limbs and speech. “That supreme state of the all-pervading Deity the sages realise for all time like the eye pervading from one end of the sky to the other.

5 That half fourth syllable which is the hidden Ma. Om! The sages Pippalada. 1. 1. which enjoys being in three legs (syllables) and which is one and only one. the Rig Veda along with its holy chants. slightly extended form (pluthyaga) and much extended form.8 . Ashta Vasus among devas.funeral pyre) among the fires. the twelve Adithyas (suns) among devas. Brahma the creator. “Gayathry” among meters. “jagathichanda” among meters and Ahavagni (the fire used in fire sacrifice) among the fires. Sama Veda with its musical sounds of Sama. which shines as the fourth leg of Om. 1. which explains the meaning “of the sound of Om”. That is pronounced in a small short form.6 The first is the red Brahma (creative aspect) . 1. Om in two mathras and Om in the extended three mathras (mathra is the unit of pronunciation). indicates earth. and Garhapthya (the fire of the household) among fires. It itself is the mantra for meditation. the eleven Rudras among devas. 1. “Oh. sleep and dream). which is Thureeya of Thureeyas (A super divine state of oneness with God. the third the black Lord Vishnu (the administrative aspect) and the fourth which is like lightning is the multi coloured Purushothama (best among males). It is the self glittering Brahman which shines alone and sees everything. “Trishgup” among meters and dakshinagni (fire of the south .3 The second syllable Uu denotes the ether. Atharva Maharshi and asked him. The fourth is the half syllable sound of “Ma” which is hidden. Rudra who is the God of destruction.2 The first syllable Aa. marud Ganas among devas.1 The sage Atharva replied to them. 1. Samvarthaka (the fire of exchange) fire among fires. the second the holy white Rudra (destructive aspect). is the magical chants of Atharva Veda. It is pronounced as Om with one mathra. the Yajur Veda. God like sage.” Mainly meditation has to be done on the single letter Om. The letter has to be recognized as the Para Brahman (Ultimate reality) and meditated upon. Aangiras and Sanath Kumara approached the great God like sage.7 This Omkara has four legs and four heads (fires). which is beyond the three states of wakefulness. Vishnu who looks after the worlds.4 The third syllable Ma indicates the heavens. 1. The four legs of that mantra are the four devas and the four Vedas.I meditate on that “ultimate truth”. what is the chief aspect of meditation? What is the mantra (holy syllable) on which to meditate? Who can meditate? Who is the God of meditation?” 1.

2. Vishnu. bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Atharvasikhopanishad. It is because of this meditation only that Lord Vishnu who is spread every where. Rudra. Rudra and Indra are creating all beings. One who meditates like that goes away from all sorrows and fears and gets the power to protect all others who approach him. wins over all others. Vishnu. all organs and all karanas. It is the one and only one which has to be meditated upon as the four Vedas and the birth place of all devas.The fourth peaceful half syllable is hidden in the long ended pronunciation. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11]Atharvasiras Upanishad . It is that sound which was never there and which will be never there. should learn and understand this and he would get rid of the suffering of living in the womb and attain salvation. It is definite that.2 It is advised that the five gods Brahma.1 Brahma.4 Om ! O Devas. if one can stay and meditate on these. who is most proper to be worshipped. parks his mind in the sound (Om) of the place of Paramathma (ultimate soul) and meditates upon Eeshana. 2. the thunderbolt for evil. may we hear with our ears what is auspicious.9. If not pronounced earlier but pronounced for the first time it. Praising them with our body and limbs steady ! May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda. It is because Lord Brahma controlled all his organs and meditated upon it. he gets more results than that of performing one hundred fire sacrifices. Even Lord Vishnu . the twice born. takes one via the Sushumna Nadi to the lotus with thousand petals (Sahasrara).3 Even if for one second. O ye worthy of worship ! May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas. 2. All this is only proper in case of Eeshana. May we see with our eyes what is auspicious. he attained the position of the creator. Ishwara and Shiva should be worshipped in the form of pranava [Aa+Uu+Ma+sound+Bindu(full stop)]. one should only meditate on paramashiva. as contained in the Atharva-Veda. The pranava (the sound of Om) makes all the souls to bow before it. 1. by sacrificing all other things. With the full understanding and knowledge. which would give rise to all benefits. They are also capable of controlling them. 2. But Lord Shiva exists in between them like sky and is permanently stable. It is the incomparable glitter of the soul.

O ye worthy of worship ! May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas. He who is Rudra. You are peace. catches hold of this world which is created by Prajapathi and which is minute and peaceful.] The devas with their upturned hands extended upwards pray to Rudra. without touching it and attracts its shape of things by shape. He who is Rudra. You who are Brahma appear united also divided in to two. He is Brahma and we salute him again and again. which has meaning and also does not have meaning and which is perennial stands alone. he alone is god. minuteness by minuteness and airy . We have reached the ultimate. 3-3 For the sake of this world. He is Vishnu and we salute him again and again. You are vigour. this deathless primeval being. 1 Om! He who is Rudra. Who can cause any harm to us? We humans do not have any shortage of that nectar (your grace). May we see with our eyes what is auspicious. It is told that it is the basis of everything and there is no basis for it. he alone is God.org Om ! O Devas. Earth is your feet. He who is Rudra. 3-1 Deeply drinking the somapana (a holy drink) of your grace we have become deathless. the thunderbolt for evil.Translated by P. You are the entire universe and you are not. he alone is god. may we hear with our ears what is auspicious. You are that which is at the top and that which is at the bottom. and divided in to three and appear as if you are beyond all relations (attachments). You are that which is done and that which is not done. the three syllable letter. peacefulness by peace. You are that which is offered in fire and that which is not offered in fire. We have seen the devas. 3-2 You who are primeval are older than the sun and the moon. He is everything and we salute him again and again. You are that which is given in charity and that which is not given. R. Ramachander Published by celextel. And you are the home for all beings. And the Suvar Loka (another world above earth) is your head. He is truth and we salute him again and again. bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! [In the Atharvasiras Upanishad. The Bhuvar Loka (one of the seven worlds above earth) is your middle. he alone is God. Praising them with our body and limbs steady ! May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda. You are of the form of the universe. You are everything and also nothing.

[The three letters Aa. from top to bottom and from right to left. nor right nor left. That which is minute is like a lightning power. And you who live in that heart are beyond the triad nature. Its feet are on your right side. 3-6 Rudra is called the personification of Pranva because he sends the souls towards heaven. That one and only one is Rudra (loosely translated angry one). Salutations and salutations to that great swallower. because though he is inside every thing. That which is everywhere is the greatest. . wakefulness. He is called “Shukla (white/ seminal fluid) because by pronouncing his name we get rid of all pains. Uu and ma or three states viz.the basic unit of life) is very very minute. He is called “Para Brahmam (the ultimate reality)". he is the refuge of every thing and bigger than the big. it is also Eeshana (the form of Lord Shiva with tuft and riding on a bull). it is also the ultimate God and it is also the lord of all things. because he pervades in a minute form all over the body without touching any of the organs. He is called “all pervading “ because like oil in gingili (Til). 3-4 Those gods who reside in the heart reside in the soul of the heart. fear from diseases. fear from old age and fear from death. he peacefully pervades all over the world and its beings. That which is like lightning power is the ultimate Brahman.nature by its airy nature and swallows it. That “Sound of Om” is the Pranava(primeval sound). fear at time of birth. He is called “vaidhyutha (electric)” because as soon as his name is pronounced . sleep and state of dream. He is called “sookshma (minute)”. he is inside every thing. That Pranava is spread everywhere. he is in and out of everything.] 3-5 The head of “the sound of Om” is on your left side. the holy knowledge comes like a ray of lightning. because the Brahmins read and propagate the Rik. in the state of darkness where nothing is visible. because his end is neither at the top nor bottom. That Brahman is one and only one. Sama and Atharva Vedas only after reading “om”. That which is limitless. at the time of death (dissolution). He is called “thara (protector)” because he protects one from the fear of life which consists of the fear of staying in the womb. He is called “Anantha (endless)”. shines like a white star. That which is also called Shuklam (seminal fluid. He is called the “one who has the shape of Pranava “. Yajur.

5. He pervades fully in all beings. He who sees this and mentally realizes it and observes the “penance to Pasupathi (Lord of all beings)” and who coats ash all over his body with this ash attains the state of Brahman. This is the story of Rudra. He rules all worlds by his power. There is none second to him. air. He is “Rudra” because he is fast moving form is not understood by all but only by great sages and devotees. because you created words and brought out knowledge. water. He is the one who. He is also the one who sees the inside but the one who has a face which looks outside. who gives everything to the one who asks and who is praiseworthy. The seeker would get immeasurable peace by searching and surrendering to this god. earth. Like approaching a cow for getting milk. He is “Eeshana” because by his power for creation and upkeep and also because he rules over all devas (gods). 5. He is called “theertha (sacred water)” because he is the ultimate mingling of all sacred waters which are sought after. He is the one who creates all beings and upkeeps them.4 . 4 This god is the one who pervades in all directions. He travels among all beings and is the reason for their existence. He is the one who is in all the creatures which have come out till now and all those who are going to be created in future. and because you have forsaken everything and reached a highest state of existence through yoga and your grace. the ties of bondage of all beings get cut and they attain salvation. He is the one who came earlier than every thing. You are also called “Maheswara (great lord)” because you bless your devotees by giving them knowledge. in the east.3 He converts fire. 5. He is the one who is in the womb. at the time of deluge. we come to you.He is called “Eka (single)” because he singly destroys everything and recreates everything. 5.2 He alone exists. ether and everything that exists here in to ash. He is “Eka (loner)” because he creates all beings and travels within them alone without any one realizing where he comes from and where he goes. in all organs where birth takes place. north ad west. You are “Eeshana’ because Veda points you out as one who shows the heaven and one who rules over other Gods. south.1 Rudra is one and only one. By worshipping “Pasupathi (lord of all beings)” like this. absorbs all beings.

Krishna Warrier Published by The Theosophical Publishing House. all the worlds are produced. O ye worthy of worship ! May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas. “the sound of Om” is produced. the thunderbolt for evil. bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! . air is produced.There is none greater than him. From his “breath” is produced the “power of Thamas (darkness)”. nothing so far where greater than him and nothing is going to be greater than him. From the galaxy. the thunderbolt for evil. May we see with our eyes what is auspicious. Praising them with our body and limbs steady ! May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda. From air. From that foam. get permanent happiness. the galaxy is produced. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12]Atma Upanishad Translated by Dr. water. From Savithri. which is the mixture of light. Chennai Om ! O Devas. as contained in the Atharva-Veda. From Brahmam. A. Praising them with our body and limbs steady ! May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda. This “all pervasiveness" is Rudra. G. on whom all the worlds are strung like beads. O ye worthy of worship ! May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas. Over ages. From Thamas is created water. may we hear with our ears what is auspicious. By mixing the coolness the “foam” is produced. Om ! O Devas. From “time (ages) the “all pervasiveness” is created. essence and nectar. He pervades every where. by chanting “om Bhoor bhuva swarom” is the greatest penance. Mixing this water with finger makes it cold. bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Atharvasiras Upanishad. Brahmam is produced. Rudra destroys beings even when he is sleeping. Worshipping that Brahmam. May we see with our eyes what is auspicious. From “Akshara (letter/language/ the deathless being)” time is created. He has thousands of legs but one and only one head. From “the sound of Om”. may we hear with our ears what is auspicious. They who worship “penance” and “truth”. Gayathri is produced and from Gayathri. Savithri is produced.

The knowledge ‘I am Devadatta’ depends on nothing else. touch. pure Brahman alone is. He is to be inferred by the thinkers on the Self as like unto the seed of the Banyan tree or a grain of millet or a hundredth part of a split hair. Even as the world with its distinctions like affirmation. partless. enjoying. pleasure. agent and self of knowledge vis-à-vis stumbling. He is to meditated on with (the help of) the Yogic steps. negation. fire. With distinctions like teacher and disciples (also). the navel. He is unthinkable and invisible. II-5(b)-6. doubts. subtle. He is the ancient spirit that distinguishes between Nyaya. What can illumine the non-existent. neither the world nor aught else (is there). II-1. II-2. aversion. fixation (of mind). long and prolate (vowel sounds). I-2. smeller. He acts not. ‘this is a pot’. From the point of view of truth. There are the organs – the skin. the forehead. Neither knowledge nor ignorance. non-Self ? That which endows the Vedas. What discipline is required to know. the stomach. taste. does not sweat. smell. the thumb. the backbone.. does not die. water. contemplation and concentration. so they constitute the self. singing and playing on musical instruments. the penis. is not wetted. colour. ether. taster. pain. the hip. owning naught. I-4. one and non-dual always. short. What sets empirical life afoot is the appearance of the world as real. in three ways: the self. leader. desire. Brahman alone shines forth. Next this inner self is (indicated by the elements) earth. omnipresent. He is not born. by the splendour of the Knowledge of Brahman is everything illumined. the hearer. What winds up empirical life is (its) appearance as unreal. Shastras. is spectator. the nails. delusion. the head and the eyes. Similarly. except the adequacy of the means of right knowledge ? Once it is given. Puranas and all other beings with import – that Knower what will illumine ? . not burnt. the unhallowed. air. the ears. immutable. is pure.Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! I-1. desire. Neither place nor time nor purity is required. the ankles. and illusory. II-4. He is the inner Self. does not tremble. the brows. blemishless. the knowledge of the object (supervenes). the fingers. Just as the whole world by the sun. the thighs. etc.. breath control. the knowledge ‘I am Brahman’ of the Knower of Brahman (is independent). (Thus) is He won and not known. smelling and grasping. I-3. these are born and these die. He purifies the impure. is indubitable. The good named the Atman is pure. the hands. manifests Itself. the imperishable. in the form of Brahman. Now Angirah: The Spirit. the inner Self and the supreme Self. II-7. hair. non-grasping. Next the supreme Self. withdrawal (of sense organs). dancing. He is beyond the gunas. alone. devoid of sound. the cheeks. II-9-10(a). Brahman alone shines forth. He is not subject to empirical existence. II-5(a). The ever present Self shines when the means of Its cognition (is present). is not split. II-3. shouting. and memory. II-8. Mimamsa and the institutes of law and the specific object of listening. Brahman alone appears. inner and outer: flesh. does not dry. the flanks. etc. (marked by) the high pitch and accentlessness.

II-24(b). Thus the silent sage.II-10(b)-11. II-13. is an actor and without them (resumes his natural state). (that body) is borne like a piece of timber. the happy Brahman-Knower delights (in himself) without the sense of ‘mine’ and ‘I’. the embodiment of desirelessness. up and down. so. By fate is the body borne into contexts of experiences at appropriate times. set up by Maya. with (appropriate) apparels. All adjuncts having perished. The ideas. as though he is embodied. for his ignorance-born bodies have all been consumed by the experimental knowledge of Being as the Self. no longer is the Yogin reborn. Though not eating. being Brahman he is assimilated to the non-dual Brahman. affected by the pleasant and the unpleasant or by the good and the evil. Just as space becomes space itself when the (enclosing) pot perishes. he does nothing: though partaking of fruit. as milk poured into milk. just as the appearance and disappearance of the snake are not in relation to the stirless rope. The child ignores hunger and bodily pain and plays with things. combined. Brahman suffers from no concealment whatsoever. yet. He is the best of all BrahmanKnowers. II-14-17.. he is omnipresent. Because that Yogin has become Brahman. II-22(b)-23. when particular cognitions are dissolved. so does the Atman-knowing sage in the Atman. Moved a little. treats the objects of desire. alive and alone. he is mighty. he is ever content. stays as the pure unqualified Self. liberated from the bondage of body. oil and water). Thus disembodied liberation is the infinite status of Being. It is uncovered. the unencompassed sun is said to be encompassed by deluded men. II-21. The body of the liberated one remains like the shed Slough of the snake. oil into oil. are . there being nothing other than It (to cover It). Bondage and liberation may be described as real and unreal and as due to the nescience (concealment of truth). Existing as the Self of all. since he appears to have a body. he is no experiencer thereof. II-24(a). the Brahman-Knower himself becomes nothing but Brahman. he is still disembodied. II-27(b). by the vital breath. disembodied and ever existent. II-12. Just as. not knowing the truth. II-22(a). peerless he looks on all alike: though acting. Living in a body. II-28-29. deluded folk behold the best of Brahman-Knowers. In the same way the best of Brahman-Knowers is always Brahman alone and none else. both knowledge and unknowable. are not real in themselves in relation to the Self. Free from all wealth. never is this Brahman-Knower. how can Brahman be reborn ? Bondage and liberation. Having won the status of Brahman. In the same way. hither and thither. and water into water become (milk. though determinate. giving up all migrations. II-25. In life itself the foremost Brahman-Knower is the ever free. he has accomplished his End. they become one. as regards Reality. by the flood waters. etc. is himself the manifest Shiva. Because it appears to be encompassed by Rahu (the darkness). II-26-27(a). Similarly. he is ever content abiding in his Self. ‘it is’ and ‘it is not’. (On the contrary) he who. II-18. like a man who. II-19-20. he rejoices always: though companionless.

quiescent. may That protect me. Neither suppression nor generation. I shall utter what is mentally true.e. May my mind be based on speech. unstained and non-dual where is room for (mental) construction ? II-31.only ideas in the intellect. bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Atmopanishad. May not all that I have heard depart from me. G. the teacher). I shall utter what is verbally true. May you both (speech and mind) be the carriers of the Veda to me. neither the bond nor the striving: neither the liberty seeking nor the liberated – this is the metaphysical truth.e. impartite. In the supreme Truth as in the sky. the thunderbolt for evil. inactive. Chennai Om ! May my speech be based on (i. II-30. So bondage and liberation are set up by Maya and do not pertain to the Self. May That protect the speaker (i.e. obliterate the difference of) day And night through this study. May that (Brahman) protect me. flawless. O Self-effulgent One. reveal Thyself to me. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13]Atma-Bodha Upanishad Translated by Dr. May that protect the speaker – may That protect the speaker. Krishna Warrier Published by The Theosophical Publishing House. A. may we hear with our ears what is auspicious. May we see with our eyes what is auspicious. accord with) the mind. Praising them with our body and limbs steady ! May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! . Om! O Devas. as contained in the Atharva-Veda. They do not pertain to the eternal Reality. I shall join together (i. O ye worthy of worship ! May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas.

I am the pure vision. unborn. I have no bondage nor liberation. attractive to all the worlds. my ego has gone down. the causal person without a cause. one who sees many here goes from death to death. belong only to the Karana-deha. thirst. with discrimination. from Brahma to the smallest worm are imagined in me. all worlds exists in my belly. there is no world in me. without positive and negative rules. therefore the world does not exist. The upasaka will go to Vaikuntha. One does not suffer meditating upon Vishnu without misery and illusion – there is no fear. II-1-10. I am the expansive Bliss. I am to be known by Agamas. so also for an ignorant person there is darkness in Brahman . M – saying this a Yogi becomes free from the cycle of birth. departs from this world with this knowledge. pure knowledge. I-2-4. reality unbounded. shining like lightning and lamp. different from poison is not affected by its defects. beginningless. I am pervaded by Bliss. Chakra and Gada. I have no parts. purity. but the ocean does not desire these – So also. no Shastra. The son of Devaki is Brahmanya (a Brahmana with 44 sacraments). I-5. indivisible. the seeker. Just as Amrita. I am the inner-self. kula and gotra. I bow to Narayana. Ignorance has run away somewhere – I have no doership nor duty. Just as there is no serpent in the rope at any time. god and soul. The Maya has gone away from me.. I have no desire for things of the world. beyond reason and action. I know myself. These belong to the gross body. I know myself without a second. I do not touch the defects of Inertia. there the person attains immortality – Om Namah. opposing sides. In the middle of the heart-lotus It (Brahman) exists with knowledge as the eye. A wise person abandons poison favouring Amrita. ever shining. Where there is always light and value.I-1. I am like a rich-man not desiring poverty. so even a little knowledge destroys big ignorance. Narayana is the one. the changeless consciousness. The innermost Brahman is A. U. I am pure joy. independent. getting all desires in the other world becomes immortal. I-6-8. blindness. Even then Bondage and Liberation are experienced. the ocean of liberation. All the three worlds. so has the difference between world. The sun which makes the pot shine is not destroyed along with the pot. Just as to an owl the sun is dark. from the bubble to the wave. no Guru. sole. Om. the world. The Brahmapura is a lotus. I am without three qualities. without old age and decay. Dullness. When vision is blocked by clouds he thinks there is no sun. auspicious. I have gone beyond Maya – let life go away or let the mind be attacked – I have no misery as I am filled with joy. only Brahman exists as the basis of the world. having Sankha. not to me different from it. Pundarikaksha. The world has gone away that appears to be real like serpent and rope. I have ascertained the highest Truth. knowledge are established in Brahman. belong to the Linga-deha only. faultless. etc. I am the witness. Hunger. exerting in my greatness.. I am endless knowledge. so also the spirit is not destroyed with the body. Vishnu and Achyuta. existing in all creatures. so are Madhusudana. like sugar pervaded by the taste of the sugarcane. He. Even a small lamp can remove big darkness. desire etc. I am subtle without any attributes. pure reality. . In the ocean there are many things.

accord with) the mind. O Self-effulgent One. May we work conjointly with great energy. Samkriti approached the venerable Avadhuta. after crossing (the barrier of) castes and stages (of social position) and thus rises above varnas and asramas and is in union (with God) is said to be an Avadhuta. May you both (speech and mind) be the carriers of the Veda to me. reveal Thyself to me. Dattatreya. may That protect me.e. A. the most compassionate: 2. I shall utter what is verbally true. Who is an Avadhuta ? What is his condition ? What his characteristic ? And what his worldly existence ? To him replied the venerable Dattatreya. May our study be vigorous and effective. obliterate the difference of) day And night through this study. 3. Chennai Om ! May He protect us both together. [tattvamasyadi-lakshya]. I shall join together (i. . I shall utter what is mentally true. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! 1. Om! May my speech be based on (i. and questioned: Venerable Sir. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14]Avadhuta Upanishad Translated by Prof. Ramanathan Published by The Theosophical Publishing House. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Atmabodhopanishad..e. and he is the indicated meaning of the sentence 'Thou art That'. as contained in the Rig-Veda.Even practising this for a muhurta (a short time) one does not return (to this world). etc. He who rests constantly in himself. he is the greatest [varenya]. he has discarded worldly ties [dhutasamsarabandhana]. May That protect the speaker (i.e. Then. May not all that I have heard depart from me. The Avadhuta is so called because he is immortal [akshara]. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). May my mind be based on speech. it is said. A. may He nourish us both together. May that protect the speaker – may That protect the speaker. the teacher). May that (Brahman) protect me.

4. great delight [pramoda] his left wing. for it is due to impressions accumulated during a long time. There is neither death nor birth. 19. If onlookers thus superimpose. Thus. delight [moda] is his right wing. What shall I. desirous of children. Many were my activities perchance in the past for gaining things here and hereafter. That itself is the state of contentment. Verily remembering the same (i. All that is now of the past. etc. As the sun absorbs all waters. 5. Wherefore shall I suffer. unstained by virtues or sins. This is the great vow [mahavrata]. 7. Having no doubts. perform ? For what and how ? Let those who are worlds. who are ignorant of the reality. 9. The miserable ignorant. Likewise. not by begetting children. I partake not of worldly duties superimposed (on me) by others. free action (of his) should be disclosed. Let them. 10. so. this indeed is the ultimate Truth. none is bound. Not by rituals. I have no desire for sleeping or begging. knowing (the reality) why should I study ? Let them who have doubts reflect (upon what was studied). The habitual usage ‘I am a man’ is possible even without this confusion. bathing or cleaning. not he who seeks the objects of pleasure. since I am free of action. 12. and the fire consumes all things (remaining unaffected by them). what meditation can there be (for me) ? Confusion of body for the self. nothing holy or unholy. even if others superimposed fire on it.e. those who contemplate this fourfold division attain the supreme Goal. needs must suffer. correct knowledge [samgrahaneshti] (the Avadhuta) performs Ashvamedha sacrifice within (himself). not by wealth. I never experience. who am filled with supreme bliss ? Let those who yearn to go to the other worlds perform rituals. One should identify Brahman neither with the head nor with the middle part nor with the bottom but with (what remains in the shape of) the tail. but by renunciation [tyaga] alone a few attained immortality. or for obtaining liberation. with or without clothes. His (the Avadhuta’s) worldly existence consists in moving about freely. Nought of this extraordinary. 15. 6. . 16. perform ? For what and how ? Let those who are qualified interpret the Shastras or teach the Vedas. even so. 13. 8. none aspires. let them do so. 17.. and bliss (his very self). Through all-consuming. I may meditate. 14. He is not tainted like the ignorant. study the scriptures. As the ocean into which all waters flow maintains its own nature despite the water pouring in (from all sides). I have no such qualification. I do not reflect. Thus he assumes a fourfold condition. 18. he now remains thus ever content. There is neither seeker after liberation nor any liberated. What matters to me the superimposition of others ? A heap of the red-black berries (of the Abrus precatorius) would not burn. His joy [priya] is (to be envisaged as) the head. since it is said that Brahman is ‘the Tail’ and substratum. Were I under illusion. the past) achievements involving objects. Nor do I do them. 20. having no illusion. 11. For them there is nothing righteous or unrighteous. the pure Yogin enjoys all objects. he alone attains peace into whom all desires flow in like manner. who am of the nature of all the worlds. That is the greatest sacrifice and the great Yoga.

When the results of actions set in motion [prarabdha-karman] are exhausted. blessed am I. Blessed am I. blessed am I. begging and so forth. may He nourish us both together. I neither do nor cause any doing. 34. I being neither an agent (of action) nor one affected (by it). 24. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! . Logical ! The virtues accrued have yielded fruit ! Indeed they have ! By the richness of virtue we are as we are. to whom worldly dealings offer no hindrance. Let the body be engaged in the worship of gods. wondrous knowledge ! Wondrous happiness. 28. What harm for me thereby? 27. Let my dealings. again and again blessed. everything to be obtained is now obtained. blessed. Being contented with duties fulfilled and achievements accomplished. I do not need concentration. 22. Let speech repeatedly utter the tara-mantra or recite the Upanishadic passages. Om. 31. Let thought contemplate Vishnu or let it be dissolved in the bliss of Brahman. my ignorance has fled away. what has to be gained is gained for ever. the bliss of Brahman shines brightly in me. 35. cleaning. 29. Truth. worldly. the habitual usage also ends. May we work conjointly with great energy. blessed am I. Wondrous knowledge. Blessed am I. blessed am I. blessed. Blessed am I. blessed am I. distraction or concentration being of the mind that modifies. This (worldly usage) will not cease even with repeated meditation unless such actions are exhausted. wondrous teachers ! 36. no duty exists for me. Directly and always.21. Om ! May He protect us both together. Blessed am I. wondrous happiness ! Wondrous scriptures. even though I have achieved what has to be achieved. scriptural or of other kinds proceed as they have started. ordained or prohibited. contemplate ? 23. He who studies this also achieves everything to be achieved. Or. I do not see the misery of existence. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). blessed am I. Blessed am I. What separate experience can there be for me. 33. blessed am I. let there be contemplation for you. 26. If infrequency of worldly dealings is sought. he ceaselessly reflects as follows with a contented mind: 30. Wherefore should I. He becomes free of the sins of killing a Brahmin. He becomes free of the sins of stealing gold. Thus (ends) the Upanishad. May our study be vigorous and effective. Blessed am I. let him wander according to his free will. bathing. Blessed am I. Because I do not have distractions. 25. Knowing this. 32. He becomes free of the sins of drinking liquor. I experience my own self. blessed am I. wondrous scriptures ! Wondrous teachers. whom am of the nature of eternal experience ? What has to be done is done. What comparison is there in the world for my contentment ! Blessed am I. I am the witness. let me remain on the scriptural path for the sake of the well-being of the world. He becomes free of actions.

Prana. nor Brahman deny me. Let there be no denial at all: Let there be no denial at least from me.Purusha Sukta NAASADEEYA SUKTA 1. Who am devoted to the Atman. For each of these is a sukta. Anee davaatham svadhayaa thadekam Thasmaad anya nna parah kincha naasa 3. Na mrithyu raaseed amritham na tharhi Na raatryaa ahna aaseeth prakethah. may they reside in me.Here ends the Avadhuta Upanishad belonging to the Krishna-Yajur-Veda. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! The three states of evolution in the beginning were Avyakta( indeterminate). Mahattatwa(determined indeterminate) and Ahamkara(determinate). ears. vitality And all the senses grow in strength. Avyakta – Naasadeeya Sukta Mahattatwa – Hiranyagarbha Sukta Ahamkara -. All existence is the Brahman of the Upanishads. May the virtues that are proclaimed in the Upanishads be in me. Naa sa daasee nno sa daasee ttadaaneem naa see drajo no vyomaaparo yat ki maavareevah kuhakasya sharman ambhah kimaaseed gahanam gabheeram 2. Kaamah thadagre samavartha thaadhi Manaso rethah prathamam yadaaseeth Satho bandhu masathi niravindan Hridi pratheeshyaa kavayo maneeshaa . May I never deny Brahman. Thama aaseeth thamasaa goodha magre Praketham salilam sarva maa idam Thucche naabhu apihitham yadaaseeth Thapasah thanmahinaa jaaya thaikam 4. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 15]Avyakta Upanishad Om! Let my limbs and speech. eyes.

as ages searching find. Prana. Who am devoted to the Atman. . may they reside in me. V) Om ! Let my limbs and speech.5. which nothing with existence links. (The translation is taken from MUIR’S ORIGINAL SANSKRIT TEXTS. by inward forever grew. All existence is the Brahman of the Upanishads. naught else beyond it lay. Vol. Gloom hid in gloom existed first-one sea eluding view. Let there be no denial at all: Let there be no denial at least from me. and energy above. May the virtues that are proclaimed in the Upanishads be in me. That one breathed calmly. May I never deny Brahman. nor change of night and day. from whence this vast creation rose? No gods had been born. nor deathlessness. vitality And all the senses grow in strength. no air nor sky beyond. What covered all? What rested all? In watery gulf profound? Nor death was then. Who then can e’er the truth disclose whence sprang this world. Within it first arose desire. The one a void in chaos wrapt. nor Brahman deny me. if he can show. self-sustained. whether framed by hand divine or noIts lord in heaven alone can tell. Idam visrishti ryata aababhoova Yadi vaa dadhe yadi vaa na dadhe Yo asya adhyakshah parame vyoman So anga veda yadi vaa na veda TRANSLATION Then there was neither Aught nor Naught. Who knows and whoever told. The kindling ray that shot across the dark and drearinesswas it beneath or high aloft? What bard can answer this? There fecundating powers were found and mighty forces strove – A self supporting mass beneath. Thirashcheeno vithatho rashmi reshaam Adhasvi daasee dupari svi daaseeth Rethodhaa aasan mahimaana aasat Svadhaa avasthaat prayathih parasthath 6. ears. the primal germ of mind. eyes. Ko addhaa veda ka iha pravochat Kutha aajaathaa kutha iyam visrishtih Arvaagdevaa asya vivarjanena Adha ko veda yata aababhoova 7.

is the Power supreme. The fivefold form relinquished And effects like space transcended. time and objects. the wombborn. what is dear is Bliss. (She) is known as the half-syllabic instant after OM. illuminating within and without. the Consciousness within. is pure Being. A. The egg-born. Everything of Power was born (of Her). let that protect the speaker. 4. You and I and all the world and all divinities and all besides are the Maha-Tripura-Sundari. included in the Sama-Veda. supreme Brahman. . penetrating without and within. integral. what shines is pure Consciousness. nymphs. Other than Her is untruth. non-self. whatever breathes here. The sole Truth is the thing named ‘the Beautiful’. the seed-born. Let that protect the speaker. is resplendent. patent. G. non-dual Brahman Consciousness. She is the Science of Consciousness. celestial minstrels. 3. The Goddess was indeed one in the beginning. (She) is known as Love’s Part (IM). the sweat-born. The Beauty of the three-great-cities. This is the secret Om grounded in the word Om. What is. is the science of Sambhu. semi-human beings playing on instruments. was Rudra born. (known) either as the science beginning with ka. or as the science beginning with sa. free from (even) a tinge of being and non-being. nondual. a wave of Being-Consciousness-Bliss. All wind-gods were born. the three bodies. here. Of Her was Brahma born. self-subsisting. be ye two. So here is the Maha-Tripura-Sundari who assumes all forms. here. Om. She alone is Atman. becomes the Maha-Tripura-Sundari. Pervading the three cities. I join day with night. and man were born (of Her). Chennai Om ! Speech is rooted in my thought (mind) and my thought is rooted in my speech. It is the non-dual. everything was born (of Her). ---------------------------------------------------------------- 16]Bahvricha Upanishad Translated by Dr. the lynch-pins of the Veda. With this mastered lore. all around. protect the speaker ! Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace ! 1. Hence is She BrahmanConsciousness. She. 6. were born (of Her). was Vishnu born. being associated with space. She. She. I shall speak what is right. to me. or as the science beginning with ha.Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Avyaktopanishad. Let that protect me. What is enjoyed was born. 5. the stationary as well as the moving. 2. Alone she emitted the world-egg. for me. Let not Vedic lore desert me. Let that protect me. I shall speak what is true. Krishna Warrier Published by The Theosophical Publishing House. Be manifest.

9. mounted on a horse. part of Brahmic bliss. 8. Chanda. I shall speak what is right. Be manifest. the Matangi. I shall speak what is true. or ‘I am Brahman’. the sacred Maha-TripuraSundari. included in the Rig-Veda. Gayatri. She who is contemplated as ‘That which I am’ or ‘I am He’ or ‘What He is that I am’. let that protect the speaker. the only Truth. This is the secret science. the royal Matangi. the fifteen-syllabled (science). She who veils. I join day with night. the Mistress of the world. smoke-bannered. Let that protect me. In dialogue it is said: ‘Thou art That’. O ye worthy of worship ! May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas. they dwell all right. Bagala. dark like a parrot. 7. the Science of Sri. the Mother. the auspicious one who chooses her own Partner. the Power of the Boar. The songs of praise dwell in the highest sphere Where dwell all gods. Sarasvati. ---------------------------------------------------------- 17]Bhasma Jabala Upanishad Om! O Devas. May we see with our eyes what is auspicious. Let that protect me. for me. patent. Om ! Speech is rooted in my thought (mind) and my thought is rooted in my speech. may we hear with our ears what is auspicious. bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! . Chamunda. With this mastered lore. protect the speaker ! Om! Peace ! Peace ! Peace ! Here ends the Bahvrichopanishad. It is declared either that ‘Brahman is Consciousness’ or that ‘I am Brahman’. With Ric what will he do who knows not this ? They who know this well. light dark. or ‘This Atman is Brahman’. the thunderbolt for evil.Remains the one. Praising them with our body and limbs steady ! May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda. to me. be ye two. Power of Savitur. Let not Vedic lore desert me. The supreme Ground. is the Sodasi. Let that protect the speaker. or ‘Brahman alone am I’. the Virgin. opposed to Angiras. the lynch-pins of the Veda. the great being.

What is the Bhasma made of? Where should it be applied? What are the Mantras to be recited? Who are the persons fitted for this? What are the rules regarding it? Kindly instruct me. with the Mantra ‘Tryambakam’ etc. who is the form of Omkara and who is beyond the trinity of Brahma. all this universe and existence are Bhasma. flowers and leaves. Then only he will become purified. middle finger and ring finger. on the neck with ‘Nilagrivaya etc. Then he should filter it nicely. Rishis are Bhasma. and then pour Ahutis of seasamum and paddy together with ghee.’ Thus.. on the mouth with ‘Prabravama etc. ether is Bhasma. on the cheeks with ‘Kalaya etc.’. Vishnu and Rudra.’. a descendant of Jabali went to the Kailas Peak and prostrated before Lord Mahadeva Siva. keep it in the leaf of a Palasa-tree and then dry it with the Vedic Mantra ‘Tryambakam’ etc. gods are Bhasma.” The kind Lord Paramesvara said: At first the devotee after understanding the influence of the celestials at the prescribed time. and with the idea that ‘fire is Bhasma.’ On the forehead with ‘Tryambakam etc. placed in a convenient place. born from depressed class. on the ears with ‘Srinavama etc. With the same Mantra Bali (an offering) should be placed in the eight directions (of the fire). because it is the only means for attaining Liberation. in that case man does not commit any sin.. Then he should apply it from head to foot. Then. with the Mantra ‘Somaya Svaha’. Then that sacred ash should be placed in a gold. according to the rules laid down in the Grihya Sutras of his sect..’. 1 ½ times this. or if possible. with any fire that is available. The number of Ahutis should be 1008. ‘Vamadevaya’ (this is to Vamadeva) sprinkling with the Mantra ‘Tryambakam’ etc.’. after being understood in its true aspect (as one with this Atman). on the right side of the neck with ‘Tryayusham etc. silver. ‘Sadyo Jatam’. and Vama etc. Then he questioned Lord Siva: “Lord! Kindly impart to me the essential knowledge of all the Vedas. etc. embodying the process and technique of using the Bhasma (sacred ash).I am that Absolute Brahman only which. with the five Brahma-Mantras. at the end.’. through the destructive fire of (Supreme) Knowledge! Once Bhusunda.’. ‘Manastoka’.’. Then he should take the Bhasma from the vessel with the PanchaBrahma-Mantras. water is Bhasma. (in the sun). Then the devotee should honour the Brahmins with a grand feast. It should then be kept in a clean and decent place. With the first finger. he should apply the same to the middle of the head saying ‘to the head’ and ‘O Bhasma! Thou hast come from Agni!’ He should apply bhasma at the top of the head with the mantra ‘Murdhanam. That Bhasma should be sprinkled with water by the Gayatri Mantra. The instruments for pouring ghee should be made of leaf. on the ‘eyes with ‘Trilochanaya etc. on the heart (chest) with ‘Atmane etc. on the navel with ‘Nabhih . earth is Bhasma. Bhusunda worshipped Siva with great devotion again and again through fruits. the devotee should keep a little Bhasma with the clean palm of his left hand saying. Then he should burn that dry cow-dung. entirely burns into ashes (Bhasma) the ignorance (illusion or Maya) of considering this universe to be existing (real) and separate from one’s own Self. I prostrate to this sacred and purifying Bhasma which destroys all my sins. and cleaning it with the Mantra ‘Suddham suddhena’ etc. air is Bhasma. copper or earthen vessel and sprinkled again with the Rudra Mantras. should fetch some sacred and pure cow-dung early in the morning. the devotee should offer the oblation of Sveshtakruta at the time of Purna-Ahuti.

Gayatri should not be repeated. on the left wrist with ‘Dure-vadhaya etc.’. I am this world and the five elements.’. water or anything else. ‘Om Namah Sivaya’ and ‘Om Namo Mahadevaya’ are the two Mantras. on the back of the right palm with ‘Pasupataye etc. repeating Gayatri 108 times. Through My terror only. on the right shoulder with ‘Bhavaya etc. This kind of practice shall destroy any kind of sin that may be committed by man. Twelve beads over each of the two ears. He should clean the body with the Rudra Suktas. on the back of the left palm with ‘Namo Hartre etc. The water should never be spilt down from any cause. Without having Bhasmadharana in this fashion. Otherwise.’. on the left elbow with ‘Agre-vadhaya etc. he should fast during the whole day and do 1000 Pranava Japa. no Tarpana should be offered to gods. The devotee should then prostrate to Siva with the Mantra ‘Somaya’ etc.’. I am Omkara. even a single day. and over the shoulder-blades with ‘Sankaraya etc. Rishis or Pitrus. He should do Japa of either Siva-Shadakshara or Siva-Ashtakshara. all are working properly. He should wash the hands and drink that ash-water with the Mantra ‘Apah Punantu’ etc. Then again Bhusunda asked Siva: What are the daily rites to be performed by a Brahmin. Six beads around each of the thumbs.’. on the left shoulder with ‘Ugraya etc. this practice of Bhasmadharana should be done in the morning. He should then wear white Rudraksha. should take his bath. I am the Creator. the Lord will throw these Sannyasins to dogs and wolves. the Brahman of the Upanishads. Brahmacharins. This is the daily rite of Brahmins. Then he should wear a clean cloth. as prescribed. Vanaprasthas and Sannyasins. Preserver and Destroyer of all.’.’. This is the highest truth and the greatest instruction. on the right wrist with ‘Sarvaya etc. he should stand in water upto the neck. If he does not do this. One or three beads on the chest. and fast the whole day. he should meditate on the sun-god and apply Bhasma to all the prescribed parts of the body. If a Sannyasin does not wear Bhasma.etc. God of all gods. I myself am that Great Lord Siva. the Supreme Controller of all the universes. for being purified once again. This very thing is the prescribed Dharma of all Brahmins. Some prescribe the following way of wearing Rudraksha beads: Over the head should be worn forty rudraksha beads. I am that Impersonal Brahman. any other Bhasma that may be at hand should be used with the prescribed Mantras. that day. and after finishing the purificatory actions. noon and evening. If this is overlooked even once. Thirt-two beads around the neck. he will become fallen. on the right elbow with ‘Rudraya etc. This is the eternal Dharma that destroys all sins and gives the final state of Moksha. This is the greatest Vidya. Twelve beads around each of the wrists. After this. by neglecting which he will commit a sin? Who is to be then meditated upon? Who is to be remembered? How to meditate? Where to practice this? Please tell me in detail. I am the Highest Truth that exists. he should never take any food. . Sixteen beads around each of the upper arms.’. In case this kind of Bhasma is not available. No Yajna should be done on that day. Thus. Accidentally if this practice is forgotten. Grihasthas.’.’. Then the devotee should observe Sandhya with the Kusa grass in his hand. The Lord answered all in a nutshell: First of all the devotee should get up early in the morning before sunrise.

. he attains My Sayujya state. That is why I absorb into My Being those creatures who leave their Pranas at Banares which is standing at the top of My Trisula (trident). Therefore. Let us enjoy the life allotted by the gods. I will take care of them. the most celebrated is the temple of Siva.I am the only giver of Moksha. Nothing exists other than Myself. of unhampered movement. With steady limbs. Vishnu and Rudra. Everybody should try to live at Banares as far as possible. Other sinners will be fried in burning pits of live coals after death. No place is better than Banares. May Pusan. Banares should not be neglected under any circumstance. the thunderbolt for evil. That is Myself. may we hear with our ears what is auspicious. Krishna Warrier Published by The Theosophical Publishing House. and all-gods. May Brihaspati grant us well-being. of wide renown. bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Bhasma-Jabalopanishad. Om ! O Devas. May Indra. A. By performing My Abhisheka. the Eternal Spirit should be worshipped. Chennai Om ! Gods ! With ears let us hear what is good. Adorable ones ! With eyes let us see what is good. in the West. Praising them with our body and limbs steady ! May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda. there is the place of Wealth. the place of Vichara. G. That Linga at Banares. the place of Jnana. as contained in the Atharva-Veda. O ye worthy of worship ! May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas. The most corrupt man or woman will attain Moksha. Even at Banares. There in the middle. May we see with our eyes what is auspicious. I initiate all with the Taraka Mantra. grant us well-being. Hence all people come to Me for final help. if he or she dies at Banares. in the South. May Tarksya. I shall deliver him from all sins and sorrows. the place of Vairagya and in the North. moon or the stars. everybody should try to live at Banares which is My Pranalinga Itself. praising. everyone should perform penance at Banares only. is not illumined by the sun. grant us well-being. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18]Bhavana Upanishad Translated by Dr. with bodies. I. Those who want Mukti should live at Banares. Therefore. grant us well-being. I should be worshipped by one who wears the sacred Bhasma and Rudrakshas in the prescribed manner. That self-luminous Linga called ‘Visvesvara’ has its root in Pathala. where in the East. I am the Lord of Brahma.

7. pusa. Mind is the bow made of sugarcane. feet. etc. knowledge. sucked. Varahi. The body with the seven constituents (Chile. The digestive fire becomes fivefold through distinctions based on its association with this pre-eminent breath. the agitator. 2. kuhu. etc. marrow and semen) like the skin and the hair is the island of the nine gems. The Power of the Boar is paternal: Kurukulla. 5. fat. Charmamunda and Kalasamkarsini). the object of knowledge is the oblation. visvodara. the yawner and the deluder. etc. 13. Speech. air. namely sweet. The qualities of cold. sarasvati. 15. desire. The earth. etc. The ten aspects of Fire are the ten divinities of the inner spokes. 17. envy. 23. It is the holy Wheel in the guise of the nine wheels. ether. Owing to the prominence of the minor breath.. 20. 12. motion. Vaishnavi. pleasure. Of that Power the body with its nine orifices is the form. yasovati. its object. chewed. what dries. elation. grasp. 6. Destiny and sentiments like love are (the miraculous attainments like) atomicity.dharma. (Brahma. sankhini. etc. Lust. Knowledge is the material for worship. the ejector. what burns and what inundates. Aversion is the hook. (styled) Sarvasiddhiprada. heat. astringent and saltish. evacuation. acceptance and apathy are the eight (entities) such as the flower of love. anger. merit. 18. flesh. Maheshvari. pingala and susumna – these fourteen arteries are the fourteen powers such as the all-exciting. blood. . bitter. etc. vasini. licked and imbibed. 14. 22. generation. speech. and the knower. 19. hands. 24. rajas and tamas are the eight powers. gandhari. hastijihva. kama and moksha). etc. Raudri. 4. the knower is the sacrificer. the deity of sacrifice.Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace ! 1. what cooks. 3. The nine abodes (muladhara etc. The holy Teacher is the Power (Para-Sakti) that is the cause of all. bone. The (four) human Ends are the oceans (purusharthas . delusion. nose. varana. is maternal. fire. Alambusa. etc. The five vital breaths and the five minor breaths are the ten divinities of the outer spokes. Attachment is the cord (that binds). these (fires) in the human body come to be styled as the corroder. 21. ida. 10.) are the powers of the mystic gestures. are the flowery shafts. 8. ear. sour. 16. greed. The five. pain. payasvini. artha. They promote the digestion of the fivefold food: eaten. which are apprehended by the tongue. demerit – these constitute the eight powers of Brahma. is the worship rendered to the holy Wheel. skin. and the attitudes of rejection. energy (of the mind) is the garden of the trees of plenty. tongue. sattva. pungent. water. Kaumari. eye. The six seasons are the tastes. etc. Sarvajna. 11. (They are) what ejects. The meditation on the identity of the three. Resolutions are the wish-granting trees. rudimentary sound.. 9. the organs of evacuation and generation and the modification of mind are the sixteen powers such as the pull of lust.

or two. 31. 32. May Brihaspati grant us well-being. 33. Absolute awareness. The view of time’s transformation into the fifteen days (of the half lunar month) points to the fifteen eternal (divinities). with bodies. Mendicant monks desiring liberation are of four kinds: the Kutichaka. May Pusan. or even for a single instant. the sense of duty and its negation. 28. Meditations on the inner wheel have been discussed (here) following the tenets of Saktaism. It remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone. Of all this the distinctive apprehension is the red glow. (Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe). and the principle of Egoism are the divinities of the inner triangle: Kameshvari. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! 1. Hamsa and Paramahamsa. 34. The unmanifest. 27. one becomes liberated while living. Bahudaka. grant us well-being. the Great. The infinite proceeds from the infinite. and the obligation worship. praising. ------------------------------------------------------------ 19]Bhikshuka Upanishad Translated by Prof. 29. Ramanathan Published by The Theosophical Publishing House. 30. 35. The act of oblation is the merger in the Self of distinctions like I. Chennai Om ! That (Brahman) is infinite. A. 36. May Tarksya. and this (universe) is infinite. With steady limbs. Whoso knows thus is a student of the Atharvasiras. Adorable ones ! With eyes let us see what is good. Assuagement is the thought of identity of (all) objects of imagination.25. Om ! Gods ! With ears let us hear what is good. is one’s own blissful Self. is Kameshvara. A. Thus meditating for three instants. one is styled the Siva-Yogin. non-Existence. Existence. verily. grant us well-being. Vajreshvari and Bhagamalini. In the performance of meditation consist (various acts of) respectful service. Let us enjoy the life allotted by the gods. Lalita. The supreme divinity. 26. Perfection (ensues from) exclusive concentration of the mind. and all-gods. included in the Atharva-Veda. . of wide renown. of unhampered movement. grant us well-being. Thou. May Indra. Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace ! Here ends the Bhavanopanishad.

(taking shelter during nights) in a deserted house. with pure mind. established in the Atman alone. sacred thread and ochre coloured garment. a hollow in a tree. Avoiding wine and meat.e. (Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe). Vamadeva and Harita. hay stack. heat and cold. They discard the doctrines of Visishtadvaita (propounded by Ramanuja). Aruni. in deserted houses or in a cemetery. --------------------------------------------------------------------- 20]Brahma Upanishad Translated by Swami Madhavananda . they subsist on eight mouthfuls of food secured as alms from the houses of Brahmana sages and seek liberation alone in the path of Yoga. 5. Dattatreya. a mountain thicket or cavity. They observe neither Dharma nor Adharma (i. temple. The Kutichakas (hut-dwelling ascetics) such as (the sages of yore like) Gautama.. Bharadvaja. unaffected by pairs (of opposites. solely adhering to pure meditation. stone and gold they receive alms from (person of) all castes and see the Atman alone everywhere. They take shelter under the shade of trees. Subsisting on cow’s urine and other products from the cow and always addicted to the chandrayana vow. Svetaketu. they are well on the way to realize Brahman. the Suddha Dvaita (of Madhvacharya) and the Asuddha Dvaita. and this (universe) is infinite. Next the Bahudaka ascetics (remaining mainly in a holy place of sacred waters) who carry a three-fold emblematic staff (tridanda) and water vessel and wear tuft. five nights in a town and seven nights or more in a holy place. potter’s hut. Thus (ends) the Upanishad. The infinite proceeds from the infinite. they seek liberation alone in the path of Yoga. Suka. shade of a tree. the vicinity of a water fall. They are not conscious of profit and loss of anything. receiving alms at the prescribed time for sustaining life. who live on eight mouthfuls of food and seek liberation alone in the path of Yoga. a place where ritual fire is kept. Then there are the Paramahamsa ascetics (such as the sages of yore like) Samvartaka. Jadabharata. they are above the laws of the land). They may wear a dress or be unclad.) receiving no gifts. Considering equally a pebble. It remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone. They are indeed the Paramahamsas (as they become absorbed in Brahman). 3. etc. Yajnavalkya and Vasistha. ant-hill. Unclad. or a piece of clean ground. 4. subsist on eight mouthfuls of food and seek liberation alone by the path of yoga. Then come the Hamsa ascetics who shelter for one night in a village. they give up their bodies in the state of renunciation as a Paramahamsa. sandy bank of a river. Om ! That (Brahman) is infinite. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Bhikshukopanishad belonging to the Sukla-Yajur-Veda.2.

e. the throat. once asked Bhagavan Pippalada of Angira’s family: In this body. the life of the Devas. He knows being the Light Supreme. In this waking state particularly good and evil obtain for the shining being (i. the cause and the effect. He is Vishnu.Just as this Devadatta (in dreamless sleep) runs not away even when struck with a stick. He is Brahma. like a spider controlling the king of bees. even so he does not also attach himself to good or evil consequences of the life’s ordained activities. even so this Devadatta (the subject of dreamless sleep) enjoys happiness in that state. Prana belongs to the Nadis or subtle nerve-chords as their Devata or indwelling deity. And that state which he does not give up for a next one is called the waking state. Desiring Light he enjoys the Light. and the fourth state is the Supreme Indestructible One. installed. in dreamless sleep He is Rudra. He represents both the life and the death of the Devas. (who) retires drawing back his creation. He is the Purusha. the Atman. the subjective principle. all-pervading. and He again is the Sun.Published by Advaita Ashram. how do they create ? Whose glory does this constitute ? Who is he who became all this glory ? 2. of dream. In the wakeful state. man’s Self) as ordained. householder of fame. He the Prana. the Prana. the divine city of Brahman. he is the Devata making everything known. the Lotus. So also he returns by the same way to the dreamstate. It is from Him that the source of the Vedas and the Devas hang like breasts. Unto him (Shaunaka) he (Pippalada) imparted the supreme Wisdom of Brahman: That is Prana. This being or Self is fully selfextended (into world-forms). He the Fire. 3. the Crab. of dreamless sleep. and the head. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! 1. Whoever knows all this attains to the transcendent Brahman. Kolkatta Om ! May He protect us both together. just as a child enjoys itself (spontaneously) without motive or desiring fruit. Om ! Shaunaka. the Brahman and the Atman. He the Jive or the animate being. the navel. the Vishnu. One in dreamless sleep goes through that state to one’s own Abode. and the Resplendent. The Ishwara. May our study be vigorous and effective. the Ishwara. so also the Prana. devoid of manifested effects. Just as spiders by means of one thread project and withdraw the web. May we work conjointly with great energy. in the dreaming state. like a leech: just as a leech carries itself on to the other points in front – (first) fixing upon the next point. In these shines forth the Brahman with four aspects: the state of wakefulness. may He nourish us both together. That Brahman who shines within the divine Brahmapura (or body) as the faultless One. selfeffulgent. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). and the fourth or transcendental state. Now this Purusha has four seats. he is the Purusha. He (it is who) controls (the Jiva). the underlying support. he is the indwelling controller of things and beings. He constitutes the glory of the Atman. the destroyer. (yea) that Brahman which is transcendent shines . like a falcon and the sky – just as a falcon goes (to its nest) borne on the sky. the heart. (He carries all these states within himself) just as a (Vedic) deity bears the eight sacrificial cups simultaneously. He states: -. he is the Bird.

It exists within this heart. 14. There neither are the worlds existing nor non-existing. as surely this thread is ordained to be part of such works. they (really) wear the sacrificial thread (on themselves). so neither all the creatures or the ascetics. who have this Jnana for their sacred hair-tuft. (Who knows this). 4. the common) sacred thread. the Pitris have no control. neither is Chandala’s son or Pulkasa’s son existing nor nonexisting. of hands and feet. Within the recess of the heart is that Akasa of consciousness – that with many openings. for being fully awakened. This wise one is (really) said to be a Shikhi (or wearer of the tufted hair). neither are the Vedas or the Devas or the sacrifices existing nor non-existing. The Yogi who is the knower of all Yogas and the seer of truth should put on this thread. the Rishis. “Put on the sacrificial thread which is supremely sacred. 12. One who is really self-conscious must put on the thread constituted by awareness of Brahman. One who has the Jnana for his tufted hair. has everything about him characterised by Brahmanahood – so know the knowers of the Vedas ! . he is the Vipra (sage).within all these ! In Itself. of ears. as a collection of gems is stringed together on a thread. in the heart the Pranas are installed. 11. in the consciousness. which embodies longevity. and he should put this on. 5. within the space of the heart – in which all this (universe outside) evolves and moves about. one becomes the knower of all truth. eminence and purity. neither is the mother or father or daughter-in-law existing nor non-existing. the Supreme Brahman as the all-pervading one is the thread. In the heart the Devas live. who are devoted to Jnana (the highest knowledge). 7. and thus only the One Highest Brahman shines there. which became manifest of yore with Prajapati (the first created Being) Himself. But those belonging to the three castes (Brahmanas. By whom this Sutra is known. By It all this (universe) is transfixed. knows fully all creation. The enlightened one should discard the external thread putting it off with the sacred tuft of hair on the head. with this sacrificial thread of knowledge. For them Jnana is the greatest purifier – Jnana. On account of wearing this Sutra or thread. in which all this is warped and woofed (as it were). this Jnana for their sacred thread.e. There the Devas. 8. (really) know the Sutra. among men. Kshatriyas and Vaisyas) who have the right of performing Vedic works have to put on this (i. They. and the same for his sacred thread. of light. Those who have this Jnana for their tufted hair are as non-different from it as is fire from its flame. This Sutra verily constitutes the Supreme State. 13. he has reached beyond the Vedas. that is the best as such. the aim of knowledge. It is devoid of mind. Established in the state of highest Yoga. while others are mere growers of hair (on the head). 10. that is. The Sutra (or thread) is so called because of its having pierced through and started (the process of becoming). neither is the mendicant existing nor non-existing. they can neither become contaminated nor unclean. and may it be strength and puissance to you !” 6. those (namely) who have this thread existing within them – those. 9. the wise one should put off the external thread. in the heart exist the supreme Prana and Light as also the immanent Cause with threefold constituents and the Mahat principle.

The One Lord (self-effulgent) in all beings remaining hidden. all-pervading and the Self of all beings. May we work conjointly with great energy. so is the Atman in one’s self to be discovered by one who searches for It through truth and austere practice. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! . 26. as also the worshipping associated with Sandhya. founded on the spiritual discipline (Tapas) which is (nothing but) the Vidya or science of the Atman. having no attributes. the purification (itself) and that which is the end-all (of Vedic works). The heart (i. 22. Om ! May He protect us both together.e. see the Lord in His hidden reality. the dreaming state should be assigned to the throat. May our study be vigorous and effective. 19. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). Know the wakeful state to have for its centre the eyes. Know that to be the great habitat of the whole universe. the Supreme Intelligence. the butter in the curd. the speech falls back with the mind.15. full of cavities and also with its face turned downwards. living in all creatures and the Witness (i. The one Intelligent (active) Being among the many inactive. 23.e.e. As the spider weaves out the web and again withdraws it. He who makes the many from what is one – the wise men who find out this Self. and this is really the Sandhya for Ekadandis. neither the doer of any acts nor the enjoyer). i. The Sandhya by meditation is devoid of any offering of liquids and so also of any exertion of body and speech. water in the flowing waves. not of others. 26. (And this Bliss is verily) the Self which pervades the whole universe. 18. in the form of a unity of the Atman of all. 24. and the transcendental state is in the crown of the head. that is the transcendental Bliss of this embodied being. and fire in the Shami wood. 16. the state of dreamless sleep is in the heart. the inner chamber of heart) resembles the calyx of a lotus. From the fact of an individual holding his self by means of Prajna or spiritual understanding in the Supreme Self. Having made oneself the Arani. again. so the Jiva comes out to and goes back again to the wakeful and dreaming states respectively. the One without a second. 17. it is the unifying principle for all creatures. knowing which the wise one is released (from all bondage). This is the Brahmopanishad. This sacred thread (of Yajna. and the wearer of this thread is the wise one – is Yajna himself as well as the knower of Yajna. as the butter diffused within the milk. or the supreme wisdom of Brahman. 21. controlling and watching over all works (good or bad). From which without reaching It. of the all-pervading Reality) is. and the Pranava the upper Arani and rubbing them together through the practice of meditation. we have what is called Sandhya and Dhyana. theirs is the eternal peace. may He nourish us both together. As in the oil in the sesamum seed. 20.

may He nourish us both together. It shows as origination and end . smokeless. The Yajur Veda and the mid-region. like the fire. like the sun-shine glitters the “a”.Here ends the Brahmopanishad belonging to the Krishna-Yajur-Veda.Brahman. There upon a pointed flame. Thus. The “m” sound too. Thus is the “m” sound proclaimed to us. like a pointed flame subtle. as the OM fire. . and Ishvara. In that trisyllabic. and the fire Dakshina. like a torch light exists. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! I proclaim the Brahman-lore. Mahesvara. time and dying away of this syllable. Vishnu. II – The location or sthanam of the sound OM: In the midst of the brain-conch. who seeks the All lets the OM sound fade away in silence. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 21]Brahma Vidya Upanishad Om ! May He protect us both together. and the holy god Vishnu. shines the Sun-like cerebral artery – (passing through it) penetrates (the OM). IV – The vanishing. Grahapatya. The Sama Veda and heaven. like lotus-fiber. III – The terminus or kala of the sound OM: Yet one. like the Moon. The earth and Brahman as God. the Sun and the fire. teach the Brahman–knowers. Thus shine the three moras. at intervals. May we work conjointly with great energy. which is omniscience. working with his miraculous power becomes. I – The body or sariram of the sound OM: There are three gods and three worlds. The Rig Veda. Know it as the half mora. that is the body of the “a” sound. the “u” sound of moon-like splendor. the Ahavaniya fire also. this is the “u” sound proclaimed to us. blissful one. breaks through the head and remains as bringer of blessings to all – pervading the whole Universe. The syllable OM is the Brahman. the highest (or supreme) god. Within it is situated. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). Body. verily. His secret. lies in the Brahman lore. which is the highest. May our study be vigorous and effective. Through the Sun and seventy two thousand arteries. I will proclaim. a human being through compassion. Vishnu. three Vedas and three fires. which one writes above the syllable. resembling a lightning flash. Three moras and the half mora. as expounded by the Brahman-knowers. location. fading away or laya of the sound OM: And just as the sound of a metal utensil – or of a gong dies in silence – so he.

Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Brahma-Vidyopanishad belonging to the Krishna-Yajur-Veda. From that was born the golden coloured celestial cow called Nanda. Yea. bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! First Brahmana Busunda approached Kalagni Rudra (the fire and death like Rudra) and asked him. Then Busunda asked. “Please tell me the importance of wearing Vibhoothi and Rudraksha’. 2 . the whole sound is Brahman and conduces to immortality. Kalagni Rudra replied. “This has already been related along with phala sruthi (resultant effect) by sage Paippalada. O ye worthy of worship ! May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). From the dung of Nanda came Vibhoothi.For that wherein the sound fades away is the Brahman. Then Busunda asked. There is nothing more to be told more than what he has said”. Ramachander Published by celextel. Om Shanti! Shanti! Shanti! Om ! May He protect us both together. “What is there to tell?”. 1 From the Sadhyojatha face of Lord Shiva (he has five faces). may He nourish us both together. the higher. “Tell me about the route to salvation as told in the great Jabala (Brihat Jabala)”. the earth was born. R. the thunderbolt for evil. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 22]Brihad Jabala Upanishad Translated by P. Kalagni Rudra replied. Kalagni Rudra agreed and started teaching.org Om ! O Devas. May our study be vigorous and effective. Praising them with our body and limbs steady ! May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda.Vibhoothi is generally prepared by burning cow dung at auspicious times. May we see with our eyes what is auspicious. may we hear with our ears what is auspicious. May we work conjointly with great energy. From it was born the Nivruthi. The Vibhoothi of Pazhani temple is prepared by burning cactus plants). “Please tell me about the greatness of Vibhoothi (Sacred ash .

Bhasmam . From that was produced the red cow called Surabhi.Water was produced from the face of Vama Deva. From it was produced the white cow called Susheela. he told. Fire is very hot and is terrible. it is the only one which is nectar like in taste and light and also very hot”. Vibhoothi .because it makes materials glitter (the potash is a cleaning agent of all metals). 4 Wind was produced from the face of Thath Purusha. the power called Prathishtaa was produced. From its dung was produced Bhasitha (another name for Vibhoothi). 3 Fire was produced from the face of Aghora. Sweetness pervades in tastes of extracts. Kshara . 7 Second Brahmana Then Busunda approached Kalagni Rudra and asked him about the Bhasmam (ash) snana (bathing) procedure which involves the fire and the moon. the fire grows. 2 Light resides in aspects like lightning.the sun aspect and the fire aspect. From it was produced the multi coloured cow called Sumana. From that was produced the power of knowledge. All these are causal names. From that the black cow called Bhadra was produced. Fire is told as becoming the world of fire and moon. he told. 'ash' which is like the soul for all objects. 4 . Brahma Rakshas. Bhasmam. Bhasitham. From its dung was produced Raksha (literally meaning shield). 5 Ether (sky) was produced from the face of Eeshana. Ksharam and Raksha are five different names of the holy ash. ”Similar to the fact that 'fire' takes several forms depending on the form of the object. And the average world works within light and taste. 3 Nectar is a part of fire.because it protects from dangers and Raksha . From that. Among the big and tiny things. it also is the hot aspect of knowledge.because it acts like a shield in case of fears of ghosts. the world which is of the form of fire and moon.because it gives rise to plenty of wealth.because it eats away all sins. That is why. 6 Vibhoothi. From its dung was produced Kshara (again another name for ash). devils. Pisacha. Bhasitha . assumes the form according to the shape of the being and also beyond it. The power of moon is nectar like. It is cruel. epilepsy and diseases which are in-born. From it was produced the power of peace. Even though it has the basis in nectar. From its dung was produced Bhasma (literally ash but another name for Vibhoothi). Due to nectar. From it was produced the power of Sandhyatheetha (one who is beyond dawn and dusk). is like the fire made with the fire-offering (havis-offering). 1 “The shining aspect of strength is of two types . Similarly the nectar like strength also is full of light and heat”.

What he said was: .] That Shakthi (power. third upopakalpam and fourth is Akalpam. making it in to balls after mixing it in cow’s urine and preparing it as per method suggested in kalpam is upopakalpam. burns all his sins and attains salvation. What one gets in temples of Shiva is akalpam. Collecting the dried cow dung. Collecting dried cow dung lying in the forest and preparing it as per the method suggested in Kalpam is upakalpam. First is Anukalpam. This is the strength of the fire. 16 Third Brahmana Now the four fold method of preparing Bhasma (holy ash) is being narrated. second Upakalpam. 15 The one whose body is burnt by the fire of Shiva and made wet by the nectar of moon and entering the path of yoga would become eligible for deathless state. That Shiva which rises above is Shakthi. There is nothing in this world which is not affected by Shiva and Shakthi. said Bhagawan Kalagni Rudra. the bath of nectar is recommended.] For winning over death .The fire power is down below. It is because that they join together that this world is functioning continuously. 10 Thus he who understands the strength of ash and does the ash bathing ritual using mantras. Where is the question of death for one who has been touched by nectar of Shiva and Shakthi? 14 The one who knows this holy secret method. All Basma prepared by any of these four methods leads one to salvation. strong effect. 5 [Mantras 6-8 are not available. In that strength. This is equivalent to one hundred kalpams. Anukalpam is made by use of Viraja homa manthras in Agnihothra (collecting ash from the pit of fire sacrifice). the female principle) which rises above is Shiva. becomes pervasive with ash (Bhasma). Fourth Brahmana Afterwards Busunda enquired with Bhagawan Kalagni Rudra about wearing Vibhuthi in three lines. would purify moon and fire and will not take birth again. powdering it. “agnireethi etc”.The moon power is above . 9 The world which has been burnt several times by fire. 11 [Mantras 12 & 13 are not available. ash becomes an integral part.

Fifth Brahmana Those who dishonor the three rows of Vibhuthi dishonor Lord Shiva himself. “Prapanchanaya Namah! (Salutations to him who pervades in the entire world)”. who is the basis of three qualities and who makes everything visible in sets as “Namah Shivaya!”. “Brahmane Namah! (Salutations to Brahma)”. On the back. An education where Lord Shiva is not involved is a useless education. When we are wearing Vibhuthi on the forehead. you have to apply with the mantra. On the head. Similar to a village without Lord Shiva’s temple is like a desert. you have to apply with the mantra. you have to apply with the mantra. “Paramathmane Namah! (Salutations to the great soul which is in all beings)”. Above that apply chanting “Eeshanabhyo Namah!” and on sides chanting “Eeshabhya Namah!” and on the forearms chanting “Swachabhyam Namah!” and on back sides chanting “Bheemaya Namah!”. On the chest. On the stomach. have a deserted forehead. meditate on the great Lord who has three eyes. On both flanks of the belly put Vibhuthi chanting “Shivaya Namah!” and on the head chanting “Neela kantaya Sarvathmane Namah!”. Apply Vibhuthi chanting “Pithrubhyo Namah!” below the forearm. In the middle. those who do not wear Vibhuthi on their forehead. wear Lord Shiva himself. you have to apply with the mantra. This would remove the effects of sins done in the previous births. you have to apply in a set of three lines. you have to apply with the mantra. On the wrists.On the forehead. you have to apply with the mantra. you have to apply with the mantra. “Vasubhyo Namah! (salutations to him who is like nectar)”. you have to apply with the mantra. On the top. you have to apply with the mantra. In each of these places. The holy . “Shambhave Namag! (Salutations to Lord Shiva)”. “Haraye Namah! (Salutations to Lord Hari)”. “Vishnave Namaj! (Salutations to Lord Vishnu)”. On the neck. “Skandaya Namah! (Salutations to Subrahmanya)”. So anyone wearing the holy ash always is forever strong. Those who wear it with devotion. A life without worship of Lord Shiva is a deserted life. The greatest strength of the fire of Rudra is the holy ash. “Havyavahanaya Namah! (Salutations to he who rides the horse)”.

in whose ether like perennial form lives all devas and the worlds? Any one who understands that great matter are the people who have attained that which should be attained. one gets the same effect of giving in charity one thousand cows. forehead. If this is followed one becomes pure and suitable for getting salvation. Yagnavalkya replied. “Once upon a time by giving the holy ash after chanting the Rudra mantra one hundred times.” What is the use of Vedas to a person who does not understand that thing. It is said that this holy ash can give rise to all sorts of wealth. This is called Bhasma Jyothi.” What he told him was.” Eighth Brahmana .” Sanathkumara approached Bhagawan Kalagni Rudra and asked him. on its left are Viswa Devas. it was produced from the eyes of Rudra. Dathathreya. one hundred times. “because you have heard my words. That is the Rudraksha property of Rudraksha. they lost their knowledge and approached Sage Durvasa and asked him about it. Aarooni. Swethakethu. on its right are Rudras. Vishnu anid Shiva. Because of that. Durvasa. in the centre are Brahma. He promised them that he would help them get rid of the sin committed by them because of this and told them. ”Take Vibhuthi using the five brahma mantras starting with “sathyojatham”. chant “agnirithio Basma (ash is fire)” apply using the mantra starting with “manasthoke”. when Rudra closed his eye of destruction. Bharatha. “Rudraksha became famous by that name because initially. please explain to me the way of wearing the holy ash”. He would get the same effect as chanting Rudra.ash which is born out of fire. Busunda etc got freed by wearing Vibhuthi. Raivathaka. and shoulders chanting the mantra “trayambakam”. Mix it with water using mantra “triyayusham” and then apply it on head. and on its sides are the Sun and the Moon. Rudraksha was produced from that eye. on its back are Adhithyas (suns). During the time of destruction and after the act of destruction. Rupu. Sixth Brahmana During the marriage of Maharishi Gauthama. burns off the sins of all Bhasma nishtas. all devas became passionate in their minds on seeing Ahalya.” He continued. God like sage. even sins like Brahma hathi (sin got by killing a brahmana) have been washed off”. you would become more splendorous than before”. In front of it are Vasus. kindly explain me the method of wearing Rudraksha.” Seventh Brahmana The king of Videha approached the sage Yagnavalkya and asked. ”Oh. “the great sages like Samvarthaka. chest. He also told them. Just by touching and wearing this Rudraksha. The Rig Veda mantra tells about it (holy ash) as follows. “Bhagawan. After this he gave them the very blessed holy ash. Bhasma nishta is one who wears holy ash and possesses clean habits. Nidhaga.

where wind does not blow.He who reads this Brihat Jabala Upanishad daily. its open mouth the fire called Vaisvanara. bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Brihad-Jabalopanishad. its feet the days and nights. its hoof the earth. and its neighing is voice. The infinite proceeds from the infinite. where moon does not shine. Vishnu and Rudra. It remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone. is the day. its liver and spleen the mountains. its eye the sun. . ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 23]Brihadaranyaka Upanishad Translated by Swami Madhavananda Published by Advaita Ashram. Its source is the eastern sea. its yawning is lightning. as contained in the Atharva-Veda. its blood-vessels the rivers. Praising them with our body and limbs steady ! May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda. and this (universe) is infinite. which is meditated upon by great Yogis and from where great Yogis do not return after reaching it. Its halfdigested food is the sand. its sides the four quarters. pointing it out). which is full of peace and pure and unalloyed happiness.e. Om ! O Devas. O ye worthy of worship ! May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas. where fire does not burn. Chandra (moon). its ribs the intermediate quarters. and the body of the sacrificial horse is the year. its hairs the herbs and trees. which appeared about it. which is praised by Gods like Brahma. is the night. The head of the sacrificial horse is the dawn. its bones the stars and its flesh the clouds. which appeared about it (i. may we hear with our ears what is auspicious. (Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe). where there are no sorrows. the thunderbolt for evil. Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace ! I-i-1: Om. Its source is the western sea. its hind part the descending sun. where stars do not twinkle. would attain the purity blessed by Agni (fire God). I-i-2: The (gold) vessel called Mahiman in front of the horse. its members the seasons. Its forepart is the ascending sun. The ones who chant Brihat Jabala Upanishad would attain that world where the Sun does not dry. where Yama (God of death) does not enter. Vayu (wind god). its vital force the air. Its back is heaven. May we see with our eyes what is auspicious. its making water is raining. The (silver) vessel Mahiman behind the horse. Surya (sun). its shaking the body is thundering. This Upanishad ends with the blessing ”Om Sathya!”(long live the truth). Brahma. Kolkatta Om ! That (Brahman) is infinite. its belly the sky. its joints the months and fortnights.

He (Death) reared him for as long as a year.’ He. He rests on water. and his breast this earth. and dispatched the (other) animals to the gods. and after this period projected him. thinking. this Prana (Viraj) is divided in three ways. he resolved to eat.These two vessels called Mahiman appeared on either side of the horse. I-ii-1: There was nothing whatsoever here in the beginning. I-ii-6: He desired. Yajus and Saman. And because it became fit for a sacrifice. I-ii-5: He thought. and air the third form. Water (or happiness) surely comes to one who knows how Arka (fire) came to have this name of Arka. the metres. therefore the horse sacrifice came to be known as Asvamedha. While he was (thus) tired and distressed. Because he eats everything. his reputation and strength departed. After a year he sacrificed it to himself. his essence. Before him there had been no year. (Imagining himself as the horse and) letting it remain free. While he was (thus) tired and distressed. making the sun the third form. (Since he thought). So. . brought about the union of speech (the Vedas) with the mind. he was tired. As he was worshipping. When that was produced. And his hind part is the west. men and animals. he reflected (on it). The organs are reputation and strength. (and entered it). and as an Asva men. As a Haya it carried the gods. ‘As I was worshipping. it becomes his self. These two again become the same god. Death. When he was born. water sprang up’. Death or Hunger. Therefore (priests to this day) sacrifice to Prajapati the sanctified (horse) that is dedicated to all the gods. This was Fire. therefore Aditi (Death) is so called. the body began to swell. death cannot overtake him. his belly the sky. What was the seed there became the Year (Viraj). He who knows it thus indeed knows the horse sacrifice. its limbs are these worlds. and let me be embodied through this’. I-ii-3: He (Viraj) differentiated himself in three ways. So these two (fire and the sun) are Arka and the horse sacrifice. He (who knows thus) conquers further death. He (the babe) cried ‘Bhan!’ That became speech. He who knows (it) thus gets a resting place wherever he goes. I-ii-7: He desired. It was covered only by Death (Hiranyagarbha). came forth. He was tired. and he was distressed. I shall be making very little food. The Supreme Self is its stable and the Supreme Self (or the sea) its source. His head is the east. ‘Let me have a second form (body). He moved about worshipping (himself). and he becomes one with these deities. and everything becomes his food. Because the body swelled (Asvat). I-ii-2: Water is Arka. his sides the south and north. What was there (like) forth on the water was solidified and became this earth. He who shines yonder is the horse sacrifice.’ Through that speech and the mind he projected all this. as a Vajin the celestial minstrels. becomes the eater of all this. ‘Let me sacrifice again with the great sacrifice’. (Death) opened his mouth (to swallow him). therefore Arka (fire) is so called. as an Arvan the Asuras. for hunger is death. He created the mind. his hipbones that (north-west) and that (south-west). his body is the year. water was produced. or lustre. his back heaven. This fire is Arka. I-ii-4: He desired. When the organs departed. ‘If I kill him. ‘Let me have a mind’. He who knows how Aditi came to have this name of Aditi. whatever there is – the Vedas Rig. and his arms that (north-east) and that (south-east). Whatever he projected. ‘Let this body of mine be fit for a sacrifice. or Hunger. (but) his mind was set on the body. the sacrifices. therefore it came to be called Asva (horse).

That evil is what we come across when one smells improper things. They charged it and struck it with evil. The Asuras knew that through this chanter the gods would surpass them. They charged it and wanted to strike it with evil. ‘Chant (the Udgitha) for us’. while the fine speaking it utilised for itself. the evil of these gods. There it left their evils. I-iii-3: Then they said to the nose ‘Chant (the Udgitha) for us’. I-iii-7: Then they said to this vital force in the mouth. Likewise they also touched these (other) deities with evil – struck them with evil. But as a clod of earth. I-iii-9: This deity is called Dur. ‘All right’. ‘Where was he who has thus restored us (to our divinity)?’ (and discovered): ‘Here he is within the mouth’. He who knows thus becomes his true self. ‘All right’. it secured for the gods by chanting.I-iii-1: There were two classes of Prajapati’s sons. They charged it and struck it with evil. The vital force is called Ayasya Angirasa. nor go to that region beyond the border. while the fine smelling it utilised for itself. the gods were fewer. it secured for the gods by chanting. The common good that comes of the nose. because death is far from it. ‘All right’. said the eye and chanted for them. lest one imbibe that evil. it secured for the gods by chanting. That evil is what we come across when one hears improper things. The gods said. . ‘All right’. said the organ of speech and chanted for them. They vied with each other for (the mastery of these worlds. said the vital force and chanted for them. I-iii-6: Then they said to the mind ‘Chant (the Udgitha) for us’. ‘All right’. They charged it and struck it with evil. flung in all directions. so were they shattered. I-iii-2: They said to the organ of speech. while the fine seeing it utilised for itself. I-iii-8: They said. The common good that comes of the mind. The Asuras knew that through this chanter the gods would surpass them. Death is far from one who knows thus. the gods and the Asuras. That evil is what we come across when one thinks improper things. The Asuras knew that through this chanter the gods would surpass them. and perished. The Asuras knew that through this chanter the gods would surpass them. The Asuras knew that through this chanter the gods would surpass them. Naturally. ‘Chant (the Udgitha) for us’. ‘Now let us surpass the Asuras in (this) sacrifice through the Udgitha’. The common good that comes of the eye. I-iii-10: This deity took away death. it secured for the gods by chanting. and carried it to where these quarters end. is shattered. That evil is what we come across when one sees improper things. The Asuras knew that through this chanter the gods would surpass them. death. while the fine thinking it utilised for itself. for it is the essence of the members (of the body). I-iii-5: Then they said to the ear ‘Chant (the Udgitha) for us’. while the fine hearing it utilised for itself. said the mind and chanted for them. it secured for the gods by chanting. and his envious kinsman is crushed. said the nose and chanted for them. and the Asuras were crushed. The common good that comes of the organ of speech. The common good that comes of the ear. said the ear and chanted for them. ‘All right’. They charged it and struck it with evil. Therefore one should not approach a person (of that region).). Therefore the gods became (fire etc. They charged it and struck it with evil. and the Asuras more in number. That evil is what we come across when one speaks improper things. striking against a rock. I-iii-4: Then they said to the eye ‘Chant (the Udgitha) for us’.

and it rests on that. That one among his relatives who desires to rival a man of such knowledge is powerless to support his dependants. I-iii-19: It is called Ayasya Angirasa. is alone capable of supporting them. it became fire. Of course it is their essence. Tone is indeed its wealth. I-iii-20: This alone is also Brihaspati (lord of the Rik). equal to a mosquito. is eaten by the vital force alone. Therefore one who is going to officiate as a priest should desire to have . said.’ Indeed he chanted through speech and the vital force. Therefore this is also Brihaspati. ‘Let this Soma strike off my head if I say that Ayasya Angirasa chanted the Udgitha through any other than this (vital force and speech). Speech is indeed Brahman (yajus). Hence whatever food one eats through the vital force satisfies these. having transcended death. That moon. blows beyond its reach. and he becomes their support. therefore Saman is so called. for whatever food is eaten. He who knows this saman (vital force) to be such attains union with it. (said the vital force). Therefore this is of course the essence of the members. the greatest among them and their leader. That air. I-iii-12: It carried the organ of speech. equal to an elephant. So do his relatives sit around facing him who knows thus. I-iii-21: This alone is also Brahmanaspati (lord of the Yajus). When the organ of speech got rid of death. The vital force is indeed the essence of the members. because it is Ut and Githa. I-iii-22: This alone is also Saman. and this is its lord. while drinking Soma. it became sun. it became air. So does this deity carry one who knows thus beyond death. therefore this is also Saman. from whichever member the vital force departs. or lives in the same world as it. equal to this universe. Therefore this is also Brahmanaspati. it became the moon. it became the quarters. next carried them beyond death. Now let us have a share in this food. the great-grandson of Cikitana. for it is the essence of the members (of the body). I-iii-23: This indeed is also Udgitha. I-iii-25: He who knows the wealth of this Saman (vital force) attains wealth. Because it is Sa (speech) and Ama (vital force). having transcended death. having transcended death. When it got rid of death. I-iii-13: Then it carried the nose. When the eye got rid of death. I-iii-15: Then it carried the ear When the ear got rid of death. (For instance). The vital force is indeed Ut. a good eater of food and the ruler of them. I-iii-17: Next it secured eatable food for itself by chanting. the evil of these gods. the foremost one. This is Udgitha. having transcended death. shines beyond its reach. Or because it is equal to a white ant. (said the gods and) sat down around it. remain beyond its reach. I-iii-16: Then it carried the mind.’ ‘Then sit around facing me’. Those quarters. shines beyond its reach. ‘All right’. ‘Whatever food there is. having transcended death. Speech is indeed Brihati (Rik) and this is its lord. equal to these three worlds. But one who follows him. I-iii-24: Regarding this (there is) also (a story): Brahmadatta. That fire. shines beyond its reach. I-iii-14: Then it carried the eye. is just this much. I-iii-18: The gods said. That sun. and this is Ama. and you have secured it for yourself by chanting. or desires to maintain one’s dependants being under him.I-iii-11: This deity after taking away death. right there it withers. for all this is held aloft by the vital force. Speech is indeed Sa. first. and speech alone is Githa. When the mind got rid of death.

i. . from that cows were born. to this day. the other became a he-ass and was united with her. Then through the remaining hymns (the chanter) should secure eatable food for himself by chanting. For resting on speech is the vital force thus chanted. He who knows the gold of Saman to be such obtains gold. ‘evil’ means death. When the Mantra says. and ‘good’ immortality. like one who has wealth. Therefore people (still) are not happy when alone. the sacrificer should ask for a boon – anything that he desires. ‘From death lead me to immortality. From that men were born. He who knows the wealth of saman to be such attains wealth. from that goats and sheep were born. ‘From death lead me to immortality.e. She became a cow. The priest called Prastotir indeed recites the Saman. Therefore people (still) are afraid to be alone. and he should do his priestly duties through that voice with a fine tone. He thought. I-iv-4: She thought. When it says. From death lead me to immortality. therefore he is called Purusha. the other became a ram and was united with her. ‘From darkness lead me to light’. the other a stallion. He first uttered. these Mantras are to be repeated: From evil lead me to good. He parted this very body into two. He who knows thus indeed burns one who wants to be (Viraj) before him. In the dictum. for I projected all this’. Speech (certain parts of the body) is indeed its support. ‘It is I. for what was there to fear ? It is from a second entity that fear comes. The one became a mare. or make me immortal’. what am I afraid of ?’ From that alone his fear was gone. immortality. Hence. The one became a she-goat. while they are being chanted. He who knows this as such becomes (a creator) in this creation of Viraj. I-iii-28: Now therefore the edifying repetition (Adhyaroha) only of the hymns called Pavamanas. resting on food (body). the other became a bull and was united with her. he first says. ‘How can he be united with me after producing me from himself ? Well let me hide myself’. the one became a ewe. Therefore. Thus did he project every thing that exists in pairs. He became as big as man and wife embracing each other. Therefore this space is indeed filled by the wife. so it says. From darkness lead me to light. I-iv-3: He was not at all happy. This (meditation) certainly wins the world (Hiranyagarbha).’ and then says the other name that he may have. Therefore. '‘ am he'’ Therefore he was called Aham (I). I-iii-26: He who knows the gold of this Saman (vital force) obtains gold. Tone is indeed its gold. when a person is addressed. He was united with her. Because he was first and before this whole (band of aspirants) burnt all evils. from that onehoofed animals were born. ‘From evil lead me to good’. I-iv-5: He knew. From that came husband and wife. this (body) is one-half of oneself. either for himself or for the sacrificer. he secures them by chanting. Therefore he was called Creation. He who knows the Saman (vital force) as such has not to pray lest he be unfit for this world. so it says. While he recites it. I-iv-2: He was afraid. Therefore in a sacrifice people long to see a priest with a good voice. Some say. ‘I indeed am the creation. ‘darkness’ means death. and ‘light’. ‘If there is nothing else but me.a rich tone in his voice. make me immortal’. the meaning does not seem to be hidden. Whatever objects this chanter possessed of such knowledge desires. down to the ants. ‘From death lead me to immortality’. He reflected and found nothing else but himself. this (universe) was but the self (Viraj) of a human form. He desired a mate. the one became a she-ass. like one of the two halves of a split pea. the other a he-goat. I-iii-27: He who knows the support of this Saman (vital force) gets a resting place. said Yajnavalkya. I-iv-1: In the beginning.

what should one say of many animals ? Therefore it is not liked by them that men should know this. ‘I was Manu. Should a person (holding the Self as dear) say to one calling anything else dearer than the Self. Varuna. Because he. The Brahmana is the source of the . and fire the eater of food. When they talk of particular gods. and the sun’. the mouth and the hands. the eye. Of all these. Soma is food. Even if one animal is taken away. Well. which sustains the world. I-iv-7: This (universe) was then undifferentiated. the ear. The sage Vamadeva. for one knows all these through It. Therefore there is none higher than the Kshatriya. Death. This universe is indeed this much – food and the eater of food. These are merely Its names according to functions. Hence the Brahmana worships the Kshatriya from a lower position in the Rajasuya sacrifice. the dear ones are not mortal. and I am another’. the moon. for It is incomplete. ‘I am Brahman’. Rudra. Therefore It became all. may be in its source. Even the gods cannot prevail against him. It is called the vital force. So to this day it is differentiated only into name and form – it is called such and such. although mortal himself. for (viewed in Its aspects) It is incomplete. He is like an animal to the gods. This is super-creation of Viraj that he projected the gods. the mind. The Self alone is to be meditated upon. And to this day whoever in like manner knows It as. and Isana. ‘Through the knowledge of Brahman we shall become all’. one only. the organ of speech. and produced fire from its source. He who meditates upon each of this totality of aspects does not know. This Self has entered into these bodies up to the tip of the nails – as a razor may be put in its case. dearer than everything else. And whoever among the gods knew It also became That. Yama. Being one. who are even superior to him. and was of such and such form.I-iv-6: Then he rubbed back and forth thus. ‘(what you hold) dear will die’ – he is certainly competent (to say so) – it will indeed come true. I-iv-9: They say: Men think. and is innermost. Parjanya. knew. Therefore both these are without hair at the inside. (being divided) from this totality by possessing a single characteristic. ‘Sacrifice to him’. ‘He is one. for he becomes their self. It differentiated only into name and form – it was called such and such. when It hears. (they are wrong. dearer than wealth. for all these are unified in It. this Self should be realised. what did that Brahman know by which It became all ? I-iv-10: This (self) was indeed Brahman in the beginning. when It speaks. He imparts that glory to the Kshatriya. Now all this that is liquid. he produced from the seed. when It sees. just as one may get (an animal) through its foot-prints. He specially projected an excellent form. becomes all this (universe). ‘I am Brahman’. the Kshatriya – those who are Kshatriyas among the gods: Indra. and is of such and such form. I-iv-8: This Self is dearer than a son. he did not flourish. does not know. It knew only Itself as. while realising this (self) as That. Of him who meditates upon the Self alone as dear. so does each man serve the gods. That is Soma. As many animals serve a man. saying. therefore this is a super-creation. or as fire. When It does the function of living. ‘sacrifice to the other one’. He who knows It as such obtains fame and association (with his relatives). I-iv-11: In the beginning this (the Kshatriya and other castes) was indeed Brahman. People do not see It. He who knows this as such becomes (a creator) in this super-creation of Viraj. and when It thinks. since) these are all his projection. projected the immortals. for he is all the gods. and the same with sages and men. One should meditate upon the Self alone as dear. While he who worships another god thinking. it causes anguish.

He who meditates only upon the world called the Self never has his work exhausted. ‘He speaks of righteousness’. He becomes more wicked.’ Until he obtains each one of these. so that I may perform rites’. And that beasts and birds. as one is by slighting one’s superior. He specially projected that excellent form. Therefore there is nothing higher than that. righteousness (Dharma). From this very Self he projects whatever he wants. the eye his human wealth. That he gives fodder and water to the animals is how he becomes such an object to hem. Visvadevas and Maruts. I-iv-17: This (aggregate of desirable objects) was but the self in the beginning – the only entity. I-iv-16: Now this self (the ignorant man) is an object of enjoyment to all beings. This righteousness is the controller of the Kshatriya. he considers himself incomplete. One should meditate only upon the world of the Self. ‘He speaks of truth’. I-iv-13: He did not still flourish. (He became) a Kshatriya through the (divine) Kshatriyas. Therefore. That he makes offerings to the Manes and desires children is how he becomes such an object to the Manes. one cannot get more than this. This indeed has been known. for he performs rites through the body. That righteousness is verily truth. He became a Brahmana among the gods as Fore. anybody departs from this world without realising his own world (the Self). This (earth) is Pusan. That he studies the Vedas is how he becomes an object of enjoyment to the Rishis (sages). Just as one wishes safety to one’s body. and even the ants. and the body is its (instrument of) rite. That he gives shelter to men as well as food is how he becomes an object of enjoyment to men. however. and among men as the Brahmana. so do all beings wish safety to him who knows it as such. Vaisya and Sudra. And let me have wealth. so that I may be born. He desired. as (one contending) with the king. He who slights the Brahmana. speech his wife. at the end of it he resorts to the Brahmana. He projected the Vaisya – those species of gods who are designated in groups: the Vasus. (So) this sacrifice has five factors – the animals have . a Vaisya through the (divine) Vaisyas and a Sudra through the (divine) Sudra. His completeness also (comes thus): The mind is his self. It. Kshatriya. or about a person speaking of righteousness. although the king attains supremacy (in the sacrifice). I-iv-15: (So) these (four castes were projected) – the Brahmana. being unknown. the vital force his child. That he makes oblations in the fire and performs sacrifices is how he becomes such an object to the gods. and among men as the Brahmana. For Brahman was in these two forms. That righteousness. does not protect him – as the Vedas not studied. so that I may be born (as the child). Even if one wishes. those acts of his are surely exhausted in the end. Even if a man who does not know It as such performs a great many meritorious acts in the world. Therefore they say about a person speaking of truth. feed in his home is how he becomes an object of enjoyment to these. for he obtains it through the eye. ‘Let me have a wife. (So) even a weak man hopes (to defeat) a stronger man through righteousness. the ear his divine wealth. his source. And let me have wealth. I-iv-12: Yet he did not flourish. He projected the Sudra caste – Pusan. for both these are but righteousness. so that I may perform rites. This much indeed is (the range of) desire. For it nourishes all this that exists. Therefore people desire to attain the results of their rites among the gods through fire.Kshatriya. Rudras. for he hears of it through the ear. Therefore to this day a man being single desires. Adityas. strikes at his own source. as (one contending) with the king. ‘Let me have a wife. and discussed. If. or any other work not undertaken (do not). I-iv-14: Yet he did not flourish.

‘One is common to all eaters’ means. I-v-2: ‘That the father produced seven kinds of food through meditation and rites’ means that the father indeed produced them through meditation and rites. and the vital force the child. This body is identified with these – with the organ of speech. and the vital force men. therefore (the mind exists). ‘On it rests everything – what lives and what does not’ means that on milk indeed rests all this that lives and that does not. the Manes and men. ‘He who knows this cause of their permanence’ means that the being (eater) is indeed the cause of their permanence. . for he offers all eatable food to the gods. the mind the Manes. resolve. (They say). the mind and the vital force. He who adores (monopolises) this food is never free from evil. Therefore they first make a new-born babe lick clarified butter or suckle it. steadiness. I did not hear it’. one knows it through the mind. It is through the mind that one sees and hears. Some. The organ of speech is the gods. I-v-1: That the father produced seven kinds of food through meditation and rites (I shall disclose). One is common to all eaters.five factors. ‘I was absent-minded. and the vital force is that world (heaven). Therefore people perform both these. ‘He attains the gods and lives on nectar’ is a eulogy. Udana. however. for it serves to determine a thing. If he does not do this. ‘One he gave to the animals’ – it is milk. the mind is the sky. I-v-5: These are the three Vedas. want of faith. Apana. for this is general food. hence the meaning is. These are the verses. On it rests everything – what lives and what does not. ‘Pratika’ means pre-eminence. Therefore one should not be engrossed with sacrifices for material ends. these he designed for himself. He attains (identity with) the gods and lives on nectar. I did not see it’. And one he gave to the animals. mother and child. but it cannot itself be revealed. ‘I was absent-minded. For men and animals first live on milk alone. And they speak of a new-born calf as not yet eating grass. those two are the new and full moon sacrifices. this food that is eaten is the common food of all eaters. The organ of speech is the Rig-Veda. the men have five factors. and all this that exists has five factors. I-v-6: These are the gods. Even if one is touched from behind. faith. I-v-3: ‘Three he designed for himself’ means: the mind. He who knows as above conquers further death the very day he makes that offering. the organ of speech the mother. He who knows it as such attains all this. Prana. and offering presents otherwise to the gods. It is said that by making offerings of milk in the fire for a year one conquers further death. ‘Two he apportioned to the gods’ means making oblations in the fire. doubt. I-v-4: These are the three worlds. ‘Why are they not exhausted. Why are they not exhausted. The organ of speech is this world (the earth). Vyana. Two he apportioned to the gods. although they are always being eaten ? He who knows this cause of their permanence eats food with Pratika (pre-eminence). intelligence and fear – all these are but the mind. the organ of speech and the vital force. One should not think like that. unsteadiness. the mind is the Yajur-Veda and the vital force the Sama-Veda. say. The mind is the father. for the produces this food again and again. Samana and Ana . I-v-7: These are the father. shame. Three he designed for himself. Desires.all these are but the vital forces. for he produces this food through his meditation for the time being and rites. although they are always being eaten ?’ – means that the being (eater) is indeed the cause of their permanence. it will be exhausted. preeminently. And any kind of sound is but the organ of speech. ‘He eats food with Pratika’.

I-v-10: Whatever is unknown is a form of the vital force. And as far as the mind extends. And as far as the organ of speech extends. but he who meditates upon these as infinite wins an infinite world. are all unified in the word "sacrifice". but he himself lives. not even of a chameleon. Whatever sacrifices there are.’ Therefor they speak of an educated son as being conducive to the world. the world of the Manes through rites. what it is desirable to know. The two were united. the mind and the vital force. will protect me from (the ties of) this world. and that moon is its luminous organ. It is the Supreme Lord. It is without a rival. I-v-12: Heaven is the body of this mind. And as far as the vital force extends. The organ of speech protects him (who knows this) by becoming that (which is known). being all this. These are all equal. I-v-14: This Prajapati (Hiranyagarbha) has sixteen digits and is represented by the year. and so far does that moon. Through this sixteenth digit he permeates all these living beings on the new-moon night and rises the next morning. He is filled as well as wasted by wealth. The world of the gods is the best of the worlds. for the mind is what it is desirable to know. you are the sacrifice. Wealth constitutes his fifteen digits. He who knows it as such has no rival. and from that the vital force emanated. and what is unknown. and I am the world. and all infinite. and by no other rite. All this (the duties of a householder) is indeed this much.I-v-8: These are what is known. for the vital force is what is unknown. I-v-17: Now therefore the entrusting: When a man thinks he will die. and you are the world’. and the world of the gods through meditation. Whatever is known is a form of the organ of speech. the world of men. and the constant one is his sixteenth digit. I-v-11: The earth is the body of that organ of speech. are all unified in the world "world". and so far does that sun. people say that he has only lost his outfit. The mind protects him (who knows this) by becoming that (which it is desirable to know). I-v-16: There are indeed three worlds. he says to his son. Hence (a father) teaches his son. he penetrates his son together with the organ of speech. I-v-9: Whatever it is desirable to know is a form of the mind. the world of the Manes and the world of the gods. The son replies. He who meditates upon these as finite wins a finite world. Therefore they praise meditation. I am the sacrifice. in adoration of this deity alone. He (as the moon) is filled as well as wasted by the nights (and days). and wealth is the felloe.’ (The father thinks ‘Whatever is studied is all unified in the word "Brahman". so far extends the earth and so far does this fire. and the body his sixteenth digit. A second being is indeed a rival. I-v-15: That Prajapati who has sixteen digits and is represented by the year is indeed this man who knows as above. ‘I am Brahman. and that sun is its luminous organ. Therefore if a man loses everything. and this fire is its luminous organ. When a father who knows as above departs from this world. ‘You are Brahman. Therefore on this night one should not take the life of living beings. I-v-13: Water is the body of this vital force. This world of men is to be won through the son alone. This body stands for a nave. Should anything be left undone by him through any slip the son exonerates . The nights (and days) are his fifteen digits. so far extends water. The vital force protects him (who knows this) by becoming that (which is unknown). And whatever worlds there are. so far extends heaven. for it is the knower. He.

for all names spring from it. and after shrivelling dies at the end. Other gods sink. Therefore they are called by this name of ‘Prana’. But death did not overtake this vital force in the body. It is their Brahman (self). As is the vital force in the body among these organs. on being projected. he should seek to finish it. That is the divine mind through which he only becomes happy and never mourns.’ They all assumed its form. for it is common to all names. But only merit goes to him. ‘I will go on speaking’. And if he observes it. The ear: ‘I will hear’. so is Vayu (air) among these gods. that grief of theirs is connected with them. This immortal entity is covered by truth (the five elements): . The moon: ‘I will shine’.’ The sun indeed rises from the vital force and also sets in it. This is with reference to the body. That family in which a man is born who knows as above. Of those names. The organ of speech took a vow. I-v-20: The divine vital force from water and the moon permeates him. And so did the other organs according to their functions. The eye: ‘I will see’. I-vi-3: And of actions the body (activity) is the Uktha (source). speech (sound in general) is the Uktha (source). ‘I will go on burning. It is their Brahman (self). It is their Brahman (self). The father lives in this world through the son. Air is the deity that never sets. It is their Saman (common feature). and so do the eye and the ear. No demerit ever goes to the gods. Through it he attains identity with this deity. for it sustains all forms. they observe to this day. so do they take care of him. These three together are one – this body. feels no pain nor is injured. I-v-22: Now with reference to the gods: Fire took a vow. Therefore he is called a son. As all beings take care of this deity. and it will be (followed) to-morrow. for all actions spring from it.’ The sun: ‘I will give heat’. And he who competes with one who knows as above shrivels. but not air. That is the divine vital force which. It is their Saman (common feature). I-v-23: Now there is this verse. It is their Saman (common feature). is indeed named after him. Therefore a man should observe a single vow – do the functions of the Prana and Apana (respiration and excretion). Therefore the organ of speech invariably gets tired. What these (gods) observed then. Death captured them in the form of fatigue – it overtook the. I-vi-2: Now of forms the eye (anything visible) is the Uktha (source). for it is common to all actions. is these three. quarrelled with one another. The organs resolved to know it. mind and vital force permeate him. ‘This is the greatest among us that. Divine and immortal speech. form and action. feels no pain nor is injured. I-v-21: Now a consideration of the vow: Prajapati projected the organs. Well. when it moves or does not move. ‘The gods observed the vow of that from which the sun rises and in which he sets. These. Howsoever these beings may grieve. for all forms spring from it. let us all be of its form. for it sustains all names. although one. and the body. lest the evil of death (fatigue) should overtake him. It is (followed) to-day.him from all that. That is the divine organ of speech through which whatever he says is fulfilled. for it is common to all forms. As is this deity (Hiranyagarbha). I-vi-1: This (universe) indeed consists of three things: name. for it sustains all actions. and having overtaken them it controlled them. so is he. when it moves or does not move. I-v-19: The divine mind from heaven and the sun permeates him. And so did the other gods according to their functions. He who knows as above becomes the self of all beings. I-v-18: The divine organ of speech from the earth and fire permeates him. or lives in the same world with it.

as irresistible. He who meditates upon him as such attains his full term of life in this world. I meditate upon as Brahman’. ‘This being who is in water. Ajatasatru said. whiterobed. Ajatasatru said. He who meditates upon him as such becomes all-surpassing. Ajatasatru said. He who meditates upon him as such becomes shining. ‘This being who is in air. "Please don’t talk about him. I meditate upon him as forbearing’. "Please don’t talk about him. as the head of all beings and as resplendent. He who meditates upon him as such has only agreeable things coming to him. ‘That being who is in lightning. Ajatasatru said. radiant Soma. I meditate upon as Brahman’. He said to Ajatasatru. Janaka". II-i-6: Gargya said. I meditate upon him as . There was a man of the Garga family called Proud Balaki. II-i-11: Gargya said. who was a speaker. and his progeny too becomes shining. and as the unvanquished army. ‘This being who is in the ether. I meditate upon him as powerful’. I meditate upon him as full and unmoving’. (so) this vital force is covered by them. I meditate upon as Brahman’. II-i-7: Gargya said. I meditate upon as Brahman’. ‘This being who is in fire. Ajatasatru said. "Please don’t talk about him.’ He who meditates upon him as such has abundant Soma pressed in his principal and auxiliary sacrifices every day. "Please don’t talk about him. ‘This being who is in a looking-glass. He who meditates upon him as such becomes forbearing. He also outshines all those with whom he comes in contact. II-i-5: Gargya said. ‘For this proposal I give you a thousand (cows). I meditate upon as Brahman’. I meditate upon him as second and as nonseparating’. Ajatasatru said. "Please don’t talk about him. I meditate upon him as the great. II-i-8: Gargya said. I meditate upon him as agreeable’. ‘This being who identifies himself with the shadow. and conquers his enemies. II-i-4: Gargya said. ‘I will tell you about Brahman’. and his progeny is never extinct from this world. and life does not depart from him before the completion of that term. I meditate upon him as life’. "Please don’t talk about him. I-i-1: Om. I meditate upon as Brahman’. II-i-12: Gargya said. He who meditates upon him as such gets companions. I meditate upon as Brahman’. and his food never gets short. ‘that being who is in the moon. Ajatasatru said. ‘This sound that issues behind a man as he walks. Ajatasatru said. ‘Please don’t talk about him. and not contrary ones. He who meditates upon him as such becomes powerful. the head of all beings and resplendent. and his progeny too becomes forbearing. II-i-10: Gargya said. II-i-3: Gargya said. Ajatasatru said. II-i-9: Gargya said. also from him are born children who are agreeable. I meditate upon him as all-surpassing. ‘This being who is in the quarters. I meditate upon as Brahman’. and name and form and truth. I meditate upon him as shining’. ‘That being who is in the sun.)’ II-i-2: Gargya said. "Please don’t talk about him. I meditate upon as Brahman’. and his progeny too becomes powerful. Ajatasatru said. I meditate upon as Brahman’. the king of Benares. (I too have some of his qualities. I meditate upon as Brahman’. Ajatasatru said.The vital force is the immortal entity.’ He who meditates upon him as such ever becomes victorious and invincible. and his followers never depart from him. "Please don’t talk about him. People indeed rush saying "Janaka. I meditate upon him as the Lord. Ajatasatru said. "Please don’t talk about him. "Please don’t talk about him. He who meditates upon him as such is filled with progeny and cattle.

which extend from the heart to the pericardium (the whole body). and the organ of speech. all worlds. through the water that is in the eye. various kinds of knowledge have been put in it. these are its achievements: It then becomes an emperor. Indra. ‘This being who is in the self. and his progeny too becomes self-possessed. ‘I approach you as a student’. II-i-15: Ajatasatru said. The man did not get up. so does it remain. (Ajatasatru) addressed him by these names. Taking Gargya by the hand he rose. "he will teach me about Brahman". II-ii-3: Regarding this there is the following pithy verse: ‘there is a bowl that has its opening below and bulges at the top. through the dark portion. radiant. They came to a sleeping man. (The King) pushed him with the hand till he awoke. and whence did it thus come ?’ Gargya did not know that. II-ii-2: These seven gods that prevent decay worship it: Through these pink lines in the eye Rudra attends on it. Soma’. or attains states high or low. its post and its tether kills his seven envions kinsmen: the vital force in the body is indeed the calf. the sun. ‘By knowing this much one cannot know (Brahman)’. where was it. Gargya remained silent. the ear is absorbed. or an emperor. and death does not overtake him before the completion of that term. The vital force is truth. these indeed represent . having attained the acme of bliss. Then the nose is absorbed. Parjanya. He who meditates upon him as such attains his full term of life in this world. II-i-16: Ajatasatru said. this body is its abode. moves about as he pleases in his own territory. "Please don’t talk about him. so does it. and through the upper eye-lid. ‘various kinds of knowledge have been put in it’. through the pupil. As a baby. as it were. or a noble Brahmana lives. it absorbs at the time the functions of the organs through its own consciousness. II-i-14: Ajatasatru said. II-ii-1: He who knows the calf with its abode. and food its tether. taking his citizens. The ‘bowl that has its opening below and bulges at the top’ is the head of ours.’ He who meditates upon him as such becomes self-possessed. seven sages sit by its side. is the eighth’. through the lower eye-lid the earth attends on it. He who knows it as such never has any decrease of food. and the mind is absorbed’. the eye is absorbed. as it were.death’. ‘It is contrary to usage that a Brahmana should approach a Kshatriya thinking. However I will instruct you’. II-i-18: When it thus remains in the dream state. through the white portion. Its secret name (Upanishad) is ‘the Truth of Truth’. When this being absorbs them. Ajatasatru said. the organ of speech is absorbed. so from this Self emanate all organs. the head its special resort. or a noble Brahmana. ‘is this all ?’ ‘This is all’. ‘When this being full of consciousness is thus asleep. Great. II-i-19: Again when it becomes fast asleep – when it does not know anything – it comes back along the seventy-two thousand nerves called Hita. move about as it pleases in its own body. II-i-13: Gargya said. As an emperor. which has communication with the Vedas. all gods and all beings. and It is the Truth of that. White-robed. thus taking the organs. Then he got up. refers to the organs. II-i-17: Ajatasatru said. I meditate upon as Brahman’. heaven. its special resort. and lies in the Akasa (Supreme Self) that is in the heart. Gargya said. for it is the bowl that has its opening below and bulges at the top. and as from a fire tiny sparks fly in all directions. II-i-20: As a spider moves along the thread (it produces). as it were. and remains in the body. strength its post. ‘When this being full of consciousness (identified with the mind) was thus asleep. I meditate upon him as self-possessed. fire. it is called Svapiti.

‘Sir. The essence of that which is gross. for it is the essence of the defined. Now therefore the description (of Brahman): ‘Not this. defined and undefined. shall I be immortal through that ?’ ‘No’. II-iii-6: The form of that ‘being’ is as follows: like a cloth dyed with turmeric. ‘your life will be just like that of people who have plenty of things. II-iv-1: ‘Maitreyi. ‘My dear. This is with reference to the gods. The essence of that which is gross. refers to the organs. II-ii-4: These two (ears) are Gotama and Bharadvaja: this one is Gotama. It is not for the sake of the sons. ‘What shall I do with that which will not make me immortal? Tell me. II-iii-5: Now the subtle – it is (the corporeal) air and the ether that is in the body. immortal. limited and defined is the sun that shines.’ II-iv-4: Yajnavalkya said. II-iii-3: Now the subtle – it is air and the ether. and it is undefined. they indeed are the sages. but for one’s own sake that he is loved.’ II-iv-3: Then Maitreyi said. my dear’. is the eighth’. mortal. mortal. and this one Kashyapa: the tongue is Atri. unlimited and undefined is this being that is in the right eye. you have been my beloved (even before). The essence of that which is subtle. limited and defined is the eye. for this is the essence of the undefined. for that is the essence of the undefined. and it is undefined. Because there is no other and more appropriate description than this ‘Not this’. but there is no hope of immortality through wealth. or like grey sheep’s wool. it is limited and it is defined. and this one Jamadagni. of that alone which you know (to be the only means of immortality). it is unlimited. Allow me to finish between you and Katyayani’. or like a tongue of fire. Now Its name: ‘The Truth of truth’. but for one’s own sake that she is loved. ‘I am going to renounce this life. sir. because the organ of speech is the eighth and communicates with the Vedas. It is mortal. or like a flash of lightning. and Kashyapa: this one is Vasistha. II-iii-1: Brahman has but two forms – gross and subtle. that he is loved. The vital force is truth. Come. The essence of that which is subtle. It is immortal. These two (nostrils) are Vasistha. meditate (on its meaning). It is not for the sake of the wife. As I explain it. for it is the essence of the defined. ‘The organ of speech. It is immortal. my dear. for through the tongue food is eaten. and it is defined. He who knows it as such attains splendour like a flash of lightning. it is limited. immortal. II-iii-2: The gross (form) is that which is other than air and the ether. I will explain it to you. it is unlimited. and this one is Bharadvaja: These two (eyes) are Visvamitra and Jamadagni: this one is Visvamitra. unlimited and undefined is the being that is in the sun. that she is loved. ‘Seven sages sit by its side’. if indeed this whole earth full of wealth be mine. my dear. take your seat. limited and unlimited. II-iv-5: He said: ‘It is not for the sake of the husband. not this’. or like the (scarlet) insect called Indragopa. . and everything becomes his food. said Yajnavalkya. replied Yajnavalkya. II-iii-4: Now with reference to the body: the gross form is but this – what is other than (the corporeal) air and the ether that is in the body. and It is the Truth of that. my dear. ‘Atri’ is but this name ‘Atti’.various kinds of knowledge. mortal and immortal. and you say what is after my heart. He who knows it as such becomes the eater of all. or like a white lotus. which has communication with the Vedas. II-iv-2: Thereupon Maitreyi said. It is mortal.

II-iv-11: As the ocean is the one goal of all sorts of water. They are like the breath of this (Supreme Self). even so. this great. So said Yajnavalkya. that it is loved. history. through hearing. It is not for the sake of the Kshatriya. aphorisms. one cannot distinguish its various particular notes. and this all are this Self. this Kshatriya. when a Vina is played. mythology. but for one’s own sake that they are loved. II-iv-9: As. these worlds. but they are included in the general note of the drum or in the general sound produced by different kinds of strokes. (The Self) comes out (as a separate entity) from these elements. that they are loved. The Kshatriya ousts one who knows him as different from the Self. elucidations and explanations are (like) the breath of this infinite Reality. but from wheresoever one takes it. infinite Reality is but Pure Intelligence. reflection and meditation. as the tongue is the one goal of all savours. It is not for the sake of beings. pithy verses. . these gods. The Self. This Brahmana. as the skin is the one goal of all kinds of touch. that all is loved. my dear. This is what I say. Atharvangirasa. II-iv-10: As from a fire kindled with wet faggot diverse kinds of smoke issue. one cannot distinguish its various particular notes. my dear. and no one is able to pick it up. as the ear is the one goal of all sounds. All ousts one who knows it as different from the Self. but for one’s own sake that he is loved. but they are included in the general note of the conch or in the general sound produced by different kinds of playing. as the anus is the one goal of all excretions. the Rig-Veda. even so. but they are included in the general note of the Vina or in the general sound produced by different kinds of playing. when a conch is blown. but for one’s own sake that they are loved. reflected on and meditated upon. these beings. my dear. that he is loved. Sama-Veda. By the realisation of the Self. Yajur-Veda. The gods oust one who knows them as different from the Self. as the nostrils are the one goal of all odours. but for one’s own sake that they are loved. all this is known.that they are loved. as the eye is the one goal of all colours . Upanishads. when a drum is beaten. II-iv-12: As a lump of salt dropped into water dissolves with (its component) water. it tastes salt. and (this separateness) is destroyed with them. that they are loved. It is not for the sake of wealth. as the organ of speech is the one goal of all Vedas. my dear. my dear. that he is loved. It is not for the sake of the Brahmana. my dear. endless. my dear. but for one’s own sake that it is loved. as the feet are the one goal of all kinds of walking. that they are loved. It is not for the sake of all. Worlds oust one who knows them as different from the Self. II-iv-8: As. After attaining (this oneness) it has no more consciousness. my dear Maitreyi. but for one’s own sake that they are loved. my dear. II-iv-7: As. It is not for the sake of worlds. as the organ of generation is the one goal of all kinds of enjoyment. but for one’s own sake that he is loved. Beings oust one who knows them as different from the Self. my dear. It is not for the sake of the gods. as the hands are the one goal of all sort of work. should be realised – should be heard of. my dear. my dear. as the Manas is the one goal of all deliberations. arts. II-iv-6: The Brahmana ousts (slights) one who knows him as different from the Self. but for one’s own sake that it is loved. as the intellect is the one goal of all kinds of knowledge. one cannot distinguish its various particular notes.

immortal being who is the vital force in the body. and all beings are (like) honey to this sun. (These four) are but this Self. (These four) are but this Self. II-v-4: This air is (like) honey to all beings. then one smells something. This (Selfknowledge) is (the means of) immortality. immortal. immortal being identified with the seed in the body. what should one hear and through what. one knows something. II-iv-14: Because when there is duality. immortal being identified with the ear and with the time of hearing in the body. and the shining. my dear. ‘Certainly. II-v-3: This fire is (like) honey to all beings. This . II-v-2: This water is (like) honey to all beings. and the shining. and the shining. (These four) are but this Self. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. and all beings are (like) honey to these quarters. immortal being identified with the mind in the body. This (Selfknowledge) is (the means of) immortality. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality. II-v-7: This moon is (like) honey to all beings. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this moon. O Maitreyi’. (These four) are but this Self. (These four) are but this Self. sir – by saying that after attaining (oneness) the self has no more consciousness’. (But) when to the knower of Brahman everything has become the self. O Maitreyi. what should one speak and through what. this is quite sufficient for knowledge. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. immortal being identified with the eye in the body. one speaks something. and all beings are (like) honey to this fire. one sees something. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. and all beings are (like) honey to this air. should one know the Knower ? II-v-1: This earth is (like) honey to all beings. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. and the shining. corporeal being in the body. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. what should one know and through what ? Through what should one know That owing to which all this is known – through what. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this earth. what should one think and through what. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this fire. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. one thinks something. then what should one smell and through what. This (Selfknowledge) is (the means of) immortality. one hears something. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. II-v-6: These quarters is (like) honey to all beings. this (underlying unity) is Brahman.II-iv-13: Maitreyi said. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality. as it were. and the shining. and all beings are (like) honey to this moon. II-v-5: This sun is (like) honey to all beings. and all beings are (like) honey to this earth. and the shining. Yajnavalkya said. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this air. immortal being identified with the organ of speech in the body. I am not saying anything confusing. and all beings are (like) honey to this water. and the shining. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality. ‘Just here you have thrown me into confusion. (These four) are but this Self. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is these quarters. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. what should one see and through what. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this sun. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this water.

and all beings are (like) honey to this righteousness. and the shining. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. This (Selfknowledge) is (the means of) immortality. and the shining. Just as all the spokes are fixed in the nave and the felloe of a chariot-wheel. (These four) are but this Self. immortal being who is this (individual) self. immortal being identified with light in the body.(Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality. (These four) are but this Self. and the shining. I will . all worlds. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. II-v-10: This ether is (like) honey to all beings. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. II-v-14: This (cosmic) body is (like) honey to all beings. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. and the shining. and all beings are (like) honey to this (cosmic) body. immortal being identified with sound and voice in the body. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this cloud. and the shining. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. so are all beings. taught the Asvins. and the shining. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this ether. all organs and all these (individual) selves fixed in this Self. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this human species. Perceiving this the Rishi (Mantra) said. ‘O Asvins in human form. versed in the Atharva-Veda. (These four) are but this Self. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this (cosmic) body. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. immortal being identified with the ether in the heart. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. and all beings are (like) honey to this human species. II-v-13: This human species is (like) honey to all beings. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this lightning. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this truth. II-v-11: This righteousness (Dharma) is (like) honey to all beings. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. and all beings are (like) honey to this cloud. all gods. immortal being identified with righteousness in the body. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality. immortal being identified with the human species in the body. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this righteousness. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. and all beings are (like) honey to this truth. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. in the body. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. II-v-8: This lightning is (like) honey to all beings. this (underlying unity) is Brahman. that terrible deed called Damsa which you committed out of greed. II-v-9: This cloud is (like) honey to all beings. (These four) are but this Self. II-v-12: This truth is (like) honey to all beings. and the shining. (These four) are but this Self. (These four) are but this Self. II-v-15: This Self. is the ruler of all beings. and the king of all beings. this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality. and all beings are (like) honey to this ether. immortal being identified with truth in the body. and all beings are (like) honey to this lightning. already mentioned. II-v-16: This is that meditation on things mutually helpful which Dadhyac. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality.

Asurayana from Traivani. They from Dadhyac Atharvana. Sanaga from Paramesthin (Viraj). This self. Perceiving this the Rishi said. Traivani from Aupajandhani. Sanatana from Sanaga. versed in the Atharva-Veda. Kausikayani – II-vi-3: From Ghrtakausika. versed in the Atharva-Veda. nothing that is not pervaded by Him. Atreya from Manti. He from Vatsanapat Babhrava.disclose as a cloud does rain – (how you learnt) the meditation on things mutually helpful that Dadhyac. This Gaupavana from Kausika. This Anabhimlata from Gautama. Kaundinya from Sandilya. He from Ayasya Angirasa. Kausika from Kaundinya. He from Abhuti Tvastra. He from Pradhvamsana. He from Pathin Saubhara. you set a horse’s head on (the shoulders of) Dadhyac. versed in the Atharva-Veda. is Brahman. Agnivesya from Sandilya and Anabhimlata. versed in the Atharva-Veda. O terrible ones. He from the Asvins. Parasarya from Baijavapayana. That Brahman is without prior or posterior. He is ten and thousands – many and infinite. taught the Asvins. The Lord on account of Maya (notions superimposed by ignorance) is perceived as manifold. He from Atharvan Daiva. without interior or exterior. Bharadvaja from Atreya. Salutation to Brahman. Parasarya from Jatukarnya. Gautama from another Gautama. for to Him are yoked ten organs. Gaupavana from another Pautimasya. He from Kumaraharita. versed in the Atharva-Veda. Vatsya from Sandilya. as also the secret (spiritual) meditation on them. He from Vatsya. taught the Asvins. Perceiving this the Rishi said.’ On account of his dwelling in all bodies. This Pautimasya from another Gaupavana. Gautama – II-vi-2: From Agnivesya. Perceiving this the Rishi said.’ II-v-18: This is that meditation on things mutually helpful which Dadhyac. They from Parasarya. Parasarya from Bharadvaja. That supreme Being first entered the bodies as a bird (the subtle body). He from Parasarya. Ghrtakausika from Parasaryayana. He from a third Anabhimlata. He from Asuri. He from Bharadvaja and Gautama. hundreds of them. II-vi-1: Now the line of teachers: Pautimasya (received it) from Gaupavana. Viprachitti from Vyasri. Manti from Gautama. ‘He made bodies with two feet and bodies with four feet. He from another Parasarya. ‘O Asvins. Vyasti from Sanaru. There is nothing that is not covered by Him. He from Kausikayani. He from Brahman (Hiranyabarbha). that form of His was for the sake of making Him known. Gautama from Saitava and Pracinayogya. to keep his word. . Anabhimlata from another of that name. taught the Asvins. Kumaraharita from Galava. He from Visvarupa Tvastra. He is the organs. ‘(He) transformed Himself in accordance with each form. He from Mrtyu Pradhvamsana. Sandilya from Kaisorya Kapya. He is called the Purusha. II-v-17: This is that meditation on things mutually helpful which Dadhyac. he taught you the (ritualistic) meditation on things mutually helpful connected with the sun. Brahman is self born. nay. Sanaru from Sanatana. Asuri from Bharadvaja. This is the teaching. Ekarsi from Viprachitti. the perceiver of everything. Gautama from another Bharadvaja. Sandilya from Kausika and Gautama. II-v-19: This is that meditation on things mutually helpful which Dadhyac. taught you through a horse’s head. Jatukarnya from Asurayana and Yaska. Galava from Vidarbhikaundinya. Pradhvamsana from Ekarsi.

This eye is the sun. please drive these cows (home). performed a sacrifice in which gifts were freely distributed. III-i-7: ‘Yajnavalkya’. This mind is the moon. The eye of the sacrificer is the Adhvaryu. The sacrificer’s organ of speech is the Hotr. through what support does the sacrificer go to heaven ?’ ‘Through the mind – through the moon. as it were. Emperor Janaka of Videha had a desire to know. So far about the ways of emancipation. the sacrificial. ‘since all this is overtaken by death. said he. The vital force of the sacrificer is the Udgatir. by what means does the sacrificer go beyond the bright and dark fortnights /’ ‘Through the vital force – through air. he wins the world of the manes. this (moon) is liberation. Emperor of Videha. let him who is the best Vedic scholar among you drive these cows (home). he wins the human world. and those that sink on being offered’. This organ of speech is fire. for this world shines. and swayed by it. this (liberation) is emancipation’. I just want the cows’. which is the (real) priest called Brahman. ‘Yajnavalkya.’ . and swayed by them. this (liberation) is emancipation’. III-i-5: ‘Yajnavalkya’. ‘I bow to the best Vedic scholar. Then Yajnavalkya said to a pupil of his. said he. the moon is the Brahman. ‘how many kinds of oblations will the Adhvaryu offer in this sacrifice to-day ?’ ‘Three’.III-i-1: Om. III-i-3: ‘Yajnavalkya’. ‘What does he win through them ?’ ‘All this that is living’. when offered. this sun is the Adhvaryu. for this world is full of uproar. III-i-2: He said to them. which is the (real) priest called Udgatir. ‘Revered Brahmanas. by what means does the sacrificer go beyond the clutches of day and night ?’ ‘Through the eye – through the sun. for this world is lower. The mind of the sacrificer is the Brahman. ‘What does he win through them?’ ‘Through those that blaze up on being offered he wins the world of the gods. said he. without a support. ‘How does he dare to call himself the best Vedic scholar among us ?’ there was a Hotr of Emperor Janaka of Videha named Asvala. this (liberation) is emancipation’. this (sun) is liberation.’ III-i-6: ‘Yajnavalkya’.’ None of the Brahmanas dared.’ He drove them. those that make a great noise. which is the (real) priest called Hotr. ‘Which is the most erudite of these Vedic scholars ?’ He had a thousand cows confined in a pen. are you indeed the best Vedic scholar among us ?’ Yajnavalkya replied. and swayed by them. said he. this (liberation) is emancipation. ‘Which are those three ?’ ‘The preliminary. and on the horns of each cow were fixed ten Padas (of gold). Vedic scholars from Kuru and Panchala were assembled there. ‘Dear Samasravas. Through those that make a great noise. He now asked Yajnavalkya. III-i-8: ‘Yajnavalkya’. said he. this (air) is liberation. when offered. and the eulogistic hymns as the third’. ‘with how many kinds of Rik will the Hotr do his part in this sacrifice to-day ?’ ‘With three kinds’. as it were. ‘Which are those three ?’ ‘Those that blaze up on being offered. Janaka. ‘since all this is overtaken by the bright and dark fortnights. by what means does the sacrificer go beyond the clutches of death ?’ ‘Through the organ of speech – through fire. said he. now about the meditations based on resemblance. this fire is the Hotr. This vital force is air. ‘since the sky is. Thereupon the Hotr Asvala determined to interrogate him. and it is the Udgatir. III-i-4: ‘Yajnavalkya’. this (fire) is liberation. The Brahmanas were enraged. which is the (real) priest called Adhvaryu. And through those that sink on being offered. ‘since all this is overtaken by day and night.

‘Which are those eight Grahas and eight Atigrahas ?’ III-ii-2: The Prana (nose) indeed is the Graha. III-ii-6: The ear indeed is the Graha. for one sees colours through the eye. III-i-10: ‘Yajnavalkya’. taste. it is controlled by the Atigraha. of the line of Jaratkaru. Thereupon the Hotr Asvala kept silent. touch. is inflated. ‘Which is that one ?’ ‘The mind. and infinite are the Visvadevas. or do they not ?’ ‘No’. ‘Which are those three ?’ ‘The preliminary. and how many are the Atigrahas ?’ ‘There are eight Grahas and eight Atigrahas’. for one utters names through the organ of speech. it is controlled by the Atigraha. III-ii-3: The organ of speech indeed is the graha. the ear in the quarters. These are the eight Grahas and eight Atigrahas. ‘how many are the Grahas. where is then the man ?’ ‘Give me your hand. said he. and in that state lies dead. (One who knows thus) conquers further death’. and the blood and the seed are deposited in water. do his organs go up from him. said he. III-ii-1: Then Artabhaga. asked him. name. III-ii-8: The hands indeed is the Graha. colour. the Apana (odour). III-ii-5: The eye indeed is the Graha.III-i-9: ‘Yajnavalkya’. and the Vyana is the eulogistic hymn’. ‘through how many gods does this Brahman from the right protect the sacrifice to-day ?’ ‘Through one’. the Apana is the sacrificial hymn. III-ii-7: The mind indeed is the Graha. the body in the earth. ‘(They) merge in him only. for one wishes desires through the mind. the ether of the heart in the external ether. said he. for one hears sounds through the ear. ‘when this man dies. it is the food of water. work. for one feels touch through the skin. the mind in the moon. it is controlled by the Atigraha. ‘when the vocal organ of a man who dies is merged in fire. III-ii-10: ‘Yajnavalkya’. the nose in air. said he. . III-ii-13: ‘Yajnavalkya’. dear Artabhaga. we will decide this between ourselves. and infinite are the Visvadevas. the eye in the sun. ‘since all this is the food of death. ‘Which are those that have reference to the body ?’ ‘The Prana is the preliminary hymn. it is controlled by the Atigraha. it is controlled by the Atigraha. it is controlled by the Atigraha. we cannot do it in a crowded place. III-ii-4: The tongue indeed is the Graha. who is that god whose food is death ?’ ‘Fire is death. ‘What does he win through them ?’ ‘Through the preliminary hymns he wins the earth. III-ii-9: The skin indeed is the Graha. ‘Yajnavalkya’. replied Yajnavalkya. He (who knows thus) wins thereby a really infinite world’. said he. for one does work through the hands.’ III-ii-12: ‘Yajnavalkya’. ‘when the (liberated) man dies. ‘how many classes of hymns the Udgatir chant in this sacrifice to-day ?’ ‘Three classes’. The body swells. III-ii-11: ‘Yajnavalkya’. it is controlled by the Atigraha. desire. what is it that does not leave him ?’ ‘Name. What they mentioned there was only work. through the sacrificial hymns he wins the sky. Through this meditation he wins an infinite world’. it is controlled by the Atigraha. that on the head in trees. for one smells odours through the Apana (the air breathed in). the sacrificial.’ They went out and talked it over. and the eulogistic hymns as the third’. for one knows tastes through the tongue. said he. and through the eulogistic hymns he wins heaven’. said he. The name indeed is infinite. and what they praised there was also work alone. the hair on the body in herbs. The mind is indeed infinite. sound.

His daughter was possessed by a Gandharva. so is there just that much opening at the junction (of the two halves of the cosmic shell).) Fire. the son of Kusitaka. ‘The Gandharva evidently told you that they went where the performers of the horse sacrifice go’. ‘Yajnavalkya’. He who knows it as such conquers further death. having known all about both meditativeness and its opposite. he becomes a knower of Brahman. you cannot hear that which is the hearer of hearing. This is your self that is within all. Knowing this very Self the Brahmanas renounce the desire for sons. putting them in itself. said. ‘explain to me the Brahman that is immediate and direct – the self that is within all’. took them where the (previous) performers of the horse sacrifice were’. around the earth. the son of Chakra. asked him. should try to live upon that strength which comes of knowledge. How does that knower of b behave ? . We asked him. covering twice the area. ‘This is your self that is within all’. That which is the desire for sons is the desire for wealth. where were the descendants of Pariksit ? (Tell me) where were the descendants of Pariksit ?’ III-iii-2: Yajnavalkya said. Thus did the Gandharva praise the air. ‘Yajnavalkya’.(Therefore) one indeed becomes good through good work and evil through evil work. ‘You have indicated it as one may say that a cow is such and such. and the air is the aggregate. the grandson of Lahya. grief. decay and death. kept silent. Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘That which transcends hunger and thirst. ‘explain to me the Brahman that is immediate and direct – the self that is within all. the son of Chakra. for both these are but desires. ‘Which is within all. Therefore the air is the diversity of individuals. Therefore the knower of Brahman. covering twice the area. having known all about this strength and scholarship. for wealth and for the worlds. That which goes out through the Udana is your self that is within all. Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘You cannot see that which is the witness of vision. the air. everything else but this is perishable. Thereupon Artabhaga. kept silent. we said to him. said he. "Where were the descendants of Pariksit ?" And I ask you. ‘we travelled in Madra as students. This is your self that is within all. Now. is the ocean. Thereupon Bhujyu. ‘Yajnavalkya’. That which pervades through the Vyana is your self that is within all. III-iv-1: Then Usata. and lead a mendicant’s life. asked him. said he. That which moves downwards through the Apana is your self that is within all. ‘And where do the performers of the horse sacrifice go ?’ ‘Thirty-two times the space covered by the sun’s chariot in a day makes this world. Yajnavalkya. "I am Sudhanvan. delusion. When we asked him about the limits of the world. said he. ‘Which is within all. you cannot know that which is the knower of knowledge. delivered them to the air. is the earth. kept silent. in the form of a falcon. of the line of Jaratkaru. the son of Chakra. and we came to the house of Patanchala of the line of Kapi. having known all about scholarship. you cannot think that which is the thinker of thought. iii-v-1: Then Kahola. of the line of Angiras". the grandson of Lahya.’ Thereupon Usata. around it. ‘This is your self that is within all’. Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘That which breathes through the Prana is your self that is within all. or a horse is such and such. Explain to me the Brahman that is immediate and direct – the self that is within all’. or the wing of a fly. (Through that they go out. III-iii-1: Then Bhujyu. he becomes meditative. "Who are you ?" He said.’ III-iv-2: Usata. as is the edge of a razor.’ ‘This is your self that is within all’. ‘Which is within all. asked him. and that which is the desire for wealth is the desire for worlds.

and who controls the sky from within. whom fire does not know. O Gargi. she said. I know it. By what is the world of Indra pervaded?’ ‘By the world of Viraj. but is within it. "He who knows that Sutra and that Internal Ruler as above indeed knows Brahman. ‘Vayu. for they are held together. do you know that Sutra by which this life. whom the sky does not know. knows the gods. but is within it. ‘Yajnavalkya’. ‘By what is air pervaded?’ ‘By the sky. Through this Sutra or Vayu this and the next life and all beings are held together. whose body is the earth. "I do not know it. is that Sutra. Except this.’ III-vii-2: He said. O Gargi’. O Gautama. You are questioning about a deity that should not be reasoned about. knows the Vedas. Therefore. knows the self.Howsoever he may behave. he is just such. ‘By what are the stars pervaded ?’ ‘By the world of the gods. iii-vi-1: Then Gargi. is the Internal Ruler. the son of Aruna. O Gautama. ‘By what is the sky pervaded ?’ ‘By the world of the Gandharvas. ‘in Madra we lived in the house of Patanchala Kapya (descendant of Kapi).’ ‘Quite so. "Hapya. III-vii-1: Then Uddalaka. and still take away the cows that belong only to the knowers of Brahman. O Gargi’. O Gargi. III-vii-6: He who inhabits the sky. III-vii-4: He who inhabits water.’ ‘By what is the moon pervaded ?’ ‘By the stars. that Sutra and that Internal Ruler’. O Gargi’. studying the scriptures on sacrifices. O Gargi’. sir". "Kabandha. O Gautama. said. If you. the daughter of Vacaknu. ‘Any one can say. they say that his limbs have been loosened. O Gargi. the next life and all beings are held together ?" Patanchala Kapya said. O Gargi’. ‘if all this is pervaded by water. He said. knows the worlds. whose body is water. I know". His wife was possessed by a Gandharva. The Gandharva said to him and the students.’ III-vii-3: He who inhabits the earth. We asked him who he was. He said to Patanchala Kapya and those who studied the scriptures on sacrifices. "Kapya. the daughter of Vacaknu. your own immortal self. ‘I know. .’ Thereupon Gargi. everything is perishable. and who controls fire from within. when a man dies. O Gargi. push your inquiry too far. and who controls water from within. asked him. push your inquiry too far. but is within it. O Gargi’. whom water does not know. ‘By what is the world of Viraj pervaded?’ ‘ By the world of Hiranyagarbha. and knows everything". do you know that Internal Ruler who controls this and the next life and all beings from within ?" Patanchala Kapya said. Yajnavalkya. is the Internal Ruler. whose body is the sky. do not know that Sutra and that Internal Ruler. by what is water pervaded ?’ ‘By air. "I know. sir".’ ‘By what is the sun pervaded ?’ ‘By the moon. Do not. the son of Atharvan". whose body is fire. lest your head should fall off. ‘By what is the world of the gods pervaded ?’ ‘By the world of Indra. ‘Do not. knows beings. kept silent. ‘By what is the world of the Gandharvas pervaded ?’ ‘By the sun. your own immortal self. your head shall fall off’. Yajnavalkya. by the Sutra or Vayu. and who controls the earth from within. whom the earth does not know. Now describe the Internal Ruler. "I do not know Him. asked him.’ Thereupon Kahola. He explained it all to them. your own immortal self. kept silent. The Gandharva said to him and the students. is the Internal Ruler. O Gautama. your own immortal self. O Gargi’. is the Internal Ruler. ‘Yajnavalkya’. Tell us what you know. the son of Kusitaka. III-vii-5: He who inhabits fire. O Gargi’. ‘By what is the world of Hiranyagarbha pervaded ?’ He said. but is within it.

your own immortal self. your own immortal self. but is within it. III-vii-18: He who inhabits the eye. and who controls the eye from within. is the Internal Ruler. your own immortal self. whom the organ of speech does not know. your own immortal self. is the Internal Ruler. but is within it. whom the skin does not know. whom the eye does not know. This much with reference to the gods. is the Internal Ruler. but is within it. whom the ear does not know. your own immortal self. whom the mind does not know. whom no being knows. III-vii-20: He who inhabits the mind (Manas). is the Internal Ruler. and who controls the skin from within. whom the moon and stars does not know. your own immortal self. and who controls the quarters from within. is the Internal Ruler. your own immortal self. III-vii-10: He who inhabits the quarters. is the Internal Ruler. whom the nose does not know. but is within it. is the Internal Ruler. III-vii-17: He who inhabits the organ of speech. your own immortal self. III-vii-14: He who inhabits light. III-vii-15: He who inhabits all beings. whose body is the ear. is the Internal Ruler. and who controls the moon and stars from within. but is within it. whose body is the nose. whom light does not know. but is within it. . and who controls the sun from within. whom the ether does not know. whose body is darkness. but is within it. but is within it. and who controls all beings from within. and who controls the organ of speech from within. whose body is all beings. but is within it. your own immortal self. but is within it. whose body is the moon and stars. whom the sun does not know. whose body is the quarters. III-vii-8: He who inhabits heaven. whom darkness does not know. is the Internal Ruler. and who controls the ear from within. and who controls the mind from within. your own immortal self. and who controls the ether from within. III-vii-9: He who inhabits the sun. whose body is light. is the Internal Ruler. whom air does not know. whose body is the eye. III-vii-12: He who inhabits the ether. your own immortal self. III-vii-13: He who inhabits darkness. but is within it. whose body is the mind. your own immortal self. III-vii-19: He who inhabits the ear. and who controls heaven from within. whose body is heaven. whom heaven does not know.III-vii-7: He who inhabits air. This much with reference to the beings. is the Internal Ruler. whom the quarters does not know. and who controls air from within. and who controls light from within. is the Internal Ruler. whose body is the ether. whose body is the organ of speech. is the Internal Ruler. whose body is the sun. but is within it. whose body is air. is the Internal Ruler. Now with reference to the beings. your own immortal self. Now with reference to the body. and who controls the nose from within. III-vii-11: He who inhabits the moon and stars. whose body is the skin. your own immortal self. III-vii-21: He who inhabits the skin. but is within it. III-vii-16: He who inhabits the nose. is the Internal Ruler. your own immortal self. but is within it. but is within it. and who controls darkness from within.

It does not eat anything. not a measure. and which they say was. but is the Hearer. ‘Ask. is the Internal Ruler. and who controls the organ of generation from within.’ ‘By what is the Unmanifested ether pervaded?’ III-viii-8: He said: O Gargi. without the vocal organ or mind. He is never thought. the sun and moon are held in their positions. is and will be ?’ III-viii-4: He said. even so. your own immortal self. no other thinker but Him. under the mighty rule of this Immutable. He is the Internal Ruler. Now be ready for the other question.’ III-viii-5: She said. III-vii-23: He who inhabits the organ of generation. no other hearer but Him. O Yajnavalkya. O Gargi’. kept silent. ‘I (shall ask) you (two questions). Everything else but Him is mortal. whose body is the intellect. whom the intellect does not know. seasons and years are held in their respective places. which is this heaven and earth as well as between them. and who controls the intellect from within. As a man of Banaras or the King of Videha. O Gargi. which is above heaven and below the earth. III-viii-3: She said. which is above heaven and below the earth. who have fully answered this question of mine. which is this heaven and earth as well as between them. O Gargi. without eyes or ears. but is within it. the knowers of Brahman say. your own immortal self.’ ‘Ask. without the vital force or mouth. and which they say was. this Immutable (Brahman) is that. O Yajnavalkya. scion of a warlike dynasty. is pervaded by the Unmanifested ether. ‘By what. heaven and earth maintain their positions. others flowing westward continue in that direction. no other knower but Him. O Yajnavalkya. days and nights. and still others keep to their respective courses. ‘By what. neither red colour nor oiliness. O Gargi’. He is never seen. He is never known. neither shadow nor darkness. some rivers flow eastward from the White Mountains. and which they say was. carrying in his hand two bamboo-tipped arrows highly painful to the enemy. Yajnavalkya. which is this heaven and earth as well as between them.III-vii-22: He who inhabits the intellect. neither savour nor odour. but is the Thinker. neither short nor long. under the mighty rule of this Immutable. Should he answer me those. whom the organ of generation does not know. under the mighty rule of this Immutable. is and will be ?’ III-viii-7: He said. might string his unstrung bow and appear close by. III-viii-6: She said. unattached. There is no other witness but Him. ‘Revered Brahmans. and which they say was. but is within it. III-viii-1: Then the daughter of Vachaknu said.’ Thereupon Uddalaka. and without interior or exterior. non-luminous. but is the Knower. the son of Aruna. neither air nor ether. under the mighty rule of this Immutable. It is neither gross nor minute. O Gargi. III-viii-2: She said. Muhurtas. is that pervaded which is above heaven and below the earth. He is never heard. ‘That. Answer me those’. fortnights. months. I shall him two questions. ‘I bow to you. . whose body is the organ of generation. O Gargi". III-viii-9: Under the mighty rule of this Immutable. is that pervaded which is above heaven and below the earth. nor is It eaten by anybody. which is this heaven and earth as well as between them. is and will be. none of you can ever beat him in describing Brahman. O Gargi. ‘That. is and will be.’ ‘Ask. moments. is the Internal Ruler. do I confront you with two questions. O Gargi. O Gargi. your own immortal self. is pervaded by the Unmanifested ether alone. but is the Witness.

‘Very well’. who in this world. O Gargi.O Gargi. Never shall any of you beat him in describing Brahman’. Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘Three’. Because all those (gods) are (comprised in) these six. air. ‘Very well’. ‘how many gods exactly are there. said Sakalya. ‘how many gods exactly are there. these are the Adityas.’ III-ix-6: ‘Which is Indra. the earth. ‘Very well’. Because they go taking all this with them. ‘As many as are indicated in the Nivid of the Visvadevas – three hundred and three. with the mind as the eleventh. Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘six’. said Sakalya. no other knower but This. ‘Revered Brahmans. O Gargi. III-viii-10: He. Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘Two’. When they depart from this mortal body. Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘One and a half’. without knowing this Immutable. ‘How many gods are there. It is never heard. you should consider yourselves fortunate if you can get off from him through salutations. is a knower of Brahman. but there are only thirty-three gods.’ III-ix-5: ‘Which are the Adityas ?’ ‘The twelve months (are parts) of a year. but is the Thinker. By this Immutable. said the other. III-ix-1: Then Vidagdha. the sky. Then the daughter of Vachaknu kept silent. said Sakalya. is never seen but is the Witness. and which is Prajapati ?’ ‘The cloud itself is Indra. O Gargi. the eleven Rudras and the twelve Adityas – these are thirty-one and Indra and Prajapati make up the thirtythree’. is the (Unmanifested) ether pervaded. III-viii-11: This Immutable. ‘these are but the manifestation of them. the sun. It is never thought. ‘how many gods exactly are there. O Gargi. But he. the sun. the gods depend on the sacrificer. for they go taking all this with them. III-viii-12: She said.’ ‘Which is the sacrifice ?’ ‘Animals’. said the other. therefore they are called Rudras. the son of Sakala. ‘how many gods exactly are there. for in these all this is placed. ‘how many gods exactly are there. therefore they are called Adityas. Yajnavalkya ?’ Yajnavalkya decided it through this (group of Mantras known as) Nivid (saying). performs sacrifices and undergoes austerities even for many thousand years. finds all such acts but perishable.’ ‘Which are those thirty-three ?’ ‘The eight Vasus. O Gargi. offers oblations in the fire. and the manes on independent offerings (Darvihoma). ‘Which is the cloud ?’ ‘Thunder (strength). ‘Very well’. said Sakalya. but is the Hearer. and three thousand and three’. ‘Very well’. asked him. and the sacrifice is Prajapati’.’ . therefore they are called Vasus. III-ix-3: ‘Which are the Vasus /’ ‘Fire. Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘Thirty-three’. who departs from this world after knowing this Immutable. he. ‘which are those three hundred and three and three thousand and three ?’ III-ix-2: Yajnavalkya said. air. but is the Knower. ‘Very well’. III-ix-7: ‘Which are the six (gods) ?’ ‘Fire. Because they then make them weep. said Sakalya. ‘Very well’. the earth. There is no other witness but This. It is never known. no other hearer but This. who departs from this world without knowing this Immutable. is miserable. ‘how many gods exactly are there. and heaven – these are the six. men praise those that give. the moon and the stars – these are the Vasus.’ III-ix-4: ‘Which are the Rudras ?’ ‘The ten organs in the human body. heaven. the sky. Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘One’. no other thinker but This. they make (one’s relatives) weep.

Go on. and who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. ‘I do know that being of whom you speak – who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. III-ix-12: ‘He who knows that being whose abode is colours. ‘Since the air blows as one substance. said he. whose light is the Manas. whose light is the Manas. Go on. whose instrument of vision is the intellect. Sakalya’. ‘Who is his deity?’ ‘Death’. It is the very being who is identified with lust.’ III-ix-10: ‘He who knows that being whose abode is the earth. knows truly. whose light is the Manas. It is the very being who is in a looking-glass. ‘I do know that being of whom you speak – who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. ‘I do know that being of whom you speak – . ‘I do know that being of whom you speak – who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. Go on Sakalya’. Go on. said he.’ ‘Which are the one and a half ?’ ‘This (air) that blows. Sakalya’. ‘Who is his deity ?’ ‘The vital force’. Go on. and who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. O Yajnavalkya’. knows truly. O Yajnavalkya’. whose instrument of vision is the eye. whose light is the Manas.’ ‘Which are the two gods ?’ ‘Matter and the vital force. and who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. knows truly. Go on. O Yajnavalkya’. knows truly. said he. it is Brahman. ‘Who is his deity ?’ ‘Women’. said he. said he. III-ix-17: ‘He who knows that being whose abode is the seed. O Yajnavalkya’. because in these all those gods are comprised. ‘I do know that being of whom you speak – who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. said he. ‘I do know that being of whom you speak – who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. and who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. ‘Who is his deity ?’ 'Truth (the eye). III-ix-14: ‘He who knows that being whose abode is darkness. It is the very being who is in the sun. ‘Who is his deity ?’ ‘The quarters’. Sakalya’. knows truly. O Yajnavalkya’.’ ‘Who is his deity (cause) ?’ ‘Nectar (chyle)’. O Yajnavalkya’. III-ix-13: ‘He who knows that being whose abode is the ether. whose light is the Manas. Sakalya. ‘I do know that being of whom you speak – who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. It is the very being who is identified with shadow (ignorance). whose light is the Manas. which is called Tyat (that). whose instrument of vision is the eye. and who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. ‘Which is the one god ?’ ‘The vital force (Hiranyagarbha). and who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. Go on. III-ix-16: ‘He who knows that being whose abode is water.III-ix-8: ‘Which are the three gods ?’ ‘These three worlds alone. ‘Who is his deity ?’ ‘Varuna (rain)’. knows truly. and who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. how can it be one and a half ?’ ‘ It is one and a half because through its presence all this attains surpassing glory’. whose light is the Manas. Sakalya’.’ III-ix-9: ‘Regarding this some say. It is the very being who is identified with the body. Sakalya’. knows truly. whose instrument of vision is the intellect. whose instrument of vision is the intellect. and who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. ‘I do know that being of whom you speak – who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. It is the very being who is identified with the ear and with the time of hearing.’ said he. III-ix-11: ‘He who knows that being whose abode is lust. It is the very being who is in water. whose instrument of vision is the intellect. O Yajnavalkya’. knows truly. whose instrument of vision is the ear. O Yajnavalkya’. whose instrument of vision is fire. III-ix-15: ‘He who knows that being whose abode is (particular) colours. whose light is the Manas.

‘On what does the seed rest ?’ ‘On the heart. as it were. Should it be elsewhere than in us. Yajnavalkya’. ‘is it because you know Brahman that you have thus flouted these Vedic scholars of Kuru and Panchala ?’ ‘I know the quarters with their deities and supports’. III-ix-24: ‘What deity are you identified with in the fixed direction (above) ?’ ‘With the deity. Sakalya’. undecaying. ‘On what do colours rest ?’ ‘On the heart (mind)’. therefore it is on the heart that truth rests’. for It never decays. that he has sprung from (his father’s) heart.’ ‘On what does the Apana rest ?’ ‘On the Vyana. ‘On what does the eye rest ?’ ‘On colours. (then the body is dead). sun’. Soma (the moon and the creeper)’ ‘On what does Soma rest ?’ ‘On initiation’. said Yajnavalkya. ‘On what does the sun rest ?’ ‘On the eye’. I ask you of that Being who is to be known only from the Upanishads. who definitely projects . ‘It is just so. Varuna (the god of rain)’. said Yajnavalkya. ‘On what does water rest ?’ ‘On the seed’. said Yajnavalkya. Therefore it is on the heart that the seed rests’. fire’. III-ix-21: ‘What deity are you identified with in the south ?’ ‘With the deity. for it is on truth that initiation rests’. for one sees colours with the eye’. Go on. ‘Who is his deity ?’ ‘Prajapati (the father)’. said Sakalya. not this’.who is the ultimate resort of the entire body and organs. ‘On what does fire rest ?’ ‘On speech’. ‘for one knows truth through the heart. ‘It is just so. ‘These are the eight abodes. the eight instruments of vision. said Yajnavalkya. III-ix-23: ‘What deity are you identified with in the north ?’ ‘With the deity. Therefore do they say to one initiated. Therefore do they say of a newborn child closely resembles (his father). and never suffers injury. Yama (the god of justice)’. ‘for one knows colours through the heart. "Speak the truth".’ ‘On what does the Vyana rest ?’ ‘On the Udana’. ‘On what does faith rest ?’ ‘On the heart’. ‘It is just so. It is the very being who is identified with the son. ‘If you know the quarters with their deities and supports -III-ix-20: ‘What deity are you identified with in the east ?’ ‘With the deity. dogs would eat this body. ‘On what does truth rest ?’ ‘On the heart’. unattached. ‘On what does the sacrifice rest ?’ ‘On the remuneration (of the priests). because whenever a man has faith. On what does Yama rest ?’ ‘On the sacrifice’. said Yajnavalkya. Yajnavalkya’. or birds tear it to pieces’. ‘On what does the Prana rest ?’ ‘On the Apana. Yajnavalkya’. ‘On what does speech rest ?’ ‘On the heart’.’ ‘On what does the remuneration rest ?’ ‘On faith. said he. he gives remuneration to the priests. the eight deities and the eight beings. ‘On what does the heart rest ?’ III-ix-25: ‘You ghost’. It is imperceptible. III-ix-18: ‘Sakalya’. it is on the heart that colours rest’. therefore it is on the heart that faith rests’. ‘when you think the heart is elsewhere than in us. This self is That which has been described as ‘Not this. for it is never perceived. III-ix-22: ‘What deity are you identified with in the west ?’ ‘With the deity. ‘On what does Varuna rest ?’ ‘On water’. ‘On what does initiation rest ?’ ‘On truth. for It is never attached. ‘It is just so. ‘On what does the Udana rest ?’ ‘On the Samana’. Yajnavalkya’. as it were – that he has been made out of (his father’s) heart. therefore it is on faith that the remuneration rests’. ‘for one knows faith through the heart. ‘have these Vedic scholars made you their instrument for burning charcoals ?’ III-ix-19: ‘Yajnavalkya’. unfettered – It never feels pain. III-ix-26: On what do the body and the heart rest ?’ ‘On the Prana’.

Or I shall question whichsoever amongst you wishes. Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘The organ of speech itself. ‘What is intelligence. friend is known. the supreme goal of the dispenser of wealth as well as of him who has realised Brahman and lives in It. Janaka said to him. Atharvangirasa. springs again from its root in a newer form. so has the son of Silina said this – that the organ of speech is Brahman. ‘Then you tell us. and who is at the same time transcendent. O Emperor. and robbers snatched away his bones. mistaking them for something else. arts. Sakalya did not know Him. (This is) true. and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. O Emperor’. (of) offering oblations in the fire and (of) giving food and drink.’ ‘I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant’. for what can a person have who cannot speak? But did he tell you about its abode (body) and support?’ ‘No. aphorisms. your head shall fall off’. and being a god.Knowledge. III-ix-28(6): If someone pulls out a tree with its root. . His bones lie under. it no more sprouts. after it is felled. III-ix-27: Then he said. It should be meditated upon as intelligence’. (Vedic) history. when there came Yajnavalkya. this world and the next. or to hear some subtle questions asked ?’ ‘Both. as sap from a tree is injured. as does its wood. From what root does a man spring forth after he is cut off by death ? III-ix-28(7): If you think he is ever born. Upanishads. A tree springs also from the seed. O Emperor. and from the bark sap. If you cannot clearly tell me of Him. the son of Silina. ‘From the seed’. and his tendons its innermost layer of bark. what has brought you here ? To have some animals. verses. The organ of speech. ‘My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple without fully instructing him’. ‘Revered Brahmanas. The organ of speech never leaves him who. a father and a teacher should say. O Emperor’. ‘through the organ of speech. so indeed is a man. his head fell off. after it is dead it certainly springs again (from the seed as well). he is again born. O Emperor’. elucidations and explanations. (the effects of) sacrifices. I say. Emperor of Videha. Yajur-Veda. Brahman. ‘The organ of speech is its abode. said Yajnavalkya. V-i-1: Om. his marrow is comparable to its pith. Now who should again bring him forth ? -.those beings and withdraws them into Himself. and all beings are known through the organ of speech alone. he did not’. from what root indeed does man spring forth after he is cut off by death ? III-ix-28(5): Do not say. IV-i-2: ‘Let me hear what any one of your teachers may have told you’. His hair is its leaves. he attains the gods. Sama-Veda. said Emperor Janaka. has told me that the organ of speech (fire) is Brahman’. his skin its outer bark. ‘Jitvan. Bliss. III-ix-28(1): He asked them through these verses: As a large tree. took his seat. The Brahmanas did not dare. The Rig-Veda. ‘As one who has a mother. ‘This Brahman is only one-footed. III-ix-28(2): It is from his skin that blood flows. is the supreme Brahman. or all of you’. all beings eagerly come to him. whichsoever amongst you wishes may interrogate me or all of you may. ‘Yajnavalkya. mythology. said Yajnavalkya. O Emperor. (for) it is produced in a living man. both are tough. III-ix-28(3): His flesh is its inner bark. blood flows. Yajnavalkya replied. knowing thus. Therefore when a man is wounded. Janaka. no. III-ix-28(4): If a tree. Yajnavalkya’. meditates upon it.

For what can a person have who cannot hear ? But did he tell you about its abode (body) and support ?’ ‘No. It should be meditated upon as dear’. For what can a person have who cannot see ? But did he tell you about its abode (body) and support ?’ ‘No. a man performs sacrifices for one for whom they should not be performed. and it is for the sake of the vital force. O Emperor’. one never reaches its end. ‘This Brahman is only one-footed. ‘The ear is its abode. The vital force never leaves him who. meditates upon it. has told me that the eye (sun) is Brahman’. The eye. ‘As one who has a mother. knowing thus. he attains the gods’. . so has the descendant of Bharadvaja said this – that the ear is Brahman. ‘I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant’. so has the son of Sulba said this – that the vital force is Brahman. I have". and accepts gifts one from whom they should not be accepted. Yajnavalkya?’ ‘’The eye itself. has told me that the ear (the quarters) is Brahman’. meditates upon it. knowing thus. then it is true. ‘As one who has a mother. knowing thus. O Emperor. ‘Then you tell us. the son of Sulba. has told me that the vital force (Vayu) is Brahman’. he attains the gods’. The eye never leaves him who. ‘The eye is its abode. O Emperor’. of the line of Bharadvaja. O Emperor. ‘My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple without fully instructing him’. ‘As one who has a mother. O Emperor. ‘My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple without fully instructing him’. The ear never leaves him who. meditates upon it. and the ear. and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. and being a god. ‘I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant’. said Yajnavalkya.IV-i-3: ‘Let me hear whatever any one may have told you’. said Yajnavalkya. ‘This Brahman is only one-footed. said Emperor Janaka. and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. O Emperor. It should be meditated upon as infinite’. "Yes. O Emperor’. Yajnavalkya ?’ The vital force itself. for what can a person have who does not live ? But did he tell you about its abode (body) and support ?’ ‘No. ‘Barku. ‘The vital force is its abode. ‘Then you tell us. Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘The quarters themselves. and being a god. O Emperor. O Emperor. is the Supreme Brahman. a father and a teacher should say. ‘for the sake of the vital force. he did not’. ‘What is infinity. ‘Gardabhivipita. and being a god. all beings eagerly come to him. O Emperor. ‘I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant’. (Hence) the quarters are infinite. IV-i-4: ‘Let me hear whatever any one may have told you’. said Emperor Janaka. ‘What is dearness. says to one who has seen with his eyes. so has the son of Vrsna said this – that the eye is Brahman. said Emperor Janaka. to whatever direction one may go. that one runs the risk of one’s life in any quarter one may go to. The quarters. O Emperor’. ‘This Brahman is only one-footed. IV-i-5: ‘Let me hear whatever any one may have told you’. is the Supreme Brahman. O Emperor’. Yajnavalkya’. if a person. all beings eagerly come to him. and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. is the Supreme Brahman. O Emperor. the son of Vrsna. ‘therefore. he did not’. Yajnavalkya’. are the ear. Yajnavalkya’. Yajnavalkya replied. he attains the gods’. all beings eagerly come to him. O Emperor’. Yajnavalkya replied. ‘My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple without fully instructing him’. he did not’. a father and a teacher should say. ‘Udanka. The vital force. a father and a teacher should say. "Have you seen ?" and the latter answers. ‘Then you tell us. said Yajnavalkya. ‘What is truth. Yajnavalkya replied. It should be meditated upon as truth’.

‘with the Manas. the moon) is Brahman’. is the Supreme Brahman. Prajapati ) is Brahman’. Emperor of Videha. You are likewise respected and wealthy.IV-i-6: ‘Let me hear whatever any one may have told you’. O Emperor. ‘Then I will tell you where you will go’. rose from his lounge and approaching Yajnavalkya said. ‘The Manas is its abode. said Emperor Janaka. ‘The heart is its abode. ‘Satyakama. please instruct me’. ‘My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple without fully instructing him’. where I shall go’. has told me that the Manas (here. Yajnavalkya’. and hate to be called directly. Viraj (matter). The heart never leaves him who. The Manas never leaves him who. Yajnavalkya replied. all beings rest. . ‘As one who has a mother. ‘As one who has a mother. for indirect names. Yajnavalkya replied. The space that is within the heart is their place of union. said Yajnavalkya. he is indirectly called Indra. he attains the gods’. Yajnavalkya replied. sir. Their wrap is the net-like structure in the heart. O Emperor. Their food is the lump of blood (the finest essence of what we eat) in the heart. Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘The manas itself. ‘What is bliss. he did not’. A son resembling him is born of her. IV-ii-2: This being who is in the right eye is named Indha. Therefore the subtle body has finer food than the gross body. has told me that the heart (mind. sir’. Through these the essence of our food passes as it moves on. a father and a teacher should say. O Emperor’. the son of Sakala. ‘Then you tell us. O Emperor. ‘I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant’. IV-ii-1: Janaka. as it were. Yajnavalkya’. the heart. knowing thus. ‘the heart. all beings eagerly come to him. he did not’. Yajnavalkya. ‘I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant’. O Emperor. meditates upon it. O Emperor. said Emperor Janaka. on the heart. O Emperor’. so have you fully equipped your mind with so many secret names (of Brahman). and the heart. so has the son of Sakala said this – that the heart is Brahman. the son of Jabala. O Emperor. and you have studied the Vedas and heard the Upanishads. Yajnavalkya ?’ ‘The heart itself. Their road for moving is the nerve that goes upward from the heart. is the support of all beings. O Emperor’. so has the son of Jabala said this – that the Manas is Brahman. IV-i-7: ‘Let me hear whatever any one may have told you’. IV-ii-3: The human form that is in the left eye is his wife. and being a god. for the gods have a fondness. which are placed in the heart. The Manas. meditates upon it. It should be meditated upon as stability’. a father and a teacher should say. ‘This Brahman is only one-footed. and he is the cause of bliss. is the Supreme Brahman. ‘My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple without fully instructing him’. ‘What is stability. here. and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. Though he is Indha. (but) where will you go when you are separated from this body ?’ ‘I do not know. he attains the gods’. ‘As one wishing to go a long distance. For what can a person have without the heart ? But did he tell you about its abode (body) and support ?’ ‘No. a man (fancies and) woos a woman. O Emperor. ‘This Brahman is only one-footed. and being a god. ‘Vidagdha. all beings eagerly come to him. In this body there are nerves called Hita. ‘Salutations to you. is the abode of all beings. it is like a hair split into a thousand parts. should secure a chariot or a boat. ‘Tell me. It should be meditated upon as bliss’. For what can a person have without the Manas ? But did he tell you about its abode (body) and support ?’ ‘No. O Emperor’. ‘Then you tell us. knowing thus. said Yajnavalkya.

‘It is just so. and the fire has gone out. ‘It is imperceptible. and Yajnavalkya had granted him the boon.IV-ii-4: Of the sage (who is identified with the vital force). said Yajnavalkya. works and returns. ‘may That which is free from fear be yours. O Emperor. as it were. the south the southern vital force. it transcends this world – the forms of death (ignorance etc. unattached. one manages to go there.’ ‘It is just so. works and returns. ‘it is through the light of the sun that he sits. ‘Revered Yajnavalkya’.). or leaves the body. IV-iii-5: When the sun and the moon have both set. IV-iii-2: ‘Yajnavalkya. IV-iii-3: ‘When the sun has set. goes out. and when he dies. Yajnavalkya. the east is the eastern vital force. Yajnavalkya’. Yajnavalkya’. which is the third. When he dreams.’ IV-iii-8: That man. as it were. goes out. Yajnavalkya. ‘It is just so. Salutations to you ! Here is this (empire of) Videha. Yajnavalkya’. and shakes. undecaying. he takes away a little of (the impressions of) this all-embracing world (the waking state). said Emperor Janaka. what exactly serves as the light for a man ?’ ‘The moon serves as his light. Emperor of Videha. what exactly serves as the light for a man ?’ ‘The fire serves as his light. He had begged the liberty of asking any questions he liked. It is through the fire that he sits. IV-iii-9: That man only two abodes. the direction below the nether vital force. IV-iii-7: ‘Which is the self ?’ ‘This infinite entity (Purusha) that is identified with the intellect and is in the midst of the organs. and Yajnavalkya had offered him a boon. IV-iii-4: ‘When the sun and the moon have set. Therefore. Assuming the likeness (of the intellect). Being identified with dream. Yajnavalkya. for It is never perceived. O Emperor’. works and returns’. and never suffers injury. is at the junction (of the two). and speech has stopped. even when one’s own hand is not clearly visible. . the direction above the upper vital force. and all the quarters the different vital forces. what serves as the light for a man ?’ ‘The light of the sun. Whatever outfit he may have for the next world. this and the next world. O Janaka’. the north the northern vital force. Staying at that junction. it thinks. works and returns’. is connected with evils (the body and organs). said Yajnavalkya. he discards those evils. He thought he would not say anything. the (self-effulgent) light within the heart (intellect). this and the next world. goes out. when he is born. for It is never attached. It is through the light of the moon that he sits.’. ‘It is just so. It is through the light of speech that he sits. Yajnavalkya. the west the western vital force. what exactly serves as the light for a man ?’ ‘Speech (sound) serves as his light. The dream state. if a sound is uttered. for you have made That which is free from fear known to us. It is through the light of the self that he sits. unfettered – It never feels pain. goes out. what exactly serves as the light for a man ?’ ‘The self serves as his light. he surveys the two abodes. the fire has gone out. Yajnavalkya’. IV-iii-6: When the sun and the moon have both set. goes out. You have attained That which is free from fear. Now Janaka and Yajnavalkya had once talked on the Agnihotra. providing himself with that he sees both evils (sufferings) and joys. This self is That which has been described as ‘Not this. Not this’. ‘It is just so. works and returns’. it moves between the two worlds. So it was the e who first asked him. Yajnavalkya’. or attains a body. for It never decays. as well as myself at your service !’ IV-iii-1: Yajnavalkya went to Janaka.

He seems to be enjoying himself in the company of women. nor roads there. Yajnavalkya. IV-iii-14: ‘All see his sport. Please instruct me further about liberation’. sir. (in short) conjures up at the time through ignorance whatever terrible things he has . he craves no desire and sees no dream.’ IV-iii-16: After enjoying himself and roaming in the dream state. (This is wrong) In the dream state the man himself becomes the light. There are no pleasures. IV-iii-13: ‘In the dream world. Others. tanks. Yajnavalkya. Please instruct me further about liberation itself. the shining one. Now when (he feels) as if he were being killed or overpowered. he comes back in the inverse order to his former condition. or laughing. and filled with white. and merely seeing (the result of) good and evil (in dream). (They are the seat of the subtle body. or rivers there. but he creates the pools. he goes wherever he likes. IV-iii-20: In him are those nerves called Hita. They say. because he sees in dream only those things that he sees in the waking state. brown. In this state the man himself becomes the light.himself puts the body aside and himself creates (a dream body in its place). IV-iii-19: As a hawk or a falcon flying in the sky becomes tired. joys. falling asleep. sir. where. so does this infinite being move to both these states. IV-iii-18: As a great fish swims alternately to both the banks (of a river). in which impressions are stored). the body becomes difficult to doctor. the animals and the roads. so does this infinite being run for this state. or delights there. joys and delights. IV-iii-12: ‘The radiant infinite being who is immortal and moves alone. He is untouched by whatever he sees in that state. is bound for its nest. and merely seeing (the results of) good and evil. the dream state (or that of profound sleep). preserves the unclean nest (the body) with the help of the vital force. blue. I give you a thousand (cows). or even seeing frightful things. but he creates the pleasures. For he is the agent. but none sees him’. and stretching its wings. the waking state. or being pursued by an elephant. green and red (serums). ‘It is just so. he (stays) in a state of profound sleep. and merely seeing (the result of) good and evil. IV-iii-11: Regarding this there are the following pithy verses: ‘The radiant infinite being (Purusha) who moves alone. Please instruct me further about liberation itself. he comes back in the inverse order to his former condition. tanks and rivers. and roams out of the nest. nor animals to be yoked to them. IV-iii-10: There are no chariots. puts forth innumerable forms. sir. puts the body aside in the dream state. but he creates the chariots. There are no pools. I give you a thousand (cows).’ IV-iii-17: After enjoying himself and roaming in the waking state. and remaining awake himself and taking the shining functions of the organs with him. say that the dream state of a man is nothing but the waking state. the dream and waking states. ‘Do not wake him up suddenly’. revealing his own lustre by his own light – and dreams. however. watches those that are asleep. for this infinite being is unattached. ‘I give you a thousand (cows). eastern and western. He is untouched by whatever he sees in that state. Again he comes to the waking state. which are as fine as a hair split into a thousand parts. Himself immortal. for this infinite being is unattached. and comes back in the inverse order to his former condition. or falling into a pit. ‘It is just so. If he does not find the right organ. the dream state. IV-iii-15: After enjoying himself and roaming. attaining higher and lower states.

This is the sphere )(state) of Brahman. for the thinker’s function of thinking can never be lost. it does not think. the Vedas no Vedas. IV-iii-32: It becomes (transparent) like water. as it were. a monk no monk. for he is then beyond all the woes of his heart (intellect). And when (he becomes) a god. though thinking then. though touching then. it does not taste. But there is not that second thing separate from it which it can know. either external or internal. it does not touch. because it is imperishable. In this state a thief is no thief. (that is the dream state). one can smell something. and without a second. though hearing then. because it is imperishable. a mother no mother.experienced in the waking state. or one can know something. But there is not that second thing separate from it which it can touch. IV-iii-30: That it does not know in that state is because. for the smeller’s function of smelling can never be lost. as it were. IV-iii-23: That it does not see in that state is because. it does not see. one can hear something. But there is not that second thing separate from it which it can taste. IV-iii-22: In this state a father is no father. a Chandala no Chandala. But there is not that second thing separate from it which it can see. and which is free from desire and devoid of grief. IV-iii-31: When there is something else. though knowing then. then one can see something. Thus did Yajnavalkya instruct Janaka: This is its supreme attainment. (This form of his) is untouched by good work and untouched by evil work. it does not know. because it is imperishable. IV-iii-25: That it does not taste in that state is because. for the knower’s function of knowing can never be lost. either external or internal. for the toucher’s function of touching can never be lost. it does not speak. IV-iii-26: That it does not speak in that state is because. IV-iii-28: That it does not think in that state is because. this is its supreme bliss. for the taster’s function of tasting can never be lost. IV-iii-24: That it does not smell in that state is because. But there is not that second thing separate from it which it can think. this is its supreme glory. though seeing then. who am all’. IV-iii-27: That it does not hear in that state is because. That is his form – in which all objects of desire have been attained and are but the self. As a man. or a king. On a particle of this very bliss other beings live. that is his highest state. it does not hear. for the listener’s function of hearing can never be lost. one can think something. though smelling then. though tasting then. But there is not that second thing separate from it which it can smell. one can speak something. fully embraced by his beloved wife. so does this infinite being (self). the gods no gods. not know anything at all. IV-iii-29: That it does not touch in that state is because. a Pulkasa no Pulkasa. because it is imperishable. a hermit no hermit. because it is imperishable. O Emperor. fully embraced by the Supreme Self. one can taste something. the witness. for the speaker’s function of speaking can never be lost. because it is imperishable. because it is imperishable. the killer of a noble Brahmana no killer. because it is imperishable. it does not smell. though speaking then. But there is not that second thing separate from it which it can hear. one can touch something. does not know anything at all. . as it were. one. But there is not that second thing separate from it which it can speak. IV-iii-21: That is his form – beyond desires. free from evils and fearless. ‘This (universe) is myself. thinks. worlds no worlds. for the vision of the witness can never be lost. this is its highest world.

the organs come to it. saying. Please instruct me further about liberation itself’. for the unfoldment of his vital force. ‘Here he comes. This joy of the gods by action multiplied a hundred times makes one unit of joy for the gods by birth. The joy of these manes who have won that world multiplied a hundred times makes one unit joy in the world of the celestial minstrels. This joy in the world of the celestial minstrels multiplied a hundred times makes one unit of joy for the gods by action – those who have attained their godhead by their actions. either through the eye. ‘He does not hear’. then they say. goes on rumbling. the Ugras set against particular offences. This joy of the gods by birth multiplied a hundred times makes one unit of joy in the world of Prajapati (Viraj). (The nose) becomes united. and most lavishly supplied with all human enjoyments. said Yajnavalkya. Through that brightened top the self departs. or a fig. when breathing becomes difficult. ‘He does not see’. ‘I give you a thousand (cows). then they say. This indeed is the supreme bliss. (The skin) becomes united. as well as of one who is versed in the Vedas. IV-iv-2: (The eye) becomes united (with the subtle body). so for the person who knows about the results of his work. as also of one who is versed in the Vedas. ‘He does not think’. ‘He does not taste’. ‘He does not know’. heavily loaded. (The Manas) becomes united. the ruler of others. IV-iv-1: When this self becomes weak and senseless. as well as one who is versed in the Vedas. or through any other part of . so does the self that is in the body. Completely withdrawing these particles of light. all the elements wait saying. then they say. in the same way that he came. and merely seeing the effects of merits and demerits. go making noises. the waking state. then they say. then they say. (The intellect) becomes united. so do all the organs approach the departing man at the time of death. the Ugras set against particular offences. sinless and free from desire. O Emperor. the Sutas and the leaders of the village wait for him with varieties of food and drink and mansions ready. being presided over by the Supreme Self. again go. ‘He does not smell’. (The vocal Organ) becomes united. as a mango. sir. ‘He does not speak’.IV-iii-33: He who is perfect of physique and prosperous among men. to particular bodies. This human joy multiplied a hundred times makes one unit of joy for the manes who have won that world of theirs. (The tongue) becomes united. ‘Here comes Brahman. here he comes’. the man fails to notice colour. sinless and free from desire. then they say. then people say. When the presiding deity of the eye turns back from all sides. the Sutas and the leaders of the village approach him. This joy in the world of Prajapati multiplied a hundred times makes one unit of joy in the world of Brahman (Hiranyagarbha). (The ear) becomes united. IV-iii-37: Just as when a king is coming. ‘He does not touch’. At this Yajnavalkya was afraid that the intelligent Emperor was constraining him to finish with all his conclusions. IV-iii-34: After enjoying himself and roaming in the dream state. IV-iii-38: Just as when the king wishes to depart. it comes to the heart. sinless and free from desire. or a fruit of the Peepul tree is detached from its stalk. here he comes’. represents greatest joy among men. when breathing becomes difficult. or through the head. IV-iii-36: When this (body) becomes thin – is emaciated through old age or disease – then. completely detaching himself from the parts of the body. This is the state of Brahman. IV-iii-35: Just as a cart. The top of the heart brightens. so does this infinite being. he comes back. as it were. in the inverse order. then they say. to his former condition.

‘I give you a thousand (cows). IV-iv-9: Some speak of it as white. with this (what is perceived) and with that (what is inferred). Being but Brahman. Then the self becomes disembodied and immortal. who is free from desires. as also identified with the intellect. It is followed by knowledge. When it departs. together with the work. having been mortal. go those people who are ignorant and unwise. IV-iv-5: That self is indeed Brahman. say. others as blue. (becomes) the Prana (Supreme Self).’ IV-iv-6: Regarding this there is the following pithy verse: ‘Being attached he. grey. with everything -–identified. and what it works out. he is merged in Brahman. so does this body lie. Through that sages – the knowers of Brahman – (also) go to the heavenly sphere (liberation) after the fall of this body. the objects of whose desire have been attained. and attains Brahman in this very body’. IV-iv-10: Into blinding darkness (ignorance) enter those who worship ignorance (rites). said Janaka. with anger and the absence of anger. But the man who does not desire (never transmigrates). so does the self throw this body aside – make it senseless – take hold of another support. being freed (even while living). in fact. Others. so it becomes. IV-iv-11: Miserable are those worlds enveloped by (that) blinding darkness (ignorance). What it desires. with fire. Exhausting the results of whatever work he did in this life. Any other knower of Brahman who has done good deeds and is identified with the Supreme Light. To them. it resolves. becomes immortal. and goes to the body which is related to that consciousness. Just as the lifeless Slough of a snake is cast off and lies in the ant-hill. or red. or Viraj. Of him who is without desires. (Nay) I have realised it myself. ancient way has touched (been reached by) me. and by doing evil it becomes evil – it becomes virtuous through good acts and vicious through evil acts. takes hold of another support and contracts itself. or the gods. then he. Brahman. extensive. and what is other than fire. all the organs follow. however. after death.the body. he returns from that world to this for (fresh) work’. than that enter those who are devoted to knowledge (the ceremonial portion of the Vedas). when the vital force departs. Emperor of Videha. and to whom all objects of desire are but the Self – the organs do not depart. or Hiranyagarbha. what it resolves. with desire and the absence of desire. water. IV-iv-4: Just as a goldsmith takes apart a little quantity of gold and fashions another – a newer and better – form. work and past experience. it attains. with earth. Then the self has particular consciousness. the Manas and the vital force. Thus does the man who desires (transmigrate). the vital force follows. As it does and acts. by doing good it becomes good. This path is realised by a Brahmana (knower of Brahman). green. air and the ether. the Light. as it were. IV-iv-3: Just as a leech supported on a straw goes to the end of it. or other beings. ‘The self is identified with desire alone. then desiring what and for whose sake will he suffer in the wake of the body ? . or make it senseless. and make another – a newer and better – form suited to the manes or the celestial minstrels. attains that result to which his subtle body or mind is attached. IV-iv-12: If a man knows the Self as ‘I am this’. with righteousness and unrighteousness. IV-iv-8: Regarding this there are the following pithy verses: the subtle. Into greater darkness. so does the self throw this body away. IV-iv-7: Regarding this there is this pithy verse: ‘When all the desires that dwell in his heart (mind) are gone. sir’. (also) treads this path. with the eyes and ears. and contract itself. it works out.

he no longer wishes to hide himself from it.IV-iv-13: He who has realised and intimately known the Self that has entered this perilous and inaccessible place (the body). the ruler of all. upon that immortal Light of all lights the gods meditate as longevity. knowing about this alone. have realised the ancient. and lived a mendicant’s life. it is said. IV-iv-18: Those who have known the Vital Force of the vital force. for It never decays. sacrifices. (all is) his Self. It is imperceptible. who sees difference. IV-iv-19: Through the mind alone (It) is to be realised. lies in the ether that is within the heart. for he is the maker of all. ‘I did a good act for this’. It is the ruler of all beings. for It is never attached. The Brahmanas seek to know It through the study of the Vedas. It is the lord of all. and sees the self in his own self (body). unattached. IV-iv-20: It should be realised in one form only. infinite and constant. he sees all as . It is the bank that serves as the boundary to keep the different worlds apart. (I should have been) ignorant. and that which is the desire for wealth is the desire for worlds. IV-iv-21: The intelligent aspirant after Brahman.’ They. (He) should not think of too many words. It is the protector of all beings. IV-iv-22: That great. He goes from death to death. IV-iv-14: Being in this very body we have somehow known that (Brahman). Desiring this world (the Self) alone. The Self is taintless. He conquers both of them. This self is That which has been described as ‘Not this. did not desire children (thinking). Therefore he who knows it as such becomes self-controlled. the Lord of all that has been and will be. the Eye of the eye. (and) great destruction (would have taken place). IV-iv-23: This has been expressed by the following hymn: This is the eternal glory of a knower of Brahman: it neither increases nor decreases through work. birthless. withdrawn into himself. that very Atman I regard as the immortal Brahman. Knowing (Brahman) I am immortal. primordial Brahman. That which is the desire for sons is the desire for wealth. as it were. This is (the reason for it). Things done or not done do not trouble him. the lord of all. it is said. is the maker of the universe. enduring and concentrated. charity. (for) It is unknowable and eternal. and he again is indeed the Self (of all). IV-iv-16: Below which the year with its days rotates. one becomes a sage. Not this’. for it is particularly fatiguing to the organ of speech. and the Mind of the mind. (it is but proper) that the sage is never overtaken by these two thoughts. in It. Knowing it one is not touched by evil action. for It is never perceived. should attain intuitive knowledge. for both these are but desires. this world (result). monks renounce their homes. the Ear of the ear. There is no difference whatsoever in It. undecaying. (Therefore) one should know the nature of that alone. and austerity consisting in a dispassionate enjoyment of sense-objects. IV-iv-17: That in which the five groups of five and the (subtle) ether are placed. and never suffers injury. ‘What shall we achieve through children. Those who know It become immortal. IV-iv-15: When a man after (receiving instructions from a teacher) directly realises this effulgent Self. If not. The ancient sages. calm. unfettered – It never feels pain. for wealth and for the worlds. It is the controller of all. birthless Self which is identified with the intellect and is in the midst of the organs. renounced their desire for sons. while others attain misery alone. Knowing It alone. It does not grow better through good work nor worse through bad work. we who have attained this Self. beyond the (subtle) ether. ‘I did an evil act for this’.

He becomes sinless. The Kshatriya ousts one who knows him as different from the Self. but for one’s own sake that he is loved. birthless Self is undecaying. my dear Maitreyi. my dear. my dear. should be realised – should be heard of. that they are loved. It is not for the sake of the gods. shall I be immortal through that. these Vedas. It is not for the sake of worlds. (while) Katyayani had then only an essentially feminine outlook. my dear. that they are loved. It is not for the sake of wealth. and a Brahmana (knower of Brahman). IV-iv-25: That great. my dear. but for one’s own sake that they are loved. undying. He who knows It as such receives wealth (those fruits). As I explain it. but for one’s own sake that he is loved. ‘What shall I do with that which will not make me immortal ? Tell me. my dear. that he is loved. these gods. that they are loved. Brahman is indeed fearless. Worlds oust one who knows them as different from the Self. immortal. and you have magnified what is after my heart. said Yajnavalkya. taintless. my dear. Evil does not trouble him. but for one’s own sake that it is loved. is realised by being heard of. but for one’s own sake that it is loved. All ousts one who knows it as different from the Self. that she is loved. IV-iv-24: That great. The Self. of that alone which you know (to be the only means of immortality).’ IV-v-4: Then Maitreyi said. It is not for the sake of the Brahmana. but for one’s own sake that she is loved. if indeed this whole earth full of wealth be mine. my dear. .the Self. my dear. Evil does not overtake him. ‘I am going to renounce this life for monasticism. It is not for the sake of the sons. but he transcends all evil. I will explain it to you. meditate (upon its meaning). If you wish. It is not for the sake of the wife. It is not for the sake of the Kshatriya. Allow me to finish between you and Katyayani’. these beings and these all -. One day Yajnavalkya. replied Yajnavalkya. my dear. with a view to embracing life – IV-v-2: ‘O Maitreyi. my dear. ‘your life will be just like that of people who possess plenty of things. my dear. but for one’s own sake that they are loved. the empire of Videha. This is the world of Brahman. my dear’.are this Self. He who knows It as such certainly becomes the fearless Brahman. or not ?’ ‘No’. but there is no hope of immortality through wealth. and you have attained it – said Yajnavalkya. The Vedas oust one who knows them as different from the Self. that all is loved. ‘Sir. birthless Self is the eater of food and the giver of wealth (the fruits of one’s work). IV-v-7: The Brahmana ousts (slights) one who knows him as different from the Self. fearless and Brahman (infinite). This Brahmana. Maitreyi and Katyayani. but for one’s own sake that he is loved. that they are loved. IV-v-3: Thereupon Maitreyi said. IV-v-6: He said: ‘It is not for the sake of the husband. this Kshatriya. my dear. It is not for the sake of beings. It is not for the sake of all. Beings oust one who knows them as different from the Self. (but) he consumes all evil. ‘I give you sir. sir.’ IV-v-5: Yajnavalkya said. to wait upon you’. reflected on and meditated upon. ‘My dear. that it is loved. The gods oust one who knows them as different from the Self. that he is loved. Of these Maitreyi used to discuss Brahman. and myself too with it. free from doubts. O Emperor. reflected on and meditated upon. these worlds. that he is loved. you have been my beloved (even before). but for one’s own sake that they are loved. all this is known. When the Self. but for one’s own sake that they are loved. IV-v-1: Now Yajnavalkya had two wives.

sacrifices. one tastes something. food. but they are included in the general note of the drum or in the general sound produced by different kinds of strokes. oblations in the fire. Maitreyi. This much indeed is (the means of) immortality. the Rig-Veda. what should one smell and through what. mythology. IV-vi-1: Now the line of teachers: Pautimasya (received it) from Gaupavana. my dear’. explanations. ‘Just here you have led me into the midst of confusion. (The Self) comes out (as a separate entity) from these elements. sir. as the intellect is the one goal of all kinds of knowledge. and never suffers injury. They are like the breath of this (Supreme Self). should one know the Knower ? So you have got the instruction. as the organ of generation is the one goal of all kinds of enjoyment. as the feet are the one goal of all kinds of walking. for It never decays. Yajur-Veda. as it were. IV-v-10: As. Upanishads. what should one taste and through what. even so. It is imperceptible. one hears something. arts. IV-v-13: As a lump of salt is without interior or exterior. This Gaupavana . unfettered – it never feels pain. So said Yajnavalkya. Sama-Veda. for It is never attached. one smells something. pithy verses. then what should one see and through what. what should one know and through what ? Through what should one know that owing to which all this is known ? This self is That which has been described as ‘Not this. as the nostrils are the one goal of all odours. one speaks something. history. and purely saline in taste. I do not at all comprehend this’. Not this’. aphorisms. ‘Certainly.IV-v-8: As. as the hands are the one goal of all sort of work. my dear. for It is never perceived. one cannot distinguish its various particular notes. one cannot distinguish its various particular notes. what should one think and through what. drink. what should one speak and through what. unattached. This self is indeed immutable and indestructible. Saying this Yajnavalkya left. when a Vina is played. one touches something. entire. my dear. IV-v-15: Because when there is duality. when a drum is beaten. undecaying. this world. IV-v-12: As the ocean is the one goal of all sorts of water. when a conch is blown. my dear. one thinks something. as the eye is the one goal of all colours . but they are included in the general note of the Vina or in the general sound produced by different kinds of playing. and Pure Intelligence alone. entire. Gaupavana from another Pautimasya. IV-v-11: As from a fire kindled with wet faggot diverse kinds of smoke issue. as the skin is the one goal of all kinds of touch. one cannot distinguish its various particular notes. O Maitreyi. as the ear is the one goal of all sounds. one knows something. as the tongue is the one goal of all savours. but they are included in the general note of the conch or in the general sound produced by different kinds of playing. what should one touch and through what. After attaining (this oneness) it has no more consciousness. then one sees something. He said. I am not saying anything confusing. what should one hear and through what. as the anus is the one goal of all excretions. This Pautimasya from another Gaupavana. IV-v-14: Maitreyi said. elucidations. IV-v-9: As. (But) when to the knower of Brahman everything has become the Self. as the organ of speech is the one goal of all Vedas. This is what I say. and (this separateness) is destroyed with them. even so is the Self without interior or exterior. the next world and all beings are (like) the breath of this infinite Reality. as the Manas is the one goal of all deliberations. Through what. Atharvangirasa.

it remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone. Ghrtakausika from Parasaryayana. Bharadvaja from Atreya. He who knows as above goes to heaven. He from Asuri. To him who knows as above. ‘have you understood ?’ (They) said. He from Pathin Saubhara. This Anabhimlata from Gautama. you have understood’. Vyasti from Sanaru. ‘Ya’ is another syllable. (He) said. ‘Have you understood ?’ (They) said. Sanaru from Sanatana. (Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe). you have understood’. He told them the same syllable ‘Da’ (and asked). ‘Hridaya’ (heart) has three syllables. V-ii-2: Then the men said to him. The gods. (so) the Brahmans (knowers of Brahman) know. He from another Parasarya. and this (universe) is infinite. Galava from Vidarbhikaundinya. as ‘Da’.from Kausika. He told them the syllable ‘Da’ (and asked). his own people and others bring (presents). He from Vatsanapat Babhrava. V-i-1: Om. You tell us: Control yourselves’. They from Parasarya. Anabhinlata from another of that name. Jatukarnya from Asurayana and Yaska.this heart (intellect). Sandilya from Kaisorya Kapya. Om is the ether-Brahman – the eternal ether. That (Brahman) is infinite. He told them the same syllable ‘Da’ (and asked). V-iii-1: This is Prajapati . Gautama from Saitava and Pracinayogya. ‘Please instruct us’. Vatsya from Sandilya. He from Mrtyu Pradhvamsana. (He) said. (He) said. . Salutation to Brahman. Traivani from Aupajandhani. his own people and others give (their powers). He from Brahman (Hiranyabarbha). Atreya from Manti. Prajapati (Viraj) – the gods. Gautama from another Bharatvaja. Asurayana from Traivani. ‘Please instruct us’. It is the Veda. and ‘have compassion’. He from Ayasya Angirasa. the cloud. He from Atharvan Daiva. V-ii-3: Then the Asuras said to him. They from Dadhyac Atharvana. ‘We have. men and Asuras. He from Kumaraharita. Agnivesya from Sandilya and Anabhimlata. He from Vatsya. Viprachitti from Vyasri. ‘Yes. ‘Please instruct us’. ‘Yes. you have understood’. ‘Da’: ‘Control yourselves’. ‘Have you understood ?’ (They) said. on the completion of their term. That very thing is repeated by the heavenly voice. He from a third Anabhimlata. ‘Give’. You tell us: Have compassion’. ‘Da’ is another syllable. Kausikayani – IV-vi-3: From Ghrtakausika.’ says the son of Kauravyayani. He from Visvarupa Tvastra. ‘Hr’ is one syllable. Sanatana from Sanaga. Gautama – IV-vi-2: From Agnivesya. He from Kausikayani. Pradhvamsana from Ekarsi. The infinite proceeds from the infinite. Gautama from another Gautama. Manti from Gautama. Therefore one should learn these three – self-control. ‘Da’. ‘The ether containing air. ‘We have. He from the Asvins. He from Bharadvaja and Gautama. Brahman is self born. ‘Yes. ‘We have. said. Kausika from Kaundinya. Kumaraharita from Galava. Parasarya from Baijavapayana. it is everything. Sanaga from Paramesthin (Viraj). charity and compassion. He from Abhuti Tvastra. Ekarsi from Viprachitti. He from Parasarya. He from Pradhvamsana. Kaundinya from Sandilya. Asuri from Bharadvaja. To him who knows as above. Parasarya from Jatukarnya. It is Brahman. Parasarya from Bharadvaja. V-ii-1: Three classes of Prajapati’s sons lived a life of continence with their father. You tell us: Give’. (for) through it one knows what is to be known. Sandilya from Kausika and Gautama.

He who knows this great. and her calf the mind. the ruler of all. and there is this one syllable. He lives there for eternal years. . V-x-1: When a man departs from this world. V-v-2: That which is Satya is that sun – the being who is in that orb and the being who is in the right eye. That water produced Satya. the word ‘Svar’ is the feet. first-born (being) thus. He who knows as above destroys and shuns evil. the word ‘Svar’ is the feet. Satya is Brahman. for lightning is indeed Brahman. the word ‘Bhuvar’ is the arms. for there is one head. V-vi-1: This being identified with the mind and resplendent (is realised by the Yogins) within the heart like a grain of rice or barley. He goes upwards through that and reaches the moon. as the Satya-Brahman. who makes an opening there for him like the hole of a drum. Those gods meditate upon Satya alone. and his (enemy) is thus conquered and becomes non-existent – he who knows this great.V-iv-1: That (intellect-Brahman) was but this – Satya (gross and subtle) alone. V-v-1: This (universe) was but water (liquid oblations connected with sacrifices) in the beginning. and there are these two syllables. and "Ya’ is the third syllable. V-viii-1: One should meditate upon speech (the Vedas) as a cow (as it were). for there are two feet. He who knows it as such – that lightning is Brahman – scatters evils (that are ranged against) him. V-vii-1: They say lightning is Brahman. first-born (being) as the Satya-Brahman. and there is this one syllable. adorable. He who knows as above destroys and shuns evil. The rays no more come to him. is Vaisvanara. ‘Hanta’ and ‘Svadha’. This untruth is enclosed on either side by truth. men on the sound ‘Hanta’. One who knows as above is never hurt by untruth. ‘Vasat’. he no more hears this sound. adorable. V-v-4: Of this being who is in the right eye. conquers these worlds. It is called lightning (Vidyut) because it scatters (darkness). He goes upwards through that and reaches the sun. V-v-3: Of this being who is in the solar orb. Brahman (produced) Prajapati. he reaches the air. In the middle is untruth. She has four teats – the sounds "Svaha’. the syllable ‘Bhur’ is the head. The gods live on two of her teats – the sounds ‘Svaha’ and ‘Vasat’. for there are two arms. It emits this sound that one hears by stopping the ears thus. he sees the solar orb as clear. This (name) ‘Satya’ consists of three syllables: ‘Sacrifice’ is one syllable. and there are these two syllables. ‘Ti’ is another syllable. who makes an opening there for him like the hole of a tabor. When a man is about to leave the body. He goes upwards through that and reaches a world free from grief and from cold. and there are these two syllables. His secret name is ‘Ahar’. V-ix-1: This fire that is within a man and digests the food that is eaten. These two rest on each other. and the latter rests on the former through the function of the eyes. the syllable ‘Bhur’ is the head. which makes an opening there for him like the hole of a chariot-wheel. Her bull is the vital force. for there are two arms. for there are two feet. His secret name is ‘Aham’. The first and last syllables are truth. for there is one head. and the manes on the sound ‘Svadha’. (Hence) there is a preponderance of truth. and Prajapati the gods. the word ‘Bhuvar’ is the arms. and there are these two syllables. for Satya is indeed Brahman. When a man is about to leave the body. He is the lord of all. and governs whatever there is. The former rests on the latter through the rays.

and what evil indeed can I do to him either?’ The father. He who knows as above wins an excellent world. and achieves union with and abode in the same world as the Ksatra. has to confer. So the above three worlds constitute the first foot of the Gayatri. for all these creatures rest on food. He who knows as above wins an excellent world. ‘Apana’ and ‘Vyana’ make eight syllables. V-xiii-3: (One should meditate upon the vital force as) the Saman. For him who knows as above all beings are united. for it raises this universe. ‘Supramundane’. ‘Antariksa’ (sky) and ‘Dyaus’ (heaven) make eight syllables. for all these beings are joined with one another if there is the vital force. He who knows the third foot of the Gayatri to be such wins all the living beings that are in the universe. The vital force is "Ram". ‘Apparently visible foot’. supramundane foot is indeed this – the sun that shines. V-xiii-4: (One should meditate upon the vital force as) the Ksatra. ‘Turiya’ means the fourth. V-xii-1: Some say that food is Brahman. and the third foot of the Gayatri has eight syllables. On him who knows as above all creatures rest. as it were. So Pratrda said to his father. The vital force is the Uktha. . So the above three Vedas constitute the second foot of the Gayatri. for the vital force dries up without food. and they succeed in bringing about his eminence. It is "Ram". the three Vedas. for who would attain his highest by being identified with them ?’ Then he said to him this: ‘It is "Vi". and in him all creatures delight. Pratrda. no. ‘Of. Food is "vi". The vital force is the Yajus. V-xiii-2: (One should meditate upon the vital force as) the Yajus. So the above three forms of vital force constitute the third foot of the Gayatri. and he achieves union with and abode in the same world as the Yajus (vital force). and he achieves union with and abode in the same world as the Uktha. Now its Turiya. with a gesture of the hand. and he achieves union with abode in the same world as the Saman. All beings are joined for the eminence of him who knows as above. ‘What good indeed can I do to one who knows like this. because he is seen. said. apparently visible. for all these beings are united if there is the vital force. This indeed is excellent austerity that a man after death is carried to the forest. for food rots without the vital force. V-xiii-1: (One should meditate upon the vital force as) the Uktha (a hymn of praise). He who knows the second foot of the Gayatri to be such wins as much as that treasury of knowledge. V-xiv-2: ‘Reah’. But these two deities being united attain their highest. The vital force is the Saman. This indeed is excellent austerity that a man after death is placed in the fire. because he shines on the whole universe as its overlord. The vital force is the Ksatra. From him who knows as above rises a son who is a knower of the vital force. V-xiv-3: ‘Prana’. Others say that the vital force is Brahman. He who knows as above wins an excellent world. He who knows the fourth foot of the Gayatri to be such shines in the same way with splendour and fame. V-xiv-1: ‘Bhumi’ (the earth). for all these creatures delight if there is the vital force’. The vital force protects the body from wounds. He who knows the first foot of the Gayatri to be such wins as much as there is in those three worlds. ‘Yajumsi’ and ‘Samani’ make eight syllables. He who knows as above attains this Ksatra (vital force) that has no other protector. It is not so. It is not so. for it is indeed the Ksatra. and the first foot of the Gayatri has eight syllables.V-xi-1: This indeed is excellent austerity that a man suffers when he is ill. and the second foot of the Gayatri has eight syllables.

who art the syllable ‘Om’. He who accepts as much as this treasury of knowledge. Salutation to thee. Thus the Gayatri rests on the vital force within the body. remove the wily evil from us. and thou art without any feet. he consumes them all and becomes pure. With its fourth. That Gayatri saved the Gayas. and this body too. ‘May I attain that (cherished object) of his!’ V-xiv-8: On this Janaka. and another. recollect all that I have done. the fourth. two-footed. may see (the face). (Hence) truth rests on the vital force. ‘I heard of it’. reduced to ashes. because it saved the organs. lead us along the good way towards our riches (deserts). the son of Asvatarasva. so it saved the organs. apparently visible. thou knowest everybody’s mental states. and I am immortal. for the eye is indeed truth. apparently visible. ‘Fire is its mouth. O Pusan (nourisher of the world – the sun). The vital force is strength. never flourishes – or (he may say). it is not (enough) for even one foot of the Gayatri. ‘I saw it’. Even if they put a large quantity of fuel into the fire. It saves the organs of him to whom it is communicated. recollect. there-footed and four-footed. are you carrying (me) as an elephant ?’ He replied. Even if a man who knows as above accepts too much as gift. . O Yama (controller). One should not do like that. supramundane foot – the sun that shines – is not to be counter balanced by any gift received. it is all burnt up. O Deity of deliberations. V-xiv-5: Some communicate (to the pupil) the Savitri that is Anustubh (saying). O son of Prajapati (God or Hiranyagarbha). is said to have told Budila. (he should) either (use this Mantra): ‘Such and such – way his desired object never flourish!’ – in which case that object of the person against whom he thus salutes the Gayatri. I myself am that person. (go to the earth)! O fire. O Surya (sun). Now. then why. recollect all that I have done. whose reality is Satya. We utter repeated salutations to thee. ‘speech is Anustubh. O Lord. The eye is truth. O solitary Rishi (seer or traveller). undecaying and immortal’. And he who accepts as much as (is covered by) all living beings. ‘Well. I wish to behold that most benignant form of thine. as it were. so that I. curb thy brightness. will receive (the results of knowing) only its third foot. we shall impart that to him’. supramundane foot. O Deity of deliberations. O Pusan. remove it. will receive (the results of knowing) only its second foot. thou art one-footed. V-xiv-6: He who accepts these three worlds replete (with wealth). (When my body falls) may my vital force return to the air (cosmic force). for thou art unattainable. therefore it is called the Gayatri. take away thy rays. The Savitri that the teacher communicates to the pupil is no other than this. you gave yourself out as a knower of the Gayatri. apparently visible. Therefore they say strength is more powerful than truth. ‘I saw it’. V-xv-1: The face (nature) of Satya (Brahman) is hidden (as it were) with a golden vessel. One should communicate that Savitri which is the Gayatri. ‘Because I did not know its mouth. recollect. Similarly. will be receiving (the results of knowing) only the first foot of the Gayatri. Therefore if even today two persons come disputing. the Vedas (has to confer). we believe him only who says. That again rests on truth. That truth rests on strength. supramundane foot ! May the enemy never attain his object !’ (Should the knower of the Gayatri) bear hatred towards anybody. Indeed how could any one accept so much as gift ? V-xiv-7: Its salutation: ‘O Gayatri. one saying.V-xiv-4: That Gayatri rests on this fourth. O Fire. cleansed. O Emperor’. even if one who knows as above commits a great many sins. The organs are the Gayas. Emperor of Videha. alas.

seeing through the eye. VI-i-8: The organ of speech went out. knowing through the mind and having children through the organ of generation. He who knows it as such lives steadily in difficult as well as smooth places and times.’ So the mind entered.’ So the eye entered. ‘Which of us is the Vasistha ?’ He said. VI-i-4: He who knows Sampad (prosperity) attains whatever object he desires. ‘We lived just as dumb people do. disputing over their respective greatness. went to Brahman and said to him. but living through the vital force. who departing from among yourselves. He who knows it to be such attains whatever object he desires. ‘That one of you will be the Vasistha. ‘We lived just as blind people do. The Manas indeed is the abode. After staying a whole year out it came back and said. ‘How did you manage to live without me ?’ They said. hearing through the ear. ‘We lived just as idiots do. After staying a whole year out it came back and said. but living through the vital force. VI-i-3: He who knows Pratistha (that which has steadiness) lives steadily in difficult as well as smooth places and times. but living through the vital force. After staying a whole year out it came back and said. The organ of speech is indeed the Vasistha. speaking through the organ of speech. He who knows it to be such is enriched with children and animals. He who knows that which is the oldest and greatest. hearing through the ear.’ So the ear entered. VI-i-10: The ear went out. VI-i-7: These organs. without speaking through the organ of speech. knowing through the mind and having children through the organ of generation. VI-i-2: He who knows the Vasistha (that which best helps to dwell or cover) becomes the Vasistha among his relatives. for through the eye one lives steadily in difficult as well as smooth places and times. He who knows it to be such becomes the oldest and greatest among his relatives as well as among those of whom he wants to be such. hearing through the ear and having children through the organ of generation. speaking through the organ of speech. The eye indeed is Pratistha.’ So the organ of speech entered. He who knows it as such becomes the Vasistha among his relatives as well as among those of whom he wants to be such. The ear indeed is Sampad. speaking through the organ of speech. ‘How did you manage to live without me ?’ They said. becomes the oldest and greatest among his relatives. VI-i-11: The mind went out. VI-i-12: The organ of generation went out. ‘We lived just as deaf people do. seeing through the eye. ‘How did you manage to live without me ?’ They said. VI-i-6: He who knows Prajati (that which has the attribute of generation) is enriched with children and animals. VI-i-5: He who knows the abode becomes the abode of his relatives as well as of (other) people. After staying a whole year out it came back and said. VI-i-9: The eye went out. ‘How did you manage to live without me ?’ They said. but living through the vital force. He who knows it to be such becomes the abode of his relatives as well as of (other) people. After staying a whole year out it came back and said. seeing through the eye. ‘How did you manage to live without me ?’ They said. for all these Vedas are acquired when one has the ear (intact). The vital force is indeed the oldest and greatest. people consider this body far more wretched’. without knowing through the mind. knowing through the mind and having children through the organ of generation.VI-i-1: Om. The seed (organ) has this attribute. without seeing through the eye. without hearing through the ear. ‘We lived just as .

Gautama. whatever I knew I told you every bit of it. VI-i-14: The organ of speech said. hearing through the ear and knowing through the mind. ‘Do you know the means of access to the way of the gods. and water your dress’. seeing through the eye. the son of Jivala. VI-i-13: Then as the vital force was about to go out. ‘Yes. insects and moths. sir. They regard it as removing the nakedness of the vital force. ‘You go alone. said he. VI-ii-7: Aruni said. ‘Yes’. ‘That attribute of the Vasistha which I have is yours’. without having children through the organ of generation. Therefore wise men who are versed in the Vedas sip a little water just before and after eating. disregarding the invitation to stay. said he. had water brought for him. sir’. VI-ii-1: Svetaketu. hurried away. ‘Do you know after how many oblations are offered water (the liquid offerings) rises up possessed of a human voice (or under the name of man) and speaks ?’ ‘No’. ‘Do you know how the other world is never filled by so many people dying thus again and again ?’ ‘No’. ‘We will give revered Gautama. let us go there and live as students’. infinite . They lie between the father and the mother (earth and heaven). is your food. and dress. ‘Boy !’ He replied. or that to the way of the manes – doing which people attain either the way of the gods or the way of the manes ? We have heard the words of the Mantra: ‘I have heard of two routes for men. believe me. The King gave him a seat.’ So the organ of generation entered. But come. who was being waited on (by his servants). ‘Well. The ear: ‘That attribute of prosperity which I have is yours’. ‘You know that I already have gold. including dogs. The boy. They said. He who knows the food of the vital force to be such. cattle and horses. the grandson of Aruna. VI-ii-3: Then the King invited him to stay. He came to his father and said to him. Please ask some human boon’. was giving audience. VI-ii-6: The King said. and he quoted their first words. ‘You have promised me this boon. speaking through the organ of speech. never happens to eat anything that is not food. The organ of generation: ‘That attribute of generation which I have is yours’. Be not ungenerous towards me alone regarding this plentiful. At this Gautama came to where King Pravahana. Then he said. (The vital force said:) ‘Then what will be my food and my dress ?’ (The organs said:) ‘Whatever is (known as) food. said he. ‘This comes under heavenly boons. the son of Jivala. He approached Pravahana. The eye: ‘That attribute of steadiness which I have is yours’.eunuchs do. my sagacious child ?’ ‘That wretch of a Kshatriya asked me five questions. or to accept anything that is not food. retinue. said he. and I knew not one of them. and made him the reverential offering. Please tell me what you spoke to my boy about’.’ ‘Which are they ?’ ‘These’. VI-ii-2: ‘Do you know how these people diverge after death ?’ ‘No’. Seeing him the King addressed him. a boon’. leading to the manes and the gods. The mind: ‘That attribute of abode which I have is yours’. but living through the vital force. ‘Please do not go out. maid-servants. it uprooted those organs just as a great. ‘Have you been taught by your father ?’ He said. did you not tell me before that you had (fully) instructed me ?’ ‘How (did you get hurt). came to the assembly of the Panchalas. VI-ii-5: Aruni said."’ He said. ‘My child. Going along them all this is united. we cannot live without you’.’ ‘All right’. please’. VI-ii-4: The father said. ‘Do you know how they return to this world ?’ ‘No’. ‘I know not one of them’. worms. ‘Then give me tribute. fine horse from Sind pulls out the pegs to which his feet are tied.

the clouds its smoke. Out of that offering food is produced. And when their past work is exhausted. In this fire the gods offer King Moon. is fire. the smoke his smoke. (Then) a being created from the mind (of Hiranyagarbha) comes and conducts them to the worlds of Hiranyagarbha. the open mouth is its fuel. VI-ii-8: The King said: Please do not take offence with us. Out of that offering King Moon is born (a body is made in the moon for the sacrificer). Reaching the moon they become food. and from rain the earth. and stars its sparks. lightning its flame. saying. from air rain. VI-ii-15: Those who know this as such. and those others who meditate with faith upon the Satya-Brahman in the forest. when he dies -VI-ii-14: They carry him to be offered in the fire. charity and austerity. and from the sun the deity of lightning. O Gautama. the earth is its fuel. VI-ii-10: Parjanya (the god of the rain). While those others who do not know these two ways become insects and moths. VI-ii-12: Man. and the sparks his sparks. Reaching the earth they become food. fire its smoke. they reach (become like) this ether. The fire becomes his fire. O Gautama. O Gautama. Gautama’. There the gods enjoy them as the priests drink the shining Soma juice (gradually. the year is its fuel. Thus do they rotate. The ancients used to approach a teacher simply through declaration. VI-ii-16: While those who conquer the worlds through sacrifices. the sun is its fuel. the flame his flame. and the ear its sparks. the rays its smoke. is fire. the moon its cinder. the day its flame. Aruni lived as a student by merely announcing that he was at his service. and from him the moon. is fire. . from him the deity of the fortnight in which the moon wanes. from him the deities of the six months in which the sun travels southward. In this fire the gods offer the man. the fuel his fuel. from him the sun. thunder its cinder. the four quarters its cinder. They no more return to this world. In this fire the gods offer rain. reach the deity of smoke. In this fire the gods offer food. VI-ii-13: Woman. and these frequently biting things (gnats and mosquitoes). the vital force its smoke. Out of that offering rain is produced. ‘Flourish. O Gautama.’ ‘Then you must seek it according to form. the cinder his cinder. VI-ii-11: This world. thence in the fire of woman. from him the deity of the night. ‘I approach you (as a student)’. as your paternal grandfathers did not (with ours). and the rumblings its sparks. Out of that offering the seed is produced. Then they are again offered in the fire of man. from the ether air. for who can refuse you when you speak like this ? VI-ii-9: That word (heaven). is fire. reach the deity identified with the flame. and the intermediate quarters its sparks. from him the deity of the fortnight in which the moon waxes. from him the deities of the six months in which the sun travels northward. They attain perfection and live in those worlds of Hiranyagarbha for a great many superfine years. But I shall teach it to you. dwindle’. Out of that offering a man is born. In this fire the gods offer faith (liquid oblations in subtle form). the eye its cinder. Before this. speech its flame. this learning never rested with a Brahmana. the night its flame. from them the deity identified with the world of the gods. He lives as long as he is destined to live. is fire. from them the deity of the world of the manes. Then. Out of that offering the man emerges radiant.and inexhaustible (wealth). whence they are born (and perform rites) with a view to going to other worlds. as it were). Gautama. O Gautama. from him the deity of the day. In this fire the gods offer the seed.

the rivers are shedding honey. May the Soma creeper be sweet unto us. Offering an oblation saying. ‘Svaha to the moon. Offering an oblation saying. Then he repeats the whole Gayatri and the whole Madhumati. you burn (as fire). sky and heaven. purify the offerings in the prescribed manner.’ . ‘Svaha to the sky’. ‘May I be all this ! Svaha to the earth. be gracious ! Svaha to the sky. To that all-procuring deity who turns out spiteful under your protection. he drips. May the nights and days be charming. and master. etc. Offering an oblation saying. may the quarters be helpful to us ! Svaha to heaven’. ‘Svaha to fire’. lord and ruler !’ VI-iii-6: Then he drinks it saying. You are omnipresent. Offering an oblation saying. you are still (as the sky). he drips etc. and offer oblations with the following Mantras: ‘O Fire. I offer this stream of clarified butter. etc. Glory we meditate upon. ‘Svaha to the earth. he drips. you are infinite (as Brahman). the lord. ‘Svaha to the vital force. he dips the remnant adhering to the ladle into the paste. live on milk). he drips. he drips. who spitefully frustrate men’s desires. I offer their share. etc. ‘Svaha to the future’. The vital force is the king. may heaven. interpose the Mantha (paste made of those things). etc. Offering an oblation saying. he drips. he drips. You are death. may the herbs be sweet unto us ! Svaha to the earth. during the northward march of the sun. VI-iii-5: Then he takes it up saying. Offering an oblation saying. etc. our father. VI-iii-4: Then he touches the paste saying. he drips the remnant. he drips. May he direct our intellect. Svaha to that which has steadiness’. ‘Svaha to the Brahmana’. and says at the end. sweep and plaster (the ground). Svaha to prosperity’. You are fully ablaze in a humid (cloud). being satisfied. etc. he drips. May it make me king. You are recited (by the Adhvaryu) and recited back (by the Agnidhra). VI-iii-3: Offering an oblation in the fire saying. etc. Svaha to the greatest’. and under a male constellation. ‘Svaha to all’. he drips. Svaha’. ‘Svaha to the organ of generation’. ‘Svaha to the oldest.e. ‘Svaha to Prajapati’.VI-iii-1: He who wishes to attain greatness (should perform) on an auspicious day in a fortnight in which the moon waxes. etc. he drips. etc. the ruler. VI-iii-2: Offering oblations in the fire saying. You are food (as the moon). ‘Svaha to the earth’. to all those gods under you. collect in a cup of bowl made of fig wood all herbs and their grains. etc. and light (as fire). may the sun be kind. The winds are blowing sweetly. Svaha to the eye.’ he drips. Svaha to the Vasistha’. Offering oblations saying. You are the sound ‘Him’. and you are that in which all things merge’. thinking she is the support of all. and the dust of the earth be sweet. he drips. ‘Svaha to the ear. Svaha to Prajati’. etc. etc. ‘Svaha to the past’. ‘Svaha to the whole’. etc. (a sacrifice in the following manner): He should undertake for twelve days a vow connected with the Upasads (i. etc. satisfy me with all objects of desire ! Svaha. You combine everything in yourself. Offering an oblation saying. he drips. he drips. etc. Offering and oblation saying. etc. ‘Svaha to the Manas. Offering oblations saying. Offering oblations saying. he drips. and are uttered as ‘Him’ (in the sacrifice by the Prastotr). we too are aware of your greatness. May they. Offering oblations saying. Offering an oblation saying. Offering oblations in the fire saying. he drips. ‘Svaha to the Kshatriya’. You are the Udgitha and are chanted (by the Udgatr). ‘You move (as the vital force). Offering oblations saying. etc. Offering an oblation saying. ‘You know all (as the vital force). ‘Svaha to the organ of speech. ‘Svaha to heaven’. Offering an oblation saying. Svaha to the abode’. sky and heaven’. ‘The radiant sun is adorable --. Offering an oblation saying. he drips the remnant adhering to the ladle into the paste.

reputation. the son of Bhagavitta. VI-iii-8: The Yajnavalkya. ‘Thou art the one lotus of the quarters. and lies behind the fire with his head to the east. he should recite the following Mantra: ‘(May the gods grant) me lustre. lentils. the fuel and the two mixing rods. sits behind the fire. In the morning he salutes the sun saying. taught this to his pupil Madhuka. VI-iv-10: ………………….. and the seed of man. VI-iv-11: …………………. man of fruits. VI-iv-5: …………………. VI-iv-6: If man sees his reflection in water. She (his wife) is indeed the goddess of beauty among women. herbs of water. the son of Jabala. and said. the son of Paingi. pulse and vetches. the son of Bhagavitta. the bowl.. etc. ‘Should one sprinkle it even on a dry stump. . the son of Paingi and said. The cultivated grains are ten in number: Rice. and he created woman. VI-iv-2: Prajapati thought. washes his hands. branches would grow and leaves sprout’. Naka. and said. water the essence of the earth. and said. the son of Ayasthuna. VI-iii-11: Janaki. Therefore he should approach this handsome woman and speak to her. may I be the one lotus of men !’ Then he returns the way he went. ‘Should one sprinkle it even on a dry stump. fruits of flowers. 'I take away your reputation’. One must not teach this to anyone but a son or a pupil. manhood. VI-iii-13: Four things are made of fig wood: the ladle. taught this to his pupils and said. ‘Many men -Brahmanas only in name – who have union without knowing as above.. and repeats the line of teachers. sesame. VI-iii-10: Then Cula. ‘Should one sprinkle it even on a dry stump. he should strike her with a stick or with the hand and proceed. and said. VI-iv-7: If she is not willing. and if she is still unyielding. VI-iv-1: The earth is the essence of all these beings. branches would grow and leaves sprout’. She is then actually discarded. and Kumaraharita said. wealth and merits’. honey and clarified butter. branches would grow and leaves sprout’. and they both become reputed. VI-iii-9: Madhuka. he should buy her over. he should proceed. VI-iv-8: If she is willing. the son of Mudgala. in his turn. depart from this world impotent and bereft of merits’. Uddalaka. barley.. Priyangu. VI-iii-7: Uddalaka. the son of Aruna. VI-iv-9: …………………. branches would grow and leaves sprout’. uttering the following Mantra: ‘I transmit reputation into you’. branches would grow and leaves sprout’. branches would grow and leaves sprout’. again taught this to Satyakama. flowers of herbs. and offered as an oblation. ‘Should one sprinkle it even on a dry stump. VI-iv-3: ………………… VI-iv-4: Knowing verily this. the Vajasaneya. the son of Ayasthuna. They should be crushed and soaked in curds. wheat. again taught this to his pupil Cula. Anu. taught this to his pupil Janaki. VI-iii-12: And Satyakama. taught this to his pupil Yajnavalkya. let me make an abode for it’. the son of Jabala. beans. uttering the following Mantra. ‘Should one sprinkle it even on a dry stump. the son of Aruni. ‘Well. ‘Should one sprinkle it even on a dry stump.Then he drinks the whole remnant. the Vajasaneya.

put a mixture of curd and clarified butter in a cup. ‘Svaha to fire. should have rice cooked in water and he and his wife should eat with clarified butter. eats part of it and gives the rest to his wife. If I have . VI-iv-18: ……………. and I am the vital force. study two Vedas and attain a full term of life. spread stalks of reed and Kusa grass in an inverse way. VI-iv-16: He who wishes that his son should be born dark with red eyes. Then they would be able to produce such a daughter. let us strive together so that we may have a male child. The man whom a Brahmana with knowledge of this ceremony curses. VI-iv-13: If anybody’s wife has the monthly sickness. and offer oblations again and again with that. Then they would be able to produce such a son. VI-iv-23: …………. and find out another young woman (who is) with her husband. saying. The vital force that is in me. Svaha to Anumati. may I maintain a thousand people ! May (the goddess of fortune) never depart with children and animals from his line ! Svaha. and you are speech. soaked in clarified butter. and offers Sthalipaka oblations again and again. and be put to thresh rice. VI-iv-22: ……………. VI-iv-14: He who wishes that his son should be born fair. put on a new cloth. ‘Get up from here. should have rice cooked with sesame. VI-iv-15: He who wishes that his son should be born tawny or brown.. I mentally transfer to you. Then he washes his hands. study three Vedas and attain a full term of life. ‘Growing in this home of mine (as the son). No Sudra man or woman should touch her. come. she should drink of three days out of a cup (Kamsa).’ VI-iv-20: He embraces her saying. I take away thy hopes and expectations – such and such’.VI-iv-12: If a man’s wife has a lover whom he wishes to injure. Thou hast sacrificed in my kindled fire. Visvavasu. you are speech. VI-iv-24: When (the son) is born. VI-iv-19: In the very morning he purifies the clarified butter according to the mode of Sthalipaka. I take away thy Prana and Apana – such and such. Svaha to the radiant sun who produces infallible results’. and you are the earth. he should bring in the fire. After offering. fills the water-vessel and sprinkles her thrice with that water.. study one Veda and attain a full term of life. Thou hast sacrificed in my kindled fire. in the fire in an inverse way. I am Saman. should have rice cooked in milk. take him in his lap. and he and his wife should eat it with clarified butter. for he who has such knowledge becomes an enemy. I am heaven. Svaha. should have rice cooked in curd. Then they would be able to produce such a son. he takes up (the remnant of the cooked food). and he and his wife should eat it with clarified butter. and he and his wife should eat it with clarified butter. Therefore one should not wish even to cut jokes with the wife of a Vedic scholar who knows this ceremony. VI-iv-17: He who wishes that a daughter should be born to him who would be a scholar and attain a full term of life. and you are Rik. After three nights she should bathe. Then they would be able to produce such a son. I take away thy sons and animals – such and such. and offer the reed tips. I take away thy Vedic rites and those done according to the Smriti – such and such. saying. saying. Thou hast sacrificed in my kindled fire. saying. he should put the fire in an unbaked earthen vessel. ‘Thou hast sacrificed in my kindled fire. ‘I am the vital force.’ VI-iv-21: ……………. departs from this world emasculated and shorn of his merits.

may the all-knowing beneficent fire make it just right for me – neither too much nor too little ! Svaha. He from Vac. I put the whole of the earth. He in his turn from the son of Manduki. Yajnavalkya from Uddalaka. they say. The son of Vaiyaghrapadi from the son of Kanvi and the son of Kapi. He from Jihvavat. the son of Nidhruva. She from the sun. honey and clarified butter. the son of Badhyoga. and through which thou nourishest all who are worthy of it (the gods etc. the wife of Vasistha. He again from the son of Alambi. The son of manduki from the son of Sandili. the son of Varsagana. He from Tura. VI-v-4: The same up to the son of Samjivi.done anything too much or to little in this ceremony. the son of Prasni. The son of katyayani from the son of Kausiki. That is his secret name. He from the son of another Varkaruni. He from Silpa Kasyapa. This one from the son of Artabhagi. Kusri from Yajnavacas. he feeds him with (a strip of) gold not obstructed (by anything). He from the son of Alambayani. The son of Kapi – VI-v-2: From the son of Atreyi.) – transfer that here (to my wife. The son of Alambi from the son of jayanti. fame and Brahmanical power. Aruna from Upavesi. Upavesi from Kusri. The son of Sandili from the son of Rathitari. Sandilya from Vatsya. These white Yajuses received from the sun are explained by Yajnavalkya Vajasaneya. The son of Parasari from the son of Vatsi. and you have exceeded your grandfather. for you have given us a son’. The son of Parasari from the son of Varkaruni. you have brought forth a male child with the help of me. He from Vamakaksayana. ‘Offering Sarasvati. VI-iv-27: Then he hands him to his mother to be suckled. Mandavya from Kautsa. He from the son of Mandukayani. is the sustainer of all. He from Asuri. The son of Samjivi from Asurivasin. sky and heaven into you’. He again from the son of Pracinayogi. He from the son of Karsakeyi. The son of Gautami from the son of Bharadvaji. I put heaven into you. saying. Kusri from Vajasravas. ‘You are Veda (knowledge)’. Uddalaka from Aruna. Be the mother of many sons. The son of Atreyi from the son of gautami. full of milk. ‘I put the earth into you.’ VI-v-1: Now the line of teachers: The son of Pautimsa (received it) from the son of Katyayani. that breast of thine which is stored with results. I put the sky into you. The son of Prasni from Asurayana. She from Ambhini. VI-iv-26: The he gives him a name.’ VI-iv-25: Then putting (his mouth) to the child’s right ear. Kautsa from Mahitthi. He from the son of gautami. He from Harita Kasyapa. The son of Bhaluki from the two sons of Kraunciki. He from the son of Saungi. Vatsya from Kusri. Mandukayani from mandavya. You have reached the extreme limit of attainment through your splendour. He from the son of parasari. Of him who is born as the child of a Brahmana with this particular knowledge. This one from Kasyana. They from the son of Vaidabhrti. The son of Saungi from the son of Samkrti. The son of Samjivi from Mandukayani. He from the son of another Parasari. He from the son of Parasari. Asuri – VI-v-3: From Yajnavalkya. He from the son of Samjivi. He from the son of Katyayani. he should thrice repeat. ‘You have exceeded your father. ‘Speech. The son of Vatsi from the son of another Parasari. He from . The son of Parasari from the son of Aupasvasti. He from Asita. saying. Next mixing curd. for my babe) to suck’. the son of Kavasi. He from Sandilya. who am a man. The son of Gautami from the son of Bharadvaji. VI-iv-28: Then he addressed the mother: ‘You are the adorable Arundhati. The son of Kausiki from the son of Alambi and the son of Vaiyaghrapadi. He from the son of Bhaluki. the obtainer of wealth (one’s deserts) and generous. speech’. the son of rajastamba.

The essence of Saman is Udgitha. (because) with Om does one cause to listen. verily becomes a fulfiller of all the desirable ends. as contained in the Sukla-Yajur-Veda. they. the Udgitha. I-i-6: This couple is joined together in the syllable Om. I-i-8: That verily is the syllable of assent. It remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone. I-i-9: With this does the threefold knowledge proceed. May I never deny Brahman. one says only ‘Om’. (Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe). The essence of man is speech. is the quintessence of the essences. with Om does one recite. Brahman is self-born.Prajapati (Hiranyagarbha). Chennai Om ! Let my limbs and speech. with its own greatness and essence (the Vedic rites are performed). eyes. nor Brahman deny me. Salutation to Brahman. I-i-3: The syllable Om which is called Udgitha. The essence of vegetation is man. Who am devoted to the Atman. deserving of the highest place and the eighth. Assent alone is prosperity. Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace ! I-i-1: One should meditate on the syllable Om. . The infinite proceeds from the infinite. taken together form a couple. and this (universe) is infinite. The essence of Rik is Saman. May the virtues that are proclaimed in the Upanishads be in me. Prana. (the sources of) Rik and Saman. I-i-7: He who meditates upon this syllable as Udgitha knowing it thus (as the fulfiller). for whenever one assents to a thing. ears. the supreme. knowing it thus (as endowed with the quality of prosperity). may they reside in me. Speech and Prana. I-i-5: Speech alone is Rik. The syllable Om is Udgitha. for one sings the Udgitha. Prana is Saman. beginning with Om. The essence of speech is Rik. The essence of water is vegetation. vitality And all the senses grow in strength. indeed. The essence of the earth is water. fulfil each other’s desire. Prajapati through his relation to Brahman (the Vedas). All existence is the Brahman of the Upanishads. I-i-2: The essence of all these beings is the earth. Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace ! Here ends the Brihadaranyopanishad. verily becomes one who increases all the desirable ends. For the worship of this syllable. I-i-4: Which one is Rik ? Which one is Saman ? Which one is Udgitha ? This is being considered now. Whenever a couple come together. with Om does one sing aloud. Of this. Om ! That (Brahman) is infinite. Let there be no denial at all: Let there be no denial at least from me. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24]Chandogya Upanishad Translated by Swami Swahananda Published by Sri Ramakrishna Math. the explanation follows. He who meditates upon this syllable as Udgitha.

I-ii-2: Then they meditated on (the deity of) Prana connected with the nose. Therefore with the eye one sees both the sightly and the unsightly. for it has been pierced with evil. The demons came in clash with it and were destroyed. Whatever is performed with knowledge. I-ii-5: Then they meditated on (the deity of) ear as Udgitha. Verily. I-ii-8: Thus it is that the Prana in the mouth has not been destroyed and is pure. for it has been pierced with evil. Up to this truly is the explanation of (the greatness of) this syllable Om. For their sake he sang to fulfil their desires. the sun) as Udgitha. I-ii-13: Baka. And not finding this at the time of death. the Prana in the mouth and its dependants depart. I-ii-7: Then they meditated on the Prana in the mouth as Udgitha. for it has been pierced with evil. Therefore with the mind one thinks both good and evil thoughts. for it has been pierced with evil. This is the meditation with reference to the body. the demons pierced it with evil. were engaged in a fight.I-i-10: He who knows it thus and he who does not know – both perform actions with it. the demons pierced it with evil. the son of Dalbha. I-ii-6: Then they meditated on (the deity of) mind as Udgitha. the demons pierced it with evil. I-ii-3: Then they meditated on (the deity of) speech as Udgitha. The sages consider this alone as Ayasya for it goes out of the mouth. the demons pierced it with evil. In that fight. the gods performed the rites of the Udgatir priests resolving. as Udgitha.e. certainly becomes the singer (and procurer) of the desired objects. knew it thus. I-ii-1: Once upon a time the gods and the demons. when he rises. for speech is great and this Prana is its lord. even with that he maintains the other Pranas. One should meditate on him who gives heat (i. For knowledge and ignorance are different (in their results). Even as a lump of clay striking against a hard rock is destroyed. he . Therefore with it. for it has been pierced with evil. so will he be destroyed who wishes to do evil to one who knows this (the purity of Prana) or who (actually) injures that knower. I-ii-9: With this Prana in the mouth one discerns neither sweet smell nor foul. The sages consider this alone as Angirasa which is the essence of the limbs. one smells both the fragrant and the foul. So he became the Udgatir-singer of the sacrificers dwelling in Naimisa. The sages consider this alone as Brihaspati. striking against a hard rock. Therefore with the ear one hears both the pleasant and the unpleasant. ‘With this we shall defeat them’. for he is like a hard rock. and thus indeed one opens the mouth at the time of death. I-ii-14: He who knows it thus and meditates on the Udgitha as the syllable Om. I-iii-1: Now the meditation (on the Udgitha) with reference to the gods is described. looking upon it as Prana. What one eats or drinks through this. for it is free from sin. faith and meditation becomes more effective. Therefore with it one speaks both truth and untruth. I-ii-12: So Ayasya meditated on Prana as Udgitha (identifying it with himself). I-ii-10: Angiras meditated on that Prana as Udgitha. both descendants of Prajapati. I-ii-11: So Brihaspati meditated on Prana as Udgitha. just as a lump of clay is destroyed. I-ii-4: Then they meditated on (the deity of) eye as Udgitha. the demons pierced it with evil. the nose.

the syllables ‘ut’. speech yields the milk which is the benefit of speech. I-iii-4: That which is speech. Verily. gi and tha. the Yajur-Veda gi. are all performed. Therefore one should meditate on this Prana and that sun as Udgitha. even that is Saman. running a race towards a goal. Because they covered themselves with these. took refuge in the three Vedas. the Udgitha. verily one should meditate on Vyana as Udgitha. one sings the Udgitha. That which is Saman. because speech is called word (girah). I-iii-3: Now. . the sky is gi. while one neither breathes out nor breathes in. the gods. Food is ‘tha’. because upon food all this is established (sthitam). I-iii-6: Now. That which is Vyana.sings aloud for the sake of all creatures. I-iii-11: He should reflect upon the quarter (of heaven) towards which he proceeds to sing a Stotra. For this reason one should meditate on Vyana as Udgitha. while one neither breathes out nor breathes in. because through Prana one arises (ut-tisthati). I-iv-2: Verily. I-iii-10: One should reflect upon the metre in which he proceeds to sing a Stotra. I-iii-12: Lastly. even that is Udgitha. even that is Rik. such as the kindling of fire by friction. one utters speech while one neither breathes out nor breathes in. the metrical hymns are called Chandas. even that is speech. upon the sage by whom it is intuited and upon the deity to whom he proceeds to pray. I-iii-5: Therefore whatever other actions require strength. The sun is ut. Therefore. I-iii-9: One should reflect upon the Rik in which that Saman occurs. he who knows the sun as being endowed with these qualities. When he rises. People call this as Svara (that is going) and that as Svara and Pratyasvara (that is going and coming). he should sing a Stotra reflecting upon his desired object avoiding all faults. The Sama-Veda is ut. the earth is tha. That which one breathes out is Prana and that which one breathes in is Apana. I-iv-1: One should meditate on the syllable Om. I-iii-2: This Prana in the mouth and that sun are the same. who knows thus and meditates on the syllables of ‘Udgitha’. while one neither breathes out nor breathes in. tha. This is warm and that is warm. one sings the Saman. namely. he dispels darkness and fear. the fire. Therefore. Speech is ‘gi’. being afraid of death. and an eater of food. the Rig-Veda tha. For him. ut. becomes the dispeller of darkness and (the consequent) fear. Therefore. one pronounces the Rik. They covered themselves with the metrical hymns. desiring which he may sing the Stotra yea. And he becomes rich in food. I-iii-7: Heaven is ut. the air gi. The junction of Prana and Apana is Vyana. Of this the explanation follows. I-iii-8: Now follows the fulfilment of wishes: One should meditate on the objects contemplated. the bending of a strong bow. That which is Rik. one should meditate on the syllables of ‘Udgitha’ – namely. Therefore while one neither breathes out nor breathes in. One should reflect upon Saman by means of which one proceeds to sing the Stotra. and he should reflect upon the hymn with which he proceeds to sing it. for one sings the Udgitha beginning with Om. having thought about himself. Prana is ‘ut’. ‘gi’ and ‘tha’. Very quickly will be fulfilled for him the desire. desiring which he may sing the Stotra.

I-iv-3: Just as a fisherman would see a fish in water, so did Death observe the gods in the
(rites connected with) Rik, Saman and Yajus. They, too, knowing this, arose from the
Rik, Saman and Yajus, and entered the Svara (the syllable Om).
I-iv-4: Verily, when one learns the Rik, he loudly pronounces ‘Om’. It is the same with
Saman and with Yajus. This syllable Om is indeed Svara; it again is immortality and
fearlessness. Having entered into Svara (i.e. having meditated) the gods became immortal
and fearless.
I-iv-5: He who worships this syllable knowing it thus, enters this syllable, the Svara,
which is immortality and fearlessness. And having entered it, he becomes immortal by
that nectar, by which the gods became immortal.
I-v-1: Now, that which is Udgitha is verily Pranava and that which is Pranava is Udgitha.
The yonder sun is Udgitha and also Pranava, for he moves along pronouncing ‘Om’.
I-v-2: ‘To him (the sun itself) I sung; therefore you are my only son’ thus said Kausitaki
to his son. ‘Reflect upon the Udgitha as the rays of the sun, then surely, you will have
many sons. This is the meditation with reference to the gods.
I-v-3: Now (is the meditation) with reference to the body: One should meditate on him
who is this Prana in the mouth, as Udgitha, for he moves along pronouncing ‘Om’.
I-v-4: ‘To him (the Prana itself) did I sing; therefore you are my only son’, thus said
Kausitaki to his son. "I shall get many sons", thinking thus, sing praise to the Udgitha as
the manifold Pranas.’
I-v-5: ‘Now, that which is Udgitha, is verily Pranava; and that which is Pranava, is
Udgitha’, so one should think. As a result of it, even if he chants wrongly, he rectifies it
by the act done from the seat of the Hotr priest.
I-vi-1: The earth is Rik, the fire is Saman. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the
Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik. The earth is ‘sa’, the fire is ‘ama’, and that makes
‘Sama’.
I-vi-2: The sky is Rik, the air is Sama. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the
Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik. The sky is ‘sa’, the air is ‘ama’, and that makes
‘Sama’.
I-vi-3: Heaven is Rik, the sun is Saman. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the
Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik. Heaven is ‘sa’, the sun is ‘ama’, and that makes
‘Sama’.
I-vi-4: The stars are Rik, the moon is Saman. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore
the Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik. The stars are ‘sa’, the moon is ‘ama’, and that
makes ‘Sama’.
I-vi-5: Now, the while light of the sun is Rik, the blue (light) that is extremely dark is
Saman. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the
Rik.
I-vi-6: Again, the white light of the sun is ‘sa’, the blue (light) that is extremely dark is
‘ama’, and that makes ‘Sama’. Now, that Person, effulgent as gold, who is seen within
the sun, who is with golden beard and golden hair, is exceedingly effulgent even to the
very tips of his nails.
I-vi-7: His eyes are bright like a red lotus. His name is ‘ut’. He has risen above all evils.
Verily, he who knows thus rises above all evils.
I-vi-8: Rik and Saman are his two joints. Therefore he is Udgitha. Because the priest is
the singer of this ‘ut’, he is the Udgitha. Moreover, he (this Person called ‘ut’) controls

the worlds which are above that sun, as also the desires of the gods. This is with reference
to the gods.
I-vii-1: Now (is the meditation) with reference to the body: Speech is Rik, Prana is Sama.
This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik.
Speech is ‘sa’, Prana is ‘ama’ and that makes ‘Sama’.
I-vii-2: The eye is Rik, the self (reflected in the eye) is Saman. This Saman rests upon
that Rik. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik. The eye is ‘sa’, the self is
‘ama’, and that makes ‘Sama’.
I-vii-3: The ear is Rik, the mind is Saman. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the
Saman is sung as resting upon the Rik. The ear is ‘sa’, the mind is ‘ama’, and that makes
"Sama’.
I-vii-4: Now, the white light of the eye is Rik, the blue (light) that is extremely dark is
Saman. This Saman rests upon that Rik. Therefore the Saman is sung as resting upon the
Rik. The white light of the eye is ‘sa’, the blue (light) that is extremely dark is ‘ama’ and
that makes ‘Sama’.
I-vii-5: Now, this person who is seen within the eye – he indeed is Rik, he is Saman, he is
Uktha, he is Yajus, he is the Vedas. The form of this (person seen in the eye) is the same
as the form of that (person seen in the sun). His joints are the same as those of the other;
his name is the same as that of the other.
I-vii-6: That (person in the eye) is the lord of all the worlds that are extended below, as
also of the desired objects of men. So those who sing on the lute, sing of him alone and
thereby become endowed with wealth.
I-vii-7: Now he who sings the Saman after knowing the deity Udgitha thus, sings to both.
Through that (person in the sun), he (that singer) gets the worlds beyond that sun and also
the desired objects of gods.
I-vii-8-9: Similarly, through this person in the eye, one gets the worlds that are extended
below this person, and also the desired objects of men. For this reason, the Udgatir priest
who knows thus should ask (the sacrificer): ‘What desire shall I obtain for you by singing
the Saman ?’ For he alone becomes capable of obtaining desires by singing , who
knowing thus sings the Saman – yea, sings the Saman.
I-viii-1: In ancient times there were three proficient in Udgitha: Silaka the son of Salavat,
Caikitayana of the Dalbhya family and Pravahana the son of Jivala. They said, ‘We are
proficient in Udgitha. If you agree, let us enter on a discussion of Udgitha’.
I-viii-2: ‘Let it be so’, saying this they sat down. Then Pravahana Jaivali said, ‘You two,
revered sirs, speak first; and I shall listen to the words of two Brahmanas conversing’.
I-viii-3: Then Silaka Salavatya said to Caikitayana Dalbhya, ‘If you permit, I shall
question you’. ‘Question’, said he.
I-viii-4: (Silaka asked), ‘What is the essence of Saman ?’ ‘The tune’, said (Dalbhya).
‘What is the essence of the tune ?’ ‘Prana’, said (Dalbhya). ‘What is the essence of Prana
?’ ‘Food’, said (Dalbhya). ‘What is the essence of food ?’ ‘Water’, said (Dalbhya).
I-viii-5: ‘What is the essence of water ?’ ‘That (heavenly world)’, said (Dalbhya). ‘What
is the essence of the world ?’ ‘One cannot carry (the Saman) beyond the heavenly world’,
said Dalbhya; ‘we locate the Saman in the world of heaven, for Saman is praised as
heaven’.

I-viii-6: Then Silaka Salavatya said to Caikitayana Dalbhya: ‘O Dalbhya, your Saman is
not indeed established. If someone one were to say, "Your head shall fall down", surely
your head would fall down’.
I-viii-7: (Dalbhya) ‘Will you permit me, sir, to learn this of you ?’ ‘Learn’, said (Silaka).
‘What is the essence of that (heavenly) world ?’ ‘This earth’, said (Silaka), ‘What is the
essence of this earth ?’ ‘One cannot carry the Saman beyond this world as its support’,
said Silaka; ‘we locate the Saman in this world as its support, for Saman is extolled as the
earth’.
I-viii-8: Pravahana Jaivali said to him, ‘O Salavatya, your Sama, really, has a further end.
If someone now were to say, "Your head shall fall down", surely your head would fall
down. (Salavatya) ‘Will you permit me, sir, to learn (this of you ?) ‘Learn’, said (Jaivali).
I-ix-1: (Salavatya) ‘What is the essence of this world ?’ ‘Akasa’ said (Pravahana); ‘All
these beings arise from Akasa alone and are finally dissolved into Akasa; because Akasa
alone is greater than all these and Akasa is the support at all times.’
I-ix-2: It is this Udgitha which is progressively higher and better. This again is endless.
He who, knowing thus, meditates upon the progressively higher and better Udgitha,
obtains progressively higher and better lives and wins progressively higher and better
worlds.
I-ix-3: Atidhanvan, the son of Sunaka, having taught this to Udarasandilya, said, ‘As long
as among your descendants, this knowledge of the Udgitha continues, so long their life in
this world will be progressively higher and better than ordinary lives.’
I-ix-4: ‘And in that other world also their state will be similar’. He who knows and
meditates thus – his life in this world surely becomes progressively higher and better, and
so also his state in that other world – yea, in that other world.
I-x-1: When the crops in the Kuru country had been destroyed by hailstorms, there lived
Usasti, the son of Cakra with his young wife in a deplorable condition in the village of
elephant-drivers.
I-x-2: He begged food of an elephant-driver, while he was eating beans of an inferior
quality. The driver said to him, ‘There is no other food than what is set before me’.
I-x-3: ‘Give me some of them’, said Usasti. The driver gave them to him and said, ‘Here
is drink at hand, if you please 1’ ‘Then I shall be drinking what is defiled’, said Usasti.
I-x-4: ‘Are not these beans also defiled ?’ ‘Unless I ate them, I would surely not have
survived’, said Usasti, ‘but drinking is at my option’.
I-x-5: Usasti, after he had eaten, brought the remainder to his wife. She had already
obtained her food by alms; so after receiving it she kept it by.
I-x-6: Next morning while leaving the bed he said, ‘Alas, if I could get a little of food, I
could earn a little wealth. There a king is going to institute a sacrifice; he would appoint
me to all the priestly offices’.
I-x-7: His wife said to him, ‘Well, lord, here are the beans (given by you).’ Having eaten
them he went off to that sacrifice which was being performed.
I-x-8: Seeing the singing priests seated there, he sat down near the singers in the place for
singing the Stotras. And then he addressed the Prastotir priest.
I-x-9: ‘O Prastotir, if you sing the Prastava without knowing the deity that belongs to the
Prastava, your head will fall down’.
I-x-10: In the same manner he addressed the Udgatir priest, O Udgatir, if you sing the
Udgitha without knowing the deity that belongs to the Udgitha, your head will fall down’.

I-x-11: In the same manner he addressed the Pratihartir priest, ‘O Pratihartir, if you sing
the Pratihara without knowing the deity that belongs to the Pratihara, your head will fall
down’. Then they all sat down silently suspending their duties.
I-xi-1: Then the principal of the sacrifice said to him, I should like to know you, revered
sir, ‘I am Chakrayana Usasti’, said he.
I-xi-2: He said, ‘I searched for you, revered sir, for all these priestly offices, but not
finding you, sir, I have chosen others.’
I-xi-3: ‘Revered sir, you yourself take up all the priestly offices for me’. ‘Be it so; then,
let these same priests sing the hymns, being permitted by me. But you should give me as
much wealth as you give them.’ ‘Very well’, said the sacrificer.
I-xi-4: Then the Prastotir priest approached him and said, ‘Revered sir, you said to me:
‘O Prastotir, if you sing the Prastava without knowing the deity that belongs to the
Prastava, your head will fall down". Which is that deity ?’
I-xi-5: ‘Prana’, said Usasti, ‘all these movable and immovable beings merge in Prana
(during dissolution) and rise out of Prana (during creation). This is the deity that belongs
to the Prastava. If you sang the Prastava without knowing him, after your having been
warned thus by me, your head would have fallen down.’
I-xi-6: Then the Udgatir priest approached him and said, ‘Revered sir, you said to me: ‘O
Udgatir, if you sing the Udgitha without knowing the deity that belongs to the Udgitha,
your head will fall down". Which is that deity ?’
I-xi-7: ‘The sun’, said Usasti, ‘all these movable and immovable sing the praise of the
sun when he has come up. This is the deity that belongs to the Udgitha. If you sang the
Udgitha without knowing him, after your having been warned thus by me, your head
would have fallen down.’
I-xi-8: Then the Pratihartir priest approached him and said, ‘Revered sir, you said to me:
‘O Pratihartir, if you sing the Pratihara without knowing the deity that belongs to the
Pratihara, your head will fall down". Which is that deity ?’
I-xi-9: ‘Food’, said Usasti, ‘all these movable and immovable beings live by partaking of
food only. This is the deity that belongs to the Pratihara. If you sang the Pratihara without
knowing him, after your having been warned thus by me, your head would have fallen
down.’
I-xii-1: Therefore next begins the Udgitha seen by the dogs. Once Dalbhya Baka, called
also Maitreya Glava, went out (of the village) for the study of the Vedas.
I-xii-2: Before him a white dog appeared and other dogs gathered around it and said,
‘Revered sir, please obtain food for us by singing; we are hungry.’
I-xii-3: The white dog said to them, ‘Come to me over here tomorrow morning.’ (The
sage named) Dalbhya Baka and Maitreya Glava kept watch there for them.
I-xii-4: Just as those who recite the Stotras singing the Bahispavamana hymn move along
clasping one another’s hand, even so did the dogs move along. Then they sat down and
began to pronounce ‘him’.
I-xii-5: ‘Om, let us eat ! Om, let us drink ! Om, may the (sun who is) god, Varuna,
Prajapati and Savitir bring us food here. O Lord of food, bring food here, yea bring it,
Om !’
I-xiii-1: Verily, this world is the syllable ‘hau’ (which is a Stobha), the air is the syllable
‘hai’, the moon is the syllable ‘atha’, the self is the syllable ‘iha’ and the fire is the
syllable ‘I’.

I-xiii-2: The sun is the syllable ‘u’ (which is a Stobha), invocation is the syllable ‘e’ the
Visvadevas are the syllable ‘auhoyi’, Prajapati is the syllable ‘him’, Prana is the Stobha
‘svara’, food is the Stobha ‘ya’ and Virat is the Stobha ‘vak’.
I-xiii-3: The undefinable and variable thirteenth Stobha is the syllable ‘hum’.
I-xiii-4: For him, speech yields the milk, which is the benefit of speech; and he becomes
richin food and an eater of food, who thus knows this sacred doctrine of the Samans –
yea, knows the sacred doctrine of the Samans.
I-i-1: Om. Surely, the meditation on the whole Saman is good. Anything that is good,
people call as Saman, anything that is not good, as Asaman.
II-i-2: Thus, when people say, ‘He approached him with Saman’, then they say only this:
‘He approached him with a good motive’. And when they say, ‘He approached him with
Asaman’, then they say only this" ‘He approached him with an evil motive.’
II-i-3: Again, people say: ‘Oh, this is Saman for us’, when it is something good; then they
say only this: ‘Oh, this is good for us’. Again, they say, ‘Oh, this is Asaman for us’, when
it is not good; then they say only this: ‘Oh, this is evil.’
II-i-4: When one who knows it thus meditates on the Saman as good, all good qualities
hasten towards him and serve him.
II-ii-1: Among the worlds one should meditate upon the Saman as fivefold. The earth is
the syllable him, the fire is Prasrava, the sky is Udgitha, the sun is Pratihara, and heaven
is Nidhana. Thus this meditation pertains to the higher worlds.
II-ii-2: Now, among the lower worlds. Heaven is the syllable him, the sun is Prastava, the
sky is Udgitha the fire is Pratihara, and the earth is Nidhana.
II-ii-3: The worlds in the ascending and descending lines belong to him. Who, knowing it
thus (endowed with the quality of ‘good’) meditates on the fivefold Saman in the worlds.
II-iii-1-2: One should meditate on the fivefold Saman as rain. The wind that precedes is
the syllable him, the cloud that is formed is Prastava, the shower is Udgitha, lightning and
thunder are Pratihara, and the ceasing is Nidhana. It rains for him – indeed, he causes rain
– who, knowing it thus, meditates on the fivefold Saman as rain.
II-iv-1: One should meditate on the fivefold Saman in all the waters. When a cloud
gathers, it is the syllable him. When it rains, it is Prastava. Those (waters) that flow to the
east, are Udgitha. Those that flow to the west are Pratihara. The ocean is Nidhana.
II-iv-2: He who, knowing it thus, meditates on the fivefold Saman in all the waters, does
not drown in water and he becomes rich in water.
II-v-1: One should meditate on the fivefold Saman as the seasons: The spring is the
syllable him, the summer is Prastava, the rainy season is Udgitha, the autumn is Pratihara,
and the winter is Nidhana.
II-v-2: He, who knowing it thus, meditates on the fivefold Saman in the seasons, him the
seasons serve and he becomes rich in seasons.
II-vi-1: One should meditate on the fivefold Saman as the animals. The goats are the
syllable him, the sheep are Prastava, the cows are Udgitha, the horses are Pratihara, and
man is Nidhana.
II-vi-2: He, who knowing it this, meditates on the fivefold Saman in animals, to him
animals belong and he becomes rich in animals.
II-vii-1: One should meditate on the progressively higher and better fivefold Saman as
the senses; The organ of smell is the syllable him, the organ of speech is Prastava, the eye

is Udgitha, the ear is Pratihara, and the mind is Nidhana. Verily, these are progressively
higher and better.
II-vii-2: He who knowing it thus, meditates on the fivefold Saman, progressively higher
and better, in the senses, to him belong progressively higher and better lives and he wins
ever higher and better worlds. So much for (the meditation on) the fivefold Saman.
II-viii-1-2: Next is the meditation on the sevenfold Saman. One should meditate on the
sevenfold Saman as speech. Whatsoever in speech is ‘hum’, that is the syllable him;
whatever is ‘pra’, that is Prastava; whatever is ‘a’, that is Adi (the first); whatever is ‘ut’,
that is Udgitha; whatever is ‘prati’, that is Pratihara; whetever is ‘upa’, that is Upadrava;
and whatever is ‘ni’, that is Nidhana.
II-viii-3: He who knowing it thus, meditates on the sevenfold (whole) Saman as speech,
for him speech yields milk i.e. its appropriate benefit, and he becomes rich in food and an
eater of food.
II-ix-1: Next, one should meditate upon the sevenfold Saman as the yonder sun. He is the
Saman because he is always the same. He is the Saman because he is the same to all, for
each one thinks, ‘He faces me, he faces me.’
II-ix-2: One should know that all these beings are dependent on him. What he is before
rising, that is Himkara. On this, the animals are dependent. As they participate in the
Himkara part of this Saman, do they utter him (before sunrise).
II-ix-3: Then, the form of the sun when it has just risen, that is Prastava. On this, men are
dependent. As they participate in the Prastava part of this Saman, so are they desirous of
praise, direct and indirect.
II-ix-4: And the form of the sun as it appears at the time of the assembling of its rays, that
is Adi. On this, the birds are dependent. As they participate in the Adi part of this Saman,
so do they hold themselves unsupported in the sky and fly about.
II-ix-5: Next, the form of the sun that appears just at midday, that is Udgitha. On this, the
gods are dependent. As they participate in the Udgitha part of this Saman, so are they the
best among the offsprings of Prajapati.
II-ix-6: Next, the form of the sun that appears just after midday and before (the latter part
of) afternoon, that is Pratihara. On this, the foetuses are dependent. As they participate in
the Pratihara part of this Saman, (so are they held up in the womb) and they do not fall
down.
II-ix-7: Next, the form of the sun that appears when it is past afternoon and before sunset,
that is Upadrava. On this, the wild animals are dependent. As they participate in the
Upadrava part of this Saman, so do they, when they see a man, run away to the forest, as
to a place of safety.
II-ix-8: Now, the form of the sun that appears just after sunset, that is Nidhana. On this,
the fathers are dependent. As they participate in the Nidhana part of this Saman, so do
people lay them aside.
II-x-1: Now, verily, one should meditate on the sevenfold Saman, which has all its parts
similar, and which leads beyond death. ‘Himkara, has three syllables; ‘Prastava’ has three
syllables. So they are equal to each other.
II-x-2: ‘Adi’ has two syllables; ‘Pratihara’ has four syllables. We take one syllable from
Pratihara to Adi. So they are equal to each other.

II-x-3: ‘Udgitha’ has three syllables; ‘Upadrava’ has four syllables. Three and three
become equal. One syllable is left over; that really is tri-syllabic; so it also becomes
equal.
II-x-4: ‘Nidhana’ has three syllables, and this to is equal (to the others). These, indeed,
are the twenty two syllables (of the sevenfold Saman).
II-x-5-6: He who, knowing this Saman thus (as good), meditates on the sevenfold Saman,
which has all its parts similar and which leads beyond death, reaches the sun (Death) by
the number twenty-one; for, counting from this world the yonder sun is verily the twentyfirst. With the remaining twenty-second syllable he conquers the world beyond the sun.
That world is of the nature of bliss, and is free from misery. (That is), he obtains victory
over the sun, and then a victory still higher becomes his, who meditates on the sevenfold
Saman.
II-xi-1: The mind is Himkara, speech is Prastava, the eye is Udgitha, the ear is Pratihara,
and the Prana is Nidhana. This is the Gayatra Saman woven in (the Prana and) the senses.
II-xi-2: He who thus knows this Gayatra Saman as woven in (the Prana and) the senses,
becomes the possessor of perfect senses, reaches the full length of life, lives gloriously,
becomes great with offspring and cattle, and great also with fame. His holy vow is that he
should be high-minded.
II-xii-1: One rubs, that is Himkara. The smoke is produced, that is Prastava. It blazes, that
is Udgitha. The embers are formed, that is Pratihara. It goes down, that is Nidhana. It is
completely extinguished, that is Nidhana. This is the Rathantara Saman woven in fire.
II-xii-2: He who thus knows this Rathantara Saman as woven in fire becomes radiant
with the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom, is endowed with good appetite and
reaches the full length of life, lives gloriously, becomes great with offspring and cattle,
and great also with fame. His holy vow is that he should neither sip nor spit facing the
fire.
II-xiii-1-2: The Vamadevya Saman is woven in a couple. He who thus knows this
Vamadevya Saman as woven in a couple becomes one of the couple and procreates. He
reaches the full length of life, lives gloriously, becomes great with offspring and cattle,
and great also with fame. His holy vow is that he should not despise any woman.
II-xiv-1: The rising sun is Himkara; the risen sun is Prastava; the midday sun is Udgitha;
the sun in the afternoon is Pratihara, and the setting sun is Nidhana. This is the Brihat
Saman woven in the sun.
II-xiv-2: He who thus knows this Brihat Saman as woven in the sun becomes refulgent
and endowed with good appetite, reaches the full length of life, lives gloriously, becomes
great with offspring and cattle, and great also with fame. His holy vow is that he should
not find fault with the burning sun.
II-xv-1: The white clouds gather, that is Himkara. The (rain-bearing) cloud is formed,
that is Prastava. It rains, that is Udgitha. It flashes and thunders, that is Pratihara. It
ceases, that is Nidhana. This is the Vairupa Saman woven in the rain-cloud.
II-xv-2: He who thus knows this Virupa Saman as woven in the rain-cloud acquires cattle
of handsome and manifold forms, reaches the full length of life, lives gloriously, becomes
great with offspring and cattle, and great also with fame. His holy vow is that he should
not find fault with the rain-cloud when it rains.

II-xvi-1: The spring is Himkara, the summer is Prastava, the rainy season is Udgitha, the
autumn is Pratihara, and the winter is Nidhana. This is the Vairaja Saman woven in the
seasons.
II-xvi-2: He who thus knows this Vairaja Saman as woven in the seasons shines with
offspring, cattle and the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom, reaches the full length of
life, lives gloriously, becomes great with offspring and cattle and great also with fame.
His holy vow is that he should not find fault with the seasons.
II-xvii-1: The earth is Himkara, the sky is Prastava, heaven is Udgitha, the quarters are
Pratihara, and the ocean is Nidhana. This is the Sakvari Saman woven in the worlds.
II-xvii-2: He who thus knows this Sakvari Saman woven in the worlds, becomes the
possessor of the worlds, reaches the full length of life, lives gloriously, becomes great
with offspring and cattle and great also with fame. His holy vow is that he should not find
fault with the worlds.
II-xviii-1: The goats are Himkara, the sheep are Prastava, the cows are Udgitha, the
horses are Pratihara, and man is Nidhana. This is the Revati Saman woven in the animals.
II-xviii-2: He who thus knows this Revati Saman woven in the animals, becomes the
possessor of animals, reaches the full length of life, lives gloriously, becomes great with
offspring and cattle, great also with fame. His holy vow is that he should not find fault
with animals.
II-xix-1: The hair is Himkara, the skin is Prastava, the flesh is Udgitha, the bone is
Pratihara, and the marrow is Nidhana. This is the Yajnayajniya Saman woven in the
limbs of the body.
II-xix-2: He who thus knows this Yajnayajniya Saman, woven in the limbs of the body, is
endowed with all the limbs, and is not crippled in any limb; he reaches the full length of
life, lives gloriously, becomes great with offspring and cattle and great also with fame.
His holy vow is that he should not eat fish and meat for a year, or rather, he should not
eat fish and meat at all.
II-xx-1: Fire is Himkara, Air is Prastava, the Sun is Udgitha, the Stars are Pratihara, and
the Moon is Nidhana. This is the Rajana Saman woven in the deities.
II-xx-2: He who knows thus knows this Rajana Saman woven in the deities, abides in the
same world or gets the same prosperity as these very deities or attains union with them;
he reaches the full length of life, lives gloriously, becomes great with offspring and cattle
and great also with fame. His holy vow is that he should not find fault with the
Brahmanas.
II-xxi-1: The three Vedas are Himkara; the three worlds are Prastava; Fire, Air and the
Sun are Udgitha; the Stars, the birds and the rays are Pratihara; the serpents, the celestial
singers and the fathers are Nidhana. This is the collection of Samans woven in all things.
II-xxi-2: Verily, he who thus knows this collection of Samans as woven in all things
becomes the lord of all things.
II-xxi-3: There is this verse about it: That which is fivefold in groups of three – there is
nothing else greater or other than these (fifteen).
II-xxi-4: He who knows that knows all. All the quarters bring offerings to him. His holy
vow is that he should meditate ‘I am all’ – yea, that is his vow.
II-xxii-1: ‘Of the Samans, I choose the one that bellows, as it were, and is good for
cattle,’ thus (some think). This is the loud singing sacred to Agni, the undefined one to
Prajapati, the defined one to Soma, the soft and smooth to Vayu, the smooth and strong to

Indra, the heron-like to Brihaspati, and the ill-sounding to Varuna. Verily, one may
practise all these, but should avoid the one sacred to Varuna.
II-xxii-2: ‘May I obtain immortality for the gods by singing’, (thinking) thus one should
sing. ‘May I obtain my singing, oblation for the fathers, hope for men, grass and water for
animals, the heavenly world for the sacrificer, and food for myself’, -- thus reflecting in
his mind on all these, he should sing the Stotra attentively.
II-xxii-3: All vowels are the embodiments of Indra; all sibilants are the embodiments of
Prajapati; all Sparsa consonants are the embodiments of Death. If anyone should reprove
him for the pronunciation of his vowels, he should tell him, ‘I have taken my refuge in
Indra; he will answer you.’
II-xxii-4: And if some one should reprove him for sibilants he should tell him, ‘I have
taken my refuge in Prajapati; he will crush you’. And if some one should reprove him for
his Sparsa consonants, he should tell him, ‘I have taken my refuge in Death; he will burn
you up.’
II-xxii-5: All vowels should be pronounced sonant and strong, (with the thought), ‘May I
impart strength to Indra (Prana)’. All sibilants should be pronounced, neither
inarticulately, nor leaving out the elements of sound, but distinctly (with the thought),
‘May I give myself to Prajapati (Virat).’ All Sparsa consonants should be pronounced
slowly, without mixing them with any other letter, (with the thought), ‘May I withdraw
myself from Death.’
II-xxiii-1: Three are the branches of religious duty. Sacrifice, study and gifts – these are
the first. Austerity alone is the second, and the celibate student of sacred knowledge, who
lives in the house of the teacher throughout his life mortifying his body in the teacher’s
house, is the third. All these become possessors of meritorious worlds; but he who is
established firmly in Brahman, attains immortality.
II-xxiii-2: Prajapati brooded on the worlds. From them, thus brooded upon, issued forth
the threefold Veda (as their essence). He brooded on this. From this, thus brooded upon,
issued forth the syllables Bhuh, Bhuvah and Svah.
II-xxiii-3: He brooded on them. From them, thus brooded upon, issued forth (as their
essence) the syllable Om (Brahman). Just as all the parts of the leaf, are permeated by the
ribs of the leaf, so are all the words permeated by the syllable Om. Verily, the syllable
Om is all this – yea, the syllable Om is verily all this.
II-xxiv-1-2: The expounders of Brahman say, ‘The morning libation is of the Vasus, the
midday libation is of the Rudras and the third libation is of the Adityas and of the
Visvadevas. Where, the, is the world of the sacrificer ?’ How can he who does not know
this, perform (sacrifices) ? It is only after knowing this that he should perform
(sacrifices).
II-xxiv-3-4: Before the commencement of the morning chant, the sacrificer sits down
behind the Garhapatya fire, facing the north and sings the Saman sacred to the Vasus: ‘(O
Fire), open the door of this world that we may see you for obtaining the kingdom.’
II-xxiv-5-6: Then he offers the oblation (with the Mantra) – ‘Salutation to Fire, who
dwells in the region of the earth. Obtain the region, for me the sacrificer. This region,
indeed, is to be obtained by the sacrificer. At the end of the duration of this life, I, the
sacrificer, am willing to come here – Svaha.’ ‘Unbar the door of the region’, saying this
he gets up. (As a result) the Vasus grant him (the region connected with) the morning
libation.

II-xxiv-7-8: Before the starting of the midday libation, the sacrificer sits down behind the
Agnidhriya fire, facing the north, and sings the Saman sacred to the Rudras: ‘(O Fire),
open the door of the region of the sky that we may see you for obtaining the sovereignty
of the sky.’
II-xxiv-9-10: Then he offers the oblation (with the Mantra): ‘Salutation to Vayu, who
dwells in the region of the sky. Obtain this region for me, the sacrificer. This region,
indeed, is to be obtained by the sacrificer. At the end of the duration of this life, I, the
sacrificer, am willing to go there – Svaha’. ‘Unbar the door of the region’, saying this he
gets up. (As a result) the Rudras grant him (the region of the sky connected with) the
midday libation.
II-xxiv-11-13: Before beginning the third libation, the sacrificer sits down behind the
Ahavaniya fire, facing the north, and sings the Saman sacred to the Adityas and the one
sacred to the Visvadevas: ‘(O Fire), open the door of the region of heaven that we may
see you for obtaining the sovereignty of heaven’. This is the Saman sacred to the Adityas.
Next is the one sacred to the Visvadevas; ‘(O Fire), open the door of the region of heaven
that we may see you for obtaining the supreme sovereignty.’
II-xxiv-14-15: Then the sacrificer offers the oblation (with the Mantra): ‘Salutation to the
Adityas and to the Visvadevas, the inhabitants of the region of heaven. Obtain the region
of heaven for me, the sacrificer. This region, indeed, is to be obtained by the sacrificer.
At the end of the duration of this life, I, the sacrificer, am willing to go there – Svaha’.
‘Unbar the door of the region’, saying this, he gets up.
II-xxiv-16: The Adityas and the Visvadevas grant him (the region appropriate to) the
third libation. He alone knows the real character of the sacrifice, who knows thus.
III-i-1: Om. The yonder sun indeed is the honey of the gods. Of this honey, heaven is the
cross-beam, the sky is the honey comb, and (the water particles in) the rays are the eggs.
III-i-2-3: The eastern rays of that sun are its eastern honey-cells; the Riks are the bees,
(the ritual of) the Rig-Veda is the flower and those waters are the nectar. Those very Riks
(the bees) pressed this Rig-Veda. From it, thus pressed, issued forth as juice, fame,
splendour (of limbs), (alertness of) the senses, virility, and food for eating.
III-i-4: That juice flowed forth; it settled by the side of the sun. Verily, this it is that
appears as the red hue of the sun.
III-ii-1: And its southern rays are its southern honey cells. The Yajus verses are the bees.
The Yajur-Veda is the flower; and those waters are the nectar.
III-ii-2: Those very Yajus verses pressed this Yajur-Veda. And from it, thus pressed,
issued forth as juice, fame, splendour of limbs, alertness of the senses, virility, and food
for eating.
III-ii-3: It, flowed forth; it settled by the side of the sun. Verily, this it is that appears as
the white hue of the sun.
III-iii-1: And its western rays are its western honey cells. The Samans are the bees. The
Sama-Veda is the flower; and those waters are the nectar.
III-iii-2: Those very Samans pressed this Sama-Veda. From it, thus pressed, issued forth
as juice, fame, splendour of limbs, alertness of the senses, virility, and food for eating.
III-iii-3: It flowed forth; it settled by the side of the sun. Verily, this it is that appears as
the black hue of the sun.

III-iv-1: And its northern rays are its northern honey cells. The Mantras of the AtharvaVeda are the bees. The Itihasa and the Purana are the flower; and those waters are the
nectar.
III-iv-2: Those Mantras of the Atharva-Veda pressed this Itihasa-Purana. From it, thus
pressed, issued forth as juice, fame, splendour of limbs, alertness of the senses, virility,
and food for eating.
III-iv-3: It flowed forth; it settled by the side of the sun. Verily, this it is that appears as
the deep black hue of the sun.
III-v-1: And its upper rays are its upper honey cells. The secret teachings are the bees.
Brahman (Pranava) is the flower. Those waters (the results of the meditations on the
Pranava) are the nectar.
III-v-2: Those secret teachings pressed this Pranava. From it, thus pressed, issued forth as
juice, fame, splendour of limbs, alertness of the senses, virility, and food for eating.
III-v-3: It flowed forth; it settled by the side of the sun. Verily, this it is that appears as
the quivering in the middle of the sun.
III-v-4: Verily, these hues are the juice of the juices, for the Vedas are the essences and
these are their essence. These hues indeed are the nectar of the nectars, for the Vedas are
the nectar and these are their nectar.
III-vi-1: That which is the first nectar (i.e. the red form), that verily Vasus enjoy with
Agni as their leader. The gods, indeed, neither eat nor drink, only with seeing this nectar
are they satisfied.
III-vi-2: They enter into this very form (colour) and out of this form they emerge.
III-vi-3: He who knows thus this nectar becomes one of the Vasus, and with Agni as the
leader, is satisfied only with seeing this nectar. He enters into this very form and out of
this form he emerges.
III-vi-4: As long as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, so long does he retain the
sovereignty and the heavenly kingdom of (or similar to that of) the Vasus.
III-vii-1: And that which is the second nectar (i.e. the white form), that verily the Rudras
enjoy with Indra as their leader. The gods, indeed, neither eat nor drink; only with seeing
this nectar are they satisfied.
III-vii-2: They enter into this very form and out of this form they emerge.
III-vii-3: He who knows thus this nectar becomes one of the Rudras, and with Indra as
the leader, is satisfied only with seeing this nectar. He enters into this very form and out
of this form he emerges.
III-vii-4: As long as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, even twice so long does
he (the Sun) rise in the south and set in the north and even so long does he retain the
sovereignty and the heavenly kingdom of the Rudras.
III-viii-1: And that which is the third nectar (i.e. the black form), that verily the Adityas
enjoy with Varuna as their leader. The gods, indeed, neither eat nor drink; only with
seeing this nectar are they satisfied.
III-viii-2: They enter into this very form and out of this form they emerge.
III-viii-3: He who knows thus this nectar becomes one of the Adityas, and with Varuna as
the leader, is satisfied only with seeing this nectar. He enters into this very form and out
of this form he emerges.

III-viii-4: As long as the sun rises in the south and sets in the north, even twice so long
does he (the Sun) rise in the west and set in the east and even so long does he retain the
sovereignty and the heavenly kingdom of the Adityas.
III-ix-1: And that which is the fourth nectar (i.e. the deep black colour), that verily the
Maruts enjoy with Soma as their leader. The gods, indeed, neither eat nor drink; only
with seeing this nectar are they satisfied.
III-ix-2: They enter into this very form and out of this form they emerge.
III-ix-3: He who knows thus this nectar becomes one of the Maruts, and with Soma as the
leader is satisfied only with seeing this nectar.
III-ix-4: As long as the sun rises in the west and sets in the east, even twice so long does
he (the Sun) rise in the north and set in the south and even so long does he retain the
sovereignty and the heavenly kingdom of the Maruts.
III-x-1: And that which is the fifth nectar (i.e. the quivering form within the sun), that
verily the Sadhyas enjoy with Pranava as their leader. The gods, indeed, neither eat nor
drink; only with seeing this nectar are they satisfied.
III-x-2: They enter into this very form and out of this form they emerge.
III-x-3: He who knows thus this nectar becomes one of the Sadhyas, and with Pranava as
the leader is satisfied only with seeing this nectar.
III-x-4: As long as the sun rises in the north and sets in the south, even twice so long does
he (the Sun) rise in overhead and set below and even so long does he retain the
sovereignty and the heavenly kingdom of the Sadhyas.
III-xi-1: Then, rising from there upward, he will neither rise nor set. He will remain alone
in the middle. There is this verse about it:
III-xi-2: ‘Never does this happen there. Never did the sun set there nor did it rise. O gods,
by this, my assertion of the truth, may I not fall from Brahman’.
III-xi-3: Verily, for him the sun neither rises nor sets. He who thus knows this secret of
the Vedas, for him, there is perpetual day.
III-xi-4: Hiranyagarbha imparted this Doctrine of Honey to Prajapati, Prajapati to Manu,
and Manu to his progeny. And the father told his eldest son Uddalaka Aruni this very
knowledge of Brahman.
III-xi-5: A father may declare to his eldest son or to any other worthy disciple this very
knowledge of Honey.
III-xi-6: And not to any one else, even if one should offer him this sea-girt earth filled
with wealth. This (doctrine) is certainly greater than that. This certainly is greater than
that.
III-xii-1: Gayatri indeed is all this, whatever being exists. Speech indeed is Gayatri; for
speech indeed sings and removes fear of all this that exists.
III-xii-2: That which is this Gayatri, even that is this earth; for on this earth are all the
beings established and they do not transcend it.
III-xii-3: That which is this earth (as Gayatri), even that is this, i.e. this body in respect of
this person; for these senses are indeed established in this body and they do not transcend
it.
III-xii-4: That which is the body in respect of a person, even that is identical with) the
heart within this body; for these senses are indeed established in it and they do not
transcend it.

gets all-filling and unchanging prosperity. whose resolve is infallible. III-xiii-5: And (he who is in) that which is the upper door of this (heart). This Brahman is all-filling and unchanging. the sentinels of the heavenly world. reaches the heavenly world. even that is this Akasa within the (lotus of the) heart. III-xii-7-9: That which is (designated as) Brahman. in the incomparably good and the highest worlds. the other three quarters of His constitute immortality in heaven. III-xiii-3: And (he who is in) that which is the western door of this (heart). whose are all the pure desires. whose own form is like Akasa. This (Brahman called Prana) should be meditated upon as brightness and as the source of food. III-xiii-7: Again. in his family is a hero born. He is the ear. The Gayatri Brahman is thus expressed in the following Rik: III-xii-6: Such is the greatness of this (Brahman called Gayatri). such indeed one is. It can be heard inasmuch as. therefore. cultivate faith. even that is this Akasa outside the body. even this is the light within the body of man. whose nature is consciousness. there are.III-xii-5: This well-known Gayatri is four footed and sixfold. This (Brahman called Samana) should be meditated upon as fame and grace. III-xiii-6: These. who is permeating the mind. He who knows (Brahman) thus. or the sound of a blazing fire. The Person is even greater than this. on closing the ears. is Samana. he is the Akasa. five doors guarded by the gods. He who adores thus these five persons under Brahman. III-xiii-2: And (he who is in) that which is the southern door of this (heart). is Prana. are the five persons under Brahman. This (Brahman called Apana) should be meditated upon as the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom and as the source of food. who possesses all the agreeable odours . This light can be seen inasmuch as one has a perception of warmth when one touches the body. the light of Brahman that shines above this heaven. who has Prana for his body. He who adores thus these five persons under Brahman. III-xiv-1: Verily. All this world is a quarter of Him. He who meditates thus. he is the moon. He who meditates thus becomes prosperous and famous. the sentinels of the heavenly world. verily. This (Brahman called Vyana) should be meditated upon as prosperity and fame. He is speech. He who meditates thus becomes strong and noble. the sentinels of the heavenly world. he is the sun. He who meditates thus becomes famous and graceful. He is the air. III-xiv-2-3: He. is Vyana. above everything. such one becomes on departing hence. he is Parjanya (the rain-god). One should meditate on the light as seen and heard. Let one. one who meditates thus. one hears something like the sound of a chariot or the bellowing of a bull. He is the eye. all this universe is Brahman. he is fire. On Him should one meditate in tranquillity. This (Brahman called Udana) should be meditated upon as strength and nobility. is Apana. From Him do all things originate. whose creation is all that exists. becomes resplendent and an eater of food. indeed. He is the mind. III-xiii-4: And (he who is in) that which is the northern door of this (heart). above all. That which is the Akasa inside the body. That which is the Akasa outside the body. (He who is in) that which is the eastern door of this. even that is the Akasa inside the body. For as is one’s faith. III-xiii-1: Of the said heart. He who meditates thus becomes radiant with the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom and also an eater of food. One who meditates on this thus. and as is one’s faith in this world. is Udana. into Him do they dissolve and by Him are they sustained. becomes beautiful and illustrious – yea.

the southern is named Sahamana. who is without speech (and other senses). III-xv-3: I take refuge in the imperishable chest for such and such and such.e. for the metre Gayatri is made up of twenty-four syllables. than a mustard seed. I take refuge in Prana for such and such and such. who exists pervading all this. than a barley corn. (his next) forty-four years are the mid-day libation. The Pranas indeed are the Rudras. I take refuge in Bhuh for such and such and such. who is free from agitation and eagerness. III-xv-5: Then when I said. he should repeat: ‘O Pranas. worship thus this air. the Rudras are connected. I take refuge in the Sama-Veda’ – yea. (for) the metre Tristubh is made up of forty-four syllables.g. who possesses all the agreeable odours and all the pleasant tastes. the eastern quarter is named Juhu. are indeed Prana. III-xv-4: When I said. This my Atman residing in (the lotus of) the heart is greater than the earth. III-xvi-1: Man. III-xv-6: Then when I said. I take refuge in Bhuvah for such and such and such. I take refuge in Svah for such and such and such. I take refuge in the Yajur-Veda. The Pranas indeed are the Vasus. ‘I take refuge in Svah’. ‘I take refuge in Bhuvah’. III-xvi-2: During this period of life if anything (e. greater than the sky. who is free from agitation and eagerness – this my Atman. He who knows this air. that was what I said. the calf of the quarters.’ III-xv-7: Then. I take refuge in the Sun. the western is named Rajni and the northern is named Subhuta. Vasus. who exists pervading all this. than a grain of millet or than the kernel of a grain of millet. I take refuge in the sky. greater than heaven. III-xvi-3: Now. On departing hence I shall attain to His being. . unite this morning libation of mind with the midday libation. thus (as immortal). With this the Vasus are connected. who is without speech (and other senses). illness) causes him pain. I said only this: ‘I take refuge in the earth. the calf of the quarters. Thus declared Sandilya – yea. never weeps in mourning for his son. The air is their calf. wishing my son’s.and all the pleasant tastes. So it was in this alone that I took refuge. whose are all the pure desires. (it was because) all these beings. when I said. He is Brahman. III-xiv-4: He. ‘I take refuge in Bhuh’. He alone who possesses this faith and has no doubt about it (will obtain the result). does not decay. the universe). greater than all these worlds. All things rest in it. having the sky as its hollow and the earth for its (curved) bottom. for they cause all this (universe) to weep. I. The quarters are indeed its corners and heaven its upper lid. I said only this: ‘I take refuge in the Rig-Veda. I take refuge in Air. ‘I take refuge in Prana’. III-xv-1: The chest (i. whatsoever exist. for they make all this stable. This well-known chest is the container of wealth. III-xv-2: Of that chest. whose creation is all that exists. May I who am a sacrifice not be lost in the midst of the Vasus who are the Pranas’. residing in (the lotus of) the heart – is smaller than a grain of paddy. and the morning libation is related to the Gayatri metre. is the sacrifice. longevity. He surely recovers from that and becomes healthy. and the mid-day libation is related to the Tristubh metre. May I never weep to mourn my son. With this. He is my Atman residing in (the lotus of) the heart. Sandilya. His (first) twenty-four years are the morning libation. I said only this: ‘I take refuge in Fire. I take refuge in heaven’. truly.

Thou art unchangeable. III-xviii-2: This same Brahman has four feet. rays of light and the Pranas). The Pranas indeed are the Adityas. with regard to the body and with regard to the gods are being enjoined. Again. III-xvi-5: Then (his next) forty-eight years are the third libation. repeat this triad – "Thou art the imperishable. Next. with reference to the body and with reference to the gods. He surely recovers from that and becomes healthy. not be lost in the midst of the Adityas who are the Pranas. extend this third libation of mine to a full length of life. Next. we have reached that highest light. the meditation with regard to the gods – the Akasa is Brahman. who am a sacrifice. me who cannot be so killed. gifts. who knows thus. III-xvi-6: During this period of life if anything (e. too. which is the dispeller (of water. III-xvii-6: Ghora Angirasa expounded this well-known doctrine to Devaki’s son Krishna and said. May I. Agni is one foot. that he does not rejoice –all these are the initiatory rites of this sacrifice. unite this mid-day libation of mine with the third libation. Both the meditations. III-xvii-1: That he (who performs the Purusha sacrifice) feels hunger. III-xvi-7: Knowing this well-known (doctrine of sacrifice) Aitareya Mahidasa said. the Adityas are connected. (On hearing the above) he became thirstless. III-xvii-3: And. III-xvii-4: And his austerity. that he behaves as one of a couple – all these approach Stotra and Sastra. that he laughs. III-xviii-3: The organ of speech is one of the four feet of Brahman (called Mind). Adityas. for they accept all this. non-violence. shining in all gods – yea. thus (one should meditate). that he rejoices – all these approach Upasadas. III-xviii-1: The mind is Brahman. Rudras. There are these two Rik stanzas in regard to this.’ He surely recovers from that and becomes healthy. Aditya is one foot and the quarters are one foot.g. are enjoined. and death is the Avabhrita bath. illness) causes him pain. Thus both the meditations. and ‘asosta’ (has procreated). III-xvii-2: And. with reference to the gods. May we. With the light of fire it shines and warms. and truthfulness – all these are the largesses of this sacrifice. . that he eats that he drinks. Prana (the organ of smell) is one foot. that he eats. ‘Why do you afflict me thus. shines and warms with fame and celebrity and with the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom. Having perceived the highest light in our own heart we have reached that highest light. he should repeat: ‘O Pranas. III-xvii-7: (Those knowers of Brahman who have purified their mind through the withdrawal of the senses and other means like Brahmacharya) see everywhere (the day – like the supreme light) of the ancient One who is the seed of the universe. that he feels thirst. who am a sacrifice.g. too having perceived the highest light which dispels darkness. uprightness. The organ of speech is one foot. Vayu is one foot. He who knows thus. that is the procreation of this. the eye is one foot and the ear is one foot. May I. The metre Jagati is made up of forty-eight syllables and the third libation is related to the Jagati metre. III-xvii-5: Therefore people say ‘sosyati’ (will procreate). not be lost in the midst of the Rudras who are the Pranas’. lives in vigour for one hundred and sixteen years. illness) causes him pain. (the light that shines in the Effulgent Brahman).’ He lived for one hundred and sixteen years.III-xvi-4: During this period of life if anything (e. With this. This is with reference to the body. at the time of death. thus one should meditate – this is (the meditation) with regard to the body (including the mind). reach it. he should repeat: ‘O Pranas. Thou art the subtle essence of Prana". ‘Such a knower should. He.

’ IV-i-3: Bhallaksa replied to him. Bhallaksa. this universe was non-existent. IV-i-7: The attendant. There lived Janasruti Pautrayana who made gifts with respect. auspicious sounds will hasten to him and continue to delight him – yea. That which was the inner membrane is the mist together with the clouds. the swans flew along. sitting near him. Janasruti said to him. that which was of silver is this earth. III-xix-3: And that which was born is the yonder sun. asked him. it lay for a period of one year. and so also to him who knows what Raikva knows. so also to him who knows what Raikva knows. With the light of the sun it shines and warms. Therefore at his rise and his every return (or his setting). ‘I could not find him’. so does go over to Raikva whatsoever good the creatures do. where the knower of Brahman should be searched for there search for him’. did you praise me like Raikva with the cart ?’ ‘What sort of man is this Raikva with the cart ?’ (Janasruti repeated the words of the swan): ‘Just as all the lower casts of the dice go over to one who has won the Krita-cast. ‘Revered sir. He who knows thus. sounds of the form of loud shouts arose. he said to the attendant. shines and warms with fame and celebrity and with the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom. V-i-1: Om. shines and warms with fame and celebrity and with the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom – yea. Of the two halves of that egg-shell. III-xix-2: Of these. the effulgence of Janasruti Pautrayana has spread like the heaven. III-xix-1: The Sun is Brahman – this is the teaching. The further explanation of this (is here given). as also all beings and all desired objects. Ho. With the light of air it shines and warms. III-xix-4: He who knows the Sun thus and meditates on it as Brahman. After he was born. He built rest-houses all round. having searched for him. ‘lo. how could you so describe him as if he were Raikva with the cart ?’ ‘Of what sort is this Raikva with the cart ?’ IV-i-4: ‘Just as all the lower casts of the dice go over to one who has won the Krita-cast. ‘Everywhere people will eat of my food’. shines and warms with fame and celebrity and with the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom. and who had much food cooked (for others). ‘Well. Then one swan addressed another swan thus. lest it should scorch you. O Bhallaksa. Those which were the veins are the rivers. Such is he who has thus been spoken of by me’. It grew.’ IV-i-5-6: Janasruti Pautrayana overheard those words. so does go over to Raikva whatsoever good the creatures do. Before creation. He who knows thus. Then it became existent. IV-i-8: (After searching) he came to a man sitting under a cart and scratching eruptions on his skin and. one was of silver and the other of gold. Such is he who has thus been spoken of by me. ‘Lo. Do not come in touch with it. came back thinking. will continue to delight. That which was of gold is heaven. That which was the water in the lower belly is the ocean. thinking. as also all beings and all desired objects. That which was the outer membrane is the mountains.III-xviii-4: The organ of smell is one of the four feet of Brahman. sounds of the form of loud shouts arise. As soon as he arose. who gave liberally. ‘Ho. III-xviii-6: The ear is one of the four feet of Brahman. He who knows thus. are you Raikva with the cart ?’ . With the light of the quarters it shines and warms. it turned into an egg. (and then) it burst open. he who knows thus. IV-i-2: Once at night. III-xviii-5: The eye is one of the four feet of Brahman.

again. this wife. for whom all this food is meant. together becoming ten. you have withheld it.’ IV-ii-3: The other man answered him thus: ‘Ah. revered sir. Thinking ‘I have found him’.’ Thereupon Janasruti Pautrayana again took with him one thousand cows. indeed. I am’. by him all this is perceived. the ear merges in Prana. Janasruti Pautrayana took with him six hundred cows. he is the protector of the worlds. when the moon sets. O Brahmacharin. Raikva said to him: IV-iii-1: Air indeed is the absorber. these ten are the food or Virat dwelling in all the ten quarters. a celibate student of sacred knowledge begged of them. indeed. speech merges in Prana. it is in air that it merges. when the sun sets.’ The king gave away to him all those villages in the Mahavrisa country known as Raikvaparna where Raikva lived. mortals do not see him who dwells variously. . He who sees thus. this gold necklace. and a chariot drawn by mules and went to Raikva and addressed him thus: ‘O Raikva. O Kapeya. revered sir. Now. When one sleeps. and hence (the knowers) describe his magnificence as immeasurable – such. this chariot drawn by mules. They did not give him anything. IV-iii-5: Once upon a time. who is himself never eaten (but) who devours even those who are not food. IV-iii-6: The Brahmacharin said.e. (here are for you) these one thousand cows. who has undecaying teeth. For when a fire goes out. ‘O Sudra. yes. IV-iii-4: These. it is in air that it merges. IV-ii-1-2: On hearing this. because the number ten applies to both). the eye merges in Prana. and he becomes as eater of food. and this village in which you reside. This is (the doctrine of Samvarga) with reference to the gods. who is the wise one. a chariot drawn by mules and his daughter and went over to Raikva. he admitted. for air absorbs all these. indeed. O Sudra.‘Well fellow. it is in air that it merges. approached him (and said): ‘He who is the self of all gods and the creator of all beings. (Then he told the servants): ‘Give him food’. by him also all this is perceived. the one god swallowed up the four great ones. it is in air that it merges. O Abhipratarin. and these are (the enjoyer) Krita.’ IV-iii-7: Kapeya Saunaka. this gold necklace. instruct me about the deity whom you worship. the princess) you will make me talk. IV-ii-5: Taking that princess to be the portal for the conveying of knowledge. whom we worship’. Even from him. reflecting on those words. IV-iii-8: They gave him food. Now. a gold necklace. IV-iii-2: When water dries up. while Kapeya Saunaka and Kaksaseni Abhipratarin were being served with food. these five and the other five. ‘Prajapati. please instruct me’. of the form of ten deities. and this chariot drawn by mules. constitute the Krita (dice-cast). is the eater of food (as Krita). absorbs all these. This Virat. a gold necklace. the attendant returned. you have brought all these ! Even by this means (i.e. Raikva said. are the two absorbers: Air among the gods and Prana among the sense-organs. is the Brahman. the mind merges in Prana: for Prana. IV-iii-3: Next is (the doctrine of Samvarga) with reference to the body: Prana indeed is the absorber. Now. who is the devourer. IV-ii-4: Janasruti said to him: ‘O Raikva. let this gold necklace together with the chariot and the cows remain with you. Therefore (i. (here are for you) these six hundred cows.

dear boy. facing the east. This indeed. ‘The earth is one part. ‘My child. take us to the house of the teacher. I. Dear boy. of what lineage are you ?’ He replied. got you in my youth. ‘The eastern quarter is one part. is one foot of Brahman. and meditates on it as the Endless. I do not know of what lineage you are. becomes radiant in this world.’ (The fire) said to him.IV-iv-1: Once upon a time Satyakama Jabala addressed his mother Jabala. ‘Please instruct me. ‘Please instruct me. ‘Dear boy. penned the cows. However. and meditates on it as the Radiant. at the place where those cows came together. So you speak of yourself only as Satyakama Jabala. the western quarter is one part. Towards evening.’ While he was driving them towards the forest Satyakama said. named the Radiant. This indeed. revered sir. Having initiated him. ‘Dear boy. got you in my youth.’ (The bull) said to him. IV-vi-4: ‘He who knows this one foot of Brahman consisting of four parts thus. I could not know of what lineage you are. ‘I shall not return till it is one thousand. IV-v-1: Then the bull addressed him thus. I am Satyakama Jabala. wins the endless (undecaying) regions. At dawn of the next day he drove the cows towards the teacher’s house. He who knows this one foot of Brahman consisting of four parts thus. revered sir. at the place where the . may I approach your venerable self (for the same) ?’ IV-iv-4: Gautama asked him. consisting of four parts. ‘Satyakama !’ ‘Yes. the northern quarter is one part. he kindled the fire there. we have reached a thousand. let me instruct you about one foot of Brahman’. dear boy. revered sir’. wins the radiant regions (in the next world). At dawn of the next day. he drove the cows towards the teacher’s house. heaven is one part.’ IV-vii-1: ‘The swan will tell you of one foot of Brahman’. Towards evening. He who knows this one foot of Brahman consisting of four parts thus. is one foot of Brahman. I asked my mother. and meditates on it as the Radiant. ‘Mother. IV-vi-2: The fire addressed him. who was engaged in many works and in attending on others.’ He lived away for a long time. who was engaged in many works and in attending on others. and meditates on it as the Endless.’ IV-iv-5: The teacher said to him. IV-vi-3: ‘Dear boy. ‘I desire to live under you. Of what lineage am I ?’ IV-iv-2: She said to him. I shall initiate you as a Brahmacharin. So. ‘Dear boy. the sky is one part. sir. revered sir’. I desire to live the life of a celibate student of sacred knowledge in the teacher’s house. Having been such. I do not know of what lineage I am. follow them. ‘No one who is not a Brahmana can speak thus. IV-v-3: ‘He who knows this one foot of Brahman consisting of four parts thus. ‘Sir. Having been such I could not know of what lineage you are. However. named the Endless. ‘Satyakama !’ ‘Yes. as a Brahmacharin. I am Jabala by name and you are named Satyakama.’ IV-vi-1: ‘Fire will tell you of one foot of Brahman’. laid on fuel and sat down near them behind the fire. thus he responded. the southern quarter is one part.’ IV-iv-3: He went to Haridrumata Gautama and said. consisting of four. he sorted out four hundred lean and weak cows and said. bring the sacrificial fuel. he responded. "I.’ IV-v-2: ‘Let me instruct you about one foot of Brahman also’. and the ocean is one part. becomes endless in this world. revered sir. till they had increased to one thousand. I am Jabala by name and you are named Satyakama". she replied. for you have not deviated from truth’.

‘Fire is one part. etc. The teacher taught him the same thing. he drove the cows towards the teacher’s house. and meditates on it as the Repository. is one foot of Brahman. IV-x-1: Once upon a time Upakosala Kamalayana lived with Satyakama Jabala the life of a Brahmacharin. But I wish. he responded. revered sir’. ‘This Brahmacharin has undergone severe austerities and has tended the fires properly. do eat. revered sir’. laid on fuel and sat down near them behind the fire facing the east. but did not perform the ceremony for Upakosala.. the moon. in the next world). revered sir’. laid on fuel and sat down near them behind the fire facing the east. you shine like a knower of Brahman. ‘Satyakama !’ ‘Yes. IV-vii-4: ‘He who knows this one foot of Brahman consisting of four parts thus. named the Effulgent. ‘Satyakama !’ ‘Yes.e. Satyakama performed for other disciples the ceremony of completing studies and returning home. that you would expound it to me. and meditates on it as the Effulgent. the ear is one part. dear boy. and the mind is one part. He tended his fires for twelve years. ‘Please instruct me. At dawn of the next day. This indeed. nothing was omitted. ‘People other than men. let me instruct you about one foot of Brahman’. revered sir’. the sun is one part. and nothing was omitted from this – yea. so I shall not eat. let me instruct you about one foot of Brahman’. he responded. and lightning is one part. the moon is one part. ‘Prana is one part. he kindled the fire there. The wife of the teacher said to him. The teacher addressed him. and meditates on it as the Effulgent.e.’ IV-viii-1: ‘Madgu will tell you of one foot of Brahman’. wins the repository (i. wins the effulgent regions (of the sun. the eye is one part. IV-viii-3: ‘Dear boy. consisting of four parts. why are you not eating ?’ He replied. IV-x-3: Through mental sufferings Upakosala began to fast. (The Madgu bird) said to him. dear boy. you should teach him so that the fires may not blame you.’ (The swan) said to him. ‘Please instruct me revered sir. revered sir. he kindled the fire there. ‘In this (very ordinary and disappointed) man (i. extensive) regions (in the next world). IV-vii-2: The swan flew to him and addressed him. is one foot of Brahman. penned the cows.cows came together. he responded.’ IV-ix-1: Satyakama reached the house of the teacher. IV-viii-4: ‘He who knows this one foot of Brahman consisting of four parts thus. He who knows this one foot of Brahman consisting of four parts thus. who is it that has instructed you ?’ Satyakama assured him. I am full of mental sufferings. named the Repository. consisting of four parts. becomes repository (i.’ . penned the cows. IV-viii-2: The Madgu bird flew to him and addressed him. He who knows this one foot of Brahman consisting of four parts thus. IV-vii-3: ‘Dear boy. IV-ix-2: ‘Dear boy. IV-x-2: The wife of the teacher said to him. ‘Satyakama !’ ‘Yes. becomes effulgent in this world.e.’ But the teacher went away on a journey without instructing him. Towards evening at the place where the cows came together. IV-ix-3: ‘I have definitely heard from persons like your venerable self that the knowledge directly learnt from one’s own teacher becomes most beneficial’. myself) there are many desires running in various directions. and meditates on it as the Repository. This indeed. ‘O Brahmacharin. with proper abode) in this world.

from light to the day. wins the region (of fire). indeed. ‘For this reason it is that though they were (formerly) otherwise they are now this wise’. it goes away to the edges. said the teacher. dear boy ?’ IV-xiv-3: ‘This’. We protect him in this world and in the next. who knows it thus and meditates on it. from the bright .’ IV-xii-1: Then the Anvaharyapacana fire instructed him: ‘Water. again. reaches the full length of life. destroys sinful acts. Hence. IV-xi-1: Then the Garhapatya fire instructed him: ‘Earth. even if one sprinkles clarified butter or water into the eye. fire. destroys sinful acts. wins the region (of fire). ‘this is the immortal. ‘What did they tell you. The person who is seen in the lightning. they go to light. wins the region (of fire). All blessings come together in him who knows thus. even that is Kha. Here he concealed the truth. We protect him in this world and in the next. ‘Prana (life) is Brahman. please instruct me further’. I am he. I am he indeed. as for such persons. reaches the full length of life. and his descendants never perish. I am he. but I shall tell you the object of your desire (i. for all blessings come together in him. but the teacher will tell you the way.’ IV-xv-4: ‘He again. So saying. I am he. whether the cremation rites are performed or not.’ IV-xv-2: ‘The knowers of Brahman call him as the centre of blessings. said he. and what is Kha. so also sin does not cling to him who knows Brahman thus’. revered sir’. and his descendants never perish. IV-xiii-2: ‘He who knows it thus and meditates on it. he is the Atman’. food and the sun (are my forms). indeed. is the vehicle of blessings. Brahman). The person who is seen in the sun. lives gloriously. ‘Dear boy. is the vehicle of light. IV-x-5: He said. He who knows it thus carries all blessings. The person who is seen in the moon. he responded. he hinted at the (part played by the) fires in this matter. lives gloriously. destroys sinful acts. We protect him in this world and in the next. ‘I understand that Prana is Brahman. to you (are revealed) this knowledge of the fires and the knowledge of the Atman. the quarters. Ka (joy) is Brahman. ‘Prana. for he carries all blessings. I am he. reaches the full length of life. He who knows it thus carries all blessings. for he shines in all the regions. He who knows it thus shines in all the regions. who knows it thus and meditates on it. Then the fires instructed him about Prana (Brahman) and the Akasa within the heart related to it.’ IV-xiv-1: The fires said.’ They said. The teacher addressed him ‘Upakosala !’ IV-xiv-2: ‘Yes. heaven and lightning (are my forms). but I do not understand Ka and Kha. (The teacher) said to him: IV-xv-1: ‘This person who is seen in the eye. the stars and the moon (are my forms).’ IV-xv-5: ‘Now. your face shines like that of a knower of Brahman ! who is it that has instructed you ?’ ‘Who should instruct me sir ?’. ‘This Brahmacharin has undergone severe austerities and has tended us properly. even that is Ka’. they have told you about the regions only. Akasa. I am he.’ IV-xv-3: ‘He. as it were.IV-x-4: Thereupon the fires said among themselves. This is Brahman. ‘Revered sir. ‘What is Ka. IV-xii-2: ‘He who knows it thus and meditates on it. ‘O Upakosala.’ His teacher came back. thus he acknowledged. the fearless. Just as water does not cling to the lotus-leaf.’ IV-xi-2: ‘He who knows it thus and meditates on it.e. dear boy. come let us instruct him’. and his descendants never perish. lives gloriously. from the day to the bright fortnight. ‘Dear boy. who knows it thus and meditates on it. Kha (ether) is Brahman’.’ IV-xiii-1: Then the Ahavaniya fire instructed him. They then said to him.

e. then he embellishes only one path (viz. to realize Brahman. air from the sky and the sun from heaven. Mind and speech are the two paths of this sacrifice. through the essence of the Yajus-mantras. IV-xvii-1: Prajapati brooded on the worlds. IV-xvii-4: Therefore if the sacrifice is rendered defective on account of the Riks. then with the Mantra ‘Bhuh Svaha’. he extracted their existences. Speech) and the other is injured. through the essence of the Samans. and the Saman from the sun. IV-xvii-2: He brooded on these three deities. From them thus brooded upon. who is other than human. purifies all this. IV-xvi-5: And just as a man walking with both the legs. IV-xvii-5: And if the sacrifice is rendered defective on account of the Yajus. (the Brahman priest) should offer an oblation in the Garhapatya fire. and when the sacrifice suffers injury. from the moon to the lightning. This is the path of the gods and the path to Brahman. he extracted their essences: the Riks from fire. he extracted their essences. and neither one is injured.’ IV-xvi-1: He who blows (i. he is the sacrifice. From them thus brooded upon. IV-xvii-6: And if the sacrifice is rendered defective on account of the Samans. then with the Mantra ‘Svah Svaha’ (the Brahman priest) should offer an oblation to the Ahavaniya fire. through the virility of the Saman. through the essence of the Riks. IV-xvi-4: But. through the virility of the Yajus-mantras. then with the Mantra ‘Bhuvah Svaha’. (the Brahman priest) should offer an oblation in the Daksinagni. if the Brahman priest does not break his silence then both the paths are embellished. if the Brahman priest speaks out (breaking silence). he makes good the injury of the sacrifice in respect of the Riks. moving along. the sacrificer also remains intact. And because moving along he purifies all this.fortnight to those six months during which (the sun) rises towards the north. the Brahman priest embellishes with the mind. fire from the earth. Just as a man walking with one leg. or a chariot moving with one wheel suffers injury. He becomes great by performing the sacrifice. so also the sacrifice of this one remains intact. from the year to the sun. the Yajus-mantras from air. they do not return. the sacrificer also suffers injury. remains intact. from the sun to the moon. air) is indeed the sacrifice. The Hotir. so also that sacrifice of this one suffers injury. Thus verily. Bhuh from the Riks. Those who go by this path do not return to this human whirlpool – yes. If the sacrifice remains intact. through the virility of the Riks. he makes good the injury of the sacrifice in respect of the Yajusmantras. or a chariot moving with both the wheels. Thus verily. he. Bhuvah from the Yajus-mantras and Svah from the Samans. from the months to the year. IV-xvii-3: He brooded on the three Vedas. after the Prataranuvaka is commenced and before the Paridhaniya Rik is begun. After the Prataranuvaka (the morning recitation) is commenced. Adhvaryu and Udgatir priests embellish the other with speech. (comes and) causes them existing there. IV-xvi-2-3: One of these two paths. and before the Paridhaniya Rik is begun. he makes good the injury of the sacrifice in respect of the Samans. he becomes a worse sinner. Thus verily. . (From the region of Brahman) a person. From them thus brooded upon. For having completed the (defective) sacrifice.

V-i-1: Om. tin with silver.) ‘Just like infants without developed minds. Staying a year out. saying ‘I am superior’. becomes the richest among his own people. it came back and asked. That sacrifice indeed is healed where there is a Brahman priest knowing thus. it came back and asked. lead with tin. Hence one should appoint as a Brahman priest only him who knows thus. and wood with leather.’ (At this) speech entered (the body). even so does (the Brahman priest) make good the injury of the sacrifice through the virility of these regions. Speech is indeed the richest. It is in reference to the Brahman priest knowing thus that there is this song: ‘Whence-so-ever the sacrifice comes back. Prana is indeed the eldest and the best (of the organs). yet living with the breath. V-i-5: Verily. surely becomes the eldest and the best. of these deities. V-i-4: Verily. IV-xvii-9: That sacrifice indeed becomes inclined to the north. The mind is indeed the abode. hearing with the ear and thinking with the mind. he who knows the richest.) ‘Just like the deaf. thither verily does the Brahman priest go (to remedy)’.’ (At this) the ear entered (the body). attains all desires. even so the silent Brahman priest is the only priest who protects the people engaged in rituals. V-i-6: Now.) ‘Just like the blind. yet living with the breath. seeing with the eye and hearing with the ear. ‘He amongst you is the best on whose departure the body would appear its worst. where there is a Brahman priest knowing thus. yet living with the breath. he who knows prosperity. seeing with the eye and thinking with the mind. IV-xvii-10: Just as the mare protects (the soldier). it came back and asked. though not seeing. hearing with the ear and thinking with the mind. as it were. yet living with the breath. speaking with the organ of speech. V-i-7: Those senses approached the father Prajapati and said to him. speaking with the organ of speech.’ (At this) the mind entered (the body). ‘How have you been able to live without me ?’ (The others replied. V-i-9: The eye departed. . V-i-3: Verily. silver with gold. ‘Revered sir. Staying a year out. speaking with the organ of speech.IV-xvii-7-8: Just as one would join gold with salt. V-i-2: Verily. V-i-10: The ear departed. Staying a year out. the sacrificer. ‘How have you been able to live without me ?’ (The others replied. not one who does not know thus. Staying a year out. iron with lead. he who knows the stable basis. The eye is indeed the stable basis. and of the three Vedas.’ V-i-8: Speech departed. and all the priests. The ear is indeed prosperity. he who knows the abode. becomes stabilized in this world and in the next. who is the best amongst us ?’ He replied. ‘How have you been able to live without me ?’ (The others replied. once the five senses disputed among themselves about their personal superiority. becomes the abode of his people.) ‘Just like the dumb. not one who does not know thus – yea. ‘How have you been able to live without me ?’ (The others replied. V-i-11: The mind departed. The Brahman priest who knows thus verily protects the sacrifice. Verily. both divine and human. though not speaking. seeing with the eyes. wood with iron. it came back and asked. though not hearing. he who knows the eldest and the best.’ (At this) the eye entered (the body).

reciting this Rik-mantra. he should offer an oblation into the fire on the spot prescribed for offerings. V-ii-3: Satyakama Jabala imparted this (doctrine of Prana) to Gosruti. cover it. Verily I wish to become all this. Then the eye said to that one.’ V-i-13: Then speech said to that one. May he (i. With Mantra ‘Svaha to prosperity’. and throw what remains attached to the ladle into the mash-pot. the son of Vyaghrapada. if that knower of Prana desires to attain greatness. saying this (line) he should sip. V-ii-2: He asked. those who are about to eat. both before and after. The name "Ana’ indeed is self-evident. Then he should lie down behind the fire on a skin or on the ground. ‘O revered sir. We readily meditate upon (the form of the deity) Bhaga’. in the same manner are you also prosperity. ‘(Which is) the best and all-sustaining’. all that is the food of Ana. ‘Just as I am the stable basis. he should recite (the Mantra): ‘You are Ama by name. With the Mantra ‘Svaha to what is stable’. on the full moon night. he should drink all. V-ii-5: With the Mantra "Svaha to the richest’. replied the senses. he should. for all this (universe) rests with you. you as Prana) is the eldest. and throw what remains attached to the ladle into the mash-pot. for the Prana indeed is all these. ‘Just as I am the abode. it uprooted the other senses just as a horse of mettle would uproot the pegs to which it is tethered. people do not call them as organs of speech. ‘Just as I am prosperity. controlling speech . But they call them only as Pranas. V-ii-1: He (the Prana) asked. with water. Therefore. He (i. Whatever is eaten. he should offer an oblation into the fire on the spot prescribed for offerings. nor as ears. ‘We pray for the food of the effulgent one’. the best. ‘We pray for that food pertaining to the Progenitor’. in the same manner are you also the abode. (He who knows thus) becomes the obtainer of clothes and of upper garments.e. saying this and washing the pot shaped like a Kamsa (goblet) or a Camasa (cup). in the same manner are you also the richest’. With the Mantra ‘Svaha to the abode’. They all then came to it and said. ‘If anyone should impart this even to a dry stump. nor as minds. ‘Just as I am the richest. and sovereign. he should offer an oblation into the fire on the spot prescribed for offerings. V-ii-4: Next. even (the food) of dogs and birds’. foot by foot. nor as eyes. ‘What will be my garments ?’ ‘Water’.’ Then the mind said to that one. replied the senses. he should offer an oblation into the fire on the spot prescribed for offerings. V-i-14: Then the ear said to that one. ‘Svaha to the eldest and the best’. saying this he should sip. as the Prana was about to depart. to effulgence. to the best position.e. For him who knows thus there is nothing that is not food. moving a little away and taking the mash-pot in his hands.V-i-12: Then. then branches would certainly shoot and leaves would sprout from it’. in the same manner are you also the stable basis’. and throw what remains attached to the ladle into the mash-pot. indeed. do not depart from the body. stir up in a vessel of curd and honey the mash of all herbs and then offer an oblation into the fire on the spot prescribed for offerings. and throw what remains attached to the ladle into the mash-pot. be our lord. you are the best amongst us. you as Prana) lead me to the eldest age. with the Mantra. ‘What will be my food?’ ‘Whatever there is here. and said. then having consecrated himself on the new moon day. and to sovereignty.’ V-i-15: Verily. the effulgent. saying this he should sip. and throw what remains attached to the ladle into the mash-pot.’ V-ii-7: Then. he should sip. V-ii-6: Then.

O Gautama. V-v-2: Into this fire the deities offer the oblation of King Soma. V-ii-8: There is this verse about it: During the performance of the rites for desired results if the performer sees a woman in a dream. is the fuel. The king was perturbed. ‘Even as you have spoken to me about them. When he arrived. prior to you. Pravahana. V-iii-7: The king commanded him. this knowledge never went to the Brahmanas. revered sir’. The father said. "I have been instructed" ?’ He was distressed and came to his father’s place and said to him. the liquid oblations (or unseen results of action) come to be designated as man ?’ ‘No. Out of that oblation rain arises. the king made reverential offerings to him. ‘O revered Gautama. V-vi-2: Into this fire the deities offer the oblation of rain. the cloud is the smoke. revered sir’. in this vision in a dream. wiuhout having instructed me properly you said. Out of that oblation food (in the shape of corn) arises. the rays are the smoke. V-vi-1: The earth indeed is the fire. ‘Do you know the place of parting of the two paths – the path of the gods and the path of the fathers ?’ ‘No. and the stars are the sparks. V-iii-2: ‘Do you know where created beings go above from here ?’ No. ‘Stay here for a long time. revered sir’. O Gautama. The king said to him. let the human wealth remain with you. V-iii-4: ’Then why did you say. O Gautama. and the rumblings of thunder are the sparks. ‘Do you know how. In the morning he presented himself to the king when he was in the assembly. the lightning is the flame. Of that. ‘Revered Sir. "I have been instructed" ? Foz. the son of Jivala. ‘O king. the directions are the embers. V-v-1: Parjanya is indeed the fire. . This is why the expounding of this knowledge belonged to the Kshatriyas in earlier times in all the worlds’. V-iv-1: The world yonder is indeed the fire. "I have instructed you". came to the assembly of the Panchalas. has your father instructed you ?’ ‘He has indeed. why should I not have toll you ?’ V-iii-6: Then Gautama went to the king’s place. V-iii-1: Once Svetaketu. O Gautama. revered sir’. and I was not able to answer even one of them’. please ask for a boon of human wealth’.’ At the end of the period he said to him. If he should see a woman (in a dream). indeed. He replied. then he should recognize fulfilment in this vision in a dream – yea. the moon is the embers. the air is the fuel. night is the flame.and mind. V-iv-2: Into this fire the deities offer the oblation of faith. If I had known them. Of that. at the fifth oblation. Akasa is the smgke. Of that. enquired of him. Then he instructed him. the day is the flame. and the intermediate directions are the sparks. the sun is the fuel. he should know that his rite has succeeded. the grandson of Aruna.’ V-iii-5: ‘That nominal Kshatriya asked me five questions. the thunderbolt is the embers. how can he who does not know these things say. ‘My boy. so do I not know even one of them. the year. revered sir’. ‘Even as you told me. tell me those words which you spoke to my boy’. V-iii-3: ‘Do you know why the other world is not filled up ?’ ‘No. Out of that oblation King Soma arises.

from Akasa to the moon. Out of that oblation the foetus arises. V-x-7: Among them.V-vii-1: Man indeed is the fire. From there they do not reach the year (like those going the path of the gods). They. (the oblation called) water comes to be designated as man. This is the path of the gods. This is the food of the deities. V-ix-2: Being born. herbs and trees. This (i. Of that. subject to the saying ‘Be born and die’. one who drinks wine. They come to Akasa. from the day to the bright fortnight. Into this fire the deities offer the oblation of the seed. V-x-4: From the months. and is then born. by neither of these two paths. to attain Brahman. lies for nine or ten months. O Gautama. That foetus. those who know thus (this knowledge of the five fires) and those who are devoted to faith and austerity in the forest – they go to light. from light to the day. V-x-9: One who steals gold. the womb of a Brahmana. go to smoke. he lives whatever the length of his life may be. the tongue is the flame. from the sun to the moon and from the moon to the lightning. (comes and) causes them. V-vii-2: Into this fire the deities offer the oblation of food. V-x-5: Residing in that (region of the moon) till they have exhausted (the results of action) they then return again the same way as they came (by the path that is being mentioned). V-ix-1: Thus at the fifth oblation. quickly reach a good womb. the womb of a dog or of a hog or of a Chandala. (they go) to the region of the fathers. But the release from these is more difficult. from the months to the year. O Gautama. V-x-3: But those who living in villages (as householders) practise sacrifices and works of public utility and gift. But those who have bad residual results of action quickly reach an evil womb. speech is the fuel. and one who injures a Brahmana – all these four fall. and the ear is the sparks. This the deities eat. This is the third state. one who dishonours the teacher’s bed. keep repeatedly revolving.e. for whoever eats the food and sows the seed. from night to the dark fortnight. those who have good residual results of action here (earned in this world and left as residue after the enjoyment in the region of the moon). existing there. from smoke to night. (From the region of Brahman) a person. from the region of the fathers to Akasa. Therefore that region (of the moon) is never filled up. from the year to the sun. who is other than human. Then they are born in this world as rice and barley. When he is dead (to attain the world) as ordained. Hence one should be disgusted (with this state). as small creatures. Having become air. V-viii-1-2: Woman indeed is the fire. Having become smoke they become the white cloud. V-x-1-2: Among them. the eye is the embers. Out of that oblation the seed arises. as also the fifth one who associates with them. from the bright fortnight to those six months during which the sun travels northward. they carry him from here (for cremation) to fire itself from which alone he came and from which he arose. V-x-6: Having become the white cloud. There is this verse about it. they become the (rain-bearing) cloud. . or of a Kshatriya or of a Vaisya. this moon) is King Soma (the king of the Brahmanas). Prana is the smoke. Having become the cloud they fall as rain. and from Akasa to air. V-x-8: Then. they become smoke. they become like him only. do they go. sesamum plants and beans. from the dark fortnight to those months during which the sun travels southward. covered with membrane.

without receiving them as initiated pupils. no drunkard. so how can there be any adulteress ? Revered sirs. Revered sirs. ‘This that you meditate upon as Atman is the Vaisvanara Atman known as "the multiform". ‘This that you meditate upon as Atman is the Vaisvanara Atman known as . ‘Air only. please tell us of that. is studying this Vaisvanara Atman. If you had not come to me you would have become blind. Asvapati. ‘Heaven only. is not tainted by sin. the son of Kekaya.’ V-xiv-1: Then the king said to Indradyumna Bhallaveya. ‘I shall answer you in the morning’. The king said. on that alone he should speak to him. having come together. what is that Atman on which you meditate ?’ He replied. and there is in his family the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom. eats food and sees what is dear. let us go to him’. on rising. at present. I am going to perform a sacrifice. But this is only the eye of the Atman. Well. O venerable king’. V-xi-7: The king said to them. knows well this Vaisvanara Atman. sirs. In that as much wealth. V-xi-6: They said. but possibly I shall not be able to tell them everything. even though he associates with those sinners. ‘In my kingdom there is no thief. Uddalaka. ‘Revered sirs. You are. ‘O Pracinayogya. let us go to him’. and Budila the son of Asvatarasva – these five great householders and great Vedic scholars. If you had not come to me your head (a portion) would have fallen down. He who knows these thus becomes cleansed and pure and obtains the meritorious world – yea. no adulterer. ‘These great householders and great Vedic scholars are going to uestion me. V-xi-5: When they arrived. shall I give to you also. Prasuta and Asuta libations of Soma-juice. maid-servants and a gold necklace. the son of Aruna. I shall direct them to another teacher’. O venerable king. no miser. held a discussion on ‘What is our Atman ? What is Brahman ?’ V-xi-2: They reflected among themselves. please remain’. no ignorant person. One who meditates on this Vaisvanara Atman thus. as I give to each single priest. the king arranged for each of them separately a welcome with suitable rites. Therefore in your family are seen the Suta. Next morning. ‘O descendant of Vyaghrapada. ‘The purpose for which a man goes (to another). studying the Vaisvanara Atman. spoke thus: V-xii-1: ‘O Aupamanyava.’ V-xii-2: ‘So you eat food and see what is dear. ‘This that you meditate upon as Atman is the Vaisvanara Atman known as "the highly luminous". Jana the son of Sarkaraksa. eats food and sees what is dear. O venerable king’. Satyayajna the son of Pulusa. In the morning.’ The king said. he said to them. One who thus meditates upon this Vaisvanara Atman. ‘The sun only. V-xiii-2: ‘So. However. ‘Revered sirs. The king. Well. they approached him with sacrificial fuel in their hands. And they went to him. so you eat food and see what is dear. for you are provided a chariot drawn by mules. no man who has not installed the fire. V-xi-1: Pracinasala the son of Upamanyu. Indradyumna the son of Bhallavi.V-x-10: Moreover. at present. V-xi-3: Uddalaka reflected. Therefore in your family are seen all kinds of enjoyable things. The king said. V-xi-4: Uddalaka said to the. he who knows thus. Then they went to him. what is the Atman on which you meditate ?’ He replied. he who knows (worships) these five fires thus. what is that Atman on which you meditate ?’ He replied. But this is only the head of the Atman. and there is in his family the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom.’ V-xiii-1: Then the king said to Satyayajna Paulusi.

as it were. V-xviii-1: The king said to them. That eater. One who thus meditates upon this Vaisvanara Atman. and the mouth is the Ahavaniya fire. and in all the selves. ‘The earth only. ‘This that you meditate upon as Atman is the Vaisvanara Atman known as "the wealth". the breath is ‘the diversely coursed’. and there is in his family the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom. eats food and sees what is dear. The king said. what is that Atman on which you meditate ?’ He replied. V-xix-2: Prana being satisfied. the eye is ‘the multiform’. ‘O Sarkaraksya. ‘O Gautama. V-xvii-2: ‘So you eat food and see what is dear. the food that comes first should be an object of oblation. If you had not come to me your lower belly would have burst’. The king said. (Of the enjoyer as Vaisvanara) the chest is the altar. whatever is under heaven and the sun is satisfied. ‘This that you meditate upon as Atman is the Vaisvanara Atman known as "the foundation". If you had not come to me your trunk would have been shattered’. heaven is satisfied. But this is only the lower belly of the Atman. the sun being satisfied. eats food and sees what is dear. But this is only the Prana of the Atman. V-xviii-2: Of the aforesaid Vaisvanara Atman. V-xix-1: Therefore. the head is ‘the highly luminous’. the eye is satisfied. and various rows of chariots follow you. V-xvii-1: Then the king said to Uddalaka Aruni. If you had not come to me your feet would have withered away’. ‘All of you (with partial knowledge) eat food knowing the Vaisvanara Atman differently. what is that Atman on which you meditate ?’ He replied. V-xvi-2: ‘So you eat food and see what is dear. when he offers the first oblation. O venerable king’. and there is in his family the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom. V-xv-2: ‘So you eat food and see what is dear. eats food in all the worlds. should offer it with the Mantra ‘Svaha to Prana’. the mind is the Anvaharyapacana fire. Therefore are you endowed with wealth and bodily strength. The king said. Therefore are you well-founded in offspring and cattle’. the feet are the earth (‘the foundation’). thereby Prana is satisfied. ‘O Vaiyaghrapadya."the diversely coursed". O venerable king’. But this is only the feet of the Atman. But one who thus meditates upon this Vaisvanara Atman as a whole. One who thus meditates upon this Vaisvanara Atman eats food and sees what is dear. O venerable king’. If you had not come to me your Prana would have departed’. One who thus meditates upon this Vaisvanara Atman. But this is only the trunk of the Atman. consisting of parts and self-conscious. Therefore are your offspring and wealth manifold. and there is in his family the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom. V-xvi-1: Then the king said to Budila Asvatarasvi. V-xiv-2: ‘So you eat food and see what is dear. the eye being satisfied. the heart is the Garhapatya fire. the hairs on the chest are the Kusa grass. V-xv-1: Then the king said to Jana. Through its satisfaction the eater himself is . the lower belly is the ‘wealth’. the sun is satisfied. Therefore from diverse directions offerings come to you. ‘Akasa only. the trunk is ‘the vast’. and there is in his family the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom. One who thus meditates upon this Vaisvanara Atman. eats food and sees what is dear. ‘Water only. heaven being satisfied. in all the beings. what is that Atman on which you meditate ?’ He replied. ‘This that you meditate upon as Atman is the Vaisvanara Atman known as "the manifold".

whatever is under lightning and Parjanya is satisfied. the moon being satisfied. Through its satisfaction the eater himself is satisfied. cattle. VI-i-1: Om. V-xx-2: Vyana being satisfied. the grandson of Aruna. Parjanya (rain god) is satisfied. thereby Vyana is satisfied. fire is satisfied. without knowing this. cattle. even if one. lustre and the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom. lightning being satisfied. the mind being satisfied. (He is satisfied) also with offspring. food. V-xx-1: Then. His father said to him. lustre and the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom. lustre and the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom. V-xxiii-2: Udana being satisfied. cattle. whatever is under the moon and the quarters is satisfied. the skin being satisfied. V-xxi-2: Apana being satisfied. the moon is satisfied. V-xxiv-3: So. offers the Agnihotra to Prana his oblation is poured into all the worlds. lightning is satisfied. V-xxiv-1: If anyone. ‘O Svetaketu. offers the remnant of his food to a Chandala. thereby Samana is satisfied. all the beings.’ . V-xxii-2: Samana being satisfied. V-xxiv-5: As. speech is satisfied. when he offers the second oblation. Akasa is satisfied. Akasa being satisfied. V-xxiii-1: Then. he should offer it with the Mantra ‘Svaha to Apana’. the earth being satisfied. the quarters are satisfied. food. Parjanya being satisfied. knowing it thus. he should offer it with the Mantra ‘Svaha to Samana’. V-xxiv-2: But if one. the ear being satisfied. when he offers the fifth oblation. fire being satisfied.satisfied. food. the mind is satisfied. the earth is satisfied. there never is anyone in our family who does not study and is only nominally a Brahmana. cattle. the quarters being satisfied. when he offers the third oblation. in this world. (He is satisfied) also with offspring. (He is satisfied) also with offspring. the air is satisfied. Through its satisfaction the eater himself is satisfied. he should offer it with the Mantra ‘Svaha to Udana’. Once upon a time there was one Svetaketu. food. he should offer it with the Mantra ‘Svaha to Vyana’. thereby Udana is satisfied. There is this verse about it. food. V-xxi-1: Then. V-xxii-1: Then. so are burnt up all the sins of this one who knowing it thus offers the Agnihotra. the ear is satisfied. Through its satisfaction the eater himself is satisfied. whatever is under the air and Akasa is satisfied. and all the selves. the skin is satisfied. when he offers the fourth oblation. it would be just a man removing the live embers and pouring the oblation on the ashes. V-xxiv-4: Therefore. the air being satisfied. cattle. (He is satisfied) also with offspring. even as reed-cotton when laid on the fire is burnt up. live the life of a Brahmacharin. offers the Agnihotra. (He is satisfied) also with offspring. Through its satisfaction the eater himself is satisfied. lustre and the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom. whatever is under the earth and fire is satisfied. lustre and the holy effulgence born of sacred wisdom. even so all the creatures wait upon the Agnihotra. Dear boy. then also that food becomes his offering to the Vaisvanara Atman only. who knows thus. thereby Apana is satisfied. hungry boys gather round their mother. speech being satisfied.

is that teaching. just as through a single ingot of gold. there was Being alone." It created fire. in the beginning (before creation). Therefore wherever it rains. is that teaching ?’ VI-i-4: ‘Dear boy. dear boy. "May I become many. VI-i-5: Dear boy. said (the father). only the three forms are real. may I grow forth". That fire willed.’ VI-ii-2: Aruni said. regarding yourself as very learned. Thus vanishes (the idea of) the quality of fire from fire. having studied all the Vedas. why should they not have told it to me ? However. one only. without a second. abundant food grows there. conceited. dear boy. the red colour is the colour of fire. did you ask for that teaching (about the Supreme Brahman) through which what is unheard becomes heard. what is unknown becomes known ?’ ‘Of what nature. one only. how each of these three deities becomes threefold (outside the body). all that is made of gold would become known. VI-iii-4: ‘It made each one of them threefold. one only. indeed. without a second. for if they had known. he came back when he was twenty-four old. entering into these three deities through this living self (Jivatman). From that Non-being arose Being.VI-i-2-3: Having gone (to the teacher’s house) when twelve years old. "May I become many. let me make each one triplicated"." It created food. for all modifications is but name based upon words and the clay alone is real. dear boy’. VI-iv-1: ‘In fire. VI-i-6: Dear boy. VI-iii-3: "Of these. arrogant and regarding himself as very learned. it is from water that food for eating is produced. let me. just as through a single nail-parer all that is made of iron would become known. willing thus. and born from sprouts. know that from me. differentiate name and form. It created water. could it be so ? How could Being arise from Non-being ? In truth. His father said to him. this deity entered into these three deities through this living self and differentiated names and forms. Some say that. VI-iii-2: ‘That deity willed. born from living beings. arrogant. But. "May I become many.’ VI-i-7: ‘Surely. revered father. just as through a single clod of clay all that is made of clay would become known. for all modification is but name based upon words and the gold alone is real. my revered teachers did not know it. VI-ii-4: ‘That water willed. the red colour is the colour of fire. dear boy. dear boy. dear boy. ‘Be it so. may I grow forth. without a second. may I grow forth. Thus vanishes (the idea of) the quality of . dear boy. this was Being alone. ‘But now. I see. then it is from fire that water issues. ‘Well. teach it to me’. that which is white belongs to water and that which is black belongs to food (earth). that which is white belongs to water and that which is black belongs to earth. revered sir. ‘Svetaketu. for all modification is but name based upon words. VI-ii-1: ‘In the beginning. for all modification is but name based upon words and the iron alone is real – such. VI-iv-2: ‘In the sun. Therefore whenever a man grieves or perspires. this was Non-being alone. VI-iii-1: ‘Of the aforesaid beings there are only three origins: those born from eggs. what is unthought becomes thought of. are conceited. VI-ii-3: ‘That Being willed. in the beginning. you.

Do not eat for fifteen days. when drunk. the red colour is the colour of fire. VI-v-3: ‘Fire. only the three forms are real. and what is the subtlest ingredient. and what is the subtlest ingredient. VI-vi-4: ‘Dear boy. dear boy’.the sun from the sun. when eaten. drink as much water as you like. VI-vi-5: ‘Hence. VI-iv-5: ‘It was indeed on knowing this (triplication) that the ancient great householders and great Vedic scholars said. ‘There is. said the father. ‘Explain it further to me. what is the middling ingredient. man consists of sixteen parts. that becomes bone. whatever appeared white. that also they knew to be a combination of these very deities. revered sir’. each of these three deities becomes threefold. Thus vanishes (the idea of) the quality of lightning from lightning. Prana is made up of water. for all modification is but name based upon words. becomes divided into three parts. only the three forms are real. when eaten. dear boy. VI-iv-6: ‘Whatever else appeared red. that also they knew to be the colour of (untriplicated) fire. dear boy. that also they knew to be the colour of water. know from me how. mind is made up of food. VI-vii-1: ‘Dear boy. that becomes flesh. . only the three forms are real. on reaching man. VI-iv-7: ‘Whatever appeared to be unknown. of the curd that is being churned that which is the subtlest part rises upwards and that becomes butter. becomes divided into three parts. VI-vi-3: ‘Dear boy. that which is white belongs to water and that which is black belongs to earth. VI-v-2: ‘Water. Thus vanishes (the idea of) the quality of the moon from the moon. unthought or unknown". ‘Be it so. that becomes blood. VI-iv-4: ‘In lightning. becomes divided into three parts. VI-vi-1: ‘Dear boy. said the father. that becomes faeces. the red colour is the colour of fire. of the food that is eaten that which is the subtlest part rises upwards and that becomes the mind. that becomes marrow. VI-v-4: ‘Hence. VI-vi-2: ‘So also. at present. and what is the subtlest ingredient. dear boy. for all modification is but name based upon words. that becomes Prana. mind is made up of food. What is its grossest ingredient. Prana is made up of water. nothing that anyone would point out to us as unheard. ‘Be it so. ‘Explain it further to me. and speech is made up of fire’. of the fire that is eaten that which is the subtlest part rises upwards and that becomes speech. for all modification is but name based upon words. But. revered sir’. VI-v-1: ‘Food. Prana is made up of water. what is the middling ingredient. whatever appeared black. dear boy. that becomes urine. VI-iv-3: ‘In the moon. what is the middling ingredient. dear boy’. and speech is made of fire. that also they knew to be the colour of earth. that becomes mind. What is its grossest ingredient. for from these they understood everything. What is its grossest ingredient. of the water that is drunk that which is the subtlest part rises upwards and that becomes Prana. and the Prana of one who drinks water is not cut off. hat becomes speech. that which is white belongs to water and that which is black belongs to earth.

when a man is said to be thirsty. look for water as the root. Then he approached him saying. left over from a large burning fire. with fire as the shoot. When a man is said to be sleeping. for it cannot be without a root. VI-viii-2: ‘Just as a bird tied to a string. cannot burn any more than that. takes refuge at the very place where to it is tied. even so. and have Being as their support. and the Samans. dear boy. VI-viii-6: ‘Where could its root be apart from water ? Dear boy. even so they speak of water as the leader of food. VI-vii-5-6: The father said to him. each of these three deities. dear boy. look for Being as the root. after flying in various directions and finding no resting place elsewhere. even so they speak of that fire as the leader of water. ‘Dear boy. know from me (the true nature of) hunger and thirst. know this shoot (water) to be put forth (by a root). for the mind. Whatever he asked him. VI-viii-3: ‘Dear boy. the leader of horses.VI-vii-2: Svetaketu did not eat for fifteen days. just as when a single ember of the size of a firefly left over from a large burning fire. his speech merges in the mind. then (it is to be understood that). then. then you will understand me’. ‘Dear boy. and the leader of men. (therefore water may be designated as hunger). dear boy. is made to blaze up by adding straw and it burns much more than before. Just as people speak of the leader of cows. now by means of that you cannot perceive the Vedas. dear boy. look for fire as the root.’ ‘They do not at all arise in me. the leader of horses. Hence. When this man is about to depart. he has become united with Being and has attained his own nature. Hence people speak of him as sleeping. with water as the shoot. From his words. VI-viii-5: ‘Again. (Svetaketu) understood it – yea. look for fire as the root. dear boy. for them he has attained his own nature. VI-viii-1: Once Uddalaka Aruni said to his son Svetaketu. of your sixteen parts only one part is left over. then (it is to be understood that). dear boy. dear boy. look for Being as the root. have Being as their abode. know from me the true nature of sleep. dear boy. Hence. ‘What shall I say ?’ The father said. have Being as their root. even so. ‘The Riks. after flying in various directions and finding no resting place elsewhere. only one part remained. dear boy. of your sixteen parts. and that being nourished by food. the mind is made up of food. just as a single ember of the size of a firefly. water is leading away what has been eaten. even so. When a man is said to be hungry. and by that you perceive the Vedas now. is tied to Prana. Just as people speak of the leader of cows. dear boy. ‘Dear boy. know this shoot (the body) to be put forth (by a root). with fire as the shoot. VI-vii-3: The father said to him. dear boy. on reaching man. All these creatures. dear boy. with water as the shoot. he answered them all. becomes threefold has been explained to you earlier. dear boy. Hence. Eat. that mind. for it cannot be without a root. the Prana is made up of water. fire is leading away what has been drunk: (therefore fire may be designated as thirst). VI-vii-4: He ate and then approached his father. How dear boy. VI-viii-4: ‘Where could its root be apart from food ? Even so. . takes refuge in Prana alone. All these creatures. dear boy. and have Being as their support. dear boy. and speech is made up of fire. the Yajus. has been made to blaze up. Prana in fire and fire in the supreme deity. mind in Prana. he understood it. and the leader of men. have Being as their abode. sir’. have Being as their root. with food as the shoot.

VI-ix-1-2: ‘As. said (the father). ‘So be it. please explain it further to me’. ‘What do you see in it ?’ ‘Nothing. I am the juice of that tree".’ ‘Revered sir. please explain it further to me’. dear boy. The father said to him. my child’. VI-x-3: ‘That Being which is this subtle essence (cause). dear boy’. said (the father). if anyone were to strike at the root. as these juices have no such discrimination as "I am the juice of this tree. this subtle essence which you do not perceive. ‘So be it. said (the father). take a sip . O Svetaketu.’ ‘Revered sir. it stands firm. even so. ‘My child. drinking constantly and rejoicing. the bees make honey by collecting juices from different trees and reduce them into one essence. dear boy. though still living. revered sir’. revered sir’." VI-ix-3: ‘Whatever these creatures are here. if it leaves the second one. tiger or lion or wolf or boar or worm or flying insect or gad-fly or mosquito. revered sir’. even That all this world has for its self. the whole tree dries up. VI-x-1-2: ‘These eastern rivers. said (the father). revered sir’. dear boy’. if anyone were to strike in the middle. That is the true. That Being which is this subtle essence (cause). it would exude sap. dear boy. That is the Atman. then that branch dries up. and there. ‘So be it. then that dries up. it would exude sap. ‘Here it is. growing from this subtle essence the large Banyan tree thus stands. that they become again. VI-xiii-1-2: ‘Put this salt into water and then come to me in the morning’. Having searched for it. know that even so. VI-ix-4: ‘That Being which is this subtle essence (cause). That thou art. That is the Atman. He did so. my child. all these creatures having merged into Being. I am that river". small like particles. though still living. O Svetaketu. even That all this world has for its self. ‘So be it. Have faith. please explain it further to me’. VI-xi-1: ‘Of this large tree. That is the true. That thou art. O Svetaketu.VI-viii-7: ‘That Being which is this subtle essence (cause). ‘What do you see in this ?’ ‘These seeds. please explain it further to me’. said (the father). ‘Bring the salt.’ VI-xi-3: The father said. revered sir’. And there as these rivers do not know themselves as "I am this river. That is the Atman. dear boy’. ‘Break one of these. dear boy’. ‘Dear boy. ‘So be it. if anyone were to strike at the top. VI-xii-1: ‘Bring a fruit from this Banyan tree’. That is the Atman. VI-xi-2: ‘If the life leaves one branch of this tree. even That all this world has for its self.’ VI-xii-3: ‘That Being which is this subtle essence (cause). And whatever these creatures were here.’ ‘It is broken. it leaves the whole tree. even so. do not know. O Svetaketu. that they become again. even That all this world has for its self. even That all this world has for its self. As that tree is pervaded by the living self. "We have merged into Being. as it has completely dissolved. dear boy. VI-xii-2: The father said to him. ‘Dear boy. That is the true. all these creatures. flow along to the east and the western ones to the west.’ ‘Revered sir. They rise from the ocean and merge in the ocean. it would exude sap. ‘It is broken. That is the Atman. being left by the living self this body surely dies. do not know.’ ‘Revered sir. That is the true. having come from Being. That thou art. O Svetaketu. That thou art. but the living self does not die. though still living. dear boy. That thou art. ‘Break it. which you put into water at night’. dear boy’. That is the true. tiger or lion or wolf or boar or worm or flying insect or gad-fly or mosquito. please explain it further to me’. "We have come from Being". and become that ocean itself. he did not find it. dear boy.’ ‘Revered sir.

or towards the north. Prana in fire. The father said to him. That is the true. proceed in this direction" and as he. And for him. That is the Atman. holding him by the hand (while saying) "He has taken something. or towards the west. even That all this world has for its self. so long does he know them. That is the true. O Svetaketu. please explain it further to me’. only so long is the delay as he is not liberated (from the body) and then immediately he is merged in Being. ‘It is there always’. O Svetaketu. the relatives of a man who is ill assemble round him and ask. even That all this world has for its self. I have been left here with my eyes bound up.from the top of this water. he is burnt. ‘Take a sip from the middle. might leave him in a very desolate place. (some robber) having brought a man from the Gandhara region with his eyes bound up. That thou art. please explain it further to me’. VI-xvi-3: ‘And as in this case he (the man attached to truth) is not burnt. to village and being instructed and capable of judging by himself would reach the Gandhara region itself. He did so (and returned saying). ‘Throw this water away and then come to me’. the mind in Prana. (similarly a man of knowledge is not born again). How is it ?’ ‘It is salt’. the mind in Prana. O Svetaketu. VI-xiv-3: ‘That Being which is this subtle essence (cause). VI-xv-1: ‘Dear boy. And being attached to truth. and then he is punished. VI-xv-2: ‘Then when his speech is merged in the mind. then he makes himself false. heat the axe for him". then he makes himself true. That thou art. and just as that man would shout towards the east. and fire in the supreme deity. said (the father)."’ VI-xiv-2: ‘And as some one might remove his bandage and tell him. ‘Dear boy. similarly. VI-xv-3: ‘That Being which is this subtle essence (cause). dear boy’. ‘So be it. (The officers of the king) bring a man. dear boy’. (Being exists) indeed in this body. That thou art. ‘Take a sip from the bottom. he is not the doer of that. Thus has all this world That for its self. as you do not see what is present in this water though indeed it exists in it. however. and fire in the supreme deity. ‘So be it. please explain it further to me’. he covers himself with truth and grasps the heated axe. dear boy. (saying) "I have been brought here with my eyes bound up. How is it?’ ‘It is salt’. That is the Atman. That thou art. That is the true. even That all this world has for its self. said (the father). That is the true. said (the father). dear boy’. That is the Atman. That is the Atman. Prana in fire. he is not burnt and then he is released. VI-xvi-2: ‘If.’ ‘Revered sir.’ ‘Revered sir. VI-xiii-3: ‘That Being which is this subtle essence (cause). ‘So be it.’ ‘Revered sir. VI-xvi-1: ‘Dear boy. even so. And being addicted to falsehood. Prev Page 6 of 8 Next .’ From his words Svetaketu understood That – yea. he understood. "Do you recognise me ? Do you recognise me ?" As long as his speech is not merged in the mind. "The Gandhara region is in this direction. VI-xiv-1: ‘Just as. he has committed a theft. If he is doer of that. he covers himself with falsehood and grasps the heated axe. enquiring his way from village. or towards the south. in this world that person knows who has a preceptor. O Svetaketu. How is it ?’ ‘It is salt’. then he does not know them.

Worship the mind. the science related to serpents. the Sama-Veda and the Atharvanas the fourth. the science of ethics. he who worships speech as Brahman’. there is something greater than name’. Sama-Veda.’ VII-i-4: ‘Name indeed is Rig-Veda. (Narada) ‘Revered sir. Worship the name. the physical sciences. Verily. VII-iii-2: ‘He who worships the mind as Brahman becomes free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of mind. he who worships the mind as Brahman’. teach me.’ VII-ii-1: ‘Speech surely is greater than name. water and fire. ‘Revered sir. then he desires. the science of ethics. and the fine arts – name alone is all this. then he does. revered sir. or two Kola. the science of ethics. good and bad. the science of war.’ Narada said: VII-i-2: ‘Revered sir. neither true nor false. the science of the stars. the science of war. etymology. I am in such a state of grief. then he learns. mathematics. not a knower of Atman. the rules of the worship of the ancestors. (Hence) worship speech. May your revered self take me across it. "Let me desire offspring and cattle". the science of the stars. grammar. the science of portents. the Itihasa-Purana as the fifth. true and false. gods and men. Itihasa-Purana as the fifth. When by mind one intends "Let me learn the Mantras". ‘Revered sir. is . Mind indeed is the world. the ancillary knowledge of the Vedas. Yajur-Veda. VII-i-5: ‘He who worships name as Brahman becomes free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of name. communicate it to me. the science of the stars. and the fine arts – all this I know. the science related to serpents. Speech alone makes us understand all this. really it is only a name. ‘Revered sir. or two Aksa fruits. Atharvana as the fourth. ‘Revered sir. the science of treasures. etymology. Just as the closed hand encompasses two Amalaka. ‘What you already know.’ VII-i-3: ‘Revered sir. and the fine arts – also heaven and earth. VII-iii-1: ‘Mind surely is greater than speech. flying insects and ants.VII-i-1: Om. the physical science. the science related to serpents. logic. etymology. the science of portents. cattle and birds. the science of treasures. grasses and trees. "Let me desire this world and the next". then he desires. Sanatkumara said to him. Mind indeed is Brahman. is there anything greater than name ?’ (Sanatkumara) ‘Surely. I know the Rig-Veda. pleasant and unpleasant. neither merit nor demerit would be understood. Indeed I have heard from persons like your revered self that a knower of Atman goes beyond grief. I am only a knower of verbal texts. the rules for the worship of the ancestors. the rules of the worship of the ancestors. neither good nor bad. VII-ii-2: ‘He who worships speech as Brahman becomes free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of speech. grammar. mathematics. is there anything greater than speech ?’ ‘Surely. beasts down to worms. logic. merit and demerit. the science of war. communicate it to me’. the ancillary knowledge of the Vedas. declaring that to me. the ancillary knowledge of the Vedas. neither pleasant nor unpleasant. What is beyond that I shall tell you. mathematics. the science of treasures.’ Sanatkumara replied to him. air and Akasa. (Narada) ‘Revered sir. the science of portents. Mind indeed is Atman. Speech indeed makes us understand the Rig-Veda. grammar. be my disciple. if speech did not exist. however. so does the mind encompasses speech and name. the Yajur-Veda. logic. the Itihasa-Purana as the fifth. Let me do sacrificial acts". (so also) Yajur-Veda. he who worships name as Brahman’. there is something greater than speech’.’ Whatsoever you have studied here. the physical science. Sama-Veda and the Atharvana as the fourth.’ thus saying Narada approached Sanatkumara.

Through the willing of rain. Pranas will. he indeed. Therefore. he who worships contemplation as . indeed. VII-v-2: ‘All these. there is something greater than intelligence’. Gods and men contemplate as it were. intelligence is their soul. communicate it to me’. if he were really learned. are made up of the will. Through the willing of these. then he sends forth speech. The earth contemplates as it were. Heaven contemplates as it were. and intelligence is their support. attains the worlds of intelligence – himself being permanent. Through the willing of food. they seem to have obtained a share of the result of contemplation. the wellfounded worlds. when one wills. and himself being undistressed. He becomes free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of will. VII-vi-2: ‘He who worships contemplation as Brahman becomes free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of contemplation. he who worships intelligence as Brahman’. indeed. those who attain greatness among men here. Worship intelligence. but those who are great men. people speak of him thus. food wills. The sky contemplates as it were. ‘Revered sir.’ VII-iv-2: ‘All these. Through the willing of the world. he would not thus be without intelligence". the permanent worlds. ‘Revered sir. He becomes free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of intelligence. himself being undistressed. the undistressed world. ‘Revered sir. Therefore. communicate it to me’. when one understands. are made up of intelligence and abide in intelligence. In the name sacred formulas and in sacred formulas the sacrifices become one. Worship contemplation. is there anything greater than intelligence ?’ ‘Surely. there is something greater than mind’. he who worships will as Brahman’. even if a man who knows much is without intelligence. indeed. ‘He does not exist. attains the worlds willed by him – himself being permanent.there anything greater than mind?’ ‘Surely. merge in intelligence. VII-v-1: ‘Intelligence surely is greater than will. there is something greater than will’. Verily. VII-iv-1: ‘Will surely is greater than mind. ‘Revered sir. And those who are small people. then he intends in his mind. all things will. people desire to listen to him also. the world wills. sacred formulas will. he indeed. This is will. the well-established worlds. VII-v-3: ‘He who worships intelligence as Brahman. Through the willing of (sacrificial) acts. then he wills. and abide in the will. they appear to have obtained a share of the result of contemplation. Heaven and earth willed. then he sends forth speech. merge in the will. nor what he has known. On the other hand. himself being well-founded. Through the willing of sacred formulas (sacrificial) acts will. is there anything greater than will ?’ ‘Surely. if a man knowing little is endowed with intelligence. Through the willing of Pranas. Water contemplates as it were. verily. and he sends it forth in a name. The mountains contemplate as it were. then he intends in mind. VII-vi-1: ‘Contemplation surely is greater than intelligence. they are quarrelsome. Worship will. ‘Revered sir. rain wills. communicate it to me’. water and fire willed. abusive and slanderous. Verily. is the one centre of mergence of all these. the undistressed world. VII-iv-3: ‘He who worships will as Brahman. the permanent worlds. air and Akasa willed. himself being wellestablished. In the name sacred formulas and in sacred formulas the sacrificed become one. Intelligence. and he sends it forth in a name.

But with the coming of food. there is something greater than strength’. He becomes free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of understanding. Worship food. VII-x-2: ‘He who worships water as Brahman obtains all desires and becomes satisfied. ‘Revered sir. VII-viii-1: ‘Strength surely is greater than understanding. living creatures are in agony (thinking). hears. he does not see. he sees. there is something greater than contemplation’. cattle and birds. by strength. the science of war. . when there is not good rain. hears. beasts down to worms. the earth stands. by strength the world stands. flying insects and ants. By understanding alone one understands the Rig-Veda. by strength. then he rises. A single man with strength causes even a hundred men with understanding to tremble. VII-vii-2: ‘He who worships understanding as Brahman. good and bad. Water. grasses and trees.Brahman’. When a man becomes strong. by strength. approaching nearer. the sky. food and drink. the science related to serpents. But when there is good rain. Water. "Food will abound". the science of treasures. if one does not eat for ten days. ‘Revered sir. communicate it to me’. there is something greater than understanding’. these cattle and birds. ‘Revered sir. ‘Revered sir. ‘Revered sir. Worship understanding. this world and the next – (all this) one understands by understanding alone. acts and realizes. the science of portents. has assumed all these forms – this earth. beasts down to worms. ‘Revered sir. gods and men. indeed. flying insects and ants. attains the worlds containing the knowledge of the Scriptures and other subjects. he verily attains the worlds supplied with food and drink. true and false. yet. ItihasaPurana as the fifth. VII-x-1: ‘Water surely is greater than food. cattle and birds. VII-ix-2: ‘He who worships food as Brahman. by strength. grasses and trees. heaven. does not hear. the rules for the worship of the ancestors. there is something greater than water’. Worship water. living creatures become joyous (thinking). is there anything greater than food ?’ ‘Surely. He becomes free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of water. he who worships understanding as Brahman’. does not reflect. even though he might live. he serves. merit and demerit. reflects. the mountains. logic. does not act. flying insects and ants. serving. verily. is there anything greater than contemplation ?’ ‘Surely. Worship strength. these gods and men. reflects. this sky. Therefore. water and fire. gods and men. indeed. ommunicate it to me’. there is something greater than food’. indeed. rising. "Food will be scarce". ‘Revered sir. By strength. communicate it to me’. and does not realize. Atharvana as the fourth. communicate it to me’. VII-viii-2: ‘He who worships strength as Brahman becomes free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of strength. he sees. communicate it to me’. is there anything greater than understanding ?’ ‘Surely. and the fine arts – also heaven and earth. the science of the stars. understands. VII-vii-1: ‘Understanding surely is greater than contemplation. understands. ‘Revered sir. pleasant and unpleasant. He is free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of food. grammar. the Vedas. Therefore. is there anything greater than strength ?’ ‘Surely. ‘Revered sir. air and Akasa. this heaven. he who worships food as Brahman’. he who worships strength as Brahman’. Sama-Veda. he who worships water as Brahman’. acts and realizes. these mountains. grasses and trees. has assumed all these forms. Yajur-Veda. ‘Revered sir. is there anything greater than water ?’ ‘Surely. mathematics. VII-ix-1: ‘Food surely is greater than strength. the physical science. beasts down to worms. by strength. he approaches nearer.

they would not think. VII-xii-1: Akasa surely is greater than fire. he who worships memory as Brahman’. then they would think. indeed. it is fire that shows itself first and then creates water. Then people say. In Akasa one rejoices. VII-xiii-1: ‘Memory surely is greater than Akasa. communicate it to me’. ‘Revered sir. Prana moves by Prana. But surely. people say this to him. ‘Revered sir. being resplendent himself. "Lightning is flashing. VII-xi-2: ‘He who worships fire as Brahman. there is something greater than aspiration’. Prana is the preceptor. Prana is the brother. in Akasa one does not rejoice. He is free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of Akasa. VII-xiv-1: ‘Aspiration surely is greater than memory. there is something greater than Akasa’. Just as the spokes of the wheel are fastened to the nave. ‘Revered sir. he indeed. it will surely rain". attains resplendent worlds. you are indeed a slayer of your mother. he who worships fire as Brahman’. In Akasa. Worship Akasa. and so people say. There. there is something greater than fire’. he who worships aspiration as Brahman’. mother. by aspiration all his wishes prosper. you are indeed a slayer of your brother. along with lightnings flashing upwards and across. stars and fire. through memory one’s cattle. performs rites. There. it is thundering. VII-xii-2: ‘He who worships Akasa as Brahman.VII-xi-1: ‘Fire surely is greater than water. Worship fire. Therefore. He is free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of aspiration. Through Akasa one calls. Prana is the sister. unconfined and spacious. ‘Revered sir. VII-xv-1: ‘Prana surely is greater than aspiration. full of light and free from darkness. then they would hear. should they have memory. Through memory. ‘Revered sir. lightning. sister. they would not know. it is burning hot. attains vast worlds full of light. exist both the sun and the moon. ‘Revered sir. Worship memory. he who worships Akasa as Brahman’. communicate it to me’. communicate it to me’. is there anything greater than memory ?’ ‘Surely. is there anything greater than Akasa ?’ ‘Surely. ‘Revered sir. Prana gives Prana and it gives Prana. Prana is the mother. In Akasa a thing is born. It is (because of) this fire that thunders roll. you are indeed a slayer of your preceptor. is there anything greater than fire ?’ ‘Surely. "Fie on you ! You are indeed a slayer of your father. It is this fire that having seized the air warms up the Akasa. desires sons and cattle. "It is hot. brother. his prayers become infallible. He becomes free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of fire. preceptor or a Brahmana. (one’s) memory recites the hymns. through Akasa one hears. you are indeed a slayer of a Brahmana. Prana is the Brahmana. Worship aspiration. ‘Revered sir." . communicate it to me’. through Akasa one hears the response. VII-xv-2: ‘If one answers something harsh to his father. it is fire that shows itself first. one discerns one’s sons. and then creates water. there is something greater than memory’. you are indeed a slayer of your sister. Kindled by aspiration. even if many persons should assemble and if they should have no memory. VII-xiii-2: ‘He who worships memory as Brahman becomes free to act as he wishes in the sphere within the reach of memory. Prana is the father. he. so is all this fastened to this Prana. then they would know. is there anything greater than aspiration ?’ ‘Surely. they surely would not hear any sound. it will surely rain". desires this world and the next. indeed. VII-xiv-2: ‘He who worships aspiration as Brahman. and towards Akasa it grows.

I desire to understand the infinite’. Without reflecting one does not understand. If someone were to say to him. ‘Revered sir. Without understanding. understands something else. elephants and gold. VII-xvii-1: ‘When one understands. for in that case one thing would be established in another. indeed. VII-xxiii-1: That which is infinite. But one must desire to understand faith’. one does not reflect. That is to the south. even if one piles them together. then alone does one have faith. one does not declare the truth. What I do say is thus: VII-xxv-1: ‘That infinite alone is below.’ VII-xxi-1: ‘When one acts. Without acting. I am a surpassing speaker". VII-xxiv-1: ‘In which one sees nothing else. But one must desire to understand steadfastness. Without obtaining happiness one does not act. VII-xviii-1: ‘When one reflects. I desire to understand activity’. I desire to understand understanding’. he should not deny it. Only he who reflects understands. I desire to understand the truth’. understands nothing else. That is in front. VII-xv-4: ‘Prana indeed becomes all these. Only he who has faith reflects. ‘Revered sir. Only on acting does one become steadfast. I desire to understand happiness’. Without faith. hears nothing else. nor "you are a slayer of your preceptor". ‘Revered sir. ‘Revered sir. VII-xix-1: ‘When one has faith. surely people would not say to him. then alone does one act. There is no happiness in anything finite. VII-xx-1: ‘When one has steadfastness. He. ‘Revered sir. Only he who understands declares the truth. I desire to understand reflection’. then alone does one understand. Only he who has steadfastness has faith. "You are a slayer of your father". But one must desire to understand the infinite’. is mortal’. then alone does one declare the truth. and that which is finite. That is behind. nor "you are a slayer of your mother". nor "You are a slayer of a Brahmana". hears something else. "Yes. being such. he should say. That is above. one does not become steadfast. VII-xxiv-2: ‘Here in this world people call cows and horses. I would speak surpassingly with truth’. when the Prana has departed from them. That is to the north. But that in which one sees something else. is the finite. But one must desire to understand happiness’. Only on obtaining happiness does one act. I do not speak thus (of greatness). Without steadfastness. I desire to understand faith’. then alone does one reflect. ‘Revered sir. dismembers them with a fork and burns them up. That which is infinite. nor "You are a slayer of your brother". that is infinite. is alone immortal. thinks thus and knows thus becomes a surpassing speaker. one does not have faith. The infinite alone is happiness.’ ‘Revered sir. I desire to understand steadfastness. is alone happiness. But one must desire to understand understanding. But one must desire to understand activity’. who sees thus. in what is that infinite established ?’ ‘On its own greatness or not even on its own greatness’. nor "You are a slayer of your sister". That alone is all this.VII-xv-3: ‘On the other hand. So next is the teaching in . ‘Revered sir. fields and houses.’ ‘Revered sir. then alone does one become steadfast. VII-xxii-1: ‘When one obtains happiness’. servants and wives. "You are a surpassing speaker". VII-xvi-1: ‘But he really speaks surpassingly who speaks surpassingly with truth’.’ ‘Revered sir. "greatness". But one must desire to understand reflection. ‘But one must desire to understand the truth’.

he becomes free to act as he wishes in all the worlds. Atman is behind. This is the Atman. the further shore of darkness. free from evil. People call Sanatkumara as Skanda – yea. for him alone.’ VIII-i-4: If they should say to him. ‘It (the Brahman called inner Akasa) does not age with the ageing of the body. aspiration from Atman. free from sorrow. contemplation from Atman. VII-xxvi-1: Verily. free from hunger. then what is left of it when old age overtakes it or when it perishes ?’ VIII-i-5: He should say. water from Atman. What is within that. he it is who sees thus. in this city of Brahman. Now. He who sees this sees all things and obtains all things in all ways. ‘’When nourishment is pure. ‘If in this city of Brahman is contained all this. will from Atman. intelligence from Atman. I am in front. name from Atman. VII-xxvi-2: ‘There is this verse about it: "He who sees this does not see death nor illness nor any sorrow. Within it. after his impurities had been washed off." ‘He is one. they are not free to act as they wish in all the worlds. I am to the north. in it is a small inner Akasa. whose resolve is of the truth. has pleasure in Atman. VII-xxv-2: ‘So now is the teaching through Atman. Atman is above. both the sun and the moon. free from thirst. reflects thus and understands thus. When memory becomes strong. Atman alone is all this. that should be sought. indeed. food from Atman. union in Atman. free from death. and understands thus. ‘As large indeed as is this Akasa. Atman is to the south. who sees thus. that indeed. reflection and higher understanding become pure. lightning and the stars. are contained both heaven and earth. appearance and disappearances from Atman. mind from Atman. the subjects follow as they are commanded and whatever province they desire. they call him Skanda. which one should desire to understand ?’ – he should say in reply. there is release from all the knots of the heart. one should desire to understand. Just as in this world. becomes threefold. Prana springs from Atman. When reflection and higher understanding are pure. fivefold. This (Akasa) is the real city of Brahman. . Akasa from Atman. Atman is in front. speech from Atman. fire from Atman. memory from Atman. He becomes Self-sovereign. all that is contained within it. memory becomes strong. strength from Atman. joy in Atman. free from old age. Atman alone is below. all this (springs) from Atman alone. Verily. I am behind. both fire and air. Then again he is called the elevenfold. all beings and all desires. I alone am all this. whose desire is of the truth. delight in Atman. also a hundred-and-ten-fold and also a thousand-and twenty-fold. so large is that Akasa in the heart. Atman is to the north. understanding from Atman. I alone am below. Whatever there is of him in this world and whatever is not. in it are contained the desires. rites from Atman. I am above. sevenfold and also ninefold. it is not killed by the killing of this. VIII-i-1: Om. there is a mansion in the shape of a small lotus. VIII-i-2-3: If the disciples should say to him. be it a country or a part of the field. The revered Sanatkumara showed to Narada. I am to the south. ‘In this city of Brahman in which is a small mansion in the shape of a lotus and in the small inner Akasa within – what is it that lies there which should be sought. But those who know otherwise than this are ruled by others and live in perishable worlds. hymns from Atman.regard to the self-sense.

hence it is the heart. by his mere will. VIII-iii-3: This Atean verily is in the heart. Possessed of that world of sisters he feels happy and exalted. women arise. brothers arise. Possessed of that world of mothers he feels happy and exalted. VIII-ii-4: And if he becomes desirous of the world of sisters. even so there in the other world. VIII-ii-6: And if he becomes desirous of the world of perfumes and garlands. VIII-iii-2: But those of his people. VIII-ii-8: And if he becomes desirous of the world of song and music. Possessed of that world of song and music he feels happy and exalted. (So the ignorant depend upon others for enjoying the fruits of their Karma). mothers arise. VIII-iii-1: These same are the true desires covdred by the untrue. appears in his own true form. He who knows thus(indeed goes daily into the heavenly world. the world which is earned by righteous deeds perishes. yet do not find it. even so all these creatures here.’ VIII-ii-1: If he becomes desirous of the world of fathers. all that one finds by going there (into the Atman. said the teacher. . VIII-ii-3: And if he becomes desirous of the world of brothers. by his mere will. the name of this Brahman is the True. Possessed of that world of friends he feels happy and exalted. rising out of this body and reaching the highest light. VIII-ii-9: And if he becomes desirous of the world of women. by his mere will. VIII-ii-7: And if he becomes desirous of the world of food and drink. though people who do not know the field walk again and again over the treasure of gold hidden underground but do not find it. they(arise. VIII-iii-4: Now that serene and happy being. by his mere will. For whosoever of one’s people departs from here in this world one does not get him back to see. having understood the Atman and these true desires. though they go daily into the Brahman-world. indeed. But those who depart from here. they are covered by the untrue. This is Brahman. VIII-i-6: ‘Just as here on earth the world which is earned by work perishes. Possessed of that world of brothers he feels happy and exalted. the Akasa in the heart). Possessed of that world of food and drink he feels happy and exalted. Possessed of that he feels happy and exalted. for them there is freedom to act as they wish in all the worlds. Its etymological explanation is this. by his mere will. for them there is no freedom to act as they wish in all the worlds. VIII-ii-10: Whatever provinces he is attached to and whatever desirable objects he desires by his mere will. sisters arise. by his mere will. for they are carried away by the untrue. Verily. for here. by his mere will. This is the immortal. are those true desires of his covered by the untrue. of perfumes and garlands arise. by his mere will. song and music arise. This is the Atman. Possessed of that world of perfumes and garlands he feels happy and exalted. VIII-ii-2: And if he becomes desirous of the world of mothers. whether they are alive or dead and whatever else one desires but does not get. Possessed of that world of women he feels happy and exalted. food and drink arise.on that they live. Although the desires are true. This (Atman) is in the heart. fathers arise. Possessed of that world of fathers he feels happy and exalted. Just as. by his mere will. the fearless. friends arise. So those who depart from here without having understood the Atman and these true desires. VIII-ii-5: And if he becomes desirous of the world of friends.

VIII-v-4: Therefore only those who attain the two oceans. ‘Do you know me ? Do you know me ?’ As long as he has not departed from this body. these arteries which belong to the heart exist filled with the juice of a fine substance which is reddish-brown. when one is thus reduced to a weakened condition. white. nor old age nor death nor sorrow. VIII-v-2: Now. on reaching this dyke. Verily. for this Brahman-world is ever illumined. and what is ‘yam’. VIII-v-1: Now. what people call the sacrificial session is really Brahmacharya. then he proceeds upwards through those very rays. Therefore. what people call sacrifice is really Brahmacharya. For them there is freedom to act as they wish in all the worlds.’ VIII-iv-1: Now. for only by worshipping with Brahmacharya does one attain the Atman. And what people call the life of a hermit is really Brahmacharya. VIII-vi-2: Just as an extending highway runs between two villages. and there is the gold hall specially built by the Lord. what people call a course of fasting is really Brahmacharya. even so the rays of the sun go to both these worlds. Then no evil touches him for then he is filled with the light of the sun. VIII-iv-2: Therefore. he is yellow. ‘yam’. serene so that he knows no dreams. VIII-vi-4: Now. They spread out of the yonder sun and enter into these arteries. this Atman is the dyke. Out of these arteries they spread and enter into the yonder sun. this as well as that. for only by means of Brahmacharya does the knower attain that world. if afflicted. for verily Ara and Nya are the two oceans in the Brahman-world in the third heaven from here and therein is the lake Airammadiya. then he enters into (the Akasa of the heart through) these arteries. he is red. therefore it is ‘yam’. the embankment for the safety of these worlds. VIII-vi-3: Therefore when one is thus sound sleep. with it one holds the two together. for this Brahman-world is free from evil. for this Atman never perishes which one attains by means of Brahmacharya. The yonder sun indeed is reddish-brown. in the Brahmanworld by means of Brahmacharya. this as well as that. And what people call worship (Ista) is really Brahmacharya. on reaching this dyke.VIII-iii-5: These are indeed the three syllables. neither the day nor the night crosses. nor merit nor demerit. verily. (if a knower) he surely goes up meditating on Om or (does not got up if . he is blue. ‘sa’. yellow and red.he ceases to be afflicted. ‘ti’. to them belongs this Brahman-world. Because with it one holds the two together. if wounded. and there is the Aparajita (unconquered) city of Brahma. only to them belongs this Brahman-world and for them there is freedom to act as they wish in all the worlds. VIII-v-3: Now. and what is ‘ti’. And what people call the vow of silence is really Brahmacharya for only through Brahmacharya does one understand the Atman and then meditate. even night becomes day. This dyke. All evils turn back from it. composed. he who knows thus goes to the heavenly world. blue. What is ‘sa’. he ceases to be wounded. VIII-vi-1: Now. VIII-iv-3: But only those who attain according to the iostruction this Brahman-world through Brahmacharya. that is the immortal. so long he knows them. if one was blind he ceases to be blind. verily. VIII-vi-5: But when he thus departs from this body. Ara and Nya. those who sit around him say. that is the mortal. he is white. for only by means of Brahmacharya does one obuain one’s salvation from Being.

whose desire is of the truth.’ Then Indra alone from among the gods went out and so did Virochana from among the demons. free from death. Prajapati asked them. well adorned. they will be foiled. well dressed and well groomed. the self is to be attended upon. He who has found out and who understands that Atman attains all the worlds and all the desires. free from old age. Passing upwards through that. As long as it takes for the mind to travel. Then without communicating with each other. Thus spoke Prajapati.’ . looked into the pan of water. ‘Revered sir.’ They too. whose resolve is of the truth. having become well adorned. free from hunger and thirst. VIII-viii-1: ‘Look at yourself in a pan of water and whatever you do not understand of the Atman. ‘But. free from hunger and thirst.’ ‘This is the Atman’. the very image. which of these is the Atman ?’ It is he himself that is perceived in all these’. ‘This is the immortal. well dressed and well groomed. he who is perceived in water and he who in a mirror. they both came into the presence of Prajapati. the fearless. the fearless. without having understood the Atman. He who has found out and who understands that Atman attain all the worlds and all the desires – these are known to be the words of your revered self. him one should desire to understand. VIII-vi-6: There is this verse about it: A hundred and one are the arteries of the heart. Then Prajapati asked them. him one should desire to understand. while the other arteries serve for departing in various other directions – yea. revered sir. fuel in hand. tell me that’. serve for departing. he goes to the sun. Then Prajapati asked them. even to the very hairs and nails. Whosoever will follow such a doctrine be they gods or demons. he should be sought. went to the demons and declared this doctrine to them. free from sorrow. Desiring that Atman we have been living. Virochana. ‘Having become well adorned. This is Brahman’. well dressed and well groomed. free from old age. This is Brahman’. VIII-vii-1: The Atman which is free from evil. ‘The Atman which is free from evil. That indeed is the door to the world (of Brahman). let us seek that Atman by seeking which one attains all the worlds and all the desires. we both see the self entirely as we are. replied Prajapati.’ VIII-vii-4: Prajapati said to them. ‘They are going away without having perceived.he is not a knower). well adorned. this as well as the yonder. one of them leads up to the crown of the head. he should be sought. ‘Desiring what have you been living ?’ They replied. They both went away satisfied in their hearts. Here it is only by worshipping the self and attending upon the self that one obtains both the worlds. ‘Just as we are ourselves. free from death. ‘Well. ‘What do you see ?’ They replied.’ Now. said he. ‘this is the immortal. one attains immortality. in that (short) time. ‘The person which is seen in the eye is the Atman’. VIII-viii-4: Then Prajapati looked at them and said. He added. whose resolve is of the truth. an entrance for the knowers and a shutting out for the ignorant. satisfied in his heart. ‘Here the (bodily) self alone is to be worshipped. ‘What do you see ?’ VIII-viii-3: They replied. Then they looked in a pan of water. VIII-vii-3: For thirty-two years they lived there the disciplined life of a celibate student of sacred knowledge. revered sir. well dressed and well groomed. revered sir. look into the pan of water.’ VIII-viii-2: Then Prajapati said to them. VIII-vii-2: Both the gods and the demons heard this and said. even so are both these. free from sorrow. whose desire is of the truth.

the fearless. and even weeps. ‘Desiring what. fuel in hand. Live here for another thirty-two years. by this. serene and knows no dream. since you went away satisfied in your heart ?’ He replied. ‘He who is fully asleep. they will win the other world. crippled when the body is crippled. and it perishes when this body perishes. who does not perform sacrifices. for this is the doctrine of the demons. Indra went away satisfied in his heart. just as this (reflected self) becomes well adorned when this body is well adorned. I see no good in this. Indra went away satisfied in his heart. They adorn the body of the deceased with enjoyable things. one-eyed when the body is one-eyed.VIII-viii-5: Therefore. Then Prajapati said to him: VIII-xi-1: Prajapati said. O Indra. ‘He who moves about in dreams. Prajapati asked him. Live here for another thirty-two years. crippled when the body is crippled. But even before reaching the gods he saw this difficulty: ‘In truth this one does not know himself now as "I am he". he is a demon’. well dressed when the body is well dressed. ‘However. they think. O Indra’. the fearless. ‘Revered sir.’ He lived there for another thirty-two years. . VIII-ix-3: ‘So is it indeed.’ He lived there for another thirtytwo years. yet it is as if they kill it. O Indra’. I shall explain this further to you. nor one-eyed when the body is slain. nor is slain when the body is slain. saw this difficulty: ‘Just as this (reflected self) becomes well adorned when this body is well adorned. composed. He is Brahman’. nor one-eyed when the body is one-eyed. ‘Desiring what. fuel in hand. ‘Revered sir. Prajapati asked him. it becomes conscious of pain. ‘Desiring what. He is Brahman’. who has no faith. ‘However. well dressed when the body is well dressed. have you come back. he is the Atman. said Prajapati. well groomed when the body is well groomed. even though this self is not blind when this body is blind. as if they chase it. in truth this one does not know himself as "I am he". O Indra. as it were. I see no good in this’. nor suffers defects from the defects of the body. as it were. VIII-x-3-4: He came back again. he is the Atman. even to this day. even so this (reflected self) also becomes blind when the body is blind. Then Prajapati said to him: VIII-x-1-2: Prajapati said. VIII-xi-2: He came back again. He is the immortal. it becomes conscious of pain as it were. ‘Oh. one-eyed when the body is one-eyed. well groomed when the body is well groomed. Prajapati asked him. and even weeps. along with Virochana ?’ Indra replied. yet it is as if they kill it. as if they chase it. since you went away satisfied in your heart. have you come back. I see no good in this. said Prajapati. It seems as if he has gone to annihilation. O Indra. It seems as if he has gone to annihilation. as it were. I see no good in this’. ‘So is it indeed. VIII-ix-1: But Indra. But even before reaching the gods he saw this difficulty: ‘Even though this (dream-self) is not blind when this body is blind. ‘Revered sir. and it perishes when this body perishes. nor has running nose and eyes. I shall explain this further to you. even before reaching the gods. fuel in hand. have you come back. He is the immortal. since you went away satisfied in your heart ?’ He replied. here people say of one who is not a giver. nor indeed these beings. clothes and ornaments for. even so this (reflected self) also becomes blind when the body is blind.’ VIII-ix-2: He came back again. nor indeed these beings. I see no good in this’. I see no good in this’. nor has running nose and eyes when the body has running nose and eyes.

Through this divine eye of the mind he verily sees these desired objects which are in the Brahman-world. settles down in his household. shaking off the body as the moon frees itself from the mouth of Rahu. And he who knows ‘I smell this’. the ear is for hearing. in the time left over after performing his duties to the teacher. reach the highest light and appear each with its own form. Verily. VIII-xii-4: Now. As an animal is attached to a chariot. I wish to attain that glory. mortal indeed is this body. But pleasure and pain do not indeed touch one who is bodiless. But it is the support of this deathless. ‘Verily. is the Atman. VIII-xii-5: And he who knows ‘I think this’. for one hundred and one years Indra lived with Prajapati the disciplined life of a celibate student of sacred knowledge". That makes one hundred and one years and so with regard to that. said Prajapati. where the sight merges in Akasa (inside the eye. who having known that Atman (from the teacher and the scriptures) understands it. held by death. I am the glory of the Brahmanas. (there exists) that which is the person in the eye. ‘I attain to the assembly-hall and abode of Prajapati. VIII-xiv-1: Verily. may I never go to it. and has virtuous sons and disciples. and the eye is only for (his) seeing. VIII-xiii-1: From the dark I attain to the variegated from the variegated I attain to the dark. lightning. O Indra’. He is the Highest Person. is the Atman. the black pupil of the eye). even so is the Prana attached to this body. He obtains all the worlds all the desired objects.’ Thus spoke Prajapati – yea. the glory of the Vaisyas. that is the Atman. the nose is for smelling. I am the glory of the glories..VIII-xi-3: ‘So is it indeed. continues the study of the Veda in a clean place. people say thus. laughing. VIII-xii-2-3: Bodiless is air. what is called Akasa is the revealer of name and form. thunder. I shall explain this further to you and none other than this. I obtain it. . playing. the glory of the Kshatriyas. I. Prajapati to Manu and Manu to his descendants. Live here for another five years. There he moves about. this is the Atman whom the gods worship. having fulfilled all ends. these also are bodiless. May I never go to that which is reddish-white and toothless yet devouring and slippery – yea. He who has read the Veda according to the prescribed rule. there is no cessation of pleasure and pain for one who is embodied. he who behaves thus throughout his life reaches the world of Brahman and does not return again – yea. and rejoices. And he who knows ‘I speak this’. i. and white cloud. Now as these arise out of the yonder Akasa. who practises non-injury to all beings except in places specially ordained. is the Atman.e. the embodied self is held by pleasure and pain. even so this serene one rises out of this body. Then Prajapati said to him: VIII-xii-1: ‘O Indra. bodiless Atman. Therefore all the worlds and all the desired objects are held by them. he does not return again. obtain the eternal Brahman-world – yea. Surely. not remembering this body in which he was born.’ VIII-xv-1: Brahma expounded this to Prajapati.’ He lived there for another five years. Shaking off evil as a horse his hairs. the mind is his divine eye. that is the immortal. rejoicing with women. reaches the highest light and appears in his own form. VIII-xii-6: ‘Verily. That within which they are. the organ of speech is for speaking. he who after having come back from the teacher’s house. is Brahman. And he who knows ‘I hear this’. is the Atman. ‘However. he who withdraws all his senses into the Atman. thus spoke Prajapati. vehicles or relations.

This very secret Shiva philosophy by which Shiva who is the Dakshinamurthy. followed by the name of wife of fire God “swaha”. then “medham Pragnam”. under a banyan tree called Maha Bandira. This is the mantra with 24 letters. “This is because of the knowledge of the most secret philosophy of Shiva. who keeps every thing else within himself and shines because of the pleasure of his own spirit. May our study be vigorous and effective. First Mantra of 24 letters: After telling “om”. nor Brahman deny me.Om ! Let my limbs and speech. May we work conjointly with great energy. All existence is the Brahman of the Upanishads.org Om ! May He protect us both together. tell “Namo” and then “Bhagavathe Dakshinamurthaye”. Medham Pragnam Prayacha Swaha!” 2 . Who am devoted to the Atman. eyes. “How do you manage to be a Chiram Jeevi (One who does not have death) and how are you always in the happy state?" 1 He replied. He is that God who at the time of final deluge. R. Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace ! Here ends the Chandogyopanishad. May I never deny Brahman. becomes some thing which is not visible to others. may they reside in me. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Om. Prana. That is “Om Namo Bhagwathe Dakshinamurthaye Mahyam. as contained in the Sama-Veda. In Brahma Vartha (Land of Brahma). --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24]Dakshinamurti Upanishad Translated by P. Let there be no denial at all: Let there be no denial at least from me. vitality And all the senses grow in strength. Ramachander Published by celextel. May the virtues that are proclaimed in the Upanishads be in me. added with “chcha”. ears. They approached sage Markandeya wearing samiths (dried twigs of banyan tree) as gloves and asked him. The secret mantras about him are as follows: Brahma is the sage. the meter is Gayathri and the god is Dakshinamurhy for this mantra. may He nourish us both together. then the root of wind “ya”. many sages including Sounaka had assembled to perform a Sathra fire sacrifice. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). then the fourth form of “asmad” viz “Mahyam”.

who has tied a snake on his body. May our study be vigorous and effective. who has a white body due to application of holy ash. 11 Om ! May He protect us both together. who has in his three hands. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). who sits on the throne of explanation and who is being served by great sages protect us always. The ones who know this truly will attain salvation. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! . who sits below a banyan tree and who is surrounded by sages like Shuka. who ties himself with a snake. which burns with renunciation as oil. and this gives the Navakshari mantra (nine letters mantra). the sign of protection. gives us pure thoughts. Maya Bheeja.Then Dhyanam (thinking abut the form in the mind. then the first vowel with the visarga and in the end ell Panchakshari with visarga in the end. who resembles the meditating Rama. 3 Second Mantra of nine letters: First Say “Om”. beaded chain. the pot of nectar which is the form of knowledge. 8 We have to see that lamp of wisdom. The mantra would be “Om Broom. That is “Om Aam Aa Sivaya Nama Om!” 4 Then Dhyanam. a chain of pearl beads. and the mudhra (symbol) of wisdom. May we work conjointly with great energy. and obtained the capacity of creating beings and became very happy. deer and axe in three hands and fourth hand kept on his knee. may He nourish us both together. who wears the moon on his head and who wears different type of ornaments. I salute him who is white like a crystal. who shines white like milk. who wears the elephant hide. Jnana mudra (symbol of wisdom). Vagbhava Bheeja. who wears the crescent moon on his head. Let the three eyed god who does only good. 9 In the beginning of creation. 10 The one who reads this philosophy of Shiva with understanding. who holds in his hands. He became blessed after getting what he desired. who wears all ornaments. 5 [Slokas 6 is not available.] Third Mantra: Add Broom Nama. Namo Hreem Im Dakshinamurthaye Jnanam Dehi Swaha!” 7 Then Dhyanam: Let the God Dakshinamurthy. Lord Brahma prayed this Dakshinamurthy. who holds in his hands. when mantra is chanted). devotion as wick and which shines in the full vessel of wake up state. Dakshinamurthaye and Jnanam dehi Swaha to Om. would get rid of all his sins. Veena and books. That Brahma therefore has become a devotee as well as somebody who deserves our devotion.

I shall tell you about Yoga which has eight branches. may they reside in me.Here ends the Dakshinamurti Upanishad belonging to the Krishna-Yajur-Veda. eyes. Gomukha (cows face). R. Ramachander Published by celextel. whatever it may be but which makes you comfortable and gives you courage to undertake Yoga is called Sukhasana. “Oh God. fear for bad actions. Prana. Veera (valorous). charity. Dharana. vitality And all the senses grow in strength. joy. May I never deny Brahman. food discipline and cleanliness. patience. truth. ears. non possession of properties of others. 2 The nine important Asanas (sitting positions) are Swasthika (Swastika). stability. worship of god. He approached his teacher (God Dattatreya) with humility and with folded hands. that position. Niyama. Mayura (peacock) and Sukha (pleasant). please tell me about the science of yoga which has eight branches and five different sthanas (places) by knowing which I will attain salvation.org Om ! Let my limbs and speech. The eight branches are Yama. Simha (lion). clear intellect. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 25]Jabala Darsana Upanishad Translated by P. Sankrithi is a great devotee and a sage and is an expert in yoga and also a disciple of Dattatreya. Victory in the seating position is like victory over the three worlds. hearing of philosophy. Prathyahara. Yama which is the first is the practice of non-violence. Who am devoted to the Atman. mercy. celibacy. nor Brahman deny me. sit in the Asana which is most familiar facing either east or . Dhyana and Samadhi. Aasana. 1 Niyama is the ten aspects of penance. orthodoxy. Padma (lotus). Once the Asana is fixed. All existence is the Brahman of the Upanishads. 3 Either in the top of the mountain or by the shore of the river or under a Bilwa tree in the forest. when his teacher was alone and requested him. Oh sage. Pranayama. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! God Dattatreya is the reincarnation of the four armed Vishnu and he is the ruler of the world. one should practice Pranayama. “Hey Sankrithi. Let there be no denial at all: Let there be no denial at least from me. Badra (safe). People who do not have strength to take up other positions can use that. Muktha (free). honesty. Dattatreya told him. after choosing a clean place which is acceptable to the mind and after establishing a place to do tapas (Asram). chanting and austerities. May the virtues that are proclaimed in the Upanishads be in me.

To get rid of all sins.here we try to hold on what we are mediating upon without wavering). draw his breath till it fills up from head to toe and hold it in two feet. forehead and at the top of the skull.. cover the face and concentrate the vision with best possible attention on the nectar flowing from the fourth state of the moon like dot at the end of the nose. In the Jeevatma. Body will become light. To use force and divert the sensory organs which normally travel according to their nature is Prathyahara. It is said that this very great Dharana destroys all sins. you have to practice. the wise man should suppress the gods like Brahma in the causative self. Again he has to exhale and inhale again in the middle using the Ida (Nadi which is pleasant and is on the left side of Sushumna). meditate on the flame of fire inside the body and then shift meditation to the root of fire with its sound and dot. Then the intelligent one will exhale and draw the Prana using Pingala (Nadi which is tawny and is on the right side of Sushumna Nadi) and meditate on the Agni Bheeja. Apart from this inhaling air (oxygen) and stopping it in different places is also Prathyahara. also it is necessary to chant the pancha bhootha mantras viz. bottom of the neck. Further doing daily religious activities after dedicating them to God and similarly doing the activities which we desire is also Prathyahara.a stage in meditation . In the fluid aspects of the body. There is nothing that cannot be attained by those who practice like this. that lord Shiva who rules over everything and is the personification of wisdom should be placed. middle of the eyelids. Ram. In the sky which is in the middle of the body. and place the Avyakta (that which is not clear) which is formless and which is the root cause inside the entire soul with the . One should have to live in a secret place practicing this exercise six times for 3-4 days or 3-4 weeks at dawn. stomach. 4 Now I will tell you about Prathyahara. mooladhara. I will also tell you another Dharana. These are the symbols of Siddhi (getting mastery). Slowly symbols will start showing up. Yam. The wise man would sit in Swasthikasana. Dharana of the sky outside should be made. the fire in the stomach will burn well and the voice would become clearer. Dharana of air outside should be made. Sage. in the aspect of water Vishnu should be placed. Draw the air inside using the lungs. in the aspect of fire Rudra should be placed. the Sadashiva should be placed. This would help him to clean up the Nadis. Then sit with the body neck and head in a straight line. Ham. middle of the heart. Similarly in the breath. up to the heart is the aspect of fire. Those who know Brahma say that seeing whatever we see as the form of Brahman is Prathyahara. Vam and Lam. In the earthy aspects of the body. noon and dusk. from there till hip it is the aspect of water. Dharana of the earth outside should be made. In the body up to the knee is the aspect of the earth. store it in the stomach. In the aspect of earth Brahma has to be placed. Then he should leave out the belief that the body is oneself and make that thought as nirvikalpa and merge it with Paramatma. 5 Now I will tell you about the five types of Dharana (holding steady . jaw. In the fire in the stomach.north. Dharana of the fire outside should be made. Hey great sage. Prathyahara also is doing clean or unclean acts as those belonging to Brhaman. in the aspect of air Iswara should be placed and in the aspect of sky. Dharana of the water outside should be made. Till you see this. The experts in Vedanta say that this is true Prathyahara. up to middle of eyelids is the aspect of air and then up to the middle of the skull is the aspect of the sky.

He attains Brahman. There is no doubt about it. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Jabala Darsanopanishad. May we see with our eyes what is auspicious. Prana. included in the Sama-Veda. eyes. Samadhi is that state in which there is knowledge that Jeevatma and Paramatma are one. the science of Vedanta would automatically appear. He should control the sensory organs by mind and should merge them with the soul. who is Virupaksha. When he sees only the true soul and the entire world appears as an illusion to him and he is cured of all sorrow. Atma (soul) is filled all over for ever and does not have motion or stain. nor Brahman deny me. vitality And all the senses grow in strength. Then continue to do Dhyana of him who is beyond the reach of meditation. and who is the head of all yogis as “I am He”. Dhyana should be done of that Maheswara. it appears as different objects. deep in himself. then he attains the single aim of salvation. who is of the form of the world. In the mind of that great Purusha who practices like this. When one sees all objects within himself and him as a part of all objects. All existence is the Brahman of the Upanishads. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 26]Dattatreya Upanishad Om ! O Devas. 7 Now I will tell you about Samadhi (deep meditative state) which destroys the ills of birth and death. ears. Really there is no difference between these so called objects. Om ! Let my limbs and speech. O ye worthy of worship ! . who is the medicine for problems arising out of birth. Who am devoted to the Atman. who has the masculine power upwards. who is the discipline and fundamental basis of the world who is of the form of Para Brahma.chanting of pranava. may they reside in me. May I never deny Brahman. due to the effects of illusion. Though it is one. 6 I will now tell you about Dhyana (meditation) which destroys sorrow. who is the personification of Sachidananda Brahman and who is soul in person as “I am He” for attaining salvation. may we hear with our ears what is auspicious. Let there be no denial at all: Let there be no denial at least from me. When one drowns himself in Samadhi and does not see different objects as different . Thus advised by Lord Dattatreya the sage Sankrithi fully lost all his fear and attained that blissfull state. May the virtues that are proclaimed in the Upanishads be in me.

after meditating on Lord Vishnu (Dattatreya).May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas. twelve-. Kleem. Krom. 'Daam' in the lengthened form is the Paramatman. and the twin syllable Svaha. Aim. Jnana Sagara.' Such ones who meditate thus do not swirl in the recurring course of worldly existence.blown bliss. Hreem. Smarana-Matra-Samtushtaya! . The twelve-syllable formula is 'Om. and be in commune with Me in the attitude 'I am Datta. and bliss." The one-. Krom. Hram. existence. Hraum. mah. Hreem." Accordingly. Klaum. Shreem." The portion 'Dattatreya' is of the character of knowledge.' The sixteen-syllable formula is Om.' The Anushtubh-mantra of Dattaatreya All the portions of the mantra are said to be in the vocative forms right through as 'Dattatreya Hare Krishna Unmatananda-dayaka. bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Once Brahma the creator asked Lord Narayana about the efficacy of the Taraka-Mantra to which the latter replied: "Always think of Me and My glory. Aam. ya.' The Moola-Mantra of Dattaatreya. Krom. Praising them with our body and limbs steady ! May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda. Hreem. Kleem. He is the Hamsa established in all beings. Hreem Hraum. The Brahman that is the infinite and peerless alone remains as the residuum after negation of everything else. Ehi Dattatreya svaha. The whole formula is 'Om. Sauh Dattatreyaya Svaha. the great Lord. ya. and that of Namah is of full. Aim. Glaum. eight-. Pishacha. Na. Digambara. This is then given as: 'Om Namo Bhagavate Dattatreyaya. Kleem. The six syllable one is 'OM. Brahma said: "Yes. Klaum. Mune. the thunderbolt for evil. tre. and sixteen-syllable mantras of Dattaatreya: The Taraka monosyllable is 'Daam'. Bala. Sauh (nine) and the five syllables constituting Dattatreyaya. Draam. tta. The eight-syllable one is 'Dram' or 'Draam' and then adding to it the syllables 'Da. Hram. six-.

Chiram-Jivane Vashi-Kuru. Sakala-Vibhuti-Daya Sadhyakarshanaya Sarva-Manah-Kshobhanaya. drive off anguish. the Maha Rudra. a great yogin. Namah Sampannaya. who bestows the highest character of sentience and bliss and who is in the guise of a child. Chindhi! Grahan Nivaraya.. is the son of the sage Atri. and he is absolved of all his sins. the redeemer of the bonds of worldly existence. Citttam Toshhaya. fill the mind with joy. the redeemer of the bonds of worldly existence. a devil. etc. Anasuyananda-Vardhanayatri-Putraya . Maha-Jnana-Pradaya. a mad. Dukham Haraya. etc. all mystic symbols and powers.unto Thee of the real form of incantations. that is the dispeller of great fears.. Om ! O Devas. Sarva-Kama-Phala-Pradaya. who bestows the fruits of all the desires of the devotee's heart. Balonmatta-Pishacha-Veshaya . Sampannaya. melt away all penury. a mad-man. Nivaraya. melt away all penury. Haraya.Who bestows the fruits of all the desires of the devotee's heart. is the son of the sage Atri. Deham Poshaya. UchatayaUchataya. a devil. Para-Mantra Para-Yantra Para-Tantramsh Chindhi. Sarva Mantra Sarva Yantra Sarva Tantra Sarva Pallava Svaruupaya Iti Om Namah Shivaya Om! Unto Thee of the real form of incantations. Poshaya. all mystic symbols and powers.OM salutations unto Lord Dattatreya who is propitiated by remembrance (devotion). is the enhancer of the bliss of Anasuya (His mother). Do thou nourish my body.A great yogin.man. cure the ailments.Who is in the guise of a child. Svaha Poshaya. Om Salutations! He who knows all about this Vidya and practices this becomes holy. is the enhancer of the bliss of Anasuya (His mother). Akarshaya-Akarshaya. Vyadhiin Nivaraya. may we hear with our ears what is auspicious. Stambhaya-Stambhaya. Nivaraya. fill the mind with joy. Maha-Bhaya-Nirvanaya. cure the ailments. . Om salutations! Om salutations unto Lord Dattatreya who is propitiated by remembrance (devotion). Daridriyam Vidravaya.That is the dispeller of great fears. drive off anguish. Vidveshaya. Vidveshaya. Vashi-Kuru. Maraya-Maraya Namah. and he attains the fruits of having muttered the Gayatri. Chidanandatmane . Thus: Maha Yogine Avadhutaya. Bhava-Bandha-Mochanaya . counteract the malignant influences of the planets. Toshhaya! Do thou counteract the malignant influences of the planets. Poshaya. and the Pranava innumerable times. who bestows the highest character of sentience and bliss.

and all-gods. I am the born. May Brihaspati grant us well-being. the void and the Plenum. the Bringer of Wealth. I uphold Soma. May Tarksya. She replied: I am essentially Brahman. and the two Asvins. place I its protector. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 27]Devi Upanishad Translated by Dr. as contained in the Atharva-Veda. grant us well-being.May we see with our eyes what is auspicious. grant us well-being. I am the five elements as also what is different from them. with bodies. Mitra and Varuna. grant us well-being. I am the state. Prajapati. . Chennai Om ! Gods ! With ears let us hear what is good. Above it all. with Adityas and Visvedevas. The wide-stepping Vishnu. A. 6. I support. To the zealous sacrificer offering oblation And pressing the Soma-juice do I grant wealth. Adorable ones ! With eyes let us see what is good. Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace ! 1. May Pusan. bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Dattatreyopanishad. May Indra. G. I am the Veda as well as what is different from it. Brahma. who art Thou ?’ 2. 7. All the gods waited upon the Goddess (and asked): ‘Great Goddess. I am the unborn. Whoso knows my essence in the water of the inner sea. 5. Tvastir. Indra and Agni. From Me (has proceeded) the world comprising Prakriti and Purusha. Brahman and non-Brahman are to be known – says the scripture of the Atharvans. Knowledge and ignorance are Myself. Below and above and around am I. praising. of wide renown. Pusan and Bhaga. 4. With steady limbs. O ye worthy of worship ! May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas. the thunderbolt for evil. of unhampered movement. I am (all forms of) bliss and non-bliss. 3. Krishna Warrier Published by The Theosophical Publishing House. I move with Rudras and Vasus. Let us enjoy the life allotted by the gods. I am the entire world. Praising them with our body and limbs steady ! May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda.

Refuge. hard to reach. Burning with ascetic ardour. she also. To Night of death by Brahma lauded. beings super-human. She. 20. the auspicious. Is sky. after her were born The gods auspicious. 9. pure. the evil beings. womb. the wind. Seed all-powerful of the Goddess’ mantra. Her. This is the great and holy Science. Rajas and Tamas. 12. She is the planets. protect us in all possible ways. victorious. sa-ka-la with Maya – So runs the full primeval science begetting all. the semi-divine. She is Prajapati. Again the cave. Those gods said: Salutation to the Goddess. 14. armed with the noose. ha-sa. Goddess who banishes distress Grants pleasure and deliverance alike. the ghosts. Goddess of good Fortune. Delighting in actions’ fruits. The cow that yields sweet fruits and vigour – To us may lauded Speech appear. Love. 16. the Giver of good. salutation. She is your daughter. and the form of primeval Time. is the eight Vasus. Dakshayani. the cloud. She is the allgods. On all fulfilment do we meditate. enchanting all. She is Sattva. Indra. 8. here. the great Goddess ! To Siva. she is the goblins. 11. the demons. the eleven Rudras. the hook. for ever more. the twelve Adityas. the bow and the arrow. To Aditi and Sarasvati. Friends of deathlessness. To Skanda’s Mother. Divine Mother ! Salutation to you. This is the power of Self. Who knows thus tides over grief. 10. We render obeisance. To blessed Prakriti. 15. love’s part. salutation ! Ever to Her we bow. Know we Great Lakshmi. to Daksha’s daughter. 18. Dispel Thy gloom. The gods engendered divine Speech. Siva. O Thou. Indra and Manu. 17. May the Goddess inspire us ! 13. To holy Siva. beasts of all forms speak. Refuge I seek in Her who is the colour of fire. Vishnu’s Power. I salute Her ever: 19. the bearer of the thunderbolt The cave. She is the divisions of time. was Aditi born. stars and luminous spheres.Attains he the Goddess’s abode. . (those) who drink Soma and (those) who do not. Goddess resplendent. Through You. conjoined with ‘i’ and fire. Infinite.

Her birth is not known and so is she called the Unborn. shall delight the lofty ones. 21. persists in worship. vicce. Goddess. and so is she called the One. Thou dispeller of gravest fears. red-robed. She is the witness of all emptiness. Is released at once from sins. Tender. The Goddess is the source of all mantras: Of all the words the knowledge is Her form. 22. Eight and hundred recitations thereof Make but this rite’s inauguration. Her conscious Form transcends all cognitions. renowned is She As unapproachable. She alone is present everywhere. 24. Bulwark against all sins. afeared of life. so is she called the Endless. Thou wearer of great Mercy’s form. And with the lip. . the eighth and the third conjoint. Goddess. Beyond Her is nothing. Of this vidya ten million chants Are less than the worship’s fruit. 30. Seated in the lotus-heart. Resplendent as the morning sun. the sixth With face equipped. the nine-lettered. Who reads it but ten times. She has no end. Of wisdom the veriest oceans. three-eyed. having mastered this Atharva Upanishad. He who studies this Atharva Upanishad gains the fruit of repeating five (other) Atharva Upanishads. She alone wears all forms. he who. the Incomprehensible. The air. 27. the left ear where The point is. 23. the Unknown. 25. 26. With gesture granting boons. 28. For these reasons is she called the Unknowable. granting devotees Their hearts’ desires. I bow to Thee. the sun. the Pilot who Steers me across the sea of worldly life. and so is she called the Many. On the single-syllabled mantra Meditate the pure-hearted sages. Vanquisher of obstacles. so is she called the Unknowable. the One and the Many. She is not grasped and so is she called the Incomprehensible. 31. the Endless. I bow to the inaccessible One.With crescent moon adorned. bearing noose and hook. Brahma and others know not Her essence. Fashioned by speech. with Narayana united. dissolving fears. Thee I adore. 29. The letter. Supremely blissful. born of Brahman.

Reading it midnight. of unhampered movement. The Yogin who considers as the highest that which is above Nada. the sinner becomes sinless. praising. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). May we work conjointly with great energy. reading both in the evening and morning. Let us enjoy the life allotted by the gods. Narayanasvami Aiyar Om ! May He protect us both together. May Pusan. At no time has been found a destroyer of sins like this. with bodies. Reciting it on Tuesday under the asterism Ashvini. has all his doubts destroyed. grant us well-being. the fourth ‘junction’. This is the secret. May Tarksya. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! 1. Adorable ones ! With eyes let us see what is good. reading it in the evening one destroys the sins committed by day. too. Bijakshara (seed-letter) is the supreme Bindu. of wide renown. 5-6. Reading it in the morning one destroys the sins of the night. Thus. Tides he over obstacles great. Om ! Gods ! With ears let us hear what is good. 32. Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace ! Here ends the Devi Upanishad. grant us well-being. grant us well-being. If the point of a hair be divided into one hundred thousand parts. and when (even) this is absorbed. 4. in the presence of the great Goddess. this (Nada) is onehalf of that still further divided. may He nourish us both together.Through the grace of the Goddess great. should see like the string (in a rosary of beads) all creatures (as . Its recitation before a new image brings to it the presence of the deity. Even if sin should accumulate to a mountain extending over many Yojanas (distance). the Yogin attains to the stainless Brahman. one overcomes fell death – one who knows thus. When that Nada ceases along with letter. One who is of a firm mind and without the delusion (of sensual pleasures) and ever resting in Brahman. 3. which is Anahata. May our study be vigorous and effective. and all-gods. Its recitation at the time of consecration (of an image) makes it a centre of energy. it is destroyed by Dhyana-Yoga. -------------------------------------------------------------- 28]Dhyana-Bindu Upanishad Translated by K. May Brihaspati grant us well-being. With steady limbs. May Indra. Nada (spiritual sound) is above it. then the Nada-less is supreme state. there results perfection of speech. 2. included in the Atharva-Veda.

oil in gingelly seeds and gold in quartz. Suvah and Maheshvara – all these (are absorbed) when Makara (M). When that Highest is cognised. the third Amsa of Pranava becomes absorbed. Bhuh and Brahma -. Atman exists everywhere. Prithvi. Akara is of (Pita) yellow colour and is said to be of Rajo-Guna. Bhuvah and Vishnu. 12(b)-13(a). United with Ardha-Matra (half-metre of OM). 13(b)-14(a). Having made Atman as the (lower) Arani (sacrificial wood) and Pranava as the upper Arani. the first Amsa (part) of Pranava (OM) becomes absorbed. Ardha-Matra) of Pranava should be worshipped (or recited) as uninterrupted as the flow of oil and (resounding) as long as the sound of a bell. 8. 9(b)-10(a). Yajur-Veda. one should contemplate upon Omkara as being in the middle of the body and as surrounded by circling flames. both external and internal. Antariksha. 20. four Padas (feet). the long one is decayless and the bestower of prosperity. 17. One should practise restraint of breath as much as it lies in his power along with (the uttering of) Omkara sound. Pranava is the bow. That man is the knower of the Vedas who knows that the end (viz. The short (accent of OM) burns all sins. Vishnu is said to be cessation (of breath) and Rudra is said to be expiration. becomes one with It. the second Amsa of Pranava becomes absorbed. One should contemplate upon Omkara as Ishvara resembling an unshaken light. Dyur. the Pranava becomes the bestower of salvation. viz. 21. Ukara is of white colour and of Sattva-Guna. one should see the God in secret through the practice of churning which is Dhyana. 14(b)-15. like the arrow. 23. The Swaras (sounds) have Omkara as their cause. Agni. Sama-Veda.all these (are absorbed) when Akara (A). 9(a). Makara is of dark colour and of Tamo-Guna. 10(b)-11(a). The Vedas have Omkara as their cause. Again just as the oil depends for its manifestation upon gingelly seeds and odour upon flowers. One should aim at it with great care and then he.. The one Akshara (letter OM) should be contemplated upon as Brahman by all who aspire for emancipation. Rig-Veda. 11(b)-12(a). Atman is the arrow and Brahman is said to be the aim. three Sthanas (seats) and five Devatas (presiding deities) is not a Brahmana. The three worlds with (all) the locomotive and the fixed (ones in them) have Omkara as their cause. sun. Taking in Vayu through the left nostril and filling the stomach with it. He who does not know Omkara as having eight Angas (parts).existing) in Atman like odour in flowers. 22. so does the Purusha depend for its existence upon the body. The tree is with parts and its shadow is without parts but with and without parts. Vayu. as of the size of a thumb and as motionless in the middle of the pericarp of the lotus of the heart. do not affect him). . 7. These are the Devatas of Pranayama. 16. 19. Brahma is said to be inspiration. the Janardana – all these (are absorbed) when Ukara (U). until it ceases completely. ghee in milk.. 18. all Karmas return (from him.

That is the highest state of Vishnu. (That is) he should meditate with inspiration (of breath) upon Maha-Vishnu as resembling the Atasi flower and as staying in the seat of navel with four hands. preservation and destruction of the three worlds. Nada and Kala as uninterrupted as the flow of oil and (resounding) as long as the sound of a bell – that man is a knower of the Vedas. one above another. containing one hundred petals and one hundred leaves and having the pericarp fullexpanded. 30-31. being set in diverse gems. That Manas which is the author of the actions (viz. One should meditate upon the stainless Lord Vasudeva as being (seated) upon the centre of Pitha. Siddha. That is the great place of Brahman. He who knows that which is above Bindu. Simha and Padma are the four (chief) postures. 34(b)-35. shining like Crores of suns. There he should meditate upon the sun. Ida and Pingala) and absorb it in the middle of the eyebrows. 40. He is the knower of Vedas who knows the three seats. subjugation of the senses. Dharana. being stainless. the three Aksharas (letters) and the three Matras associated with the ArdhaMatra. 36. Having made the lotus-sheath of the form of Ardha-Matra. so the Yogin treading the path of Yoga should draw up the breath. the three Matras. moon and Agni and taking its Hrim Bija (letter). The lotus of the heart has eight petals and thirty-two filaments. the moon and the Agni. the three Brahmas. he should meditate in the heart upon Brahma. the Prabha (spiritual light) is in the middle of Agni. Dhyana and Samadhi are the six parts of Yoga.24. staying in Gamagama (ever going and coming) and being devoid of motion – at last such persons are freed from sin. Svadhisthana is the second. 41. and Maheshvara (the great Lord) knows their distinguishing features. 43. Just as a man would draw up (with his mouth) the water through the (pores of the) lotus-stalk. 26. being in that which is like the lotus facing down with its flower (or face) below and the stalk above or like the flower of a plantain tree.. the Grandfather as being on the lotus with the Gaura (pale-red) colour of gems and having four faces. then with restraint of breath. Agni is in the middle of the moon. Those who look upon OM as of the form of Hamsa staying in all. as having Srivatsa (black mark) and Kaustubha (garland of gems) on his chest and as adorned with gems and pearls resembling pure crystal in lustre and as resembling Crores of moons in brightness. Passing above through the lotus which has the brightness of the sun. destroying all sins. He should meditate upon Maha-Vishnu as above or in the following manner. 25. one should draw up the breath through the stalk (of the Nadis Susumna. There are as many postures as there are living creatures. Pitha (seat or centre) is in the midst of Prabha. one leads his Atman firmly. restraint of breath. Then through expiration. 38. He should know that the middle of the eyebrows in the forehead which is also the root of the nose is the seat of nectar. The sun is in its midst. Postures. the moon is in the middle of the sun. being of the form of all Vedas. he should meditate upon the three-eyed Shiva between the two eyebrows shining like the pure crystal. being alone. Bhadra. 28-29. is (then) absorbed (in the supreme One). 42. 32-34(a). 27. 39.) creation. . Muladhara is the first Chakra. 37.

51. there is the lotus of four petals. The Yogin should open with great effort this door which is shut. since the body is pierced through by Vayu like Manis (gems) by string. Just as a ball struck down (on the earth) with the bat of the hand springs up. like a bird (drawing itself from and yet not freeing itself) from the string (to which it is tied). (or since Sva or Prana arises from it). Ida is on the left side and Pingala on the right side.. Gandhari. Between these two is said to be the seat of Yoni (perineum). Jiva on account of its ever moving by the left and right paths is not visible. Pusha. All these are situated (or run along) the one thousand Nadis. Susumna. Prana is with its Sva (own) sound. This is called Ajapa Gayatri and is ever the bestower of Nirvana to the Yogins. Thus Jiva always utters the Mantra ‘Hamsa’. 61(b)-63. moon. 50(b).. the chief ones are ten and carry the Pranas. 56(b)-57. The three Nadis Ida. He who knows this. 66(b)-68. sun and Agni. having the form of Kama (God of love). Kurma. of the form of molten gold and shining like streaks of lightning. while the Susumna is in the middle. These three are known to be the paths of Prana. Kundalini Sakti) sleeps shutting with her mouth that door which leads to the decayless Brahma-hole. Of these seventy-two are generally known. Being aroused by the contact of Agni with Manas and Prana. 58. Neither in the past nor in the future is there a science equal to this. man is freed from sins. Udana and Vyana. Of these. The Jiva (ego) urged to actions by its past virtuous and sinful Karmas whirls about in this great Chakra of twelve spokes. Pingala. the first five are called Pranas. 48. Then he will pierce the door to salvation by means of Kundalini. she takes the form of a needle and pierces up through Susumna. and last five Naga. is a knower of the Vedas. Devadatta and Dhananjaya. having Svadhisthana as its Adhisthana (seat).. Samana. (being) in the form of (or producing) life. a Japa equal to this or a meritorious action equal to this. 55(b)-56(a). Naga. are called Vayus (or sub-Pranas). 45-46. Pingala and Susumna are said to carry Prana always and have as their Devatas. Krikara. There arise (from it) Nadis seventy-two thousand in number. so Jiva ever tossed by Prana and Apana is never at rest. Hastijihva. A four-sided figure is situated above Agni and below the genital organ. 60(b)-61(a). 49-50(a). etc. Kuhuh and Sankhini are said to be the ten. Alambusa. This Chakra of the Nadis should ever be known by the Yogins. 59-60(a). Above the genital organ and below the navel is Kanda of the shape of a bird’s egg. In the Adhara of the anus. Yasasvini. 54-55(a). . 52-53. The Chakra in the sphere of the navel is called Manipuraka. so long as it does not grasp the truth. 47. He is knower of Yoga who knows that Prana always draws itself from Apana and Apana draws itself from Prana. ‘Hamsa’.44. of these. Apana. In the midst of the Yoni is the Linga facing the west and split at its head like the gem. Through its very thought. Prana. The Jiva comes out with the letter ‘Ha’ and gets in again with the letter ‘Sa’. In its midst is said to be the Yoni called Kama and worshipped by the Siddhas. Parameshvari (viz. The Chakra Svadhisthana is spoken of as the genital organ itself. etc. Jiva which is under the influence of Prana and Apana goes up and down. The Jiva always utters the Mantra twenty-one thousand and six hundred times in one day and night. Ida. 64-66(a).

hunger. The union of Prana and Apana has the extinction of urine and faeces. Bindu is the moon and Rajas is the sun. Rubbing off the limbs the sweat arising from fatigue.e. Pressing the Yoni by means of the heels and contracting the anus and drawing up the Apana – this is called Mula-Bandha. 79(b)-80(a). 74-75(a). That Yogin who assuming Padma posture worships (i. Kundalini Sakti. The Rajas which stays in Yoni is like the colour of a coral. Then the wise man gets matchless wisdom through (this) Sakti. placing the chin firmly on the breast and fixing the mind in Dhyana. No inquiry need be made concerning the result. 88. makes the Yogi get Siddhi. white and red. He who knows the Mudra Khechari has not disease. Folding firmly the fingers of the hands. When this Jalandhara Bandha which is destroyer of the pains of the throat is performed. one should frequently raise up the Apana. 78-79(a). 77. the Yogin becomes a Siddha in little more than a year. Where is the fear of death. practising celibacy. since it binds the water (or nectar) of the Akasa which arises in the head and flows down. when it is up in the throat. Uddiyana Bandha is so called because it is (like) a great bird that flies up always without rest. fill up with air and then leave the Prana. 71-72. so long as the Khechari-Mudra is practised. 85-86(a). 81(b)-83(a). sleep. 80(b)-81(a).. thence is produced the divine form. so long as the Bindu (virility) stays in the body. thirst. the hole in the mouth). bitter and saltish (food). even when embraced by a lovely woman. then there is the Mudra of vision latent in the eyebrow called Khechari. (Even) when Bindu comes down to the sphere of the perineum. then nectar does not fall on Agni nor does the Vayu move. 73. The white one is called Sukla and the red one is said to contain much Rajas. when Rajas is roused up by agitating the Sakti through Vayu which unites with the sun. One should bring the western part of the stomach above the navel. 86(b)-87. assuming firmly the Padma posture. Since Chitta moves in the Kha (Akasa) and since the tongue has entered (in the Mudra) Kha (viz. The Jalandhara Bandha is the destroyer of all the pains of the throat. This Uddiyana Bandha is a lion to the elephant of death. One becomes young even when old through performing Mula-Bandha always.. death. He whose hole (or passage) above the Uvula is closed (with the tongue backwards) by means of Khechari-Mudra never loses his virility.69. being prevented and forced up by violent effort through Yoni-Mudra. 89-90(a). . or swoon. Therefore the Mudra is called Khechari and worshipped by the Siddhas. The union of these two is very rare. 83(b)-84. it goes up. He who practises this Mudra is not affected by illness or Karma. controls) Vayu at the door of the Nadis and then performs restraint of breath is released without doubt. abandoning all acid. being moderate in eating and ever bent on Yoga. 70. taking delight in the drinking of milk and Rasa. The Bindu stays in the seat of the genital organs. Through the union of these two is attained the highest body. Bindu does not go out of the body. Bindu is Shiva and Rajas is Sakti. nor is he bound by the limitations of time. 75(b)-76. When the tongue enters backwards into the hole of the skull. This Bindu is twofold.

It does all these actions attributing everything to its own power. then it knows everything. it experiences the ideas of perception. Then there arises much fatigue. inference. It attains the nature of eternal wisdom. it circles the second line and sinks in the middle. I am stout. etc. Placing the chin on the breast. possibility. During the dreamless sleep. I am lean. He is beyond the pairs (of happiness and pains. The second is of the colour of (the insect) Indragopa (of red or white colour). When it rests on the eastern petal which is of Sveta (white) colour. This state is of the nature of eternal wisdom. pressing the anus by means of the left heel and seizing (the toe of) the extended right leg by the two hands. Placing the Manas in Atman. dances.). 94. I am lame. moving in a circular line. (sacred) words. one should fill his belly (with air) and should slowly exhale. He stays here as long as he should wear his body. I am deaf. Then it makes a round of the third circle and sinks in the middle. etc. In the middle of the state of dream. etc. Now I shall give a description of Atman. When the eye is pained (after a day’s work). then it is inclined to be happy and to be loving. then in order to remove (its) pain.90(b)-92. I am miserable. When it rests on the south-western petal which is of Nila (blue) colour. this is called Maha-Mudra. it makes first a circular line and sinks in the middle. then it gets the wrath arising from diseases generated through (the disturbance of the equilibrium of) Vayu. he is a knower of Yoga who knows the proper mixture of these two. When it rests on the south-eastern petal. In it is located everything. The cleansing of the accumulated refuse. Afterwards it attains the nature of the highest Lord (Parameshvara). In the middle of the state of sleep is the state of dream.. Then comes the state of dreamless sleep. there is only the connection of Paramatman. Then one should gradually attain the quiescence of Buddhi with self-control. one should think of nothing else. In the seat of the heart is a lotus of eight petals. Then he . 93. he concentrates his aim upon the whole universe being of the nature of Atman. In knows everything. then it is inclined to amassing money. charity and passion. In its centre is Jivatma of the form of Jyotis and atomic in size. When it rests on the western petal which is of crystal colour. Sukla being united with the moon and Rajas with the sun. Vedas. then it has a mind (or is inclined) to Dharma with Bhakti (devotion). When it stays in the inter-space between any two petals. speaks and is blissful. I am blind. then it is inclined to flirt and amuse. In Turya. Then causing the union of Prana and Apana. which is of Rakta (blood colour). the unification of the sun and the moon and the complete drying of the Rasas (essences). Then is the state of sleep. rove and have Vairagya (or be indifferent). When it rests on the north-eastern petal which is of Vaidurya (Lapis Lazuli) colour. In order to remove this fatigue.. that state beyond the fourth). bile and phlegm (in the body). sings. then it gets desire for sinful or harmful actions. When it stays in the middle. I enjoy. Then comes the state of Turya (the fourth). which is of Krishna (black) colour. then it has a mind to walk. The third circle is of the colour of Padmaraga (ruby). It does everything. (thinking) I do. I am happy. When it rests on the north-western petal which is of ruby colour. Then comes the state of Turiyatita (viz. the destroyer of the sins of men. The first line is of the colour of Bandhuka flower (Bassia). When it rests on the northern petal which is Pita (yellow) colour. then it is inclined to hate and anger. When it rests on the southern petal. I am mute. then it is inclined to sleep and laziness. This is called Maha-Mudra. it has only the thought connected with Parameshvara (the highest Lord) alone. Then everything appears as bliss.

May our study be vigorous and effective. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Dhyanabindu Upanishad belonging to the Krishna-Yajur-Veda. 101(b)-102. etc. finger and other places. -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 29]Ekakshara Upanishad . From the Muladhara (to the head) is the Susumna resembling the shining thread of the lotus. This alone is the means of knowing Atman.attains the nature of Paramatman and attains emancipation through this means. 104(b)-105. ear. may He nourish us both together. 99(b)-101(a). expiration. and drawing in everything (with the breath) in slow degrees. The letter ‘Ra’ is the Bija of Agni. is of Apana and resembles the sun. etc. with a firm will and great control. one should see Purusha with Sakti as his own Atman. 103-104(a). foot. 96. That man attains Kaivalya who understands the gems. Prana stays in the heart. as also on the five Pranas. Om ! May He protect us both together. Between the two bows in the Brahma-hole. he should bind Prana and Apana in the cave of the lotus of the heart and utter Pranava. nose. Then his Manas is absorbed there. When Vayu (breath) which enters the great hole associated with a hall where four roads meet gets into the half of the well-placed triangle. etc. is of Vyana and resembles Bandhuka flower. it resembles that of the peacock. 95. One should perform the three. stays in the twenty-eight Crores of hair-pores and is yet the same everywhere. like the sun in the sky. is of Udana and is of the colour of the conch. travels through the seventy-two thousand Nadis. The Nada is located in the Vinadanda (spinal column). The letter ‘Ha’ is the Bija of Akasa. In the middle of the cave of the skull between the four doors shines Atman. that sound from its middle resembles (that of) the conch. 97-99(a). May we work conjointly with great energy.. Above the aforesaid triangle. is of Samana and is of the colour of crystal. The letter ‘Ya’ is the Bija of Prana and resembles the blue cloud. the colour of the Bijas and their position. navel.. having contracted his throat and the genital organ. The letter ‘Va’ is the Bija of Jiva (or Vayu). Nada. The letter ‘La’ is the Bija of Prithvi. When it goes to the hole of Akasa. It is that which is called Jiva. then is Achyuta (the indestructible) seen. Bindu and the seat of Maheshvara (the great Lord). Thus is the Upanishad. one should meditate on the five Bija (seed) letters of (the elements) Prithvi. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). moonlight.

4. Thou Arishtanemi (a brother of Garuda). Thou art the leader of the sacrifice. 6. art Thou. Thou the source of the world. Thou art all activities. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). The Vedic verses. the all. time. the cause. Having widely spread out the arrow. He is the all-knower. (Thou art) the supporter. So also (art Thou) the hosts of demons and Vasus. Thou alone art love in all living beings and in Soma (Shiva with Uma). Thou shinest best (as) the Vasus and the sky. 7. sequence and the supreme Imperishable. Chennai Om ! May He protect us both together. again Thou art the boy and the girl. the sum total of (things) spread out in order. the Lord of beings. (This world of relativities shines so). May our study be vigorous and effective. Thou art the world’s birth. here (on the empirical plane). He is the birthless (of wondrous births) Prajapati sung in the Vedas. shining like the youthful sun in the sky. the best of Veda-knowers. Thou the Parjanya (the Principle of life-giving water). All that pertains to Him shines in lovely (fashion) like gold in some other sky. the firm nave of all born beings. Aryama. the Protector of the world. the one firm (Principle art Thou). may He nourish us both together. from (the view-point) of the wise. G. Thou the Rudra immanent unhurt in the hearts of beasts. 10. night and aloneness. Thou art immanent in all. too. Thou the manifestation (the manifested world). Thou. . by a quarter hast Thou pervaded this world. the man. the ordainer. This God here dwells in the sun (the wheel of the celestial chariot) and elsewhere dispelling darkness. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! 1. 11. Thou art the bearer of the Thunderbolt (Indra). the past. the future and the present. Thou art the sacred syllables Svaha. formulas and rites and the soma juice. 2.Translated by Dr. the Lord of beings. Thou alone art the woman. as the final (Truth) devoid of all admixture. as the golden. the divine Varaha. the King Varuna. the first born. Thou art the one Imperishable in the Imperishable. Thou art the ancient source of the world. 3. in the sky. Thou art He whom in the sacrifices the knowers of Brahman adore with Vedic Songs. 8. the all-pervading fire and the Rudras. In the beginning Thou art unborn. the life supreme. Krishna Warrier Published by The Theosophical Publishing House. the Year. the Protector of the world. He exists lengthwise and crosswise. prose formulas and songs proceed from Thy mouth. A. the Lord of the world art the all-knowing (Fire). the sacrifice. Thou art Subrahmanya. Thou art the ordainer. the all pervading plenum. Svadha and Vasat. By means of light hast Thou created the resplendent eagle (the sun). 9. May we work conjointly with great energy. and the child in the womb armed with the excellent bow and arrow. Thou art the Principle of life. 5. Thou shinest as Hiranyagarbha. the purifier (air). conjoint with Uma. As known by means of Susumna. Thou alone the one omnipresent and ancient.

the bright-feathered (Garuda).12. Everywhere protect! Protect me everywhere! . the thunderbolt for evil. Rudra. May our study be vigorous and effective. He stays transcending all (forms of) wisdom. Protect that in the north. Vishnu. the supreme goal of the wise. Whoso thus knows the eternal Dweller in the cave (of the heart). Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Ekaksharopanishad belonging to the Krishna-Yajur-Veda. I bow to Ganapati. You clearly are the tattva. Protect the disciple that repeats. Protect that in the south. Protect the speakers. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 30]Ganapati Upanishad Om ! O Devas. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). 1. You plainly are the essence. Thou art turned towards all. May we see with our eyes what is auspicious. the golden. Tvastar. bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Auspiciousness to those who hear ---. The truth I speak. Om Gam. This is the secret doctrine. Protect me. the moon. May we work conjointly with great energy. Protect that in the west. You alone are the destroyer. 13. Protect the holders. may He nourish us both together.thus the Santi. Thou Vishnu protectest all beings from the demoniac. Praising them with our body and limbs steady ! May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda. may we hear with our ears what is auspicious. You alone are the maintainer. Varuna. Indra. Of all this you certainly are Brahman. You alone are the creator. Thou art the self-born. Thou art the earth. Protect the givers. Protect that below. (Thou art) Mitra. Protect that above. 2. Protect the hearers. the world is encompassed by Thee. the ancient Lord who has become the all. is wise. O ye worthy of worship ! May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas. 4. Thou the womb of all that is born. the lord of light. 3. the atmosphere. Savitar. the firmament. Protect that in the east. Om ! May He protect us both together. Always I speak amrta.

you are Agni. This atharva text should not be given to those not pupils. obstacle-destroyer. 6. If from delusion a person so gives. you are the sun. May we see with our eyes what is auspicious. in a great river. to the boon-giver. You are beyond the three bodies. Om ganapataye namah. you are Brahma. He is not bound by any obstacles. He who sprinkles Ganapati with this becomes eloquent. or in front of an image having recited (this) he gets accomplished in the mantra. Joined with m. You are being-consciousness-bliss. let us meditate on the crooked trunk. all is gained by him. You are knowledge. fire. with his hands dispelling fear and granting boons. You are the non-dual. wearing red. nricad-gayatri the metre. may that tusk direct us. the son of Siva. beyond that m. air. Hail to the lord of vows. He becomes liberated from great obstacles. the maker of the world. Red. m the last form. All this world is seen in you. water. he is a bad person. artha. He is liberated from the five greater and the five lesser sins. He who recites this on a fourth day becomes a knower of vidya. He who wants something may accomplish it by 1. with limbs smeared with red scent. hail! 16. One tusk. one-tusked. 7 Ga is the first syllable. You are speech. with ears like winnowing baskets. after that the first letter. Bindu the higher form. You are Brahma. the prime cause. You are always situated in the muladhara. carrying noose and goad. hail unto you. At both evening and morning he is liberated from the bad and he attains dharma. He who studies this atharva text moves towards Brahma. You are Brahman. In a solar eclipse. hail. He who worships with samit and ghee by him all is attained. with a mouse as his banner. You maintain all this world. You are the being of the three Saktis. He who worships with sweet-meat (modaka) gains the desired fruit. who at the beginning of creation was greater than nature and man. You are plainly Brahman. You are beyond the three gunas. You are always meditated on by yogins. You are beyond the three times. then the half-moon all together. 9 Ganaka is the seer. You are intelligence. Evening meditation destroys the unmeritorious actions of the night. This is the vidya of Lord Ganesa. hail to the first lord. bhurbhuvah-svar. 15. you are the moon. This is an artharva saying: ‘‘He who moves towards Brahmavidya is never afraid. You are earth. may we hear with our ears what is auspicious. four arms. He is freed from great misfortunes. kama and moksa.5. 13. He who always meditates thus is a yogin above yogins. You create all this world. O ye worthy of worship ! May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas. 10 Let us think of the one-toothed. to the big-bellied. this is the mantra form. You are beyond the four measures of speech. you are Visnu. He is always blissful. nada the joining together. Praising them with our body and limbs steady ! . 14. You are bliss. samhita the junction. with a big belly. To the devoted a merciful deva. You are consciousness. 12. hail to Ganapati. 18. letter a the middle form. you are Vayu. He who makes eight brahmËnas understand this becomes like the sun’s rays. 17. you are Rudra. 11. Om ! O Devas. ether. Sri Mahaganapati the devata.000 recitations of this.’’ He who worships with fried grains becomes famous and becomes intelligent. truly worshipped with red flowers. 8 The letter ga is the first form.

whatever moves about is air and space-enclosed is ether. the skin and nose for touch and smell respectively. existing in the five. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 31]Garbha Upanishad Translated by Dr. Wind and Ether. acid. genital for pleasure. G. White. Prana flows – at the proper season ordained by the creator. Risabha. wills with the mind and speaks with the tongue. may He nourish us both together. three Yonis (of excretion) and four kinds of food. Gandhara. Chennai Om ! May He protect us both together. wind is for moving. from it is flesh. bones. The person cognises through the intellect. bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Ganapati Upanishad. Panchama. Madhyama. the thunderbolt for evil. Water.. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). liquid is water. by the combination of semen and blood the foetus is born.. In this body. Nisadha – these are the seven agreeable and disagreeable sounds. Why say ‘Fivefold in nature ?’ The five elements Earth.). Vital warmth springs up in the womb and the belly. The function of the Earth is to support. May our study be vigorous and effective. marrow. 1-7.May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda. ears for sound. Why ? For Devadatta (any person) there springs up in his mind desire for enjoyment of objects. Apana is for evacuation (of bowels). as contained in the Atharva-Veda.). A. Yellow. . seven Dhatus. thence fat. depending on the six (tastes of food). In the seat of the warmth bile. From relish of food blood is born. salty. Tawny and Pale-White – these are the colours of the seven Dhatus (primary Humours). May we work conjointly with great energy. Dhaivata. Ether is to give space (for vital functions). Sadja. bitter and astringent. whatever is hard is of Earth. three impurities. Black smoke-coloured. Krishna Warrier Published by The Theosophical Publishing House. connected with the six qualities (kama etc. water is to consolidate (digestion etc. tongue for taste. Red. Fire is to see. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! The body is fivefold in nature (the five elements). semen. The six-fold support is the six tastes (of food): sweet. The eyes are used in seeing form. pungent. warm is fire. Fire.

it becomes complete. may He nourish us both together. In two months develops the region of the head. tongue 12. born and dead often. the parents are agitated. I shall myself be burnt for the deeds – the others who enjoyed the fruits go away (unaffected). after a fortnight. conceives of the imperishable Atman as Om. When equal. through perfect knowledge and meditation. head is the jar. hunch-backed or stunted in growth. The body becomes complete in the ninth month and remembers the past birth. 20. the Jnanagni is the mind which helps perform good and bad deeds. or I resort to Maheshvara who destroys misery. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). Having known Om he sees in the body the eight Prakritis derived from it the five elements. contentment is Diksha. in the fifth. In the eighth month. depending on what is taken in daily. Om ! May He protect us both together. If I can get out of this. The person being squeezed as it were by a machine is touched by all-pervading air and forgets previous births and deeds. The embryo lying (in the womb) for (a day) and night is a confused mass. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Garbhopanishad belonging to the Krishna-Yajur-Veda. 21. the backbone. eaten several kinds of food and sucked many breasts.8. 19. 12-17. 11. after seven days it becomes a bubble. 9. I am immersed in grief but see no remedy. at the time of impregnation. crippled. in the seventh the embryo quickens with life and in the eighth month. sense organs are the utensils. a mass and in a month. the mother’s – female. the Darsanagni helps one see colour etc. Why is the body so called ? It has three fires: the Kosthagni ripens all that is eaten. May our study be vigorous and effective. Urine and mala two Prasthas each. a eunuch. ‘I have seen thousands of wombs. the feet. the semen enters in two parts resulting in twins. The scripture of liberation expounded by Paippalada ends. The Daksinagni is in the heart. in the sixth. intellect and ego and the sixteen changes [see Prasnopanishad]. If the couple have vital-air-trouble. in conjunction with the five vital airs the Jiva gets the capacity to know its past affairs (of past births). . who destroys misery. I will resort to Sankhya-Yoga which destroys misery and yields liberation. mind. in three months. May we work conjointly with great energy. the child will be blind. The heart measures 8 Palas. the intellect is the performer’s consort. By the dominance of the father’s semen. If I did good and bad deeds for the sake of my dependants. If. bile is one Prastha. 10. the mouth the interior of the altar etc. 18. eyes and ears. hair is the sacred grass. nose. it hardens.. fat two Prasthas. Garhapatya in the belly and Ahavaniya in the mouth. phlegm one Adhaka. Actions done and not done flash to him and he recognises the good and bad nature of Karma. Sukla is one Kudupa. belly and hip. Or I resort to Narayana. the child becomes male. in the fourth.

Bharadvaja to his puils who desired to preserve their life. He who teaches it to eight Brahmanas he releases (from the effects of snake bite) by merely touching with grass. Brahman taught it to Narada. Even after removing the complete whole from the (other) complete whole. he releases by the mere thought – he releases it by the mere thought. or be Karkotaka himself! May you be Samkhapulika’s messenger. or be Samkhapulika himself! May you be Padmaka’s messenger. or be Kalika himself! May you be Kulika’s messenger. the (other) complete whole rose. Indra to Bharadvaja. Praising them with our body and limbs steady ! May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda. Brhatsena to Indra. annihilated is the poison. overcomes poison and annihilates poison: “Struck is the poison. destroys poison. May we see with our eyes what is auspicious. or be Kulika himself! May you be Kambalasvatara’s messenger. may we hear with our ears what is auspicious. or be Mahailapatraka himself! May you be Kalika’s messenger. having recited this great science on the new moon night. from amphibious animals or from rats”. . O ye worthy of worship ! May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas. One who teaches it to a hundred Brahmanas. removes poison. or be Padmaka himself! May you be Maha Padmaka’s messenger. it is struck by Intra’s thunder-bolt. the thunderbolt for evil. still the complete whole remains unaltered and undisturbed. which achieves good. One who teaches it to a thousand Brahmanas. from vipers. he releases by a mere glance. or be Maha Padmaka himself! May you be Elapatraka’s messenger. from salamanders. Narada to Brhatsena. or be Anantaka himself! May you be Vasuki’s messenger. This (world) too is a complete whole. from cankers. or be Vasuki himself! May you be Taksaka’s messenger. wears it (as an amulet). Om Shanti! Shanti! Shanti! I will preach the Brahman – science. From the complete whole only. or be Kambalasvatara himself!” For twelve years snakes do not bite him who hears this great science on the new moon night. destroyed is the poison. or be Taksaka himself! May you be Karkotaka’s messenger. with ashes. or be Elapatraka himself! May you be Mahailapatraka’s messenger. The snakes do not bite him as long as he lives who. bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Om! That (world) is a complete whole. from scorpions. (He taught them the science) which achieves this. “May you be Anantaka’s messenger. with a piece of wood. Svaha! May it originate from snakes.-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 32]Garuda Upanishad Om ! O Devas.

still the complete whole remains unaltered and undisturbed. O ye worthy of worship ! May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas. Om. From the complete whole only. This (world) too is a complete whole. Some sages said to the demigod Brahma: “Who is the Supreme Personality of Godhead? Whom does death fear? By knowing whom does everything else become known? Who created this world. This is the essence of the Garuda Upanishad. as contained in the Atharva-Veda. may we hear with our ears what is auspicious. bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Chapter One 1. bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Garuda Upanishad. 2. who is the supreme spiritual master. may we hear with our ears what is auspicious. O ye worthy of worship ! May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas. who is the rescuer from distress. and who is the witness in everyone’s heart. the (other) complete whole rose. the thunderbolt for evil. Om Shanti! Shanti! Shanti! Om ! O Devas. Om! That (world) is a complete whole. I offer my respectful obeisances to Sri Krishna. whose form is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss. Om namah. May we see with our eyes what is auspicious. who is understood by Vedanta. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 33]Gopala-Tapaniya Upanishad Om ! O Devas. Praising them with our body and limbs steady ! May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda. Praising them with our body and limbs steady ! May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda. May we see with our eyes what is auspicious. Even after removing the complete whole from the (other) complete whole. .Thus spake the exalted Brahman – the exalted Brahman. the thunderbolt for evil.

Devotional service to Lord Krishna is performed when the heart no longer desires any material benefit to be obtained in this life or the next. By understanding Gopijanavallabha everything becomes known. who stands in the middle of a red lotus flower. By chanting these five names one attains the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Death fears Govinda. and Svaha means the potency of the Supreme. Within that lotus should be placed two triangles and the mantra klim krsnaya namah. who is surrounded by gopas. and fire. who is the supreme controller. Gopijanavallabha maintains the worlds. air becomes the five life-airs in the bodies of all living entities. All these names refer to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is freedom from the bonds of karma. By pronouncing the word “svaha” the Personality of Godhead created the world. The following verses describe Him. 4. He stays under a desire-tree. In the same way. sun. 15. moon. who rests under a sura-druma tree. Then one should worship the Lord’s expansions. the earth. Brahma said: He appears like a cowherd boy. for the benefit of the world Lord Krishna appears as these five words. gopis. then anga should be offered with the sula-matra (astraya phat). and who is served by breezes that have touched the Yamuna’s waves. 10. the devotees headed by Indra. 6. A person who even once chants the mantra “Klim krsnaya govindaya gopijanavallabha svaha” quickly attains the association of Lord Krishna. and among the surabhi cows. who maintains everything. To them Brahma said: “Krishna means He who delivers from sin. He becomes liberated. who has two arms. whose potencies are manifested as the heavenly planets. His complexion is like a monsoon cloud. 12. Meditating with all his heart on Lord Krishna. the Supersoul. Govinda means He who is famous on the earth. in the Vedas.3. 11. whose complexion is a monsoon cloud. 18. Many worship eternal Govinda. who wears a garland of forest flowers. 17. This mantra should be repeatedly chanted: “klim krishnaya govindaya gopijanavallabhaya svaha”. Gopijanavallabha means He who enchants the gopis. Many brahmanas worship Krishna. Brahma said: The Lord’s altar should be a golden lotus with eight petals. becomes liberated. Although originally one. They then said: “Who is Krishna? Who is Govinda? Who is Gopijanavallabha? What is Svaha?” 5. Brahma replied to them: “Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He does not attain any other result. beginning with Rukmini. who is rich in transcendental knowledge. whose eyes are handsome lotus flowers. who is decorated with splendid ornaments. They said: Please describe the worship of Govinda. and the ananga-gayatri (kamadevaya sarva-jana-priyaya sarva-jana-sammohanaya jvala jvala prajvala prajvala sarva-janasya hrdayam me vasam kuru kuru svaha) should be written there. 13. glorifies Him. 16. and worships Him. whose garments are lightning. the devotees headed . and surabhi cows. 14. They said: What is His form? What is His glorification? How does one worship Him? Please describe this to us 8-9. One who meditates on this Supreme Personality of Godhead. a person becomes free from repeated birth and death. the Kamagayatri (klim krsnaya govindaya gopijanavallabhaya svaha). Powerful Svaha moves the universe. 7.

They. to attain transcendental peace. The brahmanas. obtains everything. from govindaya. earth. as He stands on His altar. From this five-word mantra have come all other govinda-mantras in human society. allpervading supreme controller. Therefore. Everything else. They asked: Please tell us the nature of this mantra. including the ten-syllable govinda-mantra chanted by Indra’s followers and by they who desire opulences. which reveals Lord Krishna. 31. noon and sunset. 27-28. He who at sunrise. shows His lotus feet. in the dress of a cowherd boy. they who desire liberation should regularly chant this mantra. and the devotees headed by Indranidhi. 25. 33.by King Vasudeva. the Lord. He manifests in many forms. and not others. from gopijanavallabha. men. and from svaha. In this matter there are the following verses: Lord Krishna is the worshipable. 30. which is like a splendid sun in the sky. in His original form as a cowherd boy. The demigods gaze at Visnu’s abode. 21. To they who chant the five-word mantra with om and govinda (om krsnaya govindaya gopijanavallabha svaha) the Lord reveals His own form. 26. the sun. from the letter i. 22. and then He disappeared. 34. To attain liberation one should chant this five-word Vaishnava mantra. makes various offerings to the Deity. 29. the one greatest among the eternals and greatest among conscious persons. attain perfection. women. By worshipping Him. attain eternal happiness. the one who fulfils the desires of the many. and although He is one. and from the entire word klim. They who are intelligent worship Him as He stands on His altar. Shiva became free from illusion. They who desire liberation surrender to Him. 19. who worship. the devotees headed by Arjuna. Brahma said: I continually glorified the Lord and meditated upon Him for millions of years. they. and by chanting this mantra in a solitary place. he attained the Lord. He obtains everything. 20. . from the letter l. I created ether. It was Krishna who in the beginning instructed Brahma in Vedic knowledge and who disseminated Vedic knowledge in the past. from the letter m. from the third fire. 32. One should regularly chant this mantra. To they who always diligently worship Lord Visnu’s transcendental form. knowledge and the surabhi cows. and everything else. from the second word water. With devotion in my heart I bowed down before Him. from the fourth air. showing me in these syllables the universe that was to be. Some have said that from the first word of this mantra earth was created. When I desired to create the universe He again appeared before me. I created water. air. and at last I was able to understand the transcendental form of the Lord as Sri Krishna. who grants transcendental knowledge to His devotees. the Supreme Personality of Godhead. the moon. and not others. and from the fifth ether. 24. From the word krsnaya. fire. From the letter k. He gave me the eighteen-syllable mantra to be used for the activity of creation. Therefore one should regularly chant this mantra. 23.

decorated with a golden necklace. uncontaminated. O Govinda. His navel a lotus. Om namah. free from suffering. Obeisances to Him. and the chariot-driver of Arjuna. One who chants this five-word mantra easily attains His transcendental abode. who is all-attractive. handsome with a peacock-feather crown. the expert dancer garlanded with the gopi’s lotus glances. Obeisances to Him. Obeisances to Him. whose form is full of knowledge. 37. 36. please rescue me. O enchanter of the gopis. the lifter of Govardhana Hill. whose form is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss. O source of all transcendental bliss. That spiritual world. the protector of the surrendered souls. the object of worship for Siva. Obeisances to Sri Krishna. 40. the cowherd boy fond of playing the flute. To Lord Govinda. 50. 43. 39. so should you.35. and meditating on Lord Krishna. O Janardana. glorify Him. and from the fifth ether. who is the form of the universe. please rescue me. Although fixed in His abode. Obeisances to Sri Krishna. 42. O Supreme Lord. 49. 46. 48. identical with Balarama. free from greed and all other vices. you will transcend the world of birth and death. 41. is manifested from Lord Vasudeva. Obeisances to Lord Govinda. By chanting this mantra Shiva entered Lord Visnu’s eternal spiritual abode. the end of Putana’s life. Obeisances to Him. 38. and destroyer of the universe. charming. the greatest. Om tat sat. Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. O Narayana. the killer of Kesi and Canura. maintainer. O husband of Rukmini. Be kind. His intelligence sharp. the person who walks on the Yamuna’s shore and whose earrings gracefully swing to and fro. the enemy of impurity. Brahma said: As I worship Him. the death of Kamsa and his allies. Chapter Two . Be kind. I offer my respectful obeisances. the thief of Trnavarta’s life. 45. please rescue me. and the universe itself. 51. the master of the universe. whose form is full of supreme bliss. and who is this five-word mantra. garlanded with lotuses. from the fourth air. O Madhava. bitten by the snake of physical and mental pain. One should meditate upon Him. and He the swan in the Manasa lake of the goddess of fortune’s thoughts. Obeisances to Lord Govinda. from the second word water. Obeisances to Him. Obeisances to Him. the crusher of Kaliya. Obeisances to Him. O blissful one. O Kesava. of which from the first word the element earth came. 44. one without a second. About this are the following verses: One should chant this mantra. 52. It is not separate from Him. the creator. O Lord. Chanting this five-word mantra. Therefore. With eloquent prayers I and the Maruts please Lord Govinda. 47. drowning in the ocean of repeated birth and death. 53. His eyes lotus flowers. and who is the master of the gopis. 54. pure. Even the powerful demigods cannot approach Him. Obeisances to Him. from the third fire. O Lord who rescues the devotees from distress. the husband of the goddesses of fortune. O Krishna. O master of the universe. serve Him and worship Him. completely pure. the death of sin. the Personality of Godhead is swifter than the mind and can overcome all others running. and identical with this five-word mantra. who stays under a desire tree in Vrndavana.

Pleased. the passionate girls of Vraja spoke to the cowherd boy Krishna. He said: Meditate on me as a sage that eats only durva grass. who is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. although sound and ether are different. 3. This ether does not know. How can I be a materialistic enjoyer. How can I be a materialistic enjoyer? 19. By remembering Me an impure person becomes pure. I am spirit. blessed them. Your beloved Krishna is the original creator of the two kinds of bodies. they meditated on Durvasa. By remembering Me one full of material desires becomes desireless. 5. the best of sages. By remembering Me a fool becomes learned. although touch and air are different. although aroma and earth are different. I am spirit. although form and fire are different. Gandharvi (Srimati Radharani).1-2. and He also spoke to them. 13. Form is contained within fire. 10. They said: How will we cross the Yamuna? 11. I am spirit. 15. 7. and gave them permission to go. and with these words crossed the Yamuna. he bathed. Sound is contained within ether. and the Yamuna will give you a path. Form is contained within the element of fire. This water does not know. 9. This earth does not know. 21. the other girls became silent. how can I be a materialistic enjoyer? 22. When spirit is everything how does one think? Where does one go? I am spirit. This air does not know. The gopis said: To what brahmana should charity be given? 4. after they had passed the entire night with Him. Taste is contained within water. By remembering Me a shallow person becomes deep. How can I be a materialistic enjoyer? 20. Durvasa Muni replied: Sound is contained within the element of ether. How can I be a materialistic enjoyer? 17. She said: How is Krishna a brahmacari? How is this sage a person that eats only durva grass? 14. Krishna said: Say the words Krishna. They went to the very sacred asrama and bowed down before Durvasa Muni. and the Yamuna will give you a path. 12. ate. 8. By remembering Me an impious person becomes pious. the brahmacari. Accepting Her as their leader. 16. After hearing these words. . Taste is contained within the element of water. I am spirit. Krishna said: Durvasa. from whom great blessings will come? 6. the best among them. Aroma is contained within the element of earth. although taste and waste are different. I am spirit. It is the mind that remains among the senses and accepts them. They gave to the brahmana delicious foods made with milk and ghee. Touch is contained within air. reflected for a moment. Touch is contained within the element of air. Once. The gopis said: How will we cross the Yamuna’s waters and approach Him. How can I be a materialistic enjoyer? 18. This fire does not know. Aroma is contained within earth.

the one that. 38. The first enjoys. They are an enjoyer and a nonenjoyer. who stays among the cowherd boys. He said: In the beginning only Lord Narayana existed. who is glorified by all the Vedas. In Him the material worlds are woven as thread on a loom. Rudresvara. who protects the surabhi cows. This ignorance and real knowledge are different. this city if Mathura. remembering Him. He who lusts after pleasure is lusty. stands in this world as a lotus stands in a lake. who is unchanging. One is an expansion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Bhadresvara. Lord Narayana granted him a boon. great Bahulavana. full of palm trees. . and 12. the former residence of the Madhu demon. the one that makes humans and demigods happy. 9. five Vinayakas. 5. Brahma chose a question. 32. Viresvara. 40. From His lotus heart the demigod Brahma was born. descended to this Earth? 29. who stays by the Yamuna. 33-34. and who controls all living entities. In this city the desires of the demigods and all other creatures are all fulfilled and everyone attains liberation. Ganesvara. seven sages. 2. Bhadravana. 4. Madhuvana. Ambikesvara. the great forest of Brhadvana. Brahma said: Among Your many incarnations. In Him we do not find material so-called knowledge and ignorance. full of lotus flowers and water lilies. eleven Rudras. Bhandiravana. become a materialistic enjoyer? 25-26. 7. 41. Srivana. Protected by My cakra. 3. who cannot be cut. who is full of real knowledge. 11. the abode of the goddess of fortune. eight Vasus. How can Krishna. Khadiravana. the great forest of Banyan trees. Talavana. 10. Krishna. and the second is Krishna. 30. Lord Narayana granted his request. which is the best.23. 31. is your husband. Gopala Puri contains these forests: 1. 6. 8. Kumudavana. He who does not lust after pleasures is not lusty. who is far above the world of matter. As on the summit of Mount Meru are seven cities that fulfil all desires. or Gopala Puri. who stays among the surabhi cows. Gopalesvara. how do you know this about Krishna? What is His mantra? What is His abode? Why has He taken birth in Devaki’s womb? Who is His elder brother Balarama? How is He worshipped? Why has the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He is a witness. 24. Lord Narayana said: 36. Among them the city of Gopala Puri is directly the spiritual world. 27. In these forests the demigods. Narada. and Kinnaras sing and dance. and 24 other lingas reside there. Gandharvas. the former residence of the demon Loha. Brahma. Visvesvara. ruled by the goddess Vrnda-devi. who is free from birth and death. human beings. Vrndavana. 28. The twelve Adityas. Nilakanthesvara. who has entered all living entities. 39. 37. On the tree of the body are two birds. so on the Earth are seven cities that fulfil desires and grant liberation. they become liberated from repeated birth and death? Why is this incarnation the best? 35. Nagas. who stays in all the Vedas. When Brahma performed severe austerities. The other is an enjoyer. the favourite spot of Lord Balarama. delightful Kamyavana. Lohavana. full of Khadira trees. Gandharvi (Radha) said: Why has the Supreme Personality of Godhead taken birth among us as a cowherd boy? O sage.

In this way there are twelve Deities in the forests of Mathura. I am Rama. I am eternal Pradyumna. stays in delightful Mathura Puri. One should think: I am Lord Gopaka’s. Because since the beginning of creation He lovingly protects (alati) the conditioned souls (gopa). 61. and also reside in Mathura. the sages worship the seventh. and holding a conch. intelligent devotees in this world worship Lord Gopala. disk. O Brahma. 50. 47. He becomes a knower of spirit. eternal Gopala. Krishnavana. and the twelfth Deity is now on the Earth. the eleventh Deity has gone to His own planet. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is therefore known as Gopala. goes to MY abode. 53. whose form is the resting place of all forms. becomes very dear to Me. There are these verses: Lord Krishna. Of this there is no doubt. I am Aniruddha. These forests are divided into two groups: 1. 58. following the regulations of bhakti I Myself have spoken. who is accompanied by His elder brother Balarama and queen Rukmini. They cross beyond the three-fold miseries of birth. You should always worship Me as Krishna in Mathura. Om tat sat. 62. He is known as Gopala. With all one’s heart one should think: I am Gopala’s. and by Balarama. Brahma’s sons worship the third. whose form is wonderful. accompanied by His three potencies. 45. mace and lotus. the Vinayakas worship the fifth. 59. Aniruddha. 49. In this way one attains liberation. decorated with a forest-flower garland. may become devoted to Me. There the perfect beings attained perfection. and 2. a Deity of Aniruddha. 52. club. The Rudras worship the first Deity. 54. Even they who formerly rejected the principles of religion and were swallowed up by the age of Kali. Om. old-age and death. One should think: I am spiritual. which is worshipped by Brahma and the other demigods and protected by the conch. Following the devotional process prescribed for the age.Bhadravana. and eternal. My spiritual form is eternally full of bliss. They who worship this Deity surpass death and attain liberation. 51. the residents of Krishnavana and Bhadravana worship Me. He who is intelligent worships Me. I am a spirit. The Maruts worship the fourth. 57. the Vasus worship the sixth. whose form is supremely powerful and splendid. I am unborn. the tenth Deity is now invisible. 44. beyond material passion. the Gandharvas worship the eighth. Lord Gopala is unmanifest. 55. a resident of this earth planet who remains in the district of Mathura and worships Me as I appear in the form of the Deity. He realizes his spiritual nature. 43.42. a Deity of Pradyumna. and sarnga bow. Lord Narayana continued: O Brahma. he who with all his heart meditates on Me. These four names are identical with the name Om. 48. Pradyumna. There the demigods stay. In this place are a Deity of Rama. Four kinds of men worship Me. . 56. I will reside eternally in Mathura. O Brahma. and Rukmini. 46. and who has no material form. Brahma worships the second. I am a part-and-parcel of Krishna. Among these twelve forests some are sacred and others are most sacred. 60. or Krishna’s forests. Free from all impure desires. the Apsaras worship the ninth. limitless. cakra. and a Deity of Krishna. or Balarama’s forests.

mace. who is one without a second. He whom meditates on Me as I appear in Mathura attains liberation. In the same way the Lord. 72. by His transcendental potency expanded Himself into four. My two feet marked with conchshell. fire. Anyone who becomes My sincere devotee becomes very dear to Me. 67. 64. the sages declare that the splendour of the sun. is the letter a. The sun and moon are the splendour of My body. Rukmini is Lord Krishna’s wife. 83. 80. 73. From false-ego came the five tanmatras. and eloquent speech has come from My glittering Kaustubha jewel. MY chest marked with srivatsa and splendid with the kautabha gem. as dear as Shiva and hid associates. My four arms holding the conch. cakra. Therefore. In my heart I meditate on the material world with its eight dik-palas (protectors of the directions) as a blossomed lotus flower growing in the ocean of repeated birth and death. The Lord said to him: Before the material world was manifest. . Laksmi. only the Supreme Personality of Godhead. u and m. 71. 75-78. She is the creator of the worlds and the root of material nature. Balarama. My head circled by a splendid crown. holding a flute and buffalo-horn bugle. As dear as You and Your sons are. I am the sacred syllable. and sarnga bow. is the ardha-matra letter (m). flag and umbrella. MY neck splendid with a flower garland. 70. From Him came the impersonal Brahman. Learned transcendentalists say that the Lord’s potency is the syllable om. From om came the mahat-tattva. 74. From the mahat-tattva came false-ego. I am liberated. Splendid Pradyumna is the letter u. all-pervading Lord Gopala is the syllable om. which completes the syllable om. moon. That is why it is called Mathura. Learned transcendentalists declare that the syllable om is not different from the sacred syllable klim. the son of Rohini. My arms decorated with armlets. 82. who is one without a second. I am marked with srivatsa and svarupa. From that came the syllable om. I am unchanging. 81. nectarean. Brahma said: How has the one Supreme Personality of Godhead become four Deities? How has the single sacred syllable om become many? 65. Om is covered by these things. I am ageless. Aware of My supremacy. MY form splendid and handsome. 69. The seven lower planetary systems are My feet. 79. in whom the entire universe rests. My ears decorated with glistening shark-shaped earrings. Intelligent Aniruddha is letter m. the fearless Supreme Great. Golden Mount Meru is My splendid flag. When the entire universe is churned (mathyate) by the churning-rod of spiritual knowledge. 68.63. Lord Krishna. Brahmaloka as My umbrella. 66. The eternal Supreme Personality of Godhead manifested Himself as the all-pervading universal form. I am om. Therefore the learned sages call me Srivatsalanchana (marked with srivatsa). the butter produced is the Supreme Personality of Godhead in Mathura. The sacred syllable om consists of three letters: a. existed. and granting fearlessness to the devotees. as dear as the goddess of fortune. deathless. The Vedic literatures explain that the goddess of fortune appeared among the women of Vraja. From them came the elements. In his mind one should meditate on Me standing on the blossomed eight-petaled lotus of the heart.

who is present in the life-breath. Obeisances to the Supersoul. Om. your mind-born sons have elaborately described this garland. who is present in the sama air. 88. who is present in the apana air. Vinayakas. who is Sri Rama. Rudras. O Brahma. Om tat sat. the Deity of passion. the Supersoul. O Brahma. which is eternal and full of transcendental knowledge. among all demigods and all human beings. My form. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. My form is also present as the Deity of ignorance. 102. Childishness is said to be the cakra. who is present in the life-breath. Om. economic development. Brahma said: What are the ornaments worn by the Deities You have described? How do the Maruts. and sense-gratification are the splendid bracelets that eternally decorate the wrists of My universal form. who is Govinda and Gopijanavallabha. My humanlike form. He becomes liberated. As a Rudra among the Rudras. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. as a Brahma among the followers of Brahma. Obeisances. The sages say that My eternal form is the crown. passion. Obeisances. Brahma. Om tat sat. Obeisances to the Supersoul. Obeisances to Sri Krishna. 92. Apsaras. and as a Vasu among the Vasus. Sankarsana. is present even when it is invisible. and false-ego. I give Myself to him. 96. obeisances to Him. Obeisances to the Supersoul. The four arms of My universal form are goodness. obeisances to Him. He attains liberation. Om. Bhu Bhuvah and Svah. The neck. Obeisances to Sri Krishna. and Aniruddha. as an Apsara among the Apsaras. as a human being among the humans. 97. present in the apana air. is present in devotional service. who is Vasudeva. sons of Brahma. present in the same air. Pradyumna. 86. as Surya Narayana among the Adityas. The origin of ignorance is known as the club I always carry in My hand. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. 101. obeisances to Him. Religion. is garlanded by the first unborn. Om. My form is always stays in My own abode. and the other beyond the modes of nature. The five material elements are the conchshell I carry in the hand that is the mode of passion. Om tat sat. said to be the qualityless Brahman. Om. the original illusory potency the Sarnga bow. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Om tat sat. obeisances to Him. and the Deity of Goodness. Obeisances. as a Gandharva among the Gandharvas. . 95. and Gandharvas worship them? Who is the Deity that has gone to His own abode? Who is the Deity now invisible? Who is the Deity the humans worship? 94. The two things above the changing material world are My two glittering earrings. Obeisances. obeisances to Him. as the destroyer of obstacles (Ganesa) among the Vinayakas. 89. Om tat sat. which fulfils desires. I have said all that will be about My two forms: one made of the modes of nature. 99.84. Obeisances. twelve Adityas. as a demigod among the demigods. 100. and the universe the lotus flower in the hand of the universal form. 98. 91.He who meditates in this way is eternally dear to me. 93. obeisances to Him. Vasus. 87. Lord Narayana said to him: these twelve unmanifested transcendental Deities are present on all planets. Obeisances to Krishna. Obeisances. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. 103. 85. 90. Whether visible or invisible in this world. Om tat sat. ignorance.

Lord Gopala is the Supersoul. Lord Gopala is beyond the transcendence of the impersonalists. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances to Aditya. Om tat sat. Om tat sat. Om tat sat. Obeisances to Rudra. who is present in the vyana air. He is the witness. His is transcendence. Obeisances to Varuna. Obeisances. Om. Obeisances to Surya. and deep sleep. the son of Devaki. obeisances to Him. and after giving him the ability to create the universe. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Om. 108. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Om. He is in everyone’s heart. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Lord Gopala is the Supreme Person. Brahma’s sons. He is allpervading. Obeisances to Nirrti. Obeisances. 117. obeisances to Him. Obeisances to Yama. He is consciousness. Om. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances to all the demigods. Om. The one Supreme Personality of Godhead is hidden within everything. who was rapt in meditation on the Lord’s transcendental form. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Om tat sat. Obeisances to Vayu. Obeisances to Krishna. the thunderbolt for evil. Lord Gopala is the Supersoul. Lord Gopala is the Supersoul. present in the material elements. sleep. 114. Om. Om. present in the vyana air. present in the senses. Obeisances. 111. 115. Om tat sat. 118. whose original form is that of a cowherd boy. Obeisances to Agni. Om tat sat. Obeisances. bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! . After giving these most pious prayers to Brahma. Obeisances. present in the primordial material energy. present in the udana air. Om tat sat. obeisances to Him 106. Obeisances to the Supersoul. He witnesses everyone’s activities. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. 109. Obeisances. Om ! O Devas. Lord Gopala is the Supreme Brahman. obeisances to Him. Obeisances to Vidya-devi. Om. Praising them with our body and limbs steady ! May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda. obeisances to Him. Obeisances to Indra. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. so I have spoken them. Om tat sat. O Gandharvi (Radha). Lord Gopala is the Supersoul in the heart of all beings.104. O ye worthy of worship ! May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas. 112. Om. Om. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Om tat sat. May we see with our eyes what is auspicious. Om tat sat. Obeisances to Isana. Obeisances to the Supersoul. and Narada. He is beyond the modes of nature. 107. He lives in everyone’s heart. obeisances to Him. obeisances to Him. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances to Brahma. obeisances to Him. Obeisances to Kuvera. obeisances to Him. 116. Obeisances. Obeisances. may we hear with our ears what is auspicious. Surpassing wakefulness. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Lord Narayana disappeared. As these instructions were heard from Brahma. 113. Obeisances to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Obeisances. 110. 105. Om. Obeisances to Vinayaka. obeisances to Him. Obeisances. who is present in the udana air. Obeisances. now You may go to Your own home. obeisances to Him.

Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !
Here ends the Gopala-Tapaniyopanishad, as contained in the Atharva-Veda.
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34]Hamsa Upanishad
Translated by K. Narayanasvami Aiyar
Om ! That (Brahman) is infinite, and this (universe) is infinite.
The infinite proceeds from the infinite.
(Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe),
It remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone.
Om ! Let there be Peace in me !
Let there be Peace in my environment !
Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !
1. Gautama addressed Sanatkumara thus: “O Lord, thou art the knower of all Dharmas
and art well versed in all Shastras, pray tell me the means by which I may obtain a
knowledge of Brahma-Vidya.
2. Sanatkumara replied thus: “Hear, O Gautama, that Tattva as expounded by Parvati
after inquiring into all Dharmas and ascertaining Shiva’s opinion.
3. This treatise on the nature of Hamsa which gives the fruit of bliss and salvation and
which is like a treasure to the Yogin, is (a) very mystic (science) and should not be
revealed (to the public).
4. Now we shall explain the true nature of Hamsa and Paramahamsa for the benefit of a
Brahmacharin (a seeker after Brahman or celibate), who has his desires under control, is
devoted to his guru and always contemplates (as) Hamsa and realise thus: It (Hamsa) is
permeating all bodies like fire (or heat) in all kinds of wood or oil in all kinds of gingelly
seeds. Having known (It) thus, one does not meet with death.
Having contracted the anus (with the heels pressed against it), having raised the Vayu
(breath) from (Mula) Adhara (Chakra), having made circuit thrice round Svadhisthana,
having gone to Manipuraka, having crossed Anahata, having controlled Prana in
Visuddhi and then having reached Ajna, one contemplates in Brahmarandhra (in the
head) and having meditated there always ‘I am of three Matras’, cognises (his Self) and
becomes formless. The Sisna (penis) has two sides (left and right from head to foot). This
is that Paramahamsa (Supreme Hamsa or Higher Self) having the resplendence of Crores
of suns and by whom all this world is pervaded.
If (this Hamsa which has Buddhi as vehicle) has eight-fold Vritti. (When it is) in the
eastern petal, there is the inclination (in a person) to virtuous actions; in the south-eastern
petal, there arise sleep, laziness, etc., in the southern, there is the inclination to cruelty; in
the south-western, there is the inclination to sins; in the western, there is the inclination to
sensual sport; in the north-western, there arise the desire of walking and others; in the
northern, there arises the desire of lust; in the north-eastern, there arises the desire of
amassing money; in the middle (or the inter-spaces between the petals), there is the
indifference to material pleasures. In the filament (of the lotus), there arises the waking

state; in the pericarp there arises the Svapna (dreaming state); in the Bija (seed of
pericarp), there arises the Sushupti (dreamless sleeping state); when leaving the lotus,
there is the Turya (fourth state). When Hamsa is absorbed in Nada (spiritual sound), the
state beyond the fourth is reached. Nada (which is at the end of sound and beyond speech
and mind) is like a pure crystal extending from (Mula) Adhara to Brahmarandhra. It is
that which is spoken of as Brahma and Paramatman.
(Here is the performance of Ajapa Gayatri is given): Now Hamsa is the Rishi; the metre
is Avyakta Gayatri; Paramahamsa is the Devata (or presiding deity) ‘Ham’ is the Bija;
‘Sa’ is the Sakti; So’ham is the Kilaka (wedge). Thus there are six. There are 21,600
Hamsas (or breaths) in a day and night. (Salutation to) Surya, Soma, Niranjana (the
stainless) and Nirabhasa (the universeless). Ajapa mantra. (May) the bodiless and subtle
one guide (or illuminate my understanding). Vaushat to Agni-Soma. Then Anganyasas
and Karanyasas occur (or should be performed after the Mantras as they are performed
before the Mantras) in the heart and other (seats). Having done so, one should
contemplate upon Hamsa as the Atman in his heart. Agni and Soma are its wings (right
and left sides); Omkara is its head; Ukara and Bindu are the three eyes and face
respectively; Rudra and Rudrani (or Rudra’s wife) are the feet Kanthata (or the
realisation of the oneness of Jivatma or Hamsa, the lower self with Paramatman or
Paramahamsa, the Higher Self) is done in two ways (Samprajnata and Asamprajnata).
After that, Unmani is the end of the Ajapa (Mantra). Having thus reflected upon Manas
by means of This (Hamsa), one hears Nada after the uttering of this Japa (Mantra) a crore
of times. It (Nada) is (begun to be heard as) of ten kinds. The first is Chini (like the sound
of that word); the second is Chini-Chini; the third is the sound of bell; the fourth is that of
conch; the fifth is that of Tantiri (lute); the sixth is that sound of Tala (cymbals); the
seventh is that of flute; the eighth is that of Bheri (drum); the ninth is that of Mridanga
(double drum); and the tenth is that of clouds (viz., thunder). He may experience the tenth
without the first nine sounds (through the initiation of a Guru). In the first stage, his body
becomes Chini-Chini; in the second, there is the (Bhanjana) breaking (or affecting) in the
body; in the third, there is the (Bhedana) piercing; in the fourth, the head shakes; in the
fifth, the palate produces saliva; in the sixth, nectar is attained; in the seventh, the
knowledge of the hidden (things in the world) arises; in the eighth, Para-Vak is heard; in
the ninth, the body becomes invisible and the pure divine eye is developed; in the tenth,
he attains Para-Brahman in the presence of (or with) Atman which is Brahman. After
that, when Manas destroyed, when it which is the source of Sankalpa and Vikalpa
disappears, owing to the destruction of these two, and when virtues and sins are burnt
away, then he shines as Sadashiva of the nature of Sakti pervading everywhere, being
effulgence in its very essence, the immaculate, the eternal, the stainless and the most
quiescent Om. Thus is the teaching of the Vedas; and thus is the Upanishad.”

Om ! That (Brahman) is infinite, and this (universe) is infinite.
The infinite proceeds from the infinite.
(Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe),
It remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone.
Om ! Let there be Peace in me !
Let there be Peace in my environment !

Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !
Here ends the Hamsa Upanishad belonging to the Sukla-Yajur-Veda.
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35]Hayagriva Upanishad
Translated by P. R. Ramachander
Published by celextel.org
Om ! O Devas, may we hear with our ears what is auspicious;
May we see with our eyes what is auspicious, O ye worthy of worship !
May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas,
Praising them with our body and limbs steady !
May the glorious Indra bless us !
May the all-knowing Sun bless us !
May Garuda, the thunderbolt for evil, bless us !
May Brihaspati grant us well-being !
Om ! Let there be Peace in me !
Let there be Peace in my environment !
Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !
First Chapter
Hari Om. Narada approached Lord Brahma and requested him, “Oh, God please teach me
that knowledge of Brahman by which all sins can be destroyed quickly and the wisdom
of Brahman is realized and one is blessed with all the wealth.” Lord Brahma told as
follows:
The one who masters the mantras for which Lord Hayagreeva is the master would know
Sruthi (heard knowledge), Smrithi (memorized knowledge), Ithihasas (history) and
Puranas (epics) and would be blessed with all types of wealth. Those Mantras are as
follows: 1.1
Hey, Lord Hayagreeva, who is the form of the holy mind, who saves everybody and who
is the King of Knowledge, Salutations to you, Swaha, Swaha. 1.2
Hey , Lord Hayagreeva, who has the form of Rig, Yajur and Sama Vedas, who brought
these Vedas to earth, who has the shape of the singing of Pranava, and who has a horse
head, Salutations to you, Swaha, Swaha. 1.3
Hey Lord Hayagreeva, who is being sung by the song of Pranava, who is the God for all
those Gods of words, who is the personification of all Vedas, and who is beyond thought,
teach us everything . Salutations to you, Swaha, Swaha. 1.4

For the 29 lettered mantra of Hayagreeva, Brahma, Athri ,Surya and Bhargava are the
sages, Gayathri, Trushtup and Anushtup are the meters, God is Hayagreeva himself, root
is the sound “Lhowm (hsowm), Strength (Shakthi) is Hoham, Keelaga (the nail) is
Lhoom (Shoom), Viniyoga is Bhoga, Moksha and the symbolic rite with hands is the
letters Aa, Uu and Ma.
The prayer is:
I meditate on that Hayagreeva,
Who has the glitter of the full moon,
Who holds the conch, wheel, the great stamp and the book in his hands.
The 29 lettered Hayagreeva mantra is:
Om Sreem, lhowm (Hsowm), Om Namo Bhagawathe, Hayagreevaya, Vishnave,
Mahyam, Medham, Pragnam, Prayascha Swaha! 1.5
The 28 lettered Hayagreeva mantra is:
Om, Sreem, Im, Im, Im , Kleem, Kleem, Sow, Sow, Hreem, Om Namo Bhagawathe,
Mahyam, Medham Pragnam, Prayascha Swaha! 1.6
Second Chapter
I will now tell you that ‘Hayagreeva knowledge’ of Brahman which is of one letter. That
is the root letter Lhoum (hsoum). Among all the roots, this Hayagreeva single letter root
is the king of mantras. 2.1
Chanting of the mantra “Lhoum (hsoum) Amrutham Kuru Swaha!”, gives one the
mastery over words, wealth and the eight occult powers. 2.2
The mantra “Lhoum (hsoum) Sakala Samrajya Sidhim Kuru Kuru Swaha” tells us the
secret of the great Vedic sayings like “Pragnanam Anandam Brahma (Brahmam is the
realized happiness)”, “Tat Tvam Asi (You are it)”, “Ayam Atma Brahma (My soul is
Brahma)” and “Aham Brahmasmi (I am Brahmam)”. The same letter “Lhoum” and
“hsoum” are the same vowels though different and give worldly pleasures and salvation
respectively. 2.3
After the chanting of Hayagreeva Mantra, it is normal to chant the Vedic mantras starting
with
1.Yad Vak Vadanthi…. 2. Gowrimimaya… 3 Oshtapidhana and 4. Sa
Sarpareeramathim…… 2.4-2.7
One who reads this ‘Hayagreeva knowledge’ of Brahmam on the Ekadasi day, would
become a great man because of the blessings of Hayagreeva. He would get salvation.
Upanishad says, "the knowledge of Brahmam which is taught with the mantra ending
with 'Om Namo Brahmane’ would never leave his heart".

Om ! O Devas, may we hear with our ears what is auspicious;
May we see with our eyes what is auspicious, O ye worthy of worship !
May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas,
Praising them with our body and limbs steady !
May the glorious Indra bless us !
May the all-knowing Sun bless us !
May Garuda, the thunderbolt for evil, bless us !
May Brihaspati grant us well-being!
Om! Let there be Peace in me !
Let there be Peace in my environment !
Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !
Here ends the Hayagrivopanishad, as contained in the Atharva-Veda.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

36]Isavasya Upanishad
Translated by Vidyavachaspati V. Panoli
Om ! That is full; this is full, (for) from the full the full (indeed) arises.
When the full is taken from the full, what remains is full indeed.
Om! Peace! Peace! Peace!
1. Om. All this should be covered by the Lord, whatsoever moves on the earth. By such a
renunciation protect (thyself). Covet not the wealth of others.
2. By performing karma in this world (as enjoined by the scriptures) should one yearn to
live a hundred years. Thus action does not bind thee, the doer. There is no other way than
this.
3. Those worlds of Asuras (demons) are enshrouded by blinding gloom. Those who are
the slayers of the Self go to them after death.
4. Unmoving, It is one, faster than the mind. The senses cannot reach It, for It proceeds
ahead. Remaining static It overtakes others that run. On account of Its presence,
Matarsiva (the wind) conducts the activities of beings.
5. It moves; It moves not. It is far; It is near. It is within all; It is without all.
6. He who perceives all beings in the Self alone, and the Self in all beings, does not
entertain any hatred on account of that perception.
7. When a man realises that all beings are but the Self, what delusion is there, what grief,
to that perceiver of oneness?
8. That (Self) is all-pervading, radiant, bodiless, soreless, without sinews, pure, untainted
by sin, the all-seer, the lord of the mind, transcendent and self-existent. That (Self) did
allot in proper order to the eternal Prajapatis known as samvalsara (year) their duties.
9. Those who worship avidya (karma born of ignorance) go to pitch darkness, but to a
greater darkness than this go those who are devoted to Vidya (knowledge of the Devatas).
10. Different indeed, they say, is the result (attained) by vidya and different indeed, they
say, is the result (attained) by avidya. Thus have we heard from the wise who had
explained it to us.

11. He who knows both vidya and avidya together, transcends mortality through avidya
and reaches immortality through vidya.
12. To pitch darkness they go who worship the Unmanifested (Prakriti). To a greater
darkness than this go those who are devoted to the Manifested (Hiranyagarbha).
13. Different indeed, they say, is the result (attained) by the worship of the Manifested
and different indeed, they say, is the result (attained) by the worship of the Unmanifested.
Thus have we heard from the wise who had explained it to us.
14. He who knows both the Unmanifested and the destructible (Hiranyagarbha) together,
transcends death by the (worship of) the destructible and attains immortality by the
(worship of ) the Unmanifested.
15. The face of the Truth (ie., Purusha in the solar orb) is veiled by a bright vessel. Mayst
thou unveil it, O Sun, so as to be perceived by me whose dharma is truth.
16. O nourisher, pilgrim of the solitude, controller, absorber (of all rasas), offspring of
Prajapati, cast away thy rays, gather them up and give up thy radiating brilliance. That
form of thine, most graceful, I may behold. He, the Purusha (in the solar orb), I am.
17. Let (my) vital air (prana) now attain the immortal Air (all-pervading Self); then let
this body be reduced to ashes. Om, O mind, remember – remember that which has been
done, O mind, remember – remember that which has been done.
18. O Fire, O Deva, knower of all our actions or all our knowledge, lead us by the good
path for enjoying the fruits of actions. Liberate us from our deceitful sins. We offer thee
ever more our words of adoration.
Om! That is full; this is full, (for) from the full the full (indeed) arises.
When the full is taken from the full, what remains is full indeed.
Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace !
Here ends the Isavasyopanishad, as contained in the Sukla-Yajur-Veda.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

37]Jabala Upanishad
Translated by Prof. A. A. Ramanathan
Published by The Theosophical Publishing House, Chennai
Om ! That (Brahman) is infinite, and this (universe) is infinite.
The infinite proceeds from the infinite.
(Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe),
It remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone.
Om ! Let there be Peace in me !
Let there be Peace in my environment !
Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !
I-1. Brihaspati (the preceptor of the gods) asked (the sage) Yajnavalkya: (Which is) the
Kurukshetra, (the famous holy place that destroys sins and protects the good, (the place)
where the gods perform sacrifices and which is the abode of Brahman in all beings ?

(Yajnavalkya replied): Avimukta is the Kurukshetra, (the place) where the gods perform
sacrifices to deities and which is the abode of Brahman in all beings (i.e. the middle of
the eye-brows). Hence wherever one goes one shall think thus: This is the Kurukshetra,
the place where the gods perform sacrifices to the deities and which is the abode of
Brahman in all beings. This is the spot where, when the vital airs depart from the living
person, Rudra imparts the mantra (Taraka Brahman) to him by which, becoming
immortal, he attains liberation (final beatitude). Hence one shall resort to the Avimukta;
shall not desert the Avimukta. (Brihaspati approved of the statement saying): ‘So it is,
Yajnavalkya’, verily it is so, O, revered one ! ‘It is so Yajnavalkya’.
II-1. Thereafter the sage Atri (son of the creator Brahma) asked of Yajnavalkya: ‘How
am I to realize the Self which is infinite and unmanifest ?’ (To this) Yajnavalkya replied:
That Avimukta (Lord Siva as the redeemer) is to be worshipped; the Self which is infinite
and unmanifest, is established in (i.e., is non-different from) the Avimukta (in Ishvara,
possessed of attributes)’.
II-2. ‘Which is that (place) where Avimukta is established ?’ ‘He is established in
between varana and nasi’. ‘What is (meant by) varana and what (by) nasi ?’ ‘The varana
is so called as it wards off all the faults committed by the (ten) organs (of perception and
action). The nasi is so named as it destroys all sins committed by the (ten) organs. (The
place between the varana and the nasi is the meeting place of the upper part of the nose
and the centre of the eye brows). ‘Which is the seat of that (Avimukta) ?’ ‘That, which is
the (well known) juncture of the eye brows and the nose, is the juncture of heaven (in the
form of the crown of the head) and this world (in the form at the end of the chin). The
knowers of the Veda worship indeed this juncture (Samadhi) as Sandhya (in their daily
worship). That Avimukta is to be worshipped. He who knows this thus (the true nature of
the Avimukta), imparts the wisdom of the Avimukta (that the individual Self is no other
than the attributeless Brahman, to his disciples).
III-1. Then the discipline students (Brahmacharins of Yajnavalkya) asked him: ‘Pray, tell
us, what is that mantra by reciting which one attains immortality ?’ He replied: ‘By
(reciting) Satarudriya’. These mantras are indeed the names of (Rudra to achieve)
immortality. By (reciting) these (mantras) one becomes immortal.
IV-1. Then Janaka, the king of the Videhas (respectfully) approached Yajnavalkya and
requested him: ‘Revered Sir, expound (to me) the (tenets of) renunciation (Sannyasa)’.
He (Yajnavalkya) then replied: ‘After completing the period of disciplined studentship
(brahmacharya) one may become a householder. After being a householder he may
become a forest-dweller (i.e., become a Vanaprastha). Having become a Vanaprastha he
may renounce the world (and thus become a mendicant monk). Or, alternately, he may
embrace renunciation from brahmacharya itself, or from the (stage of a) householder, or
from the forest(-life of a Vanaprastha). (It can also be that) a person may renounce
worldly life that very day on which distaste for it dawns on him, whether he is one not
observing the vows (before the stage of renunciation) or observe them, whether he has
undergone the prescribed ablution on completing the disciplined studentship or not,
whether he is one who has discontinued maintaining the sacred fire at the death of his

wife (utsannagni) or is one who does not maintain (for other causes) the sacred fire
(anagnika).
Iv-2. Some (law givers) prescribe the sacrifice called prajapatya (of which the god
Brahma is the presiding deity, to a twice-born before he embraces renunciation). But
(though thus laid down) he may not do so. He shall only perform the sacrifice in which
Agni is the deity. For Agni is the vital breath (Prana). Thereby he does (strengthen) the
vital breath. He shall then perform the traidhataviya sacrifice. For the three forms of Agni
in him, namely, Sattva, Rajas and Tamas are (strengthened) by this sacrifice. (Having
performed the sacrifice) he shall smell (the smoke of) the holy fire, reciting the following
mantra:
IV-3. ‘O Fire, this (vital breath) is your source; as you are born from Sutratman (at the
proper time) you shine forth. Knowing him (the Atman, your ultimate source) may you
merge (in him). May you increase our wealth’ (here the transcendent knowledge). Verily,
this is the source of fire, namely the vital air. So what is said by this mantra is: ‘May you
go unto your source’. Svaha.
IV-4. Having procured the holy fire from (the house of a well-versed Vedic scholar in)
the village he shall smell the holy dire as described previously. If he is unable to procure
the holy fire he shall offer the oblations in water. For water is, verily, all the gods.
Reciting ‘I offer the oblation to all the gods, Svaha’ he shall tender the oblation and
picking up (a small portion of) the offered oblation which is mixed with ghee, he shall eat
it, as this is beneficial. The mantra of liberation (namely ‘Om’) is (the essence of) the
three Vedas; this he shall realize. It is Brahman and It is to be worshipped. Indeed, so it
is, O revered Yajnavalkya (said Janaka).
V-1. Then the (sage) Atri asked Yajnavalkya: ‘May I ask you Yajnavalkya, how is one
without the sacred thread a Brahmana ?’ Yajnavalkya replied: (‘The conviction I am the)
Self alone is his sacred thread. He shall then sip water (ceremoniously thrice). This is the
method enjoined on those who renounce worldly life’.
V-2. (In the case of Kshatriyas and others not entitled to renunciation, they may seek
liberation) in the path of the brave (who court death in the battle field) or fast (unto death
as a discipline), or enter into water (to rise no more) or enter fire (to be burnt to ashes) or
undertake the great journey (in which they collapse by exhaustion).
V-3. Then (in the case of those entitled to renunciation) the mendicant monk wearing
(ochre) coloured garment, with shaven head, accepting nothing (excepting food for bare
sustenance), being pure, injuring none (in thought, word and deed), (austerity) living on
alms, becomes fit for realizing Brahman. If sorely afflicted (by disease, etc.,) he may
renounce the world by mental resolve, or by spoken words uttering mantras. This way (of
renunciation) has been prescribed by Brahma (the creator, in the Vedanta); the ascetic
(the Sannyasin who has renounced the world) following this path realizes Brahman.
‘Thus indeed it is, O, revered Yajnavalkya’ (appreciated Janaka).
VI-1. There are sages called Paramahamsas (as in the days of yore, the sages)
Samvartaka, Aruni, Svetaketu, Durvasas, Ribhu, Nidagha, Jadabharata, Dattatreya,
Raivataka and others, wearing no distinguishing marks, with conduct beyond the ken (of
worldly people) and who behaved as though bereft of their senses though (perfectly)
sane.

VI-2. Discarding all these, namely the threefold staff (of bamboo), the water pot, the sling
(to carry personal effects), the (alms-)bowl, the cloth for purifying water (tied to the
staff), tuft of hair and sacred thread in water (i.e. a reservoir) by reciting ‘Bhuh Svaha’,
the Paramahamsa shall seek the Atman.
VI-3. Possessing a form as one just born (i.e. unclad), unaffected by the pairs (of
opposites, such as heat and cold, pleasure and pain), accepting nothing (except bare
sustenance), well established in the path of the truth of Brahman, of pure mind, receiving
alms into the mouth (literally into the vessel of the belly) at the prescribed hour in order
to sustain life, becoming equanimous at gain or loss (of alms), sheltering himself, without
an abode (of his own), in an unoccupied house, a temple, a clump of (tall) grass (or a
heap of straw), an anthill, the shade of a tree, a potter’s hut, a cottage where sacred fire is
kept, sandy bank of a river, a mountain thicket or cavity, a hollow in a tree, the vicinity of
a water fall or a piece of clean ground; making no efforts (in any kind of gainful activity),
free from ‘mineness’ (i.e. a sense of possessiveness), ever meditating on Brahman,
devoted to the Self, ever intent on eradication of the good and bad karman, (the sage)
finally gives up his body in the state of renunciation – (such a sage) is indeed a
Paramahamsa. Thus (ends) the Upanishad.
Om ! That (Brahman) is infinite, and this (universe) is infinite.
The infinite proceeds from the infinite.
(Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe),
It remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone.
Om ! Let there be Peace in me !
Let there be Peace in my environment !
Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !
Here ends the Jabalopanishad belonging to the Sukla-Yajur-Veda.
------------------------------------------------------------------

38]Jabali Upanishad
Translated by P. R. Ramachander
Published by celextel.org
Om ! Let my limbs and speech, Prana, eyes, ears, vitality
And all the senses grow in strength.
All existence is the Brahman of the Upanishads.
May I never deny Brahman, nor Brahman deny me.
Let there be no denial at all:
Let there be no denial at least from me.
May the virtues that are proclaimed in the Upanishads be in me,
Who am devoted to the Atman; may they reside in me.
Om ! Let there be Peace in me !
Let there be Peace in my environment !
Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !

The Sage Pippalada approached Sage Jabali and asked him, “Oh God like sage, please
teach me the secret of the absolute philosophy. What is Thathwa (principle)? Who is
Jeeva (being)? What is Pasu? Who is Ishwara? And what is the method for salvation?”
Thus asked sage Jabali explained to him everything as follows:
Jeeva (being) is nothing but God (the Lord of all beings - Pasupathi) himself who is
acting the role of egoism. That Jeeva (being) is the Pasu. Pasupathi is he who knows
everything, who does the five jobs like creation, and who is the Lord of all beings. Pasu
(in common parlance) are those animals which eat grass, which do not have viveka
(knowledge to differentiate), which are driven by others, which are made to work in jobs
like agriculture and which undergo lot of sufferings. Similar to the owner of such animals
is the God Pasupathi who rules over all beings.
To the question, “What trick is there to acquire such knowledge?“. Jabali replied, “By
wearing of the holy ash". He further told, “After taking the holy ash in hand by reciting
the five Brahma mantras starting with ‘Sathyojatham’, and chanting “Agnirithi Basma
(Hoy ash is fire)”, mix it with water by chanting, “Manasthoke” and then wear the holy
ash in head, forehead and shoulders in sets of three lines chanting the three mantras
“trayayusham”. Further wear these by chanting the three mantras starting with
“Trayayusham” and the mantra “Tryambakam” is called Sambhava penance. Those with
knowledge of Veda say that this has been told in all Vedas. For avoiding rebirth, the
people with eternal wisdom, should adopt this.
Among the three lines, the first one is Garhapathya (the domestic fire), the letter Aa, the
quality of Rajas, earth, Jeevathma (soul of beings), the power of creation, Rigveda, time
of dawn and its God is Lord Brahma. The second line is Dakshinagni (Fire of the south),
the letter Uu, the quality of Sathva, atmosphere, the soul inside the body, the power of
desire, Yajurveda, the time of noon, and its God is Lord Vishnu. The third line is the
Ahavaneeya agni (the fire of the Sun), the letter Ma, the quality of Thamas, the place of
Gods, the Paramatma, the power of knowledge, Samaveda, the time of dusk and its God
is Shiva. That individual, who wears holy ash, whether he is a Brahmachari or Sanyasi,
gets rid of great as well as minor sins. He becomes fit to worship all gods; he becomes
one who has taken bath in all holy waters and the one who has chanted all the Rudra
mantras. He does not have rebirth. This Upanishad tells that, it is sworn that he will not
have rebirth.
Om ! Let my limbs and speech, Prana, eyes, ears, vitality
And all the senses grow in strength.
All existence is the Brahman of the Upanishads.
May I never deny Brahman, nor Brahman deny me.
Let there be no denial at all:
Let there be no denial at least from me.
May the virtues that are proclaimed in the Upanishads be in me,
Who am devoted to the Atman; may they reside in me.
Om ! Let there be Peace in me !
Let there be Peace in my environment !

Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !
Here ends the Jabali Upanishad, included in the Sama-Veda.
-----------------------------------------------------------------

39]Kaivalya Upanishad
Translated by Swami Madhavananda
Published by Advaita Ashram, Kolkatta
Om ! May He protect us both together; may He nourish us both together;
May we work conjointly with great energy,
May our study be vigorous and effective;
May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any).
Om ! Let there be Peace in me !
Let there be Peace in my environment !
Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !
1. Then Ashvalayana approached the Lord Paramesthi (Brahma) and said: Teach, O Lord,
the knowledge of Brahman, the highest, always cultivated by the good, hidden and by
which a wise man drives away instantly all the sins and reaches the Purusha higher than
the high.
2. And to him, the Grandsire (Brahma) said, "Know (this) by means of faith, devotion
and meditation. Not by work, nor by progeny, nor by wealth, but by renunciation, some
attained immortality.
3. Higher than heaven, seated in the cave (Buddhi), that shines, (which) the selfcontrolled attain – the self-controlled, who being of pure minds have well ascertained the
Reality, by the knowledge of Vedanta, and through Sannyasa or renunciation. In the
sphere of Brahma, at the time of cosmic dissolution, they all get liberated from the
highest (apparent) immortality of the manifested universe.
4-5. In a secluded place, sitting in an easy posture, pure, with a neck, head, and body
erect, living in the last of the orders of religious life, having controlled all the sense,
saluting his own preceptor with reverence, meditating within the lotus of the heart (on
Brahman), untainted, pure, clear and griefless.
6. (Who is) unthinkable, unmanifest, of endless forms, the good, the peaceful, Immortal,
the origin of the worlds, without beginning, middle, and end, the only one, all-pervading,
Consciousness, and Bliss, the formless and the wonderful.
7. Meditating on the highest Lord, allied to Uma, powerful, three-eyed, blue-necked, and
tranquil, the holy man reaches Him who is the source of all, the witness of all and is
beyond darkness (i.e. Avidya).
8. He is Brahma, He is Shiva, He is Indra, He is the Immutable, the Supreme, the Selfluminous, He alone is Vishnu, He is Prana, He is Time and Fire, He is the Moon.
9. He alone is all that was, and all that will be, the Eternal; knowing Him, one transcends
death; there is no other way to freedom.
10. Seeing the Atman in all beings, and all beings in the Atman, one attains the highest
Brahman – not by any other means.

11. Making the Atman the (lower) Arani, and OM the upper Arani, by the repeated
friction of knowledge, a wise man burns up the bond.
12. With his self thus deluded by Maya or ignorance, it is he who identifies himself with
the body and does all sorts of things. In the waking state it is he (the Jiva) who attains
satisfaction through the varied objects of enjoyment, such as women, food, drink, etc.
13. In the dream-state that Jiva feels pleasure and pain in a sphere of existence created by
his own Maya or ignorance. During the state of profound sleep, when everything is
dissolved (into their causal state), he is overpowered by Tams or non-manifestation and
comes to exist in his form of Bliss.
14. Again, through his connection with deeds done in previous births, that very Jiva
returns to the dream-state, or the waking state. The being who sports in the three cities
(viz., the states of wakefulness, dream and profound sleep) – from Him has sprung up all
diversity. He is the substratum, the bliss, the indivisible Consciousness, in whom the
three cities dissolve themselves.
15. From This spring up Prana (Vitality), mind, all the organs, sky, air, fire, water and the
earth that supports all.
16. That which is the Supreme Brahman, the soul of all, the great support of the universe,
subtler than the subtle, and eternal – that is thyself, and thou art That.
17. "That which manifests the phenomena, such as the states of wakefulness, dream and
profound sleep, I am that Brahman" – realising thus one is liberated from all bonds.
18. What constitute the enjoyable, the enjoyer, and the enjoyment, in the three abodes –
different from them all am I, the Witness, the Pure Consciousness, the Eternal Good.
19. In me alone is everything born, in me does everything rest, and in me is everything
dissolved. I am that Brahman, the secondless.
20. I am minuter than the minute, I am likewise the greatest of all, I am the manifold
universe. I am the Ancient One, the Purusha and the Ruler, I am the Effulgent One, and
the All-good.
21. Without arms and legs am I, of unthinkable power; I see without eyes, and I hear
without ears. I know all, and am different from all. None can know me. I am always the
Intelligence.
22. I alone am taught in the various Vedas, I am the revealer of the Vedanta or
Upanishads, and I am also the Knower of the Vedas. For me there is neither merit nor
demerit, I suffer no destruction, I have no birth, nor any self-identity with the body and
the organs.
23-24. For me there is neither earth, nor water, nor fire, nor air, nor ether. Thus realising
the Paramatman, who lies in the cavity of the heart, who is without parts, and without a
second, the Witness of all, beyond both existence and non-existence – one attains the
Pure Paramatman Itself.
25. He who studies the Shatarudriya, is purified as by the Fires, is purified from the sin of
drinking, purified from the sin of killing a Brahmana, from deeds done knowingly or
unawares. Through this he has his refuge in Shiva, the Supreme Self. One who belongs to
the highest order of life should repeat this always or once (a day).
26. By means of this, one attains the Knowledge that destroys the ocean of Samsara or
repeated transmigration. Therefore, knowing thus one attains the fruit of Kaivalya or
liberation, verily one attains liberation.

Eesanam). it stretches threefold from the forehead down to the eyes and goes from the center of one eye-brow to the other. the external atman. which divinity. how much. of what extent and which streaks. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). which is taught in all the Vedas by those versed in the Veda. the morning pressing (of the Soma Juice). ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 40]Kalagni Rudra Upanishad Om ! May He protect us both together. Vamadevam. forehead. May we work conjointly with great energy. and Maheswara is its divinity. . Agoram.Om ! May He protect us both together. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! OM! May Brahman protect us (the Guru and Sishya) both! May he give us both (enough) to enjoy! Efficiency may we both attain! Effective may our study prove! May we not hate (each other) at all! Om Shanti! Shanti! Shanti! Once it happened that Sanat Kumara asked the exalted Kalagnirudra: “Teach me O exalted Sir! the truth in respect to the rule of the Tripundram (a sect mark consisting of three streaks) and what material. the willing power. which place. the Rajas (forceful characteristic). the Yajur Veda. Its second line is the Dakshina fire.. included in the Krishna-Yajur-Veda. breast and shoulders under the tryayusa formulas. Take out with the formula “ma nas toke tanayae” and (after consecrating) with the formula “Trayambakam Yajamahe” should apply it as three lines across on the head. Therefore one desirous of liberation should practise it. the a-sound (of AUM). Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Kaivalyopanishad. the Rig Veda. the inner Atman. may He nourish us both together. One should grasp it with the five Brahman-formulas (Sathyojatam. which formula. the midday pressing of the Soma and Sadasiva is its divinity. which powers and which reward there are?” The exalted one said to him “The material should be the ash of fires. May our study be vigorous and effective. And this O! Sanat kumara. the Sattvam (peaceful characteristic). Its first line is the Grahapatya fire. so that he is not born again. the u-sound. May our study be vigorous and effective. the acting power. is its (of the mark) extent. This is the Sambhu-vow. the atmosphere. Consecrate it with the formula “Agnir iti bhasma” etc. the terrestrial world. May we work conjointly with great energy. Rudram. may He nourish us both together. trayambaka formulas and trisakti formulas. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any).

whether he be a Brahman-student. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). Thereby all the gods are meditated upon by him. a house holder. through which one may cross the Samsara (mundane existence) of Kali. may He nourish us both together. the evening pressing of the Soma and Siva is its divinity. becomes one who has bathed in all the holy bathing places. may He nourish us both together. the m-sound. the heaven. one who has all the time muttered the Rudra prayer. how shall I. Thus spoke the exalted Kalagni Rudra. who is the primeval Purusha". he also attains to a similar state. Narada went to Brahma and addressed him thus: "O Lord. he is thereby purified of all the major sins and minor sins. One who recites it here. Hearken to that which all Shrutis (the Vedas) keep secret and hidden.Its third line is the Ahavaniya fire. the SamaVeda. into union with Siva and does not return – and does not return. And after enjoying all the pleasures he enters. Narayanasvami Aiyar Om ! May He protect us both together. he is known by all the gods. – Thus reads the Upanishad. the perceiving power. He shakes off (the evil effects of) Kali through the mere uttering of the name of the Lord Narayana. giving up the body. Om Satyam. May our study be vigorous and effective. May we work conjointly with great energy. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 41]Kali Santarana Upanishad Translated by K. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Kalagni-Rudropanishad belonging to the Krishna-Yajur-Veda. He who knows this. Therefore he makes the Tripundram from the ashes. OM! May Brahman protect us (the Guru and Sishya) both! May he give us both (enough) to enjoy! Efficiency may we both attain! Effective may our study prove! May we not hate (each other) at all! Om Shanti! Shanti! Shanti! Om ! May He protect us both together. May our study be vigorous and effective. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). May we work conjointly with great energy. roaming over the earth. the Tamas (lazy characteristic). a forest-resident or an ascetic. the highest Atman. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Hari Om ! At the end of Dvapara-Yuga. Again Narada asked Brahma: "What is the name ?" To which Hiranyagarbha (Brahma) replied thus: . be able to across Kali ?" To which Brahma thus replied: "Well asked.

or absorption into Brahma. Out of desire. Devas and men. Hari Om Tat Sat ! Om ! May He protect us both together. Having given up all Dharmas. 1-I-2. Let us not hate each other. May we attain the vigour (of knowledge) together. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). what are the rules to be observed with reference to it ?" To which Brahma replied that there were no rules for it. He is at once released from all bondage. These sixteen names (words) are destructive of the evil effects of Kali. Though young. May we work conjointly with great energy. he becomes freed at once from all sins. May He sustain us both (by ensuring the fruits of knowledge). may He nourish us both together. Whoever utters three and a half Crores (or thirty-five millions) times this Mantra composed of sixteen names (or words) crosses the sin of the murder of a Brahmana.1. or the same form of. attains the same world of. he thought: . faith possessed him as presents were being brought. He becomes purified from the sin of the theft of gold. so goes the story. or proximity with. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 42]Katha Upanishad Translaetd by Vidyavachaspati V. He is purified from the sins of wrong done to Pitris. Whoever in a pure or an impure state. Parabrahman (alone) shines. the son of Vajasrava gave away all his wealth. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Kalisantarana Upanishad belonging to the Krishna-Yajur-Veda. These (sixteen names) destroy the Avarana (or the centripetal force which produces the sense of individuality) of Jiva surrounded by the sixteen Kalas (rays). Panoli Om ! May He protect us both together (by illumining the nature of knowledge)." Narada asked: ‘O Lord. He becomes purified from the sin of cohabitation with a woman of low caste. Let what we learn enlighten us. That he is at once released from all bondage is the Upanishad. May our study be vigorous and effective. Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare 2. No better means than this is to be seen in all the Vedas. utters these always. Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace ! 1-I-1. He had a son named Nachiketas. Then like the sphere of the sun which shines fully after the clouds (screening it) disperse.

"father. about that (Fire) by which those who dwell in heaven attain immortality. I know the Fire that leads to heaven. 1-I-15. sleep peacefully during nights and on seeing thee released from the jaws of Death. man rejoices in heaven. to whom wilt thou give me?" A second time and a third time (he said it). expectation. hast dwelt in my house for three nights without food. 1-I-17.). and are devoid of (the power of) the organs. choose the third boon. the source of the worlds. 1-I-19. Hope. said to him: "I grant thee again another boon now. Death told him of the Fire. born of Brahma. 1-I-8. and how (to kindle the fire) and he (Nachiketas) too repeated it as it was told. O Brahmana. association with the effects (of these two). a Brahmana guest enters the houses. of many I go the middle most. bright and adorable. Water has been drunk (for the last time by these cows). 1-I-18. ask for three boons in return. I will teach thee well.. Like Vaisvanara (fire). listen to me and understand. The exalted one. "To Death I give thee. a worshipful guest. Of this Fire. throws off the chains of death even before (the body falls off). said again: 1-I-16. nor art thou there. pleasant discourse. 1-I-13. sons and cattle – all these are destroyed in the case of the man of little intellect in whose house a Brahmana dwells without food. Like corn man decays. Those worlds are indeed joyless where he goes who offers these. may peace be with me. he will be free from anger. 1-I-14. and realizing it. thou knowest the Fire that leads to heaven. There is no fear in heaven. Knowing the omniscient one. rejoices in heaven. this is the first I choose. What purpose of Yama could there be which (my father) will get accomplished today through me? 1-I-6. the sort of bricks (for raising the sacrificial altar). Know that Fire which is the means for the attainment of heaven and which is the support (of the universe) and located in the cavity. since thou. 1-I-4. 1-I-9. O Brahmana. By thy name itself shall this fire be known. being pleased. 1-I-10. becoming delighted over it. let me make salutation to thee. and rising over grief. with my permission. Of the three boons.1-I-3. Therefore. acts of pious liberality. He who. 1-I-12. O Death. which leads to heaven and which thou hast chosen for the second boon. who am endowed with faith. O Nachiketas. 1-I-11. 1-I-7. This is the Fire. will recognise thee as before and will. piles up the Nachiketa Fire with this knowledge. he attains to surpassing peace. sacrifice. Whoso kindles the Nachiketas fire thrice and becomes united with the three and does the three-fold karma. and accept thou this necklace of manifold forms". He then said to his parent. nor is there any fear from old age." 1-I-5. behold how others now behave. Then Death. grass has been eaten (for the last time). Ouddalaki. knowing the three (form of brick etc. and like corn he is born again. This I choose for my second boon. the son of Aruna. transcends birth and death. O Nachiketas. and let him recognise me and talk to me when liberated by thee. . how many. Men offer this to propitiate him. Of many I go the first. Transcending both hunger and thirst and rising above grief. O Death. O Vaivasvata (Yama): fetch water (for him). people will speak as thine indeed. let Gautama (my father) be relieved of the anxiety. let him become calm in mind and free from anger (towards me). O Nachiketas. Think how your ancestors behaved. To him he (the father) said. they have yielded all their milk. Instruct me.

(whereas) the ignorant one selects the pleasurable for the sake of yoga (attainment of that which is not already possessed) and kshema (the preservation of that which is already in possession). O Nachiketas. 1-I-22. be thine the dance and music. . O Death. is not easy to comprehend. These two. 1-II-1. O Death.1-I-20. These. Be thine alone the chariots. But the boon to be asked for (by me) is that alone. O Nachiketas. given by me. The intelligent one examines both and separates them. Ask for some other boon. He who chooses the pleasurable falls from the goal. the like of whom can never be had by men. I shall make thee enjoy all thy longings. 1-II-3. 1-I-29. If thou thinkest any other boon to be equal to this. of these two. Don’t press me. Different is (that which is) preferable. being subtle. pray for all those desirable things according to thy pleasure. of the great Beyond. This doubt as to what happens to a man after death – some say he is. Thou hast not accepted the path of wealth in which perish many a mortal. O Nachiketas. 1-II-2. Here are these damsels with the chariots and lutes. tell us of that. 1-I-25. Even the whole life is short indeed. Man cannot be satisfied with wealth. 1-I-28. will delight in long life. all objects of desire. get thy services rendered. We shall live until such time as thou wilt rule. dear and of covetable nature. O Death. serving different purposes. Even by the gods this doubt was entertained in days of yore. no other preceptor like thee can be had to instruct on this nor is there any other boon equal to this. is the pleasurable. 1-I-23. Nachiketas does not pray for any other boon than this which enters into the secret that is hidden. chooses the preferable. give up this (boon) for me. Ask for herds of cattle. O Nachiketas. indeed. this is the third boon. we shall get it if we only see thee. and some others say he is not. after becoming aware of the (transitoriness of) beauty (Varian) and sport (rati) and the joy (pramoda) thereof. If we need wealth. This topic. 1-I-27. Ask for sons and grandsons who will live a hundred years. elephants gold and horses. Having gained contact with the undecaying and the immortal. ask for wealth and longevity. but hard to win. Be thou the ruler over a vast country. Of the boons. 1-I-21. Good accrues to him who. do not ask about death. what decaying mortal dwelling on the earth below who knows the higher goal. as also for a vast extent of earth and thyself live for as many autumns as thou desirest. 1-I-26. By them. the intelligent one prefers the preferable to the pleasurable. pondering over their worthlessness. Thou hast relinquished. 1-I-24. – I shall know being taught by thee. that this is not easily comprehended. What all things there are in the human world which are desirable. (Nachiketas said:) Since even by the gods was doubt entertained in this regard and (since) thou sayest. about which man entertain doubt. Yea. and different. blind man. The preferable and the pleasurable approach man. are ephemeral and they tend to wear out the vigour of all the senses of man.

as also (thy own exalted) state – seeing all these thou hast. the mortal. and ancient. only if taught by some teacher (other than a logician). if taught by an inferior person. is not easily comprehended. abandons joy and grief. The means of attaining the other world does not become revealed to the nondiscriminating one who. 1-II-10. for It is variously thought of. which all austerities declare. has the Nachiketa Fire been kindled by me with impermanent things. both these do not know. I tell thee briefly: It is this – Om. and is not slain even when the body is slain.) and attaining this subtle Self. I consider Nachiketas to be aspiring after knowledge. proficient. has become negligent. seated amidst misery. lodged in the innermost recess. ‘this world alone is and none else’ comes to my thraldom again and again. and desiring which aspirants resort to Brahmacharya. Wonderful is the expounder of the Self and attainer. for It does not slay nor is It slain. Him many. 1-II-17. 1-II-14. The intelligent one. The fulfilment of all desires. O Nachiketas. What is known as ignorance and what is known as knowledge are highly opposed (to each other). 1-II-11. nor did anything come from It. 1-II-15. 1-II-6. The goal which all the Vedas expound. 1-II-9. 1-II-19. rejoices having obtained that which causes joy. 1-II-16. If the slayer thinks that he slays It and if the slain thinks of It as slain. This (knowledge of the Self) attained by thee cannot be had through argumentation. The abode (of Brahman).. this doctrine. though they hear. for desires. eternal. I think. Tell me of that which thou seest as distinct from virtue. and I have attained the eternal. May a questioner be ever like thee. Unless taught by another (who is a perceiver of non-difference) there is no way (of comprehending It). distinct from the past and the future. do not comprehend. knowing through concentration of mind the Self that is hard to perceive. nor does It die. distinct from vice.1-II-4. the other shore of fearlessness. the ignorant go round and round staggering in crooked paths. distinct from effect and cause. O. whosoever knows this syllable. like the blind led by the blind. 1-II-12. that goal. indeed. intelligent as thou art. attains whatsoever he desires. thou art rooted in truth. this syllable indeed is the higher Brahman. everlasting and ancient. Therefore. this support is the supreme. numerous though they be. for that which is constant cannot be reached by things which are not constant. The intelligent Self is not born. the support of the universe. I know that the treasure is impermanent. It did not come from anywhere. deluded by wealth. 1-II-5. 1-II-8. the endless fruits of sacrifice. It is unborn. for It is not arguable and is subtler than subtlety. The knower (of the Self) taught by an able preceptor is wonderful. O dearest. He who thinks. did not tear thee away. Of the Self many are not even able to hear. the extensive path which is praiseworthy and great. is wide open unto Nachiketas. Having heard this and grasped it well. separating the virtuous being (from the body etc. This (Self). . located in intelligence. This support is the best. leads to right knowledge. 1-II-13. Living in the midst of ignorance and deeming themselves intelligent and enlightened. 1-II-7. boldly rejected (them). and lead to different ways. Knowing this support one is magnified in the world of Brahman. 1-II-18. This syllable (Om) indeed is the (lower) Brahman.

None who has not refrained from bad conduct. into the innermost cavity (of the heart). but goes to samsara. does not grieve. the supreme abode (of Brahman). To him the Self reveals Its own nature. the wise call It the enjoyer. and a controlledmind as the reins. 1-III-7. and Death a soup. This Self hidden in all beings does not shine. does not attain that goal. It goes far. (as it were). 1-III-1. 1-III-11. and the body to be the chariot. can attain this Self through knowledge. to be firmly seated in things that are perishable. as also the imperishable Brahman. the objects within their view. whose senses are not under restraint. The sensory objects are subtler than the senses. But whoso is devoid of a discriminating intellect. There is nothing subtler than Purusha. 1-III-10. entering within the body. May we be able to know the Nachiketa Fire which is the bridge for the sacrificers. and the mind to be the reins. not by intelligence nor by much hearing. That is the end. 1-III-3.1-II-20. 1-II-22. But whoso is devoid of discrimination and is possessed of a mind ever uncollected – his senses are uncontrollable like the vicious horses of a driver. But by seers of subtle and pointed intellect capable of perceiving subtle objects. 1-III-4. But whoso is possessed of a discriminating intellect and a restrained mind. 1-III-12. speak of as light and shade. But the man who has a discriminating intellect as his driver. that is the supreme goal. Only by him who seeks to know the Self can It be attained. The intelligent one having known the Self to be bodiless in (all) bodies. reaches the end of the path – that supreme state of Vishnu. The knowers of Brahman and those who kindle the five fires and propitiate the Nachiketa Fire thrice. But whoso is discriminative and possessed of a mind ever collected – his senses are controllable like the good horses of a driver. Know the intellect to be the charioteer. and is ever pure. as well as the other shore for those who are desirous of crossing (the ocean of samsara). 1-II-25. possessed of an unrestrained mind and is ever impure. 1-III-2. The senses they speak of as the horses. Know the Self to be the master of the chariot. When the Self is yoked with the mind and the senses. while lying It goes everywhere. But intellect is subtler than mind and subtler than intellect is Mahat (the Hiranyagarbha). The Self cannot be attained by the study of the Vedas. 1-III-6. While sitting. The unmanifested (avyakta) is subtler than Mahat (Hiranyagarbha) and subtler than the unmanifested is Purusha. and subtler than the sensory objects is mind. whose mind is not collected or who does not preserve a tranquil mind. Who other than me can know that Deity who is joyful and joyless. 1-III-8. and to be great and all-pervading. the way. . 1-II-23. It is seen. 1-II-24. One who is free from desire sees the glory of the Self through the tranquillity of the mind and senses and becomes absolved from grief. 1-III-9. 1-III-5. the two that enjoy the results of righteous deeds. fearless. The Self to which both the Brahmana and the Kshatriya are food. 1-II-21. attains that goal from which he is not born again. The Self that is subtler than the subtle and greater than the great is seated in the heart of every creature. how can one know thus where It is.

the intelligent man grieves no more. there is no difference here whatsoever. 2-I-1. with his eyes turned away. say the wise. subtler than Mahat and constant. is seated there. Knowing that great and all-pervading Self by which one sees (the objects) both in the sleep and the waking states. the supporter of the vital airs and the lord of the past and the future. 1-III-17. the intelligent man attains glory in the world of Brahman. touchless. 1-III-16. that is manifested along with the elements. 2-I-10. that (ceremony) secures for him infinite results. is fit to be worshipped every day by men who are wakeful and possessed of oblation. The (sacrificial) fire lodged in the two aranis. 2-I-4. What indeed is here is there. This verily is that (thou seekest). This verily is that (thou seekest). eternal. 1-III-15. and hard to go by. so also tasteless. This verily is that (thou seekest). Narrating and hearing this eternal story of Nachiketas told by Death. desirous of immortality. The self-existent damned the out-going senses. touch. are fixed all the gods.1-III-13. 1-III-14. He who perceives the First-born that came into being from Tapas (Brahman) before the waters. the honey-eater. comprising all the gods. undecaying. Arise. impassable. Whoso knows the self closely. passes from death to death. But the intelligent. 2-I-7. taste. sees the inner Self. even as the foetus is carefully borne by the pregnant woman. 2-I-9. entering into the cavity of the heart. 2-I-6. formless. man is liberated from the jaws of death. of the size of a thumb. . Whoso. merge that (mind) into the intelligent self and the intelligent self into the Mahat. and the sexual joy. The Purusha. causes this supreme secret to be recited before am assembly of the Brahmanas. having known immortality to be constant. The unintelligent go after outward pleasures. Let the wise man merge speech in his mind. On that from which the sun rises and in which it sets. 2-I-12. By knowing that which is soundless. entering into the cavity of the heart. they fall into the meshes of widespread death. (Let him then) merge the Mahat into the peaceful Self. will not henceforward protect himself. 2-I-2. This verily is that (thou seekest). Therefore one sees externally and not the internal Self. Someone (who is) intelligent. one does not (henceforward) want to protect oneself. endless. what is there is here again. odourless. passes from death to death. is seated there. he perceives that very Brahman. and learn by approaching the exalted ones. beginningless. Whoso here sees as though different. secures infinite results. awake. Whoso here sees as though different. and that. and that. 2-I-5. By the self (a man knows) form. sound. (Realizing Him as) the Lord of the past and the future. What remains here (unknowable to the Self)? This verily is that (thou seekest). (He who perceives) this Aditi that comes into being as the Prana. 2-I-8. odour. None ever goes beyond that. This verily is that (thou seekest). dwells in the body. 2-I-3. 2-I-11. This verily is that (thou seekest). or at the time of Sraddha. for that path is sharp as a razor’s edge. he perceives that very Brahman. By mind alone is this attainable. becoming pure. never covet here objects that are inconstant.

The Purusha of the size of a thumb is like a smokeless flame and is the Lord of the past and the future. assume a form in respect of every form. though one. which is the eye of the entire world.2-I-13. He is all that is born in water. to them belongs eternal peace. becoming free (from bondage). so does the in-dwelling Self of all beings. 2-II-9. and who makes the one form manifold. 2-I-15. having entered the world. The city of the unborn whose knowledge is like the light of the sun. assumes a separate form in respect of every form. This verily is that (thou seekest). in the houses. one becomes liberated. As mover (sun). is not tainted by the sorrows of the world. 2-II-5. dwells in the gods. 2-II-2. 2-II-11. O Gautama. dwells in truth and dwells in space. O Gautama. assumes a separate form in respect of each form. though one. dispenses the desired objects to many. Eternal happiness belongs to the intelligent – not to others – who realize in their hearts Him who is one. 2-II-3. 2-II-12. though one. 2-II-10. this secret ancient Brahman and also what becomes of the Self after death. Meditating on Him. He dwells in men. so also. is certainly pure. I will describe to thee. He dwells in heaven. (as air). He is unchanging and great. what remains here? This verily is that (thou seekest). in accordance with their karma and with their knowledge. is not tainted by the external impurities seen by the eyes. one does not grieve and. that is Brahman. This verily is that (thou seekest). Whoso among the intelligent realize the Self in the (inner space of the) heart as the eternal among the ephemeral. As rain-water fallen on a mountain ridge runs down the rocks. Some jivas enter the womb for assuming bodies. Not by prana. 2-II-8. having entered the world. It being external. and is outside it. All the gods worship Him who is adorable and seated in the middle. not to others. creating all things cherished. so does the Self of the thinker who knows thus become. 2-II-13. When this Self seated in the body is torn away and freed from the body. so does one seeing the selves differently run after them alone. the in-dwelling Self of all beings. others go into the unmoving. 2-II-4. though one. the consciousness among the conscious. (He) raises the prana upward and casts the apana downward. but all live by something else on which these two depend. As pure water poured into pure water remains the same only. all that is born in sacrifices and all that is born on the mountains. Just as fire. not by apana does a mortal live. that is called the Immortal. Just as wind. All worlds are strung on that. who. 2-II-7. 2-II-1. none passes beyond that. so does the in-dwelling Self of all beings. Just as the sun. consists of eleven gates. all that is born on earth. He pervades everything and dwells in inter-space. though one. assumes a form in respect of every form and is outside it. He certainly exists now and shall certainly exist tomorrow. though one. on the earth. This verily is that (thou seekest). 2-II-6. . 2-I-14. as fire. This Purusha who is awake when all are asleep. the controller and the in-dwelling Self of all beings. as guest.

Indra and Vayu function. 2-III-6. His form does not stand within the scope of vision. having known the different nature of the senses originating separately (from their causes). 2-III-8. as in the case of shade and light. When all the knots of the heart are cut asunder here. the most frightful like an uplifted thunderbolt. and through meditation is He revealed. 2-III-10. There the sun shines not. nor do the moon and the stars. But subtler than Avyakta is Purusha. 2-III-11. This peepul tree with root above and branches down is eternal. then a mortal becomes immortal. the fifth.2-II-14. none passes beyond that. as also their rising and setting. none beholds Him with the eye. knowing whom a mortal becomes freed and attains immortality. 2-III-1. As in a mirror. stalks on the earth. If one could know here prior to the falling of the body. so in the world of the Gandharvas. How (then) can this fire (shine)? Everything shines after Him that shines. 2-III-9. evolved (from Brahman). Of these two (aspects). By the intellect restraining the mind. All this universe. not by the eye can It be attained. and the intellect is not active. shines the sun. as seen in water. to him who knows It to exist. (making Itself perceptible to the intellect). How shall I know that indescribable and supreme Bliss which they think of as ‘This’? Is It self-luminous or does It shine distinctly. 2-III-3. subtler than Mahat is Avyakta (Unmanifested). On that are strung all the worlds. all-pervading and without a linga (distinguishing mark) indeed. (one becomes liberated). Its true nature is revealed. By His light shines all this. (if not). or does It not? 2-II-15. The Self should be apprehended as existing and also as It really is. fire burns. that state they call the highest. 2-III-4. Mahat (Hiranyagarbha) is subtler than the intellect. how can It be known to anyone else? 2-III-13. 2-III-14. nor do these lightnings. When the five senses of knowledge are at rest together with the mind. so in the world of Brahma. death. Only this much is the instruction. 2-III-15. That steady restraint over the senses they regard as yoga. 2-III-7. Those who know this become immortal. subtler than the mind is the intellect. for yoga can indeed originate (in one) and can be lost (as well). Then one becomes vigilant. 2-III-12. Those who know this become immortal. moves in prana (in Brahman). Except in the case of one who says. Not by speech. The mind is subtler than the senses. For fear of Him. The intelligent man. 2-III-2. ‘It exists’. as in a dream. one becomes fit to be embodied in the worlds of creatures. so in the world of manes. not by mind. then a mortal becomes immortal and attains Brahman here. 2-III-5. For fear of Him. This verily is that (thou seekest). so in one’s intellect. . That (which is its source) is certainly pure. For fear of Him. For fear of Him. that is Brahman and that is called immortal. When all longings that are in the heart vanish. does not grieve.

the creator (Prajapati). May we attain the vigour (of knowledge) together. The Gods. I am Svaha. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 43]Katharudra Upanishad Translated by Prof. one attains immortality. the line of progeny will be broken. thou art Svaha. thou the syllable Om. the others serve for departing in different ways. A. I am the syllable Om. it is said. Ramanathan Published by The Theosophical Publishing House. May our study be vigorous and effective. attained Brahman having become dispassionate and deathless. Such a one is fit for the world of Brahman. Purusha of the size of a thumb. one goes out piercing the head. impart to us the spiritual knowledge. as also the instructions on Yoga in entirety. Om ! May He protect us both together (by illumining the nature of knowledge). May He sustain us both (by ensuring the fruits of knowledge). One should. thou the Vasatkara. I am the Vasatkara. may He nourish us both together. So does become any one else also who knows the inner Self thus. Let us not hate each other. 2-III-17. Of then. thou the doer and thou the creator’. . thou the sacrifice. is ever seated in the heart of all living beings. Circumambulating clockwise (his village) and not looking at anything he shall depart. the inner Self. One should know Him as pure and immortal. requested of the venerable (Brahma): Venerable Sir. May we work conjointly with great energy. as contained in the Krishna-Yajur-Veda. I am the doer and I am the creator. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! 1. Should he shed tears. Then the son shall say: ‘I am the scripture . Going up through that. I am the sacrifice. and after removing the sacred thread.2-III-16. Chennai Om ! May He protect us both together. There are a hundred and one nerves of the heart. Let what we learn enlighten us. While parting (from the son) he shall not shed tears. These are the words (to be uttered). A. Nachiketas then. looking at one’s son (the following shall be uttered): ‘Thou art the scripture . After removing the hair including the tuft and discarding it. with steadiness. separate Him from one’s own body as stalk from the Munja grass. Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace ! Here ends the Kathopanishad. I am the divine architect (Tvastir). having acquired this knowledge imparted by Death. I am the base’. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). 2-III-18. He. replied: 2. one should know Him as pure and immortal. I am Svadha. thou Svadha.

After renunciation he shall not resume the fire-rituals. that of the new-moon-day. Brahman-knowledge)’. he who has been permitted by elders and relatives shall take to renunciation. He shall not exult when praised. 7. 8. 11-12. He shall recite the spiritual mantra: ‘For I have become Death and would enter that which is coming into being (i.. That shall be his offering for the evening. the ladle. pure in form. etc. Reaching the forest he shall perform the Agnihotra sacrifice for twelve nights by pouring oblations of milk into the fire. The clay pots shall be consigned to the waters. and contemplating the Self and naught else. as well as the upper cloth. It should be observed by those who seek Liberation. sporting. or betake himself to the battle field. to Prajapati. Some say that he shall consume a handful of ashes from the place where the fire-kindling sticks stand. He shall not make the body endure the extremes of comfort or hardship. The one who bears a staff (ascetic) shall be unfalteringly firm in celibacy. the ring of Kusa grass. That (milk which he takes) in the morning is his morning (offering). or physical enjoyment (with women) – this is what the learned call the eightfold cohabitation. the staff. covering to protect from the cold. He shall prostrate before the three fires – the household-fire. After studying the Vedas as a celibate student and performing the duties prescribed in the scriptures. 4. having performed sacrifices according to ability. nor curse others when blamed. Therefore. With purified water he shall bathe and wash and also drink of the same. touching. the bath towel. and shall not give any (gift). shall be offered to the fire (with the mantra): ‘This is the oblation of cooked rice to the Vaishvanara fire. may I not desert you while I part from you’. he shall resort to starvation or drowning in water or entering fire.e. Here are the verses (to support this): 5-6. ‘Bhuh Svaha’. The shaving of the hair. (this is) the oblation appointed in three potsherds to Vishnu and Agni’. the sacred thread and the scriptures – all these an ascetic shall renounce. foot-wear. the wooden vessels. for twelve nights he shall subsist on milk. the metal ones shall be given to the teacher. the southern-fire and the fire in which the oblations are offered. the fullmoon-day sacrifice. after marrying and begetting sons and providing them with suitable means.3. He shall consume milk as the repast (of the evening). the Self of all. Saying ‘Welfare to all beings’. It is indeed the witness of the world. The self-effulgent light which illumines the world ever shines. Looking at. the loin-cloth. He shall subsist on alms. or he shall journey forward until he falls and dies or he shall enter a hermitage of elderly ascetics. the new-moon-day sacrifice. the sling (to carry his effects). talking about. the garment (to cover the body). . and cutting of nails in the spring comprise his Agnishtoma sacrifice. entering into secret dialogue. beard. thinking about. 9-11. he shall be one who has abandoned the (usual) path. At the end of twelve nights. The water-pot. that of the full-moon-day. After removing the hair including the tuft and discarding it. He shall sleep on the sands of a river (bank) or in temples. being no more of use. imagining. he shall move about without any (fixed) abode. the basis of all beings. etc. he shall abandon the sacred thread in the waters with the mantra. lifting up the arms. Brahmacharya [celibacy] is the contrary. whose nature is pure consciousness. with the mantra: ‘May you not desert me while parting from me. He shall not wear even scant (apparel) save during the rainy season for the protection of the animal body.

man attains Brahman. the self of bliss is pervaded by Brahman. . 22. which is of the nature of truth. which is described as unseen. 19. distinct. etc. The best of the twice-born. further within.. In the same way. which is otherwise full of sorrow. Not by action. similarly (the self of) vital energy is by the nature (pervaded) by (the self) of the nature of mind. attain all desired things instantaneously. 17. 24. 21. which is the witness of the power called ignorance and illusion. etc. and from water. that ever makes happy the individual self. If this supreme bliss which is the very Self of all beings were not existent. human beings.. there is no doubt. the dweller in the body becomes happy everywhere. 30-32.. When an individual experiences even a slight difference in this (identity) he will have fear. is the object of (real) knowing. 27-28. 20. Then from the ether emerged the unmanifest touch which is named ‘air’ (Vayu). Wherefrom otherwise can there be happiness ? 28-29. the joy. is the self of Prana [vital energy] split (into five). in accordance with (the result of) their own actions. 25. even further within and different is the self of the nature of knowledge. Then after dividing and compounding all those subtle (elements) into five. shining fully in the consciousness. absolute Existence. Enfolded in the cosmic egg are gods. the essence. who know Brahman residing in the cave which is called the highest heaven. 26. From this Self which is one with Brahman and which is possessed of power (i. etc. the witness. 18. ‘ignorance’. That (self) of the nature of food is pervaded by (the self) of the nature of vital energy. He who realizes his own Self. The ever-happy self of the nature of knowledge is always pervaded by bliss. not by (begetting) children. and which is Truth. The bodies of beings which appear in the form of (a framework of) bones. he attains total fearlessness. only by knowing Brahman. Therefore it is this Being. sinews.. Then. By realizing directly this Brahman. animals. during his transmigratory existence known as ‘illusion’. 33-34. anti-gods. Only when the great ascetic realizes his complete unity without any difference from this. 32-33. Then from air emerged fire. Still further within is the self of the nature of mind which is different (from the others). which is without a second. Then. supreme Immortality. That Brahman. the earth. Because of this sheath of bliss. Kinnaras. from them alone the auspicious Lord created the cosmic egg. beyond the three divisions (of time).13. from fire. maya) arose the unmanifest ether (Akasa) like a rope-serpent. 16. the eternal. from (God) Vishnu to a pillar – all always realize happiness though in different degrees. knowing ‘I am Brahman alone’ becomes Brahman Itself. Yakshas. Brahman is not (pervaded) by anything else. transcendent Brahman. birds. not by anything else. 14-15. which is named the Support (the Tail puccha). 23. This is the ultimate Good. the innermost of all. Knowledge and Happiness. in the interior. Next. which human being can be alive ? Who can ever be active ? 29-30. is the self of the nature of food for the all-pervading Self. The mind-self is pervaded by the self of knowledge. knowledge and non-duality. is the self of the nature of bliss. etc. water.e.

e. the means of knowledge. Because of the absence of any (such) base. The Consciousness which is not known is termed ‘object’. G. . ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 44]Kaushitaki Brahmana Upanishad Translated by Dr. owing to the knowledge arising from the Vedantic teaching. one yet remains oneself. God. the individual self. May our study be vigorous and effective. they are not capable of reaching the Supreme. devoid of attributes. This subtle mind which makes all things its object turns back from That. dravya. the solidarity of truth and consciousness. For how can the word function in respect of the absolute bliss devoid of any base ? 37-38. hearing. guna). from which retreat also (the senses). words recoil (from Brahman). disinterested in attaining any position. 39-40. Realizing that Brahman which is Bliss. When related to the internal organ it is called the knower. may He nourish us both together. In relationship with the modifications of the internal organ. it is called the means of knowledge. The intelligent man should meditate upon his own Self as devoid of all conditioning. 45-46. The whole world which appeared formerly as the inflictor and the inflicted now shines as one’s own Self. who becomes master of himself. It is well known that word functions dependent upon a base (like jati. May we work conjointly with great energy. He who knows this in reality becomes Brahman itself. for empirical purposes. Thus (ends) the Upanishad. 47.. Under the influence of the individual nescience (Avidya) it is the individual self. The pure (Brahman). as one’s own Self. kriya. 41-42. the object of knowledge and the result – thus. Om ! May He protect us both together. May my mind be based on speech. When related to the cosmic nescience. never suffers from the impact of good or bad actions. without a second. He who knows thus from the teaching of his Guru. Chennai Om ! May my speech be based on (i. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Katharudropanishad belonging to the Krishna-Yajur-Veda. it is God. sight. one fears nought. 38-39. and the consciousness which is known is called ‘result’. For him who is versed in the scriptures. A. etc. the bliss which is his very nature shines forth by itself. Krishna Warrier Published by The Theosophical Publishing House. and happy. accord with) the mind. touch. as well as the organs of actions. the knower. (The Consciousness) devoid of the condition of Maya [cosmic nescience] is termed ‘pure’ (Brahman). becoming oneself. Now I speak of the true essence of the teaching of all Vedanta: dying oneself. 43-44. 35-36.34-35. 46. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). is the sevenfold distinction made. 40-41.

from the Resplendent (moon) the seed has been gathered as it was falling from the fifteen-fold (the half lunar month) from the home of the fathers. having become rain.e.e. may That protect me. the abode Aparajita. I shall utter what is verbally true. In the knowledge of that am I. Who so answers it (aright). chose Aruni (as his priest). May you both (speech and mind) be the carriers of the Veda to me. Well. by that austerity. the three Ilya. the teacher). I am a season. or is there any abode in the world where you will place me ?’ He replied: I know this not. He (Aruni) sent his son Svetaketu (bidding him to) officiate (as priest). Then. May that (Brahman) protect me. When he (came and) sat. (then) the world of Varuna. (then) the world of Air. the hall Vibhu. let me ask (my) teacher. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! I-1. the beloved Manasi and her counterpart . in the later half. May not all that I have heard depart from me. or a bird. him it sets free (to go further). he said: ‘Worthy of sacred knowledge are you. being born forth as the twelfth or thirteenth succeeding month by means of twelve-fold or thirteen-fold father (the year). Gargyayani asked him: ‘Son of Gautama ! Is (transmigration) terminated in the world in which you will place me. As such. Come. May That protect the speaker (i. I shall join together (i. ‘Having entered upon this Path of the gods. how shall I answer ?’ He (the father) said: ‘I also do not know this. (it) rains down here. the couch Amitaujas. the door-keepers Indra and Prajapati. Chitra Gargyayani. In the earlier half (of the lunar month) it (the moon) flourishes on their vital breaths. (then) the world of Brahma. Here he becomes a worm or an insect or a fish. for the knowledge of the opposite am I. He lets him go further. O seasons. reveal Thyself to me. to make me immortal. with fuel. or a boar. asked me. I shall utter what is mentally true. With the man as an agent. who approached me (as a pupil). or a snake or a tiger or a person or some other in this or that condition according to his deeds and knowledge. So strive. the city Salajja. it causes them to be reproduced. or a lion. He said : ‘Whoever depart from this world. by that truth. ‘Let me approach you as a disciple’. ‘I am born. Let us pursue our Vedic studies in his residence and get what (information) others offer. This world of Brahma has a lake of Ara. (but) him who does not answer. one asks: ‘Who are you ?’ He should reply: ‘O seasons. the throne Vichakshana. (then) the world of Prajapati. To him (Aruni) then. He (Svetaketu) went back to his father and said: ‘He (as above). in a mother infuse me. I-2. in hand he (Aruni) returned to Chitra Gargyayani and said. Gautama. (then) the world of Indra. put me in a man as an agent. (then) the world of Aditya. I am of the season. Who are you ? ‘I am you’. the moments of Yeshtihas the river Vijara. Let us both go’. I-3. all get to the moon. he comes to the world of Fore. May that protect the speaker – may That protect the speaker. I shall make it known to you’. seeking to perform a sacrifice. obliterate the difference of) day And night through this study.O Self-effulgent One. The moon verily is the door of the heavenly world. Him who has come thus.

the ageless. I-4. He comes to the moments Yestihas these run away from him. they run away from him. He comes to the city Salajja. I-5. the might of Brahma enters him. having the Saman as his head Having the Rik as his form imperishable. Brahma asks him: Who are you ? To him he should answer: I am a season. the Real ?’ What is other than the gods (sense-organs) and the vital breaths. Then just as one driving a chariot looks at the wheel of the chariot. He comes to the abode Aparajita. hundred with vestments. goes on to Brahman. The Brihad and the Rathantara are the two lengthwise pieces. From space as a womb I am produced as the semen for a wife. He comes to the river Viraja. the nymphs and the rivers. the Brihad and the Rathantara samans are its two forefeet. The verses and the chants and the cords are stretched lengthwise. . the two hind-feet. a knower of Brahma goes unto Brahma. devoid of evil deeds. To him Brahma (says). The past and the future are its two fore feet. ‘Wherewith does one acquire many masculine names ?’ He should answer: ‘With the vital breath’. hundred carrying ointments. It is Intelligence. devoid of good deeds. He crosses it with his mind alone. He should say. The great seen consists on the Vedas. the knower of Brahman. You are this world-all. He comes to the couch Amitaujas (of unmeasured splendour). There he shakes off his good and evil deeds. the Bhadra and the Yajnayajniya (Samans) the two head-pieces. of the seasons. the ‘Syaita and Naudhasa. ‘The Real’. who taking flowers verily weave the worlds. prosperity the pillow. He says to him. Self as Truth. for by intelligence one discerns. To it comes he who knows this. so upon good deeds and evil deeds and upon of pairs of opposites. they are the tvam (the you).. Thus he. the glory of Brahma enters into him. ‘To him go five hundred Apsarases. as the self of every single being. hundred carrying garlands. the Vairupa and the Vaichaja the two lengthwise pieces. the mothers. prosperity and earth are the two hind-feet. He comes to the throne Vichaksana. His dear relations succeed to the good deeds. On it Brahma sits. Is Brahman – thus is he to be known. those who know (only) the immediate (present) sink. This is expressed by the word satyam. Thus then he speaks to him. What you are that am I’. It is as extensive as all this. I-6. The sacrificial formulas are the cross ones. ‘Wherewith the neater ones ?’ With the mind’. so he looks upon day and night. He who knows thus ascends it with one foot only at first. this is the vital breath. ‘Who am I’. the flavour of Brahma enters into him. Adorned with Brahma’s ornaments. the Udgitha the bolster. viz. He verily will not grow old. ‘What is that. that is the sat (what is) As for the gods and the vital breaths. This very thing has been expressed by a Rig verse: Having Yajus as her belly. ‘Run ye. To him he says. They adorn him with the ornaments of Brahma. those not dear to the evil deeds. it is the Self of all and is Brahman. the nurses. ‘Wherewith does one acquire the feminine names?’ ‘With speech’. He comes to the hall Vibhu. He comes to the door-keepers Indra and Prajapati. the Sakvara and Raivata the two cross ones. On coming to it.Chaksusi. hundred with fruits. as the brilliance of the year. Some stems are the spread. He comes to the tree Ilya and the fragrance of Brahma enters into him. hundred carrying aromatics. With my glory verily he has reached the river Viraja. He comes to the lake Ara: he crosses it with his mind.

Thus indeed Paingya used to say. Of this same vital Breath which is Brahma. To this same vital Breath as Brahma all these gods bring offering unbegged. May it procure this thing for me from so and so. indeed. having begged and not having received (anything). But those who invite him are the givers of food (saying) ‘Let us give it to you’. May it procure this thing for me from so and so. If one should covet the highest treasure. who knows thus’. This is the law for one who begs not. having swept around. verily mind is the messenger. having begged of a village and not having received (anything). mind. ‘Wherewith the sounds ?’ ‘With the ears’. indeed are my world. The secret doctrine of him who knows this: One should not beg. But those who invite him are the givers of food (saying) ‘Let us give to you’. that victory he wins. the ear the announcer. ‘The waters. or with a metal cup. He who verily knows mind as the messenger of this Vital Breath that is Brahma becomes the messenger. one should sit down saying ‘I shall not eat (anything) that is given from here’. The divinity named speech is a procurer. age. To it hail ! The divinity named eye is a procurer. Those very ones who previously refused now invite him. he who knows the ear as the announcer becomes possessed of an announcer: he who knows speech as the encloser becomes possessed of an encloser. speech) bring offerings unbegged. delight and procreation ?’ ‘With the generative organ’. He who knows eye as the protector becomes possessed of a protector. he should say. Now. . who knows this. ‘I shall not eat (anything) that is given from here’. ‘The vital Breath is Brahma’. ear. behind the eye the ear is enclosed. ‘Wherewith the taste of food ?’ ‘With the tongue’. whatever attainment.‘Wherewith the odours ?’ ‘With the smell’. either on the night of a full moon or on the night of a new moon or during the bright half of the moon under an auspicious constellation – at one of these periods – having built up a fire.e. It is as if. the eye the protector. ‘Prana (the vital Breath) is Brahma. ‘Wherewith the forms ?’ ‘With the eye’. May it procure this thing for me from so and so. It is as if. the mind is enclosed. ‘Wherewith bliss. thus indeed Kausitaki used to say. to this vital Breath all beings bring offerings unbegged. that attainment he attains. That is yours ? Whatever victory is Brahma’s. he offers oblations of melted butter (with the words). with a spoon or with a wooden bowl. behind the ear. ‘Wherewith pleasure and pain ?’ ‘With the body’. ‘Wherewith actions ?’ ‘With two hands’. verily. having shown the sacred grass. II-2.. having bent the right knee. Even so to this same vital Breath all beings living bring offering unbegged only. II-3. behind the mind the vital Breath is enclosed. having sprinkled around. next. ‘Wherewith thoughts. Those very ones who previously refused now invite him. This is the law for one who begs not. To him he says. what is to be understood and desires ?’ ‘With intelligence’. Likewise. ‘Wherewith the going ?’ ‘With the two feet’. the procuring of the highest treasure. II-1. To it hail ! The divinity named vital Breath is a procurer. To this vital Breath as Brahma all these gods (i. speech the encloser. Of him who knows this the secret doctrine is: ‘One should not beg’. Of this vital Breath on Brahma behind the speech the eye is enclosed. one should sit down saying.

Verily as long as a person is peaking. Hail ! Your ear I sacrifice in me. self-restraint according to Pratardana or the Inner Agnihotra as they call it. having rubbed his limbs over with the ointment of melted butter. declare his object or send a messenger. Then he is sacrificing speech in breath. To it hail ! The divinity named intelligence is a procurer. Hail ! Your mind I sacrifice in me. One should meditate on it as Tejas (splendour). silently he should go forth and desire to approach and touch or he may simply stand and converse from windward. he is not able to breathe. you so and so. Now. In what consists of the Rig the Udgatir priest weaves what consists of the Saman. . having built up a fire. verily. you so and so. the ancients did not offer the Agnihotra sacrifice. He obtains here indeed. you so and so. As long. To it hail ! Then having inhaled the smell of the smoke. you so and so. These two are unending immortal oblations. at one of these same points of time. the most splendid among the invocations of praise (Shastras). May it procure this thing for me from so and so. Hail ! Your intelligence I sacrifice in me. he is not able to speak. for they consist of works. one is continuously. And thus he who knows this becomes the self of Indra. the most glorious. the most splendid among all beings. you so and so. In it he weaves what consists of the Yajus. Hail ! Your vital Breath I sacrifice in me. as a person is breathing. he offers in exactly the same manner. If one should desire to become beloved of a man or of a woman or of men or of women. Hail ! Your eye I sacrifice in me. next. having rubbed his limbs over with a smearing of the melted butter. So the Adhvaryu priest prepares this self which is related to the sacrifice and which consists of work. Hail ! Then having inhaled the smell of the smoke. II-5. Now. even so is he who knows this the most beautiful. you so and so. May it procure this thing for me from so and so. silently he should go forth. Then he is sacrificing vital breath in speech. One should meditate on it as the Yajus (the sacrificial formula). He becomes beloved indeed. they have an end. Unto him indeed all beings bow down for his greatness. To it hail ! The divinity named mind is a procurer. II-4. One should meditate on it as the Saman (chant). Unto him indeed all beings sing praise for his greatness. what is Brahman ! The Uktha (Recitation) is Brahman (sacred word) – Thus indeed was Sushkabhangara wont to say. In what consists of the Yajus. The longing for him indeed. One should meditate on it as the Rig (the hymn of praise). II-6. verily. One should meditate on it as Sri (beauty). Now next the longing to be realized with the divine powers. As this (Uktha) is the most beautiful. One should meditate on it as Yasas (glory). This is the self of all the three-fold knowledge. Now whatever other oblations there are. oblations of melted butter.To it hail ! The divinity named ear is a procurer. uninterruptedly making them. the most glorious. Knowing this very thing. Unto him indeed are all beings united for his greatness. May it procure this thing for me from so and so. saying I ‘Your speech I sacrifice in me. Waking or sleeping. the Hotir priest weaves what consists of the Rig.

verses. II-8. In the same way he was (wont to worship the sun) when it was in the mind-heaven saying. Now. you are indeed myself. I think I am knower of that. Likewise also he who knows this worships the sun in the same manner. on returning. He who hates us and him whom we hate. Her children do not then pre-decease her. O fair one. With that mouth make me an eater of food. Thus he turns himself towards the right arm. is placed-within Prajapati. our offspring. Waste not away with our vital breath. by our offspring. Fire is one mouth of you. ‘Become a stone ! Become an axe. May (vigour) enter thee. O son. A brilliance. Indeed his children do not pre-decease him. The Brahmana is one mouth of you. May I not weep for children’s ill. the five-mouthed. II-11. Thus on the night of the full moon one should worship in the same way the moon as it appears in the east saying: ‘You are the far shining King Soma. I turn myself with Indra’s turn. by his cattle. Now in the case of one to whom a son has not been born. Now. With that mouth you eat all beings. ‘ You are a deliverer. take my sin away !’ In the same way he was (wont to worship the sun) when it was setting saying. may you not come on children’s ill. his offspring. having thrice sprinkled the water vessel saying. worship the moon as it appears in the west or throw two blades of grass towards it saying: That heart of mind. With that mouth make me an eater of food. he takes his name. With that mouth make me an eater of food. by his offspring. Thus is it with one to whom a son has been born. he says: Do not increase by our vital breath. he turns himself towards the right arm. He who hates us and him whom we hate – waste away with his vital breath. his cattle. having performed the investiture with the sacred thread. ‘You are the high deliverer. Thus I turn myself with the turn of the gods. The King is one mouth of you. O Queen of Immortality. In you is a fifth mouth. Become unconquerable gold. or cattle. With that mouth you eat the Kings. in the same way. With that mouth you eat the people. of fair outlines Which in the sky in moon doth rest.’ Having muttered these three ‘me. indeed you are. The hawk is one mouth of you. I turn myself with the turn of the sun. son. when about to lie down with a wife one should touch her heart and say: That which in thy heart. II-9. With that mouth make me an eater of food. take my sin fully away’. having fetched water. May milk and food gather in thee. ‘From my heart are you born.II-7. by our cattle. Afterwards. ‘You are the full deliverer. With that mouth you eat this world. may that which the Adityas gladden. May you live a hundred autumns long ! So and so. With that mouth make me an eater of food. The all-conquering Kausitaki indeed was wont to worship the rising sun. so live a hundred autumns long !’ So and so. . he should kiss his son’s head and say: From every limb of mine are you born. increase by his breath. when one has been away. Whatever sin one commits by day or by night it takes away fully. the Lord of creation. ‘Increase. Whatever sin he committed by day or by night that it takes away. take my sin away’.’ II-10. With that mouth you eat birds. month by month at the time of the new moon when it comes round one should. I turn myself along with the turn of the sun’. Therewith. he takes his name. Now.

the southern and the northern. having the nature of space. the dying around of the gods. verily. It just lay speaking with speech. This Brahman verily shines when one sees with the eye. perish not when they die in the wind. it at once arose. ‘Wherewith Prajapati embraced his creatures for their welfare. its vital breath to the vital breath. indeed. Thrice he should kiss his head. This Brahman verily shines when the fire blazes. All these divinities. Its brilliance goes to the eye. seeing with the eye. should roll themselves forth seeking to crush him. goes out of the body with all these. Its brilliance goes to the regions of space. likewise this dies when one sees not. All these divinities. Then the mind entered into it. verily. likewise this dies when one hears not. next. verily. ‘O Indra. likewise it dies when it is not seen. II-14. so and so. Then the vital breath entered into it and then. its vital breath to the wind. thinking with the mind. This Brahman verily shines when the sun is seen. This Brahman. Now. went forth from this body. Now. have entered into the vital breath perish not when they did in the vital breath. All these divinities. Having entered into the wind. shines forth when one speaks with speech. Its brilliance goes to the sun. . indeed. they would not crush him. seeing with the eye. both the mountains. likewise it dies when it blazes not. having entered into the wind. he who knows this becomes immortal as the gods are immortal. Son I kiss your head with your name’. II-13. Its brilliance goes to the mind. Do not cut off (the line of our race). indeed. the assumption of superior excellence. having comprehended the vital breath alone as the self of intelligence. There from. But those who hate him and those whom he himself hates – all these die around him. Then he mutters in his right ear: ‘Confer on him. So. This Brahman verily shines when one hears with the ear. having the nature of space went to the heavenly world. All these divinities. having recognised the superior excellence of the vital breath. verily. Not breathing. therewith I embrace you. Therefrom. verily. hearing with the ear. O Maghavan.Then he embraces him saying. if upon one who knows this. is vital breath to the vital breath. Its brilliance goes to the vital breath. likewise this dies when one speaks not. having verily recognised to superior excellence of the vital breath. it just lay speaking with speech. seeing with the eye. having comprehended the vital breath alone as the self of intelligence. its vital breath to the wind. he goes to heaven. with reference to the Self. Thus with reference to the divinities. Then speech entered into it. Now. they come forth again. indeed. it just lay speaking with speech. its vital breath to the vital breath. Then the ear entered into it. He goes there where these gods are. They having entered into the wind. live a hundred autumns of life. Thrice he should make a lowing over his head. all together. This Brahman. likewise it dies when it flashes not. Likewise also indeed he who knows this. they come forth again. next. Having reached that. O Onrusher’ and in his left (ear). it lay dry like a piece of wood. hearing with the ear. grant most excellent possessions. Then the eye entered into it. verily. Its brilliance goes to the moon. shines when one thinks with the mind. Its brilliance goes to the ear. II-12. Be not afraid. This Brahman verily shines forth when the lightning flashes. disputing among themselves in regard to self-superiority went forth from this body. likewise it dies wen one thinks not. ‘I make a lowing over you with a lowing of cows’. it just lay speaking with speech. its vital breath to the vital breath. its vital breath to the wind.

But Indra did not depart from the truth. procreation in you I would place. Then the other looks over his left shoulder. choose a boon. Son: I take your speech in me. To him then Indra said: ‘Understand me only. To him then Indra said: A superior verily chooses not for an inferior. delight. Then turning to the right he goes towards the east. the father-and-son ceremony or the transmission. he says: ‘May you obtain heavenly worlds and all desires’. about to depart.II-15. Son: I take your intelligence in me. III-1. Then he delivers over to him (thus): Father: My speech in you I would place. Father: My ear in you I would place. Son: I take your bliss. Father: My intelligence in you I would place. Father: My pleasure and pain in you I would place. let the father say summarily. he should wander (as a mendicant). Then said Pratardana: Do you yourself choose that boon for me which you deem most beneficent for man. the son lies down on top touching organs with organs. Son: I take your tastes of food in me. he should die let them perform obsequies as they should be performed. however. Having hid (his face) with his hand or having covered (it) with the edge of his garment. calls his son. Father: My mind in you I would place. Having strewn the house with new grass. This indeed I deem most beneficent to man. A father. Son: I take your eye in me. Father: My breath in you I would place. sacred lusture and fame delight in you’. verily reached the beloved abode of Indra. Father: My eye in you I would place. Son: I take your movement in me. The father calls out after him: ‘My glory. or. If the father should become well he should dwell under the lordship of his son. to the wolves. I delivered the Arunmukhas. for Indra is truth. Transgressing many compacts I killed the people of Prahlada in the sky. Son: I take your ear in me. I slew the three-headed Tvastir. Having come. Do you yourself choose. himself covered with a fresh garment the father remains lying. by means of fighting and virility. Son: I take your pleasure and pain in me. If. having built up the fire. next. the son of Divodasa. ‘My vital breaths in you I would place’ and the son (reply) ‘You vital breaths I take in me’. To him then Indra Said: Pratardana. as they call it. Now. Father: My movement in you I would place. the Paulomas in . Son: I take your breath in me. Son: I take your deeds in me. delight and procreation in me. Or (the father) may transmit to him seated face to face. Father: My deeds in you I would place. having placed near it a vessel of water with a jug. however. Pratardana. ‘No boon verily then is it to me’ said Pratardana. namely that one should understand me. the ascetics. If. Son: I take your mind in me. Father: My tastes of food in you I would place. he should be unable to speak much. Father: My bliss.

as a unity. the eye together with all forms goes to it. The vital breaths. he speaks not with speech. reaches the full term of life in this world. So he knows me thus – by no deed whatever of his is his world injured. on this point some say: The vital breaths. for we see the deaf. not by stealing. III-2. Of me. not by the murder of his father. true conception. verily. This is the view thereof. this is the understanding thereof. a thought by the mind. as from a blazing fire sparks would fly in all directions. All the vital breaths speak along with speech when it speaks. then he becomes one with that vital breath. There is however a superior excellence among the vital breaths. When he awakes. from the vital breaths. Now. the mind together with all thoughts goes to it. Thus he becomes one with the vital breath alone. the worlds. seizes hold of the body and raises it up.the atmosphere. This is the all-obtaining in the vital breath. that seizes hold of this body and raises it up. verily. So he who worships me as life. This is the proof of it. III-3. worship me as life. All the vital breaths think along with the mind when it thinks. the dark colour departs not from his face. the ear together with all sounds goes to it. therefore. . for we see the blind. If he has done any evil. When a person is so asleep that he sees no dream whatever. This. But now it is the vital breath. One lives with ear gone. the gods (the senses). that is intelligence. All the vital breaths breathe along with the breath when it breathes. This same vital breath. comes to such weakness that he falls into a stupor. the ear together with all sounds goes to it. not a single hair was injured. even the self of intelligence. One lives with arms cut off. This therefore one should worship as the Uktha. from the gods. One lives with mind gone. the mind together with all thoughts goes to it. that is the vital breath. not by the murder of his mother. As such. For indeed with the vital breath one obtains immortality in this world. one by one. One lives with speech gone. Then. a sound by ear. for thus we see. as for the intelligence. When a weak person is about to die. with intelligence. This is the allobtaining in the vital breath. he obtains immortality and indestructibility in the heavenly world. One lives with eye gone. All the vital breaths see along with the eye when it sees. the self of intelligence. For as long as the vital breath remains in the body so long is there life. the understanding of it. as for the intelligence. One lives with legs cut off. verily that is vital breath. go into a unity: (otherwise) one would not be able at once to make known a name by speech. as immortality. such as I was then. for we see the childish. for we see the dumb. verily. they say of him. cause to know all things here. As for the vital breath. ‘His thoughts have departed. a form by the eye. the intelligent Self. Then speech together with all names goes to it. as immortality. verily that is the Self as the intelligence. he thinks not’. the eye together with all forms goes to it. one should worship as the Uktha. Then he (Indra) said: I am the Spirit of the vital breath. All the vital breaths hear along with the ear when it hears. said Indra. not by killing an embryo. ‘That is indeed so’. the Kalakanjas on the earth. even so from this self the vital breaths proceed to their respective stations. As for the vital breath. speech together with all names goes to it. he hears not. Life is the vital breath: the vital breath is life.

one obtains bliss. ‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says. delight and procreation are its externally correlated object element. Bliss. The body is one portion taken out of it. With the ear. one obtains all goings. delight and procreation. ‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says. one obtains all names. The eye pours all forms into him. With the generative organ. Goings are their externally correlated object element. ‘I did not cognise that name’. With the mind. what is to be understood by thought and desire. mounted on by intelligence. The ear pours all sounds into him. . Taste of food is its externally correlated object element. The two feet are one portion taken out of it. by speech he obtains all names. With the vital breath. with the ear he obtains all sounds. The ear is one portion taken out of it. one obtains all odours. together. With the hands. mounted on by intelligence. mounted on by intelligence. one obtains all forms. ‘I did not cognise that odour’. As for the vital breath. III-6. III-5. Breath is one portion taken out of it. one obtains all works. ‘I did not cognise that form’. mounted on by intelligence. Name is its externally correlated object element. As for the intelligence. Pleasure and pain is its externally correlated object element. verily that is the vital breath. mounted on by intelligence. This is the all-obtaining in the vital breath.When he departs from his body. ‘I did not cognise the sound’. mounted on by intelligence. When he awakens. The eye is one portion taken out of it. The generative organ is one portion taken out of it. from the vital breaths the gods. Thoughts and desires are its externally correlated object element. When he departs from the body. With the tongue. For verily without intelligence the ear would not make any sound whatsoever known. one obtains pleasure and pain. With speech. from the gods the worlds. together the two depart. The mind pours all thoughts into him. Sound is its externally correlated object element. Now. Odour is its externally correlated object element. as from a blazing fire sparks would fly in all directions. For verily without intelligence the eye would not make any form whatsoever known. Speech is one portion taken out of it. mounted on by intelligence. for. For verily without intelligence breath would not make any odour whatsoever known. The two hands are one portion taken out of it. with breath he obtains all odours. one obtains all thoughts. even so from this Self the vital breaths proceed to their respective stations. one obtains all sounds. The mind is one portion taken out of it. then. mounted on by intelligence. we will explain how all beings become one with this intelligence. mounted on by intelligence. With the feet. Vital breath pours all odours into him. With the eye. speech pours all names into him. verily that is the intelligence. With the mind he obtains all thoughts. III-7. III-4. he departs together with all these. one obtains all tastes. mounted on by intelligence. Work is their externally correlated object element. these two dwell in this body. The tongue is one portion taken out of it. ‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says. Form is its externally correlated object element. With the body. with the eye he obtains all forms. For verily without intelligence speech would not make any name whatsoever known. ‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says.

he is the sovereign of the world. He does not become greater with good action nor indeed lesser with bad action. For verily without intelligence the two hands would not make any action whatsoever known. ‘Let me declare . Going is not what one should seek to know. ‘I did not cognise that action’. one should know the discerner of pleasure and pain. the elements of intelligence are fixed on the vital breath. one should know the seer. Deed is not what one should seek to know. Smell is not what one should seek to know. delight and procreation. Verily if there were no elements of existence. Now then verily there was Gargya Balaki. there would be no elements of intelligence. are with reference to intelligence. the felly is fixed on the spokes and the spokes are fixed on the hub. One has to win the pure knowledge of the unity of Brahman and Atman. ‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says. one should know the discerner of bliss. For verily without intelligence the two feet would not make known any going whatsoever. ‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says. This vital breath. Sound is not what one should seek to know. among the Kashis and the Videhas. one should know the thinker. Having come to Ajatasatru of Kashi. ‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says. These ten intelligential elements are with reference to existence. This one truly indeed causes him whom he wishes to lead up from this world to perform good action. one should know the hearer. III-8. a famed Vedic scholar. For verily without intelligence no thought whatever would be effected. ‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says. ‘I did not cognise that going’. But as of a chariot. among the Kurus and the Panchalas. one should know the goer. Taste of food is not what one should seek to know. ‘I did not cognise that bliss. He dwelt among the Ushinaras. ageless. no form whatever would be possible. one should know the smeller. Truly from either alone. Form is not what one should seek to know. Mind is not what one should seek to know. Speech is not what one should seek to know. one should know the knower of the taste of food. ‘I did not cognise that pleasure and pain’. ‘My mind was elsewhere’ one says.For verily without intelligence the tongue would not make any taste of food whatsoever known. verily. ‘He is my Self’ – This one should know. This one also indeed causes him whom he wishes to lead downwards to perform bad action. the Satvans and the Matsyas. he said. immortal. IV-1. And this (the Self of intelligence) is not diverse. delight and procreation’. Bliss. truly. ‘I did not cognise that taste of food’. Verily if there were no elements of intelligence. nothing cognisable would be cognized. For verily without intelligence the generative organ would not make known any bliss. even so these elements of existence are fixed on the elements of intelligence. is the Self of intelligence: (it is) bliss. ‘He is myself’ – this one should know. one should know the speaker. delight and procreation are not what one should seek to know. delight and procreation whatsoever. These ten essential elements. one should know the doer. Pleasure and pain are not what one should seek to know. He is the protector of the world. For verily without intelligence the body would not make known any pleasure or pain whatsoever. he is the Lord of all. there would be no elements of existence.

IV-3. on him indeed do I meditate’. IV-5. In the sun the great. in fire the Vanquisher. cattle. Now. IV-12. To him Ajatasatru said: Make me not to converse on him ! I meditate on him as the inseparable Double. in thunder sound. verily indeed people would run together. To him then Ajatasatru said: Make me not to converse on him ! I meditate on him as the self of sound. He. the white-robed. not an unlikeness. Then said Balaki: I meditate indeed on the person in the shadow’. in wind Indra Vaikuntha. IV-6. who is the person in the lightning’. with reference to the self. Then said Balaki: I meditate indeed on the person in the mirror’. in the moon the food. IV-4. on him I indeed meditate. To him then Ajatasatru said: Make me not to converse on him ! I meditate on him as the Vanquisher. Then said Balaki: ‘I meditate on the person. he reaches the full term of life. To him then Ajatasatru said: Make me not to converse on him ! I meditate on him as the self of truth. who meditates on him thus obtains from his second and becomes possessed of his double. He who meditates on him thus becomes indeed the triumphant. Now. in the body Prajapati. IV-11. To him Ajatasatru said: Make me not to converse on him ! As the great. in space the plenum. a very likeness of him is born in his offspring. fame. He who meditates on him thus becomes indeed the self of truth (of brilliance).Brahman to you’. To him then Ajatasatru said: Make me not to converse on him ! I meditate on him as the full moon-active Brahman. then. in the shadow the double. in the lightning truth. the head of all beings – thus verily do I meditate on him. Then said Balaki: I meditate on the person in space’. a conqueror of adversaries. Then said Balaki: ‘him who is the person in the moon. To him then Ajatasatru said: Make me not to converse on him ! I meditate on him as the Self of Brilliance of name. the Supreme. in sleep Yama (the Lord of Death). as the self of food. crying ‘A Janaka ! A Janaka !’ IV-2. Then said Balaki: I meditate on the person in fire’. He who meditates on him thus becomes indeed the self of sound. Then said Balaki: I meditate on the person in water’. He who meditates on him thus becomes filled with offspring. Thus with reference to the divinities. To him then Ajatasatru said: Make me not to converse on him ! I meditate on him asking Soma. IV-7. the unconquerable. He who meditates on him thus becomes indeed the self of food. in the echo life. Then said Balaki: I meditate on the person in the Thunder’. indeed. in sound death. Then said Balaki: Him who is this person in the sun. the head of all beings. At such a word as this. in the mirror the reflection. in the right eye speech. in water brilliance – thus with reference to the divinities. IV-9. in the left eye truth. He. To him then Ajatasatru said: Make me not to converse on him ! I meditate on him as Indra Vaikuntha or as the unconquered army. with reference to self. To him Ajatasatru said: Make me not to converse on him ! I meditate on him as (the reflected) likeness. . Then said Balaki: I meditate on the person in wind’. IV-8. then. who meditates on him thus. IV-10. To him then Ajatasatru said: ‘A thousand (cows) we give to you’. the radiance of sanctity and the heavenly world. He who meditates on him thus becomes indeed the supreme. He who meditates on him thus become verily a vanquisher of others..

He got up at once. Then said Balaki: I meditate indeed on the person who. fuel in hand.IV-13. fame. IV-19. the lustre of sanctity. He. To him Ajatasatru said: Make me not to converse on him ! I meditate on him as the self of truth. He. Thereupon Balaki was silent. Just as a . he went forth. (But come). To him then Ajatasatru said: ‘This I deem a form (of conduct) contrary to nature that a Kshatriya should receive a Brahmana as pupil. the self of fire. Then taking him by the hand. the gods (the sense faculties). he sees no dream whatsoever. black. To him. He then who meditates on him thus becomes the self of all these. the self of brightness. To him Ajatasatru said: Make me not to converse on him ! I meditate on him as the self of speech. the heavenly world. Soma !’ But he just lay silent. ‘Receive me as a pupil’. To him then Ajatasatru said: Where in this case. the self of light. He. Then he becomes unitary in this vital breath. yellow and red. then. White-robed King. while asleep. then. even so from this Self the vital breaths proceed to their respective stations. They consist of a minute essence. what has become of him here. of whom verily this is the work. Then said Balaki: I meditate on the person who is in this body’. who is the maker of these persons. Then he pushed him with a stick. To him Ajatasatru said: Make me not to converse on him ! I meditate on him as King Yama ! He. to his supremacy everything here is subdued. IV-18. indeed. From the heart they spread forth to the pericardium. Ajatasatru said: In vain. he reaches the full term of life. IV-15. he alone is to be known. Then said Balaki: I meditate on the person in the left eye’. then. from the vital breaths. He then who meditates on him thus is augmented with offspring. To him Ajatasatru said: Make me not to converse on him ! I meditate on him as life. Then speech together with all names goes to it. the ear together with all sounds goes to it. To him Ajatasatru said: Make me not to converse on him ! I meditate on him as Prajapati. IV-16. from the sense faculties the worlds. To him then Ajatasatru said: Where in this case. cattle. then. To him Ajatasatru said: Make me not to converse on him ! I meditate on him as Death. Then said Balaki: I meditate on the person in the right eye’. The Ajatasatru called him (saying) ‘O Great. Thereupon Balaki. O Balaki has this person lain. I shall make you understand’. IV-17. who meditates on him thus. the self of lightning. the mind together with all thoughts goes to it. O Balaki. Then said Balaki: I meditate indeed on the person in the echo’. The two then came upon a person asleep. To him then Ajatasatru said: So much only Balaki ? ‘So much only’ replied Balaki. IV-14. Now they are as minute as a hair divided a thousand-fold. the eye together with all forms goes to it. Balaki. moves about in dream’. When he awakes. white. did you make to converse saying ‘Let me declare Brahman to you’. as from a blazing fire sparks proceed in all directions. In these one remains while asleep. has this person lain ? What has become of him here ? Whence has he returned here ? Thereupon Balaki understood not. who meditates on him thus does not die before his time. indeed. whence he has returned here as I asked is the arteries of a person (of the heart) called Hita (the beneficent). This very vital breath. has entered this bodily self up to the hair and the fingernail. IV-20. who meditates on him thus passes not into unconsciousness before his time. reddish-brown. Then said Balaki: I meditate indeed on the person in sound’. even this Self of intelligence. He then who meditates on him thus becomes the self of all these. approached saying.

the teacher). striking down and conquering the Asuras. he who knows this.e. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Kaushitaki-Brahmana Upanishad. so long the Asuras overcame him. May you both (speech and mind) be the carriers of the Veda to me. ears. sovereignty and overlordship over all beings – he who knows this. Om ! May my speech be based on (i. accord with) the mind. May all the Dharmas extolled by the Upanishads shine in me Who am intent on knowing the Self. as contained in the Rig-Veda. obliterate the difference of) day And night through this study. Let there be no infidelity from my side. reveal Thyself to me. When he understood this. I shall utter what is verbally true. May that (Brahman) protect me.e. O Self-effulgent One. speech. All that is revealed by the Upanishads is Brahman. even so this self of intelligence has entered this bodily self upto the very hairs and nails. May that protect the speaker – may That protect the speaker. he attained pre-eminence among all gods and all beings. I shall join together (i. even so these other selves are of service to that self of (intelligence). striking off all evils.e. May I never deny Brahman: May Brahman never disown me.razor might be hidden in a razor-case or as fire in the fireplace. Wished by whom is the mind directed to fall (on its objects)? Directed by whom does the foremost vital air move? By whom is wished this speech which the people utter? Who is the radiant being that unites the eye and the ear (with their objects)? . I shall utter what is mentally true. And all the senses be fully developed. May not all that I have heard depart from me. eyes. vital air. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 45]Kena Upanishad Translated by Vidyavachaspati V. attains pre-eminence. Let there be no repudiation (from Brahman). yea. May my mind be based on speech. Likewise also he who knows this. May That protect the speaker (i. may That protect me. May they shine in me ! Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace ! I-1. Panoli Om ! May my limbs. sovereignty and overlordship. On that self these other selves depend as upon a chief his own (men) or as his own (men) are of service to a chief. strength. Verily as long as Indra did not understand this Self.

If you think. the mind is thought. that by which man sees the activities of the eye. he to whom It is known does not know It. Therefore we don’t know how to impart instruction (about It). But in that victory which was Brahman’s the gods revelled in joy. I-8. When Brahman is known as the inner Self (of cognition) in every state of consciousness. Thus have we heard from the ancients who expounded It to us. the wise become immortal. know That alone to be Brahman. Here if one has not realised. nor mind. II-4. That which is not uttered by speech. The eye does not reach there. I-5. but they knew not who this Yaksha (worshipful Being) was. and not this (non-Brahman) which is being worshipped. II-3. nor do we know (Its mature). He among us who knows that knows It (Brahman). that by which the word is expressed. know That alone to be Brahman. I think Brahman is known to me. Because He is the ear of the ear. the wise. ‘I know Brahman rightly’. It is known in reality.I-2. It is known to him to whom It is unknown. then there is utter ruin. the vital air of the vital air. they say. They thought. I-3. not that It is not known nor that It is known. II-5. II-1.” . I-4. that by which man hears the ear’s hearing. know That alone to be Brahman. because one thus attains immortality. the mind of the mind. What you know of His form and what form you know among the gods (too is but little). and not this (nonBrahman) which is being worshipped. That which man does not see with the eye. That which man does not smell with the organ of smell. nor do I think It is unknown. and having withdrawn from this world. I-7. They said to Agni: “O Jataveda. know That alone to be Brahman. and not this (non-Brahman) which is being worshipped. Brahman knew this their pride and appeared before them. I think not I know Brahman rightly. freeing themselves (from the identity with the senses) and renouncing the world. and known to those who know not. that by which the organ of smell is attracted towards its objects. I know (and I do not know also). and not this (non-Brahman) which is being worshipped. you have known but little of Brahman’s (true) nature. III-3. “Ours alone is this victory. It is unknown to those who know. That which man does not hear with the ear. III-2. Here if one has realised. II-2. know That alone to be Brahman. (He said:) “So be it. ours alone is this glory”. nor speech. I-6. Therefore Brahman is still to be inquired into by you. become immortal. the speech of speech. and not this (non-Brahman) which is being worshipped. that by which. Having realised Brahman in all beings. Through one’s own Self is attained strength and through knowledge is attained immortality. know thou this as to who this Yaksha is”. and the eye of the eye. That which one does not think with the mind. then there is accomplishment. It is well-known that Brahman indeed achieved victory for the gods. Distinct indeed is That from the known and distinct from the unknown. III-1.

these gods viz. (It said:) “What is the power in thee. for he touched Brahman who stood very close and indeed knew first that It was Brahman. To that Uma decked in gold (or to the daughter of the Himalayas). eyes. (It is well-known that) the mind seems to attain to It. It asked him. For him (It) placed there a blade of grass and said: “Burn this”. ears. “I am Vayu or I am Matarsiva”. speak Upanishad to me. That Brahman is known indeed as Tadvana (worshipful or adorable to all beings). And all the senses be fully developed. In that space itself (where the Yaksha had disappeared) Indra approached an exceedingly charming woman. Its instruction (regarding meditation) is this. He returned from there (and said:) “I am unable to understand who that Yaksha is”.” IV-8. Therefore. he said: “Who is this Yaksha?” IV-1. Then (the gods) said to Indra: “O Maghava. III-10. Therefore is Indra more excellent than the other gods. Agni approached It. (Agni) went near it in all haste. Agni. IV-4. Then alone did Indra know for certain that It was Brahman. Om ! May my limbs. (It said:) “What is the power in thee. III-11. He approached It. For him (It) placed there a blade of grass and said: “Take this up”. . III-12. “Who art thou?” He replied. know thou this as to who this Yaksha is”. He who knows this thus. He returned from there (and said:) “I am unable to understand who that Yaksha is”. It is similar to that which is like a flash of lightning or like the winkling of the eye. Of this knowledge austerity. That is to be worshipped as Tadvana. He becomes firmly seated (in Brahman). To him who knows It thus verily all beings pray.” (Teacher:) “I have spoken Upanishad to thee. and that the mind possesses the thought (regarding It).” III-6. Of Brahman verily is the Upanishad that I have spoken. strength. vital air. IV-7. IV-9. “Who art thou?” He replied. This is (the analogy of Brahman) in the divine aspect. speech. becomes firmly seated in the infinite. III-8. IV-5. such as thou art?” (Vayu said:) “I can take hold of all this that is upon the earth”. Then (the gods) said to Vayu: “O Vayu. (Disciple:) “Revered sir. (He said:) “So be it”. All that is revealed by the Upanishads is Brahman. the Vedas are all limbs and truth is the abode. but he could not burn it. “I am Agni or I am Jataveda”. In the victory that was Brahman’s you were revelling in joy”. III-5. III-7. such as thou art?” (Agni said:) “I can burn all this that is upon the earth.III-4. She said: “It was Brahman. self-restraint and action are the feet. Vayu approached It. with his sins destroyed. (Vayu) went near it in all haste. III-9. know thou this as to who this Yaksha is”. Then (follows) the instruction through analogy on the aspect of the individual self. IV-2. for they touched Brahman who stood very close and indeed knew first that It was Brahman. Vayu and Indra excelled other gods. but It disappeared from him. IV-3. IV-6. (He said:) “So be it”. It said to him. blissful and supreme Brahman. that It is continually remembered by the mind. but he could not take it up.

may we hear with our ears what is auspicious. That Hari who was very pretty reincarnated himself as a Gopa Boy. “Humility” was born as Krishna’s friend Sudhama. May we see with our eyes what is auspicious. Characters like miserliness and anger became Asuras. “We want to embrace you. Let there be no infidelity from my side. R. the thunderbolt for evil. The broken . May all the Dharmas extolled by the Upanishads shine in me Who am intent on knowing the Self.May I never deny Brahman: May Brahman never disown me. as contained in the Sama-Veda. bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! When the sages living in the forest visited Sri Ramachandra who was the incarnation of the ever joyful God and who was extremely pretty. His playful nature (play with the world) was an unknowable secret. Gokula became the forest heaven.org Om ! O Devas. Those who had done penance earlier became trees in that forest.”[Their wish was fulfilled in Krishnavatara. Upanishads and portions of Vedas came in the form of 16108 maidens. Let there be no repudiation (from Brahman). O ye worthy of worship ! May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas. Ramachander Published by celextel.] 1 During the time of incarnation of the Lord as Krishna. The "mercy" was born as mother Rohini and the “earth mother” was born as Sathya Bhama. Because of that the world was enchanted. you will be born as Gopis and then you can embrace me. “When I reincarnate as Lord Krishna. “Control of senses” was born as Sage Udhawa and “Truth” was born as Sage Akroora. The Kali period which was coming was postponed till the reincarnation period was over. May they shine in me ! Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace ! Here ends the Kenopanishad.” The God told them. Praising them with our body and limbs steady ! May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda. Oh Lord. --------------------------------------------------------------- 46]Krishna Upanishad Translated by P. they became surprised and forgetting themselves said.

This reincarnation was meant to destroy his enemies and to protect good people. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Kshurika means knife. The lotus he held playfully was the seed for the world. it appeared as if it was different. the Maheswara himself. This Upanishad shows us the way to cut the attachment with this world using the knife called wisdom and shows us the way to salvation. O ye worthy of worship ! May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas.curd pots became to Krishna the ocean of milk so that he can play with it. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). Ramachander Published by celextel. Similarly God himself did not have any differences. The harvest season of Sarad became the meals in his house. And the Vaikunta of those people who live in heaven was brought down to the world. May we see with our eyes what is auspicious. ------------------------------------------------------------------ 47]Kshurika Upanishad Translated by P. Sage Kasyapa was born as the mortar in Yasodha’s house and The God mother Adithi became the rope which tied Krishna to the mortar. R. bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Krishnopanishad. may He nourish us both together. The sword in the hand of Krishna was the God of destruction. Om ! O Devas. Kali who destroys all enemies was the mace. the thunderbolt for evil.org Om ! May He protect us both together. The people who have understood this truly would get the result of their good deeds. Praising them with our body and limbs steady ! May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda. May our study be vigorous and effective. It is called “Kshurikopanishad. They would get themselves released from the ties of the body and attain salvation. The bow called Saranga was the illusion of the God. may we hear with our ears what is auspicious. as contained in the Atharva-Veda.” . Though the world was not different from all these. May we work conjointly with great energy.

12 Then you have to attain the group of nadis (nerves) near the neck and realize the 101 Nadis there and identify the best three Nadis.) Using the mind with very sharp wisdom as knife. 17-21 The one who realizes yoga through intense practice of pranayama and meditation on Om cuts off the bonds of family life using the very sharp mind which has been sharpened using an efficient sharpener of renunciation and gets freedom from all bondage. this Nadi gets the smell of the good or bad deed done by a person. there is a material which is like oil. Only in case of Sushumna Nadi.I am relating to you the Kshurikopanishad. 22 The one who gets freedom from desires reaches the deathless state. 11 Then you have to release the life power which is in between the union of thighs. the pingala Nadi on the right side and understand the proper position of Sushumna Nadi. 13-14 Sushumna Nadi is the one which makes you merge with the ultimate reality (Brahman) and is one without any deficiencies and is of the form of Brahmam. Using which we can attain awakening through Yoga and reach the birthless state. The one who identifies this is the only one who understand the secrets of Vedas. May we work conjointly with great energy. realize the philosophy of yoga. . Practicing skilful yoga you should separate it out and go upward. You have to identify the Ida Nadi which is the protector on the left side. become one with no desires and should withdraw within himself like the lamps getting off one by one when they are lit together. In each of the 72000 Nadis. The one who gets freedom from all desires by cutting off all desires and affection becomes devoid of all bonds. This is taken out of it by meditation. you have to meditate on the secret place called “prabhada” which is above the feet and cut it and go above. it is not possible to separate this oily material out of it. May our study be vigorous and effective. 16 Then this person who has won over his mental senses should sit in a place without any sound and become detached. 23 Om ! May He protect us both together. 15 Similar to the fact that oil gets the fragrance of jasmine flower when it joins with it. 10 Using the path of a sharp mind you have to practice yoga relentlessly and have to reach out the secret place called “Indra Vajram” which is in a place above the knees and separate it out using meditation and Yoga. 1 (Slokas 2-9 are not available. So you have to meditate on this Nadi. may He nourish us both together.

. Who am devoted to the Atman. be said to have renounced (worldly life) ? How can one who is (merely) known with an appellation (of an ascetic) be said to have renounced ? Hence he should purify himself (first) by renouncing the result of his deeds through self-control (Vanaprastha).] ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 48]Kundika Upanishad Translated by Prof. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! 1-2. the Brahmacharin with the permission of the teacher. Then (at the end of the householder’s life) he shall kindle the sacred fire (for renunciation) bravely and perform a sacrifice lasting a day and night in which Brahma. Let there be no denial at all: Let there be no denial at least from me. may they reside in me. ears.May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). After studying the scriptures during the blemishless period of studentship in which he devotes himself to the service of the teacher. May I never deny Brahman. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Kshurikopanishad belonging to the Krishna-Yajur-Veda. One reaches the stage of forest-life (Vanaprastha) after having maintained the sacred fire (as a householder). shall marry a suitable wife. He goes to lead the forest-life with self-control accompanied by his wife as though he were a person attached to her. Chennai Om ! Let my limbs and speech. [Publisher's Note: Kshurika Upanishad has been listed as one of the Krishna-Yajur-Veda Upanishads in our version of the Muktika Upanishad. But it has been shown as one of the Atharva Veda Upanishads in another Publication of Upanishads. in the company of his wife. He shall not (remembering his past comforts) allow his tears fall on the ground. vitality And all the senses grow in strength. thereafter he may take to renunciation. Subsisting on air only or on (air and) water only or with the addition (in dire need) of approved bulbous roots (and fruits) he shall find all worldly life in his person alone. he shall journey along sacred places as a Vanaprastha. All existence is the Brahman of the Upanishads. Then after dividing his property among his sons in the proper way and giving up all sensory pleasures. A. are the deities. etc. A. May the virtues that are proclaimed in the Upanishads be in me.. eyes. 3. Ramanathan Published by The Theosophical Publishing House. 4. 5-7(a). Prana. How can a man. nor Brahman deny me.

the destroyer of the three (aerial) cities. the Meru mountain) and. He shall not become pleased with praise nor shall he curse others when censured. In me. 9. 23. (From Brahman arose ether). a loin cloth to cover (his privities). always mutter the (philosophical) mantras. (He shall be) wearing (ochre) coloured garment. I am the destroyer of the (demon) Naraka. a bath towel and an upper garment. a purifying ring (pavitram of holy grass). the means for the painless transcendent state (of Brahman)’. 15. he shall. I am Narayana.7(b)-8. To (the prime cause of all) these primary elements. I am always far beyond imagination like ether. other than these the ascetic shall give up all else.e. 19. I am ever changeless just like the unchangeable (i. His alms-bowl shall be (a cup) made of leaves and the material for washing shall be the prescribed (fresh earth). Pure water should be used for bathing. 18. 12.e. a sling (to carry his effects). with the senses subdued. 16. Thus (he replies). 20. an (alms-) bowl. from air fire. immortal and indestructible Brahman. Having renounced the sacred fire he shall not return to it (even in mentally reciting the mantras pertaining to it). from water the earth. 21. dreaming and deep sleep ? 22. many a time arise and fall waves of the universe due to the winds of the fanciful sport of illusion (Maya). With (right) hand raised (he shall set forth as a mendicant monk). drinking and cleansing. Living on alms. ‘Why does he undergo (the life of a mendicant monk) in vain. (So) I wish to enter the cave(-shelter) of renunciation. ‘I am afraid of the (miserable) life in the womb (of another mother) and also the miseries of heat.e. I am (Siva). I resort (in reverence). from fire water. from ether air. (He shall remove) the hairs excluding those in the arm pits and the private parts. the body’s) characteristics during (the stages of) waking. ‘For. I. Thus provided with the means of living. Hence how can I have its (i. He shall move on without (a fixed) abode. I am not attached to my body just as the sky is not attached to the clouds. having given up the happiness of worldly life ? What is that (impending) misery the thought of which should make him abandon great pleasures ?’ (Such is the query of the wife). Brahman. I resort to the ageless. (i. 13-14. He shall sleep on the sandy bed of a river or outside a temple. He shall not bother his body too much either with pleasures or pain.’ 11. cold. The wise (ascetic) shall realize in his mind (the identity of the individual self with the universal Self) which is the meaning of Om. (These) verses are there (or the same theme): (The mendicant monk shall have) a water pot. I am the supreme Lord. I am the indivisible . He may repeat the mantras pertaining to Self (realization). He shall possess pure knowledge (pavitram) for the protection of all beings. sandals to traverse a long distance (literally. the mantra) (pertaining to this sacred fire) becoming extinct (being incompatible with renunciation) shall be merged into the oncoming (knowledge of Brahman). He shall have consecration. like the ocean am I limitless. abandoning the path of worldly life. over the three worlds). 10. etc. I am the Purusha. 17. a patched garment to withstand cold. the ocean of unalloyed bliss. he shall deeply ponder over (Vedantic texts) and meditate (on his identity with the transcendent Brahman). I am different from it (the body) as the sun is from the objects of illumination.

Then the vision. I am eternal . the mind. May the virtues that are proclaimed in the Upanishads be in me. one realizes the indestructible (qualified Brahman). by the practice (of Yoga) bring together the Prana and Apana vital airs in the body. That (Brahman) will be realized by the practice (of Yoga). He shall place the (palms of the) two hands at the perineum. I remain without reflections. Thus (ends) the Upanishad. 34. Seeing everywhere the Self. I am without a support and I am devoid of duality. which is facilitated by the acquisition of practice in previous births. standing. The attributes of objects seen do not affect the onlooker who is different from them. The attributes of a householder do not affect him who remains non-aligned without any mental modification. Who am devoted to the Atman. 29. sitting. I am the one indivisible knowledge and I am the compact bliss of the Self. 33. I am untouched by their characteristics just as the ether (in the pot) is not affected by the attributes of the pot. devoid of parts and form. and on leaving the world. Let (me) the non-aligned (sage) roll in water or on the ground. will attain final liberation). he shall not allow the ear (to function) and the nose to smell (i. (Therefore the vital air passing through the Kundalini and the Susumna gets dissolved in the Sahasrarachakra at the top of the head. Similarly directing the eyes open to the extent of a blackgram seed. (The ascetic) shall. 26. Prana. vitality And all the senses grow in strength. towards the (ether of the) ear (and the feet firmly resting) on the ground. 24-25. eyes. just as a lamp (which suffers no change by the objects revealed by it). All existence is the Brahman of the Upanishads. I am without a superior. gently biting the (tip of the) tongue thrust out to the extent of a grain of barley. may they reside in me. 31-32. May I never deny Brahman. I am without fancies.e. With the (help of the) external and internal organs (the knowledge of the qualified Brahman) called effulgence. nor Brahman deny me. Om ! Let my limbs and speech. the witness of all. lying or otherwise. vital air and the ‘fire’ of the body reach) the seat of Siva (and get dissolved). Those (sages) who attain the transcendent state (through the passage) in the skull at the top of their body. the five senses shall be controlled). do never return (to the worldly life) for they realize the lower as well as the higher (Brahman). ears. . the wise sage delighting in the Atman shall live as he wishes (fulfilling his duties. I am the form of all (beings). I am the all. reaching the heart and supported by the vital air’s capability (to proceed upwards. that is Brahman. 27. 30. and changes. considering the Self as without a second. I am free (from the effect) of activities. (Thus he accomplishes the union of the Prana and Apana vital airs). 28. I am beyond everything and without a second. goes through the Susumna Nadi) and piercing the skull at the top of the body. Let there be no denial at all: Let there be no denial at least from me. I am devoid of ‘I-ness’ (egotism) and ‘mine-ness’ (possessiveness). enjoying the bliss of the Self. Walking.consciousness. that is the transcendent Brahman.

ego as the 13th. May I never deny Brahman. Employing him in creation. Let there be no denial at all: Let there be no denial at least from me. ears. truth. Sun and Moon. Rik and other Vedas. Chennai Om ! Let my limbs and speech. I-5-6. detachment. I-8-9.. A. thought. mind. Sadashiva and nine Prajapatis like Daksha). They say Narayana was alone. From the (desire of) the Paramatman. Shiva. Facing north. ------------------------------------------------------------- 49]Maha Upanishad Translated by Dr. Who am devoted to the Atman. Facing west he became Bhuvar. Buddhi. Atma as 15th. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! I-1-4. he became Vyahriti Suvar. Atharva-Veda and Soma. Krishna Warrier Published by The Theosophical Publishing House. Prana as 14th. Mind as the eleventh. he is the great Lord.) along with Pranava. the Yajnastoma (hymn known as Avyakta) is said to have arisen. Sama-Veda and the deity Surya. austerity. Karma and Tamas. I-7. the ten organs (five of perception and five of action). the chandas Gayatri. five Tanmatras. lordship. Kama. included in the Sama-Veda. G. Vishnu. Heaven and Earth. Bhur. all metres is his body – so. celibacy. chandas Anustubh. Prana. vitality And all the senses grow in strength. From his forehead a person arose with three eyes and a trident. he thought – From his forehead. Isana. fame.Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Kundikopanishad. having glory. the Yajur-Veda and deity. From him do all things come into being. Then again. Facing south he became Mahar. along with gross elements and the Being was the 25th (Sutratman). Fire and Soma. the RigVeda and the deity. sweat fell and became the wide waters: from it a bright golden egg – in it was born the four-headed Brahma facing east. Vayu. nor Brahman deny me. May the virtues that are proclaimed in the Upanishads be in me. Narayana. Jagati-chandas. eyes. the supreme Being remained detached. Waters. may they reside in me. In it arose fourteen Purushas (Brahman. desiring something else. seven Vyahritis (Bhur etc. Then we shall expound the Mahopanishad. Stars. one maiden (Mula-Prakriti). He could not be happy. the chandas Tristubh. Rudra. Again. desiring something else. All existence is the Brahman of the Upanishads. There were not Brahma. Narayana became the Vyahriti. bright intellect as the 12th. . Agni.

causing the picture-like awakening (existence) of the world in himself. to the earth and the city of Videha. Shiva. subtler then even ether. Like a lotus calyx. Vyasa instructed everything to his son. connected with every thing. source of cosmic wellbeing. like the satisfied Chataka bird from torrent water. how much and when ?’ Being thus asked. Being told this. facing everywhere. unrealisable (by worldly means) by the mind and the sense organs. devoted to Natural Bliss. eternal Narayana – the universe subsists in Him. respectively. dripping drops of cold water for sustaining life. undying and self-shining. of great lustre. Suka did not value the verbal statement. ruled by Janaka. reality etc. II-1-11. Bliss and the resort (source) of the giver of Jivanmukti. (Meditate upon) the god of a thousand heads and eyes.I-10-13. yet like rock. his mind simply turned away from worldly temptations. yet beyond words. atomic. passed at this stage). Suka. the seer seated alone at Meru mountain. the son of Vyasa. Brahman is knowledge. Suka went from there. the king of Mithila who knows it correctly. The wise say that the understanding of that Being is the absence of worldly conceptions. Having already known all this. waits at the entrance’. The supreme being is Ether because there is nothing outside it and yet not the ether. Pure Bliss. because it is all pure consciousness – it is nothing which can be pointed out (specified such and such) as a thing. The millions of particles undergo generation. the great being is present – He is Brahma. In its midst is a great flame. So also a person may get certain knowledge of the self by himself by long self-analysis. Suka knew all this by his own subtle intellect. II-14-37. Janaka said ‘Let him wait’ and tarried for seven days. knowledge. Then he permitted him into the court and Janaka regaled Suka with women and other luxuries. realised Truth even at birth (without instruction). Present everywhere. . then remained with his mind ceaselessly rapt in it. (He knew all but out of respect for tradition. The dissolution and creation of the universe are due to the contraction and expansion. Sage Vyasa. The basis of Vedantic statements. the pure ether. Giving up of all mental desires is the way (to that knowledge). the differences in the universe are also his manifestation. bliss and nothing else’. He does not exist as there is nowhere (substratum) to exist. because he cannot be (normally) known. you can know all from Janaka. (This is because) the self is beyond description. They did not attract Suka. how does this become dissolved. just as gentle breeze cannot shake a mountain. yet He does not move as there is nowhere to go. He did not have the conception that the Atman is real. II-12-13. Suka. It is ‘I Reality. ‘O Seer. yet exists because he is Existence by nature. subtle and facing upwards. Once Suka of pure knowledge asked with devotion. Indra. there is nothing other than that. ‘I do not know the truth. He was announced to Janaka by the ushers ‘O King. He is conscious. the human heart hangs down. being lustrous. subsistence and dissolution inside the supreme Being by rotation of the power. knowing the son’s thought said. beyond all. of the Power. This cosmos is only the manifestation of that being. of his father Vyasa. the prince of sages. how did this elaborate (pomp of) worldly life arise. Desiring of knowing Suka. the many (material) worldly enjoyments which break very much.

Who is untouched in the mind. and no other cause. fear. all doubts. salty. Strong (intense) brooding over objects is said to be bondage. listen to what I speak. virtue and vice. its thinning out is. what (more) do you desire ? Suka replied ‘this grandiose world – how did this arise and how dissolved ? Janaka narrated all correctly – the same as was spoken by father Vyasa. So great-armed Janaka. Who eats with equal detachment what is bitter. with a pure intellect. Who has given up Dharma and Adharma. egoless. success and failure. the details of knowledge. worldly life is also buried away – this is certain. Who exists like a detached onlooker and functions without attachment and desire everywhere. Who has given up internally all of Dharma and Adharma. all conation. He said ‘You have (adjured) all worldly actions and for all your desires. anger. II-42-62. Who. ‘I myself knew this already. the egotist tendency and remains giving up brooding. death and birth. most eloquent speaker. avoiding jealousy and does actions without agitation. Liberated-in-life. the essence of wisdom. Who does not rejoice. then arises the great joy of Nirvana (Extinction – Liberation). Who is silent. pray tell me the truth. He is said to be ‘Liberated while living’ who has lost taste for enjoyment by means of penance etc. total adjuration of mental impressions (tendencies) is said by the good (people) to be liberation – it is a pure procedure (whereas) those people whose tendencies are (not given up but) purified. thought and desire. nor languish. likes and dislikes (actions) (acts of) joy and grief. free from tension and joy. Who has given up all desires. replete.He simply remained pure. this is also the matter seen in the Shastras. The mass of mental fancies dies away by the death of the fancies. lust and meanness. existence and death. Who is un-smeared in the region of the heart with (objects of) knowledge and whose consciousness is not inert. like the full moon. astringent. liberation. When there is generated a wiping away of visible phenomena by the mind realizing that there is no (real) visible object. pure in mind having got excellent repose and desires nothing in the material world and lives without unction. The best. Who is equal towards birth. Who performs without expectation. Who does not dislike or hanker after anything and enjoys incidental pleasure. Who is seated delighting in the spirit.. by knowing which one can get the status of Liberation in life’. silent and composed. . by exaltation. Who has given up fully the (worldly) view. seasoned and unseasoned. also by you. Who gives up (as if) playfully. does not get depressed or elated. equable. the same was told to me by my father. prideless. Janaka looked at him and bowed knowing his nature. joy and grief. rise and fall. firmly – the world gets peace for the reeling mind from you’. not subject to the danger of re-birth – these wise ones are said to be the enlightened. Oh Brahman. being detached when joy and grief befall (him) according to time (destiny). sour. II-38-41. Who is free from desire and non-desire as he is introvert and behaves as in deep sleep. (Janaka) replied): ‘O Suka. all rigid thoughts.

seeing and object of seeing. like wind which does not move. cause only delusion. is full in spirit. nor ‘I’ nor ‘another’. than him. like an insane person it goes away. II-74-77. neither being nor coming into being. then told Ribhu about himself. there is no lustres nor darkness which is steady and profound. III-1-15. riches please me not but give only cycles of worries just as houses with children and women cause danger. There. pure consciousness. Life is unsteady like a drop of water hanging on to the top of a tender leaf. he became one. with all (worldly) tendencies melting away like water-drop in the ocean. having no ailment in mind or body. you feel (erred) in regard to your own nature but now being liberated. unconnected with each other. yet is desireless as if they are alien objects. Nidagha. leaving the body suddenly. ineffable and unmanifest. you are the sole and perfect onlooker (un-involved). give up error. Things such are sources of splendour are sinful and give place to all calamities. is neither real nor unreal. Purified of the blemish of manifold thought. ‘After bathing in so many places an enquiry (question) has arisen there in my mind: The world is born only to die and dies only to be reborn – all the actions of the moving and unmoving things are ephemeral. It is known by yourself as well as heard from a preceptor: – one is bound by one’s own fancy and released by being rid of it – detachment towards enjoyment of all visible (external) objects has arisen (in you). He gives up the state of Jivanmukta when this body is consigned to time (death) and enters the state of Adehamukta (liberated without body). they come together. devoid of grief. Who is active towards all objects. only by mental fancy.Whose thought of worldly life has quietened down. O sage. Life causes strain to those whose mind is shattered by contact with the poison from the snake of worldly objects and who lack mature discrimination of the self. neither real nor unreal. there is surely nothing beyond this. all that is to be got has been got by you with a perfect mind. unimpeded. prince of seers and enlightened. auspicious. This (material) glory in the world is delicate. nor a mass of creations but existing infinitely. II-63-69. you see that you are Brahman itself beyond what is external and internal – you see but you do not see. not the Chaitya (world created by mind). to string together watery waves but not give up attachment to (worldly) life. in the pristine and pure condition. fuller than the fullest. like iron-stakes. having no beginning. Such a person does not rise or set. II-70-73. like a traveller in deserts my mind is tormented as to how this suffering will die down. does not give happiness. That which is considered as the vision amidst the seer. Then he went to the peak of Meru mountain. I have lost taste in various things. endless. A lad. like a flame without oil. Not empty vacuum. Undesignated in nature. who has aspects and yet is aspectless. not having form. for thousands of years he remained in ‘unqualified trance’ and attained rest in himself. having mind – yet mindless. middle or end. Other. Suka. . fear and strain. for trance. nor is he far away. had ablution in three and a half Crores of sacred places. neither visible nor vision. permitted by his father to go on a pilgrimage. It is (possible) reasonable to envelop wind and to cut into (empty) space. reposed silently (passively) in the Supreme Being in the own normal state. ageless.

the Ego. it hovers in the bush of space. who sees steadiness in lightnings. which is the dust of Meru – destroys all and all the three worlds are occupied by it. blood and tears and then look at the body. like a mouse cutting a string. knowledge is a burden to one attached (to life). I have been made inert by the pursuit of thirst and eaten by my mind as by a dog. The attribution of happiness to worldly life – even this is cut by time like grass by a rat. it is the place of highest joy. One is overwhelmed by the goblin of lust which exists in the cave of one’s mind and causes many delusions. only freedom from Ego is real. II-16-26. sons. Containment of the mind is impossible even by drinking up the ocean uprooting Meru and eating fire. It is frightening with the entrance held by the monkey (tongue) – in it are seen the (bared) teeth and bones. women. what is attractive in the body which is made of blood and flesh. so do they. in and out. and which is only to perish – let him trust the body. when it exists. so it should be cured with effort. bones and knots ? Why are you deluded. O Brahman. relatives and friends laugh at a man shaken by old age as at a mad man. never rests long in a place. grows long in old age. what is to be got is got. What is auspicious about woman – a puppet of flesh – moved by a machine in the cage of the body – having nerves. in the cemetery and corners of the directions. III-39-48. Slaves. Let it roll about or be steady – what is it to me. From ego does danger arise. Thirst is a fickle monkey – it sets foot in impassable places. mind is a burden to one without security. flesh. The mind runs hither and tither. so do bad mental ailments and desire – there is no enemy more dangerous than Ego. low and meritless. the sky. and cities in the sky (illusions). Mind is the cause of objects. the three worlds exist. in vain and with zeal. II-27-38. the sole friend of all danger and confuse foment is the heart. the others who have no (spiritual) rebirth are only old donkeys. Even trees live. separate the skin. hankers after fruits even when filled with them. and another. Shastra is a burden to one who lacks (spiritual) discrimination. a person (well-guarded) in the harem it involves in great trouble. autumn clouds.e. There is nothing as pitiable as the body. mother. so do animals and birds – only he (really) lives. it exults over a little and suffers over a little. Whatever wealth of merit I acquire. when it does not. body is a burden to one ignorant of the self. which causes no grief. Throat is a bee in the lotus-heart. . like a dog in the village. only thirst gives the longest grief. whatever in the moving and unmoving world was enjoyed by Ego – all that is unreal. Childhood is the abode of fear from the teacher. of all the griefs of worldly life. The body is the great abode of the house-holder i. another. that Thirst cuts down. it is crowded with the servants – the mind. Abandonment of brooding is the (preventive) chant for the cholera of Thirst. it goes to Patala. other people and older children. Ego leaps about. whose mind is sustained by contemplation. Desire is full of the defect of helplessness. O Preceptor ! This body pleases me not – the senses (animals) are bound by six ropes (vices) – in its yard. father. Time tries to possess selfishly (every thing from) grass and dust (to) Indra and gold.(In contrast) by attaining Brahman. One moment. Tell me. Is it attractive ? The pearl necklace on the breast is like the current of Ganga on Meru (fleeting and ephemeral) – the same breast is eaten by dogs at the due time like a lump of food.

Dangers come for a moment. If you do not. Objects (of the world) destroy (only) one more birth. like water-streams towards the marine fire. Even the Quarters (like North) are not seen. with all effort – when one is achieved. contemplating Vishnu with the mind like one turned into a painting. with God’s grace – I shall wipe away the error caused by the impurity of the mind: Control of inner and outer senses.Women are the flame of sin. the lump of bait. giving up with your mind. Rudra and all classes of creatures run towards destruction. oh preceptor. by means of scripture. spread by the hunter. of the fires of all blazing at a distance whether they have taste (attachment) or not. blind and deaf person. the unborn Vishnu too. Women are the fuel lovely. by this one shall be happy. even the permanent becomes impermanent. pleasing to the eye but not to be touched. III-49-54. penance and self-control. so does wealth. Brahma. the lords of the quarters decay. yet harmful. All the visible things in the world are nothing more than the consciousness without vibration – contemplate this. that is the highest and auspicious joy. Only he with a woman has desire for enjoyment. have the soot of hair. even Yogins (Siddhas) perish. enquiry. taste (bliss) alone. Shiva becomes non-existent. The vision got through words of (Vedanta) that you are composed. like a dumb. I will have none of this woman who is the basket of all defects – gems – the chain of misery. contact with good people – resort to one at least of these giving up everything. One shall develop wisdom only at first. the thought of all things as the self. . the others also are achieved. IV-1-24. The brave ones are killed by those not brave – a hundred are killed by one. you are the best of the of the enlightened – you know by your intellect. birth and death are only for a moment – everything dies. That itself is oneness. Samadhi is said to be the freedom of the mind from agency (activity). mindless state. unborn. without pride and jealousy. then you will have reached the sacred. there is nothing else to be known by you. the string of wickedness to men who are the fish in the pond of birth (life) and moving in the mud of mind. Vishnu. even the oceans and the stars dry up. they burn man like grass. regions give other (wrong) instruction. so. the avoidance of the sustained fancy and desire. Manmatha. Poison changes its scope (effect) – poison is not poison ! III-55-57. it is time my mind is burnt in the forest fire of defects. waken me quickly with the knowledge of truth. Brahma is reduced (to nothing). One’s own experience (of the self). beginningless and endless. You should remain. Nidagha. Desires for enjoyment do not flash even in the illusory fatamorgana. Women are the traps to catch the birds – men. Shastra and the preceptor form one statement (they yield a single purpose) by practising (the teachings of) which the self is ever looked at (realized). I shall take to silence. first liberation from worldly life. demons and others decay. shining. contact with good people. poison destroys life only once. contentment and the fourth. where is enjoyment for one who has no woman ? Giving up women means giving up the world. If you do (achieve) every moment. devoid of symptoms of mind – all this is for the (lower) knowledge and wasteful – only Om is real.

endless fall of arrows like a fall of cool water to relieve summer heat. so also do the creatures of the world. the agentship and non-agentship in the self arise: -. so the world – delusion goes away destroyed by knowledge – consider this. the remains only the state of equality called the supreme immortality. that I am always a non-agent. Only the knowledge of Truth is the fire to the grass of mental impressions – this is said to be Samadhi. · Whose mind is not agitated. flesh and blood which are inauspicious. Just as the world is active when the much desired sun has arisen (Mani – gem of the day. nor the strain of the body. charcoal like sandalwood. not mere silence. These two exist in the Supreme Being – agency and non-agency – Resort to it firmly which is the (ultimate) cause of the two. even-minded and reconciled. Not by drinking elixirs. the bone. but only through the conquest of the mind is that condition reached. pleasing. well kindled. IV-26-27. Listen.the spirit is a non-agent when there is no desire – an agent by his mere presence. oh sage. like darkness in the sun. Riches do not help. avoiding the body. burning with fire like drenching with snow. unbearable mental pain are lost in people with a calm mind. Pursuing what is acceptable and avoiding totally what is not – this is the (proper) nature (attitude) of the mind. placid in mind. All creatures subside (attain calmness) in a serene person like children mischievous or soft. A wise person should enquire fully ‘What am I ? How did this blemish of Samsara develop ?’ One should not take to wrong deeds nor live with a low person. They are within limits like the ocean. with mind ever enlightened and performing worldly functions. the deprivation of speech like silence. should not be looked up in mockery. They shine through this firm (personality) with merits in the friendship. clear like the moon’s disc. men of noble qualities in the Nirvikalpa Samadhi. IV-28. . who does not exult or feel depressed on hearing. hankerings. the consciousness being the string that holds together all the creatures like a necklace. deafness like a blessing. IV-29-38. One should look only at the pure consciousness. The seer shall be rid of grief knowing that he is Brahman with his own realization by the path prescribed by the preceptor. nor aspiring beyond what is destined.Or. The self as always observed by the practice of realization which arises from the instruction of the preceptor. there are born in the world. So. IV-25. seeing and knowing the good or the bad. like a gold lotus at night. like the sun. nor resorting to sacred waters and temples. ever in the ascendant and happy like (autumnal) moons in the sky. nor by the embrace of wealth does a person get so much joy as by inner peace. in death. when the supreme reality is present. do not give up discipline. festival as well as in battle. delighting in the path of the good people. eating. He is said to be a serene person. like the calm ocean. All the miseries. nor friends nor kinsmen. Death. cutting one’s own head like happy sleep. the killer of all. not depressed during danger. touching. Just as the directions once again as before the delusion. Enlightenment arises in the state of detachment wherein the fall of a hundred sharp swords is borne like strokes with lilies. O Nidagha. you remain knowing the oneness of the self. So. ever good in conduct. by the thoughts. the sun). in their mother.

kings. who does not admire what is not got. it is only the flash of things. ‘I and you are the cosmos’ dies down. the maker of all. knowers.Only the serene person shines among ascetics. then shines the ‘body’ in the form of the consciousness. men of strength and of virtue. The cosmos is spread (generated) through the mind by the self-born supreme being. forever. Mind and ideation are never different – when the mass of ideations slips away only the (pristine) nature remains. space and time. whose names like (individual) selves are assumed. IV-44-49. this is no liberation. has no purpose (meaning) in what is done or not done. then surely you will reach the state of All Quiet. he remains in his pristine condition like the ocean without being churned by the mountain (he is in a transcendental state). Know the mind to be only ideation. The calm persons are great who have attained contentment with the drink of Amrita and delight in the self. ‘The universe is you. like a good woman in a harem and this gives the joy of the spirit’s own nature. Para Brahma. so also is the magical illusion of the cosmos extended by the supreme being. nor by the delusion of Veda and Smriti. be he house-holder or recluse. When the perception passes from one place to another. The wise person should reflect about the path to liberation. There is no real mind. When the excitement of the visible. whether he lives or not. beyond origin. viz. not seeing (i. sacrificers. At the achievement of the great dissolution. The illusion of the world is spread only by the mind – as long as it happens. every moment. What is called the visible is the projection like. he is realized. shining being. know the spiritual one to be (emptier) subtler than the other two. He is the contented one who gives up (longing for) what is not got and is even towards what is got. Just as armlets etc. and I’. who is realized (only) by the liberated person. ignoring) grief and joy..e. .. of the three kinds of ether (space) namely the mental. divine un-ailing. the unsetting sun.. So the visible cosmos is mental in nature. IV-39-43. When there arises the pure realization of all as the spirit. convenience and contact with good people. for empirical purposes. only the sole condition (pristineness) remains. spiritual and gross. until he achieves repose in the spirit. declared to be the supreme self.e. in the absence (dissolution) of the visible. names for the supreme Being. The wise people have attributed. From whom words turn away (un-reaching). A person having repose in the fourth state (liberation) and released from the ocean of worldly life. The perceived being inside the visible world is called bondage. when all the visible creation etc. only tranquillity remains. enjoys according to desire what is (actually) got and is benign in his conduct. become (i. There exists the unborn. such as. O great sage. known to be) non-existent. Rita Atma. Understand that where there is ideation there is Mind. in the manner of the Shastras. Liberation while alive arises when the thought delights in what is got. not natural. IV-50-57. The visible cosmos of un-moving and moving things melts away like dream in a (dreamless) sleep. the interval is to be known as the spiritual region in a moment when you reach the stage where all ideations are rejected. according to the place. Truth etc. not different from gold. are only words and meanings. IV-58-63.

is worldly life. without calmness and concentration but only through Enlightenment. An embodied being attained that condition being brooded over by the mind – freed from bodily tendencies. IV-73-75. Nidagha. omnipresent and subtle. the knot of the heart snaps. Be devoted to Samvid. wise. He who remains giving up what is implied and expressed is Shiva himself. IV-70-72. like a blind man. Hence. In a desert all the water (in mirages) is an illusion – only the desert is real. Only one who looks upon everything in relation to consciousness is the knower proper. ancient Being. the aspirants to liberation should not consider these schools (being illusory) but the (essential) truth about Brahman is to be considered with steadiness. attributeless and one mass of truth and consciousness. Without a good preceptor’s grace it is hard to give up objects. The creation (of the world) is assumed (projected) by God starting from the vision and ending with Entry (from Generation to Dissolution) in the form of Jiva. Whereas ‘Not Mine’ and ‘Mine’ give liberation and bondage (respectively). the sun. Shiva. Iv-83-87. with single attention. lustrous and eternal in nature. That un-decaying being is the substratum (of all). giving up the non-spiritual attitude and unaffected by the condition of the world. IV-64-69. to see truth and (to realize) the pristine state. Ishvara etc. without comparison beyond words and mind. The supreme being is knowledge alone – so a mortal becomes immortal only by vision of Brahman. The pristine state is naturally realized by a Yogin who has power generated in him and has given up all (worldly) activity. Meru put inside a lotus is pat out by a bee. all doubts are smashed and all (worldly) actions die away. there will be fear for him. a mosquito fights with groups of lions inside an atom. I am that (the mind) which turns an aeon into a moment and vice versa. A person with wisdom as the eye sees the supreme as present everywhere – one without wisdom does not. Airavata in rut is confined to a corner of a mustard. That is beyond all that is beyond. worshipped by all gods. The nature of the animate and the inanimate worldly life from waking to liberation is projected by Jiva. the best of the Brahman-Knowers. eternal. from the Lokayata to Sankhya the schools depend on Jiva’s illusion. it (he) is not smeared (affected) by the body’s attributes. The same mind is said to be the end of (worldly) existence when freed from them. When a man perceives even a little difference (between these) then. As a rule ‘I (am) Brahman’ these two words are for the liberation of the great. omnipotent.That condition (state) is Samadhi which excludes bliss and contains the essence of detachment of Nobility and Beauty – when joy arises strongly by the realization of the falseness of the visible world and like and dislike thin away. One cannot attain (realize) (truth) without desisting from bad conduct. doubtless. (similarly) on reflection all the three worlds are nothing more than chit. Only the mind made impure by involvement etc.. IV-76-82. greater than the greatest. spiritual in nature – only that is the sole state – all else is false. One fears never (and from nothing) on knowing the nature of the self as Bliss unequalled. Schools from the Trinachiketa to the Yoga depend on Ishvara’s illusion (on the still lower level). When the Great beyond is seen. know the world to be an illusion. This realization is indeed the knowledge and its object. . Vishnu and Brahma.

Give up the tendency to differentiate. giving up the instinct for (worldly) enjoyment – then giving up both positive and negative (tendencies). Kill the mind without hesitation. Controlling) the mind with the mind. This power of pulsation existing as mind – know this to be the power which is the ostentatious world. This wavering which is another name for ignorance – destroy this with reflection. ignorance. I shall tell you the means of curing mental ills – giving up whatever object is attractive. your (internal) enemies will not bind you. Hence. The auspicious path cannot be got without subduing the mind which is giving up desires and which can be achieved by one’s own effort. released from thought of worldly existence. is reduced when. IV-88-106. Let the winds of deluge blow. Ignorance swings a person on the steep rocks of samsara. The same is said to be liberation in the Shastraic doctrine. Pity that worm of a man who cannot do this giving up which is absolutely good and dependent on oneself. reducing delusions. being accepted only in name. The mind without wavering is said to be Amrita. be form and free from anxiety. just as heat is that of fire. Freedom from desire is extinction (liberation). these a wise one is to avoid and from this there will be reduction of ignorance. Nowhere is the mind seen to be without fickleness – it is the nature of mind. the mind is only so much – this is cut down by the knife of nonprojection. then is achieved (realized) the Brahman. with the edge of the wheel of consciousness. Whatever propensity called the mind arises from previous (other) impulses. Hold yourself. uplift yourself from worldly life – which cannot be crossed by another.e. only the mind is the life-boat. the mind is not affected. The mind is blown away only by the wind of non-projection. When the mind is cut by the weapon of non-projection. be free from projections (vikalpas) attaining that position with which the mind becomes united by means of human effort. its destruction is said to be liberation – this results by the destruction of projections. IV-117-115. The intense darkness. This ignorance is only desire. The avoidance of desire towards whatever is seen is the destruction of the mind. Only the mind can control the mind firmly – who can control a king except another king ? For those grasped by the crocodile of desire and fallen into the ocean of worldly life and carried away (tossed about) by the whirlpools. the rope. let all the twelve suns blaze. worldly life is reduced by the restraint (of the mind) and non-restraint (of the spirit). having great wisdom – the swallowed (controlled) mind is the place of knowledge. omnipresent and tranquil. in the sky . You remain intent upon that state of the empire of truth which can only be non-projection and which gives all success. resorting to (human) effort. this desire too melts away. acceptance of desire is misery. When everything is seen. meditating in the heart. Break the mind. like the bank of clouds in the autumn sky. How can it exist in a person of sound wisdom.The mind and the world are (only) the blooming of the supreme being. this is mine’. making the mind non-mind. in the place without grief. having the thorny bushes of misery. one attains liberation. let the oceans become one (to destroy the world). Sinless one. Resorting to great effort. In the un-enlightened people ignorance is seen to exist. with the mind. un-excited. ‘I am he. be blissful without mental projection. possessing (i. of ignorance. not when ignorance dies away leading to the desire for perception of the self.

eternally conscious. All this (cosmos) is Brahman. calm and unchanging. impure lump of flesh. this mind realizes through reflection – the mind is called so because of reflection. by conceiving the non-spirit as spirit. The stages between are countless and produced otherwise. the night of propensities fades away. being in the middle (unaffected).’ Whereas. Iv-116-121. great waking. with supreme resolve. The supreme lord is the ineffable conscious principle present every where and devoid of mental misery. my wealth. when the ego-aspect is dead. shining by itself common to all and free from mental torment. I have hands. The existencesupreme in nature is remaining like stone. be wise. free from waking and sleep. (simple) waking.of the mind. when the mind goes from object to object. the seven-fold delusion -when these combine among themselves. by the internal conviction. The mind is bound strongly by the resolution ‘I am not Brahman’. are not for those who do not swerve from their nature as a result of the realization of pure consciousness. The other thing namely mental projections. Do not be ignorant. untroubled. Waking in seed state. hear of its nature. Resorting to great effort. he is mine – such propensity leaps about by the tangle of senses. lapse from it is the concept of ‘I’ – attributes like desire and hate. by the sight of the sun of consciousness. it is bound by the concept in keeping with the thought ‘I am. it is released by the resolve ‘I am Brahman’. feet etc. for which you are overpowered by worldly pleasure and pain ? It is strange that the true Brahman is forgotten by people ! May you not be smeared by attachment when you are active. does not really exist. When this is ever realized as pure. give up involvement is samsara – why do you wail like an ignorant person by such attachment ? What is this body of yours.. Nothing is really born. That is one’s own (spiritual) nature which is not inert. V-8-20. the soul is not bound’. The existence in spiritual nature is said to be the destruction of mental activity. the bones. I am beyond the body’. they become manifold. is destroyed by resolution. dumb. So. which is aloof. it is released by the conviction following the thought ‘I am not miserable. the non-pulsating (placid) mind. My son. seven of wisdom. Then I shall speak truly of the seven steps of ignorance. The fall from spiritual nature. dies in this triad of worlds. ‘This ignorance is due to imagination. bound by misery. the drowning of consciousness in mental matters. and abandoning desire at a distance. dull. IV-126-131. there is no other delusion. Strange also that mountains are bound by lotus fibre ! This universe is perturbed by the ignorance which is non-existent ! Mere grass has become adamant ! -1-7. I have no body. lean. be blissful without fancy. this thought caused by force. Liberation is existence in natural (spiritual) condition. ‘I am not the flesh. now or in future. etc. nor is there any reality in various stages of things. only Pure Consciousness is real. born of ignorance. One is liberated when ignorance dies away. serene. than this. all ideation dying out. undecaying. . IV-122-125.

The first stage of knowledge – is auspicious desire.’ The dream-waking state: the inert condition of Jiva. delighting in the spirit firmly by the non-contemplation of objects internal and external. non-existent earlier. delight in the spirit – they do not drown in pleasure and pain. mirage etc. Padarthabhavana is the sixth stage resulting from the five stages. are liberated with or without the body surely. even animals. it is like the working state. The great waking: the broad (gross) concept arising in a previous birth as ‘I’ and ‘Mine’. it will not arise – Because of not seeing for long. one will not be sub-merged in the mire of illusions. Many schools speak variously of the stages of Yoga but only the following are acceptable to me: liberation follows after the seven stages. barbarians etc. awakened (impelled) by those nearby. the third is thinning of the mind.. the (subtle) concept ‘I’.The first stage is the consciousness undesirable. Thinning of the Mind is the condition where the attachment to sense-objects is reduced by means of auspicious desire and reflection. ‘Mine’ arising purely – this is waking. giving up the six conditions. being looked upon by good people ?’ Reflection is good activity (tendency) after the practice of detachment and contact with scriptures and good people. those who have reached the seventh stage. V-21-35. They perform actions following the past. pure condition. then detachment. by means of the practice of the four stages. Jiva etc. Sattvapatti is the mind in the pure Sattva condition by the practice of the above three stages. the second is reflection. The deep sleep is filled with the future misery – in which condition the world is merged in darkness. as identifying one’s self with these. The dream state: it is of many kinds arising from the waking state.. V-36-40. The ‘Fourth’ (Transcendental) condition (here the seventh) is concentration on one’s nature. like one waking from sleep. the fourth is attainment of Sattva. seeing no real difference. which has developed or not. The waking state (second): after the new stage. The seven stages have been spoken by me of ignorance – each of these has hundreds of varieties with various splendours. Nidagha. shell-silver. The Asamsakti stage is the developed condition. in the form of twomoons. The Waking-Dream: The ‘kingdom’ of the mind. The reflection by the awakened person ‘this was seen only a short time. Waking existing as seed (potential) is said to be waking-in-seed – this is the new or first condition of consciousness. These seven stages can be known only by the enlightened – reaching which condition. which will come into existence. without even a trace of involvement. the sixth is reflection on objects and the seventh is of the Turiya. Their explanation: The wise say that the auspicious desire is the desire following detachment –meditation ‘why do I remain like a fool. taking the name of mind. . They do (or not do) whatever is only relevant and minimal. The stage ‘Beyond the Fourth’ is the stage of liberation without the body. by the long practice of the six stages – this is the stage of Jivanmukti. By knowing the seven stages of knowledge.

V-44. V-42-43. Neither existent nor-existent. as a mirror. V-57. always identify yourself with that which is beyond the mind. transparent and indisputable. inertness. eternal. the principle of mindlessness (may be seen to be) the highest status. pristine and pure Spirit shines forth within as the cloudless sky in autumn. covered with main lines and sub-lines. This is to be known as having seven stages which lead to the status of Brahman. auspicious. V-56. V-55. V-60(b). nor in between. V-48. The means of calming the mind is said to be Yoga. common. having liquidated their sins. discarding all sense of wonder. the impartite Self of the cosmos. there is no feeling of ‘you’ and ‘I’. ‘As an immense rock. V-58. always identify yourself with that. whereas this position (of liberation) is devoid of such relation (of the distinct) Perceiver. ‘Now it has been known that this problem world is not produced. fuller than the fullest. more joyful than joy. alluringly named. There. V-49. ‘In the sky has sprung up a picture without a painter or a basis (i. Wise men ! The nihil. canvas). nor the negation of all. one’s own and another. ‘In between the movement of the mind from object to object there is the unqualified essence of intelligence. It has no perceiver. existing in the ether (of the heart). V-53. ‘In the conscious Self that is the witness. behold ! V-60(a). there is no existence of any thing other than pure cognition. V-41. always identify yourself with That. Beyond (worldly) perception. ‘When the mind is dissolved. dream and deep sleep or Equalities like intelligence and inertness. as there is no second entity to serve as a cause. name and cause. V-54. V-52. The body exists only when there is the relationship of the perceiver. This alluring (world) may be looked upon as a marvel.e. devoid of ailment and illusion. V-59. V-46. have attained infinitude -- . there is nothing other than pure Spirit. The one. All is calm (needing) no support. the mist of cosmic fancies will stand dissolved. ‘Excluding that heart of stone. deliberately reflect that the one Brahman is the Sky of the Spirit. ‘For curing the mind of its fickleness. Laying aside all doubts. V-51. ‘Repudiating all mental constructions. V-45. Discarding the mind in the far distance (you see) you are that which is. ‘First the mind was formed from the principle of the supreme Self. reflection.Wisdom indeed is the breaking of the knot and the liberation – the dying of the illusion of mirage. be established as That. by the mind has this world. Perception and object. devoid of states like wakefulness. now) I am at rest. ‘(The sages). ‘Long agitated (as I have been. the perceived and the vision connecting them. beyond the grasp of mind and words. V-50. the limit of one’s hope (horizon) extensive. But those who have crossed the ocean of illusion – they have reached the high position. This is immaterial perception. (it is) one’s own experience without the medium of sleep or dream. through the attenuation of mental constructions. shines forth from the nihil as the blue does from the sky. learn to regard the one Brahman with the three worlds superposed on It. been spread out. unborn. are reflected all the worlds without willing (of any kind). nor the perception of existence or non-existence. with its multitudinous details. ‘Your eternal essence (is). V-47. infinite.

when accomplished. V-78. when. the sins. when encountered by chance. so is the splendour of enjoyment (that may fall to their lot) deemed by those who know. ‘Like a bird from its cage. intent on enjoyments. and are armed with the long arrows of cravings. V-76. hard to subdue are one’s and adversaries – the sense-organs – who ride on the unruly elephants. wear off as lotuses do in winter. ‘In the case of one whose egoistic vigour has been attenuated and who has vanquished his foes. ‘As an unplanned journey to a village. due to dispassion’s power. one’s nature as Brahman becomes crystal clear owing to the experiential Knowledge (of Brahman) even as muddy water treated with the Kataka-powder. ‘From this sea of empirical life there is no way out except victory over the mind. frailties. no longer one beholds the inert (non-Seen). . etc. V-70. V-72. V-75. Now one experiences the eternal Witness. V-63-66. The thief recognised and befriended is no longer a thief but turns out to be a friend. ‘Those (sages) whose intellects are great and tranquil and who have risen above the mind. ‘Like no eternal spirits. dualities and props. ‘Locking one arm in the other. latent impressions cut capers only as long as the mind remains unvanquished for lack of intense cultivation of the non-dual truth. conquer the mind. In this vast empire of hell. who has given up all reasoning (vis-à-vis objects). V-71. setting one row of teeth on the other and putting some limbs against others. I am but Brahman that is Peace’ – thus perceives he who beholds the link between the existent and the non-existent. V-74. One is totally oblivious of the ways of the world. and due to an eminent degree of mature dispassion. one ceases to have any relish for even the so-called delectables that are (in fact) dry and tasteless.V-61(a). the knots of the heart are loosened. V-73. shrouded in the thick gloom of delusion. ‘The mind filled with (Truth) shines like the full-moon vanquishing all meanness born of perplexities and dismissing all dilemmas due to (idle) curiosities. V-69. latent impressions. empty of values but has seized on what alone has eternal value. the sense-organs. ‘One who has reasoned out (the nature of things according to the Vedanta). ‘When the net of deep-seated impressions of empirical life is split as a fowler’s net by a rat.. is treated (without) elation) by the travellers. so does the man of steadfast intellect regard (courses of) action (in his daily life). A King liberated from detention is glad to eat (but) a morsel. from delusions flies forth the mind devoid of attachments. V-77. who has dismissed the objective realm. ‘Neither I nor aught else exists here. ‘As the mind indifferently contacts objects of the senses of sight. ‘Experience lived through Knowledgeably alone proves satisfactory. While (yet) living one is awakened to the supreme Truth that alone is to be realized. V-67. the modifications of whose mind (objectively induced) have ceased. V-61(b)-62. V-68. has a mind that conforms to the eternal Reality. One unattacked and undetained hardly cares for his (entire) kingdom. ‘Even a little diversion of the well-controlled mind is reckoned quite ample. no elaboration of it is sought as such (elaboration) is a source of (future) afflictions.

by virtue of the beneficent mode. abolishes itself in yielding supreme perfection. V-92. V-83. V-82. is the third mode of self-assertion – it is empirical and petty. (Witness) the case of the Liberated in-life. they also know that un-concern is the home of joys. ‘Of the men of discrimination. ‘This (mode) promotes liberation and not bondage. V-95. neither fickle nor stirless. V-91. a protective parent as it guards and a friend as it marshals the best (arguments) V-81. ‘resorting to supreme personal endeavour and perseverance and conforming to Shastraic conduct unwaveringly. feet. ‘Extremely perverse and inveterate (in itself). the third worldly mode that occasions pain must be renounced. V-96. Mind’s affirmation is perilous. the mind-gem steeped in the mire of many flaws. etc. is a servant as it accomplishes what is sought. I am subtler than a hair’s tip’ – such. in the waters of discrimination. the first level of selfassertion). its renunciation is said to be liberation. V-93. one becomes free from all modes of selfassertion and thus ascends to the transcendent status (of freedom). Nothing other than me is – this vision is the supreme assertion of the Self as ‘I’ (or. ‘The (timeless) mind of the Knower is either blissful nor blissless. V-98. ‘Though intellectual. its negation is great good fortune. is the abode of endless pains. the mind. ‘The conviction that I am no more than a bundle of parts like hands. is the second and beneficent mode of self -assertion. when obliterated they make for wellbeing. they agonise. though extremely and variously learned. ‘Next discarding even the first two. though high-born and eminent. ‘The mind of the wise. O Brahmin. V-94. well studied with the eye of the Shastras and realized in (the light of) one’s own reason. V-86. V-90. V-80. who may not win perfection ? V-89. ‘I am this entire cosmos. (once) well-awakened and controlled and purged. . cross the sea of empirical existence. ‘The wise know that concern. one achieves liberation in peace. Nor does it occupy a mind position among all these – so maintain the wise. is a loving spouse as it pleases. ‘Resorting to the first two non-worldly modes of self-assertion. Smitten by this. V-84. V-85. V-87. ‘Bondage is nothing but craving for objective enjoyment. ‘Bound by the cords of latent impressions this world revolves (constituting empirical life). ‘The paternal mind. V-97. and a loyal chieftain as it regulates the assailing sense-organs. and beholding the Truth with the intellect. both here and hereafter. I deem. the worldly man rapidly falls ever lower. a minister as it proves the cause of all gains. one is bound by cravings as a lion is with a chain. It neither is nor is not.V-79. the delightful mind-gem shines (in one’s heart) powered by its own virtues. I deem. ‘By wholly overcoming the inimical senses. ‘O Brahmin ! To win perfection be luminous after washing clean. V-88. as such.. the mind of the ignorant is the chain (of bondage). ‘Discarding this wicked mode of self-assertion from one’s life. resorting to sovereign discrimination. in due course. I am the supreme Self that lapses not. The mind of the Knower tends to negation. ‘This root of the evil tree of empirical life is wicked and must be renounced. In manifestation. ‘I transcend all.

it is neither present nor absent here. V-104. ‘So that she may not subject you again to the sufferings of birth (etc. V-107. one flaw destroys its opposite. has been assigned designations like one’s Self. ‘By it (the highest mode of nescience) is won the knowledge that consumes all errors. ‘One poison may be neutralised by another. ‘Just as. V-103. V-114. . this Spirit neither sets nor rises. Twice-born sage ! Speculate not as to whence this (nescience) has arisen. ‘sage ! That ultimate Status which is said to be imperishable is (in truth) not won. though all perceiving. ‘Established in yourself. V-118(b). V-106. restraint of sense-organs. should renounce this (nescience) in all possible ways. viz.. ‘That integral status (includes the knowledge) ‘Whence this Maya has come and how it has perished. the purified Thou. Therefore try to treat (with remedies) this abode of diseases (i. is not observed. V-115. With certitude meditate inwardly that is homogeneous and infinite. like the day where there is the sun. ‘This Spirit has a flawless mode (of its own). ‘But a disciple whose intellect has been well-awakened. illumined by the Spirit. ‘The sea of the Spirit shines forth in one’s Self with its splendid inner vibrations.. etc. V-101-102. ‘The power of the Spirit in the sea of the Spirit is a slightly agitated state of the latter. indubitable and propless. so is there a world where there is the Spirit. V-100. Maya). ever aware of the sole Self of all that is pure in empirical life. V-105. V-111. due to subtlety ether. that the perception of difference is nescience. ‘The imperishable Spirit. ‘One who teaches an ignoramus or half-awakened (disciple) that ‘all this is Brahman’ will (in effect) plunge him in an endless series of hells. an enemy may destroy another. V-113. purify the disciple through excellence such as mind’s tranquillity. ‘The real nature of this riddle is not perceived.V-99. V-100. the wise teacher may instruct him. neither rises up nor lies (low).). when (the dawn of) awakening spreads vastly. V-108. is not (objectively) perceived. neither goes nor returns. As it is observed.e. like the fragrance where there is a flower. whose craving for objective enjoyments has been extinguished. ‘Like its effulgence where there is light. V-109. free from all imaginings and beyond nomenclature. you will realize aright the strength and weakness of the flood of my words (of instruction) – (you will realize it) by the highest mode of nescience that spurs the effort to wipe out the sphere of the petty Self. and who is free from all ‘expectations’ is rid of all impurities born of nescience. so the impartite Spirit. this very world will cease to appear as real. etc. V-117-118(a). ‘Speculate rather on: ‘how shall I destroy it ? Once it is dissipated and dispelled you will (renunciation-)cognise that status. ‘Transparent like a hundredth part of ether. V-116. partless as manifested in those who know. it perishes – observed with the flaming imagination whose content is: ‘in Truth it exists not at all’. ‘He who cherishes with the (creative) and liberating imagination (the thought that) all this is spirit. ‘When the view-point of Knowledge is purged. ‘At the very outset. Next impart to him the teaching that all this (world) is Brahman. Such is the wonderful riddle of elements that pleases through self-destruction ! V-112. O Brahmin ! One missile puts another out of action.

just as the wind automatically blows in the sky. sometimes as cognition. again. thus degenerating into dense egoism. and encompassed by a multitude of sufferings. ‘Thus are the Jivas (living beings) phases of the Spirit and established through bringing the empirical sphere into being. imagining forms. V-131. crushed by the python of rage. passes voluntarily into bondage as a silk-worm in its cocoon. The wise deem the body with its hands and feet (nothing but) the senses. attached to the waves of the sea of lust. Some will have two or more births. Their forms. ‘With its profuse imaginings the mind slowly is (transmuted into) sense-organs. ‘And. ‘In the same way. as its seeds the fig-tree.V-119. Other ideas (views). which. names. and its forms are rooted in manifold (mental) constructions. ‘Thus. who is pre-eminently established in her infinitude. sometimes as intellect. others have (already) had more than a hundred births. ‘The tainted egoism. becomes totally dependent finding itself within a net of its own imaginings and nothing more. V-135(b)-136. That omnipotent Deity flashes forth for a moment. this entire empirical sphere that fashions the cords of cravings. the Jiva is verily a tree sans fruits. Like a wave in the sea.. V-132. it is the basis of space. Some are born as sub-human and super-human beings. V-137. like a lion in chains. V-125. gifted with music and Knowledge. O Brahmin. ‘Sometimes it is called Prakriti and sometimes it is held to be Maya. the Self in itself. Sometimes it is egoism and sometimes it is held to be what is thought. V-127. indeed. ‘He (‘the Knower of the field’) generating latent impressions. time and action are not enhanced (by any means). She brings into being a finite form. is the mind consumed in the flames of worries. becomes the base for cogitation (or mind). ‘Yet others have (already) had countless births. Sometimes it is designated a ‘flaw’ and sometimes referred to as ‘action’. is called intellect. ‘Sometimes (it operates as) mind. V-134-135(a). ‘Others also will be born like multitudes of water-drops from a water-fall. becomes mobile. V-121. by its own power. being fully conscious of her own essential nature. ‘The potent Spirit. V-123-124(a). besides. . ‘Bearing within itself. have been assigned by Brahma. some as mighty reptiles. Sometimes it is said to be avidya and sometimes it is identified with ‘desire’. Numberless (Jivas) were born in the past and even now are being brought forth on all sides. follow her. V-128. ‘Sometimes it is proclaimed as bondage and sometimes accounted the ‘eight-fold case’. as determiner. V-133. and oblivious of its own grand progenitor (the Spirit): -. V-129. sometimes as (pure) action. etc. V-120. The individual self (‘Knower of the field’) is the designation of this form of the Spirit.rescue it. V-126. time and activity. number. V-138. V-124(b). Some of them are in their first birth. in lakhs and Crores. ‘Whose potencies of space. Un-comprehended. V-130. in stages descends the Jiva. When that supremely enchanting Deity brings forth that (finite) form. V-122. bound by the cords of imaginings and impressions. assumes the form of egoism. that pure Power shines forth there. O Brahmin ! Like an elephant stuck in the morass.

Of the two sides are the hands and in the middle what functions as the belly. V-153. is generated the fire. Sahya. energy. the mind grows grosser as a Bilva-fruit does through the process of ripening. V-156. forms of knowledge and lordship. V-142. ‘Hit ceaselessly by death. V-148(b)-149(a). ‘In the beginning in a moment. Tala and Tamala. undetermined by space. the bases of sound and touch. V-151. V-158(b)-160(a). wondered what . gets established in intelligence. Possessed of innate tendencies (to manifest) various orders of living beings. ‘Conjoined to the element of egoism and the seed of the intellect. trees. ‘The mind thus enriched by such attributes meditates all at once on rudimentary smell. becoming dense. the seed of sound. Jivas are (also to be identified with) trees like the Kadamba. strength. ‘That effulgence in the sky. V-141. V-154. some descend and again fly upwards. V-143-144(a). the blessed Lord. the Constructive Power of the Mind fashions the transparent (image of) space inclined to own. V-140. Vaishyas. ‘Some of (these living beings) are (to be identified with) the sun. fall into the turmoils of worldly life. again. by intense repetitive frictions. the Jambira.. ‘Due to intensity of yearning in it. ‘Beholding his own attractive and pre-eminent body. the Sama. herbs. V-152. purity. roots and winged insects. thence arises the perception of the earth-element. ‘That same divine Brahma. Kshatriyas. with their fruits. becomes aware of the coolness of water followed by the perception of water. assumes a form with definite contours by virtue of its inherent nature. ‘Then the mind enriched by these three including rudimentary form proceeds to the notion of pure liquidity and. the grandfather of the entire world. V-155. by virtue of Its power. that is unstable and inclined to construction and dissolution. this bee in the lotus of the elemental heart is (now) styled the Puryashtaka. milk. ‘Others with grass. some unwise ones despite (a degree of) discrimination. etc. ‘Next this body encompassed by the rudimentary elements discards its subtleness beholding in the sky a flash like a spark of fire. V-157(a). these Jivas are ceaselessly struck down by death as balls are by the hand. Malaya. just sportively assumes a body spatial and temporal.V-139. the range of whose perception embraces all the three divisions of time. ‘And with mounts like Mahendra. ‘The principle of the Self. ‘Upwards is the round head. as though they are balls hit by the hands. others with Shiva. Sudras. Mandara and Meru. and with the seas of salt water. V-149(b)-150. Itself is the supreme (Lord and Creator) that becomes the mind. shining like liquid gold in a crucible. V-146-148(a). V-157(b)-158(a). ‘And with the vast quarters. as its essence. downwards the feet. Some divided themselves as Brahmins. ‘In course of time the body (indwelt by the mind) gets fully developed and becomes flawless. Vishnu and Brahma. Having undergone thousands of births. that mind brings forth the vibrations of air inclined to own the seed of touch. Then. instantaneously. ‘Of these two space and air. some of these sport high above (the earth). time. V-144(b)-145. by meditating on a resplendent embodiment. and fast-running rivers. the moon and the lord of waters. by the process of gross vibrations. ghee and sugarcane-juice.

All that is seen is unreal (neither is nor is not). ‘Those men who know this world as well as what is beyond conform to all things. a city in the sky. if the glamour of objects charms not your heart. V-171. V-164. it lasts only as long as Brahma. at any time. remains untarnished like a lotus leaf unmoistened by water. neither cling to nor fly from the objective realm. you have crossed the sea of empirical life. ‘Give up the idle show of empirical life. free from attachment and aversion. V-175. by (sheer) imagination. Who can have a sense of reassurance here as the nescience of delusion gets more and more entrenched ? V-169. whether adorned or not. ‘O twice-born (sage).. ‘(Then) sportively he fashioned. Next he recollected them all in the due order of all their attributes. ‘For securing their happy state as well as liberation. with his destruction. V-163. V-174. ‘O best of Brahmins. ‘Therefore. ‘The sprouting of mental construction consists in Spirits’ proneness to objects (‘knowables’) – the Spirit that is infinite. cause a fool to get attached (to this world) are the source. Nidagha. love and wealth. for attaining righteousness. that is the Truth of the Self. V-167. of his dispassion. the world too perishes. V-173. V-177. ‘Sorrow – and not a sense of gratification – is in order as regards wealth and spouse in their nourishing state. in their abundance. They neither shun nor seek the ways of the world. V-176. ‘The intelligence of a wise and active man. cultivate indifference to whatever has perished among the activities of empirical life and accept whatever offers itself. is born or is destroyed. variegated living beings with their unique patterns of behaviour – the whole constituting. ‘Those very (empirical) experiences which. ‘As the existence of the world has been set up by mind in the form of Brahma. by means of supreme wisdom. or the parts of its constitutive case (the nescience). ‘In large groups he behold bygone orders of (cosmic) manifestation. V-166. . with your awareness of Truth. Knowing this to be unreal. ‘In order to win the pre-eminent Status separate. V-165. ‘Thus wondered Brahma whose vision was as flawless as that of Shiva. ‘Knowing and resorting to the untarnished middle status between the real and the unreal. he set up Shastras endless and varied.first would make its appearance in this supreme space whose essence is pure Spirit and whose limits are nowhere. what rationale is there for pleasures and pains ? V-168. then. V-172. reduce them all to the status of their ground. V-160(b). Vis-à-vis ‘the city in the sky’. V-162. in reality nothing anywhere. V-170. ‘The superior men of discrimination who board the Ship of Wisdom cross this sea of empirical life full of the waters of latent impressions. in the case of a wise man. the functioning mind from (all) latent impressions as one does a strong scent from the flower. having grasped what ought to be known (achieved true wisdom). as it were. V-178. progeny etc. external or internal. and that is Universal Being. ‘The marks of a man of discrimination are spontaneous indifference to experiences that do not come of their own accord and hearty acceptance of those that do. V-161. a very pit of the serpents of cravings.

VI-3. VI-8. V-181. Thus one never again pursues the trail of construction. ‘Having totally wiped out from the heart the massed rows of latent impression. Persevere in stopping mental construction.. amidst all emotional moods. There is no doubt in that. I am one and this is another – give up this delusion. Anchored in it the mind is no more reborn. pervaded by That. you remain what you (really) are. Mind battens on itself.V-179. V-182. ‘Stead-fast in the final stability. Giving up everything together with its cause – the dichotomy between Spirit and mind. VI-4. V-183. ‘Wise Brahmin ! Just as a paddy husk or the black coating on copper. there is no world that is not the Self through and through. V-180. is the supreme Deity. the Spirit is transformed into a constructive process. through reasoning. VI-10. VI-11. ‘By means of the trenchant and creative thought. in the regions between. "I am a non-agent in all contexts". VI-9. give up the very tendency to renunciation. ‘Getting (off construction) abide in the Self. the innate impurity of a Jiva. Once this is done. ‘As a grain of paddy. you remain what you (really) are. there is the Self. O sage ! V-184. be steadfast. of empirical life. (One act of) construction leads to another. ‘I have seen all that is worth seeing. (Mental) construction is indeed the process of putting together (of constituents). (the regions of) empirical existence. dwell not on positive existence. ‘Imagining objects as other than the Self. V-185. ‘In regard to all elaborations of pain due solely to one’s sense of agency. through and through. "supreme immortality". there remains but the (perception of) sameness. through delusion have I wandered in all the ten directions of space. O sinless one ! Sportively roam the world. what can prove difficult ? Just as this sky is empty. up and down. it comes automatically into being and waxes fast unto pain. so is the entire cosmos. there is nothing which is not That. here and there. called. O sinless one ! . as it were. VI-1. too. one who remains free from all anxiety is the liberated. (finally) there remains but sameness when one’s mental constructions dwindle away. ‘In the body with its ins and outs. never unto delight. etc. For the ignorant who roams. just as a seed is into a sprout. ‘Giving up the deeply felt and seductive glamour. ‘This sameness. (the process of) mental construction dwindles automatically. ‘Indulge not in mental construction. strive’. VI-2. the latter shrinks into the dimensions of a cow’s hoof. consisting in imagination. then it promotes inertness like a cloud. ‘That very sprouting having lightly come into being gradually fills out. through effort. ‘All this is indeed Brahman. ‘There is nothing in which I am not. Therefore. is the status grounded in Truth. VI-6-7. ‘O. What more do I want ? All things are essentially Being and Spirit. is destroyed so also may the mental impurities of man. in a state of stability. all this extended reality is the Self. (be you) sky-like with a stilled intellect. V-186. ‘By the mere absence of imagination. sage ! Renouncing all forms of agency and non-agency and abolishing the mind. can be destroyed in ample measure. the latent impressions and what generates them – as well as the vibrations of vital breath. light and darkness. developing into the mind. VI-5. VI-12. as it were.

I have long been under his assault. This example has been offered to suit best those who develop dispassion. be wholly firm. without latent impressions. that occupies the middle ground between the "is" and the "is not". VI-21. ‘The certitude of the joy of cognition (results from) intimate contact of the perceiver and the object. VI-15(a). qualities (such as): freedom from desire and fear. VI-19. ugliness on the top of things lovely. VI-17. conation and action. VI-18. ‘With the sharp needle of (penetrating) intelligence. delusion. Seek not to seize what is fit only to be eschewed. remain rooted in what is neither to be rejected nor seized. ‘Empirical life is said to be the very limit of sufferings. Of what account are folk like my (humble) self ? VI-26. these adversaries in the form of sense-organs. ‘As Indra smites mountain peaks with his thunder-bolt. VI-20. When (one’s) body has slipped into its depths. In the period that remains one is worried by one’s wife. experiencing things as they occur and entertaining no desire whatsoever. in youth one in vanquished by woman. ‘We duly meditate on the eternal Self. VI-31-32. we duly meditate on the Self that manifests Itself first as perception. There is neither sorrow. VI-23. eternity. Then abide in the vast status (as immutable Brahman). ‘In childhood one is stupefied by ignorance. steadfastness. extended and undivided Brahman. ‘Magnanimous one ! Flawless cognitions swiftly fly to him who finds himself in his last birth. so should one strike. both active and passive. gentleness. Neither shunning nor grasping. certitude. amiability. ‘Don’t be depressed. with the rod of discrimination. I shall destroy him. What single entity may I resort to ? VI-25. ‘In the evil dream (seen) in the night of empirical life – in this empty illusion of the body – everything experienced (as the extended) delusion of empirical) life is impure. the illumination of all lights. ‘(But wail as follows): Unreality rides on the top of existence. equality. ‘Even those men pass away on the closing and opening of whose eyes depends world’s disaster or prosperity. ‘The Knower rid of things to be rejected or seized has. contentment.VI-13. even as a strong wind scatters (the vast) net of clouds. VI-15(b)-16. how can pleasure be won ? VI-27. VI-29-30. We duly meditate on that stable Self. be always calm. ‘I am awake ! I am awake ! ! Here is the wicked thief (who has been pestering me. Always be calm. ‘What (in reality) is here only That exists. What can one – the meanest of men – accomplish ? VI-24. VI-28. those who run after (some other) God are in fact seeking a gem after casting away the Kaustubha already in their possession. pains ride on the top of pleasures. VI-22.) the mind. manifest in the truth of one’s self (the source of the joy of cognition). ‘The superimposed (objects) cannot possibly be in the eternal. VI-14. Giving up (ideas of both) rejection and seizure. old age nor birth.. viz. ‘Discarding the Lord who reigns in the heart. . just as pure pearls lodge themselves in the best bamboo. tear up the nest cast by the fisher-woman of Craving in the waters of transmigratory life – a net made of the cords of (variegated) thoughts. wisdom. charity and soft-spokenness. ‘Giving up the seer’s perception and the object together with latent impressions.

is extolled as worthy of profound meditation ! VI-44. you are liberated. This renunciation. dwelling in a place. Nidagha. VI-39. you have no mind. have achieved the status as Brahman – the (passive) renouncer and (the active) Yogin. steady yourself off and on. eschew (all) clinging. mental modifications. as such. . ‘The same freed from latent impressions bound up with objects. he is the liberated. "I am (the very) life of these objects and these objects are my (very) life !" "without these I am nothing and they are nothing without me" and reflecting. unconcerned about pleasures and pains that occur in the due course of time. "I do not belong to (any) object and no object belongs to me". birth and fear. ‘Dwelling on "the taste". is said to be bound. resorting to the propless. His renunciation may only be deduced. VI-41-43. VI-38. is said to be liberated. having won which one gives up (even) the body as one is free from all sense of possessions. be ever given to the contemplation of your Self as (pure) awareness. VI-36. ‘Cutting through this innate and sinful craving whose essence is egoism with the needle of self-abnegation. VI-45. Know that the desire culminating in the prayerful thought. VI-49-50(a). intolerance. ‘Cleaving the mind with the mind itself as one does a tree with an axe. be steadfast. the intellect becomes tranquillised and the actions are performed in a sporting spirit. O Lord of sages ! For they neither strive for nor reject anything amidst the inner. VI-51-52(a). That (indeed) should be deemed the obliteration of latent impressions. O Brahmin. in the intervals of subjective and objective awareness. who is neither lifted up nor depressed by the emotions of joy. VI-47-48. ‘He is called the Jivanmukta who lives as one in dreamless sleep. VI-34. total obliteration of latent impressions is acquired. ‘"Neither am I nor is this real" – so thinking remain absolutely immovable. sleeping or walking. Therefore. ‘Having given up all baseless (mental) constructions and the latent impressions. VI-40. Rid of what enjoys and what is enjoyed. entirely quelling all fear whatsoever. and attaining the holy status. set in the middle ground between the object and its enjoyer. to be a strong chain that spawns suffering. ‘If you depend on this objective (world). oriented towards external objects. at once. ‘Those who are bound by ropes are released: (but) none in the grip of craving may be released by anyone. shed craving by renouncing all mental constructions.VI-33. he who has won tranquillity is the best among the Knowers of Brahman. If you reject the objective (world). inwardly sure that (all) this is but unreal. ‘Rejecting the inveterate idea. ‘Due to the equilibrium of the intellect. Latent impression (of such an agent) stand renounced. VI-35. both of whom are self-disciplined and tranquillised. flying aloft or falling down. for he has recreatively given up all latent egoistic impressions. ‘These two fearless ones. ‘the craving born of latent impressions. "let this be mind". you have a mind and are in bondage. VI-50(b). ‘Standing or moving. VI-37. ‘He is called the Jivanmukta (Liberated-in-life) who lives after giving up all conceivable objects. lust and helplessness and who is free from all objective pre-occupations. anger. fear. be stationed in the border land of the future and the present. VI-46. be filled with the supreme Self.

free from it all. ‘Good men have second kind of certitude that promotes liberation – viz. VI-59. ‘Who performs the actions that fall to his lot. VI-60. ‘Renouncing egoism. I am (the body) from the foot to the head. the entire indestructible universe. ‘Inwardly shedding all cravings. ‘Resorting to the primeval vision (of Reality) marked by the renunciation of all objects and Self-established. ‘Elevated. ‘There flourishes but the non-dual Power that is the supreme Self through and through. leading. (but) externally conforming to established patterns of conduct. is but myself". roam the world with a purified understanding. pure Spirit. shining like the sky. speaks pleasantly when asked. conforming to established norms of conduct. it sportively builds up the universe with (factors) born of (both) duality and nonduality. VI-58. never suffers in this empirical life. yielding liberation (that consists of the assertion) "I and the entire world are empty and sky-like at all times". who is neither agitated. VI-55. Those having the last three are sportive. and who is conversant with the thoughts of all beings never suffers in this empirical life. ‘Best of Brahmins. VI-67. ‘Also there is a fourth certitude. ‘Then outgrowing the attachment both to bondage and liberation and the states of pain and pleasure – attachment both to the real and unreal – remains unshaken like the unagitated ocean. ‘The magnanimous man renounces (this enchaining desire) vis-à-vis objects both real and unreal and wins the status that is sublime. free from all inner clinging. It has also been said to be "Shiva. VI-54(b). ‘that Brahman has been (identified with) emptiness. the eternal and the self". VI-57. rid of a(all) latent impressions. as a (veritable) Jivanmukta. nor complacent. ‘Good Sir. ‘He who resorts to the status beyond all objects. O Brahmin. free from attachment. VI-65. who is through and through the Spirit that is perfect. man may have a four-fold certitude. extremely pure and are liberated in this (very) life. an empirical life. I am subtler than the tip of a hair". results from the observation of the worries of bondage ! VI-56.: "I am beyond all objects and beings. ‘Externally simulating enthusiastic activity. VI-66. the Lord. Maya and also consciousness. fearlessly roam the world. VI-53(b)-54(a). the mind seized with the certitude "I am everything" is never born again to taste of sorrow ! VI-61. VI-64. This particular certitude. ‘Engendered by (my) mother and father. VI-69. Their cravings have been (wholly) purified. but. who is liberated from both likes and dislikes is neither sad nor hopeful. VI-62. a third kind of certitude has been affirmed promotive of liberation alone (consisting in the thought) " All this objective world. at heart. VI-70. apparently an agent (but) really a non-agent. . fearlessly roam the world. ‘Great-souled (sage). ever viewing foe and friend alike. VI-63. with an apparent reason. roam the world with a purified understanding. Prakriti. as it were. VI-68. clean of conduct.VI-52(b)-53(a). ‘Who utters what pleases all. untarnished. ‘Of these the first is said (to result from) the craving that earns bondage.

seer. day after day ? VI-77(b). ears.VI-71. VI-83. beyond all cravings and sufferings. May I never deny Brahman. Knowledge pure and simple". behold (the world). Only small men discriminate saying: One is a relative. ‘Resorting to the inner Spirit of renunciation. these worlds are Spirit. by the sun. who are all mental constructions are extinguished and where no attachments finds lodgement. beyond old age and death. he becomes initiated. it achieves perfection along the path of negation (of the object). eyes. ‘"I am the glory (mahas). He hollows the rows (of living beings) as far as the eye reaches. Through detachment. So declares Hiranyagarbha. The Brahmin seeker after Truth who dwells upon the Mahopanishad becomes a well versed Vedic scholar. all is Self" – this is the essence of all Vedantic doctrines. VI-74(a). the status of bliss (holding): I am Spirit. Om ! Let my limbs and speech. apparently he acts to achieve (some) aim (or other). All existence is the Brahman of the Upanishads. of having repeated Itihasa and Puranas and Srirudra a Lac of times. once free from these. VI-73(b). resort to the status of certitude and be self-established in the Self. VI-74(b)-75. Prana. he becomes purified by fire. absolutely pure. all yearnings abolished. VI-82. one is not vanquished by crisis. VI-80-81. eternally manifest. these manifested beings are Spirit. nor Brahman deny me. wholly pure of form. ‘(The mind. vitality And all the senses grow in strength. ‘By the prop of detachment and excellences like magnanimity. by all agents of purification. ‘Equipped thus and roaming (the earth). rid of all appearances. spirit. ‘This is the status of Brahman. and seven generations both in the past and in the future. ‘"Consciousness (Spirit) is never an object. Resorting to this sure doctrine. VI-76-77(a). VI-79. by the moon. is cleaned (as if he has dipped) in all sacred waters. liberation follows. Resort to the status free from all considerations of empirical life. VI-72-73(a). then) is emptied of all cravings as the pure lake is (of water) in the season of autumn. VI-78. intellectually and freely. To him accrue the fruits of having repeated the Gayatri sixty thousand times. Let there be no denial at all: . He has (as it were) performed all sacrifices. by Truth. the other is a stranger. witness. free from all objects. by air. ‘Through repetition of sacred utterances one wins immortality’ – this is the Mahopanishad. devoid of objects and perceptions. ‘You will independently achieve the Self. ‘Bondage is fashioned by consciousness (as subject) and its objects. for which no knowables exist. He becomes known to all gods. ‘For those who live magnanimously the entire world constitutes but a family. He dwells in the thoughts of all gods. of having repeated Omkara ten thousand times. the full-orbed light in essence. the directions (in Space) are Spirit. Why is not an intelligent man ashamed of clinging to the same dry routine of insipid actions. lift up your mind yourself perseveringly in order to enjoy the fruit of Brahmic freedom. (If) uninitiated. "King of sages ! With all mental constructions wiped out.

Prajapati. Thou art the true and the good. My teacher. may He protect. O Vayu. Aryaman. Thou verily art perceptible Brahman. I-3: He by whom the space between heaven and earth as well as the heaven and the earth are enveloped. . I-2: That in which all this universe exists together and into which it dissolves. ------------------------------------------------------- 50]Maha Narayana Upanishad Translated by Swami Vimalananda Published by Sri Ramakrishna Math. may they reside in me. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Mahopanishad. Om ! May He protect us both together. I bow down to Brahman in reverence. included in the Sama-Veda. I shall declare: Thou art right. may He protect. is supported by His own imperishable nature described as absolute ether. May we work conjointly with great energy. May He preserve the teacher.Let there be no denial at least from me. He by whom the sun burns with heat and gives light. May our study be vigorous and effective. Indra. in whom – The Imperishable One – all creatures abide. on the earth and above the heaven and who is greater than the great. having entered the shining intelligences of creatures in seed form. That in which all the gods remain enjoying their respective powers – That certainly is whatever that has been in the past and whatever indeed is to come in the future. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). May the virtues that are proclaimed in the Upanishads be in me. may He nourish us both together. May that – the Supreme Being adored as Vayu – preserve me. and He whom the sages bind in the ether of their hearts (with the string of meditation). acts in the foetus (which grows into the living being that is born). Chennai Hari Om ! May Mitra. I bow down to Thee in adoration. Who am devoted to the Atman. Me. who is present in the shoreless waters. This cause of the universe. Varuna. Brihaspati And all-pervading Vishnu be propitious to us And grant us welfare and bliss. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! I-1: The Lord of creation.

fire and other elements. I-11: His form is not to be beheld.] [Hymn to Hiranyagarbha – from Taittiriya-Samhita IV-1-8: . and seasons. Wise men realize the source of the universe. Thyself being Brahma. months. [Paramatma-sukta or Hiranyagarbha-sukta – from Yajur-Veda-Samhita: 1. That is Sun. Hri and Lakshmi are Thy consorts. and who was born as the eldest among the gods. were born from the self-luminous Person. spiritual illumination. Knowing Him thus in this life itself. grant me whatever I desire. O Sun. Vishnu and Siva. kalas. which Marichi and other sages attained. I-7: That alone is Fire: That is Air. I-10: No person ever grasped by his understanding the upward limit of this Paramatman. Day and night are Thy two sides. who is of unlimited forms. – That sage who knows the Supreme as described before will have sovereignty over gods. 2. Those who meditate on Him with their minds undistracted and fixed in the heart know Him. muhurtas. That verily is Moon. Salutation to the resplendent Sun-God who is the son of Para-Brahman. The sun who is the Lord of creatures moves about in the space between heaven and earth causing day and night. He excelled Aditya. who is invoked as the beneficent leader of the gods. for he has become the Inmost Self of all. nor His middle portion. sought the position. being the Self of all. one transcends death. The sun called Tvasta rises in the morning embodying His brilliance. Him. I-8-9: All nimesas. The Ashvins are Thy mouth. or subtler than. none whosoever beholds Him with the eye. who is the universe. I-6: Sages declare: That alone is right and That alone is true: That alone is the venerable Brahman contemplated by the wise. When the gods instituted the Knowledge of Brahman they declared thus teaching about the Supreme reality. the allpervading Paramatman. the first patriarchs. That alone being the navel of the universe. who remains beyond darkness or Prakriti and who is higher than the highest – nothing else exists other than. Indra and other gods. 6. who is one without a second. who is imperishable. quadrupeds and men as the inner controller. sustains manifoldly the universe which arose in the past and which springs to existence at present. who entered beings consisting of herbs. His name is ‘great glory’ for no one limits His nature by definition. Prajapati. That is Food. half-months. who shines for the benefit of gods. they become immortal. who is ancient. Although He is unborn. The universe arose from Visvakarman through water. earth.I-4-5: From whom the creatrix of the world. There is no other path leading to the attainment of liberation. In the beginning of creation the mortal world enveloped in gloom received its divine brilliance from the sun shining in the glory of Paramatman. He milked water and also these two. was born. I know this Great Person who is beyond ignorance and darkness and whose splendour is comparable to that of the sun. 4. Acts of worship and social utility also are that Reality. He manifests Himself as the manifold universe. Prakriti. 3. nor His limit across. That is Water and He is the Lord of creatures. kasthas. who is greater than the greatest. Asterisms in the sky are Thine own form. The year also was born from Him. happiness here and other objects of desire. That alone is shining Stars and Ambrosia. the firmament and the heaven. days. 5. who created in the world creatures out of elements such as water. Being such.

who is the one God ruling over all the rest. faces. hands and feet of all creatures in every part of the universe. . shining by light and established for the protection of the world view in mind as the source of their greatness. Having been born as Hiranyagarbha in the beginning He indeed is inside the universe represented as the womb. Who became the sovereign ruler of all beings living and existing on the earth. whose greatness the ocean along with rivers proclaim. Who – the Hiranyagarbha – viewed the waters which create fire and support the Vedic acts of worship (in order to endow it with such potency). He who exists as the warp and woof in all created beings. who is the maker of Rajasa creation in the mid-region. 5. declare. to whose hands engaged in dispensing justice may be compared the eight directions. 3. May we worship that shining One with offerings – who is of the nature of bliss or whose characteristic nature cannot be interrogated. By whom the powerful sky and the terrestrial region were made firm. 7. Whose glory the mountains. 8. supported by whom the sun moves gloriously after rising. the Himalayas and the rest. 6. (Having created the universe by Himself and out of Himself. heaven and earth. He by whom the three states (of waking. who controls as the indwelling Spirit all the bipeds and quadrupeds evident on the earth. whom immortality and death obey like shadow. He alone is the manifold world of creation now springing into existence and causing the birth of the world of creation yet to come. who is the bestower of strength (as nourisher through food). He controls all of them by dharma and adharma (merit and demerit) represented as His two hands and the constituent elements of the universe which have supplied the Souls with the material embodiment represented as patatra or legs. The same Paramatman.) He became the possessor of the eyes. the Gandharva named Vena became a true knower of all the worlds and proclaimed (to his disciples for the first time) that Reality as immortal. I-13: The Self-luminous Reality is one without a second and is the creator of heaven and earth. Having been born He became the one sustainer and nourisher of all beings. 4. I-14-15: He in whom this universe originates and into whom it is absorbed. 2. by whom the blissful heaven was awarded to the virtuous.] I-12: This Self-luminous Lord renowned in the scriptures pervades all the quarters of heaven. dream and deep sleep) are appointed in the intellects hidden in creatures. by whom Release was appointed for the virtuous. The resplendent Prajapati was born at the beginning of creation from the Supreme potent with the power of Maya. here designated as Hiranyagarbha. whose command even gods are eager to receive. Whom the dual deity.1. He dwells also as the inner most Self leading all creatures. He who knows that all-pervasive One becomes worthy of receiving the honour due to a father even from his own natural father. As one having face everywhere. Who is the giver of Self (all Selves in reality being Himself). supports the earth as well as heaven. Through the power of whom the great Causal Waters holding within it the power of unfoldment and the capacity to produce fire transformed itself into the form of the world and from whom the one Breath of all gods came into existence. He in whom the universe finds a single place of rest – having seen that Paramatman.

I-26: May we know that Divine Person. may we meditate upon Mahasena. I-17: They (i. may we meditate upon Vasudeva. They pervade other worlds. unintermittently pervading the creation like the thread of a cloth. may we meditate upon Mahadeva and to that meditation may Rudra impel us. For that. the thousand-eyed Great God. May Aditya impel us towards it. I-22: May we know the Supreme Person and for the attainment of His Knowledge may we meditate upon Him. For that. For that. I-33: May we know Katyayana.I-16: Through whose power the gods who have attained immortality in the third region of heaven got allotted their respective places. may we meditate upon the great-light-producer. I-29: May we know Narayana. May Shanmukha impel us towards it. may we meditate upon Vakratunda. impel us towards such meditation and keep us in it. may we meditate on Suvarnapaksha. I-24: May we know the Supreme Person. I-30: May we know Vajranakha. For that. may we meditate upon Chakratunda. the first born of Brahman known as Prajapati or Hiranyagarbha became by His own nature as Paramatman. I-31: May we know Bhaskara. May Narasimha impel us towards it. Give me sustenance and longevity and appoint a suitable dwelling for me in any direction. by contemplation in mind. I-28: May we know the Veda. May Durgi impel us towards it. the giver of Knowledge. May Nandi impel us towards it. For that. I-21: O Jatavedas. O Fire. father and ordainer. For that. horses. For that. May Garuda impel us towards it. May Dantin impel us towards it. For that. through Thy grace may not the evil one slay our cows. He is our friend. Confer on me enjoyments of various kinds including cattle. truly becomes That. embodied as the four-faced Brahma. shine brilliantly in order to destroy the sins connected with me. may we meditate upon Hiranyagarbha. who is worthy of reverence and who is the bestower of intellectual powers. the quarters of heaven and the heavenly region called Suvarloka. For that. May Rudra. For that. come to succour us without holding weapons in Thy hand or thoughts of our offences in Thy mind. I-18: Having pervaded the worlds and the created beings and all the quarters and intermediate quarters. who is covetable. .e. may we meditate upon Tikshnadamstra. those who have realized their identity with the Highest Lord) immediately spread over heaven and earth. May Vishnu impel us towards it. men and other belongings in the world. Unite me on all sides with wealth. I-20: O Jatavedas. I-19: I pray I may attain to the marvellously excellent Lord of the unmanifest cause of the universe who is dear to Indra and my own Self. the ruler and protector of individual souls. I-32: May we know Vaishvanara. may we meditate upon Lalila. I-23: May we know or realize the Supreme Person. For that. Whosoever among created beings sees that Brahman named Rita or ‘the True’. I-25: May we know the Divine Person. May Brahman impel us towards it. may we meditate upon Kanyakumari. May Agni impel us towards it. I-27: May we know that Divine Person. He knows the proper places of each because He understands all created beings.

just as thou growest farther and farther multiplying at every node putting forth roots and fresh stalks. spreads over the whole world up to its boundary. who shakes enemies. who strikes with stones. May Brihaspati. Brahman. I-48: May Sri favour me. a chariot and Vishnu. the cause of fear. the support of all. I-36: O Devi. He illumines also the heavenly bodies. May the allknowing or all-possessing Pusan vouchsafe to us well-being. I-41: O Indra. who wields weapons and who delights in soma juice kept over. may we worship thee with oblations – thou who multipliest thyself by hundreds and growest in thousands. I-43: May Indra who is profusely praised by the devotees through sacred hymns. so also help us to grow in progeny by hundreds and thousands. He also spreads over and permeates the causal substance out of which the visible and the invisible universe emerges. Thou art prayed over by Kashyapa. i. for everything depends on thee. worshipped by devotees. enemies and hell) of which we are afraid. rich in cowdung and the mistress of all created beings. causes the jungles of dried up trees and bushes (to grow by the downpour of rains). O earth. who has many deeds. (Represented as such the earth is addressed): Thou wert raised up by Krishna in His incarnation of the boar having hundred hands. the noon sun who was born at the beginning of creation as the first effect of the Supreme Reality. and who is of excellent brilliance. the preceptor of gods. vouchsafe to us safety and well-being. who is unassailable. I attain to the highest goal. that is in us (thy devotees). my sins having been destroyed by thee. protect me at every step. I-40: O excellent earth. O Maghavan. I-38: The earth is the giver of happiness like the milch cow. I-47: I invoke in this act of worship Sri. He remains manifoldly in his own limited forms which are like himself. or frequently worshipped with oblations. The gods having Vishnu for their chief (who is the perpetual abode of Sri) by the help of (the . I-35: O durva. on which all creatures are supported. destroy that. O excellent earth. May Alakshmi connected with me and mine be destroyed. I-39: O excellent earth. I-44: Soma who is of mild anger. I-45: Vena. who is the lord of people. who is the subduer of enemies and giver of rain. grant us well-being. who represents the divine Spirit. make us fearless of those (causes such as sin. Counter-weights do not weigh down making Indra light. cleanse all that (sin) from me. vouchsafe to us safety. who is peaceable and giver of safety.e. the son of Triksha. who is the slayer of Vritra. I-37: O earth that is traversed by a horse. O excellent earth. May Garuda. whose chariot is not injured by anyone. For our protection destroy our harassing enemies. remove all my impurities.I-34: May durva (the panic grass). who is superior to a thousand purifying agencies. O excellent earth grant me prosperity. destroy my evil deeds as well as sins connected with me. the sustainer of life and support for all living beings. I shall keep thee on my head. I-42: May Indra come to our succour – Indra who is the giver of welfare on earth and bliss in the next world. be to us an ender of sorrows and giver of bliss here and hereafter. who has innumerable nodes and sprouts and who destroys the effects of evil dreams. I-46: Being the producer of creatures including men and their settler in respective regions and also far-famed for forbearance. thou art a gift from God to creatures. who is known through smell. perpetually prosperous.

the right and the true were generated. O Arjikiya. unlawful drinking and accepting gifts from an unlawful person. by His resolve. May we attain to that satisfactory abode of yours which you are pleased to grant us. I-64-65: Then. I-63: From the all-illuminating Supreme. sky and earth and the atmosphere and blissful heaven. I-52: O Indra. sanctifying feet (or by virtuous conduct) crosses over evil deeds and their effects. O slayer of Vritra. impure and troublesome in water be destroyed. Vitasta and Sushoma. Asikni. May Indra armed with thunderbolt and worshipful moon grant us happiness. O Sarasvati. For I have enjoyed what belongs to bad people and accepted gift from sinners. Having been rendered holy by that naturally pure and purifying feet of the Lord (or conduct) may we overcome our enemies. give us victory in battle and grant us safety and fearlessness from every quarter. I-51: He who is rendered holy by the ancient. Slay our enemies. make me the presser of soma juice. grant us food. verily you are bliss-conferring. word and act. grant me the saving grace. Varuna. and great and beautiful insight (of the Supreme Truth). the consort of Varuna. And from Him again was generated the sea with different waters. who is of golden lustre or who has a golden diadem. I-50: O Lord of prayers. I-62: O Ganga. Afterwards the ruler of the world of sentient and non-sentient beings who made day and night ordained sun and moon. I-61: May the sin-effacing Varuna who dwells in other sources of water like rivers. in the hell.means prescribed in) the Vedas won these worlds for themselves free from the fear of enemies. just like fond mothers (who nurse their darlings with nourishment). O Sutudri. come together and listen to this hymn of mine along with Parushni. I-53: For us may (the regents of) water and herbs be friendly and to those who dislike us and whom we dislike let them be unfriendly. I-58: (Through the power of this mantra) let all that is injurious. May he destroy the evil one hostile to us. O Yamuna. Salutation to Indra. being entreated by me. Let those who are hostile to us remain ‘there’ long. . O Varuna. just as they were in the previous cycles of creation. I-60: Thus being sinless. the sins. may I ascend to the happy heaven and enjoy equality of status with Brahman. accept with pleasure our soma oblation in the company of your retinue and troop of gods. Further make us in this very life participators of that joy of yours which is most auspicious. Brihaspati and Savitur completely destroy that sin committed by me and my people in thought. I-59: May the King Varuna efface by his hand whatever sin I have incurred by unlawful eating. O Marudvrudha. I-54: O waters. Generate for us also the waters of life and pleasures on earth (during our sojourn here). O valorous one and all-knowing one. Salutation to the deities of waters. the son of Usik. widespread. Salutation to Varuni. Being such. Salutation to Varuna. I-57: Salutation to fire hidden in water. Make me physically capable of performing sacrifices. I-49: May Indra grant us welfare. I-55: I take refuge in Varuna. I-56: May Indra. after the creation of the vast ocean the year was generated. well known among the gods like Kakshivan. tanks and wells also purify us. From Him night and day were generated. stainless and unbound by evil and bondage.

May He also save us from all wrongs. I-68: He who is a transgressor of the scriptural conduct. the Goddess Durga. I-67: That Supreme Light which projected Itself as the universe like a soaked seed which sprouts (or that Supreme Light which shines as the substratum of the liquid element) – I am that Supreme Light. May He. I-69: I am the ground of sins. who is the Power belonging to the Supreme who manifests Himself manifoldly. but favour me by destroying my sins). He is the ruler of the universe and the munificent giver of gifts to the devotees. Again Varuna who is the support of heaven and earth. May the Vasus purify us. He grants to the doers of meritorious deeds the worlds which they deserve and to the sinful the world of death called Hiranmaya. in the atmospheric region and in the space between the earth and heaven and also connected with us (the performers of religious work). the regent of waters and effacer of sins (absolves them from sins by the repetition of this mantra). II-3: O Fire. for Varuna.I-66: May the sin-effacing Varuna. a recreant. With happy methods take us beyond all difficulties. protect us by taking across all perils even as a captain takes the boat across the sea. O Thou Goddess skilled in saving. He. He is the Lord who delights the individual souls by guiding according to their deeds and conferring on them fruits of their actions. He dwells together with Uma (His power giving spiritual illumination) in the hearts of devotees which are holier than other parts of their body (the seat of the Divine) and therefore superior and elevated like a peak and affording protection. Varuna. Thou takest us across difficulties excellently well. May Aghamarshana. an oblation into the fire of the infinite Brahman which I am always. the finite self. Being such. grant us thy favours and purify us. I am that supreme light of Brahman which shines as the inmost essence of all that exists. May the all-knowing One destroy what is unfriendly to us. thou O Varuna. Wise men say (don’t make me weep. Therefore you cause me to weep. II-2: I take refuge in Her. thou art worthy of praise. In reality I am the same infinite Brahman even when I am experiencing myself as a finite self owing to Ignorance. is the protector of the world that was and also the world that exists at present between the past and the future worlds. a feticide or an outrager of his preceptor’s honour is released from his sins. having become the sun is wholesome and attractive. a thief. Now by the onset of knowledge I am really that Brahman which is my eternal nature. I-70: The Supreme represented as the ocean has overflown to the whole creation. May this oblation be well made. Further be thou pleased to join our children and their children with joy. . He has created at first creatures according to the deserts of their various past deeds. who is the Power residing in actions and their fruits rendering them efficacious (or the Power that is supplicated to by the devotees for the fruition of their work). the deity presiding over the waters. blissful in nature. Therefore I realise this identity by making myself. The Jiva who is his abode grows to be infinite. the sage called by that name. the Divine Fire that leads all. May Varuna purify us. purify us. who is fiery in lustre and radiant with ardency. I-1: May we offer oblations of soma to Jatavedas. May our home town and home land become extensive and may the plot of earth (for growing the crops) also be ample. purify the taint of sin that attaches to the beings dwelling on the earth. Our salutations to Thee.

Further grant us from all sides good fortune. to the Moon created by Him and to the Quarters. Bhuvah. Salutations to Gods ! Reverence to Manes ! I am that Supreme Reality expressed by the syllable Om and the three Vyahritis. O Divine Fire. Hail ! Salutation to Gods ! Svadha (reverence) to Manes ! (May the Deities of) Earth. preserve our sacrificial acts. Hail ! O Satakratu. Hail ! I offer this oblation to Brahman who is expressed by the Vyahritis.II-4: O Jatavedas. Atmosphere and Heaven (grant me) food. May I attain the supreme ! VI-1: O Fire. O Fire. II-6: Thou who art lauded in sacrifices increasest our happiness. O Fire. For that I make oblation to Air and Atmosphere. II-7: O Lord. Hail ! I offer this oblation to Brahman who is expressed by the second Vyahriti. Hail ! (May the Deity of) Heaven (grant me) food. For that I make oblation to Fire and Earth. in the places of sacrifice. II-5: We invoke from the highest place of assembly the Fire-God who is the leader of all. the Deities. Hail ! (May the Deities of) Earth. Thou abidest in the form of sacrifices. Suvah. Hail ! I offer this oblation to the adorable Supreme who is the All and to His parts. Bhuvah and Suvah. III-1: (May the Deity) Earth (grant me) food. For that I make oblation to the Sun and Heaven. Hail ! Preserve us so that we may attain full knowledge. the Moon. IV-1: Hail ! I offer this oblation to Brahman who is expressed by the first Vyahriti. ancient and recent. Salutations to the gods dwelling in all the regions ! Reverence to the departed ancestors ! I am that Brahman expressed by Om in unity and also expressed by the three Vyahritis in His threefold aspect. and protect us. Bhuh. preserve us from sin. Bhuvah. the Sun and Heaven. the Asterisms and the Quarters. Hail ! O Resplendent One. Atmosphere and Heaven (assert to my desire with the utterance of) Om (and grant me) food. Thou art unconnected (with sin and sorrow) and Thou pervadest (all sacrifices). Thou who art the destroyer of all sins takest us beyond all troubles and protectest us just as one is taken across the sea by a boat. Air and Atmosphere. Hail ! I offer this oblation to Brahman who is expressed by the third Vyahriti. who is the charger and vanquisher of the hosts of enemies. Hail ! I offer this oblation to the adorable Supreme who is the All and to His parts. be thou pleased to make (us) happy (who are) thine own selves. to the Air created by Him and to the Atmosphere dependent on Him. May He. Bhuvah and Suvah. Bhuh. the Fire-God take us across all our difficulties and wrongs and all that is perishable. (Desirous of good fortune) comprising in cattle and overflowing (with the current of immortal bliss) may we serve Thee without break. and who is fierce. For that I make oblation to the Moon and the Quarters. Bhuh. assent to my prayer. Fire and Earth. May the gods who dwell in the highest region of heaven delight me – (practising loving adoration) for Vishnu – here on the earth by granting my wish. Hail ! . to Fire created by Him and to the Earth dependent on Him. preserve everything (that belongs to us). V -1: Hail ! I offer this oblation to the adorable Supreme who is the All and to His parts. guard our bodies and be mindful (of its safety) like the sage Atri who always repeats mentally (‘May everyone be whole and happy’). Bhuh. to the Sun created by Him and to Heaven dependent on Him. Hail ! (May the Deity of) Atmosphere (grant me) food. Hail ! I offer this oblation to the adorable Supreme who is the All and to His parts. Suvah.

XII-3: From Him arise all the seas and mountains. Hail ! VIII-1: The Supreme Being. the cutting axe among the destructive tools and . May I become one practising concentration of thought without distraction. ‘I am placing my feet on it. For the same I also reverence the Manes. Bhuvah and Suvah and the entire Veda are comprised in Om. XII-2: From Him originate the seven Pranas. united with the essence of the herbs the individual Soul seated in the subtle body dwells in creatures. who leads the collection of Vedic utterances in Gayatri and other metres standing in their beginning. being praised by the hymns of the second Veda be gracious to protect us. Cultivation of a peaceable disposition is austerity. the seer among the intelligent people. Worship is austerity. Restraint of the body through such means like fast is austerity. and becomes free from sorrows. From Him flow rivers of all kinds and from Him all herbs and essences come forth. XI-1: Just in the same manner as the fragrance of a tree in full blossom is wafted by the wind from a distant place. Giving gifts without selfish motives is austerity. do not fail me now (but settle yourselves in the Supreme Brahman with whom I wish to unite myself through the meditation of) Om. Hail ! Being praised by the hymns of the third Veda be gracious to protect our food and strengthening essence of it. I am treading over it. Hail ! Further. Meditate upon Him. XII-4: The Supreme having become the four-faced Brahma among gods. who is the most excellent Pranava taught in the Vedas. XII-1: The Infinite Self more minute than the minute and greater than the great is set in the heart of the beings here. in order to strengthen them with the power of knowledge. who ensouls the entire universe. Himself being the subject-matter of them. Understanding of the scriptures is austerity. The Supreme Brahman has manifested Himself as Bhuh. Hail ! Being praised by the hymns of the four Vedas be gracious to protect us. I will be perturbed by the thought of hurt or fall into the pit’. O settler of all creatures. being praised by the hymns of the first Veda be gracious to protect us. I have heard enough with my ears (and perceived pleasurable objects through other senses). the seven tongues and the seven worlds in which the life-breaths move. In the same manner a man who is exposed to open and hidden sins must seek to guard himself from either in order that he may attain Immortality. IX-1: My salutations to the Supreme. who is supremely great and who is the highest ruler and master of all. This is austerity par excellence. I salute the gods for removing the obstacles in my path to illumination. O my senses. Indra. The cutting edge of a sword is laid across a pit. who is capable of being attained by the worshippers and who is the first in the causal link. taught the contemplative sages the sacred wisdom of the Upanishad. Bhuvah and Suvah. There is gain this illustration. Truth is austerity. the seven flames. the buffalo among animals. the kite among the birds. Subduing of one’s senses is austerity. who dwells in the secret place of the heart and are set (in their respective places). The triple regions of Bhuh. May I concentrate my thoughts upon Him (in order that I may be united with Him). the fragrance of meritorious deeds – the good name that accrues from them – spreads to a great distance (as far as heaven). (Further other things that are) sevenfold also come forth from Him.VII-1: O Divine Fire. the master of right words among the composers. X-1: Right is austerity. Through the grace of the Creator one realises Him who is free from desires based on values. their fuel. So saying if I walk over it.

Indra or Virat. the regent of the visible universe and the waking consciousness created one. Clarified butter is the place of origin of this one and in clarified butter is his support. By contemplating on the Supreme along with the slow repetition of that name one attains to immortality. is the fire that is directly seen as the luminary. O Fire. sun and moon. Prajapati has identified Himself with the creatures. is the fire that is consecrated in the sacrifice. is the fire that shines in men and in the gods. XII-9: May we always repeat in our contemplative sacrifices the designation Om which has for its cause the Self-luminous Reality and may we also hold Him in our hearts with salutations. is the Vasu (the air that moves) in the mid-region. XII-7: The sacrificers poured clarified butter into the consecrated Fire. XII-6 (A): The beings born from Prajapati are not separate from Him. the uncaused substance of the universe) red. lustre by identifying Himself with them. vast as the ocean. three feet and two heads. He has seven hands. convey to gods the offerings we have made with Svaha.soma among the sacrificers. the Reality underlying all. Rajas and Tamas) producing manifold offspring of the same nature. white and black (representing Sattva. eloquently declares the Supreme. with every offering of oblation bring here the gods and delight them. XII-11: God-like sages attained in the order (of their spiritual practices) the Selfluminous Reality laid in the three states of consciousness and secretly held by the teachers who praise it by chants in the Vedic speech (the great formulas such as ‘Thou art That’). is dwelling in the sky as air. as the Soul. arose the universe in the shape of waves yielding enjoyment to created beings. May He grant us plenty of excellent wealth. The name designating the self-luminous Reality and consisting of the syllable Om is hidden in the Vedas. transcends all purifying agencies accompanied by the sound (of holy chant). This Bull connected in a threefold manner. is the fire that dwells in the sacrificial altar and in the domestic hearth as the guest. This designation of the Supreme is on the lips of contemplative sages and it is the central support of undying bliss. The four-horned white Bull has expressed this Supreme Brahman praised by us in the hearing of co-seekers. is born in water as submarine heat. Before their birth nothing whatsoever existed other than Him. Indeed clarified butter is his luminant and residence. He is endowed with sixteen parts. O thou excellent one. and is born on the mountain as the rising sun – that is the Supreme Truth. the visible world. XII-10: The syllable Om conceived as the Bull possesses four horns. . there is another unborn (in the generic sense those who are not attached) who leaves her after having enjoyed her. XII-5: There is one unborn Female (Maya. He imparts the three luminaries. who entered all the creatures of the world as their in-most Self. XII-8: From the Supreme Fount. The Self-luminous Deity has entered the mortals everywhere. XII-6: That which is the sun who abides in the clear sky. Surya representing Taijasa and Hiranyagarbha created one. fire. XII-6 (B): We invoke the creator of the universe who sustains the creation in many ways and who witnesses the thoughts and deeds of men. There is one unborn (in the generic sense some Jivas who are attached) who lies by her taking delight in her. is born in the rays of the sun.

join us with beneficial remembrance – He who is superior to all. get themselves released into the region of Brahman at the dissolution of their final body. yet it shines brilliantly in the (purified) heart. all those aspirants who strive for self-control. and from Vena came the remaining one. who is the protector of the universe and the ruler of individual souls. XIII-4: Narayana is the Supreme Reality designated as Brahman. XIII-1-3: This universe is truly the Divine Person only. who is superior to the world. . who is the producer of joy for the universe. all-knowing. whose forms are the various gods. who exists in the form of the universe. which is well established in the Upanishads and which is dissolved in the primal cause during contemplation. and who have attained purity of mind through the practice of the discipline of yoga and steadfastness in the knowledge of Brahman preceded by renunciation. the dreamless sleep. who is imperishable. they have attained Immortality. not by wealth. Some have attained Immortality by renunciation. dwelling in the sea of one’s one heart.namely. all that is pervaded by Narayana within and without. who has embodied Himself in man as his support (being the indwelling Spirit). who has been revealed in the Vedas. That which the hermits attain is laid beyond the heaven. XIII-6: One should meditate upon the Supreme – the limitless. who is the master and the cause of humanity. the Lord. By the self-supporting Paramatman all these threefold categories were fashioned. who is the goal of humanity. Therefore it subsists on Him – the self-effulgent Divine Being – who has many heads and many eyes. as the goal of all striving. nothing greater. The place for His meditation is the ether in the heart – the heart which is comparable to an inverted lotus bud. nothing minuter. who is supremely worthy of being known by the creatures. That is to be meditated upon continually. who is the Supreme Seer and who sees Hiranyagarbha who is the first among the gods and who is born before all the rest. XII-13: Other than whom there is nothing higher. XII-17: He is the Supreme Lord who transcends the syllable Om which is uttered at the commencement of the recital of the Vedas. [Narayana is the most excellent meditator and meditation. who is the destroyer of sin and ignorance. who is endless and omniform. by that Purusha – the One who stands still like a tree established in heaven – all this is filled. XIII-7: It should be known that the heart which is located just at the distance of a finger span below the Adam's apple and above the navel is the great abode of the universe. the world of dream. supremely auspicious and unchanging. Narayana is the supreme Light (described in the Upanishads). XII-15: Having attained the Immortality consisting of identity with the Supreme. cause of the happiness of the world. unchanging. Narayana is the highest (Self). who is embodied in the universe and who is the supreme goal.] XIII-5: Whatsoever there is in this world known through perception (because of their proximity) or known through report (because of their distance). XII-12: May He. Narayana is the infinite Self. who is the allsurpassing ruler and saviour. Further in the interior of this small area there is the sorrowless Ether. who have rigorously arrived at the conclusion taught by the Vedanta through direct knowledge. who is permanent. not by progeny. XII-16: In the citadel of the body there is the small sinless and pure lotus of the heart which is the residence of the Supreme. XII-14: Not by work.

suspends in an inverted position. The secret knowledge is thus imparted. the Indeterminable One. In the centre of that Fire Which permeates the whole body. He is denoted by the syllable Om. The three Vyahritis representing the three worlds and the Pranava representing the cause of the universe denote that Brahman. He who is within the sun is the Golden Person. and holding which in the hand holy formulas are repeated and which purifies all: Nidhanapataye Namah ! [Salutations to the Lord of the dissolution of the universe ]] Nidhanapataantikaya Namah ! [Salutations to the end-maker (Yama who is responsible for the death of all creatures) ]] Urdhvaya Namah ! [Salutations to the Most High standing at the head of the categories which evolve into the universe ]] . the Universe. which is the topmost among the subtle. the heart. mind. He is the Lord of all creatures. strength. That is the pervading cause of all. sight. all-knowing. XIII-9-11: In the middle of that (narrow space of the heart or Susumna) remains the undecaying. there abides a tongue of Fire. renown. Wind.energy. which is as slender as the awn of a paddy grain. liberation or Immortality. Siva. hearing. That is water. In it there is a narrow space (or near it there is a narrow space called Susumna). is the giver of light and water and is the source of all energy. XV-2: Aditya. This orb of His gives light and heat. flavour and ambrosia. XIII-12: Paramatman dwells in the middle of that flame. and which warms its own body from the insole to the crown. Indra. That is the abode of Yajus. the material and efficient cause of the Universe and the Supreme Self-luminous Pure Consciousness. This Person in the sun is eternal. the supreme cause of the universe. the Rulers of the world.XIII-8: Like the bud of a lotus. Now He who is the Person in the flame within the orb of the sun (is to be meditated as) the collection of Yajus. individual Soul. XVI-1: [By these twenty-two names ending with salutations they consecrate the Sivalinga for all] – the Linga which is representative of soma and Surya. that which transcends the senses. coresidence and like-enjoyment with these gods in their worlds. Thus by these three the threefold knowledge alone shines. (Or the worshippers offer honey and sweet offerings to Him). (span of life). (Being worshipped thus) He grants bliss to the worshippers. the Deities Death. which has flames on every side. which is dazzling like the flash of the lightning that appears in the middle of a rain-bearing cloud. food. splendour. fire. Therefore the orb is the collection of Riks. In it everything is supported. body. (the rays of which spread scattering themselves vertically and horizontally). That form of the sun is Brahman. great Fire. That is the abode of Saman chants. of the colour of shining gold. Now this flame which is shining in the orb of the sun is the collection of Saman chants. Satya. Ether and Breath. that part of the orb is the collection of Yajus. surrounded by arteries. he attains union. omnifaced. XIV-1: Verily Aditya is He. the acme of bliss and the self-born Brahman. Seer. Mitra. He who meditates thus upon Him attains union with Brahman and lives in the same region of enjoyment with Him. which remains assimilating the food consumed. Prajapati. He is the abode of the Rik verses. which enjoys the food presented before it. anger. Gods worship Him as Tapas and Truth. happiness. and which serves as a comparison to illustrate subtlety. (Although He is thus limited) still He is the four-faced creator. truth. Vishnu. The well-known Rik verses are there. XV-1: The sun alone is verily all these: -.

He who has the shape of the Linga emblem of Sarva.dwelling in all creatures ]] Atma-Lingaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him. He who is most auspicious ]] Shiva-Lingaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him. existing before creation]. Salutation to Rudra [He who causes creatures to weep at the time of dissolution]. He who is concealed in the heart of all creatures being their inmost Self ]] Paramaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him. O Sadyojata. He who is endowed with attractive splendour ]] Suvarna-Lingaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him. . He who is beneficial and charming to creatures ]] Hiranya-Lingaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him. Salutation to Jyestha [the Eldest. He who is the source of the cycle of birth and death ]] Bhava-Lingaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him. Salutation to Balapramathana [He who suppresses all power at the time of retraction]. He who has the form of the brilliant Linga ]] Atmaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him. He who has the form of Sivalinga ]] Jvalaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him. He who is of the form of Linga made of suvarna (silver) ]] Divyaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him. He who is unsurpassed ]] Parama Lingaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him. He who is worshipped as the divine emblem ]] Bhavaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him.Urdhva-Lingaya Namah ! [Salutations to the principle of Sadasiva embodying the power of Intelligence ]] Hiranyaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him. Salutation to Kalavikarana [He who causes changes in the evolution of the universe beginning with Prakriti]. Salutation to Balavikarana [He who is the producer of varieties and degrees of strength]. I bow down to Him who is the source of transmigratory existence. He who is worshipped as the Linga by human beings ]] Sarvaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him. He who is visualized as the Linga made of gold ]] Suvarnaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him. He who is the Spirit . Salutation to Kala [He who is the Power of time responsible for the evolution of Nature]. Verily I salute Sadyojata again and again.Atman . who gives bliss ]] Shivaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him. He who is the Supreme Lord of bliss and liberation indicated by the Linga emblem ]] XVII-1: I take refuge in Sadyojata. XVIII-1: Salutation to Vamadeva [the beautiful and shining One or the generous God]. Salutation to Manonmana [He who is the kindler of the light of the soul]. Salutation to Srestha [the most worthy and excellent]. lead me beyond birth. Salutation to Bala [He who is the source of all strength]. do not consign me to repeated birth. He who is the suppresser of the universe at the time of final dissolution ]] Sarva-Lingaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him. He who has the form of a flaming splendour ]] Jvala-Lingaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him. into the state of bliss and liberation. Salutation to Sarvabhutadamana [the Ruler of all the created beings]. He who is the source of bliss in heaven ]] Divya-Lingaya Namah ! [Salutations to Him.

Pasupati [the Lord of all created beings]. XXII-1: Salutations again and again to Hiranyabahu [One who has ornaments of gold on the arms or possessing a form having the golden hue]. The vital breaths in the body are water. who alone is the light and the Soul of creatures. XXI-1: May the Supreme who is the ruler of all knowledge. We salute again and again that Being. XXIV-1: All this verily is Rudra. these oblations contribute to establish (his spiritual knowledge through the generation of mental purity). [Five mantras commencing with the lemma krinushva paja are only indicated in the texts by reference to index words. The material universe the created beings and whatever there is manifoldly and profusely created in the past and in the present in the form of the world. more terrific and destructive. enduring and hence immortal. The luminaries are water. of men. broad and possessing a wealth of objects. that she belongs to the Divine Spirit. Umapati [The master of Uma. XXIII-1: Supreme Brahman. XX-1: May we know or realize the Supreme Person. Salutations to Him alone who is the Soul of the universe or whose form is the universe. that she is fit to be praised. of demons and others. XXIX-1: Verily all this is water. Hiranyapati [the Lord of riches wholesome and charming]. They are from the Taittiriya-Samhita I-ii-14. the Absolute Reality. Ambikapati [the consort of Ambika. terrific. the preserver of the Vedas and the one overlord of Hiranyagarbha. Quadrupeds are water. my salutations be at all times and all places to Thy Rudra forms. Hiranyarupa [He who is shining in splendour]. may we meditate upon Mahadeva and to that meditation may Rudra impel us. contingent and supporting all. Indeed all this is Rudra. absolutely chaste and possessing uncommon eyes. who rains objects to the worshippers most excellently. Brahma-vidya personified as such]. Vedic formulas are water. of departed ancestors. all that is indeed this Rudra. The metres are water. Hiranyavarna [He who is the source of the syllables of the Vedas which are as precious as gold]. XXVI-1: He who has the sacrificial ladle made of Vikankata (Flacourtia Spida) tree for his Agnihotra rite offers oblations effective in producing the desired fruit. that she is universal and comprising of the primary element.XIX-1: Now. that she is exceedingly blissful. Virat [manifoldly shining] is water. illustrious. Samrat [perpetually shining] is water. has become an androgynous Person in the form of Umamaheshvara. XXVII-1: Krinushva paja iti panja.] XXVIII-1: The sage Vasistha declared that Aditi is the mother and protector of gods. be benign to me. Edible crops are water. To Rudra who is such we offer our salutation. that she is excellent and honoured. that she is possessed of hardness or cohesiveness. They are recited for effecting the destruction of hostile influences. that she is rich in crops. For that. Svarat [self-luminous] is water. O Sarva. Salutations be to Rudra who is such. who is more powerful and who is dwelling in the heart. All the created beings are water. Salutations be to Rudra who is such. XXV-1: We sing a hymn that confers on us happiness in the highest degree to Rudra who is worthy of praise. Rudra. controller of all created beings. I am the Sadasiva described thus and denoted by Pranava. benign. Originally they are from the RigVeda IV-iv-1-5. the Mother of the universe]. Ambrosia is water. transformed into the bodies of creatures. Further. Truth . dark blue and reddish brown in hue. of celestial minstrels. who is endowed with the highest knowledge.

Earth. repast on prohibited food and misconduct if any. (Or may the Supreme purify me. XXXIV-1: May the boon-conferring discrimination Gayatri come to us (in order to instruct us about) the imperishable Brahman who is determined by the Vedanta. Om may we meditate on the Adorable . Thou art physical capacity. favour us with the Supreme just mentioned. may thy devotee be liberated from the sin which he commits during the day by the same day and the sin which he commits during the night by the same night. Thou art every living thing. O thou Sarasvati. the inbreath. I invoke the metres. Thou art the life span of all. Thus purified. or initiation into Vedic studentship. all that and myself I offer as an oblation into the Selfluminous Truth. Further whatever sinful deed has been committed by me. and the sin accruing from the acceptance of gifts from persons disapproved by the scripture – from all these may I be absolved. Anger and the Guardians of anger guard me from the sins resulting from anger. O thou the object of meditation at twilight. stomach and the procreative organ. feet. Its use is for the union with Paramatman who exists as the manifold universe. Thou art the full span of life or the Lord of all. XXXIV-2: O thou who art the source of all letters. the Soul within. feet. hands. the source of Immortality. I invoke Savitri. the up-breath and the middle breath. Its Rishi also is Brahman. Hail ! XXXI-1: May fire. the Rishis (and the gods). The three worlds denoted by Bhuh. Gayatri is fair in hue and is of the same family as Paramatman attained by the Sankhyas – the illumined sages. Fire represents the mouth. XXXV-2: Om Earth. the four-faced Brahma. Anger and Guardians of anger guard me from the sins resulting from anger. Of Gayatri the metre is Gayatri. The source of all these is the Supreme denoted by the syllable ‘Om’. the mother of metres. Agni is its Deity.is water. It is employed in Upanayana. the heart. comprised in three feet. May the purified Vedas taught by the purified teacher purify me. Its metre is Gayatri. or the subduing power. stomach and the procreative organ. May this water purify the guardian of the Vedas. Om Middle Region. Om Abode of Truth. the Rishi is Vishvamitra and the Deity is Savitur. I invoke Gayatri. Hail ! XXXII-1: May the Sun. I invoke the splendour (of all the gods). the diffused breath. Om Mansion of the Blessed. May the water purified by the Supreme purify me). Vishnu. the crown-hair. Hail ! XXXIII-1: The one syllable ‘Om’ is Brahman. Thou art splendour. Thou art patience. Thou art the vanquisher of all that is hostile to us. hands. whatever sinful deed has been committed by me all that and myself I offer as an oblation into the Supreme Light represented by the sun. May the Day efface completely whatever sin I have committed on this day by thought. The deity Gayatri (explained further as a formula) has twenty-four syllables. Om Place of Birth. Bhuvah and Suvah are water. XXX-1-2: May this water cleanse my physical body that is made of earthy substances. Thou art the insentient universe. Further. word. Thou art the essence of strength. May Gayatri. All deities are water. word. O thou the great Deity. I invoke Sarasvati. Thou art the Truth denoted by the Pranava. Om Heaven. (into my heart). Om Sky. may the earthy body purify me. May the Night efface completely whatever sin I have committed during the last night by thought. my preceptor. My defilement. the breath. Thou art the abode of gods and their name. the source. the source of Immortality. May the waters purify me. the head. XXXV-1: O Gayatri. the out-breath. six sheaths or cavities and five heads. Rudra.

XXXVIII-1: May the Supreme reach me. ambrosia and also the three worlds. who impels the created beings like wind and who has two places of birth. Let the cows be sweetness-bearing to us. who is the devotee of the Supreme Truth let the wind blow sweetly. XXXVI-2: May the boon-conferring Mother of the Vedas. vouchsafe to us today the prosperity consisting of progeny. Suppress the dreary dream of the empirical existence that I experience. (Being worshipped thus) He grants bliss to the worshippers. He who is denoted by Pranava is all these. depart to the excellently produced world of Brahman having conferred on me. Let the sun be sweet and beneficial to us. our father. XXXIX-2: O God. . They attain to the fruit of the performance of Soma sacrifice. O Lord. XXXVII-1: The imperishable Aditya who is the giver of lustre and the creator of the universe moves in the sky like his own rays.. Let the particles of the earth be sweetness bearing. May the Supreme alone that is blissful reach me. Let heaven. wealth and power of Vedic learning. The three Vyahritis representing the three worlds and the Pranava representing the cause of the universe denote that Brahman. The Bliss which is indeed Brahman is attained through the power of intelligence. turn away from me all the sins. That form of the sun is Brahman. Gods worship Him as Tapas and Truth. here on the earth. O Thou Creator. May the Blissful reach me. (Or the worshippers offer honey and sweet offerings to Him).e.Light of that Divine Generator who quickens our understandings. Bring to me that which is beneficial. XXXIX-6: Let the fruit-bearing trees be sweet to us. XXXVI-1: O Goddess. That is the pervading cause of all. and the vital and mental powers. O Lord. fire. flavour. XXXIX-3: O God. That Bliss is attained through the power of intelligence. is the giver of light and water and is the source of all energy. He is the Truth. Om He is water. The essence of him in the form of sweet water flows in the shape of rivers. being one among Thy creatures I am Thy child.. who has been magnified by me. the Deity of this mantra. XXXIX-4: To me.e. Turn away from us this bad dream (of the world). Let the herbs be to us sweet and beneficial. light. Aditya. long life. O Creator. Those brahmanas who recite Trisuparna indeed destroy even the sin of brahminicide. flavour and ambrosia. the supreme cause of the universe. i. Those brahmanas who recite Trisuparna indeed destroy even the sin of feticide or hurting a Brahmana well versed in the Vedas and in their auxiliaries. be sweet to us. XXXIX-7: One may impart Trisuparna to a Brahmana unsolicited. i. XXXIX-5: Let there be sweetness day and night. XXXIX-1: That Brahman is attained through the power of intelligence. the Deity of this mantra. Thou mayest go and remain at Thy pleasure on the highest and holiest peak on the earth. Thou hast kept in me XXXVIII-2: One may impart Trisuparna to a Brahmana unsolicited. or in any high place until the brahmanas remember Thee gain. He is denoted by the syllable Om. They attain to the fruit of the performance of Soma sacrifice. For that I offer myself as an oblation into Thee. They purify all those who sit in a row of a thousand (while at dinner) and attain union with Pranava. Let the rivers run sweetly. They purify all those who sit in a row of a thousand (while at dinner) and attain union with Pranava. That is water.

delight in us and confer on us wealth. O goddess of intellect. the master of right words among the composers. the kite among the birds. i. XXXX-5: In that Ahavaniya Fire. meditating on Thee in the form of Rig-Veda. XXXX-4: I pile fuel in the consecrated fire with a view to acquire the Vedas necessary for Thy worship. is the Vasu (the air that moves) in the mid-region. is dwelling in the sky as air. the Reality underlying all. the seer among the intelligent people. is the fire that is directly seen as the luminary. may we who were delighting in profitless speech before thy visit. who dwells in the nest of the bodies of created beings. is the fire that is consecrated in the sacrifice. and who shares with gods sweet ambrosia in the form of oblations offered by worshippers in Fire. and is born on the mountain as the rising sun – that is the Supreme Truth.e. XXXX-3: That which is the sun who abides in the clear sky. XXXX-2: The Supreme having become the four-faced Brahma among gods. favourably disposed to. us visit us. is the fire that shines in men and in the gods. O goddess. favoured by thee. XLII-2: Hail ! May that intelligence favour me – that which is possessed by Apsaras (celestial women) that which is the mental power in Gandharvas (celestial minstrels) that . who confers bliss on creatures according to their merit. is born in water as submarine heat. Favoured by thee one becomes also possessed of riches. Favoured by thee one obtains manifold wealth. and delighting in. They attain to the fruit of the performance of Soma sacrifice. They purify all those who sit in a row of a thousand (while at dinner) and attain union with Pranava. is born in the rays of the sun. May the two Ashvins wearing garlands of lotus flowers engender in me intelligence. one becomes a seer. is the fire that dwells in the sacrificial altar and in the domestic hearth as the guest. In His proximity are seated the seven sages who destroy sins by mere remembrance and who continuously pour oblations in the form of a current of nectar keeping in mind the various gods for whom they are meant. Those brahmanas who recite Trisuparna indeed destroy even the sin of slaying a worthy Brahmana or an anointed king. amidst those currents of clarified butter offered as oblation. XLII-1: May Indra grant me intelligence. The unbroken currents of clarified butter offered into the kindled fire – rendered sacred by cordial and hearty thoughts – flow like rivers. May goddess Sarasvati grant me intelligence. the water of which is potable for Gods. XLI-1: May the all-penetrating goddess of intellect who is beneficial. become enlightened and also capable of expressing the Supreme Truth along with our heroic sons and disciples. The Bliss which is indeed Brahman is attained through the power of sacrifice. one becomes a Brahmana or a knower of Brahman. the Deity of this mantra. abides the profusely rich and splendid Supreme Being who is magnified in the Trisuparna. By this I kindly the splendour of the holy fire. That Bliss is attained through the power of sacrifice. the buffalo among animals. XL-6: This Trisuparna may be imparted to a Brahmana unsolicited. as the Soul.. XLI-2: O goddess of intellect. Being such. the cutting axe among the destructive tools and soma among the sacrificers.XXXX-1: That Brahman is attained through the power of sacrifice. now as the result of thy delight in us. transcends all purifying agencies accompanied by the sound (of holy chant).

the Ashvins. who possesses golden letters in the shape of the syllables of the Vedas (of who is wholesome and charming). LI-1: O fierce Death. who is continuously present. May we live brilliantly upto our old age. our cattle and our horses. May the strength-giving wealth come to us. Do not hurt in anger our heroes. May Indra render in me intelligence. thou art vigilant over the deeds of men. I shall serve thee with oblations. XLIV-1: May Agni render in me intelligence. XLVIII-1: O Thou Supreme Being. LIV-1: O Prajapati. go back by thy own path which is other than that of the gods. who is capable of examining all objects. Having attained the prosperity of this world and the next I shall cross over death. who possesses flavour and strength and who nourishes me with milk and other wealth. XLIII-1: May that goddess of intelligence come to me with a joyful face and favour me – That goddess of intelligence who is pervasive like fragrance. May He guard us from death and protect us from sin. LII-1: O Rudra. May Surya render in me intelligence. XLVI-1: O Death. XLIX-1: Like servants gods follow Hari who is the Lord of the universe. the foetus we have laid in the mother’s womb and our father and mother. May the sins of us be destroyed like the seared leaves of a tree.intelligence expressed as the divine Vedic lore and that intelligence which spreads like fragrance. who leads all thoughts as the foremost leader and who absorbs into Himself the universe at the time of dissolution (or who destroys the sins of devotees). continuity of progeny and virility. LIII-1: O Rudra do not hurt us in respect of our children. May Vaivasvata Yama grant us safety. Do not hurt our dear selves. our adults capable of procreation. Thou art before them and after also (when they are reabsorbed into Thee). continuity of progeny and splendour born of Vedic study. may the two divine physicians. Do not destroy our progeny. Do not cripple my strength. continuity of progeny and prowess that strikes fear in the hearts of enemies. Do not strike down our heroes. XLVII-1: We heartily supplicate to the Lord of creatures who is the protector of the universe and who is active within us as life-breath and outside us as the blowing wind. for. Deprive not me of that. The created beings cannot surpass Thee. our grand-children. Strive to secure it for me. release me from the fear of Yama and accusation of people and the necessity of being in the yonder world. May this path to liberation taught in the Vedas having the same form as Brahman open itself to me. all that is born is not different from Thee. do not cut off my life. chase away from us death by virtue of the powers of religious work. May Immortality come to us. Do not hurt my progeny and life. Do not injure (my interest). our children. . who is fit to be resorted to by the seekers of the values of life again and again. other men belonging to us. XLV-1: May death depart from us. I entreat thee who art capable of seeing me and listening to me. We shall serve thee with oblations and reverence. L-1: Kindling the consecrated fire with chips of wood (in order to offer oblations during worship) may I attain both the worlds. Do not subject me to deprivation. injure not our elders. O Agni.

Hail ! LXI-1: Salutations to the gods. through Thy grace. not I. not I. not I. Hail ! Thou art the remover of the offences we have committed in the state of deep sleep and waking. May this oblation be offered for that. O Anger. May we become lords of riches. all of them we remove by the power of our deeds of worship. and all desired objects and beauty and prosperity. the qualities of an ideal Brahmana. Hail ! . Hail ! Thou art the remover of the offences committed by others connected with us. Hail ! Thou art the remover of the offences we have committed against departed ancestors. Hail ! LXIII-3: May God grant me royal prosperity. may these black Sesamum seeds. Hail ! Thou art the remover of the offences committed during day and night. and by our actions. not I. who is the lord of people. by our understanding. healthful Sesamum seeds and own Sesamum seeds cleanse whatever sin there is connected with me or whatever wrong there is in me. Hail ! LXIII-1: O Supreme Being. health. noble repute. O Vasus. Hail ! LX-1: O Gods. Hail ! LXII-1: Salutations to the gods. wealth. not I. Anger is doing the act. who is peaceable and giver of safety. may my mind delight in the attributed of the Supreme Hail ! LXIII-2: O God. Desire is doing the act. Hail ! Thou art the remover of the offences committed in the state of dream and waking. LVIII-1: Hail ! May this be an oblation made to Mrityu. for that this oblation be offered to Thee. Hail ! Thou art the remover of the offences we have committed to ourselves. that serious god-offending sin which we have committed by our tongues. let this oblation be offered to thee. Desire causes the doer to act. who is the slayer of Vritra. thou art the remover of the offences we have committed against gods. Hail ! LXIV-1: O Lord. may I obtain cattle. O Desire. Hail ! Thou art the remover of the offences committed by our relatives. faith. Desire performed the act. Worshipping Him may we easily slip off from death just as the ripe cucumber easily separates itself from the binding stalk. LVII-1: O Death. departed souls and sages. Hail ! Thou art the remover of the offences committed by contact with those who are sinners. intelligence and grandsons. white Sesamum seeds. Hail ! Thou art the remover of the offences committed consciously and unconsciously. the maker of death. food and drink. many sons. not I. fascinating in form. Desire is the agent. Anger performed the act. into the consecrated fire. through Thy grace. LVI-1: We worship the three-eyed Lord who is fragrant and who increasingly nourishes the devotees. who is the subduer of enemies and giver of rain. I offer oblations of tasty tila (Sesamum indicum) seeds mixed with some flour. gold. Desire did the act. capacity to pay off the debts to gods. LV-1: May Indra come to our succour – Indra who is the giver of welfare on earth and bliss in the next world. Anger is the agent. May we be never separated from Immortality. Anger causes the doer to act. those thousand and ten thousand and ten thousand snares which thou hast laid for slaying man. Anger did the act. For that I offer oblations. Hail ! Thou art the remover of the offences we have committed against men.With whatever desire we offer oblations to Thee may that be fulfilled. let this oblation be offered to thee. LIX-1: O Agni. place that in those who come near and act in an evil way towards us. the bliss of freedom.

diffused breath. Hail ! LXIV-3: May God grant me royal prosperity. shanks. smell. fat. taste and smell (residing in the above five elements constituting my body) become purified. fire and ether – become purified. who is dark blue and brown and who is red in eyes make haste to favour me. seed. such as partaking of the food supplied by theft. speech and body become purified. intelligence and grandsons. belly. the middle part of the body (or the male and female generative organs) and the anus become purified. back. May I have peace. I pray that I become the Supreme Light bereft of all obstructing sins and their cause. For this end may this oblation be appropriately offered into the consecrated fire. Hail ! LXV-5: O thou Divine Person. outraging the preceptor’s honour. faith. the passions in me. taste. dining at a place where food is served in connection with the funeral rites of a single recently departed soul. Hail ! LXV-4: By this oblation may the limbs and the parts of my body comprised by the head. up-breath and middle breath become purified.LXIV-2: May the Sesamum seeds offered remove my sins. the passions in me. drink and slaying a hero or a foetus. the passions in me. May my thoughts become purified. For this end may this oblation be appropriately offered into the consecrated fire. Hail O Jatavedas [the all-knowing Supreme invoked in fire] ! LXV-1: [Viraja Homa]: By this oblation may my in-breath. feet. mind. sight. I pray that I become the Supreme Light bereft of all obstructing sins and their cause. the passions in me. the passions in me. I pray that I become the Supreme Light bereft of all obstructing sins and their cause. intention and aim become purified. For this end may this oblation be appropriately offered into the consecrated fire. noble repute. many sons. marrow. the passions in me. Hail ! LXVI-2: By this oblation may the qualities of sound. For this end may this oblation be appropriately offered into the consecrated fire. I pray that I become the Supreme Light bereft of all obstructing sins and their cause. For this end may this oblation be appropriately offered into the consecrated fire. the bliss of freedom. hands. Hail ! . I pray that I become the Supreme Light bereft of all obstructing sins and their cause. For this end may this oblation be appropriately offered into the consecrated fire. intellect. I pray that I become the Supreme Light bereft of all obstructing sins and their cause. the passions in me. our-breath. I pray that I become the Supreme Light bereft of all obstructing sins and their cause. the passions in me. capacity to pay off the debts to gods. colour. For this end may this oblation be appropriately offered into the consecrated fire. slaying of a Brahmana. sinew and bone – become purified. hearing. water. For this end may this oblation be appropriately offered into the consecrated fire. Hail ! LXV-3: By this oblation may my seven bodily ingredients – outer and inner skin. sides. Hail ! LXVI-3: By this oblation may the deeds accomplished by my mind. health. blood. the generative organ. cattle-lifting. touch. Hail ! LXV-2: By this oblation may my speech. the qualities of an ideal Brahmana. thighs. May this oblation be offered for that. flesh. Be a grantor of knowledge and purity to me through the medium of my preceptor. departed souls and sages. Hail ! LXVI-1: [Viraja Homa]: By this oblation may the five constituent elements of my body – earth. I pray that I become the Supreme Light bereft of all obstructing sins and their cause. Grant me more and more purity.

For this end may this oblation be offered into the consecrated fire. I pray that I become the Supreme Light bereft of all obstructing sins and their cause. Hail ! (I am the Truth expressed by Pranava. Hail ! May this oblation be made to the conjoined deities of hunger and thirst. For this end may this oblation be appropriately offered into the consecrated fire. the passions in me. For the realization of that may this oblation be offered into the consecrated fire. For this end may this oblation be appropriately offered into the consecrated fire. breath. Hail ! May this oblation be made to the Supreme who is the ordainer of Rik chants. the passions in me. the passions in me. poverty and lack of progress. For this end may this oblation be appropriately offered into the consecrated fire. I pray that I become the Supreme Light bereft of all obstructing sins and their cause. I pray that I become the Supreme Light bereft of all obstructing sins and their cause. the passions in me. Hail ! LXVI-5: By this oblation may my body become purified. through thy grace I remove from me that uncleanness in the form of hunger and thirst. Hail !) LXVI-9: O Lord. Hail ! LXVI-8: May this oblation be made to the deity of hunger. Hail ! LXVI-7: By this oblation may my infinite Self become purified. I pray that I become the Supreme Light bereft of all obstructing sins and their cause. Hail ! LXVI-6: By this oblation may my internal organs become purified. Efface my sins. misfortune and adversity. intelligence and bliss become purified. Hail ! LXVII-1: Agnaye Svaha [oblation to Fire] ! Vishvebhyo Devebhya Svaha [oblation to sum total of deities or All-gods] ! Dhruvaya Bhumaya Svaha [oblation to the permanent plenitude] ! Dhruvakshitaye Svaha [oblation to the permanent ground] ! Achyutakshitaye Svaha [oblation to the unchanging abode] ! Agnaye Svishtakrite Svaha [oblation to the maker of the right sacrifice] ! Dharmaya Svaha [oblation to the religious duty] ! Adharmaya Svaha [oblation to the ir-religious duty] ! Adbhya Svaha [oblation to the waters] ! Oshodhi-vanaspatibhya Svaha [oblation to the herbs and trees] ! Raksho-devajanebhya Svaha [oblation to the demons and gods] ! Grihyabhya Svaha [oblation to the household deities] ! Avasanebhya Svaha [oblation to the deities dwelling in the outskirts of the house] ! Avasaanapatibhya Svaha [ oblation to the leaders of such deities] ! Sarvabhutebhya Svaha [oblation to all spirits or the deities of the five primordial elements] ! Kamaya Svaha [oblation to the god of love] ! Antarikshaya Svaha [oblation to the wind blowing in the sky] ! Yadejati jagati yachcha chestati namno bhagoyam namne Svaha [oblation to the Supreme Being who is the totality of words in the Veda and also whatever there is in this world moving as insentient and whatever that acts as sentient] ! . mind. the passions in me. Hail ! May this oblation be made to the all-pervasive Supreme. I pray that I become the Supreme Light bereft of all obstructing sins and their cause. Hail ! May this oblation be made to the Supreme who is interested in his creation. Hail ! LXVI-10: By this oblation may my five-fold self comprised by the sheaths of food. and all the like.LXVI-4: May I not have any suppressed feelings of egoism. For this end may this oblation be appropriately offered into the consecrated fire.

be . I offer this oblation of ambrosia into Udana with reverence.Pritivyai Svaha [oblation to the earth] ! Antarikshaya Svaha [oblation to the spirits dwelling in the sky] ! Deve Svaha [oblation to the heaven] ! Suryaya Svaha [oblation to the sun] ! Chandramase Svaha [oblation to the moon] ! Nakshatrebhya Svaha [oblation to the asterisms] ! Indraya Svaha [oblation to the chief of gods] ! Brihaspataye Svaha [oblation to the preceptor of gods] ! Prajapataye Svaha [oblation to the lord of creatures] ! Brahmane Svaha [oblation to the four-faced creator] ! Svadha Pitrubhya Svaha [oblation to the departed ancestors] ! Namo Rudraya Pasupataye Svaha [Salutation and oblation to Rudra. thou art the spread out seat of Anna-Brahman. Thou art Brahma. By these oblations may my Self be united with the Supreme. Om that is the Supreme Truth. I present offering of food to those spirits who are the servants of Rudra (dwelling in the cremation ground) causing pain to creatures by death and bereavement. Thou art the threefold world and Thou art Om. Om that is the multitude of citadels 9the bodies of creatures). Firm in my religious faith. LXVIII-2: That Supreme Being moves inside the heart of created beings possessing manifold forms. Thou art flavour. Thou art Indra. I offer this oblation of ambrosia into Apana with reverence. Thou art the water in the rivers and the ocean. be auspicious and get assimilated into me. Om that is Vayu. and who wander about day and night in search of tribute. May the lord of prosperity grant me all prosperity. Thou art ambrosia. Firm in my religious faith. O thou offered substance. Om that is all. I offer this oblation of ambrosia into Prana with reverence. so that I may not be consumed by hunger. I offer oblations to the wealth-holding deity. Thou art the sun. Thou art Rudra. Firm in my religious faith. Oblation to Prana. Thou art the body of the Vedas. Firm in my religious faith. so may I have an inexhaustible supply of grain from a thousand sources. so that I may attain Immortality. I offer this oblation of ambrosia into Vyana with reverence. I offer this oblation of ambrosia into Prana with reverence. LXIX-1: Firm in my religious faith. I offer this oblation of ambrosia into Samana with reverence. I offer this oblation of ambrosia into Apana with reverence. LXIX-2: O water. the immortal food. Hail ! LXVII-3: With the intention of acquiring prosperity. LXIX-3: Firm in my religious faith. the lord of living beings] ! Devebhya Svaha [oblation to the gods] ! Pitrubhya Svadhastu [oblation to the manes] ! Bhutebhyo Namah [salutations to variety of gods] ! Manusyebhyo Hantaa [oblation to men] ! Prajapataye Svaha [oblation to the lord of creatures] ! Paramestine Svaha [oblation to the four-faced creator dwelling in Brahmaloka] ! LXVII-2: Just as a perennial well is supplied with water by hundreds and thousands of springs. Thou art That. O Supreme. For that end. Thou art the sacrifice. Firm in my religious faith. Om that is the finite self. O thou offered substance. Thou art Prajapati. Salutations to Him. Thou art the expression Vasat. Hail ! LXVIII-1: Om that is Brahman.

increase the power of my out-breath with this food. eyes and ears. thou art the binding knot of the breaths and the organs of senses functioning in the body. Oblation to Samana. Thou art born from clouds or stones by friction. Do not cause any hurt to me and mine. Enter me as the end-maker of sorrows and increase and protect me by that food which I have taken in. increase the power of my upbreath with this food. Thou art born from the forests. Oblation to Apana. O Samana. I have offered this oblation of ambrosia into Apana with reverence. who art worshipped in all the sacrifices. LXIX-4: O water. so also strength and vitality have returned to my arms and thighs. Guard me from death. My subtle body and my gross body with all its limbs are now free from inadequacy. LXXII-1: O Lord. I offer this oblation of ambrosia into Udana with reverence. Firm in my religious faith. LXXIV-1: O Rudra. mouth. Firm in my religious faith. so that I may not be consumed by hunger. increase the power of my diffused breath with this food. I have offered this oblation of ambrosia into Samana with reverence. be auspicious and get assimilated into me. fill our eyes with worthy sights. I have offered this oblation of ambrosia into Vyana with reverence. O Vyana. My salutation to Thee. Firm in my religious faith. so that I may not be consumed by hunger. LXXIII-1: Like birds with handsome plumage the sages who were devoted to sacrificial worship (or intent on the good of all) approached Indra supplicating thus: Remove our darkness and ignorance. O thou offered substance. Firm in my religious faith. is of the size of the thumb. be auspicious and get assimilated into me. Oblation to Vyana. so that I may not be consumed by hunger. and of hearing. Oblation to Udana. LXXI-1: May the Supreme Lord be gratified (by this meal just taken) – Who is the ruler of all the world and the enjoyer of all. LXXVI-1: O Agni. I have offered this oblation of ambrosia into Udana with reverence. O Apana. Thou art born from the herbs. LXX-1: Firm in my religious faith. LXXV-1: Salutations to Rudra. nostrils. O Udana.e. Firm in my religious faith. O Prana. increase the power of my middle breath with this food. I offer this oblation of ambrosia into Samana with reverence. are firm in their respective stations i. Thou art born from water as lightning or as the heat under the sea. Thou art born spreading light around. Firm in my religious faith. Thou art born ever pure or as the sun. Firm in my religious faith. I have offered this oblation of ambrosia into Prana with reverence. and Who is the support of the body – imparting to it sentience and activity from the toe to the crown. and to Vishnu (or Rudra who is Vishnu). increase the power of my in-breath by this food. so that I may attain Immortality. or causing pain quickly by mere touch. Who as the person dwelling in the body. I prostrate before Thee in deep reverence ! I prostrate before Thee ! I prostrate before Thee ! Deign to remain .. LXXVII-1: O Thou Lord. after repast my powers of speech. so that I may not be consumed by hunger. O thou offered substance. thou art born on the days of sacrifices as the protector of men in general and of those among men who offer sacrifices. the immortal food.auspicious and get assimilated into me. I offer this oblation of ambrosia into Vyana with reverence. be auspicious and get assimilated into me. O thou offered substance. of sight. of breath. thou art the cover for Anna-Brahman. By these oblations may my Self be united with the Supreme. and release us from the bondage of ignorance like birds trapped in snares.

what is that which revered teachers declare as the supreme means of liberation ? To him Prajapati thus replied: . This excellent austerity is hard to be practised. The Supreme alone is Hiranyagarbha (although he is a personality). LXXVIII-4: Hermits who dwell in the forest consider that tranquillity of mind is the means of liberation and therefore they delight in calmness. To him who thus knows the all-transcending excellence of Sannyasa precious knowledge (has been imparted). LXXVIII-6: Some consider that scriptural duty is the means of liberation. Certainly these austerities set forth above are inferior. When the sacrifice which I have instituted has been completely prosperously. Therefore wise people delight only in inward worship. Deign to remain with me as the giver of splendour born of Vedic learning. Therefore some seekers of the highest delight in the Agnihotra sacrifice. LXXVIII-2: Some hold the opinion that austerity is the means of liberation and that there is no austerity higher than religious fast. What belongs to sat. namely good people. be with me to confer the fruits of it. LXXVIII-1: Truthfulness is excellent. therefore the largest number of people delight in procreation. Deign to remain with me as the giver of good and divine qualities.with me as the giver of what is auspicious. Therefore they delight in it. Therefore seekers of the highest good find delight in the scriptural duty. LXXVIII-3: Perfect ascetics declare that withdrawal of the senses from the attraction of forbidden objects is the means of liberation. A person who practises it becomes invincible (or such austerity is unthinkable for the commonalty). that is indeed satyam (truthfulness). LXXVIII-11: Some wise people consider that inward worship is the means of liberation. Therefore the Vedic Fires must be consecrated. For this reason seekers of the highest good find delight in truthfulness. Hiranyagarbha is indeed the Supreme. LXXVIII-5: All creatures praise selfless gift as supreme. By the performance of scriptural duties all the world is held together. LXXVIII-12: Brahma Hiranyagarbha considers that Sannyasa is the means of liberation. for there is nothing more difficult to perform than giving selfless gift. LXXVIII-8: Some one devoted to the Vedic religion says that the Vedic Fires are the means of liberation. Therefore seekers of the highest good delight in the performance of sacrifice. What is excellent is truthfulness only. Deign to remain with me as the giver of happiness here. Verily gods have attained heaven by their own prior deeds of sacrifice. LXXIX-1: Aruni. For that reason the largest number of offsprings are born. Sannyasa alone surpassed all. LXXVIII-10: Others devoted to the Vedic religion say that sacrifice is the means of liberation. There is nothing more difficult to practise than the duties ordained by the scriptures. LXXVIII-7: The largest number of people consider that procreation is the means of liberation. LXXVIII-9: Another person devoted to the Vedic religion says that Agnihotra is the means of liberation. Therefore seekers of the highest good delight in austerity. the son of Prajapati and Suparna approached his father Prajapati – thus we have heard – and questioned him. Therefore seekers of the highest good delight in giving selfless gift. By truthfulness those who have attained to the state of blissfulness never fall from there. Because procreation is deemed such a means.

Everything in practical life depends on truth. LXXIX-3: Be Tapas performed in the beginning gods attained godhood.LXXIX-2: By truth the wind blows. is the support of the whole universe. By truth the sun shines in the sky. Calmness of mind is inaccessible for the ordinary creatures. Everything is founded in Tapas. A person who extends the continuity of progeny in the right way by rearing offsprings. LXXIX-7: Dharma. Everything is supported by sacrifice. They have driven away demons by sacrifice. Ahavaniya is the Sama-Veda. Perfect ascetics reached heaven gradually through sense-control. Everything is founded on calmness of mind. People remove by gifts those who are envious and malignant towards them. Therefore they say Tapas is the supreme (means of liberation). Therefore they say truth is the supreme means of liberation. Anvaharyapachana is Yajur-Veda mid-region and the Vamadevya Saman chant. LXXIX-12: Inward worship or mental concentration is indeed the means of attaining to the state of Prajapati and so that is holy. Therefore they say that dharma is the supreme means of liberation. Therefore they say sense-control is the supreme (means of liberation). discharges his debt towards his departed ancestors. It is a beacon to the heavenly world. LXXIX-4: Persons who practise sense-control shake off their sin by that. By sacrifice those who are hostile become friendly. LXXIX-8: In this world procreation is certainly the foundation of the race. All are supported by dharma. LXXIX-11: Others devoted to the Vedic religion say that sacrifice is the means of liberation. Everything is established in gift. In the world all creatures subsist on a giver. It is a good yaga and a good homa and also it is the commencement of all yajna-s and kratu-s. By Tapas seers attained to heaven gradually. LXXIX-10: The performance of Agnihotra at dawn and sunset is an expiation for sins incidental to house-keeping. Therefore they say sacrifice is the supreme means of liberation. the earth and the Rathantara Saman chant. Truth is the foundation of speech. Sense-control is inaccessible to ordinary creatures. the Garhapatya Fire is Rig-Veda. Sages have attained to heaven through calmness of mind. according to the scriptural rules. By gift the unfriendly become friendly. Verily gods have attained to heaven by their previous deeds of sacrifice. LXXIX-5: Those who are of a tranquil disposition do good merely by calmness. That alone is the way for him to pay off his debts towards his ancestors. Everything is founded in sense-control. Therefore they say that the gift is the supreme means of liberation. LXXIX-6: Giving of gift in the shape of dakshina is the secure abode of the sacrifices. Therefore they say Agnihotra is the supreme means of liberation. All people draw near a person who is fully devoted to dharma. Through mental . religious righteousness. Of them. Those who possess a mind endowed with the power of inward concentration see and realise what is good. Sacrifice is indeed dear to gods. Therefore they say that procreation is the supreme means of liberation. Therefore they say that calmness of mind is the supreme means of liberation. LXXIX-9: The great sacrificial Fires are indeed the three-fold knowledge and the path leading to godhood. Therefore they say that the sacrificial Fires are the supreme means of liberation. Through dharma a person chases away sin. By Tapas we get rid of our enemies who stand in the way of our acquisitions. the heavenly worlds and the Brihat Saman chant.

therefore wise men declare that to be above all other means of liberation. Thou art the giver of light and heat to the sun. this Person. the syllable Om. Remembrance produces continuous remembrance. Thou art taken in the upayama vessel as soma juice for oblation. By the use of food the breaths and sense are nourished. As the result of such Tapas. his true nature is that which is settled by the enquiry into the Vedas and what is attained by his new birth in right knowledge. and so forth. Thou art the bestower of the riches of light to the moon. LXXIX-17: O Supreme. He is all that is perceptible at present. By the rain-cloud herbs and trees come into existence. By sensecontrol reflection is engendered. LXXIX-14: The year is the yonder sun. For this reason. Being such a one he remains beyond the darkness of ignorance. From herbs and trees food is produced. LXXIX-13: Wise seers declare that Sannyasa mentioned as the supreme means of liberation is Brahman. This. faith in scriptural truths springs into existence. the Supreme. We worship Thee the Supreme who art such for the manifestation of Light. indeed. Through apparently human. He is firmly established in the richness of knowledge imparted by his guru. Therefore they say that the power of inward concentration is the supreme means of liberation. that unbroken direct realization comes from reflection and that bliss comes from unbroken direct realization of Truth. LXXIX-15: Those rays by which the sun gives heat. Thou unitest the individual Souls in the Sutratman. Thou pervadest the universe. Thus having attained bliss one becomes the Supreme which is the source of the universe. From continuous remembrance results unbroken direct realization of Truth. is self-born. was in the past and will be in the future. is supremely blissful. Thou hast become all. is the protector of created beings. O Aruni. For. having become one possessed of knowledge by realizing Him. Thou art the giver of the wealth of supreme knowledge to us. Conclusive experience of Truth follows calmness. seers like Vishvamitra created subjects by mere wish. All depends upon this power of the mind. he who gives food gives all these. He who has attained supreme knowledge through Sannyasa is.concentration. By mental power sense-control is made possible. Bodily strength gives the capacity to practise Tapas (in the shape of self-control. the heaven and the quarters and the sub-quarters – that Person is fivefold and is constituted of five substances. Because Sannyasa is thus the supreme means of realization. LXXIX-16: He by whom all thus universe is pervaded – the earth and the mid-region. That Person who is in the sun is Hiranyagarbha. that reflection functions with the vital breath and the senses. do not again fall a prey to death. is the soul of time. By conclusive experience of Truth remembrance of It is engendered. it is found that the vital breaths and the senses of creatures are from food. LXXIX-18: (The Sannyasin having meditated upon the Supreme) should concentrate his thoughts on Him uttering the syllable Om. From reflection calmness of mind results. He has become the self-resplendent. through Sannyasa and with your mind fixed in the heart. the same rays transform water into rain-cloud which showers the rain. as also in his faith and in Truth. He is Parameshthin (the protector of the universe) and Brahmatman – Supreme Reality that is the innermost Self of all creatures. and that Brahman is the Universal Spirit. By such realization a person knows the Atman. By faith mental power comes. When the life-breath is nourished one gets bodily strength. Thou art the giver of the lustre to fire. religious fast and so forth). verily is the substance of many great Upanishads and a secret guarded by the gods without imparting to the .

his Sattra. he attains to the greatness of Brahman. his austerity is his fire. Thou art the true and the good. On the other hand he who dies during the period when the sun moves to the south gets only the greatness of the manes and then attains to the identity or companionship with the moon. Aryaman. May we work conjointly with great energy. at the dissolution of the world of Hiranyagarbha. Me. his desire is his clarified butter. is his own Self. and in this Upanishad. I bow down to Brahman in reverence. Thus the secret knowledge has been imparted. Hari Om ! May Mitra. the total sacrifice is. may He nourish us both together. May that – the Supreme Being adored as Vayu – preserve me. when he eats in the afternoon and forenoon that is his Samid-homa (oblation of fuel in the fire). He who practises meditation on the Supreme thus with the aid of Pranava after Sannyasa attains to the unlimited greatness of the Supreme. the seasons are his Pasubandha sacrifice. LXXX-1: The institutor of the sacrifice. That person who knows this. is concluded. indeed. the three divisions of the day – forenoon. his mind is his Brahman priest. his sense-control is his immolator. Thus the secret knowledge here. the conduct of a Sannyasin – covering all the duties from Agnihotra to Sattra and terminating in death overcome by old age – and who dies during the period of the sun’s movement to the north attains to the overlordship of gods like Indra and then reaches identity or companionship with the sun. the span of his life is his preparatory rite. his chest is his altar. Varuna. My teacher. his body is his sacrificial fuel. what he eats that is his oblation. may He protect. Thou verily art perceptible Brahman. his breath is his Udgatir priest. O Vayu. Indra. the Supreme who is Existence-Knowledge-Bliss. midday and evening – relating to him are his savanas. may He protect. death is the Avabhritha or completion of his sacrifice. that which is his utterance that is his offering of oblation. when he delights himself that is his Upasad rite. his speech is his Hotir priest. A Brahmana who knows separately the greatness of the sun and the moon realizes these two. Brihaspati And all-pervading Vishnu be propitious to us And grant us welfare and bliss. From that knowledge which was acquired in the world of Hiranyagarbha. the day and night are his Darsapurnamasa sacrifices. Om ! May He protect us both together.unfit. that which is his knowledge that is his Homa sacrifices. the samvatsaras and the parivatsaras are his Ahargana sacrifice. that which is his mouth that is his Ahavaniya Fire. I bow down to Thee in adoration. his heart is his sacrificial post. . May He preserve the teacher. his sight is his Adhvaryu priest. when he walks. his anger is his animal to be immolated. his hairs are his holy grass. His faith is his wife. but he who has become a knower of Hiranyagarbha wins further. namely. his hearing is his Agnid priest. his gifts are his dakshina. the Veda he has learnt is his tuft of hair. By that he attains to the greatness of Brahman. what he drinks that is his drinking of soma juice. sits and stands that is his Pravargya rite. in the case of the sacrifice offered by a Sannyasin who has attained supreme knowledge in the manner already described. the half months and the months are his Chaturmasya sacrifice. I shall declare: Thou art right.

. Whoever reads this Upanishad of Atharva-Veda gets the same holy effect as reading the complete Vedas. who names them. Om. The sages who experience this tell as follows: I know that Purusha with the shining light who is beyond darkness. That experience is neither Samadhi nor Yoga Sidhi and nor mixing of the mind. O ye worthy of worship ! May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas. and attaining it (pranayama) by constant and long practice of Pooraka and Rechaka (macro. micro as well as together) and making the mind concentrate on the same Brahman in three stages. May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). who was announced as Para Brahman by Brahma in the primitive times and who was found out by Indra in all the four directions. The personal knowledge “that this Sun is Brahman” is got by chanting Ajabha Gayatri viz. “Hamsa Soham. . bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! God Brahma said: I would explain this Upanishad based on inside experience. attains the deathless state in this birth itself.” The ever joyous Paramatma would set in if. Praising them with our body and limbs steady ! May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda. Ramachander Published by celextel.May our study be vigorous and effective. who makes shapes. The one who finds out that Purusha. I am that Siva who is that sun of Knowledge. I am all the light that we know. I am the very clean light of Atma. included in the Krishna-Yajur-Veda. who provides for them and who is the brave Purushotama. There is no other method for salvation. ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 51]Maha Vakya Upanishad Translated by P. It would shine like one thousand suns and would be complete like the shoreless sea. after controlling Prana and Apana by Pranayama. That is merging with Brahman as Brahman is always single. He would definitely attain the place of Maha Vishnu. may we hear with our ears what is auspicious. May we see with our eyes what is auspicious. I am that sun who is the ethereal light. the thunderbolt for evil. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Mahanarayanopanishad.org Om ! O Devas. R.

----------------------------------------------------------------------- 52]Maitrayani Upanishad Translated by Dr. O ye worthy of worship ! May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas. ears. vitality And all the senses grow in strength. deeming the body to be impermanent. arise and choose a boon’. ‘Sir. as contained in the Atharva-Veda. Let there be no denial at all: Let there be no denial at least from me. burning with his lustre and said ‘Oh King. At the end of a thousand years the sage Sakayana approached (him) like. Praising them with our body and limbs steady ! May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda. All existence is the Brahman of the Upanishads. Chennai Om ! Let my limbs and speech. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! PRAPATHAKA ONE The King Brihadratha. May we see with our eyes what is auspicious. fire without smoke. May I never deny Brahman. arms uplifted. ask for other desires’. etc. like flies and mosquitoes which live and die. I am ignorant of the self. He performed great penance and stood looking at the sun. attacked by lust. . nor Brahman deny me. thirst etc. etc. eyes. separation from near and dear people. A. bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Maha-Vakyopanishad. anger. You know it. please impart it’. ‘This has happened in the past. skins. the thunderbolt for evil. May the virtues that are proclaimed in the Upanishads be in me.Om ! O Devas.. He bowed and said. what is the use of enjoyment in this body which smells badly and is a mass of bones. may they reside in me. went to the forest. setting up his eldest son as king. We see that all this is decaying. may we hear with our ears what is auspicious. But the King touched his feet and said. getting detachment. ‘Sir. Who am devoted to the Atman. Prana. Krishna Warrier Published by The Theosophical Publishing House.. G. hunger. and is impossible.

Yauvanasva etc. Vyana. fearless. ‘How can this body be set up like this by one who is devoid of desire ?’ He replied ‘The self is subtle. There is only rebirth in this world after all the enjoyment. Standing in the core of the heart. The breath that moves upward is Prana. ‘Which. the inner fire by which food is digested. I shall enter into them’. famous as the son of king Marut. have done your duty. unborn. placid. manifests itself in its own essence. established in the cave (heart) is all mental. O Lord’ (he asked). bound by external causes. invisible and called Purusha. He has many forms. PRAPATHAKA TWO The sage Sakayanya being pleased said. inert like a post. dividing things by the five rays. The fire within is the cosmic fire. ‘Lord. he entered. The sinless. Apana moves down. You are my refuge. Indradyumna. endless. We also see how Gandharvas. free. ‘Lord. He contemplated on himself and made numerous beings. Udana throws up and sends down the drink and food. his body is the vital breath. Apana. The oceans become dry. Asuras. the flag (ornament) of the Ikshvaku dynasty. The sense organs are the . Yaksas and others are dead and gone. The sound of digestion is heard with closed ears. his imaginations are true. mountains fall. Also this has been stated elsewhere. He is the driver. Samana is that which causes the eaten food to settle and circulates it to every limb equally. is your self’. The Vaisvanara wind overpowers the Antaryami wind and vice versa. breathless. ‘This Prajapati was there in the beginning. Dhruva star is shaken. He was not happy and thought. of Suryavamsa. breathless.Great kings Dudyumna. He is the driver. relinquished this world and went to the other. Being alone he was not happy. This Brahma-vidya has been imparted to us by Lord Maitreya. independent. They asked. Uprisen. suffering and yet not (really) suffering. Making himself like air. he strives and thinks: Let me become all things. non-object. The tranquil one rising from this body and approaching the supreme. the eye of all. you know the self. Udana and Samana airs. ‘O King. powerfully radiant and chaste Valakhilyas spoke to Prajapati. They were unaware of him. Bhuridyumna. eternal. how can such a being exist in part ?’ He told them. That conscious part of this Purusha is the knower of the body in every individual. unchangeable. ‘To kindle their awareness. In part he is consciously present here and awakens the sleeper. That which pervades the nerves is Vyana. I shall teach you the same. in his own glory. he experiences then. going upward. determination and conceit – he is the Lord of creatures. Kuvalayasva. of the Somavamsa. This one. holy. trees and earth are uprooted. In between these two warmth is exuded – the warmth is the spirit – spirit is cosmic fire.. Which subtle being has such greatness that the body is set up as a conscious thing ? Who is the driver of this body ?’ He told them ‘He who is beyond speech. This indeed. empty of delusion. He replied: ‘It cannot be described. Marutta etc. You should uplift me who am like a frog in a dark well. dispels ignorance like the sun dispelling darkness.. By that conscious being is the body set up. His marks are imagination. This supreme being dividing himself into five. They said. immortal. even as the relatives were watching. this body is inert like a cart. not as one but making himself five-fold Prana. not when one is about to die. is pure.

As caught in a magic show one is in the midst of Maya. of the nature of Prakriti. abiding as witness. the body the chariot. PRAPATHAKA THREE They said. overwhelmed by the white and dark fruits of actions and goes to wombs. This is the form of plurality. Due to him is the body a conscious entity. dwells in the midst of many fears. the motor organs are the horses. he makes the body revolve like a wheel. one in the clutches of Death is not free. conceited. mind is the driver. non-agent. the elemental self is overwhelmed. non-object. so the elemental self and not the spirit is over-powered. white and dark. sleep. unsteady. urine etc. Rebirth is unavoidable – bound by good and bad results (of actions). Their complex is the body. fear. who goes down or up wandering. he roams about. so. it inevitably assumes different forms. as it were. by them and flits from body to body. Being overcome he is in a state of delusion and does not see the Lord in himself making him act. PRAPATHAKA FOUR It has been said: ‘As waves in great rivers. is loved by a sheet (of Prakriti). He sees every thing wrongly as in a dream. smitten by desire.. thinking ‘I am that. assuming the forms of 84 Lakhs of living beings constitutes the mass of elemental beings.rays. yearning. Being unmanifest. overwhelmed by actions white and dark. as in darkness one is blinded by passion. driving with the whip. (but) abides like an agent. this is mine’ he binds himself by himself as in a net. filled with faeces. Elsewhere also it has been said. unpossessive. overcome by dualities ?’ He replied: There is indeed another self in elements. sustained by bones. old age etc. It has been stated: this body without consciousness has been generated by the sex-act – it is hell – has via the urinary passage. It has been affirmed ‘Delusion. He who is maddened by worldly pleasures is like one intoxicated. Hence indeed. This is overwhelmed by Prakriti. The group of three aspects. He is truly pure. It . -. being full of these Tamasa and Rajasa traits (like desire). free from states. subtle. The constituents are impelled by the spirit as a wheel by its driver. Elements means the five root-elements as well as the five concrete elements. steadfast. the elemental self pervaded by the inner spirit and pressed by Prakriti becomes many. immutable. depression. The self is like a drop of water in the lotus (leaf). desireless. ‘The agent indeed is the Elemental self. This self is truly led to depend on the non-self by the fruit of actions. As the fire is not beaten (only the iron is). is overwhelmed. in eager pursuit. ‘O Lord. the past deeds are one’s safeguard – like the coast line for the ocean. experiences ‘fruits of actions’. as a beast by ropes. untarnished. invisible. Like a prisoner.. The inner spirit causes actions by means of instruments just as iron pervaded by fire and beaten by workers is split into may. essenceless like the pith of plantain – like an actor dressed up for a moment – falsely attractive like a painted wall. He is in the grip of sin and roams.it is a shattered sheath. good and bad. uneager. Content with the mass of constituents and confused. who then is the other self. wound. covered with flesh and skin. like one bitten by a snake is he in the jaws of danger.

the soul of all. reaches the mindless state. Vayu. it is the high place.migrating life is mind indeed.. You are Bhahma. Om! Let my limbs and speech. so the mind by the dying of its modes. The placid in nature. Vishnu. What the mind dwells on. The modes of mind. vitality And all the senses grow in strength. It has also been said: ‘By penance is Sattva got and by Sattva is the (refined) mind. This all came out of Sattva. Water mixed in water cannot be distinguished. determination and conceit. inside and outside them. May the virtues that are proclaimed in the Upanishads be in me. Vishnu became three-fold. it became uneven – Rajas compelled. Rudra of Sattva. sources of trouble. Prana. the lord of all. If the mind attached to sense objects is fixed upon the supreme spirit. Moon. All existence is the Brahman of the Upanishads. This is the everlasting mystery. Prajapati spoke about it. A transmission of the law cannot really be in the Ashrama (stage of life). By this law does one go upwards. the conscious being. of the lover of Truth. Manu. One who is in the Ashrama is said to be a real ascetic. without it one tumbles down – this has been laid down in the Vedas. doer of allocations. does (transmigration) stop. liberation. so the mind spirit – man is freed. The first bodies are Brahma etc. When a person makes his mind free from dissolution and restlessness. by mind is the spirit got and by the spirit attained.has been stated ‘sense-objects’ like sound are there. the most secret. not deceived by sense objects. nor Brahman deny me. The joy got by the mind which is purified by Samadhi and fixed upon the spirit. the pure is without them. I bow to you. so also fire in fire and sky in sky. one’s law of life supports all like a tree-trunk. fixed on the self. unlimited and moves among creatures – the support of all creatures and their lord. it gives bondage – without them. ears. Agni. withdrawn. It was all Tamas – then impelled by the Supreme. In heaven you dwell in your own self in many ways. The remedy is the winning of knowledge – following one’s own Dharma. that fills one’s life. Mind is the only cause of bondage and liberation: attached to objects. eight-fold etc. in every person. Rudra. Achyuta. Bhumi. the self forgets the supreme place. This is knowledge and release too – rest is mere details. The following verses are relevant: Just as fire without fuel dies in its own source. Let there be no denial at all: Let there be no denial at least from me. Who am devoted to the Atman. one fears on endless bliss. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! . all illusion. indicated by thought. May I never deny Brahman. Prajapati. With the purged mind. calms down in the source. are false. who will not be liberated ? Mind is of two kinds: the impure is filled with desires. may they reside in me. He is the aspects of Tamas. protector of all. eyes. Yama. becomes uneven. Varuna. beyond thought and knowledge without beginning and end. Take pains to purge it well. all sport are you. Indra. cannot be described by words but grasped only by the mind. Attached to them. The mind is to be restrained only so long as it is not dissolved in the heart. They follow laws of action .

this body is born of sexual union alone. revered Sir. the knower of the Self. But we hear that you are a knower of the truth. the movement of the polestar or of trees. it is fully filled with faeces. Revered Sir. ‘This request of yours is impossible on the very face of it. said to the king: ‘Rise up. bile. full of bones. eyes. I know not the Atman. Like fire (blazing) without smoke and burning all as it were with his effulgence the sage Sakayanya. Oh descendant of Ikshvaku. Expound to me that’. Thus (the king said). Do not ask me this question. fatty exudations and many other filthy things. Remaining in a body of this kind. May I never deny Brahman. choose (the fulfilment of) other desires’. ears. Revered Sir. In this worldly life which is of the nature of (distinction between) ‘he’ and ‘I’. fat. A. phlegm. marrow. Prana. Let there be no denial at all: Let there be no denial at least from me. you are my refuge. the downfall of mountains. included in the Sama-Veda. you are my refuge’. Who am devoted to the Atman. Reverently touching the feet of the sage Sakayanya the king gave utterance to the following religious text (Gatha). choose a boon’. Thus (he implored). urine. At the end of a thousand years the sun-god (taking the form of the sage Sakayanya) approached the sage.Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Maitrayani Upanishad. may they reside in me. nor Brahman deny me. there is seen the repeated return (to the phenomenal world) ? Hence it behoves on your part to uplift me. Ramanathan Published by The Theosophical Publishing House. daubed with flesh and encased in skin. is devoid of consciousness and is verily hell as it has emerged through the urinal path. Bowing to him the king said: ‘Revered Sir. There he performed the highest kind of penance and facing the sun remained with his arm uplifted. resorting to them. wind. I-2. the submerging of the earth and the loss of position by the gods. I am like a frog in a well in this worldly life. All existence is the Brahman of the Upanishads. had his eldest son installed on the throne and considering the body to be impermanent and feeling disgusted (with worldly life) went to a (penance) forest. Chennai Om ! Let my limbs and speech. May the virtues that are proclaimed in the Upanishads be in me. I-3. vitality And all the senses grow in strength. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! I-1. rise up. what is the use of enjoying desires as. Brihadratha by name. A. ------------------------------------------------------------- 53]Maitreya Upanishad Translated by Prof. The King. Now then why speak of other things ? (There is) the drying up of great seas. .

this is the eternal secret. II-1. That which is the eternal. I-8. for the individual self (encased in the five elements) may not remember the highest goal when attached to them. Such is your Self.e. who view the phenomenal world as in illusion and who am unattached to it ? I-17. so the things appear coloured by it. the pure. that I am. Approaching him (the Lord) he said: ‘Lord. By the purity of the mind one destroys (the effect of) good and bad actions. as incapable of being grasped by the (active) mind. the supremely powerful. from Sattva one gets (stability of) the mind. the subtle. the ever vigilant. etc. The objects such as those denoted by sound and touch are apparently (a source of) danger.. through the mind one realizes the Atman. calms down in itself. How can the danger (of duality) approach me. were turned towards Brahman. becomes quiescent in its source (i. Those who discard the ways of caste. said to the king: ‘Great king Brihadratha. etc. The great god said to him: . as beyond the range of mind and speech. As the mind. I-16. a knower of the Atman. in the Self). Through penance one gets to know the inborn disposition (Sattva). as he rescue ship scattering all worry (of those sinking in the sea of worldly life).e. as beyond thought. the ocean of bliss and transcendent. and the body. the innermost essence (of all). I-18. Then the revered sage Maitreya went to Kailasa. who will not be released from bondage ? I-12-14. the immobile. free from all doubts and semblance. One should feel the supreme Lord to be present in the midst of the lotus of one’s heart as the spectator of the dance of the intellect.. resorting as I do to the inner bliss of the Self. which is well attached to the region of the sense-objects. Then the revered sage Sakayanya greatly pleased. by realizing the Self (worldly life is) prevented. Just as fire. the results dependent on activities are unreal as the objects of the senses are confounded (i. I-10. when its activity is exhausted. I-7. and are happy with the bliss of the Self become merged in Brahman (lit. free from the nature (of delusions). when fuel is exhausted.I-4. the one without a second. I-11. there is no doubt about it. The body consisting of various limbs and observing the (rules of) castes and orders has a beginning and an end and is only a great trouble. When the mind is calmed down into its source and goes in the true path. the true. who is to be described ? And he said to the king: I-5. and is consciousness consisting of the final beatitude. I-6. who despise the female goblin of desires. If a person’s mind. one should live in the endless supreme happiness. Those ignorant people who stick to castes and orders of life obtain the (worthless) fruit of their respective actions. Revered Sir. neither light nor darkness. so the mind. Purushas). as the abode of supreme love. actions performed do not affect him as he is without attachment). possessing uncommon attributes. one who has done his duty well and you are well known by the name of Marut. as of the nature of effulgent Existence alone. you are prominent in the family of the Ikshvakus. this should be purified. steady and deep. Free of attachment to one’s children. I-9. It is the mind that constitutes worldly life. When with a pure mind one remains in the Self one enjoys inexhaustible bliss. I-15. as the indispensable. expound to me the secret of the supreme Truth’.

Cleansing which purifies the mind consists of the destruction of the three inborn tendencies (loka-vasana. The body is said to be the temple. The receiving of alms by the mendicant monk is ordained in accordance with the directions of the Guru and the scripture. The conviction. it has originated from the impure secretions of the mother and father. there is no need for it) when the mother of delusion is (just) dead and the son of true awakening is born. he alone will attain liberation. the brother of wealth. II-5.II-2. Bathing in the form of discarding attachment to it is ordained when one touches it with the idea that it belongs to one. True knowledge consists of seeing non-different (in all). II-11. Thus pure cleansing has been spoken of (in the verses above). II-7. as it is born associated with death (in due course) and the impurity caused by child birth. the home of delusion and the wife of desires than he is liberated (from worldly bondage). which is present from the words of the Guru that there is only one (reality) without a second. shastra-vasana and deha-vasana). No sooner has (the ascetic) moved away from the son of ego. subject to grievous maladies. there is no doubt about it. Cleansing (the body) with mud and water is (the external one) practised in the world. transitory and diffused with agitated feelings. II-4. abode of sinful actions.. Having impure matter it smells foul. ears. II-6. It always naturally exudes at the appropriate time impure secretions through the nine apertures (eyes. II-10. it is the abode of joy and sorrow and it is impure. II-8.e. i. Thus should a wise man spend his life. (real) cleansing is said to be by washing with mud and water in the form of (true) knowledge and dispassion (Jnana and Vairagya). II-12. It is associated with the mother in impurity at birth and is born with the impurity caused by child-birth. the individual Self (Jiva) is Shiva alone. there is no twilight at all and hence there is no scope for worship). How shall I perform the twilight worship (Sandhya. Touching this body. touching this body. After embracing renunciation of his own accord the wise man shall move away from his native place and live far away. go about for alms to preserve the body. II-13. etc. Brahman. bathing (as aforesaid) is ordained. and becoming devoted to the one (Brahman) live in the solitary place of oneness free from duality. like a thief who has been released from prison. One should discard the faded flowers in the form of spiritual ignorance and worship God (with the conviction) ‘He and I are one’. II-16. bathing (as aforesaid) is ordained. Touching this. deep meditation consists of the mind freed from thinking on sensory objects. II-9. It is built up of primary fluids. Feeling of non-duality is the alms (which is consumed) and the feeling of duality is the thing unfit for consumption. causing two-fold impurity ? How can I perform twilight worship when the bright sun of consciousness ever shines in the sky of the heart and it never sets or rises ? (i. II-3. . He should imbibe the nectar. This body is born and it has death. bathing (as aforesaid) is ordained.e.).. bathing is the removal of impurity in the mind and cleansing consists of controlling the senses. alone is the solitude (necessary for meditation) and not a monastery nor the interior of a forest. Viewing the body as ‘I’ and mine is smearing oneself with faeces and urine in the place of cosmetics. II-14-15.

he does not deserve final beatitude. I am also the Guru of all the worlds. He who is full inwardly and outwardly is like a jar filled in the sea. is entitled to renunciation. hence the sage should perform the worship of his heart alone (i. II-18. That I am. there is no emancipation even at the end of repeated births for those whose minds are invaded by doubts (about the non-duality of the Atman). contemplate on Brahman enshrined in his heart. A wise man should embrace renunciation only when there has risen in his mind dispassion for all worldly things. II-28. There is liberation for those who are free from doubts. If a sage does not give up – the inward (conviction of non-duality in) the collecting of alms from various houses as a bee does honey from flowers. metal. I am the other (the supreme one).II-17. To one desiring liberation worship of idols made of stone. People rich in wealth. II-29. He who renounces worldly life for amassing wealth (contributed by rich disciples) or for the sake of (assured) boarding and clothing or for a stable position (as the head of a monastery) is doubly fallen (i. That state of remaining like a stone with all ideations quiescent and freed from the states of waking and sleeping is the supreme state of the Self (in the disembodied state). the lowest are deluded by (the efficacy) of holy places. II-20. become that which remains. the father in the form of dispassion. To prevent rebirth he shall avoid external worship (of idols). I am Brahman. II-23. the Atman. II-22.. II-21. There is no (true) renunciation by discarding action. II-31. II-26. The wisest take to contemplation on the reality (of Brahman).e. like the joy of tasting fruits found in the branch of a tree reflected (in a lake). One. the wife of faith and the son of true knowledge. otherwise he is fallen. II-24. Thus (ends the instruction given by Lord Shiva and the second chapter). II-19. nor by reciting the mantras of Praisa (at the formal ceremony of renunciation). do not also become one believing in the senses. who am omnipresent. the middling ones contemplate on the scripture. etc. wealth and progeny) appear like vomit and who has discarded pride in his body. he has neither the full pleasures of worldly life nor liberation). he who is empty inwardly and empty outwardly is like a jar empty in the sky. I am all the worlds. III-1.e. Even learned people have their minds deluded by the illusion created by me and without realizing me. he is liberated. A fool in vain takes (theoretical) delight in Brahman without practically experiencing it (as I am Brahman). (such as for wife. old in age and similarly those mature in knowledge – all these are (but) servants. gem and clay results only in the experience of rebirth. may you resort only to the Atman who is the prime source of all phenomena. (nay) the servants of the disciples of those who are mature in wisdom. Do not become one enjoying objects (of the senses). . seeing and what is seen along with inward tendencies. low people think of the mantras. I am I. II-30. Rejecting all ideations. Hence one should have faith. Renunciation has been declared to be the oneness of the individual self (Jiva) and the universal Self (Atman). II-25. Discarding (ideas of) seer. non-different from the Self). they but wander like cows to fill the wretched belly ! II-27. to whom all primary desires. I am the source (of all).

I am free of all and the non-all. I am the auspicious one.e.. I am the all. I have attained perfection. I am devoid of all things such as the mind. I am He. I am He.). III-11. pure. I witness all and I am devoid of eyes. I am free from meditation and being a meditator. III-13. being the supreme God. I am above the distinction of good and bad and I am devoid of ideation. I am not (existent as an entity). I am devoid of honour and dishonour. I am effulgence. I am free of space and time. III-12. I am devoid of the equal and the unequal. I am without the six sheaths (the gross material body. I am above captivity and liberation.). etc. I am Shiva.e. III-6.e. I am devoid of being and non-being. I am immense. I am beyond the three durations (past.. I alone am. III-15. etc. partiality due to affection) and I abode in the midst of the lotus of the heart. I am beyond speech. III-9. I am the (object of) satisfaction to all the Upanishads. I am devoid of aim and non-aim and I am the bliss 9rasa0 which has no extinction. etc. I am not the world. I am without the knot of the heart (i. etc. I am the righteous and I ever remain. nor am I a little. I am free from sorrow. III-7. I am the impartial one. . possessing the characteristics of Existence. I am free from investigation. III-20. I am the supreme. III-18. I am pure Existence without a counterpart). I am Soma.III-2. III-19. I am free from duality and non-duality. I am of the form which fills everything. I am devoid of the body etc. I am He. III-17. I am the friend of all silence. I am the pure Brahman. I am consciousness. etc. I am of the form of the letter ‘a’ and ‘u’ and I am the letter ‘m’ which (as Om) is eternal. I am beyond the number one and I am beyond the number two as well. III-4. I am not devoid of even the least. III-14. III-5. I am without attributes. I am free from the group of six (internal) enemies (passions. I am the true knowledge (Vijnana). I am pure. I am devoid of all the senses and I do all actions. Consciousness and Bliss.. I am the effulgence of pure consciousness. I am He. I am always of the form of consciousness and I am always of the form of Existence and Consciousness. I am the supreme. I am the power of the void and the non-void and I am the auspicious and the inauspicious (i. I am awake. III-3. I am Shiva. I am free from the pairs (of opposites). I am devoid of the six changes (of birth. greater than the great. I am beyond the object of meditation. present and future) and I am free from passion. I am the special one. I am always of the form of investigation. I am of the form of unbroken ether and I am of omnipresent form. III-10. I am eternal. I am serene and I am Hara (Shiva). I am pure. ever auspicious. eternal. I am free from the concept of substratum and that of the object resting on it. I am Shiva. I remain always.) and I am the witness. I am devoid of a prop. I am the bliss of the principal unclad sages. I am always easily accessible (to the devoted). I am free from the distinction of many souls. I am not another. III-16. beyond both of them). being of the form of unalloyed bliss. I am of the form of all effulgence. I am of the form of all holy places. III-8.. I am beyond ‘there is’ and ‘there is not’ and I am devoid of all negation (i. I am the mind (chitta) free from the phenomenal world and I am devoid of the phenomenal world. I am He. I am beyond measurer and measure and the thing measured. I am the supreme Atman.. I am joy (to the devoted) and sorrow (to the careless). III-21.

Thus (ends) the Upanishad. the preserving of (sweet) patience and unruffledness ever and the restraining of the organs (from sensual objects) – all these come under (or are) Yama. All existence is the Brahman of the Upanishads. It remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone. I am above truth and untruth. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! BRAHMANA . I am quiescence. one who has his own experience thus is without doubt myself. enjoyment of objects producing happiness.” (To which) Narayana (viz. freedom from association. love of the true path. the controlling of the Manas and the not longing after the fruits of actions and a state of . etc. --------------------------------------------------------- 54]Mandala Brahmana Upanishad Translated by K. may they reside in me.I 1. nor Brahman deny me. internal satisfaction. I am liberated and I am always devoid of final emancipation. ears.. I am above the body and its dweller and I am unique. May the virtues that are proclaimed in the Upanishads be in me. Let there be no denial at all: Let there be no denial at least from me. Prana. May I never deny Brahman. The conquering of cold and heat as well as hunger and sleep. OM. devoid of attributes. The infinite proceeds from the infinite. I am always nothing other than pure Existence.III-22. eyes. III-24. I am not obliged to go to any place. III-23. The great Muni Yajnavalkya went to Aditya-Loka (the sun’s world) and saluting him (the Purusha of the Sun) said: “O Revered Sir. becomes merged into) Brahman. (Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe). Narayanasvami Aiyar Om ! That (Brahman) is infinite. I am beyond liberation. describe to me the Atman-Tattva (the Tattva or Truth of Atman).e. the greatest being (Purushottama). living in a retired place. He who listens to this (experience) even once (with supreme faith) becomes himself (i. being free of movement. Who am devoted to the Atman. included in the Sama-Veda. vitality And all the senses grow in strength. Devotion to one’s Guru. and this (universe) is infinite. Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Maitreyopanishad. Om ! Let my limbs and speech. I am always equanimous. the Purusha of the sun) replied: “I shall describe the eight-fold Yoga together with Jnana.

are the waves. forgiveness. Taraka is divided into Murti (with limitation) and Amurti (without limitation).) passion. The removal of these can be affected respectively by absence of Sankalpa. By practising thus. all sins are destroyed. In order to cross the ocean of Samsara where sleep and fear are the serpents. then his vision can be made steady. which have respectively 16. injury. Through seeing it. Then he becomes one with Surya-Akasa (Sun-Akasa) brightened by a Crore of suns. anger. The mind having been drawn away from the objects of the senses. 6. 10 and 12 digits. Both these should be performed through Manas. devoid of all Gunas and peculiarities. Taraka is Brahman which being in the middle of the two eyebrows. When one sees Jyotis (spiritual light) above his head 12 digits in length. is of the nature of the spiritual effulgence of Sachchidananda. When the two ears are closed by the tips of the forefingers. he becomes one with them. Susumna which is from the Muladhara to Brahmarandhra has the radiance of the sun. a Phutkara (or booming) sound is heard. At first Akasa with its shining stars becomes to him Para-Akasa as dark as Tamas itself and he becomes one with Para-Akasa shining with stars and deep as Tamas. carefulness and a spiritual sight of Tattvas. The (spiritual) seeing through the three Lakshyas (or the three kinds of introvision) is the means to It (Brahman). Know that Yoga is twofold through its division into the Purva (earlier) and the Uttara (later). he becomes one with Akasa.Vairagya – all these constitute Niyama. That is Amurti Taraka which goes beyond the two eyebrows (above the senses). The forgetting of oneself in Dhyana is Samadhi. Tamas is destroyed there. moving the eyes and sees streaks of light at the corners of his eyes. restraint of breath and expiration. The earlier is Taraka and the later is Amanaska (the mindless). When the mind is fixed on it. Then he is a Yogin. The contemplation of the oneness of consciousness in all objects is Dhyana. the moon and the fire had joined together in the Akasa that is without them. one should adhere to the subtle path and overstepping Tattva and other Gunas should look out for Taraka. 8. In the centre of it. The restraining of the mind from the objects of senses is Pratyahara (subjugation of the senses).. then he attains the state of nectar. the space of blue colour. The body has five stains (viz. In the Bahir-Lakshya (or external introvision) one sees in order before his nose at distance of 4. Through practice. lighted with the brightness which is the highest and the best of all. 64 and 32 (Matras) constitute Pranayama (restraint of breath). In the Madhya-Lakshya (or the middle one). Then he comes to have their nature (of light). one sees the variegated colours of the morning as if the sun. The sitting in any posture pleasant to one and clothed in tatters (or bark) is prescribed for Asana (posture). He who thus knows the eight subtle parts of Yoga attains salvation. 3. it sees a blue light between the eyes as also in the heart. Inspiration. 2. etc. When one looks at the external space. fear and sleep. (Then) he becomes one with Maha-Akasa resplendent (as) with the fire of the deluge.. He who knows them becomes thus. (This is Antar-Lakshya or internal introvision). the fixing of the Chaitanya (consciousness) (on one alone) is Dharana. then a colour resembling Shyama (indigo-black) and then shining as Rakta (red) wave and then with the two Pita (yellow and orange red) colours. out-breathing. That is Murti Taraka which goes to the end of the senses (or exist till the senses are conquered). Antar-Drishti (internal vision) associated with manas comes . Then he becomes one with Tattva-Akasa. moderate food. Trishna (thirst) is the whirlpool and wife is the mire. is Kundalini shining like Crores of lightning and subtle as the thread in the lotus-stalk.

Becoming one with Antar-Lakshya (Brahman) in the emancipated state by means o