This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

**Many-body quantum theory in condensed matter physics
**

Henrik Bruus and Karsten Flensberg

Ørsted Laboratory, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen Mikroelektronik Centret, Technical University of Denmark

Copenhagen, 15 August 2002

ii

Preface

Preface for the 2001 edition

This introduction to quantum ﬁeld theory in condensed matter physics has emerged from our courses for graduate and advanced undergraduate students at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, held between the fall of 1999 and the spring of 2001. We have gone through the pain of writing these notes, because we felt the pedagogical need for a book which aimed at putting an emphasis on the physical contents and applications of the rather involved mathematical machinery of quantum ﬁeld theory without loosing mathematical rigor. We hope we have succeeded at least to some extend in reaching this goal. We would like to thank the students who put up with the ﬁrst versions of this book and for their enumerable and valuable comments and suggestions. We are particularly grateful to the students of Many-particle Physics I & II, the academic year 2000-2001, and to Niels Asger Mortensen and Brian Møller Andersen for careful proof reading. Naturally, we are solely responsible for the hopefully few remaining errors and typos. During the work on this book H.B. was supported by the Danish Natural Science Research Council through Ole Rømer Grant No. 9600548.

Ørsted Laboratory, Niels Bohr Institute 1 September, 2001

Karsten Flensberg Henrik Bruus

**Preface for the 2002 edition
**

After running the course in the academic year 2001-2002 our students came up with more corrections and comments so that we felt a new edition was appropriate. We would like to thank our ever enthusiastic students for their valuable help in improving this book.

Karsten Flensberg Ørsted Laboratory Niels Bohr Institute

Henrik Bruus Mikroelektronik Centret Technical University of Denmark

iii

iv

PREFACE

Contents

List of symbols 1 First and second quantization 1.1 First quantization, single-particle systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 First quantization, many-particle systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Permutation symmetry and indistinguishability . . . . . 1.2.2 The single-particle states as basis states . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3 Operators in ﬁrst quantization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Second quantization, basic concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 The occupation number representation . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.2 The boson creation and annihilation operators . . . . . 1.3.3 The fermion creation and annihilation operators . . . . 1.3.4 The general form for second quantization operators . . . 1.3.5 Change of basis in second quantization . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.6 Quantum ﬁeld operators and their Fourier transforms . 1.4 Second quantization, speciﬁc operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.1 The harmonic oscillator in second quantization . . . . . 1.4.2 The electromagnetic ﬁeld in second quantization . . . . 1.4.3 Operators for kinetic energy, spin, density, and current . 1.4.4 The Coulomb interaction in second quantization . . . . 1.4.5 Basis states for systems with diﬀerent kinds of particles 1.5 Second quantization and statistical mechanics . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 The distribution function for non-interacting fermions . 1.5.2 Distribution functions for non-interacting bosons . . . . 1.6 Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 The electron gas 2.1 The non-interacting electron gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Bloch theory of electrons in a static ion lattice . . . . 2.1.2 Non-interacting electrons in the jellium model . . . . . 2.1.3 Non-interacting electrons at ﬁnite temperature . . . . 2.2 Electron interactions in perturbation theory . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Electron interactions in 1st order perturbation theory v xii 1 2 4 5 6 7 9 10 10 13 14 16 17 18 18 19 21 23 24 25 28 29 29 31 32 33 35 38 39 41

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

vi 2.2.2 Electron interactions in 2nd order perturbation theory . Electron gases in 3, 2, 1, and 0 dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 3D electron gases: metals and semiconductors . . . . . . 2.3.2 2D electron gases: GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As heterostructures . 2.3.3 1D electron gases: carbon nanotubes . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.4 0D electron gases: quantum dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 44 45 46 48 49 51 52 53 53 56 59 61 63 64 65 68 69 71 73 73 75 78 78 81 85 87 87 88 88 91 91 93 95 95 98 100 102 104 104

2.3

3 Phonons; coupling to electrons 3.1 Jellium oscillations and Einstein phonons . . . . . 3.2 Electron-phonon interaction and the sound velocity 3.3 Lattice vibrations and phonons in 1D . . . . . . . 3.4 Acoustical and optical phonons in 3D . . . . . . . 3.5 The speciﬁc heat of solids in the Debye model . . . 3.6 Electron-phonon interaction in the lattice model . 3.7 Electron-phonon interaction in the jellium model . 3.8 Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

4 Mean ﬁeld theory 4.1 The art of mean ﬁeld theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Hartree–Fock approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Broken symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Ferromagnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 The Heisenberg model of ionic ferromagnets . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 The Stoner model of metallic ferromagnets . . . . . . . . 4.5 Superconductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Breaking of global gauge symmetry and its consequences . 4.5.2 Microscopic theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Time evolution pictures 5.1 The Schr¨dinger picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o 5.2 The Heisenberg picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 The interaction picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Time-evolution in linear response . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Time dependent creation and annihilation operators 5.6 Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

6 Linear response theory 6.1 The general Kubo formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Kubo formula for conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Kubo formula for conductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Kubo formula for the dielectric function . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Dielectric function for translation-invariant system . . 6.4.2 Relation between dielectric function and conductivity

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

CONTENTS 6.5

vii

Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 . 108 . 111 . 112 . 113 . 113 . 115 . 116 . 116 . 120 . 121 . 121 . 123 . 124 . 125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 127 128 131 132 132 134 135 136 137 137 141 141 144 145 145 147 147 149 150 151 153 153 153 153

7 Transport in mesoscopic systems 7.1 The S-matrix and scattering states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.1 Unitarity of the S-matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.2 Time-reversal symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Conductance and transmission coeﬃcients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.1 The Landauer-B¨ttiker formula, heuristic derivation . . . . u 7.2.2 The Landauer-B¨ttiker formula, linear response derivation . u 7.3 Electron wave guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.1 Quantum point contact and conductance quantization . . . 7.3.2 Aharonov-Bohm eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 Disordered mesoscopic systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1 Statistics of quantum conductance, random matrix theory . 7.4.2 Weak localization in mesoscopic systems . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.3 Universal conductance ﬂuctuations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Green’s functions 8.1 “Classical” Green’s functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Green’s function for the one-particle Schr¨dinger equation o 8.3 Single-particle Green’s functions of many-body systems . 8.3.1 Green’s function of translation-invariant systems . 8.3.2 Green’s function of free electrons . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.3 The Lehmann representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.4 The spectral function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.5 Broadening of the spectral function . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Measuring the single-particle spectral function . . . . . . 8.4.1 Tunneling spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4.2 Optical spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Two-particle correlation functions of many-body systems . 8.6 Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9 Equation of motion theory 9.1 The single-particle Green’s function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.1 Non-interacting particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Anderson’s model for magnetic impurities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.1 The equation of motion for the Anderson model . . . . . . . . 9.2.2 Mean-ﬁeld approximation for the Anderson model . . . . . . . 9.2.3 Solving the Anderson model and comparison with experiments 9.2.4 Coulomb blockade and the Anderson model . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.5 Further correlations in the Anderson model: Kondo eﬀect . . . 9.3 The two-particle correlation function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.1 The Random Phase Approximation (RPA) . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . 10. . . . . . . . a) . . . . . . 179 .3 The cancellation of disconnected Feynman diagrams 12.viii 9.4 CONTENTS Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . 12 Feynman diagrams and pair interactions 12. . . . . 12. . . . 169 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .2 Elastic scattering and Matsubara frequencies .2 The Fock self-energy diagram . .3. 161 . . . . . . . . . 193 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The pair-bubble self-energy diagram . . . . .5. . . . . 190 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . 173 . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . 164 . . . . . . . 161 . . . . . . . . . 12. .5. . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Deﬁnitions of Matsubara Green’s functions . .3. 12. . . 10. . 11. 165 . . . . .5 Equation of motion . . .1 Fourier transform of Matsubara Green’s functions . . . . 12. . . . . .4.7 Summary and outlook . . . . .4 Impurity self-average . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 . . . . . .3 Single-particle Matsubara Green’s function . 10. 160 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 .1 Non-interacting particles in external potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 inﬁnite perturbation series!Matsubara Green’s function . . . 12.2 Summations over functions with known branch cuts . . . . . . . . . . 163 . . . . . .2 1st order Born approximation . . . . . . . . . . . 189 .8 Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Summations over functions with simple poles . 11 Feynman diagrams and external potentials 11. . . . 12. . . . . . . . .3 The Feynman rules for pair interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Feynman rules for the denominator of G(b. . . . . . 10. .2 Feynman rules for the numerator of G(b. 167 . . . . . . . . .6 Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . .4 Evaluation of Matsubara sums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 The Feynman rules in Fourier space . . . . . . 10. . . 157 . . . .6. . . . . .1 Advanced functions . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. 11. . . . . 156 . . 12.3. . . . .3 Random impurities in disordered metals . 11. . . 181 . . . 177 . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . 190 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 . .1 The perturbation series for G . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Feynman diagrams for the impurity scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Matsubara Green’s function for non-interacting particles 10. . . . . . . .4 The self-consistent Born approximation and beyond 11. . . . . . . 168 . . . 164 . . 174 177 . . . . a) . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.5. . . . . . . .6 Examples of how to evaluate Feynman diagrams . . . .1 The Hartree self-energy diagram .2 Connection between Matsubara and retarded functions .5 Self-energy for impurity scattered electrons . 10. . 11. . . . . . . . .1 Lowest order approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .6 Wick’s theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Self-energy and Dyson’s equation . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . .3 The full Born approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . 12. . . 170 . .3. . . . . . . . 199 199 199 201 201 202 203 205 206 208 209 209 210 211 10 Imaginary time Green’s functions 10. .6. . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .7 Example: polarizability of free electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . .

. . 220 . . . . 15. . 16. . . . .5.4 Phonon renormalization by electron screening in RPA . . 275 .3 Mass renormalization? . . . . . . ix 213 . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . 279 . . .5 Combined RPA and Born approximation . .2. . . .4 The weak localization correction to the conductivity . . . . 13. . . . 16. . . . . . . . . 251 . . . . .3. . . . . 276 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . .2. . 281 . . .2 The conductivity in terms of a general vertex function 15. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The divergence number of self-energy diagrams 13. . . 238 . . 14. 13. . 284 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . 214 . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .1 Plasma oscillations and plasmons . . . . . . . . 238 . . 13. . . . 14. 14 Fermi liquid theory 14. . . . . . . . . 13. .1 Vertex corrections and dressed Green’s functions . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . 14. 15 Impurity scattering and conductivity 15. 230 . . 248 . 220 .1 Adiabatic continuity . . . . . . . . . 13. . . .5 Plasma oscillations and Landau damping . . . . .3 The ground state energy of the electron gas . . . . . . .1 The Green’s function for free phonons . .3 RPA resummation of the self-energy . . . . . . . . . 217 . . . . 227 .4 Microscopic basis of the Fermi liquid theory .1 Calculation of the pair-bubble . . . . . . . 13.3 The conductivity in the ﬁrst Born approximation . . . . 14. . . . . 240 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Finite life time of the quasiparticles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electron-phonon interaction and Feynman diagrams . . . . . . . .1 The self-energy in the random phase approximation . . 231 233 .1 The quasiparticle concept and conserved quantities . . . .6 Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 279 . . . . . . . . . 215 . . . . .2 Imaginary part of the single particle Green’s function 14. .2 The electron-hole pair interpretation of RPA . 14. 280 . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .2 Landau damping . . 14. . .1. . . . . .4 The dielectric function and screening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 . .2 The renormalized Coulomb interaction in RPA . . . 223 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 . . . . . . . .1. . . . .5 Outlook and summary . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Semi-classical treatment of screening and plasmons . . . . . 14. . . . . . . 253 254 259 261 264 273 . . 237 . .4. . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Semi-classical transport equation . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 . . . . .3 Combining Coulomb and electron-phonon interactions . . . . . . . .1 The density dependence of self-energy diagrams 13. 245 .2 Dynamical screening . . . . . . . . . . . 213 . . . . . . . . 14.1 Renormalization of the single particle Green’s function 14. 13. . . .CONTENTS 13 The interacting electron gas 13. . . . . . 275 . . .5 The Cooper instability and Feynman diagrams . .4. . . . . 218 . . . . . . . . . . .1 Static screening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . . .1 Migdal’s theorem . . . . . . . 13. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 . . . 228 . . . . 16. . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Green’s functions and phonons 16. 14.2 Jellium phonons and the eﬀective electron-electron interaction 16. . . 233 . . . . .

. 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . A Fourier transformations A. . . . . . . . . .3. . . .x 17 Superconductivity 17. . . . . . . . . .5 Translation invariant systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Cooper instability . . . . . . . . . A. . . .8. 17. . . . 18.1 Interacting one dimensional electron system . . . . states . . . . . . . . . .1 Tunneling density of states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .6 Tunneling into spinless Luttinger liquid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 . . . . . . . . . 288 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Time and frequency Fourier transforms . . . . . . . .2 Continuous functions in an inﬁnite region A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.1 Introduction . . . 18. . . . . . .5 Green’s functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 . . . . 17. . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . .4 Some useful rules . . . . . .2 The BCS groundstate . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 First look at interacting electrons in one dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . B Exercises C Index . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS 287 . . . . . . . 18. . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 . 289 289 289 289 289 289 289 289 289 289 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 291 291 292 292 292 293 295 326 . . . . . . . . A.spinless case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 speciﬁc heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . .1 Tunneling into the end of Luttinger liquid . . . . . . . .5 The Josephson eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 . . 18. . . . . . . .3 BCS theory with Green’s functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 .8 Experimental realizations of Luttinger liquid physics . . . . . 17. 18. . . .2 Bosonization of Tomonaga model-Hamiltonian . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Continuous functions in a ﬁnite region . . . . .3 Diagonalization of bosonized Hamiltonian . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 What is a Luttinger liquid? . . . . .1 Edge states in the fractional quantum Hall eﬀect 18. . . . .2 Carbon Nanotubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1D electron gases and Luttinger liquids 18. . .4 Real space formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . 287 . . . . . . . .4. . . . .4 Experimental consequences of the BCS 17. . .8. 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 One-dimensional transmission line analog . . . . .5 Electron operators in bosonized form . . .3. . . . . 18. . . . . . . . .3 The Luttinger-Tomonaga model . .4 Luttinger liquid with spin .4. . .3. . . .

A(k.4. phonon) creation operator for particle (boson. 6.3 10. A0 (k. t ) A CAB (t. t) A(ν. 1 Chap. 7.4 . 5. t ) R (ω) CII CAB C(Q. Sec.2.1 15. c† ν R CAB (t. Sec. 8.3 Chap. Sec. ikn + iqn ) C R (Q. ε. ω) A(r. 7. ω) A0 (r. 8.2 Sec.1 Eq.4 Sec.1 Sec.4 Sec. phonon) amplitudes of wavefunctions to the right magnetic ﬁeld annihilation operator for particle (fermion.3. 8.36) Sec. A† b b† b± n B c c† cν .1 Sec. 1.1 10. electron) creation operator for particle (fermion.4 15. a† ν a± n a0 A(r. Sec. electron) annihilation/creation operators (state ν) retarded correlation function between A and B (time) advanced correlation function between A and B (time) retarded current-current correlation function (frequency) Matsubara correlation function Cooperon in the Matsubara domain Cooperon in the real time domain speciﬁc heat for ions (constant volume) xi Deﬁnition Sec. ω). ω). ikn . 1 Sec. Fourier space) spectral function for free particles phonon annihilation and creation operator annihilation operator for particle (boson.List of symbols Symbol ˆ ♥ ˙ ♥ |ν ν| |0 a a† a ν . ω) A. (2. ε) ion CV Meaning operator ♥ in the interaction picture time derivative of ♥ Dirac ket notation for a quantum state ν Dirac bra notation for an adjoint quantum state ν vacuum state annihilation operator for particle (fermion or boson) creation operator for particle (fermion or boson) annihilation/creation operators (state ν) amplitudes of wavefunctions to the left Bohr radius electromagnetic vector potential spectral function in frequency domain (state ν) spectral function (real space.3.1 6.4 Sec. Sec. 16.3.

11) Chap. rt ) ε(k. (4. (3.4) Sec.64) Eq. φ± RnE gqλ gq G kλ 0 LIST OF SYMBOLS Meaning density of states (including spin degeneracy for electrons) Dirac delta function retarded phonon propagator retarded phonon propagator (Fourier space) Matsubara phonon propagator Matsubara phonon propagator (Fourier space) retarded many particle Green’s function phonon dynamical matrix superconducting orderparameter elementary charge electron interaction strength electric ﬁeld total energy of the electron gas interaction energy of the electron gas. (1. rt ) DR (q. t) E E (1) E (2) E0 Ek ε εk εν εF ε(rt. (9. 3.31) Eq. iqn ) DR (νt.36) Eq. 6. 6. φ ± φLnE . t) φext φind ˜ φ. (4.9b) Sec.20) Sec. 7. 2nd order perturbation Rydberg energy dispersion relation for BCS quasiparticles energy variable the dielectric constant of vacuum dispersion relation energy of quantum state ν Fermi energy phonon polarization vector dielectric function in real space dielectric function in Fourier space free energy the ﬁlled Fermi sea N -particle quantum state electric potential external electric potential induced electric potential wavefunctions with diﬀerent normalizations wavefunctions in the left and right leads electron-phonon coupling constant (lattice model) electron-phonon coupling constant (jellium model) conductance Deﬁnition Eq. (7.4 Sec. (2. rτ ) D(q. 16 Chap.1 . 16 Chap.5 Eq. 1.58b) Eq. 1st order perturbation interaction energy of the electron gas.101) Eq. ν t ) Dαβ (r) ∆k e e2 0 E(r. ω) F |FS φ(r.4) Eq. ω) D(rτ. 16 Eq.xii Symbol d( ) δ(r) DR (rt. 16 Chap.4 Sec. (1. (2.

2 Sec. 8.1 Sec. r σ τ ) G0 (ντ.3. 8.3. ikn ) G(ν.6 Sec.3 Sec.3 Sec. ν t ) G(rστ. 8. r t ) GR (rt.1 Sec.3 xiii Deﬁnition Sec. r t ) G> (rt. r t ) 0 GR (rt.3 Sec.2 Sec.5 Sec. r t ) GA (rt.3 Sec.3 Sec. k ) G0 (rστ.LIST OF SYMBOLS Symbol G(rt. r t ) GR (k.3 Sec. (8.3 Sec. 12.3. 10. r t ) G< (rt. free particles) Matsubara Green’s function (Fourier space. 10. 10.3 Sec. 8. 8. (15.20b) .3 Sec.32) Sec.x H H0 H Hext Hint Hph η I Ie Meaning Green’s function for the Schr¨dinger equation o unperturbed Green’s function for Schr¨dingers eq. ν τ ) G(1. 8.3. 1 ) ˜ ˜ G(k. r t ) 0 GA (rt. 8.3 Sec.1 Sec. 8. r t ) 0 G> (rt. 11.1 Sec. r t ) 0 GR (k. ikn ) G0 (ν. 8. 8. k + q ) Γ0.1 Eq. ω) 0 G< (rt. ω) GR (νt. 10. 8. free particles) Matsubara Green’s function ({ν} basis. 10. 6. γ RA Γ ˜ ˜ ˜ Γx (k. 10. four vector notation) free (undressed) vertex function a general Hamiltonian unperturbed part of an Hamiltonian perturbative part of an Hamiltonian external potential part of an Hamiltonian interaction part of an Hamiltonian phonon part of an Hamiltonian positive inﬁnitisimal current operator (particle current) electrical current (charge current) Sec. frequency domain) scalar vertex function imaginary part of self-energy vertex function (x-component.1 Sec. r σ τ ) G(ντ. free particles) Matsubara Green’s function (free particles ) n-particle Green’s function (free particles) Matsubara Green’s function (Fourier space) Matsubara Green’s function ({ν} basis.3 Sec. 8.3.1 Sec. 10.3 Sec.3 Eq. ν τ ) G0 (k. r t ) G0 (rt. ikn ) (n) G0 G(k.3. ω) GR (k.3. o free lesser Green’s function free grater Green’s function free advanced Green’s function free retarded Green’s function free retarded Green’s function (Fourier space) lesser Green’s function greater Green’s function advanced Green’s function retarded Green’s function (real space) retarded Green’s function in Fourier space retarded Green’s function (Fourier space) retarded single-particle Green’s function ({ν} basis) Matsubara Green’s function (real space) Matsubara Green’s function ({ν} basis) Matsubara Green’s function (real space four-vectors) Matsubara Green’s function (four-momentum notation) Matsubara Green’s function (real space. 10. 15. 10. 8.3. 6.1 Sec. ikn ) γ.1 Sec.

5 Eq.xiv Symbol Jσ (r) ∆ Jσ (r) A Jσ (r) Jσ (q) Je (r. (1. (1. t) Jij kn kF k Meaning current density operator current density operator. iqn ) in Eq.26) Chap.1 Sec.4. 14. diamagnetic term current density operator (momentum space) electric current density operator interaction strength in the Heisenberg model Matsubara frequency (fermions) Fermi wave number general momentum or wave vector variable mean free path or scattering length mean free path (ﬁrst Born approximation) phase breaking mean free path inelastic scattering length normalization length or system size in 1D Fermi wave length irreducible four-point function mass (electrons and general particles) eﬀective interaction renormalized mass chemical potential general quantum number label particle density Fermi-Dirac distribution function Bose-Einstein distribution function impurity density number of particles number of impurities general quantum number label frequency variable phonon dispersion relation Matsubara frequency thermodynamic potential general momentum or wave number variable Matsubara frequency (fermion) retarded current-current correlation function retarded current-current correlation function Matsubara current-current correlation function free pair-bubble diagram LIST OF SYMBOLS Deﬁnition Eq.1 0 φ L λF Λirr m m∗ µ µ n nF (ε) nB (ε) nimp N Nimp ν ω ωq ωn Ω p pn ΠR (rt. 1.2 Chap. paramagnetic term current density operator. (15.5.99a) Eq. 4. 10 Sec. 1.99a) Eq.17) Sec. (1. (12.34) . r t ) αβ ΠR (q. 15 Eq.5. 1. iωn ) Π0 (q.1 Sec. (6.99a) Sec.4. ω) αβ Παβ (q.

10) Sec. ω) Σ(q. 6.5.6 Eq. Sec. 12. 12.5 Eq. Sec. j) Σσ (k. (2. interaction picture Deﬁnition xv Sec. (13.1 Sec.2 .37) Sec. t ) ˆ U (τ. interaction picture imaginary time-evolution operator. (1.96) Eq.5.6 Sec. 1.1 Eq.3 11. (1. 7. 4. 7. ikn ) σ ΣRPA (k.5 11.4 Sec. ikn ) σ ΣP (k. 11. (14.96) Sec. 12. 7.1 Sec.LIST OF SYMBOLS Symbol q qn r r r rs ρ ρ0 ρσ (r) ρσ (q) S S σ σαβ (rt. τ ) Meaning general momentum variable Matsubara frequency (bosons) general space variable reﬂection matrix coming from left reﬂection matrix coming from right electron gas density parameter density matrix unperturbed density matrix particle density operator (real space) particle density opetor (momentum space) entropy scattering matrix general spin index conductivity tensor retarded self-energy (Fourier space) Matsubara self-energy impurity scattering self-energy ﬁrst Born approximation full Born approximation self-consistent Born approximation general electron self-energy general electron self-energy Fock self-energy Hartree self-energy pair-bubble self-energy RPA electron self-energy general time variable tranmission matrix coming from left transmission matrix coming from right kinetic energy general imaginary time variable transport scattering time life-time in the ﬁrst Born approximation ion displacement (1D) ion displacement (3D) BCS coherence factor general unitary matrix real time-evolution operator. r t ) ΣR (q.39) Sec.5.1 Sec. 7. ikn ) ΣF (k. Sec. ikn ) Σk Σ1BA k ΣFBA k ΣSCBA k Σ(l.1 Eq. τk uj u(R0 ) uk U ˆ U (t. ikn ) σ t t t T τ τ tr τ0 . 7. ikn ) σ ΣH (k.2 Sec.1 11.5.6 Sec.

7.3.2 BCS coherence factor general single impurity potential Coulomb interaction combined Coulomb and phonon-mediated interaction normalization volume pair interaction Hamiltonian general pair interaction Coulomb interaction RPA-screened Coulomb interaction εk − µ εν − µ Matsubara charge-charge correlation function RPA Matsubara charge-charge correlation function irreducible Matsubara charge-charge correlation function free retarded charge-charge correlation function free Matsubara charge-charge correlation function retarded charge-charge correlation function retarded charge-charge correlation function (Fourier) transverse wavefunction single-particle wave function.2 Sec.2 Sec. ω) χn (y) ψν (r) ± ψnE ψ(r1 . (1. W (q) W RPA ξk ξν χ(q. .39) Sec.6 Eq. 13. iqn ) χR (rt. 1. 13.4 Sec. V (q) Veﬀ V W W (r). iqn ) χ0 (rt. .5. 13. r t ) χ0 (q.1 Sec. quantum number ν single-particle scattering states n-particle wave function (ﬁrst quantization) quantum ﬁeld annihilation operator quantum ﬁeld creation operator Heaviside’s step function Sec. iqn ) χRPA (q. rn ) Ψσ (r) Ψ† (r) σ θ(x) Meaning LIST OF SYMBOLS Deﬁnition Sec.4 Eq.6 Sec. V (q) V (r).4 Sec.3.1 Sec. . iqn ) χirr (q. 4. r2 . W (q) W (r). 13. .12) .4 Sec. r t ) χR (q. 7. 1. 13. 13. (6.xvi Symbol vk V (r).

Chapter 1 First and second quantization Quantum theory is the most complete microscopic theory we have today describing the physics of energy and matter. and even the particles themselves got represented by quantized ﬁelds (Jordan and Wigner. Schr¨dinger. while quantum ﬁeld theory is formulated in the language of second quantization. Only the inclusion of gravitation stands out as an unsolved problem in fundamental quantum theory. Parallel state vectors represent the same physical state. Later also the electromagnetic ﬁeld was o quantized (Dirac. It has successfully been applied to explain phenomena ranging over many orders of magnitude. By convention. from the study of elementary particles on the sub-nucleonic scale to the study of neutron stars and other astrophysical objects on the cosmological scale. the original form of quantum mechanics is denoted ﬁrst quantization. be it ﬁrst or second quantization. 1927). 1928). By measurement of the type B the quantum state can be prepared to be in an eigenstate |φβ of the operator B. quantum physics ﬁrst dealt only with the quantization of the motion of particles leaving the electromagnetic ﬁeld classical. The scale factors are denoted the eigenvalues of the operator. resulting in the development of quantum electrodynamics (QED) and quantum ﬁeld theory (QFT) in general. If one in this state measures the dynamical variable associated with the operator A. This state can also be expressed as a superposition of eigenstates |ψα of the operator A as |φβ = α |ψα Cαβ . Any given Hermitian operator A has a number of eigenstates |ψα that up to a real scale factor α is left invariant by the action of the operator. certain basic concepts are always present in the formulation of quantum theory. and one therefore mostly deals with normalized state vectors. one cannot in general predict the outcome with 1 . The starting point is the notion of quantum states and the observables of the system under consideration. hence the name quantum mechanics (Heisenberg. and Dirac 1925-26). Regardless of the representation. A|ψα = α|ψα . Historically. It is a fundamental theorem of Hilbert space theory that the set of all eigenvectors of any given Hermitian operator forms a complete basis set of the Hilbert space. and that all observables are represented by Hermitian operators acting on that space. Quantum theory postulates that all quantum states are represented by state vectors in a Hilbert space. In general the eigenstates |ψα and |φβ of two diﬀerent Hermitian operators A and B are not the same.

σ (r) = r|k. which also leads to the deﬁnition of adjoint operators. by the inner product of the position bra r| with the state ket. single-particle systems For simplicity consider a non-relativistic particle. The corresponding Hamiltonian is H= 1 2m 2 r i + eA(r. In this chapter we will brieﬂy review standard ﬁrst quantization for one and manyparticle systems.1 First quantization. ψ|φ between adjoint “bra” states ψ| and “ket” states |φ . or Shankar.g. 1. Using the Dirac notation the state ket can be written as |ψk. A further connection between the direct and the adjoint Hilbert space is given by the relation ψ|φ = φ|ψ ∗ . For example in atomic physics. The plane wave representation |k. The probability of having any given |ψα as the outcome is given as the absolute square |Cαβ |2 of the associated expansion coeﬃcient. The time evolution of a state vector |ψ(t) is governed by the central operator in quantum mechanics. The state function (also denoted the wave function) and the ket are related by 1 ψk. the Hamiltonian H (the operator associated with the total energy of the system). Landau and Lifshitz. (1. One can form inner products. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION certainty. between collapse events the time evolution of quantum states is perfectly deterministic. This non-causal element of quantum theory is also known as the collapse of the wavefunction.e. Fetter and Walecka. For a given operator A the adjoint operator A† is deﬁned by demanding ψ|A† |φ = φ|A|ψ ∗ for any |ψ and |φ . through Schr¨dinger’s equation o i ∂t |ψ(t) = H|ψ(t) . Based on this we will introduce second quantization.3) i.↑ = |k. say an electron with charge −e. and |ψ and |φ are said to be orthogonal if ψ|φ = 0. where electrons orbiting a point-like positively . For more complete reviews the reader is refereed to the textbooks by Dirac. (1. e. σ = √V eik·r χσ (free particle orbital). If {|ψα } is an orthonormal basis of the Hilbert space. ↑ . t). then the above mentioned expansion coeﬃcient Cαβ is found by forming inner products: Cαβ = ψα |φβ . where one simply lists the relevant quantum numbers in the ket. and we refer the interested reader to the textbooks by Mahan.1) Each state vector |ψ is associated with an adjoint state vector (|ψ )† ≡ ψ|. the norm squared of |ψ is given by ψ|ψ . and use standard geometrical terminology. This introduction is not complete in all details. moving in an external electromagnetic ﬁeld described by the potentials ϕ(r. and Dzyaloshinskii. Gorkov. (1. “bra(c)kets”. t) − eϕ(r. t) and A(r. σ is not always a useful starting point for calculations. and Abrikosov.2 CHAPTER 1. Merzbacher.2) An eigenstate describing a free spin-up electron travelling inside a box of volume V can be written as a product of a propagating plane wave and a spin-up spinor. t). However. It is only described in probabilistic terms.

σ).6) Similarly.1. or in the Dirac notation: 1 = dr ν|r r|ν = ν| ( dr |r r|) |ν .4) where Rnl (r) is a radial Coulomb function with n−l nodes. the completeness of a set of basis states ψν (r) means that if a particle is in some state ψ(r) it must be found with probability unity within the orbitals of the basis 2 set: ν | ν|ψ | = 1. . σ . ky . ky .1. ν = (n. kz . σ) each yielding a state function of the form ψν (r) = r|ν . A third example is an electron moving in a constant magnetic ﬁeld B = B ez .m (θ. and we conclude |ν ν| = 1. . and ν = (n. and σ the spin variable. (1.m (θ. φ) is a spherical harmonic representing angular momentum l with a z component m. where n is an integer. the hydrogenic eigenstates |n. SINGLE-PARTICLE SYSTEMS ¢ ¤ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ 3 Figure 1. From this we conclude dr |r r| = 1.5) where = /eB is the magnetic length and Hn is the normalized Hermite polynomial of order n associated with the harmonic oscillator potential induced by the magnetic ﬁeld. m. kz . Loosely speaking the normalization condition means that with probability unity a particle in a given quantum state ψν (r) must be somewhere in space: dr |ψν (r)|2 = 1. charged nucleus are considered. Recall that r|n.7) . l. σ = Rnl (r)Yl. 1. ky . m. ky . σ).1. l. Examples of each of these three types of electron orbitals are shown in Fig. ν (1. FIRST QUANTIZATION. The three examples given above corresponds to ν = (kx . (b) the hydrogen orbital ν = (4. The completeness of a basis state as well as the normalization of the state vectors play a central role in quantum theory. σ). 0. and (c) the Landau orbital ν = (3. φ)χσ (hydrogen orbital).1: The probability density | r|ψν |2 in the xy plane for (a) any plane wave ν = (kx . kz . Recall that r|n. while Yl. which in the Landau gauge A = xB ey leads to the Landau eigenstates |n. 0. kz . m. (1. σ are much more useful. σ = Hn (x/ −ky )e− 2 (x/ 1 −ky )2 √ 1 Ly Lz ei(ky y+kz z) χσ (Landau orbital). σ). Again using the Dirac notation we ﬁnd 1 = ν ψ|ν ν|ψ = ψ| ( ν |ν ν|) |ψ . σ). (1. ky . l. ky (kz ) is the y (z) component of k. ky . kz . 2. In general a complete set of quantum numbers is denoted ν .

electrons. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION We shall often use the completeness relation Eq. The ﬁrst assumption is the natural extension of the single-particle state function ψ(r).12) 1. for k = n.9) In the mathematical formulation of quantum theory we shall often encounter the following special functions. (1. . many-particle systems When turning to N -particle systems. For example in the case in Eq. for x < 0.n for discrete variables. δk. . while dr δ(r) = 1.e. three more assumptions are added to the basic assumptions deﬁning quantum theory. for r = 0. and Lz . . which (neglecting the spin degree of freedom for the time being) is a complex wave function in 3-dimensional space. r2 . which is a complex function in the 3N -dimensional conﬁguration space. (1. . .↓ n=0 Ly dky −∞ 2π ∞ Lz dkz . .11) and Heaviside’s step-function θ(x) for continuous variables. rN ) in j=1 the 3N −dimensional conﬁguration space. δ(r) = 0.4 CHAPTER 1.10) Dirac’s delta-function δ(r) for continuous variables. for k = n. (1. Kronecker’s delta-function δk. . In that case the symbol ν is to be interpreted as a combination of both summations and integrations. which can be expressed as ψ(r) = ν ψν (r) ∗ dr ψν (r )ψ(r ) or r|ψ = ν r|ν ν|ψ . i. 0.2 First quantization. Ly . θ(x) = 0. . r2 . r2 .13) |ψ(r1 . for x > 0.5) with Landau orbitals in a box with side lengths Lx . As for one particle this N -particle state function is interpreted as a probability amplitude such that its absolute square is related to a probability: The probability for ﬁnding the N particles N in the 3N −dimensional volume N drj 2 j=1 (1. (1. to the N -particle state function ψ(r1 . say. .n = 1. . . rN ). we have ∞ = ν σ=↑. A simple example is the expansion of a state function in a given basis: ψ(r) = r|ψ = r|1|ψ = r| ( ν |ν ν|) |ψ = ν r|ν ν|ψ .7). (1. 1. a system containing N identical particles.8) It should be noted that the quantum label ν can contain both discrete and continuous quantum numbers. −∞ 2π ∞ (1. . (1. . rN )| drj = surrounding the point (r1 .

.. .. (1.e. rk . Only two species of particles are thus possible in quantum physics.2. their wavefunctions will rapidly spread out and overlap with one another. . rj .g. particles characterized by the same quantum numbers such as mass. . if a number of identical particles are brought to the same region in space. . . . rk . .. FIRST QUANTIZATION. rj . . .. . (1. . charge and spin. . . . rj . . rk . rj . . i.. rN ) (bosons).. 1 This discrete permutation symmetry is always obeyed.. rj . .2. For fermions it immediately leads to the Pauli exclusion principle stating that two fermions cannot occupy the same state. It furthermore plays a fundamental role in the studies of the nature of stars and of the scattering processes in high energy physics. Such exotic beasts are called anyons . . . It thus explains the periodic table of the elements. upon adiabatic interchange. . rN ) = λ2 ψ(r1 . rk . . rk .. and worse. In classical mechanics each particle can be equipped with an identifying marker (e. . . rN ) = λψ(r1 . .. a colored spot on a billiard ball) without inﬂuencing its behavior. . . .. . are in principle indistinguishable.. rj .. rk . . the so-called bosons and fermions1 : ψ(r1 . and spectacular phenomena like Bose–Einstein condensation. . . If the same two coordinates then are interchanged a second time. . . . thereby soon render it impossible to say which particle is where. and it has been introduced due to overwhelming experimental evidence. we end with the exact same state function. . . For bosons the assumption is necessary to understand Planck’s radiation law for the electromagnetic ﬁeld.1 Permutation symmetry and indistinguishability A fundamental diﬀerence between classical and quantum mechanics concerns the concept of indistinguishability of identical particles. rN ) = +ψ(r1 . a so-called Berry phase. This is not so in quantum mechanics.. . The second fundamental assumption for N -particle systems is therefore that identical particles.. rk . . Thus in principle each particle in a group of identical particles can be identiﬁed. .15b) The importance of the assumption of indistinguishability of particles in quantum physics cannot be exaggerated. . and the corresponding state function can at most diﬀer from the original one by a simple prefactor λ. and moreover it follows its own continuous path in phase space. (1. some quasiparticles in 2D exhibit any phase eiφ . and consequently the starting point in our understanding of atomic physics. rN ). . . .15b) we let rj = rk then ψ = 0 follows.14) and we conclude that λ2 = 1 or λ = ±1. superﬂuidity and laser light. From the indistinguishability of particles follows that if two coordinates in an N particle state function are interchanged the same physical state results. MANY-PARTICLE SYSTEMS 5 1.1. However. ψ(r1 . . . . .. . because if in Eq. rN ) (fermions). .. condensed matter physics and chemistry. . ψ(r1 . . . .15a) (1. rj . . rN ) = −ψ(r1 . . . .. Not even in principle is it possible to mark a particle without inﬂuencing its physical state.

. rN ). . . . .ν2 .18) leads to ψ(˜1 .. . r r (1. . rN ) ≡ ∗ dr2 ψν2 (r2 )Aν1 (r2 . rN ) = r r ν1 . .20) Continuing all the way through ˜N (and then writing r instead of ˜) we end up with r r ψ(r1 . (1. rN ) by projecting onto the basis state ψν1 (r1 ): Aν1 (r2 . . rN ) from Aν1 (r2 . rN ). FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION 1. rN ) = r ν1 ψν1 (˜1 )Aν1 (r2 . rN ) we form the (N − 1)-particle function Aν1 (r2 . (1.. we can invert this expression to give Aν1 in terms of Aν1 .. .. . ψνN (rN ).16) Starting from an arbitrary N -particle state ψ(r1 .ν2 (r3 .ν2 ψν1 (˜1 )ψν2 (˜2 )Aν1 . . A physical meaningful basis bringing the N coordinates on equal footing in the products ψν1 (r1 )ψν2 (r2 ) . .18) Now deﬁne analogously Aν1 . . . rN ): Aν1 . (1. . The symmetry requirements from Eqs. we know from the discussion on indistinguishability that physically it is not a useful basis since the coordinates have to appear in a symmetric way. . .2.21) where Aν1 . No physical perturbation can ever break the fundamental fermion or boson symmetry.νN ψν1 (r1 )ψν2 (r2 ) . .. . . . .ν2 (r3 . . .ν . r2 . . . ψ(˜1 . ∗ ψν (r )ψν (r) = δ(r − r ). (1.21) hidden in the coefﬁcients Aν1 .15b) are in Eq. . Thus any N -particle state function can be written as a (rather complicated) linear superposition of product states containing N factors of single-particle basis states. . . ˜2 . .2 The single-particle states as basis states We now show that the basis states for the N -particle system can be built from any complete orthonormal single-particle basis {ψν (r)}. rN ). . . rN ).6 CHAPTER 1. . ..ν2 . . (1. Even though the product states N ψνj (rj ) in a mathematical sense form a perfectly j=1 valid basis for the N -particle Hilbert space. . .ν2 .. . .15a) and (1. .19) Like before.17) r This can be inverted by multiplying with ψν1 (˜1 ) and summing over ν1 . ψνN (rN ) of single-particle state functions is obtained by .νN . . .. rN ) ≡ ∗ dr1 ψν1 (r1 )ψ(r1 . rN ) = ν1 . ... . . . ν ∗ dr ψν (r)ψν (r) = δν. . ..ν2 (r3 . . which upon insertion into Eq.. r (1. .... . which therefore ought to be explicitly incorporated in the basis states..νN is just a complex number. (1. . . . r2 . r3 .νN Aν1 . (1.

. .3 Operators in ﬁrst quantization We now turn to the third assumption needed to complete the quantum theory of N particle systems. . .. .. .and few-particle operators deﬁned for single. .νN are completely symmetric in their ν-indices. (1. . ψνN (rN ) − ψν1 (r1 ) ψν2 (r1 ) . . ψν1 (r2 ) ψν2 (r2 ) .ν2 ..22) a prefactor Q ν 1 √ must be inserted. p∈SN ψνN (r1 ) ψνN (r2 ) . |νN }.22) ψνN (r1 ) ψνN (r2 ) . ψν1 (r2 ) ψν2 (r2 ) .. . @ 3 A . . |ν2 . .. . ψν1 (rN ) . 3 + 2 − 3 − 1 + 2 + 1 − √1 .. .23) while the boson case involves a sign-less determinant. .. a so-called permanent.1 0 signs 0 the1 0 with the 1 of permutations as subscripts. (1. . .. .. 8N 1 0 1 9 1 1 2 2 3 3 < = S3 = @ 2 A . .1. N! nν ! √1 N! . For fermions nν = 0. . . FIRST QUANTIZATION. r2 .. where the new expansion coeﬃcients Bν1 .e. . . ..e. . The fermion case involves ordinary determinants. 1. . .. . N ψνj (rp(j) ) sign(p).. Using the symmetrized basis states the expansion in Eq.2.2. and sign(p). . . ψνN (rN ) where nν is the number of times the state |ν appears in the set {|ν1 . . ψνN (rN ). .ν2 . . i.. .21) gets replaced by the following. ψν1 (rN ) ψν2 (rN ) . used in the Slater determinant. (1..and 2 Note that to obtain a normalized state on the right hand side in Eq.νN S± ψν1 (r1 )ψν2 (r2 ) .. . ± . . . @ 2 A : . . MANY-PARTICLE SYSTEMS 7 ˆ applying the bosonic symmetrization operator S+ or the fermionic anti-symmetrization ˆ− deﬁned by the following determinants and permanent:2 operator S N ˆ S± j=1 ψνj (rj ) = ψν1 (r1 ) ψν2 (r1 ) . .. is the sign of the permutation p. . which in physics are denoted Slater determinants. @ 1 A . . i. rN ) = ν1 . ψν1 (rN ) . . the Pauli principle. . ψν2 (rN ) = .24) Here SN is the group of the N ! permutations p on the set of N coordinates3 . @ 1 A . ψ(r1 . j=1 (1. 0 or 1 for fermions and between 0 and N for bosons.. . . .25) We need not worry about the precise relation between the two sets of coeﬃcients A and B since we are not going to use it. Note how in the fermion case νj = νk leads to ψ = 0. N ψνj (rp(j) ) . @ 3 A . p∈SN ψνN (r1 ) ψνN (r2 ) .νN ˆ Bν1 . (1. . ψν2 (rN ) = . ψν1 (r2 ) ψν2 (r2 ) .. . 1 (and thus nν ! = 1) so here the prefactor reduces to 3 For0 = 1 we 0 3 have. j=1 (1. . It states that single. . . ψνN (rN ) + ψν1 (r1 ) ψν2 (r1 ) .

takes the following form in the r |ν -representation for a single-particle system: 2 Tj where Tνb νa = νa . It is straight forward to extend j this result to the proper symmetrized basis states. such as the Coulomb e2 1 interaction V (rj − rk ) = 4π |r −r | between a pair of electrons. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION few-particle states remain unchanged when acting on N -particle states. the kinetic ~ energy operator − 2m 2j or an external potential V (rj ). In this course we will only work with one. Let us begin with one-particle operators deﬁned on single-particle states described by the coordinate rj .26) (1. ∗ drj ψνb (rj ) T (rj . j. A given local one-particle operator Tj = T (rj . .30) ∗ ∗ drj drk ψνc (rj )ψνd (rk )V (rj −rk )ψνa (rj )ψνb (rk ). i. For a two-particle sys0 tem described by the coordinates rj and rk in the |ν -representation with basis states |ψνa (rj ) |ψνb (rk ) we have the usual deﬁnition of Vjk : Vjk = νa νb νc νd j k Vνc νd . N Ttot = j=1 Tj . . .28) and the action of Ttot on a simple product state is Ttot |ψνn (r1 ) |ψνn (r2 ) . .νa νb = In the N -particle system we must again take the symmetric combination of the coordinates. say e. hence the proper kinetic energy operator in this case must be the total (symmetric) kinetic energy operator Ttot associated with all the coordinates. (1.27) = ψνa (rj ). rj ). |ψνn (rN ) 1 2 N (1.νb Tνb νa |ψνb (rj ) ψνa (rj )|. In an N -particle system all N particle coordinates must appear in a symmetrical way.k=j (1.32) .g.νn |ψνn (r1 ) . |ψνn (rN ) .e.and two-particle operators. |ψνb (rj ) .νa νb |ψνc (rj ) |ψνd (rk ) ψνa (rj )| ψνb (rk )| (1.31) where Vνc νd . j 1 N Here the Kronecker delta comes from νa |νnj = δνa .νn .8 CHAPTER 1. . introduce the operator of the total interaction energy Vtot . We move on to discuss symmetric two-particle operators Vjk . rj ) (1.29) N = j=1 νa νb Tνb νa δνa . . (1. N Vtot = j>k Vjk 1 = 2 N Vjk .

0. basic concepts Many-particle physics is formulated in terms of the so-called second quantization representation also known by the more descriptive name occupation number representation.νa νb δνa .33) Tj + 1 2 N Vjk . 1. . 2.2. .2. |ψνn (rN ) 1 2 N = 1 2 N Vνc νd . ↓) . Compare with the single orbital |(4. 1.2 that determinants or permanent of single-particle states form a basis for the Hilbert space of N -particle states. 1. The starting point of this formalism is the notion of indistinguishability of particles discussed in Sec.1 combined with the observation in Sec. SECOND QUANTIZATION. |ψνc (rj ) . quantum theory can be formulated in terms of occupation numbers of these single-particle states. 1. . . ¢ £ ¦ ¤ ¥ ¤ £ ¦ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¥ ¤ (1.νn |ψνn (r1 ) .1(b).2: The position vectors of the two electrons orbiting the helium nucleus and the single-particle probability density P (r1 ) = dr2 1 |ψν1 (r1 )ψν2 (r2 )+ψν2 (r1 )ψν1 (r2 )|2 for the 2 symmetric two-particle state based on the single-particle orbitals |ν1 = |(3. 1.34) 2 2 − Ze2 1 4π 0 r2 + e2 1 . 4π 0 |r1 − r2 | (1.3 Second quantization. j=k (1. j=k νa νb νc νd j k 1 N A typical Hamiltonian for an N -particle system thus takes the form N H = Ttot + Vtot = j=1 A speciﬁc example is the Hamiltonian for the helium atom.2. 2. see also Fig.νn δνb .3. BASIC CONCEPTS ¢ £ 9 Figure 1. Vtot acts as follows: Vtot |ψνn (r1 ) |ψνn (r2 ) . . 2 HHe = − 2m 2 1 − Ze2 1 4π 0 r1 2 + − 2m This Hamiltonian consists of four one-particle operators and one two-particle operator.1. |ψνd (rk ) . .35) . . |ψνn (rN ) . which in a simple form neglecting spin interactions can be thought of as two electrons with coordinates r = r1 and r = r2 orbiting around a nucleus with charge Z = +2 at r = 0. As we shall see. ↑) and |ν2 = |(4. 2. 0. 1. . ↓) depicted in Fig.

. nνj+1 . In Table. where for brevity we only explicitly write the occupation ν ν number for νj . which lowers the occupation number of state |νj by 1. 1.3. 1. It must somehow be simpler to formulate a representation where one just counts how many particles there are in each orbital |ν .10 CHAPTER 1. . . . nν3 .2 The boson creation and annihilation operators To connect ﬁrst and second quantization we ﬁrst treat bosons. . . The space spanned by the occupation number basis is denoted the Fock space F. 0. . . (1. nνj . = B− (nνj ) | .1 The occupation number representation The ﬁrst step in deﬁning the occupation number representation is to choose any ordered and complete single-particle basis {|ν1 . nνj+1 . nνj+1 . . This will be answered in the next section. 2.39) where B+ (nνj ) is a normalization constant to be determined. |ν3 .3. . . nνj−1 . nνj − 1. .23). nνj−1 . . (1.36) It is therefore natural to deﬁne occupation number operators nνj which as eigenstates have ˆ the basis states |nνj . b† j | . . The adjoint of b† j is found by complex conjugation as nνj + 1|b† j |nνj ∗ = ν ν † † † † nνj |(bνj ) |nνj +1 . . nνj + 1. and as eigenvalues have the number nνj of particles occupying the state νj . . It can be deﬁned as F = F0 ⊕ F1 ⊕ F2 ⊕ . . . . ν (1. . (1. . . where FN = span{|nν1 . ˆ We shall show later that for fermions nνj can be 0 or 1.25) that in each term only the occupied single-particle states |νnj play a role. It is clear from the form S± ψνn (r1 )ψνn (r2 ) . nν2 . nνj−1 . Note how by virtue of the direct sum. . nνj . the question arises how to connect the occupation number basis Eq. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION 1. . . . states containing a diﬀerent number of particles are deﬁned to be orthogonal. j nνj = N. (1. This simpliﬁcation is achieved with the occupation number representation. nν2 . 1. . . . The basis states for an N -particle system in the occupation number representation are obtained simply by listing the occupation numbers of each basis state. . = B+ (nνj ) | . . (1. ψνn (rN ) of the 1 2 N basis states in Eq.36) with the ﬁrst quantization basis Eq. Consequently. . . |ν2 . . .40) . bνj | . while for bosons it can be any non-negative number. . (bosons). N −particle basis states : |nν1 . . | j nνj = N }. nνj−1 . The only non-zero matrix elements of b† j are nνj+1|b† j |nνj .38) nνj = 0. .37) nνj |nνj = nνj |nνj . one deﬁnes the annihilation operator bνj ≡ (bνj ) . . the ordering being of paramount ˆ importance for fermions. .1 some of the fermionic and bosonic basis states in the occupation number representation are shown. . Naturally. . Given the occupation number operator it is natural to introduce the creation operator b† j that raises the occupation ν number in the state |νj by 1. nνj+1 .}. (1. 1 (fermions) (1. . .

. we deﬁne the operator algebra for the bosonic creation and annihilation operators by the following three commutation relations: [b† j .. |0. In summary. . . valid for the state |0 . . . . .. |0.. We assume this commutation relation. It is evident that since an unoccupied state can not be emptied further we must demand bνj | . the product b† bν is. The commutator [A. . . . However. .41) We demand further that if j = k then bνj and b† k commute. 0. BASIC CONCEPTS Table 1. |0. . . .. 0. As we will demonstrate later any operator can be expressed in terms of them. .. . . .νk . . 1. 0. . |1. 1. . 0. 0. B] = 0 ⇒ BA = AB. 1. .e. . 0. 1. 0. |0. . . 0. |0. .. . However.. SECOND QUANTIZATION. nν2 .. i. 0. . |0. 2. . . 0. = | . . . . 0. . . |1. . [bνj . 0. . .1. . bνk ] = 0. . b† k ] = 0. . Let us proceed by investigating the properties of b† j and bνj further.. B− (0) = 0. 1. . . 0. 0. and we calculate the consequences of this assumption. . . . 0. 0. 0. 0. b† k ] = δνj . B (1) = 1. .e. i. . . . 0.. 0.. 1. nν3 .1: Some occupation number basis states for N -particle systems. ν ν ν we have [bνj . . . .. it also follows that b | . fermion basis states |nν1 . 1.42) By deﬁnition b† and bν are not Hermitian. . 0. |0. 1. . . . 1. and hence by Hermitian conjugation that also bνj and bνk commute. . . 1.e. |1. 1. . |0. so that [A. (1. and by ν ν using the operator algebra Eq. . .. .e.. 0. 0. ν (1. . N 0 1 2 .. 0. . . i. . . 11 The creation and annihilation operators b† j and bνj are the fundamental operators in the ν occupation number formalism. . if j = k we must ν be careful. 1. . . 1. |0. Since bosons ν are symmetric in the single-particle state index νj we of course demand that b† j and b† k ν ν must commute.42) we show below that this operator in fact is the .3. . 0. 0. . 0. . 0. But since ν † ∗ = 0|b |1 . ν ν [bνj . . boson basis states |nν1 . . . |0. |1. 0. |0. . 1. . 0. . . . 0. . . . |1..... 1. . B] for two operators A and B is deﬁned as [A. . 2.. 0. = | . . . 1. . . = 0. 0. B+ (0) = 1. .. . . 0.. i. . 0. . nν2 . . 0. nν3 . We also have the freedom to normalize the operators by demanding b† j | . 1. 0. 0. . . . 0. 1. 1|bνj |0 − νj νj It is clear that bνj and b† j do not commute: bνj b† j |0 = |0 while b† j bνj |0 = 0. |1. (1. 1. ν also to be valid as an operator identity in general. 0. . 0. . B] ≡ AB − BA. 0. .. 0. |2. . b† j ] |0 = |0 . . . .. 0. |0. |1. . N 0 1 2 .

. Writing |φλ = |nν we have shown that b† bν |nν = nν |nν and ν bν |nν ∝ |nν − 1 . (1.Figure 1. but this violates the condition λ0 > 0.44) i.e. ν = (b† |nν ν ) † 12 CHAPTER 1. we ﬁnd that (b† bν )b† |nν = (n + 1)b† |nν . Eq. b† |nν ∝ |nν + 1 . (1. Note that b† can act indeﬁnitely. bν ] = −bν ν [b† bν . 2. Firstly. while bν eventually ν hits |0 and annihilates it yielding 0. bν |φλ0 is also an eigenstate of b† bν . .49) .48) ν ν 2 2 and we can therefore identify the ﬁrst and second quantized basis states. ν ν ν i. b† bν |φλ = λ|φλ with λ > 0. (b† )nν |0 = nν ! |nν . § ¦ ¢ ¥ £ ¢ ¤ £ ¢¨© © ¨ ¨© ¨© ¨© © ¨ © ¨ ¨© ¨© ¢ ¡ = (bν |nν )† (bν |nν ) = nν |b† bν |nν = nν . The normalization factors for b† and bν are found from ν ν bν |nν b† |nν ν Hence we arrive at b† bν = nν .43) Secondly.46a) (1. . Analogously. .47) ν √ √ b† |nν = nν + 1 |nν + 1 . and we conclude that λ = n = 0. . 1. .e. but with the eigenvalue reduced by 1 to (λ0 − 1).46b) (b† |nν ν )= nν |bν b† |nν ν = nν + 1. Now choose a particular λ0 and study bν |φλ0 . ν ν ν (1. 1.45) (1. b† n |0 . |ψνn (˜N ) = b† n b† n . occupation number operator nν . 2.e. b† bν |nν = nν |nν . b† ] = b† . ˆ ν bν |nν = √ nν |nν − 1 . . Let |φλ be any eigenstate of b† bν . ν ν We ﬁnd that (b† bν )bν |φλ0 = (bν b† − 1)bν |φλ0 = bν (b† bν − 1)|φλ0 = bν (λ0 − 1)|φλ0 . (1.3: The action of the bosonic creation operator b† and adjoint annihilation operator ν bν in the occupation number space. nν = 0. . FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION (1.. ν If λ0 is not a non-negative integer this lowering process can continue until a negative eigenvalue is encountered.42) leads immediately to the following ˆ two very important commutation relations: [b† bν . ν ν ν (1. ˆ S+ |ψνn (˜1 ) |ψνn (˜2 ) . (1. . i. . r r r ν ν ν 1 2 N 1 2 N where both sides contain N -particle state-kets completely symmetric in the single-particle state index νnj . for any state |φ we note that φ|b† bν |φ is the norm of the state bν |φ and hence ν a positive real number (unless |φ = |0 for which bν |0 = 0).

nνj −1. We also have the freedom to normalize the operators by demanding c† j | . = C+ (nνj ) | . . . nνj+1 . . ν It is clear that cνj and c† j do not anti-commute: cνj c† j |0 = |0 while c† j cνj |0 = 0. nνk = 1. It is evident that since an unoccupied state can not be emptied further we must demand cνj | . SECOND QUANTIZATION. The anti-commutator {A. and hence by Hermitian ν ν conjugation that also cνj and cνk anti-commute. . (1. 0. = C− (nνj ) | . . c† j } |0 = |0 . nνj +1. . . . . (1.3. we deﬁne the operator algebra for the fermionic creation and annihilation operators by the following three anticommutation relations: {c† j . nνj+1 . . 0. = 0. as for bosons we introduce the Hermitian operator c† cν . We assume this anti-commutation relation to be valid as ν an operator identity and calculate the consequences.3. . we have {cνj . . i. if j = k we again must ν be careful. . . (1. ν ν {cνj . so that {A. However. . . . . c† k } = δνj . = | .43) we ﬁnd ˆ [c† cν . (1. . and by using the operator ν algebra Eq.55) we have (c† cν )2 = c† (cν c† )cν = c† (1 − c† cν )cν = c† cν . . nνj . respectively. .52) and consequently we must have that c† j and c† k anti-commute. . . . (1. .e.e. ν ν ν i. . . ν (1. . . . ν ν ν (1. . In summary.54) we show below that this operator in fact is the occupation number operator nν . nνj−1 . C+ (0) = 1. . i. nνj . (1. = | .51) But to maintain the fundamental fermionic antisymmetry upon exchange of orbitals apparent in Eq. . . . nνj+1 .23) it is in the fermionic case not suﬃcient just to list the occupation numbers of the states. . . . . . . . ν (cνj )2 = 0. i.53) For j = k we also demand that cνj and c† k anti-commute. c† k } = 0. In analogy with Eq. . . . But since ν 1|c† j |0 ∗ = 0|cνj |1 it follows that cνj | . 1. nνj−1 . nνj = 1. . nνj = 1. = −| . . . c† ] = c† . . .1. .e. . . cν ] = −cν ν [c† cν . B} = 0 ⇒ BA = −AB. . BASIC CONCEPTS 13 1. . We must therefore demand | . . 1. (1. .54) and (1. . now denoted c† j and cνj .50) (1.55) Now. nνj+1 . being the Hermitian adjoint of each other: ν c† j | . . . nνk = 1. . (1.56) so that c† and cν steps the eigenvalues of c† cν up and down by one. C− (0) = 0.3 The fermion creation and annihilation operators Also for fermions it is natural to introduce creation and annihilation operators. . (1. B} for two operators A and B is deﬁned as {A. so that ν ν ν ν ν ν .e. . From ν ν Eqs. . .54) An immediate consequence of the anti-commutation relations Eq.54) is (c† j )2 = 0. . C− (1) = 1. cνk } = 0. . 0. . . B} ≡ AB + BA. .νk . . nνj−1 . nνj−1 . . . . ν cνj | . {cνj . . also the order of the occupied states has a meaning. . . . .

49) we obtain N site nj Ttot b† n . 1 c† |1 = 0.4: The action of the fermionic creation operator c† and the adjoint annihilation ν operator cν in the occupation number space.49) and (1. ν cν |1 = |0 .29) acting on a bosonic N -particle system. . nν = 0.33) into their second quantized form is achieved by using the basis state identities Eqs. For simplicity. . To ν make the kets on the two sides of the equation look alike. |ψνn (˜N ) = c† n c† n .60) . the state ν may appear. . (1. ˆ ν cν |0 = 0.58) c† |0 = |1 . ν (1. To do this we focus on the state ν ≡ νnj . . This rewriting of the ﬁrst quantized operators in Eqs. we have ν c† cν = nν . c† n |0 . c† cν |nν = nν |nν . b† n |0 = ν ν 1 N where on the right hand side of the equation the operator b† b stands on the site nj . In this equation we then act with the bosonic symmetrization operator S+ on both sides. . b† n |0 . . ν and we can readily identify the ﬁrst and second quantized basis states. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION (1. on the left hand side.59) δνa . .νn b† n . (1. (1. ˆ r S− |ψνn (˜1 ) |ψνn (˜2 ) .57) (1.4 The general form for second quantization operators In second quantization all operators can be expressed in terms of the fundamental creation and annihilation operators deﬁned in the previous two sections. . Originally. let us ﬁrst consider the single-particle operator Ttot from Eq. and c† cν thus only has 0 and 1 as eigenvalues leading to a simple ν ν ν normalization for c† and cν .59) linking the two representations. In summary. b† b . . c† cν (c† cν − 1) = 0.29) and (1. Note that both c† and cν can act at most ν twice before annihilating a state completely. On the right hand ν ¥¦ ¦ ¥ ¨ ¢ ¤ £© §¦ ¥ ©¥§¦ ¨ ¢ ¡ Tνb νa νa νb j=1 j 14 CHAPTER 1. p times leading to a contribution (b† )p |0 .3. ν ν ν 1 N (1.e. 1. r r ν ν ν 1 2 N 1 2 N where both sides contain normalized N -particle state-kets completely anti-symmetric in the single-particle state index νnj in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle. We have p > 0 since otherwise both sides would yield zero.Figure 1. Utilizing that Ttot and S+ commute and invoking the basis state identity Eq. ν i. . (1. say. we would like to reinsert the operator b† nj at site nj on the right.

If we let a† denote either a boson operator b† or a fermion operator c† we can state the general form for one. Note the order of the indices. . b† n |0 ν ν 1 N = a. The sum over j together with δνa .63) (1. (1. It is straightforward to generalize this result to two-particle (or any-number-of-particle) operators acting on boson states. (1.61). Operators in second quantization are thus composed of linear combinations of products of creation and annihilation operators weighted by the appropriate matrix elements of the operator calculated in ﬁrst quantization. .61) Now. .47) and (1. it is actually an operator ν ν † identity stating Ttot = ij Tνi νj bνi bνj . SECOND QUANTIZATION.60). The incoming and outgoing arrows represent initial and ﬁnal states. 1.62) (1.48) as b† b (b† )p−1 |0 = b† b ν ν ν 1 † 1 † bν bν (b† )p−1 |0 = b b (b† )p |0 . side the corresponding contribution has changed into b† b (b† )p−1 |0 . (1. BASIC CONCEPTS £ ¢ ¡ £ ¤ ¡ £ ¤ ¡ 15 Figure 1.and two-particle operators in second quantization.3.42). and a similar reasoning can be made for the fermion case (see Exercise 1.1.1) when the necessary care is taken regarding the sign appearing from the anti-commutators in this case.5 a graphical representation of these fundamental operator expressions is shown. ν ν ν 1 N Since this result is valid for any basis state b† n1 . respectively. b† n |0 .b Tνb νa b† b bνa b† n . ν ν p p νb ν (1. . which is extremely £ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¨ ¦ § ¦ £ © ¡ ¨ ¦ § ¦ ¥ £ ¢ ¡ (1. ν 1 Vνi νj . (1.64) .νk νl a† i a† j aνl aνk .νn yields p identical j contributions cancelling the factor 1/p in Eq.5: A graphical representation of the one. . This is then rewritten ν ν by use of Eqs.νj Tνi νj a† i aνj .and two-particle operators in second quantization: Ttot = νi . b† nN |0 . the p operators b† can be redistributed to their original places as they appear on ν the left hand side of Eq. . and we arrive at the simple result Ttot b† n . The dashed and wiggled lines represent the transition amplitudes for the one. ν ν 2νν i j Vtot = νk νl In Fig.and two-particle processes contained in the operators.

66) In the case of single-particle systems we deﬁne quite naturally creation operators a† and ˜µ a† corresponding to the two basis sets. In second quantization the initial state is annihilated by ﬁrst annihilating state |νk and then state |νl . ˜ ˜ Let {|ψν1 . ν aµ = ˜ ν ˜ ψµ |ψν aν .. . νnN ˜ ψµn |ψνn N N ∗ † aνn N |0 . The matrix elements are all in the simple non-symmetrized form of ν Eq.νk = νj νk νj (1. From the completeness condition Eq.69) ˜ ˜ ψµ1 |ψνj ψνj |ψµ2 = δµ1 .66) that a† |0 = ˜µ ν ˜ ˜ |ψµ = ν ψµ |ψν ∗ a† |0 . |νi νj = a† i a† j |0 . . (1. (1. (1.67) follows from applying the ﬁrst quantization single-particle ˆ result Eq. which guides us to the transformation rules for creation and ν annihilation operators (see also Fig. |ψν2 . ψνn leading to 1 N a† n a† n . (1.31). 1.67) The general validity of Eq. . Firstly. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION important in the case of two-particle fermion operators. [˜µ1 . (1.65) ν ν Note how all the permutation symmetry properties are taken care of by the operator algebra of a† and aν . . (1. .68) The transformation rules Eq. that the basis transformation preserves the bosonic or fermionic particle statistics.5 Change of basis in second quantization Diﬀerent quantum operators are most naturally expressed in diﬀerent representations making basis changes a central issue in quantum physics. (1.70) . (1. a† aµ = ˜µ ˜ µ µ νj νk ˜ ˜ ψνj |ψµ ψµ |ψνk a† j aνk = ν νj νk ψνj |ψνk a† j aνk = ν νj a† j aνj .} be two diﬀerent complete and ordered single-particle basis sets.66) to the N -particle ﬁrst quantized basis states S± |ψνn . In this section we give the general transformation rules which are to be exploited throughout this course. = and secondly. . a† k ]± ν ˜ ˜ ψµ1 |ψνj ψνk |ψµ2 δνj . a† 2 ]± = a ˜µ νj νk ˜ ˜ ψµ1 |ψνj ψµ2 |ψνk ∗ [aνj . . that it leaves the total number of particles unchanged. ν (1..6): a† = ˜µ ν ˜ ψµ |ψν ∗ a† . and ﬁnd directly from Eq.7) we have the basic transformation law for single-particle states: ˜ |ψµ = ν ˜ |ψν ψν |ψµ = ν ˜ ψµ |ψν ∗ |ψν .} and {|ψµ1 . a† n |0 = ˜µ ˜µ ˜µ 1 2 N ˜ ψµn |ψνn νn1 1 1 ∗ † aνn 1 .3.16 CHAPTER 1. (1. |ψµ2 . 1. (1.µ2 . .67) lead to two very desirable results. . The ﬁrst quantization matrix element can be read as a transition induced from the initial state |νk νl to the ﬁnal state |νi νj . . while the ﬁnal state is created by ﬁrst creating state |νj and then state |νi : |0 = aνl aνk |νk νl .

while the coeﬃcients ψν (r) and ψν (r) are ordinary ﬁrst quantization wavefunctions. If we in ˜ Sec.71) to the second quantized single-particle operator Eq. (1. ν Ψ(r) ≡ ν ∗ Note that Ψ† (r) and Ψ(r) are second quantization operators. i.5 let the transformed basis set {|ψµ } be the continuous set of position kets {|r } and. using quantum ﬁeld operators.3.69) it is straight forward to calculate the following fundamental commutator and anti-commutator. Ψ† (r2 )] = δ(r1 − r2 ). basis between {|ψν } = {|ν } and {|ψµ µ 1. (1.71) boson ﬁelds fermion ﬁelds.1. suppressing the spin index. SECOND QUANTIZATION. (1. (1.73) .3. but on the other hand they exhibit the commutator properties associated with particles.e.67) ˜µ Ψ† (r) ≡ ν r|ψν ∗ a† = ν ν ∗ ψν (r) a† . ¥ ¤ ¢ ¨ § ¥ ¢£ ¨ © § ¥ ¦ ¢ ! r|ψν aν = ν ¤¥ ¢£ § ¥ ¢ £ © ¨ § ¥ ¦ ¢£ ¡ ψν (r) aν . {Ψ(r1 ). Ψ† (r) is the sum of all possible ways to add a particle to the system at position r through any of the basis states ψν (r). In some sense the quantum ﬁeld operators express the essence of the wave/particle duality in quantum physics. Ψ† (r2 )} = δ(r1 − r2 ).6 Quantum ﬁeld operators and their Fourier transforms In particular one second quantization representation requires special attention.3. second quantization operators have a form analogous to ﬁrst quantization matrix elements. namely the real space representation leading to the deﬁnition of quantum ﬁeld operators.e. Since Ψ† (r) and Ψ(r) are second quantization operators deﬁned in every point in space they are called quantum ﬁeld operators.6: The transformation rules for annihilation operators aν and aµ upon change of ˜˜ ˜ } = {|˜ }. From Eq.63) one obtains T = νi νj ∗ dr ψνi (r)Tr ψνj (r) a† i aνj ν ∗ ψνi (r)a† i Tr ν νi νj = dr ψνj (r)aνj So in the real space representation. The introduction of quantum ﬁeld operators makes it easy to write down operators in the real space representation. [Ψ(r1 ). (1. By applying the deﬁnition Eq.72a) (1. (1. 1. BASIC CONCEPTS 17 Figure 1. denote a† by Ψ† (r) we obtain from Eq.72b) = dr Ψ† (r)Tr Ψ(r). (1. as a kind of waves. i. On the one hand they are deﬁned as ﬁelds. Loosely speaking.

one can think of a as being √ the (1/ 2-normalized) complex number formed by the real part x/ and the imaginary part p/( / ). If we as a . This picture is particularly useful in the studies of the photon and phonon ﬁelds. k (1.78) The excitation of the harmonic oscillator can thus be interpreted as ﬁlling the oscillator with bosonic quanta created by the operator a† .74) The inverse expressions are obtained by multiplying by e±iq·r and integrating over r. (1. (1.4. 1. Mnemotechnically. H. 2m 2 [p. 2 (1.76) This can be rewritten in second quantization by identifying two operators a† and a satisfying the basic boson commutation relations Eq.77) i 1 x p p ≡ √ (a† − a). 1 a† = √ q V dr eiq·r Ψ† (r).18 CHAPTER 1. when working with homogeneous systems it is often desirable to transform between the real space and the momentum representations. to perform a Fourier transformation.e. (1. as we shall see during the course.1 The harmonic oscillator in second quantization The one-dimensional harmonic oscillator in ﬁrst quantization is characterized by two conjugate variables appearing in the Hamiltonian: the position x and the momentum p. +i a ≡ √ / 2 2 ⇒ (1. i. By inspection it can be veriﬁed that the following operators do the job. Substituting in Eq.75) 1.71) the |ψν basis with the momentum basis |k yields 1 Ψ† (r) = √ V e−ik·r a† . FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION Finally. 1 p 1 x x ≡ √ (a† + a). and the eigenstates |n : H = ω a† a + 1 2 (a† )n and |n = √ |0 .77) we obtain the Hamiltonian.42). H= 1 2 1 p + mω 2 x2 . a† ≡ √ −i / 2 2 where x is given in units of the harmonic oscillator length = /mω and p in units of the harmonic oscillator momentum / . x] = i . speciﬁc operators In this section we will use the general second quantization formalism to derive some expressions for speciﬁc second quantization operators that we are going to use repeatedly in this course. 1 aq = √ V dr e−iq·r Ψ(r). k k 1 Ψ(r) = √ V eik·r ak . while a† is found as the adjoint operator to a. From Eq. (1.4 Second quantization. (1. n! with H|n = ω n + 1 |n .

4. c (1. Normally. The dispersion law is ωk = kc and the two-fold polarization of the ﬁeld is described by polarization vectors λ . 2. ±2. The quantization of the electromagnetic ﬁeld is based on the observation that the eigenmodes of the classical ﬁeld can be thought of as a collection of harmonic oscillators. the electromagnetic ﬁeld was the ﬁrst example of second quantization (Dirac.7: The probability density | r|n |2 for n = 0. treat the electromagnetic ﬁeld classically. ωk = ck V λ 2π nx = 0. λ = 1. ±1. and we have B = ×A 2 E = −∂t A ·A = 0 1 2 A − 2 ∂t A = 0. (1.λ (r.7. and the associated concept of photons play a crucial role in the theory of interactions between matter and light. 1927). 2. SECOND QUANTIZATION. SPECIFIC OPERATORS 19 Figure 1. The normalized eigenmodes uk. use the squareroot of the expectation value of x2 = 2 (a† a† + a† a + aa† + aa)/2. in which case A is denoted the radiation ﬁeld. t) of the wave equation Eq. The quantum nature of the radiation ﬁeld.79) 1.2 The electromagnetic ﬁeld in second quantization Historically. 2. the transversality condition ·A = 0 is chosen. (1.80) are seen to be uk.4. and 9 quanta in the oscillator state. z). (1. measure of the amplitude of the oscillator in the state with n quanta. .λ (r. we ﬁnd n|x2 |n = n + 1/2 . 1. t) = kx = 1 √ ei(k·r−ωk t) . The creation operator can also be used to generate the speciﬁc form of the eigenfunctions ψn (x) of the oscillator starting from the groundstate wavefunction ψ0 (x): (a† )n 1 ψn (x) = x|n = x| √ |0 = √ n! n! p x x| √ − i ~ √ 2 2 n |0 = √ 1 x 2n n! − d dx n ψ0 (x).81) . These are then quantized. t) in a speciﬁc gauge. 1. Note that the width of the wave function is n|x2 |n = n + 1/2 . λ = 1. . Thus the width of the oscillator wavefunction scales roughly with the squareroot of the number of quanta in the oscillator. (same for y and L nx . .80) We assume periodic boundary conditions for A enclosed in a huge box taken to be a cube √ of volume V and hence side length L = 3 V. as sketched in Fig. |n . In the free ﬁeld case the electromagnetic ﬁeld is completely determined by the vector potential A(r.1. In most of the applications in this course we shall. however.

∂Qk.λ ∂H ∂H ˙ ˙ = −Pk.λ ≡ 2ωk 0 Ak.λ .λ k.λ k. which is simply the ﬁeld energy known from electromagnetism.λ ei(k·r−ωk t) + A∗ e−i(k·r−ωk t) k.80) we can express H in terms of the radiation ﬁeld A. (1. k.λ are therefore introduced: 1 2 H= P 2 + ωk Q2 k. We now turn to the Hamiltonian H of the system.λ ⇒ [Pk.λ quantized oscillator: 1 H= ωk (a† ak.λ .λ k.λ 2ωk 2 (1. (1.e. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION The set { 1 . Ak. Quantization is now obtained by imposing the usual condition on the commutator of the variables.λ (a† + ak.82) we merge the time dependence with the coeﬃcients.87) . and introducing the second quantized Bose operators a† for each k.λ (t) = Ak.λ 2 2|Ak.λ k. [ak.83) In Fourier space.λ .λ (1.82) where Ak.85) From Eqs.2 λ. i.λ and Pk.λ e−iωk t .λ (1.λ Qk. AR k.86) This ends the proof that the radiation ﬁeld A can thought of as a collection of harmonic oscillator eigenmodes. Qk. k/k} forms a right-handed orthonormal basis set.85) it thus follows that. using Parceval’s theorem and the notation Ak.λ ).20 CHAPTER 1. a† ] = 1.λ √ I k. Pk.λ ˙ AI = −ωk AR .λ ). (1. the time dependence for the real and imaginary parts are seen to be ˙ AR = +ωk AI k. k. we have H= 2 0 ωk k.λ real and imaginary part of the coeﬃcients. (1. t) = √ V Ak.λ .λ ≡ 2 0 AR k.λ k. (1. The ﬁeld A takes only real values and hence it has a Fourier expansion of the form 1 A(r.λ are the complex expansion coeﬃcients.λ k. Using Eq.λ k.λ ∂H ∂H ˙ ˙ and AI are conjugate variables: ∂AR = −4 0 ωk AI and ∂AI = +4 0 ωk AR . Pk.λ 2 ˙ ˙ ⇒ Q = Pk. up to some normalization constants.λ normalized conjugate variables Qk.λ k.λ = AR + iAI for the k.λ k.λ k λ=1.λ = i(a† − ak.λ k. k. = Qk. H= 1 2 dr 2 0 |E| + 1 |B|2 µ0 = 1 2 0 2 dr (ωk |A|2 + c2 k 2 |A|2 ) = 2 0 ωk dr |A|2 .λ √ k.84) If in Eq.λ Pk.λ ∂Pk.λ = −ωk Qk.λ and Pk.λ 2 k.λ . where each mode are characterized by the conjugate variable Qk. k. 2 .λ ] = i ωk Q = k.84) and (1.λ + ).λ k.λ (1. Proper k.λ 2 k.λ .λ |2 = 4 0 ωk 1 2 |AR |2 + |AI |2 .

density.2 2 0 ωk (1.σ = − k. spin. spin.σ 2 k2 2m a† ak. and A∗ → k.λ in terms of Pk.λ . 2m 2 Tr.91) The second equality can also be proven directly by inserting Ψ† (r) and Ψ(r) from Eq. we treat the spin operator s for electrons.89) 1.σ σ = − real space representation.88) Substituting this into the expansion Eq. . and current In the following we establish the second quantization representation of the four important single-particle operators associated with kinetic energy.λ λ.1. SECOND QUANTIZATION. which in turn is expressed in terms of a† and ak.90b) Its second quantized forms with spin indices follow directly from Eqs.λ k. t) = √ V ak. particle density. v) = 2 mv 2 + V = 2m (pR− qA)2 + V .σ 2 2m dr Ψ† (r) σ σ 2 r Ψσ (r) . k λ=1.92) r σ 2m σ i Next. (1.90a) (1. p) = p·v − L(r.93) In analytical mechanics A enters through the Lagrangian: L = 1 mv 2 − V + qv·A.λ Ak. an expression used to ﬁnd J. 2m r 2 k2 k σ |T |kσ = δk . SPECIFIC OPERATORS 21 To obtain the ﬁnal expression for A in second quantization we simply express Ak. 0 −i i 0 .3 Operators for kinetic energy.λ 2 0 2ωk = 0 2 0 ωk ak.λ and Qk.λ Qk. (1.4. and particle current density.82) our ﬁnal result is: 1 A(r. we study the kinetic energy operator T . (1. But then p = ∂L/∂v = mv + qA.λ : k.λ Pk. (1.σ . Considering inﬁnitesimal variations δA we get δH = H(A + δA) − H(A) = −qv·δA = −q dr J·δA. since this by the 2 Euler-Lagrange equations yields the Lorentz force.λ (1.73) T = k.σ . . (1.λ ei(k·r−ωk t) + a† e−i(k·r−ωk t) k. k. and via a Legendre 1 1 transform we get H(r.74). In ﬁrst quantization it has the representations 2 δσ . the Pauli matrices s= 4 In ﬁrst quantization it is given by 1 0 0 −1 2 τ. (1. For particles with charge q a magnetic ﬁeld can be included in the expression for the kinetic energy by substituting the canonical momentum p with the kinetic momentum4 p − qA. 2 1 TA = dr Ψ† (r) − qA Ψσ (r).λ . First.λ 2 0 ωk a† . with τ = 0 1 1 0 .63) and (1. which is independent of spin and hence diagonal in the spin indices. (1.k δσ .λ = AR + iAI → √ + i √ k.4. momentum representation.

(1.92) and the associated footnote. However. see Eq. and obtain with fermion operators the following vector expression.92). (1.σ (r ). given by the vector potential A.92) and writing only the A dependent terms of q2 q~ the integrand.98) .σ (r )δ(r − r)ψµ. (1. we shall take a more general approach based on analytical mechanics. (1. τ y . This relationship can be used to actually deﬁne J.σ (r) = |ψµ. The fourth and last operator to be treated is the particle current density operator J(r). This allows us in a simple way to take the magnetic ﬁeld. 2m (1.96) where the momentum transfer q = k − k has been introduced. and we obtain H=T+ σ dr q A· 2mi Ψ† (r) Ψσ (r) − Ψ† (r) σ σ Ψσ (r) + q2 2 † A Ψσ (r)Ψσ (r) .94b) We then turn to the particle density operator ρ(r).75) the momentum representation of this is found to be ρσ (r) = 1 V † ei(k−k )·r ak σ akσ = kk 1 V e−iq·r a† k+qσ akσ = kq 1 V a† ak+qσ kσ q k eiq·r . µ↓ µ↑ µ (1. (1.97) We use this expression with H given by the kinetic energy Eq. µσ µ σσ (1. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION To obtain the second quantized operator we pull out the spin index explicitly in the basis kets. s= µσµ σ µ | σ |s|σ |µ c† σ cµσ = µ 2 σ |(τ x . reveals one term where σ σ is acting on A.σ (r) gives us ρµ. into account.63) yields ρσ (r) = dr Ψ† (r )δ(r − r)Ψσ (r ) = Ψ† (r)Ψσ (r). τ z )|σ c† cµσ . But expanding the square in Eq.94a) with components sx = 2 (c† cµ↑ + c† cµ↓ ) sy = i µ↑ µ↓ µ 2 (c† cµ↑ − c† cµ↓ ) sz = µ↑ µ↓ µ 2 (c† cµ↑ − c† cµ↓ ).σ (r)|2 which can also ∗ be written as ρµ. By partial integration this is shifted to Ψ† (r). (1. |ν = |µ |σ . In ﬁrst quantization the fundamental interpretation of the wave function ψµ. and thus the density operator for spin σ is given by ρσ (r) = δ(r − r).95) From Eq. σ σ (1.σ (r) = dr ψµ. In second quantization this combined with Eq. It is related to the particle density operator ρ(r) through the continuity equation ∂t ρ + ·J = 0. −Ψ† (r) 2mi [ ·A + A· ]Ψσ (r) + 2m A2 Ψ† (r)Ψσ (r). By analytical mechanics it is found that variations δH in the Hamiltonian function due to variations δA in the vector potential is given by δH = −q dr J·δA (1.22 CHAPTER 1. Variations due to a varying parameter are calculated as derivatives if the parameter appears as a simple factor.

(1. (1.99c) diamagnetic : JA (r) = − σ q A(r)Ψ† (r)Ψσ (r).64) with 1 |ν = |k. σ and ψk.σ .101) 1 σ2 Here we have introduced the abbreviation e2 = e2 /4π 0 .63) to Eq. the exponential is rewritten as . k4 σ2 |V |k1 σ1 . (1.σ .97) can in Eq. (1.100) The expression for J in an arbitrary basis is treated in Exercise 1.73) we can go directly from Eq. k2 σ2 to a ﬁnal state |k3 σ1 . σ m The momentum representation of J is found in complete analogy with that of ρ Jσ (r) = mV 1 (k + q)eiq·r a† ak+q. kσ kq kq (1. SECOND QUANTIZATION.1. Using the same reasoning that led from Eq. σ paramagnetic : Jσ (r) = 2mi Ψ† (r) σ Ψσ (r) − (1. |r2 − r1 | σ1 1 σ2 2 σ2 2 σ1 1 (1.4. kσ 2 JA (r) = σ −q A(r) mV eiq·r a† ak+q.4. (1. The two terms in the current density operator are denoted the paramagnetic and the diamagnetic term.102) 1 σ2 k1 k2 k3 k4 = 1 σ2 k1 k2 k3 k4 e2 0 V2 dr1 dr2 ei(k1 ·r1 +k2 ·r2 −k3 ·r1 −k4 ·r2 ) † ak3 σ1 a† 4 σ2 ak2 σ2 ak1 σ1 . (1.98) be performed as derivatives and J is immediately read oﬀ as the prefactor to δA. k4 σ2 without ﬂipping any spin.99b) σ (1.64) to the following quantum ﬁeld operator form of V : V (r2 − r1 ) = 1 2σ dr1 dr2 e2 0 Ψ† (r )Ψ† (r )Ψ (r )Ψ (r ). J and JA . and we obtain V = 1 2σ 1 2σ k3 σ1 .We can also write the Coulomb 0 interaction directly in the momentum basis by using Eq. SPECIFIC OPERATORS 23 The variations of Eq. respectively: Jσ (r) = Jσ (r) + JA (r). (1. (1. We can interpret the Coulomb matrix element as describing a transition from an initial state |k1 σ1 .31) and Eq. k2 σ2 a† 3 σ1 a† 4 σ2 ak2 σ2 ak1 σ1 k k (1.2. k |r2 − r1 | Since r2 − r1 is the relevant variable for the interaction.99a) Ψ† (r) Ψσ (r) . 1.σ (r) = √V eik·r χσ .4 The Coulomb interaction in second quantization The Coulomb interaction operator V is a two-particle operator not involving spin and thus diagonal in the spin indices of the particles.

ei[(k1 −k3 )·r1 +(k2 −k4 )·r2 ] = ei(k1 −k3 +k2 −k4 )·r1 ei(k2 −k4 )·(r2 −r1 ) leaving us with two integrals. Under momentum and spin conservation the incoming states |k1 . k k (1. The ﬁnal second quantized form of the Coulomb interaction in momentum space is V = 1 2V Vq a† 1 +qσ1 a† 2 −qσ2 ak2 σ2 ak1 σ1 . The result is Vq s = 4πe0 2 q 2 +ks 2 e −ks r from which Eq. σ1 and |k2 .2 in connection with the interacting electron gas. The momenta k3 and k4 of the ﬁnal states can now be written as k3 = k1 + q and k4 = k2 − q. r q (1.24 CHAPTER 1.5 how to calculate the Fourier transform Vq s of the Yukawa potential V ks (r) = k . In this course one important example of such a system is the fermionic electrons in a metal interacting with the bosonic lattice vibrations (phonons). Here. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION Figure 1. The starting point is the case where the two kinds of particles do not interact with each other. Let us for simplicity just study two diﬀerent kinds of particles. We study this system in Chap. Another example is electrons interacting with the photon ﬁeld. 2. 1. σ2 . in Fig. which with the deﬁnitions q ≡ k2 − k4 and r ≡ r2 − r1 become dr1 ei(k1 −k3 +q)·r1 = V δk3 . Vq ≡ dr e2 iq·r 4πe2 0 e = 20 . Here we will brieﬂy clarify how to construct the basis set for such composed systems in general. The arguments are easily generalized to include more complicated systems.104) σ1 σ2 k1 k2 q We shall study this operator thoroughly in Sec. Let the ﬁrst kind of particles be described by the Hamiltonian H1 and a complete set of basis states {|ν }. Likewise we have H2 and {|µ } for the second kind of particles.103) These integrals express the Fourier transform of the Coulomb interaction5 and the explicit momentum conservation obeyed by the interaction.103) follows by setting ks = 0.4. σ1 and |k2 − q.8: A graphical representation of the Coulomb interaction in second quantization.5 Basis states for systems with diﬀerent kinds of particles In the previous sections we have derived diﬀerent fermion and boson operators. 1. (1. But so far we have not treated systems where diﬀerent kinds of particles are coupled. For the two decoupled 5 e0 r 2 k We show in Exercise 1. σ2 are with probability amplitude Vq scattered into the outgoing states |k1 + q. we just show a graphical representation of the operator.k1 +q . 3.8. ¥ © £¤ © ¡ § ¥ © £¤ © ¡ ! ¥ ¢ £¤ ¨¦ ¢ ¡ § ¥ ¢ £¤ ¢ ¡ .

(1. .5 Second quantization and statistical mechanics The basic assumption of statistical mechanics is the ergodicity assumption. . . = |nµ1 . nν2 . . nνj . The electronic basis states are the plane wave orbitals |kσ of Eq. . . (1. . .105b) When a coupling H12 between the two system is introduced. . . . i. nµ2 . . respectively. . The time it takes for the system to visit all of the phase is the ergodicity time. . (1.108) 1. . . nµ2 . (1. . . We denote the density of states of the total system at a given total energy d(ET ). nµ1 . . . . We let nkσ and Nqλ denote the occupation numbers for electrons and photons. the so-called reservoir. .81). and assume that. . . .g. . nνj . nν2 . A general state |Φ can of course be any superposition of the basis states: |Φ = {νj }{µl } C{νj }. . nµ2 . . taken as a whole. .5. . . .1.e. = |nν1 .{µl } |nν1 . because of the randomness of the system all of the available phase space is covered. . . nν2 . nνj . . . . Nq2 λ2 .3). nkj σj . Nq1 λ1 . . . . nµj . . nµ1 . nk2 σ2 . . .107) As a concrete example we can write down the basis states for interacting electrons and photons in the momentum representation.105a) (1. (1. . . SECOND QUANTIZATION AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS systems an example of separate occupation number basis sets is |ψ (1) |ψ (2) 25 = |nν1 . e. . we need to enlarge the Hilbert space. . . nν2 . . . Suppose we are interested in some small system connected to the outside world. they constitute a closed system with total energy ET . . nµl . (1. nµl . Nql λl . . . . ET = Es + Er . . nµl . . . . while the small system and the reservoir have the densities of states ds (Es ) and dr (Er ). . . The natural deﬁnition of basis states is the outer product states written as |ψ = |ψ (1) |ψ (2) = |nν1 . . . . and the photon states are |qλ given in Eq. . where N (E) is the number of states with an energy less than E. . Let us call the energy of the small system Es and that of the reservoir Er . . nµ2 . . . . . It states that as time evolves a system assume all possible states complying with the given external constraints. with a given total energy E. The density of states is deﬁned as d(E) = dN (E)/dE. . Based on the ergodicity assumption it is natural to conjecture that the probability for a subsystem to have a deﬁnite energy Es is proportional to the number of ways that the subsystem can have that energy. In other words. which is assumed to be smaller than typical time scales of the observation. nνj .106) In the last line all the occupation numbers are simply listed within the same ket but the two groups are separated by a semicolon. . A basis state |ψ in this representation has the form: |ψ = |nk1 σ1 . |nµ1 . . . . .

112) We have thus arrived at the famous Boltzmann or Gibbs distribution which of course should be normalized. This means that if we consider the ratio of two probabilities P (Es ) dr (ET − Es ) = . provided of course that it is still much smaller than the new reservoir. The only function P (E) that satisﬁes the condition dr (ET − Es ) P (Es ) = = f (Es − Es ). P (Es ) dr (ET − Es ) is P (E) ∝ e−βE .e.109) Now. For a quantum system with many particles.26 CHAPTER 1.e. Also for a quantum system it is not clear what is meant by the energy of a given state.111) When we sum over states. as we have seen. it can thus only depend on the diﬀerence Es − Es . (1. and it is therefore an advantage to have a form which is independent of the choice of basis states. is the partition function exp(−βEs ). P (Es ) dr (ET − Es ) (1. But because the energy is only deﬁned up to an additive constant. i. Therefore the only meaningful interpretation of Eq. we have for the probability for the subsystem to have energy Es that P (Es ) ∝ dr (ET − Es ) ∆E. i. Using the basis states |ν deﬁned by H|ν = Eν |ν . (1. Z where β is the inverse temperature.115) . β = 1/kB T . (1. unless of course it is an eigenstate of the Hamiltonian. In conclusion: from statistical mechanics we know that both for classical and a quantum mechanical systems which are connected to a heat bath the probability for a given state s with energy Es to be occupied is given by the Boltzmann distribution 1 (1. we do not expect this probability to be dependent on the size of the reservoir. the basis set that we use to compute the energy must be a complete set.114) Z= s (1. the states s are. if we make it smaller by cutting it in half by some wall. nothing should happen to the state of the small system. the total density of states is dominated by that of the reservoir and hence d(ET ) ≈ dr (ET ). Z. (1.110) it must only depend on the energies Es and Es and neither on the total energy ET nor on dr . (1.114) is that the sum of states runs over eigenstates of the Hamiltonian.113) P (Es ) = exp(−βEs ). FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION respectively. From the assumption about the probability being proportional to the number of states. we must sum over a set of states which cover the entire space of possible states. in general quite complicated to write down. and where the normalization factor. Since for a given small energy interval ∆E the number of states in the reservoir is much larger than the number states in smaller subsystem.

the result obtained from the canonical ensemble is carried over to the grand canonical ensemble by the substitution H → H − µN . They are more than merely normalization factors. (1. so the reader must always carefully check whether H refers to the canonical or to the grand canonical ensemble.e.117) Likewise. (1. (1.119) where the trace now includes states with any number of particles. since most of the times we are working in the grand canonical ensemble. Likewise. Tr [ABC] = Tr [BCA]. Here we have used that the trace is invariant under cyclic permutation.118) are basis-independent expressions. since the sum over states is identiﬁed with the trace operation. the symbol H is often used instead of HG for the grand canonical Hamiltonian. which in second quantization translates to the Fock space of the corresponding quantum numbers. ZG = Tr[ρG ]. The partition functions are fundamental quantities in statistical mechanics. i. where N is the particle number operator.1. For the canonical ensemble the trace is however restricted to run over states with a given number of particles. (1. The small system is allowed to exchange particles with the reservoir while keeping its average particle number constant. i. SECOND QUANTIZATION AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS 27 it is now quite natural to introduce the so-called density matrix operator ρ corresponding to the classical Boltzmann factor e−βE . Following the elementary deﬁnition we have A = 1 Z ν|A|ν e−βEν = ν 1 Tr[ρA] Tr[ρA] = .118) Eqs. we include the term µN in the Hamiltonian. HG ≡ H − µN.117) and (1. This ought not cause any problems. For example the free energy F ≡ U − Remember that if tν = Tr [A] is the trace of A in the basis |ν . then in the transformed basis U |ν we have tU ν = Tr UAU−1 = Tr AU−1 U = Tr [A] = tν . In this book we shall for brevity write H in both cases.114) for the partition function as Z= ν ν|ρ|ν = Tr[ρ]. Basically. and we introduce a chemical potential µ of the reservoir to accommodate this constraint. the thermal average of any quantum operator A is easily expressed using the density matrix ρ.6 This is of course true whatever formalism we use to evaluate the trace. For the grand canonical ensemble the number of particles is not conserved.116) We can thus write the expression Eq. ρ ≡ e−βH = ν |ν e−βEν ν|. (1.120) Unfortunately.e. (1.5. it is useful to introduce the Hamiltonian HG corresponding to the grand canonical ensemble. The corresponding density matrix ρG and partition function ZG are deﬁned as: ρG ≡ e−β(H−µN ) . In ﬁrst quantization the trace runs over for example the determinant basis. Z Tr[ρ] (1. 6 .

(1.126) For small excitation energies εk varies around µ whereas ξk varies around 0.125) we see that the natural single-particle energy variable is not εk but rather ξk given by ξk ≡ εk − µ (1. −β(εk −µ) 1+e e k +1 (1. This is reﬂected in the single-particle energy variable.122) In various approximation schemes. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION T S. (1. This is based on the following inequality F ≤ H 0 − T S0 . important in the grand canonical ensemble. 2.1 nF (εk ) = e−β(nk εk −µnk ) nk =0. we shall use the principle of minimizing the free energy. which is minimal when the entropy is maximal. for H 0 = Tr[ρ0 H] . (1.124) This inequality ensures that by minimizing the free energy calculated from the approximate Hamiltonian. H0 .1 The distribution function for non-interacting fermions As the temperature is raised from zero in a system of non-interacting fermions the occupation number for the individual energy eigenstates begins to ﬂuctuate rather than being constantly 0 or constantly 1. The proper Hamiltonian is therefore HG = H − µN . Consider the electron state |kσ with energy εk .3. The average occupation nF (εk ) is therefore Tr[ρG nk ] = Tr[ρG ] nk e−β(nk εk −µnk ) nk =0. are directly related to Z and ZG . for example the mean ﬁeld approximation in Chap. Recall that F = U − T S = H − T S.123) where both H example 0 and S0 are calculated in the approximation ρ ≈ ρ0 = exp(−βH0 ).1 = 0 + e−β(εk −µ) 1 = β(ε −µ) . The state can contain either 0 or 1 electron.1. (1. respectively: Z = e−βF ZG = e −βΩ (1. Tr[ρ0 ] (1.121b) Let us now study the free energy. 1. we are guaranteed to make the best possible approximation based on the trial Hamiltonian. Note that the Fermi–Dirac distribution is deﬁned in the grand canonical ensemble. important in the canonical ensemble.5. and the thermodynamic potential Ω ≡ U − T S − µN . .28 CHAPTER 1.125) We shall study the properties of the Fermi–Dirac distribution in Sec. 4. Using the grand canonical ensemble we can derive the famous Fermi–Dirac distribution nF (ε).121a) . From Eq.

The intricate permutation symmetries are manifestly ensured by the basic (anti-)commutator relations of these fundamental operators. 1.. this main result appears so simple and intuitively clear that one could choose to deﬁne quantum theory directly in second quantization rather than going the cumbersome way from ﬁrst to second quantization. Both distributions converge towards the classical Maxwell– Boltzmann distribution. In the following three chapters we shall get more acquainted with second quantization through studies of simpliﬁed stationary problems for non-interacting systems or systems where a given particle only interacts with the mean ﬁeld of the other particles. 2. . . In fact. the representation of quantum mechanics we are going to use throughout this course. (1.54)).5. It is derived like its fermionic counterpart. 5 will the question be raised of how to treat time evolution in second quantization. In the grand canonical ensemble the average occupation number nB (εk ) is found by writing λk = e−β(εk −µ) and d 1 using the formulas ∞ nλn = λ dλ ∞ λn and ∞ λn = 1−λ : n=0 n=0 n=0 ∞ nk e−β(nk εk −µnk ) nB (εk ) = nk =0 ∞ λk = d dλk ∞ ∞ nk =0 n λkk λkk = n e nk =0 −β(nk εk −µnk ) nk =0 λk (1−λk )2 1 1−λk = 1 e β(εk −µ) −1 .64) and Fig. (1. where the particular particle statistics is not felt very strongly. 1.63) and (1.1. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 29 1. The basic concepts are the occupation number basis states and the fundamental creation and annihilation operators.2 Distribution functions for non-interacting bosons Next we ﬁnd the distribution function for non-interacting bosons. perhaps after some measure of acquaintance. Again using the grand canonical ensemble we derive the equally famous Bose–Einstein distribution nB (ε). . However. Consider a bosonic state characterized by its fundamental energy εk .42)).and two-particle operators. 1. nk = e−β(εk −µ) . . b† and bν in the bosonic case (see Eq. 1. (1. students usually learn basic quantum theory in ﬁrst quantization. The main result of the chapter is the derivation of the general form of one. and we got a ﬁrst glimpse of how second quantization leads to a formulation of quantum physics in terms of creation and annihilation of particles and ﬁeld quanta.127) The Bose–Einstein distribution diﬀers from the Fermi–Dirac distribution by having −1 in the denominator instead of +1. for very small occupation numbers. Eqs. and c† and cν in the fermionic case (see ν ν Eq. (1. In Sec.6 Summary and outlook In this chapter we have introduced second quantization. The occupation number of the state can be any non-negative integer nk = 0. First in Chap. With an answer to that question we can proceed with the very interesting but also rather diﬃcult studies of the full time dependent dynamics of many-particle quantum systems.6.5. so for pedagogical reasons we have chosen to start from the usual ﬁrst quantization representation.4 we presented a number of speciﬁc examples of second quantization operators. the Fermi–Dirac distribution nF (ε).

FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION .30 CHAPTER 1.

This is The electron gas Chapter 2 free atoms a solid 31 valence electrons (mass m. The ion mass is denoted M . To a large extend the inner degrees of freedom of the ions do not play a signiﬁcant role leaving the center of mass coordinates Rj and total spin Sj of the ions as the only dynamical variables. The ions are unchanged during the process where they end up by forming a periodic lattice. and if the atom has Z valence electrons the charge of the ion is +Ze. 1. The valence electrons are freed from their host atoms and form an electron gas holding the ionic lattice together. In contrast to the core electrons the Z valence electrons. Any atom in a metal consists of three parts: the positively charged heavy nucleus at the center. charge -e) ions (mass M. are often free to move away from their respective host atoms forming a gas of electrons swirling around among the ions. and ﬁnally. Not only is this system a model of the solids that surrounds us. charge +Ze) core electrons nuclei . The nucleus with its core electrons is denoted an ion. s s r¡r¡ ¡s¡ ss¡sr¡ r¡rrs¡s rs¡¡rssr rss¡¡srrs ¡srs¡ rr¡sr¡ rrss¡rs¡ ¡¡srsr ¡sr¡ rs¡¡srrs ¡rrs¡ rs¡¡srrs srs¡s¡ r¡rsr¡ r¡r¡ ¡¡rrssrrs s¡s¡ rs¡rs¡ tuBtu u pq tB Btu vwBvw w vB Bvw no ¡¡ " "!¡ ¡ " ¡¡¡!¡¡" ¡ !¡ ¡ !!""!"¡"!"¡"!"¡34¡34¡¡34¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡"!¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ "¡¡¡¡¡ ¡ ¡¡¡¡¡34 ¡¡34 ¡ 343434 ¡343434 343434 !¡ ¡!!"""!!"! ¡ ¡ !"¡ ¡ "¡ ¡3434 ¡¡4 ¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡!!"¡!!"¡3434¡3434¡¡3434¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ !¡¡¡¡3¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡34¡¡¡¡¡¡ "¡ !"¡ ¡ "!!!""¡!""¡!!""¡34¡34¡¡a 3434¡34¡¡¡¡8¡8¡ "!!¡ @¡ ¡ " ¡¡¡¡ 34 ¡34 34 ¡¡¡!¡¡34 ¡¡4 ¡¡¡¡¡¡ 9¡¡¡¡¡¡¡3¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡"!!¡B!39%c &¡@¡4¡b"¡3c!%&& "!"¡4c"!¡¡¡B¡¡¡XYB¡¡78¡78 !"!¡ & ¡ 9@9¡¡ !"¡ %&¡ #$$34 ¡ #$$34 ¡@9@¡9@ %&%& ¡34 %& !""! %&¡ a ¡ #$34 ¡ #$ XY ¡¡!""!"!""!¡ ¡¡¡#$$ %&%&%& `a ¡¡¡7¡7¡¡ "¡ ¡ ¡¡¡ !" ¡¡#$¡ ¡¡¡¡788¡788¡¡ @¡¡ & ¡ ¡ ¡ "!!""¡"!"!"¡B"¡¡¡B¡¡¡XYB¡¡7878¡7788 99@¡¡! 9@9@ ¡ !!""!" ¡ ##$¡$#$ ¡ ¡@99@¡¡ ¡ %&%&¡¡ ¡ ##$¡¡ #$#$ XY ¡¡c %&%&¡%¡¡¡a #$#$¡#¡¡¡¡7¡7¡¡ "¡ %¡ ¡ ¡¡bB"%&&¡¡¡`B#$$¡¡¡B788¡788¡¡ @¡¡ %%&¡ &¡ $# ¡ #$#¡ !"!"!!"¡!"!"!!"¡B!¡B%¡B¡B¡¡¡¡787788¡787788 !"¡ %¡ ¡ 9@¡@99@¡¡ %&%¡%&¡¡ %&%& #$#¡#$#¡ #$#$¡ #$#$ ¡¡¡%¡¡¡¡#¡e ¡¡¡7¡7¡¡ "!¡ ¡ ¡¡b %&&%&¡%&%¡gb!&¡¡¡`g&¡#$$#$¡#$#¡d`$¡B¡¡788¡788¡¡ !¡ & @¡¡@ ¡¡%&%¡ ¡¡¡ 9¡¡!" @9 & ¡!"!" ¡ $ ¡$ de 9@¡9¡!" 9@ ¡&¡ ¡%& ¡¡$¡ #$ @¡@9@¡%¡¡¡%&%¡#¡¡¡¡#$#¡7¡7¡8¡8 9¡¡12 @9@9 %&& 12 '¡¡'( ¡#$$ '( %%&& )¡¡)¡78¡78¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡7¡7 112212¡112212¡&%%&%&&¡%&¡B%'fg '(('(¡$##$#$$¡#$¡B)de )00)0¡0¡¡¡778878¡778878 1& 12¡ %&& $ '(('( $ $ @¡¡ %& 21¡12 ¡ #$ ¡#$ '( # 9¡ @9¡ ( %&¡%&¡%&¡ 0 #¡#¡0 #$¡)0 #$ )0 )0 ¡¡¡%&¡(¡¡¡#$¡)¡¡)0¡78¡78¡¡ 212 ¡¡¡&%¡fg ¡¡¡#¡de ¡¡)¡7¡7¡¡ 9@9¡¡ '(¡ %&&¡ 0 $#$ ¡ ¡9@99@¡211122 9@99@ 211122 '¡ &%& 21122 fg (''(( ¡(''(( %&%& )0¡ $#$ ''(( de 0 #$#$ 80))00 #$#$ 80))00 0))00 @¡¡ ( %&% ¡ % ((¡ 2¡ ¡ 1¡ ' @¡¡%¡¡'(¡¡#¡¡0 #$##$ ¡#$##$ ''(((''( 0¡87¡87¡8¡8 9¡¡¡%¡'¡¡¡#¡0))¡¡)0¡7¡7¡¡ ¡¡%&¡¡¡¡#$¡¡¡¡)¡¡¡7¡7 22112¡22112¡B2¡B%6 (''(((''(¡B(¡¡00))0¡pqB¡¡7878¡7878 1' & 12¡& 1 ' %¡$ ' & ''¡ ) $ ) $ ) ) @¡¡ 12¡ %&¡ (¡ 0 #$# pqpq ¡@¡@ ( %&% ¡% ¡('( %&% hihi '(¡ 0 #$#56 jk 8)¡8¡ 9¡ ¡9@9 212 '¡ 12112212 ¡'(¡'('¡ )¡0¡¡ ¡9@9@9¡¡12¡(¡¡'(''(('(¡'¡56 ¡56 '( ¡)0¡¡ ¡¡212¡21¡(¡¡¡ ¡0¡¡0¡0)¡0¡0 2¡ ¡ ¡¡s %&¡%& 1¡fs1¡'¡556 ''(¡hf&¡i #$¡#$6 '¡))0¡¡)0¡788)0¡788)0)¡)0) 122112¡122112¡B¡5r15l91rB26m@2s 1122112¡6¡s¡66¡¡B¡¡)00))0¡pqB¡¡78¡78 ¡¡¡¡¡¡hB5hi 6¡¡¡B7¡7¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡65¡)0¡¡0¡0¡0¡0 ¡¡¡¡¡56¡0¡¡)¡)¡¡ 2¡ '(¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡i 56¡¡0)¡¡)0¡)0¡)0)¡)0) 1¡ ¡ '( ¡ 12¡ ('(¡ 5¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡6¡5¡)0)0¡¡)0¡)0¡0¡0 2 ('( 1¡6 ( 212 ¡ ('( 66¡656¡656 2¡ ¡ 6 '¡('( 1121221¡1121221¡B¡5r1565565665¡65565665¡¡565565665¡¡¡))0)00)¡¡¡))0)00)¡))0)00) ¡¡r 1122¡¡¡¡¡56¡)¡¡)¡)¡¡ 12¡( ¡11212 ( 565565¡¡ ¡''('¡5655656 ''('(¡''('(¡56 ''('¡¡5655656¡5655656 12¡ ¡''('( '(( ¦ ¦¥¥¦¦ ¦ ¦¥¥¦¦ ¦ ¥¡¡¥¡¡¥¡ ¦¡¡¦¡¡¦¡ ¡ ¥¡¡¥¡¡¥¡ ¡¡ ¦¡¡¦¡¡¦¡¥¦ ¥¦ ¥¦ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¥¦¥¦ ¡ ¢¡ ¢¡ ¢¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¥¦¡¡¥¦¡¡¥¦¡ ¢¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢¢ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¥¦¦¡¡¥¦¦¡¡¥¦¡¦¥¦ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¥¦ ¥¦ ¡¡¡¡¡¥ ¡¡VW ¡¡¡ ¦¡¡FG ¦¡¡¥¡ ¡ ¢¡ ¢¢ ¡ ¢¡¡ ¡¡B¡¡ ¥¦¥¡¡B¡¡¥¦ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢ ¡ VW ¡¦ ¡¦ FG ¦ ¢¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢¢ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦¦¥¦¥¦ ¦¥¡¥¦¦¥¦¥¦ FG ¦¦ ¦ ¢ ¢¢¢ ¢ ¢¡ ¡ VW ¡¡¦¡¡¡¥ ¡ ¢¡ ¡¢¡¡ ¥¡¥¡¡¥¥¡ ¡¢¡ ¢¡¢ AC ¢¢¢ ¡¡VB¡¡ ¡¡B¡¡¥¦¥¦ ¡¡B¡¡ ¢ ¢ ¡¡¡ ¦¡¡¥¦¡¡¦¡ ¡ ¡C ¡ ¢¡¡ ¡¡W ¡¡¡ ¥¦¡¡FG ¡¡¥¦¡ ¡¢¡AB ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡B¡¡ ¥¦¡¡¥¦¡¡¡¥¦ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¢ ¢ xy ¡¡¡¡¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¡ ¢¡¢ ¢¡ ¢ ¢ ¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¥¦ ¥¦ ¢¢ ¢¡ ¤¥¦ £¡¦ ¡ ¡ ¢¡ AC ¢ ¢¢ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¥ ¡ ¢¡ ¢¡¢¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¥¦ ¡¡¡¡¤ ¡¡ ¢¢ ¡¡¡¡ ¥¡¡¥¡¡¥¡ ¤£¡¡¤¤ ¡B ¢ ¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¦ ¥¦ ¦ ¥¦ ¦ ¡¤ £¤¤££¤ ¡ ¢¡A¤¤ C ¡¢¡¡ ¤ ¤ ¡¢ ¡ ¡¡¡ ¢ ¢ ¡¡¡¡¡ £¤£¡£¤£¡¡££¡££¡£¤ ¡¡ ¢ ¡¡¡¡¡ £¤¤£¡£¤¤£¡¡£¤¡£¤¡ ¢ ¢ ¡¡¡¤¡¤¡¤£¤£ ¡¡ ¢ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¡ ¤£¤£ £¤£¡£¤£¡DB£¡£¡ ¡¡B¤¤¡¤¤¡¤£¤£ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡RSB¡¡ ¡ RS ¤¡¤¡E ¡¤£ DEDE ¤£ ¡¡¡¡¡ ££¤¡££¤¡¡£¡£¡ ¡¡¡¡¡££¤ ££¤¤££¤ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¡ ¤¡¤¡¡£¡£¡ ¡¡B¡¡ © ¡© ¡DE ¡£¡£¡ RS ¡¡RSB¡¡ ©¡¡©¡©¡¡ B¡¡££¤¤ ¡¡ © £¤¡© £¤¡¡£¤¡£¤¡ ¤¡¤¡¡¤ ¤ ¡¡¡¡¡ ©¡¡©¡©¡¡ £¤£¤£¤ £¤¤ £¤¤ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡©©©© ¡¡¡£¤£¤£¤ £¤£¡£¤£¡ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¡£¡£¡ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡ ©©¡¡©©¡©©¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡ ©¡¡©¡©¡¡© ¡£¤¡£¤¡ ©© © ¡©© ¡ ©¡¡B©¡¡ ©©©© ¡ PQPQ ©©©© ©¡¡PQ ©¡©¡¡ ©¡ ©¡¡©¡©¡¡©© ¡¡ © ¡ © ¡¡¡ ¡¡Q ¡¡¡© ¨ ¡¡¡¡¡ ©¡¡PB©¡¡ ¨ §§¨¨§¨ §¡¨ ¨ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡B¡¡© §¡¡¨¡§¡§¡ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡ §¡¡¡§¡§¡ ¡¡B¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡©©© ¡¡¡¡¡¨§§¨¨§¨ ¡¡¡ © ©©© © © ©©© §¨¡¡§¡§¨¡§¨¡ ¡¡ ¨¡¡¨§¨¡¨¡¨¡ ¡¡¡¡¡ ©¡¡©¡©¡¡ ¨¡¡§¨¡¨¡¨¡ ¡¡TU ¡¡¡ ©¡¡©¡©¡¡ §§¨¡¡§¡§§¨¡§§¨¡ ¡ TU ¨§§¨¨ §¨¡ HI §§¨¡¡HI ¨¡§§¨¡§§¨¡ ¡¡B¡¡¨§§¨ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡TB¡¡ ¡ ¨¡¡¡¨¡¨¡ ¨B ¡¡¡¡¡ ¡ TU ¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡U ¡¡¡ B §§¨¡¡I ¡§§¨¡§§¨¡ ¡¡HB¡¡¨§§¨ §¨¨§§¨ ¨§¡ HI ¡¡B¡¡ ¨¡¡¨§¡¨¡¨¡ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡ §¨¡¡B§¨¡§¨¡§¨ ¡¡¡¡¡ ¨¡¡§¨¡¨¡¨¡ §¡¡§¡§¡§¡ ¡¡¡¡¡§§¨§¨¨§ §§¨§¨¨§ § §¨¡¡§¨¡§¨¡§¨¡ The study of the interacting electron gas moving in a charge compensating background of positively charged ions is central in this course. The main emphasis will be on the non-interacting electron gas. but historically this system played a major role as testing ground for the development of quantum ﬁeld theory. the outermost few valence electrons. the light cloud of the many negatively charged core electrons tightly bound to the nucleus. and insulators. such as metals. In this chapter we shall study the basic properties of this system using the formalism of time-independent second quantization as developed in Chap. with mass m and charge −e. since it will be clear that we need to develop our theoretical tools further to deal with the electron-electron interactions in full.1: A sketch showing N free atoms merging into a metal. semiconductors.Figure 2.

hence no factor 2 . i. One is the phenomenological lattice approach.e.1 The non-interacting electron gas We ﬁrst study the lattice model and the jellium model in the case of no electron-electron interaction. plasmons (collective electronic charge density waves). THE ELECTRON GAS true for the alkali metals.1. electron-hole excitations (single-particle excitations). continuous and homogeneous ﬂuid. H = (Tion + Vion−ion ) + (Tel + Vel−el ) + Vel−ion . Later in Sec. We take the experimental determination of the crystal structure. 2. From the obtained ground state one can then study the various excitations of the system: phonons (ion vibrations). magnons (spin waves). most electronic and phononic properties of the system can be derived with good accuracy from the Hamiltonian describing the ion jellium combined with the electron gas. where however the discrete nature of the ionic system is approximated by a positively charged. is in fact an ab initio calculation. the equilibrium positions Rj of the ions in the lattice. ion At zero temperature the ground state of the system is a periodic ion lattice hold together by the cohesive forces of the surrounding electron gas. the ion ’jellium’.2) dR1 dR2 Ψ† (R1 )Ψ† (R2 ) ion ion dr Ψ† (r) − σ 2 Z 2 e2 0 Ψ (R2 )Ψion (R1 ).2 we attempt to include this interaction.4) 2m 2 r Ψσ (r) + Vel−ion = 1 2σ dr1 dr2 Ψ† 1 (r1 )Ψ† 2 (r2 ) σ σ 1 σ2 drdR Ψ† (r)Ψ† (R) σ ion σ (−Ze2 ) 0 Ψ (R)Ψσ (r). In principle it is possible in ab initio calculations to minimize the energy of the system and ﬁnd the crystal structure and lattice parameters.3) e2 0 Ψ (r2 )Ψσ1 (r1 ). etc. |R − r| ion Note that no double counting is involved in Vel−ion since two diﬀerent types of ﬁelds. lattice parameters and elasticity constants as input to the theory. |r1 − r2 | σ2 (2.32 CHAPTER 2. Fortunately. and from there calculate the electronic and phononic properties. Ψ† (r) σ 1 and Ψ† (R) are involved. The formation of a metal from N independent atoms is sketched in Fig. 2. and the Coulomb interaction between the two systems. In this course we will not plunge into such full ﬂedged ab initio calculations. The other approximation scheme. The individual terms are easily written down in second quantization: Tion + Vion−ion = dR Ψ† (R) − ion 1 + 2 Tel + Vel−el = σ 2 (2. The Hamiltonian H of the system is written as the sum of kinetic and potential energy of the ionic system and the electronic system treated independently. . the so-called jellium model. Two approximation schemes will be used instead. 2.1) 2M 2 R Ψion (R) (2. |R1 − R2 | ion (2.

both originating from a combination of Tion . It is useful to introduce the reciprocal lattice. a2 · a3 × a1 b3 = 2π a1 × a2 .9) .1). these vibrations can be described in terms of quantized harmonic oscillators (much like the photon ﬁeld of Sec. we have o to understand the Fourier transform of periodic functions. The latter term must be there since a vibrating ion is giving rise to a vibrating electrical potential inﬂuencing the electrons. and the vibrating part. a1 · a2 × a3 b2 = 2π a3 × a1 .8) where the basis vectors {b1 . in RS deﬁned by RL = G ∈ RS eiG ·R = 1 ⇒ G = m1 b1 + m2 b2 + m3 b3 .1 Bloch theory of electrons in a static ion lattice Let us ﬁrst consider the phenomenological lattice model. (2. 1. m3 ∈ Z. i. periodic ion lattice: HBloch = Tel + Vel−latt (r). (2.5) At zero temperature the ions are not vibrating except for their quantum mechanical zero point motion. the phonons. 3. Vel−ph . n1 . Vel−latt . their mutual interaction Vel−el .2 we study when this is reasonable) one arrives at the Hamiltonian HBloch used in Bloch’s theory of non-interacting electrons moving in a static. 2. and Vel−ion in the original Hamiltonian Eq. Thus the Hamiltonian for the phenomenological lattice model changes H of Eq. a2 .1. a3 }: R = n1 a1 + n2 a2 + n3 a3 . (2. Finally.2.1. n3 ∈ Z. (2.e.1) into H = (Elatt + Hph ) + (Tel + Vel−el ) + (Vel−latt + Vel−ph ). a3 · a1 × a2 (2. THE NON-INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS 33 2. If one furthermore neglects the electron-electron interaction (in Sec. n2 . (2. b2 . At ﬁnite temperature the ions can vibrate around their equilibrium positions with the total electric ﬁeld acting as the restoring force. This lattice has an energy Elatt and an electrical potential Vel−latt associated with it. Let the static ion lattice be described by the ionic equilibrium positions R in terms of the lattice basis vectors {a1 . b3 } in RL are deﬁned as b1 = 2π a2 × a3 .6) To solve the corresponding Schr¨dinger equation. RL. also known as the reciprocal space. (2. As will be demonstrated in Chap. m2 . Vion−ion . and later the phonon problem.7) Working with periodic lattices it is often convenient to Fourier transform from the direct space to k-space. The non-interacting part of the phonon ﬁeld is described by a Hamiltonian Hph . and their interaction with both the static part of the lattice.2) giving rise to the concept of phonons. RS.4. m1 . the electrons are described by their kinetic energy Tel . Thus we can drop all the phonon related terms of the Hamiltonian. Vel−latt (r + R) = Vel−latt (r) for any lattice vector R. X-ray experiments show that the equilibrium positions of the ions form a periodic lattice.

and thus we end with Bloch’s theorem1 : k ∈ FBZ. FBZ. χ↑ = 1 : 0 ψσ (r) ≡ 1 V ck eik ·r χσ ⇒ kσ|HBloch |ψσ = k k so the Schr¨dinger equation for a given k is o ck εk + G We see that any given coeﬃcient ck only couples to other coeﬃcients of the form ck+G . (2. ∃G ∈ RL : q = k + G. for all G = 0 ⇓ ∀q.11) the function unk (r) is periodic in the lattice. 1 ¥ §¦ ¢ ¥ ¤ £¡ ¨¦ FBZ = k ∈ RS |k| < |k − G|. ψnkσ (r) = unk (r)eik·r χσ .11) εk δk. each Schr¨dinger equation of the form Eq.34 CHAPTER 2. We get [H. with TR f (r) ≡ f (r+R).13) for ck couples to an inﬁnite. Each such inﬁnite family of equations has exactly one representative k ∈ FBZ. The inﬁnite family of equations generated by a given k ∈ FBZ gives rise to a discrete spectrum of eigenenergies εnk . Applying TP after TR leads to λP λR = λP+R ⇒ λR = eik·R ⇒ ψnk (r) = unk (r)eik·r . An alternative derivation of Bloch’s theorem with emphasis on the group theoretic aspects builds on the translation operator TR . e.15) HBloch ψnkσ = εnk ψnkσ . where n ∈ N.k + G VG δk. (2. i. number of similar equations for ck−G . for all R ⇔ V (r) = G ∈RL The solution of the Schr¨dinger equation HBloch ψ = Eψ can be found in the plane wave o basis |kσ .g. THE ELECTRON GAS An important concept is the ﬁrst Brillouin zone. TR ] = 0 ⇒ TR ψ = λR ψ for an eigenstate ψ.10) VG eiG ·r . (2. deﬁned as all k in RS lying closer to G = 0 than to any other reciprocal lattice vector G = 0. while any k outside FBZ does not give rise to a new set of equations. (2. any wavevector q ∈ RS can be decomposed (the ﬁgure shows the FBZ for a 2D square lattice): The Fourier transform of any function periodic in the lattice is as follows: V (r + R) = V (r). Using vectors k ∈ FBZ. (2. n is the band index.14) . unk (r + R) = unk (r). but o countable. The corresponding eigenfunctions ψnkσ are given by: ψnkσ (r) = 1 V ck+G ei(G +k)·r χσ = G (n) According to Eq. ∃k ∈ FBZ.13) 1 V cG G (nk) eik·r χσ ≡ unk (r) eik·r χσ . (2. (2.12) VG ck−G = E ck . which separates in spatial part eik·r and a spin part χσ .k +G ck .e. (2.

THE NON-INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS 35 Figure 2. when no confusion is possible. (b) The Bloch bands viewed as a break-up of the parabolic free electron band in Brillouin zones (the extended zone scheme.16) : m → m∗ approximation k unrestricted. +Zρjel . 2. (a) The parabolic energy band for free electrons. and Lz and volume V = Lx Ly Lz the single-particle basis states are the simple plane wave solutions to the free particle Schr¨dinger equation o 2 For a derivation of the eﬀective mass approximation see e.1. k ∈ FBZ). discard the part of Vel−el that leads to inhomogeneities. In the following. The eigenfunctions are seen to be plane waves modulated by a periodic function unk (r) having the same periodicity as the lattice. Also the jellium model results in plane wave solutions. which are therefore of major interest to study. Kittel or Ashcroft and Mermin. If we concentrate on the homogeneous part of the electron gas.1) we have Vion−ion + Vel−el + Vel−ion = 0.17) For a box with side lengths Lx . we notice that this part together with the ion jellium forms a completely charge neutral system. 2. the ion jellium.e. and we simply end up with Hjel = Tel . so it is most natural to displace all the energy branches into the FBZ (the reduced zone scheme. present in a real lattice becomes the constant potential Vel−jel as sketched in Fig. The periodic potential. i. Vel−latt . ¨ © ¦ ¥§ ¢ ¤ ¥¦ ¨ © ¢ £ ¨ © ¦¥ ¢ ¡ .2 Non-interacting electrons in the jellium model In the eﬀective mass approximation of the lattice model the electron eigenstates are plane waves. to begin with. For many applications it turns out that the Bloch electrons described by ψnkσ (r) can be approximated by plane waves if at the same time the electronic mass m is changed into a material dependent eﬀective mass m∗ .1.2. (2. in H of Eq.2: Bloch’s theorem illustrated for a 1D lattice with lattice constant a. static positive charge density. m∗ is often simply written as m. (c) All wavevectors are equivalent to those in the FBZ. (2. In other words.3. In the jellium model the ion charges are imagined to be smeared out to form a homogeneous and. We shall use this so-called eﬀective mass approximation throughout this course:2 1 ik·r ψnkσ → √V e χσ The eﬀective mass (2. k ∈ RS). Ly .g.

while the latter yield standing waves carrying no current. x 2m kσ V V = Lx Ly Lz . |k1 . It is obtained by ﬁlling up the N states with the lowest possible energy. and the imagined smeared out potential Vel−jel of the jellium model. y. y. ↑ . and the Fermi velocity vF : k 2π 1 2mεF .21) The ground state for N electrons at zero temperature is denoted the Fermi sea or the Fermi sphere |FS . z) = 0 (likewise for the y and z directions). z) = 0 and ψ(L. . k k k k k k (2. Associated with εF is the Fermi wavenumber kF . ↓ |k2 . ±2. THE ELECTRON GAS with periodic boundary conditions ψ(L. . z) (likewise for the y and z directions). |FS ≡ c† N/2 ↑ c† N/2 ↓ . z) = ψ(0. z) = ψ (0. ↑ . since the former gives current carrying eigenstates well suited for the description of transport phenomena. y. and with this basis we obtain Hjel in second quantization: Hjel = σ dr Ψ† (r) − σ 2 2 2m Ψσ (r) = kσ 2 k2 2m c† ckσ . y. y. from which we obtain the following important rule of great practical value: → k V (2π)3 dk .19) 3 2π 2π 2π Note how the quantization of k means that one state ﬁlls a volume Lx Ly Lz = (2π) in V k-space. |k1 . Vel−latt . the Fermi wave length λF . ±1. y. .18) n = 0. ψkσ (r) = √ e χσ . kσ (2. . . ↓ .3: A sketch showing the periodic potential. . . c† 2 ↑ c† 2 ↓ c† 1 ↑ c† 1 ↓ |0 .20) For the further analysis in second quantization it is natural to order the single-particle 2 k2 states ψkσ (r) = |kσ according to their energies εk = ~2m in ascending order. We prefer the periodic boundary conditions rather than the Dirichlet boundary conditions ψ(0. (2. |k2 . λF = (2. kF m Vel-latt Vel-jel Figure 2. vF = F . present in a real lattice. where εk1 ≤ εk2 ≤ εk3 ≤ . ))))))))))))) )))))))))))) ))))))))) 23023023023023023023023023023023023023002302302302302302302302302302302302300230230230230230230230230230 1010101010101010101010101001010101010101010101010100101010101010101010 0000000000000123)0000000000000123)0000000000123) ¡ '( ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ # ¡¨ ! ¦¡¦ ¡¤ ¡¡ ¡ §¨¡ ¡ ¡ %& © ¡ ¨ !"¡ ¡ £¤¤ #$ ¡ ¡¡ ¡©© ¡§§¨ ¥¥¦¡¥¥¦ ¡££¤ © § £ 0 L 0 L ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡¢ ¢¡ ¢¡ ¡¡ ¢ . (2.36 CHAPTER 2. z) and ψ (L. . εF . The single-particle basis states are thus 2π kx = Lx nx (same for y and z) 2 k2 1 ik·r Hjel ψkσ = ψ . . .22) The energy of the topmost occupied state is denoted the Fermi energy. . (2.23) kF = .

εF .005 c. 0). the density. 2. n = 8.03 eV = 81600 K vF = 1. (2.23) and (2.47×1028 m−3 . This is written in terms of the theta function3 N= σ V (2π)3 dk θ(kF −|k|) FS|FS = 2V (2π)3 kF 0 dk k 2 1 2π d(cos θ) −1 0 dφ 1 = V 3 k .Figure 2. 3π 2 F (2. ky . 0). To the left the dispersion relation εk is plotted along the line k = (kx .26) This formula allows us to obtain the values of the microscopic parameters kF . ˆ N = FS|N |FS = FS| kσ nkσ |FS = σ V (2π)3 dk FS|nkσ |FS . the Fermi wavenumber. since nkσ |FS = |FS for |k| < kF and 0 otherwise.57×106 m/s = 0. The inter-atomic distances are typically 2 ˚. As a ﬁrst exercise we calculate the relation between the macroscopic quantity n = N/V. The Fermi sphere is shown as a circle with radius kF .25) and we arrive at the extremely important formula: 3 kF = 3π 2 n. Thus in |FS all states with εk < εF or |k| < kF are occupied and the rest are unoccupied. A sketch of |FS in energy. (2.and k-space is shown in Fig. Hall measurements yield the electron density of copper4 .24) The matrix element is easily evaluated. and the microscopic quantity kF . 0. and from Eqs. THE NON-INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS 37 ¤ £¢ ¡ ¡ ¨¦ ¥§ ¡¢ ¢© © ¤ ¡ .4.26) it thus follows that for copper kF = 13.27) θ(x) = 1 for x > 0 and θ(x) = 0 for x < 0 The density can also be estimated as follows. respectively.4: Two aspects of |FS in k-space. (2. and vF . In A monovalent Cu one electron thus occupies a volume (2×10−10 m)3 . ¡¤ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡ 2. and εF and kF are indicated. (2.6 nm−1 λF = 0. Filled and empty circles represent occupied and unoccupied states. To the right the occupation of the states is shown in the plane k = (kx . and n ≈ 1029 m−3 follows.46 nm 3 4 εF = 7.1.

(1.5. As temperature is raised from zero the occupation number is given by the Fermi-Dirac distribution nF (εk ). thus the low temperature limit of nF (εk ) is of importance: nF (εk ) = 1 e β(εk −µ) +1 T →0 −→ θ(µ − εk ).29) The next concept to be introduced for the non-interacting electron gas is the density of states D(ε) = dN .28) it can be expressed in terms of n: 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 E (0) = kF = (3π 2 ) 3 n 3 . 2 β ∂εk 4 cosh [ (εk − µ)] T →0 2 (2.03 εF corresponding to T ≈ 2400 K. Note that to be able to see any eﬀects of the temperature in Fig. 2. and even though the Fermi velocity is large it is still less than a percent of the velocity of light. The result is reasonable. 2. and we need not invoke relativistic considerations. see Eq.32) . E (0) = dε ε D(ε). and the total energy. kT is set to 0. By Eqs.5. which we shall return to shortly.1. In the following we shall for example demonstrate how in terms of D(ε) to calculate the particle number. before turning to the problem of the Coulomb interaction. THE ELECTRON GAS Note that the Fermi energy corresponds to an extremely high temperature.125).003.3 Non-interacting electrons at ﬁnite temperature Finally. (2. N = dε D(ε). 5π 2 2m F 5 In the last equation we again used Eq. ∆N = D(ε)∆ε. and the density of states per volume d(ε) = D(ε)/V = dn .28) 2V (2π)3 2m 2 kF 0 dk k 4 d(cos θ) −1 0 dφ 1 = V 2 5 3 k = N εF . for ε > 0.31) The density of states is a very useful function. We move on to calculate the ground state energy E (0) : E (0) = = FS|Hjel |FS = kσ 2 k2 2m 1 FS|nkσ |FS = 2 2π 2 V (2π)3 2m dk k 2 θ(kF − |k|) (2. 1 (2. since the system consists of N electrons each with an energy 0 < εk < εF . 2.30) and from this dn 1 d(ε) = = 2 dε 2π 2m 2 3 2 ε θ(ε). The kinetic energy per particle becomes an important quantity when we in the next section begin to study the Coulomb interaction. N 5 2m 5 2m (2. we study some basic temperature dependencies.38 CHAPTER 2.26) we ﬁnd 2 εF = 2m kF = 2 2 2m (3π ) n 2 2 3 2 3 ⇒ 1 n(ε) = 2 3π 2m 2 3 2 ε 2 . The main characteristics of this function is shown in Fig.26). 3 (2.26) and (2. counting the number ∆N of states in the energy interval ∆ε around dε the energy ε. (2. Room temperature yields kT /εF ≈ 0. dε Again using Eq. (2. 1 2 dN V D(ε) = = 2 dε 2π 2m 2 3 2 ε 2 θ(ε). − ∂nF β 1 = −→ δ(µ − εk ).

we ﬁnd that even at the melting temperature of metals only a very limited number ∆N of electrons are aﬀected by thermal ﬂuctuations.2.2 Electron interactions in perturbation theory We now apply standard perturbation theory to take the inhomogeneous part of the electron-electron interaction Vel−el of Eq. corresponding to T = 2400 K in metals. its derivative − ∂ε F . and more precisely we have ∆N/N = 6kT /εF (≈ 10−3 at room temperature). shown at the temperature kT = 0. as mentioned in Sec. where the electron density is much smaller than in metals. We thus exclude the q = 0 term in the following sums. (2. 1. The electronic degrees of freedom are simply ’frozen’ in.1 this picture is not true for semiconductors.. Now we have at hand an explanation of the old paradox in thermodynamics. 2.03 εF . A careful analysis based on the so-called Sommerfeld expansion combined with the fact that the number of electrons does not change with temperature yields ∞ ∂n n(T = 0) = n(T ) = 0 dε d(ε)f (ε) ⇒ µ(T ) = εF 1− π2 12 kT εF 2 + . As we shall see in Sec.2.3. only the states within 2kT of εF are actually aﬀected.1.5: The Fermi-Dirac distribution nF (εk ).33) Because εF according to Eq. (2.103) and (1. The Fermi sphere is not destroyed by heating.5.3) into account.. the natural single-particle energy variable in these fundamental expressions actually is ξk = εk − µ and not εk itself. (1. Note that. But in fact µ varies slightly with temperature. as to why only the ionic vibrational degrees of freedom contribute signiﬁcantly to the speciﬁc heat of solids. and its product with k the density of states. 2. which is indicated by the dashed lines. ELECTRON INTERACTIONS IN PERTURBATION THEORY 39 Figure 2.104)) corresponds to a vanishing wavevector q = 0. Only at temperatures comparable to εF they begin to play a major role. it is only slightly smeared. Indeed.27) is around 80000 K for metals. which is indicated by ¦¥ ¡ © ©¨¦ 0) ( ' ¡ § ¥ ¦¥ ¡ © §¦ ¥ © !" £ #$% £ &$% ¦¥ ¢ ¡ © ¨¦ ¥ ¡ © § £¤ . At T = 0 the chemical potential µ is identical to εF . The homogeneous part. which in k-space (see Eqs. (2. This rather high value is chosen to have a clearly observable deviation from the T = 0 case. nF (εk )d(εk ). has already been taken into account in the jellium model to cancel the homogeneous positive background.

40 a prime: Vel−el = 1 2V k1 k2 q σ1 σ2 CHAPTER 2. but already in second order the calculation collapses due to divergent integrals. So we ﬁnd that 0 1 Epot n3 ∝ 2 = n− 3 Ekin n3 1 n→∞ −→ 0. The following considerations may be helpful mnemotechnically.6 eV. Lengths are naturally measured in units a0 . Writing E0 as the sum of kinetic energy p2 /2m and potential energy −e2 /a0 . 2 ∂E0 ∂a0 = 0.6 eV.37) .36) 2a0 Here we have also introduced the energy unit 1 Ry often encountered in atomic physics as deﬁning a natural energy scale.29). A natural question arises: under which circumstances can the non-interacting electron gas actually serve as a starting point for a perturbation expansion in the interaction potential. We begin the perturbation treatment by establishing the relevant length scale and energy scale for the problem of interacting charges. and the dimensionless measure rs of the average inter-electronic distance in the electron gas is introduced as the radius in a sphere containing exactly one electron: 4π 1 3π 2 (rs a0 )3 = = 3 3 n kF ⇒ a 0 kF = 9π 4 1 3 −1 rs ⇒ rs = 9π 4 1 3 1 .35) revealing the following perhaps somewhat counter intuitive fact: the importance of the electron-electron interacting diminishes as the density of the electron gas increases. Epot e2 /d ∝ n 3 . This is to be compared to the typical 1 ¯ ¯ potential energy of particles with a mean distance d. we approach the problem from this limit in the following analysis.053 nm. The ﬁrst order calculation works well and good physical conclusions can be drawn. But let us see how we arrive at these conclusions. THE ELECTRON GAS 4πe2 † 0 c c† c c . E0 = − e2 0 = 13. 2a0 1 Ry = 2ma0 2 ~2 − e2 . The typical length scale a0 yields a typical momentum p = /a0 . It turns out that to get rid of these divergences the more powerful tools of quantum ﬁeld theory must be invoked. the direct use of this interaction with the tools developed so far becomes the story of the rise and fall of simple minded perturbation theory. Due to the Pauli exclusion principle the kinetic energy simply becomes the dominant energy scale in the interacting electron gas at high densities.34) However. or by using the virial theorem Ekin = − 1 Epot : 2 e2 0 = −13. Consequently. The values of a and E0 are 0 0 a0 a0 = me2 0 = 0. as we shall see. (2. where a single electron orbits a proton. q 2 k1 +qσ1 k2 −qσ2 k2 σ2 k1 σ1 (2. The key to the answer lies in the density dependence of the kinetic energy 2 Ekin = E (0) /N ∝ n 3 displayed in Eq. The prototypical example is of course the hydrogen atom. a 0 kF (2. (2. we arrive at E0 = 0 found either by minimization. (2. The ground state is a spherical symmetric s-wave with a radius denoted the Bohr radius a0 and an energy E0 .

only for 0 < q < 2kF does the theta function (2. First note. For q = 0 we therefore end with 2. = −δk2 . θq .2. Second. θk .6.where q = 0 leads to k1 + q = k1 . Since only one k-vector appears we now drop the index 1.k1 +q δσ1 .39) The matrix element is evaluated as follows. 2a0 s rs (2.6: The two possible processes in ﬁrst order perturbation theory for two states |k1 σ1 and |k2 σ2 in the Fermi sea. Also the geometry for the k-integration is shown for an arbitrary but ﬁxed value of q.k1 +q δσ1 . φq ) and (k. hence only the exchange process contributes to Vel−el .1 This constitutes the zero’th order energy in our perturbation calculation.k1 +q δσ1 . the factor FS| demands that the two creation operators bring us back to |FS .21 0 r ≈ 2 Ry. Second. These possibilities are sketched in Fig. that the integral is independent of the direction of q 1 2π so that −1 d(cos θq ) 0 dφq = 4π. First.2. k k 2 q e2 −2 2. FS|c† 1 +qσ1 c† 2 −qσ2 ck2 σ2 ck1 σ1 |FS = δk2 .σ2 FS|nk1 +qσ1 nk1 σ1 |FS k1 .38) 41 . which results in a simple anticommutator yielding the occupation number operators with a minus in front. the two annihilation operators can only give a non-zero result if both |k1 | < kF and |k2 | < kF .σ2 θ(kF −|k1 +q|)θ(kF −|k1 |). The k. ELECTRON INTERACTIONS IN PERTURBATION THEORY B A 9hg ( 5 ( 8g U H D Sf5 C F T e ¢aHbQE dc E F Q ¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£ F ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£V7¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£¨¨©©¨©¨¨©¨©©¨¨©¨©©¨©¨© ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£¨¨©©¨©¨¨©¨©©¨¨©¨©©¨©¨©I ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£¨¨©©¨©¨¨©¨©©¨¨©¨©©¨©¨©Q D¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£¨¨©©¨©¨¨©¨©©¨¨©¨©©¨©¨©H ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£P ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£E ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£V F¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£H¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£I¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£D ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£ ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£ ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ B `8 £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ 5£¢£¢¢£¢££¢£¦¦§§¨©¦§¨¨©¨©©¨© 4£¢£¢¢£¢££¢£¦¦§§¨©¦§¨¨©¨©©¨© £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£¦¦§§¨©¦§¨¨©¨©©¨© £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£¦¦§§¨©¦§¨¨©¨©©¨© £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£5 £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ ¢¢¢¢¢ A ¢B Y¢0¢A £¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ £¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£¦§¦§¦¦§§¦§¦¦§¦§§¦§¦¦§§¦§¦§ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£¦§¦§¦¦§§¦§¦¦§¦§§¦§¦¦§§¦§¦§ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£¦§¦§¦¦§§¦§¦¦§¦§§¦§¦¦§§¦§¦§ £¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£¦§¦§¦¦§§¦§¦¦§¦§§¦§¦¦§§¦§¦§ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£X¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£W ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ Rewriting the energy E (0) of the non-interacting electron gas to these units we obtain: Figure 2. and polar coordinates (q.σ2 FS|c† 1 +qσ1 c† 1 σ1 ck1 +qσ1 ck1 σ1 |FS k k k k FS|Vel−el |FS E (1) 1 = = N N 2VN (a k )2 31 2 2 31 E (0) 3 9π = kF = (a0 e2 ) 0 F = 0 2 N 52m 52 a0 5 4 Electron interactions in 1st order perturbation theory q = −δk2 . The direct process having q = 0 is already taken into account in the homogeneous part.and q-sum are converted into integrals.k2 σ1 . thus either q = 0 (but that is excluded from Vel−el ) or k2 = k1 + q and σ2 = σ1 .σ2 2 3 4πe2 0 FS|c† 1 +qσ1 c† 2 −qσ2 ck2 σ2 ck1 σ1 |FS .40) (2. 2. The ﬁrst order energy E (1) is found by the standard perturbation theory procedure: ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ I ¡¡ ¡F Q VD ¡¡ ¡ H ¡¡ ¡I G ¡¡ ¡P P ¡¡ ¡UE G ¡¡ ¡F TH ¡¡ ¡ FI ¡¡ ¡ D ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¤¥¥¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥I ¤¥¥¤¥Q DH¤¥¥¤¥ HG¤¥¥¤¥GF¤¥¥¤¥PE D¤¥¥¤¥E F¤¥¥¤¥C H¤¥¥¤¥ I¤¥¥¤¥D ¤¥¥¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡B ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡A ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡R ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ R ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ B¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ A¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ 02 ) ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡1 4 ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡R ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡)4( ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ )#"#" ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡S6'&'& ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡5 ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ 4 ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ) ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ %$$% ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡0!! ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ 2) ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ 1 ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ 076)(5 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥2 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥984 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥1 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥674 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥) 3¤¤(@¤¤¤5¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥2 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥089 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥1 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥706 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ) (5 2. φk ) are employed.

The negative exchange energy overcomes the positive kinetic energy. THE ELECTRON GAS product give a non-zero result.29 eV = −0. now we have learned that the interaction energy per particle is ≈ 1. For a given ﬁxed value of q the rest of the integral is just the overlap volume between two spheres of radius kF displaced by q. (2. We found before that thermal smearing occurs but is rather insigniﬁcant compared to the huge Fermi energy. 2. The last variable is free: 0 < φk < 2π.916 − 2 rs rs Ry. εF ≈ 7 eV.83.13 eV (1st order perturbation theory) (experiment on Na) rs = 3. E∗ N E N = −0. However. (2. since only one electron at a time can be at a given point in space.e. The geometry of this volume is sketched in Fig. 2 for symmetry. and is calculated by noting that q/2kF < cos θk < 1. The direct “classical” Coulomb interaction does not take this into account and is therefore over-estimating the energy. We thus get E (1) 4πe2 V 0 =− 2(4π) N 2VN (2π)3 2kF 0 dq q2 2(2π) q2 1 q 2k F d(cos θk ) V (2π)3 kF q 2 cos θk dk k 2 . (2. and the exchange part corrects for this by being negative.42) 2π rs The ﬁnal result for the ﬁrst order perturbation theory is thus the simple expression E N −→ E (0) + E (1) = N 2. One of the great results of quantum ﬁeld theory. One may wonder what happens to the Fermi sphere as the interaction is turned on.41) where the prefactors are a factor 2 for spin.211 0. The integral is elementary and results in k 3 E (1) e2 V kF 4 e2 e2 =− 0 = − 0 (a0 kF ) F = − 0 N 2 N 2π 3 2a0 2π 3 n 2a0 9π 4 1 3 1 rs 3 0. (2. smaller than but certainly comparable to εF .083 Ry = −1.42 CHAPTER 2. which minimizes the energy and furthermore yields an energy E ∗ < 0. Physically this can be interpreted as an eﬀect of the Pauli exclusion principle: the electrons are forced to avoid each other. The equilibrium situation is obtained from ∂ (0) + E (1) ) = 0.6. There exists an optimal density n∗ . 4π for q-angles.43) rs →0 This result shows that the electron gas is stable when the repulsive Coulomb interaction is turned on. and we can compare the result with experiment: ∂rs (E ∗ rs = 4. and that for a given cos θk we have q/(2 cos θk ) < k < kF .96. and twice V/(2π)3 for the conversions of k. 2π for φk . or inter-particle distance rs .3 eV. No external conﬁnement potential is needed to hold the electron gas in the ion ∗ jellium together.44) We note that the negative binding energy is due to the exchange energy of the Coulomb interaction. i.and q-sums to integrals. is the explanation of why the Fermi surface is not destroyed by the strong Coulomb interaction between the electrons. . which we are going to study later in the course.095 Ry = −1.916 ≈− Ry.

47) E (0) − Eν § © §¨¥¦¤£ £¤ ¢ ¡ 43 . and writing Vq = Edir = (2) 4πe2 0 q2 we ﬁnd 1 V2 q k1 σ1 k2 σ2 1 ( 2 Vq )2 θ(|k1 +q|−kF )θ(|k2 −q|−kF )θ(kF −|k1 |)θ(kF −|k2 |).46) k k To restore |FS the same momentum transfer q must be involved in both ν|Vel−el |FS and FS|Vel−el |ν .45) |ν =|FS where all the intermediate states |ν must be diﬀerent from |FS . ELECTRON INTERACTIONS IN PERTURBATION THEORY Figure 2.29 eV. |FS is restored by putting the excited electrons back into the holes they left behind.7: (a) The energy per particle E/N of the 3D electron gas in ﬁrst order perturbation theory Eq. Due ∗ to the exchange interaction the electron gas is stable at rs = rs = 4. the result is disastrous.2. The matrix elements diverge without giving hope for a simple cure. As sketched in Fig.83 with an ionization ∗ /N = −1. E (0) − Eν (2.2. We now proceed to show that the direct interaction process gives a divergent con(2) tribution Edir to E (2) due to the singular behavior of the Coulomb interaction at small momentum transfers q.2. For the direct process the constraint |ν = |FS leads to |ν = θ(|k1+q|−kF )θ(|k2−q|−kF )θ(kF−|k1 |)θ(kF−|k2 |)c† 1 +qσ1 c† 2 −qσ2 ck2 σ2 ck1 σ1 |FS . (2.43) as a function of the dimensionless inter-particle distance rs . energy E/N = E 2.2 Electron interactions in 2nd order perturbation theory One may try to improve on the ﬁrst order result by going to second order perturbation theory. Here we can only reveal what goes wrong. According to second order perturbation theory E (2) is given by 1 E (2) = N N FS|Vel−el |ν ν|Vel−el |FS . From such an intermediate state. (2. However. and then later learn how to deal correctly with the inﬁnities occurring in the calculations. 2. Only two types of processes are possible: the direct and the exchange process.8 this combined with the momentum conserving Coulomb interaction yields intermediate states where two particles are injected out of the Fermi sphere. (2.

1. Electron gases at reduced dimensionality is of increasing experimental importance. is replaced by Vq Vk2 −k1 −q ∝ q q This divergent behavior of second order perturbation theory is a nasty surprise. θ(|k1 +q|−kF )θ(kF −|k1 |) ∝ q. Thus Vq −2 for q → 0. 0 dq q 2 1 1 qq= q4 q (2) 0 dq CHAPTER 2.3 from which we obtain The contribution from small values of q to Edir is found by noting that Electron gases in 3. 13. The direct process gives a divergent contribution to E/N while the exchange process gives a ﬁnite contribution. and 1D. as we shall see in Chap. To work in various dimensions is a good opportunity to test ones understanding of the basic principles of the physics of electron gases.48b) (2. which is less singular than V 2 ∝ q −4 . But as will become clear. We know that physically the energy of the electron gas must be ﬁnite. 2. In fact. 44 We end this chapter on the electron gas by mentioning a few experimental realizations of electron gases in 3D. 2D. The only hope for rescue lies in regularization of the divergent behavior by taking higher order perturbation terms into account.The exchange process does not lead to a divergence since in this case the momentum 2 transfer in the excitation part is q. . q→0 (2. THE ELECTRON GAS 1 = ln(q) q q→0 0 ∝ ∞. . Figure 2. which is possible using the full machinery of quantum ﬁeld theory to be developed in the coming chapters. ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ H P C G F I D E G H C ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ H P C G F I D E G H C ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ IHUE T F S E ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ G F E D BC ££££££££££££££££ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ )¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ( ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ @A ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ @A ££££££££££££££££ ££££££££££££££££ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ &&'' 5 $%%$ 4 03 ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡5 4 73 ) R ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ( ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££75 4 73 ) 95 0 4 03 ) ( ££££££££££££££££ ( ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ !! !! ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ 5 4 "##" 7823 ) Q5 4 ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ( ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ 0123 ) ( 75 4 ¥¤¥¤ 7823 ) 65 0 4 §¦§¦ ©¨¨© ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ( ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ 0123 ££££££££££££££££ )( 2. and 0 dimensions Edir ∝ 2 Vq ∝ k1 (2) 1 q4 E0 − Eν ∝ k2 + k2 − (k1 + q)2 − (k2 − q)2 ∝ q 1 2 . it turns out that one has to consider perturbation theory to inﬁnite order.48a) (2.48c) (2. but in the relaxation part it is k2 − k1 − q.8: The two possible processes in second order perturbation theory for two states |k1 σ1 and |k2 σ2 in the Fermi sea.49) . this is not just an academic exercise.

9: (a) A generic bandstructure for a metal. Consequently there is no energy gap between the last occupied level and the ﬁrst unoccupied level.Figure 2.9. and band insulators. Likewise. 5 ∂ε !©¨ ©¨ § ¦ ¥ ¢ £ 2. ELECTRON GASES IN 3. (b) A generic bandstructure for an insulator or a semiconductor. In the metallic case εF lies in the middle of a band. 2. Semiconductors are insulators at T = 0. This is not possible for small external ﬁelds. such that at room temperature a suﬃcient number of electrons are excited thermally up into the conduction band to yield a signiﬁcant conductivity.1 3D electron gases: metals and semiconductors Bloch’s theory of non-interacting electrons moving in a periodic lattice provides an explanation for the existence of metals. and hence the inability of insulators to conduct electronic thermal and electrical currents. 2. The Fermi level εF lies in the middle of a band resulting in arbitrarily small possible excitations energies. The Fermi level εF lies at the top of the valence band resulting in possible excitations energies of at least Egap . Therefore one ﬁnds eﬀective masses m∗ . for the thermal current Jth = 2 k∈FBZ V εk vk = 2 R dk 1 ∂(εk ) . Finally. AND 0 DIMENSIONS 45 ©¨©¨ § £ ¦ ¥ £¤¢ ¡ . the so-called conduction band.3. on the other hand. the so-called ﬁlled valence band. In an insulator εF is at the top of a band. Both currents are integrals over FBZ of gradients of periodic functions and therefore FBZ (2π)3 ~ ∂k zero. see 1 k Transport properties are tightly connected to the electron velocity vk = ~ ∂k . 2. A semiconductor. the distance up to the unoccupied conduction band. 1. typically less than 2 eV. semiconductors. and consequently nF (εk ) → e−(εk −µ)/kB T . The current density R P P 1 dk 1 ∂εk 1 is J = 2 k∈FBZ V vk = 2 FBZ (2π)3 ~ ∂k .3. the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. We emphasize that at room temperature the electron gas in a metal is a degenerate Fermi gas since kB T εF . i. The important parameter is the position of the Fermi energy εF relative to the bands as sketched in Fig. but their band gap Egap is relatively small. and any however small external ﬁeld can excite the system and give rise to a signiﬁcant response.e. is normally described as a classical gas since for energies εk in the conduction band we have εk−µ > Egap /2 kB T . The system can only be excited by providing suﬃcient energy for the electrons to overcome the energy band gap Egap between the top of the valence band and the bottom of the next empty band. we note that in a typical metal most of the electron states at the Fermi surface are far away from the regions in k-space where the free electron dispersion relation is strongly distorted by the periodic lattice. and ﬁlled bands does not carry any electrical or thermal current5 .

For x = 0.3 the conduction band in Ga1−x Alx As is 300 meV higher than the one in GaAs. Eq. 2. Hence the electrons in the former conduction band can gain energy by moving to the latter. not all donor electrons will be transferred. the ﬁrst realization being inversion layers in the celebrated silicon MOSFETs. At T = 0 there are of course no free carriers in any of the conduction bands for pure semiconductor systems. 2. which then accumulate on the GaAs side of the interface due to the energy gain.16).3. The interface between the GaAs and the Ga1−x Alx As semiconductor crystals in the GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As heterostructure can be grown with mono-atomic-layer precision in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) machines. all the electron states contributing to the transport properties in a semiconductor are close to these regions in k-space. which by wet etching has gotten a device geometry imprinted in its surface. In contrast. typically m∗ ≈ 0. conduction electrons are provided. The main diﬀerence between the two semiconductor crystals is the values of the bottom of the conduction band. and which is essential for the basic research of many quantum eﬀects in condensed matter physics.1 m. Niels Bohr Institute. The metal contacts and wires are seen attached to the GaAs structure. (2.46 CHAPTER 2. The ionized Si donors left in the Ga1−x Alx As provide an electrostatic energy that grows with an increasing number of transferred electrons. which is technologically important for high-speed electronics. In the latter system one can obtain extremely long mean free paths (more than 10 µm). This is because the two semiconductor crystals have nearly the same crystal structure leading to a stress-free interface. the key component in integrated electronic circuits. but by doping the Ga1−x Alx As with Si. close to the vacuum mass m. However. and one ﬁnds strongly modiﬁed eﬀective masses. and the more resent realization being in the gallium-arsenide/gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As) heterostructures.2 2D electron gases: GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As heterostructures For the past three decades it has been possible to fabricate 2D electron gases at semiconductor interfaces. At some point the energy gained by § (21 ¡ ¡ 0( ¨ § © '& % ) § ¢ § $ # ©" " ! ¡ ¢ § ¡ © ¡ ¡ § ¨ §© § © ¡ ¨ § ¦ ¦¥ ¤ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ . In Fig. (b) A sketch showing the diﬀerent layers in the semiconductor structure as well as some surface gates deﬁning the geometry of the device.10: (a) A picture of a GaAs-device fabricated at the Ørsted Laboratory. THE ELECTRON GAS Figure 2.10 a picture of an actual device is shown as well as a sketch of the various layers in a GaAs heterostructure.

yielding zero from the side of the cylindrical box. and typically n = 3 × 1015 m−2 . The conduction band is not ﬂat due to the curvature induced by the charge densities. where we have used the Bohr radius a0 of Eq. The wavefunctions ζn (z) and eigenvalues of the lowest three electron eigenstates in the triangular well. see Fig.6 eV m∗ l0 ≈ 20 meV. n being the 2D electron density at the interface. Note the triangular well forming at the interface. which yields l ≈ 5 nm. Without performing the full calculation we can get a grasp of the order of magnitude by the following estimate. m∗ = 0. Due to the triangular well the 3D free electron wavefunction is modiﬁed.36) to bring in atomic units. 2. A (2. 2. 1.3. AND 0 DIMENSIONS 47 Figure 2.50) where ζn (z) is the nth eigenfunction of the triangular well having the eigenenergy εn . and since for the reason of charge neutrality. E = 0 at the ’top lid’. since for symmetry reasons E must be perpendicular to the z axis. transferring electrons to the GaAs layer is balanced by the growth in electrostatic energy. and © 8 £ § ¡ © § § % ¥ !¡ %& ' ¡¨% ¥ ¡! " %& $ # ¡ £ ! £ ¢ ¡ §8¥¦ 3 1 270 6 ( £¡ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¦¦ ¥¥ 1¤ 33 1 215200 4) (( ¦¤ ¥ ¡¢ . Thus at the interface E = en/ ∗ . Only the z direction is quantized leaving the x and y direction unaltered. 2 The signiﬁcance of this quantization energy is the following. The electrical ﬁeld E at the interface is then found simply by forming a cylindrical Gauss box with its axis along the z direction and one circular ’bottom lid’ at the interface and the other ’top lid’ deep into the GaAs.11 where the resulting conduction band in equilibrium is shown as function of the position z perpendicular to the interface. ELECTRON GASES IN 3. The key point to notice is the formation of the almost triangular quantum well at the GaAs side of the interface. The charge density outside this capacitor is zero. This is sketched in Fig. We consider the positively charged layer of the ionized Si donors as one plate of a plate capacitor.11. From this we get the typical quantization energy ∆E due to the triangular well: 2 m a ∆E = 13.11: The conduction band in a GaAs/GaAlAs heterostructure. The well is so narrow that a signiﬁcant size-quantization is obtained.2. 1 ψkσ (r) = √ eikx x eiky y eikz z χσ V −→ 1 ψkx ky n σ (r) = √ eikx x eiky y ζn (z) χσ . (2. as calculated from Poisson’s equation: 2 V = −e2 n3D / ∗ . All the contributions stems from the ’bottom lid’. The experimental input for GaAs is ∗ = 13 0 .067m. while the conduction electrons at the GaAs/GaAlAs interface forms the other plate. 2. The typical length scale l for the width of the triangular well is found by balancing the ∗/ 1 ~2 0 a0 potential energy and the kinetic quantum energy: eEl = m∗ l2 ⇒ l3 = 4π m∗ /m n .

i. The corresponding conﬁnement φ ~2 energy is En ∼ 2mλ2 ∼ 1 eV n. In the same dynamical sense as the GaAs heterostructure is a 2D metal sheet. Any changes of this orbital requires an excitation energy of at least 10 meV.3 1D electron gases: carbon nanotubes Since the mid-nineties a new research ﬁeld has developed involving studies of the cylindrically shaped carbon based molecule. kF 2 = 2πn ⇒ εF ≈ 10 meV. r. THE ELECTRON GAS εkx . z) plane waves to cylindrical (x.e. Likewise. in the azimuthal angle coordinate φ. This means that theoretical studies of 2D electron gases is far from an academic exercise. i. see Fig.l = E0 + En + 2 2 kx .σ (r) = √ eikx x Rnl (r) Yl (φ) χσ .n. y. resulting in a radial ~2 R conﬁnement energy E0 ∼ 2m∆R2 ∼ 10 eV. two of the three spatial degrees of freedom are frozen in. We brieﬂy sketch how this comes about. there is a strong conﬁnement. The cylindrical symmetry of the nanotube makes it natural to change the basis functions from the 3D (x.53) .e.e. (2. the so-called carbon nanotube. a metallic nanotube is a nearly ideal 1D wire. in the x direction. These long and thin carbon molecules have some extraordinary material characteristics.3. n i. φ) wavefunctions: 1 ψkσ (r) = √ eikx x eiky y eikz z χσ V −→ 1 ψkx .12. The highest occupied state has the energy E0 + εF while the lowest unoccupied state has the energy E1 . i. The electrons are strongly bound to the surface of the cylinder in quantum states arising from the original π-bonds of the graphite system. L (2. 2.ky . and we arrive at our conclusion: At temperatures T 100 K all occupied electron states have the same orbital in the z direction. 2.n. They are believed to be the strongest material in the world. There are no severe constraints along the cylinder axis. λn = 2πR0 /n < 2 nm. If this is not provided the system has eﬀectively lost one spatial degree of freedom and is dynamically a 2D system.1 nm.n = 2m∗ 2 2 kx + ky + ε n . and depending on the speciﬁc way the cylinder is rolled up the nanotubes are either metallic. since the perimeter must contain an integer number of electron wavelengths λn . semiconducting or insulating.51) where we have given the 2D version of the fundamental relation between kF and n (see Exercise 2.52) This is of course more than just a mathematical transformation. We therefore end up with a total energy R φ εkx . 2m (2. 2D systems do indeed exist in reality. (2.48 the total energy for all three spatial directions is 2 CHAPTER 2. ζ0 (z).l. ∆R ≈ 0.26) for the 3D case).e.4 and compare to Eq. The diﬀerence is E1 − (E0 + εF ) = ∆E − εF ≈ 10 meV ≈ 100 K. This means that the extension ∆R of the radial wave function Rnl (r) around the mean value R0 is of atomic scale. The carbon nanotube can be viewed as a normal graphite sheet rolled up into a cylinder with a radius R0 ≈ 2 nm and a length more than a thousand times R0 .

3. Niels Bohr Institute. This section will be expanded in the next edition of these notes. 2. 2. Not only are the nanotube very interesting from an experimental point of view. The nanotubes is one of only a couple of systems exhibiting a nearly ideal 1D behavior. .3.4 0D electron gases: quantum dots Naturally one can think of conﬁning the electrons in all three spatial dimensions.12: (a) Carbon atoms forming a sheet of graphite with a characteristic hexagonal lattice. 1. 2.4. (b) A carbon nanotube molecule is formed by rolling up a graphite sheet into a cylindrical geometry. l) = (0. thereby connecting them and allowing for electrical measurements on single molecules. showing a bundle of carbon nanotubes placed across a gap between two metal electrodes. AND 0 DIMENSIONS ¢ ¤ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ 49 Figure 2. 2 (2.54) Thus at room temperature the only available degree of freedom is the axial one described by the continuous quantum number kx and the associated plan waves eikx x . a central quantum model for describing interacting electrons in 1D. A simpliﬁed model of a quantum dot is studied in Exercise 8. also from a pure theoretical point of view do they play an important role. for example by using the device shown in Fig. This has been realized experimentally in the so-called quantum dot systems. (c) An atomic force micrograph taken at the Ørsted Laboratory. In particular that makes the nanotubes a key testing ground for the diagonizable so-called Luttinger liquid model.10(b). with a considerable gap ∆E from the center of the (n. 0) band (the position of εF for the metallic case) to the bottom of the (n. 1) band: 1 φ φ ∆E = (E1 − E0 ) ≈ 1 eV ∼ 12000 K. l) = (0.2. ELECTRON GASES IN 3.

50 CHAPTER 2. THE ELECTRON GAS .

(a) Slow ionic density oscillations in a static electron gas (ion plasma oscillations). they naturally occur at ﬁnite temperature. Since phonons basically are harmonic oscillators. In the following sections we shall study the three types of matter oscillation sketched in Fig. (c) Fast electronic plasma oscillations in a static ionic lattice (electronic plasma oscillations). 1. 3.1: Three types of oscillations in metals. 51 . they are bosons according to the results of Sec. where the ions are represented by a smeared-out continuous positive background.1.127). And more surprising may be the fact that the electron-phonon coupling is the cause of conventional superconductivity. a name pointing to the connection between sound waves and lattice vibrations.4. (1. The restoring force is the long range Coulomb interaction. and the lattice model. and electrical resistivity of solids. The restoring force is the compressibility of the disturbed electron gas. the Bose-Einstein distribution nB (ε) given in Eq. (b) slow ion oscillations followed by the electron gas (sound waves. ¢ ¤ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ Figure 3. The grayscale represent the electron density and the dots the ions. acoustic phonons). Phonons play are fundamental role in our understanding of sound. Moreover. The ions will be treated using two models: the jellium model.1 to achieve the second quantized form of the corresponding Hamiltonian.Chapter 3 Phonons. These vibrations are well described by harmonic oscillators and therefore we can employ the results from Sec. The quantized vibrations are denoted phonons.1. speciﬁc heat.4. so we will therefore often need the thermal distribution function for bosons. The restoring force is the long range Coulomb interaction. elasticity. where the ions oscillate around their equilibrium positions forming a regular crystal lattice. 1. coupling to electrons In this chapter we study the basic properties of ionic vibrations.

t) = ρ0 + δρion (r) e−iΩt . This is explained in details in Secs. see Sec.1(a) by ion studying oscillations in the smeared out ion density while neglecting the electron dynamics. If we study the limit of small harmonic deviations from equilibrium δρion (r. Let ρ0 be the particle density of the ion jellium. Hence.4) These quantized ion oscillations are denoted phonons.2) In the second equation we have introduced the force density f . t) = δρion (r) e−iΩt . where vs is the sound velocity. instead of the Einstein dispersion ωq = Ω. 3. the second quantization formalism leads to the following phonon Hamiltonian: 2 ∂t δρion + 1 M ·f =0 ⇒ Ω2 δρion = Z 2 e2 ρ0 ion δρion ⇒ 0M Ω= Z 2 e2 ρ0 ion = 0M Hph = q Ω b† bq + q 1 .5). and ion ρel = Zρ0 that of the homogeneous electron gas. i. We begin as depicted in Fig.52 CHAPTER 3. the exact behavior is described by the Debye-model incorporating phonons with a photon-like dispersion ωq = vs q. PHONONS. we keep ρel ﬁxed. ∂t ρion + ·(ρion v) = 0. Note that the origin of the ionic plasma frequency is the long-range Coulomb interaction. which to ﬁrst order in δρion becomes f = Zeρion E ≈ Zeρ0 E.3) Ω is the ionic plasma frequency. COUPLING TO ELECTRONS 3.1b and in Sec. 3. 3. These Debye phonons are also denoted acoustical phonons due to their relation to sound propagation. (3. which entered the analysis through the Maxwell equation · E = Zeδρion / 0 . 3. . the Einstein phonons (also denoted optical phonons. To fully understand how the optical Einstein phonons get renormalized to become the acoustic Debye phonons requires the full machinery of quantum ﬁeld theory. 2 (3. which to ﬁrst order in δρion becomes ∂t δρion +ρ0 ·v = 0.e. ion (3. but we hint at the solution of the problem in Fig. Diﬀerentiating this with respect to time and using Newton’s second law f = M ρion ∂t v we obtain Ze2 ρel . ion since the velocity v is already a small quantity.2.1) A non-zero δρion corresponds to a charge density Ze δρion and hence is associated with an electric ﬁeld E obeying ·E= Ze 0 δρion ⇒ ·f = Z 2 e2 ρ0 ion 0 δρion .3 and 3. 3. This force equation is supplemented by the continuity ion equation. we obtain linear equations of motion with solutions of the form ρion (r.1 Jellium oscillations and Einstein phonons Our ﬁrst encounter with phonons will be those arising from a semiclassical treatment of the charge neutral jellium system. However. which all have the same frequency Ω. 3. and a model like this was proposed ion by Einstein in 1906 as the ﬁrst attempt to explain the decrease of heat capacity CV of solids as a function of decreasing temperature (see Sec.5. Although it is correct that CV decreases at low temperature.3) are not a ion very good description of solids. The ionic oscillations in the continuous jellium model are thus described by harmonic oscillators. 0M (3.

3. ELECTRON-PHONON INTERACTION AND THE SOUND VELOCITY 53 3. We begin by a simple one dimensional quantum mechanical model consisting of a 1D box of length L containing N ions of mass M each interacting with its two neighbors through a linear force ﬁeld (a spring) with the force constant K. Consequently one would expect the electrons to follow the motion of the ions adiabatically and thereby always maintaining local charge neutrality and thus lowering the high ionic plasma frequency Ω. uN +1 = u1 .2. more than a factor of 104 .4) is expressed by the Bohm-Staver formula. 3. while the ion momentum pj and the displacement uj are canonical variables: N Hph = j=1 1 2 1 p + K(uj − uj−1 )2 . 5 In a stationary state these two energy densities must be of the same order of magnitude. The equilibrium position 0 of the j’th ion is denoted Rj . we can nevertheless learn a lot from simply postulating the existence of a periodic ion lattice (as observed in nature). vs = Zm v .e. 2M j 2 [pj1 . while its displacement away from this position is denoted uj . uj2 ] = i δj1 . which is due to long-range charge Coulomb forces from the charge imbalance. Since the equilibrium system is periodic with the lattice spacing a it is natural .5) which for typical numbers yields vs 3000 m/s as found experimentally. which in a more detailed treatment (see Exercise 3. 3. so we have L = N a.3. The Hamiltonian is simply the sum of the kinetic energy of the ions and the potential energy of the springs. in which the ions can execute small oscillatory motion around their equilibrium positions. (3. This situation is depicted in Fig. and to illustrate its correctness we now use it to estimate the sound velocity in metals.j2 . 0 0 The lattice spacing is denoted a = Rj − Rj−1 . This setup is shown in Fig.2.1b. while 2 the potential energy density associated with the restoring force must be related to the density dependent energy content of the compressed electron gas. The surroundings somehow provide the restoring force. Surprisingly. an ordinary macroscopic phenomenon as sound propagation is deeply rooted in quantum physics. This gives an estimate for vs . of the order 3 ρel εF . the ions are much heavier. 2 The kinetic energy density associated with a sound wave is of the order 1 M vs ρion . i. Note how this estimate builds on classical considerations of the ionic motion while using the quantum result for the energy content of a degenerate electron gas. and much slower.6) As for the photon model and the jellium model we impose periodic boundary conditions. 3M F (3.2 Electron-phonon interaction and the sound velocity Compared to the light and very mobile valence electrons.3 Lattice vibrations and phonons in 1D Even though we are not yet able to demonstrate how to turn the optical ion plasma oscillations into acoustical phonons.

54 CHAPTER 3. while the displacements shown in the bottom row are denoted uj . Instead we combine uk and pk in the deﬁnition of the annihilation and This looks almost like the Hamiltonian for a set of harmonic oscillators except for some annoying details concerning k and −k. 0 δk. By Fourier transformation the N ion coordinates becomes N wave vectors in FBZ: FBZ = − π π π + ∆k. to solve the problem in k-space by performing a discrete Fourier transform. − + N ∆k .−k2 . a a a ∆k = 2π 2π 1 = .0 = j 1 N 1 N 1 pk ≡ √ N pj e−ikRj . (3. The equilibrium positions shown in the top row are 0 denoted Rj . the hermiticity of pj and the deﬁnition ¡ 34 ©¡© ¡ ©¡© eikRj . FBZ. (3. COUPLING TO ELECTRONS Figure 3. . uk2 ] = of the Fourier transform lead to p† = p−k . .9) tells us k that uk and p−k form a pair of conjugate variables. In fact. Although the commutator in Eq. In analogy with electrons moving in a periodic lattice. 0 1 uk ≡ √ N uj e−ikRj .9) .77) to form creation and annihilation operators. PHONONS. − + 2∆k.6) we ﬁnd H= k 1 1 2 p p + M ωk uk u−k . (3. (1. . pk in k-space is not self-adjoint. lattice constant a. M 2 [pk1 . in reciprocal space. (3.7) The Fourier transforms of the conjugate variables are: pj 1 ≡√ N pk eikRj . k∈FBZ N j=1 0 δR0 . L a N (3. (3. and a nearest neighbor linear force coupling of strength K. we will not use this pair in analogy with x and p in Eq. Note that while pj in real space is a nice Hermitian operator. also the present system of N ions forming a periodic lattice leads to a ﬁrst Brillouin zone.2: A 1D lattice of ions with mass M .0 = By straight forward insertion of Eq. The reason is that the Hamiltonian in the present case contains products like pk p−k and not p2 as in k the original case. k∈FBZ N j=1 0 uj 1 ≡√ N uk eikRj . 2M k −k 2 ωk = K ka 2 sin . . k∈FBZ N j=1 0 T UQV QV T RQV SRQV $ ¡$ ¡" " ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ CD 78 $ GH !" EF #¡ ¡ ¡#$ ¡!" ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ AB ¡ ¡ 9@ ¡ #¡# ¡! ! ¡ ¡ ¡ T PQU I S R PQ I PQ I ` T R PQ I `X`XY`X` ¡¨ ¨ ¦ ¡¦ ¤ ¡¤ ¡ 56 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡§¨ §¨ 12 ¦ )0 ¥¡ ¡¥¦ ¤ '( £¡ ¡£¤ ¡ ¢ ¢ %& ¡ WXWXYWXW ¡ ¡§ § ¥ ¡¥ W ¡£ £ e−ikRj .8) 0 i δk1 .8) into Eq.

11) This is ﬁnally the canonical form of a Hamiltonian describing a set of independent harmonic oscillators in second quantization. The sound K velocity is found to be vs = M a. (3.3(a) is broken into sections.3(a). Hence the original BZ is halved in size and the original dispersion curve Fig. These came about as a consequence of breaking the translational invariance of the system by introducing a periodic lattice. (3.9) that ωk −→ k→0 K M ak. Their dispersion relation is shown in Fig. and to the right the reduced zone scheme. creation operators bk and b† : −k bk ≡ b† −k ≡ p 1 uk √ +i k .3. 3. / k 2 k uk ≡ pk ≡ k√ 1 † (b + bk ). It is analogous to the Bloch bands for electrons. 2 [bk1 .3. Again by direct insertion it is readily veriﬁed that Hph = k −k ωk b† bk + k 1 .10) Note how both the oscillator frequency ωk = ω−k and the oscillator length k = depends on the wavenumber k. the concept of phonon branches must be introduced. so upon measuring the value of it. the force constant in the model. (b) As in (a) but now substituting every second ion of mass M1 with one of mass M2 (white disks) resulting in two ions per unit cell and a doubling of the lattice constant.k2 . If. k (3. but the same lattice constant as in (a). 2 −k k k = M ωk . Now we break the discrete translational invariance given by the lattice constant a.3: The phonon dispersion relation for three diﬀerent 1D lattices. 3. so our solution Eq. / k 2 k p 1 uk √ −i k . one can determine the value of the free parameter K. Instead the new lattice constant is 2a. The quantized oscillations are denoted phonons. as shown in Fig. LATTICE VIBRATIONS AND PHONONS IN 1D 55 Figure 3. b† 2 ] = δk1 . It is seen from Eq.3(b). In 0 ¡ ¡( ¡© ¡ © ¡ '& !%# 0 '& 0 ¡ )( ¡ '& ¡ # !$ 0 ¡ §¨¡§¨ ¥¦¡( ¥ ¡ ¡£ ¢ £¤ '& # !" . (a) A system with lattice constant a and one ion of mass M1 (black disks) per unit cell.11) does in fact bring about the acoustical phonons. To the left is shown the extended zone scheme. 2 −k i √ (b† − bk ). (c) As in (a) but now with the addition of mass M2 ions in between the mass M1 ions resulting in two ions per unit cell. (3. the unit cell is doubled to hold two ions. 3.

8). . b† 2 λ2 ] = δk1 . • and ◦. We treat the general case of any monatomic Bravais lattice. A branch index λ. and in the general case the Hamiltonian Eq. y. 3. The upper band never approaches zero energy. . α = x. per unit cell. The ionic equilibrium positions are denoted R0 and the displacements by u(R0 ) with components j j uα (R0 ). . e. so they are known as optical phonons. analogous to the band index n for Bloch electrons is introduced to label the diﬀerent branches. For acoustical phonons the size of the displacement of neighboring ions diﬀers only slightly and the sign of it is the same. The lower branch resembles the original dispersion so it corresponds to acoustic phonons. while in the optical case they oscillate π radians out of phase. 2 u =0 Note that nothing has been assumed about the range of the potential. k 3. 1 j N U ≈ U0 + 1 2 uα (R0 ) 1 R0 R0 1 2 αβ ∂uα (R0 ) 1 ∂2U ∂uβ (R0 ) 2 uβ (R0 ).k2 δλ1 .g. The origin of the energy diﬀerence between an acoustical and an optical phonon at the same wave length is sketched in Fig.12) (3. whereas for optical phonons the sign of the displacement alternates between the two types of ions. The starting point of the analysis is a second order Taylor expansion j in uα (R0 ) of the potential energy U [u(R0 ). In the acoustical case the two types of ions oscillate in phase. z.4 for the case of a two-ion unit cell. . PHONONS. (3. 2 [bk1 λ1 . 3.3(b) we of course ﬁnd two branches. in Eq. In fact they can be excited by light. (3. the reduced zone scheme in Fig.4 Acoustical and optical phonons in 3D The fundamental principles for constructing the second quantized phonon ﬁelds established for the 1D case carries over to the 3D case almost unchanged.11) is changed into Hph = kλ ωkλ b† bkλ + kλ 1 . The N appearing above. so we have Nion = pN . and one ﬁnds the appearance of 1 acoustic branch and (p-1) optical branches. The most notable diﬀerence is the appearance in 3D of polarization in analogy to what we have already seen for the photon ﬁeld. COUPLING TO ELECTRONS ¥ ¤ ¢ £ Figure 3. u(R0 )].13) . should be interpreted as the number of unit cells rather than the number of ions. It may very well go much beyond the nearest neighbor case studied in the 1D case.56 ¥ ¤ ¢ ¡ CHAPTER 3. The central object in ¦ ¦ (3.λ2 . since no states can be lost. The generalization to p ions per unit cell is straight forward. so to excite these phonons high energies are required.4: (a) An acoustical and (b) an optical phonon having the same wave length for a 1D system with two ions.

they are eigenvectors: D(k) 1 kλ = Kkλ kλ . u =0 Dαβ (k) = R Dαβ (R) e−ik·R . (3. λ = 1.1 . e j=1 −ik·R0 j Due to the lattice periodicity Dαβ (R0 − R0 ) depends only on the diﬀerence between any 1 2 two ion positions. . 2. k. (3. 2 Thus D(k) is real and symmetric. (3.14).16) Using these symmetries in connection with D(k) we obtain D(k) = R0 D(R0 ) e−ik·R = 1 2 D(R0 ) e R0 ik·R0 0 1 2 +e D(R0 ) e−ik·R + R0 −ik·R0 R0 0 D(−R0 ) eik·R D(R0 ) sin2 0 = − 2 = −2 R0 1 k·R0 (3.2 . because P P then 0 = R1 R2 d · D(R0 −R0 ) · d = N d · [ 0 D(R0 )] · d. R D(R0 ) = 0.0 j = 1 N eik·Rj . (3. j 0 δ R0 .15) . say d. kλ · kλ = δλ. that diagonalizes D(k). the so-called dynamical matrix D(k) with components Dαβ (k): Dαβ (R0 −R0 ) = 1 2 ∂2U ∂uα (R0 ) ∂uβ (R0 ) 1 2 .0 1 = N (3. k.e. The D-matrix has the following three symmetry properties1 D(R0 ) t 0 = D(R0 ).17) .λ .3. i.19) Since D(k) is a real symmetric matrix there exists for any value of k an orthonormal basis set of vectors { k. the so-called polarization vectors. The third follows from inversion symmetry 1 2 R always present in monatomic Bravais lattices. but arbitrary. and for an arbitrary function f (R0 ) we have j 1 f (R0 ) ≡ √ j N 1 f (k) = √ N f (k) eik·Rj . D(−R0 ) = D(R0 ). k∈FBZ N j=1 0 f (R0 ) e−ik·Rj . t) ∝ ei(k·R 0 −ωt) ⇒ M ω 2 = D(k) . ACOUSTICAL AND OPTICAL PHONONS IN 3D the theory is the force strength matrix ∂2U ∂uα ∂uβ 57 (generalizing K from the 1D case) and its Fourier transform. hence diagonalizable in an orthonormal basis. The classical equation of motions for the ions are simply M uα (R0 ) = − ¨ 1 ∂U ∂uα (R0 ) 1 ⇒ ¨ 1 −M u(R0 ) = R0 2 D(R0 −R0 ) u(R0 ). k∈FBZ N 0 δk.20) The ﬁrst follows from the interchangeability of the order of the diﬀerentiation in Eq. 2 1 2 (3. λ. (3.18) We seek simple harmonic solutions to the problem and ﬁnd u(R0 . 3.3 }.4.14) The discrete Fourier transform in 3D is a straight forward generalization of the one in 1D. The second follows from the fact that U = 0 if all the displacements are the same.

58

¢ ¡

**CHAPTER 3. PHONONS; COUPLING TO ELECTRONS
**

¥ ¤ ¢ £

Figure 3.5: (a) Three examples of polarization in phonon modes: transverse, longitudinal and general. (b) A generic phonon spectrum for a system with 3 ions in the unit cell. The 9 modes divides into 3 acoustical and 6 optical modes. We have now found the classical eigenmodes ukλ of the 3D lattice vibrations characterized by the wavevector k and the polarization vector kλ : M ω2 = Kkλ ⇒ ukλ (R0 , t) = ei(k·R

0 −ω kλ t)

kλ

kλ

kλ

,

ωkλ ≡

Kkλ . M

**Using as in Eq. (3.10) the now familiar second quantization procedure of harmonic oscillators we obtain ukλ ≡ Hph =
**

kλ kλ √

1 b† + bk,λ 2 −k,λ ωkλ b† bkλ + kλ

kλ ,

kλ

≡

M ωkλ

,

1 , 2

[bkλ , b† λ ] = δk,k δλ,λ . k

Now, what about acoustical and optical phonons in 3D? It is clear from Eq. (3.17) that D(k) ∝ k 2 for k → 0, so the same holds true for its eigenvalues Kkλ . The dispersion relation in Eq. (3.19) therefore becomes ωkλ = vλ (θk , φk ) k, which describes an acoustical phonon with a sound velocity vλ (θk , φk ) in general depending on both the direction of k and the polarization λ. As in 1D the number of ions in the unit cell can be augmented from 1 to p. In that case it can be shown that of the resulting 3p modes 3 are acoustical and 3(p−1) optical modes. The acoustical modes are appearing because it is always possible to construct modes where all the ions have been given nearly the same displacement resulting in an arbitrarily low energy cost associated with such a deformation of the lattice. In Fig. 3.5 is shown the phonon modes for a unit cell with three ions. A 3D lattice with N unit cells each containing p ions, each of which can oscillate in 3 directions, is described by 3pN modes. In terms of phonon modes we end up with 3p so-called phonon branches ωkλ , which for each branch index λ are deﬁned in N discrete points in k-space. Thus in 3D the index λ contains information on both which polarization and which of the acoustical or optical modes we are dealing with.

¦

(3.21)

(3.22) (3.23)

3.5. THE SPECIFIC HEAT OF SOLIDS IN THE DEBYE MODEL

59

3.5

The speciﬁc heat of solids in the Debye model

Debye’s phonon model is a simple model, which describes the temperature dependence of the heat capacitance CV = ∂E of solids exceedingly well, although it contains just one ∂T material dependent free parameter. The phonon spectrum Fig. 3.5(b) in the reduced zone scheme has 3p branches. In Fig. 3.6(a) is shown the acoustic and optical phonon branch in the extended zone scheme for a 1D chain with two ions per unit cell. Note how the optical branch appears as an extension of the acoustical branch. In d dimensions a reasonable average of the spectrum can be obtained by representing all the phonon branches in the reduced zone scheme with d acoustical branches in the extended zone scheme, each with a linear dispersion relation ωkλ = vλ k. Furthermore, since we will use the model to calculate the speciﬁc heat by averaging over all modes, we can even employ a suitable average vD out the polarization dependent velocities vλ and use the same linear dispersion relation for all acoustical branches, ωkλ ≡ vD k ⇒ ε = vD k. (3.24)

Even though we have deformed the phonon spectrum we may not change the number of phonon modes. In the 3D Debye model we have 3Nion modes, in the form of 3 acoustic branches each with Nion allowed wavevectors, where Nion is the number of ions in the lattice. Since we are using periodic boundary conditions the counting of the allowed phonon wavevectors is equivalent to that of Sec. 2.1.2 for plane wave electron states, i.e. Nion = [V/(2π)3 ]×[volume in k-space]. Since the Debye spectrum Eq. (3.24) is isotropic in k-space, the Debye phonon modes must occupy a sphere in this space, i.e. all modes with |k| < kD , where kD is denoted the Debye wave number determined by Nion = V 4 3 πk . (2π)3 3 D (3.25)

Inserting kD into Eq. (3.24) yields the characteristic Debye energy, ωD and hence the characteristic Debye temperature TD : ωD ≡ kB TD ≡ vD kD ⇒ 6π 2 Nion ( vD )3 = V (kB TD )3 . (3.26)

Continuing the analogy with the electron case the density of phonon states Dph (ε) is found by combining Eq. (3.24) and Eq. (3.25) and multiplying by 3 for the number of acoustic branches, Nion (ε) = V 1 ε3 2 ( v )3 6π D ⇒ Dph (ε) = 3 dNion (ε) V 1 = 2 ε2 , dε 2π ( vD )3 0 < ε < kB TD .

(3.27) The energy Eion (T ) of the vibrating lattice is now easily computed using the Bose-Einstein distribution function nB (ε) Eq. (1.127) for the bosonic phonons: Eion (T ) =

kB TD 0

dε εDph (ε)nB (ε) =

V 3 2 ( v )3 2π D

kB TD 0

dε

ε3 . eβε − 1

(3.28)

60

CHAPTER 3. PHONONS; COUPLING TO ELECTRONS

Figure 3.6: (a) The linear Debye approximation to the phonon spectrum with the Debye wave vector kD shown. (b) Comparison between experiment and the Debye model of heat capacitance applied for lead, silver, aluminum, and diamond.

ion It is now straight forward to obtain CV from Eq. (3.28) by diﬀerentiation: ion CV (T ) =

∂Eion T = 9Nion kB ∂T TD

3 0

TD /T

dx

x 4 ex , (ex − 1)2

(3.29)

where the integrand is rendered dimensionless by introducing TD from Eq. (3.26). Note that TD is the only free parameter in the Debye model of heat capacitance; vD dropped out of the calculation. Note also how the model reproduces the classical Dulong-Petit value in the high temperature limit, where all oscillators are thermally excited. In the low temperature limits the oscillators “freeze out” and the heat capacitance drops as T 3 ,

ion CV (T ) −→ T TD

T 12π 4 Nion kB 5 TD

3

,

ion CV (T ) −→ 3Nion kB . T TD

(3.30)

In Fig. 3.6(b) the Debye model is compared to experiment. A remarkable agreement is obtained over the wide temperature range from 10 K to 1000 K after ﬁtting TD for each of the widely diﬀerent materials lead, aluminum, silver and diamond. We end this section by a historical remark. The very ﬁrst published application of quantum theory to a condensed matter problem was in fact Einstein’s work from 1906, reproduced in Fig. 3.7(a), explaining the main features of Weber’s 1875 measurements on diamond. In analogy with Planck’s quantization of the oscillators related to the black body radiation, Einstein quantized the oscillators corresponding to the lattice vibrations, assuming that all oscillators had the same frequency ωE . So instead of Eq. (3.27), Einstein E employed the much simpler Dion (ε) = δ(ε − ωE ), which immediately leads to

ion,E CV (T ) = 3Nion kB

TE T

2

eTE /T , (eTE /T − 1)2

TE ≡ ωE /kB .

(3.31)

While this theory also gives the classical result 3Nion kB in the high temperature limit, ion it exaggerates the decrease of CV at low temperatures by predicting an exponential suppression. In Fig. 3.7(b) is shown a comparison of Debye’s and Einstein’s models. Nowadays, Einstein’s formula is still in use, since it provides a fairly accurate description of the optical phonons which in many cases have a reasonably ﬂat dispersion relation.

¥

( % ¤2 9@5A B BBB

¦§¨© ¡ B B BB B #&78 3 " 456 B B B B B B B B B B ( % ¥2 # )1 " B B B B B B B B ( ¡¤¥ B # )0 " B B B B B B B ( ¥ ' &% #$! " BB BB B B B B B B B BB

¤

¡

£ ¢

E CF IP I Q

HG Q IP

E CD R

3.6. ELECTRON-PHONON INTERACTION IN THE LATTICE MODEL

61

Figure 3.7: (a) The ﬁrst application of quantum theory to condensed matter physics. Einstein’s 1906 theory of heat capacitance of solids. The theory is compared to Weber’s 1875 measurements on diamond. (b) A comparison between Debye’s and Einstein’s model.

3.6

Electron-phonon interaction in the lattice model

In Chap. 2 we mentioned that in the lattice model the electron-ion interaction splits in two terms, one arising from the static lattice and the other from the ionic vibrations, Vel−ion = Vel−latt + Vel−ph . The former has already been dealt with in the HBloch , so in this section the task is to derive the explicit second quantized form of the latter. Regarding the basis states for the combined electron and phonon system we are now in the situation discussed in Sec. 1.4.5. We will simply use the product states given in Eq. (1.108). Our point of departure is the simple expression for the Coulomb energy of an electron density in the electric potential Vion (r − Rj ) of an ion placed at the position Rj ,

N

Vel−ion =

dr (−e)ρel (r)

j=1

Vion (r − Rj ).

As before the actual ion coordinates are given by Rj = R0 + uj , where R0 are the ionic j j equilibrium positions, i.e. the static periodic lattice, and where uj denotes the lattice vibrations. The respective contributions from these two sets of coordinates are separated by a Taylor expansion, Vion (r − Rj ) ≈ Vion (r − R0 ) − r Vion (r − R0 ) · uj , note the sign j j of the second term, and we obtain

N N

Vel−ion =

dr (−e)ρel (r)

j=1

Vion (r−R0 )− j

dr (−e)ρel (r)

j=1

0 r Vion (r−Rj )·uj .

The ﬁrst term is the one entering HBloch in Eq. (2.6), while the second is the electronphonon interaction, also sketched in Fig. 3.8, Vel−ph = dr ρel (r)

j

e uj ·

r Vion (r

− R0 ) . j

Vel−ph is readily deﬁned in real space, but a lot easier to use in k-space, so we will proceed

¦ ¥¢ £ ¤ § $ !" # §

(3.32) (3.33) (3.34)

§ § § ¨ © ¢ ¡

62

CHAPTER 3. PHONONS; COUPLING TO ELECTRONS

Figure 3.8: (a) Being in an eigenstate a Bloch electron moves through a perfect lattice without being scattered. (b) A displaced ion results in an electric dipole relative to the perfect background, and this can scatter Bloch electrons from |k, σ to |k , σ . by Fourier transforming it. Let us begin with the ionic part, the u · V -term. The Fourier transform of uj is given in Eq. (3.22), where we note that the phonon wavevector k is 1 restricted to the Brillouin zone k ∈ FBZ. Deﬁning Vion (r) = V p Vp eip·r , we see that r simply brings down a factor ip. To facilitate comparison to the phonon wavevector k we decompose p as in Eq. (2.10): p = q + G, where q ∈ FBZ and G ∈ RL. All in all we have

r Vion (r

− R0 ) = j uj =

1 V

i(q + G)Vq+G ei(q+G )·(r−Rj ) ,

q∈FBZ G ∈RL kλ √ bk,λ + b† −k,λ 2 kλ

1 √ N

j

k∈FBZ λ

**These expressions, together with e uj ·
**

j r Vel (r

**eik·Rj = N δk,0 , and multiplying by e, lead to
**

i(q+G )·r gq,G ,λ bq,λ + b† , −q,λ e q∈FBZ G ∈RL,λ

− R0 ) = j

1 V

**where we have introduced the phonon coupling strength gq,G ,λ given by gq,G ,λ = ie N (q + G)· 2M ωqλ
**

qλ

The ﬁnal result, Vel−ph , is now obtained by inserting the Fourier representation of the 1 electron density, ρel (r) = V kpσ e−ip·r c† k+pσ ckσ , derived in Eq. (1.96), together with Eq. (3.37) into Eq. (3.34), and utilizing dr eik·r = Vδk,0 : Vel−ph = 1 V

† gq,G ,λ c† k+q+G ,σ ckσ bq,λ + b−q,λ . kσ qλ G

The interpretation of this formula is quite simple. Under momentum conservation (but only up to an undetermined reciprocal lattice vector due to the periodicity of the lattice) and spin conservation the electrons can be scattered from any initial state |k, σ el to the ﬁnal state |k + q + G, σ el either by absorbing a phonon from the state |qλ ph or by emitting a phonon into the state | − qλ ph . A graphical representation of this fundamental process is shown in Fig. 3.9.

¡¤¢¡ £ §¨ © ¦ ¥ © ¨ § ¦

0

¡ ¢ ¥ ¡¨ © § ¡ ¦

(3.35) (3.36)

eik·Rj .

0

(3.37)

Vq+G .

(3.38)

(3.39)

3.7. ELECTRON-PHONON INTERACTION IN THE JELLIUM MODEL

63

Figure 3.9: A graphical representation of the fundamental electron-phonon coupling. The electron states are represented by the straight lines, the phonon states by curly spring-like lines, and the coupling strength by a dot. To the left the electron is scattered by absorbing a phonon, to the right by emitting a phonon. The normal processes, i.e. processes where per deﬁnition G = 0, often tend to dominate over the so-called umklapp processes, where G = 0, so in the following we shall completely neglect the latter.2 Moreover, we shall treat only isotropic media, where qλ is either parallel to or perpendicular to q, i.e. q· qλ in gq,G =0,λ is only non-zero for longitudinally polarized phonons. So in the Isotropic case for Normal phonon processes we have

IN Vel−ph =

1 V

**† gq,λ c† k+q,σ ckσ bq,λ + b−q,λ . kσ qλl
**

l l l

Finally, the most signiﬁcant physics of the electron-phonon coupling can often be extracted from considering just the acoustical modes. Due to their low energies they are excited signiﬁcantly more than the high energy optical phonons at temperatures lower than the Debye temperature. Thus in the Isotropic case for Normal Acoustical phonon processes only the longitudinal acoustical branch enters and we have

INA Vel−ph =

1 V

† gq c† k+q,σ ckσ bq + b−q . kσ q

1 If we for ions with charge +Ze approximate Vq by a Yukawa potential, Vq = Ze q2 +k2 (see s 0 Exercise 1.5), the explicit form of the coupling constant gq is particularly simple:

gq = i

Ze2

0

q2

q 2 + ks

N . 2M ωq

3.7

Electron-phonon interaction in the jellium model

Finally, we return to the case of Einstein phonons in the jellium model treated in Sec. 3.1. The electron-phonon interaction in this case is derived in analogy with the that of normal

There are mainly two reasons why the umklapp processes often can be neglected: (1) Vq+G is small due to the 1/(q + G )2 dependence, and (2) At low temperatures the phase space available for umklapp processes is small.

2

¤ ¢ © ! ¢ © § ¦ ¤¥ £ § ¨ ¡ ¥¦ ¤ £ ¢ ¡

(3.40) (3.41) (3.42)

¤ ¢ ©

¢ © § ¦ ¤¥ £ § ¨ ¡ ¥¦ ¤ £ ¢ ¡

64

CHAPTER 3. PHONONS; COUPLING TO ELECTRONS

lattice phonons in the isotropic case, Eq. (3.41). If we as in Sec. 3.1 neglect the weak dispersion of the Einstein phonons and simply assume that they all vibrate with the ion plasma frequency Ω of Eq. (3.3), the result for N vibrating ions in the volume V is

jel Vel−ph =

1 V

† jel gq c† k+q,σ ckσ bq + b−q , kσ q

(3.43)

with

jel gq = i

Ze2 1 0 q

N . 2M Ω

(3.44)

3.8

Summary and outlook

In this chapter we have derived the second quantized form of the Hamiltonian of the isolated phonon system and the electron-phonon coupling. The solution of the phonon problem actually constitutes our ﬁrst solution of a real interacting many-particle system, each ion is coupled to its neighbors. Also the treatment of the electron-phonon coupling marks an important step forward: here we dealt for the ﬁrst time with the coupling between to diﬀerent kinds of particles, electrons and phonons. The electron-phonon coupling is a very important mechanism in condensed matter systems. It is the cause of a large part of electrical resistivity in metals and semiconductors, and it also plays a major role in studies of heat transport. In Exercise 3.1 and Exercise 3.2 give a ﬁrst hint at how the electron-phonon coupling leads to a scattering or relaxation time for electrons. We shall return to the electron-phonon coupling in Chap. 16, and there see the ﬁrst hint of the remarkable interplay between electrons and phonons that lies at the heart of the understanding of conventional superconductivity. The very successful microscopic theory of superconductivity, the so-called BCS theory, is based on the electron-phonon scattering, even the simple form given in Eqs. (3.41) and (3.42) suﬃces to cause superconductivity.

This approximation scheme is called “mean ﬁeld theory”. Upon performing the mean ﬁeld approximation we can neglect the detailed dynamics and the time-independent second quantization method described in Chap. 65 £ ¤£ £ £ £ £ ££ £ £ ¢ ¡ . leaving an eﬀective single particle problem. There we expect the probability to ﬁnd two electrons in close proximity to be small due to the strong repulsive interaction. Nevertheless. or in other words the particles motions become correlated.1. gives a good physical model. Consequently. the electron gas. This is clearly the case for a system of charged particles interacting by Coulomb forces. There exist numerous examples of the success of the mean ﬁeld method and its ability Figure 4. The mean ﬁelds are chosen as those which minimize the free energy. which in turn ensure that the method is consistent.Chapter 4 Mean ﬁeld theory The physics of interacting particles is often very complicated because the motions of the individual particles depend on the position of all the others. in spite of this complicated problem there are a number of cases where a more crude treatment. and one talks about a “correlation hole”. such as e. not fully including the correlations. Left box shows the real physical system where the interaction leads to correlation between the particle motions. 1 suﬃces. as we shall see shortly.1: Illustration of the mean ﬁeld idea. This idea is illustrated in Fig. which means that the eﬀect of the other particles is included as a mean density (or mean ﬁeld). To the right are the interactions felt by the black particle replaced by an average interaction due to the average density of the white particles. 4. which is soluble.g. In these cases it suﬃces to include correlations “on the average”. due to these correlation eﬀects there is a suppressed density in the neighborhood of every electron.

1a) (4.µµ Vνµ. In terms of the new basis P † the Hamiltonian then becomes H = i αi i αi . First we consider a system with two kinds of particles.66 CHAPTER 4.ν µ a† b† bµ aν . It is then ν µ ν µ natural to use this deviation as a small parameter and perform an expansion.1a). (4. MEAN FIELD THEORY to explain various physical phenomena.µµ Vνµ.ν µ a† aν b† bµ + b† bµ a† aν ν µ µ ν − νν . (4. (4.ν µ dνν eµµ . H0 = ν a ξν a† aν + ν µ b ξµ b† bµ . but before going to speciﬁc examples let us discuss the mathematical structure of the mean ﬁeld theory.1b) (4. ν µ Now suppose that we expect. which gives neglected in mean ﬁeld (4. such that h is diagonal.µµ Vνµ. The Hamiltonian is H = H0 + Vint . described by operators aν and bµ .2b) b† bµ µ − b† bµ µ . with i P † U being a unitary matrix. and thus the original many-body problem has been reduced to a single-particle problem.5) The mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian HMF contains only single-particle operators.3) where VMF = νν .3) is neglected. (4.4) µ Because dνν and eµµ are assumed to be small the second term in Eq. which in principle is always soluble.1 To see that a single-particle problem or a quadratic Hamiltonian can always be diagonalized. and { i } are thus the eigenvalues of h. In this chapter.ν µ a† aν ν b† bµ .1c) Vint = νν .2a) (4. respectively. and the interaction Vint is approximated by the mean ﬁeld interaction VMF resulting in the so-called mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian HMF given by HMF = H0 + VMF . Let us assume that only interactions between diﬀerent kind of particles are important.µµ Vνµ. that the density operators a† aν and b† bµ deviate only little from their average values. write H P P as H = ij a† hij aj . 1 . µ (4. H = H0 + VMF + νν . Now since h is a hermitian matrix there exists a transformation. In order to do so we deﬁne the deviation operators dνν = a† aν − a† aν . based on physical arguments. ν ν eµµ = and insert them into (4. αi = j Uij aj . kk Uik hkk Uk j = δij i . a† aν and b† bµ . we shall discuss a few examples from condensed matter physics .

9) where ZMF is the mean ﬁeld partition function given by ZMF = Tr e−βHMF . This means for na (and similarly for nb ) that ¯ ¯ na ≡ a† aν ¯ νν ν MF = 1 ZMF Tr e−βHMF a† aν ν . (4.9). There are two µ ν possible routes which in fact are equivalent. Method 1: The average is to be determined self-consistently. (4. i.5. (4. the same answer should come out. (4.9) and the similar one for nb are called the self-consistency equations (because na ¯ ¯ b are given in terms of H a and nb ).67 Looking at Eq.4) we can formulate the mean ﬁeld procedure in a diﬀerent way: If we have an interaction term involving two operators A and B given by a product of the two HAB = AB.10) Eq. Using the expression for the free energy given in Sec. . we get 0= d d 1 FMF = − ln ZMF d¯ a nνν d¯ a nνν β 1 d = Tr e−βHMF a HMF ZMF d¯ νν n 1 Tr e−βHMF Vνµ. which themselves depend on n Next we turn to the alternative route. (4.6) then the mean ﬁeld approximation is given by A coupled to the mean ﬁeld of B plus B coupled to the mean ﬁeld of A and ﬁnally to avoid double counting subtracted by the MF product of the mean ﬁelds (such that HAB = A B ): MF HAB = A B + A B − A B . ¯ νν ν nb ¯ µµ ≡ b† bµ µ .11) This should hold for any pair (ν. 1.8a) (4. (4. ν ) and hence the last parenthesis has to vanish and we arrive at the self-consistency equation for nb .8b) using the new mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian.ν µ b† bµ µ MF − nb ¯ µµ . (4. Thus the two methods are equivalent. when calculating the averages na ≡ a† aν . Method 2: Use the nνν that minimizes the free energy FMF of the mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian. (4. (4. Similarly by minimizing with respect to nb ¯ ¯ we get Eq.ν µ b† bµ − nb = ¯ µµ µ ZMF µµ = µµ Vνµ.e. and n ¯ ¯ ¯ MF and ZMF .7) The question is however how to ﬁnd the averages a† aν and b† bµ .

.µµ Vνµ. one must provide some physical insight to reduce the number of mean ﬁeld parameters. the average factorizes exactly as in Eq. (4. it is out of the question. 4. Therefore. Suppose we have N diﬀerent quantum numbers. which of course is only tractable for small systems.12). That is. To see this let us evaluate Vint using the mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian Tr e−βHMF Vint . Often symmetry arguments can help reducing the number of parameters. HMF = HMF + HMF .1 The art of mean ﬁeld theory In practice one has to assume something about the averages a† aν and b† bµ because ν µ even though (4.ν µ a† aν ν MF b† bµ µ MF . Suppose for example that the Hamiltonian that we are interested in has translational symmetry. but for a condensed matter system. MEAN FIELD THEORY We can gain some more understanding of the physical content of the mean ﬁeld approximation if we look at average interaction energy Vint . µ (4. we then have c† ck = k 1 V dr dr e−ik ·r eik·r Ψ† (r)Ψ(r ) . Here “less important” should be quantiﬁed by checking the validity of the mean ﬁeld approximation. and we get Vint MF = 1 Vint MF = νν .15) 2 Remember from usual statistics that the correlation function between two stochastic quantities X and Y is deﬁned by XY − X Y . (4. (4. one should check that d indeed is small by calculating d . A natural approximation would be to evaluate the expectation value of a and b operator separately.13) ZMF Because the mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian can be separated into a part containing only aa b operators and a part containing only b-operators.14) The mean ﬁeld approach hence provides a consistent and physically sensible method to study interacting systems where correlations are less important. which gives N 2 coupled non-linear equations. (4. If it is not small.µ ν a† aν ν b† bµ .3) as a perturbation. Vint ≈ νν . using the neglected term in (4.68 CHAPTER 4. one has ν either chosen the wrong mean ﬁeld parameter. there are simply too many possible combinations.9) gives a recipe on how to ﬁnd which averages are important. This is in essence the approximation done in the mean ﬁeld approach.12) which is equivalent to assuming that the a and b particles are uncorrelated2 . such that momentum space is a natural choice. For a system of particles described by operators c and c† . With modern computers one can treat hundreds of particles in this way. then there are in principle N 2 diﬀerent combinations. or the method simply fails and other tools more adequate to deal with the problem at hand must be applied. and then compare the result to a† aν .µµ Vνµ.

For example if the system spontaneously orders into a state with a spatial density variation. The kind of crystal structure of course exists in Nature and when it happens we talk about phenomena with broken symmetry. 4. For interactions between identical particles this.2. does not exhaust the possibilities and only includes the so-called Hartree term and now we discuss the more general approximation scheme.18c) ξν c† cν . namely that Ψ† (r)Ψ(r ) = h(r. ν 1 2 Vνµ.17) leading to the possibility of c† ck+Q being k ﬁnite. r + R) (4. (4.2 Hartree–Fock approximation Above we discussed the mean ﬁeld theory for interactions between diﬀerent particles. like a wave formation then the average Ψ† (r)Ψ(r ) is not function of the r − r only.16) from line one.17) with R being a lattice vector.4. called the Hartree–Fock approximation. Instead it has a lower and more restricted symmetry. (4. Here we go on to formulate the method for like particles.µµ Vint = The basic idea behind the mean ﬁeld theory was that the operator ρµµ = c† cµ . r ) = h(r + R. µ (4. Thus the choice of the proper mean ﬁeld parameters requires physical motivation about which possible states one expects. It is important to realize that this solution cannot be found if we assumed Eq.20) .ν µ c† c† cµ cν . k 69 (4. where R · Q = 2π. Instead we should have started by assuming Eq. Suppose we have a system of interacting particles described by the Hamiltonian H = H0 + Vint .18a) (4. H0 = ν (4. ν µ (4.16) This assumption about homogeneity is however not always true. We therefore use the same strategy as in the introduction and write the four operators in the interaction term in terms of a deviation from the average value c† c† cµ − c† cµ ν µ µ cν + c† cν c† cµ .k . r ). For most of the combinations νν the average ρνν is zero. h(r.19) is large only when the average ρµµ is non-zero.1a) we use the approximation to replace a† aν and b† bµ by their average values plus small ν µ corrections. (4. ν µ νν .18b) (4. HARTREE–FOCK APPROXIMATION It is natural to assume that the system is homogeneous. For the interaction term in Eq. which means Ψ† (r)Ψ(r ) = f (r − r ) ⇒ c† ck = nk δk. however. because in some cases the symmetry of the system is lower than that of the Hamiltonian.

(4. which is proportional to the deviation squared. this is not the full result because here the operators labelled by µ and ν represent identical.25b) The second term is the interaction with the average electron charge. This is true except in a set of measure zero. With this assumption we again write c† cν as ν its average value plus a deviation. which means that the expectation value c† ck is diagonal.70 CHAPTER 4. and these assumptions must be based on physical knowledge or clever guess-work. We can now read oﬀ the k corresponding Hartree–Fock Hamiltonian. ν ) and (µ. (1. As explained in Chap. However. This new term appears because the product of four operators in Eq.ν µ nνµ nµν .1 from Eq.23) ¯ ¯ The ﬁnal mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian within the Hartree–Fock approximation is Fock Hartree H HF = H0 + Vint + Vint (4. To derive the mean ﬁeld contribution from this possibility we thus ν have to ﬁrst replace c† cµ by its average value and following the principle in Eq.25b) we assumed for example that the spin .22) ¯ ¯ This is the same result we would get if we considered the operators with (ν. The third term is the exchange correction.104). kσ (4. The mean ﬁeld result for the Fock term thus µ becomes Fock Vint = − 1 2 Vνµ.ν µ nνν nµµ . Again we emphasize that the Hartree–Fock approximation depends crucially on what averages we assume to be ﬁnite. (4. The result is H HF = kσ HF ξk = ξk + kσ HF ξk c† ckσ . MEAN FIELD THEORY If the quantum number ν is diﬀerent from µ we can commute cν with the parenthesis. V (k − k )nk σ . (4.18c) also gives a large contribution when c† cµ is ﬁnite. In deriving Eq.ν µ nνν c† cµ − ¯ µ 1 2 Vνµ.24) Consider now the example of a homogeneous electron gas which is translation invariant.21) ν If we neglect the ﬁrst term. µ ) to be diﬀerent kinds of particles and used the formula from the previous section. indistinguishable particles and there is therefore one combination we is missed be the Hartree approximation. which gives c† cν − c† cν ν ν c† cµ − c† cµ µ µ + c† cν c† cµ + c† cµ c† cν − c† cµ ν µ µ ν µ c† cν .25a) V (0) − δσσ V (k − k ) nk σ . (4. see Exercise 4.ν µ nµν c† cµ + ¯ ν 1 2 Vνµ. (4.7) ν do the same with the combination c† cν .ν µ nµµ c† cν + ¯ ν 1 2 Vνµ. kσ = ξk + V (0)N − (4. 2 in condensed matter systems it is normally cancelled out by an equally large term due to the positively charged ionic background. namely the so-called exchange or Fock term. (4. we have arrived at the Hartree approximation for interactions Hartree Vint = 1 2 Vνµ.ν µ nνµ c† cν − ¯ µ 1 2 Vνµ.

For a given Hamiltonian with some symmetry (e. rotation operator in real space or spin space). BROKEN SYMMETRY 71 Figure 4. translational symmetry. and the system is in a state of large symmetry. A density wave.27) . The total momentum operator is thus a conserved quantity and it is given by P= kσ k c† ckσ . Even though the total potential is still symmetric the system will reside only in one well due to the macroscopically large energy barrier and thus the state of the system has “lower symmetry” than the potential.26) (4. It can be written as T = exp(iR · P). which means that the translational operator T (R) commutes with Hamiltonian. means that the Fourier transform of the density operator ρ(Q) = kσ c† ck+Qσ . Consider for example the case of a liquid of particles where the Hamiltonian of course has translational symmetry. kσ ¡ (4.2.2: The energetics of a phase transition.3. translation operator. symmetry is also maintained. which indeed happens in some cases. kσ We can now choose an orthogonal basis of states with deﬁnite total momentum. Below the critical point a two well potential develops and the system has to choose one of the two possibilities. |P . T (R)] = 0. 4. This is discussed in Sec. [H.4. Here T (R) is an operator which displaces all particle coordinates by the amount R. Since the operator and the Hamiltonian commute according to the theory of Hermitian operators a common set of eigenstates exists. If we allow them k↓ k↑ to be diﬀerent we have the possibility of obtaining a ferromagnetic solution.3 Broken symmetry Mean ﬁeld theory is often used to study phase transitions and thus changes of symmetry. 4. This fact we can use to “prove” the unphysical result that a density wave can never exist. with wave vector Q. where P is the total momentum operator. Above the critical point the eﬀective potential has a well-deﬁned minimum at the symmetry point.g. rotational symmetry in real space or in spin space) there exists an operator which reﬂects this symmetry and therefore commutes with the Hamiltonian (e.4. which implies that c† ck↓ = c† ck↑ .g.

and other well-known physical phenomena cannot happen. In order to arrive at the new phase in a calculation and to avoid the paradox in Eq. In the same way. one has to built in the possibility of the new phase into the theory. In the mean ﬁeld approach the trick is to include the order parameter in the choice of ﬁnite mean ﬁelds and. superconductivity. of course. MEAN FIELD THEORY Order parameter physical density wave magnetization population of k = 0 state pair condensate Order parameter mathematical k c† ck+Q k c† ck↑ − c† ck↓ k↑ k↓ a† k=0 ck↑ c−k↓ k Table 4. When at some critical temperature the thermodynamical state of the system develops a non-zero expectation value of some macroscopic quantity which has a symmetry lower than the original Hamiltonian it is called spontaneous breaking of symmetry. Even though crystals with diﬀerent spatial reference points (or ferromagnets with magnetization in diﬀerent directions) have formally the same energy.1: Typical examples of spontaneous symmetry breakings and their corresponding order parameters. 4. it does not make sense to include them on equal footing in the statistical average as in Eq. (4. . but c† ck+Qσ = kσ 1 Z e−βEP P c† ck+Qσ P = 0. We are therefore forced to refrain from the fundamental ergodicity postulate of statistical mechanics. This is often illustrated by the double barrier model of phase transitions shown in Fig. and built into the description that the phase space of the system falls into physically separated sections. Next we study in some detail examples of symmetry breaking phenomena and their corresponding order parameters. has a ﬁnite expectation value. We have therek fore reached the senseless result that crystals do not exist.28) because c† ck+Q |P has momentum P − Q and is thus orthogonal to |P . What is wrong? The proof above breaks down if the sum of states in the thermodynamical average is restricted.28). we could “prove” that magnetism.1. Typical examples are listed in Table 4. In those cases where many states of the system are degenerate but separated by large energy barriers. kσ P (4.72 Phenomena crystal ferromagnet Bose-Einstein condensate superconductor CHAPTER 4. they are eﬀectively decoupled due to the large energy barrier it takes to melt and then recrystallize into a new state with a shifted reference (or direction of magnetization).5.2. 1. (4. also discussed in Sec.28) because they correspond to macroscopically totally diﬀerent conﬁgurations. The quantity which signals that a phase transition has occurred is called the order parameter. show that the resulting mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian leads to a self-consistent ﬁnite result.

As the model Hamiltonian stands. the spins of the individual ions being strongly correlated. It reads H = −2 ij Jij Si · Sj . & % $0 % & () '¡"&% $ # ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ "! £ ¡ ¡¡ £ £¡ £ £ £¡£¡£ £ ¥ §¥ ¢¡ ¤ ¥ ¨ ¦ ¢ ¡ ¥ £ © © © ¢ ¡ ¥© §¥ (4. the spins form a collective state with a ﬁnite macroscopic moment along one direction.4. FERROMAGNETISM 73 Figure 4. while the latter to the ferromagnetic case. the spins tend to become antiparallel whereas for J > 0.4.31) . 4. it is immensely complicated and cannot be solved in general.30) We immediately see that if J < 0. as in Fig. although simple looking. shown in the middle.4 4.4.3: The left ﬁgure shows the Heisenberg model in the disordered state where there is no preferred direction for spins. However. It depends only on the distance between the ions. known as the Heisenberg model for interaction between spins in a crystal.3. where Si is the spin operator for the ion on site i and Jij is the strength of the interaction. The interaction is generally short ranged and we truncate it so that it. 0 otherwise. 4. is only non-zero for nearest neighbors Jij = J0 if i and j are neighbors. it is energetically favorable to for the spins to be parallel.1 Ferromagnetism The Heisenberg model of ionic ferromagnets In ionic magnetic crystals the interaction between the magnetic ions is due to the exchange interactions originating from the Coulomb interactions. Here we consider only the ferromagnetic case. The mean ﬁeld decomposition then gives H ≈ HMF = −2 ij Jij Si · Sj − 2 ij Jij Si · Sj + 2 ij 3 The term “eﬀective Hamiltonian” has a well-deﬁned meaning. The ﬁrst case corresponds to the antiferromagnetic case. between the magnetic moment of the ions on sites i and j. Here we will not go into the details of this interaction but simply give the eﬀective Hamiltonian3 . it is a good example where a mean ﬁeld solution gives an easy and also physical correct answer. The model discussed here includes interactions between adjacent spins only. as shown in the right panel. J > 0. It means the Hamiltonian describing the important degrees of freedom on the relevant low energy scale.29) Jij Si · Sj . (4. (4. while in the ferromagnetic state.

74 CHAPTER 4. 3 (4. Furthermore. Suppose for simplicity that the ions have spin S = 2 .4 So we assume a ﬁnite but spatial independent average spin polarization. 1 α ≈ bα − (bα)3 . From symmetry arguments we would then expect that the expectation value of this is zero. The mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian HMF = −2 i m · Si + mN Sz . nJ0 b = nJ0 β.37) that there is no solution for b < 1. But since this is not the right answer we have to assume that the symmetry is broken. because of the translational symmetry we expect it to be independent of position coordinate i. (4. Here N is the number of sites and 1 m = |m|. For a square lattice it is n = 2d. 2 The self-consistency equation is found by minimizing the free energy ∂FMF 1 ∂ =− ln ZMF = −N ∂m β ∂m eβm − e−βm eβm + e−βm +N m = 0.35) with one term for each possible spin projection. 4 . we would have to assume that also this symmetry was broken. i. nJ0 which has a solution given by the transcendental equation α = tanh (bα) .32) and the magnetic moment m (which by assumption is equal for all sites) felt by each spin thus becomes m=2 Jij Sz ez = 2nJ0 Sz ez .34) is now diagonal in the site index and hence easily solved. (4. (4. (4. If we choose the z axis along the direction of the magnetization our mean ﬁeld assumption is Si = Sz ez . Sz = ± 1 . With this simpliﬁcation the mean ﬁeld partition function is ZMF = eβm + e−βm N eβN m Sz = eβm + e−βm eβm 2 /2nJ 0 N .e. α= m . where d is the dimension. (4. and thus we can determine the critical temperature Tc where the magnetism disappears.36) It is evident from an expansion for small α. by the condition bc = 1 and hence kB Tc = nJ0 . allow for Si to be non-zero. because all directions are equivalent. MEAN FIELD THEORY Here Si is the average spin at site i. But had we reasons to believe that an antiferromagnetic solution (where the spins point in opposite direction on even and odd sites) was relevant (if Jij < 0).33) j where n is the number of neighbors.

4. Furthermore. (4. (4. Hhub = kσ ξk c† ckσ + kσ U 2V † c† k+qσ ck −qσ ck σ ckσ . For b > 1 a solution exists.σσ We now use the Hartree–Fock approximation scheme on this model but search for a ferromagnetic solution by allowing for the expectation values to depend on the direction of 3(b − 1)/b ⇒ (4. Tc = nJ0 . For the functional form of the magnetization in the entire range of temperature one must solve Eq. The solution is shown in Fig.g. The interaction between two particles in those orbitals is stronger than between electrons occupying the more spread out s or p orbitals and hence give a larger correlation between electrons. At temperatures larger than the critical temperature. in transition metals where the conduction bands are formed by the narrower d or f orbitals. 4. for small α we ﬁnd the solution for the magnetization.4. which of course is a simple task. Typical metals where correlations between conduction band electrons are important are Fe and Ni. α ≈ T −T 3 CC . FERROMAGNETISM 75 Figure 4. corresponding to b = nJ0 /T < 1 there is no solution and hence no ferromagnetic moment.4.4: Left two panels show the graphical solution of the mean ﬁeld equation for the Heisenberg model.36) numerically.38) ¦ ¥¡ ¤ ¢£ ¡ ©¡ § ¨ ¦ ¥¡ ¤ ¢£ ¡ .4. Eq.4. the so-called Hubbard model. At T = 0 where t = ∞ the solution is α = 1 and hence m ≈ nJ0 m = nJ0 . k kq. This is simply because the spins are not localized. T 1 b valid close to Tc . Metallic magnetism happens e. where this physical fact is reﬂected in a simple but extreme manner: the Coulomb interaction between electrons is taken to be point-like in real space and hence constant in momentum space.36) . The resulting temperature dependence of the magnetization is shown to the right.2 The Stoner model of metallic ferromagnets In magnets where the electrons both generate the magnetic moments and also form conduction bands the Heisenberg model cannot explain the magnetism. Since the short range of the interaction is important it is relevant to study a model.

76 the spin. (4. and of course a similar equation for spin down. kσ k (4. γ= .42) The full mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian is now given by HMF = kσ MF ξkσ c† ckσ − kσ UV 2 nσ nσ + ¯ ¯ σσ UV 2 n2 . ¯σ σ (4. ¯ ¯ ¯ (4. ¯ ¯ ¯¯ The mean ﬁeld solution is found by minimization.46) ζ= n↑ − n↓ ¯ ¯ n ¯ . ¯ k↓ (4.45) ~ = µ.47) .43a) (4. (6π)2/3 n↑ ¯ + U n↓ = µ.40) 1 The factor 2 disappeared because there are two terms as in Eqs.39) we obtain MF Vint = U kσσ c† ckσ [¯ σ − nσ δσσ ] − U V n ¯ kσ σσ nσ nσ + U V ¯ ¯ σ n2 . ¯σ (4. which gives the self-consistency equations 1 1 MF nσ = ¯ c† ckσ M F = nF (ξkσ ). Using our mean ﬁeld assumptions Eq.44) kσ V V k k We obtain at zero temperature n↑ = ¯ where are 2 2 ¯ 2m kF ↑ +U n↓ 2 k2 dk θ µ− − U n↓ ¯ (2π)3 2m = 1 3 k .41) where the spin densities have been deﬁned as nσ = ¯ 1 V c† ckσ . (4. (4.23).39) and the mean ﬁeld interaction Hamiltonian becomes MF Vint = U V † c† k+qσ ck −qσ ck σ ckσ − k kqσσ U V † c† k+qσ ck σ ck −qσ ckσ k kqσσ U − 2V † † c† k+qσ ckσ ck −qσ ck σ − ck+qσ ck σ k kqσσ c† −qσ ckσ k . ¯ k↑ CHAPTER 4.22) and (4. n = n↑ + n↓ . (4. The two equations 2/3 2 2 2m Deﬁne the variables. MEAN FIELD THEORY c† ck ↓ = δkk nk↓ . ¯ (4. 6π 2 F ↑ (4. ¯ 2m 2mU n1/3 (3π 2 )2/3 2 (6π)2/3 n↓ ¯ 2/3 + U n↑ = µ. The mean ﬁeld parameters are c† ck ↑ = δkk nk↑ .43b) M ξkσF = ξk + U (n↑ + n↓ − nσ ) = ξk + U nσ .

(4. if the interaction is short-range. This 765 &' % ! # 2 )§ ¨)1 § 0 4 3 8 9 ¥¤¢£ ¡ 76 5 ' & % $! "! # 2 )§ ¨)1 § 0 ) ¨ ( 8 9 ¥¤¢£ ¡ 76 5 8 ¨© § ¦ 9 ¥¤¢£ ¡ .4. One can understand this simply from the Pauli principle which ensures that electrons with the same spin never occupy the same spatial orbital and therefore. The possibility for a magnetic solution can be traced back to the spin-dependent energies Eq. which on the other hand for a ﬁxed density costs kinetic energy. This expression has three types of solutions: γ< 4 3 4 3 : Isotropic solution: ζ = 0 Normal state (4. This leaves interactions between opposite spin as the only possibility. the stronger the interaction the larger the polarization.5: The three possible solutions of the Stoner model. 4. This resulted from two things: the short rang interaction and the exchange term. where it is clear that the mean ﬁeld energy of a given spin direction depends on the occupation of the opposite spin direction. FERROMAGNETISM 77 Figure 4.43a). The Stoner model gives a reasonable account of metallic magnets and it is also capable of qualitatively explaining the properties of excitations in the spin polarized states.4. Then by subtracting the self-consistency conditions (4. The polarization is thus a function of the interaction strength. whereas the energy does not depend on the occupation of the same spin direction. we get n↑ ¯ 2/3 − n↓ ¯ 2/3 = 2mU 2 (6π)−2/3 n↑ − n↓ . Thus the interaction energy is lowered by having a polarized ground state.46).48) γζ = (1 + ζ)2/3 − (1 − ζ)2/3 . The Stoner model provides a clear physical picture for how the exchange interactions induce a ferromagnetic phase transition in a metal with strong on-site interactions.49) < γ < 22/3 : Partial polarization: 0 < ζ < 1 Weak ferromagnet γ> 22/3 : Full polarization ζ = 1 Strong ferromagnet The diﬀerent solutions are sketched in Fig. (4. The competition between the potential and the kinetic energy contributions is what gives rise to the phase transition. they cannot interact.5.

which result from the appearance of a gap in the excitation spectrum.2. In the same way the phase rotation also changes the superconducting order parameter.g. Schematically the analogies between superconductors and ferromagnets are as shown in Table 4. which means that we can give all electrons the same extra constant phase and still leave the Hamiltonian invariant. MEAN FIELD THEORY is however outside the scope of this section and the interested reader should consult for example the book by Yosida. to explain the stability of nuclei with an even number of nucleons and also in the standard model of high-energy physics. is that all spins can be rotated by some angle without changing the Hamiltonian. 4. but it is also clear that a constant phase cannot have any measurable eﬀect because all expectation values are given by the absolute square . Of course. Both the new type of phase and the appearance of an excitation gap are explained by the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieﬀer (BCS) theory from 1957. The order parameter for the superconductor thus involves an expectation value of two annihilation operators. because it will change the direction of the magnetization.g. which in its spirit is very much like the Hartree–Fock theory presented above. the relevant symmetry is the global gauge symmetry. distinct single particle properties. While it is clear why the ﬁnite expectation S gives a magnetization in the case of a ferromagnet. it is not so clear why broken symmetry in the superconducting case leads to a system without resistance. It is a mean ﬁeld theory but with a quite unusual mean ﬁeld and therefore we begin by discussing the nature of the superconducting phase. 4. Below the critical temperature the metal which turns superconducting has no resistance what so ever. and it exhibits perfect diamagnetism (called Meissner eﬀect). In this section.5 Superconductivity One of the most striking examples of symmetry breaking is the superconducting phase transition. e. It is probably the most successful theory in condensed matter physics and it has found application in other branches of physics as well. As was said above. Besides the superconductivity itself and the Meissner eﬀect superconductors show a number of other characteristics. The analog to this in the case of a ferromagnet.5.78 CHAPTER 4. These astonishing phenomena result from the superconducting state having a new form of symmetry breaking. but this is not a problem here where we discuss only superconductors connected to electron reservoirs. We have argued that the superconducting state is sensitive to a change of global phase. namely loss of global gauge invariance. e. which is of the form cν cν . In that case a broken SO(3) symmetry means that the expectation value S is not invariant under the rotation. which means that magnetic ﬁelds are totally expelled from the interior of the material. the number of particles is conserved. we give a short introduction to the BCS theory. which therefore has a global SO(3) symmetry.1 Breaking of global gauge symmetry and its consequences Let us start by understanding what kind of broken symmetry could give rise to a superconducting state.

we learned above that when dealing with systems with broken . maybe of the order of 10 nm or less in metals. Ψ(r)]U −1 = iΨ(r)δ r − r . such that it takes a macroscopic distance to see any signiﬁcant changes in ϕ (r).5. simply because quantum coherence is destroyed by all sorts of scattering events on rather short length scales. However.) If we transform the density operator and calculate the transformed partition function. but varies extremely slowly. (4. superconductor cν → cν eiϕ ⇒ H → H Broken symmetry: 0 = cν cν → cν cν e2iϕ 79 Global SO(3). Ψ (r) = U Ψ (r)U ˜† † −1 dr ρ(r)ϕ (r) Ψ(r) exp −i dr ρ(r)ϕ (r) (4. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY Global U (1) gauge symmetry. 5 which is derived in the same way. Let us therefore assume that we ascribe a phase to the superconducting state which depends on position. ϕ (r). U would have disappeared all together.52) (See also Eq. For any other non-superconducting system it would not make sense to talk about a quantum mechanical phase diﬀerence over macroscopic distances. † These equations follow from the diﬀerential equation (together with the boundary condi˜ tion Ψϕ=0 = Ψ) δ ˜ ˜ Ψ(r) = iU [ρ(r ). δϕ (r ) (4. phase gradients can have an eﬀect. To argue that the superconducting state depends on phase diﬀerences over macroscopic distances is therefore very unusual and tells us that superconductivity is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon. we get ˜ ˜ Z = Tr U e−βH U −1 = Tr e−β H . However.4.50) (recall that ρ.51a) (4.24) in Chap.53) Note here that if we had used the cyclic properties of the trace. (4. (5. of the wave function. ferromagnet S → US ⇒ H → H Broken symmetry: 0 = S → U S Table 4.2: The analogy between the broken symmetries of a superconductor and a ferromagnet.51b) = Ψ (r) exp (iϕ (r)) . is the density operator ρ (r) = Ψ† (r) Ψ (r)) because it has the following properties when applied to quantum ﬁeld operators ˜ Ψ(r) = U Ψ(r)U −1 = exp i = Ψ(r) exp (−iϕ (r)) . In order to study the consequences of the phase change let us introduce a unitary transformation which changes the phase U = exp i dr ρ(r)ϕ (r) .

as we have argued. the sum-over-states has to be restricted so that the cyclic properties does not necessarily hold. (4. In the normal state of metals a current is always associated with a non-equilibrium state. MEAN FIELD THEORY symmetry. Finally.51) is unchanged under the phase shift transformation. the current carrying state is chosen. the impurity scattering term. In reality the electron density appearing in Eq. However.54) dr ϕ(r) · J(r)+ 2me dr ρ(r)( ϕ(r))2 . (4. the so-called superﬂuid.54) that the energy doesn’t depend on ϕ itself.80 CHAPTER 4. Of course there is an energy cost for the system to carry the current. The claim above was that contrary to the non-superconducting state in the superconductor the phase is a macroscopic quantity. Let us therefore minimize the free energy with respect to the phase in order to ﬁnd the condition for the lowest free energy. and then the superconductor goes into the normal state. The kinetic part reads ˜ H= 1 2me dr Ψ (r)e dr Ψ (r) † † iϕ(r) 2 i i + eA e−iϕ(r) Ψ(r) 2 1 = 2me =H− + eA − 2 ϕ(r) Ψ(r). and in fact gapless superconductors do exist. meaning a dissipationless current5 .55) δ ϕ me and hence the energy is minimized if it carries a current. It is clear from (4. The superconductivity is. The transformation only changes in the kinetic energy term of the Hamiltonian. This we have anticipated by the symbol Tr which means that the trace is restricted due to the spontaneous symmetry breaking. where the last step closely follows the derivation of the current operator in Sec.4. only involve the electron density operator ρ(r) which according to (4. 1. We obtain δF = − J(r) + ρ(r) ϕ(r) = 0. it should be noted that the appearance of the excitation gap is not the reason for the superconductivity itself.3. but only on the gradient of ϕ. The critical current is reached when the energies are equal. due to the lack of gauge invariance. where energy is constantly dissipated from the driving source and absorbed in the conductor. the simple minded derivation presented here assumes that all electrons participates. me (4. where the energy is assumed to depend on phase diﬀerences on a macroscopic scale. and the phonon coupling term. but as long as this cost is smaller than the alternative which is to go out of the superconducting state. (4. it unavoidably leads to the conclusion that the system will carry a dissipationless current in order to minimize the energy cost of the phase gradient. 5 .56) The meaning of this result is that by forcing a phase gradient onto the system it minimizes its energy by carrying a current even in thermodynamical equilibrium.56) should only be the electrons participating in the superconducting condensate. even in equilibrium. What we have done so far is to show that if a phase gradient is imposed on a system. given by J= ρ0 ϕ. because both the Coulomb interaction term.

4. Because the typical energy exchange due to the attractive interaction is the Debye energy. 3 for metals is much smaller than the Fermi energy. These two physical inputs led BCS to suggest the following remarkably successful model Hamiltonian to explain the superconducting state. were the principles fully understood. i. The origin of the attractive interaction can intuitively be thought of in the following way: when an electron propagates through the crystal it attracts the positive ions and thus eﬀectively creates a positive trace behind it. It turns out that this eﬀective interaction is most important for electrons occupying time reversed states and in fact they can form a bound state which is the Cooper pair. had been tried and in fact was the underlying idea of London’s theory in 1935. It therefore seems that a new energy scale is generated and we shall indeed see that this is the case. This happens for energy exchanges of order the Debye energy.e. In Chap. This is however far from the truth because while ωD /k is typically of the order of several hundred kelvin.57) HBCS = kσ k↑ −k↓ kσ kk where Vkk is the coupling strength which is only non-zero for states with energy ξk within ξF ±ωD and furthermore constant and negative. Here we give an outline of the main principles in the BCS theory. 16). (4. ωD . one would naively expect that the energy scale for the superconducting transition temperature would be of the order ωD /k. ωD . attractive.5. the critical temperatures found in “conventional” low superconductors are in most cases less than 10 K and never more than 30 K. in this range. Also the idea that the superconductivity was somehow similar to Bose-Einstein condensation. We deﬁne a Cooper pair operator bk = ck↓ c−k↑ . . This trace is felt by the other electrons as an attractive interaction. ωD EF . 3.5. Furthermore. The interaction includes only pair interactions and the remaining interaction is supposed to be included in ξk via a Hartree–Fock term. However. The Cooper pair is thus a bound state ∗ of an electron in state ψν (r) and an electron in state ψν (r) or in the homogeneous case electrons in state k and −k. Subsequently in 1957 when the superconducting state was derived using a variational wavefunction by BCS. The BCS eﬀective Hamiltonian model is ξk c† ckσ + Vkk c† c† c−k ↓ ck ↑ .2 Microscopic theory The understanding that superconductivity was closely related to the electron-phonon coupling was clear from the early 1950’ies when for example the isotope eﬀect was discovered. only in 1956 Cooper showed that the Fermi surface of the normal metal state was unstable towards formation of bound pairs of electrons (see Chap. which as we saw in Chap. Vkk = −V0 . 16 we will see that the phonon mediated electron-electron interaction (derived from the electron-phonon interaction found in Sec. from the Cooper instability we know that the phonon-mediated interaction tends to pair electrons with opposite spin and momentum.6) in fact has a range in frequency and momentum space where it is negative. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY 81 4. with the bosons being electron pairs.

v and the energies. It is however somewhat unusual in that terms like c† c† and cc appear. |vk |2 = 1 2 1− ξk Ek .63) (4. is that the pair operator has a ﬁnite expectation value and that it varies only little from its average value. kk − k ∆∗ ck↓ c−k↑ k + (4.61) which diagonalizes the problem if † Uk Hk Uk = Ek 0 ˜ 0 Ek . The BCS mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian is derived in full analogy with Hartree–Fock mean ﬁeld theory described above MF HBCS = kσ ξk c† ckσ − kσ k ∆k c† c† k↑ −k↓ Vkk c† c† k↑ −k↓ ck ↓ c−k ↑ .64) 2 ˜ ξk + |∆k |2 = −Ek .58a) (4. we ﬁnd the following solution for u. (4.82 CHAPTER 4.58b) ∆k = − kk Vkk c−k ↓ ck ↑ The mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian is quadratic in electron operators and should be readily solvable. k Uk = uk −vk ∗ vk u∗ k . E and E |uk |2 = Ek = 1 2 1+ ξk Ek . (4. Hk = ξk ∆k ∆∗ −ξk k .62) ˜ After some algebra. MEAN FIELD THEORY The mean ﬁeld assumption made by BCS.59) kk † Ak Hk Ak where Ak = ck↑ c† −k↓ . For this purpose it is convenient to write the Hamiltonian in matrix notation MF HBCS = k c† c−k↓ k↑ ξk + k ξk ∆k ∆∗ −ξk k ck↑ c† −k↓ + = k Vkk c† c† k↑ −k↓ ck ↓ c−k ↑ . (4. (4. + constant. we introduce the unitary transformation Bk = γk↑ † γ−k↓ = U−1 Ak .60) To bring the Hamiltonian into a diagonal form. The way to solve it is by a so-called Bogoliubov transformation. . (4.

ωD ].5. Now using the approximation that Vkk is ﬁnite only for ξk .66) the bogoliubons are free fermions and therefore their distribution function is the usual Fermi-Dirac distribution.63). and that ωD EF . (4. we get |∆| d(EF ) ωD dξ [1 − 2nF (E)] . the so-called gap equation.68) |∆| = V0 2 2E −ωD and the gap |∆| is determined by the integral equation. which is why it is called the superconducting gap. (4. There are two diﬀerent bogoliubons inherited from the two fold spin degeneracy. ξk ∈ [−ωD . This rather unusual particle appears because of the lack of particle conservation in the mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian. Above in the general section on mean ﬁeld theory we saw that this procedure is equivalent to minimizing the free energy with respect to the mean ﬁeld parameter. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY 83 The new fermion operators that diagonalize the Hamiltonian are called bogoliubons and they are superpositions of electrons and holes.66) As is evident from the new Hamiltonian and the solution in Eq.61). The mean ﬁeld parameter provides an energy gap. (4. 2 = V0 d(EF ) ωD 0 dξ tanh β ξ 2 + |∆|2 /2 ξ 2 + |∆|2 .65) and the Hamiltonian is in terms of the new bogoliubons MF HBCS = k † † Ek γk↑ γk↑ + γk↓ γk↓ + constant.67) where we used in the last step that according to the Hamiltonian Eq. and (4.64) there are no fermion excitations possible with energy less than |∆|. (4. The self-consistent solution is found from Eq.61) we have the transformations from old to new operators γk↑ † γ−k↓ = u∗ vk k ∗ −vk uk ck↑ c† −k↓ ⇔ ck↑ c† −k↓ = uk −vk ∗ vk u∗ k γk↑ † γ−k↓ .58b). (4. From (4.69) . (4.4. The excitation gap has a number of important consequences. Using Eqs. (4.64) we ﬁnd ∆k = − k Vkk c−k ↓ ck ↑ . (4. which is here bk . Vkk k † u∗ γ−k ↓ − vk γk ↑ k † u∗ γk ↑ + vk γ−k ↓ k =− =− k . by calculating the expectation value of the right hand side using the diagonalized Hamiltonian. Vkk † † u∗ vk γ−k ↓ γ−k ↓ − vk u∗ γk ↑ γk ↑ k k =− k Vkk u∗ vk [1 − 2nF (Ek )] . (4. such that the density of states is constant in the energy interval in question. k (4.

71). sinh (2/V0 d(EF )) (4.70) 2ωD .53. ωD .6: Measured values of the gap parameter for three diﬀerent metals compared to the BCS predictions. This strong renormalization is what generates the new scale. MEAN FIELD THEORY Figure 4. Combining (4.72) This is in very good agreement with experimental ﬁndings. we show the temperature dependence of the gap together with measured values. kTC (4.71) ωD 0 dξ 1 ξ2 + ∆2 0 = sinh−1 because in metals V0 d(EF ) is typical a very small number. At zero temperature the gap. The theoretical BCS value is given in Eq. is found from 2 = V0 d(EF ) ⇓ ∆0 = ωD ≈ 2ωD e−2/V0 d(EF ) . The right table shows the measured value of the ratio between twice the gap at zero temperature and critical temperature. In Fig.84 CHAPTER 4.6(b). ∆2 0 ¦ ¤§ ¡ A 3@ 8 94 876 5 34 2 ¢ £ ¢ ¦ ¤¥ . Both the gap and the critical temperature are thus reduced by the exponential factor exp (−1/V0 d(EF )) as compared to the bare energy scale of the interaction.5. ∆0 . (4.70) and (4. but there are many others but the reader is referred to the many very good books on superconductivity. 4. which can be solved numerically.69) together with experimental values.13ωD e−2/V0 d(EF ) . 4.6.72). determined from tunneling measurements. where the ratio typically range between 3 and 4. This is just one of the successes of the BCS theory. as we foresaw in "$ 10 ) & ( ' " # &¥© % $ "# ! © ¡ £ ¢ ¥ ¨ (4. see Fig. ωD exp (−2/V0 d(EF )). (4. The critical temperature is found by setting ∆ = 0 in the integral and one ﬁnds approximately kTC = 1. we get the BCS prediction that the ratio of gap to critical temperature is 2∆0 = 3. To the left the temperature dependence is shown as it follows from the BCS gap equation in Eq.

and one must rely on a combination of technical skill and most importantly physical intuition. Tinkham and de Gennes to learn about superconductivity. We have seen examples of this in the case of magnets and superconductors. This is still a very active and interesting area of research. 12. because the function exp (−1/x) has no Taylor expansion at x = 0. It is however not clear to what extend the theory can be used to explain the superconductivity of high temperature superconductors and other exotic superconducting materials. no matter how many orders where included.g. This is in fact a general feature of phase transitions. Also for the time-dependent case Hartree–Fock type approximations will be invoked.5. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 85 the discussion above. In the remaining part of this course we shall deal with the dynamical properties of many-particle systems. Note that the interaction strength appears in a non-perturbative fashion in this expression. . e.6 Summary and outlook Mean ﬁeld theories are widely used to study phase transitions in matter and also in e.6. The BCS theory has provided an excellent model for the behavior of low temperature superconductors. all spins point in the same direction. Once again we see that there is no automatic way to predict the phase diagram of a given physical system. Of course we have not covered the vast ﬁelds of both magnetism and superconductivity in detail and the interested reader should consult the book by Yosida to learn more about magnetism. e. atomic physics to compute the energetics of a ﬁnite size systems. 4. This tells us that the result could never have been derived using perturbation theory in the interaction. 8. The RPA result will later be derived later based on a more rigorous quantum ﬁeld theoretical approach in Chap.g. where the important concept of symmetry breaking was introduced. because the two states have no analytic connection.g. at least those that has to do with static properties. The mean ﬁeld approximation is in many cases suﬃcient to understand the important physical features. It is not possible by perturbation expansions to cross a phase transition line.4. for the so-called Random Phase Approximation treatment of the dielectric function in Sec. It means that the state of the system choose to have a lower symmetry that the original Hamiltonian. and the books by Schrieﬀer.

MEAN FIELD THEORY .86 CHAPTER 4.

or “pictures”: the Schr¨dinger picture.3) 87 . 5. and their time evolution is governed by Schr¨dinger’s equation.2) The Schr¨dinger picture o operators : A. instant processes at a single time t = 0. These representations are used in the following chapters to develop general methods for treating many-particle systems. the Heisenberg picture.Chapter 5 Time evolution pictures Using the second quantization procedure. ∂t H = 0.1) In the following we will measure the energy in units of frequency. does not depend on time. may or may not depend on time. H. states : (5. With this notation we can summarize the Schr¨dinger picture with its states |ψ(t) and operators A as: o |ψ(t) = e−iHt |ψ0 . where time evolution is discussed using three representations. o The time-independence of H leads to a simple formal solution: i ∂t |ψ(t) = H |ψ(t) ⇒ |ψ(t) = e− ~ Ht |ψ0 . such that drops out of the time-evolution equations: ε/ → ε and H/ → H. To interpret the operator e−iHt we recall that a function f (B) of any operator B is deﬁned by the Taylor expansion of f .1 The Schr¨dinger picture o The Schr¨dinger picture is useful when dealing with a time-independent Hamiltonian H. ∞ f (B) = n=0 f (n) (0) n B . and systems where interactions are approximated by time-independent mean ﬁeld theory. i (5. At the end of the calculations one can easily convert frequencies back to energies. Any other operator A may or may not depend on time. The state vectors |ψ(t) does depend on time. But how does one then treat the general case of time dependence in second quantization? That question will be addressed in this chapter. we have so far only treated energy eigenstates with a trivial time dependence eiω t . n! (5.e. o i. and the o interaction picture.

5) The Heisenberg picture operators : A(t) ≡ e A e H does not depend on time. As before the original operator A may be time dependent. |ψ0 ≡ eiHt |ψ(t) . Both the Schr¨dinger and the Heisenberg picture require a time-independent Hamilo tonian. A(t). with H0 |n0 = εn0 |n0 . 5. and the Schr¨dinger picture is given o by the unitary transformation operator exp(iHt). TIME EVOLUTION PICTURES While the Schr¨dinger picture is quite useful for time-independent operators A. (5. We can do that using the Heisenberg picture. In this way an explicit time-dependence of A is taken into account. states : iHt −iHt . possibly time-dependent. the total time derivative of A in the Heisenberg picture is denoted with a dot. (5. ˙ A. leaving the state vectors |ψ0 time independent. it may o sometimes be preferable to collect all time dependencies in the operators and work with time-independent state vectors. we have to switch to the interaction picture. (5. Note how carefully the order of the operators is kept during the calculation. is perturbed by some. 5. The important equation of motion governing the time evolution of A(t) is easily established.2 The Heisenberg picture The central idea behind the Heisenberg picture is to obtain a representation where all the time dependence is transferred to the operators. (5. H = H0 + V (t). but time-dependent operators A(t). with known energy eigenstates |n0 . is introduced to deal with the situation where a system described by a time-independent Hamiltonian H0 . By using Eq.7) . then the two representations are fully equivalent.6) where X(t) always means eiHt Xe−iHt for any symbol X. In the general case of time-dependent Hamiltonians.3 The interaction picture The third and last representation. while the explicit time derivative of the original Schr¨dinger operator is denoted ∂t A: o ˙ A(t) = eiHt iHA − iAH + ∂t A e−iHt ⇒ ˙ A(t) = i H. (5. the interaction picture.2) we obtain the identity ψ (t)|A|ψ(t) = ψ0 |eiHt Ae−iHt |ψ0 ≡ ψ0 |A(t)|ψ0 . in particular for X = ∂t A. Since H is time independent. If the matrix elements of any operator between any two states are identical in the two representations. interaction V (t). A(t) + (∂t A)(t).4) Thus we see that the correspondence between the Heisenberg picture with time-independent state vectors |ψ0 .88 CHAPTER 5. The Hamiltonian H remains time-independent in the Heisenberg picture.

5. (5. (5.3. then one can think of Eq.9) which by Eq. and we obtain: ⇒ ˆ ˆ ˆ i∂t U (t. ˆ U (t0 .5). (5. (5.11) naturally ˆ implies the boundary condition U (t0 . not the full H. states : The interaction picture (5. operators : A(t) H0 does not depend on time.8) as a way to pull out the fast. t0 ).10) ˆ The resulting Schr¨dinger equation for |ψ (t) thus contains explicit reference only to the o ˆ interaction part V (t) of the full Hamiltonian H. (5. (5. (5. If V (t) is a weak perturbation.. (5.8) ˆ ≡ eiH0 t A e−iH0 t . t0 ) eiH0 t0 e−iHt0 |ψ0 By integration of this diﬀerential equation we get the integral equation 1 ˆ U (t. t0 ) = V (t) U (t. We remark that Eq. ˆ In the general case with a time-dependent V (t) we must rely on the diﬀerential equation appearing when Eq.e. (5. t0 ) = eiH0 t e−iH(t−t0 ) e−iH0 t0 . The interaction picture and the Heisenberg picture coincide when V = 0. in the unitary transformation Eq.12) ˆ ˆ ˆ From this we observe that U −1 = U † . but trivial. in the interaction picture both ˆ ˆ the state vectors |ψ (t) and the operators A(t) depend on time.e. The ﬁrst hint of the usefulness of the interaction picture comes from calculating the ˆ time derivative of |ψ (t) using the deﬁnition Eq. U is indeed a unitary operator. This means that in the interaction picture ˆ the time evolution of a state |ψ (t0 ) from time t0 to t must be given in terms of a unitary ˆ (t. t0 ).13) ˆ eiH0 t e−iHt |ψ0 = U (t. As a result. i. in the nonperturbed case. t0 ) = 1.14) . (5.10). time dependence due to H0 . t0 ) = 1. t0 ) = 1 + i t t0 ˆ ˆ dt V (t ) U (t . t0 ) |ψ (t0 ) .11) is inserted in Eq. leaving states that vary only slowly in time due to V (t). This is obtained by using only H0 .8) is reduced to ˆ ˆ ˆ i∂t |ψ (t) = V (t) |ψ (t) . ˆ U (t. (5. t0 ) is obtained by ˆ (t) = eiH0 t |ψ(t) = eiH0 t e−iHt |ψ and |ψ (t0 ) = eiH0 t0 e−iHt0 |ψ into ˆ inserting |ψ 0 0 Eq. The deﬁning equations for the interaction picture are ˆ |ψ (t) ≡ eiH0 t |ψ(t) . (5. THE INTERACTION PICTURE 89 The key idea behind the interaction picture is to separate the trivial time evolution due to H0 from the intricate one due to V (t). (5. an explicit form for U (t. i.8): ˆ i∂t |ψ (t) = i∂t eiH0 t |ψ(t) + eiH0 t i∂t |ψ(t) = eiH0 t (−H0 + H)|ψ(t) .11). t0 ) which also only depends on V (t).11) ˆ When V and thus H are time-independent. (5. U (t. t0 ) is completely determined by ˆ ˆ operator U ˆ ˆ ˆ |ψ (t) = U (t.

. . Consider for example the second order term. TIME EVOLUTION PICTURES ˆ ˆ which we can solve iteratively for U (t. . we obtain the ﬁnal compact form (see also Exercise 5. t0 ) is the starting point for inﬁnite order perturbation theory and for introducing the concept of Feynman diagrams. . all n! permutations 1 p ∈ Sn of the n times tj are involved. This expression for U (t. Using the time ordering operator. t0 ) = 1. V (tn )] ≡ p∈Sn ˆ ˆ ˆ V (tp(1) )V (tp(2) ) . t0 ) = 1 + i t t0 ˆ dt1 V (t1 ) + 1 i2 t t0 ˆ dt1 V (t1 ) t1 t0 ˆ dt2 V (t2 ) + . V (tp(n) ) × (5. In n-th order. . . it is therefore one of the central equations in quantum ﬁeld theory. V (tn ) = Tt e Rt t0 dt ˆ V (t ) . 5.18) ˆ Note the similarity with a usual time evolution factor e−iε t .17) θ(tp(1) − tp(2) ) θ(tp(2) − tp(3) ) . (5. .1. 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ For n = 3 we have Tt [V (t1 )V (t2 )V (t3 )] = ˆ (t1 )V (t2 )V (t3 )θ(t1 −t2 )θ(t2 −t3 )+V (t1 )V (t3 )V (t2 )θ(t1 −t3 )θ(t3 −t2 )+V (t2 )V (t3 )V (t1 )θ(t2 −t3 )θ(t3 −t1 )+ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ V ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ V (t2 )V (t1 )V (t3 )θ(t2 −t1 )θ(t1 −t3 )+ V (t3 )V (t1 )V (t2 )θ(t3 −t1 )θ(t1 −t2 )+ V (t3 )V (t2 )V (t1 )θ(t3 −t2 )θ(t2 −t1 ). The solution is 1 ˆ U (t.15) Note that in the iteration the ordering of all operators is carefully kept. t0 −i ˆ ˆ dtn Tt V (t1 ) . where n factors V (tj ) appear. (5. . . . t0 ) starting from U (t . . θ(tp(n−1) − tp(n) ). A graphical sketch of the contents of the formula is given in Fig. paying special attention to the dummy variables t1 and t2 : t t0 ˆ dt1 V (t1 ) 1 = 2 = = ≡ 1 2 1 2 1 2 t t0 t t0 t t0 t t0 t1 t0 ˆ dt2 V (t2 ) t1 t0 ˆ dt1 V (t1 ) t 1 ˆ dt2 V (t2 ) + 2 t t0 ˆ dt2 V (t2 ) t t0 t2 t0 ˆ dt1 V (t1 ) t dt1 dt1 dt1 1 ˆ ˆ dt2 V (t1 )V (t2 )θ(t1 − t2 ) + 2 t0 t t0 t t0 dt2 t0 ˆ ˆ dt1 V (t2 )V (t1 )θ(t2 − t1 ) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ dt2 V (t1 )V (t2 )θ(t1 − t2 ) + V (t2 )V (t1 )θ(t2 − t1 ) ˆ ˆ dt2 Tt [V (t1 )V (t2 )]. and we deﬁne ˆ ˆ ˆ Tt [V (t1 )V (t2 ) . A more compact form is obtained by the following rewriting. (5. .2): ∞ ˆ U (t. Time ordering is easily generalˆ ized to higher order terms. t0 ) = n=0 1 1 n! i n t t0 t dt1 .90 CHAPTER 5. .16) where we have introduced the time ordering operator Tt .

5. . (5. scattering events V .19) (5. aν ] are not simple.5 Time dependent creation and annihilation operators It is of fundamental interest to study how the basic creation and annihilation operators a† and aν evolve in time given some set of basis states {|ν } for a time-independent ν Hamiltonian H. t0 ) ≈ 1 + i t t0 This simple time evolution operator forms the basis for the Kubo formula in linear response theory. . 5. As in Sec.4.4 these operators can be taken to be either bosonic or fermionic.B involving two diﬀerent times t1 and t2 cannot be ν given in a simple closed form: [aν1 (t1 ).4 Time-evolution in linear response ˆ In many applications the perturbation V (t) is weak compared to H0 .20a) (5. 2. The sum phase factors due to V ˆ contains contributions from processes with 0. is applicable to a wide range of physical problems. which. 1.1: The time evolution operator U (t.21) ¥£ ¥£ ¥£ ¥£ ¦ £ ¢ ¦ £ ¢ ¦ £ ¢ ¦ £ ¢ § ¨¦ ¥ £ ¤ £ ¢ ¡ ¦ £¢ ¦ £¢ ! !! " £ £ £ £ © ˆ dt V (t ). 1.5. . aν e −iHt (5. and consequently the fundamental ν (anti-)commutator [aν (t1 ). a† ] and [H. which happen during the evolution from time t0 to time t.3. a† (t2 )]F. Eq. t0 ) by the ﬁrst order approximation justiﬁed to approximate U 1 ˆ U (t. TIME-EVOLUTION IN LINEAR RESPONSE 91 ˆ Figure 5. . as we shall see in the following chapters. Let us ﬁrst apply the deﬁnition of the Heisenberg picture. ν ν aν (t) ≡ e iHt In the case of a general time-independent Hamiltonian with complicated interaction terms. a† 2 (t2 )]F.5): a† (t) ≡ eiHt a† e−iHt .20b) . It can therefore be ˆ (t.B = ν eiHt1 aν1 e−iH(t1 −t2 ) a† 2 e−iHt2 ± eiHt2 a† 2 e−iH(t2 −t1 ) aν1 e−iHt1 ν ν = ?? (5. t0 ) can be viewed as the sum of additional ˆ on top of the trivial phase factors arising from H0 . 3. the commutators [H.

23) (5.28) But we actually know the time evolution of the Schr¨dinger state on the right-hand side o of the equation.ν2 .22) The equation of motion. C] = A{B. From Eq. In fact.21) is the problem in many-particle physics. ν ν (5. ν (5.27) where H0 is diagonalized in the basis {|ν } with the eigenenergies εν . aν e−iHt ν aν e −iHt εν −δν. Consider ﬁrst a time-independent Hamiltonian H which is diagonal in the |ν -basis. C]B and [AB.21) can be evaluated directly: [aν1 (t1 ). By integration we obtain aν (t) = e−iεν t aν . (5.29) We are using the identities [AB. Obviously. ν (5. . as we shall see in the following chapters. but with the eigenenergies (1 + γ)ε. Eq. TIME EVOLUTION PICTURES No further reduction is possible in the general case. Let us however try to treat γH0 as a perturbation V to H0 .6).8) we then obtain |ˆ(t) = eiεν t |ν(t) . (5. which by Hermitian conjugation leads to a† (t) = e+iεν t a† . C}B.92 CHAPTER 5. aν ]e−iHt = ieiHt ν εν a† aν .25) In this very simple case the basic (anti-)commutator Eq. (5. Note that the ﬁrst identity is particularly useful for bosonic operators and the second for fermionic operators (see Exercise 5.4). the full Hamiltonian H is also diagonalized in the same basis.3.B = e−iεν1 (t1 −t2 ) δν1 . C] + [A. aν (t)] ˙ = ieiHt = −iεν e ν iHt = ieiHt [H. ν (5.26) For the diagonal Hamiltonian the time evolution is thus seen to be given by trivial phase factors e±iε t . a† 2 (t2 )]F. C} − {A. (5. γ 1. so |ˆ(t) ν 2 = eiεν t e−i(1+γ)εν t |ν = e−iγεν t |ν . calculating (anti-)commutators like Eq. 5. is straightforward:2 aν (t) = i[H.24) = −iεν aν (t). which are valid for any set of operators. (5. (5. and then use the interaction picture of Sec. We can also gain some insight into the interaction picture by a trivial extension of the simple model. But let us investigate some simple cases to get a grasp of the time evolution pictures. C] = A[B. H= ν εν a† aν .ν aν e−iHt (5. Assume that H = H0 + γH0 .

Which picture to use depends on the problem at hand. and how its linearized form Eq. for the time evolution operator ˆ ˆ ˆ U (t. ν The problem in this more general case is evident. We have derived an explicit expression. (5. and the interaction picture. Eq. The ﬁrst two pictures rely on a time-independent Hamiltonian H. eleven. is replaced in the interaction picture by the slow phase factor eiγεν t . In the following chapters we will learn various approximate methods to deal with this problem.18). when we are trying to study the full time dependence. aν (t) aν2 (t) aν1 (t) ν ν (5. by studying the basic creation and annihilation operators we have gotten a ﬁrst glimpse of the problems we are facing. etc. Eq. (5. (5.30) The equation of motion for aν (t) is: aν (t) = i[H.19) forms the basis of the widely used linear response theory and the associated Kubo formalism. . or equivalently the full dynamics. operators. If we write ν down the equation of motion for this three-operator product we discover that terms are generated involving ﬁve operator products. of interacting many-particle systems.8). Eq. (5. Eq. and we do not know the time evolution of the three-operator product a† 1 +ν2 −ν (t) aν2 (t) aν1 (t). t0 ) plays an important role in the formulation of inﬁnite order perturbation theory and the introduction of Feynman diagrams. aν (t)] ˙ = −iεν aν (t) + i ν1 ν2 q Vq a† 1 +q (t) a† 2 −q (t).5.29) directly from Eq. The reader can e try to obtain Eq.6 Summary and outlook In this chapter we have introduced the fundamental representations used in the description of time evolution in many-particle systems: the Schr¨dinger picture. (5. t0 ) describing the evolution of an interaction picture state |ψ (t0 ) at time t0 to |ψ (t) ˆ at time t. This feature is then repeated over and over again generating a never-ending sequence of products containing seven. where H0 is a time-independent Hamiltonian with known eigenstates. while the interaction picture involves a timedependent Hamiltonian H of the form H = H0 + V (t). ν ν (5. Consider for example the Coulomb-like interaction written symbolically as H = H0 + V = ν εν a† aν + ν ν1 ν2 q Vq a† 1 +q a† 2 −q aν2 aν1 .31) = −iεν aν (t) + i ν1 ν2 (Vν2 −ν − Vν−ν1 )a† 1 +ν2 −ν (t) aν2 (t) aν1 (t). Finally. Finally.5). The equation of motion for the single operator aν (t) contains terms with both one and three operators. the o Heisenberg picture. we brieﬂy point to the complications that arise when the interaction is given by a time-independent operator V not diagonal in the same basis as H0 . nine.2). SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 93 Here we clearly see that the fast Schr¨dinger time dependence given by the phase factor o iεν t . 5. We shall see in the following chapters how the operator U (t. (5. (5.18).6.

94

CHAPTER 5. TIME EVOLUTION PICTURES

Chapter 6

**Linear response theory
**

Linear response theory is an extremely widely used concept in all branches of physics. It simply states that the response to a weak external perturbation is proportional to the perturbation, and therefore all one needs to understand is the proportionality constant. Below we derive the general formula for the linear response of a quantum system exerted by a perturbation. The physical question we ask is thus: supposing some perturbation H , what is the measured consequence for an observable quantity, A. In other words, what is A to linear order in H ? Among the numerous applications of the linear response formula, one can mention charge and spin susceptibilities of e.g. electron systems due to external electric or magnetic ﬁelds. Responses to external mechanical forces or vibrations can also be calculated using the very same formula. Here we utilize the formalism to derive a general expression for the electrical conductivity and brieﬂy mention other applications.

6.1

The general Kubo formula

Consider a quantum system described by the (time independent) Hamiltonian H0 in thermodynamic equilibrium. According to Sec. 1.5 this means that an expectation value of a physical quantity, described by the operator A, can be evaluated as A = 1 1 Tr [ρ0 A] = Z0 Z0

−βH0

n|A|n e−βEn ,

n

(6.1a) (6.1b)

ρ0 = e

=

n

|n n|e−βEn ,

where ρ0 is the density operator and Z0 =Tr[ρ0 ] is the partition function. Here as in Sec. 1.5, we write the density operator in terms of a complete set of eigenstates, {|n }, of the Hamiltonian, H0 , with eigenenergies {En }. Suppose now that at some time, t = t0 , an external perturbation is applied to the system, driving it out of equilibrium. The perturbation is described by an additional time dependent term in the Hamiltonian H(t) = H0 + H (t)θ(t − t0 ). 95 (6.2)

96

CHAPTER 6. LINEAR RESPONSE THEORY

Figure 6.1: Illustration of the linear response theory. At times before t0 the system is in equilibrium, after which the perturbation is turned on. The system is now evolving according to the new Hamiltonian and is in a non-equilibrium state. The Kubo formula relates the expectation value δ A non−eq in the non-equilibrium state to a equilibrium expectation ˆ ˆ value · · · eq of the more complicated time-dependent commutator [A(t), H (t )]. We emphasize that H0 is the Hamiltonian describing the system before the perturbation was applied, see Fig. 6.1 for an illustration. Now we wish to ﬁnd the expectation value of the operator A at times t greater than t0 . In order to do so we must ﬁnd the time evolution of the density matrix or equivalently the time evolution of the eigenstates of the unperturbed Hamiltonian. Once we know the |n(t) , we can obtain A(t) as A(t) = ρ(t) =

n

1 Z0

n(t)|A|n(t) e−βEn =

n

1 Tr [ρ(t)A] , Z0

|n(t) n(t)|e−βEn .

The philosophy behind this expression is as follows. The initial states of the system are distributed according to the usual Boltzmann distribution e−βE0n /Z0 . At later times the system is described by the same distribution of states but the states are now timedependent and they have evolved according to the new Hamiltonian. The time dependence of the states |n(t) is of course governed by the Schr¨dinger equation o i∂t |n(t) = H(t)|n(t) . (6.4)

Since H is to be regarded as a small perturbation, it is convenient to utilize the interaction picture representation |ˆ (t) introduced in Sec. 5.3. The time dependence in this n representation is given by ˆ |n(t) = e−iH0 t |ˆ (t) = e−iH0 t U (t, t0 )|ˆ (t0 ) , n n where by deﬁnition |ˆ (t0 ) = eiH0 t0 |n(t0 ) = |n . n (6.5)

¡

' @ 9 4 H F ' ¡ D (% G F ¡ E C3 B5@ 9 8 6 7 6 53 2 1 D 2 A 4

¦ § §© ¨ § ¦ ¤ ! ¢¡ "

(6.3a) (6.3b)

0 & ¥ § ) © (& § © ¦ $ ¨ # £ ' % ¦ § §© ¨ § ¦ ¥£ ¤ ¢ P5@ 9 53 2 3 I 4

**6.1. THE GENERAL KUBO FORMULA
**

t

97

ˆ ˆ To linear order in H , Eq. (5.19) states that U (t, t0 ) = 1 − i t0 dt H (t ). Inserting this into (6.3a), one obtains the expectation value of A up to linear order in the perturbation

t

A(t) = A = A

0−i

dt

t0 t

1 Z0

ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ e−βEn n(t0 )|A(t)H (t ) − H (t )A(t)|n(t0 )

n

0

−i

t0

ˆ ˆ dt [A(t), H (t )] 0 .

(6.6)

The brackets 0 mean an equilibrium average with respect to the Hamiltonian H0 . This is in fact a remarkable and very useful result, because the inherently non-equilibrium quantity A(t) has been expressed as a correlation function of the system in equilibrium. The physical reason for this is that the interaction between excitations created in the non-equilibrium state is an eﬀect to second order in the weak perturbation, and hence not included in linear response. The correlation function that appears in Eq. (6.6), is called a retarded correlation function, and for later reference we rewrite the linear response result as

∞

δ A(t) ≡ A(t) − A where

0

=

t0

R dt CAH (t, t )e−η(t−t ) ,

(6.7)

R CAH (t, t ) = −iθ(t − t )

ˆ ˆ A(t), H (t )

0

.

(6.8)

This is the famous Kubo formula which expresses the linear response to a perturbation, H . We have added a very important detail here: the factor e−η(t−t ) , with an inﬁnitesimal positive parameter η, has been included to force the response at time t due to the inﬂuence of H at time t to decay when t t . In the end of a calculation we must therefore take + . For physical reasons the (retarded) eﬀect of a perturbation must of the limit η → 0 course decrease in time. You can think of the situation that one often has for diﬀerential equations with two solutions: one which increases exponentially with time (physically not acceptable) and one which decreases exponentially with time; the factor e−η(t−t ) is there to pick out the physically relevant solution by introducing an artiﬁcial relaxation mechanism. Kubo formula in the frequency domain It is often convenient to express the response to an external disturbance in the frequency domain. Let us therefore write the perturbation in terms of its Fourier components H (t) =

R such that CAH becomes R CAH (t, t ) = ∞ −∞

dω −iωt e Hω , 2π

(6.9)

dω −iωt R e CAHω (t − t ), 2π

(6.10)

98

CHAPTER 6. LINEAR RESPONSE THEORY

ˆ ˆ because [A(t), Hω (t )] 0 only depends on the diﬀerence between t and t , which can easily be proven using the deﬁnition of the expectation value. When inserted into the Kubo formula, one gets (after setting t0 = −∞, because we are not interested in the transient behavior)

∞ ∞

δ A(t) =

−∞ ∞

dt

−∞

dω −iωt −i(ω+iη)(t −t) R e e CAHω (t − t ) 2π (6.11)

=

−∞

dω −iωt R e CAHω (ω), 2π

**and therefore the ﬁnal result reads in frequency domain
**

R δ Aω = CAHω (ω), R CAHω (ω) = ∞ R dteiωt e−ηt CAHω (t).

(6.12a) (6.12b)

−∞

Note again that the inﬁnitesimal η is incorporated in order to ensure the correct physical result, namely that the retarded response function decays at large times.

6.2

Kubo formula for conductivity

Consider a system of charged particles, electrons say, which is subjected to an external electromagnetic ﬁeld. The electromagnetic ﬁeld induces a current, and the conductivity is the linear response coeﬃcient. In the general case the conductivity may be non-local in both time and space, such that the electric current Je at some point r at time t depends on the electric ﬁeld at points r at times t

α Je (r, t) =

dt

dr

β

σ αβ (rt, r t ) E β (r , t )

(6.13)

where σ αβ (r, r ; t, t ) is the conductivity tensor which describes the current response in direction eα to an applied electric ﬁeld in direction eβ . ˆ ˆ The electric ﬁeld E is given by the electric potential φext and the vector potential Aext E(r, t) = −

r φext (r, t)

− ∂t Aext (r, t).

(6.14)

The current density operator of charged particles in the presence of an electromagnetic ﬁeld was given in Chap. 1. For simplicity we assume only one kind of particles, electrons say, but generalization to more kinds of charge carrying particles is straightforward by simple addition of more current components.1 For electrons Je = −e J . The perturbing term in the Hamiltonian due to the external electromagnetic ﬁeld is given by the coupling

P With more carriers the operator for the electrical current becomes Je (r) = i qi Ji (r), where qi are the charges of the diﬀerent carriers. Note that in this case the currents of the individual species are not necessarily independent.

1

6.2. KUBO FORMULA FOR CONDUCTIVITY

99

of the electrons to the scalar potential and the vector potential. To linear order in the external potential Hext = −e dr ρ(r)φext (r, t) + e dr J(r) · Aext (r, t), (6.15)

where the latter term was explained in Sec. 1.4.3. Let A0 denote the vector potential in the equilibrium, i.e. prior to the onset of the perturbation Aext , and let A denote the total vector potential. Then we have A = A0 +Aext , (6.16)

Again according to Sec. 1.4.3, the current operator has two components, the diamagnetic term and the paramagnetic term J(r) = J (r) + e A(r)ρ(r), m (6.17)

In order to simplify the expressions, we can choose a gauge where the external electrical potential is zero, φext = 0. This is always possible by a suitable choice of A(r, t) as you can see in Eq. (6.14). The ﬁnal result should of course not depend on the choice of gauge. The conductivity is most easily expressed in the frequency domain, and therefore we Fourier transform the perturbation. Since ∂t becomes −iω in the frequency domain we have Aext (r, ω) = (1/iω)Eext (r, ω), and therefore the external perturbation in Eq. (6.15) becomes in the Fourier domain Hext,ω = e iω dr J(r) · Eext (r, ω). (6.18)

In order to exploit the frequency domain formulation of linear response we want to write the deﬁnition of the conductivity tensor in Eq. (6.13) in frequency domain. Because we are only considering linear response the conductivity tensor is a property of the equilibrium system and can thus only depend on time diﬀerences σ αβ (rt, r t ) = σ αβ (r, r , t − t ). The frequency transform of Eq. (6.13) is therefore simply that of a convolution and hence

α Je (r, ω) =

dr

β

σ αβ (r, r , ω) E β (r , ω).

(6.19)

Now since Eq. (6.18) is already linear in the external potential Eext and since we are e only interested in the linear response, we can replace J in Eq. (6.18) by J0 = J + m A0 ρ, thus neglecting the term proportional to Eext · Aext . Eq. (6.18) is therefore replaced by Hext,ω = e iω dr J0 (r) · Eext (r, ω). (6.20)

To ﬁnd the expectation value of the current we write J(r, ω) = J0 (r, ω) + e Aext (r, ω)ρ(r) . m (6.21)

100

CHAPTER 6. LINEAR RESPONSE THEORY

For the last term in Eq. (6.21) we use that to linear order in Aext the expectation value can be evaluated in the equilibrium state e e Aext (r, ω)ρ(r) = Aext (r, ω) ρ(r) m m

0

=

e Eext (r, ω) ρ(r) 0 . iω

(6.22)

For the ﬁrst term in Eq. (6.21) we use the general Kubo formula in Eq. (6.7). Since the equilibrium state does not carry any current, i.e. J0 0 = 0, we conclude that J0 = δ J0 . In frequency domain we should use the results Eq. (6.12a) and substitute J0 (r) for the operator “A”, and Hext,ω for “Hω ”, which leads to J0 (r, ω) = CR0 (r)Hext,ω (ω). Collecting J things we now have J(r, ω) = CR0 (r)Hext,ω (ω) + J Writing out the ﬁrst term CR0 (r)Hext,ω (ω) = J dr

β

e ρ(r) 0 Aext (r,ω). m e β E (r , ω). iω

(6.23)

CR (r)J β (r ) (ω) J

0 0

(6.24)

Comparing with the deﬁnition of the non-local conductivity in Eq. (6.19), we can now collect the two contributions to the conductivity tensor. The ﬁrst term comes from Eq. (6.24) and it is seen to of the same form as (6.12a), in particular the response is non-local in space. In contrast, the second term in Eq. (6.22) stemming from the diamagnetic part of the current operator is local in space. Now collecting the two terms and using that Je = −e J , we ﬁnally arrive at the linear response formula for the conductivity tensor σ αβ (r, r , ω) = ie2 n(r) ie2 R Παβ (r, r , ω) + δ(r − r )δαβ , ω iωm (6.25)

R where we have used the symbol ΠR = CJ0 J0 for the retarded current-current correlation function. In the time domain it is given by R ΠR (r, r , t − t ) = CJ α (r)J β (r ) (t − t ) = −iθ(t − t ) αβ

0 0

ˆα ˆβ J0 (r, t), J0 (r , t )

0

.

(6.26)

Finding the conductivity of a given system has thus been reduced to ﬁnding the retarded current-current correlation function. This formula will be used extensively in Chap. 14.

6.3

Kubo formula for conductance

The conductivity σ is the proportionality coeﬃcient between the electric ﬁeld E and the current density J, and it is an intrinsic property of a material. The conductance on the other hand is the proportionality coeﬃcient between the current I through a sample and the voltage V applied to it, i.e. a sample speciﬁc quantity. The conductance G is deﬁned by the usual Ohm’s law I = GV. (6.27)

and it is convenient to choose an equipotential surface and to deﬁne a coordinate system (ξ. r .3. For a material where the conductivity can be assumed to be local in space one can ﬁnd the conductance of a speciﬁc sample by the relation G= W σ. KUBO FORMULA FOR CONDUCTANCE 101 Figure 6.29) ˆ ˆ dξ ξ · σ(ξ. is a sample-speciﬁc quantity. In order to get the dc-response we should the limit ω → 0 of this expression. For samples which are inhomogeneous such that this simple relation is not applicable. One example is the so-called mesoscopic conductors. ω = 0) · ξ E(ξ ). (6. which are systems smaller than a typical thermalization or equilibration length.2: The principle of a conductance measurement. The current passing through the sample is equal to the integrated current density through a cross-section. in contrast to the conductivity. and W the area of the cross-section. The current I is Ie = = ˆ daξ ξ · Je (ξ. aξ . aξ . L (6. In the Kubo formula derivation we use a coordinate system given by the equipotential lines. Here we are interested in the DC-response only (or in frequencies where the corresponding wave length is much longer than the sample size). In this coordinate system the electric ﬁeld is directed ˆ ˆ along the ξ-direction. If ¡ § § © §¨ ¦ ¥£ ¤ ¢ . where ξ is a coordinate parallel to the ﬁeld line and where aξ are coordinates on the plane perpendicular to the ξ-direction.6. which. ˆ where ξ is a unit vector normal to the surface element daξ and σ is the conductivity tensor.28) where L is the length of the sample. ξ . ω = 0)E(r ). aξ ) = daξ daξ daξ ˆ dr ξ · σ(r. E(r) = ξE(ξ). whereby a local description is inadequate. Because of current conservation we can of course choose any cross section. which together with use of current conservation allows a simple derivation. aξ ). see Figure 6.2. one must use the Kubo formula for conductance rather than that for conductivity.

φtot . φext .32) where the current operator I denote the current through an arbitrary cross section along the sample. The total potential is the sum of the external one and the potential created by the induced polarization. In the time domain it is R ˆ ˆ CII (t − t ) = −iθ(t − t ) [I(t).ext . ω→0 ω (6.31) R Here CII is the retarded current-current function. and measure the resulting total potential. (6. ξ ) can be shown to be a symmetric function is cannot depend on ξ either. The charges are related to the potentials through a set of Poisson equations 2 φtot = − ε1 ρe. φtot = φext + φind .tot 0 2φ = − ε1 ρe. Since the total particle current at the coordinate ξ is given by ˆ I(ξ) = daξ ξ · J. one is often interested in the dielectric properties of the system. This simpliﬁcation is the reason for choosing the skew coordinate system deﬁned by the ﬁeld lines. (6.ind . (6.4 Kubo formula for the dielectric function When dealing with systems containing charged particles.25) and hence the retarded correlation function of the current densities. (6. ext 0 2 1 φ =− ρ ind ε0 e.102 CHAPTER 6. This in turn aﬀects the measurements. LINEAR RESPONSE THEORY we furthermore take the real part of (6. 6. (6. We can therefore perform the integration over ξ which is just the voltage diﬀerence V = dξ E(ξ ) = φ(−∞)−φ(∞).29) we see that what determines the dc-current is the real part of the ﬁrst term in Eq. When such a system is subjected to an external electromagnetic perturbation the charge is redistributed and the system gets polarized. Consequently the function in side the square brackets in Eq.34) ρtot = ρext + ρind . φind . and we ﬁnally arrive at the for linear response formula for the conductance G = lim ie2 R CII (ω). as for example the electron gas. Because of current conservation the dc-current may be calculated at any point ξ and thus the result cannot depend on ξ. The typical experiment is to exert an external potential. (6. since the conductance function G(ξ. Furthermore.30) ω→0 R where CI(ξ)I(ξ ) is the correlation function between total currents. the conductance can instead be written as Ie (ξ) = lim dξ Re ie2 R C (ω) E(ξ ) ≡ ω I(ξ)I(ξ ) dξ G(ξ.33) Alternatively to working with the potentials we can work with electric ﬁelds or charges. I(t )] .30) cannot depend on ξ. ξ )E(ξ ). and in particular the linear response properties.

and the electric ﬁeld.36b) Our present task is to ﬁnd the dielectric function ε(rt. t) + dr dr t0 dt Vc (r − r )χR (r t. ρe (r. Eext . t) = φext (r. r t ) φext (r .42) In electrodynamics the permittivity is deﬁned as the proportionality constant between the electric displacement ﬁeld. r t ) = δ(r − r )δ(t − t ) + 2 dr Vc (r − r )χR (r t. Etot . t ). D. Eext plays the role of the D-ﬁeld. χR . r t ) assuming linear response theory and for this purpose the induced potential is needed.41) From this expression we read oﬀ the inverse of the dielectric function as ε−1 (rt. t ). In the present formulation. (6. t) = dr dr dt ε−1 (rt. Once the induced charge is known the potential follows from the Coulomb interaction Vc (r − r ) = 1/( 0 |r − r |) as φind (r) = and hence ∞ dr Vc (r − r ) ρe.35) which is well-known from classical electrodynamics. and Eind .40) φtot (r. ρ ˆ e The charge-charge correlation function. while Etot is the E-ﬁeld . which are related to the corresponding charges by a set of Gauss laws. i. t) = ρe (r. r t ) φext (r . r t ).e.36a) (6. KUBO FORMULA FOR THE DIELECTRIC FUNCTION 103 and likewise for electric ﬁelds. t ). t). 1 deﬁnes particle densities. r t ).eind (r ). (6. D = ε0 Eext . (6. D = εE. r t ) φtot (r .6.4. in reality the permittivity is non-local both in time and space and the general relations between the total and the external potentials are φtot (r. t). (6. t) = φext (r.37) The induced charge density follows from linear response theory (if we assume that the system is charge neutral in equilibrium. The ratio between the external and the total potential is the dielectric response function. Here we have used the symbols ρe for the charge density. t )] 0 . also called the relative permittivity ε φtot = ε−1 φext .ind (r. i.e. r t ) ≡ χR (rt. (6. (6. r t ) = −iθ(t − t ) [ˆe (r.38) (6. t) 0 = 0) as ∞ ρe. is called the polarizability function and it is e an important function which we will encounter many times. where ρ as deﬁned in Chap. ρe (r . r t )e−η(t−t ) φext (r . · E = ρe /ε0 . dt ε(rt.39) R Cρe ρe (rt. The external perturbation is represented as the following term to the Hamiltonian H = dr ρe (r) φext (r. (6.2 However. t ). t) = dr t0 R dt Cρe ρe (rt. or rather its inverse ε−1 (rt.

47) Finally.4. with the dielectric function being ε−1 (q. After Fourier transformation they become products φtot (q. e (6. ω) = σ(q.44) and knowing that for a homogeneous system.45) So if we know the conductivity we can ﬁnd the dielectric response and vice versa. ω) φext (q. The dielectric function expressed in Eq. ω (6. 6. ω) = 0.4.36) have the form of convolutions.44) or φext (q. ω)qφext (q.104 CHAPTER 6. e (6. the conductivity tensor is diagonal. ω)qφext (q.46) (6.48) (6. we arrive at the relation ε−1 (q. (continuity equation). LINEAR RESPONSE THEORY which ends our derivation.43) 6. ω) = ωρe (q. using Eq. (6.e. This formula also tells us what information about the interactions within a given system can be extracted from measurements of the dielectric properties. and using the deﬁnition of conductivity J(q. and therefore the problem is considerably simpliﬁed by going to frequency and momentum space. This method. ω) + iq · J(q. ω) = 1 + Vc (q)χR (q. and of course they are. χR (rt.1 Dielectric function for translation-invariant system In the translation-invariant case the polarizability can only depend on the diﬀerences of the arguments. ω).42) includes all correlation eﬀects. ω)Eext (q. ω). ω) . −iωρ(q. we obtain −iq · σ(q. (6.ω) = ε−1 (q. but often we must use some approximation to compute the polarizability. 6. t − t ). Here we consider again the translational-invariant case. r t ) = χR (r − r . ω)φext (q. and the continuity equation.5 Summary and outlook We have developed a general method for calculating the response to weak perturbations. and one should therefore expect that they were related. In later chapters we will make extensive use of the dielectric function ε and the polarizability χ. called linear response theory. (6.2 Relation between dielectric function and conductivity Both ε and σ give the response of a system to an applied electromagnetic ﬁeld. ω). (6. where both Eqs. ω) = 1 − i q2 Vc (q)σ(q. i. ω). ω). ω) = −iσ(q. ω) = ωχR (q.ω) = ε(q. is widely used because many experimental . ω)φtot (q.

and one can think of this as probing the individual excitations of the systems.6. In this regime the lack of equilibrium is not important. Because the perturbation is weak it is not necessary to include interactions between these excitations. The general formula is a correlation function of the quantity that we measure and the quantity to which the weak external perturbation couples. when discussing tunneling current between two conductors. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 105 investigations are done in the linear response regime. 12 and 14.5. . Also in the next chapter we will make use of the linear response result. In the case of conductivity we saw that it was the current-current correlation function. These two will be used later in Chaps. and the dielectric response reduces to a charge-charge correlation.

106 CHAPTER 6. LINEAR RESPONSE THEORY .

By coherent we mean that the quantum mechanical coherence length is longer than the sample size. but this we will have to study at some other time. The ﬁeld of mesoscopic transport is interesting in that it combines physics on many length scales.g. and we shall concentrate on the Landauer-B¨ttiker single-particle approach u to conductance of small nanometer-sized coherent systems. and of course the sample size.1) Metallic systems are more diﬃcult to bring into the mesoscopic regime because of their small Fermi wave length.2). L. 2. e. 14. They are all clear manifestations of the wave propagation of electrons through the structures. This chapter deals with the physics of quantum transport which can be understood by invoking the Fermi liquid picture of non-interacting electrons to be discussed in Chap. λF . 107 . When interactions are important another rich ﬁeld of physics appears. typically the range from 50 mK to 4 K. a0 . However.g.2). Fig. The physics of mesoscopic systems is a vast ﬁeld. whereas the more high-tech devices based on semiconductor nanostructures only show quantum eﬀects at low temperatures (see e. 0 . the Fermi wave length of the electron. the length scales for these system are related as a0 λF <L< in . .3. 0 φ (7. 7. there is one relatively simple experiment involving a narrow metallic wire where the conductance as a clear signature of quantum transport decreases in pronounced steps of size 2e2 /h as the wire is stretched and pulled apart. the atomic in Bohr radius. the elastic mean free path. At low temperatures. by electrostatic conﬁnement of two dimensional electron gases (see e. and the phenomena that we discuss in the following all rely on quantum eﬀects. the energy relaxation length. λF ≈ a0 . Typical mesoscopic structures that we have mind are those which are fabricated on semiconductor chips. The important length scales are the coherence length φ . This even happens at room temperature.Chapter 7 Transport in mesoscopic systems In this chapter we give an introduction to electronic transport in mesoscopic structures and it is our ﬁrst in-depth use of the Kubo formalism.g. Sec.

(L). left lead. since the reservoir is a macroscopic conductor. y) = η .E m η = ±1. y ∈ [0. right lead (R). y) ∈ L.2b) (7.E ∗ px η φ (x. m αn. it is more natural to label the states in terms of their energy E rather than as usual their k values.2e) e±ikn (E)x χn (y). the Hamiltonian and the eigenstates with energy E in the leads are given by HL = HR = φ± (x. The wavefunctions φ± have been normalized in a particular manner so that they all carry the same absolute probability current in a given cross section: W 0 dy φη (x.2c) (7. e±ikn (E)x χn (y). The transformation from a discrete to a continuous ˜ set of energy levels looks a bit diﬀerent in the two cases. 1 2 2m py . πny 2 sin . y) = RnE χn (y) = E= 1 kn (E) 1 kn (E) 1 2 2m px + ∞. W W 2 n = 1. In the following φk means a state . and furthermore that the system is two-dimensional. y) αn.3) Because of this normalization. Furthermore.1 The S-matrix and scattering states We consider a mesoscopic sample connected to electron reservoirs in the form of macroscopic metal contacts. mesoscopic region (M). In principle n can be any positive integer. The system is divided into ﬁve regions: left reservoir. In the following we solve for the eigenstates in a geometry similar to Fig. φ . and the phase breaking length. εn = . we can safely assume that electrons entering the reservoir will be thermalized at the temperature and chemical potential of the contact before returning to the mesoscopic sample. By mesoscopic we mean that the size L of the sample region between the two reservoirs is much smaller than the energy relaxation length in .1 illustrates how a contact formed as a “horn” can give a reﬂectionless contact. . . 7.2d) (7. . . but in practice we can introduce a cut-oﬀ at some large value N without aﬀecting the lowest occupied states. (7. much larger than the entrance to the mesoscopic region. that they are identical as in the ﬁgure. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS 7. For simplicity. y) ∈ R. y) = LnE φ± (x.1. (x. In this case. The contact is thus required to be reﬂectionless. Here χn denote the transverse wavefunction and W is the width of the leads. (7. This implies that we can consider the electron motion to be quantum mechanically coherent in this region. 7. N πn 2m W 2 2 2m 2 kn + εn . and right reservoir.2a) (7. (x. W ] otherwise. it is assumed that the left and right leads are perfect straight segments with hard walls. Fig. The quantum number ±1 represents right and left moving states with wavenumber kn (E) = 2m(E − εn )/ 2 . 2.108 CHAPTER 7.

by the density of states.E (x. n an φLn.E (x. Two reﬂectionless contacts each with N channels connect to a mesoscopic region. in the middle region M .7. (x. M .E (x. A given eigenstate with energy E is some linear combination of φ± and φ± in the RnE LnE leads L and R. relating incoming and outgoing electron waves. where a± and b± are some unknown sets of coeﬃcients. y) = n bn φRn. ˜ ˜ φk |A|φk → L k>0 ∞ 0 ∞ dk ˜ ˜ φk |A|φk 2π = 0 ∞ = 0 dk k φk |A|φk 2π dE k φk |A|φk . y) + ψM. y) ∈ M. y).E . a feature particular of one dimension. When solving the Schr¨dinger equation.E (x. (x.4) As we shall see in detail later. 2π dE/dk ∞ 0 = m 2π 2 dE φk |A|φk . ∝ k. We can therefore write an eigenstate as − − + + n an φLn. while φk = eikx / k. but fortunately we need not specify the wavefunction in the complicated region. (7. are in general not easy to ﬁnd. . THE S-MATRIX AND SCATTERING STATES 109 L Left reservoir M mesoscopic sample R b+ bRight reservoir a+ a- Perfect lead with N channels Perfect lead with N channels Figure 7. which in vector form are written n n as a+ = (a+ . n bn φRn. . y). (x. y) ∈ R. y) + − − + + (7. As usual the wavefunction and its 1 2 . a+ . the system is separated in three regions: L.1. . ∝ dk/dE. y) ∈ L.5) ψE (x. y). The eigenfunctions in the middle region. Let us therefore introduce the so-called scattering matrix or S-matrix formalism. φk = eikx / L. that the quantization of the conductance in units of the universal conductance quantum e2 /h is due to the cancellation of the velocity. √ √ ˜ with the usual normalization. and some unknown complicated function φM. R o and M .) and similarly for a− and b± . All we will need is the transmission coeﬃcients.1: The geometry considered in the derivation of the Landauer formula.E (x. The wave function is written as a superposition of incoming and outgoing wave at the two entrances.

y) ∈ L. where the superscript ± refers to the direction from which the incoming wave comes. y) ∈ R. . which relates the amplitudes of outgoing waves. The scattering states are denoted ψ ± . 1. which are states with an incoming wave in one particular lead state. {a± } and {b± }.110 CHAPTER 7.E (x. to incoming waves.e.9) ψnE (x. + + (x. dy χn (y)ψM.E (L.E (x.E (x.E (x. y) ∈ L. 0. ? (x. (x. Similarly the element rnn gives the amplitude for being reﬂected back into the left lead in state n. we will not have to solve such a system of equations unless we want an exact expression for the wavefunction. cin = (0. These equations are n n a+ + a− = n n b+ eikn (E)L + b− e−ikn (E)L = n n a+ − a− = n n b+ eikn (E)L − b− e−ikn (E)L = n n kn (E) kn (E) 1 i kn (E) 1 i kn (E) dy χn (y)ψM. Most of the time. y) ∈ M.E (x. . dy χn (y) ∂x ψM (x. y) + n rn n φRn . .). y) ∈ M. (7. We now deﬁne the so-called scattering states.E (x. In the plus direction (an incoming wave from the left) the scattering states are + − φLn. y). The coeﬃcients of the scattering matrix are of course energy dependent.E (0. L R L R cout ≡ a− b+ = r t t r a+ b− ≡S a+ b− ≡ S cin . A particular useful way of representing the n n linear dependence is through the so-called scattering matrix. or S-matrix. The amplitude for transmission in the opposite direction is given by tnn . y) + n rn n φLn .8) Here the matrix element tnn represents the transmission amplitude for an incoming wave from the left in state n to be transmitted into state n on the right hand side. we suppress this dependence in the notation. φ+ and φ− . . ψnE (x. (7. φ− and φ+ . .E in the middle region this condition gives 4 × N linearly independent equations to determine a± and b± . y).7) Here we have deﬁned the important S-matrix to be a matrix of size 2N × 2N with the N × N reﬂection and transmission matrices as block elements S= r t t r .10) . For a given ψM. y). It is merely written down in order to illustrate the linear dependence of the coeﬃcients. y). . and in the minus direction (an electron incoming from the right hand side) − + φRn. 0. i. (7. . ? (x. (7. (x. y) = n tn n φLn . y) ∈ R. dy χn (y) ∂x ψM. − − (x. y) x=L Fortunately. y). TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS derivative must be continuous. y) = n tn n φRn . y) x=0 .E (x. y).

I(x) cannot depend on x.7.1E L.1E L.11) and hence S† = S−1 .E L. 0 = rt† + t r † = tr† +r t † .e. ← (7.).2E L.1.E (7. an eigenstate with energy E.16) . 0 = r† t + t† r = t † r + r † t. let us look at some properties of the S-matrix. b− ). 7.e.E |a+ |2 − ra+ + t b− 2 ∗ ↔ Jx a+ · φ+ + a− · φ− L. in (7.12) (7. .14) where the arrows indicate to which side the diﬀerential operators are acting. . S−1 = S† . φ+ .15) m . The incoming electron ﬂux n |cin |2 = |cin |2 must equal the outgoing ﬂux n |cout |2 = |cout |2 and therefore c† cout = c† cin out in ⇒ c† (1 − S† S) cin = 0. For a stationary state. In the same way for R we L. The current through a cross section for a given state is.) and φ− = (φ− .E obtain IR (x) = m −|b− |2 + ta+ + r b− 2 . Let us compute I(x) for a state with incoming coeﬃcients cin = (a+ . because to ﬁnd the conductance all we need is the transmission probabilities of electrons. First of all. (1. .E L.1. . ↔ Jx = ↔ → 2mi ∂x − ∂x .2E L. First calculate the current in region L W IL (x) = = 0 dy a+ · φ+ + a− · φ− L.13) We also show the unitarity in a bit more explicit way by calculating the currents on the left and right hand sides of the system. i. and that we can get from the S-matrix. φ− .E L. . (7. Eq. cf. where φ+ = (φ+ . the continuity equation gives ∂x J = −ρ = 0. y). This is a consequence of probability current conservation. which we will make use of below: S† S = 1 and furthermore SS† = 1 ⇔ 1 = r r † +tt† = rr + t t † . W I(x) = 0 dy Ψ∗ (x. THE S-MATRIX AND SCATTERING STATES 111 The wavefunction in the scattering region is not speciﬁed. y)Jx Ψ(x. .e. ˙ i. it must be unitary. (7. This we do because we will need the currents later on anyway. . † ⇔ 1 = r † r + t† t = r † r + t † t .1 Unitarity of the S-matrix Before we calculate the transport properties of a mesoscopic system.99b). i. From the unitarity follows some properties of r and t.

cout φout ). −B −B (7. which is a −B B solution for −B. We can therefore construct new eigen−B states by complex conjugation followed by reversal of the magnetic ﬁeld. because if Ψ(r. because complex conjugation reverses the direction of propagation. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS m m (1 − r† r) · a+ − b− † t †t † b− − 2 Re[ a+ † † r t b− ] t r b− ] .and outgoing wave functions are cnew = c∗ . we have cnew = S−B cnew out in which shows that S−B S∗ = 1 B ⇒ S∗ = S† −B B ⇒ SB = ST . . 7.21) ⇒ c* = S−B c∗ = S−B S∗ c* . Since out out in in Ψnew is a solution for −B. the new in. then we can make a new eigenstate by Ψnew (r) = Ψ∗ (r). the scattering matrix therefore has an additional symmetry besides being unitary: it is also a symmetric matrix.18) ∗ Now. (7.19) or in short: if ΨB (r) is a solution so is Ψ∗ (r). which can be seen experimentally by studying transport with and without an applied magnetic ﬁeld. t) is a solution to the Shr¨dinger equation so is Ψ∗ (r. However. and cnew = c∗ . −B (7. since HB = H−B we see that HB ΨB (r) = E ΨB (r) ⇔ ∗ H−B Ψ∗ (r) = E Ψ∗ (r).12) and hence S is unitary. IL = IR . Suppose we have an eigenstate which is a linear combination of incoming and outgoing waves ΨB (r) = (cin φin .112 or more detailed IL = IR = a+ b+ † CHAPTER 7. A non-zero magnetic ﬁeld B = × A breaks time-reversal symmetry. This has some important consequences for the statistics of S-matrices in disordered systems.17a) (7. This will be of importance when we look at disordered systems below. and in this case the Schr¨dinger equation is o 2 HB ΨB (r) = − 2m r e +i A 2 + V (r) ΨB (r) = E ΨB (r). In that case the scattering matrix is not only unitary o it is also symmetric.17b) † (−1 + r † r )b+ + a+ t† t a+ − 2 Re[ a+ † † From the continuity equation we know that the current on the two sides must be equal. S = ST .20) In case of time-reversal symmetry.1. in out B in (7. (7. and we obtain Eq.2 Time-reversal symmetry Time-reversal symmetry means that H = H ∗ . (7. −t).

This should not be confused with the transmission probabilities. h (7. While the ﬁrst method is more physically appealing. 7. ends up on the other side. There a particular smooth interface between the two reservoirs ensures that Tn changes in a well-controlled manner between 0 and 1. which allows us to calculate the current directly.2 Conductance and transmission coeﬃcients Next we calculate the conductance. the electrons entering the reservoir from the sample are thermalized before returning. 7. i. no energy relaxation takes place there. heuristic derivation u We argued above that if the reservoirs are much wider than the mesoscopic region and its leads. since Tn is a number between 0 and 1 one expect this quantization to show up only for some special geometries where Tn is either 0 or 1. namely in the ﬂuctuations of conductance. since the mesoscopic region is deﬁned to be phase coherent. by the sum of transmission probabilities G= 2e2 h Tn = n 2e2 Tr[t† t]. The number of quanta will be the number of channels connecting the two sides.e.7. the probability that an electron in a given incoming state. This is discussed in Sec. This probability is Tn = t† t nn . the left reservoir maintain their distribution function equal to that of that reservoir. and consequently electrons originating from. i.22) where Tn are the eigenvalues of the matrix t† t.3.2.1 The Landauer-B¨ ttiker formula.4. This will be done in two diﬀerent ways: ﬁrst we will argue on physical grounds that the population of the scattering state is given by the equilibrium distribution function of the reservoir. one could get in doubt if the Pauli principle is treated correctly. is very simple and u physically sensible: the conductance of a mesoscopic sample is given by the sum of all the transmission possibilities a given electron has. Furthermore. These ﬂuctuations are universal in the sense that they have an amplitude of the order e2 /h independent of the average conductance. The linear response result shows that indeed the ﬁrst method gave the right answer.3. but when summing over all incoming states n we in fact get. Therefore it is natural to express the occupation of the scattering ± eigenstates ψnε by two diﬀerent distribution functions f ± and the chemical potentials µL/R . fortunately. However.e. and. there are other examples where the conductance quantum e2 /h shows up. This is in fact what happens for the quantum point contact. (7. we calculate the conductance using linear response theory. However. n. The Landauer-B¨ttiker formula tells us that the conductance of a mesoscopic sample u is quantized in units of 2e2 /h.1. CONDUCTANCE AND TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTS 113 7. the celebrated Landauer-B¨ttiker formula. which is discussed below in Sec. n Tn = n Tn .22) in terms of Tn or Tn as we please. Secondly. we ﬁnd the same result. 7. So we can write Eq. Thus all electrons entering from the contacts are distributed according to the FermiDirac distribution nF of the given reservoirs. The answer we ﬁnd. i. then we can assume reﬂectionless transmission from the leads to the reservoirs.e. at least in the linear response limit.2. say.

Here we have assumed that the spin u degrees of freedom are degenerate which gives rise to a simple factor of two. (7. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS f + (ε) = nF (ε − µL ). (7. CHAPTER 7. In order to dismiss any concern about this point.23) Now it is a simple matter to calculate the current through the mesoscopic system. (7. or M . we choose to do so in the perfect leads L or R where the wavefunctions are known.28). For |eV | = |µR −µL | µ. Let us look at the current in the left lead: I = IL = e nk ± The currents carried by a scattering state ψnε can be read oﬀ from Eqs. (7. we can calculate it in either of the regions L.27) for current relies on the fact that the scattering states are eigenstates of the system. If they are not degenerate the trace must also include a trace over the spin degrees of freedom. Naturally. but at low voltages V and temperatures T we can assume Tn to be energy independent and the integral can be done. and the current can be written as I= e 2π ∞ 0 dE Tr t† tE E nF (E − µL ) − nF (E − µR ) . R.17b) +) = δ − by substituting (a n nn for a state moving in the positive direction and (b )n = δnn for a state moving in the negative direction. (7. The expression Eq. We get + Ink = ˜− ˜+ Ink f + (Enk ) + Ink f − (Enk ) . (7. (7. as one would normally do in a Boltzmann equation.114 of the relevant reservoirs. (7.26) m m nn nn Transforming to an energy integral as in Eq.13).17a) and (7. . Because of current conservation. (7. we have stressed the energy dependence of the transmission matrix. where µ is the equilibrium electrochemical potential. but rather about the thermal population of eigenmodes. Thus we are not talking about a scattering event from one reservoir to the other. Once a state is occupied in one lead. the next section is devoted to a derivation of Eq. it is automatically also occupied in the other. (7. the current is therefore simply I= e 2π ∞ − Ink = − dE n 0 t† t nn nF (E − µL ) − t † t nn nF (E − µR ) . 6. which means that we should not include any kind of blocking factors (1 − nF ) to ensure that the ﬁnal state is empty.28) In Eq. n (7. (7. (7.4).27) The sum over diagonal elements of t† t is nothing but the trace.24) m 1 − r† r nn = m t† t nn . we Taylor expand around µ and ﬁnd after integration From spin I= 2 e2 V Tr t† tE E h ⇒ G= 2e2 2e2 Tr t† t = h h Tn .29) This is the famous Landauer-B¨ttiker formula.25) t †t = −1 + r † r .22) from ﬁrst principles using the linear response formalism of Chap. The unitarity condition Eq. f − (ε) = nF (ε − µR ). then leads to Tr[t † t ] =Tr[t† t].

Inserting this |jλλ (x )|2 n (Eλ ) − nF (Eλ ) . which means that the quantum number λ is speciﬁed by λ = {E. λ → nη 2π ~2 and setting T = 0 such that −∂nF (E)/∂E = δ(E − EF ).33) where we used that c† cλ λ into Eq.36) . y) ∂ x − ∂ x ψλ (x. I(x. Changing the sum over eigenstates to integrals over energy.ηη |jnηEF . the conductance becomes G(0) = −2 e2 π m 2π 2 2 nn . CONDUCTANCE AND TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTS 115 7. 0) 0 = νν jνν (x ) λλ jλλ (x )ei(Eλ −Eλ )t/~ c† cλ . I(x .2. linear response derivation u Our starting point is Eq.n η EF (x )|2 . c† cν ν λ 0 = λλ |jλλ (x )|2 ei(Eλ −Eλ )t/~ nF (Eλ ) − nF (Eλ ) . (7. We start by calculating the commutator in Eq. rendering G independent of x.31) expressing the conductance G in terms of the currentcurrent correlation function. (6.) In second quantization the current operator is given by I(x) = λλ jλλ (x) c† cλ . (7. (7. η = ±}. ( ω + iη + Eλ − Eλ ) F 2e2 Im ω (7.e.32) jλλ (x) = 2mi where we choose {ψλ } as a set of eigenstates.7. (Again we consider the spin degenerate case which is the reason for the factor of two. λ ∗ dy ψλ (x. (7. 0)] 0 .2 The Landauer-B¨ ttiker formula. G(ω) = − 2e2 Im ω ∞ −∞ dt ei(ω+iη)t (−i)Θ(t) [I(x. → ← (7. ω → 0.31) (7. and that jλλ (x ) = (jλ λ (x ))∗ . and where jλλ is a matrix element of the current operator.30) where the current operator I(x) due to current conservation can be evaluated at any cross section x in the perfect leads.30) I(x . i. one has G(0) = −2 e2 π λλ |jλλ (x )|2 − ∂nF (Eλ ) ∂Eλ δ (Eλ − Eλ ) .34) λλ and in the dc-limit.35) m dE. t).2. We will of course use the scattering states that we found above as our basis. (7. t). (7.30) yields G(ω) = − 0 = δλλ nF (Eλ ). n. y).

see Fig. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS Due to current conservation the current matrix elements jnηEF .13). until only one remains.n η EF (x ) are independent of x .1 Electron wave guides Quantum point contact and conductance quantization One of the most striking consequences of the Landauer-B¨ttiker formula for conductance is u that the conductance of a perfect channel is 2e2 /h. 7.10b. Suppose there is a smooth constriction between two electron reservoirs. h (7. has been removed. Hence we get |jnηEF . (7. and any doubt about the validity of the treatment of the occupation factor in the heuristic derivation.116 CHAPTER 7.3 7. Smooth here means a horn-like shape were the curvature at all points is large compared to the wavelength of the wave which is going to be transmitted through the horn.39) which again is the Landauer-B¨ttiker formula. This has been experimentally tested in numerous experiments and it is now a well-established fact. each step being of height 2e2 /h. The technique they used was a socalled splitgate geometry where a set of metallic gate electrodes was put on top of a twodimensional electron gas such that a narrow contact between the two sides of the 2DEG was formed. respectively.2. As the width decreases quantum channels are squeezed out one by one. We will now see how this nice eﬀect can happen. see Fig. 7.38) Tr t† t . but there is in prino ciple no diﬀerence between the electron wave guide and horn wave guides used in loud .37) where the rows and columns correspond to η = +1 and −1. The ﬁrst experiments showing this was done by groups in Delft (Holland) and Cambridge (England) in 1988. leading to a staircase of conductance. and we evaluate them in the L or R region at our convenience.n η EF (x )|2 = nn . By applying voltage to the gates the width of the constriction could be controlled very accurately. The ﬁnal result is therefore I = − 2e2 Tr t† t h dx E(x ) = 2e2 Tr t† t V. and if there are N “perfect” channels it is N 2e2 /h. We have thus seen that it can be derived u microscopically. (7.3. The relevant wave equation for an electron horn is of course the Schr¨dinger equation.n η EF (x ) = t† t m nn nn t† r −t † t nn nn − t †r ≡ m j. 2.ηη 2 m 2 Tr j† j Tr 2 = =2 m m t† t 2 + t †t 2 + r † tt† r + r† t t † r (7. We obtain jnηEF . after using the result Eq.

y) = E Ψ(x.7. The upper left panel is a picture of the surface of an GaAs chip with an etched point contact structure.3 K) the conductance shows clear steps at integer values of 2e2 /h. (7. being solutions of the transverse Schr¨dinger equation. but you might say a very striking one.42) . The Schr¨dinger equation for the quantum point contact geometry is o 2 − 2m 2 2 ∂x + ∂y + Vconf (x. (7. ELECTRON WAVE GUIDES 117 Figure 7. y) is the conﬁnement potential. as are the expansion coeﬃcients φn (x). y) χnx (y) = εn (x)χnx (y). (7. o 2 − 2m 2 ∂y + Vconf (x.2: An experiment on quantized conductance. The right panel shows the conductance versus sidegate voltage. y). Had the conﬁnement potential been rectangular we would have eigenstates as φ± in Eq. At the lowest temperature (1. speakers. (7. y) = φn (x)χnx (y).3. Because the change along the x-direction is assumed to be smooth. Ψ(x. The device was fabricated and measured at the Ørsted Laboratory. The lower left panel is an zoom-in of this structure recorded in an electron microscope.40) where Vconf (x. By clever design this point contact yields a particularly large subband splitting. which is why the conductance quantization persists up to “high” temperatures of the order 20 K. Niels Bohr Institute. we try to separate the motion in longitudinal and transverse motion. {χn (x)} forms a complete set. water waves or other wave phenomena.2b).41) n This is always possible at any given ﬁxed x since. Inspired by that we expand the wave function in terms of the transverse eigenstates χnx (y) which however are x-dependent now. So the quantized conductance is nothing but a manifestation of the wave nature of a quantum particle. y) Ψ(x.

it is transmitted through without reﬂection.41) into Eq. i. In the case of hard walls.47) .46) with the corresponding eigenenergies εn (x) = 2 π2 2m [d(x)]2 n2 . ∂x χn x (y) ≈ 0.e. yields 2 − where 2 2m 2 ∂x + εn (x) φn (x) = Eφn (x) + δn . i.118 CHAPTER 7. Vconf (x. the maximum of εn (x). nx 2 (7.e.44) As mentioned. otherwise not. The width of constriction and thereby the height of εn (x) is controlled by a voltage applied to the gate electrodes. (7. often referred to as the adiabatic approximation. y) = 0 for y ∈ [−d(x)/2. (7. (7. Inserting Eq.45) the transverse wavefunctions are the well-known wavefunction for a particle in a box χnx (y) = 2 sin d(x) πn(y − d(x)/2) d(x) .43) δn = m n 1 2 dyχ∗ (y) (∂x φn (x)) (∂x χn x (y)) + φn (x)∂x χn x (y) . (7.3: Illustration of the adiabatic contact giving rise to an eﬀective one-dimensional barrier. (7. ∞ otherwise. d(x)/2]. y. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS Closed channel Energy Gate E ε n+1(x) ε n(x) Gate x Open channel x Figure 7.40) and multiplying from the left with χ∗ (y) followed by nx integration over the transverse direction. It means that the derivative of the transverse mode with respect to longitudinal direction is neglected. the fundamental approximation we wanted to impose was the smooth geometry approximation. (7. When the energy of the incident electron is larger than the maximum transverse kinetic energy.

(7. This is roughly n what is seen experimentally. n n (7. such we end up with an eﬀective onedimensional problem of decoupled modes. Using this potential it can be shown that the transmission probability has a particular simple form. The essence of the adiabatic approximation is that d (x) 1.e. where εmax is changed by changing the width of the constricn tion through the voltage of the gate electrodes. Experiments using the splitgate geometry indeed show that the conductance traces (meaning conductance versus gate voltage) are well described by Eq. If. however. where the conﬁnement potential is modelled by 1 1 2 2 (7. Obviously the WKB approximation breaks down if p(x) is too small. namely 1 Tn (E) = .49) which is a solution to Eq. ELECTRON WAVE GUIDES 119 Taking the derivative ∂x χn x (y). Let x = 0 be the position in the constriction where this is most narrow.52) 1 exp π E − V0 − (n + 2 ) ωx / ωy + 1 For this model the smearing of the conductance steps thus has the form of a Fermi function. 2 2 where V0 is a constant. which obey the 1D Schr¨dinger equation o with an energy barrier εn (x) 2 − 2m 2 ∂x + εn (x) φn (x) = Eφn (x).51) Vconf (x. (7. we have r = 0 and hence |t| = 1. .3.48) The transverse direction has thus been translated into an eﬀective 1D barrier. i. the mode n cannot transmit (neglecting tunneling through the barrier. at this place is larger than E. The shape of the smearing will in general depend on the geometry of the constriction and is. we would expect some smearing of the step. which results in a step structure of the conductance as a function of εmax .52). in contrast to the step heights. In this case we can directly read oﬀ the transmission amplitude because in the notation used for the scattering states. (7. which happens when EF = εn (0). y) = mωy y 2 − mωx x2 + V0 . 7. of course). it is smaller than E the mode has suﬃcient energy to pass over the barrier and get through the constriction. The conductance is therefore G= 2e2 h Θ(EF − εmax ). we can use the WKB approximation result for the wavefunction φn (x) ≈ φWKB (x) = n 1 p(x) x exp i −∞ dx p(x )/ .50) All subbands with energy smaller than EF contribute with one conductance quantum.3. εmax ≡ εn (0). (7. For smooth barriers. If the transverse kinetic energy.7. The saddle point model can be thought of as a quadratic expansion of the conﬁnement potential near its maximum. not universal. (7. φn . this is illustrated in Fig.48) if |p (x)/ p2 (x)| 1. A useful model is the so-called saddle point model for the constriction. Right at the point where a new channel opens. will give something proportional to d (x). dmin = d(0). p(x) = 2m(E − εn (x)). The barrier is there because some of the kinetic energy is bound into the transverse motion.

because of interference between path 1 and path 2.55 T = 0.4: A device which shows Aharonov-Bohm eﬀect.3. path 2 (7. The interference is modulated by magnetic ﬂux enclosed by the paths.32 K G (e 2/h) 2.54) . 7. In that case the transmission coeﬃcient is given by a sum corresponding to the two paths t ∝ exp −i e r path 1 dl · A + eiφ0 exp −i e r dl · A .50 2.40) as in Eq. (7.e.53) We now approximate the line integral by an integral following the center of the waveguides and furthermore assume ideal adiabatic arms.18). (7. where the left panel shows the experimental realization.2 Aharonov-Bohm eﬀect A particular nice example of interference eﬀects in mesoscopic systems is the AharonovBohm eﬀect.49). Both the device fabrication and the measurements have been performed at the Ørsted Laboratory. Because of the applied B-ﬁeld we must add a vector potential A to the Schr¨dinger equation Eq.120 CHAPTER 7. This is shown in the bottom part. while the right panel depicts the conductance versus B-ﬁeld trace.60 2. i.70 2.45 2.30 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 B (mT) Figure 7. (7.65 2.35 2. 7.40 2. no backscattering. Each of the arms in the ring could be an adiabatic wave guide. (7. The geometry is illustrated in Fig. At small magnetic ﬁelds we can neglect o the orbital changes induced by B in the arms of the ring and absorb the vector potential due to the B-ﬁeld through the hole of the ring as a phase factor ΨB=0 (r) = ΨB=0 (r) exp −i e r dl · A . where the wave function can be assumed to be of the form in Eq.4. where an applied magnetic ﬁeld B is used to control the phase of two interfering paths. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS path 1 B path 2 2.

Fig.55) where Φ is the ﬂux enclosed and Φ0 = h/2e is the ﬂux quantum. shape.g. respectively. The conductance will oscillate as with the applied magnetic. experiments on disordered “quantum dots”. This statistical method is known as random matrix theory (RMT).4. as a function of any external parameter (e. which means that all parts of the phase-space are visited with equal probability.4 Disordered mesoscopic systems In this section we shall study disordered mesoscopic systems. One cannot precisely neither locate nor control the positions of the impurities. but because the system is disordered it makes little sense to talk about the conductance for speciﬁc sample geometries.g. namely weak localization and universal conductance ﬂuctuations.5. Such ensembles have been studied for a long time. 7. 7.1 Statistics of quantum conductance. 7. This important phenomenon is known as level repulsion. (7. Note that the eﬀect persists even if there is no magnetic ﬁeld along the electron trajectories. In fact. Again we use the Landauer-B¨ttiker to calculate the u conductance.4. or density) the energy levels avoid to cross one another. The transmission probability now becomes |t|2 ∝ 1 + cos φ0 − e r dl · A path 1+2 = 1 + cos φ0 − π Φpath 1+2 Φ0 . This means that all unitary matrixes are equally likely. Instead one studies the statistical properties of the conductance for an ensemble of systems. DISORDERED MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS 121 where φ0 is some phase shift due to diﬀerent length of the two arms.5 shows an example of a disorder mesoscopic system.4. In order to understand these two phenomena. Quantum mechanically this means that there are no symmetries and hence no systematic degeneracies of energy levels. It cannot be a surprise that the classical motion in such a geometry is expected to be chaotic and the system to be ergodic. The matrix elements of the Hamiltonians are assumed to follow a Gaussian distribution. or in other words the distribution P (S) . initially atomic nuclei containing a large number of nucleons. See Fig. which is a manifestation of the non-locality of quantum mechanics. The experiments we have in mind are e.7. see Fig. The average and the variance of the conductance will turn out to exhibit interesting quantum phenomena. 7. a signature of quantum interference. The basic assumption being made is that the Hamiltonians describing each of the systems of the ensemble are drawn randomly according to some probability distribution only constrained by the symmetry of the system. magnetic ﬁeld. 7. we must ﬁrst learn about how to average over S-matrices. which is a mesoscopic region connected to reservoirs just as we have discussed above where the Landauer-B¨ttiker u formula was derived. and from this one can argue that the S-matrix follows the so-called circular ensemble distribution. Experiments have veriﬁed this picture. random matrix theory Let us consider the statistical properties of some ensemble of disordered or chaotic systems inﬂuenced by some external parameter.

These correlations however become less important in limit of large M . while the last term corrects for that because the unitarity condition gives some constraints on the elements of U.58) The method to derive these result is to utilize f (U) = f (U0 U) = f (UU0 ) . . We skip the derivation and simply list the ﬁrst few moments of a random unitary matrix of dimension M = 2N : Uαβ = 0. The ﬁrst term in Eq. 1 ∗ δαβ δab . but simply say that since we have no information about the scattering matrix the most sensible thing to assume is that all scattering matrices in U(2N ) will appear with equal probability only subject to normalization conditions and symmetry constraints. Here we will not be concerned with the microscopic justiﬁcation for the ensemble averaging.5: Disordered quantum dot geometry. For the time-reversal symmetry case.56) (7. The TR case can be realized by writing S = UUT . dot boundaries or Fermi energy. in sense that it is the distribution which maximizes the entropy and hence is the ensemble with “maximal randomness”. (7.57) (7. The averaged over diﬀerent geometries could be an average over positions of impurities. This claim can also be justiﬁed by “entropy” considerations.122 CHAPTER 7. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS Disordered quantum dot Impurity Figure 7. By suitable choice of U0 the various averages can be derived.58) is equivalent to assuming the real and imaginary parts of Uαa to be independent. of scattering matrices S is uniform in the group of unitary matrices of size 2N × 2N. denoted U(2N ). where U ∈ U(2N ). we are therefore restricted to symmetric members of U(2N ). Uαa Uβb = M 1 ∗ ∗ Uαa Uα a Uβb Uβ b = 2 δαβ δab δα β δa b + δαβ δab δα β δa b M −1 1 δαβ δab δα β δa b + δαβ δab δα β δa b . which for any ﬁxed unitary matrix U0 is a consequence of the constant probability assumption. − M (M 2 − 1) (7.

u and we can ﬁnd the weak localization correction not for an individual sample but for an ensemble of samples using random matrix theory of the S-matrix. which comes from the last term in Eq. (7. if a B-ﬁeld is applied or not. the series connection between two leads with N channels δG G N = 2 − = 2e2 /h 2e /h 2 N − 2(2N +1) 0 .4.59) The result now depends on whether time-reversal symmetry is present or not.58). (7. The origin of this eﬀect was found to be the constructive interference between time-reversed pairs of paths beginning and ending in the same point in space. (7. (7.7. for B = 0.4.61) h n=1 m=N +1 i=1 j=1 and now applying Eq. In this case the coherence length is larger than the sample. we have G B=0 = = 2e2 h N 2N 2N 2N (δij + δmn δij ) 1 − n=1 m=N +1 i=1 j=1 1 2N 1 4N 2 −1 (7.62) (7.55). The average conductance is therefore 2e2 G = Tr t† t h 2e2 = h N 2N ∗ Smn Smn .57) directly 2e2 N 2e2 2 1 N = .e. First take the case of broken time-reversal symmetry. Writing S = UUT we get N 2N 2N 2N 2e2 ∗ ∗ G B=0 = Umi Uni Umj Unj .58). (7.e. Also mesoscopic systems exhibit weak localization. (7. for B = 0. 14. Of course in reality the transition from the B = 0 to the ﬁnite B-ﬁeld case is a smooth transition. . DISORDERED MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS 123 7. i. h 2N + 1 which is smaller than the B = 0 result. (7.63) 2e2 1 2N 3 2−1 h 4N 1− 1 2N = 2e2 N 2 . The transition happens when the ﬂux enclosed by a typical trajectory is of order the ﬂux quantum. hence the conductance is given by the S-matrix through the Landauer-B¨ttiker formula.64) This result clearly shows that quantum corrections. It is natural to compare the conductance with the classical conductance i. It is important to realize that the weak localization correction survives ensemble averaging. which we saw from the arguments leading to Eq. give a reduced conductance and that the quantum coherence is destroyed by a magnetic ﬁeld.2 Weak localization in mesoscopic systems In Sec. n=1 m=N +1 (7. . B = 0.60) G B=0 = h 2N h 2 The case B = 0 means that in addition to unitarity S is also symmetric. In this case there is no other constraints on S than that it is unitary and there we can use Eq.4 studied the weak localization in self-averaging macroscopic samples.

and a suggestive derivation is as follows. In fact one can show from RMT that the statistical measure vanishes when two eigenvalues coincide.65) after suitable normalization. For a completely random system without any symmetries.67) For f constant. then the ﬂuctuations in the number of open channels √ √ would be N0 . This is not seen experimentally.3 Universal conductance ﬂuctuations The ﬂuctuations of the conductance contains some interesting information about the nature of the eigenstates of a chaotic system. so that δG = (2e2 /h) N0 . which is the physical reason for the “universal” behavior. corresponding to N0 open channels. Historically the study of these ﬂuctuations were the ﬁrst in the ﬁeld of mesoscopic transport.65) for the case with time-reversal symmetry. It is an experimental fact that the ﬂuctuations turn out to be independent of the size of the conductance itself. times the probability that there was no eigenvalues in the interval [0. x (7. we do not expect degeneracies to occur. Assuming “linear repulsion” f (x) ∝ x. x]: x P (x)dx = exp − 0 dx f (x ) f (x)dx. the reason being that the transmission probabilities are not independent. (7. we get Eq.66) and hence P (x) = f (x) exp − 0 dx f (x ) . 2N 1 (7. one would expect that if the average conductance is G = N0 (2e2 /h).124 CHAPTER 7. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS 7. Naively. In the following we calculate the ﬂuctuations of G using the statistical RMT for the S-matrix as outlined above. The ﬂuctuation of the conductance in the non-TRS case are G2 B=0 = 2e2 h 2e2 h 2e2 h 2 N 2N N 2N ∗ ∗ Smn Smn Sm n Sm n . the probability for the next eigenvalue to be at x can be shown to be P (x) = π π x exp − x2 . This is called the Wigner surmise. 2 4 (7. for N 1 (δnn + δmm ) . which has given rise to the name universal conductance ﬂuctuations (UCF). They were observed experimentally around 1980 and explained theoretically about ﬁve years later. n=1 m=N +1 n =1 m =N +1 2 N 2N N 2N = = 1 4N 2 2 n=1 m=N +1 n =1 m =N +1 2 4 2 2 −1 1+ 1 + δmm δnn − 1 4N 2 . f (x) dx. then P (x) dx is the probability of ﬁnding an eigenvalue at x. we recover the Poisson distribution result. Given an eigenvalue x = 0.68) N ≈ 4N 2 − 1 2e h N 2 . The ﬂuctuations of the number √ of eigenvalues in a given interval is therefore far from 1/ N . The number of conducting channels in a given energy window does therefore not follow a Poisson distribution. (7.4. Suppose that the probability of ﬁnding an eigenvalue in dx is f (x) dx.

(Cambridge University Press). The inset shows the geometry of the quantum dot. (7.70) The variance is thus independent of the average value of G and furthermore it is expected to decrease by a factor of 2 when a magnetic ﬁeld is applying. Lett. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 125 Figure 7.6. 1995. 74. 8 for N 1. which has additional gates by which the shape can be changed. (7.6: Variance of the conductance of a quantum dot as a function of magnetic ﬁeld. 7. Phys. Datta. 3876 (1995). Text books: 1. and the variance is B=0 (2e2 /h)2 δG2 ≈ 1 .5. The trace is taken at 30 mK.69) A similar calculation for the B = 0 case gives B=0 (2e2 /h)2 δG2 1 ≈ . After Chan et al. The decrease of the variance when the time-reversal symmetry is broken by the magnetic ﬁeld is clearly seen and the decreases by approximately a factor of 2 is in agreement with the theory. 16 for N 1. .5 Summary and outlook Below we list a few text books and review papers about mesoscopic physics. Rev. 7.7. S. Indeed this is what is seen experimentally for example as shown in Fig.. Electronic transport in mesoscopic systems.

The statistical theory of quantum dots. Transport in nanostructures. van Ruitenbeek. Turnbull. 1991. 895 (2000) . eds. Solid State Physics 44. Beenakker. Beenakker and H. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS 2. 2.M. Review of Modern Physics 69. Goodnick. Alhassid. Quantum transport in semiconductor nanostructures. (Academic Press). 731 (1997). Ehrenreich and D. 1995. Conductance quantisation in metallic point contacts. Review papers: 1. Review of Modern Physics 72. Ferry and S. Random-matrix theory of quantum transport.W. C.M. van Houten. 3. 4.126 CHAPTER 7.J. H. Y. C.J. cond-mat/9910394. J.K. (Cambridge University Press).W. D.

(8. It has a long history with numerous applications. i.1) ε0 It turns out to be a good idea instead to look for the solution G of a related but simpler diﬀerential equation 2 (8. To illustrate the idea of the method let us consider the familiar problem of ﬁnding the electrical potential φ given a ﬁxed charge distribution. we want to solve Poisson’s equation 1 2 φ(r) = − ρe (r).2). This is a good idea because once we have found G(r).4) dk ik·r e G(k) = − (2π)3 dk eik·r 1 =− . The easiest way to ﬁnd G(r) is by Fourier transformation.3) we obtain the well-known potential created by a charge distribution 1 ρe (r ) φ(r) = dr .1) is easily veriﬁed by letting 2 act directly on the r integrand and then use Eq.Chapter 8 Green’s functions 8.1 “Classical” Green’s functions The Green’s function method is a very useful method in the theory of ordinary and partial diﬀerential equations. (8. (8. 3 k2 (2π) 4πr (8.5) When inserting this into (8. the electrical potential r follows as 1 dr G(r − r )ρe (r ). G(r) is called the Green’s function for the Laplace operator. 2 .3) φ(r) = − ε0 That this is a solution to Eq. where δ(r) is the Dirac delta function. which immediately gives −k 2 G(k) = 1 and hence G(r) = ⇒ G(k) = − 1 . k2 (8.e. (8. ρe .2) r G(r) = δ(r).6) 4πε0 |r − r | 127 . (8.

E)V (r )ΨE (r ). E) = δ(r − r ). r ) G0 (r . where the inverse Green’s function is a function of two arguments. 0 1 .12) where Ψ0 is an eigenstate to H0 with eigenenergy E.11) into the G−1 ψE term of Eq. It is natural to identify the operator [E − H0 (r)] as the inverse of G0 (r. r). and where we want to treat V as a perturbation.e. r . (8. G0 (r. This situation is relevant for scattering problems where a ﬂux of incoming particles (described by H0 ) interacts with a system (described by V ). 0 and by inspection we see that the solution may be written as an integral equation ΨE (r) = Ψ0 (r) + E dr G0 (r. r .9). Here we consider the case of an open system.10) (8. E) G0 (r. r ) = G0 (r . GREEN’S FUNCTIONS 8.10) and 0 then using Eq. (8. (8. In order to solve the Schr¨dinger equation.8) with the boundary condition. 0 0 Now the Schr¨dinger equation can be rewritten as o G−1 (r. The Green’s R In order to emphasize the matrix structure we could have written this as dr G−1 (r.11) by iteration. The procedure outlined below is then a systematic way of calculating the eﬀect of the interaction between the “beam” and the “target” on the outgoing states. E)V (r )Ψ0 (r ) + O V 2 . r .9) This is veriﬁed by inserting ψE from Eq. What we have generated by the E iteration procedure is nothing but the ordinary (non-degenerate) perturbation theory.11) (8.2 Green’s function for the one-particle Schr¨dinger equao tion Green’s functions are particular useful for problems where one looks for perturbation theory solutions. and up to ﬁrst order in V the solution is ΨE (r) = Ψ0 (r) + E dr G0 (r. E) − V (r) ΨE = 0. The interaction induces transitions from the incoming state to diﬀerent outgoing states. Consider for example the Schr¨dinger equation o [H0 (r) + V (r)] ΨE = EΨE .7) where we know the eigenstates of H0 . there is a continuum of states and hence we are free to choose any E. (8. E) = E − H0 (r) or G−1 (r. r ) = (E − H0 (r))δ(r − r ). E (8. r ) and therefore we write1 G−1 (r. (8. The next leading terms are also easily found by continuing the iteration procedure. r ) = 0 δ(r − r ). (8. we deﬁne the corresponding Green’s funco tion by the diﬀerential equation [E − H0 (r)] G0 (r. But in the r-representation it is in fact diagonal G−1 (r. r . (8. E) = δ(r − r ). i. One can now solve the integral equation Eq.128 CHAPTER 8.

2. t. t ) = δ(r − r )δ(t − t ). t) + dr dt G(r.15b) (r. r . (8. H = H0 + V . t) = Ψ0 (r. From these building blocks we easily build the solution of the time dependent Schr¨dinger o equation. (8.19) Noting that the last parenthesis is nothing but G itself we have derived the so-called Dyson equation G = G0 + G0 V G. (8. we see that the full Green’s function G is given by G = G0 + G0 V G0 + G0 V G0 V G0 + · · · = G0 + G0 V G0 + G0 V G0 + · · · . As for the static case in Eq. (8. t ). G0 . see Exercise 7. we continue to study the case of non-interaction particles some more and include time dependence. t )V (r )Ψ(r .15a) (8. t) = i∂t − H0 (r) 0 G −1 (8. Before we introduce the many-body Green’s function in the next section. r . as simple building blocks from which the solutions of more complicated problems can be build. Similar to Eq.17) which both can be shown by inspection. (8. (8. t ) = δ(r − r )δ(t − t ). r . The time dependent Schr¨dinger equation is o [i∂t − H0 (r) − V (r)] Ψ(r.11) we can iterate the solution and get Ψ = Ψ0 + G0 V Ψ0 + G0 V G0 V Ψ0 + G0 V G0 V G0 V Ψ0 + · · · = Ψ0 + G0 + G0 V G0 + G0 V G0 V G0 + · · · V Ψ0 . t. t ).1.14b) (8. [i∂t − H0 (r) − V (r)] G(r. t. GREEN’S FUNCTION FOR THE ONE-PARTICLE SCHRODINGER EQUATION129 function method is thus useful for this kind of iterative calculations and one can regard the Green’s function of the unperturbed system.8) we deﬁne the Green’s functions by [i∂t − H0 (r)] G0 (r. t) = i∂t − H0 (r) − V (r).17). t )V (r )Ψ0 (r . First we observe that the following self-consistent expression is a solution to Eq.13) (8. t. The inverse of the Green’s functions are thus G−1 (r. (8. t) = 0. Again we consider the case where the Hamiltonian has a free particle part H0 of some perturbation V .¨ 8.18) where the integration variables have been suppressed.16) or in terms of the full Green’s function Ψ(r.14a) (8. r . (8. t) = Ψ0 (r. t) + dr dt G0 (r. By comparison with Eq.13) Ψ(r. (8.20) .

25) Propagation from one point to another in quantum mechanics is generally expressed in terms of transmission amplitudes.22) the Green’s function expresses the amplitude for the particle to be in state |r at time t. As a simple example we end this section by a typical scattering problem in one dimension. It is also often called a propagator because it propagates the wavefunction. t exp(ikx).23) r|φn G(nt. (8. That the Green’s function is nothing but a propagator is immediately clear when we write is it as G(rt. located between x > 0 and x < L. (8. the proof being left as an exercise. (8. if the wavefunction is know at some time then the wavefunction at later times is given by Ψ(r. (8. t) we have deﬁned here is the non-interaction version of the retarded single particle Green’s function that will be introduced in the following section. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS This equation will play and important role when we introduce the Feynman diagrams later in the course. suppose it was in a state |φn and time t then the propagator for ending in state |φn is G(nt.g. Here t is the transmission amplitude. The Dyson equation can also be derived directly from Eqs. Eq.e. r t ) = −iθ(t − t ) n r|φn φn |r e−iEn (t−t ) .26) . for x > L. e. Looking at Eq.14b).14) by multiplying Eq.130 CHAPTER 8. (8. (8. n t ) = −iθ(t − t ) φn |e−iH(t−t ) |φn .21) into the Schr¨dinger equation and using the o deﬁnition Eq. r t ) = nn (8. given that it was in the state |r at time t . then the Green’s function becomes G(rt. the incoming wave is for x < 0 given by exp(ikx) while the outgoing wave on the other side x > L is given t exp(ikx). (8. t) = dr dt G(rt.24) If we choose the basis state |φn as the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian. The eigenstates are for this example thus given by ψ(k) = exp(ikx). The Green’s function G(r. n t ) φn |r .14b).14b) with G0 from the left. (8. r t )Ψ(r .2. i. (8. The Green’s function are related by a simple change of basis G(rt. We could of course calculate the propagator in a diﬀerent basis.21) which can be checked by inserting Eq. (8. see Exercise 7. (8. r t ) = −iθ(t − t ) r|e−iH(t−t ) |r . for x < 0. t ).22) which indeed is a solution of the partial diﬀerential equation deﬁning the Green’s function. Consider an electron incident on a barrier.

x > L and x < 0. σ G< (rσt. When we deﬁne the many-body Green’s functions it is not immediately clear that they are solutions to diﬀerential equations as for the Schr¨dinger equation Green’s o functions deﬁned above. 8.30a) (8.28) and the one for the propagator for the one particle wavefunction.27) where G0 is the Green’s function in the absence of the scattering potential. r σ t ) . There are various types of single-particle Green’s functions. The Green’s functions contain only part of the full information carried by the wave functions of the systems but they include the relevant information for the given problem.F is deﬁned as [A. x .30b) We see that the retarded Green’s function can be written in terms of these two functions as GR (rσt. · · · ]B. For non-interacting particles they are indeed identical.22). B] = AB − BA. (8. (8. The retarded Green’s function is deﬁned as GR (rσt. The second type of single-particle Green’s functions is the so-called greater and lesser Green’s functions G> (rσt. (8. r σ t ) = −i Ψσ (rt)Ψ† (r t ) . (8. in Eq. r σ t ) = θ t − t G> (rσt. r σ t ) − G< (rσt. also called Green’s functions. r σ t ) = −iθ t − t [Ψσ (rt). σ (8. x t ) = t G0 (x. From this example it is evident that the Green’s function contains information about the transmission amplitudes for the particle. But as you will see later they are in fact solutions of equations of motions with similar structure justifying calling them Green’s functions. Let us simply carry on and deﬁne the diﬀerent types of Green’s functions that we will be working with. B]B = [A.F . Ψ† (r t )]B. SINGLE-PARTICLE GREEN’S FUNCTIONS OF MANY-BODY SYSTEMS 131 When this is inserted into Eq. they are truly many-body objects because they describe the propagation of single particles . σ B : bosons F : fermions (8.3 Single-particle Green’s functions of many-body systems In many-particle physics we adopt the Green’s function philosophy and deﬁne some simple building blocks.29) Notice the similarity between the many-body Green’s function Eq. B} = AB + BA. [A.8. B]F = {A.2. from which we obtain solutions to our problems.25) we see that the Green’s function for the x > L and x < 0 precisely describes propagator across the scattering region becomes G(xt. t. r σ t ) = −i (±1) Ψ† (r t )Ψσ (rt) . Even though we call these Green’s functions for “single-particle Green’s functions”. t ). See also Exercise 10. (8.28) where the (anti-) commutator [· · · .3.

[aνσ (t). a† (t )]B. a† σ (t )]B. σ t ) = 1 V eik·(r−r ) GR (k. r ) can only depend on the diﬀerence r − r and in this case GR (r − r . The reason is that they give the amplitude of a particle inserted in point r at time t to propagate to position r at time t. σt. σt.1 Green’s function of translation-invariant systems For a system with translation-invariance the usual k-representation is a natural basis set.30b) are often referred to as propagators. kσ (8.30a). σt. ν (8.28). σ t ) = 1 V eik·r GR (kσt.F . k (8.k G(k).132 CHAPTER 8. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS governed by the full many-body Hamiltonian. k σ t )e−ik ·r . kk (8.3. (8.34b) GR (k.k ) = δk.F . σt.3.71) is GR (σrt. (8. kσ The other types of Green’s functions have similar forms. it follows that G(k.32) 8. Since the system is translation-invariant G(r. (8.34a) (8. In this sense GR has its name “retarded” because it is required that t > t . allowing us to write GR (r − r . Consider therefore the Hamiltonian for free electrons (or other fermions) H= kσ ξkσ c† ckσ . ν σ t ) = −iθ t − t and similarly for G> and G< . σ t ) = −iθ t − t [akσ (t). The relation between the real space retarded Green’s function and the corresponding one in a general |ν -basis as deﬁned in Eq.35) . kk 1 = V eik·(r−r ) GR (kσt. ν σ t )ψν (σ r ). k σ t )ei(k−k )·r . 8.2 Green’s function of free electrons A particular case often encountered in the theory of quantum liquids is the simple case of free particles. σ t ). σr t ) = νν ∗ ψν (σr)GR (νσt. (1. because the right hand side cannot explicitly dependent on the origin and on r .33) However. and (8. The Green’s functions in Eqs.31) where GR (νσt. Therefore the single-particle functions can include all sorts of correlation eﬀects.

ω) = −2πi [1 − nF (ξk )] δ (ξk − ω) .39c) We see that G> gives the propagation of electrons.8. 0 kσ (8. Because the Hamiltonian is diagonal in the quantum numbers k and σ so is the Green’s function and therefore G> (kσ. = ω. which we denote G> to indicate that 0 it is the propagator of free electrons. An easy way to remember this is to realize that the factor k k e−iHt to the right of ck must have one more electron in state k than eiHt to the left of ck . 0 G< (kσ. Here |G denotes the groundstate of the free electrons. (5. 0 GR (kσ.37) and similarly c† (t) = c† eiξk t . (8.40) which precisely is the overlap between a state with an added electron in state k and with a state with an added electron in k and allowing time to evolve from t to t. 0 k k (8. i. we of course have ckσ c† = 1 − nF (ξk ). This is perhaps more clearly seen if we write the T = 0 deﬁnition of for example G> 0 G> (k. k .42) .39b) . (8.38) and because the Hamiltonian is diagonal in k and the occupation of free electrons is given by the Fermi-Dirac distribution.3. the electron propagator is in the frequency domain G> (kσ. (8. By Fourier transforming from the time domain to the frequency domain. 0 kσ (8. we can evaluate G< and ﬁnally GR 0 0 G> (kσ. ρ = |r − r |. which expresses propagation of a particle in real space is given by G> (r − r . t 0 − t ) = −iθ(t − t )e −iξk (t−t ) (8. SINGLE-PARTICLE GREEN’S FUNCTIONS OF MANY-BODY SYSTEMS 133 and the corresponding greater function in k-space.36) Because of the simple form of the Hamiltonian we are able to ﬁnd the time dependence of the c-operators (see Eq. For example.24)) ckσ (t) = eiHt ckσ e−iHt = ckσ e−iξk t . |G = |FS . t − t ) = −i G|ck (t)c† (t )|0 = −i G|ck e−iH(t−t ) c† |G eiE0 (t−t ) . t − t ) = −i ckσ c† e−iξk (t−t ) . the ﬁlled Fermi sea.39) because the propagators evolve periodically in time with the period given by the energy of the electron.39a) (8. In exactly the kσ same way. because it requires an empty state while G< gives the propagation of holes. t − t ) = −i ckσ (t)c† (t ) . because it is proportional to the number of electrons. t − t ) = −i(1 − nF (ξk ))e−iξk (t−t ) . t − t ) = inF (ξk )e−iξk (t−t ) . we get information about the possible energies of the propagating particle.41) 0 The corresponding r-dependent propagator. kω ρ 2m (8. Now G> becomes G> (kσ. This is intuitively clear from Eqs. (8.e. ω) 0 = −2πi dk (1 − nF (ξk ))eik·(r−r ) δ (ξk − ω) (2π)3 2 sin(kω ρ) kω = d(ω) (1 − nF (ω)) .

The propagation from point r to r of a particle with energy ω is thus determined by the density of states. which is just another name for using the set of eigenstates.44) In the same way we have (for fermions. ν nn = −G> (ν.134 CHAPTER 8. Let us for example study the diagonal Green’s function.3 The Lehmann representation A method we will often be using when proving formal results is the so-called Lehmann representation.46) nn nn n|cν |n n |c† |n ν e−βEn + e−βEn ω + En − En + iη . t. see also Eq. See also Exercise 7. t ) = −i cν (t)c† (t ) = −i ν 1 = −i Z e nn −βEn 1 Z n|e−βH aν (t)a† (t )|n ν n n|cν |n n |a† |n ei(En −En )(t−t ) . H. ω)e−βω . we obtain G> (ν. {|n }. ω) = −i 0 ∞ (8. ν nn 2πi = Z e−β(En +ω) n |c† |n n|cν |n δ(En − En − ω). ν (8. of the full Hamiltonian. The retarded Green’s function becomes (again for fermions) GR (ν. as basis set. c) G< (ν. d. ω) = = 2πi Z 2πi Z e−βEn n|c† |n ν nn n |cν |n δ(En − En − ω). (8.31). ω) = −2πi Z e−βEn n|aν |n nn n |c† |n δ(En − En + ω). 8. G> (νtνt ).45) dt ei(ω+iη)t 1 Z e−βEn nn n|cν |n n |c† |n ei(En −En )t ν + 1 = Z = 1 Z n|c† |n ν e −βEn n |cν |n e−i(En −En )t n|cν |n n |c† |n n|c† |n n |cν |n ν ν + ω + En − En + iη ω − En + En + iη . GREEN’S FUNCTIONS where d(ε) = m3/2 ε/2/π 2 is the density of states per spin in three dimensions. ν (8.3.3. (2. the availability of an empty state (1 − nF ). If we insert 1 = n |n n| we get G> (ν. e−βEn n |c† |n n|cν |n δ(En − En − ω).43) In the frequency domain. the interference function sin (x) /x that gives the amplitude of a spherical wave spreading out from the point r .

ω)nF (ω). ω) = 2πδ(ω − ξk ). If we for example have H0 = ξν c† cν . For example if we look at the retarded propagator for free electrons in Eq. ω) = −2 Im GR (kσ. ω) = A(ν.4 < (8. SINGLE-PARTICLE GREEN’S FUNCTIONS OF MANY-BODY SYSTEMS 1 Taking the imaginary part of this and using (ω + iη)−1 = P ω − iπδ(ω). i. It gives an indication of how well the excitation created by adding a particle in state ν can be described by a free non-interacting particle.8. ω) = 2πδ(ω − ξν ).53) ν ν where ν labels the eigenstates of the system. (8. 0 (8.49) (8.54) .51) 1 . we have derived the important general relations iG> (ν. ω − ξk + iη the corresponding spectral function is A0 (kσ. non-interacting system. ω) can be thought of as either the quantum state resolution of a particle with given energy ω or as the energy resolution for a particle in a given quantum number ν. (8. Deﬁning the spectral function A as A(ν. ω).4 The spectral function The spectral function A(ν.3. −iG (ν. Again the spectral function is given by a simple delta function A0 (ν. ω) = A(ν. ω) = − =− 2π Z 2π Z n|cν |n nn n |c† |n ν e−βEn + e−βEn δ (ω + En − En ) (8.52) Thus for the idealized case of non-interaction free electrons.39c) GR (kσ. ν (8.e. we get 135 2 Im GR (ν. which tells us that an excitation with energy ω can only happen by adding an electron to the state k given by ξk = ω. ω) = −2 Im GR (ν. the spectral function is a delta function. (8.48) = −i(1 + e−βω )G> (ν. This result is true for any quadratic Hamiltonian. ω) [1 − nF (ω)] .47) n|cν |n nn n |c† |n e−βEn (1 + e−βω )δ (ω + En − En ) . ω) = −i 0 = ∞ −∞ dtθ(t − t )eiω(t−t ) e−iξk (t−t )η(t−t ) (8. Similar relations hold for bosons.50a) (8. as expected.3. ω). see Exercise 7.50b) 8.

56) + c† cν = cν c† + c† cν = 1.57) The physical interpretation is that the occupation of a quantum state |ν is an energy integral of the spectral density of single particle states projected onto the state |ν and weighted by the occupation at the given energy. This in fact follows from ν the sum rule. In Chap. εν EF . 13 this is discussed in much more detail. Eq. ω)nF (ω). ν ν ν where the last equality follows from the Fermi operator commutation relations. it is always positive as one must require. 8.50b) nν = c† cν = −iG< (ν. ω) = 1. the deﬁnition of the spectral function. then c† cν ≈ 1. because if εν EF and the width of A(ν. = −∞ 2π (8.g.46).5 Broadening of the spectral function When interactions are present the spectral function changes from the ideal delta function to a broadened proﬁle. (8. which then indicates that the non-interacting approximation is not too far from the truth. see above. electronphonon interaction.55) −∞ 2π This formula is easily derived by considering the Lehmann representation of −2 Im GR in Eq. ω) is also small compared to EF then the Fermi function in (8. which redistributes the spectral weight because of energy exchange .3. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS Generally.136 CHAPTER 8. We will now show that the spectral function is a like a probability distribution. but it may still be a peaked function. t = 0) ¯ ν ∞ dω < G (ν.49) and the fact that n |cν |n n |c† |n = | n |cν |n |2 . the expected result follows. ν it obeys the sum rule ∞ dω A(ν. This follows from Eq. We of course expect that if the state |ν is far below the Fermi surface. Secondly. e. This is evident since the occupation nν of a given state ν is for fermions given by (8. Furthermore.47) ∞ −∞ dω A(ν. One possible mechanism of broadening in a metal is by e.57) is approximately unity and since A(ν. (8. ω) −∞ 2π ∞ 1 = dω n|cν |n n |c† |n ν Z −∞ nn ∞ e−βEn + e−βEn × δ (ω + En − En ) 1 = n|cν |n n |c† |n ν Z = nn cν c† ν e−βEn + e−βEn (8. the spectral function is similar to the density of states at a given energy. ω) = − 2π dω 2 Im GR (ν. (8. ω) = −i −∞ 2π ∞ dω A(ν.g. ω) integrates to 2π. Firstly. (8. due to interactions the spectral function diﬀers from a delta function.

For example the response to an electromagnetic ﬁeld couples to the charge or current. measures charge-charge or current-current correlation functions. which is quite surprising since the Coulomb interaction between the electrons is a rather strong interaction. one must have a way of measuring how the electrons propagate as a function of energy. In the following we study in detail the tunneling case where an electron tunnels from one material to the other and show how the tunneling current is expressed in terms of the spectral functions and thus provides a direct measurement of these. 8. See Chap.1.4 Measuring the single-particle spectral function In order to probe the single-particle properties of a many-body system.59) Thus the width in energy space is given by τ −1 .58) where τ is the characteristic decay time. in some cases also optical experiments approximately measures the single particle density of states. as we saw in the previous chapter. This is illustrated in Fig. As a simple example we consider a Green’s function which decays in time due to processes that scatters the particle out of the state ν. which is reﬂected in a broadening of the spectral function. t) ≈ −iθ(t)e−iξν t e−t/τ . MEASURING THE SINGLE-PARTICLE SPECTRAL FUNCTION 137 between the electron and the phonon system. In principle there is only one way to measure the single particle properties. 8. (8. 13. which.4. ω) = −2 Im −∞ dteiωt GR (ν. t) ≈ 2 Im i 0 ∞ dteiωt e−iξν t e−t/τ = 2/τ .1 Tunneling spectroscopy The tunnel experiment set-up consists of two conducting materials brought into close contact such that electrons can tunnel from one to the other. For example when a photon is absorbed and an electron is kicked out from an occupied state to e. 8. In practice this means taking out or inserting a particle with deﬁnite energy. the free electron picture is still a good distribution in many cases and in particular for metals. This can be achieved by a so-called tunnel junction device or by subjecting the sample to a beam of electrons. 13 on Fermi liquid theory. The reason for this will be discussed later in the Chap. There are not too many ways for doing this because most experiments measure density or other two-particle properties. Such a decaying Green’s function corresponds to a ﬁnite width of the spectral function ∞ A(ν. Another mechanism for broadening is the electron-electron interaction. The simple notion of single electron propagators becomes less well deﬁned for interacting systems. (ω − ξν )2 + (1/τ )2 (8. In this situation the retarded Green’s function becomes GR (ν. a freely propagating state outside the material. . Amazingly. both being two particle propagators. a solid state sample say. which is to insert/remove a single electron into/out of a many-body system. However.4.8.g.

e.ν 2.60) (8. The right panel illustrates the electron wavefunctions in the two subsystems which have a small overlap in the insulator region. The tunnel matrix element is deﬁned as Tνµ = ∗ dr ψν (r)H(r)ψµ (r).µ ≡ −i(L − L† ).ν . separated by an insulating material. c† c1.µ 1.ν 2.µ + Tνµ c† c1.µ . The coupling between the two sides of the junction is due to the ﬁnite overlap of the wavefunctions. The current passing from 1 to 2 is driven by a shift of chemical potential diﬀerence.µ This is the most general one-particle operator which couples the two systems. The coupling between the system is assumed to be very weak.ν = −i νµ Tνµ c† c2.61) (8. In the tunneling Hamiltonian this is modelled by the matrix element Tνν .138 CHAPTER 8.g. and hence I = i[H. Two systems are brought into close contact. with H(r) being the (ﬁrst quantization) one-particle Hamiltonian.ν 2. 1. involving electron operators. This $ 0 & % "$ 0 ' & (8. N1 ] = i νµ ν ∗ Tνµ c† c2. since the tunnel matrix element is exponentially suppressed with distance between the two systems. ˙ where I = N1 . GREEN’S FUNCTIONS Figure 8. H1 and H2 .ν and c2.1: Measurement setup for the tunnel experiment. Systems 1 and 2 are described by their respective Hamiltonians. which means that µ1 = µ2 .62) % $ #¢ " 0 & % "$ )' & ( ¡ £££ £££££££ £ ££ §¨© ¦ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ 4 ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ! ¨ ¨2¨ 31 ¢ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ££ £ £ £ £ £ §¨© £ ¦ £¥ £ £ ££ ¤ § 2¨ ¨ )1 . N1 ] = i[H12 . Therefore we calculate the current to lowest order in the coupling. The current operator itself is already linear in Tνµ and therefore we need only one more order. c1.µ + Tνµ c† c1.µ 1. The current through the device is deﬁned by the rate of change of particles.ν .ν − ∗ Tνµ c† c1. which gives rise to a term in the Hamiltonian of the form H12 = νµ ∗ Tνµ c† c2. Ie = −e I .ν 1. an oxide or for the so-called scanning tunneling microscope (STM) simply vacuum.

c† c2.µ (t ) ˆ2. L(t ) eq ˆ ˆ L† (t). we are of course allowed to choose a basis set where the Green’s This is in fact not true for superconductors which are characterized by having a spontaneous breaking of the symmetry corresponding to the conservation of particles and therefore such two-particle tunnel processes are allowed and give rise to the so-called Josephson current. (8.µ (t ) ˆ2.ν c c1.4.ν (t)ˆ† (t ) ˆ c1.c.63b) R ˆ ˆ CIp H12 (t − t ) = −iθ(t − t ) [Ip (t).ν .2 We are therefore left with ∞ Ip (t) = 2 Re = 2 Re dt θ(t − t ) −∞ ∞ ˆ ˆ L† (t). According to the general Kubo formula derived in chap. MEASURING THE SINGLE-PARTICLE SPECTRAL FUNCTION 139 means that linear response theory is applicable.66a) (8. 2 .8.µ 1. . Naturally the number of particles is a conserved quantity and matrix elements of this type must vanish. 6 the particle current is to ﬁrst order in H12 given by ∞ I (t) = −∞ R dt CIp H12 (t. Furthermore.63a) (8. L(t ) − eq = −θ(t − t ) Now the combination ˆ ˆ L(t). eq (8. eq = 2 Re −∞ dt θ(t − t ) νµ ν µ ∗ Tνµ Tν µ eq c† (t)ˆ2.65) Now the time dependence due to the shift in energy by the applied voltages is explicitly pulled out such that c1 (t) = c1 (t)e−i(−e)V1 t . L(t ) + L† (t ) ˆ ˆ L(t). ˆ ˜ (8. L(t ) ∗ Tνµ Tν µ νµ ν µ eq dt θ(t − t ) −∞ ∞ c† (t)ˆ1. L(t ) eq + c.ν (t). t ).64) involves terms of the form t .µ c eq − c† (t )ˆ1.ν c eq c2. H12 (t )] where the time development is governed by H = H1 + H2 . c† (t )ˆ2.µ (t )ˆ† (t) ˆ c2.66b) with the time dependence of c being given by the Hamiltonian with a common chemical ˜ potential µ.ν 1.ν (t) ˆ1. ˆ ˜ c2 (t) = c2 (t)e−i(−e)V2 t .µ c ˆ1. The correlation function CIH12 can be simpliﬁed a bit as R CIp H12 (t − t ) = −θ(t − t ) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ L(t) − L† (t).µ eq (8.ν eq with two electrons created in system 1 and two electrons annihilated in system 2 and therefore is does not conserve the number of particles in each system.µ (t) c† c2.

50). without H12 ) is diagonal.140 CHAPTER 8.72) dV ν So the spectral function can in fact be measured in a rather direct way. (8. ω + eV ) ≈ const. (8. Also it is used to study small structures such as quantum dots where the individual quantum levels become visible due to size quantization. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS function of the decoupled system (i. 1 2 1 2 (8. µ (8. ω)G< (µ. ω + eV )[nF (ω + eV ) − nF (ω)].71) becomes dI ∝ A1 (ν.e. and that the density of states peaks near the gap. given by the diﬀerence of occupation functions. . This is a widely used spectroscopic principle in for example the study of superconductors where it was used to verify the famous prediction of the BCS theory of superconductivity that there is an excitation gap in the superconductor. see Exercise 4. ω).70) then dI ∝ dV ∞ dω − −∞ ∂nF (ω + eV ) ∂ω A1 (ν. ω).67) After Fourier transformation (and reinsertion of the convergence factor eηt ) this expression becomes ∞ dω Ip = |Tνµ |2 G> (ν. ω) A2 (µ. and by the density of states at a given energy. t ) . (8. The ν νν particle current then becomes (after change of variable t → t + t) 0 Ip = 2 Re dt −∞ νµ |Tνµ |2 ei(−e)(V1 −V2 )t G> (ν. t ) − G< (ν. The tunnel spectroscopy technique amounts to a sweep of an external voltage which controls the chemical potential while measuring the diﬀerential conductance dI/dV .3 and Exercise 7. (8. −t )G> (µ. |Tνµ |2 A2 (ν. ω + eV ) . ω)G> (µ. and we ﬁnally arrive at ∞ Ip = −∞ dω 2π |Tνµ |2 A1 (ν. ω + eV ) − G< (ν. Therefore by sweeping the voltage across the junction one gets information about A(ν. ν (8.5. see Eq.69) we see that the current is determined by two factors: the availability of states. which is illustrated in Fig.2. 8. νµ (8. −eV ).e.68) 1 2 1 2 −∞ 2π νµ with the voltage given by V = V2 − V1 . If the other material is a simple material where one can assume the density of states to be more or less constant. G> = δνν G> .69) In Eq. The lesser and greater Green’s functions are now written in terms of the spectral function. −t )G< (µ.71) At low temperatures where the derivative of the Fermi function tends to a delta function and (8. i.

TWO-PARTICLE CORRELATION FUNCTIONS OF MANY-BODY SYSTEMS141 Figure 8. t) · E(r. t). where there is little variations with energy and the experiment can therefore be used to get information about the density of states of the left material. we evaluate the polarization function χ = Cρρ for a non-interacting electron gas (see Eq. ω). In order to treat a speciﬁc case. 8. This function gives for example information about the dissipation due to an applied ﬁeld.4. Such an example is photo emission spectroscopy. (6. The two right most panels show the resulting current and the diﬀerential conductance trace. One important type of higher order Green’s functions are the correlation functions. the % $ # ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥¥ ¥ ¥ ! " ! & ¥ §§¥¥©¨§¦§¦§¦¥¥¥ ¤ ¢ ¡£ ¢ Optical spectroscopy Two-particle correlation functions of many-body systems &¥ ' ' . 8.39)). The left panel shows the two density of states in the two materials.2: The principle used in tunneling spectroscopy. which was shown in Chap. 6. there are cases where it is well approximated by the one-particle spectral function. For example.5 While the single-particle Green’s functions deﬁned above measure the properties of individual particles the higher order Green’s functions give the response of the quantum system to processes involving several particles.5. t ) = −iθ(t − t ) A(t).t) = Je (r. The right one is metal. is according to Eq. It is seen how the diﬀerential conductance is a direct measure of ν A1 (ν.2 While the response to an electromagnetic ﬁeld in principle is always given by the dielectric function. (8. which was encountered in the linear response chapter. A(t ) .8. which is the real part of the conductivity3 .48) given by (take for simplicity the 3 Because the power dissipated at any given point in space and time is P (r. Typical correlation functions that we will meet are of the type CAA (t. we saw that the response to electromagnetic radiation was determined by the auto correlation function of the charge and current densities.73) where A is some two particle operator. (6. because the dissipation.

kσ (8. kσ (8. (8.77) For free electrons.78) which. ρ(q2 . (8. kσ (8. t ) q1 q2 ρ(q.74) In momentum space the polarization is given by χR (q. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS ωe2 Im χR (q.76) χR (q. Due to the translation-invariance the result cannot depend on r and one sees that q2 = −q (or formally one can integrate over r and divide by volume to get a delta function. ρ(q2 .79) where the subindex “0” indicates that we are using the free electron approximation. t ) q2 ei(q2 +q)·r . t).80) total energy being dissipated is Z Z Z dω 1 X ∗ dω 1 X W = drdt E(r. (8. ω) 2π V q 2π V q . (8. yields χR (q. ρ(−q. ω) = |E(q. ω)|2 σ(q.76). The commutator is easily evaluated using the formula. t) = kσ c† ck+qσ ei(ξk −ξk+q )t . c† σ ck −q σ ] ei(ξk −ξk+q )t e kσ k kk σσ i(ξk −ξk −q )t .142 translation-invariant case) Re σ (q. ω) = − CHAPTER 8. t)= E (q.0 ) and thus 1 ρ(q. ρ(r . t − t )e−iq·(r−r ) .96) ρ(q) = kσ c† ck+qσ . q2 (8. t). t ) . δq2 +q. ν ν ν ν and we ﬁnd χR (q. t − t ) = −iθ(t − t )e2 0 1 V [c† ck+qσ . t). t ) 1 V2 e−iq·(r−r ) . t − t ) = −iθ(t − t )e2 V The Fourier transform of the charge operator was derived in Eq. (1. t − t ) = dr χ(r − r . t) · Je (r.µ . ω). eiq1 ·r+iq2 ·r e−iq·(r−r ) . [c† cµ . ω) · Je (q. when inserted into (8.37)) ρ(q.ν − c† cµ δν . dr dr ρ(r.75) = −iθ(t − t ) = −iθ(t − t ) 1 = −iθ(t − t ) V ρ(q1 . the time dependence is given by (see Eq. c† cµ ] = c† cµ δµ. t). t − t ) = −iθ(t − t )e2 0 1 V nF (ξk ) − nF (ξk+q ) ei(ξk −ξk+q )(t−t ) .

ω) = π V nF (ξk ) − nF (ξk+q ) δ(ξk − ξk+q + ω). −ω). Let us take T = 0 where nF is either zero or one. we will study it in much more detail. and later on. for which (q.83) . which is easily seen from 0 0 Eq. for example ω > 0. see Eq.5. Within the non-interacting approximation and according to Eq. we need only study one case. The ﬁrst case corresponds to ω < 0.74) we then have that the dissipation of the electron gas is proportional to − Im χR (q. However.8. we ﬁnd k χR (q. kσ nF (ξk ) − nF (ξk+q ) kσ ξk − ξk+q + ω + iη . The strength of the interaction depends on the imaginary part of the polarization function. (8. ω) Eq. which means that nF (ξk ) − nF (ξk+q ) is only non-zero if (k > kF and |k + q| < kF ) or (k < kF and |k + q| > kF ). because of the symmetry χR (q. q > 2kF . (8.82) because c† ck = nF (ξk ). (8.3: Absorption of a photon creates an electron-hole pair excitation in the free electron gas. while the latter corresponds to ω > 0.e. i. This function is known as the Lindhard function. when discussing the elementary excitations of the electron gas.81). TWO-PARTICLE CORRELATION FUNCTIONS OF MANY-BODY SYSTEMS143 4 Figure 8.81) (8.82) is non-zero.82) . In the frequency space. (8. The delta function together with the second condition thus imply 0 < ω = q2 1 1 +k·q ⇒ 2m m ωmax = ωmin = 1 2 2m q + vF q 1 2 2m q − vF q £¢¡ £ ¦ ¥¤ ¡ § © ¨ 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 (8. kσ We can now analyze for what q and ω excitations are possible. (8. ω) = −χR (−q. ω) = −i 0 1 = V ∞ t dt eiωt 1 V nF (ξk ) − nF (ξk+q ) ei(ξk −ξk+q )(t−t ) e−η(t−t ) . The possible range of q and ω is given by the dashed area in the right plot.

There is a continuum of such excitations given by conditions in (8. For non-interacting electrons the spectral function is given by a Dirac delta function A0 (ν. ω) = 2πδ(ξν − ω) non-interacting case . r σ t ) = −iθ (t − t ) [Ψσ (rt).3. The important spectral function is in the frequency domain and in a diagonal basis given by A(ν.144 CHAPTER 8. We have so far seen two examples of this: the density of states is related to the spectral function and it can be measured for example in a tunneling experiment. 8. While the electron-hole pair excitations are the only possible source of dissipation in the non-interacting electron gas.6 Summary and outlook The concept of Green’s functions in many-body physics has been introduced in this chapters. and secondly the absorption of electromagnetic radiation is given by the charge-charge correlation function. r σ t ) gives the amplitude for propagation from the space-time point r t to rt. The excitations which give rise to the dissipation are electron-hole pair excitations. σ r t ) = −i (±1) Ψ† (r t )Ψσ (rt) σ retarded Green’s function greater Green’s function lesser Green’s function and their corresponding Fourier transforms. with initial spin σ and ﬁnal spin σ. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS The possible range of excitations in (q. where the change of momentum and energy of an incoming photon is measured. The Green’s functions describe the dynamical properties of excitations. This we study in great detail later in this course. this is certainly not true for the interacting case which is more complicated.F σ G> (rσt. ω) = −2 Im GR (ν. ω) spectral function The spectral function is related to the density of states. where an electron within the Fermi sea is excited to a state outside the Fermi sea. The excitation of the electrons gas can be measured by for example inelastic light scattering (Raman scattering). The process discussed here where an electron within the Fermi sea is scattering to an empty state outside the Fermi sea. In this chapter we have deﬁned the following many-body Green’s functions GR (rσt. 8. is illustrated in the hand side of Fig.8. Ψ† (r t )]B. The physical picture to remember is that the Green’s function G (rσt. and we will use Green’s functions in practically all discussions in the remaining part of the course. There is one particular type of excitation which is immensely important.ω)-space is shown in Fig. namely the plasmon excitation.3.83). σ r t ) = −i Ψσ (rt)Ψ† (r t ) σ G< (rσt.

one of which is the equation of motion technique.1) We ﬁnd the equation of motion for GR as the derivative with respect to the ﬁrst time argument i∂t GR (rt. There are several ways of attacking this problem. Ψ(r)](t) − [Vint .2) [Ψ(rt). 145 (9. The basic idea of this method is to generate a series of coupled diﬀerential equations by diﬀerentiating the correlation function at hand a number of times.F + (−i) θ(t − t ) [i∂t Ψ(rt).F . Ψ† (r ) B. For example one can neglect certain correlations. r t ) = −iθ t − t [Ψ(rt). Ψ† (r t )]B. Ψ(r)] (t) = −[H0 .F = δ(r − r ). (8. Ψ† (r t )]B. In many cases we need to calculate the time-dependence of these functions.F .28) GR (rt. and if not. Ψ(r)](t).3) . r t ) = (−i) i∂t θ(t − t ) = δ(t − t )δ(r − r )+ + (−i) θ(t − t ) [i∂t Ψ(rt). If these equations close the problem is in principle solvable. We shall study examples of both situations in this chapter.F . Next. Here we used that the derivative of a step function is a delta function and the commutation relations for ﬁeld operators at equal times Ψ(r). Ψ† (r t )]B. Ψ† (r t )]B. (9. let us study the time-derivative of the annihilation operator (throughout this chapter we assume that H is time independent) i∂t Ψ(rt) = − [H. one needs to invoke physical arguments to truncate the set of equations in a reasonable fashion. Eq. 9.Chapter 9 Equation of motion theory In the previous chapters we saw how various physical observables can be expressed in terms of retarded Green’s functions and correlation functions.1 The single-particle Green’s function Let us consider the retarded Green’s function GR for either fermions or bosons. (9.

r t ) = δ(t − t )δ(r − r ) + DR (rt.146 CHAPTER 9. (9. ν t ).9b) DR (νt. r t ) = −iθ(t − t ) −[Vint . The equation in (9. for example the kinetic energy. where the quadratic part of the Hamiltonian is H0 = νν tν ν a † a ν .1. aν ](t).F In this course we will mainly deal with problems where the Hamiltonian does not depend explicitly on time (linear response was an exception. 8. (9. ν t ) = −iθ(t − t ) −[Vint . After evaluating [Vint . was deﬁned as LG = delta function. It is now evident why the many-body functions. Ψ(r)](t). GR . are called Green’s functions. (9. 5. Therefore the Green’s function can only depend on the time diﬀerence t−t and in this case .5b) B. By diﬀerentiation the commutator with H0 is generated −[H0 .7) is found in exactly the same way as above. Ψ(r) (9. L. Ψ† (r t ) .6) The diﬀerential equation for the Green’s function in this basis GR (νt.9a) .F ν (9.5a) (9. where the Green’s function of a diﬀerential operator.5. ν t ) = −iθ(t − t ) [aν (t). Often it is convenient to work in some other basis.4) In this case the equation of motion becomes i∂t + 1 2m 2 r GR (rt. we have −[H0 . a† (t ) ν B. Ψ(r)] we can.8) ν and hence (iδνν ∂t − tνν ) GR (ν t. DR (rt.5a) has the structure of the classical Green’s function we saw in Sec. ν (9. 2m r 2 r Ψ(r ). say {ν}. a† (t )]B. EQUATION OF MOTION THEORY where the interaction part of the Hamiltonian includes all the interactions in the given problem. but even there the time dependent problem was transformed into a correlation function of a time independent problem). as in Sec. continue the generation of diﬀerential equations. r t ).F The function DR thus equals the corrections to the free particle Green’s function. aν ] = tνν aν . Ψ(r)] = 1 dr Ψ† (r ) 2m 1 2 =− Ψ(r). If H0 is the usual kinetic energy Hamiltonian of free particles. while H0 describes the quadratic part of the Hamiltonian. The Hamiltonian is again written as H = H0 + Vint . ν t ) = δ(t − t )δνν + DR (νt. ν (9.

ω − εν + iη νν (9. We return to this in Chap.13) Therefore.1. η. to ensure proper convergence. ω) δνν = 0 1 δ . 8. ν . aν ](t). ν . the solution is 0 GR 0 νν = GR (ν.51). Recalling that when performing the Fourier transformation of the derivative it becomes ∂t → −iω. ν (9. (9.2 Anderson’s model for magnetic impurities In order to exemplify the usefulness of the equation of motion technique. 4. 15. ω) = δνν + DR (ν. ω) = −i ∞ −∞ dtei(ω+iη)(t−t ) θ(t − t ) −[Vint . a† (t ) ν B. We can write the equation of motion in frequency domain [δνν (ω + iη) − tνν ] GR (ν ν .1 we deﬁne the inverse Green’s function as GR 0 −1 (νν . ω) = δνν 0 ν (9. As in Sec. 0 (9. we proceed by solving a famous model for the appearance of a magnetic moment of impurities of certain Here we only consider terms of the form c† c but also anomalous terms like cc could be included. For a diagonal basis. 1 .14) which of course agrees with the result found in Eq.1 Non-interacting particles For non-interacting particles. tνν = δνν εν .10a) . In this case we have (δνν (ω + iη) − tνν ) GR (ν ν . i.12) and in matrix notation Eq.11) where the subindex 0 on GR indicates that it is the Green’s function corresponding to a 0 non-interacting Hamiltonian. ANDERSON’S MODEL FOR MAGNETIC IMPURITIES 147 it is always useful to work with the Fourier transforms.10b) DR (ν. ω). in order to ﬁnd the Green’s function all we need to do is to invert the matrix −1 GR νν .11) becomes GR 0 −1 GR = 1.e. 9. In Chap. we can in fact solve for the Green’s function1 . δ(t) → 1. (8.2.9. which means that the Hamiltonian is bilinear in annihilation or creation operators. ω) = δνν (ω + iη) − tνν ≡ GR 0 −1 νν (9. 4 we saw that such a term is indeed relevant for superconductors. (9. 9. and that the Fourier transform of a delta function is unity. For the Green’s function in a superconductor we should therefore solve the linear problem in a way similar to the Bogoliubov transformation introduced in Chap.F Here it is important to remember that the frequency of the retarded functions must carry a small positive imaginary part.

The overlapping orbitals leads to a non-diagonal matrix element of the Hamiltonian Hhyb = kσ ¦ ¨ ¥ '( © £ £¥ " & $% $ # ¨ " ! ¡ ¥ ¦ ( ¥ ¨ ¢ § £ ¥¤¢ ¡ (εk − µ) c† ckσ .1: The Anderson model describing magnetic impurities embedded in a homogeneous host metal. which can be described by an eﬀective non-interacting model Hc = kσ For the impurity ion we assume that it has only one spin-degenerate state in the active shell.g. kσ (εd − µ) c† cdσ + U nd↑ n↓ . Nb or Mo. the d-shell of a Fe ion. In addition to the bare energy cost for an electron to reside in the d-state. k kσ (9.g. therefore the state with two electrons residing on the ion has energy 2 d + U . has a conduction band. But the energy of electrons residing on the impurity ion also depends on whether it is doubly occupied or not. The bare onsite energy of the state on the magnetic ion is d . e. dσ tk c† ckσ + dσ kσ (9. The coupling occurs because the d-orbital and the conduction band states overlap spatially and also lie close in energy. there is an interaction energy that depends on the state being doubly occupied or not. The states forming the conduction band are primarily s-states that are more extended in space. The crucial input is here dσ the correlation between electrons on the impurity ion. The host metal.17) . giving rise to a “hybridization” between the two.148 CHAPTER 9. couple to the level of the magnetic impurity ion. EQUATION OF MOTION THEORY Figure 9. e. and hence interactions are less important for those.16) t∗ c† cdσ . magnetic ions embedded in a non-magnetic host metal. The electrons occupying the conduction band couple to the outer-most electrons of the magnetic impurity ions.15) (9. The impurity ion Hamiltonian is thus modelled as Hd + HU = σ where ndσ = c† cdσ is the number operator for d-electrons. The electrons in the conduction band of the non-magnetic host metal. because the interaction in the narrower d-shell of a magnetic ion is particular strong and this is in fact the reason for the magnetism. as seen in (b). indicated by the dashed areas. which is typically the d shell.

19) ndσ = 2π where A(dσ. GR . . spin up electrons depends on the occupation of spin down electrons. U . (8.23) (ω + iη − εk + µ) GR (kσ. dσ. t − t ) = −iθ t − t {cdσ (t) .10 ). (9.20) Let us write the equation of motion of this function using Eq. (9. ω) − t∗ GR (dσ. it is favorable to ﬁll the orbital by two electrons. Due to the hybridization term the Hamiltonian is not diagonal in the d-operators and the equations of motion will involve another Green’s function. The sum of these three energy contributions H = Hc + Hd + HU + Hhyb (9. ANDERSON’S MODEL FOR MAGNETIC IMPURITIES 149 The bare d-electron energy. All we need to ﬁnd is then GR (dσ. The physical question we try to answer here is: Under which circumstances is the material magnetic? 9.1 The equation of motion for the Anderson model The magnetization in the z-direction is given by the expectation value of the diﬀerence n↑ − n↓ between spin up and down occupancy.1 for an illustration. dσ (9.9. The occupation of a quantum state was found in Eq. ω) is the spectral function.10) run over both d and k and we obtain the coupled equations (ω + iη − εd + µ) GR (dσ. dσ. ω). Although the Anderson model looks simple. c† t } .22) (9. However.18) is known as the Anderson model. See Fig. which on the other hand is complicated by the fact that the hopping in and out of the impurity orbital with. k 2 The model in fact has a known exact solution. 9. εd .2. (8. The Anderson model has been used to describe numerous eﬀects in the physics of strongly correlated electron systems. t − t ) = −iθ t − t {ckσ (t) . say.57) in terms of the spectral function. the system gains further kinetic energy by the hybridization. c† t } .2. Furthermore.21) The equation of motion are thus found by letting ν in Eq. The hybridization therefore seems to randomize the spin on the magnetic ion. For the d-electron occupation we therefore have dω nF (ω) A(dσ. is below the chemical potential and from the kinetic energy point of view. which follows from the retarded Green’s function. and it is not possible if 2εd + U > 2µ. this costs potential energy. namely GR (kσ. ω) − k tk GR (kσ. ω). see Eq. dσ.49). (9.2 It turns out that for certain values of the parameters it is energetically favorable for the system to have a magnetic moment (and thus minimizing the on-site interaction energy) while for other values there is no magnetic moment (thus gaining maximum hybridization energy). its full solution is very complicated and in fact the model has a very rich phase diagram. dσ (9. but the solution ﬁlls an entire book. and it is hard to extract useful physical information from this solution. ω) = 1 + U DR (dσ. ω) = 0. (9.

ω) = 1. since the mean-ﬁeld approximation makes the Hamiltonian quadratic we can include U nd↓ (t) to the energy of the spin-up d-electrons in our equation of motion. EQUATION OF MOTION THEORY dtei(ω+iη)(t−t ) θ t − t −[nd↑ nd↓ .28) With this truncation.30a) (9. ω) − k |tk |2 GR (d ↑. (9. Due to this term the “bare” d-electron energy.28) in Eq. εd . ω − εk + µ + iη The function is our ﬁrst encounter with the concept known as “self-energy”. The diagonal modes are instead superpositions of c. cd↑ ] = −U nd↓ cd↑ . so that it is no longer diagonal in the d-operators. ω − εd + µ − U nd↓ − ΣR (ω) ΣR (ω) = k (9. cd↑ ] = nd↓ [nd↑ . We thus face the following more complicated Green’s function DR (d ↑. (9. ω) gives ω + iη − εd + µ − U nd↓ GR (d ↑.30b) |tk |2 . It arises because the coupling to the c-electrons introduces oﬀ diagonal terms in the Hamiltonian. c† (t )} . However a mean-ﬁeld approximation still grasps the important physics that the spin-up electron population depends on the spin-down population. t − t ) = −iθ t − t {nd↓ (t) cd↑ (t).23) for GR (d ↑. c† (t ) dσ .and d-states. t − t ) = −iθ(t − t ) nd↓ {cd↑ (t).22).26) with respect to time would generate yet another function {[H. (9.26) 9. Inserting (9. t − t . the coupling to the conduction band electrons gives through Σ(ω) an energy shift and most importantly an imaginary part.2. d† (t )} to be determined.27) (9. d↑ In other words.29) and likewise for the spin-down Green’s function. In the time domain the imaginary part translates into a life-time. ΣR (ω) . (9. ω) = . (9. therefore we replace the interaction part HU by its mean-ﬁeld version M HU F = U nd↑ nd↓ + U nd↓ nd↑ − U nd↑ nd↓ . The self-energy changes the pole of GR and furthermore gives some broadening to the spectral function. the function DR becomes DR (d ↑. nd↓ (t) d↑ (t)]. d↑ (9. and secondly.2 Mean-ﬁeld approximation for the Anderson model Diﬀerentiating the function in Eq.150 where DR (dσ. and solving Eq. ω) = −i ∞ −∞ CHAPTER 9. The ﬁnal answer is 1 GR (d ↑. is seen to be renormalized by two eﬀects: ﬁrst the energy is shifted by U nd↓ due to the interaction with the averaged density of electrons having opposite spin. cdσ ](t).24) The commutator in this expression is for σ =↑ [nd↑ nd↓ . c† (t )} = nd↓ GR d ↑. (9. and the set of equations does not σ close.25) and likewise we ﬁnd the commutator for spin down by interchanging up and down. ω − εk + µ + iη (9.

ω) 2Γ θ (W − |ε|) . the selfenergy Σ is ΣR (ω) = dε d(ε) |t (ε) |2 =P ω − ε + µ + iη dε d(ε) |t (ε) |2 −iπd(ω +µ)|t(ω +µ)|2 . which is justiﬁed because Γ consider low temperatures. and deﬁne the important parameter Γ by πd(ε)|t(ε)|2 = Γθ(W − |ε|).35) If we neglect the ﬁnite bandwidth.3. we get 0 W . 8. Let us assume that the product d(ε)|t(ε)|2 is constant within the band limits. we simply include it as a shift of ε and deﬁne the new onsite energy ε = ε + Re ΣR . ˜ The spectral function hence becomes A(d ↑. π W −ω−µ Γ π W −W < ω + µ < W. the approximation is indeed valid. Since in practice Γ εF .2. For ω+µ ∈ [−W.31) ω−ε+µ The density of states d (ε) and the coupling matrix element t (ε) depend on the details of the material.9.36) .34) where Γ is the width of the spectral function. = − tan−1 2 π Γ (9.2. (9.33) The real part gives a shift of energy and since it is a slowly varying function. −W < ε < W. = (ω − ε + µ − U nd↓ )2 + Γ2 ˜ (9. but fortunately it is not important for the present considerations. Note that the spectral function derived here is an example of the Lorentzian form discussed in Sec.5. Now the self-consistent mean-ﬁeld equation for nd↑ follows as nd↑ = dω nF (ω)A (d ↑. 2 2 ˜ −∞ 2π (ω − ε + µ − U nd↓ ) + Γ ε − µ + U nd↓ ˜ 1 1 . W ] we get ΣR (ω) ≈ dε − iΓ −W ω − ε + µ Γ W +ω+µ = − ln − iΓ. ω) 2π W dω 2Γ = nF (ω) .32) This approximation is good if the width of the Green’s function (which we shall see shortly is given by Γ) turns out to be small compared to the scale on which d(ε)|t(ε)|2 typically changes. (9. and if we furthermore nd↑ ≈ dω 2Γ . (9. ω) = −2 Im GR (d ↑. (ω − ε + µ − U nd↓ )2 + Γ2 ˜ −W 2π (9. T = 0. ANDERSON’S MODEL FOR MAGNETIC IMPURITIES 151 9.3 Solving the Anderson model and comparison with experiments Assuming that the coupling tk only depends on the length of k and thus on ε.

We see that there is a critical density and a critical U/Γ where the magnetization sets in. i. while the right panel is the maximum magnetization as function of the correlation energy. For 4 < nel < 8 the magnetization curve is seen to be quite similar to the prediction of the model. For nel > 8 the eﬀect of having more than two d-orbitals in the Fe-atoms becomes important and the simple model is no longer adequate.2: The upper part shows the mean ﬁeld solution of the Anderson model with the left panel being magnetization as a function of electron density nel . The latter means that too strong hybridization destroys the magnetization. EQUATION OF MOTION THEORY Figure 9. The bottom panel shows experimental results (Clogston et al.e. for two diﬀerent Γ-values. the chemical potential. BC 3 %0%12! 1% 0%3 ( '& # # ¤ £ ga b V f 4 A @ ! % 98 & 3 673 25! 24 1%3 3 ! "3 0%12! ) 1 % #$" ! © ¢¡ ¨ ¦ § ¥ 2B 3 %9 %58 G F ) 3 425! %25E 3 D " 4 X V b Ca ` YP 6W "U e¨ dc c ch ST CR Q H7P I H 6 i Q ¢P I H H . (1962)) for the magnetic moment of Fe embedded in transition metals. The electron concentration and hence µ is varied by changing the alloy.152 CHAPTER 9.

diﬀerent from the trivial solution n↓ = n↑ . To capture this physics one must go one step beyond the mean-ﬁeld approximation and truncate the equations of motion at a later stage. 9. 6 shown to give the linear response properties. THE TWO-PARTICLE CORRELATION FUNCTION We obtain the two coupled equations cot (πn↑ ) = y(n↓ − x). 9. ρ(r t )] .2 solutions of these equations are shown together with experimental data.2. (9. which it in fact does have. Consider for example the retarded charge-charge correlation function χR (rt. As is evident there. But even so they may provide a good starting point for various approximation schemes.2. 9.1 The Random Phase Approximation (RPA) A commonly used approximation scheme for correlation functions is the so-called Random Phase Approximation (RPA).3 The two-particle correlation function The two particle correlation functions. at least qualitatively. whether there exists a solution n↓ = n↑ . For the case of the electron gas. In an experiment where one probes the actual occupation of the atom this approach would not be suﬃcient. if it is. cot (πn↓ ) = y(n↑ − x). See also Exercise 8.5 Further correlations in the Anderson model: Kondo eﬀect 9. Such an experiment is for example a tunneling experiment where current is passed through a single atom or a small metallic island which can be thought of as an artiﬁcial atom.37b) The solution of these equation gives the occupation of the d-orbital and in particular tells us whether there is a ﬁnite magnetization.3. and as for the single particle Green’s function they are not solvable in general. . ε y = U/Γ.4. For the electron that wants to enter the island it does matter whether the island is already occupied.37a) (9.9. 9. This is the topic for Exercise 8. 153 (9. because. i. was in Chap. Also for this quantity one can generate a set of equation of motions.4 Coulomb blockade and the Anderson model Above we applied the mean-ﬁeld approximation to the interaction. the model describes the observed behavior.3. r t ) = −iθ t − t [ρ(rt).38) In Chap. such as the density-density correlation.3 In Fig.e. 6 it was shown that this function is related to the dielectric response function and therefore tells about the screening properties of the material. This means that the energy of a given spin direction is only aﬀected by the average occupation of the opposite spin direction.3. which is one of our 3 We should also convince ourselves that the magnetic solution has lower energy. x = − (˜ − µ) /U. the tunneling barrier is increased by U .

but here we derive it using the equation of motion technique.154 CHAPTER 9. t )] . EQUATION OF MOTION THEORY main topics in this course.40) However.42) a new 6-particle Green’s function is generated.39) Furthermore. c† ck −q = c† ck − c† ck+q . χR (q) = ﬁnd the equation of motion i∂t χR (kq. k k 1 † [Vint . ρ −q. . k (9.42) (9. (9. We will for simplicity work with the translation-invariant electron gas with the Hamiltonian given by the usual kinetic energy plus interaction energy (here we disregard the spin degree of freedom because it is not important) H= k ξk c† ck + k 1 2 V (q)c† c† ck ck = H0 + Vint . Using the recipe from Chap. ρ (q) = k c† ck+q .t ] . t − t ) = δ(t − t ) [(c† ck+q )(t). ρ(−q. t − t ) = −iθ t − t 1 V ρ (q.45) is replaced by a mean-ﬁeld expression where pairs of operators are replaced by their average values. ρ −q. The two derivations give complementary insight into the physical content of the approximation. At this stage we truncate this series by the random phase approximation which says that the right hand side of (9.12 RPA is derived using Feynman diagrams. t − t ) = −iθ t − t [(c† ck+q ) (t) . RPA is exact in some limits. it turns out to be better to work with the function χR (kq.43) (9. ρ (−q) = k c† ck+q . the q = 0 component is cancelled by the positively charged background.44) [H0 . but also in general gives a decent description of the interacting electron gas. c† ck+q ] = (ξk − ξk+q ) c† ck+q .41) Let us from which we can easily obtain χ(q) by summing over k. ρ(−q. ck ck+q ] = − V (q ) c† c† −q ck ck+q + c† +q c† ck+q ck k k+q k k−q 2 kq − c† +q c† ck+q+q ck − c† c† −q ck ck+q−q k k k k . (9.t )] k − iθ(t − t ) [−[H. c† ck+q ] (t) . (9.t . k R k χ (kq).t) . k and for this purpose we need the following commutators c† ck+q .45) When this is inserted into Eq. The charge-charge correlation function is χR (q. Furthermore for each level of the equation of motion a Green’s function with two more electron operators pops up. k k k+q k (9. In Chap. k+q k−q kk q=0 (9.

ω).3) is preserved here. namely collective modes. ω) . Note that the exchange pairings which we included k in the Hartree-Fock approximation is not included here. (9. the interactions add other fundamental excitations.48) χR (q.49) and the two results therefore agree nicely. ω) and therefore the structure of the electron-hole excitations of the non-interacting gas (depicted in Fig. k (9. (ω + iη + ξk − ξk+q ) χR (kq.5 to be related to the imaginary part of χR (q.9. ω) χR (q. ω) 0 (9. when summed over k. ω) = and hence χR. ω) = k 1 V nk+q − nk ω + ξk − ξk+q + iδ 1 + V (q) χR (q. The additional .RPA (q.46) V (q) nk+q − nk where we used that c† ck = nk δk. THE TWO-PARTICLE CORRELATION FUNCTION 4.49).5 we also analyzed the excitation of the non-interacting electrons gas and the analysis there is basically still correct. c† ck+q ] ≈ − k 1 2 V (q ) c† ck+q c† −q ck k k+q k q =0 155 + c† ck+q c† −q ck k k+q + c† ck+q c† +q ck + c† ck+q c† +q ck k k k−q k−q −c† +q ck k − c† ck+q−q k = k c† ck+q+q k c† −q ck k − c† +q ck k − c† ck+q−q k c† −q ck .3. ω) −1 = 1 − V (q) χR (q. by the Fermi-Dirac distribution function.5. There we studied a non-interacting electron gas and found that χR (q. we recognize the Lindhard function studied in Sec. k c† ck+q+q k c† −q ck + const. allows us to ﬁnd an equation for χR (q. ω) = nk+q − nk 1 − V (q) k χR (k q. 8. The excitations which were shown in Sec. we get [Vint .47) which. 8. The RPA dielectric function becomes 0 εRPA (q. 1 − V (q)χR (q. 8. 0 (9.49) This is the RPA result of the polarizability function. ω) was derived in Sec. In Sec. ω) indeed was equal to the numerator in (9. The free particle polarizability χR (q. but of course the strength is modiﬁed by the real part of the denominator of (9. ω) = 1 V χR (kq. However.5. nk . ω) 0 .k . and in the case of a charge liquid these modes are the plasmon modes.50) Replacing the expectation values. 8.ω) = 1 + V (q)χR (q. (9. ω) . Collecting everything and going to the frequency domain the equation of motion becomes. 8.

Therefore approximations are necessary and we saw particular examples of this. In the following chapter we use the equation of motion to derive the Green’s functions in the imaginary time formalism and to derive the famous Wick’s theorem. ω) is zero because then 0 there is a possibility of a pole in the polarizability. Wick’s theorem will then pave the way for introducing the Feynman diagrams. ω) = 0 and this 0 is the plasma oscillation mode. 0 (9.156 CHAPTER 9. ω) 0 + δ2 = πδ 1 − V (q) Re χR (q. If we set Im χR (q. also called a plasmon. The plasmon is studied in detail in Chap. q 2 . namely the equation of motion method applied to the Green’s functions. namely the mean-ﬁeld solution of a magnetic impurity embedded in a metallic host. and the RPA approximation for the charge auto correlation function.51) This means that there is a well-deﬁned mode when 1 − V (q) Re χR (q. The set of diﬀerential equation is not soluble in general. ω) = −iδ. 9. and in fact only a very small set of Hamiltonians describing interacting systems can be solved exactly. EQUATION OF MOTION THEORY modes are given by the part where the imaginary part of χR (q. here we just mention that the condition for the mode turns out to be 2 ω ∝ ωpl + const. ω) = δ 1−V 2 (q) Re χR (q. we have 0 − Im χR (q. . 12.4 Summary and outlook In this chapter we have seen a method to deal with the dynamical aspects of interacting many-body systems. ω) .

the density or current operators. t ) = −iθ(t − t ) A(t). C R has the form of a retarded correlation function that was shown to give the linear response results of Chap. For technical reasons it is convenient to use a mapping to a more general Green’s function. B : for bosons F : for fermions . The imaginary time formalism is particularly useful when we want to perform perturbation theory. or that they can be derived in a simple way from the Green’s functions. e. it is the single particle Green’s function deﬁned in Eq. and this will eventually lead us to the Feynman diagrams. t ) = − A(t)B(t ) . Z 157 (10.1) When A and B are single particle annihilation and creation operators.F . which in general are deﬁned as R CAB (t. In Eq. In this chapter. This is much like treating electrical circuit theory with complex numbers even though all currents and voltages are real. (8. This has no real physical meaning. from which we can ﬁnd the retarded function as C R = iθ(t−t )(CAB we have 1 CAB (t. (10. By deﬁnition (10.1) boson operators mean either single particle operators like b or b† or an even number of fermion operators such as c† c appearing in for example the density operator ρ. In all the situations we have studied so far the physical observables have been related to the retarded Green’s functions.g. and is only a clever mathematical trick.3) .2) CBA ). The important thing that distinguishes the boson case from the fermion case is the sign change that is obtained upon interchange. t ) = − Tr(e−βH A(t)B(t )). When A and B are two-particle operators. Let us for example look at the deﬁnition of the following correlation function CAB (t. 6. (10. where the time and frequency arguments are imaginary quantities.28) from which one could derive the density of states. which we need to learn.Chapter 10 Imaginary time Green’s functions We have seen that physical observables often have the form of Green’s functions. The present chapter concentrates on the mathematical details of the technique and applications are left for later. B(t ) B. we introduce a mathematical method to work out the retarded Green’s functions.

we will see that there is a well-deﬁned method to obtain the physically relevant quantity. 5 that the interaction picture provides a systematic way of expanding in powers of V. (10. (10. 5. t)A(t)U (t. so A(t) = eitH Ae−itH .e. where V is the perturbation.158 CHAPTER 10. But the trouble arises for the density matrix e−βH .5) In this notation. 1 (10. We could try to utilize this and write CAB as 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ CAB (t. In order to treat both U and ρ in one go.7) Letting H = H0 + V . . We deﬁne A(τ ) = eτ H Ae−τ H . 0) . which should also be expanded in powers of the interaction. τ )B(τ )U (τ . Furthermore. to go back to physical real times from the imaginary time function. The solution to this problem is to use imaginary times instead of real times. which could be collected into a single time-ordered exponential. (10. where τ is real and has the dimension time. the relation between the Heisenberg and the interaction picture in imaginary time follows the arguments in Chap. one cannot use the ordinary equilibrium statistical mechanics but instead one must use a non-equilibrium formalism. If we consider a product of operators A(τ )B(τ ) and write it in terms of the corresponding operators in the interaction representation. This we did in the linear response limit in Chap.8) Note that we consider only time-independent Hamiltonians in this section.4) Z ˆ In Eq. 6. τ a Greek letter. This would in Eq. (10. τ )A(τ )U (τ. (5. If they are not timeindependent. we can deﬁne the interaction picture for imaginary times as ˆ A(τ ) = eτ H0 Ae−τ H0 .6) Similar to the interaction picture deﬁned for real times. 0). you should use the imaginary time deﬁnitions when the time argument is a Greek letter and the usual deﬁnition when the times are written with roman letters.1 They therefore satisfy similar diﬀerential equations: U satisﬁes the Schr¨dinger equation. To employ imaginary time is not as far fetched as it might look. because both the density operator ρ = e−βH /Z and the time evolution operator U (t) = e−iHt are both exponential functions of the Hamiltonian. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS Suppose the Hamiltonian is H = H0 + V . we get ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ A(τ )B(τ ) = U (0. In the end this means that both U and ρ can be treated in just one expansion in powers of V . t a Roman letter. one replaces the time argument by a imaginary quantity t → −iτ . (10.18) we saw also how a single U operator could be expanded as a time-ordered exponential. but we will not cover the more general case of non-linear time dependent response in this course. To make a long story short: this is a mess and a new idea is therefore needed.4) result in three time-ordered exponentials. i∂t U = HU while ρ is the solution to ∂β ρ = −Hρ. i. but bare in mind that this is purely a mathematical trick without physical contents. o which is known as the Bloch equation. As for real time we can deﬁne an imaginary time Heisenberg picture by substituting it by τ . Then we saw in Chap. t ) = − Tr e−βH U (0. t )B(t )U (t .

14) 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Tr e−βH0 U (β. Z Utilizing Eqs.12). like in Eq. the time-evolution operator U in the interaction picture is ˆ U (τ. τ ). (10. before we can see the usefulness fully. τ ) = eτ H0 e−(τ −τ From this it follows directly that ˆ ˆ ˆ U (τ. 0) = e−βH0 Tτ exp − dτ1 V (τ1 ) . (5. First we diﬀerentiate Eq. However. Now the same iterative procedure is applied and we end with ∞ ˆ U (τ. This result demonstrates that the trick of using imaginary time indeed allows for a systematic expansion of the complicated looking expression in Eq.13) and the boundary condition.18).12) we obtain β ˆ ˆ e−βH = e−βH0 U (β.159 ˆ where.16) ˆ where we have used Z = Tr e−βH = Tr e−βH0 U (β. (10. τ )A(τ )U (τ. τ ).13) we can immediately expand in powers of V Tτ A(τ )B(τ ) = Tτ A(τ )B(τ ) = (10.10) )H −τ H0 e . 0) Tτ (U (0.9) with respect to τ and ﬁnd ˆ ∂τ U (τ.3. (10.12) = Tτ exp − τ ˆ dτ1 V (τ1 ) .10) ˆ ˆ ˆ Tτ U (β. (10.e. is of course the same. (10. 0) . (10. (5. 5. the operators are ordered such that Tτ (A(τ )B(τ )) is equal to A(τ )B(τ ) for τ > τ and B(τ )A(τ ) when τ > τ . τ ) = U (τ.9) An explicit expression for U (τ.13) 0 Consider now the time ordered expectation value of the pair of operators in Eq. (10. and indeed it can. τ ) = 1. (10. 0)A(τ )B(τ ) = ˆ ˆ Tτ U Tτ A(τ )B(τ ) = Tr e Z ˆ U (β. (10. The time ordering is again the same as deﬁned in Sec. τ ) = eτ H0 (H0 − H)e−(τ −τ )H −τ H0 e ˆ ˆ = −V (τ )U (τ. we need to relate the correlation functions written in imaginary time and the correlation function with real time arguments. τ ) = n=0 1 (−1)n n! τ τ τ τ dτ1 · · · τ ˆ ˆ dτn Tτ V (τ1 ) · · · V (τn ) (10. because by combining Eqs.9) and (10. (10.15) Z This can be written in a much more compact way relying on the properties of Tτ and Eq. 0)A(τ )B(τ ) 1 −βH0 ˆ (β. 0) 0 0 . 0)) . (10. and where the averages · · · e−βH0 e−βH0 0 depending on appear after normalizing with 1/Z0 = 1/Tr . (10. .11) ˆ This is analogous to Eq.4).8) 1 Tr e−βH Tτ A(τ )B(τ ) . i. τ )U (τ . U (τ. τ )B(τ )U (τ . Above it was argued that the density operator naturally can be treated within the imaginary time formalism. τ ) is found in analogy with the derivation of Eq. (5.8) and (10.

τ ) = CAB (τ − τ ). also called Matsubara Green’s function. (10. (10. (10.17) where the time-ordering symbol in imaginary time has been introduced. . The proof of Eq. (10. τ ) ≡ − Tτ A(τ )B(τ ) . It means that operators are ordered according to history and just like the time-ordering operator seen in Chap. For τ > τ the equality τ − τ < β is clearly seen if one uses the Lehmann representation in Eq. is deﬁned in the following way CAB (τ.19) to get a factor exp (− [β − τ + τ ] En ) .18) The next question is: What values can τ have? From the deﬁnition in Eq. likewise. τ ) is a function of the time diﬀerence only. (10. We have for τ > τ −1 Tr e−βH eτ H Ae−τ H eτ H Be−τ H CAB (τ.e. − for fermions.21) and similarly for τ > 0. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS 10. (10.1 Deﬁnitions of Matsubara Green’s functions The imaginary time Green’s functions. 5 with the later “times” to the left + for bosons. the second equality is obtained if τ < τ . This follows from the cyclic properties of the trace.160 CHAPTER 10.20) which again follows from the cyclic properties of the trace. for τ < 0. Thirdly. i. and of course likewise for τ > τ . and. CAB (τ. Firstly. = = −1 Tr e−βH e−τ Z H τH e Ae−τ H eτ H B −1 Tr e−βH e(τ −τ Z )H Ae−(τ −τ )H B (10.17) three things are clear. τ ) = Z Tτ A(τ )B(τ ) = θ(τ − τ )A(τ )B(τ ) ± θ τ − τ B(τ )A(τ ).19) = CAB (τ − τ ). τ ) is guaranteed only if −β < τ − τ < β. CAB (τ. (10.20) for τ < 0 is −1 Tr e−βH e(τ +β)H Ae−(τ +β)H B CAB (τ + β) = Z −1 = Tr eτ H Ae−τ H e−βH B Z −1 Tr e−βH Beτ H Ae−τ H = Z −1 = Tr e−βH BA(τ ) Z −1 = ± Tr e−βH Tτ (A(τ )B) Z = ±CAB (τ ). convergence of CAB (τ. we have the property CAB (τ ) = ±CAB (τ + β). Secondly.

1. e. (10.g replace δ(τ ) by δ(τ − 0+ ).24) From now on we use the following notation for the Fourier transforms of the Matsubara Green’s functions β CAB (iωn ) = dτ e 0 iωn τ CAB (τ ). β].21) this can be simpliﬁed as CAB (n) = = 1 2 β 0 β dτ eiπnτ /β CAB (τ ) + 1 2 0 −β dτ eiπnτ /β CAB (τ ). (10. for example if CAB (τ ) includes a delta function δ(τ ). for fermions. Because of the properties above. Note how the information about the temperature is contained in the Matsubara frequencies through β. 10. n is odd for fermions.2.25) leads to a minor ambiguity of how to treat the boundary τ = 0. β for bosons. In the frequency domain they are in fact the same analytic function as the usual real times . we take CAB (τ ) to be deﬁned in the interval −β < τ < β.25) The frequency variable ωn is denoted a Matsubara frequency. A consistent choice is always to move the time argument into the interior of the interval [0. ωn = ωn = 2nπ β . due to the symmetry property (10. 1 1 β dτ eiπnτ /β CAB (τ ) + e−iπn dτ eiπnτ /β CAB (τ − β). 2 0 (10. CONNECTION BETWEEN MATSUBARA AND RETARDED FUNCTIONS161 10.22a) (10.22b) n=−∞ However. and thus according to the theory of Fourier transformations we have a discrete Fourier series on that interval given by CAB (n) ≡ CAB (τ ) = 1 2 1 β β −β ∞ dτ eiπnτ /β CAB (τ ).10.23) and since the factor 1 ± e−iπn is zero for plus sign and n odd or for minus sign and n even and 2 otherwise. we obtain β CAB (n) = 0 dτ eiπnτ /β CAB (τ ). n is even for bosons. (10. β Finally.2 Connection between Matsubara and retarded functions We shall now see why the Matsubara Green’s functions have been introduced at all.1 Fourier transform of Matsubara Green’s functions Next we wish to ﬁnd the Fourier transforms with respect to the “time” argument τ . 2 0 2 0 β 1 = 1 ± e−iπn dτ eiπnτ /β CAB (τ ). (10. (2n+1)π . e−iπnτ /β CAB (n). we remark that the boundaries of the integral 0 dτ in Eq.

where z is a complex frequency argument in the upper half plane. there exists an analytic function CAB (z). According to the theory of analytic functions: if two functions Note that it is assumed that the grand canonical ensemble is being used because the complete set of states includes states with any number of particles. Since it is in many cases much easier to compute the Matsubara function.3 we calculated the retarded single particle Green’s function and the result Eq. For τ > 0. that equals CAB (iωn ) on the R imaginary axis and CAB (ω) on the real axis. Therefore the connection between imaginary time functions and retarded real time functions derived here is only valid in this ensemble. In Sec. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS Green’s functions.3.46) can be carried over for fermions. In the general case we get2 R CAB (ω) = 1 Z nn n |A| n n |B| n e−βEn − (±)e−βEn ω + En − En + iη . (10.162 CHAPTER 10. we have CAB (τ ) = −1 Tr e−βH eτ H Ae−τ H B Z −1 = e−βEn n |A| n n |B| n eτ (En −En ) . CAB (iωn ).28) show that CAB (iωn ) and CAB (ω) coincide and that they are just R special cases of the same function.26) and (10. 2 . (10.where η is a positive inﬁnitesimal. In other words. 8. eiωn β eβ(En −En ) − 1 . Indeed we shall now show that the appropriate analytic R continuation is CAB (ω) = CAB (iωn → ω + iη). This means that once we have one of the two. this is a powerful method for ﬁnding the corresponding retarded function. Z nn (10. (10. the other one follows by analytic continuation.28) −1 = Z = −1 Z e−βEn nn n |A| n n |B| n iωn + En − En n |A| n n |B| n iωn + En − En e−βEn nn 1 = Z nn n |A| n n |B| n iωn + En − En e−βEn − (±)e−βEn R Eqs.29) This function is analytic in the upper (or lower) half plane. (8.26) The Matsubara function is calculated in a similar way. R The relation between the two functions CAB and CAB is proven by use of the Lehmann representation. because we can generate both CAB (iωn ) and CAB (ω) from the following function deﬁned in the entire complex plane except for the real axis CAB (z) = 1 Z nn n |A| n n |B| n z + En − En e−βEn − (±) e−βEn . (10. ±eβ(En −En ) − 1 .27) and hence β CAB (iωn ) = dτ eiωn τ 0 −1 Z e−βEn n |A| n nn n |B| n eτ (En −En ) . but has a series of poles at En −En along the real axis.

25). where it is evident that the replacement in (10. we could do the same thing in the lower half ) # " 0 $% # " ( ! ' ' ¥ ©¨ § # " & $% " ©! # 1 ' ¢ ' ' ¢¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡¢ ¦ £¤ ¥ ¢ . there is only R one such common function. Later we shall see examples of how to perform the analytic continuation correctly. the answer is completely diﬀerent and of course wrong. CAB (z = iωn ) = CAB (iωn ).1: The analytic continuation procedure in the complex z-plane where the Matsubara function deﬁned for z = iωn goes to the retarded or advanced Green’s functions deﬁned inﬁnitesimally close to real axis. However. To summarize: Using the Lehmann representation we have shown that there exists a function CAB (z) which is analytic for z not purely real and which coincides with the Matsubara function.30) iωn → z → ω + iη gives the right analytic function.28). coincide in an inﬁnite set of points then they are fully identical functions within the entire domain where at least one of them is a analytic function and.e. (10. This is illustrated in Fig. 10.1 Advanced functions The function CAB (z) is analytic for all z away from the real axis. it is not obvious how to perform the continuation. i.1.30) Warning: this way of performing the analytic continuation is only true when CAB (iωn ) is written as a rational function which is analytic in the upper half plane. For example look at the deﬁnition in Eq.2. This means that if we know CAB (iωn ) we can ﬁnd CAB (ω) by analytic continuation: R CAB (ω) = CAB (iωn → ω + iη). 10. CAB (z = ω + i0+ ) = CAB (ω).e. On the real axis coming from above R this function is identical to the retarded function. (10. CONNECTION BETWEEN MATSUBARA AND RETARDED FUNCTIONS163 Figure 10. it is not a simple task to determine CAB (z) unless it has been reduced to an rational function as in Eq. furthermore.10. i. If we na¨ ıvely insert iωn → ω + iη before doing the integral. Therefore instead of the continuation in the upper half plane. (10. If not.2.

6. A CAB (ω) = CAB (iωn → ω − iη). 10.33b) {ν} representation. Suppose the Hamiltonian is diagonal in the ν-quantum numbers H0 = ν ξν c† cν . (10. c† (τ ) = eτ H0 c† e−τ H0 = eξν τ c† . ν (10. (10. 8.34) so that cν (τ ) = eτ H0 cν e−τ H0 = e−ξν τ cν .1 Matsubara Green’s function for non-interacting particles For non-interacting particles the Matsubara Green’s functions can be evaluated in the same way we found the retarded Green’s function in Sec. gives the present state of the system as it has evolved from the state at previous times. r στ ) = − Tτ Ψσ (r.F . 10. real space. They are deﬁned as G(rστ. the eﬀect of retardation. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS plane iωn → z → ω − iη. (10.τ )Ψ† (r .F (ν. τ ) σ G(ντ.e.35) = −θ(τ − τ ) cν (τ )c† (τ ) − (±) θ(τ − τ ) c† (τ )cν (τ ) ν ν = − θ(τ − τ ) cν c† (±)θ(τ − τ ) c† cν ν ν For fermions this is G0.33a) (10.37) .31) The advanced Green’s function is in the time domain deﬁned as A CAB (t. which gives the so-called advanced Green’s function. τ − τ ) = − θ(τ − τ )(1 − nF (ξν )) − θ(τ − τ )nF (ξν ) e−ξν (τ −τ ) e−ξν (τ −τ ) .36) (10. ν ν ν (10. .32) The term “advanced” means that it gives the state of the system at previous times based on the state of system at present times. τ − τ ) = − Tτ cν (τ )c† (τ ) ν . (10. B(t ) B. The retarded one.3. i.164 CHAPTER 10. as was explained in Chap. which gives G0 (ν. ν τ ) = − Tτ cν (τ )c† (τ ) ν .2.3 Single-particle Matsubara Green’s function An important type of Matsubara functions are the single-particle Green’s function G.3. t ) = iθ(t − t) A(t).

F (ν. τ ) = 1 β G(ν. (8.10.4 Evaluation of Matsubara sums When working with Matsubara Green’s functions we will often encounter sums over Matsubara frequencies. the fermionic Green’s function is β 165 (10.38) G0. while iqn and iωn are used for boson frequencies. 0 1 eikn β e−ξν β − 1 . For example sums of the type S1 (ν. β = − (1 + nB (ξν )) = − (1 + nB (ξν )) = 1 .41) 10. ikn τ > 0. (10. τ − τ ) = − θ(τ − τ ) (1 + nB (ξν )) + θ(τ − τ )nB (ξν ) e−ξν (τ −τ ) . 0 1 eiqn β e−ξν β − 1 .51). Here we have anticipated the notation that is used later: Matsubara frequencies ikn and ipn are used for fermion frequencies. ω − ξν + iη (10. In the frequency representation. τ ). β kn = (2n + 1) π/β = − (1 − nF (ξν )) = − (1 − nF (ξν )) = 1 .B (ν.40) −1 because eiqn β = 1 and 1 + nB (ε) = − e−βε − 1 .B (ν. (10. EVALUATION OF MATSUBARA SUMS while the bosonic free particle Green’s function reads G0. 1 .F (ν. iqn − ξν dτ eiqn τ e−ξν τ . the retarded free particles Green’s functions are for both fermions and bosons GR (ν. iqn ) = 0 dτ eiqn τ G0. ikn − ξν (10. while the bosonic one becomes qn = 2nπ/β G0. iqn − ξν (10. According to our recipe Eq. ikn − ξν dτ eikn τ e−ξν τ .39) −1 because eikn β = −1 and 1 − nF (ε) = e−βε + 1 β .42) . τ ).30).B (ν. ikn )eikn τ . similar to integrals over frequencies in the real time language. ikn ) = 0 dτ eikn τ G0. ω) = 0 in agreement with Eq.4.

49b) C 2πi .45a) nF (z) = βz e +1 1 nB (z) = βz .46a) βz + 1 z=ikn z→ikn e δ→0 e e +1 β (z − iωn ) δ 1 Res [nB (z)] = lim = lim βiωn βδ (10.43) This section is devoted to the mathematical techniques for evaluating such sums. poles for z = i(2n)π/β.166 CHAPTER 10.44a) (10. but only regions where g(z) is analytic. (10. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS or sums with products of Green’s functions. ikn ikn fermion frequency iωn boson frequency (10. ν2 . τ ) = 1 β G0 (ν1 .44b) g(iωn )eiωn τ .49a) SF = − C 2πi dz SB = + nB (z)g(z)ezτ . the contour integral which encloses one of these points. (10.46b) =+ . iωn .48) If we therefore deﬁne contours. βz − 1 z=iωn z→iωn e δ→0 e β e −1 According to the theory of analytic functions. which enclose all point z = ikn in the fermionic case and all points z = iωn in the bosonic case.g. ikn )G0 (ν2 . but no singularity of g(z). poles for z = i(2n + 1)π/β. n(z). respectively. To evaluate these. These functions turn out to be the well known Fermi and Bose distribution functions 1 . For this we need two functions. (10.45b) e −1 The residues at these values are (z − ikn ) δ 1 Res [nF (z)] = lim = lim βikn βδ =− . In order to be more general. β (10. β (10. (10. we can write dz nF (z)g(z)ezτ . which have poles at z = ikn and z = iωn . the trick is to rewrite them as integrals over a complex variable and to use residue theory.47) for fermions and similarly for boson frequencies dz nB (z)g(z) = 2πi Res [nB (z)g(iωn )] = z=ikn 2πi g(iωn ). S2 (ν1 . iωn and study them for τ > 0. and therefore the types of sums we will meet are often products of the such free Green’s functions. (10. The imaginary time formalism has been introduced because it will be used to perform perturbation expansions. e. ikn τ > 0. C. is given by dz nF (z)g(z) = 2πi Res [nF (z)g(ikn )] = − z=ikn 2πi g(ikn ). (10. ikn + iωn )eikn τ . we deﬁne the two generic sums S F (τ ) = S B (τ ) = 1 β 1 β g(ikn )eikn τ .

see Fig. Let us therefore consider the sum 1 F g0 (ikn )eikn τ . Furthermore. EVALUATION OF MATSUBARA SUMS 167 Figure 10.1 Summations over functions with simple poles Consider a Matsubara frequency sum like Eq. eτ Re z → 0. e.2: The contour used to perform the Matsubara sum for a function with known poles.52) ¦¥ ¤ ¢ © §¨ ¦¥ ¤ £ ¤ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¤ £ ¢ §! ¦¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ §# ¦"¤ £ . 10. (10. (10. 10.2. we use the contour integration technique in two special cases. for Re z < 0. In the following two subsections. for Re z > 0. zj . in the form of non-interacting Green’s functions like (10.51) z − zj j where {zj } is the set of known poles and hence g0 (z) is analytic elsewhere in the z-plane.10. Because we know the poles of g0 a good choice for a contour is to take one that covers the entire complex plane C∞ : z = R eiθ where R → ∞.50) S0 (τ ) = β ikn where g0 (z). (10.43) 1 g0 (z) = . The contribution from the contour goes to zero as |z| → ∞ and hence the contributions from the z = ikn and z = zj poles add up to zero.g. the contour integral itself gives zero because the integrand goes to zero exponentially for z ∈ C∞ (remember 0 < τ < β) nF (z)eτ z = eτ z ∝ eβz + 1 e(τ −β) Re z → 0. τ > 0.43) but let us take a slightly more general function which could include more free Green’s function. has a number of known simple poles. (10.4.4. Such a contour would give us the contribution for poles of nF (z) plus the contributions from poles of g0 (z).

If it is the full Green’s function. 10.42). we do not know the poles of the Green’s function. For bosons the derivation is almost identical and we get 1 β B g0 (iωn )eiωn τ = S0 (τ ) = − iωn j z=zj Res [g0 (z)] nB (zj )ezj τ . consider the sum S(τ ) = 1 β g(ikn )eikn τ . 10.2.4.e. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS Figure 10. i. The Matsubara sum has thus been simpliﬁed considerably and we shall use this formula several times during the course. This general property of the Green’s function was shown in Sec. ¨ § ¦¤ £ ¢ © ¥ © £ ¥ ¤ £ ¥ ¤ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ (10.54) (10. it is known to be an analytic function in the entire complex plane exempt on the branch cuts. In general.53) (10.2 Summations over functions with known branch cuts The second type of sums we will meet are of the form in Eq.168 CHAPTER 10. including for example the inﬂuence of interaction.3: The contour used to perform the Matsubara sum for a function with known branch cuts. Hence 0= C∞ dz nF (z)g0 (z)ezτ 2πi g0 (ikn )eikn τ + ikn F S0 (τ ) = j j z=zj =− and thus 1 β Res [g0 (z)] nF (zj )ezj τ . but we do know that it is analytic for z not on the real axis. ikn τ > 0.55) (10.(10. z=zj Res [g0 (z)] nF (zj )ezj τ .56) ¡¢ ¢ . The contribution from the outer parts of the contour goes to zero as |z| → ∞ and hence only the paths parallel to the cut (here the real axis) contribute.

17) with respect to τ .29) with A = cν and B = c† . see Eq. (10. because c† cν = G(ν. EQUATION OF MOTION 169 where it is known that g(z) is analytic in the entire complex plane except on the real axis. (10. becomes in this way S1 (ν. Now setting the time argument in the single particle imaginary time Green’s ν function. 8 to ﬁnd various Green’s functions. Eq.52). In the imaginary time formalism the time derivative of an operator is ∂τ A(τ ) = ∂τ eτ H Ae−τ H = eτ H [H.33b). (8. the part where |z| → ∞ does not contribution to the integral and we are left with the parts of the contour running parallel to the real axis. can also be used for the Matsubara functions. ε)eετ . ε − iη)] eετ .58) according to the deﬁnition of the spectral function in Eq. (10. A](τ )B(τ ) . In the second equality we used that G(ε − iη) = [G(ε + iη)]∗ which follows from Eq. ε). ikn )e−ikn 0 = S1 (ν. 10. A](τ ) ∂ θ(τ − τ ) A(τ )B(τ ) ± θ(τ − τ ) B(τ )A(τ ) . (10. 2πi C1 +C2 ∞ 1 =− dε nF (ε) [g(ε + iη) − g(ε − iη)] eετ .5.10.57) 2πi −∞ For example.60) If we diﬀerentiate the Matsubara function Eq. (10. 0− ) ν 1 − = G(ν.0+ ) β ikn ∞ = −∞ dε nF (ε)A(ν.57). used in Chap. ε + iη) − G(ν. to a negative inﬁnitesimal 0− .59) which agrees with our previous ﬁnding. (10. we have in fact found an expression for the expectation value of the occupation. Eq.49). the sum in Eq. ∂τ = δ(τ − τ ) AB − (±)BA + Tτ [H.τ ) = − ∞ 1 dε nF (ε) [G(ν. 2πi −∞ ∞ 1 =− dε nF (ε)2i Im GR (ν. They are shifted by an inﬁnitesimal amount η away from the real axis on either side dz S(τ ) = − nF (z)g(z)ezτ . (8. (10. we obtain −∂τ CAB (τ − τ ) = . A contour which includes all points z = ikn and no singularities of g is therefore C = C1 + C2 depicted in Fig. 10.5 Equation of motion The equation of motion technique.3.42). ε) eετ 2πi −∞ ∞ dε = nF (ε)A(ν. As for the example in the previous section. A]e−τ H = [H. −∞ 2π (10. 2π (10.

r τ ) = δ(τ − τ )δ(r − r ). i.e. i. (10. . tνν G0 (ν τ.33). the equations of motion therefore in the two representations reduce to −∂τ G0 (rτ. (10. For the single-particle Green’s functions deﬁned in Eqs. whereas the plus sign should be used for boson operators. of the general form H0 = H0 = νν dr dr Ψ† (r)h0 (r. ν In this case. νn τn .66) . which we will need later when doing perturbation theory. and which is used in the example ending this chapter. ν1 τ1 . r )Ψ(r ).170 CHAPTER 10. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS where the minus sign in AB − (±)BA is for fermion operators. .61a) (10. r τ ) − dr h0 (r. we then get for both fermion and boson Green’s functions −∂τ G(rτ.62a) (10. . The time-evolution is also with respect to H0 and it is given by c(τ ) = eτ H0 c e−τ H0 . r )G0 (r τ.64) This equation together with the boundary condition G(τ ) = ±G(τ + β) gives the solution. r τ ) = δ(τ − τ )δ(r − r ) + Tτ ([H. For example for free particle those given in Eqs. ν (10. ν τ ) = δ(τ − τ )δνν + Tτ ([H. . ν τ ) = δ(τ − τ )δνν . .6 Wick’s theorem We end this rather technical part by proving an extremely useful theorem.e. (10. (10.states that for non-interacting particles. cν ](τ )c† (τ )) . Consider an n-particle Green’s function deﬁned as G0 (ν1 τ1 . νn τn ) = (−1)n Tτ cν1 (τ1 ) · · · cνn (τn )ˆ† (τn ) · · · c† (τ1 ) ˆ ˆ cν ˆν n 1 (n) 0 .38).63b) −∂τ G0 (ντ.37) and (10. 10. which we have indicated by the subscript 0. The theorem . higher order Green’s function involving more than one particle can be factorized into products of single-particle Green’s functions. (10. ˆ (10. .62)). when the Hamiltonian is quadratic.61b) For non-interacting electrons the Hamiltonian is quadratic.63a) (10. . Ψ(r)](τ )Ψ† (r .called Wick’s theorem .62b) tνν c† cν . (10. −1 G0 = −∂τ − H0 . τ )) . .65) The average is taken with respect to a non-interacting Hamiltonian H0 (like Eq. −∂τ G(ντ. ν τ ) − or in matrix form −1 G0 G0 = 1. ν (10.

6. The last one gives for example for τ1 − ∂ (n) G ∂τ1 0 ˆ ˆ = − (−1)n Tτ [H0 . j2n ) = (−1)n P ∈S2n (n) (±1)P θ(σP1 − σP2 ) · · · θ(σPn−1 − σPn ) 0 × dP1 (σP1 ) · · · dP2n (σP2n ) . (10. deﬁne the list (a.67) and furthermore deﬁne the permutations of the 2n operators as P (d1 (σ1 ) · · · d2n (σ2n )) = dP1 (σP1 ) · · · dP2n (σP2n ). a. τn . j ∈ [n + 1. n]. Let us simplify the writing by deﬁning one operator symbol for both creation and annihilation operators dj (σj ) = c† ˆν (τ(2n+1−j) ). c) and the permutation (c. . (10. (10. corresponding to τi being either smaller or larger than τj . . The easiest way to show Wick’s theorem is through the equation of motion for the n(n) particle Green’s function. . ˆ j ∈ [1. Which permutation is the correct one of course depends on how the time arguments in (10. . Take now for example the case where τi is next to τj .65) is indeed quite complicated to look at if we write out all the possible orderings and the conditions for that particular ordering. Therefore if we (n) sum over all permutations and include the corresponding conditions.69).g. τ1 .70) last term which is similar to the derivation that lead to Eqs. For example if n = 2. there are 4 time arguments which can be ordered in 4! diﬀerent ways. On the right hand side the derivative only acts on the theta functions in Eq. (10. we can rewrite G0 as G0 (j1 . (2n+1−j) cνj (τj ).69) where the factor (±1)P takes into account that for fermions (minus sign) it costs a sign change every time a pair of operators are commuted. (10. (10.64). b. Thus we diﬀerentiate G0 with respect to one of time arguments.71) −1 where G0i means that it works on the coordinate νi . τi . 1.10. .69).68) where Pj denotes the j’th variable in the permutation P (e. . 2)). cν1 ](τ1 ) · · · cνn (τn )ˆ† (τn ) · · · c† (τ1 ) ˆ cν ˆν n 1 . In this case G (n) has the structure G0 (n) = · · · θ(τi − τj ) · · · ± · · · θ(τj − τi ) · · · · · · cνi (τi )ˆ† (τj ) · · · ˆ cν j · · · c† (τj )ˆνi (τi ) · · · ˆν c j . and they will have diﬀerent order of the permutation. There are two such terms in (10. (10. b) then P = (3. (n) (10.63) and (10. . This gives two kinds of contributions: the terms coming from the derivative of the theta functions and one term from the derivative of the expectation value itself. . 2n]. so that we have −1 G0i G0 (n) θ = −∂τi G0 . WICK’S THEOREM 171 The expression in (10.72) .65) are really ordered.

76) Let us collect the signs that go into (−1)x : (−1) from (−∂τ ).65) [(−1)n−1 ]−1 from the deﬁnition of G (n−1) . . ν1 τ1 . (10. . (10. .74) cνi (τi ). . n ) B. With the plus sign it is called a permanent. i. i.. and for fermions (−1)n−i+n−j from moving c† next to cνi .71) now looks like −1 G0i G0 (n) n = j=1 δνi . (10. . . .77b) = 1. . . .. . Hence ˆν ˆ j fermions: (−1)x = − (−1)n (−1)1−n (−1)2n−i−j = (−1)j+i . a constant. .63) where a one-particle Green’s function was reduced to a zero-particle Green’s function. and it leaves a Green’s function which is no longer an n-particle Green’s function but an (n − 1)-Green’s function. our equation of motion (10. The number of creation and annihilation operators has thus both been reduced by one. . τi ) (10.F If τi is next to τj instead of τj . and hence θ −∂τi G0 (n) = [· · · ] · · · cνi (τi )ˆ† (τj ) · · · ˆ cν j [· · · ] · · · c† (τj )ˆνi (τi ) · · · ˆν c j δ(τi − τj ). without i without j (10. bosons : (−1) = − (−1) (−1) x n 1−n (10. ν1 τ1 . . In fact.e.n ) = G0 (1. and this sign denoted (−1)x will (for fermions) depend on the τj in question. What we have not determined is the sign of the new (n − 1)-Green’s function.75) which therefore does not contribute.F .76) can be integrated and because G0 has the same boundary conditions as G0 . (10. cνj (τi ) ˆ ˆ B. . n ) . it gives the same result and hence (n) G0 n = j=1 (±)j+i G0 νi τi . i ≡ (νi . (10. We therefore end up with (n) G0 (1. ..νj δ(τi − τj ) (−1)x G0 (n−1) (ν1 τ1 . . (−1)n from the deﬁnition in (10..77a) (10. .F = 0. . . Besides this undetermined sign. . νn τn ). periodic in the time arguments. . 1 ) · · · . νn τn ). . respectively = δνi .79) .73) We can pull out the equal time commutator or anti-commutator for boson or fermions. n. νn τn . G0 (n. .172 CHAPTER 10. . 1 ) · · · G0 (1. G0 (n. 1 . νn τn .78) By recalling the deﬁnition of a determinants this formula is immediately recognized as the determinant in the case where the minus sign should be used.νj . νj τj G0 (n−1) (ν1 τ1 . we get in the same manner the (anti-)commutator cνi (τi ). without i without j (10.e. c† (τi ) ˆ ˆν j B. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS and when this is diﬀerentiated with respect to τi it gives two delta functions.. (n) Now Eq. we saw a special case of this in Eq. .

4.5 we calculated the polarizability of non-interacting free electrons. this is Wick’s theorem. In order to illustrate the working principle of the imaginary time formalism. i. τ ) = V = 1 V Tτ k. which follows from the corresponding Matsubara function by χR (q. iqn ) we start from the time-dependent χ χ0 (q. we do it again here. χR (q. to Fourier transform the product (10.7. 10. ikn + iqn )G0 (kσ.10.83) where we consider only q = 0 and use that G0 (k. and where the determinant |·|B. The Fourier transform of a product in the time domain is a convolution in the frequency domain.(10. iqn ) = 1 β 1 V G0 (k + qσ. the internal frequencies in the two come with the same sign χ0 (q. The next step is to calculate the frequency dependent function. τ ) = − 1 V Tτ c† (τ ) ck+qσ (τ ) c† σ ck −qσ kσ k k. τ ) ρ (−q)) 0 . (10. kσ (10.84) ikn The sum over Matsubara frequencies has exactly the form studied in Sec. The starting point is the physical quantity which is needed: the frequency dependent retarded charge-charge correlation function.k . ikn ). V (10. k ) ∝ δk.σ ck+qσ (τ ) c† σ k 0 Tτ ck −qσ (0) c† kσ (τ ) 1 − ρ (q) V 0 =0 for q=0 0 ρ (−q) 0 .e.83). EXAMPLE: POLARIZABILITY OF FREE ELECTRONS 173 where we used a shorthand notation with the orbital and the time arguments being collected into one variable.k . while for bosons it should be understood as a permanent where all have terms come with a plus sign. 1 χ0 (q.80) and expresses it as a two-particle Green’s function χ0 (q.54) . G0 (k + qσ.e.k σσ 0 .82) By Wick’s theorem this is given by a product of single-particle Green’s functions with all possible pairings and with the sign given by the number of times we interchange two fermion operators. iqn → ω + iη). we can read oﬀ the answer from Eq. ω). 10. 8. τ )G0 (kσ. kσ (10.1.81) (10. −τ ). Because one function has argument τ while the other has argument −τ . In order to ﬁnd χ (q. ikn ) = 1/ (ikn − ξk ). τ ) = − 1 Tτ (ρ (q. ω) = χ(q. Remembering that G0 (kσ.F means that for fermions it is the usual determinant. i.7 Example: polarizability of free electrons In Sec.σ.

174

CHAPTER 10. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS

by inserting the poles of the two G0 (kσ, z) (z = ξk and z = ξk+q − iqn ) and obtain χ0 (q, iqn ) = = 1 V 1 V nF (ξk )G0 (k + qσ, ξk + iqn ) + nF (ξk+q − iqn )G0 (kσ, ξk+q − iqn )

k

nF (ξk ) − nF (ξk+q )

kσ

iqn + ξk − ξk+q

.

(10.85)

**Here we used that nF (ξk+q − iqn ) = 1 eβξk+q e−βiqn +1 = 1 e
**

βξk+q

+1

,

(10.86)

because iqn is a bosonic frequency. After the substitution (10.80) Eq. (10.85) gives the result we found in Eq. (8.81).

10.8

Summary and outlook

When performing calculations of physical quantities at ﬁnite temperatures it turns out that the easiest way to ﬁnd the “real time” introduced in Chap. 7 is often to go via the imaginary time formalism. This formalism has been introduced in this chapter, and in the following chapters on Feynman diagrams it is a necessary tool. There you will see why it is more natural to use the imaginary time Green’s function, also called Matsubara Green’s function. The reason is that the time evolution operator and the Boltzmann weight factor can be treated on an equal footing and one single perturbation expansion suﬃces. In the real time formalism there is no simple way of doing this. We have also derived some very useful relations concerning sums over Matsubara frequencies. The things to remember are the following. Non-interacting particle Green’s function, valid for both bosons and fermions G0 (ν, iωn ) = 1 . iωn − ξv (10.87)

**Matsubara frequency sum over products of non-interacting Green’s functions (for τ > 0) S F (τ ) = 1 β 1 β g0 (ikn )eikn τ =
**

ikn j

Res (g0 (zj )) nF (zj )ezj τ ,

ikn fermion frequency, (10.88a)

S B (τ ) =

**g0 (iωn )eiωn τ = −
**

iωn j

Res (g0 (zj )) nB (zj )ezj τ ,

iωn boson frequency, (10.88b)

with g0 (z) = i 1/ (z − ξi ) . If we perform a sum over functions where the poles are unknown but where the branch cuts are known, we can use a contour depicted in Fig.

10.8. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK

175

10.3. For example if g(ikn ) is known to be analytic everywhere but on the real axis we get S F (τ ) = 1 β g(ikn )eikn τ = −

ikn ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞

dε nF (ε) [g(ε + iη) − g(ε − iη)] 2πi (10.89)

=−

dε nF (ε) g R (ε) − g A (ε) . 2πi

Finally, we proved an important theorem, Wick’s theorem, which says that for noninteracting an n-particle Green’s function is equal to a sum of products of single-particle Green’s functions, where all possible pairings should be included in the sum. For fermions we must furthermore keep track of the number of factors −1, because each time we interchange two fermion operators we must include a factor -1. The end result was

(n) G0 (1, . . . , n; 1

,...,n ) =

G0 (1, 1 ) · · · . .. . . . G0 (n, 1 ) · · ·

G0 (1, n ) . . . G0 (n, n )

B,F

,

i ≡ (νi , τi ) ,

(10.90)

where G0 (1, . . . , n; 1 , . . . , n ) = (−1)n Tτ c(1) · · · c(n)ˆ† (n ) · · · c† (1 ) ˆ ˆ c ˆ

(n) 0

.

(10.91)

176

CHAPTER 10. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS

Chapter 11

**Feynman diagrams and external potentials
**

From the previous chapters on linear response theory and Green’s functions, it is clear that complete calculations of thermal averages of time-dependent phenomena in quantum ﬁeld theory are a rather formidable task. Even the basic imaginary time evolution operˆ ˆ ator U (τ ) itself is an inﬁnite series to all orders in the interaction V (r, τ ). One simply faces the problem of getting lost in the myriads of integrals, and not being able to maintain a good physical intuition of which terms are important. In 1948 Feynman solved this problem as part of his seminal work on quantum electrodynamics by inventing the ingenious diagrams that today bear his name. The Feynman diagrams are both an exact mathematical representation of perturbation theory to inﬁnite order and a powerful pictorial method that elucidate the physical content of the complicated expressions. In this chapter we introduce the Feynman diagrams for the case of non-interacting particles in an external potential. Our main example of their use will be the analysis of electron-impurity scattering in disordered metals.

11.1

Non-interacting particles in external potentials

Consider a time-independent Hamiltonian H in the space representation describing noninteracting fermions in an external spin-diagonal single-particle potential Vσ (r): H = H0 + V =

σ

dr Ψ† (r)H0 (r)Ψσ (r) + σ

σ

dr Ψ† (r)Vσ (r)Ψσ (r). σ

(11.1)

As usual we assume that the unperturbed system described by the time-independent Hamiltonian H0 is solvable, and that we know the corresponding eigenstates |ν and 0 Green’s functions Gν . In the following it will prove helpful to introduce the short-hand notation

β

(r1 , σ1 , τ1 ) = (1)

and 177

d1 =

σ1

dr1

0

dτ1

(11.2)

178

CHAPTER 11. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS

for points and integrals in space-time. We want to study the full Green’s function, G(b, a) = − Tτ Ψ(b)Ψ† (a) , governed by ˆ ˆ H, and the bare one, G 0 (b, a) = − Tτ Ψ(b)Ψ† (a) 0 , governed by H0 . We note that since no particle-particle interaction is present in Eq. (11.1) both the full Hamiltonian H and the bare H0 have the simple form of Eq. (10.62), and the equations of motion for the two Green’s functions have the same form as Eq. (10.63):

[−∂τb −H0 (b)] G 0 (b, a) = δ(b−a) [−∂τb −H(b) ] G(b, a) = δ(b−a)

⇔ [−∂τb −H(b)+V (b)] G 0 (b, a) = δ(b−a) ⇔ G(b, a) = [−∂τb −H(b)]−1 δ(b−a),

(11.3a) (11.3b)

where we have also given the formal solution of G, which is helpful in acquiring the actual solution for G. Substituting δ(b − a) in Eq. (11.3b) by the expression from Eq. (11.3a) yields: [−∂τb − H(b)] G(b, a) = [−∂τb − H(b) + V (b)] G 0 (b, a) = [−∂τb − H(b)] G 0 (b, a) + V (b) G 0 (b, a) = [−∂τb − H(b)] G 0 (b, a) + (11.4) d1 δ(b − 1) V (1) G 0 (1, a).

Acting from the left with [−∂τb − H(b)]−1 gives an integral equation for G, the so-called Dyson equation, G(b, a) = G 0 (b, a) + d1 G(b, 1) V (1) G 0 (1, a), (11.5)

where we have used the second expression in Eq. (11.3b) to introduce G in the integrand. By iteratively inserting G itself in the integrand on the left-hand side we obtain the inﬁnite perturbation series G(b, a) = G 0 (b, a) + d1 G 0 (b, 1) V (1) G 0 (1, a) (11.6)

+ d1 d2 G 0 (b, 1) V (1) G 0 (1, 2) V (2) G 0 (2, a)

+ d1 d2 d3 G 0 (b, 1) V (1) G 0 (1, 2) V (2) G 0 (2, 3) V (3) G 0 (3, a) + . . . . The solutions Eqs. (11.5) and (11.6) for G are easy to interpret. The propagator, G, of a fermion in an external potential is given as the sum of all possible processes involving unperturbed propagation, described by G 0 , intersected by any number of scattering events V . So in this simple case there is really no need for further elucidation, but we will anyway proceed by introducing the corresponding Feynman diagrams. The ﬁrst step is to deﬁne the basic graphical vocabulary, i.e. to deﬁne the pictograms representing the basic quantities G, G 0 , and V of the problem. This vocabulary is known

11.2. ELASTIC SCATTERING AND MATSUBARA FREQUENCIES as the Feynman rules: b G(b, a) = G 0 (b, a) =

179

b d1 V (1) . . . = 1 (11.7)

a a Note how the fermion lines point from the points of creation, e.g. Ψ† (a), to the points of annihilation, e.g. Ψ(b). Using the Feynman rules the inﬁnite perturbation series Eq. (11.6) becomes b b b b b 1 = + 1 + 2 + 1 2 3 + ... (11.8)

a a a a a In this form we clearly see how the full propagator from a to b is the sum over all possible ways to connect a and b with bare propagators via any number of scattering events. We can also perform calculations by manipulating the diagrams. Let us for example derive an integral form equivalent to Eq. (11.5) from Eq. (11.8): b b b b b × 1 + 1 1 + 2 1 2 + . . . 3

=

+

=

+

1

(11.9)

a a a a a which by using the Feynman rules can be written as G(b, a) = G 0 (b, a) + d1 G 0 (b, 1) V (1) G(1, a).

a

a (11.10)

The former integral equation Eq. (11.5) for G is obtained by pulling out the bottom part V (n) G 0 (n, a) of every diagram on the right hand side of Eq. (11.8), thereby exchanging the arrow and the double-arrow in the last diagram of Eq. (11.9). This is a ﬁrst demonstration of the compactness of the Feynman diagram, and how visual clarity is obtained without loss of mathematical rigor.

11.2

Elastic scattering and Matsubara frequencies

When a fermion system interacts with a static external potential no energy is transferred between the two systems, a situation referred to as elastic scattering. The lack of energy

180

CHAPTER 11. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS

transfer in elastic scattering is naturally reﬂected in a particularly simple form of the single-particle Green’s function G(ikn ) in Matsubara frequency space. In the following the spin index σ is left out since the same answer is obtained for the two spin directions. First we note that since the Hamiltonian H in Eq. (11.1) is time-independent for static potentials we know from Eq. (10.19) that G(rτ, r τ ) depends only on the time diﬀerence τ − τ , and according to Eqs. (10.22b) and (10.25) it can therefore be expressed in terms of a Fourier transform with just one fermionic Matsubara frequency ikn : G(rτ, r τ ) = 1 β G(r, r ; ikn ) e−ikn (τ −τ ) ,

n β

G(r, r ; ikn ) =

dτ G(rτ, r τ ) eikn (τ −τ ) .

0

(11.11) The Fourier transform of the time convolution dτ1 G 0 (τb − τ1 )V G(τ1 − τa ) appearing in the integral equation of G is the product G 0 (ikn )V G(ikn ). The elastic scattering, i.e. the time-independent V , cannot change the frequencies of the propagators. In Matsubara frequency space the Dyson equation Eq. (11.10) takes the form G(rb , ra ; ikn ) = G 0 (rb , ra ; ikn ) + dr1 G 0 (rb , r1 ; ikn ) V (1) G(r1 , ra ; ikn ). (11.12)

As seen previously, the expressions are simpliﬁed by transforming from the |r -basis to the basis |ν which diagonalizes H0 . We deﬁne the transformed Green’s function in this basis as follows: Gνν ≡ drdr ν|r G(r, r ) r |ν ⇔ G(r, r ) =

νν

r|ν Gνν ν |r .

(11.13)

In a similar way we deﬁne the |ν -transform of V (r) as Vνν ≡ dr ν|r V (r) r|ν . In the |ν, ikn representation the equation of motion Eq. (11.3b) for G is a matrix equation, [(ikn − ξν )δν,ν − Vν,ν ] Gν

ν ,ν

(ikn ) = δν,ν

¯ ¯ or [ikn ¯ − E 0 − V ] G(ikn ) = ¯ (11.14) 1 ¯ 1,

¯ where E 0 is a diagonal matrix with the eigenenergies ξν = εν − µ along the diagonal. We have thus reduced the problem of ﬁnding the full Green’s function to a matrix inversion problem. We note in particular that in accordance with Eq. (10.40) the bare propagator G 0 has the simple diagonal form

0 (ikn − ξν )δν,ν Gν ν ,ν

(ikn ) = δν,ν

⇒

0 Gν,ν (ikn ) =

1 δ . ikn − ξν ν,ν

(11.15)

**We can utilize this to rewrite the integral equation Eq. (11.12) as a simple matrix equation, G(νb νa ; ikn ) = δν
**

b ,νa

G 0 (νa νa ; ikn ) +

νc

G 0 (νb νb ; ikn ) Vνb νc G(νc νa ; ikn ).

(11.16)

¯ We can also formulate Feynman rules in (ν, ikn )-space. We note that G 0 is diagonal in ¯ is a general matrix. To get the sum of all possible quantum processes one must ν, while V

11. At high T the electron-phonon scattering dominates giving rise to a linear behavior. νb νb Gνb νa = νa νa Using these Feynman rules in (ν. given by the so-called screening length a.1(a) is sketched a number of randomly positioned impurities in an otherwise perfect metal lattice. . (b) The electrical resistivity ρxx (T ) of the disordered metal as a function of temperature. 11.ν b ikn − ξνa Vνν = ν ν (11. xx © ©§ ©§¨¥ ¦¥ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¤¢ £ ¢ ¡ . (11.18) νa Random impurities in disordered metals An important example of elastic scattering by external potentials is the case of random impurities in a disordered metal. and as a result the range of the potential is ﬁnite. In Fig.3. One well-controlled experimental realization of this is provided by a perfect metal Cu lattice with MgII ions substituting a small number of randomly chosen CuI ions. since the Green’s functions are diagonal in ikn . while at low T only the electron-impurity scattering is eﬀective and gives rise to the non-zero value ρ0 of ρxx at T = 0. This will be discussed in detail in Chap. and since the vibrational Figure 11. 13. At high temperature the resistivity is mainly due to electron-phonon scattering.16) diagrammatically: νb νb νa 0 Gν . ikn )-space we can express Dyson’s equation Eq.3 = δν b . The presence of the impurities can be detected by measuring the (longitudinal) resistivity ρxx of the metal as a function of temperature.17) 11.νa = b δν b . and as a ﬁrst approximation an impurity ion at site Pj gives rise to a simple screened mono-charge Coulomb potential uj (r) = −(e2 /|r − Pj |) e−|r−Pj |/a . The valence of the impurity ions is one higher than the host ions.νa νa + νa νb νc (11.1: (a) A disordered metal consisting of an otherwise perfect metal lattice with a number of randomly positioned impurities giving rise to elastic electron-impurity scattering.νa = δνa . The frequency argument is suppressed. RANDOM IMPURITIES IN DISORDERED METALS 181 sum over all matrix indices diﬀerent from the externally given νa and νb . The screening is due 0 to the electrons in the system trying to neutralize the impurity charge.

The elastic scattering potential V (r) then acquires the form Nimp V (r) = j=1 u(r − Pj ). (11. nimp = Nimp /V. Exercise 3. ikn ) = G (rb−ra . and that the characteristic value in that region is u. (11. The temperature behavior of the resistivity is depicted in Fig. 11.2). where p = k has been used.22) Assume that u is only important in a sphere of radius a around the scattering center. the level spacing is (∂ε/∂p) ∆p = (p/m) ( /a) = ka 2 /ma2 . Weak scattering means ˜ 2 /ma2 as follows:1 that u is much smaller than some characteristic level spacing ˜ u ˜ ma2 2 min {1. We assume that the scattering potential u(r − Pj ) diﬀers only signiﬁcantly from 0 for |r − Pj | < a. (11. As a result the resistivity levels oﬀ at some value. (11. Now consider Nimp identical impurities situated at the randomly distributed but ﬁxed positions Pj . only the electron-impurity scattering is left preventing the Bloch electrons in moving unhindered through the crystal.20) The other small parameter is stating that the strength of the scattering potential is weak. and hence the electron-phonon scattering rate.182 CHAPTER 11. and consequently the resistivity becomes proportional to some power α of T . At lower temperature the phonon degrees of freedom begin to freeze out and the phase space available for scattering also shrinks. (11. ikn ). kF a}. We use the plane wave states |kσ from the eﬀective mass approximation Eq. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS 1 energy ω (n+ 2 ) in thermal equilibrium is proportional to kB T . ~ ~ ~ ~ . the so-called residual resistivity. is also proportional to T (see e.1 Feynman diagrams for the impurity scattering With the random potential Eq. ikn ) u(r1−Pj ) G(r1 .3. say ε = p2 /2m. ikn ) + j=1 1 0 dr1 G 0 (rb−r1 . Finally.g. For high energies around. (2. and the electron density nel is much smaller than unity: nimp nel 1. (11. We postpone the calculation of the resistivity and in this section just concentrate on studying the electron Matsubara Green’s function G for electrons moving in such a disordered metal. Thus u is weak if it is smaller than the smallest of these level spacings. The level spacing for non-perturbed states in that sphere is near the ground state given by the size quantization 2 /ma2 .19) Two small dimensionless parameters of the system serve as guides to obtain good approximative solutions. at the lowest temperatures. typically a few kelvin.12) becomes Nimp G(rb . ra . ρ0 .19) the Dyson equation Eq.1(b).16) as the unperturbed basis |ν . One is stating that the ratio between the impurity density. ra .21) 11. the number n of phonons. Pj is randomly distributed.

ikn ). ikn ) = G 0 (r1 −ra .k +q . ra .25) The Fourier expansion of G (n) (rb .22) in orders n of the scattering potential u(r−Pj ). eiq2 ·r2 eik1 ·(r2 −r1 ) eiq1 ·r1 eika ·(r1 −ra ) .kn−1 1 −ka (11. . uq2 Gk1 uq1 Gka e −i(qn ·Pjn +.23) is: Nimp G (n) (rb . . ikn − ξk 0 Gk (r−r .. q (11.jn 1 Vn b q1 . then we shall soon ﬁnd an answer. ra ) = ∞ G (n) (rb . no simple solution for the Green’s function could be found.15) Gk of the impurity free... ra ) = j1 .kn−1 drn 2 1 (11. we can never hope to solve this problem exactly.. drj ei(kj −kj−1 −qj )·rj = V δk . (11. RANDOM IMPURITIES IN DISORDERED METALS 183 where we have used the fact that the unperturbed system is translation-invariant and hence that G 0 (r1 .23) × G 0 (rb −rn ) u(rn − Pjn ) . . drn (11. Naturally. First expand the Dyson equation Eq.+(k1 −ka )·Pj ] 1 j1 .26) 0 0 0 0 ×Gk uqn Gkn−1 uqn−1 . uk 2 −k1 0 Gk1 uk . . which may be interpreted as momentum conservaj j−1 j tion in each electron-impurity scattering: the change of the electron momentum is absorbed by the impurity. ikn ) = 1 V 0 Gk (ikn ) eik·(r−r ) . ra ). This complicated expression can be simpliﬁed a lot by performing the n spatial integrals. problem has the simple form: 0 Gk (ikn ) = 1 . but even if we did. jn dr1 ..27) 0 Gka e −i[(kb −kn−1 )·Pjn +. if we are satisﬁed with the answer to the less ambitious and more practical question of what is the average behavior.. ikn ) in Eq. ra . This n-th order contribution can be interpreted as the sum over all processes involving n scattering events in all possible combination of impurities.24) The Fourier transform of the impurity potential u(r−Pj ) is: u(r−Pj ) = 1 V uq eiq·(r−Pj ) = q 1 V e−iq·Pj uq eiq·r .... We now want to deduce the Feynman rules for constructing diagrams in this situation.+q2 ·Pj +q1 ·Pj ) ×eikb ·(rb −rn ) eiqn ·rn eikn−1 ·(rn −rn−1 ) .. . . . To this end we reformulate Dyson’s 0 equation in k space since according to Eq. . k (11.qn 1 V2 1 ka kb V n−1 dr1 ... ra ) = j1 . Not only is it for all practical purposes impossible to know where all the impurities in a given metallic sample de facto are situated.3.. . . k1 . . and obtain G(rb . (11.. Utilizing these delta functions in the n q-sums leads to G (n) 1 (rb ra ) = 2 V Nimp e ka kb b ikb ·rb −ika ·ra e 1 V n−1 k1 . (11. However... The n-th order term G (n) is Nimp Nimp G (n) (rb . n=0 where the frequency argument ikn has been suppressed. u(r2 −Pj2 ) G 0 (r2 −r1 ) u(r1 −Pj1 ) G 0 (r1 −ra ). .11.jn b −kn−1 0 ×Gk uk 0 Gkn−1 . . and therefore translation-invariant.

. One can see how an incoming electron with momentum ka is scattered n times under momentum conservation with the impurities and leaves the system with momentum kb . . (11.jn 1 V n−1 b e k1 .kn−1 −i[(kb −kn−1 )·Pjn +.4 Impurity self-average If the electron wavefunctions are completely coherent throughout the entire disordered metal each true electronic eigenfunction exhibit an extremely complex diﬀraction pattern spawned by the randomly positioned scatterers. However. Let Gka kb 0 Let Gk go from vertex j to vertex j + 1. as mentioned above. e. . 0 Let straight arrows k denote Gk .. kb −kn−1 k3 −k2 k2 −k1 k1 −ka 11. .31) = ··· n kb kn−1 k3 3 k2 2 k1 1 ka This diagram is very suggestive. (n) : b ka we can now easily deduce the Feynman rules for the diagrams corresponding to Gk (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Let dashed arrows j q. uk 2 −k1 0 Gk1 . the average electron density or an external magnetic ﬁeld. ra ) = with Nimp (n) Gk ka b of G (n) (rb . FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS (n) b ka Introducing the Fourier transform Gk G (n) (rb . it is not possible to continue the study of impurity scattering on general grounds without further assumptions.+(k1 −ka )·Pj ] 1 (11. and Nimp j1 . ra ) as eikb ·rb e−ika ·ra Gk ka kb (n) . If one imagine changing some external parameter.29) is: Pn Gk (n) b ka P3 P2 P1 (11. We therefore begin to consider the possibility of performing an average over the random positions Pj of the impurities. each individual .29) 0 × Gk uk b −kn−1 0 Gkn−1 .. b ka 1 V2 (11. uk 1 −ka 0 Gka .g. (11. Perform the sums 1 V over all internal momenta kj .. 0 go into vertex •1 and G 0 away from vertex •n. j kj Maintain momentum conservation at each vertex. .. Pj denote a scattering event uq e−iq·Pj .184 CHAPTER 11.30) The diagram corresponding to Eq..jn over Pjl .. Draw n scattering events.28) = j1 .

ka Gka ≡ b δk imp b . For very large (mm sized) macroscopic samples lϕ is much smaller than the sample size at all experimental realizable temperatures (T > 10 mK for electron gases in metals and semiconductors).1 K) lϕ is much smaller than the size of the device. 4. and as a result the coherence length lϕ for the electrons diminishes. any . Signiﬁcant quantum ﬂuctuations must therefore occur in any observable at suﬃciently low temperatures. Thus in the following we average over all possible uncorrelated positions Pj of the Nimp impurities for the entire system: 1 Gkb ka V ¯ ≡ δk . Some care must be taken regarding the average over the impurity positions Pj . Using modern nano-technology to fabricate small (but still macroscopic) samples.as can be seen from Fig. 11.2(b) where the conductance trace at 4.. 1 V dPNimp Gka (11. but they need not be on n diﬀerent scatterers. The quantum mechanical phase of each individual electron is changed by a small random amount at each inelastic scattering event. the impurity average is performed by summing over all the phase-independent coherent sub-systems and dividing by their number Nsys . Therefore.ka V dP1 1 V dP2 . even on the rather small length scale lϕ the system is already homogeneous.31 K. Mathematically. and one can as well perform the position average over the entire volume of the sample.10.. 2.4. At suﬃciently high temperature (e. and where the many small phase coherent sub-systems of the sample are indicated below the experimental graph. and this eﬀective averaging is consequently denoted self-averaging.2. In Fig. In fact.ka Nsys sys Gka i ∼ δk i=1 1 Nsys b . The conductance G is seen to ﬂuctuate strongly for minute changes of Vg . 11. at 0.g.11. But due to the random distribution of the impurities.31 K as a function of the electron density. and standard cryogenic equipment to cool down these samples to ultra-low temperatures.32) Here we have anticipated that the impurity averaged Green’s function is diagonal in k due to the restoring of translation-invariance upon average. As the temperature of a given sample is raised. such as the one shown in Fig. and we are in the impurity self-averaging case. and we can think of the device as being composed as a number of phase-independent small phase coherent sub-systems. the amount of electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering increases because of an increased phase space for scattering and an increased number of phonons. These ﬂuctuations turn out to be perfectly reproducible as Vg is swept up and down several times. However. 11. IMPURITY SELF-AVERAGE 185 diﬀraction pattern will of course change drastically due to the sensitivity of the scattering phases of the wavefunctions.2(a) is shown the conductance trace of a GaAs nano-device. when one measures an observable the result is in fact an incoherent average of all these sub-systems. Note that this average is imposed by the physical properties of the system itself. Any n-th order contribution to Gk contains n scattering events. This density can be controlled by applying a gate voltage Vg on an external electrode. This eﬀect is illustrated in Fig. this average is the same as an average over the impurity position within a single subsystem . one can in fact obtain an experimental situation where the electrons can traverse the sample without loosing their quantum-mechanical phase coherence.1 K is seen to be much smoother than the one at 0.

1 K .31 K G (e2/h) Figure 11. follow processes involving two impurities. (b) The same system at T = 4.+qn ·Pjn ) .2: (a) The measured conductance of a disordered GaAs sample at T = 0. The ﬂuctuations are due to phase coherent scattering against randomly positioned impurities.40 0. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS 5 4 G (e2/h) 3 2 1 0 0. number p.50 Vg (V) T = 0. Then. which suppresses the quantum ﬂuctuations.31 K displaying random but reproducible quantum ﬂuctuations as a function of a gate voltage Vg controlling the electron density. (11.40 0.20 0.20) we work in the limit of small impurity densities nimp .50 Vg (V) T = 4. The ﬂuctuations are almost gone due to the smallness of lϕ at this temperature. with the scattering the impurity positions is the exponential e 1 j1 2 j2 vectors qi = ki − ki−1 . The sum in Eq.. (11.29) the only reference to i(q ·P +q ·P +. etc. down by the small factor nimp /nel . We must therefore carefully sort out all possible ways to scatter on p diﬀerent impurities. The sample now contains a large number of independent but phase-coherent sub-systems of size lϕ .. 1 ≤ p ≤ n of scatterers could be involved. For a given ﬁxed number n of scattering events the most important contribution therefore comes from processes involving just one impurity. We note that in Eq. As a result a substantial self-averaging occurs. Below is indicated that the phase coherence length lϕ is large compared to the size of the sample.20 0. As mentioned in Eq.29) over impurity positions in this exponential is now ordered according to how many impurities are involved: ¥ ¤ ¢ £ ¥ ¤ 5 4 3 2 1 0 0. (11.30 0.30 0.186 ¢ ¡ CHAPTER 11.1 K.

and not just the Nimp −p available sites.jn i Pn l=1 ql ·Pj Nimp l = h1 i( P e i( P q ∈Q j1 qj )·Ph 1 1 Nimp Nimp + Q1 ∪Q2 =Q h1 h2 e q ∈Q1 l1 ql )·Ph 1 1 e P i( q l2 ∈Q2 ql )·Ph 2 2 Nimp Nimp Nimp + Q1 ∪Q2 ∪Q3 =Q h1 h2 h3 e P i( q l1 ∈Q1 ql )·Ph 1 1 e P i( q l2 ∈Q2 ql )·Ph 2 2 e i( P ql ∈Q3 3 ql )·Ph 3 3 + . .11. (11. . the result may perhaps be easier to understand than the derivation.. q2 .jn 2 i Pn l=1 ql ·Pj n p Sp l = imp p=1 Nimp δ0.4. (11.33) Here Q = {q1 .32) over each exponential factor independently. For the important terms p Nimp and the error is p/Nimp 1. cf. However.. The result of the impurity averaging can now be written as Nimp e j1 . But let us see how these conclusions are reached. This introduces a small error of the order 1/Nimp for the important terms in the low impurity density limit involving only a few impurities. the averaging has restored translation-invariance. As depicted in Eq. . IMPURITY SELF-AVERAGE 187 Nimp e j1 . while Q1 ∪Q2 ∪. Note. the sum of all scattering momenta on the same impurity must be zero. 11. Fig.35) i This error occurs since our approximation amounts to saying that the (p + 1)-st impurity can occupy any of the Nimp impurity sites. in Eq. The impurity average indicated in Eq. Since translation-invariance is restored by the averaging..2 Since all the p positions Ph now are manifestly diﬀerent we can perform the impurity average indicated in Eq. (11.∪Qp = Q denotes all possible unions of non-empty disjunct subsets spanning Q. . (11. The detailed calculation is straightforward but somewhat cumbersome.. All the scattering vectors in one particular subset Qi are connected to the same impurity Phi .38) the impurity averaged Green’s function is a sum scattering processes against the position-averaged impurities.... .3. . . qn } is the set of the n scattering vectors. (11.34) i This of course no longer depends on the p impurity positions Phi .P q ∈Qh hi qh . (11.32) over each independent exponential factor results in some Kronecker delta’s meaning that all scattering vectors qhi connected to the same impurity must add up to zero: e P i( q ∈Qi hi qh )·Ph i i = imp 1 V dPhi e i( P q ∈Qh hi qh )·Ph i i = δ0. that strictly speaking two diﬀerent impurities cannot occupy the same position. (11..P h=1 h=1 Qh =Q q ∈Qh hi qh .33) we let the j-sums run unrestricted.

188

CHAPTER 11. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS

**which, when inserted in Eq. (11.29), leads to Gk
**

(n) imp

=

1 V n−1

n k1 ...kn−1 p=1

1

p

Sp

Nimp δ0,P

0 Gk2 . . . uk

n−1 −k

h=1 h=1 Qh =Q 0 Gk .

Qh (khi −k(hi −1) )

0 0 × Gk uk −k Gk1 uk

1 −k2

(11.36)

We note that due to the p factors containing δ-functions there are in fact only n − 1 − p 1 free momenta sums V k to perform. The remaining p volume prefactors are combined with Nimp to yield p impurity density factors nimp = Nimp /V. The Feynman rules for constructing the n-th order contribution Gk purity averaged Green’s function Gk imp are now easy to establish: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11)

(n) imp

to the im-

Let scattering lines q denote the scattering amplitude uq . Let denote a momentum conserving impurity averaged factor nimp δ0,P q . 0 Let fermion lines k denote the unperturbed Green’s function Gk . Draw p impurity stars. Let n1 scattering lines go out from star 1, n2 from star 2, etc, so that the total number n1 + n2 + . . . + np of scattering lines is n. Draw all topological diﬀerent diagrams containing an unbroken chain of n + 1 fermion lines connecting once to each of the n scattering line end-points. 0 Let the ﬁrst and last fermion line be Gk . Maintain momentum conservation at each vertex. Make sure that the sum of all momenta leaving an impurity star is zero. 1 Perform the sum V k over all free internal momenta kj .

j

Sum over all orders n of scattering and over p, with 1 ≤ p ≤ n. (11.37)

**The diagrammatic expansion of Gk Gk
**

imp

imp

has a direct intuitive appeal: +

=

+ + +

+

!

+ + + ··· +

(11.38)

" # $ % &

+ +

In this expression, showing all diagrams up to third order and three diagrams of fourth order, we have for visual clarity suppressed all momentum labels and even the arrows of the scattering lines. For each order the diagrams are arranged after powers of nimp , i.e. the number of impurity stars. In Fig. 11.3 two diagrams with complete labels are shown. In the following section we gain further insight in the solution of Gk imp by rearranging the terms in the diagrammatic expansion, a procedure known as resummation.

'

+ ··· +

(

)

+ ···

Figure 11.3: Two fully labelled ﬁfth order diagrams both with two impurity scatterers. Diagram (a) is a so-called irreducible diagram, i.e. it cannot be cut into two pieces by cutting one internal fermion line. In contrast, diagram (b) is reducible. It consists of two irreducible parts.

11.5

In Fig. 11.3 we introduce the concept of irreducible diagrams, i.e. diagrams in the expansion of Gk imp that cannot be cut into two pieces by cutting a single internal fermion line. We now use this concept to resum the diagrammatic expansion Eq. (11.38) for Gk imp . We remind the reader that this resummation is correct only in the limit of low impurity density. First we deﬁne the so-called self-energy Σk : Σk ≡ = = The sum of all irreducible diagrams in Gk 0 without the two external fermion lines Gk

imp

**Using Σk and the product form of Gk Gk
**

imp

**This algebraic Dyson equation, equivalent to Eqs. (11.9) and (11.18), is readily solved: Gk (ikn )
**

imp

From this solution we immediately learn that Σk enters Gk imp as an additive correction to the original unperturbed energy, ξk → ξk + Σk , hence the name self-energy. The problem

¤ © ¨ ¤ © ¥ ¤ © ¤ © § ¤ © ¤ © ¤ © ¨ ¤ © ¥ ¤ © § ¤ © ¥ ¤ ¦ § ¤ ¤ © ¤ © ¤ ¦ ¨ ¤ £ ¨ ¤ ¦ ¥ ¤ £ ¥ ¤ ¦ ¤ £ § ¤ ¦ ¤ £ ¤ ¦ ¨ ¤ £ ¨ ¤ ¦ ¥ ¤ ¥£ ¤ ¦ ¤ £ § ¤ ¦ ¥ ¤ £ ¤ ¦ § ¤ £ ¢ ¥ ¤ ¦ §¤ £ ¢ ¡

Self-energy for impurity scattered electrons

11.5. SELF-ENERGY FOR IMPURITY SCATTERED ELECTRONS

189

* + , /

+ + +

imp

+

.

+ ···

+ ··· (11.39)

= =

0 0 = Gk + Gk Σk Gk

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

+ + + × +

imp . 0 Gk

in Fourier space, Eq. (11.38) becomes + ...

+ ... (11.40)

=

1−

0 Gk

Σk

=

1

0 (Gk )−1

− Σk

=

1 . ikn − ξk − Σk (ikn )

(11.41)

190

CHAPTER 11. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS

of ﬁnding Gk imp is thus reduced to a calculation of Σk . In the following we go through various approximations for Σk .

11.5.1

Lowest order approximation

One marvellous feature of the self-energy Σk is that even if it is approximated by a ﬁnite number of diagrams, the Dyson equation Eq. (11.40) actually ensures that some diagrams of all orders are included in the perturbation series for Gk imp . This allows for essential changes in Gk imp , notably one can move the poles of Gk imp and hence change the excitation energies. This would not be possible if only a ﬁnite number of diagrams were used in the expansion of Gk imp itself. Bearing in mind the inequalities Eqs. (11.20) and (11.21), the lowest order approximation ΣLOA to Σk is obtained by including only the diagram with the fewest number of k impurity stars and scattering lines, ΣLOA (ikn ) ≡ k

7

= nimp u0 = nimp

dr u(r),

(11.42)

**i.e. a constant, which upon insertion into Dyson’s equation Eq. (11.41) yields
**

LOA Gk (ikn ) =

1 . ikn − (ξk + nimp u0 )

(11.43)

But this just reveals a simple constant shift of all the energy levels with the amount nimp u0 . This shift constitutes a redeﬁnition of the origin of the energy axis with no dynamical consequences. In the following it is absorbed into the deﬁnition of the chemical potential and will therefore not appear in the equations.

11.5.2

1st order Born approximation

The simplest non-trivial low-order approximation to the self-energy is the so-called ﬁrst order Born approximation given by the ’wigwam’-diagram Σ1BA (ikn ) ≡ k

8

k−k k −k k

= nimp

k

|uk−k |2

1 , ikn − ξk

(11.44)

where we have used that u−k = u∗ since u(r) is real. We shall see shortly that Σ1BA = k k Re Σ1BA + i Im Σ1BA moves the poles of Gk imp = away from the real axis, i.e. k k 1BA the propagator acquires a ﬁnite life-time. By Eq. (11.40) we see that Gk is the sum of propagations with any number of sequential wigwam-diagrams:

9

In the evaluation of Σ1BA we shall rely on our physical insight to facilitate the math. k We know that for the electron gas in a typical metal εF ∼ 7 eV ∼ 80 000 K, so as usual only electrons with an energy εk in a narrow shell around εF ≈ µ play a role. For

: ; < = >

1BA

=

+

+

+

+ ···

(11.45)

11.5. SELF-ENERGY FOR IMPURITY SCATTERED ELECTRONS

191

Figure 11.4: (a) The functions nimp |uk |2 and (ω − εk + µ)/[(ω − εk + µ)2 + η 2 ] appearing in the expression for Re Σ1BA (ikn ). (b) The functions nimp |uk |2 and |kn |/[(ω − εk + µ)2 + η 2 ] k appearing in the expression for Im Σ1BA (ikn ). k T < 800 K we have kB T /εF < 10−2 , and for applied voltage drops Vext less than 70 mV over the coherence length lϕ < 10−5 m (the typical size we are looking at), i.e. applied electrical ﬁelds less than 7000 V/m, we have eVext /εF < 10−2 . Thus we are only interested in Σ1BA (ikn ) for k |k| ∼ kF and |ikn → ω + i sgn(kn )η| εF . (11.46) Here we have also anticipated that at the end of the calculation, as sketched in Fig. 10.1, we need to perform an analytical continuation down to the real axis, either from the upper half-plane, where kn > 0, as ikn → ω + iη, or from the lower half-plane, where kn < 0, as ikn → ω − iη. Furthermore, as we shall study in great detail later, the electron gas redistributes itself to screen out the external charges from the impurities, and as a result uk−k varies in a smooth and gentle way for 0 < |k − k | < 2kF . With this physical input in mind we continue: 1 (11.47) Σ1BA (ω + i sgn(kn )η) = nimp |uk−k |2 k (ω − ξk ) + i sgn(kn )η

k

=

k

nimp |uk−k |2

ω − ξk − i sgn(kn ) πδ(ω − ξk ) . (ω − ξk )2 + η 2

Since |uk−k |2 vary smoothly and |ω − ξk | εF ≈ µ we get the functional behavior shown in Fig. 11.4. Since (ω − ξk )/((ω − ξk )2 + η 2 ) is an odd function of ω − ξk and the width η is small, we have3 Re Σ1BA (ikn ) ≈ 0; For the imaginary part of Σ1BA we obtain the k usual delta function for η → 0. Finally, since the spectral function for the unperturbed system forces ω to equal ξk , we obtain: Σ1BA (ikn ) = −iπ sgn(kn ) k

k

3

nimp |uk−k |2 δ(ξk − ξk ) = −i sgn(kn )

Strictly speaking, we only get vanishing real part if the slope of |uk−k |2 is zero near µ. If this is not the case we do get a non-zero real part. However, since |uk−k |2 is slowly varying near µ we get the same real part for all k and k near kF . This contribution can be absorbed into the deﬁnition of µ.

§ ¤ ¥

§ ¨© ¢ £

§ ¦¤ ¥

§ ¨© ¢ ¡

1 , 2τk

(11.48)

192

CHAPTER 11. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS

**where we have introduced the impurity scattering time τk deﬁned as 1 ≡ 2π τk nimp |uk−k |2 δ(ξk − ξk ).
**

k

(11.49)

This result can also be found using Fermi’s golden rule. Now we have obtained the 1st order Born approximation for Gk (ikn ) in Eq. (11.41) and the analytic continuation ikn → z thereof into the entire complex plane: z−ξ 1 i , Im z > 0 k + 2τ 1 1BA 1BA k Gk (ikn ) = −→ Gk (z) = (11.50) 1 ikn − ξk + i sgn(kn ) ikn →z z−ξ − i , Im z < 0. 2τ

k k 2τ k

1BA We see that Gk (z) has a branch cut along the real axis, but that it is analytic separately in the upper and the lower half-plane. This is a property that will play an important role later, when we calculate the electrical resistivity of disordered metals. Note that this behavior is in accordance with the general results obtained in Sec. 9.2 concerning the analytic properties of Matsubara Green’s functions. We close this section by remarking three properties summarized in Fig. 11.5 related to the retarded Green’s function GR,1BA (ω ) = G 1BA (ω + iη). First, it is seen by Fourier R,1BA transforming to the time domain that Gk (t) decays exponentially in time with τk as the typical time scale:

Gk

R,1BA

(t) ≡

e−i(ω +iη)t dω = −i θ(t) e−iξk t e−t/2τk . 2π ω − ξk + i/2τk

(11.51)

−1 Second, exploiting that ω , τk εF , it is seen by Fourier transforming back to real space R,1BA (r, ω ) decays exponentially in space with l ≡ v τ as the typical length scale: that G k F k

GR,1BA (r, ω ) ≡

πd(εF ) ik |r| −|r|/2lk dk eik·r = e F e . (2π)3 ω − ξk + i/2τk kF |r|

(11.52)

**Thirdly, the spectral function A1BA (ω ) is a Lorentzian of width 2τk : k
**

1BA A1BA (ω ) ≡ −2 Im Gk (ω + iη) = k 2 (ω − ξk )2 + 1/4τk

1/τk

(11.53)

In conclusion the impurity averaged 1st Born approximation has resulted in a selfenergy with a non-zero imaginary part. The poles of the Matsubara Green’s function 1BA Gk (ikn ) are therefore shifted away from the real axis, resulting in a both temporal and spatial exponential decay of the retarded Green’s function. This is interpreted as follows: the impurity scattering transforms the free electrons into quasiparticles with a ﬁnite life time given by the scattering time τk and a ﬁnite mean free path given by lk = vF τk . The ﬁnite life time of the quasiparticles is also reﬂected in the broadening of the spectral function. The characteristic sharp δ-function for free electrons, Ak (ω ) = 2πδ(ω − ξk ), is

11.5. SELF-ENERGY FOR IMPURITY SCATTERED ELECTRONS

193

Figure 11.5: (a) The impurity averaged Green’s function Gk (ikn ) imp . The imaginary part of the self-energy is related to the scattering time τk and hence also to the elastic scattering length l = vF τk . (b) In the Born approximation the spectral function Ak (ω ) is a Lorentzian centered around ξk = 0 with a width 1/2τk . broadened into a Lorentzian of width 1/2τk . This means that a particle with momentum k can have an energy ω that diﬀers from ξk with an amount /2τk . This calculation of self-averaged impurity scattering constitutes a ﬁrst and very important example of what can happen in a many-particle system. Note in particular the important role played by the self-energy, and the fact that it can have a non-zero imaginary part. The results is obtained in the 1st order Born approximation, where the self-energy is approximated by a single diagram. But what happens if we take more diagrams into account? The surprising answer is that in the low impurity density limit, nimp nel no qualitative diﬀerence arises by taking more diagrams into account. Only at higher impurity densities where scattering events from diﬀerent impurities begin to interfere new physical eﬀects, such as weak localization, appear. Let us see how this conclusion is reached.

11.5.3

The full Born approximation

A natural extension of the 1st Born approximation is the full Born approximation, which is exact to lowest order in nimp . It is deﬁned by the following self-energy ΣFBA (ikn ), where k any number of scattering on the same impurity is taken into account, i.e. more dashed lines on the wigwam-diagram:

ΣFBA k

≡

?

+

k k−k

kk

@

×

k

+

k

k

A

+

k

+

k

k

B

+

k

+ ···

k

=

C D

+

kk k

δk ,k

E

F

k

G

+ ···

k

In the parenthesis at the end of the second line we ﬁnd a factor, which we denote tk ,k , that is not diagonal in k but with a diagonal that equals the self-energy tk,k = ΣFBA . In k scattering theory tk ,k is known as the transition matrix. When this matrix is known all

@

& RQ © P © P B S

**©¨I © ¨ GH4 & AFB ' E %& $ & 4 AB CD ¤ ¢ @ 9© 8¢ 6 7
**

(11.54)

3 # & 12 45 !()0 ' %& $ !"# ¤ ¢ © ¢ ¡ © ¨ § ¦¤ £ ¥

194

CHAPTER 11. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS

consequences of the complete scattering sequence can be calculated. An integral equation for the transition matrix is derived diagrammatically:

tk

1 ,k2

(ikn ) ≡

δk =

H

+

1 ,k2

k1

I

k1−k

+

k2

k1

J

δk ,k

+ ···

k2

δk

K

+

1 ,k2

k1

L

+

×

k

M

+

2

k

N

+

k

k2

O

+ ···

k2

= nimp u0 δk

1 ,k2

uk

k

1 −k

0 Gk tk ,k .

2

(11.55)

This equation can in many cases be solved numerically. As before the task is simpliﬁed by the fact that we are only interested at electrons moving at the Fermi surface. The real part of the diagonal element tk,k (ikn ), the one yielding the self-energy, is almost constant for |k| ∼ kF and is absorbed into the deﬁnition of the chemical potential µ. We are then 0 left with Imtk,k (ikn ), and by applying the optical theorem,4 Imtk,k = Im k t† Gk tk ,k , k,k we obtain Im ΣFBA (ikn ) k = Im tk,k (ikn ) = Im

k ikn →ω +i sgn(kn )η

|tk,k |2 ikn − ξk |tk,k |2 δ(ω − ξk ).

k

−→

−sgn(kn ) π

(11.56)

This has the same form as Eq. (11.48) with |tk,k |2 instead of nimp |uk−k |2 , and we write ΣFBA (ikn ) = −i sgn(kn ) k 1 , 2τk with 1 ≡ 2π τk |tk,k |2 δ(ξk − ξk ).

k

(11.57)

By iteration of Dyson’s equation we ﬁnd that G FBA is the sum of propagations with any number and any type of sequential wigwam-diagrams:

P Q R S T

FBA

=

+

+

+

+ ···

(11.58)

11.5.4

The self-consistent Born approximation and beyond

Many more diagrams can be taken into account using the self-consistent Born approximation deﬁned by substituting the bare G 0 with the full G in the full Born approximation

Eq. (11.55) states (i): t = u + uG 0 t. Since u† = u the Hermitian conjugate of (i) is (ii): u = −t (G 0 )† u + t† . Insert (ii) into (i): t = u + (t† G 0 t − t† (G 0 )† uG 0 t). Both u and t† (G 0 )† uG 0 t are Hermitian P 0 so Im tk,k = Im k|t† G 0 t|k = Im k t† Gk tk ,k . k,k

† 4

k is only weakly dependent on energy for |k| ≈ kF and ω εF . (11. since k k the small real part ΣR can be absorbed into µ. i.60) may acquire a small renormalization.e.5.61) By iteration of Dyson’s equation we ﬁnd that G SCBA is the sum of propagations with any number and any type of sequential wigwam-diagrams inside wigwam-diagrams but without crossings of any scattering lines: Y SCBA = + Z [ \ ] ^ _ + + + + + ··· + ··· (11.k . 2τk with 1 ≈ 2π τk |tk.k |2 δ(ω − ξk ). (11.6 are shown two diﬀerent types of irreducible diagrams of the same order in both nimp and uk .k |2 δ(ω −ξk ). and if furthermore SCBA the scattering strength is moderate.11. In Fig. |Σk | εF we obtain almost the same result i SCBA as in Eq. The only diﬀerence between the full Born and the self-consistent Born approximation is in the case of strong scattering. The ﬁnal result is ΣSCBA (ikn ) = −i sgn(kn ) k 1 .k |2 ikn −ξk −iΣi k ≈ −sgn(kn −Σi ) π k k |tk.k = Im k k |tk. SELF-ENERGY FOR IMPURITY SCATTERED ELECTRONS Eqs. k Σi = Im tk.55) yields: ΣSCBA k ≡ 195 U V W X + + + uk−k Gk tk . But this requirement is fulﬁlled by taking Im ΣSCBA (ikn ) ∝ −sgn(kn ) as seen by direct substitution.k + a self-consistent equation in ΣSCBA since Gk = (ikn − ξk − ΣSCBA )−1 . k + ··· (11.59) = nimp u0 δk. We again utilize k k that tk. Also sketched is the phase space Ω available for the internal momenta k1 and k2 in the two cases.56). (11.60) The only self-consistency requirement is thus connected with the sign of the imaginary part. At zero temperature the energy broadening around the Fermi energy εF is given by . Only the imaginary part Σk of Σk = ΣR + iΣi plays a role.62) + ` + ··· + a + ··· We have now resummed most of the diagrams in the diagrammatic expansion of Gk imp with the exception of wigwam-diagrams with crossing lines. 11. where the limiting δ-function in Eq. (11. k (11.54) and (11.

|k2 | = kF a bit. 11. The phase 2 space is Ωa ∝ (4πkF ∆k)2 . Since for metals 1/kF ∼ 1 ˚ we ﬁnd that A 1 kF l 1. The phase space 2 is now Ωb ∝ (4πkF ∆k)(2πkF ∆k 2 ). In Fig. Thus the crossing diagram (b) is suppressed relative to the non-crossing diagram (a) with a factor 1/kF l.6(b). doped semiconductors it is possible to obtain a degenerate electron #( ¤ © ¦ ¤ © § ¤ © ¦ ¤ §¥ ¤ ¤ © ¦ ¤ §¥ ¤ £ ¦ ¤ ¥ ¤ £ % #$" ! 3 54 ! 3 2 ¤ ¦¥ ¤ £ § ¤ ¦¥ ¤ £ ¢ ¤ © 1 0 ¨" # ( ) ¤ © ¦ ¤ © § ¤ © ¦ ¤ © ¤ © ¦ ¤ §¥ ¤ ¨§ ¤ ¦¥ ¤ £ £ ¤ ¦¥ ¤ £ ¦ ¤ ¥ ¤ £ % '" ! !&% $" ! ! # # ¢ ¡ . on a ring with radius ∼ kF and a cross section 1/l2 as indicated in Fig. the other is bound to the intersection between two Fermi shells. In k-space the broadening ∆k is given by 2 (k + ∆k)2 /2m ≈ ε + /τ which gives ∆k ≈ 1/v τ = 1/l. one inside the other.e. i. 11. 11.e. For ﬁxed k2 the variation of k1 within its Fermi shell is restricted to the intersection between this shell and the Fermi shell of k + k2 − k1 .g. the Feynman rules dictate that one further constraint.e. In Fig.6(b). 2 So Ωb = (4πkF /l)(2πkF /l2 ).6(a). It is interest2τk ing to note that in e. A (11. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS Figure 11. i. This means that k1 and k2 are both conﬁned to a thin spherical shell of thickness 1/l and radius kF .63) In conclusion: all cases where the scattering length l is greater than 1 ˚ we have by A the various Born approximations indeed resummed the perturbation series for Gk (ikn ) imp taking all relevant diagrams into account and obtained Σk (ikn ) = −i sgn(kn ) . so the volume of the available phase space is Ωa = (4πkF /l)2 . namely |k + k1 − k2 | ≈ kF . where the scattering lines crosses. (b) The crossing wigwam diagram has the same restrictions for k1 and k2 as in (a) plus the constraint that |k+k2 −k1 | ≈ kF . to a ring with cross section 1/l2 and radius ≈ kF . where no crossing of scattering lines occurs.196 CHAPTER 11. Thus by studying the phase space available for the noncrossed and the crossed processes we have found that the crossed ones are suppressed by a factor Ωb /Ωa ≈ 1/(kF l). the inverse scattering F F F length. no further restrictions 2 applies. i. Such a suppression factor enters the calculation for each crossing of scattering lines in a diagram. |Σ| ≈ /τ which relaxes |k1 |. Thus only one of the two internal momenta are free to be anywhere on the Fermi shell. for l 1 ˚.6: (a) The non-crossing wigwam diagrams. where k1 and k2 can take any value on the spherical shell of radius kF and thickness ∆k ≈ 1/l.

Im z > 0 k + 2τ 1 1BA 1BA k −→ Gk (z) = Gk (ikn ) = 1 sgn(kn ) ikn →z ikn − ξk + i 2τ z−ξ − i . by taking higher order correlations into account. k k 2τ k These results will be employed in Chap.11. One example is the observation of weak localization.6. These more subtle quantum eﬀects are fundamental parts of the modern research ﬁeld known as mesoscopic physics. ΣFBA (ikn ) = −i sgn(kn ) k 1 . In this case one may therefore observe deviations from the simple theory presented here. 11.k |2 δ(ξk − ξk ). and the condition in Eq. The weak localization eﬀect is studied in Sec. Im z < 0. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 197 gas with a very low density. (11.63) is violated. We have applied the diagrammatic technique to an analysis of the single-particle Matsubara Green’s function for electron propagation in disordered metals. 15. The technique can be extended to the study of quantum eﬀects like weak localization (see Sec. In these systems 1/kF or the Fermi wavelength is much larger than in metals.6 Summary and outlook In this chapter we have introduced the Feynman diagrams for elastic impurity scattering. 2τk with 1 ≡ 2π τk |tk. k and the scattering-time broadened spectral function A1BA (ω ) = k 2 (ω − ξk )2 + 1/4τk 1/τk . The main result was the determination of the self-energy Σk (ikn ) in terms of the scattering time τk . The structure in the complex plane of the Green’s function was found to be: z−ξ 1 i . which is an increase in the resistivity due to quantum interference between scattering events involving several impurities at the same time. For example is weak localization explained by treating crossed diagrams like the one in Fig.4) and universal conductance ﬂuctuations (see Fig. The theory presented here provides in combination with the Kubo formalism the foundation for a microscopic quantum theory of resistivity. 15 in the study of the residual resistivity of metals. 15. They can be explained within the theoretical framework presented here. which was neglected in calculation presented in this chapter. 11. 11.4.6(b). .2).

198 CHAPTER 11. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS .

τb . (10. r1 ).3) 12. ra .16) we can immediately transform the expression for G into the 199 . rb .1 12.2 The perturbation series for G inﬁnite perturbation series!Matsubara Green’s function The ﬁeld operators in Eq. σa .2) 1 . r2 . The main goal of this chapter is to derive the Feynman rules for the diagrammatic expansion in orders of W of the full single-particle Matsubara Green’s function Eq. r2 ) W (σ2 . (12. r1 )Ψ† (σ2 . r2 )Ψ(σ1 . τb )Ψ† (σa . ra .33a) G(σb . The time-independent Hamiltonian H0 of the unperturbed or non-interacting system is H0 = σ dr Ψ† (r)H0 Ψ(r). (10. r1 ) Ψ(σ2 . The total Hamiltonian H governing the dynamics of the system is as usual given by H = H 0 +W . σ1 . Below we develop the Feynman diagram technique for a system of fermions with pair interactions. τa ) ≡ − Tτ Ψ(σb .Chapter 12 Feynman diagrams and pair interactions It is in the case of interacting particles and ﬁelds that the power of quantum ﬁeld theory and Feynman diagrams really comes into play. τa ) .σ2 We have specialized to the case where no spin ﬂip processes occur at the vertices. (12.1) while the interaction Hamiltonian W is given by W = 1 2σ dr1 dr2 Ψ† (σ1 . (12. (12.3) deﬁning G are of course given in the Heisenberg picture. rb . but using Eq. this being the case for our coming main examples: electron-electron interactions mediated by Coulomb or by phonon interactions.

. (12. . a) = − n=0 (−1)n n! ∞ n=0 β 0 β dτ1 .200 CHAPTER 12.dndn W1. . r1 . But one precaution must be taken regarding the ordering of the four operators in the basic two-particle interaction operator. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND PAIR INTERACTIONS interaction picture.6) where we have deﬁned j+ . W (τn ) 0 ˆ Here we need to calculate τ -integrals of W (τ ). n . dj .dndn W1.6) for W into Eq. (10.5) dτ1 .3). a. rj ) δ(τj −τj ). According to Eq.. (12.. Next insert Eq.4) The subscript 0 indicates that the averages in Eq. τj +η). 1 . which gives the right ordering when the time-ordering operator Tτ of ˆ Eq.1 .65). (12. The expansion Eq. 0) Ψ(b) Ψ† (a) ˆ U (β. 1. n=0 0 The great advantage of Eq. a) = ∞ (12.Wn. To make sure of that we add an inﬁnitesimal time η = 0+ to the time-arguments of Ψ† (1) and Ψ† (2). In fact using Eq. . we recognize that the average of the products of ﬁeld operators in the numer(2n+1) ator is the bare (2n+1)-particle Green’s function G0 (b.1 .n ˆ ˆ Tτ Ψ† Ψ† 1 1 ˆ ˆ ˆn ˆ Ψ1 Ψ1 .. (12. 0 ˆ ˆ dτn Tτ W (τ1 ) .2) the two creation operators must always be to the left of the two annihilation operators. n ) times . (12. .j Ψ(j )Ψ(j). 0) 0 0 . .j as β j+ ≡ (σj .5) for G: G(b. and Wj. 1. The τ -integrals of W (τ ) is therefore β 0 1 ˆ dτj W (τj ) = 2 dj ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ dj Ψ† (j+ )Ψ† (j+ ) Wj. . β 0 0 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ dτn Tτ W (τ1 ) . (12. rj . (10..12) for U is now inserted into Eq. Wj. .. (12. . W (τn )Ψ(b) Ψ† (a) β 0 (−1)n n! .8) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆn ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆa d1d1 . . τ1 ) = (1) we obtain G(b. Ψ† Ψ† n ˆ ˆ Ψn Ψn − n=0 ∞ (− 1 )n 2 n! (− 1 )n 2 n! 0 .7) It is only in expressions where the initial and ﬁnal times coincide that the inﬁnitesimal ˆ shift in time of Ψ† plays a role. (12.8) is that the average of the ﬁeld operators now involves bare propagation and thermal average both with respect to H0 . Ψ† Ψ† Ψn Ψn Ψb Ψ† 1 1 n d1d1 . . .j ≡ W (rj .n Tτ Ψ† Ψ† Ψ1 Ψ1 .Wn. .. . (12. (12. (12. With the short-hand notation (σ1 ..4): ∞ G(b.4) are with respect to e−βH0 rather ˆ than e−βH as in Eq.4) acts. dj ≡ σj dr 0 dτj . 1 . (12. a) = − Tr e−βH Tτ Ψ(b)Ψ† (a) Tr e−βH = − ˆ ˆ ˆ Tτ U (β..

n ) times (−1)2n = 1.Wn.3. it turns out that using these basic rules leads to a proof that the denominator cancels out. Interaction lines: j j ≡ Wj. G 0 (1 .. 1 ) . . We have suppressed.σout .12.10a) . (12. . n ) G G 0 (1.. . n ) .. a) = G 0 (b. 1 . .1 . i.3. This in turn leads to the formulation of the ﬁnal Feynman rules to be used in all later calculations. 1) G 0 (1. .. n ) . a) G 0 (n . Now is the time for our main use of Wick’s theorem Eq.79): the bare many-particle Green’s functions in the expression for the full single-particle Green’s function are written in terms of determinants containing the bare single-particle Green’s functions G 0 (l. THE FEYNMAN RULES FOR PAIR INTERACTIONS 201 (−1)2n+1 = −1. G 0 (n .8). 1 ) . (12.9). a) are (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Fermion lines: j2 j1 ≡ G 0 (j2 . . . 1 ) . j): G(b. no spin ﬂip. (10. 1) G 0 (n . thus cancels the sign in Eq.3 The Feynman rules for pair interactions We formulate ﬁrst a number of basic Feynman rules that are derived directly from Eq. a) The basic Feynman rules for n’th order term in the denominator of G(b. n ) . . .. 1) G 0 (b. n . .n ∞ n=0 (− 1 )n 2 n! d1d1 . G 0 (1.. . 12. 1 ) .1 . 1 ) G 0 (1.e. . 1 .. . 1 ) G 0 (1 .7) is to be shifted inﬁnitesimally to τj + η. the fact that the initial time τj in G 0 (l. . .. j j Draw (2n)! sets of n interaction lines j j.. while in the denominator it is the bare (2n)-particle Green’s function (2n) G0 (1. n ) G 0 (1 . (12. . 1. 1 ) . . The resulting sign. j) according to Eqs. Vertices: j• ≡ dj δσin .1 Feynman rules for the denominator of G(b. 1) G 0 (1.6) and (12. . a) G 0 (b. 0 (n . 1) G 0 (1 . G 0 (n .j . However. 1) G 0 (n . but not forgotten. (12. a) G 0 (1 . a) G 0 (1.dndn W1. . j1 ). . . 0 (n . 1) G 0 (1 . . G 0 (1 . . . . G 0 (1. This can be done in (2n)! ways. . τ1 → τ1 + η. . n ) G ∞ n=0 (− 1 )n 2 n! d1d1 . (12. . . For each set connect the 2n vertices with 2n fermion lines: one entering and one leaving each vertex. sum over internal variables.dndn W1. n ) .n This voluminous formula is the starting point for deﬁning the Feynman rules for the diagrammatic expansion of G in terms of the pair interaction W . 12. G 0 (b.9) .Wn.. −1.

a) in Eq.. An outline of the proof is as follows. (12.G 0 (j2 . j1 . Consequently....9).. e. and at the same time it changes the number of fermion loops by 1. j1 ).. a) ˆ ˆ ˆ The numerator Tτ [U (β.g. All other diagrams can be constructed one by one simply by pair wise interchange of the endpoints of fermion lines.3.. this expansion takes the following form using Feynman diagrams: ˆ U (β. 24 terms + . F = 2n is even. F being the number of fermion loops. + 2 terms (12. + + . This changes the determinantal sign of the product since sgn[. a) diﬀers from the denominator by the ˆ ˆ presence of the two external ﬁeld operators Ψ(b) and Ψ† (a) that act at the external spacetime points (b) and (a).. e... j1 j2 . . where F is the number of fermion loops in the coming from the determinant is (−1) given diagram. 720 terms 12.g.G 0 (j2 .2 Feynman rules for the numerator of G(b. 0) 0 of G(b.G 0 (j1 . This raises the dimension of the n’th order determinant from 2n to 2n+1. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND PAIR INTERACTIONS But this is not all. i. but indicating the number of diagrams of each order. + + . or j1 F .202 CHAPTER 12. and add the resulting (2n)! diagrams of order n. j1 ). The product of the diagonal terms in the determinant is per deﬁnition positive and in diagram form it consist of n factors j j . j2 ). (12.e. Thus we obtain the last Feynman rule (6) 1 1 Multiply by n! (− 2 )n (−1)F .]. The overall sign after connecting to other vertices.. 0)Ψ(b)Ψ† (a)] 0 of G(b.G 0 (j1 .11) + + + . .. becomes .. because what about the sign arising from the expansion of the determinant? Here the concept of fermion loops enters the game. A fermion loop is an uninterrupted sequence of fermion lines starting at some vertex j and ending there again j3 j2 ..] = −sgn[.. j2 ). only Feynman rules (4) and (5) given for the denominator have to be changed to give the rules for the numerator: . 0) 0 =1 + + + + . Suppressing the labels.10b) For all n there are (2n)! terms or diagrams of order n in the expansion of the deterˆ minant in the denominator U (β.. + + .

11) order by order..g. one entering b.13) disconnected from the external vertices are the same as the diagrams appearing in Eq..3.g. + + . and those consisting of two or more pieces.. For each set connect the 2n+2 vertices with 2n+1 fermion lines: one leaving a. but in fact there is a major reduction at hand. We furthermore note that the parts of the diagrams in Eq. the last second-order diagram). + a a a a + .. A detailed combinatorial analysis (given at the end of this section) reveals that the denominator in G cancels exactly the disconnected parts of .13) two classes of diagrams appear: those being connected into one piece with the external vertices a and b..3. (12.12.. (12. (12.13) 6 terms + . 120 terms 12... 0 = (12. 0)Ψ(b)Ψ† (a)] b + b b ! " # b b b b + + + + + a a a a a a a b b b b + + + . and one entering and leaving each internal vertex j. We note that in Eq. (12. We also note that a diagram containing two or more disconnected parts can be written as a product containing one factor for each disconnected part. the ﬁrst second order diagram). the so-called disconnected diagrams (e. the so-called connected diagrams (e.12) 203 Using these rules we obtain the diagrammatic expansion of the numerator: ˆ ˆ ˆ Tτ [U (β. THE FEYNMAN RULES FOR PAIR INTERACTIONS (4’) (5’) Draw (2n+1)! sets of n lines j j and 2 external vertices •a and •b.3 The cancellation of disconnected Feynman diagrams It looks like we are drowning in diagrams.

(2) If vertex j somehow is connected to a. mirror inverted and otherwise deformed.. and one enters and leaves each internal vertex •j. No notion of a time-axis is implied in the imaginary time version of the Feynman diagrams. (1) Since all internal vertices have one incoming and one outgoing fermion line. and 2n+1 fermion lines.σout . Except for the sign this 1 factor cancels the prefactor n! (− 1 )n .j .e. j1 ). one enters •b. connected diagrams containing n interaction lines j j .e.9). Multiply each diagram by (−1)F . Sum over all the topologically diﬀerent diagrams. For completeness we give the following proof of the cancellation of the disconnected diagrams. + . a is connected with r W -lines.15) Pay attention to the fact that only the topology of the diagrams are mentioned. b b b b b + + + + a a a a a $% + + . (3) In a diagram of order n. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND PAIR INTERACTIONS the diagrams in the numerator leaving only the connected ones: b b G(b. so is j due to the interaction line Wj. so that one leaves •a.. F being the number of fermion loops. .. τ1 → τ1 + η. (12. / 0 . ' ()*+.. There are n! ways to choose the enumeration j of the n interaction lines j j . no spin ﬂip j j At order n draw all topologically diﬀerent. i. In conclusion.. 1 + & + . 2 vertices •a and •b.14) connected (5) (6) . (12. a a 1 + + . . sum over internal variables. We study the numerator of Eq. but the reader may skip it since the essential conclusion has already been given above. we are left with a factor of (−1) for each of the 2 n interaction lines. Interaction lines: j j ≡ −Wj. i.204 CHAPTER 12. Thus they can at will be stretched. We conclude that all 2n n! diagrams with the same topology relative to the external points give the same value. a) = = Being left with only the connected diagrams we ﬁnd that since now all lines in the diagram are connected in a speciﬁc way to the external points a and b the combinatorics of the permutations of the internal vertex indices is particularly simple.. and for each line there are 2 ways to put a given pair of labels j and j . (12. for pair interactions the ﬁnal version of the Feynman rules for expanding G diagrammatically is: (1) (2) (3) (4) Fermion lines: j2 j1 ≡ G 0 (j2 . The proof goes through eight steps.j Vertices: j• ≡ dj δσin . the external vertices a and b are always connected.

n ]discon r!(n − r)! ∞ m=0 = r=0 1 −1 I[1...j = Wj . 1 . (12. 0) 0 .. (12. 12. r ]con I[r+1. (c) and (d).. i. .[−W (r. . Continuing the analogy with the impurity scattering case we can also deﬁne the self-energy Σ(l. and reducible.. r. one over the 2r variables connected to a and one over the 2m variables disconnected from a.. and so does all the 2n ways of ordering each pair. 1 ..3 for impurity scattering. such diagrams are the ones that cannot be cut into two pieces by cutting a single fermion line. 0) Ψ(b) Ψ† (a) 0 ˆ = U (β.e. As depicted in Fig.12. connected topological diﬀ.. m = n−r.14) deﬁne the concept of irreducible diagrams in G(b. (a) and (b). . a) in the presence of pair-interactions.. 11. (7) In the connected part all r! permutations of the vertex variable pairs (j.4 Self-energy and Dyson’s equation In complete analogy with Fig. The number of disconnected W -lines is denoted m.. ˆ (8) The disconnected part is seen to be U (β. r )] Det G 0 r=0 12. 0) 0 [−W (1. 1 )]. a) in the case of pair interactions. n. j) as ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ (12. n. (r+1) . we can now based on Eq. (r+m). (6) The structure of the sum is now: ∞ n=0 1 n! ∞ −1 2 n I[1. (5) The r pairs of vertex variables j and j connected to a can be chosen out of the n! available n pairs in r!(n−r)! ways. j ) yield the same result. each choice yielding the same value of the total integral. .. r ]con r! 2 1 −1 m! 2 m I[r+1.. . Feynman diagrams in the expansion of G(b. where 0 ≤ r ≤ n. SELF-ENERGY AND DYSON’S EQUATION © ¥ £ § ¥ ¨ £ ¥ ¦ £ ¥ ¤ £ 205 Figure 12.1: Examples of irreducible. 1 . (r+1) . We thus reach the conclusion ∞ ˆ ˆ ˆ Tτ U (β. (r+m) ]discon .j . (4) In all terms of the expanded numerator the integral factorizes into a product of two integrals. r. n ] n n r=0 r = n=0 ∞ 1 −1 n! 2 n! I[1.4. if as usual Wj.17) (2r+1)×(2r+1) .16) .1.

j j l j + + + b b b l l l j j j a + b l j × j a + j a a + dl dj G 0 (b.j + l j + l + l + . ikn )-space as . a) and G 0 (b. iqn )-space.e. . q.. < = > ? δl. a) 1234 5 6 8 9 7 : .. a) without the two external fermion lines G 0 (j.7) the Matsubara frequency iqn appears only in the argument of the exponential function. r τ ) = 1 βV W (q) e[iq·(r−r )−iqn (τ −τ )] .20) It is important to realize that the Matsubara frequency iqn is bosonic since the Coulomb interaction is bosonic in nature: two fermions are annihilated and two fermions are created by the interaction. l) Σ(l.19) Note how Dyson’s equation in this case is an integral equation. We shall shortly see that for a translation-invariant system it becomes an algebraic equation in k-space. The sum of all irreducible diagrams in G(b.5 The Feynman rules in Fourier space For the special case where H0 describes a translation-invariant system and where the interaction Wj. one boson object is annihilated and one is created. l) (12.2. j) ≡ = = From Eqs. τ )-space to (q.j only depends on the coordinate diﬀerences rj − rj and τj − τj it is a great advantage to Fourier transform the representation from (r. a). a) G(b.18) a + . Furthermore. 2. 12. j) G(j. (12. we note that due to the factor δ(τ − τ ) in Eq. τ ) is written W (rτ ..14) and (12. + (12.39) we can express the electronic Green’s function Gσ (rτ.18) we obtain Dyson’s equation for G(b. 0 Likewise. using Eq.206 CHAPTER 12.. (10. In terms of the Fourier transform W (q) = 4πe2 /q 2 the Coulomb 0 interaction W (rτ . (12.. Our main example of such a system is the jellium model for Coulomb interacting electrons studied in Sec. r . i. a) = = = = b b b b a a a a = G 0 (b.. r τ ) for spin σ in (k.iqn (12. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND PAIR INTERACTIONS Σ(l.

and r are indicated as well as the wave vectors k. r ≡ (r. Inserting the Fourier transforms of Eqs. but not on σ. THE FEYNMAN RULES IN FOURIER SPACE 207 0 Gσ (rτ . r) Gσ (˜. r) Gσ (˜. ikn ) e[ik·(r−r )−ikn (τ −τ )] . r3 . the order of the diagram. in agreement with our previous remarks. and whence the number of independent internal momenta equals n.22) yields with this sign convention d˜ Gσ (˜2 .23) From this follows that in Fourier space the four-momentum (k. i. ikn ) is conserved at each ˜ Coulomb scattering vertex: k = p + q . It follows from Eqs. r) = r 0 r ˜ 0 r ˜ r ˜ r ˜ r3 . We therefore end up with the following Feynman rules for the n-order diagrams in the expan- . Using this notation we analyze the Fourier transform of the basic ik ˜ n Coulomb scattering vertex r2 ˜ pσ ˜ q ˜ (12. The topology of the diagram in (r. p from r to r2 . τ ). r1 ) W (˜3 .e. ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ p. and q to be used in the Fourier transform. In the case of the Coulomb interacting electron gas in the jellium model we thus see 0 that both the Green’s function Gσ and the interaction W depend only on the space and imaginary time diﬀerences r − r and τ − τ . (12. r1 ) W (˜3 . (12.20) ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ and (12. ikn ) = 1/(ikn − ξk ) depends on k and ikn . (12. For each independent momentum a factor 1/βV remains from the corresponding Fourier transform. ˜ 0 ˜ q ˜˜ kq (12.21) into Eq. τ )-space is not changed by the Fourier transform.22) d˜ Gσ (˜2 .ikn (12. r) r 0 r ˜ 0 r ˜ r ˜ = = = d˜ r 1 (βV)3 0 p r r r r q r r Gσ (˜) Gσ (k) W (˜) ei[˜·(˜2 −˜)+k·(˜−˜1 )+˜·(˜3 −˜)] p 0 ˜ q ˜ ˜˜ kpq p q r d˜ e−i(˜−k+˜)·˜ r ˜ ˜ @ ˜ kσ 1 (βV)3 1 (βV)2 0 pr ˜r qr Gσ (˜) Gσ (k) W (˜) ei[˜·˜2 −k·˜1 +˜·˜3 ] p 0 ˜ q ˜ ˜˜ kpq ˜ r r 0 ˜ q r r Gσ (k− q ) Gσ (k) W (˜) ei[k·(˜2 −˜1 )+˜·(˜3 −˜2 )] .20) and (12. r τ ) = 1 βV 0 Gσ (k. to even values for the Matsubara frequencies of the interaction lines. The momentum conservation rule for each of the 2n vertices also leads to 2n delta function constraints on the 2n internal fermion momenta and the n interaction line momenta.5. Here ξk ≡ ε − µ. k. On top of their usual meaning the arrows ˜ ˜ ˜ now also indicate the choice of sign for the four-momentum vectors: k ﬂows from r1 to ˜ r.21) 0 where Gσ (k.12. and ˜ ˜ · r ≡ ik · r − ik τ . the momentum conservation combined with the odd values of the fermion Matsubara frequencies leads. ikn ). Since each vertex consists of two fermion lines ˜ ˜ and one interaction line.21) that ˜ it saves some writing to introduce the four-vector notation k ≡ (k. and q from r to r3 . τ )-space points r1 . r2 . ˜ r1 ˜ ˜ where the (r.

(12.41) the self-energy Σσ (k. The factor eikn η follows directly from the Fourier transform when this shift is included.7). pσ ˜ . kl = kj . FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND PAIR INTERACTIONS sion of Gσ (k. 0 ˜ 0 ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ Gσ (k) = Gσ (k) + Gσ (k) Σσ (k) Gσ (k) with Gσ (k.k Σσ (k). and 2n q 0 (p . and no spin ﬂipping.18). ikn ) E F G = + = . ikn ) in the ’same-time’ diagrams Multiply by 1 βV for each internal four-momentum p.e. Multiply each diagram by (−1)F . appears as a direct additive renormalization of the bare energy ξk = εk − µ. i. ikn ) = the solution 0 Gσ (k. k). ip ). ikn )-space the fourth Feynman rule concerning the conservation of four-momentum at the scattering vertices simpliﬁes many calculations. induced here by the Coulomb interaction W .26) (12. (11. ikn ) Σσ (k. iqn Conserve the spin and four-momentum at each vertex.19) is therefore an algebraic equation. perform the sum ˜ CD and by eikn η . (12. (12. At order n draw all topologically diﬀerent connected diagrams containing n 0 oriented interaction lines W (˜).27) 1 . ikn ). two external fermion lines Gσ (k. ikn ) 0 1 − Gσ (k. k ) = δk. i. ˜ ˜ ˜ Σσ (k. and they allow one to identify the important . Fermion lines with four-momentum orientation: A B (5) (6) (7) 0 Multiply Gσ (k. kσ. ˜˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ Σσ (k) ≡ Σσ (k. ikn ). such as the ones shown in Eq. The self-energy (with spin σ) is thus diagonal in k-space. Most noteworthy is the fact that Dyson’s equation becomes an algebraic equation. F being the number of fermion loops. (12.208 CHAPTER 12. (12. where (k. ikn ) is to be interpreted as the externally given four-vector momentum. All vertices must contain an incoming internal fermion lines Gσ j j and an outgoing fermion line as well as an interaction line.6 Examples of how to evaluate Feynman diagrams The Feynman diagrams is an extremely useful tool to gain an overview of the very complicated inﬁnite-order perturbation calculation. 12. ikn Interaction lines with four-momentum orientation: ≡ −W (q). incoming momenta must equal the outgoing. ikn ). (1) (2) (3) (4) 0 ≡ Gσ (k.24) Note how the two ’same-time’ diagrams in rule (6) are the only ones where it is relevant to take explicitly into account the inﬁnitesimal shift τj → τj + η mentioned in Eqs.e. ikn ) As in Eq. In (k. ikn − ξk − Σσ (k.6) and (12. (12.25) Dyson’s equation Eq. ikn ). Due to four-momentum conservation a ˜ four-momentum kj entering a self-energy diagram. ˜ ˜ must also exit it. q.

ikn ) ≡ The four-momentum transfer along the interaction line is zero. It contains one internal four-momentum.12.2 using the Hartree-Fock mean ﬁeld approximation. The Feynman rules therefore lead to the following expression for the Hartree self-energy diagram Eq. The Matsubara sum can easily be carried out using the method of Sec. We see that the diagrammatic result Eq.e.24). In other words we have shown that the tadpole-shaped self-energy diagram is the diagrammatic equivalent of the Hartree mean ﬁeld approximation. V (12. 10.29) = 2W (0) dp n (ξ ) (2π)3 F p Note the need for Feynman rule Eq. (p. 4.24). (12. 12. while the four-momentum (p. ipn ) and the spin σ in the fermion loop are free to take any value. ipn . n = 1. (12. When this part of the analysis is done one is (hopefully) left with only a few important diagrams that then need to be evaluated. ikn ) ≡ σ H −1 βV σ 0 Gσ (k. (12. and one fermion loop. This renormalization we have calculated by completely diﬀerent means in Sec. ikn ) = 0 Gσ (k. (12. i.2 The Fock self-energy diagram F We treat the Fock diagram Gσ and Fock self-energy ΣF similarly: σ . We start with the so-called Hartree diagram Gσ (which is zero in the presence of a charge compensating back-ground).6.27) the self-energy is the interaction-induced renormalization of the non-interacting single-particle energy. We end this chapter by studying the explicit evaluation of three simple Feynman diagrams in Fourier space using the Feynman rules Eq. According to Eq. ikn ) I 0 p. one internal spin. (12.28): ΣH (k. where we in accordance with Eq. yielding a factor of 1/βV. The self-energy diagram is a ﬁrst order diagram.6. (12. (12.1.29) exactly equals the Hartree part of the mean ﬁeld energy in Eq. 12. F = 1. (4.e. The spin sum turns into a simple factor 2. The evaluation of the p-integral is elementary and yields N/2. σ . ipn ). ipn ) eipn η p ipn = 2W (0) β dp (2π)3 ipn eipn η ipn − ξp = W (0) N .18) strip oﬀ the two external fermion lines to obtain the self-energy ΣH : H Gσ (k.1 The Hartree self-energy diagram To evaluate a given diagram the ﬁrst task is to label the fermion and interaction lines with four-momenta and spin obeying the conservation rules at each vertex.28) J = 0 − W (0) Gσ (p.25b).6.4.24)(6) for evaluating this speciﬁc diagram. EXAMPLES OF HOW TO EVALUATE FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS 209 processes for a given physical problem. σ (12. i. rule (3) in H Eq.

The evaluation of the p-integral is in principle elementary. 13. ikn ) ≡ σ K L = 0 Gσ (k. ipn .32) A full oyster diagram can be seen in e. σ ipn q. ikn ). σ ikn −iqn 0 Gσ (k.g. (12. no fermion loops are present.30): ΣF (k. i.210 CHAPTER 12. yielding a factor 1/βV. ikn ) ≡ q.e. (p. We immediately note that this diagram is of second order.1. At the ﬁrst vertex the incoming momentum 1 N = k−q.30) M = 1 βV −1 β 0 − W (k−p) δσ. Eq. We have thus shown that the half-oyster self-energy diagram1 is the diagrammatic equivalent of the Fock mean ﬁeld approximation.11) . σ ipn +iqn (12.25b) calculated using the Hartree-Fock mean ﬁeld approximation. ikn ) leaves us with the pair-bubble selfP . It contains one internal four-momentum.e. iqn p+q. 12. ipn ).4. The Feynman rules therefore lead to the following expression for the Fock self-energy diagram Eq. i.e. ikn ) k−p G 0 (k. iqn 0 Removing the two external fermion lines Gσ (k. We see that this self-energy diagram exactly equals the Fock part of the energy in Eq. Finally. The four-momentum transferred by σ the interaction line is (k − p. (2π)3 Note that also for this speciﬁc diagram we have used Feynman rule (6). n = 1. We proceed as in the previous examples: 0 Gσ (k. (12. ikn ) O p. F = 0. (4. energy diagram Σσ containing one fermion loop. ikn ) = p.6. The spin sum turned into a simple factor 1.31) =− dp W (k−p) nF (ξp ). i. ipn ) eipn η σ p ipn = dp W (k−p) (2π)3 ipn eipn η ipn − ξp (12. plays a central role in studies of the electron gas.28) the internal spin σ is now forced to be equal to the external spin σ. 10. F = 1. which. leaving the Fock self-energy ΣF to be determined. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND PAIR INTERACTIONS F Gσ (k. σ 0 Once more the external fermion lines are written explicitly as two factors Gσ (k. n = 2. in contrast to Eq. This diagram is a ﬁrst order diagram. ikn − ipn ).σ Gσ (p. The Matsubara sum can easily be carried out using the method of Sec. ikn ) ikn −ipn σ (12. as we shall see in Chap. (12. However.3 The pair-bubble self-energy diagram P Our last example is the pair-bubble diagram Gσ . ikn ) P Gσ (k. i.e.

ikn −iqn ). Π0 (q. (12. where it ultimately recombines with the former fermion momentum (k − q.4. iqn ) from the fermion loop. Our main example is the Coulomb interaction. and σ .34) 12. 3 (ip + iq − ξ (2π) n n p+q ) (ipn − ξp ) (12. Inserting the result for Π0 (q. Using the Feynman diagrammatic . It enables a systematic analysis of the inﬁnitely many terms that need to be taken into account in a given calculation. iqn ) is traditionally denoted the pair-bubble. We have thereby ensured that the exit momentum equals that of the entrance: (k. The Feynman diagram technique is a very powerful tool to use in the context of perturbation theory. iqn ). sending (q. ikn ). iqn ) ≡ The loop contribution Π0 (q. iqn ) out through the interaction line. The evaluation of the p-integral is in principle elementary. ikn − iqn ). ipn ). (p. 10. iqn ) Gσ (k−q. while the remainder (k−q. At the fermion loop. ipn ) and continues in a new fermion line as (p+q.33) where we have separated out the contribution Π0 (q. and that the Matsubara sum over ipn can easily be carried out using the method of Sec. (2π)3 (12. ipn +iqn ) Gσ (k−q. the calculation can be performed.12. ikn−iqn ) continues in the fermion line. iqn ) is joined by the internal fermion momentum (p. iqn ) is sent out through the interaction line.7. a) or Gσ (k. ikn ) in terms of the pair-interaction W . Q = −2 β ipn dp 1 1 . The Feynman rules lead to the following expression for the pair-bubble self-energy Eq. ikn ) is split.32) leads to a bit more involved Matsubara frequency summation over iqn and momentum integration over q. Here we just note that the spin sum becomes a factor 2. ikn ) σ ˜ ≡ p = −1 (βV)2 1 β P q ˜ q ˜ σ pq ipn iqn iqn − W (q) 2 0 0 0 Gσ (p. ipn ) Gσ (p+q. and we shall return to it later. ipn+iqn ). the former two yielding a prefactor 1/(βV)2 . At the top of the loop the momentum (q.1. (12. and we shall study it in more detail in the coming chapters. However. ikn −iqn ) = dq 0 W (q)2 Π0 (q. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 211 (k.7 Summary and outlook In this chapter we have established the Feynman rules for writing down the Feynman diagrams constituting the inﬁnite-order perturbation expansion of the full single-particle Green’s functions G (b. The internal degrees of freedom are (q. (q. iqn ) into the pair-bubble self-energy diagram Eq.32): ΣP (k.

We shall learn how these diagrams determine the ground state energy of the system as well as its dielectric properties such as static and dynamic screening. 13 that the diagrams analyzed in Eqs.31) and (12. as we shall see in the following chapters. Indeed. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND PAIR INTERACTIONS analysis one can. (12. we show in Chap. .34) are the ones that dominate the physics of the interacting electron gas in the high density limit.212 CHAPTER 12. identify which sub-classes of diagrams that give the most important contributions. We have already given explicit examples of how to evaluate some of the diagrams that are going to play an important role.

ikn ).2. (12. W (r − r ) = |r − r | 4πe2 W (q) = 2 0 2 .24). 2. q +α (13.1) The range 1/α has no physical origin. e2 0 e−α|r−r | . (13. For example. (2. where according to Eq. and we show how a meaningful ﬁnite ground state energy can be found. (1. which then without problems can be taken to zero. Edir (2) ∝ 0 dq q 2 1 1 qq (q 2 + α2 )2 q ∼ − ln(α) α→0 −→ ∞. Nevertheless.49).Chapter 13 The interacting electron gas In Sec.2) The main result of the following diagrammatic calculation is that the dynamics of the interacting system by itself creates a renormalization of the pure Coulomb interaction into a Yukawa-like potential independent of the value of α. In analogy with Eq. see Eq. The starting point of the theory is the self-energy Σσ (k. 13. (2.18) the self-energy is given by the sum of all the irreducible diagrams in Gσ (k. ikn )-space we use the Feynman rules Eq. At the end at the calculation we take the limit α → 0 to recover the Coulomb interaction. This was expected to be a valid procedure in the high density limit.35) the interaction energy is negligible.2 revealed a divergence in (2) the contribution Edir from the direct processes. (12.103) and the associated footnote. but the divergence reappears as soon as we take the limit α → 0. the second order perturbation analysis of Sec. (2. with the Yukawa potential we (2) can obtain a ﬁnite value for Edir in Eq.2 we studied the Coulomb interaction as a perturbation to the non-interacting electron gas in the jellium model.49) if α is ﬁnite. ikn ) in (k. To ensure well-behaved ﬁnite integrals during our analysis we work with the Yukawa-potential with an artiﬁcial range 1/α instead of the pure long range Coulomb potential. 2. see Eq. In this chapter we reanalyze the Coulomb-interacting electron gas in the jellium model using the Feynman diagram technique. ikn ) removing the two external fermion 213 .1 The self-energy in the random phase approximation To construct the diagrammatic expansion of the self-energy Σσ (k.

(2. ikn ) 1 Σ(n ) (k. .1 The density dependence of self-energy diagrams (n) Consider an arbitrary self-energy diagram Σσ (k. We have 2+3 2 2 5 1 1 dk ˜ k ∝ kF .6) Eqs. for rs → 0.. . ikn ) = σ ∝ ˜ dk1 . ikn ). ikn ) ∝ σ 5 kF −2 kF −2 kF = kF −(n−2) ∝ n−2 rs . . ikn ) ..6) are the precise statements for how to identify the most important self-energy diagrams in the high density limit. ikn ) of order n: n interaction terms Σ(n) (k. Thus: σ Σσ (k. ikn ) = + + + + + . Furthermore. (13.37) and its degree of divergence in the cut-oﬀ parameter α. ΣH (k. ˜ dkn W () .3) For each order of W we want to identify the most important terms.1. rs → 0. We recall that due to the charge compensating back ground in the jellium model the Hartree self-energy diagram vanishes. W () G 0 () . dk1 ∝ β ikn (2π)3 ∝ kF = kF . (13.and thus rs -dependence: n n 2n−1 ikn −εk F Σ(n) (k. . We can conclude that for two diﬀerent orders n and n in the high density limit. This is achieved by noting that each diagram in the expansion is characterized by its density dependence through the dimensionless electron distance parameter rs of Eq. (13. (2.5) and (13.4) 2n − 1 Green’s fcts n internal momenta We then make the integral dimensionless by measuring momenta and frequencies in powers of the Fermi momentum kF and pulling out the corresponding factors of kF . while 1 ˜ ∝ k −2 . G 0 () . ikn ) = = 0.214 CHAPTER 13. and then resum the inﬁnite series taking only these terms into account. 13. . ε ∝ kF . The self-energy diagram therefore has W (q) ∝ 2 1 2 ∝ k −2 and G 0 (k) = q +α F σ the following kF .37). THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS 0 lines Gσ (k. . and β ∝ kF . (13.5) where in the last proportionality we have used rs = (9π/4) 3 /(a0 kF ) from Eq. σ (13. . we have n<n ⇒ (n) Σσ (k.

THE SELF-ENERGY IN THE RANDOM PHASE APPROXIMATION 215 13.8) the most important terms are those in the diagonal in this table where δ = n. ikn ) having the same momentum q.8) 13. (13. which diverges as q −4 only when both q → 0 and p → 0 at the same time. In contrast. it is in general not possible to determine which diagram is the larger based alone on knowledge of the divergence number. According to Eqs. i. (13. In view of this discussion it is natural to deﬁne a divergence number δσ (n) energy diagram Σσ (k.1) (n. ikn ) as (n) of the self- (n) δσ ≡ the largest number of interaction lines in (n) Σσ (k. (13.1) in the limit of small q and α leads to a divergent behavior of the self-energy integrals. δ)-table. The exception involves the diagram with the maximal divergence number.2) (k.2) (n. in a set of measure zero in the integral over q and p.7) Consider two diagrams Σσ and Σσ of the same order n. ikn ) .1) δσ =n ⇒ Σ(n.2) . σ for α → 0 and any n-order diagram Σ(n. when all n momenta in the diagram are the same. i.1) (k. the more divergent is this diagram. With one notable exception.e. two lines with diﬀerent momenta q and q − p contributes with W (q)W (q − p).13.1. we now order the self-energy diagrams in a (n.1.3 RPA resummation of the self-energy Using the order n and the divergence number δ. The more interaction lines carrying the same momentum there are in a given diagram.1. ikn ) σ Σ(n. In the limit α → 0 this diagram is the largest: (n. (13. The ﬁrst few diagrams (without arrows on the .2 The divergence number of self-energy diagrams The singular nature of the Yukawa-modiﬁed Coulomb potential Eq. For example (taking α = 0) two lines with the momentum q contributes with W (q)2 which diverges as q −4 for q → 0 independent of the behavior of any other internal momentum p in the diagram.6) and (13.e.

but only the most divergent one for each n: q ˜ q ˜ q ˜ q ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ k− q ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ k− q k− q p + q k− q ˜ + + + + . (13.. ≡ −χ0 (q. (12. 12. − (13.6. this χ0 is the same correlation function as the one introduced for other reasons in Sec. 3 (ip + iq − ξ (2π) n n p+q ) (ipn − ξp ) .7. since the Feynman rules Eq.. For each given order the diagrams with the highest divergence number are the most important. This is straightforward to do. The self-energy in the random phase approximation (RPA) is an inﬁnite sum containing diagrams of all orders n.9) χ0 (q. i.3. ΣRPA (k) ≡ q ˜ σ q ˜ p ˜ q ˜ (13. 10. THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS interaction lines for graphical clarity) are ˜ Σσ (k) δ=1 n=1 n=2 n=3 n=4 δ=2 − δ=3 − − δ=4 − − It is clear that the most important diagrams in the high density limit are those having a low order. iqn ). iqn ) ≡ already introduced in Sec.24) are still valid for each part.216 CHAPTER 13.10) q ˜ q ˜ q ˜ Below we are going to analyze parts of the diagrams individually.e. iqn ) = 2 β ipn (13. It plays a crucial role.11) In fact. To make the fermion-loop sign from the pair-bubble appear explicitly we prefer to work with χ0 ≡ −Π0 . because it ensures that all interaction lines W (q) carry the same momentum q.10) is clearly the pair-bubble Π0 (q. An important part of the self-energy diagrams in Eq. dp 1 1 .

iqn ) introduced in Eqs.2 The renormalized Coulomb interaction in RPA The renormalized Coulomb interaction W RPA (q. + . pulling out the convergent Fock self-energy × ΣRPA = σ In the following we study the properties of the renormalized Coulomb interaction W RPA (˜).-. iqn )-space this is an algebraic equation with the solution −W RPA (q. and let the artiﬁcial cut-oﬀ parameter α tend to zero. omitting (13. (13. THE RENORMALIZED COULOMB INTERACTION IN RPA By introducing a renormalized interaction line −W RPA (˜) = q interaction line arrows. q ! " # $% &' ( )* + + + + . . = .1) for the Yukawa-modiﬁed Coulomb interaction. In (q.13. q 2 − 4πe2 χ0 (q. .13) can be found using a Dyson equation approach. . iqn ) ≡ + . iqn ) −→ 4πe2 0 .15) . The ﬁnal result is W RPA (q. iqn ) = = = Note the cancellation of the explicit signs from W and χ0 in the denominator./ 01 234 567 8 9 : = + × 1− −W (q) . = + ≡ + + + = + × + + 217 we can.2. iqn ) α→0 (13. .13) 13. as + + + + . iqn ) 0 (13.12) and (13. We can now insert the speciﬁc form Eq. (13. . −W RPA (q... 1 − W (q) χ0 (q. .16) +.12) (13. rewrite the RPA self-energy as × ΣRPA = σ or.14) (13.

and it is put to zero in the following. i. and discuss a physical interpretation of the random phase approximation. (13. 0) −→ 2 q→0 q 2 + ks where the so-called Thomas-Fermi screening wavenumber.17) W RPA (q. 0 Note that the pair-bubble is a function of both momentum and frequency.1 Calculation of the pair-bubble In Eq. according to Eq. (2π)3 ξp+q − ξp − iqn (13. 2 ks ≡ −4πe2 χ0 (0. iqn ) having its origin in the dynamics of the interacting electron gas. and consequently. 13. (13. The sum was carried out in Eq.218 CHAPTER 13. iqn ). iqn ) thus has a form similar to W (q).e.85) using the recipe Eq. and thus determine χR (q. long-wave limit q → 0 and iqn = 0. 0) (13. (13. iqn ) = 2 dp nF (ξp+q ) − nF (ξp ) . we ﬁnd that W RPA appears in a form identical with the Yukawa-modiﬁed Coulomb interaction. THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS W RPA (q.19). but with the important diﬀerence that the artiﬁcially introduced parameter α in the latter has been replaced with the pair-bubble function −4πe2 χ0 (q. and we can 0 perform a Taylor expansion in energy χR (q.20) The frequency dependence of the retarded pair-bubble χR can now be found by the 0 usual analytical continuation iqn → ω + iη. We still have to perform the rather involved p-integral.34) the pair-bubble diagram is given in terms of a p-integral and a Matsubara frequency sum. for kB T εF . long-wave limit.2.18) In the extreme long wave limit we have W RPA (0. W RPA (q → 0. 0). 0) = −1 . a screened Coulomb interaction 4πe2 0 . 0) becomes 1 W RPA (q → 0. it is a simple matter to obtain the static. 0) −→ 0 q→0 2 F ∂n dp (ξp+q − ξp ) ∂ξp = − dξp d(µ + ξp ) − F 3 (2π) ξp+q − ξp ∂ξp ∂n −d(εF ). q → 0 and iqn = 0 + iη.19) In the following section we calculate the pair-bubble χ0 (q. (10. In this limiting case ξp+q → ξp . ks has been introduced. 0 (13.54): χ0 (q. 0) is simply minus the density 0 of states at the Fermi level. long-wave limit at low temperatures χR (q.22) d(εF ) . (10. ﬁnd the value of the Thomas-Fermi screening wavenumber ks . (13.21) In the static. In the static. 0). χ0 (0. However. (12. From now on we no longer need a ﬁnite value of α. 0) = .

Finite temperature eﬀects can be obtained by using the Sommerfeld expansion or by numerical integration.26) and then the λ-integral followed by the p-integral is carried out using standard logarithmic integrals1 . ω + iη) to the low temperature regime kB T εF . π a0 (13. The ﬁnal result for the retarded function χR is 0 Re χR (q. (13. and the real part of χ0 is most easily calculated by splitting Eq. THE RENORMALIZED COULOMB INTERACTION IN RPA 219 The Thomas-Fermi screening wavenumber ks is found by combining Eq. 4εF (13. We now turn to the more general case. (13. x0 ) + f (x. and we have λ ≡ cos θ. −x0 ) + 2 8x 2 . (13. (2. −1 ξp−q − ξp = 1 (q 2 − 2pqλ). substituting p with p − q in the ﬁrst term. In the low temperature limit an analytical expression is obtained by a straightforward but rather tedious calculation.18) with Eqs.27a) x0 −x x ln x + x2 − x0 .36). but limit the calculation of χ0 (q. x − x2 + x0 (13.28) Useful integrals are R 1 dx ax+b = ln(ax + b) and dx ln(ax + b) = 1 [(ax a + b) ln(ax + b) − ax].13. This result is very important. It is therefore useful for numerous applications. R (13. such as x ≡ q 2kF and x0 ≡ ω . For metals ks ≈ 0. and collecting the terms again: Re χ0 (q. In the p-integral the only angular dependence of the integrand is through cos θ.20) is Im χ0 (q. (13.1 nm−1 . ω + iη) = 1 kF 0 dp 2 p 2π 1 a 1 −1 dλ [nF (ξp+q ) − nF (ξp )] δ(ξp+q − ξp −ω ).31) and (2. dp = (2π)3 ∞ 0 dp 2 p 4π 2 1 dλ. because it relates the screening length 1/ks to microscopic parameters of the electron gas. (13.2. 2 ks = −4πe2 χR (0. 0) = 4π e2 d(εF ) = 0 0 0 4 kF .24) 2m In the low temperature limit the Fermi-Dirac distribution is a step-function.23) a0 being the Bohr radius.27b) The imaginary part of χ0 in Eq.20) in two terms. ω ) = −2 d(εF ) 0 where f (x. (13. ω +iη) = −P kF 0 dp 2 p 2π 2 1 −1 dλ nF (ξp ) 1 1 2m (q 2 −2pqλ)+ω + 1 1 2m (q 2 +2pqλ)−ω .25) The integrand is now made dimensionless by measuring all momenta in units of kF and all frequencies and energies in units of εF . . x0 ) ≡ 1 − 1 f (x.

the λ-integral can be performed. To gain some physical insight into the nature of this renormalization. (1.83) we arrive at dp χ0 (q. τ )-representation. The imaginary part of χR (q. At the later time τ the process is reversed.34). and we now see the origin of the renormalization of the Coulomb interaction.119) the thermodynamic potential Ω ≡ U − T S − µN is given by . THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS Using δ(f [x]) = x0 δ(x − x0 )/|f [x0 ]|.2 The electron-hole pair interpretation of RPA We have learned above that the RPA results in a screened Coulomb interaction. and deﬁne Hλ ≡ H0 − µN + λW. 13. (2. In the remaining sections of the chapter we study how the eﬀective RPA interaction inﬂuences the ground state energy and the dielectric properties (in linear response) of the electron gas.29) for 0 < x0 < x − x2 0 2 x.3 The ground state energy of the electron gas We ﬁrst show how to express the ground state energy in terms of the single-particle Green’s functions G(k. but this corresponds to a polarization of the electron gas. For λ = 0 we have the non-interacting electron gas while for λ = 1 we retrieve the full Coulomb interacting electron gas. for other x0 ≥ 0. ikn ). and the electron falls back into the hole state. we study the pair-bubble diagram a little closer in the (q. ω ) = −d(εF ) (13. But using the equation of motion technique combined with an “integration over the coupling constant” method we obtain the result. 0.220 CHAPTER 13. which correspond to an electron jumping from the latter state to the former. A careful analysis of when the delta-function and the theta-functions are non-zero leads to π 1 − x0 − x 2 .31) where H0 is the kinetic energy and W the Coulomb interaction Eq. According to Eq. (2π)3 pσ σ Consequently we can interpret χ0 (q. ω ). τ > 0) = − c (τ ) c† 0 c† (13. for |x − x2 | < x0 < x + x2 8x x π x0 Im χR (q.5).30) pσ p+qσ (τ ) cp+qσ 0 . In the time interval from 0 to τ an electron-hole pair is thus present. The RPA scheme takes interaction processes into account thus changing the dielectric properties of the non-interacting electron gas. where momentum q and 0 energy ω is absorbed by the electron gas (see also the discussion in Sec. 13. where x0 are the zeros of f [x]. (13. (10. τ > 0) as the sum of all processes of the following type: at τ = 0 an electron is created in the state |pσ and a hole in the state |p + qσ . Choosing τ > 0 in Eq. Let λ be a real number 0 ≤ λ ≤ 1.2. describes the corresponding dissipative processes. 8. That this is at all possible is perhaps surprising due to the presence of the two-particle Coulomb interaction.

36) = δ(τ ) + kσ We now let τ = 0− = −η and note that the last term is nothing but the interaction part λW λ of the Hamiltonian. whence the ground state energy E of the system can be calculated as E = E 0 + lim 1 T →0 0 dλ λW λ λ. ikn ) − 1 eikn η = 2 λW ikn kσ λ. ikn ) eikn η = ikn kσ 1 βV eikn η + 2 λW ikn kσ λ. ikn ) eikn η and δ(−η) = β ikn eikn η . τ ) − 2 k kσq λ W (q) Tτ c† σ (τ ) ck +qσ (τ ) ck−qσ (τ ) c† λ . At T = 0 we have ∆E = ∆Ω. We therefore arrive at the following compact expression.32) (13. (13. β By diﬀerentiating with respect to λ we ﬁnd Ω(λ) = − ∂Ω 1 Tr −βW e−β(H0 −µN+λW) =− ∂λ β Tr e−β(H0 −µN+λW) = W λ.33) By integration over λ from 0 to 1 the change in Ω due to the interactions is found: 1 Ω(1) − Ω(0) = 0 dλ λW λ λ. (13.38) λ λ λ We now utilize that 1 = [Gσ ]−1 Gσ and furthermore that [Gσ ]−1 = ikn − εk − Σλ to obtain σ λW λ = 1 2βV λ Σλ (k. THE GROUND STATE ENERGY OF THE ELECTRON GAS 221 1 ln Tr e−β(H0 −µN+λW) . σ ikn kσ (13. (5. ikn ) eikn η .34) The subscript λ refers to averaging with respect to Hλ . τ ) using Eqs. (13.39) . ikn ) through the equation of motion λ for Gσ (k. using Fourier transforms we can at τ = −η write 1 1 λ λ Gσ (k. −η) = β ikn Gσ (k.31) and (10. ckσ ](τ ) c† kσ kσ λ λ ε Gσ (k. τ ) kσ = δ(τ ) + 1 V 1 V Tτ [Hλ . (13.37) Collecting the sums on the left-hand side yields 1 βV λ (ikn − εk )Gσ (k.13. Furthermore. ikn ) Gσ (k. 1 βV λ (ikn − εk ) Gσ (k.3. kσ k 2 (13. (13.35) λ The expectation value λW λ can be related to Gσ (k.61b) − ∂τ 1 V λ Gσ (k.

40) with Eqs. The techniques are similar to those employed in the calculation of the pair-bubble diagram in Sec. Combining Eq.222 CHAPTER 13. ikn ) Gσ (k.43) −→ 2. ikn ) ≈ σ λ Gσ (k.6b. second-order perturbation theory of Sec.2 we include in Eq.42) (13. Since the self-energy Σ contains diagrams from ﬁrst order and up. By employing the powerful quantum ﬁeld theoretic method.41) we obtain to (renormalized) second order: E − E 0 ≈ lim 1 T →0 0 dλ λ 1 = 0 dλ λ Note the similarity between the three diagrams in this expression for E − E 0 and the ones depicted in Fig.40) This expression allows for an diagrammatic calculation with the additional Feynman rule 1 that limT →0 0 dλ must be performed at the end of the calculation.41) (13. (13. through RPA. To improve the high-density. we do not have to expand the Green’s function G beyond ﬁrst order: Σλ (k. 2. 2. Ry.8b. ikn ) eikn η .35) we ﬁnally arrive at the expression for the ground state energy E = E 0 + lim 1 T →0 2βV 1 ikn kσ 0 dλ λ λ Σ (k. (13.42) and (13.43) of E/N in terms of the dimensionless distance parameter rs . THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS and when this is inserted in Eq.44) This expression ends the discussion of the ground state energy of the interacting electron gas in the jellium model. (13. 2. Fig. λ σ (13.1.211 0.41) needs to be renormalized.40) all diagrams up to second order and. 13. because it relates the ground state energy of the interacting system to the single-particle Green’s function and the related self-energy. the most divergent diagram of each of the higher orders. (2. Since the Thomas-Fermi wavenumber ks replaced α as a cut-oﬀ. (13. The RPA renormalization of the interaction line in the second diagram in Eq.<=> ?@ A BC D E F G + + + + + + + 2 + + .094 − 2 rs rs (13. (13.43) renders the diagram ﬁnite.2.2) that this diagram must be proportional to log ks and hence to log rs . .916 + 0. it is a λ remarkable result. ikn ) ≈ Note that only the second diagram in Eq. We will not go through the calculation of these diagrams. This is because only this diagram is divergent without renormalization. (13. (13.8a. E N rs →0 .0622 log rs − 0. and Fig. We are now in a position to continue the expansion Eq. we know from Eq. Moreover. 2. (13.

see Eqs.49) Here the subscript ’eq’ refers to averaging in equilibrium.4 we study the linear response of the interacting system due to the perturbation H caused by φext . ω ) φext (q.4 The dielectric function and screening Already from Eq.50) .4. ω ) creates an induced charge density −eρind (q. ω ) = 1 W (q) [−e ρind (q.e. R χR (q. Through the Coulomb interaction this in turn corresponds to an induced potential φind (r.75) and (8. we will also be able to study other aspects of the interacting electron gas. −q.4. ω). (13. ω ) = φext (q. In the following we focus on the dielectric properties of the system. −qt ) = −iθ(t − t ) 1 V ρ(qt). THE DIELECTRIC FUNCTION AND SCREENING 223 in casu resummation of the Feynman diagram series for the single-electron self-energy and Green’s function. 6.76). t) 4π 0 |r − r | ⇒ φind (q. (13.46) e2 We divide with e2 since W (q) by deﬁnition contains this factor. i. ω)] = (−e)2 Cρρ (q. Using Eq. (8. t). the charge density. Next step is to use the Kubo formula. ω ) can be written in terms of the polarization function χR . this is in fact the case. ω )]. (13. we write all expressions in Fourier (q. ω) φext (q. The external potential φext (q. ω )-space. ω ) + φind (q. as in Sec. which relates [−e ρind (r. One suspects that also external potentials φext will be screened similarly. ω)] with the external potential and with the retarded density-density correlator R [−e ρind (q.45) where ρ(r) is the particle density and not.48) the total potential φtot (q. 13. t − t ) ≡ Cρρ (qt. ω ). ω ) = W (q) χR (q. ω ) φext (q. ω) ≡ e2 χR (q. ω ) is the Fourier transform of the retarded Kubo density-density correlation function χR (q. as we shall see below. H = dr [−e ρ(r)] φext (r.13. with respect to H = H0 + W omitting H . (13. ω ). and indeed. t) = dr −eρind (r .48) where χR (q. (13. ρ(−qt ) eq .15) it is clear that the internal dynamics of the interacting electron gas lead to a screening of the pure Coulomb interaction. t − t ). 6. Having achieved this solution. Since the unperturbed system even with its Coulomb interacting electrons is translation-invariant. we could ﬁnally solve the problem posed by the failed second order perturbation theory. ω ) = 1 + W (q) χR (q.47) Collecting our partial results we have φind (q. (13. ω ). φtot (q. ω) φext (q. (13. As in Sec. (13.

iqn ) = χ(˜). τ ) ρ(−q.30) and the speciﬁc calculation in Sec. THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS When recalling that φtot corresponds to the electric ﬁeld E.6). ε(q. (1. we see that the following expression for the dielectric function or electrical permittivity ε has been derived: 1 = 1 + W (q) χR (q.55) Here. ω ). eq (13.7 we can obtain χR (q. But according to Eq. ω ) = χ(q. (10. (13. (13.54) Hence χ(q. as in Eq. It is now possible to apply the Feynman rules Eq. The disconnected part is zero since the expectation of the charge density in the neutralized and homogeneous jellium model is zero. iqn ) is the Fourier transform in imaginary time of χ(q. 0) V τ eq . This rule was a direct consequence of the deﬁnition of G(k.224 CHAPTER 13. τ ). τ ) = − 1 T ρ(q. (10. τ ) = − 1 T V τ c† (τ )cp+qσ (τ ) c† k+qσ ckσ pσ pσ kσ eq ρq=0 eq = 1 − ρq=0 V eq + pσ kσ Tτ cp+qσ (τ )ckσ c† (τ + η)c† k+qσ (η) pσ connected . where it for the single-particle Green’s function is stated that the diagrams must contain two Green’s functions with the external momentum k. and φext to the displacement ﬁeld D = 0 εE. and the other part where they mix. τ ) = − Tτ ckσ (τ ) c† ⇒ ··· (13. We only have to pay special q attention to rule (4).52) where χ(q.81): χ(q. iqn → ω + iη). τ ) is seen to be a two-particle Green’s function of the form χ(q. iqn )-space of χ(q. ω ) (13. The second term has a structure similar to the simple pair-bubble diagram with an external momentum q ﬂowing through it. and we have divided the contributions to χ into two parts. τ ) given by Eq.56) kσ H I . η = 0+ has been inserted to ensure correct ordering. (13. 10.96) we can read oﬀ the Fourier transform ρ(±q): ρ(q) = pσ c† cp+qσ .24) directly and to write the diagrammatic expansion in (q.51) So upon calculating χR (q. ˜ ˜ k k G(k. (12. pσ ρ(−q) = kσ c† k+qσ ckσ . ω ). From Eq. ω ) we can determine ε(q. One part where the two density operators are disconnected from one another.53) We will calculate the latter Green’s function using the Feynman diagram technique. ω ) by analytic continuation of the corresponding Matsubara Green’s function χR (q. (12.

. We must then have that χ(˜) is the sum of all possible diagrams that connect ˜ q the two ρ-vertices and that involve any number of Coulomb interaction lines.4. (13. THE DIELECTRIC FUNCTION AND SCREENING 225 Likewise for χ(q. 12..57) ˜ ˜ k+ q The initial (right) vertex absorbs an external four-momentum q while the ﬁnal (left) vertex ˜ reemits q . we deﬁne the irreducible diagrams in the χ-sum as the ones that cannot be cut into two pieces by cutting any single interaction line : U = ≡ L M N O P Q R ST ˜ k ˜ k ˜ ˜ k+ q p ˜ + p−k ˜ ˜ ˜ k + p+q ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ k+ q + + the sum of all irreducible diagrams in −χ(˜) q + + + + p ˜ ˜ k (13.4... One straightforwardly gets the following vertices corresponding to ρ(q) and ρ(−q): χ(q. τ ). −χirr (˜) ≡ q p+q ˜ ˜ VWXYZ [ ˜ ˜ k+ q + .58) + . p ˜ −χ(˜) ≡ q p+q ˜ ˜ ≡ ˜ ˜ k+ q + + In analogy with the self-energy diagrams in Sec. except this is a two-particle Green’s function with two operators at each of the external vertices instead of just one. τ ) ∼ Tτ c† pσ (τ )cp+qσ (τ ) ckσ c† k+qσ ⇒ p+q ˜ ˜ J K p ˜ . + ˜ k (13..59) ..13.

iqn ) = 1 − e2 irr χ (q. + = −χ(˜) = q = = 1− −χirr (˜) q 1 − W (˜) χirr (˜) q q ε(q..61) 1 χirr (q. iqn ).60) (13. iqn ). q q −χ(˜) = q = = = with the solution With this result for χ(q.226 CHAPTER 13. iqn ) is approximated by χRPA (q.. iqn ) = 1 − W (q) χirr (q. iqn ) we can determine the dielectric function. 1 − W (˜) χ0 (q.64) = = (13. q q q q (13... −χirr (˜) − χirr (˜) W (˜) χ(˜) . iqn ) . iqn ) = This results in the RPA dielectric function εRPA (q. THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS Hence we can resum χ(˜) in terms of χirr (˜) and obtain a Dyson equation for it. \ ]^_ `abc de g f h + + + × + + . 2 0q + .63) Note it is e2 and not e2 that appears in the last expression. iqn ) q −χRPA (q.65) 1− . iq ) ε(q. iqn ) = and the full correlation function χ(q. In RPA χirr (q. iqn ) i l k m −→ RPA −χirr A (q. iqn ) is approx0 imated by the simple pair-bubble −χirr (q. iqn ) 1 − W (q) χ 1 − W (q) χirr (q. iqn ) 1 = 1 + W (q) = . (13.62) (13. −χ0 (q. irr (q. iqn ) = RP j = −χ0 (q. iqn ) n or more directly (13. iqn ).

.30) represented by the screened electron-impurity line uRPA . ω ) by Eqs. ω ) ≈ 0 1 2π 2 dp p2 δ(εp − εF ) 1 dλ −1 vp qλ . dp = (2π)3 ∞ 0 dp 2 p 4π 2 1 dλ. iqn ) = 1 − W (q) χ0 (q. (11. φRPA (q.5 Plasma oscillations and Landau damping We now leave the static case and turn on an external potential with frequency ω .68) + .. (13. The other is the external impurity potential Eqs. kB T εF . (13. −W RPA (q. To proceed we adopt the following 0 notation λ ≡ cos θ.71) Utilizing this in Eq. iqn ) = tot 1 εRPA (q. q kF (or x 1). (13.. but to draw some clear-cut physical conclusions. and furthermore we introduce a small dimensionless variable z: δ(εp − εF ) = δ(p − kF ) . we conﬁne the discussion to the case of high frequencies. vF p → kF . (13.29).66) The entire analysis presented in this section leads to the conclusion that the external potentials treated in linear response theory are renormalized (or screened) in the exact same way as the internal Coulomb interactions of the previous section. One is the internal electron-electron interaction potential represented by the screened Coulomb interaction line W RPA . iqn ) = uRPA (q) = nopq rstu = + + = + + x0 ). (13. iqn ) 1− e2 2 0q χ0 (q.21) we obtain Re χR (q. PLASMA OSCILLATIONS AND LANDAU DAMPING 227 εRPA (q. −1 ξp+q − ξp ≈ vp qλ.67) This conclusion can be summarized in the following two diagrammatic expansions. (13.70) In this regime we see from Eq.73) .13.29) that Im χR = 0. vp → vF . iqn ) φext (q. iqn ) = φext (q.69) 13. (13.5.20) and Taylor expanding nF as in Eq. ω ). long wave lengths and low temperatures. iqn ) = 1 − e2 χ (q.. z≡ qvF λ ω 1.27a) 0 and (13. We could choose to study the full case described through χR (q. ω − vp qλ (13. The goal of this section is to investigate the frequency dependence of the dielectric function ε(q.25) and (11. (13. all deﬁned by the conditions vF q ω (or x (13. 2 0 0q (13. + .72) We rewrite the delta-function in energy-space to one in k-space. (13. iqn ) . iqn ).

g. The variable λ is substituted by z.5. Solid State Physics. Consider the relation D = ε 0 E or the related one.75) ω 5 ω where the characteristic frequency ωp .74) we ﬁnd the RPA dielectric function in the high-frequency and long-wavelength limit to be 2 ωp 3 qvF 2 εRPA (q.W. It is determined by the electron density n and the eﬀective band-mass m of Eq.115 m0 . well known as the electronic plasma frequency. ne2 . Combining Eqs.27 × 1016 Hz = 15. Let us calculate its properties in RPA from Eq.66) and (13. The former parameter can be found by Hall eﬀect measurements. Philos. Typical values are ω ≈ 1016 Hz. A very direct manifestation of the plasmon frequency is the existence of the collective charge density oscillations.81 × 1029 m−2 and m = 1. Note that ε(q. (13. ω ) = ε(q. Ashcroft. ω ) = 0 in fact allows for a situation where the total potential varies in space and time in the absence of any external potential driving these variations. THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS This in inserted in Eq.75). We are thus about to identify an oscillatory eigenmode for the electron gas. (13. Using the observed parameters for aluminum. 10 ωp (13. (13. (13. (2.0 eV. has been introduced. Re χR (q. The Fermi surface can be mapped out using this technique as described in Ashcroft and Mermin. ω ).72). the existence of these oscillations is proved as follows. . (13. (13. ω ) = 1 − 2 1 + .74) 3 where in the last line we used vF = kF /m and 3π 2 n = kF . and above which they become transparent. Theoretically. e. ω ) φtot (q. ω ) ≈ 0 ≈ = 1 2 1 ω k 2π 2 F vF qvF 2 1 kF ω 2 2π 2 qvF n q2 qvF /ω −qvF /ω dz z 1−z +qvF /ω −qvF /ω 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 z + z + z + z 2 3 4 5 3 qvF 5 ω 2 m ω2 1+ .77) The de Haas-van Alphen eﬀect is oscillations in the magnetization of a system as the function of an applied external magnetic ﬁeld. and the smallness of this new variable permits the Taylor expansion z/(1 − z) ≈ z + z 2 + z 3 + z 4 . εRPA (q. putting it in the ultra-violet part of the electromagnetic spectrum.16).76) ωp ≡ m 0 13.228 CHAPTER 13. it marks the limit below which metals reﬂects incoming electromagnetic radiation. 8.1 Plasma oscillations and plasmons The plasma frequency is an important parameter of the interacting electron gas setting the energy scale for several processes. φext (q. Mag. chapter 14. we obtain ωp = 2. For the determination of the electron band mass m in aluminum see N. while the latter can be determined from de Haas-van Alphen eﬀect2 . the plasma oscillations. 2055 (1963) regarding aluminum. Al n = 1. ω ) = 0 2 ⇒ 2 ω 2 ≈ ωp + 3 (qvF )2 5 ⇒ ω (q) ≈ ωp + 2 3 vF 2 q .

1: (a) Observation of plasmons in high-energy electron transmission spectroscopy on a 258 nm wide aluminum foil. The result of the measurement is shown in Fig. 13. They have a simple quadratic dispersion relation ω (q) starting out from ωp for q = 0 and then going up as q is increased. 13. The energy loss clearly happens in quanta of size ∆E. Recall that in the high frequency regime Im χR and consequently Im ε is zero. The energy quantum ∆E was found to be 14. the plasma oscillations.8 eV in very good agreement with the value of the plasma frequency of 15.8 eV in good agreement with the plasma frequency determined by other methods to be 15.5. so no 0 damping occurs.0 eV for bulk aluminum. 182 (1962). and the ﬁnal energy Ef is measured at zero scattering angle on the other side of the foil. In the experiment high energy electrons with an initial energy Ei = 20 keV are shot through a 258 nm wide aluminum foil. Ef . they must be quantized leading to oscillator quanta. PLASMA OSCILLATIONS AND LANDAU DAMPING 229 Figure 13. The initial energy is Ei = 20 keV. (b) A sketch of a typical microscopic process. then. 50 234 234 234 @8 5 7 16 0 9 0 234 10 ¢ ) ¦¦¦¨¦¨¦¤ © § ¥ %% $$ #¤ ¥" ¥" ! &'( ¡¢ £ . The energy loss Ei − Ef clearly reveals loss in quanta of ∆E. 126.1. and the energy loss Ei − Ef can be plotted. The value of the energy loss quantum was measured to be ∆E = 14. Thus by Eq. is measured on the other side of the foil. here with the emission of three plasmon during the traversal. as is the case with any harmonic oscillator. But how could one be convinced of the existence of these oscillations? One beautiful and very direct veriﬁcation is the experiment discussed in Fig.0 eV. If some eigenmodes exist with a frequency ∼ ωp .1(b). but instead a traversal during which two plasmons are excited.13. Some electrons traverse the foil without exciting any plasmons (the ﬁrst peak). with a characteristic energy of ωp . denoted plasmons. Note that the most probable process is not the plasmon-free traversal. On the plot electrons exciting as many as seven plasmons are clearly seen. Rev.1(a). (13. by Marton et al. Phys.77) it is indeed possible to ﬁnd oscillatory eigenmodes. The ﬁnal energy. others excite one or more as sketched in Fig. 13.

(13. (13. signaling 0 a temporal decay of the total potential with a decay time proportional to Im χR . ω ) 2 R χ0 (q. The darker a shade the higher the value. THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS Figure 13.2.29). ω )-plane of non-vanishing Im χR . ω + iη) 0 In the case of a vanishing imaginary part Im χ0 we ﬁnd a pole on the real axis: φRPA. (13. ω ) = tot φext (q. ω ) = 0 only in the gray scaled area. The pure plasma oscillations discussed above are examples of undamped 0 or long-lived excitations.79) Im χR (q.2: A gray scale plot of Im χR (q. Note that ImχR (q. (13. The physical origin of the non-zero imag0 inary part is the ability for the electron gas to absorb incoming energy by generating § ¨ & 2 2 "# ! # D $3 E # ! D $3 3 3 "C ! " % "% 1 3 B A @ B 978© 7& 5 6 % # & % $ 1 3 & 12 1 # 0 V WU T S PQ IG F R H 4 ¡ 4 . εF = 11. ω ) RPA.R (q. and this region is shown in Fig. ω ) 1− e2 2 0q Re χR (q.67) φext (q.7 eV and ωp = 15. ImχR = 0 we end up with a usual Lorentzian peak as a function of ω. The parameters chosen for this branch are those of aluminum. which is bounded by the constraint functions 0 given in Eq.2 Landau damping Finally. ω ) 0 . 0 The variables are rescaled according to Eq. (13. (13. ω ) = tot e2 2 0q 1− Re φext (q. ω ) + i eq2 0 In Eq.26): x = q/2kF and x0 = ω /4εF . however.R (q. (13.80) §¦¥ )' '¤ £¢ ' ' ¡ ("# % ! # & % $ §¦¥ ©¨ £¢ . ω ). 0 φRPA. This can be elucidated by going to the retarded functions in Eq. ω ) + iη 0 If.78) e2 1 − q2 χ0 (q. ω ) = . 13.29) we have within RPA calculated the region the (q. 13.230 CHAPTER 13. which is described by the imaginary part Im χR (q. we discuss the damping of excitations.0 eV.5. ω ).R φtot (q. Also shown is the plasmon branch with its propagating and damped parts.

(13. In other words for high q-values the plasmonic excitations are not exact eigenmodes of the system. iqn ) = = + + v wx y z { |}~ × + + + + .81) 0 ω whereby it is explicitly conﬁrmed that a non-vanishing ImχR is associated with the ability 0 of the system to dissipate energy. ikn ) = σ This result was used to calculate the ground state energy of the electron gas E −E 0 = N + + = We also used the RPA analysis to study the dielectric properties of the electron gas. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 231 electron-hole pairs. However.916 + 0.211 0. ω )-space. . at some point the dispersion curve crosses into the dissipative Im χ0 = 0 area.2 is shown the dispersion relation for the plasmon excitation. and there the plasmon acquires a ﬁnite life time. Another way to understand the eﬀect of a non-vanishing Im χR is to link it to the 0 conductivity σ of the electron gas. Finally we remark that in Fig. energy and momentum constraints prohibit the excitation of electron-hole pairs. Hence the plasmons have inﬁnite life times for small q.47) it follows that 1 e2 Im χR = − q· Re σ ·q. when a current J is ﬂowing.6. In particular we found the self-energy ΣRPA (k. (6.13. 13.094 − 2 rs rs uRPA (q) = = Ry. and the electron gas cannot absorb energy by that mechanism. 13. But from Eq. ω )-space where the RPA dissipation is 0. It is well-known that the real part of σ is associated with dissipation (Joule heating). In the literature this damping mechanism is denoted Landau damping.0622 log rs − 0. = 2.6 Summary and outlook In this chapter we have used the Feynman rules for pair-wise interacting particles to analyze the Coulomb-interacting electron gas in the jellium model. and they are damped out as a function of time. The main result was the RPA resummation of diagrams to all orders in perturbation theory valid in the high density limit. One main result was ﬁnding the screening of the Coulomb interaction both for the internal interaction and for external potentials. It starts out as a bona ﬁde excitation in the region of the (q. . here expressed by their Dyson’s equations −W RPA (q. . Outside the appropriate area in (q.

232 CHAPTER 13. long-wave limit and (ii) the high frequency. we studied the plasma oscillations of the electron gas found from the condition εRPA (q. and of many other physical phenomena involving the electron gas. m 0 The RPA analysis has already given us a good insight in some central physical properties of the electron gas. ω 5 ω Finally. ω ) was found in two cases. . Moreover. electron-phonon interaction. ω 2 ks 4 kF 2 . 10 ωp where ωp ≡ ne2 . and found the dispersion relation involving the plasma frequency ωp . where ks = q2 π a0 2 ωp 3 qvF 2 qvF ) = 1 − 2 1 + . ω (q) = ωp + 2 3 vF 2 q . 0) = 1 + εRPA (q. (i) the static. ω ) = 0. εRPA (q. it plays a crucial role in the studies of electron-impurity scattering. long-wave limit. superconductivity. THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS Explicit expressions for the dielectric function ε(q.

The quasiparticle concept furthermore gives the theoretical foundation of the semiclassical description. AddisonWesley (1961. The Fermi liquid theory is conceptually extremely important. This equation is known as the Landau transport equation.1 Adiabatic continuity The Fermi liquid theory is based on the assumption that starting from the non-interacting system of particles one can analyze the interacting case by applying perturbation theory. 14. furthermore. These quasiparticles are approximate excitations of the system at suﬃciently short time scales. What we mean by “suﬃciently short” of course has to be quantiﬁed. 15. Using the Landau transport equation we shall see that the collective modes derived in the previous chapter also come out naturally from a semi-classical description and. and it gives the theoretical explanation of why all the results that one gets from the widely used free electron model work so well.Chapter 14 Fermi liquid theory The concept of Fermi liquid theory was developed by Landau in 1957-59 and later reﬁned by others1 . The basic conclusion is that a gas of interacting particles can be described by a system of almost non-interacting “quasiparticles”. The quasiparticle distribution function satisﬁes a kinetic equation. This is in fact a rather stringent criterion. and it is equivalent to the well-known Boltzmann equation from kinetic gas theory. the conductivity. and this condition will set the limits for the applicability of the theory. because it explains why the apparently immensely complicated system of for example interacting electrons in a metal can be regarded as a gas of non-interacting particles. which may include scattering from one state to another for example due to impurity scattering. 233 .1997). In this description the potential is allowed to vary in space due to some external perturbation or due to interactions with the inhomogeneous density of quasiparticles. also is easily understood in terms of scattering of quasiparticles. This is of course an enormous simpliﬁcation. Pines The Many-body problem. which is calculated from microscopic considerations in Chap. because it means that one cannot cross a phase 1 See for example the collection of reprints in the book: D.

so slowly that the occupation numbers are not changed. t) ∂V0 (t) ∂V0 (t) ∂t = Hψadia (x. (14. FERMI LIQUID THEORY boundary line. The accuracy of the solution in Eq. with o energy EV0 (t) H(t)ψV0 (t) (x) = EV0 (t) ψV0 (t) (x). If this change is slow the solution of the Schr¨dinger equation o i∂t ψ(x. As a simple example of adiabatic continuity we now consider a particle trapped in a one-dimensional potential.3) into Eq. which yields i∂t ψadia (x. t) + ∂ψadia (x.3) is estimated by inserting Eq. 4. The phase with broken symmetry can only occur if the ensemble of states in the statistical average is truncated.4) Note that both ψV0 (t) (x) and EV0 (t) depend parametrically on the time through V0 (t). (14. Thus apparently our conclusion is that if the rate of change of V0 (t) is small enough the solution for the new value of V0 = V02 can be found be by starting from the solution 2 This fact you can understand from the concept of broken symmetry explained in Sec. (14. i. such as for example the ferromagnetic transition discussed in Chap. t). What we really are claiming is that the excited states of the interacting system can be labelled by the same quantum numbers as those we used to label the non-interacting system by. (14.5) Thus we have an approximate solution if the ﬁrst term dominates over the second term. cannot be reached by perturbation theory starting from the paramagnetic phase. This is because a phase transition. t) ψ(x. t) = −V0 (t) exp −x2 /2x2 . t) ≈ ψV0 (t) (x) exp −iEV0 (t) t . The one-dimensional potential will have a number of bound states with discrete eigenenergies and a continuum of eigenenergies corresponding to the delocalized states. (14.3.2 If the excitations of the non-interacting system are connected to the excitations of the interacting system by a one-to-one correspondence (at least on short time scales as explained below) the two cases are said to be connected by “adiabatic continuity”.2) where ψV0 (t) (x) is the solution of the static (or instantaneous) Schr¨dinger equation. . If you imagine that we start from the non-interacting system excited in some state and then turn on the interaction adiabatically.1) 0 where the depth of the well is time dependent. We now imagine changing the potential slowly. (14. t) = can be approximated by the adiabatic solution ψadia (x. then we would end up in a corresponding excited state of the interacting system.3) p2 + V (x.e. 2m (14. (14. and let us suppose that it is changing from an initial value V01 to a ﬁnal value V02 . t). As an example consider a potential of the form V (x. t) = EV0 (t) ψadia (x. t) = H(t)ψ(x. 4.2).234 CHAPTER 14.

then the matrix elements are identical to those of the non-interacting case. When calculating physical quantities. It is used to bring the excitations of the interacting case back to the well-known excitations of the non-interacting case. The ﬁrst term inserts a particle while the second term creates both a particle and hole. but most importantly it is still the ﬁrst excited state and it is still a bound state. 0)Uζ (t. (kσ )h .14. it will change to a somewhat modiﬁed state with a somewhat modiﬁed energy. etc) all the way back to the non-interacting case. 14. In the following this idea is applied to the case of interacting particles.1. (14. that if we avoid these transitions between diﬀerent kinds of states. (5.7) then according to Eq. because one is a decaying function and one is an oscillatory function. (k σ )h = c† ck σ |G . This may sound completely trivial. but it is not. In doing so we gain the fundamental understanding that the interacting and the non-interacting cases have a lot in common at least under some restricting circumstances. The two states can simply not be connected through small changes of V0 . under the conditions of adiabaticity.1. let us consider states with single particles or single electron-hole pairs added to the groundstate |(kσ)p = c† |G . For example if the real solution during this change of V0 from V01 to V02 changes from a bound state to an un-bound state (if V02 is small enough there is only one bound state). and it is not always true. then it does not matter how slowly we change V0 . we can bring the states (|(kσ)p . (14.9) . adiabatic continuity does work. For example † (k σ )p |(kσ)p = (k σ )p |Uζ (t. thus making computation possible.6) where |G is the groundstate of the interacting system. but rather to give a physical intuition for the reason why the quasiparticle picture is valid.8) If. 0)|(kσ)p t→∞ −→ (k σ )p |(kσ)p 0 . The following arguments are meant to be the full theoretical explanation for the applicability of Fermi liquid theory. t > 0. Since we are dealing with the low energy properties of the system. If we now imagine letting time evolve according to a Hamiltonian where the interaction is gradually switched oﬀ at a rate ζ Hζ = H0 + Hint e−ζt . kσ |(kσ)p . This turns out to be realized in many systems. ADIABATIC CONTINUITY 235 with the old value of V0 = V01 and “adiabatically” changing it to its new value. for example between states with added particles or added particle-hole pairs. This is an example where perturbation theory to any order would never give the right answer. (14. however.18) the time evolution with the time dependent Hamiltonian is |kσ (t) = e−iH0 t Tt exp −i t 0 dt Hζ (t ) |kσ ≡ Uζ (t. such as response functions or occupation numbers we are facing matrix elements between diﬀerent states. For example if the ﬁrst excited state is a bound state. kσ etc. The important message is.1 The quasiparticle concept and conserved quantities The principle of adiabatic continuity is now utilized to study a system of interacting particles. (14. 0)|kσ . |(kσ)p .

this is equivalent to assuming kB T ζ. FERMI LIQUID THEORY There are two important assumptions built into this construction: 1. τlife ∝ T 2 . Most importantly. the adiabatic continuity principle can also be used to calculate the distribution function. and therefore the distribution function c† σ ckσ = (k σ )p |(kσ)p −→ (k σ )p |(kσ)p 0 is a k Fermi-Dirac distribution function. εkσ ζ. (2) it carries current −e k/m. Here −e and m are charge and mass of the electrons. or in other words the life-time τlife of the state is long compared to ζ −1 . Thus there is always a temperature range at low temperature where Eq.10) is fulﬁlled. (14.10) The last condition can in principle always be met at high enough temperatures. (2) the total current Je = −e kσ vk nkσ . Below we shall see that it is indeed possible to make the approximations consistent. 0)|kσ has a number of properties in common with the initial state |(kσ)p .236 CHAPTER 14. 2. that is τlife ζ −1 . and (3) the total spin S = kσ σnkσ all commute with the Hamiltonian. respectively.e. or. These properties are all conserved quantities because the corresponding operators (1) the total charge Q = −eN . Next we discuss the properties of the state with an added particle. and (3) it has excess spin σ. It is clear that the state where the interaction is switched oﬀ Uζ (∞. namely those that are conserved by the Hamiltonian: (1) it has an excess charge e (compared to the groundstate). The interactions do not induce transitions of the states in question. (14. This apparently leaves an energy window where the idea makes sense. namely when we can choose a switch-oﬀ rate ζ such that −1 τlife ζ kB T. i. This leads us to the deﬁnition of quasiparticles: . since typical excitation energies are of order of the temperature. The adiabatic procedure is valid when the energy of the state is large compared to the rate of change. |(kσ)p . because the life-time turns out to be inversely proportional −1 to the square of the temperature. whereas the ﬁrst one is not necessarily possible.

In the following we make use of the quasiparticle concept to calculate the screening and the transport properties of an electron gas. if the local potential of the quasiparticles is space and time dependent so is then the density of quasiparticles.3 Now. (k σ )h ). Clearly. The induced potential is caused by the excess or deﬁcit of quasiparticles. We can include the external potential as a local change of the potential felt by the charged quasiparticles. 14. the quasiparticles quantum numbers are thus k and σ and they carry charge −e and velocity vk = k/m. provided that the corresponding operators commute with the Hamiltonian. which in turn depends on the total potential. 3 . t) = φext (r. For a translation-invariant system of electrons interacting through the Coulomb interaction. because otherwise we could not talk about a local potential. Here we shall rederive some of this using a less rigorous but maybe physically more appealing approach. Finally the quasiparticles are in equilibrium distributed according to the Fermi-Dirac distribution function. must be determined self-consistently. This in turn changes the electrical potential because the quasiparticles are charged and therefore the total potential φtot is given by the sum of the external potential φext and the induced potential φind . 12 we saw how the collective modes of a charged Fermi gas came out of a rigorous diagrammatical analysis.11) The induced potential φind created by the induced density ρind . t). t). SEMI-CLASSICAL TREATMENT OF SCREENING AND PLASMONS 237 Quasiparticles are the excitations of the interacting system corresponding to the creation or annihilation of particles (for example particle-hole pair state |(kσ)p .14.2 Semi-classical treatment of screening and plasmons In Chap. because they will of course tend to move towards the low potential regions. Thus we write the resulting local potential φtot (r. t) as φtot (r. this only makes sense on length scales larger than a typical thermalization length. The quasiparticle are thus not to be thought of as the exact eigenstates. The quasiparticles can be labelled by the same quantum numbers as the non-interacting case. The thermalization length is the length scale on which thermal equilibrium is established.2. The quasiparticle concept only makes sense on time scales shorter than the quasiparticle life time. At low temperatures there are only a few quasiparticles. (14. t) + φind (r. Consider a uniform electron gas which is subject to an external potential φext (r. and they therefore constitute a dilute gas. Note that we are here invoking a new concept namely local equilibrium.

2.16) The dynamics are controlled by two things: the conservation of charge and the change of momentum with time. so that nk = nk(t) (r. (14.5. This depends on both r and t. The way to describe this is to look at the deviation of the distribution function nk of a quasiparticle with a given momentum p = k (below we as usual use = 1). (14.11) yields φtot (r) = φext (r. (13. From this we get the induced potential in real space and in q-space as φind (r) = 1 −e dr W (r−r )ρind (r) ⇔ φind (q) = 1 W (q)ρind (q) = −W (q)φtot (q)d(εF ). (14.13) φext (q) . Because we are interested in times shorter than the life time of the quasiparticles.238 CHAPTER 14. the number of quasiparticles in each state is conserved. FERMI LIQUID THEORY 14. t) − W (q)d(εF )φtot (q) and hence ε(q) = 1 + W (q) d(εF ).17) . 1 + W (q)d(εF ) which when inserted into (14. The ﬁrst dependence arises from the ﬂow of the distribution function.1 Static screening First we consider linear static screening.2 Dynamical screening In the dynamical case.66 ) and (13. −e (14.15) in full agreement with the conclusions of the RPA results Eqs. 0 ⇒ φtot (q) = (14. t).12) where ξk is quasiparticle energy measured relative to the equilibrium chemical potential and d(εF ) is the density of states at the Fermi level. To linear order in the local total potential and at low temperatures the induced charge density is given by ρind (r) = 2 V nF ξk + (−e)φtot (r) − nF ξk k ≈ −(−e)φtot (r) 2 V − k ∂nF (ξk ) ∂ξk ≈ −(−e)φtot (r)d(εF ). Consequently. (14.14) 14. 13.2. The conservation of particles in state k is expressed in the continuity equation nk + ˙ r · jk = 0.67) using χR = −d(εF ) from Eq. In order to treat this case we need to reﬁne the analysis a bit to allow for the time it takes the charge to adjust to the varying external potential.21). the induced charge density at point r at time t now depends on the total potential at some other point r and at some other (previous) time t . (13. we expect to ﬁnd collective excitations similar to the plasmons found in Sec.

4 Here r and t are independent space and time variables in contrast to the sometimes used ﬂuid dynamical formulation where r = r(t) follows the particle motion.24) which agrees with Eq. .5. Using Eq. (14. From this expression we easily get the induced density by summation over k ρind (q.11) and we obtain the dielectric function ε = φext /φtot in the dynamical case ε(q) = 1 − W (q) 2 V q· k ξk ω − q · vk − ∂nF (ξk ) ∂ξk . (14. We have thus shown that in the long wavelength limit the semi-classical treatment. 13. (14.15). (13.14. SEMI-CLASSICAL TREATMENT OF SCREENING AND PLASMONS 239 where the current carried of quasiparticles in state k is given by jk = vk nk = ( k/m)nk . ω) = q· k ξk ω − q · vk − ∂nF (ξk ) ∂ξk (−eφtot (q.20) To linear order in the potential φtot we can replace the nk on the righthand side by the equilibrium distribution n0 = nF (ξk ) and hence we ﬁnd k nk (q. (14. i. ω) = ie (q· k ξk ) − (14.23) k At ω = 0 we recover the static case in Eq.19) we ﬁnd (−iω + iq · vk )nk (q. based on renormalization by summation of the most important diagrams. because k ξk = vk . (14. We have also gained some physical understanding of this renormalization.e. (14. because we saw explicitly how it was due to the screening of the external potential by the mobile quasiparticles.22) k where the factor 2 comes from to spin degeneracy. and hence we get ˙ ∂t (nk ) + k · k nk + vk · r nk = 0. (14. (14. ω). which relies on the Fermi liquid theory.18) which is known as the collision-free Boltzmann equation4 .21) ∂nk ∂ξk φtot (q. ω)). ω) = 2 V q· k ξk ω − q · vk − ∂nF (ξk ) ∂ξk (−eφtot (q. gives the same result as the fully microscopic theory. we ﬁnd by expanding in powers of q that ε(q) ≈ 1 − W (q) 2 ω2 V (q · vk )2 − ∂nF (ξk ) ∂ξk =1− ωp ω 2 .2. ω) = −ie (q · k nk ) φtot (q. ω).19) Again it is convenient to use Fourier space and introducing the Fourier transform nk (q. The second dependence follows from how a negatively charged particle is accelerated in a ﬁeld. This is inserted into Eqs. simply from Newton’s law p = −(−e) ˙ r φtot (r.75) in Sec. Note that q drops out because W (q) ∝ q −2 . (14. At long wavelengths or large frequencies qv ω.13) and (14. ω)). t).

Microscopically the momentum relaxation corresponds to scattering of quasiparticles from one state |kσ with momentum k to another state |k σ with momentum k . (14.28) . (14. The rate of change is given by the rate. FERMI LIQUID THEORY 14.240 CHAPTER 14.kσ 2π = 2 V dr e j −ik ·r u(r − Rj )e +ik·r δ(ξk − ξk ). namely by assuming that the charge carriers form a classical gas. 15 we will furthermore see how the very same result can be derived in a microscopic quantum theory starting from the Kubo formula and using a diagrammatic approach. We know now that they follow a Fermi-Dirac distribution. at which scattering from the state |kσ to some other state |k σ occurs.27) Vimp (r) = i We can then ﬁnd the rate Γ by the adiabatic procedure where the matrix element k σ|Vimp |kσ √ is identiﬁed with non-interacting counterpart k σ|Vimp |kσ 0 . The fact that the scattering on an external potential is an elastic scattering is reﬂected in the energy-conserving delta function.26) where Vimp is the impurity potential. but amazingly the result turns out to be the same. It can be found from Fermi’s golden rule Γ(k σ← kσ) = 2π k σ|Vimp |kσ 2 δ(ξk − ξk ). 11) u(r − Ri ) (14. In steady state these forces are in balance and hence −(−e)E+ mv τp−relax =0 ⇒ J = −env = e2 nτp−relax E m ⇒ σ= ne2 τp−relax .3 Semi-classical transport equation Our last application of the semi-classical approach is the calculation of conductivity of a uniform electron gas with some embedded impurities. The total impurity potential is a sum over single impurity potentials situated at positions Ri (see also Chap. In Sec. As explained in Chap. This will in fact lead us to the famous Drude formula.25) m where σ is the conductivity and τp−relax is the momentum relaxation time. the ﬁnite resistivity of metals at low temperatures is due to scattering against impurities or other imperfections in the crystal structure. the Drude formula was ﬁrst derived in an incorrect way.17) to take into account the processes that change the occupation number nk . The new scattering process thus introduced means that the number of quasiparticles in a given k-state is no longer conserved and we have to modify Eq. 10. (14. where |kσ 0 = eik·r / V. (14. Γ(k σ← kσ). These collisions take momentum out of the electron system. the spin is conserved and thus σ = σ . A simple minded approach to conductivity would be to say that the forces acting on a small volume of charge is the sum of the external force and a friction force that is taken to be proportional to the velocity of the ﬂuid at the given point. thus introducing a mechanism for momentum relaxation and hence resistivity. and we get 2 Γ(k σ← kσ) = Γk σ. For non-magnetic impurities. the ones considered here. Historically.

k (nk − nk ) . V (14. we have nimp ∂ nk =− Wk . where k is a unit vector k oriented along k.18). Let us furthermore concentrate on the long wave-length limit such that r nk ≈ 0.3. Because Wk.29) Now the change of nk due to collisions is included in the diﬀerential equation Eq. This .k = Wk . k (14.31) The ﬁrst term in the sum represents the rate for being scattered out of the state k and the second term represents the rate for being scattered into to state k from the state k . The total rate is obtained from the Fermi golden rule expression (14.34) Without the nk -term on the right hand side this equation is simple to solve. The average is done assuming only lowest order scattering. The time derivative of nk becomes nk(t) (r.k (nk − nk ) . (14.k . k (14.k .29) times the probability for the initial state to be ﬁlled and the ﬁnal state to be empty. (14. we obtain nimp ˆ −iωnk + eE · k δ(kF − k) = − V Wk . (14. SEMI-CLASSICAL TRANSPORT EQUATION 241 Of course we do not know the location of the impurities exactly and therefore we perform a positional average.30) where the change due to “ﬂow and force” is given by the left hand side in Eq. and therefore to linear order in E the ˙ ˙ term k nk multiplying k can be replaced by the equilibrium occupation.17) as an additional term. t) = ˙ d nk dt + ﬂow−force ∂ nk ∂t . (14. because the right hand side is then of the form τ −1 nk similar to −iωnk on the left hand side.k (nk − nk ) . The new collision term is not a derivative but an integral functional of nk ∂ nk ∂t =− collisions nimp V nk (1 − nk )Wk .k . By going to the frequency domain. which at zero ˆ ˆ temperature becomes k n0 = k θ(kF − k) = −kδ(kF − k). leaving out interference between scattering on diﬀerent impurities. Therefore we can simply replace the sum over impurities by the number of scattering centers.k − nk (1 − nk )Wk. Nimp = nimp V. collisions (14. and multiplied by the impurity potential for a single impurity u(r).k = 2π nimp V dr ei(k−k )·r u(r) δ(ξk − ξk ) ≡ 2 nimp Wk . First we note that p = −eE.14. i.e.33) V k The Boltzmann equation for impurity scattering is rather easily solved in the linear response regime. We obtain Γk .32) ∂t V collisions k and the full Boltzmann transport equation in the presence of impurity scattering now reads nimp ˙ ∂t (nk ) + k · k nk + vk · r nk = − Wk .

That this is in fact a solution is seen by substitution −iω ˆ ˆ eE · kδ(kF − k) + eE · k δ(kF − k) iω − 1/τ tr nimp −e ˆ ˆ = Wk .37) (14.40) 3 where we have used the relation between density and kF . (14. tr V iω − 1/τ |k | (14. we can set k = k = kF and remove the common factor δ(kF − k) to get nimp −iω −e ˆ ˆ eE · k + eE · k = tr tr V iω − 1/τ iω − 1/τ which is solved by cos θk nimp 1 = τ tr V Wk . and get nimp 1 Wk . |k |=kF (14.41) 1 − iωτ tr m . k =kF ˆ ˆ Wk .38) Here θk is angle between the vector k and the electric ﬁeld E.k includes an energy conserving delta function. as we see by calculating the current density J=− =− = 2e V 2e V nk vk k τ tr k eδ(kF − k) ˆ k k·E tr iω − 1/τ m 1 E 1 ∞ dk k 3 δ(kF − k) d(cos θ) cos2 θ (2π)2 −iω + 1/τ tr m 0 −1 2e2 E 1 e2 n 3 2 = kF = E.39) = τ tr V k =kF The time is known as the transport time.36) Since Wk . n = kF /3π 2 .k (cos θk − cos θk ). because it is the time that enters the expression for the conductivity. FERMI LIQUID THEORY hints that we can obtain the full solution by some imaginary shift of ω. (14. For a uniform system the result cannot depend on the direction of the electric ﬁeld. (14.k (1 − cos θk. so let us try the ansatz 1 ˆ eE · kδ (kF − k). and therefore we can put E parallel to k. −iω + 1/τ tr (2π)2 m 3 (−iω + 1/τ tr ) m 2e2 (14.k kδ(kF − k)−k δ(kF − k ) · E.k ).242 CHAPTER 14.k (k − k ) · E. σ0 = .35) nk (ω) = iω − 1/τ tr where the relaxation time τ tr needs to be determined. The result for the conductivity is 1 ne2 τ tr σ = σ0 .

3. but of course both total momentum and total energy are conserved in the scattering event.14. the ﬁnal state will be a state |k + qσ. On the contrary when the particle is scattered backward. such that the initial and the ﬁnal energies are the same εk + εk = εk+q + εk −q or counting from the chemical potential ξk + ξk = ξk+q + ξk −q . which was also calculated in Eq. This is precisely what the additional cosine-term in Eq. namely the socalled relaxation time approximation.32) and it is therefore incorrect.25) is indeed applicable to each quasiparticle separately. cos θ ≈ 1. but it does not tell us how much the momentum is degraded by the scattering process. the life time of the state k.e. and the analysis that was applied in the ﬂuid dynamical picture in Eq. k − qσ .43) This time expresses the rate for scattering out of a given state k. cos θ ≈ −1. (14. k (14. i. Here we investigate the validity of this approach by studying the rate of quasiparticle-quasiparticle scattering. Clearly there is a mechanism for quasiparticle scattering against quasiparticles because they are charged and therefore interact through the Coulomb interaction. This k approximation in fact gives the correct answer if the relaxation time is identiﬁed with the transport time τ0 = τ tr .3. If two particles in states |kσ. Therefore the transport time is precisely the momentum relaxation time deﬁned in the simple ﬂuid dynamical picture in Eq. 14. there is a large change in momentum. But we never included scattering of quasiparticle on other quasiparticles. (14. (14.e.25) found by the simpliﬁed analysis.e. (14.39) accounts for. k σ scatter. This would however only give the ﬁrst term in the right hand side of Eq. (11.k . The interaction between the particles is screened by the other particles and we should use the RPA result for the interaction. i. corresponding to a large momentum relaxation. At ﬁrst sight. SEMI-CLASSICAL TRANSPORT EQUATION 243 which agrees with Eq. The reason that the two approaches give the same result is that we can treat the quasiparticle as independent. Often one uses an even simpler approximation for the collision term.25). If the quasiparticle scatters forward. In this approximation the collision is replaced by ∂ nk ∂t =− collisions nk − n0 k . the state k is destroyed but the momentum is almost conserved and such a process therefore does not eﬀect the conductivity. i. it is tempting to think of the τ0 as the time for scattering out of the state k.42) where n0 is the equilibrium distribution function.1 Finite life time of the quasiparticles Above we ﬁrst assumed that the quasiparticles have an inﬁnite life time. Then we included some ﬁnite life time induced by scattering against impurities.49 ). The Coulomb interactions thus introduces a two-particle scattering where momentum and energy are exchanged. The rate for quasiparticle-quasiparticle scattering can be calculated using Fermi’s golden . τ0 (14. is given by the ﬁrst Born approximation 1 τlife = nimp V Wk . (14. The life time. and τ0 is the relaxation time.

10) holds as long the temperature is much smaller than the . nk = 1 and np = θ(kF − p) for p equal to k .1. We then have 1 ∼ |W |2 [d(εF )]3 τk = |W |2 [d(εF )]3 = |W |2 [d(εF )] 0 ∞ dξ −∞ 0 0 dξ Θ(ξk + ξ − ξ ) −∞ 2 3 ξk dξ ξk + ξ Θ(ξk + ξ ) for T < ξk .k σ . From this rate we can obtain the total rate for changing the state of a given quasiparticle in state |kσ by the Coulomb interaction.45) can be evaluated explicitly for a particle in state k added to a ﬁlled Fermi sea.k −qσ . (14. 14. (14. A simple phase space argument gives the answer. FERMI LIQUID THEORY δ(ξk +ξk −ξk+q − ξk −q ). 0) ε 2 δ ξk + ξk − ξk+q − ξk −q × nk nk 1 − nk+q 1 − nk −q scattering out of state k − 1 − nk 1 − nk nk+q nk −q . The result for the “life-time” τk of the state |kσ is then given by screened interaction Γk+qσ. Suppose then we have integrated out the angle dependence. k −qσ |W RPA (q)|k σ .46) 2 . This is a very important result because it tells us that the life-time of the quasiparticles diverges as we approach the Fermi level and thus the notion of quasiparticles is a consistent picture.45) The expression (14. or k + q.e.47) τk The conclusion from this analysis is: the life-time of the quasiparticles based on Fermi’s golden rule diverges at low temperatures and therefore the condition for the adiabatic approach expressed in Eq. We look at situation with a particle above the Fermi surface ξk > 0. for T > ξk .44) where W RPA (q) is the RPA screened Coulomb interaction. Then we are left with two energy integrals over ξk ≡ ξ < 0 and ξk −q ≡ ξ > 0. i. (14. scattering into state k (14.kσ = 2π k+qσ. At ﬁnite temperature the typical excitation energy is kB T and ξk is replaced by kB T 1 ∝ T 2 . kσ 2 1 2π = 2 2 τk V spin kq W (q) RPA (q. But for now we just want the energy dependence of the life-time. k − q. see also Fig. (14.244 rule CHAPTER 14. which takes care of the delta function. At T = 0 this gives the condition that ξk + ξk − ξk+q > 0. To ﬁnd that we must multiply Γ with the probability that the state |k σ is occupied and that ﬁnal states are unoccupied and sum over all possible k and q.

Fermi energy.1 the physical reason for the smallness of the scattering rate is that although the Coulomb scattering matrix elements are big there is not much phase space available for scattering due to the Pauli principle.1: The two-particle scattering event that gives rise to a ﬁnite life time of the quasiparticles. This is what we are going to show in this section and thereby give a microscopic foundation of the Fermi liquid theory. As illustrated in Fig.4 14. the quasiparticle picture therefore has real physical meaning. These were the quasiparticles. Furthermore. 14. because of the Pauli principle the ﬁnal states of both particles have to lie outside the Fermi surface and therefore the phase space volume for the ﬁnal state k + q (white area) and for the initial state k (gray area) both 2 scale with ξk giving rise to a maximum total phase proportional to ξk . We consider the one-particle retarded Green’s function. Because the Fermi energy in for example metal is in general a fairly large energy scale. which in general can be written . 14.1 Microscopic basis of the Fermi liquid theory Renormalization of the single particle Green’s function The Fermi liquid theory relies on the assumption that the excitation created by adding a particle to the system. Both momentum and energy have to be conserved. This together with the Pauli principle cause the phase space available for the scattering to be very limited.14. Since the particle can only loose energy.4. The function that measures precisely the density of states for adding particles is the retarded Green’s function GR . the condition in fact holds for even moderately elevated temperatures. If the retarded Green’s function of the interacting system turns out to be similar to that of free particles. which is illustrated on the right hand ﬁgure.4. The dashed circle indicates the energy of the initial state. MICROSCOPIC BASIS OF THE FERMI LIQUID THEORY 245 − ξ Figure 14. can be described by a free particle with a long life time. the other particle which is scattered out of state k can only gain energy.

At small ˜ ˜ ˜ energies and for k close to kF .53) The imaginary part of ΣR (k. (14. important conclusions can be drawn from the ﬁrst non-trivial approximation. 12 was shown to give the exact answer in the high density limit. we can expand (GR )−1 in powers of k − kF and ω. ω) .52) (14.51) (14. 0))k=kF . namely the RPA which in Chap. and where ΣR (k. which leads to GR (k.52) is seen to be m =Z m∗ 1+ m ∂ Re Σ(k.3.49) ˜ We then anticipate the quasiparticle picture by looking at k-values close to the kF . ω − ξk − ΣR (kσ. ω) ≈ ˜ ω − ω∂ω Re ΣR − (k − kF )∂k (ξ + Re ΣR ) − i Im ΣR i 2˜k (ω) τ −1 −1 ˜ ≡ Z ω − ξk + where Z −1 = 1 − (14.48) where ξk = k 2 /2m −µ is the free electron energy measured with the respect to the chemical potential µ. ω) (14. meaning ˜F is deﬁned close to the renormalized Fermi-energy.54) ˜ k=kF In Sec. ω) . Fortunately. (14. (14. FERMI LIQUID THEORY 1 . ∂ω ω=0 ∂ ˜ ˜ ξk = (k − kF )Z (ξk + Re Σ(k. ω)] − i Im ΣR (k. ω) = 1 ω − [ξk + Re ΣR (k. τk (ω) ˜ ∂ ˜ Re Σ(kF .55) (14.50) 1 = −2Z Im ΣR (k. where the eﬀective mass by Eq. ω) is not expanded because we look at its form later. ω) is the irreducible retarded self-energy. If this also ˜ holds here the spectral function therefore has a Lorentzian shape near k = kF . To calculate the self-energy we should in principle include all possible diagrams. 0) ˜ ∂k kF . The renormalized Fermi wave number k ˜ by the condition that the real part of the energy vanishes ξkF + Re Σ(kF . The ˜ eﬀective energy ξk is usually expressed as ˜ ˜ ˜ ξk = (k − kF )kF /m∗ . which of course is not doable in the general case.1 we saw that the life-time goes to inﬁnity at low temperatures. 0) = 0. ω). 14. ˜ ∂k (14. ω) = CHAPTER 14. Let us ﬁrst write the general form of GR by separating the self-energy in real and imaginary parts GR (kσ. For a very .246 as GR (kσ.

that has an integrated weight given by 1 − Z. ω) = −2Im GR (k. ω). where rs = (3/4πa3 n)−1/3 is the parameter often used to parameterize the density of electron 0 gases. See Fig. It contains a distinct peak.g.58) where the remaining contribution A not associated with the pole. the Green’s function and the spectral function ˜ has a sharp peak at ω = ξk .57) DC C C C E E E C E E E 9 ! @ ' A¦ ¥ £¤ ¡¢ ¤ § 0 () E FE E E E E 3% E E E E 8 4 & 2 ¥1 0 (' ¡¤ ) 6 # ¦ ¥ £¤ ¡¢ ¨© B 666 $! # %& ! 6676 56 "¦ ¥ £¤ ¡¢ ¨© ¤ ¥ £¤ ¡¢ ¥ £¤ ¡¢ ¨© §¦ ¥ £¤ ¡¢ . the quasiparticle peak cannot be the whole story.56) This shows that with a small imaginary part. The peaked spectral function therefore resembles that of a free gas and the pole is identiﬁed as the quasiparticle that was deﬁned in the Fermi liquid theory. ω) ≈ 2πZδ(ω − ξk ). 2π is not fulﬁlled by Eq. (14. ¤ (14.56). ω) as resulting from the analysis of the RPA approximation. because the general sum rule ∞ −∞ dω A(k.2: The spectral function A(k. the book by Mahan. (14. For a discussion on the measurements of Z using Compton scattering see e. see Exercise 13.14. Typically Z is found from experiments to be between 0. However.7 and 1 for rs < 3. which we denoted A . There must be another part of the spectral function. ω) = 1. (14.4. contains more complicated many body excitations not describable by a free electron like peak. where the jump at the Fermi level is a direct measure of Z. which is identiﬁed with the quasiparticle. The renormalization constant shows up for example in the distribution function n(k). (14. This part called Aqp however only carries part of the integrated spectral weight and the rest must therefore be contained in the background function A stemming from other types of excitations. MICROSCOPIC BASIS OF THE FERMI LIQUID THEORY 247 Figure 14.2. 14. and hence Eq. The constant Z is called the renormalization constant and it is a measure of the quasiparticle weight.50) gives ˜ A(k. small imaginary part we could namely approximate Im ΣR ≈ −η. the integral only amounts to Z. ω) = 2πZ δ(ω − ξk ) + A (k.2. Therefore we instead write ˜ A(k.

14. Now that we have performed the Matsubara sum. If we therefore make a contour which is like the one in Fig. The integrand in analytic everywhere but in z = ξk+q − ikn and for z purely real. ikn ) = − 1 V ∞ P q −∞ dω nB (ω) 2πi × + 1 V εRPA (q. ikn ) = − σ 1 β iωn 1 V q W (q) G0 (k + q. (13.59) where W/εRPA is the screened interaction. iωn ) (14. FERMI LIQUID THEORY We still need to show that the assumption of a large τk is valid and we now turn to evaluating the imaginary part of the self-energy.4. however. also enclose the pole in z = ξk+q − ikn . −δ] and [δ. We now get ΣRPA (kσ. σ.3) C = C1 + C2 then we include all the Matsubara frequencies except the one in origin (note that the points shown in Fig. the RPA self-energy Eq. ikn + iωn ). (14. 14. ikn + z).248 CHAPTER 14. when letting δ → 0+ . which we therefore have to subtract again. ∞[ only. z) W (q) + q. 14. σ. εRPA (q. (10. In the Matsubara frequency domain it is given by .60) C q where C is a suitable contour that encloses all the bosonic Matsubara frequencies z = iωn .61) ε (q.3 is now seen to cancel parts of the counters C1 and C2 so that they are modiﬁed to run between ] − ∞.3 includes all boson Matsubara frequencies z = iωn . As seen in Fig.12). and this is equivalent to stating that the integration are replaced by the principal part. (14.3 we. in ΣRPA (kσ. Therefore we include a loop around the origin so that the contour C = C1 + C2 + C3 shown in Fig. ikn + ω) − (η → −η) + iη) W (q) nB (ξk+q − ikn ) RPA .3) are the fermionic Matsubara frequencies).2 Imaginary part of the single particle Green’s function We base our analysis on the most important diagram. we are allowed to get the . As usual we perform the Matsubara summation by a contour integration ΣRPA (kσ. ikn ) = − σ 1 dz nB (z) 2πi V G0 (k εRPA (q. 14. σ. ξk+q − ikn ) In the last term we should use that nB (ξk+q − ikn ) = −nF (ξk+q ) because ikn is a fermion frequency. (10. The small loop C3 shown in Fig. ω q W (q) G0 (k + q.

3: The contour C = C1 + C2 + C3 used for integration for a the Matsubara sum that enters the RPA self-energy in Eq.14. σ. we evaluate the imaginary part in ε = ξk and ﬁnd 1 −2 = −2 Im ΣRPA (kσ. ω × (2i) Im − 1 V q W (q)GR (k + q.64) . ξk+q − ξk ) = 0 2π V nF (ξk ) − nF (ξk −q ) δ(ξk − ξk −q − ξk+q + ξk ) (14. (14. retarded self-energy by the substitution ikn → ε + iη which leads to ΣRPA. ξk+q − ε + iη) (14. MICROSCOPIC BASIS OF THE FERMI LIQUID THEORY 249 Figure 14. ε + ω) = πδ(ε + ω − ξk+q ) and then performed the 0 ω-integration. Since we are interested in the case where a particle with ξk is scattered. ξ ε k+q − ξk ) 2 (14. (13. σ. while the that of G0 is the white dot.R (kσ. The imaginary part of the self-energy becomes 1 W (q) Im ΣRPA (kσ.20) Im χR (q. ξk+q − ξk ). V q ε (q.R (q. ε + ω) 0 + iη) W (q) nF (ξk+q ) RPA . ξk ) = τk V nB (ξk+q − ξk ) + nF (ξk+q ) q × Im χR (q. ε) = [nB (ξk+q − ε) + nF (ξk+q )] Im RPA . ω − iη) . ω + iη) = εRPA (q. ε) = − 1 V ∞ P q −∞ dω nB (ω) 2πi 1 εRPA (q. The poles from the boson frequencies are shown by black dots.4. ξk+q − ε − iη) ∗ because εRPA (q.65) k § £ ¡ ©¨¦ ¥ ¤¢ ¤¢ ¡ " # ! W (q) RPA.62) ε (q. The contour C3 which picks up the contribution from the pole z = 0 cancels the parts of C1 and C2 given by the small loops.60). (14.63) where we used that − Im GR (k + q. 0 The imaginary part of the polarization function follows from Eq.

45). This concludes our analysis of the single particle Green’s function. while the second term corresponds to the scattering in term. 12 was shown to be exact in the high density limit. (14. (14. (14. Quinn and R. (14.1 will have even more constrains on the energies. J. For the ﬁrst term in the ﬁrst parenthesis we use the identity nB ( 1 − 2 )[nF ( 2 ) − nF ( 2 )] = nF ( 1 )[1 − nF ( 2 )]. If we furthermore approximate ξk − ξk+q ≈ 0 in εRPA we now see that the life time in Eq. An explicit calculation of Eq.45).M. The analysis indeed conﬁrmed the physical picture put forward by Landau in his Fermi liquid theory. J. but the RPA approximation in Chap. At least when employing the RPA approximation for the self-energy. (14. .20)) and when this is inserted back into Eq. It is however not hard to imagine that more complicated scattering events than the simple one depicted in Fig. For the second term we use the obvious identity nF ( 1 )[1 − nF ( 2 )] − nF ( 2 )[1 − nF ( 2 ] = nF ( 1 ) − nF ( 2 ) and nF (− ) = 1 − nF ( ). they will result in higher powers of ξk . This was done by Luttinger6 who proved that the imaginary part of any diagram for the self-energy goes to zero as ξ 2 or faster. Hence after integration. while the last term is non-zero for ξk < 0. FERMI LIQUID THEORY (here we shifted k → k − q as compared with Eq. we obtain 1 4π = −2 Im ΣRPA (kσ. ξ ε k+q − ξk ) 2 δ(ξk − ξk −q − ξk+q + ξk ). All together this allows us to write the occupation factors in Eq. 121. (14. 942 (1961). (14. The derivation is rather lengthy and we do not give it here.250 CHAPTER 14. (14. Ferrell.66) is equivalent to the Fermi’s golden rule expression Eq. Luttinger. Phys.67) At low temperature the ﬁrst term is due to the energy conservation condition non-zero for ξk > 0. it can in fact be shown that the imaginary part vanishes to all orders in the interaction. (14. The ﬁrst term thus corresponds to the scattering out term in Eq. Rev 112. ε) = − τk V [nB (ξk+q − ξk ) + nF (ξk+q )] nF (ξk ) − nF (ξk −q ) qk × W (q) RPA.66) was done by Quinn and Ferrell5 who got √ 2 3π ξk 2 1 = ωp . 5 6 J.64).R (q.66) as −nF (ξk )[1 − nF (ξk+q )] 1 − nF (ξk −q ) − [1 − nF (ξk )] nF (ξk+q )nF (ξk −q ) (14. Rev. A. We have thus veriﬁed that the imaginary part of the retarded Green’s function indeed goes to zero. 14.45). (13.66) Let us study the occupation factors in this expression and compare with the Fermi’s golden rule expression Eq. 812 (1958). combined with ξk − ξk+q = −ξk + ξk −q .68) τk 128 εF Going beyond RPA. Phys.

In Chap. For a translation-invariant system the quantum numbers are k and σ. These particles we call quasiparticles and they can be labelled by the same quantum numbers of those of the non-interacting system. the interacting system of particles can be described by a gas of non-interacting particles. The conductivity is as we remember from the Kubo formula related to the current-current correlation function. provided that the corresponding operators also commute with the full Hamiltonian. Landau’s phenomenological theory was shown to be justiﬁed by a rigors microscopic calculation. The calculation has to be done in a consistent way such that the diagrams included in the irreducible self-energy is also included in the diagrams for the two-particle correlation function. The bare velocity of the quasiparticles was important for obtaining the Drude formula for the conductivity. This seems to contradict the postulate of the Fermi liquid theory that the current of the quasiparticles is independent of interactions.e. The theory is valid whenever perturbation theory is valid.14. This approach is based on the Boltzmann equation ˙ ∂t (nk ) + k · k nk + vk · r nk = ∂nk ∂t . When the same type of diagrams are included both in the self-energy and in the lines that cross the two-particle “bubble” then the mass renormalization exactly cancels. collisions (14. It has been widely used to explain numerous transport phenomena in gases and solids. OUTLOOK AND SUMMARY 251 14. On long length and time scales we can use a semi-classical approach to study various properties.4 14. On the right hand side of Eq. One can include both electric and magnetic ﬁelds driving the system out of equilibrium. 15 we shall see an explicit example of this by calculating diagrammatically the ﬁnite resistance due to impurity scattering starting from the fully microscopic theory. when the interaction does not induce a phase transition. i.e.5. i. σ = ne2 τ tr /m. See also Exercise 14. (14.5 Outlook and summary We have developed the semi-classical Fermi liquid theory of interacting particles. The driving ﬁelds enter through the Lorentz force as ˙ p = k = (−e)(E + v × B). The result . using the random phase approximation result for the self-energy. it is given by k/m and not k/m∗ .69) we have included colli˙ sions due to impurities and particle-particle collisions . One can also include for example particle-phonon scattering in solids and thus explain the temperature dependence of the diﬀerent transport coeﬃcients. We also found that the eﬀective mass of the quasiparticle was renormalized due to the interactions.3 Mass renormalization? In the previous section we saw how the assumption of weakly interacting quasiparticles was justiﬁed by the long life time of the single particle Green’s function. How come the renormalized mass m∗ appears in the Green’s function whereas the physically observable conductivity contains the bare mass m? The answer to this question in found by studying how the conductivity is calculated diagrammatically. Miraculously.69) This equation is extremely useful since it in many situations gives a suﬃciently accurate description of the physics.4.

FERMI LIQUID THEORY of this analysis was that even in the presence of interactions does the Fermi surface persist and near the Fermi surface the imaginary part of the single particle Green’s function rapidly vanish as Im ΣR (kF . ε) ∝ max(ε2 .70) This explains why the Fermi liquid theory works: when the imaginary part goes to zero the single particle Green’s function is identical to that of a free particle. . T 2 ). (14.252 CHAPTER 14.

Chapter 15 Impurity scattering and conductivity We now return to the problem of calculating the resistance of a metallic conductor due to scattering against impurities. We now rederive the Boltzmann equation result starting from a microscopic quantum approach. This is however outside the scope this book. we therefore start by deriving the semiclassical result. In this chapter we deal with extended systems and discuss the most important disorder-induced quantum corrections. 10. 15. the situation is again diﬀerent in that at some critical amount of impurity scattering there exists a metal-insulator transition known as the Anderson localization. 13 the conductivity was calculated within the Boltzmann equation approach. and it can therefore not be explained semiclassically. A few years later another low-temperature interference eﬀect. To understand these smaller systems one must take into account the ﬁnite size of the conductors. which is due to interference between time reversed paths. In 1979 the weak localization correction to resistivity was observed experimentally in large 2D samples at low temperatures. In three dimensions. and an extended research was initiated on the role of quantum coherence in transport properties. This discovery started the modern ﬁeld of mesoscopic physics. is that it can be extended to include correlation and coherence eﬀects that cannot be described in the semiclassical Boltzmann approach. In order to get familiar with the techniques. at least in two dimensions. Then we go on to include the quantum mechanical eﬀect known as weak localization. Weak localization involves coherent scattering on many impurities. which is the topic in Chap. In one dimension. The advantage of this microscopic approach. The basic physics of impurity scattering was discussed in Chap. was discovered in small (∼ µm) phase-coherent structures. the so-called universal conductance ﬂuctuations. things are more complicated because there all states are localized and one cannot talk about a conductivity that scales in a simple fashion with the length of the system. 253 . It was explained theoretically later the same year. In Chap. besides giving a ﬁrst principle justiﬁcation of the Boltzmann equation. where we saw how the single-particle Green’s function acquired a ﬁnite life time after averaging over the positions of the impurities. The leading quantum correction is precisely the weak localization eﬀect.

25) Re σαβ (r. because having a electric ﬁeld E(q.25). r . ω) = − e2 Im ΠR (r. τ − τ ) = − 1 Tτ Jx (q.25) in terms of the retarded current-current correlation function Eq. (6.e. 13. τ ) .254 CHAPTER 15. (6.25) drops out of the real part.4. we assume in the ﬁrst part of this chapter that we can describe the electrons as non-interacting. ω). In the second part of the chapter we include electron-electron interactions together with impurity scattering and explicitly demonstrate that the non-interacting approximation is valid. In the following we therefore only include the ﬁrst.1 Vertex corrections and dressed Green’s functions Let us start by the Kubo formula for the electrical conductivity tensor σαβ given in Eq. so-called “paramagnetic”. Note that the system is translation-invariant even in the presence of impurities after performing the position average described in Chap. σαβ = σ δαβ . denoted σ . IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY Based on the physical picture that emerged from the Fermi liquid description in Chap. (6. 14. (6. the conductivity tensor is isotropic and therefore diagonal. The Matsubara current-current correlation function is Πxx (q.4) 1 If in doubt always perform the limit q → 0 ﬁrst. αβ ω (15.2) σαβ (q. .1) Note that the last. 10. Furthermore. ω) = ω αβ The dc-conductivity is then found by letting1 q → 0 and then ω → 0. term in Eq. it is absolutely imperative to include vertex corrections to the current-current correlation bubble diagrams. ω). so-called “diamagnetic”. which can be described by diagrams where interaction lines “cross” the bubble diagrams. r . (15. 15. i. As usual we calculate the retarded function starting from the corresponding Matsubara function. αβ ω (15. τ )Jx (−q. term of σ in Eq. These corrections cannot be treated evaluating only singleparticle Green’s functions.3 is cancelled out. This means that we shall see how the mass renormalization discussed in Sec. we shall see that in order to obtain meaningful results.ω) where ω = 0 and q ﬁnite is unphysical. They are thus genuine two-particle correlation eﬀects. The dc-response at long wavelengths is thus obtained as Re σαβ = −e2 lim lim ω→0 q→0 1 Im ΠR (q. ω). (6. V (15. Here we shall only look at the dissipative part of the conductivity. For a translation-invariant system we consider as usual the Fourier transform ie2 R Π (q. In the computation we can choose α to be the x direction. In particular we have no magnetic ﬁeld and take A = 0.26). since it would give rise to an inﬁnite charge built up.3) In this chapter we consider only homogeneous translation-invariant systems. and therefore we take the real part of Eq.

τ ) in terms of Jx (q.15. iql )Jx (−q. however.8) In order to begin the diagrammatical analysis we write the current density Jx (˜) in q four-vector notation β Jx (˜) = q dτ eiqn τ 0 1 1 2m V (2k + q)x c† (τ )ck+qσ (τ ) kσ kσ 1 1 = 2m β ikn 1 V (2k + q)x c† (ikn )ck+qσ (ikn + iqn ). −iqn ) .10) . kσ kσ 1 11 ≡ 2m β V ˜ ˜ ˜ (2kx +qx )c† (k)cσ (k + q ).1. We can now express Jx (q.7) iql 1 β Jx (q.6) The integration with respect to τ leads to iqn = iql . τ ) . we must have iqn = −iqm . iqm This we conveniently rewrite using the four-vector notation q = (iqn . Vβ (15. iqn ) = − 1 V β 0 255 d(τ − τ )eiqn (τ −τ ) Jx (q. q q Vβ (15. σ ˜ k σ (15.9) which we draw diagrammatically as a vertex ˜ k Jx (˜) = q ˜ ˜ k+ q The vertex conserves four-momentum. because τ > τ . Finally. We can now draw diagrams for the current-current correlation function using the Feynman rules. q) ﬂowing ˜ out from it to the left. iqn ) and obtain Πxx (q. 10 and (15. here we include both the impurity lines from Chap. iqn ) = − 1 Jx (q. iqm ) e−iql τ e−iqm τ . 12. VERTEX CORRECTIONS AND DRESSED GREEN’S FUNCTIONS In the frequency domain it is Πxx (q. and whence Πxx (q. iqn ) = − 1 V β 0 d(τ − τ )eiqn (τ −τ )1 β (15. (15. q) ˜ Πxx (˜) = − q 1 Jx (˜)Jx (−˜) . The procedure is analogous to that for the charge-charge correlation function in Chap. iqn )Jx (−q.5) where the time-ordering operator Tτ is omitted. since the result cannot depend on τ . and thus has the momentum q = (iqn . τ )Jx (−q.

(15. Πxx (˜) = q + + + Here the double lines represent full Green’s functions expressed by Dyson’s equation as in + + (15. We obtain (15. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY from Chap.11) then becomes + + + + + + + + + + + + . 12. .11) the Coulomb interaction lines Πxx (˜) = q ≡ + + + + + + + + + + We can perform a partial summation of diagrams to all orders by replacing each Green’s function G0 by the full Green’s function G..11) and are left with bubble diagrams where the only interaction and impurity lines to be drawn are those connecting the lower and upper electron Green’s functions.. (15..12) + . Eq.256 CHAPTER 15.. In doing so we have in one step resummed Eq.

10 . VERTEX CORRECTIONS AND DRESSED GREEN’S FUNCTIONS Eq.19) 257 ˜ G(k) = = is the irreducible self-energy. . (15. (15. These diagrams are denoted vertex corrections. . To obtain a Dyson equation for Πxx we ﬁrst introduce the irreducible line-crossing diagram Λirr consisting of the sum of all possible diagrams connecting the upper and lower fermion line. For example in the case where we include where Σirr = impurity scattering within the ﬁrst Born approximation and electron-electron interaction in the RPA approximation.16) The next step is to organize the diagrams according to the lines crossing the bubbles from the upper to the lower fermion line in a systematic way. Diagrams of this type are proportional to q −2 and thus they vanish in the limit q → 0.1./01234 ≡ + .12). Λirr ≡ .17) 2 We do not include diagrams like the terms 9.15. which cannot be cut into two pieces by cutting both the upper and the lower line just once2 .13) 1BA + RPA: ˜ Σirr (k) = % & ' ≈ + + + (15. .14) where RPA means the following screening of all impurity and interaction lines ( ) * + . (12. the irreducible self-energy is simply $ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ = G0 (k) + G0 (k)Σirr (k)G(k). and 11 in Eq. ! # " + (15.15) (15. = = + + + + + (15.

12.. k) − iq · Γ(k + q .g. Theory of Superconductivity. which can be read oﬀ from Eq. + . q )G(k+ q )G(k+ q + q )Γx (k+ q + q .B.19) and the “dressed” vertex function is given by an integral equation. k) + (15. q . and Γ is the current vertex function. k + q ) = 1 (2kx +qx ).<= > × + + + ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ dk Γ0.“in going”). (15. We have seen examples of how to choose the physically most important self-energies.258 CHAPTER 15. This follows from a general relation between the self-energy and the vertex function. R.20a) ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜˜ ˜ d˜ Λirr (k. both for the impurity scattering problem in Chap. For more details see e.18) ˜ ˜˜ Γx (k+ q . . If we include certain diagrams for the self-energy we must include the corresponding diagrams in the vertex function. 10 and for the case of interacting particles in Chap. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY Using Λirr we see that we can resum all diagrams in Πxx in the following way Πxx (˜) = q + + + = ≡ ≡ − 5678 9 :. q (15. 2m = + + . In the present case once the approximation for Σirr is chosen. Consequently.x (k .. k) ≡ ? @ A ˜ ˜˜ ≡ Γ0. 3 The Ward identity reads ˜ ˜˜ ˜ ˜˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ iq0 Γ0 (k + q . called the Ward identity.x (k. ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ Γ0. Schrieﬀer.18) where the unperturbed vertex is (15.. This relation.20b) The notation for the arguments of the Γ functions is Γ = Γ(“out going”. k ). The question is now which diagrams to include in Λirr . Addison-Wesley (1964).x (k+ q . (15. k) = −G −1 (k + q ) + G −1 (k).3 is derived using the continuity equation. k + q )G(k )G(k + q )Γx (k + q . where the function Γ0 is the charge vertex function. the answer is simply that there is no freedom left in the choice for the vertex function Γ. k+ q )..

.18) a general formula for the conductivity. and if for clarity we consider only the impurity scattering lines: Πxx (˜) = q EFGH + + + 1 β ikn + . k (15. This deﬁnition involves a summation over the internal Matsubara frequency.x (k. For a derivation and discussion see for example the book by Schrieﬀer.21) for Λirr is inserted into the ﬁrst line of Eq. (15. (15. iqn ) = − 1 V Γ0.25) The Matsubara sum over ikn is performed in the usual way by a contour integration over z = ikn . one along z = ε and one along z = −iqn + ε. the current-current function is Πxx (0. ikn )G(k. If we drop the four-vector notation in favor of the standard notation. (15.15. k)G(k. THE CONDUCTIVITY IN TERMS OF A GENERAL VERTEX FUNCTION259 not fulﬁlling this identity is equivalent to a lack of conservation of particles. and one uses the term “conserving approximation” for the correct choice for the vertex function. a name which perhaps becomes clear graphically if Eq.ikn + iqn )Γx (k. Therefore we ﬁrst study a summation .14). (15.2 The conductivity in terms of a general vertex function Having the expressions for both the single-particle Green’s function G and the vertex function Γ. we get for Λirr Λirr = and in this case the integral function for Γ becomes ˜ ˜˜ ˜ ˜˜ Γx (k + q . and furthermore treat the case q = 0. k. we can obtain from Eq.x (k + q . k)+ where BCD ≈ + ˜ ≡ W. k) = Γ0. (15. RPA (−˜) ε (˜) ε q q (15.ikn + iqn .22) q ˜ q u(q) u(−q) ˜ q W (˜) = W RPA (˜) + nimp RPA q .21) ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜˜ ˜ d˜ W (˜ )G(k + q )G(k + q + q )Γx (k + q + q .23) This particular approximation is also known as the ladder sum. Here we simply follow the rule as dictated by the Ward identity: if an irreducible diagram is included in Σirr the corresponding diagrams should also be included in Λirr .2. (15. ikn ). Therefore a physically sensible approximation must obey Ward’s identity. k + q ).18) for Πxx .24) 15. If we consider the ﬁrst Born approximation and RPA for Σirr as depicted in Eq. (15. The presence of two G’s in the summand leads to two branch cuts.. with ε being real.

Since f AA = f RR . If we shift the integration variable ε → ε + ω in the two last terms. (15. ε + iqn ) −∞ 2πi ∞ dε nF (ε − iqn ) f (ε − iqn .28) + f AR (ε − ω. and ﬁnd R S2F (ω) = − ∞ −∞ dε nF (ε) f RR (ε. Fur∗ thermore.e. ε) − f AA (ε − ω.1: The contour used in the frequency summation in Eq. we obtain R S2F (ω) = dε [nF (ε) − nF (ε + ω)] f AR (ε. ε − iη.27) (15. and so on. ε + ω) − nF (ε + ω)f AA (ε. we also take the imaginary part as in Eq. ε + ω) 2πi (15. 2πi −∞ ∞ Since we are interested in the low frequency limit. ε + ω) − f AR (ε.3). ε ) means that the ﬁrst argument is advanced. (15. and the second argument is retarded. we expand to ﬁrst order in ω.260 CHAPTER 15. with the convention that f AR (ε. ε + ω) . ε) .26).29) . ε + ω) 2πi −∞ ∞ dε − nF (ε)f RR (ε.1) made of three contours leading to four integrals over ε S2F (iqn ) = − dε nF (ε) f (ε + iη. ikn + iqn ) ikn =− C dz nF (z)f (z. ε + iη) − f (ε − iqn . z + iqn ). ε + iqn ) − f (ε − iη. ε + iη. (15.26) (15. we ©§¥ £ ¨ ¦ ¡ £ ¡ ¤¢ (15. 2πi where the integration contour C is the one shown in Fig. i. ε − iη) . of the form S2F (iqn ) = 1 β f (ikn . IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY Figure 15. − −∞ 2πi ∞ At the end of the calculation we continue iqn analytically to ω + iη.

k.22) becomes Γx (k. 0)ΓAA (k. (15. The vertex function is now solved using the ﬁrst Born approximation.ikn + iqn .ikn + iqn )Γx (k + q . Therefore we expect to reproduce the semiclassical result if we only include the ﬁrst Born approximation in our diagrammatical calculation.33) by the ﬁrst term only. (15. k+q . The starting point in this section is non-interacting electrons scattering on impurities. 0. The RPA part of the self-energy in Eq. 0) − f AR (0.21). 15.3) one obtains R Im S2F (ω) = (15.14) is not included in this section. one must look at the speciﬁc physical cases and then solve for the vertex function satisfying Eq. 0. We will consider only cases where the disorder is weak and for this case it is shown in the next section that the product GR GA exceeds GA GA by a factor of order 1/τ EF . (15.30) At low temperatures. 0)GR (k. Later we discuss what happens if interactions are included. (15. we can approximate the derivative of the Fermi-Dirac function by a delta function ∂nF (ε) ≈ δ(ε) (15. 0) .20b) and insert the result into (15. ε) . ikn ). (15. ikn ) q 2 (15.34) × G(k + q . 2π By applying this to Eq. 0)ΓRA (k. again taking q = 0. THE CONDUCTIVITY IN THE FIRST BORN APPROXIMATION ﬁnd R Im S2F (ω) = −ω Im ∞ −∞ 261 dε 2πi − ∂nF (ε) ∂ε f AR (ε. k. i. 0) .32) Re σxx = 2 Re e2 1 2π V Γ0. 0)GA (k. the integral equation Eq. (15. where τ is the scattering time for impurity scattering.3 The conductivity in the ﬁrst Born approximation The conductivity was calculated in Sec. In this case. k) GA (k. . 0) x k − GA (k.x (k.31) − ∂ε and hence ω Re f AA (0. This is how far one can go on general principles. ε) − f RR (ε. k.e.ikn + iqn .3.x (k.33) where we have included a factor of 2 due to spin degeneracy. To proceed further.25) and then inserting into Eq.33). the ﬁrst diagram in Eq. The semiclassical approximation is similar to the ﬁrst Born approximation in that it only includes scattering against a single impurity and neglects interference eﬀects.3 using a semiclassical approximation for the scattering against the impurities. (15. ikn ) = Γ0.15. we may replace the general formula in Eq. x (15. 14. In the following we consider various cases. Hence in the weak disorder limit. k) + 1 V nimp uRPA (q ) G(k + q . (15.

33).36) k2 where X = A or R. and subsequently taking the dc-limit ω → 0. (15. ε)GR (k. They satisfy two diﬀerent integral equations. ε). We arrive at γ RX (k. ε)GR (k . ε) = k γ(k. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY where the second term in Eq. ε). ikn ) = 1 + 1 V nimp uRPA (k − k) G(k . ε) = 1 + 1 V nimp uRPA (k − k) GX (k . ε) 2 ≡ (15. In doing so we in fact use that the system is isotropic which means that only the vector k can give the direction. This ﬁrst combination is GA (k. Remembering that Γx is a component of a vector function Γ and that the unperturbed vertex is Γ0 (k. k . ε) k 2 k · k RX γ (k . ε) 1 1 = Im R (k. It is immediately seen that this is a consistent solution for the imaginary part of both γ RA and γ RR but it turns out that for the real part of γ RA a factor 1/nimp is contained in the Green’s function. k2 (15.ikn + iqn . multiplying by (1/k 2 )k·. One immediately sees that the small factor nimp tends to kill the sum. Im GX tends to a delta function. whence the spectral function is approximately a delta function. and the product of two delta functions has to be deﬁned with care. The lesson we learn here is that we have to be rather careful with products of Green’s function carrying the same arguments. k.ikn + iqn . ε) deﬁned as Γ(k. because in the limit of small nimp . Note that there is no internal Matsubara sum because the impurity scattering conserves energy.35) by letting iqn → ω + iη and ikn → ε ± iη. The Green’s functions G are. −2 Im ΣR (k.34). we set the frequency in εRPA (q. Since we do not expect the dynamical screening to be important for the elastic scattering. also those obtained in the ﬁrst Born approximation. For the case of weak impurity scattering the scattering rate τ −1 is small. we deﬁne for convenience a scalar function γ(k. (15. ε) = GR (k. and in the weak scattering limit one should expect the solution of this equation to be simply γ RX (k. (15. In the case of small nimp we therefore get GA (k.37) where A = −2 Im GR is the spectral function. which we obtain from x Eq. ε) ≈ τ 2πδ(ε − ξk ).35) In the formula Eq.38) . (15. ε) ≈ 1. we get γ(k. which also appear in Eq. k) = k/m.33) for the conductivity both ΓRA and ΓRR appear (or rather x x = (ΓAA )∗ . ε) 2 1 ε − ξk − ΣR (k. ε)/m. Let us look more carefully into the products GA GR and GR GR . ε) Im Σ ε − ξk − ΣR (k. and where as before the life-time τ is deﬁned by τ −1 = −2 Im ΣR (k. ikn ).ikn + iqn ) ΓRR x k · k 1BA γ (k . and shifting the variable q to q = k − k. (15. ε)GR (k. ε) 1 ≡ A(k. (15. 0) to zero. ε). When inserting this into Eq.262 CHAPTER 15. as we learned from the Ward identity. ε) ≡ τ A(k. ikn ) k 2 × G(k .23) has been inserted and where uRPA = u/εRPA . (15.

ε) ≈ = R R ε − ξk − ε − ξk ε − ξk 2 + (ε − ξk )2 − 2 + 2 i 2τ 1 2 2τ 1 2 2τ 2 + 1 2 2τ i (ε − ξk ) A(k.44) . 0. (15.x (k. k.15.36) is ﬁnite in the limit nimp → 0. That GR GR is ﬁnite is seen as follows G (k. From these arguments it follows that the terms with GR GR can be omitted and only terms with GR GA are kept.40) Because all energies are at the Fermi energy. 0. and we get γ RA = 1 + The solution is thus simply γ RA = where λ= 2π V nimp uRPA (k − k) δ(ξk ) k 2 2π V nimp uRPA (k − k) δ(ξk ) k 2 k·k k2 τ0 γ RA . 0) m m m (15. 0) = τ0 γ RA (kF . But kF is constant. (15.35) γ RA (k) = 1 + 2π V nimp uRPA (k − k) τ0 δ(ξk ) k 2 k · k RA γ (k ). In the following we therefore approximate τ with the ﬁrst Born approximation life time τ0 −1 τ −1 ≈ τ0 ≡ 2πnimp k |u(k − k )|2 δ(ξk − ξk ). the product nimp GA GR in Eq. 1 − λ τ0 k·k = (τ0 )−1 − τ tr k2 −1 (15.41) The remaining problem is to ﬁnd γ RA (k. and since the lengths of both k and k are given by kF .39) The last term clearly goes to zero when τ is large and when A is approximated by a delta function.45) . 0. THE CONDUCTIVITY IN THE FIRST BORN APPROXIMATION 263 Because τ ∝ n−1 .42) Since this equation has no dependence on the direction of k. 0) x k 1 = 2e2 τ0 Re V k kx e2 n kx δ(ξk ) γ RA (k. k2 (15. (15.43) 1 . The conductivity Eq.0) for |k| = kF . ε). kF . we use the ﬁrst Born approximation for the self-energy. γ RA depends only on kF . As explained above. (15. this life time is independent of k. k. ε)G (k. (15. imp The combination GR GR on the other hand is not divergent and in fact nimp GR GR → 0 as nimp → 0.33) then becomes Re σxx = 2e2 Re 1 V Γ0. but the integrated weight is in fact zero as can be checked by performing an integration over ε. 0.3. k. (15. k)τ0 δ(ξk )ΓRA (k. The ﬁrst term is a peaked function at ε − ξk = 0. The solution follows from the integral equation Eq. (15.

When the coherence length φ exceeds the mean free path imp for impurity scattering. scattering on diﬀerent impurities can interfere. (14. At low temperatures the dominant dephasing mechanism is electron-electron scattering. .54). i. and as we know from Chap. m (15. 11. 10 that there was in practice only little diﬀerence between the ﬁrst Born and the full Born approximation.4 it was hinted that such interference processes are represented by crossing diagrams as in Fig. We saw in Chap. 15. 13 the scattering rate for these processes is proportional to T 2 . The reason is that even the full Born approximation depicted in Eq. typical coherence lengths are of the order 1-10 µm. As the temperature is lowered we expect quantum mechanical coherence to become more important because the phase coherence length φ increases with decreasing temperature.5. Due to these processes the phase of the electron wave acquires some randomization or “dephasing”. At liquid helium temperature. Here the coherence length means the scale on which the electrons preserve their quantum mechanical phase.47) Finally. the scale on which the wave function evolves according to the one-particle Schr¨dinger equao tion. spacing 104 -105 atomic lattice spacings. and its coherence length becomes ﬁnite. 4. If an electron interacts with another electron or with a phonon through an inelastic scattering event its energy changes. When inserted back into Eq. In this section we shall study in detail why that is.48) We thus ﬁnd full agreement with the semiclassical result obtained in the previous chapter. the conductivity formula (15. Quantum eﬀects such as interference between scattering on diﬀerent impurities can therefore not be incorporated within the Born approximation scheme. which does take into account multiple scattering does so only for multiple scatterings on the same impurity. we can go on to calculate various quantum corrections to the Drude formula. τ0 (15. In Sec.39).44) γ RA becomes γ RA = τ tr . and hence the evolution of its phase.41) at zero temperature is σ= e2 τ tr 1 m2 V 2 δ(ξk )kx = k e2 nτ tr . IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY Here the transport time τ tr is deﬁned as τ tr −1 ≡ 2π V nimp uRPA (k − k) |k |=kF 2 1− k·k k2 . 11.264 CHAPTER 15. corrections not obtainable in the Boltzmann approach.e. This is what we expected.2 K. and thereby having gained conﬁdence in the mathematical structure of the theory.46) This expression is precisely the transport time that we derived in the Boltzmann equation approach leading to Eq. Hence φ ∝ T −2 can become very large at suﬃciently low temperatures. (15. (11. (15.6. and below.4 The weak localization correction to the conductivity The Born approximation includes only scattering on one impurity at a time.

Lett. the cross-term expresses the interference.4. as discovered around 1985. Only the interference processes which are independent of the impurity positions survive self-averaging. the so-called self-averaging illustrated in Fig.2). around 1980 it was found through the observation of the so-called weak localization. Terms describing interference between the two scattering events will thus contain the factor eik·(R1 −R2 ) . If we can £ ¢ ¡§¤ ¢ ¦¡ ¡¥ © ¤ ¢ ¡ £ ¨ ¢£ ¡ @ B A@7 @ 9 78 5 65 4 ¡¤ % $ # "! (')% $& A@7 ¨¤£ 2) 3 0 25 5 41 0 .2. we follow an electron after it has been scattered to a state with momentum k by an impurity positioned at R1 . If the coherence length φ is longer than the mean free path 0 . so that when taking the absolute square |t1 +t2 |2 = |t1 |2 +|t2 |2 +2|t1 t2 | cos(φ1 −φ2 ). When the electron hits the next impurity at position R2 it has acquired a phase factor eiφ = eik·(R1 −R2 ) . However. Rev.2).15. 43. Naturally. that even in the case of large samples. (b) Experimental data from measurements on a PdAu ﬁlm by Dolan and Osheroﬀ. 0 L. and it is therefore intuitively clear that these terms vanish when one averages over R1 and R2 . and most notably cause the appearance of the universal conductance ﬂuctuations shown in Fig.1 the linear behavior at high temperatures is due to electron-phonon scattering. (11. most of the interference eﬀects disappear. To picture how averaging over impurity conﬁgurations inﬂuences the interference eﬀects. The relative phase φ1 − φ2 determines whether the contributions from the two paths interfere constructively or destructively. 721 (1979). 15. much more dramatic quantum eﬀects appear in small samples in the so-called mesoscopic regime (see also Chap. Phys. THE WEAK LOCALIZATION CORRECTION TO THE CONDUCTIVITY 265 Figure 15. but still smaller than the sample size L. showing that the low-temperature weak localization correction to the resistivity increases logarithmically as the temperature decreases. 11. In the following we study only the weak localization phenomenon appearing in large samples and not the universal conductance ﬂuctuations appearing in small samples. shown in Fig. Interference generally means that the amplitude for two paths t1 and t2 are added as t1 +t2 . In this regime all kinds of quantum interference processes become important. but now at low temperatures we have added the small but signiﬁcant increase due to the quantum interference known as weak localization. one very important class of interference processes survive φ the self-averaging. As in Fig. (11. 7) given by L φ .2: (a) A sketch of the electrical resistivity ρxx (T ) of a disordered metal as a function of temperature. This is because the limit φ L eﬀectively corresponds to averaging over many small independent segments.

Most remarkably. To study interference eﬀects between scattering at these two impurities we must expand to second order in the impurity potential. ) = GR (r. ) + 0 i GR (r. The interesting second order 4 The term “strong localization” is used for the so-called Anderson localization where a metal-insulator transition is induced in three dimensions at a critical strength of the disorder potential. and thus their relative phase φ1 −φ2 is always zero independent of the actual positions of the impurities. we now want to calculate the resulting correction to the conductivity. these two paths pick up exactly the same phase factor. ) = GR (r.266 CHAPTER 15. r . we have dr GR (r.50) GR (r. r . This is indeed possible. ﬁnd two paths where the relative phase is independent of the position of the impurities. Uimp . IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY Figure 15. First we recall the Dyson equation for the single-particle Green’s functions in an external potential. Having realized that the interference between time reversed paths survive impurity averaging. ikn → + iη. Thus for two such time-reversed paths there is always constructive interference. ¥¦¢ ¤¢ £ ¡ (15. Ri . two impurities located at R1 and R2 . 0 Let us look at a speciﬁc process where an electron scatters at. As a consequence there is an enhanced probability for returning to the same point. )U0 GR (Ri . hence the name “weak localization”4 . we have for the retarded Green’s function GR (r. )Uimp (r )GR (r . and two such paths are shown in Fig. Here the external potential is given by the impurity potential. the cross term would thus survive the impurity average. ).49) . i. r . The key observation is that for each path that ends in the starting point after a speciﬁc sequence of scattering events. r . which was derived in Chap. short range impurities located (15. 0 i U0 δ(r − Ri ). ). ) + 0 If we for simplicity assume Uimp (r) ≈ at the positions {Ri }. r . 15. 10.3: Illustration of the two interfering time-reversed paths discussed in the text. In order to do so we need to identify the corresponding diagrams. r . and the electrons therefore tend to be localized in space.3.e. there is a corresponding reverse path which scatters on the same impurities but in the opposite order. Writing it in the frequency domain and making analytic continuation. say. r .

)U0 GR (Q − p2 . If we however twist the lower branch such that the Green’s function run in opposite directions while the impurity lines cross. we set r = r at the end of the calculation. )U0 GR (R1 .3. Doing this and averaging over impurity positions R1 and R2 we ﬁnd the quantum correction δ|r|2 to the reﬂection. ) 0 0 0 × GR (r. )U0 GR (R2 . r . ) = GR (r. First the quantum correction due to interference to the transmission from r to r is δ|t(r. Nevertheless.51) These two terms correspond to the transmission amplitudes t1 and t2 discussed above and illustrated in Fig. GA (15. )U0 GA (p2 . R1 . R2 . r . In k-space one gets δ|r|2 imp ≡ δ|t(r = r )|2 1 ∝ Re 4 V imp GR (Q − p1 . R2 . r . )U0 GR (R1 . )U0 GR (R1 . )U0 GR (R1 . and because we want to ﬁnd the correction δ|r|2 to the reﬂection coeﬃcient. 0 0 0 (15. 11. These crossed diagrams were not included in the Born approximation. R2 . )U0 GR (R2 . ) 0 0 0 p1 p2 p3 Q × GA (p1 . Notice however that contrary to the usual diagram for conductance the Green’s function and the lower and upper branch run in same direction. R1 . (15. )U0 GA (p3 .61) with the upper lines being retarded and the lower lines being advanced Green’s functions. ) 0 0 0 + GR (r.54) This hints that the interference term coming from time reversed paths can be summed by taking diagrams of this form into account. The probability for the process is obtained from the absolute square of the Green’s function. ω)U0 GR (Q − p3 .15. R1 . ) 0 0 0 ∗ .4. and in fact they were shown in Sec. r .52) Now reﬂection is described by setting r = r . )U0 GR (R2 . the diagram looks like conductivity diagram if we furthermore join the retarded and advanced Green’s function like this GR δ|r|2 imp = GA I GR GA GR . 0 0 0 (15.53) This formula can be represented by a diagram similar to the last one in Eq. )U0 GR (R2 . r )|2 ∝ Re GR (r. R1 .5. which we used to derive the Boltzmann equation result. at low temperatures they do play a role as the leading . R2 . ). (15.4 to be smaller than the Born approximation by a factor 1/kF . 15. THE WEAK LOCALIZATION CORRECTION TO THE CONDUCTIVITY 267 terms (there are also less interesting ones where the electron scatters on the same impurities twice) are GR(2) (r. ). r .

this is a contribution which does not disappear upon self-averaging. This reversed . Let us twist the diagram in Eq. analogous to the normal ladder sum of Eq.55) (15. (15. Let us return to the Kubo formula for conductance. but as we shall see they nevertheless yield a divergent contribution.56) can be written as ˜ ˜ k k WL Πxx (˜) = q C ˜ ˜ ˜ k+q k +q ˜ =− 1 1 2 V2 (2m) ˜ dk N M .54) but with more crossing lines. We have now identiﬁed which diagrams we need to sum in order to get the leading quantum correction to the conductivity. This divergence stems from summing the interference of many time-reversed paths. down by a factor 1/kF vF τ0 (see the discussion in Fig. We write the current-current correlation function as Π = ΠB + ΠWL where ΠB is the Boltzmann result derived in the previous section. but now with the fermion lines running in the same direction. (15. Since we include crossed diagrams in the vertex function we should in principle also include these in the self-energy. The crossed diagrams we are about to evaluate are also small by the same factor. i. However.24). (15.268 CHAPTER 15. (15.6). and let us sum the maximally crossed diagrams. since they only give a small contribution. This class of diagrams are called the maximally crossed diagrams. It is straightforward to see that the corresponding diagrams are of the same type as (15.56) Then we see that the full series in Eq. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY quantum correction.. Most importantly. they can safely be ignored. There is however a trick which allows for a summation just like a ladder diagram. k .56) with for example three impurity lines so as to make the impurity lines parallel. q )G(k )G(k + q )(2kx + qx ). (15. This sum is diﬀerent from the ladder diagrams that we summed in the Born approximation.57) (15.e.. ˜ where the box C is a sum of parallel impurity lines. 11.58) ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ dk (2kx + qx )G(k)G(k + q )C(k. and where ΠWL (˜) = xx q + The full electron Green’s functions in these diagrams are as before the full Green’s function with an appropriately chosen self-energy. ΠWL(3) (˜) = q xx J K L + + . If we continue this line of reasoning we should include also diagrams where paths scattering on more than two impurities interfere with their time reversed counter parts.

63) The Green’s function G is here the Born approximation Green’s function which after analytic continuation is GR (k. ikn + iqn )G(p.59) (15. ikn )W0 .4. ikn + iqn )(2kx ).15. ε) = G(k. and denoting k + k ≡ Q the cooperon becomes k O P Q R S TU C ≡ + + = + C k Q−p Q−p Q−p C = + + k p p p p p p + . ikn )G(k . W0 = ni |u0 |2 ..62) This can then be inserted into the expression for the current-current correlation function ΠWL in Eq.61) Because the impurity scattering conserves Matsubara frequencies the upper fermion lines all carry the frequency ikn + iqn . (15. ikn ) V 1− (15. while the lower ones carry the frequency ikn . iqn ) = − xx 1 1 1 2 V2 β (2m) (2kx )G(k. (15. With these approximations. It is now straightforward to solve the Dyson-equation for the cooperon ladder and obtain p W0 G(Q − p. ikn + iqn ) ikn kk × C(k + k . ikn + iqn )G(p.64) where [τ0 ]−1 = 2πW0 d(εF )... ikn + iqn . It is now simple to ﬁnd the solution for the cooperon C. ikn → ε + iη) = 1 . The solution for the cooperon C is found from the following Dyson-like equation In order to simplify our calculation. ikn )G(k .. 1 p W0 G(Q − p.58) xx ΠWL (0. which couples two electron lines or two hole lines rather one electron line and one hole line. C. ε − ξk + i/2τ0 (15. ikn + iqn .60) k V W X Y C(Q. is called a cooperon. (15. (15. we only study the case q = 0. THE WEAK LOCALIZATION CORRECTION TO THE CONDUCTIVITY 269 ladder sum. . ikn )G(k. ikn ) = 1 V Q−p Q−p Q−p + . and furthermore we restrict the analysis to the case of short range impurities so that we can approximate W (q) by a constant.

0)C AR (k + k . (15. we obtain from (15.65) As in the previous section we have factors of GA GR appearing. 0). i. 0)GA (k . Furthermore.70) p 1 (vp · Q)2 .64) ζ(Q) becomes ζ(Q) = ni |u0 |2 1 V 1 1 . we have WL Re δσxx e2 = 2× 2π 1 m 2 1 V2 (kx kx )GR (k.69) where we have used the deﬁnition of the life time τ0 in the Born approximation.68) p To proceed further we must now evaluate the p-sum in ζ(Q). 0. (15. 0)GA (k.66) and (15. we study −1 the limit QvF τ0 1 or Q 0 = 1/vF τ0 . Consequently. V p (15. so we need to go to second order in Q ζ(Q) ≈ 1 + ni |u0 |2 1 + ni |u0 | V 2 1 V p 1 −ξp + i/2τ0 1 −ξp + i/2τ0 3 2 1 −ξp − i/2τ0 −vp · Q+ Q2 2m (15. followed by inserting the result into Eq.270 CHAPTER 15. However. Instead we evaluate the cooperon as follows. 2 + (1/2τ )2 ξ −∞ 0 dξ ∞ (15. −ξQ−p + i/2τ0 −ξp − i/2τ0 (15. Using Eq. Taking the dc-limit ω → 0 and the low temperature limit T → 0. (15. Here small means small compared the width τ0 of the spectral function. 0)GA (p. here we cannot replace them by delta functions.63) the weak localization correction by the replacements ikn + iqn → ε + ω + iη and ikn → ε − iη.68) for small −1 Q. (15. we study this contribution by expanding Eq. The dc conductivity is therefore dominated by the contribution from values of Q near zero.33) contributed in the limit of weak scattering and therefore we should replace ikn + iωn by a retarded frequency and ikn by an advanced frequency.69) it follows that C RA diverges in the limit of small Q and small frequency. 0)GR (k . (15. 1 − ζ(Q) ni |u0 |2 GR (Q − p. We begin by studying Q = 0. in which case we have ζ(0) = ni |u0 |2 d(εF ) 1 1 −ξ + i/2τ0 −ξ − i/2τ0 −∞ ∞ 1 = ni |u0 |2 d(εF ) dξ = ni |u0 |2 d(εF )2πτ0 = 1. After analytical continuation the cooperon in Eq. Combining Eqs.62) becomes C RA (Q) = ζ(Q) ≡ W0 ζ(Q) .67) where we have introduced the auxiliary function ζ(Q). Likewise. by symmetry arguments the term linear in Q vanish.66) (15. because k and k are connected through C RA (k + k ). (15. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY In the previous section we learned that only the GA GR term in Eq. −ξp − i/2τ0 . 0).e. kk (15.33).

71) 1 2πτ0 dξ −∞ Q2 vF 2 1 . THE WEAK LOCALIZATION CORRECTION TO THE CONDUCTIVITY 271 where it is indeed seen that the term linear in Q is zero because vp is an odd function of p. Now transforming the sum into integrations over ξ and performing the angular integrations. 0)GA (−k. DQ2 (15. (15. we can approximate Q − k by just −k and obtain 1 V 2 kx GR (k. 0)GA (Q − k. v F 2 τ0 . −ξ − i/2τ0 Ndim where Ndim is the number of dimensions. 0).75) Because the important contribution comes from Q ≈ 0.77) e2 =− π kF m 2 2τ0 1 Ndim V Q< −1 1 DQ2 (15.73) = v F τ0 . (15. 0. 0)GA (k.74) −1 D being the diﬀusion constant. 0) = W0 (1 − Dτ0 Q2 ) W0 1 ≈ .76) First we perform the sum over k. Closing the contour in the lower part of the complex ξ plan.15. and we end up with ζ(Q) ≈ 1 − where 0 1 Q2 Ndim 2 0 ≡ 1 − Dτ0 Q2 . We emphasize that Eq. Since Q < −1 .73) is only valid for Q 0 . and hence smaller than the width of the 0 spectral function. we ﬁnd that ζ(Q) ≈ 1 + 2πi 2πτ0 1 i/τ0 2 Q2 + 2m 1 i/τ0 3 Q2 vF 2 .4. 2 Dτ0 Q τ0 DQ2 (15.78) . 0)GA (k. δσ W L in Eq. 0) = d(εF ) k 2 4πkF 2 kF Ndim ∞ dξ −∞ 1 ξ 2 + (1/2τ0 )2 2 = From this follows δσ WL Ndim 3 d(εF )τ0 . With this result for ζ(Q) inserted into (15. we ﬁnd ζ(Q) ≈ 1 + + 1 2πτ0 ∞ dξ −∞ ∞ 1 −ξ + i/2τ0 1 −ξ + i/2τ0 3 2 1 −ξ − i/2τ0 Q2 2m (15. Ndim (15.65) becomes δσ WL e2 = 2× π 1 m 2 W0 1 τ0 V 2 2 (−kx )GR (k.Q< −1 0 1 GR (Q − k. 0)GR (−k. τ0 dominates over τ0 . Ndim (15. (15. 0) k. D= (15.72) −1 3 2 To leading order in τ0 .66) we obtain the ﬁnal result for the cooperon C RA (Q.

which amounts to 1 V 1 = DQ2 Q< −1 0 Q< −1 0 dQ 1 ∝ (2π)Ndim DQ2 Q< −1 0 dQ QNdim −1 . i. This can be modelled by including a factor e−γ in the impurity potential so that instead of W0 we write W0 e−γ . To properly describe the breaking of phase coherence between the time-reversed paths one should include coupling to other degrees of freedom such as coupling to phonons or electronelectron scatterings. We can now return to (15. This is a physical sensible result. 0. Physically this is because we have allowed interference between path of inﬁnite length. two and three dimensions. With this modiﬁcation. or equivalently to the number of impurity scattering events involved in the path. Here we choose to do this in a phenomenological fashion instead. respectively 1 1 dQ = Ndim 1/τ + DQ2 (2π) φ 1/ 0 0 dQ 1 1/τφ + DQ2 1 π τφ D π 1 2π Q 1 Q2 2π 2 tan−1 Dτφ 2 0 . DQ2 (15. In a real system the electron cannot maintain coherence over arbitrarily long distances due to scattering processes that cause decoherence. 0. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY We are then left with the Q-integration.81) (15. which does not occur in reality. γ = 0 / φ . (15. (15. and hence the cooperon gets modiﬁed as W0 .83) − 2π 2 D tan−1 . τ0 1/τφ + DQ2 (15. Clearly a path with n scatterings will then carry a factor e−nγ . the sample size L must of course replace φ as a cut-oﬀ length. We must therefore ﬁnd a method to cut-oﬀ these unphysical paths. 1D 2D Dτφ 2 0 = 1 4Dπ 1 2π 2 D 0 ln 1 + 1 √ Dτφ Dτφ 2 0 . 0) W0 1 . because paths longer than the sample should not be included.80) In the limit of large φ (15. 0) = C RA (Q. The parameter γ is then interpreted as the amount of decoherence experienced within a mean free path. 1 − e−γ + e−γ DQ2 τ0 or small γ.61) has a probability of being destroyed by a scattering event and that this probability is proportional to the length of the path.79) It is evident that this integral is divergent in the small Q limit in both one and two dimensions. If the phase coherence length becomes larger than the sample. Let us suppose that each path in the sum over paths in Eq. the function ζ(Q) is changed into ζ(Q.272 CHAPTER 15.79) and evaluate the integral in one. we therefore have C RA (Q. It says that the paths corresponding to a diﬀusion time longer than the phase breaking time cannot contribute to the interference eﬀect. 3D .e. ω) ≈ e−γ 1 − Dτ0 Q2 .82) where τφ = φ/ vF .

it does not depend on the details of the material or the impurity concentration. one can apply a magnetic ﬁeld which breaks the time-reversal symmetry giving rise to the fundamental interference between time-reversed paths.5. 1D WL τ δσ ∝ (15. In fact it can be shown that a quantum particle in a one dimensional disordered potential is always localized. See also Exercise 14.85) δσ2D ≈ − 2 ln 2π τ0 This result is “universal” since. COMBINED RPA AND BORN APPROXIMATION 273 which in the limit of large τφ gives us information about the importance of the quantum corrections: − (τφ )1/2 .2.4 . 15. Indeed δρ ∝ −δσ ∝ ln τφ ∝ − ln T as is measured and shown in Fig. The phase coherence can be changed in two ways. (15. Two dimensions is in between these two cases.5 Combined RPA and Born approximation This section will be added in the next edition of these notes. decreasing the tem−1 perature increases the phase coherence time τφ ∝ T α . Foremost.15. because here the correction is small. That it is a small correction to the Drude conductivity can be seen from the ratio WL δσ2D 1 =− σ0 πkF ln 0 τφ τ0 . in the one-dimensional case it tells us that in one dimension the localization correction is enormously important and may exceed the Drude result. which states that due to the localization correction the conductivity decreases with increasing phase coherence time. For the two dimensional case we have τφ e2 WL .86) A way to measure this eﬀect is to change the phase coherence time τφ and to look at the change of conductivity. Furthermore. 15. 3D. and a logarithmic increase of the conductivity is to be expected. and it is in this case that the term “weak” localization makes sense. (15. 2D 0 (τ )−1/2 . apart from the logarithmic factor.84) − ln τφ . Secondly. In three dimensions the situation is more subtle. φ This is an important result. there a metal-insulator transition occurs at a critical value of the disorder strength.

274 CHAPTER 15. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY .

4) and in the lattice phonon Hamiltonian Eq. (3.10) and (3. The point of departure is the second quantization formulation of the phonon problem presented in Chap. We derive the one-electron Green’s function in the presence of both the electron-electron and the electron-phonon interaction. e. Then we apply the Green’s function technique to the electronphonon interaction problem. Finally.g. in particular the bosonic phonon creation and annihilation operators b† −q. (3.2) . (3.43). kσ qλ (16. A† ≡ b† + b−qλ = A−qλ . the phonon-induced instability which is the origin of superconductivity. (3.Chapter 16 Green’s functions and phonons In this chapter we develop and apply the Green’s function technique for free phonons and for the electron-phonon interaction. We also show how the high frequency Einstein phonons in the free-phonon jellium model become renormalized and become the usual low-frequency acoustic phonons once the electron-phonon interaction is taken into account. we prove the existence of the so-called Cooper instability of the electron gas. qλ qλ (16.λ introduced in Eqs.1) The phonon operator Aqλ can be interpreted as removing momentum q from the phonon system either by annihilating a phonon with momentum q or by creating one with momentum −q.41) and Hel−ph in Eq.σ ckσ Aqλ . Hel−ph Aqλ ≡ bqλ + b† −qλ . but rather the operators Aqλ and A† deﬁned as qλ INA It follows from all the Hamiltonians describing electron-phonon interactions.λ and bq.23). 3. We ﬁrst deﬁne and study the Green’s functions for free phonons in both the jellium model and the lattice model. (3. With these prerequisites the non-interacting phonons are described by Hph and the electron-phonon interaction by Hel−ph as follows: Hph = qλ Ωqλ b† bqλ + qλ 1 .22) and appearing in the jellium phonon Hamiltonian Eq. 16. that the relevant phonon operators to consider are not the individual phonon creation and annihilation operators.1 The Green’s function for free phonons jel in Eq. 2 Hel−ph = 275 1 V gqλ c† k+q.

17) and introduce the 0 bosonic Matsubara Green’s function Dλ (q. iqn ) ≡ β 0 0 dτ eiqn τ Dλ (q.18) with a plus-sign. (16. .276 CHAPTER 16.9) 1 1 2 2 1 This expression is also valid in the grand canonical ensemble governed by Hph − µN . . iqn − Ωqλ iqn + Ωqλ (iqn )2 − (Ωqλ )2 (16.5) 0 0 The speciﬁc forms for Dλ (q. τ ) ≡ − Tτ Aqλ (τ )A† (0) qλ 0 ˆ ˆ = − Tτ Aqλ (τ )A−qλ (0) 0 . and thus minimizing the free energy gives ∂F/∂N ≡ µ = 0. for τ < 0. nk2 σ2 . bqλ ). iqn ) = 2 Ωqλ 1 1 − = . . |Nq λ . 0 Dλ (q. .3. .1 with the substitutions (ν. τ ). cν ) → (qλ. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS AND PHONONS Since Hph does not depend on time.2 Electron-phonon interaction and Feynman diagrams We next turn to the problem of treating the electron-phonon interaction perturbatively using the Feynman diagram technique. Nq λ . (16. in this section we do not take the Coulomb interaction between the electrons into account. 16. The frequency representation of the free phonon Green’s function follows by applying Eq.4) where Tτ is the bosonic time ordering operator deﬁned in Eq.5) deﬁne the ˆ phonon operators Aqλ (τ ) in the imaginary time interaction picture1 ˆ Aqλ (τ ) ≡ eτ Hph Aqλ e−τ Hph . . (16. |Ψbasis = |nk1 σ1 . (10. . τ ) for free phonons.7) where we have used that nB (Ωqλ ) = 1/ exp(βΩqλ ) − 1 . 2 (16.25).6) while in the frequency domain we obtain 0 Dλ (q. τ ) and Dλ (q. (10.106) the basis states are given in terms of simple outer product states described by the electron occupation numbers nkσ and the phonon occupation numbers Nqλ . and as in Eq. This is because the number of phonons can vary. (10. The unperturbed Hamiltonian is the sum of the free electron and free phonon Hamiltonians. (10. (1. iqn ) are found using the boson results of Sec. Hel and Hph . Ωqλ .8) When governed solely by H0 the electronic and phononic degrees of freedom are completely decoupled. (16. H0 = Hel + Hph = kσ εk c† ckσ + kσ qλ Ωqλ b† bqλ + qλ 1 .3) With this imaginary-time boson operator we can follow Eq. we can in accordance with Eq. εν . 0 ˆ ˆ Dλ (q. (16. In the imaginary time domain we ﬁnd 0 Dλ (q. τ ) = − nB (Ωqλ ) + 1 e−Ωqλ τ − nB (Ωqλ ) eΩqλ τ −nB (Ωqλ ) e−Ωqλ τ − nB (Ωqλ ) + 1 eΩqλ τ . for τ > 0. For clarity. . 10. . ωn = 2nπ/β.

. (16.79) for boson operators to break down the n-particle phonon Green’s function to a product of n single-particle Green’s functions of the form gq λ gq i i j λj ˆ ˆ Tτ Aq λ (τi )Aq i i j λj (τj ) 0 = ˆ ˆ |gq λ |2 Tτ Aq λ (τi )A−q λ (τj ) i i i i i i 0 δqj .−qi δλ . For each value of n . Hence we end up with the prefactor (−1/2)n /n!. Next. (12. ELECTRON-PHONON INTERACTION AND FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS 277 What happens then as the electron-phonon interaction Hel−ph of Eq. P (τm )ˆkσ (τ ) c† (0) β 0 (−1)m m! . In analogy with Eq.ˆ† m σ (τm )ˆkσ (τm ) c ck+q c 1 . . ..11) At ﬁrst sight the two single-electron Green’s functions in Eqs.10) dτ1 . . τ ) = − m=0 (−1)m m! ∞ m=0 β 0 β dτ1 .2) is turned on? We choose to answer this question by studying the single-electron Green’s function Gσ (k.5) we use the interaction picture representation. all choices leading to the same result. a factor n!/2n from all possible ways to combine the remaining n momenta to the chosen ones and symmetrizing the pairs. A sign (−1)n appears from one minus sign in each of the n factors of the form Eq. (16. ..13) Note how the thermal average forces the paired momenta to add up to zero.ˆ† m σ (τm )ˆkσ (τm ) c ck+q c (τ1 ).10) can be written as a product of a phononic and an electronic thermal average.16.1) that only an even number of phonon operators will lead to a non-zero contribution in the equilibrium thermal average. (16..10) is modiﬁed as follows. (16.. so we now write m = 2n.. (16. τi −τj )δqj . (12. 0 ˆ ˆ dτm Tτ P (τ1 ) . .13). (12. and substitutes the two-particle interaction Hamiltonian W (τ ) ˆ (τ ) with the electron-phonon interaction P ∞ Gσ (k. .. we use Wick’s theorem Eq. And ﬁnally. P (τm ) 0 ˆ ˆ where the W (τ )-integral of Eq.Aqm λm (τm ) 0 Tτ c† ˆk+q σ (τ1 )ˆkσ (τ1 ).λ i j = −|gq λ | i i 2 0 Dλ (qi . (16. ˆ Tτ Aq 1 λ1 1 λ1 ˆ ck+q σ (τ1 )ˆkσ (τ1 ).6) is changed into a P (τ )-integral.λ .2.10) seems to ˆ ˆ be quite diﬀerent since W (τ ) contains four electron operators and P (τ ) only two. we shall now show that the two expressions in fact are very similar. First we note that because the electronic and phononic degrees of freedom decouple the thermal average of the integrand in the m’th term of say the denominator in Eq. In the ﬁnal combinatorics the prefactor (−1)m /m! = 1/(2n)! of Eq.5) and (16. c (16.σ (τj )ˆkσ (τj ) Aqλ (τj ). β 0 0 ˆ ˆ c ˆkσ dτm Tτ P (τ1 ) . β 0 1 ˆ dτj P (τj ) = V dτj kσ qλ ˆ gqλ c† ˆk+q. τ ). Then a factor (2n)!/(n!n!) appears from choosing the n momenta qj among the 2n to be the independent momenta. . but ˆ now in momentum space. (10. i j (16.−qi δλ . . (16. However.Aqm λm (τm )ˆ† 1 0 = 0 ˆ Tτ Aq ˆ (τ1 ).12) It is clear from Eq..

(2. ˆk ck c c V qλ (16. 0 and 2n internal fermion lines Gσ (pj .14) dτ1 . τi −τj ) 2V 2 qλ (16. ˆk ck c c From this interaction operator we can identify a new type of electron-electron interaction ph Vel−el mediated by the phonons ph Vel−el = 1 2V k1 σ1 k2 σ2 qλ 1 0 |g |2 Dλ (q. . ikn ). .σ1 (τj )ˆ† 2 −q. ∞ Gσ (k. τi −τj ). P(τn ) 0 ˆ ˆ where the P(τ )-integral substituting the original P (τ )-integral of Eq. 0 dτn ˆ ˆ Tτ P(τ1 ) . ikn 0 ≡ Gσ (k. and we end with the following single-electron Green’s function.17) . non-local in time.10) is given by the eﬀective two-particle interaction operator β 0 ˆ dτi P(τi ) = β 0 β dτi × 0 dτj k1 σ1 k2 σ2 qλ 1 0 |g |2 Dλ (q. ˜ ˜ (16. iqn ). i. (16.e.e. however. τi −τj ) c† 1 +q. incoming momenta must equal the outgoing. the phononmediated interaction is retarded. and no spin ﬂipping. .24): (1) (2) (3) (4) Fermion lines with four-momentum orientation: Phonon lines with four-momentum orientation: kσ.278 CHAPTER 16. 1 Multiply by βV for each internal four-momentum p and perform the sum pσλ .34). . . (16. τ ) = − n=0 (−1)n n! ∞ n=0 β 0 β dτ1 . is the same as for the Coulomb interactions Eq. i. iqn Conserve the spin and four-momentum at each vertex. . (12.15) c† 1 +q. . GREEN’S FUNCTIONS AND PHONONS ˆ the 2n operators P (τi ) form n pairs.σ2 (τi )ˆk2 σ2 (τi )ˆk1 σ1 (τj ). iqn ) qλ. two external fermion lines Gσ (k. ikn ) (5) (6) 0 1 ≡ − V |gqλ |2 Dλ (q. Multiply each fermion loop by −1. P(τn )ˆkσ (τ ) c† (0) c ˆkσ β 0 (−1)n n! . β 0 0 ˆ ˆ dτn Tτ P(τ1 ) .16) This interaction operator resembles the basic two-particle Coulomb interaction operator Eq.σ2 (τi )ˆk2 σ2 (τi )ˆk1 σ1 (τj ). The derivation of the Feynman rules in Fourier space. ipj ). . At order n draw all topologically diﬀerent connected diagrams containing n 0 1 0 oriented phonon lines − V |gqλ |2 Dλ (q.σ1 (τj )ˆ† 2 −q. regarding both the operators and 0 the coupling strength (1/V) |gqλ |2 Dλ (q. All vertices must contain an incoming and an outgoing fermion line as well as a phonon line. but while the Coulomb interaction is instantaneous or local in time.

21) 16. The resulting. if we consider the interaction between the ions and the electron gas assuming the latter to be homogeneous and completely inert.16. Note that we have dropped in the last equality in accordance with the convention introduced in Sec. (16. The latter states that it is a good approximation to consider the coordinates Ri of the slowly moving. In the second stage the values of Ri are then changed adiabatically.19) which not surprisingly is proportional to the Coulomb interaction W (q). heavy ions as parameters in the Schr¨dinger o equation for the fast moving. 1 1 |gq |2 = V V Ze2 q 0 2 e2 Ω 1 N = = W (q) Ω. Ωq = Ω = Z 2 e2 N . bare. iqn ) = W (q) . 3. which is then solved. (3. (2. 3. In Fig.1 Migdal’s theorem When the electron-phonon coupling Hel−ph is added. In the case of an ion density ρ0 = N/V we found the ion dispersion-less jellium phonon modes in the long wave length limit.20) To discuss the role of the electron dynamics we now add the electron-electron Coulomb interaction Vel−el of Eq. the question naturally arises of whether to study the inﬂuence of the electrons on the ions before that of the ions on the electrons. 5. 0M V (16. For simplicity we henceforth study only longitudinal phonons and hence drop all reference to the polarization index λ.1.1 we have already sketched the ion plasma oscillation that occurs.34) and study the full Hamiltonian H for the electronic and phononic system.18) The coupling constant for the electron-electron interaction mediated by these jellium phonons is found by combining Eqs. A complete calculation is rather tedious. phonon-mediated electron-electron interaction is Ω2 1 |gq |2 D0 (q.3. The answer is provided by Migdal’s theorem.3 Combining Coulomb and electron-phonon interactions We now discuss the eﬀect of the long range Coulomb interactions between electrons and ions and between electrons themselves. H = Hel + Vel−el + Hph + Hel−ph . 2 2 2M Ω 2 0q (16. This theorem is the condensed matter physics analogue to the well-known Born-Oppenheimer approximation of molecular physics.44) and (16. disregarding all the dynamics of the electrons. i. light electrons.1 we studied the ion plasma oscillations in the jellium model neglecting the electron dynamics. it can be proven by phase space arguments that renormalization of the electron-phonon vertex is suppressed at least by a .e. V (iqn )2 − Ω2 (16. Likewise. COMBINING COULOMB AND ELECTRON-PHONON INTERACTIONS 279 16. but in Sec. or vice versa.18).3.

yields the following bare. |iqn | ωD . eﬀective electron-electron interaction line. the two internal electron propagators are conﬁned within ωD to the Fermi surface. Eq. as shown in the following section.21).2 Jellium phonons and the eﬀective electron-electron interaction In more realistic calculations involving interacting electrons we need to consider the sum of the pure electronic Coulomb interaction and the phonon-mediated interaction.22) is correct we can prove the assumed phonon renormalization. respectively.22) The proof builds on a self-consistency assumption. Furthermore. M (16.37) the typical (acoustic) phonon interaction line for low frequencies. iqn ) ≡ + . Ω. (12.24) . is −W (q)/εRPA . ≈ m × M . (16. The result of the analysis is that the assumption for Migdal’s theorem indeed is fulﬁlled. a phase space factor of the order ωD /εF must appear in front of the usual unrestricted contribution from two such lines. (13. If these phonons are used we can prove Eq. the pairbubble of Eq.5) at the ﬁrst and third equality sign. (16. We assume that the high frequency jellium phonons. We will just outline the proof of Migdal’s theorem here by studying the simplest phonon correction to the electron-phonon vertex. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS AND PHONONS factor m/M ∼ 10−2 .22) contains one phonon interaction line and two electron propagators more than the diagram on the right hand side. get renormalized by electron screening processes to the experimentally observed low frequency acoustic phonons. 1 0 −W (q) − V |gq |2 D0 (q. due to four-momentum conservation.280 CHAPTER 16. thus we concentrate on phonon frequencies ωq < ωD .23) where we have used Eqs.22) and (3. 16. This combined interaction will be the basis for our analysis of the interacting electron gas henceforth. The diagram on the left hand side in Eq.24) and (16. Combining the Feynman rules for these two interactions. where m and M are the masses of the electron and ion. (13.17). The important frequencies for acoustic phonons are smaller than the Debye frequency ωD . χ0 = −d(εF ). In the following we assume that we can neglect the phonon-induced renormalization of the electron-phonon vertex.22). (16. iqn ) −Veﬀ (q. according to Eq. The ratio between the values of the two diagrams is therefore roughly given by ωD vs k ω W (q) = 1 D =2 × D × d(εF ) = εRPA εF εF 2 vF kF Z 3 m kD ≈ M kF m . and if. (16. We therefore study only the inﬂuence of the electronic degrees of freedom on the bare phonon degrees of freedom. ωq = vs q. Consequently. respectively. (16. Now. (16. Eqs.3.

and that Veﬀ (q. Migdal’s theorem leads us to disregard renormalization due to phonon processes 0 and only to consider the most important electron processes.4. let us remind ourselves of the following expressions from Chap. 0 The speciﬁc form of Veﬀ is obtained by inserting Eq. ω 2 − Ω2 + i˜ η (16.16. Since Veﬀ (q) is proportional to the bare Coulomb interaction.4. 0 Veﬀ (q. Eqs. 13. 16. 13. 16. ω).1(a). see Sec.24). eﬀective electron-electron interaction Veﬀ (q. It is seen that the bare. ω) → W (q) for ω → ∞. at low frequencies the electron-phonon interaction combined with the originally fully repulsive Coulomb interaction results in an attractive eﬀective electron-electron interaction. (16. ω) → W RPA (q) for ω → ∞. these processes.66) between the dielectric function εRPA . ω) as a function of the real frequency ω for a given momentum q. (iqn )2 − Ω2 (iqn )2 − Ω2 (16. (16.1: (a) The real part of the bare. (13.26) 0 The real part of Veﬀ (q. in the limit high electron densities are given by RPA. iqn → ω + iη.e. At high frequencies the normal Coulomb interaction is recovered.25) or going to real frequencies. Note that the interaction is 0 attractive for frequencies ω less than the jellium phonon frequency Ω. according to our main result in Chap. the § ! © ¨ ¥¦ £ ¢ ¡ § § © ¦§¨ ¤ ¥ £ ¢ ¡ .20) into Eq. Now. iqn ) = W (q) + W (q) Ω2 (iqn )2 = W (q) . (b) The same for the RPA renormalized eﬀective electron-electron RPA interaction Veﬀ (q. and Veﬀ (q. eﬀective electron-electron interaction. eﬀective electron-electron interaction becomes negative for ω < Ω. i. 16. ω) is shown in Fig.4 Phonon renormalization by electron screening in RPA The electronic Coulomb interaction renormalizes the bare.61)–(13. 0 Veﬀ (q. PHONON RENORMALIZATION BY ELECTRON SCREENING IN RPA 281 0 Figure 16. ω) = W (q) ω2 . the interaction is attractive for frequencies ω RPA less than the acoustic phonon frequency ωq . Before we consider how the phonon propagator is renormalized by the electronic RPA.

iqn ) = 1 − W (q)χ0 (q. Here the renormalized coupling gq q RPA gq ≡ is the sum of all diagrams between the outgoing left [incoming right] vertex and the ﬁrst [last] phonon line. we now extend the RPA-result Eq. 1 − W χ0 1 − W χ0 ε (q.68) for W RPA and obtain RPA −Veﬀ (q. iqn ) χ0 (q. −DRPA (q. (16. iqn ) = = −D0 (q. iqn ) V |gq |2 D0 (q. iqn ) = = 1− = 0 −Veﬀ (q) . The solution for the RPA renormalized phonon line is −DRPA (q. iqn ) (16. iqn ). iqn ) RPA [ g RPA ]. 0 1 − Veﬀ (q) χ0 (q. iqn ) has the standard form RPA −Veﬀ (q. (16.32) 1− RPA .27a) (16.27c) εRPA (q. χRPA (q.29) RPA While this expression is correct. iqn ) ε (q. iqn ). (13.27b) (16.31) .e. iqn ) . GREEN’S FUNCTIONS AND PHONONS RPA density-density correlator −χRPA = . a physically more transparent form of Veﬀ is obtained by expanding the inﬁnite series Eq. iqn ) = = + RPA is the sum of all diagrams between the ﬁrst and the last phonon line. while collecting the remaining diagrams containing a mix of Coulomb and phonon interaction lines into another sum. iqn ) −W RPA (q) − V |gq |2 DRPA (q. (16. i. without contributions from the external coupling vertices.28) RPA The solution for Veﬀ (q. (16.30) = + RPA .282 CHAPTER 16. χ0 (q. iqn ) (16. iqn ) = RPA . iqn ) = = + . iqn ) = 1 − W (q)χ0 (q. 1 1 − χRPA (q. and the simple pair-bubble −χ0 = . iqn ) Returning to the electron-phonon problem. 1 RPA RPA −Veﬀ (q.28). (16. and then collecting all the diagrams containing only Coulomb interaction lines into one sum (this simply yields the RPA screened Coulomb interaction W RPA ).33) = + ∗ . iqn ) = 1 + = = RPA . while the renormalized phonon line DRPA (q. (16. iqn ) W χ0 1 1 1 + W (q)χRPA (q.

= 2 2 W (q)χRPA (q. iqn ) = where ωq ≡ Ω εRPA (q.20) and then Eq.23) that in this limit εRPA (q. (13.20) where the unscreened phonon frequency Ω and the unscreened Coulomb interaction W (q) have been replaced by their RPA screened counterparts ωq and W (q)/εRPA . εRPA 0 M (iqn )2 − Ω2 2Ω 2Ω . By introducing the electron-electron interaction the Coulomb forces get screened.38) This we recognize as the Bohm-Staver expression Eq. (16. long wave length limit. iqn ) = Z 2 e2 ρ0 ion = εRPA 0 M Ze2 ρ0 el .36). (3. iq ) ε n = |gq |2 /V ωq (q → 0. The signiﬁcance of this result is that starting from the microscopic Hamiltonian Eq.34) and (16. The long range Coulomb forces of the non-interacting problem resulted in optical jellium phonons with the high frequency Ω. (16. (16.4.16.66) 2 and (13. (16. We end by stating the main result of this section. We note from Eqs. (16. 3M F (16. In more elementary treatments this spectrum is derived by postulating short range forces following Hooke’s law. namely the explicit form of the eﬀective electron-electron interaction due to the combination of the Coulomb and the . RPA gq ≡ (16.27c) leads to DRPA (q.37) We now see that this renormalized propagator is identical to the free phonon propagator Eq.35) for ωq in the static.35) is the renormalized phonon frequency due to electronic RPA screening.35) and using the relation kF = 3π el q 1 RPA 2 RPA |g | D (q. RPA (q. iq ) (iqn )2 − ωq −Ω n 283 (16. 2 ωq 2Ω W (q) = RPA .5) for the dispersion of acoustic phonons in the jellium model. iqn ) → ks /q 2 = (4kF /πa0 )/q 2 . 0) = Ze2 ρ0 el q= 2 ks 0 M Zm v q. but before doing so we study how also the coupling RPA constant gq gets renormalized in RPA and acquire the value gq . respectively. In a moment we shall interpret this new frequency. 2 2 2 2 ε (iqn )2 − ωq εRPA (iqn ) − ωq (16. Inserting this into 3 2 ρ0 yields the following explicit form of ω : Eq. iqn ) = − V q = + RPA = (1 + W χRPA ) gq = gq .36) The ﬁnal form of the RPA screened phonon-mediated electron-electron interaction is now obtained by combining Eqs. we have used the Feynman diagram technique to show how the phonon spectrum gets renormalized by interacting with the electron gas.21) for the coupled electron and phonon problem. (16.7) and (16. A further physical interpretation of this result is obtained by evaluating the expression Eq.34) (16. but now we have proven it from ﬁrst principles. and as a result the phonon dispersion gets renormalized to the usual low frequency acoustic dispersion ωq = vs q. PHONON RENORMALIZATION BY ELECTRON SCREENING IN RPA Using ﬁrst Eqs. (16.

Λ which is equivalent to the following integral equation RPA ˜ ˜ ˜ Λ(k.5. 16. iqn ) rapidly approaches W RPA (q) for frequencies larger than the given acoustic phonon frequency ωq .42) RPA To proceed we make a simplifying assumption regarding the functional form of Veﬀ (q. (16. (16.5 The Cooper instability and Feynman diagrams In 1956 Cooper discovered that the electron gas in an ordinary metal would become unstable below a certain critical temperature Tc due to the phonon-induced attractive RPA nature of the eﬀective electron-electron interaction Veﬀ (q.284 electron-phonon interaction. According to Eq. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS AND PHONONS ! −˜↓ p (iqn )2 .40) ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ k↑ p↑ ˜ k↑ p↑ ˜ k↑ k1 ↑ p↑ ˜ k↑ k1 ↑ k2 ↑ p↑ ˜ Suppressing all arguments and stripping away the external electron propagators we can recast Eq. see Eq.. ˜ q 0 q q ˜ q ˜ (16. This means that most of .. Cooper and Schrieﬀer (BCS) to develop the microscopic theory explaining superconductivity. The divergence is due to repeated scattering between electron pairs occupying time-reversed states of the form |k ↑ and ˜ |−k ↓ . 2 (iqn )2 − ωq (16. is proportional to ε2 or ωq for frequencies less than the Debye frequency ωD = vs kD and zero otherwise.40) in the form of a Dyson equation for the pair-scattering vertex Λ. p) = −Veﬀ (k− p) + ˜ " #$%& '( ) −˜↓ p ˜ −k↓ −˜↓ p ˜ −k↓ ˜ −k1 ↓ ˜ ˜ k−k1 ˜ −k↓ ˜ −k1 ↓ ˜ ˜ k−k1 ˜ −k2 ↓ −˜↓ p Λ = ˜ p k−˜ + ˜ p k1−˜ + ˜ ˜ ˜ p k2−k1 k2−˜ + . iqn ) from W RPA (q).1(b). iqn ). iqn ) = + = −W RPA (q) ˜ −k↓ CHAPTER 16.41) 1 Vβ 0 RPA ˜ − Veﬀ (k− q ) G↑ (˜) G↓ (−˜) Λ(˜. (16. RPA Veﬀ (q. see also Fig. We will ﬁrst derive this divergence. (3. The instability arises because a certain class of electron-electron scattering processes when added coherently yields a divergent scattering amplitude. the density 2 of phonon states. and then we will discuss its physical interpretation.27). First we note that according to our analysis of the electron gas in Chap. This discovery soon lead Bardeen. while it becomes attractive instead of repulsive for frequencies below ωq . 3.39) and Fig.39) 16. 13 no instabilities arise due to the pure Coulomb interaction. Using the four-momentum notation k = (k. ω) at low frequencies. p) = given by the inﬁnite ladder-diagram sum over scattering events between time-reversed electron pairs: (16. Sec. iqn ) −W RPA (q) − V |gq |2 DRPA (q. according to the Debye model of acoustic phonons.1(b): 1 RPA RPA −Veﬀ (q. In this section we will derive the Cooper instability using Feynman diagrams. p). ikn ) we consider the following pair ˜ ˜ scattering vertex Λ(k. 16. = + Λ . Thus we are really only interested in RPA the deviations of Veﬀ (q. Dion (ε). Further.

iqn ) q 0 G↓ (−q.44) we can take Λ outside the sum. since the eﬀective pair-interaction is attractive only for energy exchanges less than ωD .e. As T is lowered the denominator in Eq. and a new ground state is formed involving bound electron pairs in time-reversed states. in the present case the formation of a bound state between the time-reversed pair of electrons.5.45) We see that at high temperatures. THE COOPER INSTABILITY AND FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS 285 the phonons encountered have a frequency of the order ωD . iqn ) = 1/(iqn − εq ) . β 1/oD. The conclusion is clear: if the pair-interaction strength Λ diverge for a certain critical temperature Tc . for the on-set of the Cooper instability is 0 obtained by setting the denominator in Eq. which we naturally denote Λ. p) thus only involves frequencies less than ωD . The critical temperature T = Tc . p) to be a constant. and solve for it: V V 1− β |iqn |<ωD Λ= 1 V 0 G↑ (q. hence a consistent solution is obtained by taking Λ(k. i.44) The summand on the right hand side does not contain the external momentum k. or β = βc . RPA Veﬀ (q. we set the interaction strength to be constant. But in our model this would then happen simultaneously for all electron pairs within a shell of thickness ωD of the Fermi surface. the resulting pair-interaction Λ equals the attractive pair-interaction strength V from Eq.−iqn ) Λ(q.45) to zero using Gσ (q.16. p) in the summand we can write Λ(p). whence for the left hand side we conclude Λ(k. and the on-set of it marks the transition from a normal metallic state to a superconducting state. In quantum mechanics an inﬁnite scattering amplitude signals a resonance. |iqn | > ωD . the entire Fermi-surface becomes unstable at that temperature. p) = V + β ωD iqn 1 V 0 0 V G↑ (q. Finally.−iqn ) .43) ˜ ˜ The integral equation for Λ(k. p) = Λ(p). On the right hand side of Eq. and for those it takes the form 1 Λ(k. q (16. (16. (16.43). Now it is furthermore evident that the p-dependence occurs only in the Λ-function. (16. iqn ) ≈ (16. (16. Hence we arrive at the model used by Cooper and by BCS: −V. and thus for Λ(q. i. as a last simpliﬁcation.e.45) can approach zero from above resulting in an arbitrarily strong or divergent pair-interaction strength Λ. |iqn | < ωD 0. iqn ) G↓ (−q. (16. This instability is called the Cooper instability. It is therefore a reasonable approximation to set ωq = ωD . p).

47) Two important comments can be made at this stage. Consequently. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS AND PHONONS n+ 1 2 : 1 V d(εF ) 1 1 V = iqn − εq −iqn − εq βc 2 q |iqn |<ωD 1 β ω 2π c D 1 π 1 − 2 = V d(εF ) |qn | 2 n+ 1 2 n=0 ∞ 1= V βc dε −∞ |iqn |<ωD 1 2 qn + ε2 = ≈ V d(εF ) 2βc |iqn |<ωD V d(εF ) βc ωD ln 4 . (16. see e.46) where we use the density of states per spin.6b. (16.286 and qn = 2π βc CHAPTER 16. The second comment is that Tc is a non-analytic function of the pair-interaction strength V . 2 2π βc ωD 1. Fig.g. 3. it is not possible to reach the new ground state resulting from the Cooper instability by perturbation theory in V of the normal metallic Fermi sea. . d(εF )/2. since Tc (V ) ∝ exp(−const/V ). the critical temperature Tc for the Cooper instability is lowered to about 1 K by the exponential factor. These problems will be treated in some of the exercise of this chapter and in much greater detail in the next chapter concerning the BCS theory of superconductivity. The ﬁrst is that although the characteristic phonon energy ωD is of the order 100 K. From this equation Tc is found to be kB Tc ≈ ωD e 2 − V d(ε F ) .

3 BCS theory with Green’s functions 287 .1 The Cooper instability 17.2 The BCS groundstate 17.Chapter 17 Superconductivity 17.

288 CHAPTER 17.5 The Josephson eﬀect .4.4 17.4. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY 17.1 17.2 Experimental consequences of the BCS states Tunneling density of states speciﬁc heat 17.

2 18.4 18.3.5 The Luttinger-Tomonaga model .3.1 Introduction First look at interacting electrons in one dimension One-dimensional transmission line analog 18.3.3.2 18.spinless case Interacting one dimensional electron system Bosonization of Tomonaga model-Hamiltonian Diagonalization of bosonized Hamiltonian Real space formulation Electron operators in bosonized form 289 .3 18.1 18.Chapter 18 1D electron gases and Luttinger liquids 18.3 18.2.1 18.3.

6.8.1 Luttinger liquid with spin Green’s functions Tunneling into spinless Luttinger liquid Tunneling into the end of Luttinger liquid 18.8 18. 1D ELECTRON GASES AND LUTTINGER LIQUIDS 18.5 18.290 CHAPTER 18.1 18.8.6 18.2 What is a Luttinger liquid? Experimental realizations of Luttinger liquid physics Edge states in the fractional quantum Hall eﬀect Carbon Nanotubes .7 18.4 18.

Another choice would √ be to put it in Eq. k kx = 2πnx . . or to put 1/ V in front of both equations.3) (A. V (A. ±2.5) .ω ei(k·r−ωt) . k (A. nx = 0. Ly .3). ±1. The central theorem in Fourier analysis states that any well-behaved function fulﬁlling the periodic boundary conditions. It is our choice to put it there.2) 1 V fk eik·r .0 .Appendix A Fourier transformations Fourier transformation is useful to employ in the case of homogeneous systems or to change linear diﬀerential equations into linear algebraic equations. Lz and a volume V = Lx Ly Lz . An extremely important and very useful theorem states dr e−ik·r = V δk. (A.4). 291 1 V eik·r = δ(r). (A. f (r + Lx ex ) = f (r + Ly ey ) = f (r + Lz ez ) = f (r) can be written as a Fourier series f (r) = where fk = dr f (r) e−ik·r . Lx likewise for y and z. fk. . The idea is to resolve the quantity f (r. (A.4) Note the prefactor 1/V in Eq.1) A. In all cases the product of the normalization constants should be 1/V. t) under study on plane wave components. travelling at the speed v = ω/|k|. (A. .1 Continuous functions in a ﬁnite region Consider a rectangular box in 3D with side lengths Lx .

1t ←→ 2π δ(ω). (A.11a) (A. and in complete analogy with Eq. (A. Again it is easy to use these expression to verify that Fourier transforming twice brings you back to the starting point.8) and (A. (A. discrete k. dk f eik·r .1) – we have f (t) = and also ∞ dω fω e−iωt . (A. (A.2 Continuous functions in an inﬁnite region If we let V tend to inﬁnity the k-vectors become quasi-continuous variables.7) fk = dk ik·r e = δ(r).8) (2π)3 Note that the dimensions are okay.11c) .3) is converted into an integral. −∞ 2π Note again that the dimensions are okay.3) an reduce by use of Eq.10) A. Note also that by using Eq. 3 1k ←→ δ(r).5). continuous ω.4 Some useful rules We can think of Eqs. (2π)3 k We have dr f (r)e−ik·r .6) Now you see why we choose to put 1/V in front of f (r) = and also dk f eik·r .3 Time and frequency Fourier transforms The time t and frequency ω transforms can be thought of as an extension of functions periodic with the ﬁnite period T . FOURIER TRANSFORMATIONS Note the dimensions in these two expressions so that you do not forget where to put the factors of V and 1/V.11b) (A.5) you can prove that Fourier transforming from r to k and then back brings you back to the starting point: insert fk from Eq. (A. (A. dr e−ik·r = (2π)3 δ(k). (A. (A.0 . dt eiωt = 2π δ(ω). (A. 1ω ←→ δ(t). (A. continuous k.7) – but with the opposite sign of i due to Eq.292 APPENDIX A. (A. (2π)3 k (A. A. and the k-sum in Eq. (A.10) as the Fourier transform of the constant function f = 1 to delta functions (and back): 1r ←→ V δk. 1r ←→ (2π) δ(k). −∞ 2π ∞ ∞ fω = ∞ −∞ dt f (t)eiωt . (A. f (r) = 1 V fk eik·r k V→∞ −→ 1 V V (2π)3 dk fk eik·r = k.5). Thus t plays the role of r and ω that of k.9) −∞ dω −iωt e = δ(t). A. 1k ←→ δ(r).4) into the expression for f (r) in Eq. to the case where this period tends to inﬁnity.

k (A. 2 ∂t ←→ −iω. ds h(r−s) g(s) ←→ hk gk . the invariance of inner products going from r to k.k ∝ δ(k + k ).k 1 V hk gk eik·r . Any physical observable f (r. TRANSLATION INVARIANT SYSTEMS 293 Another useful rule is the rule for Fourier transforming convolution integrals.19) A.A.18) (A.5.8) we ﬁnd f (r) = ds h(r−s) g(s) = ds 1 V2 hk eik·(r−s) gk eik ·s = k. ←→ −k . it is obvious from the factor ei(k +k)·r that any reference to the absolute value of r only can vanish if k = −k. k (A. and thus fk. For the gradient operator we have r f (r) = r 1 V fk eik·r = k 1 V fk k re ik·r = 1 V ikfk eik·r . (2π)3 k −k dk h g . The consequences in k-space from this constraint are: dk f eik·(r−r ) ei(k +k)·r .13) A related rule.16) Finally we mention the Fourier transformation of diﬀerential operators.12) or in words: a convolution integral in r-space becomes a product in k-space. (A.20) . and ∂t (remember the sign change of i in the latter): r 2 ←→ ik. (2π)3 k k (A. (A. × ←→ ik × . is derived in a similar way (and here given in three diﬀerent versions): dr h(r) g ∗ (r) = dr h(r) g(r) = dr h(r) g(−r) = dk h g∗ .k (A. (2π)3 k k dk h g . r ) = dk (2π)3 dk f eik·r eik ·r = (2π)3 k.21) Since this has to be a function of r − r . ×.k dk (2π)3 (A. (2π)3 k. (A.17) Similarly for 2. f (r.5 Translation invariant systems We study a translation invariant system. By direct application of the deﬁnitions and Eq. r ) of two spatial variables r and r can only depend on the diﬀerence between the coordinates and not on the absolute position of any of them.14) (A. f (r.15) (A. r ) = f (r−r ).

21) and (A.22) and by comparing the two expressions Eqs.−k . (A.26) where A and B are some operators. translation−invariant systems.27) (A. For a translation-invariant system we now that g(r. we can also ﬁnd the Fourier transform of f by explicitly using that f only depends on the diﬀerence r − r ˜ f (r.22) we read oﬀ that ˜ fk. FOURIER TRANSFORMATIONS To ﬁnd the proportionality constant. (A.23) . we can go through the same arguments or use the formulae from above to get ˜ fk.k = (2π)3 δ(k + k )fk . and by using the result in Eq. V (A.k = Vδk.24) For the discrete case. r ) = A(r)B(r ) . r ) = g(r − r ). (A.25) This result is used several times in the main text when we consider correlation functions of the form g(r. r ) ←→ fk.−k fk . (2π)3 k (A.25) for k = −k we get that g(k) = 1 A(k)B(−k) .294 APPENDIX A. (A. r ) = f (r − r ) = dk ˜ ik·(r−r ) f e . or in short f (r. (A.

67) in the real space representation Eq.60) with ν Exercise 1. . cj = (1/ N ) k eikja ck to diagonalize H in k-space and plot the eigenvalues εk as a function of k. 2.62) by moving the pair c† b cνn to the left.νj Tνi νj c† i cνj . N and δ = ±1.Appendix B Exercises Exercises for Chapter 1 Exercise 1. periodic boundary conditions. j+δ This Hamiltonian is known as the tight-binding Hamiltonian. (1. Use the discrete Fourier transformation a. (1. . Hints: write Eq. Obtain the ν ν ν ν fermion analogue of Eq. where with the probability amplitude t one valence electron can hop from an ion j to one of the nearest neighbor ions j + δ (as usual {c† .63) for fermions: Ttot = fermion operators c† . Exercise 1. .1 Prove Eq. What about the ν j fermion anti-commutator sign? j νi . (1. Argue why in this case one has c† b = c† b cνn c† nj .99a). and a lattice constant √ Here j = 1.2 Find the current density operator J in terms of the arbitrary single particle basis states ψν and the corresponding creation and annihilation operators a† and aν . (1. (1.3 In some crystals the valence electrons are rather tightly bound to their host ions. cj } = δj. (a) Consider a 1D lattice with N sites. Hint: use the ν basis transformations Eq. 295 . .j ): j H = −t jδ c† cj . A good starting point for analyzing such systems is to describe the kinetic energy by hopping processes.

Generalize the 1D model to a 2D square lattice also with the lattice constant a and plot contours of constant energy εkx ky in the kx ky plane. θ.3 Starting from Eqs. What might be the physical origin of the second term in H (see Sec.1 Iron (Fe) in its metallic state has valence II. Exercise 2. and determine the eigenenergies. εF . and use this value to determine the microscopic parameters kF . φ).4 Consider a bosonic particle moving in 1D with the Hamiltonian H = ω a† a + 1 2 + ω0 a† + a . . Exercises for Chapter 2 Exercise 2.47) for the contributions from the direct Coulomb interaction processes to the interaction energy in second order perturbation theory. where the ions form a 2D square lattice. The remaining integral is a simple integral of the sum of two exponential functions.4. In this case the 2D tightbinding model is applicable. Exercise 2. where [a.287 nm.1)? Compare the result to a classical and a ﬁrst quantized treatment of the problem. and λF . the result E ∗ /N = −1. a† ] = 1. Exercise 1.29 eV nevertheless ensures the stability of the electron gas. vF . (2. Relate the result to the Coulomb potential. (2. Diagonalize H by introducing the operator α ≡ a + ω0 /ω and its Hermitian conjugate α† . (2. and perform the 0 dφ and −1 d(cos θ) integrals ﬁrst.34) and (2. Calculate the density n of the resulting gas of valence electrons.2 Use the variational principle to argue that although the expression Eq. while ω and ω0 are positive constants.45) derive the expression Eq. and X-ray measurements have revealed that it forms a body-centered-cubic (BCC) crystal with side length a = 0. Hints: work in polar coordinates 2π +1 ∞ 2 0 r dr r = (r. 1.43) is not exact ∗ near the energy minimum density rs = rs = 4. Prove that the Fourier transform is Vq s = 4πe2 0 2 +k 2 q s e2 .83. Exercise 1. with ks being some real positive k constant with the dimensions of a wavevector.296 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 2 (b) In the high-temperature superconductors the conduction electrons are conﬁned to parallel CuO-planes.5 The Yukawa potential is deﬁned as V ks (r) = r0 e−ks r .

d(ε). the relation between the 1D Fermi wave vector kF and the 1D density of states per length. Derive. d(ε). in analogy with the 3D case.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 3.3 we saw an example of the existence of 1D electron gases in carbon nanotubes.4 In Sec. Assume that |i is a simple but unspeciﬁed product state. Use the result to derive the 1D electron density: kF = 2n/π.1 We want to study the inﬂuence of electron-phonon scattering on a given electron state INA |kσ using the simple Hamiltonian Hel−ph of Eq. and an initial state |i having the energy Ei and being speciﬁed by the occupation numbers nkσ and Nq for electron states |kσ and phonon states |q (see Eq.41). 2. For simplicity we restrict our study to processes that scatter electrons out of |kσ . Exercise 2.2 we saw an example of the existence of 2D electron gases in GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As heterostructures.5 In Sec.e. k+q k abs Derive the analogous expression for the scattering rate 1/τk due to absorption. i. in analogy with the 3D case. It can be estimated using Fermi’s Golden Rule (suppressing the unimportant spin index): 1 emi τk = 2π f emi f |Hel−ph |i 2 δ(Ef − Ei ). |i = † {kσ}i ckσ {q}i √1 Nq ! b† q Nq |0 . . (1.σ ckσ bq + q † gq c† k+q. Exercises for Chapter 3 Exercise 3. the relation between the 2D Fermi wave vector kF and the 2D electron density: kF 2 = 2πn. emi (b) The scattering rate corresponding to the emission processes is denoted τk . and show that 1 c† c b† |i q Nq +1 k+q k emi for a given q = 0 in Hel−ph the only possible normalized ﬁnal states is √ . (c) Show for the state |i that 1 emi τk = 2π q i |gq |2 (Nq + 1) (1 − ni ) ni δ(εk+q − εk + ωq ). Derive.σ ckσ b−q .3. Use the result to derive the 2D density of states per area. 2.3.108)). (3. 297 Exercise 2. involving a sum over all possible ﬁnal states with energy Ef = Ei . (a) Argue that in this case we need only consider the simple phonon absorption and emission processes given by abs emi Hel−ph = Hel−ph + Hel−ph = q gq c† k+q.

εk − εk > ωmax Since dεk = 1 emi τk dωq show in the limit ωmax ωmax 0 εF how to obtain ωmax 0 2 dωq ωq [nB (ωq ) + 1]. This immediately gives us the behavior of the total scattering emi abs abs rate 1/τk = 1/τk + 1/τk .1d to k 1 emi τk ∝ 2π k ωq [nB (ωq ) + 1] [1 − nF (εk )]δ(εk − εk + ωq ). n that ks F 0 1 (b) Show how Eq. ∝ 2 dωq ωq [nB (ωq ) + 1] [1 − nF (εk )] ≈ (d) Show that the result in (c) leads to the following temperature dependencies: 1 ∝ emi τk T.5). since at low T . k ≈ kF . 13 they succeed to do so for distances further away than 1/ks from the ion.42) and Exercise 1. (c) As usual. and the corresponding largest phonon energy is denoted 1 ωmax ≡ 2vD kF . As we shall see in Chap.298 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 3 (d) Keeping nk = 1 ﬁxed for our chosen state. and the electron density 2 ≈ k /a .e. The electrons redistribute in an attempt to neutralize the ionic potential.42) together with k = k + q change τ emi from Exercise 3. Furthermore. We note that since k and k are tied to the Fermi surface the largest q is 2kF .. 3. we employ the Debye model of the phonon spectrum (see Sec. With this prove that 1 −1 d(cos θ)δ(εk − εk + ωq ) ∝ 2kF 0 q dq δ(εk − εk + ωq ) ∝ εk −εF ωq . . εk − εk < ωmax 0. for T ωmax /kB ωmax /kB . while emi abs at high T we have 1/τk ≈ 1/τk . k . the Fermi energy εF . argue why thermal averaging leads to 1 2π = emi τk |gq |2 [nB (ωq ) + 1] [1 − nF (εk+q )] δ(εk+q − εk + ωq ). Show by dimensional analysis 2 involving the Fourier component e2 /( 0 ks ). Now use polar coordinates to obtain k ∝ dεk −1 d(cos θ).5): ωq = vD q. where we here and in the following do not care about the numerical prefactors. and show using q 2 = |k − k|2 that d(cos θ) ∝ q dq. (a) To obtain realistic results we need to use the screened Coulomb or Yukawa potential for the ionic potential Vq (see Eq. (3. we are mainly interested in electrons moving relatively close to the Fermi surface (why?). 1/τk ≈ 0. q Exercise 3.2 emi We now determine the temperature dependence of the scattering rate τk in the high and low temperature limits. due to the lack of phonons. i. (3. for T T 3 + const.

1. ¨ (c) Assume the harmonic solutions uj ≡ uk ei(kja−ω t) and Uj ≡ Uk ei(kja−ω t) to derive a 2 × 2 matrix eigenvalue equation for (uk .. (2. (c) Combine the equations and derive the wave equation for ρion .EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 3 299 Exercise 3. N where the electron gas ground state energy E (0) is given in Eq. 3. (d) Check that in the limit M = m the dispersion ωk in Eq. Uj−1 . the momenta. The ionic lattice has a unit cell with two diﬀerent ions • and ◦.3(c). pj and uj . to ˙ ˙ ¨ obtain the equations for uj and Uj . . . . uj . (a) Verify that the Hamiltonian of the two-atoms-per-unit-cell chain is H= j 1 2 1 2 1 1 pj + Pj + K(uj − Uj−1 )2 + K(Uj − uj )2 2m 2M 2 2 ∂H ∂H ˙ ˙ (b) Use Hamilton’s equations uj = ∂pj and pj = − ∂uj (similar for Uj and Pj ). (3. uj−1 . 3. (a) Multiply the continuity equation by the ion mass M to obtain M ∂t ρion + · π = 0. .3(c) and the eigenmode displayed in Fig. 3.28). Pj and Uj . 3. while for the ◦ ions they are denoted M . .3 we now want to ﬁnd the eigenmodes of the linear 1D chain with lattice constant a mentioned in Fig.4.5). and the displacements of the • ions are denoted m. . Verify the dispersion curve ωk displayed in Fig. All spring constants are the same. Uj+1 . Uk ). from which the (square of the) sound velocity vs is read oﬀ: 2 M ∂t ρion − 2Z ε 3 F 2 ρion = 0.3 In analogy with the homogeneous 1D chain of Sec. (3. respectively.2.9) of the one-atomper-unit-cell is recovered. The sites are numbered by j as . Exercise 3. uj+1 . ˙ (b) Take the time derivative and note that π is the force density f . 3. The masses. Uj . 3. The ions are treated as the jellium of Sec. namely K. where the light and mobile electrons always follow the motion of the slow and heavy ions to maintain local charge neutrality.4 The task is to prove the Bohm-Staver expression Eq. which on the other hand is equal to the pressure gradient − P due to the compression of the electron gas following the ionic motion: ˙ π=f =− P = ∂E (0) ∂V . We study the situation described in Sec. . where π is the momentum density.

The potential energy contributions which involves the ionic system are the ion-ion interaction and the electron-ion interaction ion−ion Epot = 1 2 drdr δρion (r)V (r − r )δρion (r ). Because the system is charge neutral as a whole. and ρ(r) is the electron density. where v is the velocity ﬁeld of the ions. we need only take into account interactions between deviations from equilibrium. Because we are interested in the low energy excitations we linearize the kinetic such that T = 1 2 dr M ρ0 v 2 (r). When included it gives rise to the term in Eq. We deﬁne ρion (r)=ρ0 + δρion (r) ≡ ρ0 +ρ0 ion ion ion ρ(r)=ρ0 ion + δρ(r).300 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 3 Exercise 3. .34). (2. drdr δρ(r)V (r − r )δρion (r ). where u is a displacement ﬁeld describing the deviation of the ion density from equilibrium. each ion has charge +e. The classical Lagrangian for this system is L0 = Tion − Vion ion 1 0 Tion = dr M ρion (r)v 2 (r) 2 ion−ion Vion = Epot . derive the Lagrangian as a functional of u L0 [u] = ion 1 2 dr M ρ0 |u(r)|2 − ion ˙ ρ0 ion 2 2 drdr [ · u(r)] V (r − r ) · u(r ) . We take the case of a monovalent metal.5 Electrons and phonons in the jellium model In this exercise we quantize the jellium model of the ion system in a solid and derive the electron phonon interaction in a way which is somewhat diﬀerent from the method used in the main text. · u(r).e. We have not explicitly included the electron-electron interaction here. First we quantize the ion system and we start by looking at the isolated ion system. ion−el Epot = − with the usual deﬁnition el−el Epot = 1 2 drdr δρ(r)V (r − r )δρ(r ). i. ion Using particle conservation show that v(r) = −u(r) ˙ and using this.

i. Using the quantization from the previous exercise verify that the Hamiltonian describing the electron-phonon In the general non-jellium case the polarization vectors are eigenvectors of the dynamical matrix D(q) in Eq. What dispersion relation do you expect? Next you should quantize the ion system and ﬁnd the Hamiltonian. Verify that 4πe2 ρ0 1 0 ion . 1 . ion ˙ and show. Now follow the standard scheme for diagonalization of the phonons modes.phonon interaction in the jellium model. The polarization is here parallel to q i. First show that the canonical momentum corresponding to the ﬁeld u is p(r) = M ρ0 u(r). namely q . Deﬁne uq = V † 0 Ω bq + b−q . Furthermore.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 3 301 Because the Lagrangian is quadratic in u it is equivalent to a set of harmonic oscillators that describe sound waves of the ion system. Show that in k-space this becomes [ui (q).6 Bare electron. Ω is chosen such that H is diagonal. which you can easily check. Exercise 3. In the jellium case. 2 q q where the polarization vector has the property that q = −q .pj (−q )] = iδij V δqq . H= Ω0 b† bq + q 2 M q Explain the physics of this result. only longitudinal modes exist in the jellium model1 . that ˙ · u(r)] V (r − r ) · u(r ) 1 = 2 = 1 2V ρ0 p2 (r) dr + ion 2 M ρ0 ion 2 drdr [ 2 q ρ0 p(q) · p(−q) + ion 2V M ρ0 ion V (q) [q · u(q)] [q · u(−q)] . (3. Ω0 = . 2M ρion p−q = i VM ρ0 Ω † ion bq − b−q .pj (r )] = iδij δ(r − r ). q The system is quantized by the condition (canonical quantization) [ui (r). one thus has Dαβ (q) = qa qβ V (q) which only has one eigenvector with non-zero eigenvalue.e.e. one must choose a positive polarization direction. using the well known relation H = 0 Hion p · u − L.14).

(c) Now ﬁnd the energy of the electron gas in the Hartree-Fock approximation. −q Exercises for Chapter 4 Exercise 4. V (q) = 4πe2 0 q2 (2) The occupation numbers should of course be solved self-consistently. Is that true as well for the mean ﬁeld solution of the Stoner model? . (2.1) g(q) = iqV (q) and ρ0 ion . k kσ (1) Argue why it is that in this case the Hartree-Fock energy follows from Eq. After the mean-ﬁeld approximation the Hamiltonian can be written as H HF = k εHF c† ckσ + constant. (d) The conclusion is so far that Hartree–Fock and ﬁrst order perturbation theory are in this case identical.302 interaction is given by Hion−el = = EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 4 drdr δρ(r)V (r − r )δρion (r ) ρ0 ion V ρ(−q)V (q)(iq · u(q)) q 1 =√ V where g(q)ρ(−q)Aq . Use this to argue that the guess nk σ = θ (kF − k ) is in fact the correct solution. (4) k k k and why not? Hint: show that the correct energy reduces to E (1) given in Eq. k VHF (k) = − k V (k − k )nk σ .25b) and is given by εHF = εk + VHF (k) . and assume that nk σ = θ (kF − k ). graphically).g. What is the selfconsistency condition? (b) Consider the zero temperature limit. Is it given by ? EHF = εHF nF εHF . which then gives k2 − k2 k + kF e2 kF 1+ F ln . 2M Ω0 (B.39).1 (a) Consider the Hartree-Fock solution of the homogeneous electron gas in a positive background. e.3) Aq = bq + b† .2) (B. (3) VHF (k) = − 0 π 2kF k k − kF VHF (k) is increasing monotonously with k (which you might check. q (B. (4.

make a sketch of the speciﬁc heat of the system and show that it is discontinuous at the transition point. TC η (0) = Tc α . (4. (2) diverge at the Fermi level. Show that the density of states as derived from Eq. You can assume that ∆ is real. Exercise 4. even if the mean-ﬁeld approach gives a good estimate of the groundstate energy. Consider a transition to a state with a ﬁnite order parameter. Hint: recall that CV = −T ∂2F .63) and (4. This conclusion contradicts both experiments and the Fermi liquid theory discussed in Chap. Exercise 4. T = TC . Use this to argue that A also vanishes at the transition point. Eqs. At the transition point η vanishes. See also Table 4. Show that it diverges at the “gap-edge”.4 In 1937 Landau developed a general phenomenological theory of symmetry breaking phase transitions. d(E). and the excitation energies. has been conﬁrmed in great detail by experiments and is one of the many successes of the BCS theory. η) = F0 (T ) + A (T ) η 2 + C (T ) η 4 . uk and vk . First go through the arguments that give the so-called coherence factors. E. ﬁnd the density of states for the excitations in energy space. and A > 0 for T > TC . Secondly. η. near d(∆).2 The Hartree–Fock energies derived in the previous exercise have however some unphysical features. 2C Finally. C (T ) = C. It also warns us that the single-particle energies derived from a mean-ﬁeld Hamiltonian are not necessary a good approximation of the excitation energies of the system. ∂T 2 .6. and that A < 0 for T < TC .3 In this exercise we calculate the density of states in the superconducting state. 14. For second order phase transitions only even terms are present in the free energy expansion F (T. The basic idea is to expand the free energy in powers of the order parameter. The square root singularity that you ﬁnd. and use the principle of minimal free energy to show that η= −A = 2C (TC − T ) η (0) .64).EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 4 303 Exercise 4. Then write A and C as A (T ) = (T − TC ) α. Hint: start with the density of states in k space and translate to a density in energy space.

C]B. while the interaction energy is given by Vel−el of Eq. t0 ) = 3! i 3 t t0 t t dt1 t0 dt2 t0 ˆ ˆ ˆ dt3 Tt V (t1 )V (t2 )V (t3 ) .18) indeed has the form 1 1 ˆ U3 (t. C}B. [AB. (5. useful for fermion operators. (5.34). and C. Write down the Heisenberg equations of motion for a† and a. useful for boson operators.19). (5.2 ˆ ˆ Show that the third-order term U3 (t. Exercise 5. (2. Show the very important relations [AB.3 Use the Heisenberg picture to show that for the diagonal Hamiltonian H of Eq. C} − {A. Exercise 5.17) and the associated footnote. .4 Due to the equation of motion for operators Eq. for some operators A. C].1 We return to the bosonic particle described by the Hamiltonian of Exercise 1.31) derive the equation of motion for ckσ (t). Apply the Hartree–Fock approximation to the result. t0 ) in Eq. t0 ) of U (t.4. ν Exercise 5.22) we have H= ν εν a† aν ν ⇒ H(t) = ν εν a† (t)aν (t). Hint: study Eqs. In the Heisenberg picture the time evolution of the electron creation and annihilation operators c† and ckσ is governed by the total Hamiltonian H = Hjel + Vel−el . Exercise 5. Interpret the change of the zero point energy. (5. (5.16) and (5. C] = A{B. Express H in terms of α† (t) and α(t).5 In the jellium model of metals the kinetic energy of the electrons is described by the Hamiltonian Hjel of Eq. Solve these equations by introducing the operator α† ≡ a† + ω0 /ω . C] + [A .304 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 5 Exercises for Chapter 5 Exercise 5. In analogy with kσ Eq.6) we will often need to calculate commutators of the form [AB. (2. C] = A[B . B.

r ) is a function of r − r only and that .1 we consider a harmonic oscillator inﬂuenced by an external force f (t). where f (x) is any function with a well behaved Taylor expansion around x = 0. and η = 0+ is a positive inﬁnitesimal. 1. The perturbation is in this case given by H = −gµB dr Bext (r. 305 Exercises for Chapter 6 Exercise 6. Express x in terms of a and a† and calculate the linear response result for the expectation value x(t) . Exercise 6. x Exercise 6.3. t) .1 As in Exercise 5. see Sec.and rotational-invariant system.4 In this exercise we consider the conductivity of a translation.2 The spin susceptibility measures the response to a magnetic ﬁeld. for example by considering the equation of motion for x(t) . These moments could for example be in the form of a neutron beam in a neutron scattering experiment. x + iη x Here P means Cauchy principle part: P 1 dx f (x) ≡ x −∞ ∞ 1 dx f (x) + x −∞ −η ∞ η 1 dx f (x). Argue that this result is in fact exact.4. Find the response to linear order in B for the induced spin density in the material. Suppose that a piece of some material is perturbed by external magnetic moments. but now we treat this force as a time-dependent perturbation H = f (t) x.3 1 We study integrals of the form −∞ dx x+iη f (x). Neutron scattering experiments are the main source for obtaining experimental information about the distribution of spins in condensed matter systems.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 6. Show that 1 in this context x+iη can be decomposed as the following real and imaginary parts ∞ 1 1 = P − iπ δ(x). Express your result in both real space and momentum space. Exercise 6. t) · S(r). This means that the conductivity σ(r. S(r. where S is the spin density operator S(r) = Ψ† (r)sΨ(r).

(8. t). where J(q) is the particle current operator in momentum space. σ(q. Show that in the Fourier domain Je (q. where the impurity induced scattering time τ tends to inﬁnity (i. ωτ → ∞)? How does the conclusions change for an interacting translation-invariant system? Exercises for Chapter 7 Exercise 7.42) in the clean limit.13). kσ kσ and show that it is time-independent in the Heisenberg picture.17) both are solution to the Schr¨dinger equation in Eq. ω)E(q. (8.e.14b). Hint: diﬀerentiate (8. q → 0. o Exercise 7. J α (−q.22) with respect to time using that the derivative of the theta function is a delta function. (8. ω) and the correlation function [J α (q. J(0. and that r|H|φ = H(r) r|φ Which you can see for example by inserting a complete set of eigenstates of H. Find the relation between the conductivity. t) = 1 m k c† (t) ckσ (t). ω). Derive the expression for the particle current operator in this limit. . ω) = iδαβ ne2 .1 Verify that the self-consistent equations in Eqs. 0)] . First consider the conductivity of a non-interacting electron gas at long wave lengths. ωm How does this ﬁt with the Drude result (13. ω) = σ(q. From this you can derive obtain the long wavelength conductivity σ αβ (0. (8.16) and (8.e.22) in fact is identical to the Green’s function by showing that it obey the same diﬀerential equation. i.306 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 7 the conductivity tensor is diagonal with identical diagonal components.5 Consider again the conductivity of a translation-invariant and rotational-invariant system. namely Eq.2 In this exercise we prove that the propagator in Eq. Exercise 6.

65). t − t ) = − iθ(t − t ) × k+ q 2 2 2 mL nF (εk ) − nF (εk+q ) kqσ ei(εk −εk+q )(t−t ) eiq(x−x ) . First ﬁnd the retarded Green’s function GR (k ↑. iG< (ν. which you see from the Hamiltonian Eq.and two dimensions.3 Find the greater propagator. ω) similar to Eq. t − t ) = −iθ(t − t ) Ip (xt). From Sec. assuming the tunneling matrix element to be approximately constant. ω ΠR (x − x . kσ The result for the dc conductance does not depend on where the current is evaluated (why?). Exercise 7. 6. Plot the results of I and dI/dV versus V . Show that the corresponding results for bosons are iG> (ν. 8. Ip (x t ) where Ip is the operator for the particle current through the wire. but now in one.4 Eqs.6 In this exercise we shall calculate the dc conductance of a perfect one-dimensional wire.66).5 to ﬁnd that ΠR (x − x .3 we have that the conductance is given by G= ie2 R Π (ω). Once you have done that the problem is reduced to ﬁnding the Green’s function of a free particle. Now you can use the method in Sec. Exercise 7. c† } k↑ by expressing the c and c† operators in terms of the diagonal γ-operators called bogoliubons given in Eq.42). Exercise 7. (4. Now calculate the tunneling current-voltage characteristics. . Can you suggest an experiment (at least in principle) that measures this propagator. (8. ω) nB (ω). Hints: use the onedimensional version of the particle current operator Ip (x) = mL k+ kqσ q 2 c† ck+qσ eiqx . (8. ω) = A(ν.5 The tunneling density of states for a superconductor has a characteristic shape which you ﬁnd in this exercise. G> (r. ω) [1 + nB (ω)] .50) are valid for fermions. r . ω) = A(ν. (4.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 7 307 Exercise 7. t) = −iθ(t) {ck↑ (t).

and assume quasi-continuous states with periodic boundary conditions in the y direc† 2 tion.23) by diﬀerentiating the Green’s functions in (9.7 Consider a 2D electron gas in the xy plane conﬁned to the strip 0 < x < L.22) and (9.1 Consider a physical system consisting of fermions allowed to occupy two orbitals. h Exercise 7. (9. What will change at larger temperatures? The oscillations that you will ﬁnd are called Friedel oscillations. You may need to know the integral π ds 1 − s2 sin2 (xs) = 8x [x − J1 (2x)]. c† (t )} . Exercise 8. Show that lim Im Π (ω) = ωπ R 2 ω→0 mL − kqσ ∂nF (∂εk ) q δ(εk − εk+q ) k + εk 2 2 . Exercises for Chapter 8 Exercise 8. Find the x-dependent density as n(x) = dy ν cν cν | xy|ν | .21). ω) and study it in the low frequency limit.2 Derive Eqs.20) and (9. t − t ) = −iθ(t − t ) {ci (t). The Hamiltonian is given by H = E1 c† c1 + E2 c† c2 + tc† c2 + t∗ c† c1 .308 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 8 Setting x = x ﬁnd ΠR (0. . Do the q-integral ﬁrst and ﬁnd lim Im ΠR (ω) = ωπ 2 m 2 ω→0 m 1 2πL − kσ ∂ nF (εk ) ∂εk k2 |k| ω 1 = . where the ν-sum runs√ over the appropriately normalized states |ν . 1 2 1 2 Find the Green’s function GR (ij. ω). What is the electron density as a function of the distance x from the left edge? Take for simplicity T = 0. Use the equation of motion method. −βµ + 1 π e In the limit µ channel kT . Hints: Use standing waves in the x-direction fulﬁlling the proper boundary conditions. you ﬁnd the famous result for the conductance G of a perfect 1D G= 2e2 . Don’t j forget to interpret the result. where i and j can be both be either 1 or 2 and where GR (ij.

2 and 9. and not the tunneling between atom and metal. When you do that the diﬃcult commutator is [Hhyb . nd↓ ] no new Green’s functions are generated. It is therefore a good approximation to assume that the atom is in equilibrium with the metal.23). t) is deﬁned in Eq. and the model was then solved at the level of single-particle Green’s functions. ω). The electronic states of the atom will hybridize with the conduction electrons in the metal. derived in Sec. and show that if you again neglect the term [Hhyb .26). 8 for the tunnel current and the mean ﬁeld expression for the d electron Green’s function. This constitutes our new and improved approximation.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 8 309 Exercise 8.30b) to obtain the following equation of motion for GR (d ↑.3 Consider an atom on a metal surface. d† (t )} .28) it was approximated by a product of two single-particle Green’s functions. k k↓ ↓ The last term contains a new type of processes giving rise to higher order correlations (corresponding to spin ﬂips). nd↓ ] d↑ = nd↓ [Hhyb . In Eq. Exercise 8.22). and to use tunneling theory for the current between tip and atom. Start by combining Eqs. t) and truncate it at the two-particle Green’s function level. If we assume that only a single orbital couples to the metal states.60). described by Eq. Since the atom is strongly coupled to the metal surface the bottleneck for the current is the tunneling from STM to atom. then the atom and the metal can be described by the Anderson model Hamiltonian Eq. Thus we get a better approximation which takes pair correlations into account. and (9. kd Derive the equation of motion for F R . (9. which we can describe by a tunneling Hamiltonian as in Eq.21). The ﬁrst term generates a two-particle Green’s function denoted F R given by F R (kd ↑.18). ↑ Note the similarity between F R and the single-particle function GR (kdσ) of Eq.2. t − t ) = −iθ(t − t ) {(nd↓ ck↑ )(t). (9. First ﬁnd the diﬀerential equation for DR by diﬀerentiation with respect to t. (9.3. Instead F R is coupled back to DR .4 In this exercise we improve the solution of the Anderson model presented in Secs. (9. (9. Sketch the resulting dI/dV using the expression derived in Chap. (9. (9.2. 9. d↑ ] + [Hhyb . Here we go one step further and derive an equation of motion for DR (d ↑. The two-particle Green’s function DR (d ↑. (8. 9. ω) = 1 + IU DR (d ↑. When a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is placed near the atom current will ﬂow from the STM tip through the atom to the metal. d↑ ] + kσ t∗ c† d↓ − tk d† ck↓ d↑ .2.17). ω): ω + iη − εd + µ − ΣR (ω) GR (d ↑. . and it is therefore omitted. nd↓ d↑ ] = nd↓ [Hhyb .

R (ω) ω + iη − εd + µ − Σ ω + iη − εd − U + µ − ΣR (ω) Interpret this result physically. Exercise 9. (11.9).63) the equation of motion for the Matsubara Green’s function of a free particle is −∂τ − p2 0 + µ Gσ (r − r . Finally.3 is changed. 2m Show (10. Use the procedure going from Eq. Note that both τ and τ are greater than zero. Exercises for Chapter 9 Exercise 9. The Dyson equation for otherwise free electrons scattering against an external potential is written in Eqs. solve for GR and show that the result is GR (d ↑) = 1 − nd↓ nd↓ + . Then show that c† cν ν 0 = Gσ (ν.3 According to Eq. τ = 0− ) = 1 β 0 e−ikn 0 Gσ (ν. τ − τ ) = δ(r − r ) δ(τ − τ ).5) and (11.6 but this time using the imaginary time formalism.310 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 10 Inset this result into the equation of motion you derived for DR above. Exercises for Chapter 10 Exercise 10.39) by Fourier transforming this equation.1 Find the Fermi-Dirac distribution by starting from the Matsubara Green’s function and setting τ = 0− . (10. (10. (10.2 Repeat Exercise 7.1 Single impurity scattering.85).80) to Eq. Suppose now that the . ikn ) = nF (εν ) ikn − How would you calculate cν c† ? ν Exercise 9. and show that the resulting equation for DR is ω + iη − εd + µ − U − Σ(ω) DR (d ↑) = nd↓ . for example by considering how the result of Exercise 8.

ω) = σ eik(x−x ) 1+α ivω e−ika1 . and (2) x → a1 → a2 → a1 → a2 → x. we can in fact extract the transmission and reﬂection amplitudes t and r. Find r and t and discuss the phase shifts that the electrons acquire when they are scattered. where k = kω (see previous exercise) and where α = U0 /iv and θ = k(a2 − a1 ). ikn ). Exercise 10. ikn ) ﬁrst and insert that in the Dyson equation for G(xx . Hint: solve for G(0x . Use this to show that the transmission is unity for the particular values of θ satisfying α = i cot θ. Derive the same result using the following simple argument involving two paths for an electron to go from x to x: (1) x → a1 → a2 → x. Here we simplify it somewhat further by representing the tunneling barriers by delta-function potentials situated at a1 and a2 . The transmission is unity when these two paths interfere constructively – as does paths with any number of trips back and forth in the “cavity”. ω) = t G0R (xx .x ) is a phase factor. From the Dyson equation ﬁnd the retarded Green’s function for x < a1 < a2 < x: GR (xx . ikn ) = Gσ (xx . For x < 0 we have GR (xx .x ) G0R (xx . ω − εk + µ + iη ivω (do you agree?) where kω = 2m(ω + µ) and v =ω ∂εk /∂k|k=kω .2 Resonant tunneling. ω) θ(x) + 1 + reiφ(x. . To ﬁnd the retarded Green’s we thus need the unperturbed Green’s function. which is determined by the calculation. ikn ) U0 0 Gσ (0x . Since the retarded Green’s function tells us about the amplitude for propagation from point x to point x. ω) θ(−x). ikn ) 1− U0 0 Gσ (00. e−ika2 · 1 − α −αeiθ −αeiθ 1 − α −1 · eika1 eika2 . ikn ).EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 10 311 electrons are conﬁned to move in one dimension and that the external potential can be represented by a delta-function impurity potential. σ σ σ where eiφ(x. Write H in x−space and ﬁnd a formal expression for the Matsubara Green’s function using Dyson’s equation. The Hamiltonian is then given by ∞ H = H0 + −∞ dx ρ(x) U0 δ(x − a1 ) + δ(x − a2 ) . U (x) = U0 δ(x). Show that in this case the solution of the Dyson equation becomes 0 0 Gσ (xx . ω) = Gσ (xx . where H0 is the Hamiltonian for free electrons in one dimension. ω + iη) = σ 1 L k eik(x−x ) 1 ikω |x−x | = e . which is 0 G0R (xx . In for example semiconductor heterostructures one can make quantum-well systems which to a good approximation can be described by a one-dimensional model of free electrons with two tunneling barriers. ikn ) + Gσ (x0.

(12. Use the rule Eq. a) = − 0 . (12. (1) Start with the simpler denominator (how many terms?). the sum of the hybridization Eq. We wish to derive the Dyson equation Eq.2 The cancellation of disconnected diagrams in G(b.2. (2) Draw topologically identical diagrams only once and multiply with the number of them.30) and (12. which in the interaction picture in the presence of the particle-particle interaction W (r − r ) becomes: ˆ ˆ ˆ Tτ U (β. We employ the mean-ﬁeld approximation given by Eq. We study the one-particle Green’s function. (9.27) where the σ spins only interact with the average density nd¯ of the opposite σ spins. iqn ) ≡ ΣF (k. but now to second order in W . The unperturbed Hamiltonian is given by H0 = σ (εd − µ) d† dσ + kσ (εk − µ) c† ckσ . Exercise 11.14) use the Feynman rules to expand the denominator and the numerator. We return to Anderson’s model for localized magnetic moments in metals. 0) 0 G(b.27). (9.17) and on-site repulsion Eq. ˆ with U (β.3 Feynman diagrams and Dyson’s equation for the Anderson model. (3) Get most of the diagrams in the numerator by cutting open and stretching out a Fermion line in the diagrams from the denominator (how many terms?). (9. Hints. 9.34): Π0 (q. while the interaction part is σ kσ MF given by Hint = Hhyb + HU . 0) Ψ(b) Ψ† (a) ˆ U (β. ikn ) ≡ σ Exercise 11. (9.54) for summing over functions with simple poles to perform the Matsubara frequency summation appearing in the following diagrams of Eqs.1 Matsubara frequency summation. As in Eq. see Sec.312 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 11 Exercises for Chapter 11 Exercise 11. and show explicitly the cancellation of the disconnected diagrams.29) using Feynman diagrams. ¯ σ We introduce the following rather obvious diagrammatic notation for the Matsubara Green’s functions and interactions: ≡ ≡ ≡ G 0 (dσ) G (dσ) G 0 (kσ) U ≡ tk ≡ k tk U . 0) = Tτ exp − β 0 ˆ dτ W (τ ) . (10. a).

30a) and (9.1 A classical treatment of the plasma oscillation. and derive in analogy with Eq. charge compensating jellium background..2). The tedious work with the equation of motion has been reduced to simple manipulations with diagrams. Imagine now the electron gas being translated a tiny distance ξ in the x direction (ξ Lx ). (12. The electron gas is then released. (12. Find the equation of motion for the coordinate ξ using Newtons law and classical electrostatics.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 12. Exercises for Chapter 12 Exercise 12.19) Dyson’s equation graphically.3. Treat the ions as an inert. The electronic plasma frequency ωp ≡ ne2 /m 0 introduced in Eq. Derive ωp from the following purely classical argument. Give a physical interpretation of the resulting motion of the electron gas. . In the following exercises we consider a translationinvariant electron gas in two dimensions fabricated in a GaAs heterostructure (see Sec. 313 We write the diagrammatic expansion (here shown up to second order in |tk |2 and U ) for the full d-orbital spin up Green function G (dσ) as: G(d¯ ) σ tk = G (dσ) G 0 (dσ) + G 0 (dσ) G 0 (kσ) G 0 (dσ) G(d¯ ) σ tk + G 0 (dσ) G 0 (kσ) G 0 (dσ) G 0 (kσ) G 0 (dσ) G(d¯ ) σ tk + t∗ k U U t∗ k tk t∗ k + G(d¯ ) σ tk t∗ k +.30b). (13.. (9. leaving the ion jellium ﬁxed.2 Interactions in two dimensions. Lz ). The resulting system resembles a plate capacitor. Use the obtained Dyson equation to verify the solution Eqs. U U t∗ k + U G 0 (dσ) G 0 (dσ) G(d¯ ) σ G 0 (dσ) G 0 (dσ) G 0 (dσ) + G 0 (dσ) G 0 (kσ) G 0 (dσ) G 0 (dσ) G 0 (dσ) G 0 (dσ) G 0 (kσ) G 0 (dσ) Express the self-energy as a sum of diagrams using a deﬁnition analogous to Eq. Consider an electron gas of density n conﬁned in a rectangular box of length Lx in the x direction and having a large surface area Ly Lz in the yz plane (Lx Ly .18). 2.76) does not contain Planck’s constant and is therefore not a quantum object. Exercise 12.

while ζ0 (z) is the lowest eigenstate in the z direction. The electron wave function for the two dimensional electron gas is restricted to be ψk (r. RPA 0 with q = (qx .50). 2D n2D .067 m. Consider a translation-invariant electron gas in two dimensions fabricated in a GaAs heterostructure. Show that at low temperatures. q kF . the plasmon dispersion relation is ω = vF ks q/2. while the electron density ranges from n2D = 1 × 1015 m−2 to 5×1015 m−2 .σ ck . ky ) and r = (x. i. and long wave lengths.σ ck −q. Find the relation between kF and the electron density. 0) ≡ W 2D (q) = 2εr ε2D (q. where J0 is the Bessel function of the ﬁrst kind of order zero. Lx Ly where k = (kx .3 Plasmons in two dimensions. For such a system the RPA dielectric function is given by ε2D (q. 0) RPA e2 . the relative permittivity is εr = 13.σ ck.e.067 m. |ζ0 (z)|2 = δ(z). n = 0 in Eq.20). Exercise 12. 2D 2D q ω/vF . while the electron density ranges from n2D = 1 × 1015 m−2 to 5×1015 m−2 . iqn ) is the 2D version of the 3D pair bubble χ0 0 given in Eq. The electron mass for this material is m∗ = 0. (13.4 Static screening in two dimensions. (2. For a strictly 2D system. where ks is the ThomasFermi screening wavenumber in 2D.e. Express ks in terms of the parameters of the electron gas.314 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 12 The electron mass for this material is m∗ = 0. Write down the interaction part of the Hamiltonian and show that it is of the form H 2D = 1 2A † W 2D (q) c† k+q. kB T εF . 2D 0 (q + ks ) . qy ). show that W 2D (q) = π e2 2εr 0 q . and low temperatures. qy ) and where χ2D (q.σ kk q σσ where q = (qx . the relative permittivity is εr = 13. Hint: use 0 dθ cos (α cos θ) = πJ0 (α). Is it larger or smaller than kF for n2D = 2 × 1015 m−2 ? Exercise 12. iqn ) = 1 − W 2D (q) χ2D (q. kB T εF . iqn ). z) = 1 eik·r ζ0 (z). Show that in 2D the static RPA screened interaction at small wavevectors. y). i. is given by 2D WRPA (q.

The task is to understand the arguments q leading to the diagrammatic expansion for χ(˜) given in Eq. (14. 2 (∆k)2 Taylor expand ω (k) to ﬁrst order and show that the wave packet can be written as ψ(r. and (14.e. τ ) = − V Tτ ρ(q. Then apply Wick’s theorem in this situation to obtain the starting point for the diagrammatic expansion directly in q-space. 0) eq as stated in Eq. If the quasiparticles behaves like non-interacting particles why is then the number of quasiparticles conserved on the semi-classical level? To answer this question we introduce the concept of a wave packet. e. . 315 Exercise 12.17). Please note that ρ eq = 0 due to charge neutrality.16) it can be shown that the numerator also cancels in the case of χ(b. Exercises for Chapter 13 Exercise 13. What is the physical interpretation of ∂k ω (k0 )? In conclusion. you may start with χ(q. see also the form of σ(q. i. Then apply Wick’s theorem to obtain the analogue of Eq.4.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 13. t) = dk f (k−k0 ) ei[k·r−ω (k)t] .53). Find the condition for the plasmons not to be 0 damped by single-particle excitations for q < kF . t) ≈ ei[k0 ·r−ω (k0 )t] F (r − ∂k ω (k0 ) t). (12. (12. Alternatively.58). Finally. In the real space formulation χ(b.19). and write this in a form analogous to Eq. a) analogous to Eq.5 Damping of two dimensional plasmons. a wave function fairly localized in both space and momentum space: ψ(r. a) ≡ − Tτ ρ(b)ρ(a) eq = − Tτ Ψ† (b)Ψ(b)Ψ† (a)Ψ(a) eq . Write down the expression for χ(b. argue with the help of Appendix A that for a 1 translation-invariant system χ(q.1 Semi-classical motion. (14. vk = ∂k ωk = 1 ∂k εk . a) (you do not have to show that).18). The electron-hole pair continuum is the region in q − ω space where Im χ2D = 0. We study Eqs.9). with f (k−k0 ) = exp − (k−k0 )2 . where F is some envelope function. Following arguments similar to those of Eq. (12. (12. ω ) in Exercise 6. Are the plasmons damped in the region q < kF in GaAs with the parameters given above? Exercise 12. that you found above. τ ) ρ(−q. We are not asking q for detailed calculations.6 Deriving the Feynman diagrams for χ(˜). (13. τ ) for a translation-invariant system. a). (13.8).8) for G(b. the wave packet has the energy εk and the velocity vk given by εk = ωk .g. In the estimate you can use the small-q expressions for the plasmon frequency and the polarization.

In the so-called impulse approximation for Compton scattering. ω) is the spectral function and q ≡ mω /q − q/2. q2 ˜ q2 ˜ q q −∞ 2π 2m 2m where A(k. is proportional to the number of scattering events on all electrons fulﬁlling the simple kinematic constraint: conservation of energy and momentum. 21#! ) % % $ 21#! ) $ $ &) & $ $ &) & $ 0& $ &0 $ &( $ P RSG 6 Q 8 7P I H &( $ G 3E6 W WP 5 Y V X W 6 P FX &' $ 9 3 G 5 7EF 5 D C 5 &' $$ $ B A @ 9 78 6 5 34 " "# ! & % " "# ! & % $ U$ ¢ T $ $ ¢ ©¤¥ § ¦¥ £ © ¤ £¨§ ¦ £ £ ¤¤ £¥ ¢ ¡ .316 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 13 For external forces F(r. ω ) in Eq. ω . Instead of using RPA. q ) from X-ray scattering on sodium. q). to show ˙ 1 ˙ k = F. the intensity I(ω1 . see Fig. Pk = F · vk and Pk = εk . while at higher energies. a renormalized quasiparticle pole of weight Z coexists with a broad background of weight 1 − Z. ω ) containing the essential features. t) = − V (r. respectively. discuss the following simple model for A(k.2 Measuring the discontinuity of the distribution function. εk > 4εF . q) = N (ω1 . εk < 4εF . q) of incoming photons of energy ω1 being scattered with the energy and momentum loss ω and q. we can through the power Pk absorbed by the wave packet centered around k deduce the time evolution of k as follows. At low energies. (a). ω . ω ) dk nk δ(ω + εk − εk+q ) ∝ dk nk δ ω − 1 2 1 q − q·k . Combine the two classical expressions for the power.58) and use it to calculate the distribution function nk . Fig. 2m m We omit the explicit reference to the ﬁxed ω1 and work with I(q. Demonstrate the existence of a Fermi surface characterized by the renormalization parameter Z. t) varying slowly in space and time. I(ω1 . The value of Z can be inferred from X-ray Compton scattering on the electron gas. The experimental result ˜ is compared to theory based on RPA calculations of A(k. For an interacting electron gas discuss the spectral function A(k. (14. Exercise 13. ω ). q ) ∝ ˜ dεk nk = dεk A(k. Show ˜ that ∞ 1 ∞ 1 ∞ dω I(q. ω ) nF (ω ). (b) contains an experi˜ mental determination of I(q. q ) ≡ I(ω1 . ω .

one atom in each corner and one in the center of the cube) with a side-length of 4. i. (14. for k < 2kF 1.e.3 Detailed balance. ω) = 1 − ωp /ω 2 . the left hand side is expected to be zero. k.75) we have in the semiclassical high 2 frequency. (c).e. for k > 2kF . W Zk = Z. A It is observed that Na is transparent for UV-light with a wavelength shorter than 206 nm. For which frequencies does the wave propagate through the metal. i. Explain Fig.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 14.45) expresses the time between scatterings assuming some unknown distribution function n(k). Consider a monochromatic electro−iωt e incident on a metal occupying the half-space x > 0. 317 Here W is the large but unspeciﬁed band width of the conduction band. ˆz magnetic wave with E = E(x)e Use the high-frequency limit of Maxwell’s equations in matter. Hint: you may need × ×E = − 2 E.1 The integral equation for the vertex function in the Born approximation.e. Hint: Each Na atom donates one electron to the conduction band. ω 2 −ω 2 Exercises for Chapter 14 Exercise 14. The Boltzmann equation with inclusion of e-e scattering therefore reads ˙ ∂t (nk ) + k · k nk + vk · r nk =− 1 τk . 0. Explain this. absence of external forces. collisions In the homogenous and static case. Hint: show and use that nF (ε) [1 − nF (ε )] exp (β(ε − ε )) = [1 − nF (ε)] nF (ε ). Exercise 13. Show that the usual Fermi-Dirac equation solves the Boltzmann equation in this case. long wave limit that ε(0. and explain why (polished) metals appear shiny. The scattering life time in Eq.23 ˚. that the right hand side is also zero if we use n = nF . 0)ΓRA (k. 0). (13. ω ) = Zk 2πδ(ω −ξk ) + (1−Zk ) π θ(W −|ω |). and for which is it reﬂected? From X-ray diﬀraction we know that the unit-cell of Na is body-centered cubic (i. The conductivity is in the weak scattering limit given by σxx = e2 1 π V kx m GR (k. no renormalization occurs. Set D = 0 (0. 0)GA (k. x k . This exercise deals with the Kubo formula method applied to impurity scattering in metals. and the quasiparticle is in fact the bare electron: A(k. ω)E and prove that 2 E(x) = pc2 E(x). Exercise 13.4 Why are metals shiny? According to Eq.

x k 1. In this more realistic case. m e2 nτ0 . 0) = x kx 1 + m V nimp |u(k − k )|2 GR (k . 0. i. Show that the retarded impurity averaged Green’s function in the Born approximation decays exponentially in time and given a physical interpretation of this result. 0).318 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 14 In the Born approximation the Dyson equation for the vertex function is ΓRA (k. 0)GA (k . Explain the physical meaning of the last term and why it does not appear in the result for point-like impurities. 0. τ0 . dφ dθ sin θ is an integration over the angle of k . Now σ= e2 nτ tr . k . 2. m k·k dΩ |u(k − k )|2 1 − 2 4π kF .e. Now relax the assumption of short range scatterers but assume instead that u(k − k ) −1 is slowly varying on the scale given by the width of the spectral function. . where τ tr −1 = 2πd(εF )nimp Hint: use the ansatz ΓRA (k) = (k/m)γ. If the impurity potential is short ranged argue that we can approximate it by a constant |u(k − k )|2 ≈ |u0 |2 . you will ﬁnd for |k| = kF that ΓRA (k) = with |k | = kF and show that dΩ = d(εF ) k + m 2 dΩ |u(k − k )|2 ΓRA (k ). Exercise 14.2 Life time of the Green’s function in the Born approximation. m where τ0 is the Born approximation life time −1 τ0 = 2πd(εF )nimp |u0 |2 . k. 0)ΓRA (k . Prove that in this case ΓRA = x and use this to ﬁnd that σ= kx .

4) Note that it is G and not G0 that enters in the self-consistent approximation. 1 − ζ(Q. V p 1 and long wavelength QvF τ0 1 limit Show that in this case. where it is neglected) does it lead to a renormalization of the Drude formula? .e. ω) . 14. ω) is ζ(Q. Exercise 14. If we think about impurity scattering from a microscopic point of view the self energy has both a real and an imaginary part. the low frequency ωτ0 of ζ(Q.4 Mass renormalization in Drude formula? The mass that appears in the Drude formula is the bare electron mass (possibly including bandstructure eﬀects). Let us for instance consider the lowest order self-consistent Born approximation. ω) ≈ 1 + iωτ0 − Dτ0 Q2 . ε) ≈ . The Drude formula can be derived from e. when expanding the Green’s function near the Fermi surface we can write Z GR (k. The only change in the formula for the weak localization is through the Cooperon which becomes instead C RA (Q. where the mass enters through the velocity. i.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 14 319 Exercise 14. ω) 1 ζ(Q. vk = k/m and the impurity potential in the collision term. ikn . ω)GA (p. ω) = W0 ζ(Q. the Boltzmann equation. In this case the self-energy reads 1SCBA (k. (B.3 Weak localization at ﬁnite frequency.3 and Exercise 5. The impurities only enter in the scattering time. ikn ) = nimp k |uk−k |2 G k . The real part leads to a renormalization of the mass and to a renormalization of the spectral weight at the Fermi surface.5) ∗ ω − ξk + i τ2∗ If we include the real part in this way (contrary to Sec. (B. Here we consider the weak localization correction at ﬁnite frequency.g. Show that the frequency provide a small Q cut-oﬀ in the conductivity correction and try to explain why. ω) = |u0 |2 GR (p − Q. 0).

2 Landauer-B¨ ttiker formula at ﬁnite temperatures. Show that ψ (0+ ) − ψ (0− ) = 2m 2 V0 ψ(0) and use it to ﬁnd r and t. 0.05. Plot for example G(h/2e2 ) versus µ/ ωT for two diﬀerent temperatures: kT = (0.1 Conductance of a delta function barrierAs a model system of a mesoscopic 1D channel take the following Hamiltonian H=− Consider a scattering state + ψk (x) = 1 √ L ∂2 + V0 δ (x) .c. Hints: vk = 2mi k k Exercise 15. 2 where ωT is the frequency of transverse oscillation. Find an expression for the conductance G and plot the G as a function of µ. How would the result look if the transverse conﬁnement was given by a square well? . x < 0. z = mV0 / k. while the distribution function for electrons in states ψk is nF (εk − µR ). where Tn (E) is the transmission probability of a given mode Tn (E) = n t∗ tn n . so that the distribution function for electrons in the states ψk is given − by nF (εk − µL ). h 1 + (V0 / vF )2 εF .) = |t|2 = 1 − |r|2 with t = (1 + iz)−1 . the transmission coeﬃcient is supposed to be 1 Tn (E) = Θ(E − En ) = Θ(E − (n + ) ωT ). where V = µR −µL e + ~ ( ψ+ ∗ ∂x ψ+ − c.15) ωT . 1 √ teikx . where the potential in the transverse direction is a parabolic conﬁnement. L and likewise for ψ − . 2m ∂x2 2 eikx + re−ikx . x > 0. nn Using a model electron waveguide. Suppose now that the two ends of the wire have diﬀerent + chemical potential. For a general mesoscopic system u show that the linear conductance at ﬁnite temperature is generalized to G= 2e2 h ∞ dE − n 0 ∂nF (E − µ) ∂E Tn (E).320 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 15 Exercises for Chapter 15 Exercise 15. Show that the current at low temperature becomes I = 2e k>0 + − vk nF (εk − µL ) − vk nF (εk − µR ) = 1 2e2 V.

e. 321 Exercises for Chapter 16 Exercise 16.2 Cooper’s instability In this exercise we shall see that an attractive electron-electron interaction leads to an instability of the Fermi surface. . k −k (3) We look at the diﬀerence between the two situations: 1) The electron pair is added to the Fermi surface. We wish to ﬁnd the energy of a pair of electrons added to a ﬁlled Fermi sea state. i. c† ↑ c† ↓ c−k↓ ck↑ . i. The scale of this energy is given by the Debye energy. µ + ωD ]. 16 it is shown that the electron-phonon interaction leads to an eﬀective electron-electron interaction. the sum is further restricted to involve only states outside the Fermi sea. After relabelling we have H = −V0 c† ↑ c† ↓ c−k↓ ck↑ . In Chap. It is attractive for small frequencies. |k | = kF and energy equal to zero. (16. Exercise 16. BCS model Hamiltonian. and with interactions according to (2).1 Phonon Green’s function Prove Eq. in a shell around the Fermi surface.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 16. According to the variational principle the lowest energy of the two is closest to the groundstate energy.7). This observation lead Cooper to study the following model Hamiltonian. which means that we choose k = −k and σ = −σ . i. Anticipating the physical idea that the electrons due to the attractive interaction will form pairs with zero total momentum and spin. for energies smaller than qvs . k −k (2) Variational calculation of FS with an added pair of electrons. Thus Eq. In order to separate the eﬀect of the interaction on the Fermi sea and on the extra pair of electrons.k >kF . (2) becomes H = −V0 k. we look speciﬁcally at the interaction between such pairs. with |k|.e. where q is the exchanged momentum and vs is the sound velocity. (1b) H =− V0 2 (1c) Here the sum is restricted such that all initial and ﬁnal states lie in an interval given by [µ − ωD . 2) The electron pair forms a coherent superposition of pairs not necessary at the Fermi surface. H = H0 + H (1a) H0 = kσ (εk − µ) c† ckσ .e. The pairs are thus supposed to consist of electrons with opposite momentum. kσ † c† k+qσ ck −qσ ck σ ckσ . which is also the starting point used by BCS.

This exercise deals with the supercurrent across a tunnel junction. Find that (reinserting ) E = −2 ωD exp (−1/V0 d(EF )) . Supercurrent in the equilibrium state.e. (4) k↑ −k↓ k Show that αk satisﬁes the following equation. αk (2εk − EF ) − V0 k >kF αk = Eαk . i. In the following we assume for simplicity that in the energy range of interest the tunnel matrix element depends weakly on the states k and p. which is a superposition of socalled Cooper pairs |ψ = αk c† c† |F S . two superconductors separated by an insulator. respectively. (2εk − EF ) − E (6) In order to ﬁnd the energy E you should make use of the following hierarchy of energy scales E ωD EF . (5) and that this leads to a condition for E given by 1 = V0 k >kF 1 .1 The Josephson eﬀect. The tunnel Hamiltonian is † HT = tkp c† fpσ + t∗ fpσ ckσ . (8) Discuss the following two important issues: • Why does this result indicate an instability of the Fermi surface • Could this result have been reached by perturbation theory in V0 ? Exercises for Chapter 17 Exercise 17. the so-called Josephson eﬀect. (7) where the validity of the ﬁrst one of course must be checked at the of the calculation. therefore tkp ≈ t (2) . We apply the relations to study the current-voltage characteristic of a tunnel junction in the so-called resistively shunted Josephson junction model.322 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 17 For situation 2 we start by an Ansatz wavefunction. Consider a tunnel junction between two superconductors. (1) kp kσ kp where the electron operators for the two sides are called c and f .

(3a) (3b) Hf = where the two superconductors are assumed to be equal. ∂F ∂ HT = (−2e) . The phase diﬀerence between the two side can be absorbed as a phase shift of the tunnel matrix t → e−i(φc −φf )/2 t. (4) by the transformation c → eiφc /2 c. f → eiφf /2 f. Show that to second order in HT ∂ HT ≈ − ∂φ β 0 dτ Tτ HT (τ ) 0 ∂ HT ∂φ 0 =− 1 ∂ 2 ∂φ β 0 dτ Tτ HT (τ )HT 0 .c. F is the free energy and φ = φc − φf is the phase diﬀerence. and ∆ is here taking to be real. Verify the following steps G21 (k. ikn ) + c. f−k↓ fk↑ . ∂φ ∂φ (5) Show that the equilibrium current running between the two superconductors is IJ = I = (−2e) (6) ˙ where I is the operator for the electrical current I = (−e) Nc . τ )G12 (p. Then show that β ∂ t2 eiφ G21 (k. ikn )G12 (p. This is a current which runs in thermodynamical equilibrium and hence is dissipationless in the sense that it runs without an applied bias (the chemical potential of the two sides is per deﬁnition identical in equilibrium). ikn ) = k p G12 (p. dτ = ∂φ 0 kp ∂ 1 = t2 eiφ G21 (k. In the following we calculate this so-called supercurrent to second order in the tunneling amplitude. ikn ) ∆d(εF ) 2 ∆d(εF ) 2 ∞ = dξ −∞ 1 (ikn ) − E 2 . (7) where the expectation value 1 ∂ 2 ∂φ β 0 dτ Tτ HT (τ )HT 0 means taken with respect to Eqs.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 17 The Hamiltonian for the two sides are the usual BCS Hamiltonians Hc = kσ 323 ξk c† ckσ − ∆eiφc kσ k † ξk fkσ fkσ − ∆eiφf kσ k c† c† − ∆e−iφc k↑ −k↓ k † † fk↑ f−k↓ − ∆e−iφf k c−k↓ ck↑ . (8) ∂φ β ikn kp where G12 and G21 are the oﬀ-diagonal Nambu Green’s functions deﬁned in Exercise 3.c. The order parameter of each side of the junction have diﬀerent phases. (2). (9) 2 =− π 2 kn + ∆2 . −τ ) + c. φc and φf .

(2) which is called the second Josephson relations. One can measure this frequency by applying external RF radiation to the junction. The pair current is described by the Josephson relations while the normal current is supposed to be given by Ohm’s law.2 RSJ model of a Josephson junction. which has many applications. The current is carried by two kinds of electrons: those that are paired and those that are not. (5) (6) . 2 (10) Exercise 17. a current carried by Cooper pairs and the relation IJ = IC sin φ. The ﬁnite voltage changes the energy of electrons of the two sides and hence their phase.e.324 and use it to ﬁnd that IJ = − π∆d(εF )t 2 2 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 17 1 β ikn 2 kn 1 + ∆2 e (πd(εF )t) ∆β ∆ tanh 2 2 ∆π ∆β = sin φ tanh . or 2e ˙ φ = V.e. (3) (4) f (t) → f (t)e−iV t/2 . (1) is still valid. I. This current is made up by the sum of the supercurrent and the normal current. Thus 1 ˙ V + IC sin φ = φ + IC sin φ. The Josephson junction thus acts as a voltage to frequency converter. This is known as the ﬁrst Josephson relation. 2eRN 2 = sin φ −1 where the normal state tunnel resistance is given by RN = πe2 d2 t2 / . R 2eR Write this equation in the dimensionless form I = IN + IJ = η= I dφ = + sin φ. i. We can simply include this phase change in the time dependence of by the following substitution c(t) → c(t)eiV t/2 . With a ﬁnite bias voltage across the junction. one can still have a supercurrent running. i. Now we look at the current-voltage characteristic of a Josephson junction in the RSJ model. The second Josephson relation adds interesting dynamics to the Josephson junction because of the intrinsic frequency 2eV / . which corresponds to φ → φ + 2eV t. IC dτ τ= 2eIc R t. Consider a current biased setup. a junction with a ﬁxed current.

I < IC (I/IC )2 − 1. I > IC (7) ˙ ˙ Hint: ﬁrst ﬁnd solutions for φ = 0 and then a “running” solution where φ = 0. For the dφ 1 T 2π last situation the average voltage is V = T 0 dt dt = T . but in a dc measurement one measures the average voltage. .EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 17 325 The voltage is time dependent. (6) and show that the average voltage becomes V = RIc 0. Here T is the period of the voltage or the time it takes to increase φ by 2 π. Integrate Eq.

82 self-consistent gap equation. density matrix. 35 Bloch’s equation. semiconductor. 26 Boltzmann equation collision free. 5 frequency. 7 antiferromagnetism. 34 Bogoliubov transformation. 147 annihilation operators 1D phonons. 78 basis states change in second quantization. 233 advanced function. 45 Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieﬀer (see BCS). 53 Bohr radius a0 . 54 326 . 140 Bloch Bloch theory of lattice electrons. 194 spectral function. 29. 12 bra state. 162 analytic function. 35 metal. 12 many-particle fermion systems. 40 in metal. 279 Bose-Einstein distribution. 13 anti-symmetrization operator. 281 bandstructure diagram extended zone scheme. 33 bandstructure. 3 ground state energy E0 . 10 fermions. 55 adiabatic continuity. 1st order. 241 Born approximation ﬁrst Born approximation. 91 time-derivative. 13 time dependence. 51 boson creation/annihilation operators. 153 Bohr radius a0 . 161 Anderson’s model for magnetic impurities. 190. 16 complete basis set. 81 interaction potential model. 14 orthonormal basis set. 261 self-consistent Born approximation. 83 tunneling spectroscopy. 3 Green’s function. 24 BCS theory eﬀective Hamiltonian. 120 analytic continuation. 35 deﬁnition. 31 attractive pair-interaction. 193 in conductivity. 259 full Born approximation. 285 mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian. 239 introduction. 51. 158 Bloch’s theorem. 82 Bohm-Staver sound velocity from RPA-screened phonons. 165 many-particle basis. insulator. 55 bosons. 283 semi-classical. 10 deﬁning commutators. 192 Born-Oppenheimer approximation. the art of mean ﬁeld theory. 68 atom artiﬁcial. 34 for 1D phonons. 56 in second quantization. 161. 233 with impurity scattering. 11 deﬁnition. 130 many-particle boson systems. 163 Aharonov-Bohm eﬀect. 2 Brillouin zone bandstructure diagram. 40 electron orbitals.Index acoustic phonons Debye phonons. 73 art. 2 systems with diﬀerent particles. 40 Boltzmann distribution. 52 graphical representation. 145 anti-commutator.

100 diagrammatics. 208 conserving approximation. 81 instability. 220 creation operators 1D phonons. 91 critical temperature Cooper instability. RPA-screening. 52 Debye energy or frequency ωD . 103 chemical potential deﬁnition. C]B. 148 Debye acoustical Debye phonons. 121 conductance quantization. lattice model. 253 Kubo formalism. 71 canonical ensemble. 283 integration over. 48 charge-charge correlation function. 31 correlation function 327 charge-charge correlation. 3 set of quantum numbers ν. 100 mesoscopic system. 63 electron-phonon. 259 continuity equation for ions in the jellium model. Π deﬁnition. 92 deﬁning bosons. 113 universal ﬂuctuations. 203 conservation of four-momentum. 2 commutator [AB. 99 second quantization. 213 exchange process. 65 Coulomb blockade. 44. general. 284 . C] = A{B. 269 introduction. 136 broken symmetry. 98 relation to dielectric function. 104 semi-classical approach. 100. 267 maximally crossed. 22 current-current correlation function. C] + [A. 166 convergence of Matsubara functions. 92 [AB. jellium model. 59. 10 fermions. 160 Cooper Cooper pairs. 268 crossing diagrams deﬁnition. 256 RPA renormalization. 52. 43 divergence. 13 time dependence. Feynman diagrams. 74 superconductivity. 264 suppressed in the Born approx. 11 complete basis states.and paramagnetic terms. 62 electron-phonon. 153 Coulomb interaction combined with phonons. 23 Yukawa potential. 254 general Kubo formalism. 269 core electron. 279 direct process. 21 partition function. 11 deﬁning fermions. 116 conductivity cooperons. 217. 186 Kubo formalism. 59 Debye model. 181 second quantization. 238 contour integral. 55 bosons. 103 current-current correlation. 39 collapse of wavefunction. 285 ferromagnetism. C} − {A. 23 0 electron-phonon. 254 d-shell. 196 current density operator dia. 26 carbon nanotubes. 64 electron-phonon. 13 general deﬁnition. 218 coupling constant electron interaction strength e2 .. 27 momentum. 52 for quasiparticles. 240 connected Feynman diagrams. 44 in conductivity. 284 cooperons in conductivity. 3 conductance conductance ﬂuctuations.INDEX broadening of the spectral function. 227 screened impurity scattering. 84 crossed diagram deﬁnition. C}B. 27 temperature dependence. 81 instability of the Fermi surface. RPA-renormalized. C] = A[B. 97 correlation hole around electrons.

226 self-consistent Born approximation. 140 diﬀerential equation classical Green’s function. 284 polarization function χ. 4 disconnected Feynman diagrams. 179 ﬁrst Born approximation. 121 dissipation due to electron-hole pairs. 28 Maxwell-Boltzmann. 60 Einstein phonons in the jellium model. 28 Boltzmann. 131 single-particle Green’s function. Gibbs. 1 eigenvalue. 179 electric potential classical theory. 143 distribution function Boltzmann. 26 non-interacting bosons. 203 disorder. 280 Coulomb and phonons. 59 density of states. 127 many-body Green’s function.. 60 dynamical matrix D(k). 283 eﬀective mass approximation. 237 electron core electrons. 190 for Πxx . 208 pair interactions in real space. 133 diamagnetic term in current density. 7 in Wick’s theorem. 127 external and induced. 38 phonons. RPA. external potential. 216 the RPA-bubble χRPA . 31 . 59 Debye wave number kD . 7 diagonal Hamiltonian. 205 pair-scattering vertex Λ. 226 the RPA-bubble and phonons. 1 Einstein model of speciﬁc heat. 38 phase coherence. 140 non-interacting electrons. 264. mesoscopic systems. 282 dephasing. 144. 113 Fermi-Dirac. 46 Drude formula. 136 density waves. 257 for cooperon. RPA. 27 density of states measured by tunneling. 264 Dulong-Petit value for speciﬁc heat.328 Debye temperature TD . 155 irreducible polarization function χirr . 26 Bose-Einstein. 184 valence electrons. 269 full Born approximation. Debye model. 193 impurity and interaction. 172 Slater. 19 lattice vibrations. 194 single-particle in external potential. BCS. 57 Dyson equation Feynman diag. 240. 104 diﬀerential conductance. 52 elastic scattering Matsubara Green’s function. 272 determinant ﬁrst quantization. 108. 231 of electron gas. deﬁnition of. 146 Dirac bra(c)ket notation for quantum states. 178 eﬀective electron-electron interaction Coulomb and phonons. 31 density of states. 99 dielectric function ε equation of motion derivation. 59 frequency cut-oﬀ. 1 superposition. 251 eigenmodes electromagnetic ﬁeld. 226 Kubo formalism. 22 density matrix operator. renormalization. 256 impurity averaged electrons. 223 relation to conductivity. 45 donor atoms. 59 spectral function. 58 eigenstate deﬁnition. 2 delta function δ(r). 246. jellium. 285 delta function δ(r). 251. 283 phonon mediated. 52 optical phonons. Debye model. 4 density in second quantization. 72 density-density correlation function the pair-bubble χ0 ≡ −Π0 . 102 relation to polarization function χ. 29 INDEX electron reservoir. 35 eﬀective mass. 29 non-interacting fermions. 189 pair interactions in Fourier space.

275 the lattice model. interacting attractive interaction. 145 ergodic. 48 2D: GaAs heterostructures. Cooper instability. 222 Landau damping. 46 3D: metals and semiconductors. 39 ground state energy. 177 ﬁnite temperature. 13 frequency. 36 Fermi sea. 25 extended zone scheme. 45 introduction. 281 Cooper instability. 276 general introduction. 74 introduction. 36 Fermi wavenumber kF . 63 the jellium model. deﬁnition. 14 fermion loop. 284 dephasing. 203 . 147 single-particle Green’s function. 37 Fermi sea with interactions. 51 graphical representation. 13 deﬁning commutators. 220.INDEX electron gas. 149 derivation of RPA. 42 Fermi sea. 144 Fermi velocity vF . excitations. 214. 220 electron gas. 36 Fermi sea diagrams. 43 full self-energy diagram. 279 Feynman diagrams. 36 Fermi’s golden rule. 214 full theory. 281 dielectric properties and screening. 231 electron-phonon interaction adiabatic electron motion. 276 combined with Coulomb interaction. 244. 147 Heisenberg operators. in general 0D: quantum dots. 240. 223 ﬁrst order perturbation. 41. 145 Matsubara Green’s function. 38 jellium model. 70 inﬁnite perturbation series. 220 Landau damping. 49 1D: carbon nanotubes. 250 Thomas-Fermi screening. 121 ergodicity assumption. 43 thermodynamic potential Ω. 222 Hartree–Fock mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian. 73 order parameter. 28. 264. 38 Feynman diagrams. 35 329 Fermi Fermi energy εF . 171 introduction. 237 fermion deﬁnition. 63. 36 Fermi wave length λF . 88 in proof of Wick’s theorem. 245 Fermi-Dirac distribution. 202 ferromagnetism critical temperature. 61. 155 interpretation of RPA. 63 electronic plasma oscillations graphical representation. 144. 165 many-particle basis. 228 second order perturbation. 169 non-interacting particles. 275 the sound velocity. 35 motion in external potentials. 51 equation of motion Anderson’s model. 177 static ion lattice. 57 frequency domain. 23 0 electron wave guides. 75 Feynman diagrams cancellation of disconnected diagrams. 161. 53 umklapp process. 33 electron interaction strength e2 . 213 general considerations. 116 electron-electron scattering attractive interaction. 33 density of states. non-interacting Bloch theory. 218. 31 electron gas. 272 life-time. 153 for ions. 219 Fermi liquid theory introduction. 233 microscopic basis. 38 ground state energy. 5 creation/annihilation operators. 72 Stoner model. 230 plasma oscillations. 53 basis states. 286 Fermi sea. 243 electron-hole pairs excitations.

208 interaction line in real space. 204 irreducible diagrams. 179 impurity averaged Green’s function. 245 retarded. 199 polarization function χ. 27 partition function. 188 interaction line in Fourier space. 132 two particle. 134 Poisson’s equation. 141 Hamiltonian diagonal. 130 RPA-screened phonons. 69 mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian. 18 second quantization. 19 transversality condition. 70 Hartree self-energy. external potential. 27 ensemble. 70 heat capacity for electrons. 207. 1 single-particle systems. 10. 146. G denominator. 127 Lehmann representation. 170 classical. 133 non-interacting particles. G numerator. 158 Green’s function n-particle. 47 Gibbs distribution. 131 translation-invariant system. scattering. 3 INDEX radiation ﬁeld. 179 ﬁrst Born approximation. 127 dressed. 135. 131 retarded. 39 for ions.330 Cooper instability. 254 free electrons. 189 irreducible diagrams. 206 equation of motion. 46 gauge breaking of gauge symmetry. 278 ﬁrst quantization many-particle systems. 18 Hartree approximation for interactions. 131 imaginary time. Matsubara. 27 in mean ﬁeld theory. 201 pair interactions. 150. 127 renormalization. 70 Fock self-energy for pair interactions. 132 free phonons. 128 o single-particle. 225 self-consistent Born approximation. pair interaction. 282 Schr¨dinger equation. 276 external potential scattering. 1 Greek letters. 209 Fock space. 19 Gauss box. 188 pair interactions in Fourier space. 177 topologically diﬀerent diagrams. 135 quadratic. many-body system. 54 basic theory. 275 greater and lesser. 209 Hartree–Fock approximation. 67 GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As heterostructures. 205 pair interactions. 190 full Born approximation. 202 phonon mediated pair interaction. 145 retarded. 204 pair interactions. 161 free energy deﬁniton. 52 . 291 Coulomb interaction. imp. 27 Hartree–Fock approximation. 147 Matsubara functions. equation of motion. pair interactions. one-body system. many-body system. 26 grand canonical density matrix. 204 Feynman rules electron-impurity scattering. 69 four-vector/four-momentum notation. 170 harmonic oscillator length. 194 single-particle. 284 electron-impurity scattering. 193 impurity averaged single-particle. 27 gravitation. 255 Fourier transformation 1D ion vibrations. 160 introduction. 4 name. 2 Fock approximation for interactions. 69 Hartree–Fock approximation introduction. 184 external potential scattering. 182 electron-phonon interaction. 78 Landau gauge. 70 the interacting electron gas. 208 pair interactions in real space.

ionic ferromagnets. 2 kinetic energy operator including a vector potential. 214 oscillating background. 225 iterative solution. 149 Hubbard model. 35 ket state. 51 forming a static lattice. 223 time evolution. 21 kinetic momentum. 227 interaction picture imaginary time. magnetic. 97 dielectric function. 189 pair interaction. 9 heterostructures. conductivity. 40 imaginary time discussion. 227 inelastic light scattering. 88 model of ferromagnetism. 4 Heisenberg Heisenberg picture. 264. 128 331 jellium model eﬀective electron-electron interaction. 95 Landauer-B¨ttiker formula. Hamiltonian. 73 in a metal.. integral eqs. 115 lattice model basis in real space. 90.. 88 real space Matsubara Green’s fct. 158 Greek letters. 3 gauge. 53 electron-phonon interaction. 214 single-particle Green’s function. 217. 75 hybridization. 52 electron-phonon interaction. 3 Landauer-B¨ttiker formula u heuristic derivation. 63 full electronic self-energy. 33 basis in reciprocal space. 160 impurities. 148 impurity scattering. 134 . 40 electron orbitals. 148 hydrogen atom Bohr radius a0 . 188 in conductivity. 33 Hamiltonian. 204 pair interaction in Fourier space. 184 impurity-scattering line Feynman rules. 208 RPA screened Coulomb line. 52 static case. 280 Einstein phonons. 1 hopping. 159 introduction. 4 Kubo formalism conductance. 259 Landau and Fermi liquid theory. 73 helium. 100 conductivity. 205 polarization function χirr . 46 Hilbert space. 230 eigenstates. 200 interference. 90 inﬁnitesimal shift η.n . 21 Kronecker’s delta function δk. 265 ions ionic plasma oscillations. 33 lattice vibrations 1D phonon Hamiltonian. 178 ˆ time-evolution operator U (t. 255 renormalization by RPA-screening. 139 ladder diagram. 97 tunnel current. 254 correlation function. 220 interaction line general pair interaction in real space. 113 linear response derivation.INDEX Heaviside’s step function θ(x). t0 ). 21 second quantization. 33 Heisenberg model. 61 Lehmann representation deﬁnition. 144 inﬁnite perturbation series breakdown at phase transistions. 115 u RPA-screening in the electron gas. GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As. 31 irreducible Feynman diagrams impurity scattering. 3 ground state energy E0 . 222 self-energy for interacting electrons. 85 electron gas ground state energy. 162 integration over the coupling constant. 158 Green’s function. 227 RPA screened impurity line. 253 impurity self-average. 98. 102 general introduction. 233 damping and plasma oscillations.

179 electron-impurity scattering. 70 introduction. 107 metal disordering and random impurities. in Fourier space. 115 u mesoscopic system. 78 mesoscopic disordered systems. 9 mass renormalization. 148 magnetic length. 134 Matsubara function. 262 Lindhard function. 236. 165 sums. simple poles. 168 Matsubara Green’s function elastic scattering. 10 . 21 relaxation. 74. 167 sums. 31 Hamiltonian. 68 mean free path. 46 mean ﬁeld theory Anderson’s model. 161 Green’s function. 275 full Born approximation. 265 systems. G< . 190 free phonons. 71 INDEX general Hamiltonian HMF . 2 second quantization. 3 magnetic moment. 193 impurity averaged single-particle. 164 quasiparticles. 150. 72. 91 tunnel current. 188 interacting elec. 182 ﬁrst Born approximation. 52 non-interacting particles distribution functions. 243 MOSFET. 160 relation to retarded function. 149 magnetization. 107 measuring the spectral function. equation of motion. 268 MBE. 181 general description. 147. ω). 131 ﬁrst quantization. ω). 65 mean ﬁeld approximation. 135 in conductivity. 150 BCS mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian. molecular beam epitaxy. 169 convergence of. 113 time evolution. 28 equation of motion. 135 normalization of quantum states. 67 partition function ZMF . 199 RPA-screened phonons. introduction. 161 sums. 161 frequency. scattering state. 67 the art of mean ﬁeld theory. 194 two-particle polarization function χ. 162 life-time. 208 interacting electrons in Fourier space. 95 Landauer-B¨ttiker formula. 155 linear response theory introduction. 233 retarded Green’s function GR (kσ. 31 occupation number operator bosons. 243. 82 broken symmetry. 46 momentum canonical. 147 Green’s functions. phase transistions. 253 regime. 254 Matsubara function. 108 nucleus. 132 Hamiltonian. 224 maximally crossed diagrams. 21 kinetic. 282 self-consistent Born approximation. MBE. 160 Fourier transformation. 135 spectral function A0 (kσ. 149 many-body system single-particle Green’s function. 206 interacting electrons in real space. 66 Hartree–Fock mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian. 143.332 for G> . 139 magnetic impurities. with branch cuts. 46 Newton’s second law for ions in the jellium model. 3 normalization. 240. 12 fermions. 32 observation of plasmons. 181 electrical resistivity. 229 Thomas-Fermi screening in metals. 279 molecular beam epitaxy. evaluation of. 219 Migdal’s theorem. and GR . 14 introduction. 261 Matsubara Green’s function. 137 Meissner eﬀect. 121 physics.

interacting electrons. 199 Feynman rules in Fourier space. 210 the correlation function χ0 ≡ −Π0 . 7 Heisenberg equation of motion. 208 self-energy in real space. 205 pair-bubble calculation of the pair-bubble. 186 phase space. 72 pair interactions Dyson equation in Fourier space. iqn ). 216 self-energy diagram. 208 Dyson equation in real space. 52 . 85 broken symmetry. 7. 141 optical theorem. 27 optical phonons Einstein phonons. 208 Feynman rules in real space. 72 phonons 1D annihilation/creation operators. 90 phase coherence. 55 relevant operator Aqλ . 95 second order. 41 inﬁnite order. electron gas. 19 permanent for bosons. 55 1D lattice vibrations. 71 order parameters. 52 phonon branches. 214 linear response. 245 phase transition breakdown of perturbation theory. 172 permutation. 5. 89 trace Tr. 14 ˆ time evolution operator U (t. Kubo formula. 264. 72 overlap of wavefunctions localized/extended states. 1 real time ordering Tt . 251 life-time. 272 eigenmodes in 3D. 7 in ﬁrst quantization. 218 Feynman diagram Π0 (q. 148 particle propagation. 205 Feynman diagrams. 58 plasma frequency for electron gases in a metals. 194 order parameter deﬁnition. 184 phase coherence length lϕ . 67 Pauli exclusion principle. 21 periodic boundary conditions 1D phonons. 43 single particle wavefunction. 281 RPA-renormalized Green’s function. 275 general introduction. Debye model. ground state energy. 36 photons. 19 expansion of e−iHt . Green’s function. 53 electrons. 88 Hermitian. 2 boson creation/annihilation. 171 permutation group SN . 178 inﬁnite order. 26 grand canonical ensemble. 13 ﬁrst quantization. 211 in the RPA self-energy. 51 Hamiltonian for jellium phonons. 90 second quantization. 133 tunneling. 216 paramagnetic term in current density. 53 density of states. 204 self-energy in Fourier space. 59 dephasing. electron gas. 27 333 in mean ﬁeld theory. 10 electromagnetic ﬁeld. 90 perturbation theory ﬁrst order. 72 list of order parameters. 55. 228 ionic plasma frequency. 58 Einstein model of speciﬁc heat. 264 phase coherence for electrons. 40 spin matrices. 52 graphical representation. 56 optical spectroscopy. 99 particle-particle scattering in the collision term. 222 inﬁnite order. 243 partition function canonical ensemble. 10 operator adjoint. 138 pair condensate.INDEX occupation number representation. t0 ). 244. 282 second quantization. 7 in Wick’s theorem. 87 fermion creation/annihilation. 128 ˆ time-evolution operator U (t. 60 free Green’s function. 275 RPA renormalization. scattering theory. t0 ).

235 introduction. 110 reﬂectionless contact. 247 eﬀective mass. 121 random phase approximation (see RPA). 273 quantum dots introduction. 3 Landau states. 146. 35 reﬂection amplitude. 2 hydrogen. 158 RPA for the electron gas Coulomb and impurity lines. 243 quasiparticle-quasiparticle scattering. 236 discussion. 49 tunneling spectroscopy. 246 . 181 random matrix theory. 79 single electrons. 233 life-time. 51 Landau damping. 184 quantum correction. 225 Kubo formalism. 161 Roman letters. 143. 237 Poisson’s equation GaAs heterostructures. 47 Green’s function. 33 reduced zone scheme. 19 Raman scattering. 240 resummation of diagrams current-current correlation. 132 relation to Matsubara function. 4 quantum point contact. 107 quantum ﬁeld operator deﬁnition. 257 deriving the equation of motion. 103 momentum space. 220 Fermi liquid theory. 113 relaxation time approximation. 281 reservoir. 147 Green’s function..334 plasma oscillations electronic plasma oscillations. 19 probability current conservation. 51 interacting electron gas in RPA. 178 quadratic Hamiltonian. 153 electron-hole pair interpretation. Dyson equation. 243 radiation ﬁeld. 228 plasmons dynamical screening. 25. 127 polarization function χ Dyson equation. 245 of phonons by RPA-screening. 33 reciprocal space. 17 Fourier transform. 3 INDEX sum over. 230 plasmons. 186 quantum number ν Feynman rules. 57 photons. 223 two-particle Matsubara Green’s fct. 2 time evolution. 108 resistivity (see conductivity). 108. 163 reciprocal lattice basis. 228 ionic plasma oscillations. 144 random impurities. 111 probability distribution. 3 orthogonal. 142 relation to dielectric function ε. 136 propagator Green’s function. 213 rational function. 225 free electrons. 140 quantum eﬀects. 238. 253. 173 irreducible Feynman diagrams. 215 retarded function convergence factor. 150. 131. 243 renormalization constant Z. 238 experimental observation in metals. 170 quantum coherence macroscopic in superconductivity. 135. 2 free particle. 246. 188 the RPA self-energy. 251 Green’s function. 226 Feynman diagrams. 116 quantum state bra and ket state. 181 general introduction. 130 single-particle in external potential. 224 polarization vectors phonons. 2 quasiparticle deﬁnition. 228 semi-classical treatment. 264. 17 quantum ﬂuctuations in conductance. 229 plasma oscillations. 256 impurity scattering.

unit of energy (Ry). 25 thermal average. 214 irreducible. 237 transport equation. 283 Bohm-Staver formula. 61 free phonons in 1D. 208 pair interactions in real space. 23 electromagnetic ﬁeld. 218 semiclassical. 190 Fock diagram for pair interactions. 6 free particle state. 55 free phonons in 3D. 27 self-average for impurity scattering basic concepts. 2 hydrogen orbital. pair interactions. 137 non-interacting particles. 210 RPA self-energy. 226 vertex corrections. 112 time-dependent. 108 scattering theory optical theorem. 238 semiclassical. 53 Debye model. RPA. 117 scattering theory. 192 in sums with branch cuts. 227 renormalized Coulomb interaction. 217 resummation of the self-energy. 150 ﬁrst Born approximation. 259 Rydberg. 87 o screening dieelectric properties of the elec. 9 basis for diﬀerent particles. 128 o transition matrix. 184 weak localization. 257 pair interactions in Fourier space. jellium model. 3 Slater determinant. 209 impurity averaged electrons. interacting electrons. 135 spectroscopy optical. dynamical. 3 Landau state. 24 change of basis. 261 screening. 2 Schr¨dinger picture. 169 measurement. 194 semi-classical approximation. 22 spin. 21 second quantization. fermions. 136 deﬁnition. 177 spectral function Anderson’s model. 135 ﬁrst Born approximation. 128 quantum point contact. 218 second quantization basic concepts. 7 Sommerfeld expansion. 205 pair-bubble diag. 151 broadening. 226 the polarization function χRPA . 14 particle current density. 209 full Born approximation. 58 harmonic oscillator. gas. S. 108 scattering state. 52 sounds waves. static. 1 operators. 135 physical interpretation. 189 interacting electrons. 194 Schr¨dinger equation. 215 the dielectric function εRPA . 151 general mean-ﬁeld theory. 193 scattering matrix.. 141 tunneling. 21 . 67 self-energy due to hybridization. 223 RPA-screened Coulomb interaction. 137 spin Pauli matrices. points and integrals. 238 Thomas-Fermi screening. 40 scattering length. 21 statistical mechanics. 19 electron-phonon interaction. 193 Hartree diagram for pair interactions. semi-classical. 265 335 self-consistent equation Anderson’s model. 39 sound velocity Bohm-Staver formula. 18 kinetic energy. 216 self-consistent Born approximation. 193 Schr¨dinger equation o Green’s function. 21 name. 128 time reversal symmetry. 22 particle density. 51 space-time. 16 Coulomb interaction. 240 single-particle states as N -particle basis.INDEX plasmons and Landay damping.

97 operator. 124 valence electrons. imaginary time. 153 derivation of RPA. scattering theory. 213 RPA-screened Coulomb interaction. 267 transmission coeﬃcients. 25 step function θ(x). 268 Ward identity. 233 transport time. 266. 90 time-reversal symmetry. 154 discussion. 27 transition matrix. 130. 280 pair-scattering vertex Λ. 110. 138 spectroscopy. 272 topologically diﬀerent diagrams. 55 unitarity. 47 truncation Anderson’s model. 99 vertex current vertex. 88 linear response. 277 WKB approximation. 160 real time Tt . 19 kinetic energy. 78 introduction. 91 Heisenberg picture. 138 BCS superconductor. 75 superconductivity critical temperature. 2 weak localization and conductivity. 218. 72 symmetrization operator. 264 introduction. 88 in linear response. 63 unit cell. 91 interaction picture. 255 dressed vertex function. 268. 242 transversality condition. 113 transport equation. 284 vertex correction. 193 translation-invariant system conductivity.336 spontaneous symmetry breaking breaking of gauge symmetry. 111 universal conductance ﬂuctuations. 138 Stoner model of metallic ferromagnetism. 78 Meissner eﬀect. 132 transmission amplitude. 121. 121. 21 Kubo formalism. 258. 7 thermal average. 201 phonon Green’s function. t0 ). 257 vertex function. 159 Schr¨dinger picture. 112 time-reversed paths. 262 wavefunction collapse. 95 time evolution creation/annihilation operators. 137 INDEX umklapp process. 258 electron-phonon vertex. 254 Green’s function. 204 trace of operators. 78 microscopic BCS theory. 219. 222 time dependent Hamiltonian. 253 mesoscopic systems. 119 Yukawa potential deﬁnition. 31 vector potential electromagnetic ﬁeld. 84 introduction. 24. 87 o ˆ unitary operator U (t. 28 for the interacting electron gas. 220 Thomas-Fermi screening. 81 order parameter. 89 time-ordering operator imaginary time Tτ . 140 current. 254. S-matrix. 72 statistical mechanics second quantization. 218 . 123 Wick’s theorem derivation. 19 triangular potential well. 27 thermodynamic potential Ω deﬁnition. 145 tunneling scanning microscope. 4 STM. Kubo. 170 interacting electrons. 150.

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful- Fradkin Field Theories of Condensed Matter Ph7ysics 2e
- Many-Body Theory Exposed, Dickhoff W, World Sci 2005
- Tinkham M. Introduction to Superconductivity
- partial differential equation
- Peskin QFT Solutions
- Vol 3 - Landau, Lifshitz - Quantum Mechanics.. Non-relativistic Theory (3ed., Pergamon, s
- [Ashcroft & Mermin]Solid State Physics Solution
- Thermal Physics (2nd Edition) - Kittel and Kroemer
- Lectures on Quantum Field Theory- Ashok Das
- Quantum Mechanics Theory
- Lect Notes QM C1-The Origin of Q Mech
- Chem exam
- 2008 Retrocausation Acting in the Single Electron Double Slit
- 10.01.08
- Modern Atomic Theory
- 434Chapter 4 Atomic Model Summary
- Dicke & Wittke-Introduction To Quantum Mechanics
- Unit 2
- BellsTheorem UToronto
- Physics(January)
- Theory of an Electro-cordic Field I PDF
- Electron Configuration
- Modern_Physics.txt
- 7HC the Quantum Mechanical Model
- 10.1021@ed069p602.1
- Chapter 29a
- Quantum Mechanics IB
- Section1 Slides
- Heiseinburg & Pauli Contributions To Atomic Theory
- Physics Quantum Theory Made Simple
- Bruus H., Flensberg K. Many-body Quantum Theory in Condensed Matter Physics (Web Draft, Kopenhagen, 2002)(352s)_PSqft