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**Many-body quantum theory in condensed matter physics
**

Henrik Bruus and Karsten Flensberg

Ørsted Laboratory, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen Mikroelektronik Centret, Technical University of Denmark

Copenhagen, 15 August 2002

ii

Preface

Preface for the 2001 edition

This introduction to quantum ﬁeld theory in condensed matter physics has emerged from our courses for graduate and advanced undergraduate students at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, held between the fall of 1999 and the spring of 2001. We have gone through the pain of writing these notes, because we felt the pedagogical need for a book which aimed at putting an emphasis on the physical contents and applications of the rather involved mathematical machinery of quantum ﬁeld theory without loosing mathematical rigor. We hope we have succeeded at least to some extend in reaching this goal. We would like to thank the students who put up with the ﬁrst versions of this book and for their enumerable and valuable comments and suggestions. We are particularly grateful to the students of Many-particle Physics I & II, the academic year 2000-2001, and to Niels Asger Mortensen and Brian Møller Andersen for careful proof reading. Naturally, we are solely responsible for the hopefully few remaining errors and typos. During the work on this book H.B. was supported by the Danish Natural Science Research Council through Ole Rømer Grant No. 9600548.

Ørsted Laboratory, Niels Bohr Institute 1 September, 2001

Karsten Flensberg Henrik Bruus

**Preface for the 2002 edition
**

After running the course in the academic year 2001-2002 our students came up with more corrections and comments so that we felt a new edition was appropriate. We would like to thank our ever enthusiastic students for their valuable help in improving this book.

Karsten Flensberg Ørsted Laboratory Niels Bohr Institute

Henrik Bruus Mikroelektronik Centret Technical University of Denmark

iii

iv

PREFACE

Contents

List of symbols 1 First and second quantization 1.1 First quantization, single-particle systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 First quantization, many-particle systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Permutation symmetry and indistinguishability . . . . . 1.2.2 The single-particle states as basis states . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3 Operators in ﬁrst quantization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Second quantization, basic concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 The occupation number representation . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.2 The boson creation and annihilation operators . . . . . 1.3.3 The fermion creation and annihilation operators . . . . 1.3.4 The general form for second quantization operators . . . 1.3.5 Change of basis in second quantization . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.6 Quantum ﬁeld operators and their Fourier transforms . 1.4 Second quantization, speciﬁc operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.1 The harmonic oscillator in second quantization . . . . . 1.4.2 The electromagnetic ﬁeld in second quantization . . . . 1.4.3 Operators for kinetic energy, spin, density, and current . 1.4.4 The Coulomb interaction in second quantization . . . . 1.4.5 Basis states for systems with diﬀerent kinds of particles 1.5 Second quantization and statistical mechanics . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 The distribution function for non-interacting fermions . 1.5.2 Distribution functions for non-interacting bosons . . . . 1.6 Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 The electron gas 2.1 The non-interacting electron gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Bloch theory of electrons in a static ion lattice . . . . 2.1.2 Non-interacting electrons in the jellium model . . . . . 2.1.3 Non-interacting electrons at ﬁnite temperature . . . . 2.2 Electron interactions in perturbation theory . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Electron interactions in 1st order perturbation theory v xii 1 2 4 5 6 7 9 10 10 13 14 16 17 18 18 19 21 23 24 25 28 29 29 31 32 33 35 38 39 41

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vi 2.2.2 Electron interactions in 2nd order perturbation theory . Electron gases in 3, 2, 1, and 0 dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 3D electron gases: metals and semiconductors . . . . . . 2.3.2 2D electron gases: GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As heterostructures . 2.3.3 1D electron gases: carbon nanotubes . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.4 0D electron gases: quantum dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 44 45 46 48 49 51 52 53 53 56 59 61 63 64 65 68 69 71 73 73 75 78 78 81 85 87 87 88 88 91 91 93 95 95 98 100 102 104 104

2.3

3 Phonons; coupling to electrons 3.1 Jellium oscillations and Einstein phonons . . . . . 3.2 Electron-phonon interaction and the sound velocity 3.3 Lattice vibrations and phonons in 1D . . . . . . . 3.4 Acoustical and optical phonons in 3D . . . . . . . 3.5 The speciﬁc heat of solids in the Debye model . . . 3.6 Electron-phonon interaction in the lattice model . 3.7 Electron-phonon interaction in the jellium model . 3.8 Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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4 Mean ﬁeld theory 4.1 The art of mean ﬁeld theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Hartree–Fock approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Broken symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Ferromagnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 The Heisenberg model of ionic ferromagnets . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 The Stoner model of metallic ferromagnets . . . . . . . . 4.5 Superconductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Breaking of global gauge symmetry and its consequences . 4.5.2 Microscopic theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Time evolution pictures 5.1 The Schr¨dinger picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o 5.2 The Heisenberg picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 The interaction picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Time-evolution in linear response . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Time dependent creation and annihilation operators 5.6 Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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6 Linear response theory 6.1 The general Kubo formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Kubo formula for conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Kubo formula for conductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Kubo formula for the dielectric function . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Dielectric function for translation-invariant system . . 6.4.2 Relation between dielectric function and conductivity

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CONTENTS 6.5

vii

Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 . 108 . 111 . 112 . 113 . 113 . 115 . 116 . 116 . 120 . 121 . 121 . 123 . 124 . 125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 127 128 131 132 132 134 135 136 137 137 141 141 144 145 145 147 147 149 150 151 153 153 153 153

7 Transport in mesoscopic systems 7.1 The S-matrix and scattering states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.1 Unitarity of the S-matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.2 Time-reversal symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Conductance and transmission coeﬃcients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.1 The Landauer-B¨ttiker formula, heuristic derivation . . . . u 7.2.2 The Landauer-B¨ttiker formula, linear response derivation . u 7.3 Electron wave guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.1 Quantum point contact and conductance quantization . . . 7.3.2 Aharonov-Bohm eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 Disordered mesoscopic systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1 Statistics of quantum conductance, random matrix theory . 7.4.2 Weak localization in mesoscopic systems . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.3 Universal conductance ﬂuctuations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Green’s functions 8.1 “Classical” Green’s functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Green’s function for the one-particle Schr¨dinger equation o 8.3 Single-particle Green’s functions of many-body systems . 8.3.1 Green’s function of translation-invariant systems . 8.3.2 Green’s function of free electrons . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.3 The Lehmann representation . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.4 The spectral function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.5 Broadening of the spectral function . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Measuring the single-particle spectral function . . . . . . 8.4.1 Tunneling spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4.2 Optical spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Two-particle correlation functions of many-body systems . 8.6 Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9 Equation of motion theory 9.1 The single-particle Green’s function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.1 Non-interacting particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Anderson’s model for magnetic impurities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.1 The equation of motion for the Anderson model . . . . . . . . 9.2.2 Mean-ﬁeld approximation for the Anderson model . . . . . . . 9.2.3 Solving the Anderson model and comparison with experiments 9.2.4 Coulomb blockade and the Anderson model . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.5 Further correlations in the Anderson model: Kondo eﬀect . . . 9.3 The two-particle correlation function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.1 The Random Phase Approximation (RPA) . . . . . . . . . . .

. . 11.2 The Fock self-energy diagram . . . . . . . .1 Feynman rules for the denominator of G(b. . . . . . . . .2 1st order Born approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Random impurities in disordered metals .1 Lowest order approximation . . . . . 190 . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . 10. . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 . . . . . . 182 . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 CONTENTS Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . .1 Matsubara Green’s function for non-interacting particles 10. .1 Feynman diagrams for the impurity scattering . 10. . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . 11. . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . .1 Advanced functions . . . . .2 inﬁnite perturbation series!Matsubara Green’s function . . . . . . . . 12.1. . . . . . 163 . . 197 . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . 194 . . . .viii 9.4. . . . . .3 Single-particle Matsubara Green’s function . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 . . . . 164 . . . . . a) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . 160 . 199 199 199 201 201 202 203 205 206 208 209 209 210 211 10 Imaginary time Green’s functions 10. . . . . . . . . . . 169 . 12. . 157 . . . . . . 168 . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . .8 Summary and outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Evaluation of Matsubara sums . . . .6. . .6 Summary and outlook . 12. . . . . . . . . .2 Summations over functions with known branch cuts . . . . . . .1 The Hartree self-energy diagram . 177 .3 The cancellation of disconnected Feynman diagrams 12.4 Self-energy and Dyson’s equation . 190 . . . . . . . 164 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . 165 . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . 189 . . . . .2 Elastic scattering and Matsubara frequencies .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .3 The pair-bubble self-energy diagram . . . .4 The self-consistent Born approximation and beyond 11. . . . . .5. . . . .3 The full Born approximation . .6 Examples of how to evaluate Feynman diagrams . . 184 . . . . . . . . 10. .1 Fourier transform of Matsubara Green’s functions . . . . . . a) . 12. . . . . . . . . 12. . 167 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 . . . . .3. . . . .2 Feynman rules for the numerator of G(b. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The Feynman rules for pair interactions . . .5. . . . . . . . .6. . 11. . .3. . 11. . . . . .1 Summations over functions with simple poles . . 12. . . . . . . . . . .1 The perturbation series for G . . . . .1 Non-interacting particles in external potentials . . . . . . . . . .2 Connection between Matsubara and retarded functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.7 Example: polarizability of free electrons . . . . . 10. . . . . . 12 Feynman diagrams and pair interactions 12. . . 174 177 . . . 10. . . . . . . . .1 Deﬁnitions of Matsubara Green’s functions .5 The Feynman rules in Fourier space . . . . . . . . .5 Self-energy for impurity scattered electrons . . . . . . 173 . . . . . .6 Wick’s theorem . . . . . . . . 12. . . 156 . . . . . . .5 Equation of motion . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Impurity self-average . . . 11. . . 11 Feynman diagrams and external potentials 11. . . . . 11. . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Summary and outlook . 193 . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .4 The weak localization correction to the conductivity . . 279 . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . 13. 15 Impurity scattering and conductivity 15. . . 275 . . .3. . 16. . 228 . .1 Finite life time of the quasiparticles . . . . .3 Mass renormalization? . 16. . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 13 The interacting electron gas 13. . . . . . . 215 . 16. . . . 14 Fermi liquid theory 14. . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . 15. . . 227 . . .2 Electron-phonon interaction and Feynman diagrams . . . . . . . . 13. .6 Summary and outlook . . . . . . . .2 Jellium phonons and the eﬀective electron-electron interaction 16. . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The quasiparticle concept and conserved quantities . . .2 The conductivity in terms of a general vertex function 15. . . . . . . . . 253 254 259 261 264 273 . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . 14. .5 Outlook and summary .3. . .2 Imaginary part of the single particle Green’s function 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Plasma oscillations and plasmons . . .2 The renormalized Coulomb interaction in RPA . . . . . . . . . . 15.3 The conductivity in the ﬁrst Born approximation . . . . 218 . . .4 Phonon renormalization by electron screening in RPA . . . . . .3 The ground state energy of the electron gas . . . . . . . . 16 Green’s functions and phonons 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 . .1 Static screening . .1.2 The divergence number of self-energy diagrams 13. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Green’s function for free phonons .3 RPA resummation of the self-energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 . . . 14.5 The Cooper instability and Feynman diagrams . . . . . . . 238 . . . 248 .2 The electron-hole pair interpretation of RPA . . . . . . . 217 . . ix 213 . 13. . .3 Combining Coulomb and electron-phonon interactions . . .4. .4. . .2 Semi-classical treatment of screening and plasmons . . . . . .1 The density dependence of self-energy diagrams 13. . 14. . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . 220 . . 14. . . .1 Calculation of the pair-bubble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 . 16. . . .1. 235 . .1 Renormalization of the single particle Green’s function 14. . . . . . 14. .2 Dynamical screening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . 245 . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . 233 . . 214 . . 275 .2. . 15.5 Combined RPA and Born approximation . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . .4 The dielectric function and screening . . . . . . 281 . . . . . .5 Plasma oscillations and Landau damping . . 230 . . .2 Landau damping . . . . . . . . 13. . . 220 . . . .3 Semi-classical transport equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 . . . . . . . . . .1 The self-energy in the random phase approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 . . 14.1 Migdal’s theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . 237 . . . . . . . . . . . 251 . . 13. . . . . . . .1 Adiabatic continuity . . . . . . 243 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 . . . . . . . . 284 . . . . . . . . . . 13. 13. . .1 Vertex corrections and dressed Green’s functions . 231 233 . . . 223 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Microscopic basis of the Fermi liquid theory . . .3. . . . . . . . . 13. . . . 13. 279 . . .

. . 287 . . . . .1 One-dimensional transmission line analog . . . . . . .6 Tunneling into spinless Luttinger liquid . . . . . . .5 Translation invariant systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . 17. . .4 Experimental consequences of the BCS 17. . .3 Time and frequency Fourier transforms . . . . . . . . .4 Real space formulation . . .2 Carbon Nanotubes . . . . . .3 The Luttinger-Tomonaga model . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. .8.3. . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Continuous functions in an inﬁnite region A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 First look at interacting electrons in one dimension . .6. . . . . . 288 . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Edge states in the fractional quantum Hall eﬀect 18. . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Bosonization of Tomonaga model-Hamiltonian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 289 289 289 289 289 289 289 289 289 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 291 291 292 292 292 293 295 326 . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .3. . . .1 Continuous functions in a ﬁnite region . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . .x 17 Superconductivity 17. . 288 . . . . . . . . . . . . . states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Cooper instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . 17. . 287 . 17. . . . . . . . . .5 Electron operators in bosonized form . A. . . . .3 Diagonalization of bosonized Hamiltonian . . . . 287 . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .4. . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Fourier transformations A. .1 Tunneling into the end of Luttinger liquid . . . . . . . . . .4 Some useful rules . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . 288 .2 speciﬁc heat . . . . . . . 18. . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. .2 The BCS groundstate . . . . . . . . . 18 1D electron gases and Luttinger liquids 18. 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 The Josephson eﬀect . . B Exercises C Index . . . . . . .2. . . . .8. . . . . . .spinless case . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Green’s functions . . .8 Experimental realizations of Luttinger liquid physics . .4 Luttinger liquid with spin . . . . 18. . .1 Interacting one dimensional electron system . . . . . . .1 Tunneling density of states . . . .7 What is a Luttinger liquid? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 BCS theory with Green’s functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . CONTENTS 287 . . 288 . . . . .4. . .

List of symbols Symbol ˆ ♥ ˙ ♥ |ν ν| |0 a a† a ν . 8. ω). c† ν R CAB (t. ikn + iqn ) C R (Q. A0 (k. electron) creation operator for particle (fermion.1 10. ω).3 10.1 15.4 .1 6.4 Sec.2. 8. 7. phonon) creation operator for particle (boson.4.3.3. Sec.4 15.36) Sec. 7. 5. ω) A. ω) A0 (r.3 Chap. ω) A(r. Sec.4 Sec. t) A(ν. (2. A(k. 1 Chap. a† ν a± n a0 A(r. t ) A CAB (t.1 Sec.3. 6. Sec. ikn . phonon) amplitudes of wavefunctions to the right magnetic ﬁeld annihilation operator for particle (fermion.1 Eq. 16. t ) R (ω) CII CAB C(Q. 1 Sec. 1. Sec. ε) ion CV Meaning operator ♥ in the interaction picture time derivative of ♥ Dirac ket notation for a quantum state ν Dirac bra notation for an adjoint quantum state ν vacuum state annihilation operator for particle (fermion or boson) creation operator for particle (fermion or boson) annihilation/creation operators (state ν) amplitudes of wavefunctions to the left Bohr radius electromagnetic vector potential spectral function in frequency domain (state ν) spectral function (real space. ε.1 Sec. Fourier space) spectral function for free particles phonon annihilation and creation operator annihilation operator for particle (boson. A† b b† b± n B c c† cν . 8. Sec.2 Sec.4 Sec. electron) annihilation/creation operators (state ν) retarded correlation function between A and B (time) advanced correlation function between A and B (time) retarded current-current correlation function (frequency) Matsubara correlation function Cooperon in the Matsubara domain Cooperon in the real time domain speciﬁc heat for ions (constant volume) xi Deﬁnition Sec.

4) Eq. (3. 6. 16 Eq.11) Chap.20) Sec.4 Sec. 16 Chap. t) E E (1) E (2) E0 Ek ε εk εν εF ε(rt. ν t ) Dαβ (r) ∆k e e2 0 E(r.101) Eq.5 Eq. (1.36) Eq.xii Symbol d( ) δ(r) DR (rt. 7.1 .64) Eq. (1.58b) Eq. (4. rt ) DR (q. iqn ) DR (νt. 3.4) Sec. ω) F |FS φ(r. (7. rt ) ε(k. t) φext φind ˜ φ. rτ ) D(q. φ ± φLnE . 16 Chap. φ± RnE gqλ gq G kλ 0 LIST OF SYMBOLS Meaning density of states (including spin degeneracy for electrons) Dirac delta function retarded phonon propagator retarded phonon propagator (Fourier space) Matsubara phonon propagator Matsubara phonon propagator (Fourier space) retarded many particle Green’s function phonon dynamical matrix superconducting orderparameter elementary charge electron interaction strength electric ﬁeld total energy of the electron gas interaction energy of the electron gas. 1st order perturbation interaction energy of the electron gas. 2nd order perturbation Rydberg energy dispersion relation for BCS quasiparticles energy variable the dielectric constant of vacuum dispersion relation energy of quantum state ν Fermi energy phonon polarization vector dielectric function in real space dielectric function in Fourier space free energy the ﬁlled Fermi sea N -particle quantum state electric potential external electric potential induced electric potential wavefunctions with diﬀerent normalizations wavefunctions in the left and right leads electron-phonon coupling constant (lattice model) electron-phonon coupling constant (jellium model) conductance Deﬁnition Eq.4 Sec. (2. ω) D(rτ. (4.9b) Sec. 16 Chap.31) Eq. (9. 6. 1. (2.

r t ) G0 (rt.3 Sec. 8. 12.3. r t ) G< (rt. 10. r σ τ ) G0 (ντ. ω) 0 G< (rt. 6. 15. 8. free particles) Matsubara Green’s function (Fourier space. r t ) GA (rt. 10. 8.3 Sec. 8. 8. 10. free particles) Matsubara Green’s function ({ν} basis.3 Sec. r σ τ ) G(ντ.3 Sec. 10. ω) GR (k. 8.3 Sec. o free lesser Green’s function free grater Green’s function free advanced Green’s function free retarded Green’s function free retarded Green’s function (Fourier space) lesser Green’s function greater Green’s function advanced Green’s function retarded Green’s function (real space) retarded Green’s function in Fourier space retarded Green’s function (Fourier space) retarded single-particle Green’s function ({ν} basis) Matsubara Green’s function (real space) Matsubara Green’s function ({ν} basis) Matsubara Green’s function (real space four-vectors) Matsubara Green’s function (four-momentum notation) Matsubara Green’s function (real space.1 Sec. 11. 10. (8.1 Eq.3.3.2 Sec.3 Eq. ikn ) (n) G0 G(k.3 xiii Deﬁnition Sec.3.3 Sec.1 Sec.1 Sec. 8. k ) G0 (rστ.LIST OF SYMBOLS Symbol G(rt. k + q ) Γ0. r t ) 0 GR (rt. 8.3.3 Sec.20b) .32) Sec. frequency domain) scalar vertex function imaginary part of self-energy vertex function (x-component. 8. (15.2 Sec. ikn ) G0 (ν. ν τ ) G(1.x H H0 H Hext Hint Hph η I Ie Meaning Green’s function for the Schr¨dinger equation o unperturbed Green’s function for Schr¨dingers eq. r t ) G> (rt. r t ) 0 G> (rt.3 Sec. ν t ) G(rστ. 8.3 Sec. γ RA Γ ˜ ˜ ˜ Γx (k.3 Sec. r t ) 0 GA (rt.3. ω) GR (νt. ikn ) G(ν. free particles) Matsubara Green’s function (free particles ) n-particle Green’s function (free particles) Matsubara Green’s function (Fourier space) Matsubara Green’s function ({ν} basis.3 Sec.1 Sec.3 Sec.6 Sec. 6. ikn ) γ. 8. r t ) 0 GR (k. 1 ) ˜ ˜ G(k.1 Sec. r t ) GR (rt. r t ) GR (k.1 Sec. ν τ ) G0 (k. 8.3.1 Sec. 10.3. 10.1 Sec.5 Sec. 10. 10. 8. four vector notation) free (undressed) vertex function a general Hamiltonian unperturbed part of an Hamiltonian perturbative part of an Hamiltonian external potential part of an Hamiltonian interaction part of an Hamiltonian phonon part of an Hamiltonian positive inﬁnitisimal current operator (particle current) electrical current (charge current) Sec.

4.99a) Eq. 1. (1.1 0 φ L λF Λirr m m∗ µ µ n nF (ε) nB (ε) nimp N Nimp ν ω ωq ωn Ω p pn ΠR (rt.4.xiv Symbol Jσ (r) ∆ Jσ (r) A Jσ (r) Jσ (q) Je (r.1 Sec. (6.5.2 Chap. t) Jij kn kF k Meaning current density operator current density operator. (1. iqn ) in Eq. paramagnetic term current density operator.34) .1 Sec.99a) Eq. 10 Sec. iωn ) Π0 (q. (12.17) Sec. 1. 1.26) Chap.5 Eq. 14. (1. 4. diamagnetic term current density operator (momentum space) electric current density operator interaction strength in the Heisenberg model Matsubara frequency (fermions) Fermi wave number general momentum or wave vector variable mean free path or scattering length mean free path (ﬁrst Born approximation) phase breaking mean free path inelastic scattering length normalization length or system size in 1D Fermi wave length irreducible four-point function mass (electrons and general particles) eﬀective interaction renormalized mass chemical potential general quantum number label particle density Fermi-Dirac distribution function Bose-Einstein distribution function impurity density number of particles number of impurities general quantum number label frequency variable phonon dispersion relation Matsubara frequency thermodynamic potential general momentum or wave number variable Matsubara frequency (fermion) retarded current-current correlation function retarded current-current correlation function Matsubara current-current correlation function free pair-bubble diagram LIST OF SYMBOLS Deﬁnition Eq. r t ) αβ ΠR (q. ω) αβ Παβ (q. (15.5.99a) Sec. 15 Eq.

5.2 Sec. ikn ) σ t t t T τ τ tr τ0 .LIST OF SYMBOLS Symbol q qn r r r rs ρ ρ0 ρσ (r) ρσ (q) S S σ σαβ (rt. 7. 6.3 11.1 Sec. j) Σσ (k. t ) ˆ U (τ.1 Sec. 4. Sec. ikn ) Σk Σ1BA k ΣFBA k ΣSCBA k Σ(l. r t ) ΣR (q. 7. ikn ) ΣF (k. (13.37) Sec. (2. 12.6 Sec. 12. ikn ) σ ΣP (k.2 .5.96) Sec. ikn ) σ ΣRPA (k. ikn ) σ ΣH (k. 7.96) Eq.1 11.10) Sec.5 Eq.1 Sec. 1. 7.4 Sec.39) Sec.6 Sec.6 Eq. Sec. 12. ω) Σ(q.5. interaction picture imaginary time-evolution operator. interaction picture Deﬁnition xv Sec. (1.1 Eq. 7. 11. τ ) Meaning general momentum variable Matsubara frequency (bosons) general space variable reﬂection matrix coming from left reﬂection matrix coming from right electron gas density parameter density matrix unperturbed density matrix particle density operator (real space) particle density opetor (momentum space) entropy scattering matrix general spin index conductivity tensor retarded self-energy (Fourier space) Matsubara self-energy impurity scattering self-energy ﬁrst Born approximation full Born approximation self-consistent Born approximation general electron self-energy general electron self-energy Fock self-energy Hartree self-energy pair-bubble self-energy RPA electron self-energy general time variable tranmission matrix coming from left transmission matrix coming from right kinetic energy general imaginary time variable transport scattering time life-time in the ﬁrst Born approximation ion displacement (1D) ion displacement (3D) BCS coherence factor general unitary matrix real time-evolution operator.5 11.1 Eq. (1. (14. τk uj u(R0 ) uk U ˆ U (t.5. Sec.

(1.4 Sec.xvi Symbol vk V (r). rn ) Ψσ (r) Ψ† (r) σ θ(x) Meaning LIST OF SYMBOLS Deﬁnition Sec. r t ) χR (q. r2 .1 Sec.4 Sec. 13. W (q) W RPA ξk ξν χ(q. 13. 13. r t ) χ0 (q. 13. .6 Eq. 4.3.4 Sec. 1. 7. . V (q) V (r).5. ω) χn (y) ψν (r) ± ψnE ψ(r1 .12) . iqn ) χ0 (rt. 13. iqn ) χR (rt. W (q) W (r).1 Sec.2 BCS coherence factor general single impurity potential Coulomb interaction combined Coulomb and phonon-mediated interaction normalization volume pair interaction Hamiltonian general pair interaction Coulomb interaction RPA-screened Coulomb interaction εk − µ εν − µ Matsubara charge-charge correlation function RPA Matsubara charge-charge correlation function irreducible Matsubara charge-charge correlation function free retarded charge-charge correlation function free Matsubara charge-charge correlation function retarded charge-charge correlation function retarded charge-charge correlation function (Fourier) transverse wavefunction single-particle wave function. 13.3. (6. iqn ) χRPA (q. 1.6 Sec.2 Sec. quantum number ν single-particle scattering states n-particle wave function (ﬁrst quantization) quantum ﬁeld annihilation operator quantum ﬁeld creation operator Heaviside’s step function Sec. . iqn ) χirr (q.2 Sec. .39) Sec. 7. V (q) Veﬀ V W W (r).4 Eq.

By measurement of the type B the quantum state can be prepared to be in an eigenstate |φβ of the operator B. Any given Hermitian operator A has a number of eigenstates |ψα that up to a real scale factor α is left invariant by the action of the operator. By convention. The scale factors are denoted the eigenvalues of the operator. and even the particles themselves got represented by quantized ﬁelds (Jordan and Wigner.Chapter 1 First and second quantization Quantum theory is the most complete microscopic theory we have today describing the physics of energy and matter. the original form of quantum mechanics is denoted ﬁrst quantization. and Dirac 1925-26). hence the name quantum mechanics (Heisenberg. Only the inclusion of gravitation stands out as an unsolved problem in fundamental quantum theory. certain basic concepts are always present in the formulation of quantum theory. be it ﬁrst or second quantization. A|ψα = α|ψα . one cannot in general predict the outcome with 1 . and that all observables are represented by Hermitian operators acting on that space. It has successfully been applied to explain phenomena ranging over many orders of magnitude. It is a fundamental theorem of Hilbert space theory that the set of all eigenvectors of any given Hermitian operator forms a complete basis set of the Hilbert space. The starting point is the notion of quantum states and the observables of the system under consideration. quantum physics ﬁrst dealt only with the quantization of the motion of particles leaving the electromagnetic ﬁeld classical. Historically. If one in this state measures the dynamical variable associated with the operator A. Later also the electromagnetic ﬁeld was o quantized (Dirac. resulting in the development of quantum electrodynamics (QED) and quantum ﬁeld theory (QFT) in general. 1927). In general the eigenstates |ψα and |φβ of two diﬀerent Hermitian operators A and B are not the same. 1928). Parallel state vectors represent the same physical state. This state can also be expressed as a superposition of eigenstates |ψα of the operator A as |φβ = α |ψα Cαβ . Quantum theory postulates that all quantum states are represented by state vectors in a Hilbert space. while quantum ﬁeld theory is formulated in the language of second quantization. from the study of elementary particles on the sub-nucleonic scale to the study of neutron stars and other astrophysical objects on the cosmological scale. Schr¨dinger. Regardless of the representation. and one therefore mostly deals with normalized state vectors.

The state function (also denoted the wave function) and the ket are related by 1 ψk. For more complete reviews the reader is refereed to the textbooks by Dirac. where electrons orbiting a point-like positively .1 First quantization. Landau and Lifshitz. 1. Merzbacher. ↑ . The time evolution of a state vector |ψ(t) is governed by the central operator in quantum mechanics.3) i. For example in atomic physics. and we refer the interested reader to the textbooks by Mahan. Based on this we will introduce second quantization. the norm squared of |ψ is given by ψ|ψ . If {|ψα } is an orthonormal basis of the Hilbert space. t) − eϕ(r. t). and Abrikosov. moving in an external electromagnetic ﬁeld described by the potentials ϕ(r. by the inner product of the position bra r| with the state ket. ψ|φ between adjoint “bra” states ψ| and “ket” states |φ . For a given operator A the adjoint operator A† is deﬁned by demanding ψ|A† |φ = φ|A|ψ ∗ for any |ψ and |φ .σ (r) = r|k.1) Each state vector |ψ is associated with an adjoint state vector (|ψ )† ≡ ψ|. However. and use standard geometrical terminology.↑ = |k. This introduction is not complete in all details. The probability of having any given |ψα as the outcome is given as the absolute square |Cαβ |2 of the associated expansion coeﬃcient. σ is not always a useful starting point for calculations. Using the Dirac notation the state ket can be written as |ψk. say an electron with charge −e. It is only described in probabilistic terms. The plane wave representation |k. A further connection between the direct and the adjoint Hilbert space is given by the relation ψ|φ = φ|ψ ∗ . The corresponding Hamiltonian is H= 1 2m 2 r i + eA(r. (1.e. t). (1.g. Fetter and Walecka. “bra(c)kets”. t) and A(r. the Hamiltonian H (the operator associated with the total energy of the system).2) An eigenstate describing a free spin-up electron travelling inside a box of volume V can be written as a product of a propagating plane wave and a spin-up spinor. σ = √V eik·r χσ (free particle orbital). which also leads to the deﬁnition of adjoint operators. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION certainty. or Shankar. e. and Dzyaloshinskii.2 CHAPTER 1. through Schr¨dinger’s equation o i ∂t |ψ(t) = H|ψ(t) . between collapse events the time evolution of quantum states is perfectly deterministic. and |ψ and |φ are said to be orthogonal if ψ|φ = 0. Gorkov. where one simply lists the relevant quantum numbers in the ket. (1. This non-causal element of quantum theory is also known as the collapse of the wavefunction. In this chapter we will brieﬂy review standard ﬁrst quantization for one and manyparticle systems. then the above mentioned expansion coeﬃcient Cαβ is found by forming inner products: Cαβ = ψα |φβ . One can form inner products. single-particle systems For simplicity consider a non-relativistic particle.

From this we conclude dr |r r| = 1.m (θ. (1. σ = Rnl (r)Yl. (1. In general a complete set of quantum numbers is denoted ν . charged nucleus are considered. φ) is a spherical harmonic representing angular momentum l with a z component m. 1. SINGLE-PARTICLE SYSTEMS ¢ ¤ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ 3 Figure 1. ν = (n. l. where n is an integer. σ . 2. ky (kz ) is the y (z) component of k. The completeness of a basis state as well as the normalization of the state vectors play a central role in quantum theory. (b) the hydrogen orbital ν = (4. . 0. 0. (1. FIRST QUANTIZATION. m. σ = Hn (x/ −ky )e− 2 (x/ 1 −ky )2 √ 1 Ly Lz ei(ky y+kz z) χσ (Landau orbital).4) where Rnl (r) is a radial Coulomb function with n−l nodes. Loosely speaking the normalization condition means that with probability unity a particle in a given quantum state ψν (r) must be somewhere in space: dr |ψν (r)|2 = 1.5) where = /eB is the magnetic length and Hn is the normalized Hermite polynomial of order n associated with the harmonic oscillator potential induced by the magnetic ﬁeld.6) Similarly. ky . the hydrogenic eigenstates |n. ky . σ). l. ν (1. kz . and we conclude |ν ν| = 1. ky . The three examples given above corresponds to ν = (kx . Recall that r|n. kz .m (θ. ky . Again using the Dirac notation we ﬁnd 1 = ν ψ|ν ν|ψ = ψ| ( ν |ν ν|) |ψ . l. σ are much more useful. φ)χσ (hydrogen orbital). and ν = (n. or in the Dirac notation: 1 = dr ν|r r|ν = ν| ( dr |r r|) |ν . ky . Recall that r|n.1. kz . σ) each yielding a state function of the form ψν (r) = r|ν . and (c) the Landau orbital ν = (3. ky . and σ the spin variable. σ). the completeness of a set of basis states ψν (r) means that if a particle is in some state ψ(r) it must be found with probability unity within the orbitals of the basis 2 set: ν | ν|ψ | = 1. A third example is an electron moving in a constant magnetic ﬁeld B = B ez . m. σ). which in the Landau gauge A = xB ey leads to the Landau eigenstates |n.7) . σ). kz . σ).1. . while Yl. kz .1. m. Examples of each of these three types of electron orbitals are shown in Fig.1: The probability density | r|ψν |2 in the xy plane for (a) any plane wave ν = (kx .

θ(x) = 0.2 First quantization.12) 1.5) with Landau orbitals in a box with side lengths Lx . rN )| drj = surrounding the point (r1 . FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION We shall often use the completeness relation Eq. to the N -particle state function ψ(r1 . which is a complex function in the 3N -dimensional conﬁguration space. . .↓ n=0 Ly dky −∞ 2π ∞ Lz dkz . r2 . electrons. for x > 0. r2 .11) and Heaviside’s step-function θ(x) for continuous variables.n = 1. (1.13) |ψ(r1 . rN ) in j=1 the 3N −dimensional conﬁguration space. . −∞ 2π ∞ (1. which can be expressed as ψ(r) = ν ψν (r) ∗ dr ψν (r )ψ(r ) or r|ψ = ν r|ν ν|ψ . 0.9) In the mathematical formulation of quantum theory we shall often encounter the following special functions. three more assumptions are added to the basic assumptions deﬁning quantum theory. while dr δ(r) = 1.n for discrete variables. The ﬁrst assumption is the natural extension of the single-particle state function ψ(r). many-particle systems When turning to N -particle systems. Kronecker’s delta-function δk. for k = n.7).4 CHAPTER 1. . . δk. . for r = 0. for k = n. (1. .e. . Ly . 1. (1. A simple example is the expansion of a state function in a given basis: ψ(r) = r|ψ = r|1|ψ = r| ( ν |ν ν|) |ψ = ν r|ν ν|ψ .10) Dirac’s delta-function δ(r) for continuous variables. i. rN ). (1. As for one particle this N -particle state function is interpreted as a probability amplitude such that its absolute square is related to a probability: The probability for ﬁnding the N particles N in the 3N −dimensional volume N drj 2 j=1 (1.8) It should be noted that the quantum label ν can contain both discrete and continuous quantum numbers. and Lz . say. . (1. (1. which (neglecting the spin degree of freedom for the time being) is a complex wave function in 3-dimensional space. In that case the symbol ν is to be interpreted as a combination of both summations and integrations. . δ(r) = 0. . For example in the case in Eq. . for x < 0. a system containing N identical particles. r2 . we have ∞ = ν σ=↑. .

upon adiabatic interchange. superﬂuidity and laser light. . . . . Only two species of particles are thus possible in quantum physics. and worse.15b) The importance of the assumption of indistinguishability of particles in quantum physics cannot be exaggerated.15b) we let rj = rk then ψ = 0 follows. if a number of identical particles are brought to the same region in space. This is not so in quantum mechanics. . (1. . . thereby soon render it impossible to say which particle is where. we end with the exact same state function..... . some quasiparticles in 2D exhibit any phase eiφ . . a colored spot on a billiard ball) without inﬂuencing its behavior.. Not even in principle is it possible to mark a particle without inﬂuencing its physical state. . rk . rj . . . . and consequently the starting point in our understanding of atomic physics. . . The second fundamental assumption for N -particle systems is therefore that identical particles.2. Such exotic beasts are called anyons . . . . ψ(r1 . . . . .14) and we conclude that λ2 = 1 or λ = ±1. . .. . . rN ) = −ψ(r1 . rk . . It furthermore plays a fundamental role in the studies of the nature of stars and of the scattering processes in high energy physics.. .. rk . rj .e. . are in principle indistinguishable. (1. rN ). It thus explains the periodic table of the elements. . rj . rN ) = +ψ(r1 . .2.1. the so-called bosons and fermions1 : ψ(r1 . . rN ) (fermions). rj . i.. . However.g.. rk .. ψ(r1 . . . . rk . particles characterized by the same quantum numbers such as mass. Thus in principle each particle in a group of identical particles can be identiﬁed. 1 This discrete permutation symmetry is always obeyed.. MANY-PARTICLE SYSTEMS 5 1. . condensed matter physics and chemistry.. rj . . rN ) = λ2 ψ(r1 . .. From the indistinguishability of particles follows that if two coordinates in an N particle state function are interchanged the same physical state results. and it has been introduced due to overwhelming experimental evidence.15a) (1. . In classical mechanics each particle can be equipped with an identifying marker (e.. their wavefunctions will rapidly spread out and overlap with one another. and moreover it follows its own continuous path in phase space... charge and spin. . . . and spectacular phenomena like Bose–Einstein condensation. because if in Eq. . . . rk . . For bosons the assumption is necessary to understand Planck’s radiation law for the electromagnetic ﬁeld. (1. rj . . and the corresponding state function can at most diﬀer from the original one by a simple prefactor λ. rN ) (bosons). . . For fermions it immediately leads to the Pauli exclusion principle stating that two fermions cannot occupy the same state. a so-called Berry phase. . . . rj . . If the same two coordinates then are interchanged a second time.. rk . . FIRST QUANTIZATION. .1 Permutation symmetry and indistinguishability A fundamental diﬀerence between classical and quantum mechanics concerns the concept of indistinguishability of identical particles. rN ) = λψ(r1 . .

16) Starting from an arbitrary N -particle state ψ(r1 . .νN is just a complex number.. r2 . . . . ..ν . rN ). (1. .2 The single-particle states as basis states We now show that the basis states for the N -particle system can be built from any complete orthonormal single-particle basis {ψν (r)}. rN ). . A physical meaningful basis bringing the N coordinates on equal footing in the products ψν1 (r1 )ψν2 (r2 ) .ν2 (r3 ..ν2 ψν1 (˜1 )ψν2 (˜2 )Aν1 . . . . . (1. .20) Continuing all the way through ˜N (and then writing r instead of ˜) we end up with r r ψ(r1 . r r (1.ν2 (r3 . . r2 .19) Like before.. rN ) = r ν1 ψν1 (˜1 )Aν1 (r2 . which therefore ought to be explicitly incorporated in the basis states. The symmetry requirements from Eqs. . . (1. . . . . r (1. . .18) Now deﬁne analogously Aν1 . rN ) = ν1 . . rN ). . No physical perturbation can ever break the fundamental fermion or boson symmetry. ψ(˜1 . . ν ∗ dr ψν (r)ψν (r) = δν. (1. . r3 .. . .. ψνN (rN ) of single-particle state functions is obtained by .15b) are in Eq. . .. ∗ ψν (r )ψν (r) = δ(r − r ). (1.6 CHAPTER 1. . rN ) we form the (N − 1)-particle function Aν1 (r2 . . .. . .. .νN Aν1 . rN ) ≡ ∗ dr2 ψν2 (r2 )Aν1 (r2 .21) where Aν1 . . FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION 1. . rN ) ≡ ∗ dr1 ψν1 (r1 )ψ(r1 . rN ): Aν1 . . . rN ). .15a) and (1..ν2 . Thus any N -particle state function can be written as a (rather complicated) linear superposition of product states containing N factors of single-particle basis states.νN . rN ) from Aν1 (r2 . . ψνN (rN ).ν2 . we can invert this expression to give Aν1 in terms of Aν1 . . .νN ψν1 (r1 )ψν2 (r2 ) .ν2 . . . (1.. which upon insertion into Eq...2.21) hidden in the coefﬁcients Aν1 . (1. . .. we know from the discussion on indistinguishability that physically it is not a useful basis since the coordinates have to appear in a symmetric way. rN ) = r r ν1 . rN ) by projecting onto the basis state ψν1 (r1 ): Aν1 (r2 .ν2 (r3 .. Even though the product states N ψνj (rj ) in a mathematical sense form a perfectly j=1 valid basis for the N -particle Hilbert space. . .18) leads to ψ(˜1 . . . . ˜2 .17) r This can be inverted by multiplying with ψν1 (˜1 ) and summing over ν1 . .. . .

2. .1 0 signs 0 the1 0 with the 1 of permutations as subscripts.and 2 Note that to obtain a normalized state on the right hand side in Eq. . . |νN }. . . p∈SN ψνN (r1 ) ψνN (r2 ) .νN are completely symmetric in their ν-indices. j=1 (1. . . 0 or 1 for fermions and between 0 and N for bosons. For fermions nν = 0. . . i.21) gets replaced by the following.24) Here SN is the group of the N ! permutations p on the set of N coordinates3 . @ 3 A .and few-particle operators deﬁned for single.25) We need not worry about the precise relation between the two sets of coeﬃcients A and B since we are not going to use it. ψνN (rN ) where nν is the number of times the state |ν appears in the set {|ν1 . . ψν1 (rN ) . . . . 1 (and thus nν ! = 1) so here the prefactor reduces to 3 For0 = 1 we 0 3 have. . It states that single.. ψν2 (rN ) = .νN ˆ Bν1 ... . Using the symmetrized basis states the expansion in Eq. . ... ψνN (rN ) − ψν1 (r1 ) ψν2 (r1 ) . .22) a prefactor Q ν 1 √ must be inserted. . ψν1 (rN ) .ν2 . . . |ν2 . .νN S± ψν1 (r1 )ψν2 (r2 ) . @ 1 A . rN ) = ν1 . .e. . (1. . . . . i. . where the new expansion coeﬃcients Bν1 . r2 . . The fermion case involves ordinary determinants. ..ν2 . 1. ψνN (rN ) + ψν1 (r1 ) ψν2 (r1 ) .. . . (1. . and sign(p).. . j=1 (1. (1. ψν1 (r2 ) ψν2 (r2 ) .. . ψν2 (rN ) = . . . @ 3 A ... (1. . . FIRST QUANTIZATION. Note how in the fermion case νj = νk leads to ψ = 0. .2. . used in the Slater determinant. N! nν ! √1 N! . .1. ψ(r1 . . the Pauli principle. .. 8N 1 0 1 9 1 1 2 2 3 3 < = S3 = @ 2 A . is the sign of the permutation p. @ 1 A . ψνN (rN )..e. .. which in physics are denoted Slater determinants. ± . N ψνj (rp(j) ) . . MANY-PARTICLE SYSTEMS 7 ˆ applying the bosonic symmetrization operator S+ or the fermionic anti-symmetrization ˆ− deﬁned by the following determinants and permanent:2 operator S N ˆ S± j=1 ψνj (rj ) = ψν1 (r1 ) ψν2 (r1 ) . N ψνj (rp(j) ) sign(p).23) while the boson case involves a sign-less determinant.22) ψνN (r1 ) ψνN (r2 ) . ψν1 (r2 ) ψν2 (r2 ) . 3 + 2 − 3 − 1 + 2 + 1 − √1 .. p∈SN ψνN (r1 ) ψνN (r2 ) . @ 2 A : .3 Operators in ﬁrst quantization We now turn to the third assumption needed to complete the quantum theory of N particle systems. . .. a so-called permanent. ... ψν1 (rN ) ψν2 (rN ) .. ψν1 (r2 ) ψν2 (r2 ) . .

k=j (1.31) where Vνc νd . N Ttot = j=1 Tj . .28) and the action of Ttot on a simple product state is Ttot |ψνn (r1 ) |ψνn (r2 ) .29) N = j=1 νa νb Tνb νa δνa . |ψνn (rN ) 1 2 N (1. ∗ drj ψνb (rj ) T (rj .νa νb |ψνc (rj ) |ψνd (rk ) ψνa (rj )| ψνb (rk )| (1. . N Vtot = j>k Vjk 1 = 2 N Vjk . (1. j 1 N Here the Kronecker delta comes from νa |νnj = δνa . .8 CHAPTER 1. j. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION few-particle states remain unchanged when acting on N -particle states.and two-particle operators. . We move on to discuss symmetric two-particle operators Vjk . |ψνn (rN ) . takes the following form in the r |ν -representation for a single-particle system: 2 Tj where Tνb νa = νa . hence the proper kinetic energy operator in this case must be the total (symmetric) kinetic energy operator Ttot associated with all the coordinates. It is straight forward to extend j this result to the proper symmetrized basis states. such as the Coulomb e2 1 interaction V (rj − rk ) = 4π |r −r | between a pair of electrons. (1.νb Tνb νa |ψνb (rj ) ψνa (rj )|. .27) = ψνa (rj ).e.νa νb = In the N -particle system we must again take the symmetric combination of the coordinates.νn . In an N -particle system all N particle coordinates must appear in a symmetrical way.26) (1. introduce the operator of the total interaction energy Vtot .30) ∗ ∗ drj drk ψνc (rj )ψνd (rk )V (rj −rk )ψνa (rj )ψνb (rk ). i.32) . A given local one-particle operator Tj = T (rj . the kinetic ~ energy operator − 2m 2j or an external potential V (rj ). Let us begin with one-particle operators deﬁned on single-particle states described by the coordinate rj . In this course we will only work with one.g.νn |ψνn (r1 ) . rj ) (1. rj ). say e. |ψνb (rj ) . . For a two-particle sys0 tem described by the coordinates rj and rk in the |ν -representation with basis states |ψνa (rj ) |ψνb (rk ) we have the usual deﬁnition of Vjk : Vjk = νa νb νc νd j k Vνc νd .

2. .3 Second quantization.3.2. 2 HHe = − 2m 2 1 − Ze2 1 4π 0 r1 2 + − 2m This Hamiltonian consists of four one-particle operators and one two-particle operator. 1.1.2 that determinants or permanent of single-particle states form a basis for the Hilbert space of N -particle states. 1. j=k νa νb νc νd j k 1 N A typical Hamiltonian for an N -particle system thus takes the form N H = Ttot + Vtot = j=1 A speciﬁc example is the Hamiltonian for the helium atom. 1. The starting point of this formalism is the notion of indistinguishability of particles discussed in Sec. basic concepts Many-particle physics is formulated in terms of the so-called second quantization representation also known by the more descriptive name occupation number representation.νa νb δνa . As we shall see. |ψνc (rj ) .2. . 0. . 1.νn |ψνn (r1 ) .1 combined with the observation in Sec. ↑) and |ν2 = |(4. . |ψνn (rN ) .νn δνb . 2. 1. j=k (1. see also Fig. ↓) depicted in Fig.2.34) 2 2 − Ze2 1 4π 0 r2 + e2 1 . Vtot acts as follows: Vtot |ψνn (r1 ) |ψνn (r2 ) . 2. . Compare with the single orbital |(4. ¢ £ ¦ ¤ ¥ ¤ £ ¦ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¥ ¤ (1.2: The position vectors of the two electrons orbiting the helium nucleus and the single-particle probability density P (r1 ) = dr2 1 |ψν1 (r1 )ψν2 (r2 )+ψν2 (r1 )ψν1 (r2 )|2 for the 2 symmetric two-particle state based on the single-particle orbitals |ν1 = |(3. . .1(b). ↓) . . |ψνd (rk ) . 0. quantum theory can be formulated in terms of occupation numbers of these single-particle states. |ψνn (rN ) 1 2 N = 1 2 N Vνc νd . SECOND QUANTIZATION. 1.35) . 4π 0 |r1 − r2 | (1.33) Tj + 1 2 N Vjk . which in a simple form neglecting spin interactions can be thought of as two electrons with coordinates r = r1 and r = r2 orbiting around a nucleus with charge Z = +2 at r = 0. BASIC CONCEPTS ¢ £ 9 Figure 1.

Note how by virtue of the direct sum. states containing a diﬀerent number of particles are deﬁned to be orthogonal. . FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION 1. ˆ We shall show later that for fermions nνj can be 0 or 1. (1.23).37) nνj |nνj = nνj |nνj . where for brevity we only explicitly write the occupation ν ν number for νj . . It can be deﬁned as F = F0 ⊕ F1 ⊕ F2 ⊕ . . nνj+1 . the question arises how to connect the occupation number basis Eq. nνj−1 . . (1.39) where B+ (nνj ) is a normalization constant to be determined. .}. . . .1 some of the fermionic and bosonic basis states in the occupation number representation are shown. nν3 . . . . . nνj . . . The only non-zero matrix elements of b† j are nνj+1|b† j |nνj . It is clear from the form S± ψνn (r1 )ψνn (r2 ) . .36) It is therefore natural to deﬁne occupation number operators nνj which as eigenstates have ˆ the basis states |nνj . . nνj−1 . while for bosons it can be any non-negative number. ψνn (rN ) of the 1 2 N basis states in Eq. . This simpliﬁcation is achieved with the occupation number representation. . . In Table. . 1. 0. The adjoint of b† j is found by complex conjugation as nνj + 1|b† j |nνj ∗ = ν ν † † † † nνj |(bνj ) |nνj +1 . |ν3 . . nνj . (1. .10 CHAPTER 1. Given the occupation number operator it is natural to introduce the creation operator b† j that raises the occupation ν number in the state |νj by 1. nν2 . and as eigenvalues have the number nνj of particles occupying the state νj . .25) that in each term only the occupied single-particle states |νnj play a role. . nνj + 1. = B− (nνj ) | . .3. (1. The basis states for an N -particle system in the occupation number representation are obtained simply by listing the occupation numbers of each basis state. nνj+1 . the ordering being of paramount ˆ importance for fermions. . . This will be answered in the next section. bνj | .40) ..38) nνj = 0. It must somehow be simpler to formulate a representation where one just counts how many particles there are in each orbital |ν . . . nνj+1 . (1. . . (bosons). . (1. . . .2 The boson creation and annihilation operators To connect ﬁrst and second quantization we ﬁrst treat bosons. | j nνj = N }. .1 The occupation number representation The ﬁrst step in deﬁning the occupation number representation is to choose any ordered and complete single-particle basis {|ν1 . b† j | . one deﬁnes the annihilation operator bνj ≡ (bνj ) . nνj − 1. . where FN = span{|nν1 . |ν2 . N −particle basis states : |nν1 .3. . nνj−1 . Consequently. nνj−1 . j nνj = N. Naturally. . 1 (fermions) (1. 2. . 1. ν (1. nν2 . = B+ (nνj ) | . . The space spanned by the occupation number basis is denoted the Fock space F. nνj+1 . .36) with the ﬁrst quantization basis Eq. 1. . which lowers the occupation number of state |νj by 1.

However. 0. |1. bνk ] = 0. 0. 11 The creation and annihilation operators b† j and bνj are the fundamental operators in the ν occupation number formalism. . |1. We assume this commutation relation. 0. BASIC CONCEPTS Table 1. (1. 1. 0. B (1) = 1. . 0. nν2 . . . . . = 0. we deﬁne the operator algebra for the bosonic creation and annihilation operators by the following three commutation relations: [b† j .. 0. N 0 1 2 .. 0.. 0. 0. . . |1. . . 1.. . . .1. . 1. 0. 0.. . (1. 0. But since ν † ∗ = 0|b |1 . .. . 1. so that [A. boson basis states |nν1 . . ν (1. 1. . . 0. |0.. In summary. ν ν [bνj .. 0. . 1. . nν3 . 0. 0. and by ν ν using the operator algebra Eq. nν2 . |0.. . 1|bνj |0 − νj νj It is clear that bνj and b† j do not commute: bνj b† j |0 = |0 while b† j bνj |0 = 0. b† j ] |0 = |0 .3. .. . . B] = 0 ⇒ BA = AB. 0. .. valid for the state |0 . 0. 1. . . . |1. |0. 2. . 0. . . 0.. .. The commutator [A. |0. 1. 1.. . .1: Some occupation number basis states for N -particle systems. . . .e. nν3 .. |0. 0. . B] ≡ AB − BA. 0. |0. . . b† k ] = δνj . 1. 0. . . 0. . 1. i. . Since bosons ν are symmetric in the single-particle state index νj we of course demand that b† j and b† k ν ν must commute. 0. 0. .. . ν ν ν we have [bνj . . . 0.. 0. . B− (0) = 0. . . . 1. It is evident that since an unoccupied state can not be emptied further we must demand bνj | . . if j = k we must ν be careful. [bνj . and we calculate the consequences of this assumption.41) We demand further that if j = k then bνj and b† k commute. i. . SECOND QUANTIZATION. .42) we show below that this operator in fact is the . Let us proceed by investigating the properties of b† j and bνj further. .νk . . . . 0. . 1. . . . the product b† bν is. B+ (0) = 1. |0. . fermion basis states |nν1 . . . 0.e.42) By deﬁnition b† and bν are not Hermitian.. . . 0. . 0.. . .e. it also follows that b | . i. 1. . . . . |0. 0. = | . B] for two operators A and B is deﬁned as [A. .. |0. .. . .e. . |0. |1. 0. 0. .. . and hence by Hermitian conjugation that also bνj and bνk commute. 0. 1. 1. . . 0. 0. . . . i. . b† k ] = 0. 0. . 0. . . 2. 1. . However. . = | . . . . . . 0. We also have the freedom to normalize the operators by demanding b† j | . |0. |0. . 0. 0. .. |1. . 1.. . ν also to be valid as an operator identity in general. |1. As we will demonstrate later any operator can be expressed in terms of them. . . |2. 0. . N 0 1 2 . . 1.

. ν ν ν (1. Let |φλ be any eigenstate of b† bν . ν = (b† |nν ν ) † 12 CHAPTER 1. i.e.46a) (1. .45) (1. . (b† )nν |0 = nν ! |nν . . nν = 0. |ψνn (˜N ) = b† n b† n . (1. . (1.49) . Firstly. . r r r ν ν ν 1 2 N 1 2 N where both sides contain N -particle state-kets completely symmetric in the single-particle state index νnj . ν ν ν i. 2. 1.48) ν ν 2 2 and we can therefore identify the ﬁrst and second quantized basis states. . but this violates the condition λ0 > 0. Now choose a particular λ0 and study bν |φλ0 . (1. . .46b) (b† |nν ν )= nν |bν b† |nν ν = nν + 1. (1. Writing |φλ = |nν we have shown that b† bν |nν = nν |nν and ν bν |nν ∝ |nν − 1 .Figure 1. Eq. for any state |φ we note that φ|b† bν |φ is the norm of the state bν |φ and hence ν a positive real number (unless |φ = |0 for which bν |0 = 0).3: The action of the bosonic creation operator b† and adjoint annihilation operator ν bν in the occupation number space.44) i. ν ν We ﬁnd that (b† bν )bν |φλ0 = (bν b† − 1)bν |φλ0 = bν (b† bν − 1)|φλ0 = bν (λ0 − 1)|φλ0 .e. ˆ S+ |ψνn (˜1 ) |ψνn (˜2 ) . and we conclude that λ = n = 0. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION (1. b† ] = b† .47) ν √ √ b† |nν = nν + 1 |nν + 1 . we ﬁnd that (b† bν )b† |nν = (n + 1)b† |nν . b† bν |φλ = λ|φλ with λ > 0. bν ] = −bν ν [b† bν . The normalization factors for b† and bν are found from ν ν bν |nν b† |nν ν Hence we arrive at b† bν = nν . . 2. while bν eventually ν hits |0 and annihilates it yielding 0. b† |nν ∝ |nν + 1 . but with the eigenvalue reduced by 1 to (λ0 − 1). b† bν |nν = nν |nν . b† n |0 . ν If λ0 is not a non-negative integer this lowering process can continue until a negative eigenvalue is encountered.e. 1. occupation number operator nν . ˆ ν bν |nν = √ nν |nν − 1 . bν |φλ0 is also an eigenstate of b† bν .42) leads immediately to the following ˆ two very important commutation relations: [b† bν . § ¦ ¢ ¥ £ ¢ ¤ £ ¢¨© © ¨ ¨© ¨© ¨© © ¨ © ¨ ¨© ¨© ¢ ¡ = (bν |nν )† (bν |nν ) = nν |b† bν |nν = nν .. Note that b† can act indeﬁnitely. Analogously. ν ν ν (1.43) Secondly.

nνk = 1. .3. ν It is clear that cνj and c† j do not anti-commute: cνj c† j |0 = |0 while c† j cνj |0 = 0. . nνj−1 . . . . . We also have the freedom to normalize the operators by demanding c† j | . . so that ν ν ν ν ν ν . . .νk . We assume this anti-commutation relation to be valid as ν an operator identity and calculate the consequences. However. . . . = −| . nνj = 1. . But since ν 1|c† j |0 ∗ = 0|cνj |1 it follows that cνj | . . . we have {cνj . . . ν cνj | . i. C− (0) = 0. . as for bosons we introduce the Hermitian operator c† cν . In summary. nνj −1. . now denoted c† j and cνj . c† k } = 0. . . . ν (1. nνj . = | . nνj−1 . (1. B} for two operators A and B is deﬁned as {A. . nνj−1 .e. . SECOND QUANTIZATION.23) it is in the fermionic case not suﬃcient just to list the occupation numbers of the states. . . . . . . . . C− (1) = 1. .e. and hence by Hermitian ν ν conjugation that also cνj and cνk anti-commute. so that {A. In analogy with Eq. . . also the order of the occupied states has a meaning. ν ν ν (1.54) and (1. . . 0. . It is evident that since an unoccupied state can not be emptied further we must demand cνj | . . From ν ν Eqs. . . (1. . . . nνj−1 . . (1.50) (1. (1. .54) is (c† j )2 = 0. nνj . {cνj .1. . i. nνj +1. . 0. . . nνj+1 .55) Now.53) For j = k we also demand that cνj and c† k anti-commute. . . i. The anti-commutator {A. 0. . c† j } |0 = |0 . . . .3 The fermion creation and annihilation operators Also for fermions it is natural to introduce creation and annihilation operators. .54) we show below that this operator in fact is the occupation number operator nν . B} = 0 ⇒ BA = −AB. (1. cν ] = −cν ν [c† cν . . c† k } = δνj . . . . ν ν ν i. .52) and consequently we must have that c† j and c† k anti-commute. respectively. We must therefore demand | . . 1.54) An immediate consequence of the anti-commutation relations Eq. nνj = 1. (1. .55) we have (c† cν )2 = c† (cν c† )cν = c† (1 − c† cν )cν = c† cν . and by using the operator ν algebra Eq. .3. (1. nνj+1 . . . . being the Hermitian adjoint of each other: ν c† j | .e. ν ν {cνj .e. BASIC CONCEPTS 13 1. (1. . . . .43) we ﬁnd ˆ [c† cν . . . = | . we deﬁne the operator algebra for the fermionic creation and annihilation operators by the following three anticommutation relations: {c† j . . = C− (nνj ) | . ν (cνj )2 = 0. if j = k we again must ν be careful. = 0.51) But to maintain the fundamental fermionic antisymmetry upon exchange of orbitals apparent in Eq. . C+ (0) = 1. (1.56) so that c† and cν steps the eigenvalues of c† cν up and down by one. = C+ (nνj ) | . . nνj+1 . . cνk } = 0. c† ] = c† . 1. nνk = 1. B} ≡ AB + BA. nνj+1 . .

we have ν c† cν = nν . (1.4: The action of the fermionic creation operator c† and the adjoint annihilation ν operator cν in the occupation number space. . . We have p > 0 since otherwise both sides would yield zero. Utilizing that Ttot and S+ commute and invoking the basis state identity Eq.49) we obtain N site nj Ttot b† n . say. To do this we focus on the state ν ≡ νnj . ν cν |1 = |0 . and c† cν thus only has 0 and 1 as eigenvalues leading to a simple ν ν ν normalization for c† and cν . c† cν |nν = nν |nν . ˆ r S− |ψνn (˜1 ) |ψνn (˜2 ) . . b† n |0 .58) c† |0 = |1 .29) acting on a bosonic N -particle system. (1. . b† n |0 = ν ν 1 N where on the right hand side of the equation the operator b† b stands on the site nj . . . 1. b† b . p times leading to a contribution (b† )p |0 . Note that both c† and cν can act at most ν twice before annihilating a state completely. ν i. In summary. we would like to reinsert the operator b† nj at site nj on the right. |ψνn (˜N ) = c† n c† n . the state ν may appear. Originally. c† n |0 . c† cν (c† cν − 1) = 0. This rewriting of the ﬁrst quantized operators in Eqs. For simplicity.33) into their second quantized form is achieved by using the basis state identities Eqs. on the left hand side. .49) and (1.59) linking the two representations. On the right hand ν ¥¦ ¦ ¥ ¨ ¢ ¤ £© §¦ ¥ ©¥§¦ ¨ ¢ ¡ Tνb νa νa νb j=1 j 14 CHAPTER 1. ν and we can readily identify the ﬁrst and second quantized basis states.4 The general form for second quantization operators In second quantization all operators can be expressed in terms of the fundamental creation and annihilation operators deﬁned in the previous two sections.29) and (1. r r ν ν ν 1 2 N 1 2 N where both sides contain normalized N -particle state-kets completely anti-symmetric in the single-particle state index νnj in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle. ν (1. ˆ ν cν |0 = 0. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION (1. In this equation we then act with the bosonic symmetrization operator S+ on both sides. let us ﬁrst consider the single-particle operator Ttot from Eq.60) . . 1 c† |1 = 0. nν = 0.3.57) (1. .59) δνa . (1. ν ν ν 1 N (1. .νn b† n . (1.e.Figure 1. To ν make the kets on the two sides of the equation look alike.

(1. ν 1 Vνi νj .5 a graphical representation of these fundamental operator expressions is shown. ν ν p p νb ν (1. . and a similar reasoning can be made for the fermion case (see Exercise 1. It is straightforward to generalize this result to two-particle (or any-number-of-particle) operators acting on boson states.b Tνb νa b† b bνa b† n . ν ν 2νν i j Vtot = νk νl In Fig.61).and two-particle processes contained in the operators. .47) and (1.64) .63) (1. . 1. If we let a† denote either a boson operator b† or a fermion operator c† we can state the general form for one. SECOND QUANTIZATION. The sum over j together with δνa .3. BASIC CONCEPTS £ ¢ ¡ £ ¤ ¡ £ ¤ ¡ 15 Figure 1.νk νl a† i a† j aνl aνk .νj Tνi νj a† i aνj .62) (1.42). . (1. The incoming and outgoing arrows represent initial and ﬁnal states. ν ν ν 1 N Since this result is valid for any basis state b† n1 . . . Operators in second quantization are thus composed of linear combinations of products of creation and annihilation operators weighted by the appropriate matrix elements of the operator calculated in ﬁrst quantization.61) Now. (1. it is actually an operator ν ν † identity stating Ttot = ij Tνi νj bνi bνj .and two-particle operators in second quantization. which is extremely £ ¡ ¦ ¦ ¨ ¦ § ¦ £ © ¡ ¨ ¦ § ¦ ¥ £ ¢ ¡ (1. This is then rewritten ν ν by use of Eqs. b† n |0 ν ν 1 N = a. respectively. b† nN |0 . side the corresponding contribution has changed into b† b (b† )p−1 |0 .5: A graphical representation of the one.1) when the necessary care is taken regarding the sign appearing from the anti-commutators in this case. Note the order of the indices. The dashed and wiggled lines represent the transition amplitudes for the one. (1. the p operators b† can be redistributed to their original places as they appear on ν the left hand side of Eq. b† n |0 .νn yields p identical j contributions cancelling the factor 1/p in Eq.60).and two-particle operators in second quantization: Ttot = νi .1.48) as b† b (b† )p−1 |0 = b† b ν ν ν 1 † 1 † bν bν (b† )p−1 |0 = b b (b† )p |0 . and we arrive at the simple result Ttot b† n .

(1.. (1.5 Change of basis in second quantization Diﬀerent quantum operators are most naturally expressed in diﬀerent representations making basis changes a central issue in quantum physics.. a† k ]± ν ˜ ˜ ψµ1 |ψνj ψνk |ψµ2 δνj . . νnN ˜ ψµn |ψνn N N ∗ † aνn N |0 . which guides us to the transformation rules for creation and ν annihilation operators (see also Fig. ν aµ = ˜ ν ˜ ψµ |ψν aν . .70) . a† 2 ]± = a ˜µ νj νk ˜ ˜ ψµ1 |ψνj ψµ2 |ψνk ∗ [aνj .66) to the N -particle ﬁrst quantized basis states S± |ψνn .66) that a† |0 = ˜µ ν ˜ ˜ |ψµ = ν ψµ |ψν ∗ a† |0 .66) In the case of single-particle systems we deﬁne quite naturally creation operators a† and ˜µ a† corresponding to the two basis sets.} and {|ψµ1 . ψνn leading to 1 N a† n a† n . [˜µ1 .31).6): a† = ˜µ ν ˜ ψµ |ψν ∗ a† .} be two diﬀerent complete and ordered single-particle basis sets. .68) The transformation rules Eq. a† aµ = ˜µ ˜ µ µ νj νk ˜ ˜ ψνj |ψµ ψµ |ψνk a† j aνk = ν νj νk ψνj |ψνk a† j aνk = ν νj a† j aνj .7) we have the basic transformation law for single-particle states: ˜ |ψµ = ν ˜ |ψν ψν |ψµ = ν ˜ ψµ |ψν ∗ |ψν . 1. . (1. a† n |0 = ˜µ ˜µ ˜µ 1 2 N ˜ ψµn |ψνn νn1 1 1 ∗ † aνn 1 . In this section we give the general transformation rules which are to be exploited throughout this course. (1. (1. . while the ﬁnal state is created by ﬁrst creating state |νj and then state |νi : |0 = aνl aνk |νk νl . |ψµ2 . .67) lead to two very desirable results. From the completeness condition Eq. = and secondly.16 CHAPTER 1. that the basis transformation preserves the bosonic or fermionic particle statistics. (1. . |νi νj = a† i a† j |0 .69) ˜ ˜ ψµ1 |ψνj ψνj |ψµ2 = δµ1 . that it leaves the total number of particles unchanged. In second quantization the initial state is annihilated by ﬁrst annihilating state |νk and then state |νl . ˜ ˜ Let {|ψν1 . Firstly.67) The general validity of Eq.µ2 . |ψν2 . ν (1.67) follows from applying the ﬁrst quantization single-particle ˆ result Eq. . (1. (1. (1. The ﬁrst quantization matrix element can be read as a transition induced from the initial state |νk νl to the ﬁnal state |νi νj . 1. The matrix elements are all in the simple non-symmetrized form of ν Eq. . FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION important in the case of two-particle fermion operators. and ﬁnd directly from Eq.3. (1.νk = νj νk νj (1.65) ν ν Note how all the permutation symmetry properties are taken care of by the operator algebra of a† and aν . .

suppressing the spin index.6: The transformation rules for annihilation operators aν and aµ upon change of ˜˜ ˜ } = {|˜ }. (1. as a kind of waves.5 let the transformed basis set {|ψµ } be the continuous set of position kets {|r } and.73) .e. but on the other hand they exhibit the commutator properties associated with particles. On the one hand they are deﬁned as ﬁelds. namely the real space representation leading to the deﬁnition of quantum ﬁeld operators. second quantization operators have a form analogous to ﬁrst quantization matrix elements.71) boson ﬁelds fermion ﬁelds. Ψ† (r2 )} = δ(r1 − r2 ). SECOND QUANTIZATION. (1. Since Ψ† (r) and Ψ(r) are second quantization operators deﬁned in every point in space they are called quantum ﬁeld operators. Loosely speaking.72a) (1. Ψ† (r2 )] = δ(r1 − r2 ).3. using quantum ﬁeld operators. (1. (1.69) it is straight forward to calculate the following fundamental commutator and anti-commutator. In some sense the quantum ﬁeld operators express the essence of the wave/particle duality in quantum physics.67) ˜µ Ψ† (r) ≡ ν r|ψν ∗ a† = ν ν ∗ ψν (r) a† . [Ψ(r1 ). From Eq. denote a† by Ψ† (r) we obtain from Eq. ν Ψ(r) ≡ ν ∗ Note that Ψ† (r) and Ψ(r) are second quantization operators. (1. Ψ† (r) is the sum of all possible ways to add a particle to the system at position r through any of the basis states ψν (r). The introduction of quantum ﬁeld operators makes it easy to write down operators in the real space representation. ¥ ¤ ¢ ¨ § ¥ ¢£ ¨ © § ¥ ¦ ¢ ! r|ψν aν = ν ¤¥ ¢£ § ¥ ¢ £ © ¨ § ¥ ¦ ¢£ ¡ ψν (r) aν . 1. {Ψ(r1 ).63) one obtains T = νi νj ∗ dr ψνi (r)Tr ψνj (r) a† i aνj ν ∗ ψνi (r)a† i Tr ν νi νj = dr ψνj (r)aνj So in the real space representation.e. By applying the deﬁnition Eq.72b) = dr Ψ† (r)Tr Ψ(r). while the coeﬃcients ψν (r) and ψν (r) are ordinary ﬁrst quantization wavefunctions. BASIC CONCEPTS 17 Figure 1.3.6 Quantum ﬁeld operators and their Fourier transforms In particular one second quantization representation requires special attention. i.3.71) to the second quantized single-particle operator Eq.1. (1. If we in ˜ Sec. basis between {|ψν } = {|ν } and {|ψµ µ 1. i. (1.

(1. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION Finally. (1. This picture is particularly useful in the studies of the photon and phonon ﬁelds. Substituting in Eq. x] = i . H= 1 2 1 p + mω 2 x2 .77) we obtain the Hamiltonian. By inspection it can be veriﬁed that the following operators do the job.4 Second quantization. H. k (1. i. Mnemotechnically. If we as a . one can think of a as being √ the (1/ 2-normalized) complex number formed by the real part x/ and the imaginary part p/( / ).75) 1. 1 p 1 x x ≡ √ (a† + a). and the eigenstates |n : H = ω a† a + 1 2 (a† )n and |n = √ |0 . k k 1 Ψ(r) = √ V eik·r ak .1 The harmonic oscillator in second quantization The one-dimensional harmonic oscillator in ﬁrst quantization is characterized by two conjugate variables appearing in the Hamiltonian: the position x and the momentum p. a† ≡ √ −i / 2 2 where x is given in units of the harmonic oscillator length = /mω and p in units of the harmonic oscillator momentum / . n! with H|n = ω n + 1 |n .77) i 1 x p p ≡ √ (a† − a). 1.4. 2 (1. 1 a† = √ q V dr eiq·r Ψ† (r). (1. (1.78) The excitation of the harmonic oscillator can thus be interpreted as ﬁlling the oscillator with bosonic quanta created by the operator a† .74) The inverse expressions are obtained by multiplying by e±iq·r and integrating over r. while a† is found as the adjoint operator to a. speciﬁc operators In this section we will use the general second quantization formalism to derive some expressions for speciﬁc second quantization operators that we are going to use repeatedly in this course.71) the |ψν basis with the momentum basis |k yields 1 Ψ† (r) = √ V e−ik·r a† . 1 aq = √ V dr e−iq·r Ψ(r). 2m 2 [p.18 CHAPTER 1. (1.42).76) This can be rewritten in second quantization by identifying two operators a† and a satisfying the basic boson commutation relations Eq. From Eq. +i a ≡ √ / 2 2 ⇒ (1.e. when working with homogeneous systems it is often desirable to transform between the real space and the momentum representations. as we shall see during the course. to perform a Fourier transformation.

the electromagnetic ﬁeld was the ﬁrst example of second quantization (Dirac. as sketched in Fig. In the free ﬁeld case the electromagnetic ﬁeld is completely determined by the vector potential A(r. λ = 1. (1. λ = 1. and 9 quanta in the oscillator state. . The dispersion law is ωk = kc and the two-fold polarization of the ﬁeld is described by polarization vectors λ . 2. |n . z). .1. SPECIFIC OPERATORS 19 Figure 1. Thus the width of the oscillator wavefunction scales roughly with the squareroot of the number of quanta in the oscillator. in which case A is denoted the radiation ﬁeld. Normally.4. . t) = kx = 1 √ ei(k·r−ωk t) . Note that the width of the wave function is n|x2 |n = n + 1/2 .81) . The creation operator can also be used to generate the speciﬁc form of the eigenfunctions ψn (x) of the oscillator starting from the groundstate wavefunction ψ0 (x): (a† )n 1 ψn (x) = x|n = x| √ |0 = √ n! n! p x x| √ − i ~ √ 2 2 n |0 = √ 1 x 2n n! − d dx n ψ0 (x).80) We assume periodic boundary conditions for A enclosed in a huge box taken to be a cube √ of volume V and hence side length L = 3 V. the transversality condition ·A = 0 is chosen. ωk = ck V λ 2π nx = 0. SECOND QUANTIZATION. t) of the wave equation Eq. The quantization of the electromagnetic ﬁeld is based on the observation that the eigenmodes of the classical ﬁeld can be thought of as a collection of harmonic oscillators.2 The electromagnetic ﬁeld in second quantization Historically.λ (r. These are then quantized. ±1. and the associated concept of photons play a crucial role in the theory of interactions between matter and light. The quantum nature of the radiation ﬁeld. and we have B = ×A 2 E = −∂t A ·A = 0 1 2 A − 2 ∂t A = 0. we ﬁnd n|x2 |n = n + 1/2 . 1. however. measure of the amplitude of the oscillator in the state with n quanta. 2.λ (r. The normalized eigenmodes uk. use the squareroot of the expectation value of x2 = 2 (a† a† + a† a + aa† + aa)/2.4. ±2. (same for y and L nx . In most of the applications in this course we shall. c (1. treat the electromagnetic ﬁeld classically.79) 1. t) in a speciﬁc gauge.80) are seen to be uk. 2. 1927). (1. (1.7: The probability density | r|n |2 for n = 0.7. 1.

λ and Pk.λ ] = i ωk Q = k.λ quantized oscillator: 1 H= ωk (a† ak.λ k. (1.λ Pk. (1.82) we merge the time dependence with the coeﬃcients. up to some normalization constants.83) In Fourier space.λ ). H= 1 2 dr 2 0 |E| + 1 |B|2 µ0 = 1 2 0 2 dr (ωk |A|2 + c2 k 2 |A|2 ) = 2 0 ωk dr |A|2 .λ k.λ |2 = 4 0 ωk 1 2 |AR |2 + |AI |2 .λ = AR + iAI for the k.λ ∂Pk.λ Qk.80) we can express H in terms of the radiation ﬁeld A. The ﬁeld A takes only real values and hence it has a Fourier expansion of the form 1 A(r.λ are therefore introduced: 1 2 H= P 2 + ωk Q2 k.λ 2 2|Ak.λ = i(a† − ak. k. i. Pk.λ k.λ k.λ ∂H ∂H ˙ ˙ and AI are conjugate variables: ∂AR = −4 0 ωk AI and ∂AI = +4 0 ωk AR .λ and Pk. and introducing the second quantized Bose operators a† for each k.20 CHAPTER 1.λ .λ k. Ak.λ ˙ AI = −ωk AR . the time dependence for the real and imaginary parts are seen to be ˙ AR = +ωk AI k.λ k λ=1. [ak. k/k} forms a right-handed orthonormal basis set.84) and (1.λ .λ = −ωk Qk.λ . ∂Qk.λ normalized conjugate variables Qk.λ .λ (a† + ak. k.λ 2 ˙ ˙ ⇒ Q = Pk.λ k. (1. AR k.82) where Ak. We now turn to the Hamiltonian H of the system.λ k.λ (1. (1.λ 2 k.λ √ I k.λ (1.λ ⇒ [Pk.λ 2 k. 2 .λ e−iωk t .λ ei(k·r−ωk t) + A∗ e−i(k·r−ωk t) k.λ are the complex expansion coeﬃcients.85) it thus follows that.λ k.λ ≡ 2ωk 0 Ak.λ (t) = Ak. = Qk.λ k.λ + ). using Parceval’s theorem and the notation Ak. Qk. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION The set { 1 .λ ).86) This ends the proof that the radiation ﬁeld A can thought of as a collection of harmonic oscillator eigenmodes. (1.λ real and imaginary part of the coeﬃcients.λ k.84) If in Eq.λ k.λ .λ ≡ 2 0 AR k.λ ∂H ∂H ˙ ˙ = −Pk. Pk. t) = √ V Ak. where each mode are characterized by the conjugate variable Qk. k.85) From Eqs. Using Eq.87) . k.λ √ k.λ .e. we have H= 2 0 ωk k. a† ] = 1.λ (1. Quantization is now obtained by imposing the usual condition on the commutator of the variables. Proper k.2 λ. which is simply the ﬁeld energy known from electromagnetism.λ 2ωk 2 (1.

an expression used to ﬁnd J. (1.89) 1. v) = 2 mv 2 + V = 2m (pR− qA)2 + V .73) T = k. and current In the following we establish the second quantization representation of the four important single-particle operators associated with kinetic energy. the Pauli matrices s= 4 In ﬁrst quantization it is given by 1 0 0 −1 2 τ. spin.λ = AR + iAI → √ + i √ k. spin. 2m r 2 k2 k σ |T |kσ = δk . we study the kinetic energy operator T .1.λ Ak.3 Operators for kinetic energy. p) = p·v − L(r. First. SPECIFIC OPERATORS 21 To obtain the ﬁnal expression for A in second quantization we simply express Ak.91) The second equality can also be proven directly by inserting Ψ† (r) and Ψ(r) from Eq.88) Substituting this into the expansion Eq.σ .4. 2m 2 Tr. (1.λ . and A∗ → k. 0 −i i 0 .82) our ﬁnal result is: 1 A(r.σ = − k. with τ = 0 1 1 0 . k. we treat the spin operator s for electrons.2 2 0 ωk (1.σ 2 2m dr Ψ† (r) σ σ 2 r Ψσ (r) . For particles with charge q a magnetic ﬁeld can be included in the expression for the kinetic energy by substituting the canonical momentum p with the kinetic momentum4 p − qA.σ 2 k2 2m a† ak.λ .λ k. (1.k δσ .σ σ = − real space representation. (1.90b) Its second quantized forms with spin indices follow directly from Eqs. In ﬁrst quantization it has the representations 2 δσ . 2 1 TA = dr Ψ† (r) − qA Ψσ (r).λ : k.63) and (1.σ .λ and Qk. k λ=1. which is independent of spin and hence diagonal in the spin indices.92) r σ 2m σ i Next. .90a) (1.λ 2 0 ωk a† . (1. momentum representation. and via a Legendre 1 1 transform we get H(r. But then p = ∂L/∂v = mv + qA.λ 2 0 2ωk = 0 2 0 ωk ak.λ ei(k·r−ωk t) + a† e−i(k·r−ωk t) k. since this by the 2 Euler-Lagrange equations yields the Lorentz force. (1.λ (1. Considering inﬁnitesimal variations δA we get δH = H(A + δA) − H(A) = −qv·δA = −q dr J·δA. particle density.λ in terms of Pk.λ Qk. (1.λ Pk.4. density. and particle current density.λ λ.93) In analytical mechanics A enters through the Lagrangian: L = 1 mv 2 − V + qv·A.74). which in turn is expressed in terms of a† and ak. t) = √ V ak. . SECOND QUANTIZATION.

(1. But expanding the square in Eq.92) and writing only the A dependent terms of q2 q~ the integrand. τ y .22 CHAPTER 1. 2m (1. µσ µ σσ (1.σ (r) gives us ρµ. µ↓ µ↑ µ (1.95) From Eq. By analytical mechanics it is found that variations δH in the Hamiltonian function due to variations δA in the vector potential is given by δH = −q dr J·δA (1. into account. given by the vector potential A.σ (r)|2 which can also ∗ be written as ρµ. (1.63) yields ρσ (r) = dr Ψ† (r )δ(r − r)Ψσ (r ) = Ψ† (r)Ψσ (r). In ﬁrst quantization the fundamental interpretation of the wave function ψµ.92) and the associated footnote. σ σ (1. −Ψ† (r) 2mi [ ·A + A· ]Ψσ (r) + 2m A2 Ψ† (r)Ψσ (r).98) . This relationship can be used to actually deﬁne J. It is related to the particle density operator ρ(r) through the continuity equation ∂t ρ + ·J = 0. reveals one term where σ σ is acting on A. However. This allows us in a simple way to take the magnetic ﬁeld.σ (r ).σ (r) = dr ψµ. Variations due to a varying parameter are calculated as derivatives if the parameter appears as a simple factor.75) the momentum representation of this is found to be ρσ (r) = 1 V † ei(k−k )·r ak σ akσ = kk 1 V e−iq·r a† k+qσ akσ = kq 1 V a† ak+qσ kσ q k eiq·r .96) where the momentum transfer q = k − k has been introduced.97) We use this expression with H given by the kinetic energy Eq.94a) with components sx = 2 (c† cµ↑ + c† cµ↓ ) sy = i µ↑ µ↓ µ 2 (c† cµ↑ − c† cµ↓ ) sz = µ↑ µ↓ µ 2 (c† cµ↑ − c† cµ↓ ). (1.94b) We then turn to the particle density operator ρ(r). and thus the density operator for spin σ is given by ρσ (r) = δ(r − r). we shall take a more general approach based on analytical mechanics. (1. The fourth and last operator to be treated is the particle current density operator J(r). and we obtain H=T+ σ dr q A· 2mi Ψ† (r) Ψσ (r) − Ψ† (r) σ σ Ψσ (r) + q2 2 † A Ψσ (r)Ψσ (r) . (1. see Eq.σ (r )δ(r − r)ψµ. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION To obtain the second quantized operator we pull out the spin index explicitly in the basis kets. By partial integration this is shifted to Ψ† (r). (1. In second quantization this combined with Eq. τ z )|σ c† cµσ . s= µσµ σ µ | σ |s|σ |µ c† σ cµσ = µ 2 σ |(τ x .σ (r) = |ψµ. |ν = |µ |σ . and obtain with fermion operators the following vector expression.92).

100) The expression for J in an arbitrary basis is treated in Exercise 1.99c) diamagnetic : JA (r) = − σ q A(r)Ψ† (r)Ψσ (r). (1. SPECIFIC OPERATORS 23 The variations of Eq. We can interpret the Coulomb matrix element as describing a transition from an initial state |k1 σ1 . σ m The momentum representation of J is found in complete analogy with that of ρ Jσ (r) = mV 1 (k + q)eiq·r a† ak+q. (1. The two terms in the current density operator are denoted the paramagnetic and the diamagnetic term. kσ 2 JA (r) = σ −q A(r) mV eiq·r a† ak+q.64) with 1 |ν = |k.1. (1.64) to the following quantum ﬁeld operator form of V : V (r2 − r1 ) = 1 2σ dr1 dr2 e2 0 Ψ† (r )Ψ† (r )Ψ (r )Ψ (r ). and we obtain V = 1 2σ 1 2σ k3 σ1 .σ (r) = √V eik·r χσ .102) 1 σ2 k1 k2 k3 k4 = 1 σ2 k1 k2 k3 k4 e2 0 V2 dr1 dr2 ei(k1 ·r1 +k2 ·r2 −k3 ·r1 −k4 ·r2 ) † ak3 σ1 a† 4 σ2 ak2 σ2 ak1 σ1 . σ and ψk. J and JA .63) to Eq.σ . the exponential is rewritten as . (1. (1. SECOND QUANTIZATION.97) can in Eq. k4 σ2 |V |k1 σ1 .2. respectively: Jσ (r) = Jσ (r) + JA (r).99a) Ψ† (r) Ψσ (r) .99b) σ (1. k |r2 − r1 | Since r2 − r1 is the relevant variable for the interaction. Using the same reasoning that led from Eq.101) 1 σ2 Here we have introduced the abbreviation e2 = e2 /4π 0 .σ .4. kσ kq kq (1. k2 σ2 a† 3 σ1 a† 4 σ2 ak2 σ2 ak1 σ1 k k (1.73) we can go directly from Eq.31) and Eq. (1.98) be performed as derivatives and J is immediately read oﬀ as the prefactor to δA. k2 σ2 to a ﬁnal state |k3 σ1 . |r2 − r1 | σ1 1 σ2 2 σ2 2 σ1 1 (1. (1.4 The Coulomb interaction in second quantization The Coulomb interaction operator V is a two-particle operator not involving spin and thus diagonal in the spin indices of the particles. σ paramagnetic : Jσ (r) = 2mi Ψ† (r) σ Ψσ (r) − (1. (1.4. k4 σ2 without ﬂipping any spin. 1.We can also write the Coulomb 0 interaction directly in the momentum basis by using Eq.

The arguments are easily generalized to include more complicated systems. 3. σ2 are with probability amplitude Vq scattered into the outgoing states |k1 + q. which with the deﬁnitions q ≡ k2 − k4 and r ≡ r2 − r1 become dr1 ei(k1 −k3 +q)·r1 = V δk3 . r q (1. Let the ﬁrst kind of particles be described by the Hamiltonian H1 and a complete set of basis states {|ν }. The momenta k3 and k4 of the ﬁnal states can now be written as k3 = k1 + q and k4 = k2 − q.5 Basis states for systems with diﬀerent kinds of particles In the previous sections we have derived diﬀerent fermion and boson operators. ¥ © £¤ © ¡ § ¥ © £¤ © ¡ ! ¥ ¢ £¤ ¨¦ ¢ ¡ § ¥ ¢ £¤ ¢ ¡ .8: A graphical representation of the Coulomb interaction in second quantization. σ2 .k1 +q . σ1 and |k2 . (1. Another example is electrons interacting with the photon ﬁeld. Under momentum and spin conservation the incoming states |k1 .103) These integrals express the Fourier transform of the Coulomb interaction5 and the explicit momentum conservation obeyed by the interaction. Let us for simplicity just study two diﬀerent kinds of particles. ei[(k1 −k3 )·r1 +(k2 −k4 )·r2 ] = ei(k1 −k3 +k2 −k4 )·r1 ei(k2 −k4 )·(r2 −r1 ) leaving us with two integrals. In this course one important example of such a system is the fermionic electrons in a metal interacting with the bosonic lattice vibrations (phonons). But so far we have not treated systems where diﬀerent kinds of particles are coupled. Here we will brieﬂy clarify how to construct the basis set for such composed systems in general.8. The ﬁnal second quantized form of the Coulomb interaction in momentum space is V = 1 2V Vq a† 1 +qσ1 a† 2 −qσ2 ak2 σ2 ak1 σ1 . FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION Figure 1. σ1 and |k2 − q. 1.24 CHAPTER 1.104) σ1 σ2 k1 k2 q We shall study this operator thoroughly in Sec.4. 1.2 in connection with the interacting electron gas. The result is Vq s = 4πe0 2 q 2 +ks 2 e −ks r from which Eq. 2. in Fig. The starting point is the case where the two kinds of particles do not interact with each other. we just show a graphical representation of the operator.5 how to calculate the Fourier transform Vq s of the Yukawa potential V ks (r) = k . We study this system in Chap. For the two decoupled 5 e0 r 2 k We show in Exercise 1.103) follows by setting ks = 0. k k (1. Here. Likewise we have H2 and {|µ } for the second kind of particles. Vq ≡ dr e2 iq·r 4πe2 0 e = 20 .

. nkj σj . nνj . = |nν1 . .106) In the last line all the occupation numbers are simply listed within the same ket but the two groups are separated by a semicolon.81). . It states that as time evolves a system assume all possible states complying with the given external constraints. . respectively. . . . ET = Es + Er . . nµ2 . The electronic basis states are the plane wave orbitals |kσ of Eq. . and the photon states are |qλ given in Eq. . taken as a whole. (1. Nq1 λ1 . Nq2 λ2 . . . . . nν2 . . e. we need to enlarge the Hilbert space. with a given total energy E. .g. . .3). In other words. nν2 . . nν2 . . . . Suppose we are interested in some small system connected to the outside world.108) 1. . = |nµ1 . . .105b) When a coupling H12 between the two system is introduced. . . . The time it takes for the system to visit all of the phase is the ergodicity time. . Nql λl . (1. . nµ2 .{µl } |nν1 . which is assumed to be smaller than typical time scales of the observation. . while the small system and the reservoir have the densities of states ds (Es ) and dr (Er ). . . the so-called reservoir. . nµ2 . nµ1 . . . Let us call the energy of the small system Es and that of the reservoir Er . . . . A basis state |ψ in this representation has the form: |ψ = |nk1 σ1 . . The density of states is deﬁned as d(E) = dN (E)/dE. nµl . . nν2 . . The natural deﬁnition of basis states is the outer product states written as |ψ = |ψ (1) |ψ (2) = |nν1 . . . . . . nνj . (1. . . . . . . . . .107) As a concrete example we can write down the basis states for interacting electrons and photons in the momentum representation. . SECOND QUANTIZATION AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS systems an example of separate occupation number basis sets is |ψ (1) |ψ (2) 25 = |nν1 . . because of the randomness of the system all of the available phase space is covered. . nµ1 . Based on the ergodicity assumption it is natural to conjecture that the probability for a subsystem to have a deﬁnite energy Es is proportional to the number of ways that the subsystem can have that energy.105a) (1. We let nkσ and Nqλ denote the occupation numbers for electrons and photons. (1. . and assume that.5. . |nµ1 . nµj . . i. . nνj .5 Second quantization and statistical mechanics The basic assumption of statistical mechanics is the ergodicity assumption. (1. where N (E) is the number of states with an energy less than E. . . . .1. A general state |Φ can of course be any superposition of the basis states: |Φ = {νj }{µl } C{νj }. . . nµl .e. they constitute a closed system with total energy ET . (1. nµ2 . nµl . . . nk2 σ2 . . We denote the density of states of the total system at a given total energy d(ET ). . nνj . . . .

The only function P (E) that satisﬁes the condition dr (ET − Es ) P (Es ) = = f (Es − Es ). In conclusion: from statistical mechanics we know that both for classical and a quantum mechanical systems which are connected to a heat bath the probability for a given state s with energy Es to be occupied is given by the Boltzmann distribution 1 (1. as we have seen. we must sum over a set of states which cover the entire space of possible states.113) P (Es ) = exp(−βEs ). in general quite complicated to write down. we do not expect this probability to be dependent on the size of the reservoir. i. Z where β is the inverse temperature.114) is that the sum of states runs over eigenstates of the Hamiltonian. P (Es ) dr (ET − Es ) (1. is the partition function exp(−βEs ). This means that if we consider the ratio of two probabilities P (Es ) dr (ET − Es ) = .e. the states s are. (1. Also for a quantum system it is not clear what is meant by the energy of a given state. Using the basis states |ν deﬁned by H|ν = Eν |ν . the total density of states is dominated by that of the reservoir and hence d(ET ) ≈ dr (ET ). (1.115) .e. Since for a given small energy interval ∆E the number of states in the reservoir is much larger than the number states in smaller subsystem. But because the energy is only deﬁned up to an additive constant.114) Z= s (1.26 CHAPTER 1. and where the normalization factor. and it is therefore an advantage to have a form which is independent of the choice of basis states.111) When we sum over states. (1. i. we have for the probability for the subsystem to have energy Es that P (Es ) ∝ dr (ET − Es ) ∆E. the basis set that we use to compute the energy must be a complete set.110) it must only depend on the energies Es and Es and neither on the total energy ET nor on dr . provided of course that it is still much smaller than the new reservoir. nothing should happen to the state of the small system. For a quantum system with many particles. (1.109) Now.112) We have thus arrived at the famous Boltzmann or Gibbs distribution which of course should be normalized. Z. unless of course it is an eigenstate of the Hamiltonian. (1. β = 1/kB T . From the assumption about the probability being proportional to the number of states. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION respectively. if we make it smaller by cutting it in half by some wall. P (Es ) dr (ET − Es ) is P (E) ∝ e−βE . Therefore the only meaningful interpretation of Eq. it can thus only depend on the diﬀerence Es − Es .

For the canonical ensemble the trace is however restricted to run over states with a given number of particles. the result obtained from the canonical ensemble is carried over to the grand canonical ensemble by the substitution H → H − µN . it is useful to introduce the Hamiltonian HG corresponding to the grand canonical ensemble. ρ ≡ e−βH = ν |ν e−βEν ν|. HG ≡ H − µN. so the reader must always carefully check whether H refers to the canonical or to the grand canonical ensemble.6 This is of course true whatever formalism we use to evaluate the trace. since most of the times we are working in the grand canonical ensemble. In ﬁrst quantization the trace runs over for example the determinant basis. Following the elementary deﬁnition we have A = 1 Z ν|A|ν e−βEν = ν 1 Tr[ρA] Tr[ρA] = .e. i. The small system is allowed to exchange particles with the reservoir while keeping its average particle number constant. For the grand canonical ensemble the number of particles is not conserved.e. Basically. Z Tr[ρ] (1. the symbol H is often used instead of HG for the grand canonical Hamiltonian. the thermal average of any quantum operator A is easily expressed using the density matrix ρ. (1. ZG = Tr[ρG ].117) Likewise.119) where the trace now includes states with any number of particles. since the sum over states is identiﬁed with the trace operation. In this book we shall for brevity write H in both cases. Here we have used that the trace is invariant under cyclic permutation. This ought not cause any problems. Tr [ABC] = Tr [BCA]. then in the transformed basis U |ν we have tU ν = Tr UAU−1 = Tr AU−1 U = Tr [A] = tν .114) for the partition function as Z= ν ν|ρ|ν = Tr[ρ].117) and (1. Likewise. (1.118) Eqs. i. we include the term µN in the Hamiltonian. SECOND QUANTIZATION AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS 27 it is now quite natural to introduce the so-called density matrix operator ρ corresponding to the classical Boltzmann factor e−βE .116) We can thus write the expression Eq. (1. which in second quantization translates to the Fock space of the corresponding quantum numbers. They are more than merely normalization factors. and we introduce a chemical potential µ of the reservoir to accommodate this constraint. where N is the particle number operator. (1. The corresponding density matrix ρG and partition function ZG are deﬁned as: ρG ≡ e−β(H−µN ) .120) Unfortunately. (1. For example the free energy F ≡ U − Remember that if tν = Tr [A] is the trace of A in the basis |ν . 6 . The partition functions are fundamental quantities in statistical mechanics.118) are basis-independent expressions.5.1. (1.

125) We shall study the properties of the Fermi–Dirac distribution in Sec. Using the grand canonical ensemble we can derive the famous Fermi–Dirac distribution nF (ε). H0 .124) This inequality ensures that by minimizing the free energy calculated from the approximate Hamiltonian. for H 0 = Tr[ρ0 H] . for example the mean ﬁeld approximation in Chap.1 = 0 + e−β(εk −µ) 1 = β(ε −µ) . The average occupation nF (εk ) is therefore Tr[ρG nk ] = Tr[ρG ] nk e−β(nk εk −µnk ) nk =0.122) In various approximation schemes. Recall that F = U − T S = H − T S. important in the grand canonical ensemble. Tr[ρ0 ] (1. respectively: Z = e−βF ZG = e −βΩ (1. Consider the electron state |kσ with energy εk .125) we see that the natural single-particle energy variable is not εk but rather ξk given by ξk ≡ εk − µ (1. The state can contain either 0 or 1 electron.3. (1. FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION T S. This is reﬂected in the single-particle energy variable. and the thermodynamic potential Ω ≡ U − T S − µN . we are guaranteed to make the best possible approximation based on the trial Hamiltonian.1. are directly related to Z and ZG . (1.121a) .28 CHAPTER 1.1 nF (εk ) = e−β(nk εk −µnk ) nk =0. This is based on the following inequality F ≤ H 0 − T S0 . 4. From Eq. 1.123) where both H example 0 and S0 are calculated in the approximation ρ ≈ ρ0 = exp(−βH0 ).121b) Let us now study the free energy. important in the canonical ensemble. The proper Hamiltonian is therefore HG = H − µN . Note that the Fermi–Dirac distribution is deﬁned in the grand canonical ensemble. . −β(εk −µ) 1+e e k +1 (1. (1. which is minimal when the entropy is maximal.5. 2.126) For small excitation energies εk varies around µ whereas ξk varies around 0.1 The distribution function for non-interacting fermions As the temperature is raised from zero in a system of non-interacting fermions the occupation number for the individual energy eigenstates begins to ﬂuctuate rather than being constantly 0 or constantly 1. (1. we shall use the principle of minimizing the free energy.

In the grand canonical ensemble the average occupation number nB (εk ) is found by writing λk = e−β(εk −µ) and d 1 using the formulas ∞ nλn = λ dλ ∞ λn and ∞ λn = 1−λ : n=0 n=0 n=0 ∞ nk e−β(nk εk −µnk ) nB (εk ) = nk =0 ∞ λk = d dλk ∞ ∞ nk =0 n λkk λkk = n e nk =0 −β(nk εk −µnk ) nk =0 λk (1−λk )2 1 1−λk = 1 e β(εk −µ) −1 . so for pedagogical reasons we have chosen to start from the usual ﬁrst quantization representation. the Fermi–Dirac distribution nF (ε). The basic concepts are the occupation number basis states and the fundamental creation and annihilation operators. (1.127) The Bose–Einstein distribution diﬀers from the Fermi–Dirac distribution by having −1 in the denominator instead of +1. . the representation of quantum mechanics we are going to use throughout this course. The occupation number of the state can be any non-negative integer nk = 0. In Sec. students usually learn basic quantum theory in ﬁrst quantization. Both distributions converge towards the classical Maxwell– Boltzmann distribution. where the particular particle statistics is not felt very strongly. However.54)).1. and c† and cν in the fermionic case (see ν ν Eq. It is derived like its fermionic counterpart. perhaps after some measure of acquaintance. In the following three chapters we shall get more acquainted with second quantization through studies of simpliﬁed stationary problems for non-interacting systems or systems where a given particle only interacts with the mean ﬁeld of the other particles. this main result appears so simple and intuitively clear that one could choose to deﬁne quantum theory directly in second quantization rather than going the cumbersome way from ﬁrst to second quantization. . (1. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 29 1.42)). 1. nk = e−β(εk −µ) . 5 will the question be raised of how to treat time evolution in second quantization. . (1.5. 1..6 Summary and outlook In this chapter we have introduced second quantization. 1.5.4 we presented a number of speciﬁc examples of second quantization operators. for very small occupation numbers. 2.and two-particle operators. b† and bν in the bosonic case (see Eq. 1. (1. The intricate permutation symmetries are manifestly ensured by the basic (anti-)commutator relations of these fundamental operators. . and we got a ﬁrst glimpse of how second quantization leads to a formulation of quantum physics in terms of creation and annihilation of particles and ﬁeld quanta.64) and Fig.2 Distribution functions for non-interacting bosons Next we ﬁnd the distribution function for non-interacting bosons. First in Chap. Consider a bosonic state characterized by its fundamental energy εk . Eqs. With an answer to that question we can proceed with the very interesting but also rather diﬃcult studies of the full time dependent dynamics of many-particle quantum systems.6. Again using the grand canonical ensemble we derive the equally famous Bose–Einstein distribution nB (ε). The main result of the chapter is the derivation of the general form of one. In fact.63) and (1.

FIRST AND SECOND QUANTIZATION .30 CHAPTER 1.

but historically this system played a major role as testing ground for the development of quantum ﬁeld theory. The main emphasis will be on the non-interacting electron gas. are often free to move away from their respective host atoms forming a gas of electrons swirling around among the ions. charge -e) ions (mass M. and insulators. and ﬁnally. 1. In this chapter we shall study the basic properties of this system using the formalism of time-independent second quantization as developed in Chap. This is The electron gas Chapter 2 free atoms a solid 31 valence electrons (mass m. 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To a large extend the inner degrees of freedom of the ions do not play a signiﬁcant role leaving the center of mass coordinates Rj and total spin Sj of the ions as the only dynamical variables. since it will be clear that we need to develop our theoretical tools further to deal with the electron-electron interactions in full. In contrast to the core electrons the Z valence electrons. and if the atom has Z valence electrons the charge of the ion is +Ze. charge +Ze) core electrons nuclei . such as metals. The valence electrons are freed from their host atoms and form an electron gas holding the ionic lattice together. semiconductors. The ion mass is denoted M . the light cloud of the many negatively charged core electrons tightly bound to the nucleus.1: A sketch showing N free atoms merging into a metal.Figure 2. the outermost few valence electrons. The ions are unchanged during the process where they end up by forming a periodic lattice. Not only is this system a model of the solids that surrounds us. with mass m and charge −e. Any atom in a metal consists of three parts: the positively charged heavy nucleus at the center.

where however the discrete nature of the ionic system is approximated by a positively charged. The other approximation scheme.2 we attempt to include this interaction.2) dR1 dR2 Ψ† (R1 )Ψ† (R2 ) ion ion dr Ψ† (r) − σ 2 Z 2 e2 0 Ψ (R2 )Ψion (R1 ). plasmons (collective electronic charge density waves). etc.1 The non-interacting electron gas We ﬁrst study the lattice model and the jellium model in the case of no electron-electron interaction. magnons (spin waves). The individual terms are easily written down in second quantization: Tion + Vion−ion = dR Ψ† (R) − ion 1 + 2 Tel + Vel−el = σ 2 (2. .32 CHAPTER 2. One is the phenomenological lattice approach. |R1 − R2 | ion (2. We take the experimental determination of the crystal structure. |r1 − r2 | σ2 (2. ion At zero temperature the ground state of the system is a periodic ion lattice hold together by the cohesive forces of the surrounding electron gas. H = (Tion + Vion−ion ) + (Tel + Vel−el ) + Vel−ion . i. Two approximation schemes will be used instead. Later in Sec. 2. Ψ† (r) σ 1 and Ψ† (R) are involved. and from there calculate the electronic and phononic properties. the ion ’jellium’.4) 2m 2 r Ψσ (r) + Vel−ion = 1 2σ dr1 dr2 Ψ† 1 (r1 )Ψ† 2 (r2 ) σ σ 1 σ2 drdR Ψ† (r)Ψ† (R) σ ion σ (−Ze2 ) 0 Ψ (R)Ψσ (r). Fortunately. most electronic and phononic properties of the system can be derived with good accuracy from the Hamiltonian describing the ion jellium combined with the electron gas. The Hamiltonian H of the system is written as the sum of kinetic and potential energy of the ionic system and the electronic system treated independently. The formation of a metal from N independent atoms is sketched in Fig. electron-hole excitations (single-particle excitations). In this course we will not plunge into such full ﬂedged ab initio calculations. continuous and homogeneous ﬂuid. the so-called jellium model. THE ELECTRON GAS true for the alkali metals. In principle it is possible in ab initio calculations to minimize the energy of the system and ﬁnd the crystal structure and lattice parameters. and the Coulomb interaction between the two systems.e. hence no factor 2 . lattice parameters and elasticity constants as input to the theory. 2. the equilibrium positions Rj of the ions in the lattice.3) e2 0 Ψ (r2 )Ψσ1 (r1 ).1. |R − r| ion Note that no double counting is involved in Vel−ion since two diﬀerent types of ﬁelds. From the obtained ground state one can then study the various excitations of the system: phonons (ion vibrations). is in fact an ab initio calculation.1) 2M 2 R Ψion (R) (2. 2.

1) into H = (Elatt + Hph ) + (Tel + Vel−el ) + (Vel−latt + Vel−ph ). and Vel−ion in the original Hamiltonian Eq. their mutual interaction Vel−el . i. also known as the reciprocal space. Vel−latt (r + R) = Vel−latt (r) for any lattice vector R. and later the phonon problem. a3 }: R = n1 a1 + n2 a2 + n3 a3 . a2 . a3 · a1 × a2 (2.9) . 2. Let the static ion lattice be described by the ionic equilibrium positions R in terms of the lattice basis vectors {a1 . Thus the Hamiltonian for the phenomenological lattice model changes H of Eq. n3 ∈ Z. Vel−latt . (2. Vion−ion .1).2) giving rise to the concept of phonons. b2 . m2 .6) To solve the corresponding Schr¨dinger equation. RS. we have o to understand the Fourier transform of periodic functions. m3 ∈ Z. THE NON-INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS 33 2. Finally. n1 .5) At zero temperature the ions are not vibrating except for their quantum mechanical zero point motion.8) where the basis vectors {b1 . This lattice has an energy Elatt and an electrical potential Vel−latt associated with it.1. in RS deﬁned by RL = G ∈ RS eiG ·R = 1 ⇒ G = m1 b1 + m2 b2 + m3 b3 . If one furthermore neglects the electron-electron interaction (in Sec.1 Bloch theory of electrons in a static ion lattice Let us ﬁrst consider the phenomenological lattice model.e.2 we study when this is reasonable) one arrives at the Hamiltonian HBloch used in Bloch’s theory of non-interacting electrons moving in a static. and their interaction with both the static part of the lattice. At ﬁnite temperature the ions can vibrate around their equilibrium positions with the total electric ﬁeld acting as the restoring force. The latter term must be there since a vibrating ion is giving rise to a vibrating electrical potential inﬂuencing the electrons. n2 . Vel−ph . It is useful to introduce the reciprocal lattice. periodic ion lattice: HBloch = Tel + Vel−latt (r). (2. 1. (2. (2. X-ray experiments show that the equilibrium positions of the ions form a periodic lattice. (2. Thus we can drop all the phonon related terms of the Hamiltonian. the phonons. these vibrations can be described in terms of quantized harmonic oscillators (much like the photon ﬁeld of Sec. a2 · a3 × a1 b3 = 2π a1 × a2 . the electrons are described by their kinetic energy Tel .4.1. both originating from a combination of Tion . (2.7) Working with periodic lattices it is often convenient to Fourier transform from the direct space to k-space. 3. a1 · a2 × a3 b2 = 2π a3 × a1 . m1 . and the vibrating part. The non-interacting part of the phonon ﬁeld is described by a Hamiltonian Hph . As will be demonstrated in Chap.2. RL. b3 } in RL are deﬁned as b1 = 2π a2 × a3 .

1 ¥ §¦ ¢ ¥ ¤ £¡ ¨¦ FBZ = k ∈ RS |k| < |k − G|. (2. n is the band index. (2. number of similar equations for ck−G . We get [H. for all R ⇔ V (r) = G ∈RL The solution of the Schr¨dinger equation HBloch ψ = Eψ can be found in the plane wave o basis |kσ . deﬁned as all k in RS lying closer to G = 0 than to any other reciprocal lattice vector G = 0.e. ∃G ∈ RL : q = k + G. TR ] = 0 ⇒ TR ψ = λR ψ for an eigenstate ψ. with TR f (r) ≡ f (r+R). which separates in spatial part eik·r and a spin part χσ .14) . each Schr¨dinger equation of the form Eq.15) HBloch ψnkσ = εnk ψnkσ . (2. THE ELECTRON GAS An important concept is the ﬁrst Brillouin zone.13) 1 V cG G (nk) eik·r χσ ≡ unk (r) eik·r χσ . while any k outside FBZ does not give rise to a new set of equations. i. (2. (2. FBZ.34 CHAPTER 2.11) the function unk (r) is periodic in the lattice. e.13) for ck couples to an inﬁnite. (2.11) εk δk. but o countable. The corresponding eigenfunctions ψnkσ are given by: ψnkσ (r) = 1 V ck+G ei(G +k)·r χσ = G (n) According to Eq. Each such inﬁnite family of equations has exactly one representative k ∈ FBZ. An alternative derivation of Bloch’s theorem with emphasis on the group theoretic aspects builds on the translation operator TR . χ↑ = 1 : 0 ψσ (r) ≡ 1 V ck eik ·r χσ ⇒ kσ|HBloch |ψσ = k k so the Schr¨dinger equation for a given k is o ck εk + G We see that any given coeﬃcient ck only couples to other coeﬃcients of the form ck+G . The inﬁnite family of equations generated by a given k ∈ FBZ gives rise to a discrete spectrum of eigenenergies εnk .12) VG ck−G = E ck . Applying TP after TR leads to λP λR = λP+R ⇒ λR = eik·R ⇒ ψnk (r) = unk (r)eik·r .k + G VG δk. (2. for all G = 0 ⇓ ∀q. ψnkσ (r) = unk (r)eik·r χσ . any wavevector q ∈ RS can be decomposed (the ﬁgure shows the FBZ for a 2D square lattice): The Fourier transform of any function periodic in the lattice is as follows: V (r + R) = V (r). (2. and thus we end with Bloch’s theorem1 : k ∈ FBZ. ∃k ∈ FBZ.k +G ck .10) VG eiG ·r . unk (r + R) = unk (r). Using vectors k ∈ FBZ. where n ∈ N.g.

The eigenfunctions are seen to be plane waves modulated by a periodic function unk (r) having the same periodicity as the lattice.2 Non-interacting electrons in the jellium model In the eﬀective mass approximation of the lattice model the electron eigenstates are plane waves. which are therefore of major interest to study. Vel−latt .1.16) : m → m∗ approximation k unrestricted.2: Bloch’s theorem illustrated for a 1D lattice with lattice constant a. present in a real lattice becomes the constant potential Vel−jel as sketched in Fig.g. m∗ is often simply written as m. (2. 2.1) we have Vion−ion + Vel−el + Vel−ion = 0.3. Also the jellium model results in plane wave solutions. in H of Eq. so it is most natural to displace all the energy branches into the FBZ (the reduced zone scheme. (2. We shall use this so-called eﬀective mass approximation throughout this course:2 1 ik·r ψnkσ → √V e χσ The eﬀective mass (2. Kittel or Ashcroft and Mermin.1. we notice that this part together with the ion jellium forms a completely charge neutral system. (b) The Bloch bands viewed as a break-up of the parabolic free electron band in Brillouin zones (the extended zone scheme. (c) All wavevectors are equivalent to those in the FBZ. If we concentrate on the homogeneous part of the electron gas. The periodic potential. and we simply end up with Hjel = Tel . Ly .e. 2. and Lz and volume V = Lx Ly Lz the single-particle basis states are the simple plane wave solutions to the free particle Schr¨dinger equation o 2 For a derivation of the eﬀective mass approximation see e. to begin with. For many applications it turns out that the Bloch electrons described by ψnkσ (r) can be approximated by plane waves if at the same time the electronic mass m is changed into a material dependent eﬀective mass m∗ . In other words. In the jellium model the ion charges are imagined to be smeared out to form a homogeneous and. k ∈ RS).2. In the following. (a) The parabolic energy band for free electrons. k ∈ FBZ). when no confusion is possible. ¨ © ¦ ¥§ ¢ ¤ ¥¦ ¨ © ¢ £ ¨ © ¦¥ ¢ ¡ . +Zρjel . THE NON-INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS 35 Figure 2.17) For a box with side lengths Lx . i. the ion jellium. discard the part of Vel−el that leads to inhomogeneities. static positive charge density.

(2. x 2m kσ V V = Lx Ly Lz .18) n = 0.19) 3 2π 2π 2π Note how the quantization of k means that one state ﬁlls a volume Lx Ly Lz = (2π) in V k-space. the Fermi wave length λF . . y. c† 2 ↑ c† 2 ↓ c† 1 ↑ c† 1 ↓ |0 . . εF . y. λF = (2. The single-particle basis states are thus 2π kx = Lx nx (same for y and z) 2 k2 1 ik·r Hjel ψkσ = ψ . . and the Fermi velocity vF : k 2π 1 2mεF . |k1 . ))))))))))))) )))))))))))) ))))))))) 23023023023023023023023023023023023023002302302302302302302302302302302302300230230230230230230230230230 1010101010101010101010101001010101010101010101010100101010101010101010 0000000000000123)0000000000000123)0000000000123) ¡ '( ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ # ¡¨ ! ¦¡¦ ¡¤ ¡¡ ¡ §¨¡ ¡ ¡ %& © ¡ ¨ !"¡ ¡ £¤¤ #$ ¡ ¡¡ ¡©© ¡§§¨ ¥¥¦¡¥¥¦ ¡££¤ © § £ 0 L 0 L ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡¢ ¢¡ ¢¡ ¡¡ ¢ . z) = ψ (0. ↓ |k2 . vF = F . . z) = 0 and ψ(L. . ±2. ↑ . Vel−latt . since the former gives current carrying eigenstates well suited for the description of transport phenomena. . Associated with εF is the Fermi wavenumber kF . .36 CHAPTER 2. THE ELECTRON GAS with periodic boundary conditions ψ(L. kF m Vel-latt Vel-jel Figure 2. |FS ≡ c† N/2 ↑ c† N/2 ↓ . z) = 0 (likewise for the y and z directions). (2. where εk1 ≤ εk2 ≤ εk3 ≤ . k k k k k k (2. present in a real lattice. and the imagined smeared out potential Vel−jel of the jellium model. y. while the latter yield standing waves carrying no current. |k2 . . z) (likewise for the y and z directions). z) = ψ(0. We prefer the periodic boundary conditions rather than the Dirichlet boundary conditions ψ(0. and with this basis we obtain Hjel in second quantization: Hjel = σ dr Ψ† (r) − σ 2 2 2m Ψσ (r) = kσ 2 k2 2m c† ckσ .23) kF = . from which we obtain the following important rule of great practical value: → k V (2π)3 dk . z) and ψ (L. y.3: A sketch showing the periodic potential.21) The ground state for N electrons at zero temperature is denoted the Fermi sea or the Fermi sphere |FS . kσ (2. y. . . ↑ . . ↓ . (2. |k1 . It is obtained by ﬁlling up the N states with the lowest possible energy. y. ψkσ (r) = √ e χσ . ±1.22) The energy of the topmost occupied state is denoted the Fermi energy.20) For the further analysis in second quantization it is natural to order the single-particle 2 k2 states ψkσ (r) = |kσ according to their energies εk = ~2m in ascending order.

Hall measurements yield the electron density of copper4 . To the right the occupation of the states is shown in the plane k = (kx .46 nm 3 4 εF = 7. Thus in |FS all states with εk < εF or |k| < kF are occupied and the rest are unoccupied. and n ≈ 1029 m−3 follows. the Fermi wavenumber.27) θ(x) = 1 for x > 0 and θ(x) = 0 for x < 0 The density can also be estimated as follows. since nkσ |FS = |FS for |k| < kF and 0 otherwise. ˆ N = FS|N |FS = FS| kσ nkσ |FS = σ V (2π)3 dk FS|nkσ |FS .47×1028 m−3 .03 eV = 81600 K vF = 1. 0). and from Eqs. 3π 2 F (2. and the microscopic quantity kF . and εF and kF are indicated. and vF . the density.57×106 m/s = 0. 2.4: Two aspects of |FS in k-space. In A monovalent Cu one electron thus occupies a volume (2×10−10 m)3 .26) it thus follows that for copper kF = 13.25) and we arrive at the extremely important formula: 3 kF = 3π 2 n.4.and k-space is shown in Fig. To the left the dispersion relation εk is plotted along the line k = (kx . This is written in terms of the theta function3 N= σ V (2π)3 dk θ(kF −|k|) FS|FS = 2V (2π)3 kF 0 dk k 2 1 2π d(cos θ) −1 0 dφ 1 = V 3 k . (2. (2. respectively.26) This formula allows us to obtain the values of the microscopic parameters kF . The Fermi sphere is shown as a circle with radius kF . 0. ¡¤ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡ 2.24) The matrix element is easily evaluated. The inter-atomic distances are typically 2 ˚.005 c. Filled and empty circles represent occupied and unoccupied states.6 nm−1 λF = 0. 0). εF . As a ﬁrst exercise we calculate the relation between the macroscopic quantity n = N/V. (2. ky . A sketch of |FS in energy. THE NON-INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS 37 ¤ £¢ ¡ ¡ ¨¦ ¥§ ¡¢ ¢© © ¤ ¡ . (2.23) and (2.Figure 2.1. n = 8.

(2.125). counting the number ∆N of states in the energy interval ∆ε around dε the energy ε. 2.5.3 Non-interacting electrons at ﬁnite temperature Finally. see Eq.28) 2V (2π)3 2m 2 kF 0 dk k 4 d(cos θ) −1 0 dφ 1 = V 2 5 3 k = N εF . thus the low temperature limit of nF (εk ) is of importance: nF (εk ) = 1 e β(εk −µ) +1 T →0 −→ θ(µ − εk ). and we need not invoke relativistic considerations. (2.31) The density of states is a very useful function. kT is set to 0. 1 (2. − ∂nF β 1 = −→ δ(µ − εk ).1. and even though the Fermi velocity is large it is still less than a percent of the velocity of light. 5π 2 2m F 5 In the last equation we again used Eq. before turning to the problem of the Coulomb interaction. We move on to calculate the ground state energy E (0) : E (0) = = FS|Hjel |FS = kσ 2 k2 2m 1 FS|nkσ |FS = 2 2π 2 V (2π)3 2m dk k 2 θ(kF − |k|) (2. ∆N = D(ε)∆ε. 3 (2. The main characteristics of this function is shown in Fig. By Eqs. As temperature is raised from zero the occupation number is given by the Fermi-Dirac distribution nF (εk ). N = dε D(ε). N 5 2m 5 2m (2. 2. Note that to be able to see any eﬀects of the temperature in Fig. and the density of states per volume d(ε) = D(ε)/V = dn . which we shall return to shortly. and the total energy.32) . 1 2 dN V D(ε) = = 2 dε 2π 2m 2 3 2 ε 2 θ(ε). E (0) = dε ε D(ε). (1.28) it can be expressed in terms of n: 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 E (0) = kF = (3π 2 ) 3 n 3 . The result is reasonable.003. (2.26).03 εF corresponding to T ≈ 2400 K.30) and from this dn 1 d(ε) = = 2 dε 2π 2m 2 3 2 ε θ(ε). dε Again using Eq.38 CHAPTER 2. The kinetic energy per particle becomes an important quantity when we in the next section begin to study the Coulomb interaction. 2.26) we ﬁnd 2 εF = 2m kF = 2 2 2m (3π ) n 2 2 3 2 3 ⇒ 1 n(ε) = 2 3π 2m 2 3 2 ε 2 .29) The next concept to be introduced for the non-interacting electron gas is the density of states D(ε) = dN . In the following we shall for example demonstrate how in terms of D(ε) to calculate the particle number. 2 β ∂εk 4 cosh [ (εk − µ)] T →0 2 (2.5. for ε > 0. THE ELECTRON GAS Note that the Fermi energy corresponds to an extremely high temperature. we study some basic temperature dependencies. since the system consists of N electrons each with an energy 0 < εk < εF . Room temperature yields kT /εF ≈ 0.26) and (2.

103) and (1. (1.2 Electron interactions in perturbation theory We now apply standard perturbation theory to take the inhomogeneous part of the electron-electron interaction Vel−el of Eq. Indeed. 2. and its product with k the density of states.. Note that. as to why only the ionic vibrational degrees of freedom contribute signiﬁcantly to the speciﬁc heat of solids.03 εF .1 this picture is not true for semiconductors. the natural single-particle energy variable in these fundamental expressions actually is ξk = εk − µ and not εk itself. ELECTRON INTERACTIONS IN PERTURBATION THEORY 39 Figure 2. We thus exclude the q = 0 term in the following sums.5.27) is around 80000 K for metals. The homogeneous part. which in k-space (see Eqs.33) Because εF according to Eq.3) into account. (2. Now we have at hand an explanation of the old paradox in thermodynamics.. where the electron density is much smaller than in metals.2. we ﬁnd that even at the melting temperature of metals only a very limited number ∆N of electrons are aﬀected by thermal ﬂuctuations. (2. it is only slightly smeared. 2.3. corresponding to T = 2400 K in metals. But in fact µ varies slightly with temperature. At T = 0 the chemical potential µ is identical to εF . only the states within 2kT of εF are actually aﬀected. and more precisely we have ∆N/N = 6kT /εF (≈ 10−3 at room temperature). As we shall see in Sec.5: The Fermi-Dirac distribution nF (εk ). The electronic degrees of freedom are simply ’frozen’ in.1. has already been taken into account in the jellium model to cancel the homogeneous positive background. its derivative − ∂ε F .2.104)) corresponds to a vanishing wavevector q = 0. This rather high value is chosen to have a clearly observable deviation from the T = 0 case. nF (εk )d(εk ). (2. which is indicated by the dashed lines. Only at temperatures comparable to εF they begin to play a major role. 1. The Fermi sphere is not destroyed by heating. as mentioned in Sec. A careful analysis based on the so-called Sommerfeld expansion combined with the fact that the number of electrons does not change with temperature yields ∞ ∂n n(T = 0) = n(T ) = 0 dε d(ε)f (ε) ⇒ µ(T ) = εF 1− π2 12 kT εF 2 + . shown at the temperature kT = 0. which is indicated by ¦¥ ¡ © ©¨¦ 0) ( ' ¡ § ¥ ¦¥ ¡ © §¦ ¥ © !" £ #$% £ &$% ¦¥ ¢ ¡ © ¨¦ ¥ ¡ © § £¤ .

The following considerations may be helpful mnemotechnically. The prototypical example is of course the hydrogen atom. We begin the perturbation treatment by establishing the relevant length scale and energy scale for the problem of interacting charges. we approach the problem from this limit in the following analysis. Writing E0 as the sum of kinetic energy p2 /2m and potential energy −e2 /a0 . Consequently. a 0 kF (2. So we ﬁnd that 0 1 Epot n3 ∝ 2 = n− 3 Ekin n3 1 n→∞ −→ 0. The ﬁrst order calculation works well and good physical conclusions can be drawn. (2. It turns out that to get rid of these divergences the more powerful tools of quantum ﬁeld theory must be invoked.6 eV. The key to the answer lies in the density dependence of the kinetic energy 2 Ekin = E (0) /N ∝ n 3 displayed in Eq.053 nm. The ground state is a spherical symmetric s-wave with a radius denoted the Bohr radius a0 and an energy E0 . we arrive at E0 = 0 found either by minimization. 2 ∂E0 ∂a0 = 0.34) However. (2.40 a prime: Vel−el = 1 2V k1 k2 q σ1 σ2 CHAPTER 2. or by using the virial theorem Ekin = − 1 Epot : 2 e2 0 = −13. The typical length scale a0 yields a typical momentum p = /a0 . where a single electron orbits a proton. 2a0 1 Ry = 2ma0 2 ~2 − e2 . Due to the Pauli exclusion principle the kinetic energy simply becomes the dominant energy scale in the interacting electron gas at high densities. as we shall see.35) revealing the following perhaps somewhat counter intuitive fact: the importance of the electron-electron interacting diminishes as the density of the electron gas increases.6 eV. This is to be compared to the typical 1 ¯ ¯ potential energy of particles with a mean distance d. q 2 k1 +qσ1 k2 −qσ2 k2 σ2 k1 σ1 (2. and the dimensionless measure rs of the average inter-electronic distance in the electron gas is introduced as the radius in a sphere containing exactly one electron: 4π 1 3π 2 (rs a0 )3 = = 3 3 n kF ⇒ a 0 kF = 9π 4 1 3 −1 rs ⇒ rs = 9π 4 1 3 1 . But let us see how we arrive at these conclusions. A natural question arises: under which circumstances can the non-interacting electron gas actually serve as a starting point for a perturbation expansion in the interaction potential.29). Epot e2 /d ∝ n 3 . but already in second order the calculation collapses due to divergent integrals. E0 = − e2 0 = 13.37) . The values of a and E0 are 0 0 a0 a0 = me2 0 = 0. the direct use of this interaction with the tools developed so far becomes the story of the rise and fall of simple minded perturbation theory.36) 2a0 Here we have also introduced the energy unit 1 Ry often encountered in atomic physics as deﬁning a natural energy scale. THE ELECTRON GAS 4πe2 † 0 c c† c c . (2. Lengths are naturally measured in units a0 .

2. The direct process having q = 0 is already taken into account in the homogeneous part. ELECTRON INTERACTIONS IN PERTURBATION THEORY B A 9hg ( 5 ( 8g U H D Sf5 C F T e ¢aHbQE dc E F Q ¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£ F ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£V7¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£¨¨©©¨©¨¨©¨©©¨¨©¨©©¨©¨© ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£¨¨©©¨©¨¨©¨©©¨¨©¨©©¨©¨©I ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£¨¨©©¨©¨¨©¨©©¨¨©¨©©¨©¨©Q D¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£¨¨©©¨©¨¨©¨©©¨¨©¨©©¨©¨©H ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£P ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£E ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£V F¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£H¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£I¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£D ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£ ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£ ¢¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢£ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ B `8 £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ 5£¢£¢¢£¢££¢£¦¦§§¨©¦§¨¨©¨©©¨© 4£¢£¢¢£¢££¢£¦¦§§¨©¦§¨¨©¨©©¨© £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£¦¦§§¨©¦§¨¨©¨©©¨© £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£¦¦§§¨©¦§¨¨©¨©©¨© £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£5 £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ £¢£¢¢£¢££¢£ ¢¢¢¢¢ A ¢B Y¢0¢A £¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ £¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£¦§¦§¦¦§§¦§¦¦§¦§§¦§¦¦§§¦§¦§ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£¦§¦§¦¦§§¦§¦¦§¦§§¦§¦¦§§¦§¦§ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£¦§¦§¦¦§§¦§¦¦§¦§§¦§¦¦§§¦§¦§ £¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£¦§¦§¦¦§§¦§¦¦§¦§§¦§¦¦§§¦§¦§ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£X¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£W ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ ¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢££¢£¢¢£¢££¢¢£¢£ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ Rewriting the energy E (0) of the non-interacting electron gas to these units we obtain: Figure 2. φk ) are employed. the two annihilation operators can only give a non-zero result if both |k1 | < kF and |k2 | < kF .38) 41 . These possibilities are sketched in Fig. FS|c† 1 +qσ1 c† 2 −qσ2 ck2 σ2 ck1 σ1 |FS = δk2 . For q = 0 we therefore end with 2. The ﬁrst order energy E (1) is found by the standard perturbation theory procedure: ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ I ¡¡ ¡F Q VD ¡¡ ¡ H ¡¡ ¡I G ¡¡ ¡P P ¡¡ ¡UE G ¡¡ ¡F TH ¡¡ ¡ FI ¡¡ ¡ D ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¤¥¥¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥I ¤¥¥¤¥Q DH¤¥¥¤¥ HG¤¥¥¤¥GF¤¥¥¤¥PE D¤¥¥¤¥E F¤¥¥¤¥C H¤¥¥¤¥ I¤¥¥¤¥D ¤¥¥¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡B ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡A ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡R ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ R ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ B¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ A¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ 02 ) ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡1 4 ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡R ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡)4( ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ )#"#" ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡S6'&'& ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡5 ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ 4 ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ) ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ %$$% ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡0!! ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ 2) ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ 1 ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ 076)(5 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥2 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥984 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥1 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥674 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥) 3¤¤(@¤¤¤5¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥2 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥089 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥1 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥706 ¤¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥¥¤¥¤¤¥ ) (5 2.40) (2. θk . hence only the exchange process contributes to Vel−el .σ2 2 3 4πe2 0 FS|c† 1 +qσ1 c† 2 −qσ2 ck2 σ2 ck1 σ1 |FS . which results in a simple anticommutator yielding the occupation number operators with a minus in front. the factor FS| demands that the two creation operators bring us back to |FS . that the integral is independent of the direction of q 1 2π so that −1 d(cos θq ) 0 dφq = 4π. k k 2 q e2 −2 2. Since only one k-vector appears we now drop the index 1.k1 +q δσ1 . and polar coordinates (q.1 This constitutes the zero’th order energy in our perturbation calculation.k1 +q δσ1 . The k. only for 0 < q < 2kF does the theta function (2.2.where q = 0 leads to k1 + q = k1 .σ2 θ(kF −|k1 +q|)θ(kF −|k1 |). 2a0 s rs (2. Second.k1 +q δσ1 . Second.k2 σ1 .σ2 FS|nk1 +qσ1 nk1 σ1 |FS k1 .6. Also the geometry for the k-integration is shown for an arbitrary but ﬁxed value of q. φq ) and (k. First. θq .21 0 r ≈ 2 Ry. thus either q = 0 (but that is excluded from Vel−el ) or k2 = k1 + q and σ2 = σ1 .2. = −δk2 . First note.6: The two possible processes in ﬁrst order perturbation theory for two states |k1 σ1 and |k2 σ2 in the Fermi sea.σ2 FS|c† 1 +qσ1 c† 1 σ1 ck1 +qσ1 ck1 σ1 |FS k k k k FS|Vel−el |FS E (1) 1 = = N N 2VN (a k )2 31 2 2 31 E (0) 3 9π = kF = (a0 e2 ) 0 F = 0 2 N 52m 52 a0 5 4 Electron interactions in 1st order perturbation theory q = −δk2 .39) The matrix element is evaluated as follows.and q-sum are converted into integrals.

smaller than but certainly comparable to εF .916 − 2 rs rs Ry.41) where the prefactors are a factor 2 for spin. 4π for q-angles. The integral is elementary and results in k 3 E (1) e2 V kF 4 e2 e2 =− 0 = − 0 (a0 kF ) F = − 0 N 2 N 2π 3 2a0 2π 3 n 2a0 9π 4 1 3 1 rs 3 0. There exists an optimal density n∗ . i.44) We note that the negative binding energy is due to the exchange energy of the Coulomb interaction.3 eV. (2. No external conﬁnement potential is needed to hold the electron gas in the ion ∗ jellium together. 2. now we have learned that the interaction energy per particle is ≈ 1. or inter-particle distance rs . E∗ N E N = −0. and that for a given cos θk we have q/(2 cos θk ) < k < kF .43) rs →0 This result shows that the electron gas is stable when the repulsive Coulomb interaction is turned on.83. and twice V/(2π)3 for the conversions of k. which we are going to study later in the course. We thus get E (1) 4πe2 V 0 =− 2(4π) N 2VN (2π)3 2kF 0 dq q2 2(2π) q2 1 q 2k F d(cos θk ) V (2π)3 kF q 2 cos θk dk k 2 .916 ≈− Ry.083 Ry = −1.96.42) 2π rs The ﬁnal result for the ﬁrst order perturbation theory is thus the simple expression E N −→ E (0) + E (1) = N 2.42 CHAPTER 2. The direct “classical” Coulomb interaction does not take this into account and is therefore over-estimating the energy.and q-sums to integrals. One may wonder what happens to the Fermi sphere as the interaction is turned on. The negative exchange energy overcomes the positive kinetic energy.211 0. and is calculated by noting that q/2kF < cos θk < 1. However. (2. The last variable is free: 0 < φk < 2π. (2. and we can compare the result with experiment: ∂rs (E ∗ rs = 4. 2 for symmetry. and the exchange part corrects for this by being negative. since only one electron at a time can be at a given point in space.13 eV (1st order perturbation theory) (experiment on Na) rs = 3.e.095 Ry = −1. (2. εF ≈ 7 eV. We found before that thermal smearing occurs but is rather insigniﬁcant compared to the huge Fermi energy. One of the great results of quantum ﬁeld theory. The geometry of this volume is sketched in Fig.29 eV = −0. is the explanation of why the Fermi surface is not destroyed by the strong Coulomb interaction between the electrons. 2π for φk . which minimizes the energy and furthermore yields an energy E ∗ < 0. THE ELECTRON GAS product give a non-zero result. Physically this can be interpreted as an eﬀect of the Pauli exclusion principle: the electrons are forced to avoid each other. For a given ﬁxed value of q the rest of the integral is just the overlap volume between two spheres of radius kF displaced by q. The equilibrium situation is obtained from ∂ (0) + E (1) ) = 0.6. .

2. According to second order perturbation theory E (2) is given by 1 E (2) = N N FS|Vel−el |ν ν|Vel−el |FS . and writing Vq = Edir = (2) 4πe2 0 q2 we ﬁnd 1 V2 q k1 σ1 k2 σ2 1 ( 2 Vq )2 θ(|k1 +q|−kF )θ(|k2 −q|−kF )θ(kF −|k1 |)θ(kF −|k2 |). The matrix elements diverge without giving hope for a simple cure.2. Due ∗ to the exchange interaction the electron gas is stable at rs = rs = 4. From such an intermediate state. (2. the result is disastrous.7: (a) The energy per particle E/N of the 3D electron gas in ﬁrst order perturbation theory Eq. Here we can only reveal what goes wrong.2 Electron interactions in 2nd order perturbation theory One may try to improve on the ﬁrst order result by going to second order perturbation theory. ELECTRON INTERACTIONS IN PERTURBATION THEORY Figure 2.8 this combined with the momentum conserving Coulomb interaction yields intermediate states where two particles are injected out of the Fermi sphere. energy E/N = E 2.2. For the direct process the constraint |ν = |FS leads to |ν = θ(|k1+q|−kF )θ(|k2−q|−kF )θ(kF−|k1 |)θ(kF−|k2 |)c† 1 +qσ1 c† 2 −qσ2 ck2 σ2 ck1 σ1 |FS .45) |ν =|FS where all the intermediate states |ν must be diﬀerent from |FS . As sketched in Fig. We now proceed to show that the direct interaction process gives a divergent con(2) tribution Edir to E (2) due to the singular behavior of the Coulomb interaction at small momentum transfers q.47) E (0) − Eν § © §¨¥¦¤£ £¤ ¢ ¡ 43 .43) as a function of the dimensionless inter-particle distance rs . Only two types of processes are possible: the direct and the exchange process. |FS is restored by putting the excited electrons back into the holes they left behind. However. (2. (2. E (0) − Eν (2. and then later learn how to deal correctly with the inﬁnities occurring in the calculations.29 eV.2.83 with an ionization ∗ /N = −1.46) k k To restore |FS the same momentum transfer q must be involved in both ν|Vel−el |FS and FS|Vel−el |ν .

θ(|k1 +q|−kF )θ(kF −|k1 |) ∝ q. 0 dq q 2 1 1 qq= q4 q (2) 0 dq CHAPTER 2. THE ELECTRON GAS 1 = ln(q) q q→0 0 ∝ ∞. which is possible using the full machinery of quantum ﬁeld theory to be developed in the coming chapters. but in the relaxation part it is k2 − k1 − q. 2. Figure 2. In fact. We know that physically the energy of the electron gas must be ﬁnite. Thus Vq −2 for q → 0. 13. as we shall see in Chap. 1. 44 We end this chapter on the electron gas by mentioning a few experimental realizations of electron gases in 3D. 2D. and 0 dimensions Edir ∝ 2 Vq ∝ k1 (2) 1 q4 E0 − Eν ∝ k2 + k2 − (k1 + q)2 − (k2 − q)2 ∝ q 1 2 .48c) (2.48a) (2.3 from which we obtain The contribution from small values of q to Edir is found by noting that Electron gases in 3. q→0 (2. . But as will become clear. and 1D. it turns out that one has to consider perturbation theory to inﬁnite order. is replaced by Vq Vk2 −k1 −q ∝ q q This divergent behavior of second order perturbation theory is a nasty surprise.49) . . this is not just an academic exercise.The exchange process does not lead to a divergence since in this case the momentum 2 transfer in the excitation part is q. ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ H P C G F I D E G H C ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ H P C G F I D E G H C ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ IHUE T F S E ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ G F E D BC ££££££££££££££££ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ )¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ( ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ @A ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ @A ££££££££££££££££ ££££££££££££££££ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ &&'' 5 $%%$ 4 03 ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡5 4 73 ) R ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ( ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££75 4 73 ) 95 0 4 03 ) ( ££££££££££££££££ ( ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ !! !! ££££££££££££££££ ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ 5 4 "##" 7823 ) Q5 4 ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ( ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ 0123 ) ( 75 4 ¥¤¥¤ 7823 ) 65 0 4 §¦§¦ ©¨¨© ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ ( ¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢¢ 0123 ££££££££££££££££ )( 2.8: The two possible processes in second order perturbation theory for two states |k1 σ1 and |k2 σ2 in the Fermi sea. The only hope for rescue lies in regularization of the divergent behavior by taking higher order perturbation terms into account. The direct process gives a divergent contribution to E/N while the exchange process gives a ﬁnite contribution.48b) (2. which is less singular than V 2 ∝ q −4 . Electron gases at reduced dimensionality is of increasing experimental importance. To work in various dimensions is a good opportunity to test ones understanding of the basic principles of the physics of electron gases.

1. on the other hand. The Fermi level εF lies at the top of the valence band resulting in possible excitations energies of at least Egap .3. 2.9. 2. A semiconductor. semiconductors. Likewise. Both currents are integrals over FBZ of gradients of periodic functions and therefore FBZ (2π)3 ~ ∂k zero. the so-called ﬁlled valence band. for the thermal current Jth = 2 k∈FBZ V εk vk = 2 R dk 1 ∂(εk ) . the distance up to the unoccupied conduction band.1 3D electron gases: metals and semiconductors Bloch’s theory of non-interacting electrons moving in a periodic lattice provides an explanation for the existence of metals. The system can only be excited by providing suﬃcient energy for the electrons to overcome the energy band gap Egap between the top of the valence band and the bottom of the next empty band. The Fermi level εF lies in the middle of a band resulting in arbitrarily small possible excitations energies.9: (a) A generic bandstructure for a metal. The important parameter is the position of the Fermi energy εF relative to the bands as sketched in Fig. Semiconductors are insulators at T = 0. the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. but their band gap Egap is relatively small. and any however small external ﬁeld can excite the system and give rise to a signiﬁcant response. We emphasize that at room temperature the electron gas in a metal is a degenerate Fermi gas since kB T εF .Figure 2. Finally. The current density R P P 1 dk 1 ∂εk 1 is J = 2 k∈FBZ V vk = 2 FBZ (2π)3 ~ ∂k . is normally described as a classical gas since for energies εk in the conduction band we have εk−µ > Egap /2 kB T .e. In the metallic case εF lies in the middle of a band. 5 ∂ε !©¨ ©¨ § ¦ ¥ ¢ £ 2. This is not possible for small external ﬁelds. Therefore one ﬁnds eﬀective masses m∗ . see 1 k Transport properties are tightly connected to the electron velocity vk = ~ ∂k . In an insulator εF is at the top of a band. ELECTRON GASES IN 3. and hence the inability of insulators to conduct electronic thermal and electrical currents. we note that in a typical metal most of the electron states at the Fermi surface are far away from the regions in k-space where the free electron dispersion relation is strongly distorted by the periodic lattice. and ﬁlled bands does not carry any electrical or thermal current5 . such that at room temperature a suﬃcient number of electrons are excited thermally up into the conduction band to yield a signiﬁcant conductivity. and consequently nF (εk ) → e−(εk −µ)/kB T . Consequently there is no energy gap between the last occupied level and the ﬁrst unoccupied level. (b) A generic bandstructure for an insulator or a semiconductor. and band insulators. 2. AND 0 DIMENSIONS 45 ©¨©¨ § £ ¦ ¥ £¤¢ ¡ . typically less than 2 eV. the so-called conduction band.3. i.

all the electron states contributing to the transport properties in a semiconductor are close to these regions in k-space. The ionized Si donors left in the Ga1−x Alx As provide an electrostatic energy that grows with an increasing number of transferred electrons.1 m. This is because the two semiconductor crystals have nearly the same crystal structure leading to a stress-free interface. The metal contacts and wires are seen attached to the GaAs structure. which then accumulate on the GaAs side of the interface due to the energy gain. and one ﬁnds strongly modiﬁed eﬀective masses. close to the vacuum mass m. conduction electrons are provided. Niels Bohr Institute. not all donor electrons will be transferred. and which is essential for the basic research of many quantum eﬀects in condensed matter physics. In Fig. However.3 the conduction band in Ga1−x Alx As is 300 meV higher than the one in GaAs. Hence the electrons in the former conduction band can gain energy by moving to the latter. which is technologically important for high-speed electronics. and the more resent realization being in the gallium-arsenide/gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As) heterostructures.3. 2. THE ELECTRON GAS Figure 2. 2. but by doping the Ga1−x Alx As with Si.2 2D electron gases: GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As heterostructures For the past three decades it has been possible to fabricate 2D electron gases at semiconductor interfaces. In contrast. (b) A sketch showing the diﬀerent layers in the semiconductor structure as well as some surface gates deﬁning the geometry of the device.46 CHAPTER 2. (2. At T = 0 there are of course no free carriers in any of the conduction bands for pure semiconductor systems. typically m∗ ≈ 0. At some point the energy gained by § (21 ¡ ¡ 0( ¨ § © '& % ) § ¢ § $ # ©" " ! ¡ ¢ § ¡ © ¡ ¡ § ¨ §© § © ¡ ¨ § ¦ ¦¥ ¤ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ . Eq.10: (a) A picture of a GaAs-device fabricated at the Ørsted Laboratory. the key component in integrated electronic circuits. For x = 0. which by wet etching has gotten a device geometry imprinted in its surface. The interface between the GaAs and the Ga1−x Alx As semiconductor crystals in the GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As heterostructure can be grown with mono-atomic-layer precision in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) machines.10 a picture of an actual device is shown as well as a sketch of the various layers in a GaAs heterostructure.16). the ﬁrst realization being inversion layers in the celebrated silicon MOSFETs. The main diﬀerence between the two semiconductor crystals is the values of the bottom of the conduction band. In the latter system one can obtain extremely long mean free paths (more than 10 µm).

as calculated from Poisson’s equation: 2 V = −e2 n3D / ∗ . The experimental input for GaAs is ∗ = 13 0 . Without performing the full calculation we can get a grasp of the order of magnitude by the following estimate. which yields l ≈ 5 nm.3.36) to bring in atomic units. From this we get the typical quantization energy ∆E due to the triangular well: 2 m a ∆E = 13. Thus at the interface E = en/ ∗ .11. and since for the reason of charge neutrality. The well is so narrow that a signiﬁcant size-quantization is obtained. 2. The charge density outside this capacitor is zero. since for symmetry reasons E must be perpendicular to the z axis. Note the triangular well forming at the interface. A (2. (2. The electrical ﬁeld E at the interface is then found simply by forming a cylindrical Gauss box with its axis along the z direction and one circular ’bottom lid’ at the interface and the other ’top lid’ deep into the GaAs. transferring electrons to the GaAs layer is balanced by the growth in electrostatic energy. m∗ = 0. while the conduction electrons at the GaAs/GaAlAs interface forms the other plate. The wavefunctions ζn (z) and eigenvalues of the lowest three electron eigenstates in the triangular well. E = 0 at the ’top lid’. The typical length scale l for the width of the triangular well is found by balancing the ∗/ 1 ~2 0 a0 potential energy and the kinetic quantum energy: eEl = m∗ l2 ⇒ l3 = 4π m∗ /m n . and typically n = 3 × 1015 m−2 . 1 ψkσ (r) = √ eikx x eiky y eikz z χσ V −→ 1 ψkx ky n σ (r) = √ eikx x eiky y ζn (z) χσ . Due to the triangular well the 3D free electron wavefunction is modiﬁed. ELECTRON GASES IN 3. 1. where we have used the Bohr radius a0 of Eq.11: The conduction band in a GaAs/GaAlAs heterostructure.11 where the resulting conduction band in equilibrium is shown as function of the position z perpendicular to the interface. and © 8 £ § ¡ © § § % ¥ !¡ %& ' ¡¨% ¥ ¡! " %& $ # ¡ £ ! £ ¢ ¡ §8¥¦ 3 1 270 6 ( £¡ ¡¢ ¡¢ ¦¦ ¥¥ 1¤ 33 1 215200 4) (( ¦¤ ¥ ¡¢ . The key point to notice is the formation of the almost triangular quantum well at the GaAs side of the interface. Only the z direction is quantized leaving the x and y direction unaltered. 2.067m. AND 0 DIMENSIONS 47 Figure 2. We consider the positively charged layer of the ionized Si donors as one plate of a plate capacitor. yielding zero from the side of the cylindrical box.2. see Fig. This is sketched in Fig. 2 The signiﬁcance of this quantization energy is the following.6 eV m∗ l0 ≈ 20 meV. n being the 2D electron density at the interface.50) where ζn (z) is the nth eigenfunction of the triangular well having the eigenenergy εn . 2. All the contributions stems from the ’bottom lid’. The conduction band is not ﬂat due to the curvature induced by the charge densities.

The corresponding conﬁnement φ ~2 energy is En ∼ 2mλ2 ∼ 1 eV n. The electrons are strongly bound to the surface of the cylinder in quantum states arising from the original π-bonds of the graphite system. THE ELECTRON GAS εkx .1 nm. r. two of the three spatial degrees of freedom are frozen in. 2m (2. i. in the azimuthal angle coordinate φ. The carbon nanotube can be viewed as a normal graphite sheet rolled up into a cylinder with a radius R0 ≈ 2 nm and a length more than a thousand times R0 .ky . Any changes of this orbital requires an excitation energy of at least 10 meV. L (2. there is a strong conﬁnement.e.e. This means that the extension ∆R of the radial wave function Rnl (r) around the mean value R0 is of atomic scale. since the perimeter must contain an integer number of electron wavelengths λn . and depending on the speciﬁc way the cylinder is rolled up the nanotubes are either metallic.e. 2. a metallic nanotube is a nearly ideal 1D wire. see Fig. They are believed to be the strongest material in the world. and we arrive at our conclusion: At temperatures T 100 K all occupied electron states have the same orbital in the z direction. ∆R ≈ 0.e. (2. i. in the x direction. y.3 1D electron gases: carbon nanotubes Since the mid-nineties a new research ﬁeld has developed involving studies of the cylindrically shaped carbon based molecule.48 the total energy for all three spatial directions is 2 CHAPTER 2. The diﬀerence is E1 − (E0 + εF ) = ∆E − εF ≈ 10 meV ≈ 100 K. 2.12. If this is not provided the system has eﬀectively lost one spatial degree of freedom and is dynamically a 2D system.l.52) This is of course more than just a mathematical transformation. 2D systems do indeed exist in reality.l = E0 + En + 2 2 kx .σ (r) = √ eikx x Rnl (r) Yl (φ) χσ . the so-called carbon nanotube. resulting in a radial ~2 R conﬁnement energy E0 ∼ 2m∆R2 ∼ 10 eV. ζ0 (z). The highest occupied state has the energy E0 + εF while the lowest unoccupied state has the energy E1 . We brieﬂy sketch how this comes about.26) for the 3D case). These long and thin carbon molecules have some extraordinary material characteristics.53) .51) where we have given the 2D version of the fundamental relation between kF and n (see Exercise 2. Likewise. There are no severe constraints along the cylinder axis.n = 2m∗ 2 2 kx + ky + ε n . z) plane waves to cylindrical (x. n i.n. In the same dynamical sense as the GaAs heterostructure is a 2D metal sheet. λn = 2πR0 /n < 2 nm. We therefore end up with a total energy R φ εkx . This means that theoretical studies of 2D electron gases is far from an academic exercise. The cylindrical symmetry of the nanotube makes it natural to change the basis functions from the 3D (x. (2. semiconducting or insulating.4 and compare to Eq.n. kF 2 = 2πn ⇒ εF ≈ 10 meV.3. i. φ) wavefunctions: 1 ψkσ (r) = √ eikx x eiky y eikz z χσ V −→ 1 ψkx .

12: (a) Carbon atoms forming a sheet of graphite with a characteristic hexagonal lattice. The nanotubes is one of only a couple of systems exhibiting a nearly ideal 1D behavior.3. A simpliﬁed model of a quantum dot is studied in Exercise 8. In particular that makes the nanotubes a key testing ground for the diagonizable so-called Luttinger liquid model. This has been realized experimentally in the so-called quantum dot systems. for example by using the device shown in Fig.4 0D electron gases: quantum dots Naturally one can think of conﬁning the electrons in all three spatial dimensions. showing a bundle of carbon nanotubes placed across a gap between two metal electrodes. 2. 2 (2. (b) A carbon nanotube molecule is formed by rolling up a graphite sheet into a cylindrical geometry. (c) An atomic force micrograph taken at the Ørsted Laboratory. . a central quantum model for describing interacting electrons in 1D. thereby connecting them and allowing for electrical measurements on single molecules.10(b). Niels Bohr Institute. l) = (0. 1. 1) band: 1 φ φ ∆E = (E1 − E0 ) ≈ 1 eV ∼ 12000 K. Not only are the nanotube very interesting from an experimental point of view. 2. AND 0 DIMENSIONS ¢ ¤ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ 49 Figure 2.4.3. 2. 0) band (the position of εF for the metallic case) to the bottom of the (n. with a considerable gap ∆E from the center of the (n. l) = (0. ELECTRON GASES IN 3. This section will be expanded in the next edition of these notes. also from a pure theoretical point of view do they play an important role.2.54) Thus at room temperature the only available degree of freedom is the axial one described by the continuous quantum number kx and the associated plan waves eikx x .

50 CHAPTER 2. THE ELECTRON GAS .

they naturally occur at ﬁnite temperature. they are bosons according to the results of Sec. The restoring force is the long range Coulomb interaction. (1. where the ions are represented by a smeared-out continuous positive background. (b) slow ion oscillations followed by the electron gas (sound waves. In the following sections we shall study the three types of matter oscillation sketched in Fig. (a) Slow ionic density oscillations in a static electron gas (ion plasma oscillations).Chapter 3 Phonons.1: Three types of oscillations in metals.4. so we will therefore often need the thermal distribution function for bosons. Since phonons basically are harmonic oscillators. (c) Fast electronic plasma oscillations in a static ionic lattice (electronic plasma oscillations). The ions will be treated using two models: the jellium model. the Bose-Einstein distribution nB (ε) given in Eq.1. The restoring force is the compressibility of the disturbed electron gas.1 to achieve the second quantized form of the corresponding Hamiltonian.127). The grayscale represent the electron density and the dots the ions. 3. 51 .1.4. These vibrations are well described by harmonic oscillators and therefore we can employ the results from Sec. ¢ ¤ ¢ £ ¢ ¡ Figure 3. acoustic phonons). elasticity. And more surprising may be the fact that the electron-phonon coupling is the cause of conventional superconductivity. 1. 1. Phonons play are fundamental role in our understanding of sound. The quantized vibrations are denoted phonons. The restoring force is the long range Coulomb interaction. and electrical resistivity of solids. a name pointing to the connection between sound waves and lattice vibrations. where the ions oscillate around their equilibrium positions forming a regular crystal lattice. speciﬁc heat. Moreover. and the lattice model. coupling to electrons In this chapter we study the basic properties of ionic vibrations.

which entered the analysis through the Maxwell equation · E = Zeδρion / 0 .3) are not a ion very good description of solids. 3. the exact behavior is described by the Debye-model incorporating phonons with a photon-like dispersion ωq = vs q. The ionic oscillations in the continuous jellium model are thus described by harmonic oscillators. 3. 2 (3. These Debye phonons are also denoted acoustical phonons due to their relation to sound propagation. and a model like this was proposed ion by Einstein in 1906 as the ﬁrst attempt to explain the decrease of heat capacity CV of solids as a function of decreasing temperature (see Sec. This is explained in details in Secs. Hence. and ion ρel = Zρ0 that of the homogeneous electron gas. Note that the origin of the ionic plasma frequency is the long-range Coulomb interaction. t) = ρ0 + δρion (r) e−iΩt . PHONONS.1) A non-zero δρion corresponds to a charge density Ze δρion and hence is associated with an electric ﬁeld E obeying ·E= Ze 0 δρion ⇒ ·f = Z 2 e2 ρ0 ion 0 δρion . ion (3. 0M (3. the second quantization formalism leads to the following phonon Hamiltonian: 2 ∂t δρion + 1 M ·f =0 ⇒ Ω2 δρion = Z 2 e2 ρ0 ion δρion ⇒ 0M Ω= Z 2 e2 ρ0 ion = 0M Hph = q Ω b† bq + q 1 . Diﬀerentiating this with respect to time and using Newton’s second law f = M ρion ∂t v we obtain Ze2 ρel . instead of the Einstein dispersion ωq = Ω. which all have the same frequency Ω.5). but we hint at the solution of the problem in Fig.2. However. ∂t ρion + ·(ρion v) = 0.2) In the second equation we have introduced the force density f .5. This force equation is supplemented by the continuity ion equation. (3.e. where vs is the sound velocity. 3. ion since the velocity v is already a small quantity. the Einstein phonons (also denoted optical phonons. which to ﬁrst order in δρion becomes f = Zeρion E ≈ Zeρ0 E.4) These quantized ion oscillations are denoted phonons.1 Jellium oscillations and Einstein phonons Our ﬁrst encounter with phonons will be those arising from a semiclassical treatment of the charge neutral jellium system. 3. which to ﬁrst order in δρion becomes ∂t δρion +ρ0 ·v = 0. We begin as depicted in Fig.3 and 3. To fully understand how the optical Einstein phonons get renormalized to become the acoustic Debye phonons requires the full machinery of quantum ﬁeld theory. If we study the limit of small harmonic deviations from equilibrium δρion (r. Let ρ0 be the particle density of the ion jellium. t) = δρion (r) e−iΩt . we keep ρel ﬁxed. COUPLING TO ELECTRONS 3. .1b and in Sec. 3.3) Ω is the ionic plasma frequency. we obtain linear equations of motion with solutions of the form ρion (r. i.52 CHAPTER 3. see Sec. Although it is correct that CV decreases at low temperature.1(a) by ion studying oscillations in the smeared out ion density while neglecting the electron dynamics. 3.

while 2 the potential energy density associated with the restoring force must be related to the density dependent energy content of the compressed electron gas.3.2 Electron-phonon interaction and the sound velocity Compared to the light and very mobile valence electrons. ELECTRON-PHONON INTERACTION AND THE SOUND VELOCITY 53 3. uN +1 = u1 . We begin by a simple one dimensional quantum mechanical model consisting of a 1D box of length L containing N ions of mass M each interacting with its two neighbors through a linear force ﬁeld (a spring) with the force constant K. in which the ions can execute small oscillatory motion around their equilibrium positions. The Hamiltonian is simply the sum of the kinetic energy of the ions and the potential energy of the springs. 3.3 Lattice vibrations and phonons in 1D Even though we are not yet able to demonstrate how to turn the optical ion plasma oscillations into acoustical phonons.5) which for typical numbers yields vs 3000 m/s as found experimentally. 5 In a stationary state these two energy densities must be of the same order of magnitude. while the ion momentum pj and the displacement uj are canonical variables: N Hph = j=1 1 2 1 p + K(uj − uj−1 )2 .e.6) As for the photon model and the jellium model we impose periodic boundary conditions. The equilibrium position 0 of the j’th ion is denoted Rj . i. 2 The kinetic energy density associated with a sound wave is of the order 1 M vs ρion . and to illustrate its correctness we now use it to estimate the sound velocity in metals. so we have L = N a. This setup is shown in Fig. while its displacement away from this position is denoted uj . Note how this estimate builds on classical considerations of the ionic motion while using the quantum result for the energy content of a degenerate electron gas. more than a factor of 104 . This gives an estimate for vs . 2M j 2 [pj1 . and much slower.j2 . which is due to long-range charge Coulomb forces from the charge imbalance.2. the ions are much heavier. 3M F (3. Surprisingly.1b. we can nevertheless learn a lot from simply postulating the existence of a periodic ion lattice (as observed in nature). uj2 ] = i δj1 .2. (3. This situation is depicted in Fig. an ordinary macroscopic phenomenon as sound propagation is deeply rooted in quantum physics.4) is expressed by the Bohm-Staver formula. vs = Zm v . 3. of the order 3 ρel εF . Since the equilibrium system is periodic with the lattice spacing a it is natural . 0 0 The lattice spacing is denoted a = Rj − Rj−1 . The surroundings somehow provide the restoring force. which in a more detailed treatment (see Exercise 3. Consequently one would expect the electrons to follow the motion of the ions adiabatically and thereby always maintaining local charge neutrality and thus lowering the high ionic plasma frequency Ω. 3.

(3. Note that while pj in real space is a nice Hermitian operator. By Fourier transformation the N ion coordinates becomes N wave vectors in FBZ: FBZ = − π π π + ∆k. . k∈FBZ N j=1 0 T UQV QV T RQV SRQV $ ¡$ ¡" " ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ CD 78 $ GH !" EF #¡ ¡ ¡#$ ¡!" ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ AB ¡ ¡ 9@ ¡ #¡# ¡! ! ¡ ¡ ¡ T PQU I S R PQ I PQ I ` T R PQ I `X`XY`X` ¡¨ ¨ ¦ ¡¦ ¤ ¡¤ ¡ 56 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡§¨ §¨ 12 ¦ )0 ¥¡ ¡¥¦ ¤ '( £¡ ¡£¤ ¡ ¢ ¢ %& ¡ WXWXYWXW ¡ ¡§ § ¥ ¡¥ W ¡£ £ e−ikRj .8) into Eq. (3. while the displacements shown in the bottom row are denoted uj . In fact. 2M k −k 2 ωk = K ka 2 sin .7) The Fourier transforms of the conjugate variables are: pj 1 ≡√ N pk eikRj . to solve the problem in k-space by performing a discrete Fourier transform. In analogy with electrons moving in a periodic lattice. L a N (3.8) 0 i δk1 . uk2 ] = of the Fourier transform lead to p† = p−k . − + 2∆k.9) . M 2 [pk1 .0 = By straight forward insertion of Eq. also the present system of N ions forming a periodic lattice leads to a ﬁrst Brillouin zone. The reason is that the Hamiltonian in the present case contains products like pk p−k and not p2 as in k the original case. . (3. (1.−k2 . k∈FBZ N j=1 0 uj 1 ≡√ N uk eikRj . The equilibrium positions shown in the top row are 0 denoted Rj .0 = j 1 N 1 N 1 pk ≡ √ N pj e−ikRj . (3.2: A 1D lattice of ions with mass M . lattice constant a. (3. − + N ∆k . . . 0 1 uk ≡ √ N uj e−ikRj . and a nearest neighbor linear force coupling of strength K.6) we ﬁnd H= k 1 1 2 p p + M ωk uk u−k . a a a ∆k = 2π 2π 1 = . Instead we combine uk and pk in the deﬁnition of the annihilation and This looks almost like the Hamiltonian for a set of harmonic oscillators except for some annoying details concerning k and −k. Although the commutator in Eq. we will not use this pair in analogy with x and p in Eq. k∈FBZ N j=1 0 δR0 .77) to form creation and annihilation operators. FBZ. pk in k-space is not self-adjoint.54 CHAPTER 3. PHONONS. in reciprocal space. COUPLING TO ELECTRONS Figure 3. the hermiticity of pj and the deﬁnition ¡ 34 ©¡© ¡ ©¡© eikRj .9) tells us k that uk and p−k form a pair of conjugate variables. 0 δk.

so upon measuring the value of it. (a) A system with lattice constant a and one ion of mass M1 (black disks) per unit cell. In 0 ¡ ¡( ¡© ¡ © ¡ '& !%# 0 '& 0 ¡ )( ¡ '& ¡ # !$ 0 ¡ §¨¡§¨ ¥¦¡( ¥ ¡ ¡£ ¢ £¤ '& # !" . It is analogous to the Bloch bands for electrons. creation operators bk and b† : −k bk ≡ b† −k ≡ p 1 uk √ +i k . b† 2 ] = δk1 . (3. as shown in Fig. It is seen from Eq. 3. k (3. Now we break the discrete translational invariance given by the lattice constant a. (3.11) This is ﬁnally the canonical form of a Hamiltonian describing a set of independent harmonic oscillators in second quantization. (3.3. (c) As in (a) but now with the addition of mass M2 ions in between the mass M1 ions resulting in two ions per unit cell. Instead the new lattice constant is 2a. LATTICE VIBRATIONS AND PHONONS IN 1D 55 Figure 3.3(a). so our solution Eq. (b) As in (a) but now substituting every second ion of mass M1 with one of mass M2 (white disks) resulting in two ions per unit cell and a doubling of the lattice constant.9) that ωk −→ k→0 K M ak.3. Again by direct insertion it is readily veriﬁed that Hph = k −k ωk b† bk + k 1 .11) does in fact bring about the acoustical phonons. To the left is shown the extended zone scheme. These came about as a consequence of breaking the translational invariance of the system by introducing a periodic lattice. Hence the original BZ is halved in size and the original dispersion curve Fig. / k 2 k uk ≡ pk ≡ k√ 1 † (b + bk ). / k 2 k p 1 uk √ −i k . the concept of phonon branches must be introduced. the force constant in the model. 2 −k k k = M ωk . The quantized oscillations are denoted phonons.3(a) is broken into sections. The sound K velocity is found to be vs = M a. If.k2 . 3. and to the right the reduced zone scheme. but the same lattice constant as in (a).3: The phonon dispersion relation for three diﬀerent 1D lattices. 3. 2 −k i √ (b† − bk ). 2 [bk1 . the unit cell is doubled to hold two ions. one can determine the value of the free parameter K.3(b).10) Note how both the oscillator frequency ωk = ω−k and the oscillator length k = depends on the wavenumber k. Their dispersion relation is shown in Fig.

The generalization to p ions per unit cell is straight forward. so we have Nion = pN .g. It may very well go much beyond the nearest neighbor case studied in the 1D case. We treat the general case of any monatomic Bravais lattice. The lower branch resembles the original dispersion so it corresponds to acoustic phonons. the reduced zone scheme in Fig. and one ﬁnds the appearance of 1 acoustic branch and (p-1) optical branches.4 Acoustical and optical phonons in 3D The fundamental principles for constructing the second quantized phonon ﬁelds established for the 1D case carries over to the 3D case almost unchanged. The starting point of the analysis is a second order Taylor expansion j in uα (R0 ) of the potential energy U [u(R0 ).4 for the case of a two-ion unit cell. In the acoustical case the two types of ions oscillate in phase. whereas for optical phonons the sign of the displacement alternates between the two types of ions. .k2 δλ1 . b† 2 λ2 ] = δk1 . y. The upper band never approaches zero energy. COUPLING TO ELECTRONS ¥ ¤ ¢ £ Figure 3. .13) .λ2 . The N appearing above. The most notable diﬀerence is the appearance in 3D of polarization in analogy to what we have already seen for the photon ﬁeld. 3. analogous to the band index n for Bloch electrons is introduced to label the diﬀerent branches. 1 j N U ≈ U0 + 1 2 uα (R0 ) 1 R0 R0 1 2 αβ ∂uα (R0 ) 1 ∂2U ∂uβ (R0 ) 2 uβ (R0 ). since no states can be lost. so they are known as optical phonons. A branch index λ. In fact they can be excited by light. k 3. 2 u =0 Note that nothing has been assumed about the range of the potential. e. The origin of the energy diﬀerence between an acoustical and an optical phonon at the same wave length is sketched in Fig. in Eq. The central object in ¦ ¦ (3. • and ◦. 2 [bk1 λ1 .11) is changed into Hph = kλ ωkλ b† bkλ + kλ 1 . (3.12) (3.8).3(b) we of course ﬁnd two branches. PHONONS. . while in the optical case they oscillate π radians out of phase. The ionic equilibrium positions are denoted R0 and the displacements by u(R0 ) with components j j uα (R0 ). z. should be interpreted as the number of unit cells rather than the number of ions. For acoustical phonons the size of the displacement of neighboring ions diﬀers only slightly and the sign of it is the same.56 ¥ ¤ ¢ ¡ CHAPTER 3. and in the general case the Hamiltonian Eq. α = x.4: (a) An acoustical and (b) an optical phonon having the same wave length for a 1D system with two ions. so to excite these phonons high energies are required. u(R0 )]. . per unit cell. (3. 3.

t) ∝ ei(k·R 0 −ωt) ⇒ M ω 2 = D(k) . . R D(R0 ) = 0. 2 1 2 (3.e. λ = 1. j 0 δ R0 .16) Using these symmetries in connection with D(k) we obtain D(k) = R0 D(R0 ) e−ik·R = 1 2 D(R0 ) e R0 ik·R0 0 1 2 +e D(R0 ) e−ik·R + R0 −ik·R0 R0 0 D(−R0 ) eik·R D(R0 ) sin2 0 = − 2 = −2 R0 1 k·R0 (3. (3. but arbitrary. The third follows from inversion symmetry 1 2 R always present in monatomic Bravais lattices. they are eigenvectors: D(k) 1 kλ = Kkλ kλ . the so-called dynamical matrix D(k) with components Dαβ (k): Dαβ (R0 −R0 ) = 1 2 ∂2U ∂uα (R0 ) ∂uβ (R0 ) 1 2 . The second follows from the fact that U = 0 if all the displacements are the same. The classical equation of motions for the ions are simply M uα (R0 ) = − ¨ 1 ∂U ∂uα (R0 ) 1 ⇒ ¨ 1 −M u(R0 ) = R0 2 D(R0 −R0 ) u(R0 ). (3. D(−R0 ) = D(R0 ). because P P then 0 = R1 R2 d · D(R0 −R0 ) · d = N d · [ 0 D(R0 )] · d. e j=1 −ik·R0 j Due to the lattice periodicity Dαβ (R0 − R0 ) depends only on the diﬀerence between any 1 2 two ion positions. 2. 3.λ .20) The ﬁrst follows from the interchangeability of the order of the diﬀerentiation in Eq.19) Since D(k) is a real symmetric matrix there exists for any value of k an orthonormal basis set of vectors { k. k∈FBZ N 0 δk.18) We seek simple harmonic solutions to the problem and ﬁnd u(R0 .1 . that diagonalizes D(k). The D-matrix has the following three symmetry properties1 D(R0 ) t 0 = D(R0 ). ACOUSTICAL AND OPTICAL PHONONS IN 3D the theory is the force strength matrix ∂2U ∂uα ∂uβ 57 (generalizing K from the 1D case) and its Fourier transform.17) .14).2 .0 1 = N (3. (3. k. hence diagonalizable in an orthonormal basis. and for an arbitrary function f (R0 ) we have j 1 f (R0 ) ≡ √ j N 1 f (k) = √ N f (k) eik·Rj .14) The discrete Fourier transform in 3D is a straight forward generalization of the one in 1D. say d. k.3. the so-called polarization vectors.0 j = 1 N eik·Rj . 2 Thus D(k) is real and symmetric.4. u =0 Dαβ (k) = R Dαβ (R) e−ik·R .15) . (3. k∈FBZ N j=1 0 f (R0 ) e−ik·Rj . i.3 }. (3. λ. kλ · kλ = δλ.

58

¢ ¡

**CHAPTER 3. PHONONS; COUPLING TO ELECTRONS
**

¥ ¤ ¢ £

Figure 3.5: (a) Three examples of polarization in phonon modes: transverse, longitudinal and general. (b) A generic phonon spectrum for a system with 3 ions in the unit cell. The 9 modes divides into 3 acoustical and 6 optical modes. We have now found the classical eigenmodes ukλ of the 3D lattice vibrations characterized by the wavevector k and the polarization vector kλ : M ω2 = Kkλ ⇒ ukλ (R0 , t) = ei(k·R

0 −ω kλ t)

kλ

kλ

kλ

,

ωkλ ≡

Kkλ . M

**Using as in Eq. (3.10) the now familiar second quantization procedure of harmonic oscillators we obtain ukλ ≡ Hph =
**

kλ kλ √

1 b† + bk,λ 2 −k,λ ωkλ b† bkλ + kλ

kλ ,

kλ

≡

M ωkλ

,

1 , 2

[bkλ , b† λ ] = δk,k δλ,λ . k

Now, what about acoustical and optical phonons in 3D? It is clear from Eq. (3.17) that D(k) ∝ k 2 for k → 0, so the same holds true for its eigenvalues Kkλ . The dispersion relation in Eq. (3.19) therefore becomes ωkλ = vλ (θk , φk ) k, which describes an acoustical phonon with a sound velocity vλ (θk , φk ) in general depending on both the direction of k and the polarization λ. As in 1D the number of ions in the unit cell can be augmented from 1 to p. In that case it can be shown that of the resulting 3p modes 3 are acoustical and 3(p−1) optical modes. The acoustical modes are appearing because it is always possible to construct modes where all the ions have been given nearly the same displacement resulting in an arbitrarily low energy cost associated with such a deformation of the lattice. In Fig. 3.5 is shown the phonon modes for a unit cell with three ions. A 3D lattice with N unit cells each containing p ions, each of which can oscillate in 3 directions, is described by 3pN modes. In terms of phonon modes we end up with 3p so-called phonon branches ωkλ , which for each branch index λ are deﬁned in N discrete points in k-space. Thus in 3D the index λ contains information on both which polarization and which of the acoustical or optical modes we are dealing with.

¦

(3.21)

(3.22) (3.23)

3.5. THE SPECIFIC HEAT OF SOLIDS IN THE DEBYE MODEL

59

3.5

The speciﬁc heat of solids in the Debye model

Debye’s phonon model is a simple model, which describes the temperature dependence of the heat capacitance CV = ∂E of solids exceedingly well, although it contains just one ∂T material dependent free parameter. The phonon spectrum Fig. 3.5(b) in the reduced zone scheme has 3p branches. In Fig. 3.6(a) is shown the acoustic and optical phonon branch in the extended zone scheme for a 1D chain with two ions per unit cell. Note how the optical branch appears as an extension of the acoustical branch. In d dimensions a reasonable average of the spectrum can be obtained by representing all the phonon branches in the reduced zone scheme with d acoustical branches in the extended zone scheme, each with a linear dispersion relation ωkλ = vλ k. Furthermore, since we will use the model to calculate the speciﬁc heat by averaging over all modes, we can even employ a suitable average vD out the polarization dependent velocities vλ and use the same linear dispersion relation for all acoustical branches, ωkλ ≡ vD k ⇒ ε = vD k. (3.24)

Even though we have deformed the phonon spectrum we may not change the number of phonon modes. In the 3D Debye model we have 3Nion modes, in the form of 3 acoustic branches each with Nion allowed wavevectors, where Nion is the number of ions in the lattice. Since we are using periodic boundary conditions the counting of the allowed phonon wavevectors is equivalent to that of Sec. 2.1.2 for plane wave electron states, i.e. Nion = [V/(2π)3 ]×[volume in k-space]. Since the Debye spectrum Eq. (3.24) is isotropic in k-space, the Debye phonon modes must occupy a sphere in this space, i.e. all modes with |k| < kD , where kD is denoted the Debye wave number determined by Nion = V 4 3 πk . (2π)3 3 D (3.25)

Inserting kD into Eq. (3.24) yields the characteristic Debye energy, ωD and hence the characteristic Debye temperature TD : ωD ≡ kB TD ≡ vD kD ⇒ 6π 2 Nion ( vD )3 = V (kB TD )3 . (3.26)

Continuing the analogy with the electron case the density of phonon states Dph (ε) is found by combining Eq. (3.24) and Eq. (3.25) and multiplying by 3 for the number of acoustic branches, Nion (ε) = V 1 ε3 2 ( v )3 6π D ⇒ Dph (ε) = 3 dNion (ε) V 1 = 2 ε2 , dε 2π ( vD )3 0 < ε < kB TD .

(3.27) The energy Eion (T ) of the vibrating lattice is now easily computed using the Bose-Einstein distribution function nB (ε) Eq. (1.127) for the bosonic phonons: Eion (T ) =

kB TD 0

dε εDph (ε)nB (ε) =

V 3 2 ( v )3 2π D

kB TD 0

dε

ε3 . eβε − 1

(3.28)

60

CHAPTER 3. PHONONS; COUPLING TO ELECTRONS

Figure 3.6: (a) The linear Debye approximation to the phonon spectrum with the Debye wave vector kD shown. (b) Comparison between experiment and the Debye model of heat capacitance applied for lead, silver, aluminum, and diamond.

ion It is now straight forward to obtain CV from Eq. (3.28) by diﬀerentiation: ion CV (T ) =

∂Eion T = 9Nion kB ∂T TD

3 0

TD /T

dx

x 4 ex , (ex − 1)2

(3.29)

where the integrand is rendered dimensionless by introducing TD from Eq. (3.26). Note that TD is the only free parameter in the Debye model of heat capacitance; vD dropped out of the calculation. Note also how the model reproduces the classical Dulong-Petit value in the high temperature limit, where all oscillators are thermally excited. In the low temperature limits the oscillators “freeze out” and the heat capacitance drops as T 3 ,

ion CV (T ) −→ T TD

T 12π 4 Nion kB 5 TD

3

,

ion CV (T ) −→ 3Nion kB . T TD

(3.30)

In Fig. 3.6(b) the Debye model is compared to experiment. A remarkable agreement is obtained over the wide temperature range from 10 K to 1000 K after ﬁtting TD for each of the widely diﬀerent materials lead, aluminum, silver and diamond. We end this section by a historical remark. The very ﬁrst published application of quantum theory to a condensed matter problem was in fact Einstein’s work from 1906, reproduced in Fig. 3.7(a), explaining the main features of Weber’s 1875 measurements on diamond. In analogy with Planck’s quantization of the oscillators related to the black body radiation, Einstein quantized the oscillators corresponding to the lattice vibrations, assuming that all oscillators had the same frequency ωE . So instead of Eq. (3.27), Einstein E employed the much simpler Dion (ε) = δ(ε − ωE ), which immediately leads to

ion,E CV (T ) = 3Nion kB

TE T

2

eTE /T , (eTE /T − 1)2

TE ≡ ωE /kB .

(3.31)

While this theory also gives the classical result 3Nion kB in the high temperature limit, ion it exaggerates the decrease of CV at low temperatures by predicting an exponential suppression. In Fig. 3.7(b) is shown a comparison of Debye’s and Einstein’s models. Nowadays, Einstein’s formula is still in use, since it provides a fairly accurate description of the optical phonons which in many cases have a reasonably ﬂat dispersion relation.

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3.6. ELECTRON-PHONON INTERACTION IN THE LATTICE MODEL

61

Figure 3.7: (a) The ﬁrst application of quantum theory to condensed matter physics. Einstein’s 1906 theory of heat capacitance of solids. The theory is compared to Weber’s 1875 measurements on diamond. (b) A comparison between Debye’s and Einstein’s model.

3.6

Electron-phonon interaction in the lattice model

In Chap. 2 we mentioned that in the lattice model the electron-ion interaction splits in two terms, one arising from the static lattice and the other from the ionic vibrations, Vel−ion = Vel−latt + Vel−ph . The former has already been dealt with in the HBloch , so in this section the task is to derive the explicit second quantized form of the latter. Regarding the basis states for the combined electron and phonon system we are now in the situation discussed in Sec. 1.4.5. We will simply use the product states given in Eq. (1.108). Our point of departure is the simple expression for the Coulomb energy of an electron density in the electric potential Vion (r − Rj ) of an ion placed at the position Rj ,

N

Vel−ion =

dr (−e)ρel (r)

j=1

Vion (r − Rj ).

As before the actual ion coordinates are given by Rj = R0 + uj , where R0 are the ionic j j equilibrium positions, i.e. the static periodic lattice, and where uj denotes the lattice vibrations. The respective contributions from these two sets of coordinates are separated by a Taylor expansion, Vion (r − Rj ) ≈ Vion (r − R0 ) − r Vion (r − R0 ) · uj , note the sign j j of the second term, and we obtain

N N

Vel−ion =

dr (−e)ρel (r)

j=1

Vion (r−R0 )− j

dr (−e)ρel (r)

j=1

0 r Vion (r−Rj )·uj .

The ﬁrst term is the one entering HBloch in Eq. (2.6), while the second is the electronphonon interaction, also sketched in Fig. 3.8, Vel−ph = dr ρel (r)

j

e uj ·

r Vion (r

− R0 ) . j

Vel−ph is readily deﬁned in real space, but a lot easier to use in k-space, so we will proceed

¦ ¥¢ £ ¤ § $ !" # §

(3.32) (3.33) (3.34)

§ § § ¨ © ¢ ¡

62

CHAPTER 3. PHONONS; COUPLING TO ELECTRONS

Figure 3.8: (a) Being in an eigenstate a Bloch electron moves through a perfect lattice without being scattered. (b) A displaced ion results in an electric dipole relative to the perfect background, and this can scatter Bloch electrons from |k, σ to |k , σ . by Fourier transforming it. Let us begin with the ionic part, the u · V -term. The Fourier transform of uj is given in Eq. (3.22), where we note that the phonon wavevector k is 1 restricted to the Brillouin zone k ∈ FBZ. Deﬁning Vion (r) = V p Vp eip·r , we see that r simply brings down a factor ip. To facilitate comparison to the phonon wavevector k we decompose p as in Eq. (2.10): p = q + G, where q ∈ FBZ and G ∈ RL. All in all we have

r Vion (r

− R0 ) = j uj =

1 V

i(q + G)Vq+G ei(q+G )·(r−Rj ) ,

q∈FBZ G ∈RL kλ √ bk,λ + b† −k,λ 2 kλ

1 √ N

j

k∈FBZ λ

**These expressions, together with e uj ·
**

j r Vel (r

**eik·Rj = N δk,0 , and multiplying by e, lead to
**

i(q+G )·r gq,G ,λ bq,λ + b† , −q,λ e q∈FBZ G ∈RL,λ

− R0 ) = j

1 V

**where we have introduced the phonon coupling strength gq,G ,λ given by gq,G ,λ = ie N (q + G)· 2M ωqλ
**

qλ

The ﬁnal result, Vel−ph , is now obtained by inserting the Fourier representation of the 1 electron density, ρel (r) = V kpσ e−ip·r c† k+pσ ckσ , derived in Eq. (1.96), together with Eq. (3.37) into Eq. (3.34), and utilizing dr eik·r = Vδk,0 : Vel−ph = 1 V

† gq,G ,λ c† k+q+G ,σ ckσ bq,λ + b−q,λ . kσ qλ G

The interpretation of this formula is quite simple. Under momentum conservation (but only up to an undetermined reciprocal lattice vector due to the periodicity of the lattice) and spin conservation the electrons can be scattered from any initial state |k, σ el to the ﬁnal state |k + q + G, σ el either by absorbing a phonon from the state |qλ ph or by emitting a phonon into the state | − qλ ph . A graphical representation of this fundamental process is shown in Fig. 3.9.

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0

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(3.35) (3.36)

eik·Rj .

0

(3.37)

Vq+G .

(3.38)

(3.39)

3.7. ELECTRON-PHONON INTERACTION IN THE JELLIUM MODEL

63

Figure 3.9: A graphical representation of the fundamental electron-phonon coupling. The electron states are represented by the straight lines, the phonon states by curly spring-like lines, and the coupling strength by a dot. To the left the electron is scattered by absorbing a phonon, to the right by emitting a phonon. The normal processes, i.e. processes where per deﬁnition G = 0, often tend to dominate over the so-called umklapp processes, where G = 0, so in the following we shall completely neglect the latter.2 Moreover, we shall treat only isotropic media, where qλ is either parallel to or perpendicular to q, i.e. q· qλ in gq,G =0,λ is only non-zero for longitudinally polarized phonons. So in the Isotropic case for Normal phonon processes we have

IN Vel−ph =

1 V

**† gq,λ c† k+q,σ ckσ bq,λ + b−q,λ . kσ qλl
**

l l l

Finally, the most signiﬁcant physics of the electron-phonon coupling can often be extracted from considering just the acoustical modes. Due to their low energies they are excited signiﬁcantly more than the high energy optical phonons at temperatures lower than the Debye temperature. Thus in the Isotropic case for Normal Acoustical phonon processes only the longitudinal acoustical branch enters and we have

INA Vel−ph =

1 V

† gq c† k+q,σ ckσ bq + b−q . kσ q

1 If we for ions with charge +Ze approximate Vq by a Yukawa potential, Vq = Ze q2 +k2 (see s 0 Exercise 1.5), the explicit form of the coupling constant gq is particularly simple:

gq = i

Ze2

0

q2

q 2 + ks

N . 2M ωq

3.7

Electron-phonon interaction in the jellium model

Finally, we return to the case of Einstein phonons in the jellium model treated in Sec. 3.1. The electron-phonon interaction in this case is derived in analogy with the that of normal

There are mainly two reasons why the umklapp processes often can be neglected: (1) Vq+G is small due to the 1/(q + G )2 dependence, and (2) At low temperatures the phase space available for umklapp processes is small.

2

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(3.40) (3.41) (3.42)

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64

CHAPTER 3. PHONONS; COUPLING TO ELECTRONS

lattice phonons in the isotropic case, Eq. (3.41). If we as in Sec. 3.1 neglect the weak dispersion of the Einstein phonons and simply assume that they all vibrate with the ion plasma frequency Ω of Eq. (3.3), the result for N vibrating ions in the volume V is

jel Vel−ph =

1 V

† jel gq c† k+q,σ ckσ bq + b−q , kσ q

(3.43)

with

jel gq = i

Ze2 1 0 q

N . 2M Ω

(3.44)

3.8

Summary and outlook

In this chapter we have derived the second quantized form of the Hamiltonian of the isolated phonon system and the electron-phonon coupling. The solution of the phonon problem actually constitutes our ﬁrst solution of a real interacting many-particle system, each ion is coupled to its neighbors. Also the treatment of the electron-phonon coupling marks an important step forward: here we dealt for the ﬁrst time with the coupling between to diﬀerent kinds of particles, electrons and phonons. The electron-phonon coupling is a very important mechanism in condensed matter systems. It is the cause of a large part of electrical resistivity in metals and semiconductors, and it also plays a major role in studies of heat transport. In Exercise 3.1 and Exercise 3.2 give a ﬁrst hint at how the electron-phonon coupling leads to a scattering or relaxation time for electrons. We shall return to the electron-phonon coupling in Chap. 16, and there see the ﬁrst hint of the remarkable interplay between electrons and phonons that lies at the heart of the understanding of conventional superconductivity. The very successful microscopic theory of superconductivity, the so-called BCS theory, is based on the electron-phonon scattering, even the simple form given in Eqs. (3.41) and (3.42) suﬃces to cause superconductivity.

leaving an eﬀective single particle problem. gives a good physical model. Consequently. due to these correlation eﬀects there is a suppressed density in the neighborhood of every electron. such as e. the electron gas. The mean ﬁelds are chosen as those which minimize the free energy. In these cases it suﬃces to include correlations “on the average”. This approximation scheme is called “mean ﬁeld theory”. Upon performing the mean ﬁeld approximation we can neglect the detailed dynamics and the time-independent second quantization method described in Chap.Chapter 4 Mean ﬁeld theory The physics of interacting particles is often very complicated because the motions of the individual particles depend on the position of all the others.g. or in other words the particles motions become correlated. not fully including the correlations. Left box shows the real physical system where the interaction leads to correlation between the particle motions. in spite of this complicated problem there are a number of cases where a more crude treatment. There exist numerous examples of the success of the mean ﬁeld method and its ability Figure 4. as we shall see shortly. which means that the eﬀect of the other particles is included as a mean density (or mean ﬁeld). which in turn ensure that the method is consistent. which is soluble. 1 suﬃces. This is clearly the case for a system of charged particles interacting by Coulomb forces. 4. There we expect the probability to ﬁnd two electrons in close proximity to be small due to the strong repulsive interaction. This idea is illustrated in Fig. Nevertheless. and one talks about a “correlation hole”. To the right are the interactions felt by the black particle replaced by an average interaction due to the average density of the white particles.1: Illustration of the mean ﬁeld idea. 65 £ ¤£ £ £ £ £ ££ £ £ ¢ ¡ .1.

First we consider a system with two kinds of particles. The Hamiltonian is H = H0 + Vint . H = H0 + VMF + νν . and the interaction Vint is approximated by the mean ﬁeld interaction VMF resulting in the so-called mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian HMF given by HMF = H0 + VMF .µµ Vνµ. with i P † U being a unitary matrix. ν µ Now suppose that we expect.1b) (4. µ (4. Now since h is a hermitian matrix there exists a transformation. based on physical arguments.4) µ Because dνν and eµµ are assumed to be small the second term in Eq. H0 = ν a ξν a† aν + ν µ b ξµ b† bµ . a† aν and b† bµ . described by operators aν and bµ . (4. which gives neglected in mean ﬁeld (4. and thus the original many-body problem has been reduced to a single-particle problem.µµ Vνµ.1 To see that a single-particle problem or a quadratic Hamiltonian can always be diagonalized. kk Uik hkk Uk j = δij i . and { i } are thus the eigenvalues of h.ν µ a† aν ν b† bµ . It is then ν µ ν µ natural to use this deviation as a small parameter and perform an expansion.3) where VMF = νν . In this chapter. (4. MEAN FIELD THEORY to explain various physical phenomena. In terms of the new basis P † the Hamiltonian then becomes H = i αi i αi .ν µ a† aν b† bµ + b† bµ a† aν ν µ µ ν − νν . In order to do so we deﬁne the deviation operators dνν = a† aν − a† aν .3) is neglected.µµ Vνµ. we shall discuss a few examples from condensed matter physics . Let us assume that only interactions between diﬀerent kind of particles are important. 1 .1c) Vint = νν .µµ Vνµ.1a) (4. ν ν eµµ = and insert them into (4. αi = j Uij aj . which in principle is always soluble.66 CHAPTER 4. (4.ν µ a† b† bµ aν . write H P P as H = ij a† hij aj . but before going to speciﬁc examples let us discuss the mathematical structure of the mean ﬁeld theory.1a). respectively.2a) (4.ν µ dνν eµµ .5) The mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian HMF contains only single-particle operators. (4. that the density operators a† aν and b† bµ deviate only little from their average values.2b) b† bµ µ − b† bµ µ . such that h is diagonal.

(4. (4. and n ¯ ¯ ¯ MF and ZMF . when calculating the averages na ≡ a† aν . we get 0= d d 1 FMF = − ln ZMF d¯ a nνν d¯ a nνν β 1 d = Tr e−βHMF a HMF ZMF d¯ νν n 1 Tr e−βHMF Vνµ.10) Eq. 1.11) This should hold for any pair (ν. (4.8b) using the new mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian.8a) (4.67 Looking at Eq.ν µ b† bµ µ MF − nb ¯ µµ .9).9) and the similar one for nb are called the self-consistency equations (because na ¯ ¯ b are given in terms of H a and nb ).4) we can formulate the mean ﬁeld procedure in a diﬀerent way: If we have an interaction term involving two operators A and B given by a product of the two HAB = AB. Using the expression for the free energy given in Sec.9) where ZMF is the mean ﬁeld partition function given by ZMF = Tr e−βHMF . (4. which themselves depend on n Next we turn to the alternative route. This means for na (and similarly for nb ) that ¯ ¯ na ≡ a† aν ¯ νν ν MF = 1 ZMF Tr e−βHMF a† aν ν . (4.ν µ b† bµ − nb = ¯ µµ µ ZMF µµ = µµ Vνµ. Method 1: The average is to be determined self-consistently. There are two µ ν possible routes which in fact are equivalent.e.5. (4. Similarly by minimizing with respect to nb ¯ ¯ we get Eq. (4. (4.7) The question is however how to ﬁnd the averages a† aν and b† bµ . . Method 2: Use the nνν that minimizes the free energy FMF of the mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian. the same answer should come out.6) then the mean ﬁeld approximation is given by A coupled to the mean ﬁeld of B plus B coupled to the mean ﬁeld of A and ﬁnally to avoid double counting subtracted by the MF product of the mean ﬁelds (such that HAB = A B ): MF HAB = A B + A B − A B . (4. ν ) and hence the last parenthesis has to vanish and we arrive at the self-consistency equation for nb . ¯ νν ν nb ¯ µµ ≡ b† bµ µ . i. Thus the two methods are equivalent.

4.ν µ a† aν ν MF b† bµ µ MF . using the neglected term in (4. and then compare the result to a† aν . Here “less important” should be quantiﬁed by checking the validity of the mean ﬁeld approximation.9) gives a recipe on how to ﬁnd which averages are important. (4. Therefore. . (4. To see this let us evaluate Vint using the mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian Tr e−βHMF Vint . HMF = HMF + HMF . it is out of the question. then there are in principle N 2 diﬀerent combinations.12). such that momentum space is a natural choice. Often symmetry arguments can help reducing the number of parameters. we then have c† ck = k 1 V dr dr e−ik ·r eik·r Ψ† (r)Ψ(r ) . µ (4. With modern computers one can treat hundreds of particles in this way. If it is not small. (4. Suppose we have N diﬀerent quantum numbers.µµ Vνµ.68 CHAPTER 4. Vint ≈ νν . one has ν either chosen the wrong mean ﬁeld parameter. A natural approximation would be to evaluate the expectation value of a and b operator separately. and we get Vint MF = 1 Vint MF = νν . one must provide some physical insight to reduce the number of mean ﬁeld parameters.14) The mean ﬁeld approach hence provides a consistent and physically sensible method to study interacting systems where correlations are less important. For a system of particles described by operators c and c† .1 The art of mean ﬁeld theory In practice one has to assume something about the averages a† aν and b† bµ because ν µ even though (4. but for a condensed matter system.15) 2 Remember from usual statistics that the correlation function between two stochastic quantities X and Y is deﬁned by XY − X Y . Suppose for example that the Hamiltonian that we are interested in has translational symmetry.µµ Vνµ. MEAN FIELD THEORY We can gain some more understanding of the physical content of the mean ﬁeld approximation if we look at average interaction energy Vint .µ ν a† aν ν b† bµ . or the method simply fails and other tools more adequate to deal with the problem at hand must be applied. This is in essence the approximation done in the mean ﬁeld approach.3) as a perturbation. That is. (4. which gives N 2 coupled non-linear equations. which of course is only tractable for small systems.13) ZMF Because the mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian can be separated into a part containing only aa b operators and a part containing only b-operators. there are simply too many possible combinations. one should check that d indeed is small by calculating d .12) which is equivalent to assuming that the a and b particles are uncorrelated2 . the average factorizes exactly as in Eq.

16) This assumption about homogeneity is however not always true. We therefore use the same strategy as in the introduction and write the four operators in the interaction term in terms of a deviation from the average value c† c† cµ − c† cµ ν µ µ cν + c† cν c† cµ . ν µ (4. Suppose we have a system of interacting particles described by the Hamiltonian H = H0 + Vint .17) leading to the possibility of c† ck+Q being k ﬁnite. r ). For interactions between identical particles this.2 Hartree–Fock approximation Above we discussed the mean ﬁeld theory for interactions between diﬀerent particles. The kind of crystal structure of course exists in Nature and when it happens we talk about phenomena with broken symmetry. r + R) (4.18c) ξν c† cν .17) with R being a lattice vector. because in some cases the symmetry of the system is lower than that of the Hamiltonian.16) from line one.2. 4.µµ Vint = The basic idea behind the mean ﬁeld theory was that the operator ρµµ = c† cµ . Instead it has a lower and more restricted symmetry.20) . HARTREE–FOCK APPROXIMATION It is natural to assume that the system is homogeneous. does not exhaust the possibilities and only includes the so-called Hartree term and now we discuss the more general approximation scheme. Thus the choice of the proper mean ﬁeld parameters requires physical motivation about which possible states one expects. like a wave formation then the average Ψ† (r)Ψ(r ) is not function of the r − r only. For example if the system spontaneously orders into a state with a spatial density variation.k . For the interaction term in Eq.18a) (4. H0 = ν (4. ν 1 2 Vνµ.18b) (4. (4.ν µ c† c† cµ cν . It is important to realize that this solution cannot be found if we assumed Eq. (4.1a) we use the approximation to replace a† aν and b† bµ by their average values plus small ν µ corrections. however. where R · Q = 2π. µ (4. k 69 (4. For most of the combinations νν the average ρνν is zero. (4. called the Hartree–Fock approximation. Instead we should have started by assuming Eq.19) is large only when the average ρµµ is non-zero. namely that Ψ† (r)Ψ(r ) = h(r. which means Ψ† (r)Ψ(r ) = f (r − r ) ⇒ c† ck = nk δk. h(r. r ) = h(r + R.4. Here we go on to formulate the method for like particles. ν µ νν .

(4. As explained in Chap. we have arrived at the Hartree approximation for interactions Hartree Vint = 1 2 Vνµ.1 from Eq. kσ (4. (4. (4. kσ = ξk + V (0)N − (4. 2 in condensed matter systems it is normally cancelled out by an equally large term due to the positively charged ionic background. To derive the mean ﬁeld contribution from this possibility we thus ν have to ﬁrst replace c† cµ by its average value and following the principle in Eq. In deriving Eq. With this assumption we again write c† cν as ν its average value plus a deviation.24) Consider now the example of a homogeneous electron gas which is translation invariant. (4.ν µ nνν nµµ .18c) also gives a large contribution when c† cµ is ﬁnite.ν µ nνµ c† cν − ¯ µ 1 2 Vνµ. see Exercise 4. This is true except in a set of measure zero. which means that the expectation value c† ck is diagonal.25a) V (0) − δσσ V (k − k ) nk σ . this is not the full result because here the operators labelled by µ and ν represent identical. namely the so-called exchange or Fock term.ν µ nνµ nµν . (4. MEAN FIELD THEORY If the quantum number ν is diﬀerent from µ we can commute cν with the parenthesis.21) ν If we neglect the ﬁrst term.7) ν do the same with the combination c† cν .104).25b) we assumed for example that the spin . V (k − k )nk σ . Again we emphasize that the Hartree–Fock approximation depends crucially on what averages we assume to be ﬁnite. The third term is the exchange correction.ν µ nνν c† cµ − ¯ µ 1 2 Vνµ. (1. indistinguishable particles and there is therefore one combination we is missed be the Hartree approximation.ν µ nµµ c† cν + ¯ ν 1 2 Vνµ.25b) The second term is the interaction with the average electron charge. which is proportional to the deviation squared. This new term appears because the product of four operators in Eq. µ ) to be diﬀerent kinds of particles and used the formula from the previous section.23) ¯ ¯ The ﬁnal mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian within the Hartree–Fock approximation is Fock Hartree H HF = H0 + Vint + Vint (4.ν µ nµν c† cµ + ¯ ν 1 2 Vνµ.22) ¯ ¯ This is the same result we would get if we considered the operators with (ν. ν ) and (µ. However. (4. which gives c† cν − c† cν ν ν c† cµ − c† cµ µ µ + c† cν c† cµ + c† cµ c† cν − c† cµ ν µ µ ν µ c† cν . and these assumptions must be based on physical knowledge or clever guess-work. The mean ﬁeld result for the Fock term thus µ becomes Fock Vint = − 1 2 Vνµ. The result is H HF = kσ HF ξk = ξk + kσ HF ξk c† ckσ .70 CHAPTER 4. We can now read oﬀ the k corresponding Hartree–Fock Hamiltonian.

Consider for example the case of a liquid of particles where the Hamiltonian of course has translational symmetry. rotational symmetry in real space or in spin space) there exists an operator which reﬂects this symmetry and therefore commutes with the Hamiltonian (e. This fact we can use to “prove” the unphysical result that a density wave can never exist. means that the Fourier transform of the density operator ρ(Q) = kσ c† ck+Qσ . which implies that c† ck↓ = c† ck↑ . If we allow them k↓ k↑ to be diﬀerent we have the possibility of obtaining a ferromagnetic solution. and the system is in a state of large symmetry.3 Broken symmetry Mean ﬁeld theory is often used to study phase transitions and thus changes of symmetry. T (R)] = 0.3.g. The total momentum operator is thus a conserved quantity and it is given by P= kσ k c† ckσ . BROKEN SYMMETRY 71 Figure 4. Below the critical point a two well potential develops and the system has to choose one of the two possibilities. Above the critical point the eﬀective potential has a well-deﬁned minimum at the symmetry point. Since the operator and the Hamiltonian commute according to the theory of Hermitian operators a common set of eigenstates exists. 4. [H.g. with wave vector Q. rotation operator in real space or spin space). where P is the total momentum operator. kσ We can now choose an orthogonal basis of states with deﬁnite total momentum. |P . A density wave. 4.26) (4.4. translational symmetry.4.2. which indeed happens in some cases. Even though the total potential is still symmetric the system will reside only in one well due to the macroscopically large energy barrier and thus the state of the system has “lower symmetry” than the potential. translation operator. For a given Hamiltonian with some symmetry (e.2: The energetics of a phase transition. This is discussed in Sec. It can be written as T = exp(iR · P). kσ ¡ (4. which means that the translational operator T (R) commutes with Hamiltonian. Here T (R) is an operator which displaces all particle coordinates by the amount R.27) . symmetry is also maintained.

4. When at some critical temperature the thermodynamical state of the system develops a non-zero expectation value of some macroscopic quantity which has a symmetry lower than the original Hamiltonian it is called spontaneous breaking of symmetry. In those cases where many states of the system are degenerate but separated by large energy barriers. but c† ck+Qσ = kσ 1 Z e−βEP P c† ck+Qσ P = 0. This is often illustrated by the double barrier model of phase transitions shown in Fig. . (4.1: Typical examples of spontaneous symmetry breakings and their corresponding order parameters. and other well-known physical phenomena cannot happen. We have therek fore reached the senseless result that crystals do not exist. We are therefore forced to refrain from the fundamental ergodicity postulate of statistical mechanics. has a ﬁnite expectation value. In the same way.28).1.72 Phenomena crystal ferromagnet Bose-Einstein condensate superconductor CHAPTER 4. In order to arrive at the new phase in a calculation and to avoid the paradox in Eq. Next we study in some detail examples of symmetry breaking phenomena and their corresponding order parameters.5.28) because c† ck+Q |P has momentum P − Q and is thus orthogonal to |P . it does not make sense to include them on equal footing in the statistical average as in Eq. What is wrong? The proof above breaks down if the sum of states in the thermodynamical average is restricted.28) because they correspond to macroscopically totally diﬀerent conﬁgurations.2. In the mean ﬁeld approach the trick is to include the order parameter in the choice of ﬁnite mean ﬁelds and. of course. Even though crystals with diﬀerent spatial reference points (or ferromagnets with magnetization in diﬀerent directions) have formally the same energy. Typical examples are listed in Table 4. also discussed in Sec. MEAN FIELD THEORY Order parameter physical density wave magnetization population of k = 0 state pair condensate Order parameter mathematical k c† ck+Q k c† ck↑ − c† ck↓ k↑ k↓ a† k=0 ck↑ c−k↓ k Table 4. (4. and built into the description that the phase space of the system falls into physically separated sections. show that the resulting mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian leads to a self-consistent ﬁnite result. kσ P (4. superconductivity. they are eﬀectively decoupled due to the large energy barrier it takes to melt and then recrystallize into a new state with a shifted reference (or direction of magnetization). we could “prove” that magnetism. 1. one has to built in the possibility of the new phase into the theory. The quantity which signals that a phase transition has occurred is called the order parameter.

shown in the middle. It means the Hamiltonian describing the important degrees of freedom on the relevant low energy scale. It depends only on the distance between the ions. the spins form a collective state with a ﬁnite macroscopic moment along one direction. between the magnetic moment of the ions on sites i and j. as shown in the right panel. the spins tend to become antiparallel whereas for J > 0.30) We immediately see that if J < 0. The model discussed here includes interactions between adjacent spins only. (4. J > 0. 4. & % $0 % & () '¡"&% $ # ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ "! £ ¡ ¡¡ £ £¡ £ £ £¡£¡£ £ ¥ §¥ ¢¡ ¤ ¥ ¨ ¦ ¢ ¡ ¥ £ © © © ¢ ¡ ¥© §¥ (4.3. although simple looking.29) Jij Si · Sj .4. Here we will not go into the details of this interaction but simply give the eﬀective Hamiltonian3 . where Si is the spin operator for the ion on site i and Jij is the strength of the interaction. However. it is immensely complicated and cannot be solved in general.31) . It reads H = −2 ij Jij Si · Sj . The interaction is generally short ranged and we truncate it so that it.4.4. is only non-zero for nearest neighbors Jij = J0 if i and j are neighbors. (4. known as the Heisenberg model for interaction between spins in a crystal.3: The left ﬁgure shows the Heisenberg model in the disordered state where there is no preferred direction for spins. The ﬁrst case corresponds to the antiferromagnetic case. it is a good example where a mean ﬁeld solution gives an easy and also physical correct answer.4 4. The mean ﬁeld decomposition then gives H ≈ HMF = −2 ij Jij Si · Sj − 2 ij Jij Si · Sj + 2 ij 3 The term “eﬀective Hamiltonian” has a well-deﬁned meaning. As the model Hamiltonian stands. 0 otherwise. Here we consider only the ferromagnetic case. as in Fig. FERROMAGNETISM 73 Figure 4. 4.1 Ferromagnetism The Heisenberg model of ionic ferromagnets In ionic magnetic crystals the interaction between the magnetic ions is due to the exchange interactions originating from the Coulomb interactions. while the latter to the ferromagnetic case. it is energetically favorable to for the spins to be parallel. the spins of the individual ions being strongly correlated. while in the ferromagnetic state.

The mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian HMF = −2 i m · Si + mN Sz . (4. 1 α ≈ bα − (bα)3 . i.33) j where n is the number of neighbors. nJ0 which has a solution given by the transcendental equation α = tanh (bα) .34) is now diagonal in the site index and hence easily solved. Here N is the number of sites and 1 m = |m|. 2 The self-consistency equation is found by minimizing the free energy ∂FMF 1 ∂ =− ln ZMF = −N ∂m β ∂m eβm − e−βm eβm + e−βm +N m = 0. allow for Si to be non-zero. Sz = ± 1 . we would have to assume that also this symmetry was broken.36) It is evident from an expansion for small α. Furthermore. 3 (4. and thus we can determine the critical temperature Tc where the magnetism disappears.32) and the magnetic moment m (which by assumption is equal for all sites) felt by each spin thus becomes m=2 Jij Sz ez = 2nJ0 Sz ez . α= m . (4. For a square lattice it is n = 2d.37) that there is no solution for b < 1. 4 . because all directions are equivalent. (4. Suppose for simplicity that the ions have spin S = 2 .35) with one term for each possible spin projection. But had we reasons to believe that an antiferromagnetic solution (where the spins point in opposite direction on even and odd sites) was relevant (if Jij < 0). where d is the dimension. (4. nJ0 b = nJ0 β. MEAN FIELD THEORY Here Si is the average spin at site i. (4. But since this is not the right answer we have to assume that the symmetry is broken. From symmetry arguments we would then expect that the expectation value of this is zero.e. by the condition bc = 1 and hence kB Tc = nJ0 . If we choose the z axis along the direction of the magnetization our mean ﬁeld assumption is Si = Sz ez .4 So we assume a ﬁnite but spatial independent average spin polarization. because of the translational symmetry we expect it to be independent of position coordinate i. With this simpliﬁcation the mean ﬁeld partition function is ZMF = eβm + e−βm N eβN m Sz = eβm + e−βm eβm 2 /2nJ 0 N .74 CHAPTER 4.

(4. 4.σσ We now use the Hartree–Fock approximation scheme on this model but search for a ferromagnetic solution by allowing for the expectation values to depend on the direction of 3(b − 1)/b ⇒ (4. Furthermore. corresponding to b = nJ0 /T < 1 there is no solution and hence no ferromagnetic moment. where this physical fact is reﬂected in a simple but extreme manner: the Coulomb interaction between electrons is taken to be point-like in real space and hence constant in momentum space. For the functional form of the magnetization in the entire range of temperature one must solve Eq. 4. k kq. Metallic magnetism happens e.36) numerically.g. FERROMAGNETISM 75 Figure 4.4.36) . in transition metals where the conduction bands are formed by the narrower d or f orbitals. The resulting temperature dependence of the magnetization is shown to the right. the so-called Hubbard model. The interaction between two particles in those orbitals is stronger than between electrons occupying the more spread out s or p orbitals and hence give a larger correlation between electrons. The solution is shown in Fig. Eq.38) ¦ ¥¡ ¤ ¢£ ¡ ©¡ § ¨ ¦ ¥¡ ¤ ¢£ ¡ . Hhub = kσ ξk c† ckσ + kσ U 2V † c† k+qσ ck −qσ ck σ ckσ . T 1 b valid close to Tc .4: Left two panels show the graphical solution of the mean ﬁeld equation for the Heisenberg model.4. At T = 0 where t = ∞ the solution is α = 1 and hence m ≈ nJ0 m = nJ0 . For b > 1 a solution exists.4.4. which of course is a simple task. for small α we ﬁnd the solution for the magnetization. (4. Since the short range of the interaction is important it is relevant to study a model. At temperatures larger than the critical temperature. Tc = nJ0 . Typical metals where correlations between conduction band electrons are important are Fe and Ni.2 The Stoner model of metallic ferromagnets In magnets where the electrons both generate the magnetic moments and also form conduction bands the Heisenberg model cannot explain the magnetism. This is simply because the spins are not localized. α ≈ T −T 3 CC .

45) ~ = µ. ¯ ¯ ¯ (4. (6π)2/3 n↑ ¯ + U n↓ = µ. (4. ¯ k↓ (4.47) . The two equations 2/3 2 2 2m Deﬁne the variables. The mean ﬁeld parameters are c† ck ↑ = δkk nk↑ .23). MEAN FIELD THEORY c† ck ↓ = δkk nk↓ .46) ζ= n↑ − n↓ ¯ ¯ n ¯ . (4. ¯σ σ (4.42) The full mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian is now given by HMF = kσ MF ξkσ c† ckσ − kσ UV 2 nσ nσ + ¯ ¯ σσ UV 2 n2 . and of course a similar equation for spin down.39) we obtain MF Vint = U kσσ c† ckσ [¯ σ − nσ δσσ ] − U V n ¯ kσ σσ nσ nσ + U V ¯ ¯ σ n2 . Using our mean ﬁeld assumptions Eq. which gives the self-consistency equations 1 1 MF nσ = ¯ c† ckσ M F = nF (ξkσ ). γ= . ¯ (4.40) 1 The factor 2 disappeared because there are two terms as in Eqs. n = n↑ + n↓ .44) kσ V V k k We obtain at zero temperature n↑ = ¯ where are 2 2 ¯ 2m kF ↑ +U n↓ 2 k2 dk θ µ− − U n↓ ¯ (2π)3 2m = 1 3 k . ¯ k↑ CHAPTER 4.76 the spin.41) where the spin densities have been deﬁned as nσ = ¯ 1 V c† ckσ .39) and the mean ﬁeld interaction Hamiltonian becomes MF Vint = U V † c† k+qσ ck −qσ ck σ ckσ − k kqσσ U V † c† k+qσ ck σ ck −qσ ckσ k kqσσ U − 2V † † c† k+qσ ckσ ck −qσ ck σ − ck+qσ ck σ k kqσσ c† −qσ ckσ k . (4.43a) (4.22) and (4. ¯ 2m 2mU n1/3 (3π 2 )2/3 2 (6π)2/3 n↓ ¯ 2/3 + U n↑ = µ. kσ k (4. ¯σ (4. ¯ ¯ ¯¯ The mean ﬁeld solution is found by minimization. 6π 2 F ↑ (4. (4.43b) M ξkσF = ξk + U (n↑ + n↓ − nσ ) = ξk + U nσ .

The polarization is thus a function of the interaction strength.4. whereas the energy does not depend on the occupation of the same spin direction. This leaves interactions between opposite spin as the only possibility.5.49) < γ < 22/3 : Partial polarization: 0 < ζ < 1 Weak ferromagnet γ> 22/3 : Full polarization ζ = 1 Strong ferromagnet The diﬀerent solutions are sketched in Fig.5: The three possible solutions of the Stoner model. 4. Then by subtracting the self-consistency conditions (4. The Stoner model gives a reasonable account of metallic magnets and it is also capable of qualitatively explaining the properties of excitations in the spin polarized states. (4. we get n↑ ¯ 2/3 − n↓ ¯ 2/3 = 2mU 2 (6π)−2/3 n↑ − n↓ . where it is clear that the mean ﬁeld energy of a given spin direction depends on the occupation of the opposite spin direction.43a). the stronger the interaction the larger the polarization. they cannot interact. FERROMAGNETISM 77 Figure 4.46). The possibility for a magnetic solution can be traced back to the spin-dependent energies Eq. This 765 &' % ! # 2 )§ ¨)1 § 0 4 3 8 9 ¥¤¢£ ¡ 76 5 ' & % $! "! # 2 )§ ¨)1 § 0 ) ¨ ( 8 9 ¥¤¢£ ¡ 76 5 8 ¨© § ¦ 9 ¥¤¢£ ¡ . The competition between the potential and the kinetic energy contributions is what gives rise to the phase transition. One can understand this simply from the Pauli principle which ensures that electrons with the same spin never occupy the same spatial orbital and therefore. which on the other hand for a ﬁxed density costs kinetic energy.4. if the interaction is short-range. This expression has three types of solutions: γ< 4 3 4 3 : Isotropic solution: ζ = 0 Normal state (4.48) γζ = (1 + ζ)2/3 − (1 − ζ)2/3 . The Stoner model provides a clear physical picture for how the exchange interactions induce a ferromagnetic phase transition in a metal with strong on-site interactions. (4. This resulted from two things: the short rang interaction and the exchange term. Thus the interaction energy is lowered by having a polarized ground state.

but it is also clear that a constant phase cannot have any measurable eﬀect because all expectation values are given by the absolute square . because it will change the direction of the magnetization. 4. The order parameter for the superconductor thus involves an expectation value of two annihilation operators.5.78 CHAPTER 4. the relevant symmetry is the global gauge symmetry. it is not so clear why broken symmetry in the superconducting case leads to a system without resistance. which therefore has a global SO(3) symmetry. to explain the stability of nuclei with an even number of nucleons and also in the standard model of high-energy physics. but this is not a problem here where we discuss only superconductors connected to electron reservoirs. we give a short introduction to the BCS theory. which means that magnetic ﬁelds are totally expelled from the interior of the material. namely loss of global gauge invariance. and it exhibits perfect diamagnetism (called Meissner eﬀect). Of course.g.5 Superconductivity One of the most striking examples of symmetry breaking is the superconducting phase transition. As was said above. In the same way the phase rotation also changes the superconducting order parameter. e. Both the new type of phase and the appearance of an excitation gap are explained by the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieﬀer (BCS) theory from 1957. It is probably the most successful theory in condensed matter physics and it has found application in other branches of physics as well. which in its spirit is very much like the Hartree–Fock theory presented above. e. While it is clear why the ﬁnite expectation S gives a magnetization in the case of a ferromagnet. It is a mean ﬁeld theory but with a quite unusual mean ﬁeld and therefore we begin by discussing the nature of the superconducting phase. These astonishing phenomena result from the superconducting state having a new form of symmetry breaking. In that case a broken SO(3) symmetry means that the expectation value S is not invariant under the rotation.1 Breaking of global gauge symmetry and its consequences Let us start by understanding what kind of broken symmetry could give rise to a superconducting state. which is of the form cν cν . 4. the number of particles is conserved.g. distinct single particle properties. Schematically the analogies between superconductors and ferromagnets are as shown in Table 4. which result from the appearance of a gap in the excitation spectrum. is that all spins can be rotated by some angle without changing the Hamiltonian. Below the critical temperature the metal which turns superconducting has no resistance what so ever. Besides the superconductivity itself and the Meissner eﬀect superconductors show a number of other characteristics. In this section.2. The analog to this in the case of a ferromagnet. MEAN FIELD THEORY is however outside the scope of this section and the interested reader should consult for example the book by Yosida. which means that we can give all electrons the same extra constant phase and still leave the Hamiltonian invariant. We have argued that the superconducting state is sensitive to a change of global phase.

50) (recall that ρ. (5.53) Note here that if we had used the cyclic properties of the trace. To argue that the superconducting state depends on phase diﬀerences over macroscopic distances is therefore very unusual and tells us that superconductivity is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon.4. such that it takes a macroscopic distance to see any signiﬁcant changes in ϕ (r). For any other non-superconducting system it would not make sense to talk about a quantum mechanical phase diﬀerence over macroscopic distances. we learned above that when dealing with systems with broken . † These equations follow from the diﬀerential equation (together with the boundary condi˜ tion Ψϕ=0 = Ψ) δ ˜ ˜ Ψ(r) = iU [ρ(r ).51a) (4. (4. U would have disappeared all together. Ψ(r)]U −1 = iΨ(r)δ r − r . δϕ (r ) (4.5. 5 which is derived in the same way. However. Let us therefore assume that we ascribe a phase to the superconducting state which depends on position.52) (See also Eq. but varies extremely slowly.) If we transform the density operator and calculate the transformed partition function.24) in Chap. we get ˜ ˜ Z = Tr U e−βH U −1 = Tr e−β H .2: The analogy between the broken symmetries of a superconductor and a ferromagnet.51b) = Ψ (r) exp (iϕ (r)) . phase gradients can have an eﬀect. In order to study the consequences of the phase change let us introduce a unitary transformation which changes the phase U = exp i dr ρ(r)ϕ (r) . of the wave function. Ψ (r) = U Ψ (r)U ˜† † −1 dr ρ(r)ϕ (r) Ψ(r) exp −i dr ρ(r)ϕ (r) (4. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY Global U (1) gauge symmetry. (4. maybe of the order of 10 nm or less in metals. superconductor cν → cν eiϕ ⇒ H → H Broken symmetry: 0 = cν cν → cν cν e2iϕ 79 Global SO(3). simply because quantum coherence is destroyed by all sorts of scattering events on rather short length scales. However. ferromagnet S → US ⇒ H → H Broken symmetry: 0 = S → U S Table 4. ϕ (r). is the density operator ρ (r) = Ψ† (r) Ψ (r)) because it has the following properties when applied to quantum ﬁeld operators ˜ Ψ(r) = U Ψ(r)U −1 = exp i = Ψ(r) exp (−iϕ (r)) .

3. where the energy is assumed to depend on phase diﬀerences on a macroscopic scale. even in equilibrium. It is clear from (4.56) The meaning of this result is that by forcing a phase gradient onto the system it minimizes its energy by carrying a current even in thermodynamical equilibrium. only involve the electron density operator ρ(r) which according to (4. What we have done so far is to show that if a phase gradient is imposed on a system. In reality the electron density appearing in Eq. (4. Finally. In the normal state of metals a current is always associated with a non-equilibrium state.80 CHAPTER 4. The transformation only changes in the kinetic energy term of the Hamiltonian. where energy is constantly dissipated from the driving source and absorbed in the conductor. because both the Coulomb interaction term. (4.54) that the energy doesn’t depend on ϕ itself.51) is unchanged under the phase shift transformation. 5 . it should be noted that the appearance of the excitation gap is not the reason for the superconductivity itself. the sum-over-states has to be restricted so that the cyclic properties does not necessarily hold. the current carrying state is chosen. This we have anticipated by the symbol Tr which means that the trace is restricted due to the spontaneous symmetry breaking. the so-called superﬂuid. MEAN FIELD THEORY symmetry. The critical current is reached when the energies are equal.55) δ ϕ me and hence the energy is minimized if it carries a current. meaning a dissipationless current5 . Of course there is an energy cost for the system to carry the current. (4. The kinetic part reads ˜ H= 1 2me dr Ψ (r)e dr Ψ (r) † † iϕ(r) 2 i i + eA e−iϕ(r) Ψ(r) 2 1 = 2me =H− + eA − 2 ϕ(r) Ψ(r). due to the lack of gauge invariance.4. The claim above was that contrary to the non-superconducting state in the superconductor the phase is a macroscopic quantity. given by J= ρ0 ϕ. and in fact gapless superconductors do exist. as we have argued. but only on the gradient of ϕ. We obtain δF = − J(r) + ρ(r) ϕ(r) = 0. it unavoidably leads to the conclusion that the system will carry a dissipationless current in order to minimize the energy cost of the phase gradient. but as long as this cost is smaller than the alternative which is to go out of the superconducting state. the impurity scattering term. and the phonon coupling term.54) dr ϕ(r) · J(r)+ 2me dr ρ(r)( ϕ(r))2 . where the last step closely follows the derivation of the current operator in Sec. Let us therefore minimize the free energy with respect to the phase in order to ﬁnd the condition for the lowest free energy. The superconductivity is. me (4. 1.56) should only be the electrons participating in the superconducting condensate. However. the simple minded derivation presented here assumes that all electrons participates. and then the superconductor goes into the normal state.

2 Microscopic theory The understanding that superconductivity was closely related to the electron-phonon coupling was clear from the early 1950’ies when for example the isotope eﬀect was discovered. This trace is felt by the other electrons as an attractive interaction. ωD .4. which as we saw in Chap. Also the idea that the superconductivity was somehow similar to Bose-Einstein condensation. ωD EF . It therefore seems that a new energy scale is generated and we shall indeed see that this is the case. were the principles fully understood. in this range. The interaction includes only pair interactions and the remaining interaction is supposed to be included in ξk via a Hartree–Fock term. 3. i. (4. . 16 we will see that the phonon mediated electron-electron interaction (derived from the electron-phonon interaction found in Sec. Because the typical energy exchange due to the attractive interaction is the Debye energy. We deﬁne a Cooper pair operator bk = ck↓ c−k↑ . 3 for metals is much smaller than the Fermi energy. These two physical inputs led BCS to suggest the following remarkably successful model Hamiltonian to explain the superconducting state. the critical temperatures found in “conventional” low superconductors are in most cases less than 10 K and never more than 30 K.57) HBCS = kσ k↑ −k↓ kσ kk where Vkk is the coupling strength which is only non-zero for states with energy ξk within ξF ±ωD and furthermore constant and negative. only in 1956 Cooper showed that the Fermi surface of the normal metal state was unstable towards formation of bound pairs of electrons (see Chap. 16). attractive. had been tried and in fact was the underlying idea of London’s theory in 1935. one would naively expect that the energy scale for the superconducting transition temperature would be of the order ωD /k. The Cooper pair is thus a bound state ∗ of an electron in state ψν (r) and an electron in state ψν (r) or in the homogeneous case electrons in state k and −k.e. Furthermore.5.5. from the Cooper instability we know that the phonon-mediated interaction tends to pair electrons with opposite spin and momentum. The BCS eﬀective Hamiltonian model is ξk c† ckσ + Vkk c† c† c−k ↓ ck ↑ . Vkk = −V0 . This is however far from the truth because while ωD /k is typically of the order of several hundred kelvin. It turns out that this eﬀective interaction is most important for electrons occupying time reversed states and in fact they can form a bound state which is the Cooper pair. However. ωD . This happens for energy exchanges of order the Debye energy.6) in fact has a range in frequency and momentum space where it is negative. Subsequently in 1957 when the superconducting state was derived using a variational wavefunction by BCS. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY 81 4. with the bosons being electron pairs. In Chap. Here we give an outline of the main principles in the BCS theory. The origin of the attractive interaction can intuitively be thought of in the following way: when an electron propagates through the crystal it attracts the positive ions and thus eﬀectively creates a positive trace behind it.

(4.60) To bring the Hamiltonian into a diagonal form. v and the energies. MEAN FIELD THEORY The mean ﬁeld assumption made by BCS. (4.58a) (4.82 CHAPTER 4. For this purpose it is convenient to write the Hamiltonian in matrix notation MF HBCS = k c† c−k↓ k↑ ξk + k ξk ∆k ∆∗ −ξk k ck↑ c† −k↓ + = k Vkk c† c† k↑ −k↓ ck ↓ c−k ↑ .58b) ∆k = − kk Vkk c−k ↓ ck ↑ The mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian is quadratic in electron operators and should be readily solvable.59) kk † Ak Hk Ak where Ak = ck↑ c† −k↓ . .64) 2 ˜ ξk + |∆k |2 = −Ek . The way to solve it is by a so-called Bogoliubov transformation. (4.62) ˜ After some algebra. kk − k ∆∗ ck↓ c−k↑ k + (4. It is however somewhat unusual in that terms like c† c† and cc appear.61) which diagonalizes the problem if † Uk Hk Uk = Ek 0 ˜ 0 Ek . we introduce the unitary transformation Bk = γk↑ † γ−k↓ = U−1 Ak . Hk = ξk ∆k ∆∗ −ξk k . (4. |vk |2 = 1 2 1− ξk Ek . is that the pair operator has a ﬁnite expectation value and that it varies only little from its average value. + constant. (4. The BCS mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian is derived in full analogy with Hartree–Fock mean ﬁeld theory described above MF HBCS = kσ ξk c† ckσ − kσ k ∆k c† c† k↑ −k↓ Vkk c† c† k↑ −k↓ ck ↓ c−k ↑ . k Uk = uk −vk ∗ vk u∗ k .63) (4. E and E |uk |2 = Ek = 1 2 1+ ξk Ek . we ﬁnd the following solution for u.

(4. The self-consistent solution is found from Eq. (4. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY 83 The new fermion operators that diagonalize the Hamiltonian are called bogoliubons and they are superpositions of electrons and holes.66) As is evident from the new Hamiltonian and the solution in Eq. The mean ﬁeld parameter provides an energy gap. ξk ∈ [−ωD . which is why it is called the superconducting gap. 2 = V0 d(EF ) ωD 0 dξ tanh β ξ 2 + |∆|2 /2 ξ 2 + |∆|2 . ωD ]. (4. k (4. Now using the approximation that Vkk is ﬁnite only for ξk .64) we ﬁnd ∆k = − k Vkk c−k ↓ ck ↑ . the so-called gap equation. which is here bk . (4.64) there are no fermion excitations possible with energy less than |∆|. From (4. Vkk k † u∗ γ−k ↓ − vk γk ↑ k † u∗ γk ↑ + vk γ−k ↓ k =− =− k .65) and the Hamiltonian is in terms of the new bogoliubons MF HBCS = k † † Ek γk↑ γk↑ + γk↓ γk↓ + constant. such that the density of states is constant in the energy interval in question.58b). (4. by calculating the expectation value of the right hand side using the diagonalized Hamiltonian.61).69) . Vkk † † u∗ vk γ−k ↓ γ−k ↓ − vk u∗ γk ↑ γk ↑ k k =− k Vkk u∗ vk [1 − 2nF (Ek )] .4.61) we have the transformations from old to new operators γk↑ † γ−k↓ = u∗ vk k ∗ −vk uk ck↑ c† −k↓ ⇔ ck↑ c† −k↓ = uk −vk ∗ vk u∗ k γk↑ † γ−k↓ .67) where we used in the last step that according to the Hamiltonian Eq. This rather unusual particle appears because of the lack of particle conservation in the mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian. The excitation gap has a number of important consequences.68) |∆| = V0 2 2E −ωD and the gap |∆| is determined by the integral equation.63). and that ωD EF .66) the bogoliubons are free fermions and therefore their distribution function is the usual Fermi-Dirac distribution. (4. There are two diﬀerent bogoliubons inherited from the two fold spin degeneracy. (4. (4. (4. we get |∆| d(EF ) ωD dξ [1 − 2nF (E)] . and (4. Using Eqs.5. Above in the general section on mean ﬁeld theory we saw that this procedure is equivalent to minimizing the free energy with respect to the mean ﬁeld parameter.

4. see Fig.84 CHAPTER 4. The right table shows the measured value of the ratio between twice the gap at zero temperature and critical temperature. ∆2 0 ¦ ¤§ ¡ A 3@ 8 94 876 5 34 2 ¢ £ ¢ ¦ ¤¥ . is found from 2 = V0 d(EF ) ⇓ ∆0 = ωD ≈ 2ωD e−2/V0 d(EF ) .6. Combining (4.72) This is in very good agreement with experimental ﬁndings.6: Measured values of the gap parameter for three diﬀerent metals compared to the BCS predictions. which can be solved numerically.13ωD e−2/V0 d(EF ) . To the left the temperature dependence is shown as it follows from the BCS gap equation in Eq. This strong renormalization is what generates the new scale.69) together with experimental values. 4. The critical temperature is found by setting ∆ = 0 in the integral and one ﬁnds approximately kTC = 1. kTC (4. ωD . determined from tunneling measurements. but there are many others but the reader is referred to the many very good books on superconductivity. as we foresaw in "$ 10 ) & ( ' " # &¥© % $ "# ! © ¡ £ ¢ ¥ ¨ (4. where the ratio typically range between 3 and 4.70) and (4.70) 2ωD . ∆0 . Both the gap and the critical temperature are thus reduced by the exponential factor exp (−1/V0 d(EF )) as compared to the bare energy scale of the interaction. In Fig. ωD exp (−2/V0 d(EF )). This is just one of the successes of the BCS theory. At zero temperature the gap.71) ωD 0 dξ 1 ξ2 + ∆2 0 = sinh−1 because in metals V0 d(EF ) is typical a very small number.72).5. (4. we get the BCS prediction that the ratio of gap to critical temperature is 2∆0 = 3. MEAN FIELD THEORY Figure 4. we show the temperature dependence of the gap together with measured values. (4.6(b).53. sinh (2/V0 d(EF )) (4. The theoretical BCS value is given in Eq.71).

It is not possible by perturbation expansions to cross a phase transition line. 4. because the function exp (−1/x) has no Taylor expansion at x = 0. e. We have seen examples of this in the case of magnets and superconductors. This is still a very active and interesting area of research. In the remaining part of this course we shall deal with the dynamical properties of many-particle systems. Once again we see that there is no automatic way to predict the phase diagram of a given physical system.5. It is however not clear to what extend the theory can be used to explain the superconductivity of high temperature superconductors and other exotic superconducting materials. e. This is in fact a general feature of phase transitions. 12. Of course we have not covered the vast ﬁelds of both magnetism and superconductivity in detail and the interested reader should consult the book by Yosida to learn more about magnetism. 8. atomic physics to compute the energetics of a ﬁnite size systems. Also for the time-dependent case Hartree–Fock type approximations will be invoked. Note that the interaction strength appears in a non-perturbative fashion in this expression. all spins point in the same direction. Tinkham and de Gennes to learn about superconductivity.g. because the two states have no analytic connection. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 85 the discussion above.g.g. It means that the state of the system choose to have a lower symmetry that the original Hamiltonian. This tells us that the result could never have been derived using perturbation theory in the interaction. at least those that has to do with static properties. The RPA result will later be derived later based on a more rigorous quantum ﬁeld theoretical approach in Chap. and the books by Schrieﬀer. no matter how many orders where included. and one must rely on a combination of technical skill and most importantly physical intuition. for the so-called Random Phase Approximation treatment of the dielectric function in Sec.6. The mean ﬁeld approximation is in many cases suﬃcient to understand the important physical features. .6 Summary and outlook Mean ﬁeld theories are widely used to study phase transitions in matter and also in e.4. The BCS theory has provided an excellent model for the behavior of low temperature superconductors. where the important concept of symmetry breaking was introduced.

MEAN FIELD THEORY .86 CHAPTER 4.

∂t H = 0. o The time-independence of H leads to a simple formal solution: i ∂t |ψ(t) = H |ψ(t) ⇒ |ψ(t) = e− ~ Ht |ψ0 . H. With this notation we can summarize the Schr¨dinger picture with its states |ψ(t) and operators A as: o |ψ(t) = e−iHt |ψ0 . But how does one then treat the general case of time dependence in second quantization? That question will be addressed in this chapter. such that drops out of the time-evolution equations: ε/ → ε and H/ → H. states : (5. and systems where interactions are approximated by time-independent mean ﬁeld theory. 5. instant processes at a single time t = 0.2) The Schr¨dinger picture o operators : A. The state vectors |ψ(t) does depend on time. These representations are used in the following chapters to develop general methods for treating many-particle systems.1) In the following we will measure the energy in units of frequency. ∞ f (B) = n=0 f (n) (0) n B .Chapter 5 Time evolution pictures Using the second quantization procedure. At the end of the calculations one can easily convert frequencies back to energies. we have so far only treated energy eigenstates with a trivial time dependence eiω t . the Heisenberg picture. and the o interaction picture.e. where time evolution is discussed using three representations. or “pictures”: the Schr¨dinger picture.3) 87 . does not depend on time. n! (5. may or may not depend on time. i (5. o i. and their time evolution is governed by Schr¨dinger’s equation. Any other operator A may or may not depend on time.1 The Schr¨dinger picture o The Schr¨dinger picture is useful when dealing with a time-independent Hamiltonian H. To interpret the operator e−iHt we recall that a function f (B) of any operator B is deﬁned by the Taylor expansion of f .

possibly time-dependent. while the explicit time derivative of the original Schr¨dinger operator is denoted ∂t A: o ˙ A(t) = eiHt iHA − iAH + ∂t A e−iHt ⇒ ˙ A(t) = i H. (5. ˙ A. (5. We can do that using the Heisenberg picture.2 The Heisenberg picture The central idea behind the Heisenberg picture is to obtain a representation where all the time dependence is transferred to the operators.5) The Heisenberg picture operators : A(t) ≡ e A e H does not depend on time. interaction V (t).3 The interaction picture The third and last representation. the interaction picture. The important equation of motion governing the time evolution of A(t) is easily established. we have to switch to the interaction picture.4) Thus we see that the correspondence between the Heisenberg picture with time-independent state vectors |ψ0 . leaving the state vectors |ψ0 time independent. 5. and the Schr¨dinger picture is given o by the unitary transformation operator exp(iHt). but time-dependent operators A(t). A(t). states : iHt −iHt .2) we obtain the identity ψ (t)|A|ψ(t) = ψ0 |eiHt Ae−iHt |ψ0 ≡ ψ0 |A(t)|ψ0 . with H0 |n0 = εn0 |n0 . Since H is time independent.88 CHAPTER 5. the total time derivative of A in the Heisenberg picture is denoted with a dot. (5. (5. (5. 5. is perturbed by some. Both the Schr¨dinger and the Heisenberg picture require a time-independent Hamilo tonian. A(t) + (∂t A)(t). then the two representations are fully equivalent. In this way an explicit time-dependence of A is taken into account. TIME EVOLUTION PICTURES While the Schr¨dinger picture is quite useful for time-independent operators A. In the general case of time-dependent Hamiltonians. |ψ0 ≡ eiHt |ψ(t) . By using Eq. it may o sometimes be preferable to collect all time dependencies in the operators and work with time-independent state vectors. The Hamiltonian H remains time-independent in the Heisenberg picture. Note how carefully the order of the operators is kept during the calculation.6) where X(t) always means eiHt Xe−iHt for any symbol X. in particular for X = ∂t A. with known energy eigenstates |n0 .7) . If the matrix elements of any operator between any two states are identical in the two representations. is introduced to deal with the situation where a system described by a time-independent Hamiltonian H0 . H = H0 + V (t). As before the original operator A may be time dependent.

This is obtained by using only H0 . (5. t0 ) = 1.14) . then one can think of Eq. (5. t0 ) = 1. t0 ). t0 ) = V (t) U (t. We remark that Eq.11) naturally ˆ implies the boundary condition U (t0 .12) ˆ ˆ ˆ From this we observe that U −1 = U † . t0 ) eiH0 t0 e−iHt0 |ψ0 By integration of this diﬀerential equation we get the integral equation 1 ˆ U (t.13) ˆ eiH0 t e−iHt |ψ0 = U (t. ˆ U (t0 . operators : A(t) H0 does not depend on time. (5. t0 ) = eiH0 t e−iH(t−t0 ) e−iH0 t0 .8) as a way to pull out the fast. in the interaction picture both ˆ ˆ the state vectors |ψ (t) and the operators A(t) depend on time. in the nonperturbed case. t0 ) is completely determined by ˆ ˆ operator U ˆ ˆ ˆ |ψ (t) = U (t. (5. and we obtain: ⇒ ˆ ˆ ˆ i∂t U (t. t0 ).. i.11) is inserted in Eq.5. U (t.8): ˆ i∂t |ψ (t) = i∂t eiH0 t |ψ(t) + eiH0 t i∂t |ψ(t) = eiH0 t (−H0 + H)|ψ(t) . t0 ) |ψ (t0 ) .8) is reduced to ˆ ˆ ˆ i∂t |ψ (t) = V (t) |ψ (t) . U is indeed a unitary operator.10) ˆ The resulting Schr¨dinger equation for |ψ (t) thus contains explicit reference only to the o ˆ interaction part V (t) of the full Hamiltonian H. but trivial.e. (5. not the full H. ˆ U (t. time dependence due to H0 . (5.9) which by Eq. The interaction picture and the Heisenberg picture coincide when V = 0. As a result. The ﬁrst hint of the usefulness of the interaction picture comes from calculating the ˆ time derivative of |ψ (t) using the deﬁnition Eq. THE INTERACTION PICTURE 89 The key idea behind the interaction picture is to separate the trivial time evolution due to H0 from the intricate one due to V (t).e. (5. (5. If V (t) is a weak perturbation. states : The interaction picture (5.10). t0 ) is obtained by ˆ (t) = eiH0 t |ψ(t) = eiH0 t e−iHt |ψ and |ψ (t0 ) = eiH0 t0 e−iHt0 |ψ into ˆ inserting |ψ 0 0 Eq. t0 ) = 1 + i t t0 ˆ ˆ dt V (t ) U (t . This means that in the interaction picture ˆ the time evolution of a state |ψ (t0 ) from time t0 to t must be given in terms of a unitary ˆ (t.8) ˆ ≡ eiH0 t A e−iH0 t . leaving states that vary only slowly in time due to V (t). The deﬁning equations for the interaction picture are ˆ |ψ (t) ≡ eiH0 t |ψ(t) . in the unitary transformation Eq.11). an explicit form for U (t. (5. t0 ) which also only depends on V (t). (5. (5.5). (5. (5.11) ˆ When V and thus H are time-independent. i. (5.3. ˆ In the general case with a time-dependent V (t) we must rely on the diﬀerential equation appearing when Eq.

TIME EVOLUTION PICTURES ˆ ˆ which we can solve iteratively for U (t. Time ordering is easily generalˆ ized to higher order terms.15) Note that in the iteration the ordering of all operators is carefully kept. 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ For n = 3 we have Tt [V (t1 )V (t2 )V (t3 )] = ˆ (t1 )V (t2 )V (t3 )θ(t1 −t2 )θ(t2 −t3 )+V (t1 )V (t3 )V (t2 )θ(t1 −t3 )θ(t3 −t2 )+V (t2 )V (t3 )V (t1 )θ(t2 −t3 )θ(t3 −t1 )+ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ V ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ V (t2 )V (t1 )V (t3 )θ(t2 −t1 )θ(t1 −t3 )+ V (t3 )V (t1 )V (t2 )θ(t3 −t1 )θ(t1 −t2 )+ V (t3 )V (t2 )V (t1 )θ(t3 −t2 )θ(t2 −t1 ). . . t0 ) starting from U (t . t0 ) = 1. (5. all n! permutations 1 p ∈ Sn of the n times tj are involved.16) where we have introduced the time ordering operator Tt . . paying special attention to the dummy variables t1 and t2 : t t0 ˆ dt1 V (t1 ) 1 = 2 = = ≡ 1 2 1 2 1 2 t t0 t t0 t t0 t t0 t1 t0 ˆ dt2 V (t2 ) t1 t0 ˆ dt1 V (t1 ) t 1 ˆ dt2 V (t2 ) + 2 t t0 ˆ dt2 V (t2 ) t t0 t2 t0 ˆ dt1 V (t1 ) t dt1 dt1 dt1 1 ˆ ˆ dt2 V (t1 )V (t2 )θ(t1 − t2 ) + 2 t0 t t0 t t0 dt2 t0 ˆ ˆ dt1 V (t2 )V (t1 )θ(t2 − t1 ) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ dt2 V (t1 )V (t2 )θ(t1 − t2 ) + V (t2 )V (t1 )θ(t2 − t1 ) ˆ ˆ dt2 Tt [V (t1 )V (t2 )]. V (tn ) = Tt e Rt t0 dt ˆ V (t ) .18) ˆ Note the similarity with a usual time evolution factor e−iε t . (5. V (tn )] ≡ p∈Sn ˆ ˆ ˆ V (tp(1) )V (tp(2) ) . . t0 −i ˆ ˆ dtn Tt V (t1 ) . A more compact form is obtained by the following rewriting. V (tp(n) ) × (5. In n-th order.1. t0 ) = 1 + i t t0 ˆ dt1 V (t1 ) + 1 i2 t t0 ˆ dt1 V (t1 ) t1 t0 ˆ dt2 V (t2 ) + . . Using the time ordering operator. t0 ) is the starting point for inﬁnite order perturbation theory and for introducing the concept of Feynman diagrams. t0 ) = n=0 1 1 n! i n t t0 t dt1 .2): ∞ ˆ U (t. we obtain the ﬁnal compact form (see also Exercise 5. . and we deﬁne ˆ ˆ ˆ Tt [V (t1 )V (t2 ) .17) θ(tp(1) − tp(2) ) θ(tp(2) − tp(3) ) . The solution is 1 ˆ U (t. Consider for example the second order term. . 5. . (5. . θ(tp(n−1) − tp(n) ). . . This expression for U (t. it is therefore one of the central equations in quantum ﬁeld theory. A graphical sketch of the contents of the formula is given in Fig.90 CHAPTER 5. . . where n factors V (tj ) appear.

.1: The time evolution operator U (t. 2. . (5.19) (5. t0 ) ≈ 1 + i t t0 This simple time evolution operator forms the basis for the Kubo formula in linear response theory.B = ν eiHt1 aν1 e−iH(t1 −t2 ) a† 2 e−iHt2 ± eiHt2 a† 2 e−iH(t2 −t1 ) aν1 e−iHt1 ν ν = ?? (5. As in Sec. 1. aν ] are not simple. scattering events V . a† ] and [H. 3. ν ν aν (t) ≡ e iHt In the case of a general time-independent Hamiltonian with complicated interaction terms.20b) . 1. The sum phase factors due to V ˆ contains contributions from processes with 0. 5.3. Let us ﬁrst apply the deﬁnition of the Heisenberg picture. aν e −iHt (5. a† 2 (t2 )]F. .20a) (5. the commutators [H. is applicable to a wide range of physical problems.5 Time dependent creation and annihilation operators It is of fundamental interest to study how the basic creation and annihilation operators a† and aν evolve in time given some set of basis states {|ν } for a time-independent ν Hamiltonian H.4 these operators can be taken to be either bosonic or fermionic. which happen during the evolution from time t0 to time t.B involving two diﬀerent times t1 and t2 cannot be ν given in a simple closed form: [aν1 (t1 ).5): a† (t) ≡ eiHt a† e−iHt . a† (t2 )]F. and consequently the fundamental ν (anti-)commutator [aν (t1 ). which.4.5. t0 ) can be viewed as the sum of additional ˆ on top of the trivial phase factors arising from H0 . 5. t0 ) by the ﬁrst order approximation justiﬁed to approximate U 1 ˆ U (t. as we shall see in the following chapters. TIME-EVOLUTION IN LINEAR RESPONSE 91 ˆ Figure 5.21) ¥£ ¥£ ¥£ ¥£ ¦ £ ¢ ¦ £ ¢ ¦ £ ¢ ¦ £ ¢ § ¨¦ ¥ £ ¤ £ ¢ ¡ ¦ £¢ ¦ £¢ ! !! " £ £ £ £ © ˆ dt V (t ). Eq.4 Time-evolution in linear response ˆ In many applications the perturbation V (t) is weak compared to H0 . . It can therefore be ˆ (t.

ν (5. ν ν (5. H= ν εν a† aν .21) can be evaluated directly: [aν1 (t1 ). ν (5. which are valid for any set of operators.28) But we actually know the time evolution of the Schr¨dinger state on the right-hand side o of the equation. . (5. ν (5. aν (t)] ˙ = ieiHt = −iεν e ν iHt = ieiHt [H.3. Consider ﬁrst a time-independent Hamiltonian H which is diagonal in the |ν -basis.24) = −iεν aν (t).6). (5.92 CHAPTER 5.27) where H0 is diagonalized in the basis {|ν } with the eigenenergies εν . so |ˆ(t) ν 2 = eiεν t e−i(1+γ)εν t |ν = e−iγεν t |ν . 5. (5. We can also gain some insight into the interaction picture by a trivial extension of the simple model.22) The equation of motion. C]B and [AB.B = e−iεν1 (t1 −t2 ) δν1 . which by Hermitian conjugation leads to a† (t) = e+iεν t a† . C] = A[B.26) For the diagonal Hamiltonian the time evolution is thus seen to be given by trivial phase factors e±iε t . (5.23) (5. the full Hamiltonian H is also diagonalized in the same basis.4). In fact. TIME EVOLUTION PICTURES No further reduction is possible in the general case.29) We are using the identities [AB.25) In this very simple case the basic (anti-)commutator Eq.ν aν e−iHt (5. as we shall see in the following chapters. aν ]e−iHt = ieiHt ν εν a† aν . but with the eigenenergies (1 + γ)ε. γ 1. Obviously. From Eq. aν e−iHt ν aν e −iHt εν −δν.21) is the problem in many-particle physics. Assume that H = H0 + γH0 . and then use the interaction picture of Sec. is straightforward:2 aν (t) = i[H. C} − {A. But let us investigate some simple cases to get a grasp of the time evolution pictures. (5. C] = A{B.8) we then obtain |ˆ(t) = eiεν t |ν(t) . Let us however try to treat γH0 as a perturbation V to H0 . a† 2 (t2 )]F. C}B. Note that the ﬁrst identity is particularly useful for bosonic operators and the second for fermionic operators (see Exercise 5. calculating (anti-)commutators like Eq. (5. By integration we obtain aν (t) = e−iεν t aν .ν2 . C] + [A. Eq.

30) The equation of motion for aν (t) is: aν (t) = i[H. is replaced in the interaction picture by the slow phase factor eiγεν t . (5. we brieﬂy point to the complications that arise when the interaction is given by a time-independent operator V not diagonal in the same basis as H0 . where H0 is a time-independent Hamiltonian with known eigenstates. Eq. (5. (5. operators. (5. nine. aν (t) aν2 (t) aν1 (t) ν ν (5. (5. t0 ) describing the evolution of an interaction picture state |ψ (t0 ) at time t0 to |ψ (t) ˆ at time t.2). The reader can e try to obtain Eq. The ﬁrst two pictures rely on a time-independent Hamiltonian H. Eq. We have derived an explicit expression. when we are trying to study the full time dependence. In the following chapters we will learn various approximate methods to deal with this problem. while the interaction picture involves a timedependent Hamiltonian H of the form H = H0 + V (t). Consider for example the Coulomb-like interaction written symbolically as H = H0 + V = ν εν a† aν + ν ν1 ν2 q Vq a† 1 +q a† 2 −q aν2 aν1 . The equation of motion for the single operator aν (t) contains terms with both one and three operators. We shall see in the following chapters how the operator U (t. 5. (5.5). and how its linearized form Eq. Eq. Finally. This feature is then repeated over and over again generating a never-ending sequence of products containing seven. or equivalently the full dynamics. and we do not know the time evolution of the three-operator product a† 1 +ν2 −ν (t) aν2 (t) aν1 (t). SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 93 Here we clearly see that the fast Schr¨dinger time dependence given by the phase factor o iεν t .6 Summary and outlook In this chapter we have introduced the fundamental representations used in the description of time evolution in many-particle systems: the Schr¨dinger picture.8). eleven. Which picture to use depends on the problem at hand. Finally.19) forms the basis of the widely used linear response theory and the associated Kubo formalism. ν The problem in this more general case is evident. the o Heisenberg picture.18).6. ν ν (5. by studying the basic creation and annihilation operators we have gotten a ﬁrst glimpse of the problems we are facing. (5. etc. . If we write ν down the equation of motion for this three-operator product we discover that terms are generated involving ﬁve operator products.31) = −iεν aν (t) + i ν1 ν2 (Vν2 −ν − Vν−ν1 )a† 1 +ν2 −ν (t) aν2 (t) aν1 (t). for the time evolution operator ˆ ˆ ˆ U (t.18). Eq. of interacting many-particle systems. t0 ) plays an important role in the formulation of inﬁnite order perturbation theory and the introduction of Feynman diagrams.5.29) directly from Eq. aν (t)] ˙ = −iεν aν (t) + i ν1 ν2 q Vq a† 1 +q (t) a† 2 −q (t). and the interaction picture.

94

CHAPTER 5. TIME EVOLUTION PICTURES

Chapter 6

**Linear response theory
**

Linear response theory is an extremely widely used concept in all branches of physics. It simply states that the response to a weak external perturbation is proportional to the perturbation, and therefore all one needs to understand is the proportionality constant. Below we derive the general formula for the linear response of a quantum system exerted by a perturbation. The physical question we ask is thus: supposing some perturbation H , what is the measured consequence for an observable quantity, A. In other words, what is A to linear order in H ? Among the numerous applications of the linear response formula, one can mention charge and spin susceptibilities of e.g. electron systems due to external electric or magnetic ﬁelds. Responses to external mechanical forces or vibrations can also be calculated using the very same formula. Here we utilize the formalism to derive a general expression for the electrical conductivity and brieﬂy mention other applications.

6.1

The general Kubo formula

Consider a quantum system described by the (time independent) Hamiltonian H0 in thermodynamic equilibrium. According to Sec. 1.5 this means that an expectation value of a physical quantity, described by the operator A, can be evaluated as A = 1 1 Tr [ρ0 A] = Z0 Z0

−βH0

n|A|n e−βEn ,

n

(6.1a) (6.1b)

ρ0 = e

=

n

|n n|e−βEn ,

where ρ0 is the density operator and Z0 =Tr[ρ0 ] is the partition function. Here as in Sec. 1.5, we write the density operator in terms of a complete set of eigenstates, {|n }, of the Hamiltonian, H0 , with eigenenergies {En }. Suppose now that at some time, t = t0 , an external perturbation is applied to the system, driving it out of equilibrium. The perturbation is described by an additional time dependent term in the Hamiltonian H(t) = H0 + H (t)θ(t − t0 ). 95 (6.2)

96

CHAPTER 6. LINEAR RESPONSE THEORY

Figure 6.1: Illustration of the linear response theory. At times before t0 the system is in equilibrium, after which the perturbation is turned on. The system is now evolving according to the new Hamiltonian and is in a non-equilibrium state. The Kubo formula relates the expectation value δ A non−eq in the non-equilibrium state to a equilibrium expectation ˆ ˆ value · · · eq of the more complicated time-dependent commutator [A(t), H (t )]. We emphasize that H0 is the Hamiltonian describing the system before the perturbation was applied, see Fig. 6.1 for an illustration. Now we wish to ﬁnd the expectation value of the operator A at times t greater than t0 . In order to do so we must ﬁnd the time evolution of the density matrix or equivalently the time evolution of the eigenstates of the unperturbed Hamiltonian. Once we know the |n(t) , we can obtain A(t) as A(t) = ρ(t) =

n

1 Z0

n(t)|A|n(t) e−βEn =

n

1 Tr [ρ(t)A] , Z0

|n(t) n(t)|e−βEn .

The philosophy behind this expression is as follows. The initial states of the system are distributed according to the usual Boltzmann distribution e−βE0n /Z0 . At later times the system is described by the same distribution of states but the states are now timedependent and they have evolved according to the new Hamiltonian. The time dependence of the states |n(t) is of course governed by the Schr¨dinger equation o i∂t |n(t) = H(t)|n(t) . (6.4)

Since H is to be regarded as a small perturbation, it is convenient to utilize the interaction picture representation |ˆ (t) introduced in Sec. 5.3. The time dependence in this n representation is given by ˆ |n(t) = e−iH0 t |ˆ (t) = e−iH0 t U (t, t0 )|ˆ (t0 ) , n n where by deﬁnition |ˆ (t0 ) = eiH0 t0 |n(t0 ) = |n . n (6.5)

¡

' @ 9 4 H F ' ¡ D (% G F ¡ E C3 B5@ 9 8 6 7 6 53 2 1 D 2 A 4

¦ § §© ¨ § ¦ ¤ ! ¢¡ "

(6.3a) (6.3b)

0 & ¥ § ) © (& § © ¦ $ ¨ # £ ' % ¦ § §© ¨ § ¦ ¥£ ¤ ¢ P5@ 9 53 2 3 I 4

**6.1. THE GENERAL KUBO FORMULA
**

t

97

ˆ ˆ To linear order in H , Eq. (5.19) states that U (t, t0 ) = 1 − i t0 dt H (t ). Inserting this into (6.3a), one obtains the expectation value of A up to linear order in the perturbation

t

A(t) = A = A

0−i

dt

t0 t

1 Z0

ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ e−βEn n(t0 )|A(t)H (t ) − H (t )A(t)|n(t0 )

n

0

−i

t0

ˆ ˆ dt [A(t), H (t )] 0 .

(6.6)

The brackets 0 mean an equilibrium average with respect to the Hamiltonian H0 . This is in fact a remarkable and very useful result, because the inherently non-equilibrium quantity A(t) has been expressed as a correlation function of the system in equilibrium. The physical reason for this is that the interaction between excitations created in the non-equilibrium state is an eﬀect to second order in the weak perturbation, and hence not included in linear response. The correlation function that appears in Eq. (6.6), is called a retarded correlation function, and for later reference we rewrite the linear response result as

∞

δ A(t) ≡ A(t) − A where

0

=

t0

R dt CAH (t, t )e−η(t−t ) ,

(6.7)

R CAH (t, t ) = −iθ(t − t )

ˆ ˆ A(t), H (t )

0

.

(6.8)

This is the famous Kubo formula which expresses the linear response to a perturbation, H . We have added a very important detail here: the factor e−η(t−t ) , with an inﬁnitesimal positive parameter η, has been included to force the response at time t due to the inﬂuence of H at time t to decay when t t . In the end of a calculation we must therefore take + . For physical reasons the (retarded) eﬀect of a perturbation must of the limit η → 0 course decrease in time. You can think of the situation that one often has for diﬀerential equations with two solutions: one which increases exponentially with time (physically not acceptable) and one which decreases exponentially with time; the factor e−η(t−t ) is there to pick out the physically relevant solution by introducing an artiﬁcial relaxation mechanism. Kubo formula in the frequency domain It is often convenient to express the response to an external disturbance in the frequency domain. Let us therefore write the perturbation in terms of its Fourier components H (t) =

R such that CAH becomes R CAH (t, t ) = ∞ −∞

dω −iωt e Hω , 2π

(6.9)

dω −iωt R e CAHω (t − t ), 2π

(6.10)

98

CHAPTER 6. LINEAR RESPONSE THEORY

ˆ ˆ because [A(t), Hω (t )] 0 only depends on the diﬀerence between t and t , which can easily be proven using the deﬁnition of the expectation value. When inserted into the Kubo formula, one gets (after setting t0 = −∞, because we are not interested in the transient behavior)

∞ ∞

δ A(t) =

−∞ ∞

dt

−∞

dω −iωt −i(ω+iη)(t −t) R e e CAHω (t − t ) 2π (6.11)

=

−∞

dω −iωt R e CAHω (ω), 2π

**and therefore the ﬁnal result reads in frequency domain
**

R δ Aω = CAHω (ω), R CAHω (ω) = ∞ R dteiωt e−ηt CAHω (t).

(6.12a) (6.12b)

−∞

Note again that the inﬁnitesimal η is incorporated in order to ensure the correct physical result, namely that the retarded response function decays at large times.

6.2

Kubo formula for conductivity

Consider a system of charged particles, electrons say, which is subjected to an external electromagnetic ﬁeld. The electromagnetic ﬁeld induces a current, and the conductivity is the linear response coeﬃcient. In the general case the conductivity may be non-local in both time and space, such that the electric current Je at some point r at time t depends on the electric ﬁeld at points r at times t

α Je (r, t) =

dt

dr

β

σ αβ (rt, r t ) E β (r , t )

(6.13)

where σ αβ (r, r ; t, t ) is the conductivity tensor which describes the current response in direction eα to an applied electric ﬁeld in direction eβ . ˆ ˆ The electric ﬁeld E is given by the electric potential φext and the vector potential Aext E(r, t) = −

r φext (r, t)

− ∂t Aext (r, t).

(6.14)

The current density operator of charged particles in the presence of an electromagnetic ﬁeld was given in Chap. 1. For simplicity we assume only one kind of particles, electrons say, but generalization to more kinds of charge carrying particles is straightforward by simple addition of more current components.1 For electrons Je = −e J . The perturbing term in the Hamiltonian due to the external electromagnetic ﬁeld is given by the coupling

P With more carriers the operator for the electrical current becomes Je (r) = i qi Ji (r), where qi are the charges of the diﬀerent carriers. Note that in this case the currents of the individual species are not necessarily independent.

1

6.2. KUBO FORMULA FOR CONDUCTIVITY

99

of the electrons to the scalar potential and the vector potential. To linear order in the external potential Hext = −e dr ρ(r)φext (r, t) + e dr J(r) · Aext (r, t), (6.15)

where the latter term was explained in Sec. 1.4.3. Let A0 denote the vector potential in the equilibrium, i.e. prior to the onset of the perturbation Aext , and let A denote the total vector potential. Then we have A = A0 +Aext , (6.16)

Again according to Sec. 1.4.3, the current operator has two components, the diamagnetic term and the paramagnetic term J(r) = J (r) + e A(r)ρ(r), m (6.17)

In order to simplify the expressions, we can choose a gauge where the external electrical potential is zero, φext = 0. This is always possible by a suitable choice of A(r, t) as you can see in Eq. (6.14). The ﬁnal result should of course not depend on the choice of gauge. The conductivity is most easily expressed in the frequency domain, and therefore we Fourier transform the perturbation. Since ∂t becomes −iω in the frequency domain we have Aext (r, ω) = (1/iω)Eext (r, ω), and therefore the external perturbation in Eq. (6.15) becomes in the Fourier domain Hext,ω = e iω dr J(r) · Eext (r, ω). (6.18)

In order to exploit the frequency domain formulation of linear response we want to write the deﬁnition of the conductivity tensor in Eq. (6.13) in frequency domain. Because we are only considering linear response the conductivity tensor is a property of the equilibrium system and can thus only depend on time diﬀerences σ αβ (rt, r t ) = σ αβ (r, r , t − t ). The frequency transform of Eq. (6.13) is therefore simply that of a convolution and hence

α Je (r, ω) =

dr

β

σ αβ (r, r , ω) E β (r , ω).

(6.19)

Now since Eq. (6.18) is already linear in the external potential Eext and since we are e only interested in the linear response, we can replace J in Eq. (6.18) by J0 = J + m A0 ρ, thus neglecting the term proportional to Eext · Aext . Eq. (6.18) is therefore replaced by Hext,ω = e iω dr J0 (r) · Eext (r, ω). (6.20)

To ﬁnd the expectation value of the current we write J(r, ω) = J0 (r, ω) + e Aext (r, ω)ρ(r) . m (6.21)

100

CHAPTER 6. LINEAR RESPONSE THEORY

For the last term in Eq. (6.21) we use that to linear order in Aext the expectation value can be evaluated in the equilibrium state e e Aext (r, ω)ρ(r) = Aext (r, ω) ρ(r) m m

0

=

e Eext (r, ω) ρ(r) 0 . iω

(6.22)

For the ﬁrst term in Eq. (6.21) we use the general Kubo formula in Eq. (6.7). Since the equilibrium state does not carry any current, i.e. J0 0 = 0, we conclude that J0 = δ J0 . In frequency domain we should use the results Eq. (6.12a) and substitute J0 (r) for the operator “A”, and Hext,ω for “Hω ”, which leads to J0 (r, ω) = CR0 (r)Hext,ω (ω). Collecting J things we now have J(r, ω) = CR0 (r)Hext,ω (ω) + J Writing out the ﬁrst term CR0 (r)Hext,ω (ω) = J dr

β

e ρ(r) 0 Aext (r,ω). m e β E (r , ω). iω

(6.23)

CR (r)J β (r ) (ω) J

0 0

(6.24)

Comparing with the deﬁnition of the non-local conductivity in Eq. (6.19), we can now collect the two contributions to the conductivity tensor. The ﬁrst term comes from Eq. (6.24) and it is seen to of the same form as (6.12a), in particular the response is non-local in space. In contrast, the second term in Eq. (6.22) stemming from the diamagnetic part of the current operator is local in space. Now collecting the two terms and using that Je = −e J , we ﬁnally arrive at the linear response formula for the conductivity tensor σ αβ (r, r , ω) = ie2 n(r) ie2 R Παβ (r, r , ω) + δ(r − r )δαβ , ω iωm (6.25)

R where we have used the symbol ΠR = CJ0 J0 for the retarded current-current correlation function. In the time domain it is given by R ΠR (r, r , t − t ) = CJ α (r)J β (r ) (t − t ) = −iθ(t − t ) αβ

0 0

ˆα ˆβ J0 (r, t), J0 (r , t )

0

.

(6.26)

Finding the conductivity of a given system has thus been reduced to ﬁnding the retarded current-current correlation function. This formula will be used extensively in Chap. 14.

6.3

Kubo formula for conductance

The conductivity σ is the proportionality coeﬃcient between the electric ﬁeld E and the current density J, and it is an intrinsic property of a material. The conductance on the other hand is the proportionality coeﬃcient between the current I through a sample and the voltage V applied to it, i.e. a sample speciﬁc quantity. The conductance G is deﬁned by the usual Ohm’s law I = GV. (6.27)

aξ . In this coordinate system the electric ﬁeld is directed ˆ ˆ along the ξ-direction. ω = 0)E(r ). L (6. which.6. aξ ) = daξ daξ daξ ˆ dr ξ · σ(r. If ¡ § § © §¨ ¦ ¥£ ¤ ¢ . (6. which together with use of current conservation allows a simple derivation. in contrast to the conductivity. aξ . In order to get the dc-response we should the limit ω → 0 of this expression. For samples which are inhomogeneous such that this simple relation is not applicable. and it is convenient to choose an equipotential surface and to deﬁne a coordinate system (ξ.3. Because of current conservation we can of course choose any cross section. ω = 0) · ξ E(ξ ). ˆ where ξ is a unit vector normal to the surface element daξ and σ is the conductivity tensor. In the Kubo formula derivation we use a coordinate system given by the equipotential lines. whereby a local description is inadequate. r . aξ ). E(r) = ξE(ξ).29) ˆ ˆ dξ ξ · σ(ξ.2: The principle of a conductance measurement. For a material where the conductivity can be assumed to be local in space one can ﬁnd the conductance of a speciﬁc sample by the relation G= W σ. and W the area of the cross-section. The current passing through the sample is equal to the integrated current density through a cross-section. ξ .28) where L is the length of the sample. Here we are interested in the DC-response only (or in frequencies where the corresponding wave length is much longer than the sample size).2. The current I is Ie = = ˆ daξ ξ · Je (ξ. see Figure 6. one must use the Kubo formula for conductance rather than that for conductivity. where ξ is a coordinate parallel to the ﬁeld line and where aξ are coordinates on the plane perpendicular to the ξ-direction. which are systems smaller than a typical thermalization or equilibration length. KUBO FORMULA FOR CONDUCTANCE 101 Figure 6. One example is the so-called mesoscopic conductors. is a sample-speciﬁc quantity.

one is often interested in the dielectric properties of the system. The charges are related to the potentials through a set of Poisson equations 2 φtot = − ε1 ρe.30) cannot depend on ξ. The typical experiment is to exert an external potential. (6.ext . and measure the resulting total potential. ω→0 ω (6. In the time domain it is R ˆ ˆ CII (t − t ) = −iθ(t − t ) [I(t). (6.29) we see that what determines the dc-current is the real part of the ﬁrst term in Eq. and we ﬁnally arrive at the for linear response formula for the conductance G = lim ie2 R CII (ω). as for example the electron gas. ext 0 2 1 φ =− ρ ind ε0 e. LINEAR RESPONSE THEORY we furthermore take the real part of (6. Consequently the function in side the square brackets in Eq. (6. Furthermore.102 CHAPTER 6.ind . φtot . ξ ) can be shown to be a symmetric function is cannot depend on ξ either. (6. When such a system is subjected to an external electromagnetic perturbation the charge is redistributed and the system gets polarized. and in particular the linear response properties. the conductance can instead be written as Ie (ξ) = lim dξ Re ie2 R C (ω) E(ξ ) ≡ ω I(ξ)I(ξ ) dξ G(ξ. φind . Since the total particle current at the coordinate ξ is given by ˆ I(ξ) = daξ ξ · J.33) Alternatively to working with the potentials we can work with electric ﬁelds or charges.4 Kubo formula for the dielectric function When dealing with systems containing charged particles. Because of current conservation the dc-current may be calculated at any point ξ and thus the result cannot depend on ξ.34) ρtot = ρext + ρind .31) R Here CII is the retarded current-current function. The total potential is the sum of the external one and the potential created by the induced polarization. This simpliﬁcation is the reason for choosing the skew coordinate system deﬁned by the ﬁeld lines. since the conductance function G(ξ.tot 0 2φ = − ε1 ρe. 6.32) where the current operator I denote the current through an arbitrary cross section along the sample. φext . We can therefore perform the integration over ξ which is just the voltage diﬀerence V = dξ E(ξ ) = φ(−∞)−φ(∞).25) and hence the retarded correlation function of the current densities. I(t )] .30) ω→0 R where CI(ξ)I(ξ ) is the correlation function between total currents. This in turn aﬀects the measurements. (6. (6. ξ )E(ξ ). φtot = φext + φind .

· E = ρe /ε0 .4. 1 deﬁnes particle densities. t).e. D = εE. in reality the permittivity is non-local both in time and space and the general relations between the total and the external potentials are φtot (r. (6.40) φtot (r. Etot . In the present formulation.39) R Cρe ρe (rt. t) 0 = 0) as ∞ ρe. r t ) φtot (r . ρe (r . t ). t) = dr t0 R dt Cρe ρe (rt. D = ε0 Eext .35) which is well-known from classical electrodynamics. t) = ρe (r.41) From this expression we read oﬀ the inverse of the dielectric function as ε−1 (rt. is called the polarizability function and it is e an important function which we will encounter many times. (6.36b) Our present task is to ﬁnd the dielectric function ε(rt. (6. Here we have used the symbols ρe for the charge density. Once the induced charge is known the potential follows from the Coulomb interaction Vc (r − r ) = 1/( 0 |r − r |) as φind (r) = and hence ∞ dr Vc (r − r ) ρe. which are related to the corresponding charges by a set of Gauss laws. Eext . t ). t) = φext (r. r t ) = δ(r − r )δ(t − t ) + 2 dr Vc (r − r )χR (r t. χR . r t ) assuming linear response theory and for this purpose the induced potential is needed. and the electric ﬁeld. t ).36a) (6. t) + dr dr t0 dt Vc (r − r )χR (r t. or rather its inverse ε−1 (rt. The ratio between the external and the total potential is the dielectric response function. t).42) In electrodynamics the permittivity is deﬁned as the proportionality constant between the electric displacement ﬁeld. (6. ρ ˆ e The charge-charge correlation function. r t ) φext (r . (6.ind (r. ρe (r. Eext plays the role of the D-ﬁeld. t) = dr dr dt ε−1 (rt.37) The induced charge density follows from linear response theory (if we assume that the system is charge neutral in equilibrium. also called the relative permittivity ε φtot = ε−1 φext . t) = φext (r. (6. D. i. r t ) φext (r . while Etot is the E-ﬁeld . KUBO FORMULA FOR THE DIELECTRIC FUNCTION 103 and likewise for electric ﬁelds. r t )e−η(t−t ) φext (r . i. t )] 0 .e.38) (6. where ρ as deﬁned in Chap. t ). r t ) = −iθ(t − t ) [ˆe (r.2 However. The external perturbation is represented as the following term to the Hamiltonian H = dr ρe (r) φext (r. dt ε(rt. r t ). r t ) ≡ χR (rt.6.eind (r ). (6. r t ). and Eind .

i.ω) = ε(q. ω) = σ(q.46) (6. ω) φext (q. This method.4. e (6. and using the deﬁnition of conductivity J(q. and one should therefore expect that they were related. using Eq.44) or φext (q. ω) = 0. (6. ω).36) have the form of convolutions. Here we consider again the translational-invariant case. After Fourier transformation they become products φtot (q.48) (6.45) So if we know the conductivity we can ﬁnd the dielectric response and vice versa.104 CHAPTER 6. ω)φtot (q. where both Eqs.44) and knowing that for a homogeneous system. ω)qφext (q. and therefore the problem is considerably simpliﬁed by going to frequency and momentum space. we arrive at the relation ε−1 (q.4. ω)φext (q. (6. LINEAR RESPONSE THEORY which ends our derivation. ω)qφext (q.ω) = ε−1 (q. the conductivity tensor is diagonal. (6.5 Summary and outlook We have developed a general method for calculating the response to weak perturbations. but often we must use some approximation to compute the polarizability. χR (rt. e (6. ω). ω).43) 6. with the dielectric function being ε−1 (q. is widely used because many experimental . ω)Eext (q. ω) = ωχR (q. In later chapters we will make extensive use of the dielectric function ε and the polarizability χ. 6. ω) = ωρe (q. This formula also tells us what information about the interactions within a given system can be extracted from measurements of the dielectric properties.1 Dielectric function for translation-invariant system In the translation-invariant case the polarizability can only depend on the diﬀerences of the arguments. r t ) = χR (r − r .42) includes all correlation eﬀects.e. ω (6. t − t ). ω).47) Finally. (continuity equation). 6. we obtain −iq · σ(q. ω) + iq · J(q. ω). (6. The dielectric function expressed in Eq. ω) = 1 + Vc (q)χR (q.2 Relation between dielectric function and conductivity Both ε and σ give the response of a system to an applied electromagnetic ﬁeld. ω) . −iωρ(q. called linear response theory. ω) = 1 − i q2 Vc (q)σ(q. and of course they are. and the continuity equation. ω) = −iσ(q.

In the case of conductivity we saw that it was the current-current correlation function. and one can think of this as probing the individual excitations of the systems. 12 and 14.5. Also in the next chapter we will make use of the linear response result. In this regime the lack of equilibrium is not important. . The general formula is a correlation function of the quantity that we measure and the quantity to which the weak external perturbation couples. These two will be used later in Chaps. Because the perturbation is weak it is not necessary to include interactions between these excitations.6. and the dielectric response reduces to a charge-charge correlation. when discussing tunneling current between two conductors. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 105 investigations are done in the linear response regime.

LINEAR RESPONSE THEORY .106 CHAPTER 6.

the length scales for these system are related as a0 λF <L< in . e.3. 0 φ (7. but this we will have to study at some other time. and the phenomena that we discuss in the following all rely on quantum eﬀects. When interactions are important another rich ﬁeld of physics appears. Sec. They are all clear manifestations of the wave propagation of electrons through the structures. The ﬁeld of mesoscopic transport is interesting in that it combines physics on many length scales. the energy relaxation length. 14. λF . the atomic in Bohr radius. λF ≈ a0 . by electrostatic conﬁnement of two dimensional electron gases (see e. . the Fermi wave length of the electron. The physics of mesoscopic systems is a vast ﬁeld. a0 . 0 . and we shall concentrate on the Landauer-B¨ttiker single-particle approach u to conductance of small nanometer-sized coherent systems. there is one relatively simple experiment involving a narrow metallic wire where the conductance as a clear signature of quantum transport decreases in pronounced steps of size 2e2 /h as the wire is stretched and pulled apart. By coherent we mean that the quantum mechanical coherence length is longer than the sample size. the elastic mean free path. This even happens at room temperature. typically the range from 50 mK to 4 K.2). Typical mesoscopic structures that we have mind are those which are fabricated on semiconductor chips. whereas the more high-tech devices based on semiconductor nanostructures only show quantum eﬀects at low temperatures (see e. and of course the sample size. However. Fig. 2.Chapter 7 Transport in mesoscopic systems In this chapter we give an introduction to electronic transport in mesoscopic structures and it is our ﬁrst in-depth use of the Kubo formalism.g.1) Metallic systems are more diﬃcult to bring into the mesoscopic regime because of their small Fermi wave length. At low temperatures.2). 7.g.g. 107 . This chapter deals with the physics of quantum transport which can be understood by invoking the Fermi liquid picture of non-interacting electrons to be discussed in Chap. L. The important length scales are the coherence length φ .

W ] otherwise. it is more natural to label the states in terms of their energy E rather than as usual their k values. the Hamiltonian and the eigenstates with energy E in the leads are given by HL = HR = φ± (x. In the following φk means a state .2b) (7. 2. right lead (R). Here χn denote the transverse wavefunction and W is the width of the leads. .3) Because of this normalization. φ . . and right reservoir. The system is divided into ﬁve regions: left reservoir. Fig. 7. (x. εn = . y ∈ [0. N πn 2m W 2 2 2m 2 kn + εn . In the following we solve for the eigenstates in a geometry similar to Fig. it is assumed that the left and right leads are perfect straight segments with hard walls. (x.1 illustrates how a contact formed as a “horn” can give a reﬂectionless contact. that they are identical as in the ﬁgure.E ∗ px η φ (x. y) = LnE φ± (x.108 CHAPTER 7. we can safely assume that electrons entering the reservoir will be thermalized at the temperature and chemical potential of the contact before returning to the mesoscopic sample. The quantum number ±1 represents right and left moving states with wavenumber kn (E) = 2m(E − εn )/ 2 . By mesoscopic we mean that the size L of the sample region between the two reservoirs is much smaller than the energy relaxation length in .2d) (7. mesoscopic region (M). y) αn. and the phase breaking length. πny 2 sin . Furthermore. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS 7. but in practice we can introduce a cut-oﬀ at some large value N without aﬀecting the lowest occupied states. since the reservoir is a macroscopic conductor.2c) (7. This implies that we can consider the electron motion to be quantum mechanically coherent in this region. The wavefunctions φ± have been normalized in a particular manner so that they all carry the same absolute probability current in a given cross section: W 0 dy φη (x.1. 1 2 2m py . . y) ∈ R. and furthermore that the system is two-dimensional.2e) e±ikn (E)x χn (y). 7. m αn.2a) (7. y) = η . The transformation from a discrete to a continuous ˜ set of energy levels looks a bit diﬀerent in the two cases. left lead. For simplicity. y) = RnE χn (y) = E= 1 kn (E) 1 kn (E) 1 2 2m px + ∞.1 The S-matrix and scattering states We consider a mesoscopic sample connected to electron reservoirs in the form of macroscopic metal contacts. The contact is thus required to be reﬂectionless. In principle n can be any positive integer. e±ikn (E)x χn (y).E m η = ±1. In this case. W W 2 n = 1. (L). y) ∈ L. (7. . (7. much larger than the entrance to the mesoscopic region.

. . ∝ dk/dE. φk = eikx / L. the system is separated in three regions: L.1: The geometry considered in the derivation of the Landauer formula. (7. THE S-MATRIX AND SCATTERING STATES 109 L Left reservoir M mesoscopic sample R b+ bRight reservoir a+ a- Perfect lead with N channels Perfect lead with N channels Figure 7. The wave function is written as a superposition of incoming and outgoing wave at the two entrances. M . y) = n bn φRn. n an φLn. and some unknown complicated function φM. y) ∈ R. (x. y) ∈ M. Two reﬂectionless contacts each with N channels connect to a mesoscopic region. y). are in general not easy to ﬁnd. When solving the Schr¨dinger equation.5) ψE (x.E (x. relating incoming and outgoing electron waves. that the quantization of the conductance in units of the universal conductance quantum e2 /h is due to the cancellation of the velocity. y). a+ . All we will need is the transmission coeﬃcients. A given eigenstate with energy E is some linear combination of φ± and φ± in the RnE LnE leads L and R. R o and M . . which in vector form are written n n as a+ = (a+ .E (x. √ √ ˜ with the usual normalization.) and similarly for a− and b± . ∝ k. As usual the wavefunction and its 1 2 . Let us therefore introduce the so-called scattering matrix or S-matrix formalism.E . We can therefore write an eigenstate as − − + + n an φLn. ˜ ˜ φk |A|φk → L k>0 ∞ 0 ∞ dk ˜ ˜ φk |A|φk 2π = 0 ∞ = 0 dk k φk |A|φk 2π dE k φk |A|φk . while φk = eikx / k. y) + ψM. 2π dE/dk ∞ 0 = m 2π 2 dE φk |A|φk . in the middle region M . y) ∈ L.E (x.4) As we shall see in detail later. a feature particular of one dimension. The eigenfunctions in the middle region.1.7. (x. by the density of states. y). (x. where a± and b± are some unknown sets of coeﬃcients. n bn φRn.E (x. but fortunately we need not specify the wavefunction in the complicated region. y) + − − + + (7.E (x.

(7. y) ∈ R. − − (x. y) = n tn n φLn . y) ∈ M. . y) ∈ M. y) ∈ L.110 CHAPTER 7. y).10) . or S-matrix. Similarly the element rnn gives the amplitude for being reﬂected back into the left lead in state n.). (7. L R L R cout ≡ a− b+ = r t t r a+ b− ≡S a+ b− ≡ S cin . y). φ+ and φ− . where the superscript ± refers to the direction from which the incoming wave comes. ? (x. These equations are n n a+ + a− = n n b+ eikn (E)L + b− e−ikn (E)L = n n a+ − a− = n n b+ eikn (E)L − b− e−ikn (E)L = n n kn (E) kn (E) 1 i kn (E) 1 i kn (E) dy χn (y)ψM. i. .E (x. which relates the amplitudes of outgoing waves. The coeﬃcients of the scattering matrix are of course energy dependent.E (x.E (x.7) Here we have deﬁned the important S-matrix to be a matrix of size 2N × 2N with the N × N reﬂection and transmission matrices as block elements S= r t t r . It is merely written down in order to illustrate the linear dependence of the coeﬃcients. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS derivative must be continuous. (x. y). y) ∈ R. .E (x. 0.E in the middle region this condition gives 4 × N linearly independent equations to determine a± and b± . cin = (0. y) = n tn n φRn . dy χn (y)ψM. {a± } and {b± }. we suppress this dependence in the notation. The amplitude for transmission in the opposite direction is given by tnn . y) ∈ L. + + (x. which are states with an incoming wave in one particular lead state. . dy χn (y) ∂x ψM (x. Most of the time. y) x=L Fortunately. In the plus direction (an incoming wave from the left) the scattering states are + − φLn. The scattering states are denoted ψ ± . to incoming waves. we will not have to solve such a system of equations unless we want an exact expression for the wavefunction. ψnE (x.E (0.8) Here the matrix element tnn represents the transmission amplitude for an incoming wave from the left in state n to be transmitted into state n on the right hand side. and in the minus direction (an electron incoming from the right hand side) − + φRn. y) x=0 . φ− and φ+ .E (x. (7. ? (x. .9) ψnE (x. . dy χn (y) ∂x ψM.e. (x. y) + n rn n φLn .E (x.E (L. 0. y). y). A particular useful way of representing the n n linear dependence is through the so-called scattering matrix. 1. . y) + n rn n φRn . For a given ψM. We now deﬁne the so-called scattering states. y). (7.E (x.

11) and hence S† = S−1 .E L. the continuity equation gives ∂x J = −ρ = 0. (7.e.13) We also show the unitarity in a bit more explicit way by calculating the currents on the left and right hand sides of the system.e.). From the unitarity follows some properties of r and t.E L. let us look at some properties of the S-matrix.) and φ− = (φ− . it must be unitary.7. b− ). and that we can get from the S-matrix.99b). ← (7.2E L. THE S-MATRIX AND SCATTERING STATES 111 The wavefunction in the scattering region is not speciﬁed.2E L. φ− .14) where the arrows indicate to which side the diﬀerential operators are acting. y). 0 = r† t + t† r = t † r + r † t.1. cf.1. in (7. which we will make use of below: S† S = 1 and furthermore SS† = 1 ⇔ 1 = r r † +tt† = rr + t t † .16) . W I(x) = 0 dy Ψ∗ (x. I(x) cannot depend on x. i. (7. In the same way for R we L.12) (7. Let us compute I(x) for a state with incoming coeﬃcients cin = (a+ .1E L.E |a+ |2 − ra+ + t b− 2 ∗ ↔ Jx a+ · φ+ + a− · φ− L. 0 = rt† + t r † = tr† +r t † . ˙ i. For a stationary state. First calculate the current in region L W IL (x) = = 0 dy a+ · φ+ + a− · φ− L. . φ+ . The incoming electron ﬂux n |cin |2 = |cin |2 must equal the outgoing ﬂux n |cout |2 = |cout |2 and therefore c† cout = c† cin out in ⇒ c† (1 − S† S) cin = 0. .15) m . an eigenstate with energy E. S−1 = S† .1 Unitarity of the S-matrix Before we calculate the transport properties of a mesoscopic system.1E L. This is a consequence of probability current conservation. This we do because we will need the currents later on anyway. ↔ Jx = ↔ → 2mi ∂x − ∂x . y)Jx Ψ(x. . First of all. . The current through a cross section for a given state is. Eq. † ⇔ 1 = r † r + t† t = r † r + t † t .E L. (1.E obtain IR (x) = m −|b− |2 + ta+ + r b− 2 . . 7. . where φ+ = (φ+ .e. because to ﬁnd the conductance all we need is the transmission probabilities of electrons. i.E (7. .

18) ∗ Now. S = ST .and outgoing wave functions are cnew = c∗ . the scattering matrix therefore has an additional symmetry besides being unitary: it is also a symmetric matrix. (7. the new in. which is a −B B solution for −B.2 Time-reversal symmetry Time-reversal symmetry means that H = H ∗ .112 or more detailed IL = IR = a+ b+ † CHAPTER 7.17a) (7. and we obtain Eq. −B −B (7. This will be of importance when we look at disordered systems below. This has some important consequences for the statistics of S-matrices in disordered systems. because if Ψ(r. Since out out in in Ψnew is a solution for −B. In that case the scattering matrix is not only unitary o it is also symmetric. since HB = H−B we see that HB ΨB (r) = E ΨB (r) ⇔ ∗ H−B Ψ∗ (r) = E Ψ∗ (r). then we can make a new eigenstate by Ψnew (r) = Ψ∗ (r).20) In case of time-reversal symmetry. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS m m (1 − r† r) · a+ − b− † t †t † b− − 2 Re[ a+ † † r t b− ] t r b− ] . and in this case the Schr¨dinger equation is o 2 HB ΨB (r) = − 2m r e +i A 2 + V (r) ΨB (r) = E ΨB (r). (7. Suppose we have an eigenstate which is a linear combination of incoming and outgoing waves ΨB (r) = (cin φin .19) or in short: if ΨB (r) is a solution so is Ψ∗ (r). −B (7. We can therefore construct new eigen−B states by complex conjugation followed by reversal of the magnetic ﬁeld. .1. we have cnew = S−B cnew out in which shows that S−B S∗ = 1 B ⇒ S∗ = S† −B B ⇒ SB = ST . A non-zero magnetic ﬁeld B = × A breaks time-reversal symmetry.21) ⇒ c* = S−B c∗ = S−B S∗ c* . IL = IR . in out B in (7. 7. which can be seen experimentally by studying transport with and without an applied magnetic ﬁeld.12) and hence S is unitary. and cnew = c∗ . because complex conjugation reverses the direction of propagation. −t).17b) † (−1 + r † r )b+ + a+ t† t a+ − 2 Re[ a+ † † From the continuity equation we know that the current on the two sides must be equal. t) is a solution to the Shr¨dinger equation so is Ψ∗ (r. However. (7. cout φout ).

This is discussed in Sec. by the sum of transmission probabilities G= 2e2 h Tn = n 2e2 Tr[t† t]. CONDUCTANCE AND TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTS 113 7. fortunately.2.3. and.2. The linear response result shows that indeed the ﬁrst method gave the right answer. which is discussed below in Sec. we calculate the conductance using linear response theory.7. we ﬁnd the same result.1 The Landauer-B¨ ttiker formula. 7.22) where Tn are the eigenvalues of the matrix t† t. since the mesoscopic region is deﬁned to be phase coherent.4.e. This probability is Tn = t† t nn . These ﬂuctuations are universal in the sense that they have an amplitude of the order e2 /h independent of the average conductance. the celebrated Landauer-B¨ttiker formula.e. and consequently electrons originating from. Thus all electrons entering from the contacts are distributed according to the FermiDirac distribution nF of the given reservoirs.22) in terms of Tn or Tn as we please. the electrons entering the reservoir from the sample are thermalized before returning. However. one could get in doubt if the Pauli principle is treated correctly. heuristic derivation u We argued above that if the reservoirs are much wider than the mesoscopic region and its leads. n Tn = n Tn . ends up on the other side.e. 7.1. say. n. but when summing over all incoming states n we in fact get. While the ﬁrst method is more physically appealing. i. is very simple and u physically sensible: the conductance of a mesoscopic sample is given by the sum of all the transmission possibilities a given electron has. h (7. namely in the ﬂuctuations of conductance. The number of quanta will be the number of channels connecting the two sides. This is in fact what happens for the quantum point contact. which allows us to calculate the current directly. Secondly. the probability that an electron in a given incoming state.2 Conductance and transmission coeﬃcients Next we calculate the conductance. (7. The Landauer-B¨ttiker formula tells us that the conductance of a mesoscopic sample u is quantized in units of 2e2 /h. However. This will be done in two diﬀerent ways: ﬁrst we will argue on physical grounds that the population of the scattering state is given by the equilibrium distribution function of the reservoir. then we can assume reﬂectionless transmission from the leads to the reservoirs. This should not be confused with the transmission probabilities. at least in the linear response limit. Furthermore. So we can write Eq. the left reservoir maintain their distribution function equal to that of that reservoir. i. there are other examples where the conductance quantum e2 /h shows up. i. no energy relaxation takes place there. The answer we ﬁnd.3. 7. since Tn is a number between 0 and 1 one expect this quantization to show up only for some special geometries where Tn is either 0 or 1. There a particular smooth interface between the two reservoirs ensures that Tn changes in a well-controlled manner between 0 and 1. Therefore it is natural to express the occupation of the scattering ± eigenstates ψnε by two diﬀerent distribution functions f ± and the chemical potentials µL/R .

we can calculate it in either of the regions L.29) This is the famous Landauer-B¨ttiker formula.27) for current relies on the fact that the scattering states are eigenstates of the system. We get + Ink = ˜− ˜+ Ink f + (Enk ) + Ink f − (Enk ) . (7. (7.13).26) m m nn nn Transforming to an energy integral as in Eq. f − (ε) = nF (ε − µR ). TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS f + (ε) = nF (ε − µL ).25) t †t = −1 + r † r . as one would normally do in a Boltzmann equation. we Taylor expand around µ and ﬁnd after integration From spin I= 2 e2 V Tr t† tE E h ⇒ G= 2e2 2e2 Tr t† t = h h Tn . which means that we should not include any kind of blocking factors (1 − nF ) to ensure that the ﬁnal state is empty. (7. where µ is the equilibrium electrochemical potential. (7. The unitarity condition Eq. Here we have assumed that the spin u degrees of freedom are degenerate which gives rise to a simple factor of two. (7. (7. it is automatically also occupied in the other.28) In Eq. . n (7. Once a state is occupied in one lead. and the current can be written as I= e 2π ∞ 0 dE Tr t† tE E nF (E − µL ) − nF (E − µR ) .17a) and (7. (7. (7.28).4). or M . (7.23) Now it is a simple matter to calculate the current through the mesoscopic system. The expression Eq. CHAPTER 7. then leads to Tr[t † t ] =Tr[t† t]. we choose to do so in the perfect leads L or R where the wavefunctions are known. In order to dismiss any concern about this point.17b) +) = δ − by substituting (a n nn for a state moving in the positive direction and (b )n = δnn for a state moving in the negative direction. 6. we have stressed the energy dependence of the transmission matrix. the next section is devoted to a derivation of Eq. Because of current conservation. R. (7.27) The sum over diagonal elements of t† t is nothing but the trace. Naturally. If they are not degenerate the trace must also include a trace over the spin degrees of freedom. but at low voltages V and temperatures T we can assume Tn to be energy independent and the integral can be done.114 of the relevant reservoirs.24) m 1 − r† r nn = m t† t nn .22) from ﬁrst principles using the linear response formalism of Chap. (7. For |eV | = |µR −µL | µ. Thus we are not talking about a scattering event from one reservoir to the other. Let us look at the current in the left lead: I = IL = e nk ± The currents carried by a scattering state ψnε can be read oﬀ from Eqs. the current is therefore simply I= e 2π ∞ − Ink = − dE n 0 t† t nn nF (E − µL ) − t † t nn nF (E − µR ) . but rather about the thermal population of eigenmodes. (7.

and that jλλ (x ) = (jλ λ (x ))∗ . c† cν ν λ 0 = λλ |jλλ (x )|2 ei(Eλ −Eλ )t/~ nF (Eλ ) − nF (Eλ ) .2.30) I(x .e. λ ∗ dy ψλ (x. t). i. (7. Changing the sum over eigenstates to integrals over energy. 0) 0 = νν jνν (x ) λλ jλλ (x )ei(Eλ −Eλ )t/~ c† cλ .30) yields G(ω) = − 0 = δλλ nF (Eλ ). ω → 0. one has G(0) = −2 e2 π λλ |jλλ (x )|2 − ∂nF (Eλ ) ∂Eλ δ (Eλ − Eλ ) . (7. G(ω) = − 2e2 Im ω ∞ −∞ dt ei(ω+iη)t (−i)Θ(t) [I(x. (7. (7. which means that the quantum number λ is speciﬁed by λ = {E. t). the conductance becomes G(0) = −2 e2 π m 2π 2 2 nn .36) . 0)] 0 . (Again we consider the spin degenerate case which is the reason for the factor of two.35) m dE. Inserting this |jλλ (x )|2 n (Eλ ) − nF (Eλ ) .2. η = ±}. linear response derivation u Our starting point is Eq.ηη |jnηEF . (7.7. We start by calculating the commutator in Eq.n η EF (x )|2 .32) jλλ (x) = 2mi where we choose {ψλ } as a set of eigenstates.34) λλ and in the dc-limit.30) where the current operator I(x) due to current conservation can be evaluated at any cross section x in the perfect leads. y). y) ∂ x − ∂ x ψλ (x. n. → ← (7. rendering G independent of x.31) (7. ( ω + iη + Eλ − Eλ ) F 2e2 Im ω (7.31) expressing the conductance G in terms of the currentcurrent correlation function.) In second quantization the current operator is given by I(x) = λλ jλλ (x) c† cλ . I(x .2 The Landauer-B¨ ttiker formula. CONDUCTANCE AND TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTS 115 7. λ → nη 2π ~2 and setting T = 0 such that −∂nF (E)/∂E = δ(E − EF ). We will of course use the scattering states that we found above as our basis. (7. (6. I(x.33) where we used that c† cλ λ into Eq. and where jλλ is a matrix element of the current operator.

and any doubt about the validity of the treatment of the occupation factor in the heuristic derivation.n η EF (x ) = t† t m nn nn t† r −t † t nn nn − t †r ≡ m j.1 Electron wave guides Quantum point contact and conductance quantization One of the most striking consequences of the Landauer-B¨ttiker formula for conductance is u that the conductance of a perfect channel is 2e2 /h.n η EF (x )|2 = nn . By applying voltage to the gates the width of the constriction could be controlled very accurately. after using the result Eq. (7. has been removed. We have thus seen that it can be derived u microscopically.39) which again is the Landauer-B¨ttiker formula. The ﬁrst experiments showing this was done by groups in Delft (Holland) and Cambridge (England) in 1988. and we evaluate them in the L or R region at our convenience. until only one remains. This has been experimentally tested in numerous experiments and it is now a well-established fact. respectively. see Fig.10b. leading to a staircase of conductance.116 CHAPTER 7. each step being of height 2e2 /h. h (7. Suppose there is a smooth constriction between two electron reservoirs. 7. We will now see how this nice eﬀect can happen. The relevant wave equation for an electron horn is of course the Schr¨dinger equation.n η EF (x ) are independent of x . The ﬁnal result is therefore I = − 2e2 Tr t† t h dx E(x ) = 2e2 Tr t† t V.38) Tr t† t . 2. but there is in prino ciple no diﬀerence between the electron wave guide and horn wave guides used in loud . and if there are N “perfect” channels it is N 2e2 /h. We obtain jnηEF . The technique they used was a socalled splitgate geometry where a set of metallic gate electrodes was put on top of a twodimensional electron gas such that a narrow contact between the two sides of the 2DEG was formed.13). Smooth here means a horn-like shape were the curvature at all points is large compared to the wavelength of the wave which is going to be transmitted through the horn.3 7. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS Due to current conservation the current matrix elements jnηEF . As the width decreases quantum channels are squeezed out one by one.37) where the rows and columns correspond to η = +1 and −1. Hence we get |jnηEF .2. see Fig.3. (7.ηη 2 m 2 Tr j† j Tr 2 = =2 m m t† t 2 + t †t 2 + r † tt† r + r† t t † r (7. 7.

The right panel shows the conductance versus sidegate voltage. So the quantized conductance is nothing but a manifestation of the wave nature of a quantum particle.42) . y) Ψ(x. y) is the conﬁnement potential. y) = φn (x)χnx (y). y) = E Ψ(x.7. as are the expansion coeﬃcients φn (x).3 K) the conductance shows clear steps at integer values of 2e2 /h.3. (7. {χn (x)} forms a complete set. (7.2b). The upper left panel is a picture of the surface of an GaAs chip with an etched point contact structure. By clever design this point contact yields a particularly large subband splitting. Because the change along the x-direction is assumed to be smooth.40) where Vconf (x. Inspired by that we expand the wave function in terms of the transverse eigenstates χnx (y) which however are x-dependent now. (7. being solutions of the transverse Schr¨dinger equation. Ψ(x.41) n This is always possible at any given ﬁxed x since. speakers. The lower left panel is an zoom-in of this structure recorded in an electron microscope. Niels Bohr Institute. y) χnx (y) = εn (x)χnx (y). which is why the conductance quantization persists up to “high” temperatures of the order 20 K. Had the conﬁnement potential been rectangular we would have eigenstates as φ± in Eq. The Schr¨dinger equation for the quantum point contact geometry is o 2 − 2m 2 2 ∂x + ∂y + Vconf (x. water waves or other wave phenomena. (7. y). but you might say a very striking one. ELECTRON WAVE GUIDES 117 Figure 7. we try to separate the motion in longitudinal and transverse motion. The device was fabricated and measured at the Ørsted Laboratory.2: An experiment on quantized conductance. At the lowest temperature (1. o 2 − 2m 2 ∂y + Vconf (x.

i. (7. (7.e. The width of constriction and thereby the height of εn (x) is controlled by a voltage applied to the gate electrodes.47) .43) δn = m n 1 2 dyχ∗ (y) (∂x φn (x)) (∂x χn x (y)) + φn (x)∂x χn x (y) .40) and multiplying from the left with χ∗ (y) followed by nx integration over the transverse direction. it is transmitted through without reﬂection.118 CHAPTER 7.3: Illustration of the adiabatic contact giving rise to an eﬀective one-dimensional barrier. i. (7. (7.46) with the corresponding eigenenergies εn (x) = 2 π2 2m [d(x)]2 n2 .e. It means that the derivative of the transverse mode with respect to longitudinal direction is neglected.45) the transverse wavefunctions are the well-known wavefunction for a particle in a box χnx (y) = 2 sin d(x) πn(y − d(x)/2) d(x) . (7. In the case of hard walls. (7. When the energy of the incident electron is larger than the maximum transverse kinetic energy. the fundamental approximation we wanted to impose was the smooth geometry approximation.44) As mentioned. nx 2 (7. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS Closed channel Energy Gate E ε n+1(x) ε n(x) Gate x Open channel x Figure 7. ∂x χn x (y) ≈ 0. Vconf (x. y. yields 2 − where 2 2m 2 ∂x + εn (x) φn (x) = Eφn (x) + δn . otherwise not. y) = 0 for y ∈ [−d(x)/2. d(x)/2]. often referred to as the adiabatic approximation. ∞ otherwise. the maximum of εn (x).41) into Eq. Inserting Eq.

The saddle point model can be thought of as a quadratic expansion of the conﬁnement potential near its maximum. it is smaller than E the mode has suﬃcient energy to pass over the barrier and get through the constriction. namely 1 Tn (E) = .3. such we end up with an eﬀective onedimensional problem of decoupled modes. (7. In this case we can directly read oﬀ the transmission amplitude because in the notation used for the scattering states. where εmax is changed by changing the width of the constricn tion through the voltage of the gate electrodes. Obviously the WKB approximation breaks down if p(x) is too small.e. however. A useful model is the so-called saddle point model for the constriction.50) All subbands with energy smaller than EF contribute with one conductance quantum. which happens when EF = εn (0). If the transverse kinetic energy. the mode n cannot transmit (neglecting tunneling through the barrier.7. Using this potential it can be shown that the transmission probability has a particular simple form. The barrier is there because some of the kinetic energy is bound into the transverse motion. φn . n n (7. i. ELECTRON WAVE GUIDES 119 Taking the derivative ∂x χn x (y). we would expect some smearing of the step. y) = mωy y 2 − mωx x2 + V0 . Let x = 0 be the position in the constriction where this is most narrow.51) Vconf (x. (7.49) which is a solution to Eq. Right at the point where a new channel opens. If. which obey the 1D Schr¨dinger equation o with an energy barrier εn (x) 2 − 2m 2 ∂x + εn (x) φn (x) = Eφn (x). 7. εmax ≡ εn (0). at this place is larger than E.52) 1 exp π E − V0 − (n + 2 ) ωx / ωy + 1 For this model the smearing of the conductance steps thus has the form of a Fermi function. p(x) = 2m(E − εn (x)). . The essence of the adiabatic approximation is that d (x) 1. will give something proportional to d (x). (7.48) The transverse direction has thus been translated into an eﬀective 1D barrier. which results in a step structure of the conductance as a function of εmax .52). The shape of the smearing will in general depend on the geometry of the constriction and is. 2 2 where V0 is a constant. of course). in contrast to the step heights. This is roughly n what is seen experimentally. we have r = 0 and hence |t| = 1.48) if |p (x)/ p2 (x)| 1. dmin = d(0).3. where the conﬁnement potential is modelled by 1 1 2 2 (7. (7. For smooth barriers. (7. not universal. this is illustrated in Fig. we can use the WKB approximation result for the wavefunction φn (x) ≈ φWKB (x) = n 1 p(x) x exp i −∞ dx p(x )/ . Experiments using the splitgate geometry indeed show that the conductance traces (meaning conductance versus gate voltage) are well described by Eq. The conductance is therefore G= 2e2 h Θ(EF − εmax ).

4. where an applied magnetic ﬁeld B is used to control the phase of two interfering paths.2 Aharonov-Bohm eﬀect A particular nice example of interference eﬀects in mesoscopic systems is the AharonovBohm eﬀect. i.4: A device which shows Aharonov-Bohm eﬀect. In that case the transmission coeﬃcient is given by a sum corresponding to the two paths t ∝ exp −i e r path 1 dl · A + eiφ0 exp −i e r dl · A .70 2. 7. path 2 (7. where the left panel shows the experimental realization. The interference is modulated by magnetic ﬂux enclosed by the paths.53) We now approximate the line integral by an integral following the center of the waveguides and furthermore assume ideal adiabatic arms.40) as in Eq. where the wave function can be assumed to be of the form in Eq.50 2.40 2.18).45 2. because of interference between path 1 and path 2. Each of the arms in the ring could be an adiabatic wave guide.49).3. (7. The geometry is illustrated in Fig. no backscattering. Both the device fabrication and the measurements have been performed at the Ørsted Laboratory.65 2. (7. At small magnetic ﬁelds we can neglect o the orbital changes induced by B in the arms of the ring and absorb the vector potential due to the B-ﬁeld through the hole of the ring as a phase factor ΨB=0 (r) = ΨB=0 (r) exp −i e r dl · A .30 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 B (mT) Figure 7.54) . 7. Because of the applied B-ﬁeld we must add a vector potential A to the Schr¨dinger equation Eq.120 CHAPTER 7.35 2.e.55 T = 0. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS path 1 B path 2 2. (7.60 2. This is shown in the bottom part. (7. while the right panel depicts the conductance versus B-ﬁeld trace.32 K G (e 2/h) 2.

It cannot be a surprise that the classical motion in such a geometry is expected to be chaotic and the system to be ergodic. experiments on disordered “quantum dots”. This important phenomenon is known as level repulsion. 7.g. In order to understand these two phenomena. which is a manifestation of the non-locality of quantum mechanics.4 Disordered mesoscopic systems In this section we shall study disordered mesoscopic systems.g. random matrix theory Let us consider the statistical properties of some ensemble of disordered or chaotic systems inﬂuenced by some external parameter. 7. as a function of any external parameter (e. 7. magnetic ﬁeld. Again we use the Landauer-B¨ttiker to calculate the u conductance. 7. Instead one studies the statistical properties of the conductance for an ensemble of systems. shape. In fact.4. but because the system is disordered it makes little sense to talk about the conductance for speciﬁc sample geometries. The transmission probability now becomes |t|2 ∝ 1 + cos φ0 − e r dl · A path 1+2 = 1 + cos φ0 − π Φpath 1+2 Φ0 .55) where Φ is the ﬂux enclosed and Φ0 = h/2e is the ﬂux quantum. namely weak localization and universal conductance ﬂuctuations. This statistical method is known as random matrix theory (RMT). initially atomic nuclei containing a large number of nucleons.5.5 shows an example of a disorder mesoscopic system. a signature of quantum interference. This means that all unitary matrixes are equally likely. see Fig. Quantum mechanically this means that there are no symmetries and hence no systematic degeneracies of energy levels. DISORDERED MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS 121 where φ0 is some phase shift due to diﬀerent length of the two arms.4. One cannot precisely neither locate nor control the positions of the impurities. or in other words the distribution P (S) . The conductance will oscillate as with the applied magnetic. and from this one can argue that the S-matrix follows the so-called circular ensemble distribution. we must ﬁrst learn about how to average over S-matrices.7.1 Statistics of quantum conductance. Note that the eﬀect persists even if there is no magnetic ﬁeld along the electron trajectories. Experiments have veriﬁed this picture. The matrix elements of the Hamiltonians are assumed to follow a Gaussian distribution. 7. respectively. or density) the energy levels avoid to cross one another. which means that all parts of the phase-space are visited with equal probability.4. Fig. The experiments we have in mind are e. The basic assumption being made is that the Hamiltonians describing each of the systems of the ensemble are drawn randomly according to some probability distribution only constrained by the symmetry of the system. Such ensembles have been studied for a long time. (7. See Fig. The average and the variance of the conductance will turn out to exhibit interesting quantum phenomena. which is a mesoscopic region connected to reservoirs just as we have discussed above where the Landauer-B¨ttiker u formula was derived.

58) The method to derive these result is to utilize f (U) = f (U0 U) = f (UU0 ) . The TR case can be realized by writing S = UUT . TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS Disordered quantum dot Impurity Figure 7. By suitable choice of U0 the various averages can be derived. dot boundaries or Fermi energy.57) (7. where U ∈ U(2N ). Here we will not be concerned with the microscopic justiﬁcation for the ensemble averaging. in sense that it is the distribution which maximizes the entropy and hence is the ensemble with “maximal randomness”.56) (7. but simply say that since we have no information about the scattering matrix the most sensible thing to assume is that all scattering matrices in U(2N ) will appear with equal probability only subject to normalization conditions and symmetry constraints. while the last term corrects for that because the unitarity condition gives some constraints on the elements of U. . This claim can also be justiﬁed by “entropy” considerations.122 CHAPTER 7. of scattering matrices S is uniform in the group of unitary matrices of size 2N × 2N. Uαa Uβb = M 1 ∗ ∗ Uαa Uα a Uβb Uβ b = 2 δαβ δab δα β δa b + δαβ δab δα β δa b M −1 1 δαβ δab δα β δa b + δαβ δab δα β δa b . The averaged over diﬀerent geometries could be an average over positions of impurities. which for any ﬁxed unitary matrix U0 is a consequence of the constant probability assumption.58) is equivalent to assuming the real and imaginary parts of Uαa to be independent. These correlations however become less important in limit of large M . − M (M 2 − 1) (7. we are therefore restricted to symmetric members of U(2N ). denoted U(2N ). The ﬁrst term in Eq. For the time-reversal symmetry case. 1 ∗ δαβ δab .5: Disordered quantum dot geometry. (7. We skip the derivation and simply list the ﬁrst few moments of a random unitary matrix of dimension M = 2N : Uαβ = 0.

u and we can ﬁnd the weak localization correction not for an individual sample but for an ensemble of samples using random matrix theory of the S-matrix. . The origin of this eﬀect was found to be the constructive interference between time-reversed pairs of paths beginning and ending in the same point in space. which we saw from the arguments leading to Eq. Writing S = UUT we get N 2N 2N 2N 2e2 ∗ ∗ G B=0 = Umi Uni Umj Unj . for B = 0. we have G B=0 = = 2e2 h N 2N 2N 2N (δij + δmn δij ) 1 − n=1 m=N +1 i=1 j=1 1 2N 1 4N 2 −1 (7.2 Weak localization in mesoscopic systems In Sec. The average conductance is therefore 2e2 G = Tr t† t h 2e2 = h N 2N ∗ Smn Smn . the series connection between two leads with N channels δG G N = 2 − = 2e2 /h 2e /h 2 N − 2(2N +1) 0 . It is natural to compare the conductance with the classical conductance i.60) G B=0 = h 2N h 2 The case B = 0 means that in addition to unitarity S is also symmetric. (7.4.58).63) 2e2 1 2N 3 2−1 h 4N 1− 1 2N = 2e2 N 2 . (7. (7. It is important to realize that the weak localization correction survives ensemble averaging.57) directly 2e2 N 2e2 2 1 N = . n=1 m=N +1 (7. (7. The transition happens when the ﬂux enclosed by a typical trajectory is of order the ﬂux quantum. hence the conductance is given by the S-matrix through the Landauer-B¨ttiker formula. (7.62) (7. DISORDERED MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS 123 7.64) This result clearly shows that quantum corrections. In this case the coherence length is larger than the sample.61) h n=1 m=N +1 i=1 j=1 and now applying Eq.59) The result now depends on whether time-reversal symmetry is present or not. give a reduced conductance and that the quantum coherence is destroyed by a magnetic ﬁeld.e.4. B = 0. Of course in reality the transition from the B = 0 to the ﬁnite B-ﬁeld case is a smooth transition. (7.e. i. if a B-ﬁeld is applied or not. Also mesoscopic systems exhibit weak localization. h 2N + 1 which is smaller than the B = 0 result. which comes from the last term in Eq.58).4 studied the weak localization in self-averaging macroscopic samples. 14. First take the case of broken time-reversal symmetry.55).7. . for B = 0. In this case there is no other constraints on S than that it is unitary and there we can use Eq. (7.

Suppose that the probability of ﬁnding an eigenvalue in dx is f (x) dx. For a completely random system without any symmetries.68) N ≈ 4N 2 − 1 2e h N 2 . x (7. we get Eq. we recover the Poisson distribution result. one would expect that if the average conductance is G = N0 (2e2 /h). The number of conducting channels in a given energy window does therefore not follow a Poisson distribution. The ﬂuctuation of the conductance in the non-TRS case are G2 B=0 = 2e2 h 2e2 h 2e2 h 2 N 2N N 2N ∗ ∗ Smn Smn Sm n Sm n . corresponding to N0 open channels. the probability for the next eigenvalue to be at x can be shown to be P (x) = π π x exp − x2 . which has given rise to the name universal conductance ﬂuctuations (UCF). n=1 m=N +1 n =1 m =N +1 2 N 2N N 2N = = 1 4N 2 2 n=1 m=N +1 n =1 m =N +1 2 4 2 2 −1 1+ 1 + δmm δnn − 1 4N 2 . then the ﬂuctuations in the number of open channels √ √ would be N0 . times the probability that there was no eigenvalues in the interval [0. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS 7. x]: x P (x)dx = exp − 0 dx f (x ) f (x)dx.67) For f constant. then P (x) dx is the probability of ﬁnding an eigenvalue at x. The ﬂuctuations of the number √ of eigenvalues in a given interval is therefore far from 1/ N . (7.3 Universal conductance ﬂuctuations The ﬂuctuations of the conductance contains some interesting information about the nature of the eigenstates of a chaotic system.4. for N 1 (δnn + δmm ) . 2 4 (7. and a suggestive derivation is as follows.66) and hence P (x) = f (x) exp − 0 dx f (x ) . (7. They were observed experimentally around 1980 and explained theoretically about ﬁve years later. so that δG = (2e2 /h) N0 .124 CHAPTER 7. Given an eigenvalue x = 0. This is not seen experimentally. Naively. we do not expect degeneracies to occur. which is the physical reason for the “universal” behavior. In fact one can show from RMT that the statistical measure vanishes when two eigenvalues coincide. 2N 1 (7.65) for the case with time-reversal symmetry. Historically the study of these ﬂuctuations were the ﬁrst in the ﬁeld of mesoscopic transport. It is an experimental fact that the ﬂuctuations turn out to be independent of the size of the conductance itself. the reason being that the transmission probabilities are not independent.65) after suitable normalization. This is called the Wigner surmise. In the following we calculate the ﬂuctuations of G using the statistical RMT for the S-matrix as outlined above. Assuming “linear repulsion” f (x) ∝ x. f (x) dx.

Lett.5 Summary and outlook Below we list a few text books and review papers about mesoscopic physics.6. 16 for N 1.70) The variance is thus independent of the average value of G and furthermore it is expected to decrease by a factor of 2 when a magnetic ﬁeld is applying. Phys.6: Variance of the conductance of a quantum dot as a function of magnetic ﬁeld. S. Electronic transport in mesoscopic systems. 3876 (1995). The inset shows the geometry of the quantum dot. Rev. and the variance is B=0 (2e2 /h)2 δG2 ≈ 1 .. (7. (7. 1995. Indeed this is what is seen experimentally for example as shown in Fig.7. 8 for N 1. which has additional gates by which the shape can be changed.69) A similar calculation for the B = 0 case gives B=0 (2e2 /h)2 δG2 1 ≈ . 7. The decrease of the variance when the time-reversal symmetry is broken by the magnetic ﬁeld is clearly seen and the decreases by approximately a factor of 2 is in agreement with the theory.5. The trace is taken at 30 mK. 74. 7. (Cambridge University Press). After Chan et al. . SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 125 Figure 7. Datta. Text books: 1.

895 (2000) . 3. TRANSPORT IN MESOSCOPIC SYSTEMS 2. Turnbull. Ehrenreich and D. Alhassid. 1995. van Houten.J.W. Transport in nanostructures. C.W. Review papers: 1. Solid State Physics 44.K. Conductance quantisation in metallic point contacts. Random-matrix theory of quantum transport. cond-mat/9910394. Beenakker and H.M. The statistical theory of quantum dots. Review of Modern Physics 69. H.126 CHAPTER 7. 1991. Goodnick. eds.M. van Ruitenbeek. C.J. Quantum transport in semiconductor nanostructures. (Academic Press). J. 731 (1997). (Cambridge University Press). D. 2. Y. Ferry and S. Review of Modern Physics 72. Beenakker. 4.

where δ(r) is the Dirac delta function. This is a good idea because once we have found G(r).6) 4πε0 |r − r | 127 . 2 . ρe .3) φ(r) = − ε0 That this is a solution to Eq. (8. which immediately gives −k 2 G(k) = 1 and hence G(r) = ⇒ G(k) = − 1 . k2 (8. It has a long history with numerous applications. (8.1) ε0 It turns out to be a good idea instead to look for the solution G of a related but simpler diﬀerential equation 2 (8. we want to solve Poisson’s equation 1 2 φ(r) = − ρe (r). G(r) is called the Green’s function for the Laplace operator. i.1 “Classical” Green’s functions The Green’s function method is a very useful method in the theory of ordinary and partial diﬀerential equations. To illustrate the idea of the method let us consider the familiar problem of ﬁnding the electrical potential φ given a ﬁxed charge distribution. the electrical potential r follows as 1 dr G(r − r )ρe (r ). 3 k2 (2π) 4πr (8.3) we obtain the well-known potential created by a charge distribution 1 ρe (r ) φ(r) = dr .e.4) dk ik·r e G(k) = − (2π)3 dk eik·r 1 =− .Chapter 8 Green’s functions 8.1) is easily veriﬁed by letting 2 act directly on the r integrand and then use Eq. (8. The easiest way to ﬁnd G(r) is by Fourier transformation. (8.2). (8.2) r G(r) = δ(r).5) When inserting this into (8.

E)V (r )Ψ0 (r ) + O V 2 .11) by iteration. E)V (r )ΨE (r ). The Green’s R In order to emphasize the matrix structure we could have written this as dr G−1 (r. (8. (8. r . r ) = (E − H0 (r))δ(r − r ).8) with the boundary condition.9). and up to ﬁrst order in V the solution is ΨE (r) = Ψ0 (r) + E dr G0 (r. It is natural to identify the operator [E − H0 (r)] as the inverse of G0 (r. The procedure outlined below is then a systematic way of calculating the eﬀect of the interaction between the “beam” and the “target” on the outgoing states. This situation is relevant for scattering problems where a ﬂux of incoming particles (described by H0 ) interacts with a system (described by V ). 0 0 Now the Schr¨dinger equation can be rewritten as o G−1 (r. r). and where we want to treat V as a perturbation. there is a continuum of states and hence we are free to choose any E. (8. E) = E − H0 (r) or G−1 (r. What we have generated by the E iteration procedure is nothing but the ordinary (non-degenerate) perturbation theory. In order to solve the Schr¨dinger equation. G0 (r. r ) G0 (r . i. Here we consider the case of an open system.e. (8. r ) and therefore we write1 G−1 (r. But in the r-representation it is in fact diagonal G−1 (r. (8. E) = δ(r − r ). 0 and by inspection we see that the solution may be written as an integral equation ΨE (r) = Ψ0 (r) + E dr G0 (r. 0 1 . E) − V (r) ΨE = 0.11) (8.2 Green’s function for the one-particle Schr¨dinger equao tion Green’s functions are particular useful for problems where one looks for perturbation theory solutions. The interaction induces transitions from the incoming state to diﬀerent outgoing states. (8.11) into the G−1 ψE term of Eq. The next leading terms are also easily found by continuing the iteration procedure. One can now solve the integral equation Eq.9) This is veriﬁed by inserting ψE from Eq. (8.128 CHAPTER 8. r ) = G0 (r .10) (8. Consider for example the Schr¨dinger equation o [H0 (r) + V (r)] ΨE = EΨE . r . E) = δ(r − r ). r ) = 0 δ(r − r ).12) where Ψ0 is an eigenstate to H0 with eigenenergy E.10) and 0 then using Eq. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS 8. E) G0 (r. r . E (8. we deﬁne the corresponding Green’s funco tion by the diﬀerential equation [E − H0 (r)] G0 (r. r .7) where we know the eigenstates of H0 . where the inverse Green’s function is a function of two arguments.

H = H0 + V . GREEN’S FUNCTION FOR THE ONE-PARTICLE SCHRODINGER EQUATION129 function method is thus useful for this kind of iterative calculations and one can regard the Green’s function of the unperturbed system. [i∂t − H0 (r) − V (r)] G(r. t) + dr dt G(r. (8. The time dependent Schr¨dinger equation is o [i∂t − H0 (r) − V (r)] Ψ(r. as simple building blocks from which the solutions of more complicated problems can be build. t) = Ψ0 (r. r . Similar to Eq. see Exercise 7. t. Before we introduce the many-body Green’s function in the next section.20) . t) = i∂t − H0 (r) − V (r).¨ 8. (8. r . t )V (r )Ψ0 (r . t. t. First we observe that the following self-consistent expression is a solution to Eq.13) Ψ(r. As for the static case in Eq.2.15b) (r. (8. we continue to study the case of non-interaction particles some more and include time dependence.17).19) Noting that the last parenthesis is nothing but G itself we have derived the so-called Dyson equation G = G0 + G0 V G. (8.15a) (8. t. t ).8) we deﬁne the Green’s functions by [i∂t − H0 (r)] G0 (r. t ).1.14a) (8. (8. t) = Ψ0 (r. (8.11) we can iterate the solution and get Ψ = Ψ0 + G0 V Ψ0 + G0 V G0 V Ψ0 + G0 V G0 V G0 V Ψ0 + · · · = Ψ0 + G0 + G0 V G0 + G0 V G0 V G0 + · · · V Ψ0 . we see that the full Green’s function G is given by G = G0 + G0 V G0 + G0 V G0 V G0 + · · · = G0 + G0 V G0 + G0 V G0 + · · · . Again we consider the case where the Hamiltonian has a free particle part H0 of some perturbation V . t )V (r )Ψ(r . From these building blocks we easily build the solution of the time dependent Schr¨dinger o equation. t ) = δ(r − r )δ(t − t ). (8. By comparison with Eq.16) or in terms of the full Green’s function Ψ(r.13) (8. t ) = δ(r − r )δ(t − t ). r . r . (8. t) + dr dt G0 (r. t) = 0. The inverse of the Green’s functions are thus G−1 (r.18) where the integration variables have been suppressed. (8. G0 . t) = i∂t − H0 (r) 0 G −1 (8.17) which both can be shown by inspection.14b) (8.

see Exercise 7.14) by multiplying Eq.14b) with G0 from the left. That the Green’s function is nothing but a propagator is immediately clear when we write is it as G(rt. e. (8. (8. (8. the proof being left as an exercise. for x > L. r t ) = −iθ(t − t ) r|e−iH(t−t ) |r . GREEN’S FUNCTIONS This equation will play and important role when we introduce the Feynman diagrams later in the course.14b). if the wavefunction is know at some time then the wavefunction at later times is given by Ψ(r. suppose it was in a state |φn and time t then the propagator for ending in state |φn is G(nt. r t ) = −iθ(t − t ) n r|φn φn |r e−iEn (t−t ) .22) the Green’s function expresses the amplitude for the particle to be in state |r at time t. for x < 0.g. (8. (8. The eigenstates are for this example thus given by ψ(k) = exp(ikx).e.2. The Dyson equation can also be derived directly from Eqs. n t ) φn |r .25) Propagation from one point to another in quantum mechanics is generally expressed in terms of transmission amplitudes. (8.21) which can be checked by inserting Eq.14b). Consider an electron incident on a barrier.22) which indeed is a solution of the partial diﬀerential equation deﬁning the Green’s function. r t )Ψ(r . It is also often called a propagator because it propagates the wavefunction. Eq. given that it was in the state |r at time t . then the Green’s function becomes G(rt.21) into the Schr¨dinger equation and using the o deﬁnition Eq. t ). t exp(ikx).26) . As a simple example we end this section by a typical scattering problem in one dimension. the incoming wave is for x < 0 given by exp(ikx) while the outgoing wave on the other side x > L is given t exp(ikx). The Green’s function are related by a simple change of basis G(rt. Looking at Eq. n t ) = −iθ(t − t ) φn |e−iH(t−t ) |φn . (8. (8.130 CHAPTER 8. (8. (8. Here t is the transmission amplitude. (8. t) = dr dt G(rt. The Green’s function G(r. located between x > 0 and x < L.23) r|φn G(nt.24) If we choose the basis state |φn as the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian. t) we have deﬁned here is the non-interaction version of the retarded single particle Green’s function that will be introduced in the following section. We could of course calculate the propagator in a diﬀerent basis. r t ) = nn (8. i.

28) and the one for the propagator for the one particle wavefunction. 8. r σ t ) = −i (±1) Ψ† (r t )Ψσ (rt) . B]B = [A. Ψ† (r t )]B. σ B : bosons F : fermions (8. SINGLE-PARTICLE GREEN’S FUNCTIONS OF MANY-BODY SYSTEMS 131 When this is inserted into Eq. r σ t ) = −i Ψσ (rt)Ψ† (r t ) . t ). The retarded Green’s function is deﬁned as GR (rσt. When we deﬁne the many-body Green’s functions it is not immediately clear that they are solutions to diﬀerential equations as for the Schr¨dinger equation Green’s o functions deﬁned above.27) where G0 is the Green’s function in the absence of the scattering potential. Even though we call these Green’s functions for “single-particle Green’s functions”. (8. (8. also called Green’s functions. [A. x t ) = t G0 (x. The second type of single-particle Green’s functions is the so-called greater and lesser Green’s functions G> (rσt. they are truly many-body objects because they describe the propagation of single particles . See also Exercise 10. r σ t ) . B} = AB + BA. Let us simply carry on and deﬁne the diﬀerent types of Green’s functions that we will be working with. r σ t ) = θ t − t G> (rσt. But as you will see later they are in fact solutions of equations of motions with similar structure justifying calling them Green’s functions. from which we obtain solutions to our problems.8. From this example it is evident that the Green’s function contains information about the transmission amplitudes for the particle. (8. t.25) we see that the Green’s function for the x > L and x < 0 precisely describes propagator across the scattering region becomes G(xt.2.22). · · · ]B. B]F = {A. σ (8. σ G< (rσt. For non-interacting particles they are indeed identical.30a) (8. (8. r σ t ) − G< (rσt.3 Single-particle Green’s functions of many-body systems In many-particle physics we adopt the Green’s function philosophy and deﬁne some simple building blocks. x . There are various types of single-particle Green’s functions. in Eq. x > L and x < 0. B] = AB − BA. (8.3. The Green’s functions contain only part of the full information carried by the wave functions of the systems but they include the relevant information for the given problem. r σ t ) = −iθ t − t [Ψσ (rt).F is deﬁned as [A.28) where the (anti-) commutator [· · · .30b) We see that the retarded Green’s function can be written in terms of these two functions as GR (rσt.F .29) Notice the similarity between the many-body Green’s function Eq.

Consider therefore the Hamiltonian for free electrons (or other fermions) H= kσ ξkσ c† ckσ . kk (8. The relation between the real space retarded Green’s function and the corresponding one in a general |ν -basis as deﬁned in Eq. a† σ (t )]B. r ) can only depend on the diﬀerence r − r and in this case GR (r − r . σ t ) = −iθ t − t [akσ (t).71) is GR (σrt. (1. Since the system is translation-invariant G(r.k G(k). σt. it follows that G(k. k σ t )ei(k−k )·r .32) 8. k (8. σ t ) = 1 V eik·(r−r ) GR (k. [aνσ (t). σt.30b) are often referred to as propagators.28). k σ t )e−ik ·r . GREEN’S FUNCTIONS governed by the full many-body Hamiltonian. σt.F . ν (8. (8. because the right hand side cannot explicitly dependent on the origin and on r . 8.132 CHAPTER 8.34b) GR (k. kk 1 = V eik·(r−r ) GR (kσt. σt.31) where GR (νσt. The reason is that they give the amplitude of a particle inserted in point r at time t to propagate to position r at time t.34a) (8. The Green’s functions in Eqs. ν σ t )ψν (σ r ). kσ (8.F . (8. σ t ) = 1 V eik·r GR (kσt. ν σ t ) = −iθ t − t and similarly for G> and G< .1 Green’s function of translation-invariant systems For a system with translation-invariance the usual k-representation is a natural basis set.3. and (8. σr t ) = νν ∗ ψν (σr)GR (νσt.k ) = δk. allowing us to write GR (r − r . σ t ). kσ The other types of Green’s functions have similar forms. a† (t )]B. Therefore the single-particle functions can include all sorts of correlation eﬀects.30a).33) However. (8. In this sense GR has its name “retarded” because it is required that t > t .35) .3.2 Green’s function of free electrons A particular case often encountered in the theory of quantum liquids is the simple case of free particles.

8. This is intuitively clear from Eqs. ω) = −2πi [1 − nF (ξk )] δ (ξk − ω) .24)) ckσ (t) = eiHt ckσ e−iHt = ckσ e−iξk t . (8. An easy way to remember this is to realize that the factor k k e−iHt to the right of ck must have one more electron in state k than eiHt to the left of ck . Now G> becomes G> (kσ.e. which we denote G> to indicate that 0 it is the propagator of free electrons.41) 0 The corresponding r-dependent propagator. t − t ) = −i ckσ c† e−iξk (t−t ) . 0 k k (8.39a) (8. In exactly the kσ same way. t − t ) = −i(1 − nF (ξk ))e−iξk (t−t ) . For example. This is perhaps more clearly seen if we write the T = 0 deﬁnition of for example G> 0 G> (k. (5. t − t ) = −i G|ck (t)c† (t )|0 = −i G|ck e−iH(t−t ) c† |G eiE0 (t−t ) . 0 kσ (8. the electron propagator is in the frequency domain G> (kσ. By Fourier transforming from the time domain to the frequency domain. because it requires an empty state while G< gives the propagation of holes. kω ρ 2m (8. which expresses propagation of a particle in real space is given by G> (r − r . we get information about the possible energies of the propagating particle. t 0 − t ) = −iθ(t − t )e −iξk (t−t ) (8. k .38) and because the Hamiltonian is diagonal in k and the occupation of free electrons is given by the Fermi-Dirac distribution.3. SINGLE-PARTICLE GREEN’S FUNCTIONS OF MANY-BODY SYSTEMS 133 and the corresponding greater function in k-space. ρ = |r − r |. (8.39b) . = ω.40) which precisely is the overlap between a state with an added electron in state k and with a state with an added electron in k and allowing time to evolve from t to t. i. 0 GR (kσ. we of course have ckσ c† = 1 − nF (ξk ). Because the Hamiltonian is diagonal in the quantum numbers k and σ so is the Green’s function and therefore G> (kσ. because it is proportional to the number of electrons. ω) 0 = −2πi dk (1 − nF (ξk ))eik·(r−r ) δ (ξk − ω) (2π)3 2 sin(kω ρ) kω = d(ω) (1 − nF (ω)) . 0 kσ (8.42) . Here |G denotes the groundstate of the free electrons. (8. (8. we can evaluate G< and ﬁnally GR 0 0 G> (kσ. |G = |FS .36) Because of the simple form of the Hamiltonian we are able to ﬁnd the time dependence of the c-operators (see Eq. t − t ) = −i ckσ (t)c† (t ) . 0 G< (kσ. t − t ) = inF (ξk )e−iξk (t−t ) .39c) We see that G> gives the propagation of electrons.39) because the propagators evolve periodically in time with the period given by the energy of the electron.37) and similarly c† (t) = c† eiξk t . the ﬁlled Fermi sea.

46) nn nn n|cν |n n |c† |n ν e−βEn + e−βEn ω + En − En + iη . e−βEn n |c† |n n|cν |n δ(En − En − ω). ν (8.3.134 CHAPTER 8. d. H. the interference function sin (x) /x that gives the amplitude of a spherical wave spreading out from the point r .43) In the frequency domain. see also Eq. G> (νtνt ). Let us for example study the diagonal Green’s function. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS where d(ε) = m3/2 ε/2/π 2 is the density of states per spin in three dimensions. If we insert 1 = n |n n| we get G> (ν. ν (8. the availability of an empty state (1 − nF ).45) dt ei(ω+iη)t 1 Z e−βEn nn n|cν |n n |c† |n ei(En −En )t ν + 1 = Z = 1 Z n|c† |n ν e −βEn n |cν |n e−i(En −En )t n|cν |n n |c† |n n|c† |n n |cν |n ν ν + ω + En − En + iη ω − En + En + iη . t ) = −i cν (t)c† (t ) = −i ν 1 = −i Z e nn −βEn 1 Z n|e−βH aν (t)a† (t )|n ν n n|cν |n n |a† |n ei(En −En )(t−t ) . c) G< (ν.44) In the same way we have (for fermions. which is just another name for using the set of eigenstates.31). The retarded Green’s function becomes (again for fermions) GR (ν. ω) = = 2πi Z 2πi Z e−βEn n|c† |n ν nn n |cν |n δ(En − En − ω).3. of the full Hamiltonian. ω) = −2πi Z e−βEn n|aν |n nn n |c† |n δ(En − En + ω). 8. ω) = −i 0 ∞ (8. (8. t. as basis set.3 The Lehmann representation A method we will often be using when proving formal results is the so-called Lehmann representation. ν nn 2πi = Z e−β(En +ω) n |c† |n n|cν |n δ(En − En − ω). (2. See also Exercise 7. ω)e−βω . we obtain G> (ν. ν nn = −G> (ν. The propagation from point r to r of a particle with energy ω is thus determined by the density of states. {|n }.

ω) [1 − nF (ω)] . (8. ω) = A(ν.52) Thus for the idealized case of non-interaction free electrons. ω) = −2 Im GR (kσ. This result is true for any quadratic Hamiltonian.4 The spectral function The spectral function A(ν.3. see Exercise 7. Again the spectral function is given by a simple delta function A0 (ν. ω) = A(ν. (8. ω) can be thought of as either the quantum state resolution of a particle with given energy ω or as the energy resolution for a particle in a given quantum number ν.47) n|cν |n nn n |c† |n e−βEn (1 + e−βω )δ (ω + En − En ) . ω) = −i 0 = ∞ −∞ dtθ(t − t )eiω(t−t ) e−iξk (t−t )η(t−t ) (8. we have derived the important general relations iG> (ν.49) (8. as expected. ω) = 2πδ(ω − ξν ). i. SINGLE-PARTICLE GREEN’S FUNCTIONS OF MANY-BODY SYSTEMS 1 Taking the imaginary part of this and using (ω + iη)−1 = P ω − iπδ(ω). ω)nF (ω). (8. −iG (ν.8.e. the spectral function is a delta function.53) ν ν where ν labels the eigenstates of the system. ω) = −2 Im GR (ν. 0 (8.50a) (8. ω). which tells us that an excitation with energy ω can only happen by adding an electron to the state k given by ξk = ω.39c) GR (kσ.3. For example if we look at the retarded propagator for free electrons in Eq. It gives an indication of how well the excitation created by adding a particle in state ν can be described by a free non-interacting particle. Similar relations hold for bosons.51) 1 . If we for example have H0 = ξν c† cν . ω − ξk + iη the corresponding spectral function is A0 (kσ.4 < (8. ω) = − =− 2π Z 2π Z n|cν |n nn n |c† |n ν e−βEn + e−βEn δ (ω + En − En ) (8. ω). ν (8.50b) 8.48) = −i(1 + e−βω )G> (ν. ω) = 2πδ(ω − ξk ). non-interacting system. Deﬁning the spectral function A as A(ν.54) . we get 135 2 Im GR (ν.

57) is approximately unity and since A(ν. 13 this is discussed in much more detail. the spectral function is similar to the density of states at a given energy. εν EF .56) + c† cν = cν c† + c† cν = 1.136 CHAPTER 8. (8. We of course expect that if the state |ν is far below the Fermi surface. (8. the deﬁnition of the spectral function. In Chap.g. because if εν EF and the width of A(ν.46).57) The physical interpretation is that the occupation of a quantum state |ν is an energy integral of the spectral density of single particle states projected onto the state |ν and weighted by the occupation at the given energy. electronphonon interaction. ν ν ν where the last equality follows from the Fermi operator commutation relations. due to interactions the spectral function diﬀers from a delta function. it is always positive as one must require. = −∞ 2π (8. the expected result follows. ω) = 1. Eq. Firstly.50b) nν = c† cν = −iG< (ν. then c† cν ≈ 1. ω)nF (ω). but it may still be a peaked function. (8. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS Generally. We will now show that the spectral function is a like a probability distribution. This is evident since the occupation nν of a given state ν is for fermions given by (8. e. ν it obeys the sum rule ∞ dω A(ν. see above.49) and the fact that n |cν |n n |c† |n = | n |cν |n |2 .55) −∞ 2π This formula is easily derived by considering the Lehmann representation of −2 Im GR in Eq.3. which redistributes the spectral weight because of energy exchange . ω) −∞ 2π ∞ 1 = dω n|cν |n n |c† |n ν Z −∞ nn ∞ e−βEn + e−βEn × δ (ω + En − En ) 1 = n|cν |n n |c† |n ν Z = nn cν c† ν e−βEn + e−βEn (8. ω) is also small compared to EF then the Fermi function in (8. ω) = −i −∞ 2π ∞ dω A(ν. which then indicates that the non-interacting approximation is not too far from the truth. This follows from Eq. 8.47) ∞ −∞ dω A(ν.5 Broadening of the spectral function When interactions are present the spectral function changes from the ideal delta function to a broadened proﬁle.g. One possible mechanism of broadening in a metal is by e. Furthermore. t = 0) ¯ ν ∞ dω < G (ν. ω) integrates to 2π. ω) = − 2π dω 2 Im GR (ν. (8. This in fact follows from ν the sum rule. Secondly.

1 Tunneling spectroscopy The tunnel experiment set-up consists of two conducting materials brought into close contact such that electrons can tunnel from one to the other. As a simple example we consider a Green’s function which decays in time due to processes that scatters the particle out of the state ν.1. MEASURING THE SINGLE-PARTICLE SPECTRAL FUNCTION 137 between the electron and the phonon system. For example when a photon is absorbed and an electron is kicked out from an occupied state to e. However. ω) = −2 Im −∞ dteiωt GR (ν.4.59) Thus the width in energy space is given by τ −1 . one must have a way of measuring how the electrons propagate as a function of energy. the free electron picture is still a good distribution in many cases and in particular for metals. which is reﬂected in a broadening of the spectral function. For example the response to an electromagnetic ﬁeld couples to the charge or current. There are not too many ways for doing this because most experiments measure density or other two-particle properties. which is quite surprising since the Coulomb interaction between the electrons is a rather strong interaction. 13.8. Such a decaying Green’s function corresponds to a ﬁnite width of the spectral function ∞ A(ν. in some cases also optical experiments approximately measures the single particle density of states. Amazingly. The simple notion of single electron propagators becomes less well deﬁned for interacting systems. .58) where τ is the characteristic decay time.g. Another mechanism for broadening is the electron-electron interaction. a solid state sample say. (ω − ξν )2 + (1/τ )2 (8. 8.4. t) ≈ −iθ(t)e−iξν t e−t/τ . In practice this means taking out or inserting a particle with deﬁnite energy. measures charge-charge or current-current correlation functions. In this situation the retarded Green’s function becomes GR (ν. This can be achieved by a so-called tunnel junction device or by subjecting the sample to a beam of electrons. which is to insert/remove a single electron into/out of a many-body system. This is illustrated in Fig. 8. which. See Chap. a freely propagating state outside the material. 13 on Fermi liquid theory. 8. In principle there is only one way to measure the single particle properties. t) ≈ 2 Im i 0 ∞ dteiωt e−iξν t e−t/τ = 2/τ . both being two particle propagators. In the following we study in detail the tunneling case where an electron tunnels from one material to the other and show how the tunneling current is expressed in terms of the spectral functions and thus provides a direct measurement of these.4 Measuring the single-particle spectral function In order to probe the single-particle properties of a many-body system. (8. as we saw in the previous chapter. The reason for this will be discussed later in the Chap.

GREEN’S FUNCTIONS Figure 8. e. since the tunnel matrix element is exponentially suppressed with distance between the two systems. an oxide or for the so-called scanning tunneling microscope (STM) simply vacuum. ˙ where I = N1 . The coupling between the system is assumed to be very weak. involving electron operators.µ + Tνµ c† c1.ν 2. The current through the device is deﬁned by the rate of change of particles. H1 and H2 .µ This is the most general one-particle operator which couples the two systems.ν and c2. 1. c1.µ .µ ≡ −i(L − L† ).62) % $ #¢ " 0 & % "$ )' & ( ¡ £££ £££££££ £ ££ §¨© ¦ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ 4 ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ! ¨ ¨2¨ 31 ¢ ¤¤¤¤ ¤¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ££ £ £ £ £ £ §¨© £ ¦ £¥ £ £ ££ ¤ § 2¨ ¨ )1 . The tunnel matrix element is deﬁned as Tνµ = ∗ dr ψν (r)H(r)ψµ (r). N1 ] = i[H12 .µ + Tνµ c† c1.138 CHAPTER 8.ν 1. separated by an insulating material.g.ν 2.ν = −i νµ Tνµ c† c2. Two systems are brought into close contact. The right panel illustrates the electron wavefunctions in the two subsystems which have a small overlap in the insulator region. The current operator itself is already linear in Tνµ and therefore we need only one more order.1: Measurement setup for the tunnel experiment. c† c1.ν . Therefore we calculate the current to lowest order in the coupling. with H(r) being the (ﬁrst quantization) one-particle Hamiltonian.61) (8. In the tunneling Hamiltonian this is modelled by the matrix element Tνν . The current passing from 1 to 2 is driven by a shift of chemical potential diﬀerence. N1 ] = i νµ ν ∗ Tνµ c† c2.µ 1. Ie = −e I . which gives rise to a term in the Hamiltonian of the form H12 = νµ ∗ Tνµ c† c2.ν 2.ν .60) (8. The coupling between the two sides of the junction is due to the ﬁnite overlap of the wavefunctions. and hence I = i[H.µ 1.ν − ∗ Tνµ c† c1. which means that µ1 = µ2 . This $ 0 & % "$ 0 ' & (8. Systems 1 and 2 are described by their respective Hamiltonians.

µ c eq − c† (t )ˆ1.4. L(t ) − eq = −θ(t − t ) Now the combination ˆ ˆ L(t).µ c ˆ1. Naturally the number of particles is a conserved quantity and matrix elements of this type must vanish.µ (t )ˆ† (t) ˆ c2.66a) (8.8. ˆ ˜ c2 (t) = c2 (t)e−i(−e)V2 t . Furthermore. eq = 2 Re −∞ dt θ(t − t ) νµ ν µ ∗ Tνµ Tν µ eq c† (t)ˆ2. (8. The correlation function CIH12 can be simpliﬁed a bit as R CIp H12 (t − t ) = −θ(t − t ) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ L(t) − L† (t).63a) (8.64) involves terms of the form t .µ (t ) ˆ2. H12 (t )] where the time development is governed by H = H1 + H2 . ˆ ˜ (8. eq (8. we are of course allowed to choose a basis set where the Green’s This is in fact not true for superconductors which are characterized by having a spontaneous breaking of the symmetry corresponding to the conservation of particles and therefore such two-particle tunnel processes are allowed and give rise to the so-called Josephson current.65) Now the time dependence due to the shift in energy by the applied voltages is explicitly pulled out such that c1 (t) = c1 (t)e−i(−e)V1 t .ν 1. L(t ) eq ˆ ˆ L† (t). c† c2. L(t ) eq + c.63b) R ˆ ˆ CIp H12 (t − t ) = −iθ(t − t ) [Ip (t). L(t ) ∗ Tνµ Tν µ νµ ν µ eq dt θ(t − t ) −∞ ∞ c† (t)ˆ1.ν (t)ˆ† (t ) ˆ c1.µ (t ) ˆ2. .2 We are therefore left with ∞ Ip (t) = 2 Re = 2 Re dt θ(t − t ) −∞ ∞ ˆ ˆ L† (t).µ (t) c† c2.µ 1.c. L(t ) + L† (t ) ˆ ˆ L(t).µ eq (8.ν eq with two electrons created in system 1 and two electrons annihilated in system 2 and therefore is does not conserve the number of particles in each system.ν c c1.66b) with the time dependence of c being given by the Hamiltonian with a common chemical ˜ potential µ. t ). 6 the particle current is to ﬁrst order in H12 given by ∞ I (t) = −∞ R dt CIp H12 (t. According to the general Kubo formula derived in chap. 2 . c† (t )ˆ2.ν (t) ˆ1.ν c eq c2. MEASURING THE SINGLE-PARTICLE SPECTRAL FUNCTION 139 means that linear response theory is applicable.ν .ν (t).

The tunnel spectroscopy technique amounts to a sweep of an external voltage which controls the chemical potential while measuring the diﬀerential conductance dI/dV . . and that the density of states peaks near the gap. 1 2 1 2 (8. without H12 ) is diagonal. The ν νν particle current then becomes (after change of variable t → t + t) 0 Ip = 2 Re dt −∞ νµ |Tνµ |2 ei(−e)(V1 −V2 )t G> (ν.5. t ) . given by the diﬀerence of occupation functions.69) we see that the current is determined by two factors: the availability of states.140 CHAPTER 8. ω + eV ) ≈ const. ω)G> (µ. νµ (8. (8. see Eq. ω)G< (µ.67) After Fourier transformation (and reinsertion of the convergence factor eηt ) this expression becomes ∞ dω Ip = |Tνµ |2 G> (ν. −t )G< (µ. µ (8. ω + eV ) − G< (ν.e. t ) − G< (ν.e. 8. Therefore by sweeping the voltage across the junction one gets information about A(ν. −eV ). ω + eV ) . If the other material is a simple material where one can assume the density of states to be more or less constant.72) dV ν So the spectral function can in fact be measured in a rather direct way.71) becomes dI ∝ A1 (ν.3 and Exercise 7. ω) A2 (µ. This is a widely used spectroscopic principle in for example the study of superconductors where it was used to verify the famous prediction of the BCS theory of superconductivity that there is an excitation gap in the superconductor. ω).71) At low temperatures where the derivative of the Fermi function tends to a delta function and (8.70) then dI ∝ dV ∞ dω − −∞ ∂nF (ω + eV ) ∂ω A1 (ν. and by the density of states at a given energy. ω). and we ﬁnally arrive at ∞ Ip = −∞ dω 2π |Tνµ |2 A1 (ν. Also it is used to study small structures such as quantum dots where the individual quantum levels become visible due to size quantization. The lesser and greater Green’s functions are now written in terms of the spectral function.50). (8. −t )G> (µ. (8. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS function of the decoupled system (i. see Exercise 4. which is illustrated in Fig. i. (8.68) 1 2 1 2 −∞ 2π νµ with the voltage given by V = V2 − V1 . ν (8.69) In Eq.2. ω + eV )[nF (ω + eV ) − nF (ω)]. |Tνµ |2 A2 (ν. G> = δνν G> .

4. ω). For example. t). 8. (6. which was shown in Chap. because the dissipation. One important type of higher order Green’s functions are the correlation functions.73) where A is some two particle operator.8. the % $ # ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥¥ ¥ ¥ ! " ! & ¥ §§¥¥©¨§¦§¦§¦¥¥¥ ¤ ¢ ¡£ ¢ Optical spectroscopy Two-particle correlation functions of many-body systems &¥ ' ' .48) given by (take for simplicity the 3 Because the power dissipated at any given point in space and time is P (r. we saw that the response to electromagnetic radiation was determined by the auto correlation function of the charge and current densities. It is seen how the diﬀerential conductance is a direct measure of ν A1 (ν.2 While the response to an electromagnetic ﬁeld in principle is always given by the dielectric function. t ) = −iθ(t − t ) A(t).t) = Je (r. The two right most panels show the resulting current and the diﬀerential conductance trace. 6. is according to Eq. The left panel shows the two density of states in the two materials. A(t ) . which is the real part of the conductivity3 . Such an example is photo emission spectroscopy.5 While the single-particle Green’s functions deﬁned above measure the properties of individual particles the higher order Green’s functions give the response of the quantum system to processes involving several particles. t) · E(r. (6. (8. we evaluate the polarization function χ = Cρρ for a non-interacting electron gas (see Eq. In order to treat a speciﬁc case.2: The principle used in tunneling spectroscopy.5. where there is little variations with energy and the experiment can therefore be used to get information about the density of states of the left material. Typical correlation functions that we will meet are of the type CAA (t. TWO-PARTICLE CORRELATION FUNCTIONS OF MANY-BODY SYSTEMS141 Figure 8.39)). there are cases where it is well approximated by the one-particle spectral function. which was encountered in the linear response chapter. The right one is metal. 8. This function gives for example information about the dissipation due to an applied ﬁeld.

ω) = |E(q. t − t ) = −iθ(t − t )e2 0 1 V nF (ξk ) − nF (ξk+q ) ei(ξk −ξk+q )(t−t ) . ρ(q2 . c† σ ck −q σ ] ei(ξk −ξk+q )t e kσ k kk σσ i(ξk −ξk −q )t . ω)|2 σ(q.96) ρ(q) = kσ c† ck+qσ . t − t ) = −iθ(t − t )e2 V The Fourier transform of the charge operator was derived in Eq.76) χR (q.74) In momentum space the polarization is given by χR (q. t) = kσ c† ck+qσ ei(ξk −ξk+q )t . when inserted into (8. ρ(r . t). t − t ) = −iθ(t − t )e2 0 1 V [c† ck+qσ .µ . t − t ) = dr χ(r − r . Due to the translation-invariance the result cannot depend on r and one sees that q2 = −q (or formally one can integrate over r and divide by volume to get a delta function. δq2 +q. (8. kσ (8. t). ρ(−q.80) total energy being dissipated is Z Z Z dω 1 X ∗ dω 1 X W = drdt E(r.ν − c† cµ δν . ω) 2π V q 2π V q . ω) = − CHAPTER 8.77) For free electrons.37)) ρ(q. ρ(q2 . t ) . t ) 1 V2 e−iq·(r−r ) . the time dependence is given by (see Eq.75) = −iθ(t − t ) = −iθ(t − t ) 1 = −iθ(t − t ) V ρ(q1 .79) where the subindex “0” indicates that we are using the free electron approximation. ω) · Je (q. c† cµ ] = c† cµ δµ. t) · Je (r. (8. q2 (8.0 ) and thus 1 ρ(q. t)= E (q. t ) q2 ei(q2 +q)·r . (8.142 translation-invariant case) Re σ (q. dr dr ρ(r. yields χR (q. eiq1 ·r+iq2 ·r e−iq·(r−r ) . (8.78) which. t − t )e−iq·(r−r ) . The commutator is easily evaluated using the formula. [c† cµ . kσ (8. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS ωe2 Im χR (q. ν ν ν ν and we ﬁnd χR (q. kσ (8. ω). (1. t).76). t ) q1 q2 ρ(q. t).

(8. while the latter corresponds to ω > 0.3: Absorption of a photon creates an electron-hole pair excitation in the free electron gas.e.82) . (8.82) because c† ck = nF (ξk ). −ω). (8.81). (8. i. we will study it in much more detail. when discussing the elementary excitations of the electron gas. see Eq. for example ω > 0. kσ We can now analyze for what q and ω excitations are possible. kσ nF (ξk ) − nF (ξk+q ) kσ ξk − ξk+q + ω + iη . because of the symmetry χR (q. and later on. The possible range of q and ω is given by the dashed area in the right plot.ω) = π V nF (ξk ) − nF (ξk+q ) δ(ξk − ξk+q + ω).82) is non-zero. ω) Eq.81) (8. In the frequency space. TWO-PARTICLE CORRELATION FUNCTIONS OF MANY-BODY SYSTEMS143 4 Figure 8.83) . Within the non-interacting approximation and according to Eq. However. we need only study one case. for which (q. The ﬁrst case corresponds to ω < 0.74) we then have that the dissipation of the electron gas is proportional to − Im χR (q. ω) = −χR (−q. Let us take T = 0 where nF is either zero or one. we ﬁnd k χR (q. This function is known as the Lindhard function. q > 2kF .8. The strength of the interaction depends on the imaginary part of the polarization function. which means that nF (ξk ) − nF (ξk+q ) is only non-zero if (k > kF and |k + q| < kF ) or (k < kF and |k + q| > kF ). ω) = −i 0 1 = V ∞ t dt eiωt 1 V nF (ξk ) − nF (ξk+q ) ei(ξk −ξk+q )(t−t ) e−η(t−t ) . (8. The delta function together with the second condition thus imply 0 < ω = q2 1 1 +k·q ⇒ 2m m ωmax = ωmin = 1 2 2m q + vF q 1 2 2m q − vF q £¢¡ £ ¦ ¥¤ ¡ § © ¨ 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 (8.5. which is easily seen from 0 0 Eq.

The physical picture to remember is that the Green’s function G (rσt. The excitations which give rise to the dissipation are electron-hole pair excitations. The Green’s functions describe the dynamical properties of excitations. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS The possible range of excitations in (q.8.3. with initial spin σ and ﬁnal spin σ. namely the plasmon excitation. Ψ† (r t )]B. There is one particular type of excitation which is immensely important. and we will use Green’s functions in practically all discussions in the remaining part of the course.F σ G> (rσt. This we study in great detail later in this course.ω)-space is shown in Fig. We have so far seen two examples of this: the density of states is related to the spectral function and it can be measured for example in a tunneling experiment. ω) = −2 Im GR (ν. For non-interacting electrons the spectral function is given by a Dirac delta function A0 (ν. where the change of momentum and energy of an incoming photon is measured. In this chapter we have deﬁned the following many-body Green’s functions GR (rσt. 8. The important spectral function is in the frequency domain and in a diagonal basis given by A(ν. ω) = 2πδ(ξν − ω) non-interacting case .144 CHAPTER 8. σ r t ) = −i (±1) Ψ† (r t )Ψσ (rt) σ retarded Green’s function greater Green’s function lesser Green’s function and their corresponding Fourier transforms. 8.83). and secondly the absorption of electromagnetic radiation is given by the charge-charge correlation function. r σ t ) = −iθ (t − t ) [Ψσ (rt). is illustrated in the hand side of Fig. σ r t ) = −i Ψσ (rt)Ψ† (r t ) σ G< (rσt. While the electron-hole pair excitations are the only possible source of dissipation in the non-interacting electron gas. where an electron within the Fermi sea is excited to a state outside the Fermi sea. ω) spectral function The spectral function is related to the density of states.6 Summary and outlook The concept of Green’s functions in many-body physics has been introduced in this chapters. r σ t ) gives the amplitude for propagation from the space-time point r t to rt. There is a continuum of such excitations given by conditions in (8. this is certainly not true for the interacting case which is more complicated. The excitation of the electrons gas can be measured by for example inelastic light scattering (Raman scattering).3. The process discussed here where an electron within the Fermi sea is scattering to an empty state outside the Fermi sea.

r t ) = −iθ t − t [Ψ(rt). one of which is the equation of motion technique.F .2) [Ψ(rt). r t ) = (−i) i∂t θ(t − t ) = δ(t − t )δ(r − r )+ + (−i) θ(t − t ) [i∂t Ψ(rt). There are several ways of attacking this problem.3) . Ψ† (r t )]B. Ψ† (r ) B.F = δ(r − r ). Ψ† (r t )]B. Ψ(r)] (t) = −[H0 .F . (9.28) GR (rt. Ψ† (r t )]B.F . and if not. For example one can neglect certain correlations.1 The single-particle Green’s function Let us consider the retarded Green’s function GR for either fermions or bosons. Here we used that the derivative of a step function is a delta function and the commutation relations for ﬁeld operators at equal times Ψ(r). We shall study examples of both situations in this chapter. Ψ(r)](t). Next.1) We ﬁnd the equation of motion for GR as the derivative with respect to the ﬁrst time argument i∂t GR (rt. If these equations close the problem is in principle solvable. Eq.Chapter 9 Equation of motion theory In the previous chapters we saw how various physical observables can be expressed in terms of retarded Green’s functions and correlation functions. Ψ(r)](t) − [Vint . 9. Ψ† (r t )]B. let us study the time-derivative of the annihilation operator (throughout this chapter we assume that H is time independent) i∂t Ψ(rt) = − [H. (9. 145 (9. one needs to invoke physical arguments to truncate the set of equations in a reasonable fashion. In many cases we need to calculate the time-dependence of these functions. (8. The basic idea of this method is to generate a series of coupled diﬀerential equations by diﬀerentiating the correlation function at hand a number of times.F + (−i) θ(t − t ) [i∂t Ψ(rt).

ν (9. If H0 is the usual kinetic energy Hamiltonian of free particles. r t ) = δ(t − t )δ(r − r ) + DR (rt. The Hamiltonian is again written as H = H0 + Vint .146 CHAPTER 9. EQUATION OF MOTION THEORY where the interaction part of the Hamiltonian includes all the interactions in the given problem. continue the generation of diﬀerential equations.5a) (9.8) ν and hence (iδνν ∂t − tνν ) GR (ν t. ν (9. a† (t ) ν B. Ψ(r)](t).6) The diﬀerential equation for the Green’s function in this basis GR (νt.9b) DR (νt. (9. DR (rt. GR .F The function DR thus equals the corrections to the free particle Green’s function. Therefore the Green’s function can only depend on the time diﬀerence t−t and in this case . After evaluating [Vint . It is now evident why the many-body functions.7) is found in exactly the same way as above. ν t ) = −iθ(t − t ) −[Vint . Ψ† (r t ) . aν ](t). where the Green’s function of a diﬀerential operator. By diﬀerentiation the commutator with H0 is generated −[H0 . where the quadratic part of the Hamiltonian is H0 = νν tν ν a † a ν .5b) B. r t ) = −iθ(t − t ) −[Vint . for example the kinetic energy.9a) . ν t ) = −iθ(t − t ) [aν (t). aν ] = tνν aν .4) In this case the equation of motion becomes i∂t + 1 2m 2 r GR (rt. was deﬁned as LG = delta function. are called Green’s functions. a† (t )]B.1.F In this course we will mainly deal with problems where the Hamiltonian does not depend explicitly on time (linear response was an exception. Ψ(r)] we can. Ψ(r)] = 1 dr Ψ† (r ) 2m 1 2 =− Ψ(r). ν t ). r t ). 2m r 2 r Ψ(r ). say {ν}. L. ν t ) = δ(t − t )δνν + DR (νt.F ν (9. (9. but even there the time dependent problem was transformed into a correlation function of a time independent problem). Often it is convenient to work in some other basis. (9. 5. as in Sec. we have −[H0 . The equation in (9. Ψ(r) (9.5. while H0 describes the quadratic part of the Hamiltonian.5a) has the structure of the classical Green’s function we saw in Sec. 8.

e. a† (t ) ν B. We can write the equation of motion in frequency domain [δνν (ω + iη) − tνν ] GR (ν ν .11) becomes GR 0 −1 GR = 1. the solution is 0 GR 0 νν = GR (ν. tνν = δνν εν . 9.14) which of course agrees with the result found in Eq. ν . which means that the Hamiltonian is bilinear in annihilation or creation operators. 1 . ω) δνν = 0 1 δ .2 Anderson’s model for magnetic impurities In order to exemplify the usefulness of the equation of motion technique. ω). We return to this in Chap. For the Green’s function in a superconductor we should therefore solve the linear problem in a way similar to the Bogoliubov transformation introduced in Chap. 0 (9. Recalling that when performing the Fourier transformation of the derivative it becomes ∂t → −iω. in order to ﬁnd the Green’s function all we need to do is to invert the matrix −1 GR νν .51). 15. 9. ω) = δνν (ω + iη) − tνν ≡ GR 0 −1 νν (9. i.11) where the subindex 0 on GR indicates that it is the Green’s function corresponding to a 0 non-interacting Hamiltonian. 8. (8. ν (9. ω) = δνν 0 ν (9. we can in fact solve for the Green’s function1 .10a) . 4 we saw that such a term is indeed relevant for superconductors. (9. aν ](t).10b) DR (ν. 4.12) and in matrix notation Eq. η. and that the Fourier transform of a delta function is unity. δ(t) → 1.13) Therefore.2. In Chap.F Here it is important to remember that the frequency of the retarded functions must carry a small positive imaginary part. (9. ω) = δνν + DR (ν. As in Sec. ANDERSON’S MODEL FOR MAGNETIC IMPURITIES 147 it is always useful to work with the Fourier transforms.1.1 Non-interacting particles For non-interacting particles. we proceed by solving a famous model for the appearance of a magnetic moment of impurities of certain Here we only consider terms of the form c† c but also anomalous terms like cc could be included. ω − εν + iη νν (9. For a diagonal basis. to ensure proper convergence.9.1 we deﬁne the inverse Green’s function as GR 0 −1 (νν . ω) = −i ∞ −∞ dtei(ω+iη)(t−t ) θ(t − t ) −[Vint . In this case we have (δνν (ω + iη) − tνν ) GR (ν ν . ν .

The coupling occurs because the d-orbital and the conduction band states overlap spatially and also lie close in energy.15) (9. indicated by the dashed areas.148 CHAPTER 9.16) t∗ c† cdσ . e. The impurity ion Hamiltonian is thus modelled as Hd + HU = σ where ndσ = c† cdσ is the number operator for d-electrons.17) . kσ (εd − µ) c† cdσ + U nd↑ n↓ .g. dσ tk c† ckσ + dσ kσ (9. Nb or Mo. which is typically the d shell. couple to the level of the magnetic impurity ion. e. But the energy of electrons residing on the impurity ion also depends on whether it is doubly occupied or not. EQUATION OF MOTION THEORY Figure 9. as seen in (b). In addition to the bare energy cost for an electron to reside in the d-state. the d-shell of a Fe ion.g. The bare onsite energy of the state on the magnetic ion is d . k kσ (9. giving rise to a “hybridization” between the two. The host metal. The electrons in the conduction band of the non-magnetic host metal. The overlapping orbitals leads to a non-diagonal matrix element of the Hamiltonian Hhyb = kσ ¦ ¨ ¥ '( © £ £¥ " & $% $ # ¨ " ! ¡ ¥ ¦ ( ¥ ¨ ¢ § £ ¥¤¢ ¡ (εk − µ) c† ckσ . and hence interactions are less important for those. there is an interaction energy that depends on the state being doubly occupied or not. The states forming the conduction band are primarily s-states that are more extended in space. The crucial input is here dσ the correlation between electrons on the impurity ion. magnetic ions embedded in a non-magnetic host metal.1: The Anderson model describing magnetic impurities embedded in a homogeneous host metal. which can be described by an eﬀective non-interacting model Hc = kσ For the impurity ion we assume that it has only one spin-degenerate state in the active shell. because the interaction in the narrower d-shell of a magnetic ion is particular strong and this is in fact the reason for the magnetism. has a conduction band. therefore the state with two electrons residing on the ion has energy 2 d + U . The electrons occupying the conduction band couple to the outer-most electrons of the magnetic impurity ions.

Although the Anderson model looks simple.57) in terms of the spectral function. which follows from the retarded Green’s function. c† t } . For the d-electron occupation we therefore have dω nF (ω) A(dσ.9. ω) = 1 + U DR (dσ. . ω).23) (ω + iη − εk + µ) GR (kσ. which on the other hand is complicated by the fact that the hopping in and out of the impurity orbital with. dσ (9.22) (9. dσ.10) run over both d and k and we obtain the coupled equations (ω + iη − εd + µ) GR (dσ.21) The equation of motion are thus found by letting ν in Eq. The Anderson model has been used to describe numerous eﬀects in the physics of strongly correlated electron systems.49). The occupation of a quantum state was found in Eq. it is favorable to ﬁll the orbital by two electrons.1 for an illustration. and it is not possible if 2εd + U > 2µ. t − t ) = −iθ t − t {cdσ (t) . namely GR (kσ. (9. spin up electrons depends on the occupation of spin down electrons. The sum of these three energy contributions H = Hc + Hd + HU + Hhyb (9. GR . ω) − t∗ GR (dσ. is below the chemical potential and from the kinetic energy point of view. c† t } . (8.2 It turns out that for certain values of the parameters it is energetically favorable for the system to have a magnetic moment (and thus minimizing the on-site interaction energy) while for other values there is no magnetic moment (thus gaining maximum hybridization energy). 9. Furthermore. dσ.20) Let us write the equation of motion of this function using Eq. (9. ω) is the spectral function. See Fig. but the solution ﬁlls an entire book. The hybridization therefore seems to randomize the spin on the magnetic ion. see Eq. (8. k 2 The model in fact has a known exact solution. (9. this costs potential energy.2. ω). The physical question we try to answer here is: Under which circumstances is the material magnetic? 9. εd .2. (9. ω) − k tk GR (kσ. ω) = 0. its full solution is very complicated and in fact the model has a very rich phase diagram. and it is hard to extract useful physical information from this solution.18) is known as the Anderson model. say. All we need to ﬁnd is then GR (dσ.19) ndσ = 2π where A(dσ. t − t ) = −iθ t − t {ckσ (t) . dσ. the system gains further kinetic energy by the hybridization.1 The equation of motion for the Anderson model The magnetization in the z-direction is given by the expectation value of the diﬀerence n↑ − n↓ between spin up and down occupancy. U . dσ (9.10 ). However. Due to the hybridization term the Hamiltonian is not diagonal in the d-operators and the equations of motion will involve another Green’s function. ANDERSON’S MODEL FOR MAGNETIC IMPURITIES 149 The bare d-electron energy.

d↑ (9. ΣR (ω) .26) with respect to time would generate yet another function {[H.28) in Eq. The diagonal modes are instead superpositions of c. c† (t )} . cd↑ ] = −U nd↓ cd↑ . and solving Eq. It arises because the coupling to the c-electrons introduces oﬀ diagonal terms in the Hamiltonian. (9.29) and likewise for the spin-down Green’s function.2 Mean-ﬁeld approximation for the Anderson model Diﬀerentiating the function in Eq. ω) = −i ∞ −∞ CHAPTER 9. nd↓ (t) d↑ (t)]. ω − εk + µ + iη (9.26) 9. EQUATION OF MOTION THEORY dtei(ω+iη)(t−t ) θ t − t −[nd↑ nd↓ .30a) (9. since the mean-ﬁeld approximation makes the Hamiltonian quadratic we can include U nd↓ (t) to the energy of the spin-up d-electrons in our equation of motion. t − t . ω − εk + µ + iη The function is our ﬁrst encounter with the concept known as “self-energy”. t − t ) = −iθ t − t {nd↓ (t) cd↑ (t). ω) = 1. (9. (9. ω) = . (9.23) for GR (d ↑. However a mean-ﬁeld approximation still grasps the important physics that the spin-up electron population depends on the spin-down population. cdσ ](t). is seen to be renormalized by two eﬀects: ﬁrst the energy is shifted by U nd↓ due to the interaction with the averaged density of electrons having opposite spin.150 where DR (dσ.27) (9. and the set of equations does not σ close. The ﬁnal answer is 1 GR (d ↑. εd . d† (t )} to be determined. and secondly. ω) gives ω + iη − εd + µ − U nd↓ GR (d ↑. ω − εd + µ − U nd↓ − ΣR (ω) ΣR (ω) = k (9. the function DR becomes DR (d ↑. (9. cd↑ ] = nd↓ [nd↑ . Inserting (9.30b) |tk |2 . ω) − k |tk |2 GR (d ↑. The self-energy changes the pole of GR and furthermore gives some broadening to the spectral function.and d-states. We thus face the following more complicated Green’s function DR (d ↑.22).28) With this truncation.24) The commutator in this expression is for σ =↑ [nd↑ nd↓ . d↑ In other words. (9. so that it is no longer diagonal in the d-operators. c† (t )} = nd↓ GR d ↑.2. Due to this term the “bare” d-electron energy. c† (t ) dσ . In the time domain the imaginary part translates into a life-time. t − t ) = −iθ(t − t ) nd↓ {cd↑ (t). the coupling to the conduction band electrons gives through Σ(ω) an energy shift and most importantly an imaginary part.25) and likewise we ﬁnd the commutator for spin down by interchanging up and down. therefore we replace the interaction part HU by its mean-ﬁeld version M HU F = U nd↑ nd↓ + U nd↓ nd↑ − U nd↑ nd↓ .

and if we furthermore nd↑ ≈ dω 2Γ . W ] we get ΣR (ω) ≈ dε − iΓ −W ω − ε + µ Γ W +ω+µ = − ln − iΓ. which is justiﬁed because Γ consider low temperatures.36) . ANDERSON’S MODEL FOR MAGNETIC IMPURITIES 151 9. ω) 2Γ θ (W − |ε|) .2. the selfenergy Σ is ΣR (ω) = dε d(ε) |t (ε) |2 =P ω − ε + µ + iη dε d(ε) |t (ε) |2 −iπd(ω +µ)|t(ω +µ)|2 .35) If we neglect the ﬁnite bandwidth. ω) 2π W dω 2Γ = nF (ω) . the approximation is indeed valid. Since in practice Γ εF . π W −ω−µ Γ π W −W < ω + µ < W. Let us assume that the product d(ε)|t(ε)|2 is constant within the band limits.34) where Γ is the width of the spectral function. (9. and deﬁne the important parameter Γ by πd(ε)|t(ε)|2 = Γθ(W − |ε|). (ω − ε + µ − U nd↓ )2 + Γ2 ˜ −W 2π (9.3 Solving the Anderson model and comparison with experiments Assuming that the coupling tk only depends on the length of k and thus on ε.2.31) ω−ε+µ The density of states d (ε) and the coupling matrix element t (ε) depend on the details of the material. but fortunately it is not important for the present considerations. = (ω − ε + µ − U nd↓ )2 + Γ2 ˜ (9.9. ω) = −2 Im GR (d ↑.5. (9. (9. ˜ The spectral function hence becomes A(d ↑. we get 0 W . 8. T = 0. we simply include it as a shift of ε and deﬁne the new onsite energy ε = ε + Re ΣR .33) The real part gives a shift of energy and since it is a slowly varying function. For ω+µ ∈ [−W. 2 2 ˜ −∞ 2π (ω − ε + µ − U nd↓ ) + Γ ε − µ + U nd↓ ˜ 1 1 .3. Note that the spectral function derived here is an example of the Lorentzian form discussed in Sec. = − tan−1 2 π Γ (9.32) This approximation is good if the width of the Green’s function (which we shall see shortly is given by Γ) turns out to be small compared to the scale on which d(ε)|t(ε)|2 typically changes. Now the self-consistent mean-ﬁeld equation for nd↑ follows as nd↑ = dω nF (ω)A (d ↑. −W < ε < W.

The electron concentration and hence µ is varied by changing the alloy. BC 3 %0%12! 1% 0%3 ( '& # # ¤ £ ga b V f 4 A @ ! % 98 & 3 673 25! 24 1%3 3 ! "3 0%12! ) 1 % #$" ! © ¢¡ ¨ ¦ § ¥ 2B 3 %9 %58 G F ) 3 425! %25E 3 D " 4 X V b Ca ` YP 6W "U e¨ dc c ch ST CR Q H7P I H 6 i Q ¢P I H H .2: The upper part shows the mean ﬁeld solution of the Anderson model with the left panel being magnetization as a function of electron density nel . the chemical potential. For nel > 8 the eﬀect of having more than two d-orbitals in the Fe-atoms becomes important and the simple model is no longer adequate.e. while the right panel is the maximum magnetization as function of the correlation energy. for two diﬀerent Γ-values.152 CHAPTER 9. For 4 < nel < 8 the magnetization curve is seen to be quite similar to the prediction of the model. We see that there is a critical density and a critical U/Γ where the magnetization sets in. The latter means that too strong hybridization destroys the magnetization. i. The bottom panel shows experimental results (Clogston et al. (1962)) for the magnetic moment of Fe embedded in transition metals. EQUATION OF MOTION THEORY Figure 9.

THE TWO-PARTICLE CORRELATION FUNCTION We obtain the two coupled equations cot (πn↑ ) = y(n↓ − x). the tunneling barrier is increased by U . because. .9.e. ρ(r t )] . whether there exists a solution n↓ = n↑ . 9. This is the topic for Exercise 8. 9. 9. For the case of the electron gas.4. 153 (9. and as for the single particle Green’s function they are not solvable in general. which is one of our 3 We should also convince ourselves that the magnetic solution has lower energy.37a) (9.3.1 The Random Phase Approximation (RPA) A commonly used approximation scheme for correlation functions is the so-called Random Phase Approximation (RPA). In an experiment where one probes the actual occupation of the atom this approach would not be suﬃcient. cot (πn↓ ) = y(n↑ − x). the model describes the observed behavior. As is evident there. such as the density-density correlation. 6 it was shown that this function is related to the dielectric response function and therefore tells about the screening properties of the material. 9. x = − (˜ − µ) /U.2 solutions of these equations are shown together with experimental data.2. 6 shown to give the linear response properties.37b) The solution of these equation gives the occupation of the d-orbital and in particular tells us whether there is a ﬁnite magnetization.38) In Chap. at least qualitatively.3. if it is.4 Coulomb blockade and the Anderson model Above we applied the mean-ﬁeld approximation to the interaction. But even so they may provide a good starting point for various approximation schemes. See also Exercise 8.3 The two-particle correlation function The two particle correlation functions.3. was in Chap. Also for this quantity one can generate a set of equation of motions. i. which it in fact does have. ε y = U/Γ. diﬀerent from the trivial solution n↓ = n↑ . This means that the energy of a given spin direction is only aﬀected by the average occupation of the opposite spin direction. For the electron that wants to enter the island it does matter whether the island is already occupied. Consider for example the retarded charge-charge correlation function χR (rt.2.3 In Fig. To capture this physics one must go one step beyond the mean-ﬁeld approximation and truncate the equations of motion at a later stage. Such an experiment is for example a tunneling experiment where current is passed through a single atom or a small metallic island which can be thought of as an artiﬁcial atom. r t ) = −iθ t − t [ρ(rt).5 Further correlations in the Anderson model: Kondo eﬀect 9. (9.

ρ(−q. c† ck+q ] = (ξk − ξk+q ) c† ck+q .39) Furthermore. Using the recipe from Chap. c† ck −q = c† ck − c† ck+q . k (9.41) Let us from which we can easily obtain χ(q) by summing over k. ρ −q.44) [H0 . t )] . t − t ) = δ(t − t ) [(c† ck+q )(t). In Chap. Furthermore for each level of the equation of motion a Green’s function with two more electron operators pops up.t .42) a new 6-particle Green’s function is generated. ρ (−q) = k c† ck+q . The two derivations give complementary insight into the physical content of the approximation. t − t ) = −iθ t − t 1 V ρ (q. t − t ) = −iθ t − t [(c† ck+q ) (t) . (9. ρ(−q. k and for this purpose we need the following commutators c† ck+q . χR (q) = ﬁnd the equation of motion i∂t χR (kq. At this stage we truncate this series by the random phase approximation which says that the right hand side of (9.40) However. EQUATION OF MOTION THEORY main topics in this course. but also in general gives a decent description of the interacting electron gas. c† ck+q ] (t) . ρ −q. We will for simplicity work with the translation-invariant electron gas with the Hamiltonian given by the usual kinetic energy plus interaction energy (here we disregard the spin degree of freedom because it is not important) H= k ξk c† ck + k 1 2 V (q)c† c† ck ck = H0 + Vint .42) (9. but here we derive it using the equation of motion technique. k R k χ (kq). ck ck+q ] = − V (q ) c† c† −q ck ck+q + c† +q c† ck+q ck k k+q k k−q 2 kq − c† +q c† ck+q+q ck − c† c† −q ck ck+q−q k k k k .43) (9. The charge-charge correlation function is χR (q. k k k+q k (9. ρ (q) = k c† ck+q . (9.154 CHAPTER 9. (9.12 RPA is derived using Feynman diagrams.t )] k − iθ(t − t ) [−[H.45) When this is inserted into Eq.45) is replaced by a mean-ﬁeld expression where pairs of operators are replaced by their average values. . it turns out to be better to work with the function χR (kq. k k 1 † [Vint .t) . the q = 0 component is cancelled by the positively charged background.t ] . RPA is exact in some limits. k+q k−q kk q=0 (9.

Collecting everything and going to the frequency domain the equation of motion becomes. we recognize the Lindhard function studied in Sec.48) χR (q. but of course the strength is modiﬁed by the real part of the denominator of (9. ω) was derived in Sec.5 to be related to the imaginary part of χR (q. k (9. 8.49) This is the RPA result of the polarizability function. 8. 8. THE TWO-PARTICLE CORRELATION FUNCTION 4. There we studied a non-interacting electron gas and found that χR (q.3. ω) −1 = 1 − V (q) χR (q.3) is preserved here. The RPA dielectric function becomes 0 εRPA (q. allows us to ﬁnd an equation for χR (q. and in the case of a charge liquid these modes are the plasmon modes. ω) .49). nk .46) V (q) nk+q − nk where we used that c† ck = nk δk.5 we also analyzed the excitation of the non-interacting electrons gas and the analysis there is basically still correct.ω) = 1 + V (q)χR (q. (9. (9.47) which. ω) = 1 V χR (kq.50) Replacing the expectation values. ω) 0 (9.k . The additional .5. when summed over k.RPA (q. The free particle polarizability χR (q. k c† ck+q+q k c† −q ck + const.9. ω) = and hence χR. (ω + iη + ξk − ξk+q ) χR (kq. ω) 0 . the interactions add other fundamental excitations. However. Note that the exchange pairings which we included k in the Hartree-Fock approximation is not included here.49) and the two results therefore agree nicely. namely collective modes. ω) = k 1 V nk+q − nk ω + ξk − ξk+q + iδ 1 + V (q) χR (q. ω) and therefore the structure of the electron-hole excitations of the non-interacting gas (depicted in Fig. ω) = nk+q − nk 1 − V (q) k χR (k q. we get [Vint . ω). ω) . 1 − V (q)χR (q. 8.5. In Sec. by the Fermi-Dirac distribution function. ω) indeed was equal to the numerator in (9. The excitations which were shown in Sec. 0 (9. c† ck+q ] ≈ − k 1 2 V (q ) c† ck+q c† −q ck k k+q k q =0 155 + c† ck+q c† −q ck k k+q + c† ck+q c† +q ck + c† ck+q c† +q ck k k k−q k−q −c† +q ck k − c† ck+q−q k = k c† ck+q+q k c† −q ck k − c† +q ck k − c† ck+q−q k c† −q ck . 8. ω) χR (q.

4 Summary and outlook In this chapter we have seen a method to deal with the dynamical aspects of interacting many-body systems. EQUATION OF MOTION THEORY modes are given by the part where the imaginary part of χR (q. Wick’s theorem will then pave the way for introducing the Feynman diagrams. here we just mention that the condition for the mode turns out to be 2 ω ∝ ωpl + const. ω) 0 + δ2 = πδ 1 − V (q) Re χR (q. also called a plasmon. The plasmon is studied in detail in Chap. Therefore approximations are necessary and we saw particular examples of this. ω) = 0 and this 0 is the plasma oscillation mode. namely the equation of motion method applied to the Green’s functions. namely the mean-ﬁeld solution of a magnetic impurity embedded in a metallic host. ω) is zero because then 0 there is a possibility of a pole in the polarizability. ω) . If we set Im χR (q. In the following chapter we use the equation of motion to derive the Green’s functions in the imaginary time formalism and to derive the famous Wick’s theorem. and in fact only a very small set of Hamiltonians describing interacting systems can be solved exactly. ω) = −iδ. q 2 . ω) = δ 1−V 2 (q) Re χR (q.51) This means that there is a well-deﬁned mode when 1 − V (q) Re χR (q. 12. 0 (9. and the RPA approximation for the charge auto correlation function. .156 CHAPTER 9. we have 0 − Im χR (q. 9. The set of diﬀerential equation is not soluble in general.

t ) = − A(t)B(t ) . The important thing that distinguishes the boson case from the fermion case is the sign change that is obtained upon interchange. B : for bosons F : for fermions . which in general are deﬁned as R CAB (t. t ) = −iθ(t − t ) A(t). This has no real physical meaning. In this chapter. (10.28) from which one could derive the density of states. 6. we introduce a mathematical method to work out the retarded Green’s functions. By deﬁnition (10. In all the situations we have studied so far the physical observables have been related to the retarded Green’s functions. from which we can ﬁnd the retarded function as C R = iθ(t−t )(CAB we have 1 CAB (t. Z 157 (10. In Eq. which we need to learn. (8. e. or that they can be derived in a simple way from the Green’s functions.F . (10. it is the single particle Green’s function deﬁned in Eq.2) CBA ). B(t ) B. For technical reasons it is convenient to use a mapping to a more general Green’s function. the density or current operators.g. When A and B are two-particle operators. and is only a clever mathematical trick. C R has the form of a retarded correlation function that was shown to give the linear response results of Chap. This is much like treating electrical circuit theory with complex numbers even though all currents and voltages are real. and this will eventually lead us to the Feynman diagrams.Chapter 10 Imaginary time Green’s functions We have seen that physical observables often have the form of Green’s functions. Let us for example look at the deﬁnition of the following correlation function CAB (t. The imaginary time formalism is particularly useful when we want to perform perturbation theory. where the time and frequency arguments are imaginary quantities.3) .1) boson operators mean either single particle operators like b or b† or an even number of fermion operators such as c† c appearing in for example the density operator ρ.1) When A and B are single particle annihilation and creation operators. t ) = − Tr(e−βH A(t)B(t )). The present chapter concentrates on the mathematical details of the technique and applications are left for later.

This we did in the linear response limit in Chap.e. 5 that the interaction picture provides a systematic way of expanding in powers of V. We deﬁne A(τ ) = eτ H Ae−τ H . Furthermore. t)A(t)U (t. we will see that there is a well-deﬁned method to obtain the physically relevant quantity. t a Roman letter. the relation between the Heisenberg and the interaction picture in imaginary time follows the arguments in Chap.5) In this notation. The solution to this problem is to use imaginary times instead of real times. (10. but bare in mind that this is purely a mathematical trick without physical contents. But the trouble arises for the density matrix e−βH . (10. where τ is real and has the dimension time. which could be collected into a single time-ordered exponential. We could try to utilize this and write CAB as 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ CAB (t.6) Similar to the interaction picture deﬁned for real times. where V is the perturbation.1 They therefore satisfy similar diﬀerential equations: U satisﬁes the Schr¨dinger equation. t ) = − Tr e−βH U (0. o which is known as the Bloch equation. This would in Eq. . one replaces the time argument by a imaginary quantity t → −iτ . (10.8) Note that we consider only time-independent Hamiltonians in this section. 6. which should also be expanded in powers of the interaction. t )B(t )U (t . 1 (10. To employ imaginary time is not as far fetched as it might look. so A(t) = eitH Ae−itH . (10. but we will not cover the more general case of non-linear time dependent response in this course.4) result in three time-ordered exponentials. i. τ )A(τ )U (τ. In the end this means that both U and ρ can be treated in just one expansion in powers of V . (5. 0).158 CHAPTER 10.4) Z ˆ In Eq. 0) . you should use the imaginary time deﬁnitions when the time argument is a Greek letter and the usual deﬁnition when the times are written with roman letters. τ )B(τ )U (τ . (10. one cannot use the ordinary equilibrium statistical mechanics but instead one must use a non-equilibrium formalism. we can deﬁne the interaction picture for imaginary times as ˆ A(τ ) = eτ H0 Ae−τ H0 . to go back to physical real times from the imaginary time function. i∂t U = HU while ρ is the solution to ∂β ρ = −Hρ. τ a Greek letter. because both the density operator ρ = e−βH /Z and the time evolution operator U (t) = e−iHt are both exponential functions of the Hamiltonian.18) we saw also how a single U operator could be expanded as a time-ordered exponential.7) Letting H = H0 + V . If they are not timeindependent. As for real time we can deﬁne an imaginary time Heisenberg picture by substituting it by τ . we get ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ A(τ )B(τ ) = U (0. If we consider a product of operators A(τ )B(τ ) and write it in terms of the corresponding operators in the interaction representation. Then we saw in Chap. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS Suppose the Hamiltonian is H = H0 + V . To make a long story short: this is a mess and a new idea is therefore needed. In order to treat both U and ρ in one go. 5.

First we diﬀerentiate Eq. the time-evolution operator U in the interaction picture is ˆ U (τ. 0) 0 0 . τ ) = 1. before we can see the usefulness fully. 0) . (10. U (τ. (10. 0)) .10) ˆ ˆ ˆ Tτ U (β. τ )U (τ . 0)A(τ )B(τ ) 1 −βH0 ˆ (β. (5.9) and (10. The time ordering is again the same as deﬁned in Sec. τ ) = U (τ. 0)A(τ )B(τ ) = ˆ ˆ Tτ U Tτ A(τ )B(τ ) = Tr e Z ˆ U (β. (10. τ ) = eτ H0 (H0 − H)e−(τ −τ )H −τ H0 e ˆ ˆ = −V (τ )U (τ. (10. (10.e. τ ) = eτ H0 e−(τ −τ From this it follows directly that ˆ ˆ ˆ U (τ.159 ˆ where.14) 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Tr e−βH0 U (β.12).8) 1 Tr e−βH Tτ A(τ )B(τ ) . τ ) = n=0 1 (−1)n n! τ τ τ τ dτ1 · · · τ ˆ ˆ dτn Tτ V (τ1 ) · · · V (τn ) (10. (10.13) 0 Consider now the time ordered expectation value of the pair of operators in Eq. we need to relate the correlation functions written in imaginary time and the correlation function with real time arguments. Above it was argued that the density operator naturally can be treated within the imaginary time formalism. (5. 0) = e−βH0 Tτ exp − dτ1 V (τ1 ) . (10. 0) Tτ (U (0.15) Z This can be written in a much more compact way relying on the properties of Tτ and Eq. (10.18). Z Utilizing Eqs.16) ˆ where we have used Z = Tr e−βH = Tr e−βH0 U (β.9) with respect to τ and ﬁnd ˆ ∂τ U (τ.12) we obtain β ˆ ˆ e−βH = e−βH0 U (β. (10.9) An explicit expression for U (τ. Now the same iterative procedure is applied and we end with ∞ ˆ U (τ. τ ) is found in analogy with the derivation of Eq.10) )H −τ H0 e .4). i. (10. This result demonstrates that the trick of using imaginary time indeed allows for a systematic expansion of the complicated looking expression in Eq.11) ˆ This is analogous to Eq. (5. . the operators are ordered such that Tτ (A(τ )B(τ )) is equal to A(τ )B(τ ) for τ > τ and B(τ )A(τ ) when τ > τ . is of course the same.3. (10. τ )B(τ )U (τ .12) = Tτ exp − τ ˆ dτ1 V (τ1 ) .8) and (10.13) and the boundary condition. (10. 5. and indeed it can. because by combining Eqs. τ ). τ ).13) we can immediately expand in powers of V Tτ A(τ )B(τ ) = Tτ A(τ )B(τ ) = (10. and where the averages · · · e−βH0 e−βH0 0 depending on appear after normalizing with 1/Z0 = 1/Tr . like in Eq. However. τ )A(τ )U (τ.

τ ) = Z Tτ A(τ )B(τ ) = θ(τ − τ )A(τ )B(τ ) ± θ τ − τ B(τ )A(τ ). τ ) is guaranteed only if −β < τ − τ < β. (10. = = −1 Tr e−βH e−τ Z H τH e Ae−τ H eτ H B −1 Tr e−βH e(τ −τ Z )H Ae−(τ −τ )H B (10.160 CHAPTER 10.19) = CAB (τ − τ ). CAB (τ. τ ) ≡ − Tτ A(τ )B(τ ) .17) where the time-ordering symbol in imaginary time has been introduced.e. Thirdly.20) which again follows from the cyclic properties of the trace. (10. (10. The proof of Eq. (10. (10. We have for τ > τ −1 Tr e−βH eτ H Ae−τ H eτ H Be−τ H CAB (τ. τ ) = CAB (τ − τ ). likewise. .21) and similarly for τ > 0.20) for τ < 0 is −1 Tr e−βH e(τ +β)H Ae−(τ +β)H B CAB (τ + β) = Z −1 = Tr eτ H Ae−τ H e−βH B Z −1 Tr e−βH Beτ H Ae−τ H = Z −1 = Tr e−βH BA(τ ) Z −1 = ± Tr e−βH Tτ (A(τ )B) Z = ±CAB (τ ).18) The next question is: What values can τ have? From the deﬁnition in Eq. is deﬁned in the following way CAB (τ. i. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS 10.19) to get a factor exp (− [β − τ + τ ] En ) . and of course likewise for τ > τ .1 Deﬁnitions of Matsubara Green’s functions The imaginary time Green’s functions. convergence of CAB (τ. 5 with the later “times” to the left + for bosons. Firstly. For τ > τ the equality τ − τ < β is clearly seen if one uses the Lehmann representation in Eq. the second equality is obtained if τ < τ . It means that operators are ordered according to history and just like the time-ordering operator seen in Chap. Secondly. τ ) is a function of the time diﬀerence only. This follows from the cyclic properties of the trace. and. (10. we have the property CAB (τ ) = ±CAB (τ + β).17) three things are clear. also called Matsubara Green’s function. CAB (τ. for τ < 0. − for fermions. (10.

β for bosons.25) leads to a minor ambiguity of how to treat the boundary τ = 0. In the frequency domain they are in fact the same analytic function as the usual real times . (10. ωn = ωn = 2nπ β . and thus according to the theory of Fourier transformations we have a discrete Fourier series on that interval given by CAB (n) ≡ CAB (τ ) = 1 2 1 β β −β ∞ dτ eiπnτ /β CAB (τ ). Because of the properties above. 1 1 β dτ eiπnτ /β CAB (τ ) + e−iπn dτ eiπnτ /β CAB (τ − β). for fermions. n is odd for fermions. (2n+1)π .2 Connection between Matsubara and retarded functions We shall now see why the Matsubara Green’s functions have been introduced at all. e. 2 0 (10. β]. (10.21) this can be simpliﬁed as CAB (n) = = 1 2 β 0 β dτ eiπnτ /β CAB (τ ) + 1 2 0 −β dτ eiπnτ /β CAB (τ ).2.10. (10. we obtain β CAB (n) = 0 dτ eiπnτ /β CAB (τ ). CONNECTION BETWEEN MATSUBARA AND RETARDED FUNCTIONS161 10.g replace δ(τ ) by δ(τ − 0+ ).1. due to the symmetry property (10. we take CAB (τ ) to be deﬁned in the interval −β < τ < β.24) From now on we use the following notation for the Fourier transforms of the Matsubara Green’s functions β CAB (iωn ) = dτ e 0 iωn τ CAB (τ ). β Finally. A consistent choice is always to move the time argument into the interior of the interval [0. we remark that the boundaries of the integral 0 dτ in Eq.1 Fourier transform of Matsubara Green’s functions Next we wish to ﬁnd the Fourier transforms with respect to the “time” argument τ . for example if CAB (τ ) includes a delta function δ(τ ). e−iπnτ /β CAB (n). (10.22a) (10. n is even for bosons. 10.22b) n=−∞ However. Note how the information about the temperature is contained in the Matsubara frequencies through β. 2 0 2 0 β 1 = 1 ± e−iπn dτ eiπnτ /β CAB (τ ).25) The frequency variable ωn is denoted a Matsubara frequency.23) and since the factor 1 ± e−iπn is zero for plus sign and n odd or for minus sign and n even and 2 otherwise.

where z is a complex frequency argument in the upper half plane. Therefore the connection between imaginary time functions and retarded real time functions derived here is only valid in this ensemble. that equals CAB (iωn ) on the R imaginary axis and CAB (ω) on the real axis. In the general case we get2 R CAB (ω) = 1 Z nn n |A| n n |B| n e−βEn − (±)e−βEn ω + En − En + iη . IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS Green’s functions.26) and (10. (10.26) The Matsubara function is calculated in a similar way. Z nn (10. (8. because we can generate both CAB (iωn ) and CAB (ω) from the following function deﬁned in the entire complex plane except for the real axis CAB (z) = 1 Z nn n |A| n n |B| n z + En − En e−βEn − (±) e−βEn .27) and hence β CAB (iωn ) = dτ eiωn τ 0 −1 Z e−βEn n |A| n nn n |B| n eτ (En −En ) . (10. This means that once we have one of the two. (10. eiωn β eβ(En −En ) − 1 .162 CHAPTER 10. Since it is in many cases much easier to compute the Matsubara function.28) −1 = Z = −1 Z e−βEn nn n |A| n n |B| n iωn + En − En n |A| n n |B| n iωn + En − En e−βEn nn 1 = Z nn n |A| n n |B| n iωn + En − En e−βEn − (±)e−βEn R Eqs. According to the theory of analytic functions: if two functions Note that it is assumed that the grand canonical ensemble is being used because the complete set of states includes states with any number of particles.3 we calculated the retarded single particle Green’s function and the result Eq. Indeed we shall now show that the appropriate analytic R continuation is CAB (ω) = CAB (iωn → ω + iη). we have CAB (τ ) = −1 Tr e−βH eτ H Ae−τ H B Z −1 = e−βEn n |A| n n |B| n eτ (En −En ) . (10.28) show that CAB (iωn ) and CAB (ω) coincide and that they are just R special cases of the same function. CAB (iωn ). this is a powerful method for ﬁnding the corresponding retarded function. 2 . R The relation between the two functions CAB and CAB is proven by use of the Lehmann representation. the other one follows by analytic continuation.3. In Sec. but has a series of poles at En −En along the real axis.where η is a positive inﬁnitesimal. ±eβ(En −En ) − 1 .46) can be carried over for fermions.29) This function is analytic in the upper (or lower) half plane. 8. For τ > 0. there exists an analytic function CAB (z). In other words.

1: The analytic continuation procedure in the complex z-plane where the Matsubara function deﬁned for z = iωn goes to the retarded or advanced Green’s functions deﬁned inﬁnitesimally close to real axis.1.2. CONNECTION BETWEEN MATSUBARA AND RETARDED FUNCTIONS163 Figure 10.28). the answer is completely diﬀerent and of course wrong.30) iωn → z → ω + iη gives the right analytic function.e. (10. Therefore instead of the continuation in the upper half plane. there is only R one such common function.2. On the real axis coming from above R this function is identical to the retarded function. coincide in an inﬁnite set of points then they are fully identical functions within the entire domain where at least one of them is a analytic function and. To summarize: Using the Lehmann representation we have shown that there exists a function CAB (z) which is analytic for z not purely real and which coincides with the Matsubara function.30) Warning: this way of performing the analytic continuation is only true when CAB (iωn ) is written as a rational function which is analytic in the upper half plane. furthermore. 10. If not.10. CAB (z = ω + i0+ ) = CAB (ω).25). This is illustrated in Fig. However. This means that if we know CAB (iωn ) we can ﬁnd CAB (ω) by analytic continuation: R CAB (ω) = CAB (iωn → ω + iη). 10. i. (10. it is not obvious how to perform the continuation. Later we shall see examples of how to perform the analytic continuation correctly. i. If we na¨ ıvely insert iωn → ω + iη before doing the integral.e.1 Advanced functions The function CAB (z) is analytic for all z away from the real axis. CAB (z = iωn ) = CAB (iωn ). it is not a simple task to determine CAB (z) unless it has been reduced to an rational function as in Eq. where it is evident that the replacement in (10. we could do the same thing in the lower half ) # " 0 $% # " ( ! ' ' ¥ ©¨ § # " & $% " ©! # 1 ' ¢ ' ' ¢¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡¢ ¦ £¤ ¥ ¢ . For example look at the deﬁnition in Eq. (10.

164 CHAPTER 10. 6.33a) (10. i.36) (10. (10.F (ν. τ − τ ) = − Tτ cν (τ )c† (τ ) ν .e. t ) = iθ(t − t) A(t). gives the present state of the system as it has evolved from the state at previous times.3. The retarded one.3. real space. the eﬀect of retardation. c† (τ ) = eτ H0 c† e−τ H0 = eξν τ c† .τ )Ψ† (r . ν (10. τ − τ ) = − θ(τ − τ )(1 − nF (ξν )) − θ(τ − τ )nF (ξν ) e−ξν (τ −τ ) e−ξν (τ −τ ) . (10.32) The term “advanced” means that it gives the state of the system at previous times based on the state of system at present times.F .34) so that cν (τ ) = eτ H0 cν e−τ H0 = e−ξν τ cν . ν ν ν (10. 10. r στ ) = − Tτ Ψσ (r.33b) {ν} representation. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS plane iωn → z → ω − iη. which gives the so-called advanced Green’s function.37) . They are deﬁned as G(rστ. .3 Single-particle Matsubara Green’s function An important type of Matsubara functions are the single-particle Green’s function G. which gives G0 (ν. Suppose the Hamiltonian is diagonal in the ν-quantum numbers H0 = ν ξν c† cν . as was explained in Chap.35) = −θ(τ − τ ) cν (τ )c† (τ ) − (±) θ(τ − τ ) c† (τ )cν (τ ) ν ν = − θ(τ − τ ) cν c† (±)θ(τ − τ ) c† cν ν ν For fermions this is G0.2. (10. B(t ) B. ν τ ) = − Tτ cν (τ )c† (τ ) ν . 10. 8. A CAB (ω) = CAB (iωn → ω − iη).1 Matsubara Green’s function for non-interacting particles For non-interacting particles the Matsubara Green’s functions can be evaluated in the same way we found the retarded Green’s function in Sec.31) The advanced Green’s function is in the time domain deﬁned as A CAB (t. τ ) σ G(ντ. (10.

51). 0 1 eiqn β e−ξν β − 1 .B (ν. similar to integrals over frequencies in the real time language. (8. iqn − ξν (10. τ ) = 1 β G(ν.41) 10. τ ).B (ν. In the frequency representation.39) −1 because eikn β = −1 and 1 − nF (ε) = e−βε + 1 β . For example sums of the type S1 (ν. (10. ikn − ξν dτ eikn τ e−ξν τ .4 Evaluation of Matsubara sums When working with Matsubara Green’s functions we will often encounter sums over Matsubara frequencies.4. Here we have anticipated the notation that is used later: Matsubara frequencies ikn and ipn are used for fermion frequencies. iqn − ξν dτ eiqn τ e−ξν τ .38) G0. while the bosonic one becomes qn = 2nπ/β G0. According to our recipe Eq.30). the retarded free particles Green’s functions are for both fermions and bosons GR (ν.F (ν.10. while iqn and iωn are used for boson frequencies. iqn ) = 0 dτ eiqn τ G0. τ ). ikn )eikn τ . ω) = 0 in agreement with Eq. ω − ξν + iη (10.42) . 1 . ikn − ξν (10. (10. the fermionic Green’s function is β 165 (10. τ − τ ) = − θ(τ − τ ) (1 + nB (ξν )) + θ(τ − τ )nB (ξν ) e−ξν (τ −τ ) .F (ν. EVALUATION OF MATSUBARA SUMS while the bosonic free particle Green’s function reads G0. β kn = (2n + 1) π/β = − (1 − nF (ξν )) = − (1 − nF (ξν )) = 1 . ikn ) = 0 dτ eikn τ G0. ikn τ > 0. 0 1 eikn β e−ξν β − 1 .40) −1 because eiqn β = 1 and 1 + nB (ε) = − e−βε − 1 . β = − (1 + nB (ξν )) = − (1 + nB (ξν )) = 1 .B (ν.

(10. poles for z = i(2n)π/β. To evaluate these.47) for fermions and similarly for boson frequencies dz nB (z)g(z) = 2πi Res [nB (z)g(iωn )] = z=ikn 2πi g(iωn ). e. (10. which have poles at z = ikn and z = iωn . respectively.49b) C 2πi . (10. poles for z = i(2n + 1)π/β.g. (10. but no singularity of g(z). and therefore the types of sums we will meet are often products of the such free Green’s functions. we deﬁne the two generic sums S F (τ ) = S B (τ ) = 1 β 1 β g(ikn )eikn τ .49a) SF = − C 2πi dz SB = + nB (z)g(z)ezτ .48) If we therefore deﬁne contours. β (10.45a) nF (z) = βz e +1 1 nB (z) = βz . ikn ikn fermion frequency iωn boson frequency (10. τ ) = 1 β G0 (ν1 . C. but only regions where g(z) is analytic. ikn + iωn )eikn τ . These functions turn out to be the well known Fermi and Bose distribution functions 1 . n(z). In order to be more general.166 CHAPTER 10. (10. (10. S2 (ν1 .44b) g(iωn )eiωn τ . ν2 .44a) (10. the contour integral which encloses one of these points. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS or sums with products of Green’s functions.45b) e −1 The residues at these values are (z − ikn ) δ 1 Res [nF (z)] = lim = lim βikn βδ =− . The imaginary time formalism has been introduced because it will be used to perform perturbation expansions. ikn )G0 (ν2 . iωn and study them for τ > 0.46a) βz + 1 z=ikn z→ikn e δ→0 e e +1 β (z − iωn ) δ 1 Res [nB (z)] = lim = lim βiωn βδ (10.46b) =+ . βz − 1 z=iωn z→iωn e δ→0 e β e −1 According to the theory of analytic functions. we can write dz nF (z)g(z)ezτ . iωn . β (10. For this we need two functions. the trick is to rewrite them as integrals over a complex variable and to use residue theory. ikn τ > 0. is given by dz nF (z)g(z) = 2πi Res [nF (z)g(ikn )] = − z=ikn 2πi g(ikn ).43) This section is devoted to the mathematical techniques for evaluating such sums. which enclose all point z = ikn in the fermionic case and all points z = iωn in the bosonic case.

eτ Re z → 0.2. 10. the contour integral itself gives zero because the integrand goes to zero exponentially for z ∈ C∞ (remember 0 < τ < β) nF (z)eτ z = eτ z ∝ eβz + 1 e(τ −β) Re z → 0. 10. τ > 0. we use the contour integration technique in two special cases. (10.4.g.51) z − zj j where {zj } is the set of known poles and hence g0 (z) is analytic elsewhere in the z-plane. has a number of known simple poles.43) but let us take a slightly more general function which could include more free Green’s function.43) 1 g0 (z) = . (10. EVALUATION OF MATSUBARA SUMS 167 Figure 10. Let us therefore consider the sum 1 F g0 (ikn )eikn τ .2: The contour used to perform the Matsubara sum for a function with known poles. zj . Such a contour would give us the contribution for poles of nF (z) plus the contributions from poles of g0 (z).50) S0 (τ ) = β ikn where g0 (z). (10. for Re z < 0.1 Summations over functions with simple poles Consider a Matsubara frequency sum like Eq.10. (10. for Re z > 0. Because we know the poles of g0 a good choice for a contour is to take one that covers the entire complex plane C∞ : z = R eiθ where R → ∞.52) ¦¥ ¤ ¢ © §¨ ¦¥ ¤ £ ¤ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¤ £ ¢ §! ¦¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ §# ¦"¤ £ .4. The contribution from the contour goes to zero as |z| → ∞ and hence the contributions from the z = ikn and z = zj poles add up to zero. in the form of non-interacting Green’s functions like (10. e. see Fig. Furthermore. In the following two subsections.

including for example the inﬂuence of interaction. it is known to be an analytic function in the entire complex plane exempt on the branch cuts. The Matsubara sum has thus been simpliﬁed considerably and we shall use this formula several times during the course. If it is the full Green’s function. 10.4. 10.55) (10. ¨ § ¦¤ £ ¢ © ¥ © £ ¥ ¤ £ ¥ ¤ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ (10.168 CHAPTER 10.(10. For bosons the derivation is almost identical and we get 1 β B g0 (iωn )eiωn τ = S0 (τ ) = − iωn j z=zj Res [g0 (z)] nB (zj )ezj τ .54) (10.56) ¡¢ ¢ . consider the sum S(τ ) = 1 β g(ikn )eikn τ .2.53) (10. z=zj Res [g0 (z)] nF (zj )ezj τ .3: The contour used to perform the Matsubara sum for a function with known branch cuts. This general property of the Green’s function was shown in Sec. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS Figure 10. but we do know that it is analytic for z not on the real axis. Hence 0= C∞ dz nF (z)g0 (z)ezτ 2πi g0 (ikn )eikn τ + ikn F S0 (τ ) = j j z=zj =− and thus 1 β Res [g0 (z)] nF (zj )ezj τ .2 Summations over functions with known branch cuts The second type of sums we will meet are of the form in Eq. we do not know the poles of the Green’s function.e. In general. The contribution from the outer parts of the contour goes to zero as |z| → ∞ and hence only the paths parallel to the cut (here the real axis) contribute. ikn τ > 0.42). i.

5 Equation of motion The equation of motion technique.0+ ) β ikn ∞ = −∞ dε nF (ε)A(ν.33b). A](τ ) ∂ θ(τ − τ ) A(τ )B(τ ) ± θ(τ − τ ) B(τ )A(τ ) . (10. because c† cν = G(ν. 2π (10. EQUATION OF MOTION 169 where it is known that g(z) is analytic in the entire complex plane except on the real axis.3.42). 8 to ﬁnd various Green’s functions. (8. 10. In the imaginary time formalism the time derivative of an operator is ∂τ A(τ ) = ∂τ eτ H Ae−τ H = eτ H [H. A](τ )B(τ ) .58) according to the deﬁnition of the spectral function in Eq.τ ) = − ∞ 1 dε nF (ε) [G(ν. ε) eετ 2πi −∞ ∞ dε = nF (ε)A(ν. A]e−τ H = [H. ∂τ = δ(τ − τ ) AB − (±)BA + Tτ [H. 10.57). we have in fact found an expression for the expectation value of the occupation. Eq. see Eq. −∞ 2π (10. (10. ε − iη)] eετ . (10. becomes in this way S1 (ν. 2πi −∞ ∞ 1 =− dε nF (ε)2i Im GR (ν. 0− ) ν 1 − = G(ν.49). (10. As for the example in the previous section. (10.60) If we diﬀerentiate the Matsubara function Eq. ε + iη) − G(ν. Eq. Now setting the time argument in the single particle imaginary time Green’s ν function. 2πi C1 +C2 ∞ 1 =− dε nF (ε) [g(ε + iη) − g(ε − iη)] eετ . we obtain −∂τ CAB (τ − τ ) = . ε).5. (10. ε)eετ .29) with A = cν and B = c† . the part where |z| → ∞ does not contribution to the integral and we are left with the parts of the contour running parallel to the real axis.59) which agrees with our previous ﬁnding. (10. can also be used for the Matsubara functions.57) 2πi −∞ For example. They are shifted by an inﬁnitesimal amount η away from the real axis on either side dz S(τ ) = − nF (z)g(z)ezτ . A contour which includes all points z = ikn and no singularities of g is therefore C = C1 + C2 depicted in Fig.17) with respect to τ . to a negative inﬁnitesimal 0− . used in Chap.52). In the second equality we used that G(ε − iη) = [G(ε + iη)]∗ which follows from Eq.10. the sum in Eq. ikn )e−ikn 0 = S1 (ν. (8.

. For example for free particle those given in Eqs.37) and (10.66) . r τ ) − dr h0 (r. ˆ (10.e. The time-evolution is also with respect to H0 and it is given by c(τ ) = eτ H0 c e−τ H0 . and which is used in the example ending this chapter. i.6 Wick’s theorem We end this rather technical part by proving an extremely useful theorem. ν In this case. r τ ) = δ(τ − τ )δ(r − r ). . tνν G0 (ν τ. .63a) (10. when the Hamiltonian is quadratic. . (10. ν (10. we then get for both fermion and boson Green’s functions −∂τ G(rτ. The theorem . (10.61b) For non-interacting electrons the Hamiltonian is quadratic.61a) (10. −1 G0 = −∂τ − H0 .170 CHAPTER 10. ν τ ) = δ(τ − τ )δνν . . whereas the plus sign should be used for boson operators. which we have indicated by the subscript 0.e. (10. ν τ ) − or in matrix form −1 G0 G0 = 1.62b) tνν c† cν . .62a) (10. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS where the minus sign in AB − (±)BA is for fermion operators. Ψ(r)](τ )Ψ† (r . the equations of motion therefore in the two representations reduce to −∂τ G0 (rτ. νn τn ) = (−1)n Tτ cν1 (τ1 ) · · · cνn (τn )ˆ† (τn ) · · · c† (τ1 ) ˆ ˆ cν ˆν n 1 (n) 0 . For the single-particle Green’s functions deﬁned in Eqs. . Consider an n-particle Green’s function deﬁned as G0 (ν1 τ1 . which we will need later when doing perturbation theory. higher order Green’s function involving more than one particle can be factorized into products of single-particle Green’s functions. r τ ) = δ(τ − τ )δ(r − r ) + Tτ ([H. νn τn . cν ](τ )c† (τ )) .38). r )G0 (r τ. (10. −∂τ G(ντ. ν (10.33). i. ν τ ) = δ(τ − τ )δνν + Tτ ([H.65) The average is taken with respect to a non-interacting Hamiltonian H0 (like Eq.states that for non-interacting particles. of the general form H0 = H0 = νν dr dr Ψ† (r)h0 (r. (10.62)). ν1 τ1 . τ )) . . r )Ψ(r ).64) This equation together with the boundary condition G(τ ) = ±G(τ + β) gives the solution. 10.63b) −∂τ G0 (ντ.called Wick’s theorem . (10.

6. (10. a. τi . we can rewrite G0 as G0 (j1 . corresponding to τi being either smaller or larger than τj . Thus we diﬀerentiate G0 with respect to one of time arguments. ˆ j ∈ [1. 2)).64).70) last term which is similar to the derivation that lead to Eqs. The last one gives for example for τ1 − ∂ (n) G ∂τ1 0 ˆ ˆ = − (−1)n Tτ [H0 .g.10. there are 4 time arguments which can be ordered in 4! diﬀerent ways.71) −1 where G0i means that it works on the coordinate νi . For example if n = 2. (10. τ1 . In this case G (n) has the structure G0 (n) = · · · θ(τi − τj ) · · · ± · · · θ(τj − τi ) · · · · · · cνi (τi )ˆ† (τj ) · · · ˆ cν j · · · c† (τj )ˆνi (τi ) · · · ˆν c j . On the right hand side the derivative only acts on the theta functions in Eq.65) are really ordered. cν1 ](τ1 ) · · · cνn (τn )ˆ† (τn ) · · · c† (τ1 ) ˆ cν ˆν n 1 . Take now for example the case where τi is next to τj . . The easiest way to show Wick’s theorem is through the equation of motion for the n(n) particle Green’s function. deﬁne the list (a.69) where the factor (±1)P takes into account that for fermions (minus sign) it costs a sign change every time a pair of operators are commuted. This gives two kinds of contributions: the terms coming from the derivative of the theta functions and one term from the derivative of the expectation value itself.69). Which permutation is the correct one of course depends on how the time arguments in (10. . . (10. .63) and (10.67) and furthermore deﬁne the permutations of the 2n operators as P (d1 (σ1 ) · · · d2n (σ2n )) = dP1 (σP1 ) · · · dP2n (σP2n ). (10. .69). b. (10. . j2n ) = (−1)n P ∈S2n (n) (±1)P θ(σP1 − σP2 ) · · · θ(σPn−1 − σPn ) 0 × dP1 (σP1 ) · · · dP2n (σP2n ) . 1. . τn .65) is indeed quite complicated to look at if we write out all the possible orderings and the conditions for that particular ordering.68) where Pj denotes the j’th variable in the permutation P (e. (10. c) and the permutation (c. n]. WICK’S THEOREM 171 The expression in (10. and they will have diﬀerent order of the permutation.72) . . (n) (10. 2n]. Therefore if we (n) sum over all permutations and include the corresponding conditions. (10. j ∈ [n + 1. There are two such terms in (10. Let us simplify the writing by deﬁning one operator symbol for both creation and annihilation operators dj (σj ) = c† ˆν (τ(2n+1−j) ). (2n+1−j) cνj (τj ). so that we have −1 G0i G0 (n) θ = −∂τi G0 . b) then P = (3.

and for fermions (−1)n−i+n−j from moving c† next to cνi ..F . (10. ν1 τ1 . and this sign denoted (−1)x will (for fermions) depend on the τj in question.76) can be integrated and because G0 has the same boundary conditions as G0 .77a) (10. (10. . (10. n. . .77b) = 1. Hence ˆν ˆ j fermions: (−1)x = − (−1)n (−1)1−n (−1)2n−i−j = (−1)j+i . i. . νn τn ). G0 (n. a constant. . n ) . We therefore end up with (n) G0 (1. periodic in the time arguments. .F = 0.νj δ(τi − τj ) (−1)x G0 (n−1) (ν1 τ1 . G0 (n. without i without j (10. 1 ) · · · G0 (1. .. (n) Now Eq.75) which therefore does not contribute. . .74) cνi (τi ). . bosons : (−1) = − (−1) (−1) x n 1−n (10.78) By recalling the deﬁnition of a determinants this formula is immediately recognized as the determinant in the case where the minus sign should be used.νj . . without i without j (10..n ) = G0 (1. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS and when this is diﬀerentiated with respect to τi it gives two delta functions. With the plus sign it is called a permanent. νn τn ).65) [(−1)n−1 ]−1 from the deﬁnition of G (n−1) . it gives the same result and hence (n) G0 n = j=1 (±)j+i G0 νi τi . τi ) (10.73) We can pull out the equal time commutator or anti-commutator for boson or fermions. cνj (τi ) ˆ ˆ B. .76) Let us collect the signs that go into (−1)x : (−1) from (−∂τ ). νn τn . νj τj G0 (n−1) (ν1 τ1 . n ) B. our equation of motion (10. . respectively = δνi . we saw a special case of this in Eq.. . and hence θ −∂τi G0 (n) = [· · · ] · · · cνi (τi )ˆ† (τj ) · · · ˆ cν j [· · · ] · · · c† (τj )ˆνi (τi ) · · · ˆν c j δ(τi − τj ). (10. (−1)n from the deﬁnition in (10. c† (τi ) ˆ ˆν j B. The number of creation and annihilation operators has thus both been reduced by one. In fact. .71) now looks like −1 G0i G0 (n) n = j=1 δνi . . and it leaves a Green’s function which is no longer an n-particle Green’s function but an (n − 1)-Green’s function. we get in the same manner the (anti-)commutator cνi (τi ).172 CHAPTER 10. What we have not determined is the sign of the new (n − 1)-Green’s function. . .. . i. . .63) where a one-particle Green’s function was reduced to a zero-particle Green’s function. Besides this undetermined sign. (10. ν1 τ1 .79) . .e. .F If τi is next to τj instead of τj . i ≡ (νi . 1 ) · · · . . . . 1 .e. νn τn .

The Fourier transform of a product in the time domain is a convolution in the frequency domain. −τ ). V (10. kσ (10.82) By Wick’s theorem this is given by a product of single-particle Green’s functions with all possible pairings and with the sign given by the number of times we interchange two fermion operators. iqn ) we start from the time-dependent χ χ0 (q. while for bosons it should be understood as a permanent where all have terms come with a plus sign.(10. The starting point is the physical quantity which is needed: the frequency dependent retarded charge-charge correlation function. this is Wick’s theorem.10.84) ikn The sum over Matsubara frequencies has exactly the form studied in Sec.k σσ 0 . 10. we do it again here.54) . Remembering that G0 (kσ. the internal frequencies in the two come with the same sign χ0 (q. τ ) ρ (−q)) 0 .k .7 Example: polarizability of free electrons In Sec. and where the determinant |·|B.1. The next step is to calculate the frequency dependent function. i.e.4. k ) ∝ δk. EXAMPLE: POLARIZABILITY OF FREE ELECTRONS 173 where we used a shorthand notation with the orbital and the time arguments being collected into one variable. ω). we can read oﬀ the answer from Eq. G0 (k + qσ.7. ω) = χ(q. τ ) = − 1 Tτ (ρ (q. which follows from the corresponding Matsubara function by χR (q. Because one function has argument τ while the other has argument −τ .e. (10.81) (10. τ ) = V = 1 V Tτ k.83). to Fourier transform the product (10.5 we calculated the polarizability of non-interacting free electrons. 1 χ0 (q. iqn ) = 1 β 1 V G0 (k + qσ. ikn + iqn )G0 (kσ. ikn ) = 1/ (ikn − ξk ). i. In order to ﬁnd χ (q.F means that for fermions it is the usual determinant. 10. τ )G0 (kσ.k . In order to illustrate the working principle of the imaginary time formalism.σ ck+qσ (τ ) c† σ k 0 Tτ ck −qσ (0) c† kσ (τ ) 1 − ρ (q) V 0 =0 for q=0 0 ρ (−q) 0 .σ. kσ (10. 8. iqn → ω + iη).83) where we consider only q = 0 and use that G0 (k.80) and expresses it as a two-particle Green’s function χ0 (q. χR (q. ikn ). τ ) = − 1 V Tτ c† (τ ) ck+qσ (τ ) c† σ ck −qσ kσ k k.

174

CHAPTER 10. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS

by inserting the poles of the two G0 (kσ, z) (z = ξk and z = ξk+q − iqn ) and obtain χ0 (q, iqn ) = = 1 V 1 V nF (ξk )G0 (k + qσ, ξk + iqn ) + nF (ξk+q − iqn )G0 (kσ, ξk+q − iqn )

k

nF (ξk ) − nF (ξk+q )

kσ

iqn + ξk − ξk+q

.

(10.85)

**Here we used that nF (ξk+q − iqn ) = 1 eβξk+q e−βiqn +1 = 1 e
**

βξk+q

+1

,

(10.86)

because iqn is a bosonic frequency. After the substitution (10.80) Eq. (10.85) gives the result we found in Eq. (8.81).

10.8

Summary and outlook

When performing calculations of physical quantities at ﬁnite temperatures it turns out that the easiest way to ﬁnd the “real time” introduced in Chap. 7 is often to go via the imaginary time formalism. This formalism has been introduced in this chapter, and in the following chapters on Feynman diagrams it is a necessary tool. There you will see why it is more natural to use the imaginary time Green’s function, also called Matsubara Green’s function. The reason is that the time evolution operator and the Boltzmann weight factor can be treated on an equal footing and one single perturbation expansion suﬃces. In the real time formalism there is no simple way of doing this. We have also derived some very useful relations concerning sums over Matsubara frequencies. The things to remember are the following. Non-interacting particle Green’s function, valid for both bosons and fermions G0 (ν, iωn ) = 1 . iωn − ξv (10.87)

**Matsubara frequency sum over products of non-interacting Green’s functions (for τ > 0) S F (τ ) = 1 β 1 β g0 (ikn )eikn τ =
**

ikn j

Res (g0 (zj )) nF (zj )ezj τ ,

ikn fermion frequency, (10.88a)

S B (τ ) =

**g0 (iωn )eiωn τ = −
**

iωn j

Res (g0 (zj )) nB (zj )ezj τ ,

iωn boson frequency, (10.88b)

with g0 (z) = i 1/ (z − ξi ) . If we perform a sum over functions where the poles are unknown but where the branch cuts are known, we can use a contour depicted in Fig.

10.8. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK

175

10.3. For example if g(ikn ) is known to be analytic everywhere but on the real axis we get S F (τ ) = 1 β g(ikn )eikn τ = −

ikn ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞

dε nF (ε) [g(ε + iη) − g(ε − iη)] 2πi (10.89)

=−

dε nF (ε) g R (ε) − g A (ε) . 2πi

Finally, we proved an important theorem, Wick’s theorem, which says that for noninteracting an n-particle Green’s function is equal to a sum of products of single-particle Green’s functions, where all possible pairings should be included in the sum. For fermions we must furthermore keep track of the number of factors −1, because each time we interchange two fermion operators we must include a factor -1. The end result was

(n) G0 (1, . . . , n; 1

,...,n ) =

G0 (1, 1 ) · · · . .. . . . G0 (n, 1 ) · · ·

G0 (1, n ) . . . G0 (n, n )

B,F

,

i ≡ (νi , τi ) ,

(10.90)

where G0 (1, . . . , n; 1 , . . . , n ) = (−1)n Tτ c(1) · · · c(n)ˆ† (n ) · · · c† (1 ) ˆ ˆ c ˆ

(n) 0

.

(10.91)

176

CHAPTER 10. IMAGINARY TIME GREEN’S FUNCTIONS

Chapter 11

**Feynman diagrams and external potentials
**

From the previous chapters on linear response theory and Green’s functions, it is clear that complete calculations of thermal averages of time-dependent phenomena in quantum ﬁeld theory are a rather formidable task. Even the basic imaginary time evolution operˆ ˆ ator U (τ ) itself is an inﬁnite series to all orders in the interaction V (r, τ ). One simply faces the problem of getting lost in the myriads of integrals, and not being able to maintain a good physical intuition of which terms are important. In 1948 Feynman solved this problem as part of his seminal work on quantum electrodynamics by inventing the ingenious diagrams that today bear his name. The Feynman diagrams are both an exact mathematical representation of perturbation theory to inﬁnite order and a powerful pictorial method that elucidate the physical content of the complicated expressions. In this chapter we introduce the Feynman diagrams for the case of non-interacting particles in an external potential. Our main example of their use will be the analysis of electron-impurity scattering in disordered metals.

11.1

Non-interacting particles in external potentials

Consider a time-independent Hamiltonian H in the space representation describing noninteracting fermions in an external spin-diagonal single-particle potential Vσ (r): H = H0 + V =

σ

dr Ψ† (r)H0 (r)Ψσ (r) + σ

σ

dr Ψ† (r)Vσ (r)Ψσ (r). σ

(11.1)

As usual we assume that the unperturbed system described by the time-independent Hamiltonian H0 is solvable, and that we know the corresponding eigenstates |ν and 0 Green’s functions Gν . In the following it will prove helpful to introduce the short-hand notation

β

(r1 , σ1 , τ1 ) = (1)

and 177

d1 =

σ1

dr1

0

dτ1

(11.2)

178

CHAPTER 11. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS

for points and integrals in space-time. We want to study the full Green’s function, G(b, a) = − Tτ Ψ(b)Ψ† (a) , governed by ˆ ˆ H, and the bare one, G 0 (b, a) = − Tτ Ψ(b)Ψ† (a) 0 , governed by H0 . We note that since no particle-particle interaction is present in Eq. (11.1) both the full Hamiltonian H and the bare H0 have the simple form of Eq. (10.62), and the equations of motion for the two Green’s functions have the same form as Eq. (10.63):

[−∂τb −H0 (b)] G 0 (b, a) = δ(b−a) [−∂τb −H(b) ] G(b, a) = δ(b−a)

⇔ [−∂τb −H(b)+V (b)] G 0 (b, a) = δ(b−a) ⇔ G(b, a) = [−∂τb −H(b)]−1 δ(b−a),

(11.3a) (11.3b)

where we have also given the formal solution of G, which is helpful in acquiring the actual solution for G. Substituting δ(b − a) in Eq. (11.3b) by the expression from Eq. (11.3a) yields: [−∂τb − H(b)] G(b, a) = [−∂τb − H(b) + V (b)] G 0 (b, a) = [−∂τb − H(b)] G 0 (b, a) + V (b) G 0 (b, a) = [−∂τb − H(b)] G 0 (b, a) + (11.4) d1 δ(b − 1) V (1) G 0 (1, a).

Acting from the left with [−∂τb − H(b)]−1 gives an integral equation for G, the so-called Dyson equation, G(b, a) = G 0 (b, a) + d1 G(b, 1) V (1) G 0 (1, a), (11.5)

where we have used the second expression in Eq. (11.3b) to introduce G in the integrand. By iteratively inserting G itself in the integrand on the left-hand side we obtain the inﬁnite perturbation series G(b, a) = G 0 (b, a) + d1 G 0 (b, 1) V (1) G 0 (1, a) (11.6)

+ d1 d2 G 0 (b, 1) V (1) G 0 (1, 2) V (2) G 0 (2, a)

+ d1 d2 d3 G 0 (b, 1) V (1) G 0 (1, 2) V (2) G 0 (2, 3) V (3) G 0 (3, a) + . . . . The solutions Eqs. (11.5) and (11.6) for G are easy to interpret. The propagator, G, of a fermion in an external potential is given as the sum of all possible processes involving unperturbed propagation, described by G 0 , intersected by any number of scattering events V . So in this simple case there is really no need for further elucidation, but we will anyway proceed by introducing the corresponding Feynman diagrams. The ﬁrst step is to deﬁne the basic graphical vocabulary, i.e. to deﬁne the pictograms representing the basic quantities G, G 0 , and V of the problem. This vocabulary is known

11.2. ELASTIC SCATTERING AND MATSUBARA FREQUENCIES as the Feynman rules: b G(b, a) = G 0 (b, a) =

179

b d1 V (1) . . . = 1 (11.7)

a a Note how the fermion lines point from the points of creation, e.g. Ψ† (a), to the points of annihilation, e.g. Ψ(b). Using the Feynman rules the inﬁnite perturbation series Eq. (11.6) becomes b b b b b 1 = + 1 + 2 + 1 2 3 + ... (11.8)

a a a a a In this form we clearly see how the full propagator from a to b is the sum over all possible ways to connect a and b with bare propagators via any number of scattering events. We can also perform calculations by manipulating the diagrams. Let us for example derive an integral form equivalent to Eq. (11.5) from Eq. (11.8): b b b b b × 1 + 1 1 + 2 1 2 + . . . 3

=

+

=

+

1

(11.9)

a a a a a which by using the Feynman rules can be written as G(b, a) = G 0 (b, a) + d1 G 0 (b, 1) V (1) G(1, a).

a

a (11.10)

The former integral equation Eq. (11.5) for G is obtained by pulling out the bottom part V (n) G 0 (n, a) of every diagram on the right hand side of Eq. (11.8), thereby exchanging the arrow and the double-arrow in the last diagram of Eq. (11.9). This is a ﬁrst demonstration of the compactness of the Feynman diagram, and how visual clarity is obtained without loss of mathematical rigor.

11.2

Elastic scattering and Matsubara frequencies

When a fermion system interacts with a static external potential no energy is transferred between the two systems, a situation referred to as elastic scattering. The lack of energy

180

CHAPTER 11. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS

transfer in elastic scattering is naturally reﬂected in a particularly simple form of the single-particle Green’s function G(ikn ) in Matsubara frequency space. In the following the spin index σ is left out since the same answer is obtained for the two spin directions. First we note that since the Hamiltonian H in Eq. (11.1) is time-independent for static potentials we know from Eq. (10.19) that G(rτ, r τ ) depends only on the time diﬀerence τ − τ , and according to Eqs. (10.22b) and (10.25) it can therefore be expressed in terms of a Fourier transform with just one fermionic Matsubara frequency ikn : G(rτ, r τ ) = 1 β G(r, r ; ikn ) e−ikn (τ −τ ) ,

n β

G(r, r ; ikn ) =

dτ G(rτ, r τ ) eikn (τ −τ ) .

0

(11.11) The Fourier transform of the time convolution dτ1 G 0 (τb − τ1 )V G(τ1 − τa ) appearing in the integral equation of G is the product G 0 (ikn )V G(ikn ). The elastic scattering, i.e. the time-independent V , cannot change the frequencies of the propagators. In Matsubara frequency space the Dyson equation Eq. (11.10) takes the form G(rb , ra ; ikn ) = G 0 (rb , ra ; ikn ) + dr1 G 0 (rb , r1 ; ikn ) V (1) G(r1 , ra ; ikn ). (11.12)

As seen previously, the expressions are simpliﬁed by transforming from the |r -basis to the basis |ν which diagonalizes H0 . We deﬁne the transformed Green’s function in this basis as follows: Gνν ≡ drdr ν|r G(r, r ) r |ν ⇔ G(r, r ) =

νν

r|ν Gνν ν |r .

(11.13)

In a similar way we deﬁne the |ν -transform of V (r) as Vνν ≡ dr ν|r V (r) r|ν . In the |ν, ikn representation the equation of motion Eq. (11.3b) for G is a matrix equation, [(ikn − ξν )δν,ν − Vν,ν ] Gν

ν ,ν

(ikn ) = δν,ν

¯ ¯ or [ikn ¯ − E 0 − V ] G(ikn ) = ¯ (11.14) 1 ¯ 1,

¯ where E 0 is a diagonal matrix with the eigenenergies ξν = εν − µ along the diagonal. We have thus reduced the problem of ﬁnding the full Green’s function to a matrix inversion problem. We note in particular that in accordance with Eq. (10.40) the bare propagator G 0 has the simple diagonal form

0 (ikn − ξν )δν,ν Gν ν ,ν

(ikn ) = δν,ν

⇒

0 Gν,ν (ikn ) =

1 δ . ikn − ξν ν,ν

(11.15)

**We can utilize this to rewrite the integral equation Eq. (11.12) as a simple matrix equation, G(νb νa ; ikn ) = δν
**

b ,νa

G 0 (νa νa ; ikn ) +

νc

G 0 (νb νb ; ikn ) Vνb νc G(νc νa ; ikn ).

(11.16)

¯ We can also formulate Feynman rules in (ν, ikn )-space. We note that G 0 is diagonal in ¯ is a general matrix. To get the sum of all possible quantum processes one must ν, while V

xx © ©§ ©§¨¥ ¦¥ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¤¢ £ ¢ ¡ . In Fig. The valence of the impurity ions is one higher than the host ions.ν b ikn − ξνa Vνν = ν ν (11.18) νa Random impurities in disordered metals An important example of elastic scattering by external potentials is the case of random impurities in a disordered metal. ikn )-space we can express Dyson’s equation Eq. This will be discussed in detail in Chap.3. and as a result the range of the potential is ﬁnite. . while at low T only the electron-impurity scattering is eﬀective and gives rise to the non-zero value ρ0 of ρxx at T = 0. The presence of the impurities can be detected by measuring the (longitudinal) resistivity ρxx of the metal as a function of temperature. (11. RANDOM IMPURITIES IN DISORDERED METALS 181 sum over all matrix indices diﬀerent from the externally given νa and νb . and as a ﬁrst approximation an impurity ion at site Pj gives rise to a simple screened mono-charge Coulomb potential uj (r) = −(e2 /|r − Pj |) e−|r−Pj |/a . νb νb Gνb νa = νa νa Using these Feynman rules in (ν. At high T the electron-phonon scattering dominates giving rise to a linear behavior. At high temperature the resistivity is mainly due to electron-phonon scattering.νa = δνa . The frequency argument is suppressed.1(a) is sketched a number of randomly positioned impurities in an otherwise perfect metal lattice. The screening is due 0 to the electrons in the system trying to neutralize the impurity charge.νa = b δν b . One well-controlled experimental realization of this is provided by a perfect metal Cu lattice with MgII ions substituting a small number of randomly chosen CuI ions. 11. and since the vibrational Figure 11. 13.νa νa + νa νb νc (11.1: (a) A disordered metal consisting of an otherwise perfect metal lattice with a number of randomly positioned impurities giving rise to elastic electron-impurity scattering.3 = δν b .17) 11. given by the so-called screening length a. since the Green’s functions are diagonal in ikn . (b) The electrical resistivity ρxx (T ) of the disordered metal as a function of temperature.11.16) diagrammatically: νb νb νa 0 Gν .

and that the characteristic value in that region is u. The elastic scattering potential V (r) then acquires the form Nimp V (r) = j=1 u(r − Pj ). Finally. (11. typically a few kelvin. As a result the resistivity levels oﬀ at some value. The temperature behavior of the resistivity is depicted in Fig. We use the plane wave states |kσ from the eﬀective mass approximation Eq. One is stating that the ratio between the impurity density. At lower temperature the phonon degrees of freedom begin to freeze out and the phase space available for scattering also shrinks. The level spacing for non-perturbed states in that sphere is near the ground state given by the size quantization 2 /ma2 . (11. where p = k has been used.2). ra . and the electron density nel is much smaller than unity: nimp nel 1. Exercise 3. ikn ) = G (rb−ra .3.19) the Dyson equation Eq. ra . is also proportional to T (see e. (2.22) Assume that u is only important in a sphere of radius a around the scattering center. (11. Weak scattering means ˜ 2 /ma2 as follows:1 that u is much smaller than some characteristic level spacing ˜ u ˜ ma2 2 min {1.1(b).1 Feynman diagrams for the impurity scattering With the random potential Eq. Pj is randomly distributed. (11. the level spacing is (∂ε/∂p) ∆p = (p/m) ( /a) = ka 2 /ma2 . and consequently the resistivity becomes proportional to some power α of T . ikn ) u(r1−Pj ) G(r1 . (11.12) becomes Nimp G(rb . at the lowest temperatures. say ε = p2 /2m.182 CHAPTER 11. Now consider Nimp identical impurities situated at the randomly distributed but ﬁxed positions Pj .16) as the unperturbed basis |ν . 11. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS 1 energy ω (n+ 2 ) in thermal equilibrium is proportional to kB T . nimp = Nimp /V. ikn ) + j=1 1 0 dr1 G 0 (rb−r1 . ikn ).21) 11. the so-called residual resistivity. and hence the electron-phonon scattering rate. (11. ρ0 . the number n of phonons. We postpone the calculation of the resistivity and in this section just concentrate on studying the electron Matsubara Green’s function G for electrons moving in such a disordered metal. For high energies around. kF a}.g. Thus u is weak if it is smaller than the smallest of these level spacings. only the electron-impurity scattering is left preventing the Bloch electrons in moving unhindered through the crystal.20) The other small parameter is stating that the strength of the scattering potential is weak.19) Two small dimensionless parameters of the system serve as guides to obtain good approximative solutions. We assume that the scattering potential u(r − Pj ) diﬀers only signiﬁcantly from 0 for |r − Pj | < a. ~ ~ ~ ~ .

. The n-th order term G (n) is Nimp Nimp G (n) (rb . ikn ) in Eq. RANDOM IMPURITIES IN DISORDERED METALS 183 where we have used the fact that the unperturbed system is translation-invariant and hence that G 0 (r1 .. Not only is it for all practical purposes impossible to know where all the impurities in a given metallic sample de facto are situated..11.. . and therefore translation-invariant. no simple solution for the Green’s function could be found. To this end we reformulate Dyson’s 0 equation in k space since according to Eq.25) The Fourier expansion of G (n) (rb .3. First expand the Dyson equation Eq. Naturally. . we can never hope to solve this problem exactly. .. ra ). jn dr1 . Utilizing these delta functions in the n q-sums leads to G (n) 1 (rb ra ) = 2 V Nimp e ka kb b ikb ·rb −ika ·ra e 1 V n−1 k1 . uk 2 −k1 0 Gk1 uk . ra . .27) 0 Gka e −i[(kb −kn−1 )·Pjn +. . n=0 where the frequency argument ikn has been suppressed. This complicated expression can be simpliﬁed a lot by performing the n spatial integrals. k (11. eiq2 ·r2 eik1 ·(r2 −r1 ) eiq1 ·r1 eika ·(r1 −ra ) . ra .. ..23) is: Nimp G (n) (rb . ikn ) = G 0 (r1 −ra . .+q2 ·Pj +q1 ·Pj ) ×eikb ·(rb −rn ) eiqn ·rn eikn−1 ·(rn −rn−1 ) ..jn 1 Vn b q1 .kn−1 drn 2 1 (11. (11. q (11. ra ) = ∞ G (n) (rb .kn−1 1 −ka (11. .23) × G 0 (rb −rn ) u(rn − Pjn ) .k +q ...jn b −kn−1 0 ×Gk uk 0 Gkn−1 . . (11. which may be interpreted as momentum conservaj j−1 j tion in each electron-impurity scattering: the change of the electron momentum is absorbed by the impurity... then we shall soon ﬁnd an answer. ra ) = j1 . and obtain G(rb . .. ikn ) = 1 V 0 Gk (ikn ) eik·(r−r ) .qn 1 V2 1 ka kb V n−1 dr1 . drn (11. . . problem has the simple form: 0 Gk (ikn ) = 1 . However. (11.24) The Fourier transform of the impurity potential u(r−Pj ) is: u(r−Pj ) = 1 V uq eiq·(r−Pj ) = q 1 V e−iq·Pj uq eiq·r ....22) in orders n of the scattering potential u(r−Pj ). ra ) = j1 .26) 0 0 0 0 ×Gk uqn Gkn−1 uqn−1 . drj ei(kj −kj−1 −qj )·rj = V δk .15) Gk of the impurity free. u(r2 −Pj2 ) G 0 (r2 −r1 ) u(r1 −Pj1 ) G 0 (r1 −ra ). This n-th order contribution can be interpreted as the sum over all processes involving n scattering events in all possible combination of impurities. but even if we did. We now want to deduce the Feynman rules for constructing diagrams in this situation. . ikn − ξk 0 Gk (r−r . if we are satisﬁed with the answer to the less ambitious and more practical question of what is the average behavior. uq2 Gk1 uq1 Gka e −i(qn ·Pjn +. k1 . ikn ).+(k1 −ka )·Pj ] 1 j1 .

j kj Maintain momentum conservation at each vertex. as mentioned above. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS (n) b ka Introducing the Fourier transform Gk G (n) (rb . . Let Gka kb 0 Let Gk go from vertex j to vertex j + 1. 0 go into vertex •1 and G 0 away from vertex •n.4 Impurity self-average If the electron wavefunctions are completely coherent throughout the entire disordered metal each true electronic eigenfunction exhibit an extremely complex diﬀraction pattern spawned by the randomly positioned scatterers.28) = j1 .. ra ) as eikb ·rb e−ika ·ra Gk ka kb (n) . Draw n scattering events.29) 0 × Gk uk b −kn−1 0 Gkn−1 . kb −kn−1 k3 −k2 k2 −k1 k1 −ka 11..kn−1 −i[(kb −kn−1 )·Pjn +.. (n) : b ka we can now easily deduce the Feynman rules for the diagrams corresponding to Gk (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Let dashed arrows j q.. b ka 1 V2 (11. Pj denote a scattering event uq e−iq·Pj .jn 1 V n−1 b e k1 . and Nimp j1 .+(k1 −ka )·Pj ] 1 (11. uk 2 −k1 0 Gk1 . (11.. uk 1 −ka 0 Gka . If one imagine changing some external parameter. However. the average electron density or an external magnetic ﬁeld. .29) is: Pn Gk (n) b ka P3 P2 P1 (11. ra ) = with Nimp (n) Gk ka b of G (n) (rb .jn over Pjl . One can see how an incoming electron with momentum ka is scattered n times under momentum conservation with the impurities and leaves the system with momentum kb .31) = ··· n kb kn−1 k3 3 k2 2 k1 1 ka This diagram is very suggestive. . 0 Let straight arrows k denote Gk . . (11.g.30) The diagram corresponding to Eq.. We therefore begin to consider the possibility of performing an average over the random positions Pj of the impurities. each individual .184 CHAPTER 11. it is not possible to continue the study of impurity scattering on general grounds without further assumptions.. e. Perform the sums 1 V over all internal momenta kj .

Using modern nano-technology to fabricate small (but still macroscopic) samples.ka Gka ≡ b δk imp b . IMPURITY SELF-AVERAGE 185 diﬀraction pattern will of course change drastically due to the sensitivity of the scattering phases of the wavefunctions. Note that this average is imposed by the physical properties of the system itself. the amount of electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering increases because of an increased phase space for scattering and an increased number of phonons. But due to the random distribution of the impurities.11. For very large (mm sized) macroscopic samples lϕ is much smaller than the sample size at all experimental realizable temperatures (T > 10 mK for electron gases in metals and semiconductors). and one can as well perform the position average over the entire volume of the sample.. In fact. Thus in the following we average over all possible uncorrelated positions Pj of the Nimp impurities for the entire system: 1 Gkb ka V ¯ ≡ δk . 11.2(b) where the conductance trace at 4.2. and we can think of the device as being composed as a number of phase-independent small phase coherent sub-systems. Therefore.4.31 K as a function of the electron density.ka Nsys sys Gka i ∼ δk i=1 1 Nsys b . even on the rather small length scale lϕ the system is already homogeneous. such as the one shown in Fig. The quantum mechanical phase of each individual electron is changed by a small random amount at each inelastic scattering event. Signiﬁcant quantum ﬂuctuations must therefore occur in any observable at suﬃciently low temperatures. As the temperature of a given sample is raised.1 K is seen to be much smoother than the one at 0. the impurity average is performed by summing over all the phase-independent coherent sub-systems and dividing by their number Nsys .31 K. 1 V dPNimp Gka (11. and we are in the impurity self-averaging case. Any n-th order contribution to Gk contains n scattering events. this average is the same as an average over the impurity position within a single subsystem . 11. one can in fact obtain an experimental situation where the electrons can traverse the sample without loosing their quantum-mechanical phase coherence. These ﬂuctuations turn out to be perfectly reproducible as Vg is swept up and down several times. and as a result the coherence length lϕ for the electrons diminishes. any . and this eﬀective averaging is consequently denoted self-averaging. Some care must be taken regarding the average over the impurity positions Pj . This density can be controlled by applying a gate voltage Vg on an external electrode.as can be seen from Fig. This eﬀect is illustrated in Fig. 2. However.1 K) lϕ is much smaller than the size of the device. but they need not be on n diﬀerent scatterers. at 0. The conductance G is seen to ﬂuctuate strongly for minute changes of Vg .10. In Fig.2(a) is shown the conductance trace of a GaAs nano-device. 4.32) Here we have anticipated that the impurity averaged Green’s function is diagonal in k due to the restoring of translation-invariance upon average. 11. when one measures an observable the result is in fact an incoherent average of all these sub-systems. Mathematically. and where the many small phase coherent sub-systems of the sample are indicated below the experimental graph..ka V dP1 1 V dP2 .g. At suﬃciently high temperature (e. and standard cryogenic equipment to cool down these samples to ultra-low temperatures.

31 K displaying random but reproducible quantum ﬂuctuations as a function of a gate voltage Vg controlling the electron density.50 Vg (V) T = 4.20) we work in the limit of small impurity densities nimp .20 0.31 K G (e2/h) Figure 11. (11. which suppresses the quantum ﬂuctuations. 1 ≤ p ≤ n of scatterers could be involved.40 0.. etc.186 ¢ ¡ CHAPTER 11. down by the small factor nimp /nel .+qn ·Pjn ) . The sample now contains a large number of independent but phase-coherent sub-systems of size lϕ .2: (a) The measured conductance of a disordered GaAs sample at T = 0. The ﬂuctuations are due to phase coherent scattering against randomly positioned impurities. (11. The sum in Eq. Then.1 K. with the scattering the impurity positions is the exponential e 1 j1 2 j2 vectors qi = ki − ki−1 . As mentioned in Eq. For a given ﬁxed number n of scattering events the most important contribution therefore comes from processes involving just one impurity.29) the only reference to i(q ·P +q ·P +. (11. We note that in Eq. number p.29) over impurity positions in this exponential is now ordered according to how many impurities are involved: ¥ ¤ ¢ £ ¥ ¤ 5 4 3 2 1 0 0. We must therefore carefully sort out all possible ways to scatter on p diﬀerent impurities.. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS 5 4 G (e2/h) 3 2 1 0 0. The ﬂuctuations are almost gone due to the smallness of lϕ at this temperature. As a result a substantial self-averaging occurs.50 Vg (V) T = 0. Below is indicated that the phase coherence length lϕ is large compared to the size of the sample.30 0.40 0. (b) The same system at T = 4.1 K .20 0.30 0. follow processes involving two impurities.

the sum of all scattering momenta on the same impurity must be zero. . in Eq.∪Qp = Q denotes all possible unions of non-empty disjunct subsets spanning Q. Note. the result may perhaps be easier to understand than the derivation. (11.32) over each exponential factor independently. . (11. For the important terms p Nimp and the error is p/Nimp 1. (11.. .. (11. q2 . that strictly speaking two diﬀerent impurities cannot occupy the same position.2 Since all the p positions Ph now are manifestly diﬀerent we can perform the impurity average indicated in Eq. All the scattering vectors in one particular subset Qi are connected to the same impurity Phi . As depicted in Eq. . The result of the impurity averaging can now be written as Nimp e j1 .P q ∈Qh hi qh ..3. (11. qn } is the set of the n scattering vectors.jn i Pn l=1 ql ·Pj Nimp l = h1 i( P e i( P q ∈Q j1 qj )·Ph 1 1 Nimp Nimp + Q1 ∪Q2 =Q h1 h2 e q ∈Q1 l1 ql )·Ph 1 1 e P i( q l2 ∈Q2 ql )·Ph 2 2 Nimp Nimp Nimp + Q1 ∪Q2 ∪Q3 =Q h1 h2 h3 e P i( q l1 ∈Q1 ql )·Ph 1 1 e P i( q l2 ∈Q2 ql )·Ph 2 2 e i( P ql ∈Q3 3 ql )·Ph 3 3 + .P h=1 h=1 Qh =Q q ∈Qh hi qh . the averaging has restored translation-invariance. However. while Q1 ∪Q2 ∪. (11..4. This introduces a small error of the order 1/Nimp for the important terms in the low impurity density limit involving only a few impurities. . Since translation-invariance is restored by the averaging.33) we let the j-sums run unrestricted. 11. But let us see how these conclusions are reached.11. The detailed calculation is straightforward but somewhat cumbersome. and not just the Nimp −p available sites..32) over each independent exponential factor results in some Kronecker delta’s meaning that all scattering vectors qhi connected to the same impurity must add up to zero: e P i( q ∈Qi hi qh )·Ph i i = imp 1 V dPhi e i( P q ∈Qh hi qh )·Ph i i = δ0.33) Here Q = {q1 .34) i This of course no longer depends on the p impurity positions Phi .. (11. .38) the impurity averaged Green’s function is a sum scattering processes against the position-averaged impurities. cf.jn 2 i Pn l=1 ql ·Pj n p Sp l = imp p=1 Nimp δ0... The impurity average indicated in Eq.35) i This error occurs since our approximation amounts to saying that the (p + 1)-st impurity can occupy any of the Nimp impurity sites. IMPURITY SELF-AVERAGE 187 Nimp e j1 . . Fig.

188

CHAPTER 11. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS

**which, when inserted in Eq. (11.29), leads to Gk
**

(n) imp

=

1 V n−1

n k1 ...kn−1 p=1

1

p

Sp

Nimp δ0,P

0 Gk2 . . . uk

n−1 −k

h=1 h=1 Qh =Q 0 Gk .

Qh (khi −k(hi −1) )

0 0 × Gk uk −k Gk1 uk

1 −k2

(11.36)

We note that due to the p factors containing δ-functions there are in fact only n − 1 − p 1 free momenta sums V k to perform. The remaining p volume prefactors are combined with Nimp to yield p impurity density factors nimp = Nimp /V. The Feynman rules for constructing the n-th order contribution Gk purity averaged Green’s function Gk imp are now easy to establish: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11)

(n) imp

to the im-

Let scattering lines q denote the scattering amplitude uq . Let denote a momentum conserving impurity averaged factor nimp δ0,P q . 0 Let fermion lines k denote the unperturbed Green’s function Gk . Draw p impurity stars. Let n1 scattering lines go out from star 1, n2 from star 2, etc, so that the total number n1 + n2 + . . . + np of scattering lines is n. Draw all topological diﬀerent diagrams containing an unbroken chain of n + 1 fermion lines connecting once to each of the n scattering line end-points. 0 Let the ﬁrst and last fermion line be Gk . Maintain momentum conservation at each vertex. Make sure that the sum of all momenta leaving an impurity star is zero. 1 Perform the sum V k over all free internal momenta kj .

j

Sum over all orders n of scattering and over p, with 1 ≤ p ≤ n. (11.37)

**The diagrammatic expansion of Gk Gk
**

imp

imp

has a direct intuitive appeal: +

=

+ + +

+

!

+ + + ··· +

(11.38)

" # $ % &

+ +

In this expression, showing all diagrams up to third order and three diagrams of fourth order, we have for visual clarity suppressed all momentum labels and even the arrows of the scattering lines. For each order the diagrams are arranged after powers of nimp , i.e. the number of impurity stars. In Fig. 11.3 two diagrams with complete labels are shown. In the following section we gain further insight in the solution of Gk imp by rearranging the terms in the diagrammatic expansion, a procedure known as resummation.

'

+ ··· +

(

)

+ ···

Figure 11.3: Two fully labelled ﬁfth order diagrams both with two impurity scatterers. Diagram (a) is a so-called irreducible diagram, i.e. it cannot be cut into two pieces by cutting one internal fermion line. In contrast, diagram (b) is reducible. It consists of two irreducible parts.

11.5

In Fig. 11.3 we introduce the concept of irreducible diagrams, i.e. diagrams in the expansion of Gk imp that cannot be cut into two pieces by cutting a single internal fermion line. We now use this concept to resum the diagrammatic expansion Eq. (11.38) for Gk imp . We remind the reader that this resummation is correct only in the limit of low impurity density. First we deﬁne the so-called self-energy Σk : Σk ≡ = = The sum of all irreducible diagrams in Gk 0 without the two external fermion lines Gk

imp

**Using Σk and the product form of Gk Gk
**

imp

**This algebraic Dyson equation, equivalent to Eqs. (11.9) and (11.18), is readily solved: Gk (ikn )
**

imp

From this solution we immediately learn that Σk enters Gk imp as an additive correction to the original unperturbed energy, ξk → ξk + Σk , hence the name self-energy. The problem

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Self-energy for impurity scattered electrons

11.5. SELF-ENERGY FOR IMPURITY SCATTERED ELECTRONS

189

* + , /

+ + +

imp

+

.

+ ···

+ ··· (11.39)

= =

0 0 = Gk + Gk Σk Gk

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

+ + + × +

imp . 0 Gk

in Fourier space, Eq. (11.38) becomes + ...

+ ... (11.40)

=

1−

0 Gk

Σk

=

1

0 (Gk )−1

− Σk

=

1 . ikn − ξk − Σk (ikn )

(11.41)

190

CHAPTER 11. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS

of ﬁnding Gk imp is thus reduced to a calculation of Σk . In the following we go through various approximations for Σk .

11.5.1

Lowest order approximation

One marvellous feature of the self-energy Σk is that even if it is approximated by a ﬁnite number of diagrams, the Dyson equation Eq. (11.40) actually ensures that some diagrams of all orders are included in the perturbation series for Gk imp . This allows for essential changes in Gk imp , notably one can move the poles of Gk imp and hence change the excitation energies. This would not be possible if only a ﬁnite number of diagrams were used in the expansion of Gk imp itself. Bearing in mind the inequalities Eqs. (11.20) and (11.21), the lowest order approximation ΣLOA to Σk is obtained by including only the diagram with the fewest number of k impurity stars and scattering lines, ΣLOA (ikn ) ≡ k

7

= nimp u0 = nimp

dr u(r),

(11.42)

**i.e. a constant, which upon insertion into Dyson’s equation Eq. (11.41) yields
**

LOA Gk (ikn ) =

1 . ikn − (ξk + nimp u0 )

(11.43)

But this just reveals a simple constant shift of all the energy levels with the amount nimp u0 . This shift constitutes a redeﬁnition of the origin of the energy axis with no dynamical consequences. In the following it is absorbed into the deﬁnition of the chemical potential and will therefore not appear in the equations.

11.5.2

1st order Born approximation

The simplest non-trivial low-order approximation to the self-energy is the so-called ﬁrst order Born approximation given by the ’wigwam’-diagram Σ1BA (ikn ) ≡ k

8

k−k k −k k

= nimp

k

|uk−k |2

1 , ikn − ξk

(11.44)

where we have used that u−k = u∗ since u(r) is real. We shall see shortly that Σ1BA = k k Re Σ1BA + i Im Σ1BA moves the poles of Gk imp = away from the real axis, i.e. k k 1BA the propagator acquires a ﬁnite life-time. By Eq. (11.40) we see that Gk is the sum of propagations with any number of sequential wigwam-diagrams:

9

In the evaluation of Σ1BA we shall rely on our physical insight to facilitate the math. k We know that for the electron gas in a typical metal εF ∼ 7 eV ∼ 80 000 K, so as usual only electrons with an energy εk in a narrow shell around εF ≈ µ play a role. For

: ; < = >

1BA

=

+

+

+

+ ···

(11.45)

11.5. SELF-ENERGY FOR IMPURITY SCATTERED ELECTRONS

191

Figure 11.4: (a) The functions nimp |uk |2 and (ω − εk + µ)/[(ω − εk + µ)2 + η 2 ] appearing in the expression for Re Σ1BA (ikn ). (b) The functions nimp |uk |2 and |kn |/[(ω − εk + µ)2 + η 2 ] k appearing in the expression for Im Σ1BA (ikn ). k T < 800 K we have kB T /εF < 10−2 , and for applied voltage drops Vext less than 70 mV over the coherence length lϕ < 10−5 m (the typical size we are looking at), i.e. applied electrical ﬁelds less than 7000 V/m, we have eVext /εF < 10−2 . Thus we are only interested in Σ1BA (ikn ) for k |k| ∼ kF and |ikn → ω + i sgn(kn )η| εF . (11.46) Here we have also anticipated that at the end of the calculation, as sketched in Fig. 10.1, we need to perform an analytical continuation down to the real axis, either from the upper half-plane, where kn > 0, as ikn → ω + iη, or from the lower half-plane, where kn < 0, as ikn → ω − iη. Furthermore, as we shall study in great detail later, the electron gas redistributes itself to screen out the external charges from the impurities, and as a result uk−k varies in a smooth and gentle way for 0 < |k − k | < 2kF . With this physical input in mind we continue: 1 (11.47) Σ1BA (ω + i sgn(kn )η) = nimp |uk−k |2 k (ω − ξk ) + i sgn(kn )η

k

=

k

nimp |uk−k |2

ω − ξk − i sgn(kn ) πδ(ω − ξk ) . (ω − ξk )2 + η 2

Since |uk−k |2 vary smoothly and |ω − ξk | εF ≈ µ we get the functional behavior shown in Fig. 11.4. Since (ω − ξk )/((ω − ξk )2 + η 2 ) is an odd function of ω − ξk and the width η is small, we have3 Re Σ1BA (ikn ) ≈ 0; For the imaginary part of Σ1BA we obtain the k usual delta function for η → 0. Finally, since the spectral function for the unperturbed system forces ω to equal ξk , we obtain: Σ1BA (ikn ) = −iπ sgn(kn ) k

k

3

nimp |uk−k |2 δ(ξk − ξk ) = −i sgn(kn )

Strictly speaking, we only get vanishing real part if the slope of |uk−k |2 is zero near µ. If this is not the case we do get a non-zero real part. However, since |uk−k |2 is slowly varying near µ we get the same real part for all k and k near kF . This contribution can be absorbed into the deﬁnition of µ.

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1 , 2τk

(11.48)

192

CHAPTER 11. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS

**where we have introduced the impurity scattering time τk deﬁned as 1 ≡ 2π τk nimp |uk−k |2 δ(ξk − ξk ).
**

k

(11.49)

This result can also be found using Fermi’s golden rule. Now we have obtained the 1st order Born approximation for Gk (ikn ) in Eq. (11.41) and the analytic continuation ikn → z thereof into the entire complex plane: z−ξ 1 i , Im z > 0 k + 2τ 1 1BA 1BA k Gk (ikn ) = −→ Gk (z) = (11.50) 1 ikn − ξk + i sgn(kn ) ikn →z z−ξ − i , Im z < 0. 2τ

k k 2τ k

1BA We see that Gk (z) has a branch cut along the real axis, but that it is analytic separately in the upper and the lower half-plane. This is a property that will play an important role later, when we calculate the electrical resistivity of disordered metals. Note that this behavior is in accordance with the general results obtained in Sec. 9.2 concerning the analytic properties of Matsubara Green’s functions. We close this section by remarking three properties summarized in Fig. 11.5 related to the retarded Green’s function GR,1BA (ω ) = G 1BA (ω + iη). First, it is seen by Fourier R,1BA transforming to the time domain that Gk (t) decays exponentially in time with τk as the typical time scale:

Gk

R,1BA

(t) ≡

e−i(ω +iη)t dω = −i θ(t) e−iξk t e−t/2τk . 2π ω − ξk + i/2τk

(11.51)

−1 Second, exploiting that ω , τk εF , it is seen by Fourier transforming back to real space R,1BA (r, ω ) decays exponentially in space with l ≡ v τ as the typical length scale: that G k F k

GR,1BA (r, ω ) ≡

πd(εF ) ik |r| −|r|/2lk dk eik·r = e F e . (2π)3 ω − ξk + i/2τk kF |r|

(11.52)

**Thirdly, the spectral function A1BA (ω ) is a Lorentzian of width 2τk : k
**

1BA A1BA (ω ) ≡ −2 Im Gk (ω + iη) = k 2 (ω − ξk )2 + 1/4τk

1/τk

(11.53)

In conclusion the impurity averaged 1st Born approximation has resulted in a selfenergy with a non-zero imaginary part. The poles of the Matsubara Green’s function 1BA Gk (ikn ) are therefore shifted away from the real axis, resulting in a both temporal and spatial exponential decay of the retarded Green’s function. This is interpreted as follows: the impurity scattering transforms the free electrons into quasiparticles with a ﬁnite life time given by the scattering time τk and a ﬁnite mean free path given by lk = vF τk . The ﬁnite life time of the quasiparticles is also reﬂected in the broadening of the spectral function. The characteristic sharp δ-function for free electrons, Ak (ω ) = 2πδ(ω − ξk ), is

11.5. SELF-ENERGY FOR IMPURITY SCATTERED ELECTRONS

193

Figure 11.5: (a) The impurity averaged Green’s function Gk (ikn ) imp . The imaginary part of the self-energy is related to the scattering time τk and hence also to the elastic scattering length l = vF τk . (b) In the Born approximation the spectral function Ak (ω ) is a Lorentzian centered around ξk = 0 with a width 1/2τk . broadened into a Lorentzian of width 1/2τk . This means that a particle with momentum k can have an energy ω that diﬀers from ξk with an amount /2τk . This calculation of self-averaged impurity scattering constitutes a ﬁrst and very important example of what can happen in a many-particle system. Note in particular the important role played by the self-energy, and the fact that it can have a non-zero imaginary part. The results is obtained in the 1st order Born approximation, where the self-energy is approximated by a single diagram. But what happens if we take more diagrams into account? The surprising answer is that in the low impurity density limit, nimp nel no qualitative diﬀerence arises by taking more diagrams into account. Only at higher impurity densities where scattering events from diﬀerent impurities begin to interfere new physical eﬀects, such as weak localization, appear. Let us see how this conclusion is reached.

11.5.3

The full Born approximation

A natural extension of the 1st Born approximation is the full Born approximation, which is exact to lowest order in nimp . It is deﬁned by the following self-energy ΣFBA (ikn ), where k any number of scattering on the same impurity is taken into account, i.e. more dashed lines on the wigwam-diagram:

ΣFBA k

≡

?

+

k k−k

kk

@

×

k

+

k

k

A

+

k

+

k

k

B

+

k

+ ···

k

=

C D

+

kk k

δk ,k

E

F

k

G

+ ···

k

In the parenthesis at the end of the second line we ﬁnd a factor, which we denote tk ,k , that is not diagonal in k but with a diagonal that equals the self-energy tk,k = ΣFBA . In k scattering theory tk ,k is known as the transition matrix. When this matrix is known all

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**

(11.54)

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194

CHAPTER 11. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS

consequences of the complete scattering sequence can be calculated. An integral equation for the transition matrix is derived diagrammatically:

tk

1 ,k2

(ikn ) ≡

δk =

H

+

1 ,k2

k1

I

k1−k

+

k2

k1

J

δk ,k

+ ···

k2

δk

K

+

1 ,k2

k1

L

+

×

k

M

+

2

k

N

+

k

k2

O

+ ···

k2

= nimp u0 δk

1 ,k2

uk

k

1 −k

0 Gk tk ,k .

2

(11.55)

This equation can in many cases be solved numerically. As before the task is simpliﬁed by the fact that we are only interested at electrons moving at the Fermi surface. The real part of the diagonal element tk,k (ikn ), the one yielding the self-energy, is almost constant for |k| ∼ kF and is absorbed into the deﬁnition of the chemical potential µ. We are then 0 left with Imtk,k (ikn ), and by applying the optical theorem,4 Imtk,k = Im k t† Gk tk ,k , k,k we obtain Im ΣFBA (ikn ) k = Im tk,k (ikn ) = Im

k ikn →ω +i sgn(kn )η

|tk,k |2 ikn − ξk |tk,k |2 δ(ω − ξk ).

k

−→

−sgn(kn ) π

(11.56)

This has the same form as Eq. (11.48) with |tk,k |2 instead of nimp |uk−k |2 , and we write ΣFBA (ikn ) = −i sgn(kn ) k 1 , 2τk with 1 ≡ 2π τk |tk,k |2 δ(ξk − ξk ).

k

(11.57)

By iteration of Dyson’s equation we ﬁnd that G FBA is the sum of propagations with any number and any type of sequential wigwam-diagrams:

P Q R S T

FBA

=

+

+

+

+ ···

(11.58)

11.5.4

The self-consistent Born approximation and beyond

Many more diagrams can be taken into account using the self-consistent Born approximation deﬁned by substituting the bare G 0 with the full G in the full Born approximation

Eq. (11.55) states (i): t = u + uG 0 t. Since u† = u the Hermitian conjugate of (i) is (ii): u = −t (G 0 )† u + t† . Insert (ii) into (i): t = u + (t† G 0 t − t† (G 0 )† uG 0 t). Both u and t† (G 0 )† uG 0 t are Hermitian P 0 so Im tk,k = Im k|t† G 0 t|k = Im k t† Gk tk ,k . k,k

† 4

60) may acquire a small renormalization. i.k + a self-consistent equation in ΣSCBA since Gk = (ikn − ξk − ΣSCBA )−1 .e. k + ··· (11. The only diﬀerence between the full Born and the self-consistent Born approximation is in the case of strong scattering. (11.6 are shown two diﬀerent types of irreducible diagrams of the same order in both nimp and uk . We again utilize k k that tk. k Σi = Im tk.k |2 δ(ω − ξk ). 11. SELF-ENERGY FOR IMPURITY SCATTERED ELECTRONS Eqs.55) yields: ΣSCBA k ≡ 195 U V W X + + + uk−k Gk tk . But this requirement is fulﬁlled by taking Im ΣSCBA (ikn ) ∝ −sgn(kn ) as seen by direct substitution. since k k the small real part ΣR can be absorbed into µ. where the limiting δ-function in Eq. (11. Also sketched is the phase space Ω available for the internal momenta k1 and k2 in the two cases.54) and (11.59) = nimp u0 δk.56).61) By iteration of Dyson’s equation we ﬁnd that G SCBA is the sum of propagations with any number and any type of sequential wigwam-diagrams inside wigwam-diagrams but without crossings of any scattering lines: Y SCBA = + Z [ \ ] ^ _ + + + + + ··· + ··· (11. (11. At zero temperature the energy broadening around the Fermi energy εF is given by .k is only weakly dependent on energy for |k| ≈ kF and ω εF .k |2 δ(ω −ξk ).k .62) + ` + ··· + a + ··· We have now resummed most of the diagrams in the diagrammatic expansion of Gk imp with the exception of wigwam-diagrams with crossing lines. In Fig. and if furthermore SCBA the scattering strength is moderate.11. |Σk | εF we obtain almost the same result i SCBA as in Eq.60) The only self-consistency requirement is thus connected with the sign of the imaginary part.k |2 ikn −ξk −iΣi k ≈ −sgn(kn −Σi ) π k k |tk.5. (11. 2τk with 1 ≈ 2π τk |tk. Only the imaginary part Σk of Σk = ΣR + iΣi plays a role.k = Im k k |tk. k (11. The ﬁnal result is ΣSCBA (ikn ) = −i sgn(kn ) k 1 .

This means that k1 and k2 are both conﬁned to a thin spherical shell of thickness 1/l and radius kF .6(b). (b) The crossing wigwam diagram has the same restrictions for k1 and k2 as in (a) plus the constraint that |k+k2 −k1 | ≈ kF . 2 So Ωb = (4πkF /l)(2πkF /l2 ).g. Such a suppression factor enters the calculation for each crossing of scattering lines in a diagram. In k-space the broadening ∆k is given by 2 (k + ∆k)2 /2m ≈ ε + /τ which gives ∆k ≈ 1/v τ = 1/l. namely |k + k1 − k2 | ≈ kF . where the scattering lines crosses. so the volume of the available phase space is Ωa = (4πkF /l)2 . For ﬁxed k2 the variation of k1 within its Fermi shell is restricted to the intersection between this shell and the Fermi shell of k + k2 − k1 .6(b).e. |Σ| ≈ /τ which relaxes |k1 |. i. where k1 and k2 can take any value on the spherical shell of radius kF and thickness ∆k ≈ 1/l. i.e. the inverse scattering F F F length. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS Figure 11. 11. the other is bound to the intersection between two Fermi shells. to a ring with cross section 1/l2 and radius ≈ kF . doped semiconductors it is possible to obtain a degenerate electron #( ¤ © ¦ ¤ © § ¤ © ¦ ¤ §¥ ¤ ¤ © ¦ ¤ §¥ ¤ £ ¦ ¤ ¥ ¤ £ % #$" ! 3 54 ! 3 2 ¤ ¦¥ ¤ £ § ¤ ¦¥ ¤ £ ¢ ¤ © 1 0 ¨" # ( ) ¤ © ¦ ¤ © § ¤ © ¦ ¤ © ¤ © ¦ ¤ §¥ ¤ ¨§ ¤ ¦¥ ¤ £ £ ¤ ¦¥ ¤ £ ¦ ¤ ¥ ¤ £ % '" ! !&% $" ! ! # # ¢ ¡ .6(a). the Feynman rules dictate that one further constraint. A (11.196 CHAPTER 11. The phase 2 space is Ωa ∝ (4πkF ∆k)2 . Thus only one of the two internal momenta are free to be anywhere on the Fermi shell. It is interest2τk ing to note that in e.e. Since for metals 1/kF ∼ 1 ˚ we ﬁnd that A 1 kF l 1. for l 1 ˚. 11.63) In conclusion: all cases where the scattering length l is greater than 1 ˚ we have by A the various Born approximations indeed resummed the perturbation series for Gk (ikn ) imp taking all relevant diagrams into account and obtained Σk (ikn ) = −i sgn(kn ) . Thus the crossing diagram (b) is suppressed relative to the non-crossing diagram (a) with a factor 1/kF l. Thus by studying the phase space available for the noncrossed and the crossed processes we have found that the crossed ones are suppressed by a factor Ωb /Ωa ≈ 1/(kF l). In Fig. In Fig. where no crossing of scattering lines occurs. i.6: (a) The non-crossing wigwam diagrams. on a ring with radius ∼ kF and a cross section 1/l2 as indicated in Fig. 11. one inside the other. no further restrictions 2 applies. |k2 | = kF a bit. The phase space 2 is now Ωb ∝ (4πkF ∆k)(2πkF ∆k 2 ).

6 Summary and outlook In this chapter we have introduced the Feynman diagrams for elastic impurity scattering. We have applied the diagrammatic technique to an analysis of the single-particle Matsubara Green’s function for electron propagation in disordered metals. The technique can be extended to the study of quantum eﬀects like weak localization (see Sec. . They can be explained within the theoretical framework presented here.4) and universal conductance ﬂuctuations (see Fig. The theory presented here provides in combination with the Kubo formalism the foundation for a microscopic quantum theory of resistivity. Im z > 0 k + 2τ 1 1BA 1BA k −→ Gk (z) = Gk (ikn ) = 1 sgn(kn ) ikn →z ikn − ξk + i 2τ z−ξ − i . 11. by taking higher order correlations into account. ΣFBA (ikn ) = −i sgn(kn ) k 1 . In this case one may therefore observe deviations from the simple theory presented here. In these systems 1/kF or the Fermi wavelength is much larger than in metals. which is an increase in the resistivity due to quantum interference between scattering events involving several impurities at the same time. (11.63) is violated. 15 in the study of the residual resistivity of metals.6(b). k and the scattering-time broadened spectral function A1BA (ω ) = k 2 (ω − ξk )2 + 1/4τk 1/τk . 15. Im z < 0. and the condition in Eq.k |2 δ(ξk − ξk ).2). The main result was the determination of the self-energy Σk (ikn ) in terms of the scattering time τk . 15. 11. k k 2τ k These results will be employed in Chap. One example is the observation of weak localization. These more subtle quantum eﬀects are fundamental parts of the modern research ﬁeld known as mesoscopic physics. The structure in the complex plane of the Green’s function was found to be: z−ξ 1 i . 11. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 197 gas with a very low density. For example is weak localization explained by treating crossed diagrams like the one in Fig.11.6. The weak localization eﬀect is studied in Sec.4. 2τk with 1 ≡ 2π τk |tk. which was neglected in calculation presented in this chapter.

198 CHAPTER 11. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND EXTERNAL POTENTIALS .

3) 12. The main goal of this chapter is to derive the Feynman rules for the diagrammatic expansion in orders of W of the full single-particle Matsubara Green’s function Eq. rb .σ2 We have specialized to the case where no spin ﬂip processes occur at the vertices.16) we can immediately transform the expression for G into the 199 . (12.Chapter 12 Feynman diagrams and pair interactions It is in the case of interacting particles and ﬁelds that the power of quantum ﬁeld theory and Feynman diagrams really comes into play. (12. r1 ) Ψ(σ2 . (10.2 The perturbation series for G inﬁnite perturbation series!Matsubara Green’s function The ﬁeld operators in Eq. The time-independent Hamiltonian H0 of the unperturbed or non-interacting system is H0 = σ dr Ψ† (r)H0 Ψ(r). τb . (10. r2 ) W (σ2 .33a) G(σb . (12.1 12. r2 )Ψ(σ1 . The total Hamiltonian H governing the dynamics of the system is as usual given by H = H 0 +W . (12. but using Eq. ra . Below we develop the Feynman diagram technique for a system of fermions with pair interactions. r2 . r1 )Ψ† (σ2 .1) while the interaction Hamiltonian W is given by W = 1 2σ dr1 dr2 Ψ† (σ1 . τa ) . r1 ).2) 1 . τb )Ψ† (σa . ra . σa . this being the case for our coming main examples: electron-electron interactions mediated by Coulomb or by phonon interactions. rb .3) deﬁning G are of course given in the Heisenberg picture. σ1 . τa ) ≡ − Tτ Ψ(σb .

. dj . .2) the two creation operators must always be to the left of the two annihilation operators. In fact using Eq. The expansion Eq. . .. .dndn W1. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND PAIR INTERACTIONS interaction picture.4) acts. (12. which gives the right ordering when the time-ordering operator Tτ of ˆ Eq.1 . According to Eq. 0) Ψ(b) Ψ† (a) ˆ U (β. .Wn. (12. (10.5) for G: G(b..4) The subscript 0 indicates that the averages in Eq. . (12.4): ∞ G(b. . τj +η). and Wj.3). r1 . a. a) = − Tr e−βH Tτ Ψ(b)Ψ† (a) Tr e−βH = − ˆ ˆ ˆ Tτ U (β. But one precaution must be taken regarding the ordering of the four operators in the basic two-particle interaction operator. dj ≡ σj dr 0 dτj . With the short-hand notation (σ1 .Wn. (12. Wj.j Ψ(j )Ψ(j). 1.. . (12. (12.12) for U is now inserted into Eq. Next insert Eq.. (12. W (τn )Ψ(b) Ψ† (a) β 0 (−1)n n! . The τ -integrals of W (τ ) is therefore β 0 1 ˆ dτj W (τj ) = 2 dj ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ dj Ψ† (j+ )Ψ† (j+ ) Wj.5) dτ1 . n=0 0 The great advantage of Eq. To make sure of that we add an inﬁnitesimal time η = 0+ to the time-arguments of Ψ† (1) and Ψ† (2). rj ) δ(τj −τj ). .n Tτ Ψ† Ψ† Ψ1 Ψ1 . 1. (10.200 CHAPTER 12.. a) = ∞ (12... a) = − n=0 (−1)n n! ∞ n=0 β 0 β dτ1 . . (12. (12. (12.. (12. Ψ† Ψ† Ψn Ψn Ψb Ψ† 1 1 n d1d1 . .dndn W1. 1 . 1 .7) It is only in expressions where the initial and ﬁnal times coincide that the inﬁnitesimal ˆ shift in time of Ψ† plays a role. τ1 ) = (1) we obtain G(b.j as β j+ ≡ (σj . 0) 0 0 .4) are with respect to e−βH0 rather ˆ than e−βH as in Eq.65).8) is that the average of the ﬁeld operators now involves bare propagation and thermal average both with respect to H0 . 0 ˆ ˆ dτn Tτ W (τ1 ) .8) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆn ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆa d1d1 .6) for W into Eq.j ≡ W (rj . β 0 0 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ dτn Tτ W (τ1 ) . n . Ψ† Ψ† n ˆ ˆ Ψn Ψn − n=0 ∞ (− 1 )n 2 n! (− 1 )n 2 n! 0 . we recognize that the average of the products of ﬁeld operators in the numer(2n+1) ator is the bare (2n+1)-particle Green’s function G0 (b. .6) where we have deﬁned j+ .1 . rj . n ) times .n ˆ ˆ Tτ Ψ† Ψ† 1 1 ˆ ˆ ˆn ˆ Ψ1 Ψ1 . (12. W (τn ) 0 ˆ Here we need to calculate τ -integrals of W (τ ). .

12. the fact that the initial time τj in G 0 (l. 1 ) .10a) . a) G 0 (b. 1 ) G 0 (1 . a) G 0 (n .3. it turns out that using these basic rules leads to a proof that the denominator cancels out. n ) G 0 (1 . . 0 (n . . G 0 (n . . G 0 (1 . Now is the time for our main use of Wick’s theorem Eq. n ) . .j . We have suppressed.. . n ) . (12. (12. (12.3 The Feynman rules for pair interactions We formulate ﬁrst a number of basic Feynman rules that are derived directly from Eq. 1) G 0 (1. 1 ) G 0 (1. . 1 ) . j) according to Eqs. 1) G 0 (n . . a) The basic Feynman rules for n’th order term in the denominator of G(b. 1) G 0 (1 . n ) . (12. .Wn.9) . 0 (n . 1 . τ1 → τ1 + η. . 1 .1 ..1 Feynman rules for the denominator of G(b. 1) G 0 (b. n ) G G 0 (1. n ) . . Interaction lines: j j ≡ Wj. The resulting sign..12.e.6) and (12.. 1 ) . .. 12. −1.dndn W1. .3.9).. This can be done in (2n)! ways. . while in the denominator it is the bare (2n)-particle Green’s function (2n) G0 (1.. . Vertices: j• ≡ dj δσin . (12. 1. thus cancels the sign in Eq.n ∞ n=0 (− 1 )n 2 n! d1d1 . i.8). . G 0 (n . For each set connect the 2n vertices with 2n fermion lines: one entering and one leaving each vertex.. n ) G ∞ n=0 (− 1 )n 2 n! d1d1 . j): G(b. a) = G 0 (b. but not forgotten.σout . . . 1) G 0 (1 . ... . . n ) times (−1)2n = 1. . . This in turn leads to the formulation of the ﬁnal Feynman rules to be used in all later calculations. a) are (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Fermion lines: j2 j1 ≡ G 0 (j2 . G 0 (b. (10. j1 ). 1 ) . j j Draw (2n)! sets of n interaction lines j j. n . . no spin ﬂip. a) G 0 (1 . 1) G 0 (1. .79): the bare many-particle Green’s functions in the expression for the full single-particle Green’s function are written in terms of determinants containing the bare single-particle Green’s functions G 0 (l. G 0 (1. . . . However. 1) G 0 (n .1 . a) G 0 (1. THE FEYNMAN RULES FOR PAIR INTERACTIONS 201 (−1)2n+1 = −1.dndn W1. G 0 (1.n This voluminous formula is the starting point for deﬁning the Feynman rules for the diagrammatic expansion of G in terms of the pair interaction W . .7) is to be shifted inﬁnitesimally to τj + η. sum over internal variables. .Wn. 1 ) . G 0 (1 .

]... + + .2 Feynman rules for the numerator of G(b. i...g. 720 terms 12. 0) 0 of G(b.. a) ˆ ˆ ˆ The numerator Tτ [U (β. 24 terms + .e.. because what about the sign arising from the expansion of the determinant? Here the concept of fermion loops enters the game. j1 ). e. + + . + 2 terms (12. j1 j2 .G 0 (j2 .. j2 ).. Suppressing the labels.202 CHAPTER 12. or j1 F . . and add the resulting (2n)! diagrams of order n. a) in Eq. 0) 0 =1 + + + + .. but indicating the number of diagrams of each order. (12. ...9).G 0 (j1 .3. All other diagrams can be constructed one by one simply by pair wise interchange of the endpoints of fermion lines. F being the number of fermion loops. where F is the number of fermion loops in the coming from the determinant is (−1) given diagram. F = 2n is even. a) diﬀers from the denominator by the ˆ ˆ presence of the two external ﬁeld operators Ψ(b) and Ψ† (a) that act at the external spacetime points (b) and (a).g..G 0 (j2 .11) + + + . 0)Ψ(b)Ψ† (a)] 0 of G(b.G 0 (j1 . j2 ). j1 ). j1 . Consequently. This raises the dimension of the n’th order determinant from 2n to 2n+1.] = −sgn[. The product of the diagonal terms in the determinant is per deﬁnition positive and in diagram form it consist of n factors j j . only Feynman rules (4) and (5) given for the denominator have to be changed to give the rules for the numerator: . A fermion loop is an uninterrupted sequence of fermion lines starting at some vertex j and ending there again j3 j2 . This changes the determinantal sign of the product since sgn[.. (12.. + + . becomes . The overall sign after connecting to other vertices. An outline of the proof is as follows.. e. Thus we obtain the last Feynman rule (6) 1 1 Multiply by n! (− 2 )n (−1)F . FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND PAIR INTERACTIONS But this is not all. and at the same time it changes the number of fermion loops by 1.. this expansion takes the following form using Feynman diagrams: ˆ U (β.10b) For all n there are (2n)! terms or diagrams of order n in the expansion of the deterˆ minant in the denominator U (β.

the last second-order diagram).3.g. and one entering and leaving each internal vertex j.. We also note that a diagram containing two or more disconnected parts can be written as a product containing one factor for each disconnected part. but in fact there is a major reduction at hand.. one entering b. (12. (12. THE FEYNMAN RULES FOR PAIR INTERACTIONS (4’) (5’) Draw (2n+1)! sets of n lines j j and 2 external vertices •a and •b.12) 203 Using these rules we obtain the diagrammatic expansion of the numerator: ˆ ˆ ˆ Tτ [U (β. the so-called disconnected diagrams (e.. For each set connect the 2n+2 vertices with 2n+1 fermion lines: one leaving a.13) 6 terms + .3.g. + a a a a + ... We furthermore note that the parts of the diagrams in Eq.11) order by order. + + . 120 terms 12. We note that in Eq. A detailed combinatorial analysis (given at the end of this section) reveals that the denominator in G cancels exactly the disconnected parts of . 0 = (12.13) disconnected from the external vertices are the same as the diagrams appearing in Eq.13) two classes of diagrams appear: those being connected into one piece with the external vertices a and b.. the so-called connected diagrams (e. (12. 0)Ψ(b)Ψ† (a)] b + b b ! " # b b b b + + + + + a a a a a a a b b b b + + + . and those consisting of two or more pieces. (12. the ﬁrst second order diagram)..3 The cancellation of disconnected Feynman diagrams It looks like we are drowning in diagrams.12..

We study the numerator of Eq. Interaction lines: j j ≡ −Wj.e. . The proof goes through eight steps. F being the number of fermion loops. (12. so is j due to the interaction line Wj. τ1 → τ1 + η. a is connected with r W -lines. 1 + & + . No notion of a time-axis is implied in the imaginary time version of the Feynman diagrams. and one enters and leaves each internal vertex •j. we are left with a factor of (−1) for each of the 2 n interaction lines. Except for the sign this 1 factor cancels the prefactor n! (− 1 )n .14) connected (5) (6) . for pair interactions the ﬁnal version of the Feynman rules for expanding G diagrammatically is: (1) (2) (3) (4) Fermion lines: j2 j1 ≡ G 0 (j2 . For completeness we give the following proof of the cancellation of the disconnected diagrams. connected diagrams containing n interaction lines j j . Thus they can at will be stretched. . j1 ).9). FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND PAIR INTERACTIONS the diagrams in the numerator leaving only the connected ones: b b G(b.. Multiply each diagram by (−1)F . + . (12. In conclusion.σout . and 2n+1 fermion lines. mirror inverted and otherwise deformed.j .j Vertices: j• ≡ dj δσin . (1) Since all internal vertices have one incoming and one outgoing fermion line. the external vertices a and b are always connected. b b b b b + + + + a a a a a $% + + .. Sum over all the topologically diﬀerent diagrams.. but the reader may skip it since the essential conclusion has already been given above. sum over internal variables. ' ()*+.. a) = = Being left with only the connected diagrams we ﬁnd that since now all lines in the diagram are connected in a speciﬁc way to the external points a and b the combinatorics of the permutations of the internal vertex indices is particularly simple.. There are n! ways to choose the enumeration j of the n interaction lines j j . (2) If vertex j somehow is connected to a. / 0 .15) Pay attention to the fact that only the topology of the diagrams are mentioned.204 CHAPTER 12. 2 vertices •a and •b. (3) In a diagram of order n. a a 1 + + . no spin ﬂip j j At order n draw all topologically diﬀerent. (12.. i.e. so that one leaves •a. one enters •b. We conclude that all 2n n! diagrams with the same topology relative to the external points give the same value. and for each line there are 2 ways to put a given pair of labels j and j . i.

. Continuing the analogy with the impurity scattering case we can also deﬁne the self-energy Σ(l. As depicted in Fig.j = Wj . . Feynman diagrams in the expansion of G(b. 1 )]. 1 . 0) 0 . .3 for impurity scattering.j . The number of disconnected W -lines is denoted m. r. (6) The structure of the sum is now: ∞ n=0 1 n! ∞ −1 2 n I[1. (r+m). 0) Ψ(b) Ψ† (a) 0 ˆ = U (β. 11. 12. r.. 0) 0 [−W (1. (a) and (b). (4) In all terms of the expanded numerator the integral factorizes into a product of two integrals..4.. . (12. connected topological diﬀ.16) ..4 Self-energy and Dyson’s equation In complete analogy with Fig. (7) In the connected part all r! permutations of the vertex variable pairs (j.. SELF-ENERGY AND DYSON’S EQUATION © ¥ £ § ¥ ¨ £ ¥ ¦ £ ¥ ¤ £ 205 Figure 12. we can now based on Eq. r ]con I[r+1.. i. each choice yielding the same value of the total integral. n. ˆ (8) The disconnected part is seen to be U (β..14) deﬁne the concept of irreducible diagrams in G(b. and reducible.. r ]con r! 2 1 −1 m! 2 m I[r+1. 1 .. if as usual Wj.. a) in the presence of pair-interactions. We thus reach the conclusion ∞ ˆ ˆ ˆ Tτ U (β. n ]discon r!(n − r)! ∞ m=0 = r=0 1 −1 I[1. (r+m) ]discon . j ) yield the same result. such diagrams are the ones that cannot be cut into two pieces by cutting a single fermion line. and so does all the 2n ways of ordering each pair. a) in the case of pair interactions. j) as ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ (12..17) (2r+1)×(2r+1) .1. where 0 ≤ r ≤ n. (5) The r pairs of vertex variables j and j connected to a can be chosen out of the n! available n pairs in r!(n−r)! ways.. n. (c) and (d).[−W (r. m = n−r. (r+1) .1: Examples of irreducible. r )] Det G 0 r=0 12. .e. 1 .12. (12. one over the 2r variables connected to a and one over the 2m variables disconnected from a. (r+1) . n ] n n r=0 r = n=0 ∞ 1 −1 n! 2 n! I[1.

l) Σ(l.j only depends on the coordinate diﬀerences rj − rj and τj − τj it is a great advantage to Fourier transform the representation from (r.. l) (12. r τ ) for spin σ in (k. The sum of all irreducible diagrams in G(b. In terms of the Fourier transform W (q) = 4πe2 /q 2 the Coulomb 0 interaction W (rτ . ikn )-space as . + (12.206 CHAPTER 12. τ ) is written W (rτ . 2.18) a + .18) we obtain Dyson’s equation for G(b. r ..14) and (12. (12. a) without the two external fermion lines G 0 (j. Furthermore. j) ≡ = = From Eqs. (10. one boson object is annihilated and one is created..5 The Feynman rules in Fourier space For the special case where H0 describes a translation-invariant system and where the interaction Wj. 0 Likewise.. r τ ) = 1 βV W (q) e[iq·(r−r )−iqn (τ −τ )] .j + l j + l + l + . a) and G 0 (b. (12. j j l j + + + b b b l l l j j j a + b l j × j a + j a a + dl dj G 0 (b. q.. We shall shortly see that for a translation-invariant system it becomes an algebraic equation in k-space.2. iqn )-space. a) G(b. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND PAIR INTERACTIONS Σ(l. . a) 1234 5 6 8 9 7 : . τ )-space to (q.7) the Matsubara frequency iqn appears only in the argument of the exponential function.39) we can express the electronic Green’s function Gσ (rτ. < = > ? δl. a). a) = = = = b b b b a a a a = G 0 (b. using Eq.20) It is important to realize that the Matsubara frequency iqn is bosonic since the Coulomb interaction is bosonic in nature: two fermions are annihilated and two fermions are created by the interaction.e.19) Note how Dyson’s equation in this case is an integral equation.. we note that due to the factor δ(τ − τ ) in Eq.iqn (12. Our main example of such a system is the jellium model for Coulomb interacting electrons studied in Sec. i. j) G(j. 12.

r) = r 0 r ˜ 0 r ˜ r ˜ r ˜ r3 . p from r to r2 . For each independent momentum a factor 1/βV remains from the corresponding Fourier transform. On top of their usual meaning the arrows ˜ ˜ ˜ now also indicate the choice of sign for the four-momentum vectors: k ﬂows from r1 to ˜ r. and r are indicated as well as the wave vectors k.22) d˜ Gσ (˜2 . i. but not on σ. Inserting the Fourier transforms of Eqs. and q from r to r3 .21) that ˜ it saves some writing to introduce the four-vector notation k ≡ (k.e. k. r2 .21) 0 where Gσ (k. r ≡ (r.22) yields with this sign convention d˜ Gσ (˜2 . τ ). In the case of the Coulomb interacting electron gas in the jellium model we thus see 0 that both the Green’s function Gσ and the interaction W depend only on the space and imaginary time diﬀerences r − r and τ − τ . ikn ) e[ik·(r−r )−ikn (τ −τ )] . (12. (12. ˜ r1 ˜ ˜ where the (r.21) into Eq. ikn ) = 1/(ikn − ξk ) depends on k and ikn . THE FEYNMAN RULES IN FOURIER SPACE 207 0 Gσ (rτ .23) From this follows that in Fourier space the four-momentum (k. r) Gσ (˜. (12. The momentum conservation rule for each of the 2n vertices also leads to 2n delta function constraints on the 2n internal fermion momenta and the n interaction line momenta. τ )-space points r1 .ikn (12.20) and (12. Here ξk ≡ ε − µ.12. r) Gσ (˜. r1 ) W (˜3 . the order of the diagram. ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ p.5. ikn ) is conserved at each ˜ Coulomb scattering vertex: k = p + q . The topology of the diagram in (r. We therefore end up with the following Feynman rules for the n-order diagrams in the expan- . r3 . the momentum conservation combined with the odd values of the fermion Matsubara frequencies leads. and whence the number of independent internal momenta equals n. r) r 0 r ˜ 0 r ˜ r ˜ = = = d˜ r 1 (βV)3 0 p r r r r q r r Gσ (˜) Gσ (k) W (˜) ei[˜·(˜2 −˜)+k·(˜−˜1 )+˜·(˜3 −˜)] p 0 ˜ q ˜ ˜˜ kpq p q r d˜ e−i(˜−k+˜)·˜ r ˜ ˜ @ ˜ kσ 1 (βV)3 1 (βV)2 0 pr ˜r qr Gσ (˜) Gσ (k) W (˜) ei[˜·˜2 −k·˜1 +˜·˜3 ] p 0 ˜ q ˜ ˜˜ kpq ˜ r r 0 ˜ q r r Gσ (k− q ) Gσ (k) W (˜) ei[k·(˜2 −˜1 )+˜·(˜3 −˜2 )] . Since each vertex consists of two fermion lines ˜ ˜ and one interaction line. and ˜ ˜ · r ≡ ik · r − ik τ . τ )-space is not changed by the Fourier transform. r τ ) = 1 βV 0 Gσ (k.20) ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ and (12. to even values for the Matsubara frequencies of the interaction lines. Using this notation we analyze the Fourier transform of the basic ik ˜ n Coulomb scattering vertex r2 ˜ pσ ˜ q ˜ (12. in agreement with our previous remarks. It follows from Eqs. and q to be used in the Fourier transform. ikn ). ˜ 0 ˜ q ˜˜ kq (12. r1 ) W (˜3 .

19) is therefore an algebraic equation. appears as a direct additive renormalization of the bare energy ξk = εk − µ. (12. ikn − ξk − Σσ (k. ikn Interaction lines with four-momentum orientation: ≡ −W (q). ikn )-space the fourth Feynman rule concerning the conservation of four-momentum at the scattering vertices simpliﬁes many calculations. Multiply each diagram by (−1)F .208 CHAPTER 12. k ) = δk. ip ). ikn ) is to be interpreted as the externally given four-vector momentum. induced here by the Coulomb interaction W . The self-energy (with spin σ) is thus diagonal in k-space. ˜ ˜ must also exit it. Fermion lines with four-momentum orientation: A B (5) (6) (7) 0 Multiply Gσ (k. ikn ) in the ’same-time’ diagrams Multiply by 1 βV for each internal four-momentum p. (11. In (k. kσ. All vertices must contain an incoming internal fermion lines Gσ j j and an outgoing fermion line as well as an interaction line. (12. (12.6 Examples of how to evaluate Feynman diagrams The Feynman diagrams is an extremely useful tool to gain an overview of the very complicated inﬁnite-order perturbation calculation. ˜ ˜ ˜ Σσ (k.6) and (12. 0 ˜ 0 ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ Gσ (k) = Gσ (k) + Gσ (k) Σσ (k) Gσ (k) with Gσ (k. perform the sum ˜ CD and by eikn η . ikn ). and no spin ﬂipping.26) (12. ikn ). Most noteworthy is the fact that Dyson’s equation becomes an algebraic equation. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND PAIR INTERACTIONS sion of Gσ (k. (12. ikn ) As in Eq.41) the self-energy Σσ (k. ikn ). where (k. ikn ) E F G = + = .25) Dyson’s equation Eq. (12. and they allow one to identify the important .24) Note how the two ’same-time’ diagrams in rule (6) are the only ones where it is relevant to take explicitly into account the inﬁnitesimal shift τj → τj + η mentioned in Eqs. F being the number of fermion loops.k Σσ (k). ˜˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ Σσ (k) ≡ Σσ (k. ikn ) 0 1 − Gσ (k. i. ikn ) Σσ (k. and 2n q 0 (p .7). (1) (2) (3) (4) 0 ≡ Gσ (k. The factor eikn η follows directly from the Fourier transform when this shift is included. i. 12. (12. incoming momenta must equal the outgoing. pσ ˜ .27) 1 . Due to four-momentum conservation a ˜ four-momentum kj entering a self-energy diagram. kl = kj .e.e. two external fermion lines Gσ (k.18). iqn Conserve the spin and four-momentum at each vertex. At order n draw all topologically diﬀerent connected diagrams containing n 0 oriented interaction lines W (˜). q. such as the ones shown in Eq. k). ikn ). ikn ) = the solution 0 Gσ (k.

ikn ) ≡ The four-momentum transfer along the interaction line is zero. We see that the diagrammatic result Eq. (12.24)(6) for evaluating this speciﬁc diagram. The Matsubara sum can easily be carried out using the method of Sec.e. According to Eq. V (12. i. 10. σ (12. ipn .6. i. The spin sum turns into a simple factor 2. (4.24). ipn ) eipn η p ipn = 2W (0) β dp (2π)3 ipn eipn η ipn − ξp = W (0) N . (12. while the four-momentum (p. (12.28): ΣH (k. 12. 4. F = 1.27) the self-energy is the interaction-induced renormalization of the non-interacting single-particle energy.25b). This renormalization we have calculated by completely diﬀerent means in Sec. (p.29) = 2W (0) dp n (ξ ) (2π)3 F p Note the need for Feynman rule Eq. EXAMPLES OF HOW TO EVALUATE FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS 209 processes for a given physical problem. where we in accordance with Eq.24). rule (3) in H Eq. (12.6. σ . (12. We start with the so-called Hartree diagram Gσ (which is zero in the presence of a charge compensating back-ground). one internal spin.1 The Hartree self-energy diagram To evaluate a given diagram the ﬁrst task is to label the fermion and interaction lines with four-momenta and spin obeying the conservation rules at each vertex. The self-energy diagram is a ﬁrst order diagram.1. (12.2 The Fock self-energy diagram F We treat the Fock diagram Gσ and Fock self-energy ΣF similarly: σ .6. ipn ).12. n = 1.2 using the Hartree-Fock mean ﬁeld approximation. ipn ) and the spin σ in the fermion loop are free to take any value. When this part of the analysis is done one is (hopefully) left with only a few important diagrams that then need to be evaluated. ikn ) = 0 Gσ (k. ikn ) ≡ σ H −1 βV σ 0 Gσ (k. It contains one internal four-momentum.29) exactly equals the Hartree part of the mean ﬁeld energy in Eq. (12.4. and one fermion loop. We end this chapter by studying the explicit evaluation of three simple Feynman diagrams in Fourier space using the Feynman rules Eq.18) strip oﬀ the two external fermion lines to obtain the self-energy ΣH : H Gσ (k. The Feynman rules therefore lead to the following expression for the Hartree self-energy diagram Eq. The evaluation of the p-integral is elementary and yields N/2. 12. ikn ) I 0 p. In other words we have shown that the tadpole-shaped self-energy diagram is the diagrammatic equivalent of the Hartree mean ﬁeld approximation. yielding a factor of 1/βV.28) J = 0 − W (0) Gσ (p.e.

(12.e.σ Gσ (p. It contains one internal four-momentum. We see that this self-energy diagram exactly equals the Fock part of the energy in Eq. 10. σ ipn +iqn (12. ikn ) P Gσ (k. We proceed as in the previous examples: 0 Gσ (k.30): ΣF (k. The spin sum turned into a simple factor 1. (4. FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND PAIR INTERACTIONS F Gσ (k. plays a central role in studies of the electron gas. i. yielding a factor 1/βV.30) M = 1 βV −1 β 0 − W (k−p) δσ.e. F = 0. This diagram is a ﬁrst order diagram. ikn ) = p. ikn ) k−p G 0 (k. σ ipn q.3 The pair-bubble self-energy diagram P Our last example is the pair-bubble diagram Gσ . ikn ). iqn p+q. 13. F = 1. ikn ) ≡ σ K L = 0 Gσ (k.e. i.g.1. n = 1. We immediately note that this diagram is of second order. ikn − ipn ). as we shall see in Chap. in contrast to Eq. ikn ) leaves us with the pair-bubble selfP . ikn ) ≡ q. i. σ 0 Once more the external fermion lines are written explicitly as two factors Gσ (k.e. However. (p.210 CHAPTER 12.28) the internal spin σ is now forced to be equal to the external spin σ. no fermion loops are present.4. The Matsubara sum can easily be carried out using the method of Sec. n = 2.31) =− dp W (k−p) nF (ξp ). which. The Feynman rules therefore lead to the following expression for the Fock self-energy diagram Eq. Finally. ipn ) eipn η σ p ipn = dp W (k−p) (2π)3 ipn eipn η ipn − ξp (12.6. ikn ) O p. iqn 0 Removing the two external fermion lines Gσ (k. i. (12. energy diagram Σσ containing one fermion loop. leaving the Fock self-energy ΣF to be determined.25b) calculated using the Hartree-Fock mean ﬁeld approximation. (12. ipn . Eq. ikn ) ikn −ipn σ (12.11) . σ ikn −iqn 0 Gσ (k. 12. At the ﬁrst vertex the incoming momentum 1 N = k−q. The four-momentum transferred by σ the interaction line is (k − p. (2π)3 Note that also for this speciﬁc diagram we have used Feynman rule (6).32) A full oyster diagram can be seen in e. We have thus shown that the half-oyster self-energy diagram1 is the diagrammatic equivalent of the Fock mean ﬁeld approximation. The evaluation of the p-integral is in principle elementary. ipn ).

ipn +iqn ) Gσ (k−q. ikn ) is split.33) where we have separated out the contribution Π0 (q. iqn ) ≡ The loop contribution Π0 (q.32) leads to a bit more involved Matsubara frequency summation over iqn and momentum integration over q. Our main example is the Coulomb interaction. and we shall study it in more detail in the coming chapters.12. 10. We have thereby ensured that the exit momentum equals that of the entrance: (k. ikn ) in terms of the pair-interaction W . ipn ). iqn ) Gσ (k−q. and we shall return to it later.32): ΣP (k.4. the former two yielding a prefactor 1/(βV)2 . iqn ) is joined by the internal fermion momentum (p. where it ultimately recombines with the former fermion momentum (k − q. 3 (ip + iq − ξ (2π) n n p+q ) (ipn − ξp ) (12. iqn ) from the fermion loop. and σ . sending (q. (12. The evaluation of the p-integral is in principle elementary. ikn ) σ ˜ ≡ p = −1 (βV)2 1 β P q ˜ q ˜ σ pq ipn iqn iqn − W (q) 2 0 0 0 Gσ (p. Using the Feynman diagrammatic . ikn −iqn ). iqn ). It enables a systematic analysis of the inﬁnitely many terms that need to be taken into account in a given calculation. (q. ikn −iqn ) = dq 0 W (q)2 Π0 (q. ipn+iqn ). At the fermion loop. while the remainder (k−q. (12. ikn−iqn ) continues in the fermion line. At the top of the loop the momentum (q. iqn ) is traditionally denoted the pair-bubble.34) 12. Π0 (q. ipn ) Gσ (p+q. Inserting the result for Π0 (q. and that the Matsubara sum over ipn can easily be carried out using the method of Sec. Here we just note that the spin sum becomes a factor 2. ipn ) and continues in a new fermion line as (p+q. iqn ) into the pair-bubble self-energy diagram Eq. ikn − iqn ). However. Q = −2 β ipn dp 1 1 . The internal degrees of freedom are (q. (p. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 211 (k. iqn ) out through the interaction line.7. The Feynman rules lead to the following expression for the pair-bubble self-energy Eq. The Feynman diagram technique is a very powerful tool to use in the context of perturbation theory. (2π)3 (12. the calculation can be performed. ikn ). iqn ) is sent out through the interaction line.7 Summary and outlook In this chapter we have established the Feynman rules for writing down the Feynman diagrams constituting the inﬁnite-order perturbation expansion of the full single-particle Green’s functions G (b.1. a) or Gσ (k.

31) and (12. as we shall see in the following chapters. we show in Chap. (12. We have already given explicit examples of how to evaluate some of the diagrams that are going to play an important role.212 CHAPTER 12.34) are the ones that dominate the physics of the interacting electron gas in the high density limit. identify which sub-classes of diagrams that give the most important contributions. We shall learn how these diagrams determine the ground state energy of the system as well as its dielectric properties such as static and dynamic screening. Indeed. . FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS AND PAIR INTERACTIONS analysis one can. 13 that the diagrams analyzed in Eqs.

Nevertheless.49). see Eq. where according to Eq. To ensure well-behaved ﬁnite integrals during our analysis we work with the Yukawa-potential with an artiﬁcial range 1/α instead of the pure long range Coulomb potential. e2 0 e−α|r−r | .2 revealed a divergence in (2) the contribution Edir from the direct processes. but the divergence reappears as soon as we take the limit α → 0. This was expected to be a valid procedure in the high density limit. with the Yukawa potential we (2) can obtain a ﬁnite value for Edir in Eq.1) The range 1/α has no physical origin. (1.24). In this chapter we reanalyze the Coulomb-interacting electron gas in the jellium model using the Feynman diagram technique.2 we studied the Coulomb interaction as a perturbation to the non-interacting electron gas in the jellium model. q +α (13. In analogy with Eq. ikn ) in (k. At the end at the calculation we take the limit α → 0 to recover the Coulomb interaction. which then without problems can be taken to zero. ikn ). and we show how a meaningful ﬁnite ground state energy can be found. (2.Chapter 13 The interacting electron gas In Sec. W (r − r ) = |r − r | 4πe2 W (q) = 2 0 2 . For example.49) if α is ﬁnite. (12.2) The main result of the following diagrammatic calculation is that the dynamics of the interacting system by itself creates a renormalization of the pure Coulomb interaction into a Yukawa-like potential independent of the value of α. The starting point of the theory is the self-energy Σσ (k. the second order perturbation analysis of Sec. ikn ) removing the two external fermion 213 .1 The self-energy in the random phase approximation To construct the diagrammatic expansion of the self-energy Σσ (k. (12.103) and the associated footnote. Edir (2) ∝ 0 dq q 2 1 1 qq (q 2 + α2 )2 q ∼ − ln(α) α→0 −→ ∞. (2. 2.2.35) the interaction energy is negligible. ikn )-space we use the Feynman rules Eq. 2. (13. (2.18) the self-energy is given by the sum of all the irreducible diagrams in Gσ (k. 13. see Eq.

1. This is achieved by noting that each diagram in the expansion is characterized by its density dependence through the dimensionless electron distance parameter rs of Eq. (2. . We have 2+3 2 2 5 1 1 dk ˜ k ∝ kF . ikn ) . Furthermore.6) Eqs. Thus: σ Σσ (k. ε ∝ kF . ΣH (k. . rs → 0. we have n<n ⇒ (n) Σσ (k.1 The density dependence of self-energy diagrams (n) Consider an arbitrary self-energy diagram Σσ (k. while 1 ˜ ∝ k −2 . (13. We can conclude that for two diﬀerent orders n and n in the high density limit. and then resum the inﬁnite series taking only these terms into account. ikn ) = + + + + + . for rs → 0. . ˜ dkn W () . (13. and β ∝ kF . (13. ikn ). ikn ) ∝ σ 5 kF −2 kF −2 kF = kF −(n−2) ∝ n−2 rs .37). The self-energy diagram therefore has W (q) ∝ 2 1 2 ∝ k −2 and G 0 (k) = q +α F σ the following kF . ikn ) = σ ∝ ˜ dk1 . We recall that due to the charge compensating back ground in the jellium model the Hartree self-energy diagram vanishes.5) where in the last proportionality we have used rs = (9π/4) 3 /(a0 kF ) from Eq.37) and its degree of divergence in the cut-oﬀ parameter α. .3) For each order of W we want to identify the most important terms. ikn ) of order n: n interaction terms Σ(n) (k..5) and (13. .and thus rs -dependence: n n 2n−1 ikn −εk F Σ(n) (k.214 CHAPTER 13.. dk1 ∝ β ikn (2π)3 ∝ kF = kF . (2. . (13. ikn ) 1 Σ(n ) (k. W () G 0 () . ikn ) = = 0.6) are the precise statements for how to identify the most important self-energy diagrams in the high density limit. G 0 () . THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS 0 lines Gσ (k.4) 2n − 1 Green’s fcts n internal momenta We then make the integral dimensionless by measuring momenta and frequencies in powers of the Fermi momentum kF and pulling out the corresponding factors of kF . . σ (13. 13.

(13. For example (taking α = 0) two lines with the momentum q contributes with W (q)2 which diverges as q −4 for q → 0 independent of the behavior of any other internal momentum p in the diagram. it is in general not possible to determine which diagram is the larger based alone on knowledge of the divergence number.3 RPA resummation of the self-energy Using the order n and the divergence number δ. In the limit α → 0 this diagram is the largest: (n. which diverges as q −4 only when both q → 0 and p → 0 at the same time. when all n momenta in the diagram are the same. The ﬁrst few diagrams (without arrows on the . ikn ) having the same momentum q. (13. THE SELF-ENERGY IN THE RANDOM PHASE APPROXIMATION 215 13. ikn ) σ Σ(n. we now order the self-energy diagrams in a (n.2) (k. σ for α → 0 and any n-order diagram Σ(n.2 The divergence number of self-energy diagrams The singular nature of the Yukawa-modiﬁed Coulomb potential Eq.1) (n.2) .e.1) (k. The more interaction lines carrying the same momentum there are in a given diagram. δ)-table.6) and (13. i.2) (n. ikn ) as (n) of the self- (n) δσ ≡ the largest number of interaction lines in (n) Σσ (k. the more divergent is this diagram. (13. two lines with diﬀerent momenta q and q − p contributes with W (q)W (q − p). According to Eqs.1. With one notable exception.8) 13.7) Consider two diagrams Σσ and Σσ of the same order n.13. ikn ) .1.1) δσ =n ⇒ Σ(n. i. In view of this discussion it is natural to deﬁne a divergence number δσ (n) energy diagram Σσ (k. in a set of measure zero in the integral over q and p.e. (13. The exception involves the diagram with the maximal divergence number. In contrast.8) the most important terms are those in the diagonal in this table where δ = n.1) in the limit of small q and α leads to a divergent behavior of the self-energy integrals.1.

For each given order the diagrams with the highest divergence number are the most important..10) is clearly the pair-bubble Π0 (q.7.24) are still valid for each part. iqn ). THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS interaction lines for graphical clarity) are ˜ Σσ (k) δ=1 n=1 n=2 n=3 n=4 δ=2 − δ=3 − − δ=4 − − It is clear that the most important diagrams in the high density limit are those having a low order. To make the fermion-loop sign from the pair-bubble appear explicitly we prefer to work with χ0 ≡ −Π0 .216 CHAPTER 13.. It plays a crucial role. This is straightforward to do. but only the most divergent one for each n: q ˜ q ˜ q ˜ q ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ k− q ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ k− q k− q p + q k− q ˜ + + + + . 12. 10. ΣRPA (k) ≡ q ˜ σ q ˜ p ˜ q ˜ (13.6. The self-energy in the random phase approximation (RPA) is an inﬁnite sum containing diagrams of all orders n.e.10) q ˜ q ˜ q ˜ Below we are going to analyze parts of the diagrams individually. dp 1 1 . (12. An important part of the self-energy diagrams in Eq. i. iqn ) = 2 β ipn (13. this χ0 is the same correlation function as the one introduced for other reasons in Sec. iqn ) ≡ already introduced in Sec. − (13.9) χ0 (q. (13. 3 (ip + iq − ξ (2π) n n p+q ) (ipn − ξp ) . since the Feynman rules Eq.3. ≡ −χ0 (q.11) In fact. because it ensures that all interaction lines W (q) carry the same momentum q.

1) for the Yukawa-modiﬁed Coulomb interaction. (13. pulling out the convergent Fock self-energy × ΣRPA = σ In the following we study the properties of the renormalized Coulomb interaction W RPA (˜). = + ≡ + + + = + × + + 217 we can. . .13) can be found using a Dyson equation approach. as + + + + .2 The renormalized Coulomb interaction in RPA The renormalized Coulomb interaction W RPA (q. iqn ) = = = Note the cancellation of the explicit signs from W and χ0 in the denominator. .15) .13) 13. iqn ) α→0 (13.13.14) (13.16) +. THE RENORMALIZED COULOMB INTERACTION IN RPA By introducing a renormalized interaction line −W RPA (˜) = q interaction line arrows. . We can now insert the speciﬁc form Eq.-. iqn ) ≡ + . iqn ) −→ 4πe2 0 .2. (13. omitting (13. iqn ) introduced in Eqs... q ! " # $% &' ( )* + + + + . = . q 2 − 4πe2 χ0 (q. . 1 − W (q) χ0 (q. and let the artiﬁcial cut-oﬀ parameter α tend to zero./ 01 234 567 8 9 : = + × 1− −W (q) . + .12) (13.12) and (13. −W RPA (q. The ﬁnal result is W RPA (q. . rewrite the RPA self-energy as × ΣRPA = σ or. In (q. iqn )-space this is an algebraic equation with the solution −W RPA (q. iqn ) 0 (13.

long-wave limit at low temperatures χR (q. (12. (10. for kB T εF .18) In the extreme long wave limit we have W RPA (0. and consequently. THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS W RPA (q. long-wave limit q → 0 and iqn = 0. long-wave limit.22) d(εF ) .19) In the following section we calculate the pair-bubble χ0 (q. q → 0 and iqn = 0 + iη.1 Calculation of the pair-bubble In Eq. (13. In the static. but with the important diﬀerence that the artiﬁcially introduced parameter α in the latter has been replaced with the pair-bubble function −4πe2 χ0 (q. we ﬁnd that W RPA appears in a form identical with the Yukawa-modiﬁed Coulomb interaction. ﬁnd the value of the Thomas-Fermi screening wavenumber ks . We still have to perform the rather involved p-integral.e. 2 ks ≡ −4πe2 χ0 (0. The sum was carried out in Eq. iqn ). W RPA (q → 0.34) the pair-bubble diagram is given in terms of a p-integral and a Matsubara frequency sum. 0 Note that the pair-bubble is a function of both momentum and frequency. 0) −→ 2 q→0 q 2 + ks where the so-called Thomas-Fermi screening wavenumber. χ0 (0. it is a simple matter to obtain the static.17) W RPA (q. iqn ) thus has a form similar to W (q). (13. 0) −→ 0 q→0 2 F ∂n dp (ξp+q − ξp ) ∂ξp = − dξp d(µ + ξp ) − F 3 (2π) ξp+q − ξp ∂ξp ∂n −d(εF ). 0). 0 (13. 0) becomes 1 W RPA (q → 0. 0). and it is put to zero in the following.85) using the recipe Eq. (2π)3 ξp+q − ξp − iqn (13.2. 0) = . (10.21) In the static. a screened Coulomb interaction 4πe2 0 . 0) = −1 . (13. (13. However. ks has been introduced. 13. i. 0) (13. according to Eq. In this limiting case ξp+q → ξp . and thus determine χR (q.19).20) The frequency dependence of the retarded pair-bubble χR can now be found by the 0 usual analytical continuation iqn → ω + iη.54): χ0 (q.218 CHAPTER 13. From now on we no longer need a ﬁnite value of α. 0) is simply minus the density 0 of states at the Fermi level. iqn ) = 2 dp nF (ξp+q ) − nF (ξp ) . iqn ) having its origin in the dynamics of the interacting electron gas. and discuss a physical interpretation of the random phase approximation. and we can 0 perform a Taylor expansion in energy χR (q.

23) a0 being the Bohr radius. (2. 2 ks = −4πe2 χR (0. It is therefore useful for numerous applications. −1 ξp−q − ξp = 1 (q 2 − 2pqλ). and we have λ ≡ cos θ. −x0 ) + 2 8x 2 .31) and (2.20) in two terms. but limit the calculation of χ0 (q. and the real part of χ0 is most easily calculated by splitting Eq.24) 2m In the low temperature limit the Fermi-Dirac distribution is a step-function. and collecting the terms again: Re χ0 (q. such as x ≡ q 2kF and x0 ≡ ω . This result is very important. because it relates the screening length 1/ks to microscopic parameters of the electron gas.20) is Im χ0 (q.27a) x0 −x x ln x + x2 − x0 . ω +iη) = −P kF 0 dp 2 p 2π 2 1 −1 dλ nF (ξp ) 1 1 2m (q 2 −2pqλ)+ω + 1 1 2m (q 2 +2pqλ)−ω . ω ) = −2 d(εF ) 0 where f (x.27b) The imaginary part of χ0 in Eq. 4εF (13. x0 ) ≡ 1 − 1 f (x. (13. (13. R (13. In the low temperature limit an analytical expression is obtained by a straightforward but rather tedious calculation. For metals ks ≈ 0. dp = (2π)3 ∞ 0 dp 2 p 4π 2 1 dλ. x − x2 + x0 (13.26) and then the λ-integral followed by the p-integral is carried out using standard logarithmic integrals1 . We now turn to the more general case. ω + iη) = 1 kF 0 dp 2 p 2π 1 a 1 −1 dλ [nF (ξp+q ) − nF (ξp )] δ(ξp+q − ξp −ω ). π a0 (13.1 nm−1 . 0) = 4π e2 d(εF ) = 0 0 0 4 kF .28) Useful integrals are R 1 dx ax+b = ln(ax + b) and dx ln(ax + b) = 1 [(ax a + b) ln(ax + b) − ax]. THE RENORMALIZED COULOMB INTERACTION IN RPA 219 The Thomas-Fermi screening wavenumber ks is found by combining Eq. . In the p-integral the only angular dependence of the integrand is through cos θ. Finite temperature eﬀects can be obtained by using the Sommerfeld expansion or by numerical integration.2.13. (13. (13. The ﬁnal result for the retarded function χR is 0 Re χR (q.25) The integrand is now made dimensionless by measuring all momenta in units of kF and all frequencies and energies in units of εF . substituting p with p − q in the ﬁrst term. (13. ω + iη) to the low temperature regime kB T εF . x0 ) + f (x. (13.36).18) with Eqs.

THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS Using δ(f [x]) = x0 δ(x − x0 )/|f [x0 ]|. where momentum q and 0 energy ω is absorbed by the electron gas (see also the discussion in Sec. which correspond to an electron jumping from the latter state to the former. At the later time τ the process is reversed. describes the corresponding dissipative processes.2. 13. τ > 0) = − c (τ ) c† 0 c† (13. τ )-representation. The imaginary part of χR (q.29) for 0 < x0 < x − x2 0 2 x.2 The electron-hole pair interpretation of RPA We have learned above that the RPA results in a screened Coulomb interaction.220 CHAPTER 13. (2. 0. Let λ be a real number 0 ≤ λ ≤ 1.119) the thermodynamic potential Ω ≡ U − T S − µN is given by . A careful analysis of when the delta-function and the theta-functions are non-zero leads to π 1 − x0 − x 2 .3 The ground state energy of the electron gas We ﬁrst show how to express the ground state energy in terms of the single-particle Green’s functions G(k. ω ). and the electron falls back into the hole state. we study the pair-bubble diagram a little closer in the (q.31) where H0 is the kinetic energy and W the Coulomb interaction Eq.5). That this is at all possible is perhaps surprising due to the presence of the two-particle Coulomb interaction. and deﬁne Hλ ≡ H0 − µN + λW. but this corresponds to a polarization of the electron gas. for |x − x2 | < x0 < x + x2 8x x π x0 Im χR (q. (10.34). 13. where x0 are the zeros of f [x]. (13. In the time interval from 0 to τ an electron-hole pair is thus present. (1.30) pσ p+qσ (τ ) cp+qσ 0 . For λ = 0 we have the non-interacting electron gas while for λ = 1 we retrieve the full Coulomb interacting electron gas. and we now see the origin of the renormalization of the Coulomb interaction. According to Eq. ω ) = −d(εF ) (13. the λ-integral can be performed. In the remaining sections of the chapter we study how the eﬀective RPA interaction inﬂuences the ground state energy and the dielectric properties (in linear response) of the electron gas. Choosing τ > 0 in Eq. But using the equation of motion technique combined with an “integration over the coupling constant” method we obtain the result. The RPA scheme takes interaction processes into account thus changing the dielectric properties of the non-interacting electron gas.83) we arrive at dp χ0 (q. ikn ). τ > 0) as the sum of all processes of the following type: at τ = 0 an electron is created in the state |pσ and a hole in the state |p + qσ . for other x0 ≥ 0. To gain some physical insight into the nature of this renormalization. (2π)3 pσ σ Consequently we can interpret χ0 (q. 8.

ikn ) eikn η = ikn kσ 1 βV eikn η + 2 λW ikn kσ λ.35) λ The expectation value λW λ can be related to Gσ (k. ikn ) Gσ (k. (5. kσ k 2 (13. (13. τ ) kσ = δ(τ ) + 1 V 1 V Tτ [Hλ . τ ) using Eqs.31) and (10.34) The subscript λ refers to averaging with respect to Hλ .37) Collecting the sums on the left-hand side yields 1 βV λ (ikn − εk )Gσ (k. (13.33) By integration over λ from 0 to 1 the change in Ω due to the interactions is found: 1 Ω(1) − Ω(0) = 0 dλ λW λ λ. ikn ) through the equation of motion λ for Gσ (k. ikn ) − 1 eikn η = 2 λW ikn kσ λ. At T = 0 we have ∆E = ∆Ω.32) (13. ckσ ](τ ) c† kσ kσ λ λ ε Gσ (k. ikn ) eikn η .36) = δ(τ ) + kσ We now let τ = 0− = −η and note that the last term is nothing but the interaction part λW λ of the Hamiltonian. ikn ) eikn η and δ(−η) = β ikn eikn η . (13. −η) = β ikn Gσ (k.61b) − ∂τ 1 V λ Gσ (k. (13.3.39) . (13.13. We therefore arrive at the following compact expression. Furthermore. σ ikn kσ (13. whence the ground state energy E of the system can be calculated as E = E 0 + lim 1 T →0 0 dλ λW λ λ. τ ) − 2 k kσq λ W (q) Tτ c† σ (τ ) ck +qσ (τ ) ck−qσ (τ ) c† λ .38) λ λ λ We now utilize that 1 = [Gσ ]−1 Gσ and furthermore that [Gσ ]−1 = ikn − εk − Σλ to obtain σ λW λ = 1 2βV λ Σλ (k. β By diﬀerentiating with respect to λ we ﬁnd Ω(λ) = − ∂Ω 1 Tr −βW e−β(H0 −µN+λW) =− ∂λ β Tr e−β(H0 −µN+λW) = W λ. using Fourier transforms we can at τ = −η write 1 1 λ λ Gσ (k. 1 βV λ (ikn − εk ) Gσ (k. THE GROUND STATE ENERGY OF THE ELECTRON GAS 221 1 ln Tr e−β(H0 −µN+λW) .

<=> ?@ A BC D E F G + + + + + + + 2 + + . ikn ) Gσ (k. (2. ikn ) ≈ σ λ Gσ (k. 2. THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS and when this is inserted in Eq.1. By employing the powerful quantum ﬁeld theoretic method. the most divergent diagram of each of the higher orders.42) and (13.41) (13. Since the self-energy Σ contains diagrams from ﬁrst order and up. through RPA.41) needs to be renormalized.916 + 0.8b. (13. E N rs →0 .43) renders the diagram ﬁnite. Fig.2 we include in Eq. it is a λ remarkable result.211 0. To improve the high-density. 2. (13. 2. we do not have to expand the Green’s function G beyond ﬁrst order: Σλ (k. 13.222 CHAPTER 13. The techniques are similar to those employed in the calculation of the pair-bubble diagram in Sec. (13. ikn ) ≈ Note that only the second diagram in Eq. (13. (13.094 − 2 rs rs (13. because it relates the ground state energy of the interacting system to the single-particle Green’s function and the related self-energy. This is because only this diagram is divergent without renormalization. . we know from Eq. and Fig. Since the Thomas-Fermi wavenumber ks replaced α as a cut-oﬀ.44) This expression ends the discussion of the ground state energy of the interacting electron gas in the jellium model.43) of E/N in terms of the dimensionless distance parameter rs . ikn ) eikn η .40) with Eqs.2) that this diagram must be proportional to log ks and hence to log rs .6b. (13. (13.40) This expression allows for an diagrammatic calculation with the additional Feynman rule 1 that limT →0 0 dλ must be performed at the end of the calculation. Ry. 2. The RPA renormalization of the interaction line in the second diagram in Eq.35) we ﬁnally arrive at the expression for the ground state energy E = E 0 + lim 1 T →0 2βV 1 ikn kσ 0 dλ λ λ Σ (k. Combining Eq.40) all diagrams up to second order and.43) −→ 2. We will not go through the calculation of these diagrams. We are now in a position to continue the expansion Eq.2.0622 log rs − 0. second-order perturbation theory of Sec. Moreover.8a.42) (13. λ σ (13.41) we obtain to (renormalized) second order: E − E 0 ≈ lim 1 T →0 0 dλ λ 1 = 0 dλ λ Note the similarity between the three diagrams in this expression for E − E 0 and the ones depicted in Fig. (13.

ω ) = W (q) χR (q. ω ) is the Fourier transform of the retarded Kubo density-density correlation function χR (q. ω ) creates an induced charge density −eρind (q. t) = dr −eρind (r . ω )]. ω)] = (−e)2 Cρρ (q. ω ) φext (q.48) where χR (q. R χR (q. ω) φext (q. ω ) + φind (q. In the following we focus on the dielectric properties of the system. ω) φext (q. (13. Having achieved this solution. (13. ω ) φext (q. see Eqs. i.46) e2 We divide with e2 since W (q) by deﬁnition contains this factor. Since the unperturbed system even with its Coulomb interacting electrons is translation-invariant. Next step is to use the Kubo formula. ω ) = 1 + W (q) χR (q.76). ω ). t − t ). 6.45) where ρ(r) is the particle density and not. t). we could ﬁnally solve the problem posed by the failed second order perturbation theory.15) it is clear that the internal dynamics of the interacting electron gas lead to a screening of the pure Coulomb interaction. this is in fact the case.49) Here the subscript ’eq’ refers to averaging in equilibrium.4. Using Eq. ρ(−qt ) eq .47) Collecting our partial results we have φind (q. (13. ω)] with the external potential and with the retarded density-density correlator R [−e ρind (q. (13. as we shall see below. we write all expressions in Fourier (q. THE DIELECTRIC FUNCTION AND SCREENING 223 in casu resummation of the Feynman diagram series for the single-electron self-energy and Green’s function.4 we study the linear response of the interacting system due to the perturbation H caused by φext . ω ). (13. (13. H = dr [−e ρ(r)] φext (r. One suspects that also external potentials φext will be screened similarly.e.4.13. ω). −qt ) = −iθ(t − t ) 1 V ρ(qt). φtot (q. ω )-space.75) and (8. which relates [−e ρind (r. the charge density. 13. 6. ω ) can be written in terms of the polarization function χR . ω ) = 1 W (q) [−e ρind (q. t) 4π 0 |r − r | ⇒ φind (q.48) the total potential φtot (q.4 The dielectric function and screening Already from Eq. with respect to H = H0 + W omitting H . As in Sec. (13. (8. ω ) = φext (q.50) . Through the Coulomb interaction this in turn corresponds to an induced potential φind (r. we will also be able to study other aspects of the interacting electron gas. The external potential φext (q. t − t ) ≡ Cρρ (qt. (13. and indeed. as in Sec. −q. ω ). ω) ≡ e2 χR (q.

ε(q. τ ) given by Eq. τ ) = − 1 T ρ(q. eq (13.96) we can read oﬀ the Fourier transform ρ(±q): ρ(q) = pσ c† cp+qσ . we see that the following expression for the dielectric function or electrical permittivity ε has been derived: 1 = 1 + W (q) χR (q.30) and the speciﬁc calculation in Sec. iqn ) = χ(˜).51) So upon calculating χR (q. The disconnected part is zero since the expectation of the charge density in the neutralized and homogeneous jellium model is zero. (13. (1. iqn )-space of χ(q.224 CHAPTER 13. One part where the two density operators are disconnected from one another.55) Here. (13. and φext to the displacement ﬁeld D = 0 εE. THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS When recalling that φtot corresponds to the electric ﬁeld E. 0) V τ eq . τ ) is seen to be a two-particle Green’s function of the form χ(q. ˜ ˜ k k G(k. ω ) by analytic continuation of the corresponding Matsubara Green’s function χR (q. (12. τ ) = − Tτ ckσ (τ ) c† ⇒ ··· (13. and we have divided the contributions to χ into two parts. The second term has a structure similar to the simple pair-bubble diagram with an external momentum q ﬂowing through it. ω ).52) where χ(q. ω ) = χ(q. τ ) ρ(−q. ω ) we can determine ε(q.24) directly and to write the diagrammatic expansion in (q.81): χ(q. 10. But according to Eq. and the other part where they mix. pσ ρ(−q) = kσ c† k+qσ ckσ . (10. where it for the single-particle Green’s function is stated that the diagrams must contain two Green’s functions with the external momentum k.56) kσ H I .7 we can obtain χR (q. This rule was a direct consequence of the deﬁnition of G(k. We only have to pay special q attention to rule (4). τ ) = − 1 T V τ c† (τ )cp+qσ (τ ) c† k+qσ ckσ pσ pσ kσ eq ρq=0 eq = 1 − ρq=0 V eq + pσ kσ Tτ cp+qσ (τ )ckσ c† (τ + η)c† k+qσ (η) pσ connected . (12. (13.53) We will calculate the latter Green’s function using the Feynman diagram technique. η = 0+ has been inserted to ensure correct ordering. as in Eq.6). iqn → ω + iη). (10. ω ). τ ). From Eq.54) Hence χ(q. ω ) (13. It is now possible to apply the Feynman rules Eq. iqn ) is the Fourier transform in imaginary time of χ(q.

.4.13...4. −χirr (˜) ≡ q p+q ˜ ˜ VWXYZ [ ˜ ˜ k+ q + .57) ˜ ˜ k+ q The initial (right) vertex absorbs an external four-momentum q while the ﬁnal (left) vertex ˜ reemits q . τ ) ∼ Tτ c† pσ (τ )cp+qσ (τ ) ckσ c† k+qσ ⇒ p+q ˜ ˜ J K p ˜ . We must then have that χ(˜) is the sum of all possible diagrams that connect ˜ q the two ρ-vertices and that involve any number of Coulomb interaction lines. + ˜ k (13.58) + . 12. τ ). p ˜ −χ(˜) ≡ q p+q ˜ ˜ ≡ ˜ ˜ k+ q + + In analogy with the self-energy diagrams in Sec. (13. THE DIELECTRIC FUNCTION AND SCREENING 225 Likewise for χ(q.59) . except this is a two-particle Green’s function with two operators at each of the external vertices instead of just one.. we deﬁne the irreducible diagrams in the χ-sum as the ones that cannot be cut into two pieces by cutting any single interaction line : U = ≡ L M N O P Q R ST ˜ k ˜ k ˜ ˜ k+ q p ˜ + p−k ˜ ˜ ˜ k + p+q ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ k+ q + + the sum of all irreducible diagrams in −χ(˜) q + + + + p ˜ ˜ k (13.. One straightforwardly gets the following vertices corresponding to ρ(q) and ρ(−q): χ(q..

q q q q (13. iqn ) 1 − W (q) χ 1 − W (q) χirr (q. irr (q. \ ]^_ `abc de g f h + + + × + + . iqn ).64) = = (13. iqn ) n or more directly (13. iqn ) is approx0 imated by the simple pair-bubble −χirr (q. iqn ) q −χRPA (q. q q −χ(˜) = q = = = with the solution With this result for χ(q.62) (13. iqn ) we can determine the dielectric function.60) (13. THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS Hence we can resum χ(˜) in terms of χirr (˜) and obtain a Dyson equation for it. iqn ) = This results in the RPA dielectric function εRPA (q. iqn ). iqn ) . iqn ) i l k m −→ RPA −χirr A (q. (13. iqn ) = RP j = −χ0 (q.. 2 0q + . In RPA χirr (q. −χirr (˜) − χirr (˜) W (˜) χ(˜) ..63) Note it is e2 and not e2 that appears in the last expression.61) 1 χirr (q. iq ) ε(q. iqn ) = 1 − W (q) χirr (q. iqn ) is approximated by χRPA (q.226 CHAPTER 13..65) 1− . iqn ). iqn ) 1 = 1 + W (q) = . + = −χ(˜) = q = = 1− −χirr (˜) q 1 − W (˜) χirr (˜) q q ε(q. 1 − W (˜) χ0 (q.. iqn ) = 1 − e2 irr χ (q. iqn ) = and the full correlation function χ(q. −χ0 (q.

and furthermore we introduce a small dimensionless variable z: δ(εp − εF ) = δ(p − kF ) . ω ) ≈ 0 1 2π 2 dp p2 δ(εp − εF ) 1 dλ −1 vp qλ .30) represented by the screened electron-impurity line uRPA . vF p → kF . dp = (2π)3 ∞ 0 dp 2 p 4π 2 1 dλ. We could choose to study the full case described through χR (q.72) We rewrite the delta-function in energy-space to one in k-space.5 Plasma oscillations and Landau damping We now leave the static case and turn on an external potential with frequency ω ..71) Utilizing this in Eq. iqn ) = 1 − W (q) χ0 (q. To proceed we adopt the following 0 notation λ ≡ cos θ. (13. vp → vF . long wave lengths and low temperatures. −W RPA (q. −1 ξp+q − ξp ≈ vp qλ. iqn ). The goal of this section is to investigate the frequency dependence of the dielectric function ε(q. all deﬁned by the conditions vF q ω (or x (13.66) The entire analysis presented in this section leads to the conclusion that the external potentials treated in linear response theory are renormalized (or screened) in the exact same way as the internal Coulomb interactions of the previous section. 2 0 0q (13. (13.67) This conclusion can be summarized in the following two diagrammatic expansions. q kF (or x 1).69) 13. iqn ) = uRPA (q) = nopq rstu = + + = + + x0 ). iqn ) = 1 − e2 χ (q.73) . ω − vp qλ (13. One is the internal electron-electron interaction potential represented by the screened Coulomb interaction line W RPA . we conﬁne the discussion to the case of high frequencies. (13. iqn ) φext (q.21) we obtain Re χR (q. (13. (13.13. iqn ) . but to draw some clear-cut physical conclusions.27a) 0 and (13. (13. PLASMA OSCILLATIONS AND LANDAU DAMPING 227 εRPA (q.. (11.25) and (11.29). (13. (13.29) that Im χR = 0. ω ) by Eqs..20) and Taylor expanding nF as in Eq.. iqn ) 1− e2 2 0q χ0 (q.68) + . The other is the external impurity potential Eqs.5. ω ). z≡ qvF λ ω 1. (13. iqn ) = tot 1 εRPA (q. kB T εF . iqn ) = φext (q.70) In this regime we see from Eq. + . φRPA (q.

Consider the relation D = ε 0 E or the related one. ω ) ≈ 0 ≈ = 1 2 1 ω k 2π 2 F vF qvF 2 1 kF ω 2 2π 2 qvF n q2 qvF /ω −qvF /ω dz z 1−z +qvF /ω −qvF /ω 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 z + z + z + z 2 3 4 5 3 qvF 5 ω 2 m ω2 1+ . and above which they become transparent.74) we ﬁnd the RPA dielectric function in the high-frequency and long-wavelength limit to be 2 ωp 3 qvF 2 εRPA (q. Mag. putting it in the ultra-violet part of the electromagnetic spectrum. while the latter can be determined from de Haas-van Alphen eﬀect2 . ω ) = 0 2 ⇒ 2 ω 2 ≈ ωp + 3 (qvF )2 5 ⇒ ω (q) ≈ ωp + 2 3 vF 2 q .W. (13. (13.16).75) ω 5 ω where the characteristic frequency ωp . It is determined by the electron density n and the eﬀective band-mass m of Eq. Let us calculate its properties in RPA from Eq.5. φext (q. The former parameter can be found by Hall eﬀect measurements. Using the observed parameters for aluminum. ω ) = 1 − 2 1 + . ω ). Al n = 1. We are thus about to identify an oscillatory eigenmode for the electron gas. 10 ωp (13.75). e.115 m0 . the plasma oscillations. (13.74) 3 where in the last line we used vF = kF /m and 3π 2 n = kF . εRPA (q. (2. Re χR (q.27 × 1016 Hz = 15.1 Plasma oscillations and plasmons The plasma frequency is an important parameter of the interacting electron gas setting the energy scale for several processes. . Ashcroft. THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS This in inserted in Eq. Typical values are ω ≈ 1016 Hz. and the smallness of this new variable permits the Taylor expansion z/(1 − z) ≈ z + z 2 + z 3 + z 4 . The variable λ is substituted by z. A very direct manifestation of the plasmon frequency is the existence of the collective charge density oscillations. 2055 (1963) regarding aluminum. it marks the limit below which metals reﬂects incoming electromagnetic radiation. Theoretically.228 CHAPTER 13.81 × 1029 m−2 and m = 1.72). (13. has been introduced. Philos. The Fermi surface can be mapped out using this technique as described in Ashcroft and Mermin. (13. Solid State Physics. Note that ε(q.0 eV. Combining Eqs. ω ) φtot (q. chapter 14. 8.g. For the determination of the electron band mass m in aluminum see N.76) ωp ≡ m 0 13. ne2 . we obtain ωp = 2.66) and (13. (13. ω ) = ε(q. the existence of these oscillations is proved as follows. ω ) = 0 in fact allows for a situation where the total potential varies in space and time in the absence of any external potential driving these variations.77) The de Haas-van Alphen eﬀect is oscillations in the magnetization of a system as the function of an applied external magnetic ﬁeld. well known as the electronic plasma frequency.

8 eV in good agreement with the plasma frequency determined by other methods to be 15. so no 0 damping occurs. as is the case with any harmonic oscillator. and the ﬁnal energy Ef is measured at zero scattering angle on the other side of the foil. The value of the energy loss quantum was measured to be ∆E = 14. Phys.0 eV for bulk aluminum. here with the emission of three plasmon during the traversal. 13. Note that the most probable process is not the plasmon-free traversal. Rev. with a characteristic energy of ωp .1. The energy loss Ei − Ef clearly reveals loss in quanta of ∆E. 182 (1962). Ef .5. They have a simple quadratic dispersion relation ω (q) starting out from ωp for q = 0 and then going up as q is increased. The energy loss clearly happens in quanta of size ∆E. (13. If some eigenmodes exist with a frequency ∼ ωp .1: (a) Observation of plasmons in high-energy electron transmission spectroscopy on a 258 nm wide aluminum foil. then. Thus by Eq.1(a). The initial energy is Ei = 20 keV.1(b). The result of the measurement is shown in Fig.13. The ﬁnal energy. others excite one or more as sketched in Fig. (b) A sketch of a typical microscopic process. 126. 13. But how could one be convinced of the existence of these oscillations? One beautiful and very direct veriﬁcation is the experiment discussed in Fig. but instead a traversal during which two plasmons are excited. PLASMA OSCILLATIONS AND LANDAU DAMPING 229 Figure 13. Some electrons traverse the foil without exciting any plasmons (the ﬁrst peak). In the experiment high energy electrons with an initial energy Ei = 20 keV are shot through a 258 nm wide aluminum foil. Recall that in the high frequency regime Im χR and consequently Im ε is zero. and the energy loss Ei − Ef can be plotted. is measured on the other side of the foil. 13. On the plot electrons exciting as many as seven plasmons are clearly seen.8 eV in very good agreement with the value of the plasma frequency of 15.77) it is indeed possible to ﬁnd oscillatory eigenmodes. denoted plasmons. 50 234 234 234 @8 5 7 16 0 9 0 234 10 ¢ ) ¦¦¦¨¦¨¦¤ © § ¥ %% $$ #¤ ¥" ¥" ! &'( ¡¢ £ . they must be quantized leading to oscillator quanta.0 eV. The energy quantum ∆E was found to be 14. by Marton et al. the plasma oscillations.

29) we have within RPA calculated the region the (q.R φtot (q. The parameters chosen for this branch are those of aluminum. ω + iη) 0 In the case of a vanishing imaginary part Im χ0 we ﬁnd a pole on the real axis: φRPA. signaling 0 a temporal decay of the total potential with a decay time proportional to Im χR . Also shown is the plasmon branch with its propagating and damped parts. ω ) = 0 only in the gray scaled area.230 CHAPTER 13. (13. ω ) = . ω ) + i eq2 0 In Eq. ω ) 0 .26): x = q/2kF and x0 = ω /4εF .29). which is bounded by the constraint functions 0 given in Eq. ω ) 1− e2 2 0q Re χR (q.0 eV.2: A gray scale plot of Im χR (q. which is described by the imaginary part Im χR (q.2 Landau damping Finally.78) e2 1 − q2 χ0 (q. 0 The variables are rescaled according to Eq. The darker a shade the higher the value. The physical origin of the non-zero imag0 inary part is the ability for the electron gas to absorb incoming energy by generating § ¨ & 2 2 "# ! # D $3 E # ! D $3 3 3 "C ! " % "% 1 3 B A @ B 978© 7& 5 6 % # & % $ 1 3 & 12 1 # 0 V WU T S PQ IG F R H 4 ¡ 4 . Note that ImχR (q. εF = 11. THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS Figure 13. and this region is shown in Fig. ω )-plane of non-vanishing Im χR . The pure plasma oscillations discussed above are examples of undamped 0 or long-lived excitations. we discuss the damping of excitations.R (q.2. ω ).7 eV and ωp = 15.R (q. (13.79) Im χR (q. ImχR = 0 we end up with a usual Lorentzian peak as a function of ω.5. ω ) = tot φext (q. (13. ω ) RPA. (13. (13. 0 φRPA. This can be elucidated by going to the retarded functions in Eq. 13. (13. 13. (13. ω ) 2 R χ0 (q. ω ) + iη 0 If.67) φext (q. ω ) = tot e2 2 0q 1− Re φext (q.80) §¦¥ )' '¤ £¢ ' ' ¡ ("# % ! # & % $ §¦¥ ©¨ £¢ . however. ω ).

In other words for high q-values the plasmonic excitations are not exact eigenmodes of the system. here expressed by their Dyson’s equations −W RPA (q. ω )-space where the RPA dissipation is 0. . energy and momentum constraints prohibit the excitation of electron-hole pairs. Hence the plasmons have inﬁnite life times for small q. (13.2 is shown the dispersion relation for the plasmon excitation.6.6 Summary and outlook In this chapter we have used the Feynman rules for pair-wise interacting particles to analyze the Coulomb-interacting electron gas in the jellium model. ω )-space. Finally we remark that in Fig. and they are damped out as a function of time.094 − 2 rs rs uRPA (q) = = Ry. 13. .0622 log rs − 0. iqn ) = = + + v wx y z { |}~ × + + + + . It starts out as a bona ﬁde excitation in the region of the (q. when a current J is ﬂowing.81) 0 ω whereby it is explicitly conﬁrmed that a non-vanishing ImχR is associated with the ability 0 of the system to dissipate energy. and the electron gas cannot absorb energy by that mechanism. However. and there the plasmon acquires a ﬁnite life time.211 0. In particular we found the self-energy ΣRPA (k. (6. One main result was ﬁnding the screening of the Coulomb interaction both for the internal interaction and for external potentials. Outside the appropriate area in (q. In the literature this damping mechanism is denoted Landau damping.916 + 0. It is well-known that the real part of σ is associated with dissipation (Joule heating). But from Eq. ikn ) = σ This result was used to calculate the ground state energy of the electron gas E −E 0 = N + + = We also used the RPA analysis to study the dielectric properties of the electron gas. 13.13. . The main result was the RPA resummation of diagrams to all orders in perturbation theory valid in the high density limit. = 2. at some point the dispersion curve crosses into the dissipative Im χ0 = 0 area.47) it follows that 1 e2 Im χR = − q· Re σ ·q. Another way to understand the eﬀect of a non-vanishing Im χR is to link it to the 0 conductivity σ of the electron gas. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 231 electron-hole pairs.

we studied the plasma oscillations of the electron gas found from the condition εRPA (q. . (i) the static.232 CHAPTER 13. 10 ωp where ωp ≡ ne2 . ω ) was found in two cases. it plays a crucial role in the studies of electron-impurity scattering. Moreover. ω 2 ks 4 kF 2 . THE INTERACTING ELECTRON GAS Explicit expressions for the dielectric function ε(q. where ks = q2 π a0 2 ωp 3 qvF 2 qvF ) = 1 − 2 1 + . electron-phonon interaction. εRPA (q. long-wave limit. ω ) = 0. ω 5 ω Finally. 0) = 1 + εRPA (q. and found the dispersion relation involving the plasma frequency ωp . long-wave limit and (ii) the high frequency. superconductivity. and of many other physical phenomena involving the electron gas. ω (q) = ωp + 2 3 vF 2 q . m 0 The RPA analysis has already given us a good insight in some central physical properties of the electron gas.

Using the Landau transport equation we shall see that the collective modes derived in the previous chapter also come out naturally from a semi-classical description and. This equation is known as the Landau transport equation. which is calculated from microscopic considerations in Chap. The Fermi liquid theory is conceptually extremely important. The basic conclusion is that a gas of interacting particles can be described by a system of almost non-interacting “quasiparticles”. and this condition will set the limits for the applicability of the theory. The quasiparticle distribution function satisﬁes a kinetic equation. which may include scattering from one state to another for example due to impurity scattering. These quasiparticles are approximate excitations of the system at suﬃciently short time scales.1997). AddisonWesley (1961.Chapter 14 Fermi liquid theory The concept of Fermi liquid theory was developed by Landau in 1957-59 and later reﬁned by others1 . also is easily understood in terms of scattering of quasiparticles. What we mean by “suﬃciently short” of course has to be quantiﬁed. The quasiparticle concept furthermore gives the theoretical foundation of the semiclassical description. because it means that one cannot cross a phase 1 See for example the collection of reprints in the book: D. and it gives the theoretical explanation of why all the results that one gets from the widely used free electron model work so well. 233 . 15.1 Adiabatic continuity The Fermi liquid theory is based on the assumption that starting from the non-interacting system of particles one can analyze the interacting case by applying perturbation theory. 14. the conductivity. Pines The Many-body problem. This is of course an enormous simpliﬁcation. furthermore. because it explains why the apparently immensely complicated system of for example interacting electrons in a metal can be regarded as a gas of non-interacting particles. This is in fact a rather stringent criterion. and it is equivalent to the well-known Boltzmann equation from kinetic gas theory. In this description the potential is allowed to vary in space due to some external perturbation or due to interactions with the inhomogeneous density of quasiparticles.

(14. t) ≈ ψV0 (t) (x) exp −iEV0 (t) t . This is because a phase transition. t) ψ(x. (14. t) = EV0 (t) ψadia (x. 4.1) 0 where the depth of the well is time dependent. If this change is slow the solution of the Schr¨dinger equation o i∂t ψ(x. t) + ∂ψadia (x. (14.234 CHAPTER 14. t) = can be approximated by the adiabatic solution ψadia (x. t).e. then we would end up in a corresponding excited state of the interacting system. The accuracy of the solution in Eq. with o energy EV0 (t) H(t)ψV0 (t) (x) = EV0 (t) ψV0 (t) (x). As a simple example of adiabatic continuity we now consider a particle trapped in a one-dimensional potential. such as for example the ferromagnetic transition discussed in Chap. t) ∂V0 (t) ∂V0 (t) ∂t = Hψadia (x. FERMI LIQUID THEORY boundary line.3) into Eq.3. cannot be reached by perturbation theory starting from the paramagnetic phase. so slowly that the occupation numbers are not changed.5) Thus we have an approximate solution if the ﬁrst term dominates over the second term.2) where ψV0 (t) (x) is the solution of the static (or instantaneous) Schr¨dinger equation.3) is estimated by inserting Eq. 2m (14. If you imagine that we start from the non-interacting system excited in some state and then turn on the interaction adiabatically. The one-dimensional potential will have a number of bound states with discrete eigenenergies and a continuum of eigenenergies corresponding to the delocalized states. 4. As an example consider a potential of the form V (x. and let us suppose that it is changing from an initial value V01 to a ﬁnal value V02 .3) p2 + V (x.2 If the excitations of the non-interacting system are connected to the excitations of the interacting system by a one-to-one correspondence (at least on short time scales as explained below) the two cases are said to be connected by “adiabatic continuity”. t) = −V0 (t) exp −x2 /2x2 .2). We now imagine changing the potential slowly.4) Note that both ψV0 (t) (x) and EV0 (t) depend parametrically on the time through V0 (t). . (14. The phase with broken symmetry can only occur if the ensemble of states in the statistical average is truncated. What we really are claiming is that the excited states of the interacting system can be labelled by the same quantum numbers as those we used to label the non-interacting system by. which yields i∂t ψadia (x. t). (14. (14. (14. t) = H(t)ψ(x. i. Thus apparently our conclusion is that if the rate of change of V0 (t) is small enough the solution for the new value of V0 = V02 can be found be by starting from the solution 2 This fact you can understand from the concept of broken symmetry explained in Sec.

Since we are dealing with the low energy properties of the system. The following arguments are meant to be the full theoretical explanation for the applicability of Fermi liquid theory.1 The quasiparticle concept and conserved quantities The principle of adiabatic continuity is now utilized to study a system of interacting particles. (14. but it is not. |(kσ)p . The two states can simply not be connected through small changes of V0 . then the matrix elements are identical to those of the non-interacting case.6) where |G is the groundstate of the interacting system. (kσ )h . If we now imagine letting time evolve according to a Hamiltonian where the interaction is gradually switched oﬀ at a rate ζ Hζ = H0 + Hint e−ζt . adiabatic continuity does work. and it is not always true. (k σ )h = c† ck σ |G .14. that if we avoid these transitions between diﬀerent kinds of states. but most importantly it is still the ﬁrst excited state and it is still a bound state. 0)|(kσ)p t→∞ −→ (k σ )p |(kσ)p 0 . such as response functions or occupation numbers we are facing matrix elements between diﬀerent states. but rather to give a physical intuition for the reason why the quasiparticle picture is valid. however. then it does not matter how slowly we change V0 . (14. This is an example where perturbation theory to any order would never give the right answer. kσ |(kσ)p . This may sound completely trivial.8) If. In doing so we gain the fundamental understanding that the interacting and the non-interacting cases have a lot in common at least under some restricting circumstances.18) the time evolution with the time dependent Hamiltonian is |kσ (t) = e−iH0 t Tt exp −i t 0 dt Hζ (t ) |kσ ≡ Uζ (t. under the conditions of adiabaticity.7) then according to Eq. ADIABATIC CONTINUITY 235 with the old value of V0 = V01 and “adiabatically” changing it to its new value. It is used to bring the excitations of the interacting case back to the well-known excitations of the non-interacting case. For example if the real solution during this change of V0 from V01 to V02 changes from a bound state to an un-bound state (if V02 is small enough there is only one bound state). t > 0. The ﬁrst term inserts a particle while the second term creates both a particle and hole. When calculating physical quantities. In the following this idea is applied to the case of interacting particles. for example between states with added particles or added particle-hole pairs. kσ etc. This turns out to be realized in many systems. etc) all the way back to the non-interacting case. 0)Uζ (t. (14. (5. thus making computation possible. because one is a decaying function and one is an oscillatory function. For example if the ﬁrst excited state is a bound state. 0)|kσ .1.1. The important message is. 14. For example † (k σ )p |(kσ)p = (k σ )p |Uζ (t. we can bring the states (|(kσ)p . it will change to a somewhat modiﬁed state with a somewhat modiﬁed energy.9) . let us consider states with single particles or single electron-hole pairs added to the groundstate |(kσ)p = c† |G . (14.

10) is fulﬁlled. These properties are all conserved quantities because the corresponding operators (1) the total charge Q = −eN . and (3) it has excess spin σ. |(kσ)p . and therefore the distribution function c† σ ckσ = (k σ )p |(kσ)p −→ (k σ )p |(kσ)p 0 is a k Fermi-Dirac distribution function. Next we discuss the properties of the state with an added particle. i. and (3) the total spin S = kσ σnkσ all commute with the Hamiltonian. This apparently leaves an energy window where the idea makes sense.10) The last condition can in principle always be met at high enough temperatures. It is clear that the state where the interaction is switched oﬀ Uζ (∞. namely when we can choose a switch-oﬀ rate ζ such that −1 τlife ζ kB T. τlife ∝ T 2 . Thus there is always a temperature range at low temperature where Eq. The interactions do not induce transitions of the states in question. Most importantly. The adiabatic procedure is valid when the energy of the state is large compared to the rate of change. because the life-time turns out to be inversely proportional −1 to the square of the temperature. or. (14. FERMI LIQUID THEORY There are two important assumptions built into this construction: 1. since typical excitation energies are of order of the temperature. namely those that are conserved by the Hamiltonian: (1) it has an excess charge e (compared to the groundstate). (2) the total current Je = −e kσ vk nkσ . that is τlife ζ −1 . this is equivalent to assuming kB T ζ. or in other words the life-time τlife of the state is long compared to ζ −1 . 2. This leads us to the deﬁnition of quasiparticles: . the adiabatic continuity principle can also be used to calculate the distribution function. (2) it carries current −e k/m.e. whereas the ﬁrst one is not necessarily possible. Below we shall see that it is indeed possible to make the approximations consistent.236 CHAPTER 14. 0)|kσ has a number of properties in common with the initial state |(kσ)p . εkσ ζ. Here −e and m are charge and mass of the electrons. (14. respectively.

The quasiparticle are thus not to be thought of as the exact eigenstates. The thermalization length is the length scale on which thermal equilibrium is established. because they will of course tend to move towards the low potential regions. t) + φind (r.3 Now. Here we shall rederive some of this using a less rigorous but maybe physically more appealing approach. We can include the external potential as a local change of the potential felt by the charged quasiparticles. t). At low temperatures there are only a few quasiparticles. Thus we write the resulting local potential φtot (r. provided that the corresponding operators commute with the Hamiltonian. t). Clearly. 14. (k σ )h ). which in turn depends on the total potential. 12 we saw how the collective modes of a charged Fermi gas came out of a rigorous diagrammatical analysis. t) as φtot (r. Consider a uniform electron gas which is subject to an external potential φext (r. Note that we are here invoking a new concept namely local equilibrium. t) = φext (r.11) The induced potential φind created by the induced density ρind . 3 . this only makes sense on length scales larger than a typical thermalization length.2. The quasiparticles can be labelled by the same quantum numbers as the non-interacting case. and they therefore constitute a dilute gas.14. Finally the quasiparticles are in equilibrium distributed according to the Fermi-Dirac distribution function. In the following we make use of the quasiparticle concept to calculate the screening and the transport properties of an electron gas. the quasiparticles quantum numbers are thus k and σ and they carry charge −e and velocity vk = k/m. For a translation-invariant system of electrons interacting through the Coulomb interaction.2 Semi-classical treatment of screening and plasmons In Chap. (14. if the local potential of the quasiparticles is space and time dependent so is then the density of quasiparticles. because otherwise we could not talk about a local potential. must be determined self-consistently. The induced potential is caused by the excess or deﬁcit of quasiparticles. This in turn changes the electrical potential because the quasiparticles are charged and therefore the total potential φtot is given by the sum of the external potential φext and the induced potential φind . SEMI-CLASSICAL TREATMENT OF SCREENING AND PLASMONS 237 Quasiparticles are the excitations of the interacting system corresponding to the creation or annihilation of particles (for example particle-hole pair state |(kσ)p . The quasiparticle concept only makes sense on time scales shorter than the quasiparticle life time.

(14.1 Static screening First we consider linear static screening. 13. Because we are interested in times shorter than the life time of the quasiparticles.2. the induced charge density at point r at time t now depends on the total potential at some other point r and at some other (previous) time t .2 Dynamical screening In the dynamical case.17) .16) The dynamics are controlled by two things: the conservation of charge and the change of momentum with time.11) yields φtot (r) = φext (r. (14.2.15) in full agreement with the conclusions of the RPA results Eqs. In order to treat this case we need to reﬁne the analysis a bit to allow for the time it takes the charge to adjust to the varying external potential. (13. 0 ⇒ φtot (q) = (14. The conservation of particles in state k is expressed in the continuity equation nk + ˙ r · jk = 0.5. 1 + W (q)d(εF ) which when inserted into (14.13) φext (q) . To linear order in the local total potential and at low temperatures the induced charge density is given by ρind (r) = 2 V nF ξk + (−e)φtot (r) − nF ξk k ≈ −(−e)φtot (r) 2 V − k ∂nF (ξk ) ∂ξk ≈ −(−e)φtot (r)d(εF ). t).67) using χR = −d(εF ) from Eq. This depends on both r and t. From this we get the induced potential in real space and in q-space as φind (r) = 1 −e dr W (r−r )ρind (r) ⇔ φind (q) = 1 W (q)ρind (q) = −W (q)φtot (q)d(εF ). Consequently. −e (14. (13.14) 14. FERMI LIQUID THEORY 14.238 CHAPTER 14. (14. The ﬁrst dependence arises from the ﬂow of the distribution function.12) where ξk is quasiparticle energy measured relative to the equilibrium chemical potential and d(εF ) is the density of states at the Fermi level. The way to describe this is to look at the deviation of the distribution function nk of a quasiparticle with a given momentum p = k (below we as usual use = 1). (14. t) − W (q)d(εF )φtot (q) and hence ε(q) = 1 + W (q) d(εF ).66 ) and (13. the number of quasiparticles in each state is conserved. we expect to ﬁnd collective excitations similar to the plasmons found in Sec. so that nk = nk(t) (r.21).

ω) = 2 V q· k ξk ω − q · vk − ∂nF (ξk ) ∂ξk (−eφtot (q. (14.23) k At ω = 0 we recover the static case in Eq. (14.14. (14. based on renormalization by summation of the most important diagrams. Using Eq.5.19) Again it is convenient to use Fourier space and introducing the Fourier transform nk (q. ω). ω) = −ie (q · k nk ) φtot (q. Note that q drops out because W (q) ∝ q −2 . simply from Newton’s law p = −(−e) ˙ r φtot (r. t). 13.24) which agrees with Eq.75) in Sec.2. We have also gained some physical understanding of this renormalization. we ﬁnd by expanding in powers of q that ε(q) ≈ 1 − W (q) 2 ω2 V (q · vk )2 − ∂nF (ξk ) ∂ξk =1− ωp ω 2 . This is inserted into Eqs. ω)). and hence we get ˙ ∂t (nk ) + k · k nk + vk · r nk = 0.20) To linear order in the potential φtot we can replace the nk on the righthand side by the equilibrium distribution n0 = nF (ξk ) and hence we ﬁnd k nk (q.22) k where the factor 2 comes from to spin degeneracy. At long wavelengths or large frequencies qv ω.19) we ﬁnd (−iω + iq · vk )nk (q. (14. (14. . (14.13) and (14. From this expression we easily get the induced density by summation over k ρind (q. (14. SEMI-CLASSICAL TREATMENT OF SCREENING AND PLASMONS 239 where the current carried of quasiparticles in state k is given by jk = vk nk = ( k/m)nk . (14. which relies on the Fermi liquid theory. i. ω) = q· k ξk ω − q · vk − ∂nF (ξk ) ∂ξk (−eφtot (q. We have thus shown that in the long wavelength limit the semi-classical treatment.15). ω)). ω) = ie (q· k ξk ) − (14. (14. (13.18) which is known as the collision-free Boltzmann equation4 . The second dependence follows from how a negatively charged particle is accelerated in a ﬁeld. ω). because we saw explicitly how it was due to the screening of the external potential by the mobile quasiparticles.11) and we obtain the dielectric function ε = φext /φtot in the dynamical case ε(q) = 1 − W (q) 2 V q· k ξk ω − q · vk − ∂nF (ξk ) ∂ξk . because k ξk = vk . gives the same result as the fully microscopic theory.e. 4 Here r and t are independent space and time variables in contrast to the sometimes used ﬂuid dynamical formulation where r = r(t) follows the particle motion.21) ∂nk ∂ξk φtot (q.

11) u(r − Ri ) (14. namely by assuming that the charge carriers form a classical gas. (14. Historically. FERMI LIQUID THEORY 14. where |kσ 0 = eik·r / V.26) where Vimp is the impurity potential.27) Vimp (r) = i We can then ﬁnd the rate Γ by the adiabatic procedure where the matrix element k σ|Vimp |kσ √ is identiﬁed with non-interacting counterpart k σ|Vimp |kσ 0 . In Sec. 10. We know now that they follow a Fermi-Dirac distribution. but amazingly the result turns out to be the same. Γ(k σ← kσ). the Drude formula was ﬁrst derived in an incorrect way. The new scattering process thus introduced means that the number of quasiparticles in a given k-state is no longer conserved and we have to modify Eq. and we get 2 Γ(k σ← kσ) = Γk σ.240 CHAPTER 14.28) . (14. The total impurity potential is a sum over single impurity potentials situated at positions Ri (see also Chap. The fact that the scattering on an external potential is an elastic scattering is reﬂected in the energy-conserving delta function. 15 we will furthermore see how the very same result can be derived in a microscopic quantum theory starting from the Kubo formula and using a diagrammatic approach. (14. This will in fact lead us to the famous Drude formula.3 Semi-classical transport equation Our last application of the semi-classical approach is the calculation of conductivity of a uniform electron gas with some embedded impurities. at which scattering from the state |kσ to some other state |k σ occurs. A simple minded approach to conductivity would be to say that the forces acting on a small volume of charge is the sum of the external force and a friction force that is taken to be proportional to the velocity of the ﬂuid at the given point. the spin is conserved and thus σ = σ .17) to take into account the processes that change the occupation number nk . the ﬁnite resistivity of metals at low temperatures is due to scattering against impurities or other imperfections in the crystal structure. These collisions take momentum out of the electron system. It can be found from Fermi’s golden rule Γ(k σ← kσ) = 2π k σ|Vimp |kσ 2 δ(ξk − ξk ). As explained in Chap. For non-magnetic impurities. the ones considered here. (14.kσ 2π = 2 V dr e j −ik ·r u(r − Rj )e +ik·r δ(ξk − ξk ).25) m where σ is the conductivity and τp−relax is the momentum relaxation time. In steady state these forces are in balance and hence −(−e)E+ mv τp−relax =0 ⇒ J = −env = e2 nτp−relax E m ⇒ σ= ne2 τp−relax . Microscopically the momentum relaxation corresponds to scattering of quasiparticles from one state |kσ with momentum k to another state |k σ with momentum k . thus introducing a mechanism for momentum relaxation and hence resistivity. The rate of change is given by the rate.

Therefore we can simply replace the sum over impurities by the number of scattering centers.30) where the change due to “ﬂow and force” is given by the left hand side in Eq. and therefore to linear order in E the ˙ ˙ term k nk multiplying k can be replaced by the equilibrium occupation. leaving out interference between scattering on diﬀerent impurities. Because Wk.e. Let us furthermore concentrate on the long wave-length limit such that r nk ≈ 0.k . where k is a unit vector k oriented along k.14.k = 2π nimp V dr ei(k−k )·r u(r) δ(ξk − ξk ) ≡ 2 nimp Wk . The total rate is obtained from the Fermi golden rule expression (14.29) Now the change of nk due to collisions is included in the diﬀerential equation Eq.k (nk − nk ) . t) = ˙ d nk dt + ﬂow−force ∂ nk ∂t . i.18).k = Wk .3. and multiplied by the impurity potential for a single impurity u(r). k (14.32) ∂t V collisions k and the full Boltzmann transport equation in the presence of impurity scattering now reads nimp ˙ ∂t (nk ) + k · k nk + vk · r nk = − Wk . because the right hand side is then of the form τ −1 nk similar to −iωnk on the left hand side.29) times the probability for the initial state to be ﬁlled and the ﬁnal state to be empty. SEMI-CLASSICAL TRANSPORT EQUATION 241 Of course we do not know the location of the impurities exactly and therefore we perform a positional average. collisions (14. First we note that p = −eE. We obtain Γk . By going to the frequency domain.k (nk − nk ) . (14. V (14.34) Without the nk -term on the right hand side this equation is simple to solve.k . Nimp = nimp V. The average is done assuming only lowest order scattering. we have nimp ∂ nk =− Wk . (14. (14.33) V k The Boltzmann equation for impurity scattering is rather easily solved in the linear response regime.31) The ﬁrst term in the sum represents the rate for being scattered out of the state k and the second term represents the rate for being scattered into to state k from the state k .k . which at zero ˆ ˆ temperature becomes k n0 = k θ(kF − k) = −kδ(kF − k).k (nk − nk ) . we obtain nimp ˆ −iωnk + eE · k δ(kF − k) = − V Wk . The time derivative of nk becomes nk(t) (r. k (14. This . The new collision term is not a derivative but an integral functional of nk ∂ nk ∂t =− collisions nimp V nk (1 − nk )Wk .17) as an additional term.k − nk (1 − nk )Wk. (14.

37) (14. because it is the time that enters the expression for the conductivity. The result for the conductivity is 1 ne2 τ tr σ = σ0 .39) = τ tr V k =kF The time is known as the transport time.k (k − k ) · E.36) Since Wk .k (1 − cos θk.38) Here θk is angle between the vector k and the electric ﬁeld E. That this is in fact a solution is seen by substitution −iω ˆ ˆ eE · kδ(kF − k) + eE · k δ(kF − k) iω − 1/τ tr nimp −e ˆ ˆ = Wk . so let us try the ansatz 1 ˆ eE · kδ (kF − k).242 CHAPTER 14. k =kF ˆ ˆ Wk . |k |=kF (14. For a uniform system the result cannot depend on the direction of the electric ﬁeld. (14. and get nimp 1 Wk .35) nk (ω) = iω − 1/τ tr where the relaxation time τ tr needs to be determined. and therefore we can put E parallel to k. FERMI LIQUID THEORY hints that we can obtain the full solution by some imaginary shift of ω. (14. n = kF /3π 2 .41) 1 − iωτ tr m .k (cos θk − cos θk ). σ0 = . as we see by calculating the current density J=− =− = 2e V 2e V nk vk k τ tr k eδ(kF − k) ˆ k k·E tr iω − 1/τ m 1 E 1 ∞ dk k 3 δ(kF − k) d(cos θ) cos2 θ (2π)2 −iω + 1/τ tr m 0 −1 2e2 E 1 e2 n 3 2 = kF = E. −iω + 1/τ tr (2π)2 m 3 (−iω + 1/τ tr ) m 2e2 (14.k includes an energy conserving delta function. tr V iω − 1/τ |k | (14. (14.40) 3 where we have used the relation between density and kF .k ). we can set k = k = kF and remove the common factor δ(kF − k) to get nimp −iω −e ˆ ˆ eE · k + eE · k = tr tr V iω − 1/τ iω − 1/τ which is solved by cos θk nimp 1 = τ tr V Wk .k kδ(kF − k)−k δ(kF − k ) · E.

k . On the contrary when the particle is scattered backward. Clearly there is a mechanism for quasiparticle scattering against quasiparticles because they are charged and therefore interact through the Coulomb interaction. This would however only give the ﬁrst term in the right hand side of Eq. cos θ ≈ 1. it is tempting to think of the τ0 as the time for scattering out of the state k.3. cos θ ≈ −1. (14.43) This time expresses the rate for scattering out of a given state k.42) where n0 is the equilibrium distribution function.1 Finite life time of the quasiparticles Above we ﬁrst assumed that the quasiparticles have an inﬁnite life time. (14. the state k is destroyed but the momentum is almost conserved and such a process therefore does not eﬀect the conductivity.39) accounts for. but of course both total momentum and total energy are conserved in the scattering event.e.25) is indeed applicable to each quasiparticle separately. This k approximation in fact gives the correct answer if the relaxation time is identiﬁed with the transport time τ0 = τ tr .25). i. is given by the ﬁrst Born approximation 1 τlife = nimp V Wk . The interaction between the particles is screened by the other particles and we should use the RPA result for the interaction. (11. k − qσ . 14. namely the socalled relaxation time approximation. τ0 (14. but it does not tell us how much the momentum is degraded by the scattering process.e. k σ scatter. But we never included scattering of quasiparticle on other quasiparticles. (14. If the quasiparticle scatters forward. If two particles in states |kσ. The rate for quasiparticle-quasiparticle scattering can be calculated using Fermi’s golden . i. which was also calculated in Eq. and τ0 is the relaxation time. Here we investigate the validity of this approach by studying the rate of quasiparticle-quasiparticle scattering. corresponding to a large momentum relaxation. Often one uses an even simpler approximation for the collision term.3. SEMI-CLASSICAL TRANSPORT EQUATION 243 which agrees with Eq. such that the initial and the ﬁnal energies are the same εk + εk = εk+q + εk −q or counting from the chemical potential ξk + ξk = ξk+q + ξk −q . At ﬁrst sight. Therefore the transport time is precisely the momentum relaxation time deﬁned in the simple ﬂuid dynamical picture in Eq. The Coulomb interactions thus introduces a two-particle scattering where momentum and energy are exchanged. there is a large change in momentum. Then we included some ﬁnite life time induced by scattering against impurities. and the analysis that was applied in the ﬂuid dynamical picture in Eq.e. (14. In this approximation the collision is replaced by ∂ nk ∂t =− collisions nk − n0 k .14. k (14.25) found by the simpliﬁed analysis. (14. the ﬁnal state will be a state |k + qσ. i.49 ). The reason that the two approaches give the same result is that we can treat the quasiparticle as independent. This is precisely what the additional cosine-term in Eq. The life time. the life time of the state k.32) and it is therefore incorrect.

kσ = 2π k+qσ. A simple phase space argument gives the answer. (14. k −qσ |W RPA (q)|k σ .244 rule CHAPTER 14. We then have 1 ∼ |W |2 [d(εF )]3 τk = |W |2 [d(εF )]3 = |W |2 [d(εF )] 0 ∞ dξ −∞ 0 0 dξ Θ(ξk + ξ − ξ ) −∞ 2 3 ξk dξ ξk + ξ Θ(ξk + ξ ) for T < ξk . But for now we just want the energy dependence of the life-time.e.45) The expression (14. i. nk = 1 and np = θ(kF − p) for p equal to k .45) can be evaluated explicitly for a particle in state k added to a ﬁlled Fermi sea. scattering into state k (14. or k + q. k − q. for T > ξk . (14. which takes care of the delta function. From this rate we can obtain the total rate for changing the state of a given quasiparticle in state |kσ by the Coulomb interaction.46) 2 . kσ 2 1 2π = 2 2 τk V spin kq W (q) RPA (q.k −qσ .47) τk The conclusion from this analysis is: the life-time of the quasiparticles based on Fermi’s golden rule diverges at low temperatures and therefore the condition for the adiabatic approach expressed in Eq. (14. Then we are left with two energy integrals over ξk ≡ ξ < 0 and ξk −q ≡ ξ > 0. 14. FERMI LIQUID THEORY δ(ξk +ξk −ξk+q − ξk −q ).44) where W RPA (q) is the RPA screened Coulomb interaction. see also Fig. At T = 0 this gives the condition that ξk + ξk − ξk+q > 0. At ﬁnite temperature the typical excitation energy is kB T and ξk is replaced by kB T 1 ∝ T 2 .10) holds as long the temperature is much smaller than the . We look at situation with a particle above the Fermi surface ξk > 0. To ﬁnd that we must multiply Γ with the probability that the state |k σ is occupied and that ﬁnal states are unoccupied and sum over all possible k and q.1. This is a very important result because it tells us that the life-time of the quasiparticles diverges as we approach the Fermi level and thus the notion of quasiparticles is a consistent picture. The result for the “life-time” τk of the state |kσ is then given by screened interaction Γk+qσ. 0) ε 2 δ ξk + ξk − ξk+q − ξk −q × nk nk 1 − nk+q 1 − nk −q scattering out of state k − 1 − nk 1 − nk nk+q nk −q .k σ . Suppose then we have integrated out the angle dependence. (14.

This is what we are going to show in this section and thereby give a microscopic foundation of the Fermi liquid theory. Since the particle can only loose energy.4 14. These were the quasiparticles.14. the quasiparticle picture therefore has real physical meaning. Both momentum and energy have to be conserved. the other particle which is scattered out of state k can only gain energy. Fermi energy. Because the Fermi energy in for example metal is in general a fairly large energy scale.1 the physical reason for the smallness of the scattering rate is that although the Coulomb scattering matrix elements are big there is not much phase space available for scattering due to the Pauli principle. The function that measures precisely the density of states for adding particles is the retarded Green’s function GR . can be described by a free particle with a long life time. the condition in fact holds for even moderately elevated temperatures. The dashed circle indicates the energy of the initial state. because of the Pauli principle the ﬁnal states of both particles have to lie outside the Fermi surface and therefore the phase space volume for the ﬁnal state k + q (white area) and for the initial state k (gray area) both 2 scale with ξk giving rise to a maximum total phase proportional to ξk . which is illustrated on the right hand ﬁgure.1: The two-particle scattering event that gives rise to a ﬁnite life time of the quasiparticles. 14.4. We consider the one-particle retarded Green’s function. 14. As illustrated in Fig. which in general can be written . This together with the Pauli principle cause the phase space available for the scattering to be very limited. If the retarded Green’s function of the interacting system turns out to be similar to that of free particles. Furthermore.1 Microscopic basis of the Fermi liquid theory Renormalization of the single particle Green’s function The Fermi liquid theory relies on the assumption that the excitation created by adding a particle to the system. MICROSCOPIC BASIS OF THE FERMI LIQUID THEORY 245 − ξ Figure 14.4.

(14.49) ˜ We then anticipate the quasiparticle picture by looking at k-values close to the kF .55) (14. If this also ˜ holds here the spectral function therefore has a Lorentzian shape near k = kF . 0))k=kF . which leads to GR (k. ω) . 0) = 0. ω) = 1 ω − [ξk + Re ΣR (k.1 we saw that the life-time goes to inﬁnity at low temperatures. To calculate the self-energy we should in principle include all possible diagrams.246 as GR (kσ. For a very . Fortunately. which of course is not doable in the general case.48) where ξk = k 2 /2m −µ is the free electron energy measured with the respect to the chemical potential µ. ω)] − i Im ΣR (k. (14. and where ΣR (k.3. where the eﬀective mass by Eq. At small ˜ ˜ ˜ energies and for k close to kF . namely the RPA which in Chap.51) (14. FERMI LIQUID THEORY 1 . ˜ ∂k (14. The renormalized Fermi wave number k ˜ by the condition that the real part of the energy vanishes ξkF + Re Σ(kF . 14. ω) is not expanded because we look at its form later. 12 was shown to give the exact answer in the high density limit. (14.53) The imaginary part of ΣR (k. ω) = CHAPTER 14.52) (14. ω − ξk − ΣR (kσ. ∂ω ω=0 ∂ ˜ ˜ ξk = (k − kF )Z (ξk + Re Σ(k. meaning ˜F is deﬁned close to the renormalized Fermi-energy. Let us ﬁrst write the general form of GR by separating the self-energy in real and imaginary parts GR (kσ. ω). τk (ω) ˜ ∂ ˜ Re Σ(kF .54) ˜ k=kF In Sec. ω) . The ˜ eﬀective energy ξk is usually expressed as ˜ ˜ ˜ ξk = (k − kF )kF /m∗ . ω) is the irreducible retarded self-energy. we can expand (GR )−1 in powers of k − kF and ω. ω) ≈ ˜ ω − ω∂ω Re ΣR − (k − kF )∂k (ξ + Re ΣR ) − i Im ΣR i 2˜k (ω) τ −1 −1 ˜ ≡ Z ω − ξk + where Z −1 = 1 − (14.52) is seen to be m =Z m∗ 1+ m ∂ Re Σ(k. ω) (14. important conclusions can be drawn from the ﬁrst non-trivial approximation. 0) ˜ ∂k kF .50) 1 = −2Z Im ΣR (k.

The peaked spectral function therefore resembles that of a free gas and the pole is identiﬁed as the quasiparticle that was deﬁned in the Fermi liquid theory. the quasiparticle peak cannot be the whole story. the book by Mahan. See Fig. small imaginary part we could namely approximate Im ΣR ≈ −η. For a discussion on the measurements of Z using Compton scattering see e. ω). MICROSCOPIC BASIS OF THE FERMI LIQUID THEORY 247 Figure 14.2. Therefore we instead write ˜ A(k. the Green’s function and the spectral function ˜ has a sharp peak at ω = ξk . ω) as resulting from the analysis of the RPA approximation.2: The spectral function A(k. 14. ω) ≈ 2πZδ(ω − ξk ).57) DC C C C E E E C E E E 9 ! @ ' A¦ ¥ £¤ ¡¢ ¤ § 0 () E FE E E E E 3% E E E E 8 4 & 2 ¥1 0 (' ¡¤ ) 6 # ¦ ¥ £¤ ¡¢ ¨© B 666 $! # %& ! 6676 56 "¦ ¥ £¤ ¡¢ ¨© ¤ ¥ £¤ ¡¢ ¥ £¤ ¡¢ ¨© §¦ ¥ £¤ ¡¢ . ω) = −2Im GR (k.56) This shows that with a small imaginary part. There must be another part of the spectral function. 2π is not fulﬁlled by Eq.58) where the remaining contribution A not associated with the pole.56).7 and 1 for rs < 3. see Exercise 13. that has an integrated weight given by 1 − Z. (14. where the jump at the Fermi level is a direct measure of Z. which we denoted A . It contains a distinct peak. (14. Typically Z is found from experiments to be between 0. The constant Z is called the renormalization constant and it is a measure of the quasiparticle weight. ω) = 2πZ δ(ω − ξk ) + A (k. However. (14. The renormalization constant shows up for example in the distribution function n(k). where rs = (3/4πa3 n)−1/3 is the parameter often used to parameterize the density of electron 0 gases. (14.50) gives ˜ A(k.2. contains more complicated many body excitations not describable by a free electron like peak. ω) = 1. ¤ (14. which is identiﬁed with the quasiparticle. because the general sum rule ∞ −∞ dω A(k.14.4. This part called Aqp however only carries part of the integrated spectral weight and the rest must therefore be contained in the background function A stemming from other types of excitations. the integral only amounts to Z.g. and hence Eq.

ikn + ω) − (η → −η) + iη) W (q) nB (ξk+q − ikn ) RPA . ξk+q − ikn ) In the last term we should use that nB (ξk+q − ikn ) = −nF (ξk+q ) because ikn is a fermion frequency.3) C = C1 + C2 then we include all the Matsubara frequencies except the one in origin (note that the points shown in Fig. when letting δ → 0+ . and this is equivalent to stating that the integration are replaced by the principal part. ikn ) = − 1 V ∞ P q −∞ dω nB (ω) 2πi × + 1 V εRPA (q.3 includes all boson Matsubara frequencies z = iωn . ikn + iωn ).59) where W/εRPA is the screened interaction. (14.61) ε (q. z) W (q) + q.3) are the fermionic Matsubara frequencies). The integrand in analytic everywhere but in z = ξk+q − ikn and for z purely real. Now that we have performed the Matsubara sum. 14.12). εRPA (q. The small loop C3 shown in Fig. σ. As usual we perform the Matsubara summation by a contour integration ΣRPA (kσ. (14. which we therefore have to subtract again. (13. FERMI LIQUID THEORY We still need to show that the assumption of a large τk is valid and we now turn to evaluating the imaginary part of the self-energy.3 is now seen to cancel parts of the counters C1 and C2 so that they are modiﬁed to run between ] − ∞. σ. If we therefore make a contour which is like the one in Fig. In the Matsubara frequency domain it is given by . Therefore we include a loop around the origin so that the contour C = C1 + C2 + C3 shown in Fig.4. ikn ) = − σ 1 β iωn 1 V q W (q) G0 (k + q. (10. ∞[ only. iωn ) (14. We now get ΣRPA (kσ. ikn + z). we are allowed to get the . As seen in Fig. ikn ) = − σ 1 dz nB (z) 2πi V G0 (k εRPA (q.3 we. (10.248 CHAPTER 14. however.60) C q where C is a suitable contour that encloses all the bosonic Matsubara frequencies z = iωn .2 Imaginary part of the single particle Green’s function We base our analysis on the most important diagram. the RPA self-energy Eq. 14. σ. −δ] and [δ. 14. 14. ω q W (q) G0 (k + q. also enclose the pole in z = ξk+q − ikn . in ΣRPA (kσ.

60). while the that of G0 is the white dot.14. The imaginary part of the self-energy becomes 1 W (q) Im ΣRPA (kσ.R (kσ. ε) = − 1 V ∞ P q −∞ dω nB (ω) 2πi 1 εRPA (q. ε + ω) = πδ(ε + ω − ξk+q ) and then performed the 0 ω-integration. σ. (14. retarded self-energy by the substitution ikn → ε + iη which leads to ΣRPA. The contour C3 which picks up the contribution from the pole z = 0 cancels the parts of C1 and C2 given by the small loops. ε) = [nB (ξk+q − ε) + nF (ξk+q )] Im RPA . ε + ω) 0 + iη) W (q) nF (ξk+q ) RPA . ξk+q − ξk ) = 0 2π V nF (ξk ) − nF (ξk −q ) δ(ξk − ξk −q − ξk+q + ξk ) (14. (13. 0 The imaginary part of the polarization function follows from Eq. ξk+q − ε + iη) (14.20) Im χR (q. ω × (2i) Im − 1 V q W (q)GR (k + q.64) . The poles from the boson frequencies are shown by black dots. MICROSCOPIC BASIS OF THE FERMI LIQUID THEORY 249 Figure 14. ξk+q − ε − iη) ∗ because εRPA (q. ξ ε k+q − ξk ) 2 (14. V q ε (q.3: The contour C = C1 + C2 + C3 used for integration for a the Matsubara sum that enters the RPA self-energy in Eq. (14. Since we are interested in the case where a particle with ξk is scattered. we evaluate the imaginary part in ε = ξk and ﬁnd 1 −2 = −2 Im ΣRPA (kσ.63) where we used that − Im GR (k + q. σ. ξk+q − ξk ). ω − iη) .4.65) k § £ ¡ ©¨¦ ¥ ¤¢ ¤¢ ¡ " # ! W (q) RPA. ξk ) = τk V nB (ξk+q − ξk ) + nF (ξk+q ) q × Im χR (q.R (q.62) ε (q. ω + iη) = εRPA (q.

we obtain 1 4π = −2 Im ΣRPA (kσ.250 CHAPTER 14. The derivation is rather lengthy and we do not give it here. ε) = − τk V [nB (ξk+q − ξk ) + nF (ξk+q )] nF (ξk ) − nF (ξk −q ) qk × W (q) RPA. while the last term is non-zero for ξk < 0.66) is equivalent to the Fermi’s golden rule expression Eq.1 will have even more constrains on the energies. All together this allows us to write the occupation factors in Eq. Phys. It is however not hard to imagine that more complicated scattering events than the simple one depicted in Fig. This concludes our analysis of the single particle Green’s function.64). 812 (1958). For the ﬁrst term in the ﬁrst parenthesis we use the identity nB ( 1 − 2 )[nF ( 2 ) − nF ( 2 )] = nF ( 1 )[1 − nF ( 2 )].66) as −nF (ξk )[1 − nF (ξk+q )] 1 − nF (ξk −q ) − [1 − nF (ξk )] nF (ξk+q )nF (ξk −q ) (14. (14. they will result in higher powers of ξk . (14. FERMI LIQUID THEORY (here we shifted k → k − q as compared with Eq. combined with ξk − ξk+q = −ξk + ξk −q . Rev 112.45). Ferrell.R (q.M.68) τk 128 εF Going beyond RPA. A. . (14. The analysis indeed conﬁrmed the physical picture put forward by Landau in his Fermi liquid theory. 5 6 J. Rev.66) Let us study the occupation factors in this expression and compare with the Fermi’s golden rule expression Eq. Luttinger. Phys.45). (14. while the second term corresponds to the scattering in term. ξ ε k+q − ξk ) 2 δ(ξk − ξk −q − ξk+q + ξk ). 942 (1961). If we furthermore approximate ξk − ξk+q ≈ 0 in εRPA we now see that the life time in Eq.67) At low temperature the ﬁrst term is due to the energy conservation condition non-zero for ξk > 0. Quinn and R. 12 was shown to be exact in the high density limit. (14. (14. 14. (14. but the RPA approximation in Chap. J. An explicit calculation of Eq. 121. This was done by Luttinger6 who proved that the imaginary part of any diagram for the self-energy goes to zero as ξ 2 or faster. Hence after integration. We have thus veriﬁed that the imaginary part of the retarded Green’s function indeed goes to zero. The ﬁrst term thus corresponds to the scattering out term in Eq. At least when employing the RPA approximation for the self-energy.66) was done by Quinn and Ferrell5 who got √ 2 3π ξk 2 1 = ωp . (13. J. For the second term we use the obvious identity nF ( 1 )[1 − nF ( 2 )] − nF ( 2 )[1 − nF ( 2 ] = nF ( 1 ) − nF ( 2 ) and nF (− ) = 1 − nF ( ).45). it can in fact be shown that the imaginary part vanishes to all orders in the interaction. (14. (14.20)) and when this is inserted back into Eq.

The conductivity is as we remember from the Kubo formula related to the current-current correlation function. σ = ne2 τ tr /m. In Chap. OUTLOOK AND SUMMARY 251 14. Miraculously. the interacting system of particles can be described by a gas of non-interacting particles. i.4 14.69) we have included colli˙ sions due to impurities and particle-particle collisions . (14. This seems to contradict the postulate of the Fermi liquid theory that the current of the quasiparticles is independent of interactions.e.69) This equation is extremely useful since it in many situations gives a suﬃciently accurate description of the physics. It has been widely used to explain numerous transport phenomena in gases and solids.5. i. For a translation-invariant system the quantum numbers are k and σ. provided that the corresponding operators also commute with the full Hamiltonian. collisions (14. The bare velocity of the quasiparticles was important for obtaining the Drude formula for the conductivity. See also Exercise 14.4. The result .14. On the right hand side of Eq. We also found that the eﬀective mass of the quasiparticle was renormalized due to the interactions. On long length and time scales we can use a semi-classical approach to study various properties. When the same type of diagrams are included both in the self-energy and in the lines that cross the two-particle “bubble” then the mass renormalization exactly cancels. The theory is valid whenever perturbation theory is valid.3 Mass renormalization? In the previous section we saw how the assumption of weakly interacting quasiparticles was justiﬁed by the long life time of the single particle Green’s function. The calculation has to be done in a consistent way such that the diagrams included in the irreducible self-energy is also included in the diagrams for the two-particle correlation function. it is given by k/m and not k/m∗ .5 Outlook and summary We have developed the semi-classical Fermi liquid theory of interacting particles. using the random phase approximation result for the self-energy. How come the renormalized mass m∗ appears in the Green’s function whereas the physically observable conductivity contains the bare mass m? The answer to this question in found by studying how the conductivity is calculated diagrammatically. One can include both electric and magnetic ﬁelds driving the system out of equilibrium. 15 we shall see an explicit example of this by calculating diagrammatically the ﬁnite resistance due to impurity scattering starting from the fully microscopic theory. Landau’s phenomenological theory was shown to be justiﬁed by a rigors microscopic calculation. when the interaction does not induce a phase transition. These particles we call quasiparticles and they can be labelled by the same quantum numbers of those of the non-interacting system.e. One can also include for example particle-phonon scattering in solids and thus explain the temperature dependence of the diﬀerent transport coeﬃcients. The driving ﬁelds enter through the Lorentz force as ˙ p = k = (−e)(E + v × B). This approach is based on the Boltzmann equation ˙ ∂t (nk ) + k · k nk + vk · r nk = ∂nk ∂t .

ε) ∝ max(ε2 . (14.252 CHAPTER 14.70) This explains why the Fermi liquid theory works: when the imaginary part goes to zero the single particle Green’s function is identical to that of a free particle. T 2 ). FERMI LIQUID THEORY of this analysis was that even in the presence of interactions does the Fermi surface persist and near the Fermi surface the imaginary part of the single particle Green’s function rapidly vanish as Im ΣR (kF . .

we therefore start by deriving the semiclassical result. 15. besides giving a ﬁrst principle justiﬁcation of the Boltzmann equation. and an extended research was initiated on the role of quantum coherence in transport properties. This is however outside the scope this book. which is the topic in Chap. To understand these smaller systems one must take into account the ﬁnite size of the conductors. It was explained theoretically later the same year. A few years later another low-temperature interference eﬀect. Weak localization involves coherent scattering on many impurities. which is due to interference between time reversed paths. The advantage of this microscopic approach. In one dimension. 253 . and it can therefore not be explained semiclassically. is that it can be extended to include correlation and coherence eﬀects that cannot be described in the semiclassical Boltzmann approach. things are more complicated because there all states are localized and one cannot talk about a conductivity that scales in a simple fashion with the length of the system. the so-called universal conductance ﬂuctuations. was discovered in small (∼ µm) phase-coherent structures. at least in two dimensions.Chapter 15 Impurity scattering and conductivity We now return to the problem of calculating the resistance of a metallic conductor due to scattering against impurities. In Chap. We now rederive the Boltzmann equation result starting from a microscopic quantum approach. 10. 13 the conductivity was calculated within the Boltzmann equation approach. Then we go on to include the quantum mechanical eﬀect known as weak localization. In this chapter we deal with extended systems and discuss the most important disorder-induced quantum corrections. the situation is again diﬀerent in that at some critical amount of impurity scattering there exists a metal-insulator transition known as the Anderson localization. where we saw how the single-particle Green’s function acquired a ﬁnite life time after averaging over the positions of the impurities. This discovery started the modern ﬁeld of mesoscopic physics. The leading quantum correction is precisely the weak localization eﬀect. The basic physics of impurity scattering was discussed in Chap. In 1979 the weak localization correction to resistivity was observed experimentally in large 2D samples at low temperatures. In three dimensions. In order to get familiar with the techniques.

1 Vertex corrections and dressed Green’s functions Let us start by the Kubo formula for the electrical conductivity tensor σαβ given in Eq.25). since it would give rise to an inﬁnite charge built up. In the computation we can choose α to be the x direction. Furthermore.3) In this chapter we consider only homogeneous translation-invariant systems. . Here we shall only look at the dissipative part of the conductivity. As usual we calculate the retarded function starting from the corresponding Matsubara function.4. (6.1) Note that the last. (6. For a translation-invariant system we consider as usual the Fourier transform ie2 R Π (q. ω). because having a electric ﬁeld E(q. In the second part of the chapter we include electron-electron interactions together with impurity scattering and explicitly demonstrate that the non-interacting approximation is valid. αβ ω (15. (15. and therefore we take the real part of Eq. i. 15. the conductivity tensor is isotropic and therefore diagonal.26). so-called “diamagnetic”. ω). (6. These corrections cannot be treated evaluating only singleparticle Green’s functions. so-called “paramagnetic”. ω). 14.25) drops out of the real part. σαβ = σ δαβ . term in Eq. denoted σ . τ )Jx (−q. V (15. αβ ω (15. Note that the system is translation-invariant even in the presence of impurities after performing the position average described in Chap. we assume in the ﬁrst part of this chapter that we can describe the electrons as non-interacting. which can be described by diagrams where interaction lines “cross” the bubble diagrams.e. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY Based on the physical picture that emerged from the Fermi liquid description in Chap. In particular we have no magnetic ﬁeld and take A = 0. (6. 13.4) 1 If in doubt always perform the limit q → 0 ﬁrst. The Matsubara current-current correlation function is Πxx (q. This means that we shall see how the mass renormalization discussed in Sec.25) Re σαβ (r. it is absolutely imperative to include vertex corrections to the current-current correlation bubble diagrams.254 CHAPTER 15. r .25) in terms of the retarded current-current correlation function Eq.3 is cancelled out. we shall see that in order to obtain meaningful results. r . ω) = − e2 Im ΠR (r. The dc-response at long wavelengths is thus obtained as Re σαβ = −e2 lim lim ω→0 q→0 1 Im ΠR (q. In the following we therefore only include the ﬁrst.2) σαβ (q. They are thus genuine two-particle correlation eﬀects. 10.ω) where ω = 0 and q ﬁnite is unphysical. (6. term of σ in Eq. ω) = ω αβ The dc-conductivity is then found by letting1 q → 0 and then ω → 0. τ ) . τ − τ ) = − 1 Tτ Jx (q.

and thus has the momentum q = (iqn .7) iql 1 β Jx (q.15.8) In order to begin the diagrammatical analysis we write the current density Jx (˜) in q four-vector notation β Jx (˜) = q dτ eiqn τ 0 1 1 2m V (2k + q)x c† (τ )ck+qσ (τ ) kσ kσ 1 1 = 2m β ikn 1 V (2k + q)x c† (ikn )ck+qσ (ikn + iqn ). VERTEX CORRECTIONS AND DRESSED GREEN’S FUNCTIONS In the frequency domain it is Πxx (q. q) ˜ Πxx (˜) = − q 1 Jx (˜)Jx (−˜) . iqn )Jx (−q.1.10) . iqn ) and obtain Πxx (q. we must have iqn = −iqm . Vβ (15. We can now draw diagrams for the current-current correlation function using the Feynman rules. iqn ) = − 1 V β 0 d(τ − τ )eiqn (τ −τ )1 β (15. iqn ) = − 1 Jx (q. (15. however. iqm ) e−iql τ e−iqm τ . because τ > τ . iqm This we conveniently rewrite using the four-vector notation q = (iqn . iql )Jx (−q. q) ﬂowing ˜ out from it to the left. τ )Jx (−q.5) where the time-ordering operator Tτ is omitted. and whence Πxx (q. iqn ) = − 1 V β 0 255 d(τ − τ )eiqn (τ −τ ) Jx (q. The procedure is analogous to that for the charge-charge correlation function in Chap. −iqn ) . τ ) . Finally. since the result cannot depend on τ .9) which we draw diagrammatically as a vertex ˜ k Jx (˜) = q ˜ ˜ k+ q The vertex conserves four-momentum. kσ kσ 1 11 ≡ 2m β V ˜ ˜ ˜ (2kx +qx )c† (k)cσ (k + q ). 10 and (15. 12.6) The integration with respect to τ leads to iqn = iql . τ ) in terms of Jx (q. here we include both the impurity lines from Chap. We can now express Jx (q. q q Vβ (15. σ ˜ k σ (15.

11) the Coulomb interaction lines Πxx (˜) = q ≡ + + + + + + + + + + We can perform a partial summation of diagrams to all orders by replacing each Green’s function G0 by the full Green’s function G. We obtain (15.12) + . .256 CHAPTER 15. (15. In doing so we have in one step resummed Eq. Eq. Πxx (˜) = q + + + Here the double lines represent full Green’s functions expressed by Dyson’s equation as in + + (15. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY from Chap.11) and are left with bubble diagrams where the only interaction and impurity lines to be drawn are those connecting the lower and upper electron Green’s functions. (15.. 12...11) then becomes + + + + + + + + + + + + ..

/01234 ≡ + . the irreducible self-energy is simply $ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ = G0 (k) + G0 (k)Σirr (k)G(k).15) (15. = = + + + + + (15. (12. (15. ! # " + (15.15. and 11 in Eq.12).16) The next step is to organize the diagrams according to the lines crossing the bubbles from the upper to the lower fermion line in a systematic way.14) where RPA means the following screening of all impurity and interaction lines ( ) * + . For example in the case where we include where Σirr = impurity scattering within the ﬁrst Born approximation and electron-electron interaction in the RPA approximation. VERTEX CORRECTIONS AND DRESSED GREEN’S FUNCTIONS Eq. which cannot be cut into two pieces by cutting both the upper and the lower line just once2 . Λirr ≡ . These diagrams are denoted vertex corrections. Diagrams of this type are proportional to q −2 and thus they vanish in the limit q → 0.13) 1BA + RPA: ˜ Σirr (k) = % & ' ≈ + + + (15. 10 . .17) 2 We do not include diagrams like the terms 9.1. To obtain a Dyson equation for Πxx we ﬁrst introduce the irreducible line-crossing diagram Λirr consisting of the sum of all possible diagrams connecting the upper and lower fermion line.19) 257 ˜ G(k) = = is the irreducible self-energy. . . (15.

This relation. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY Using Λirr we see that we can resum all diagrams in Πxx in the following way Πxx (˜) = q + + + = ≡ ≡ − 5678 9 :. k) ≡ ? @ A ˜ ˜˜ ≡ Γ0. k) − iq · Γ(k + q .B. k + q )G(k )G(k + q )Γx (k + q .. Addison-Wesley (1964). (15. 3 The Ward identity reads ˜ ˜˜ ˜ ˜˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ iq0 Γ0 (k + q . If we include certain diagrams for the self-energy we must include the corresponding diagrams in the vertex function. q )G(k+ q )G(k+ q + q )Γx (k+ q + q . . Consequently.<= > × + + + ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ dk Γ0. called the Ward identity. both for the impurity scattering problem in Chap. k ). (15.x (k . k+ q ). k) + (15. the answer is simply that there is no freedom left in the choice for the vertex function Γ..19) and the “dressed” vertex function is given by an integral equation. 12. For more details see e.258 CHAPTER 15.g. which can be read oﬀ from Eq. 10 and for the case of interacting particles in Chap. and Γ is the current vertex function. In the present case once the approximation for Σirr is chosen.20b) The notation for the arguments of the Γ functions is Γ = Γ(“out going”. 2m = + + . We have seen examples of how to choose the physically most important self-energies. where the function Γ0 is the charge vertex function.18) ˜ ˜˜ Γx (k+ q .x (k+ q .. k) = −G −1 (k + q ) + G −1 (k).3 is derived using the continuity equation.20a) ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜˜ ˜ d˜ Λirr (k. The question is now which diagrams to include in Λirr . Schrieﬀer. k + q ) = 1 (2kx +qx ). q (15. q . Theory of Superconductivity. This follows from a general relation between the self-energy and the vertex function.x (k.“in going”). + .. ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ Γ0. R.18) where the unperturbed vertex is (15.

ikn ). THE CONDUCTIVITY IN TERMS OF A GENERAL VERTEX FUNCTION259 not fulﬁlling this identity is equivalent to a lack of conservation of particles.23) This particular approximation is also known as the ladder sum. k.14). (15. (15. If we consider the ﬁrst Born approximation and RPA for Σirr as depicted in Eq. (15. (15. k + q ).ikn + iqn ..2. with ε being real. we can obtain from Eq. a name which perhaps becomes clear graphically if Eq. k (15. k)G(k. k)+ where BCD ≈ + ˜ ≡ W. iqn ) = − 1 V Γ0. we get for Λirr Λirr = and in this case the integral function for Γ becomes ˜ ˜˜ ˜ ˜˜ Γx (k + q .18) a general formula for the conductivity.x (k + q .25) The Matsubara sum over ikn is performed in the usual way by a contour integration over z = ikn . For a derivation and discussion see for example the book by Schrieﬀer. Therefore a physically sensible approximation must obey Ward’s identity. the current-current function is Πxx (0. and furthermore treat the case q = 0. Therefore we ﬁrst study a summation . If we drop the four-vector notation in favor of the standard notation. and one uses the term “conserving approximation” for the correct choice for the vertex function. (15.ikn + iqn )Γx (k.24) 15. (15.x (k. (15.18) for Πxx . Here we simply follow the rule as dictated by the Ward identity: if an irreducible diagram is included in Σirr the corresponding diagrams should also be included in Λirr .21) ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜˜ ˜ d˜ W (˜ )G(k + q )G(k + q + q )Γx (k + q + q .2 The conductivity in terms of a general vertex function Having the expressions for both the single-particle Green’s function G and the vertex function Γ. ikn )G(k. and if for clarity we consider only the impurity scattering lines: Πxx (˜) = q EFGH + + + 1 β ikn + . This deﬁnition involves a summation over the internal Matsubara frequency. RPA (−˜) ε (˜) ε q q (15. k) = Γ0. The presence of two G’s in the summand leads to two branch cuts.15.. one along z = ε and one along z = −iqn + ε.21) for Λirr is inserted into the ﬁrst line of Eq.22) q ˜ q u(q) u(−q) ˜ q W (˜) = W RPA (˜) + nimp RPA q .

ε + ω) − nF (ε + ω)f AA (ε. (15. z + iqn ).e. − −∞ 2πi ∞ At the end of the calculation we continue iqn analytically to ω + iη. ε ) means that the ﬁrst argument is advanced. ε + ω) 2πi −∞ ∞ dε − nF (ε)f RR (ε.28) + f AR (ε − ω. we expand to ﬁrst order in ω. ε + iη. and ﬁnd R S2F (ω) = − ∞ −∞ dε nF (ε) f RR (ε. ε − iη. and so on. we obtain R S2F (ω) = dε [nF (ε) − nF (ε + ω)] f AR (ε.27) (15. ε + iqn ) − f (ε − iη. ε + iqn ) −∞ 2πi ∞ dε nF (ε − iqn ) f (ε − iqn .1) made of three contours leading to four integrals over ε S2F (iqn ) = − dε nF (ε) f (ε + iη. ε + ω) − f AR (ε.1: The contour used in the frequency summation in Eq. ε) . (15. ε − iη) . ε + ω) .3). ε) − f AA (ε − ω. (15. If we shift the integration variable ε → ε + ω in the two last terms. Fur∗ thermore. 2πi −∞ ∞ Since we are interested in the low frequency limit. of the form S2F (iqn ) = 1 β f (ikn .29) .26). Since f AA = f RR . we ©§¥ £ ¨ ¦ ¡ £ ¡ ¤¢ (15. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY Figure 15. ikn + iqn ) ikn =− C dz nF (z)f (z. with the convention that f AR (ε. ε + ω) 2πi (15. and the second argument is retarded. we also take the imaginary part as in Eq. 2πi where the integration contour C is the one shown in Fig.260 CHAPTER 15. i. ε + iη) − f (ε − iqn .26) (15.

x (k. we may replace the general formula in Eq. ikn ). one must look at the speciﬁc physical cases and then solve for the vertex function satisfying Eq. k. The semiclassical approximation is similar to the ﬁrst Born approximation in that it only includes scattering against a single impurity and neglects interference eﬀects. In this case.33). k+q . k. In the following we consider various cases.31) − ∂ε and hence ω Re f AA (0.e.20b) and insert the result into (15. (15.14) is not included in this section. 14. THE CONDUCTIVITY IN THE FIRST BORN APPROXIMATION ﬁnd R Im S2F (ω) = −ω Im ∞ −∞ 261 dε 2πi − ∂nF (ε) ∂ε f AR (ε. The starting point in this section is non-interacting electrons scattering on impurities. 0) . the ﬁrst diagram in Eq.21). we can approximate the derivative of the Fermi-Dirac function by a delta function ∂nF (ε) ≈ δ(ε) (15. (15. The vertex function is now solved using the ﬁrst Born approximation. again taking q = 0. ikn ) q 2 (15. 0) . ε) − f RR (ε. ikn ) = Γ0.3) one obtains R Im S2F (ω) = (15.ikn + iqn .3 using a semiclassical approximation for the scattering against the impurities. Hence in the weak disorder limit. where τ is the scattering time for impurity scattering.25) and then inserting into Eq.x (k. 2π By applying this to Eq. .33) where we have included a factor of 2 due to spin degeneracy.33) by the ﬁrst term only. i. 0. x (15. the integral equation Eq. (15.ikn + iqn )Γx (k + q . k) + 1 V nimp uRPA (q ) G(k + q . The RPA part of the self-energy in Eq.32) Re σxx = 2 Re e2 1 2π V Γ0. 0. 0)ΓAA (k. To proceed further.3. (15. We will consider only cases where the disorder is weak and for this case it is shown in the next section that the product GR GA exceeds GA GA by a factor of order 1/τ EF . Therefore we expect to reproduce the semiclassical result if we only include the ﬁrst Born approximation in our diagrammatical calculation. 0)GA (k. (15. 15. k. (15. k) GA (k. Later we discuss what happens if interactions are included. 0)ΓRA (k.34) × G(k + q . This is how far one can go on general principles.15. ε) . (15. 0)GR (k.ikn + iqn . 0) x k − GA (k. (15.3 The conductivity in the ﬁrst Born approximation The conductivity was calculated in Sec.22) becomes Γx (k.30) At low temperatures. 0) − f AR (0.

ε) 2 1 ε − ξk − ΣR (k. When inserting this into Eq. The lesson we learn here is that we have to be rather careful with products of Green’s function carrying the same arguments. In the case of small nimp we therefore get GA (k. ikn ) k 2 × G(k . ε)GR (k. and the product of two delta functions has to be deﬁned with care. It is immediately seen that this is a consistent solution for the imaginary part of both γ RA and γ RR but it turns out that for the real part of γ RA a factor 1/nimp is contained in the Green’s function.23) has been inserted and where uRPA = u/εRPA . They satisfy two diﬀerent integral equations. Im GX tends to a delta function. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY where the second term in Eq. ε) ≈ 1. as we learned from the Ward identity. ε) 1 ≡ A(k. (15. and subsequently taking the dc-limit ω → 0. we deﬁne for convenience a scalar function γ(k. Remembering that Γx is a component of a vector function Γ and that the unperturbed vertex is Γ0 (k. ε). This ﬁrst combination is GA (k. ε) = GR (k. (15. ε) ≈ τ 2πδ(ε − ξk ). Note that there is no internal Matsubara sum because the impurity scattering conserves energy. ε) 2 ≡ (15. ε)GR (k . and in the weak scattering limit one should expect the solution of this equation to be simply γ RX (k. whence the spectral function is approximately a delta function. ε). ε) deﬁned as Γ(k. ikn ).35) by letting iqn → ω + iη and ikn → ε ± iη. k2 (15.38) . and where as before the life-time τ is deﬁned by τ −1 = −2 Im ΣR (k. ε) = k γ(k. (15. (15. One immediately sees that the small factor nimp tends to kill the sum. −2 Im ΣR (k.37) where A = −2 Im GR is the spectral function. (15. k) = k/m. In doing so we in fact use that the system is isotropic which means that only the vector k can give the direction. ε) k 2 k · k RX γ (k . ε) = 1 + 1 V nimp uRPA (k − k) GX (k .262 CHAPTER 15. ε) 1 1 = Im R (k. ε)GR (k. we set the frequency in εRPA (q. k. (15.34).35) In the formula Eq. because in the limit of small nimp .36) k2 where X = A or R. We arrive at γ RX (k. Since we do not expect the dynamical screening to be important for the elastic scattering.ikn + iqn ) ΓRR x k · k 1BA γ (k . ikn ) = 1 + 1 V nimp uRPA (k − k) G(k . we get γ(k.ikn + iqn . ε). which we obtain from x Eq. also those obtained in the ﬁrst Born approximation. ε) Im Σ ε − ξk − ΣR (k. which also appear in Eq. ε)/m. and shifting the variable q to q = k − k. For the case of weak impurity scattering the scattering rate τ −1 is small. k .ikn + iqn . The Green’s functions G are.33) for the conductivity both ΓRA and ΓRR appear (or rather x x = (ΓAA )∗ . 0) to zero. multiplying by (1/k 2 )k·. ε) ≡ τ A(k. Let us look more carefully into the products GA GR and GR GR . (15.33).

The conductivity Eq. k.44) . imp The combination GR GR on the other hand is not divergent and in fact nimp GR GR → 0 as nimp → 0. k)τ0 δ(ξk )ΓRA (k. But kF is constant. 0) m m m (15. (15. (15. 0) = τ0 γ RA (kF . 0.35) γ RA (k) = 1 + 2π V nimp uRPA (k − k) τ0 δ(ξk ) k 2 k · k RA γ (k ). THE CONDUCTIVITY IN THE FIRST BORN APPROXIMATION 263 Because τ ∝ n−1 .15. we use the ﬁrst Born approximation for the self-energy. k.42) Since this equation has no dependence on the direction of k.43) 1 .3. this life time is independent of k. (15.36) is ﬁnite in the limit nimp → 0. ε). 1 − λ τ0 k·k = (τ0 )−1 − τ tr k2 −1 (15.x (k. From these arguments it follows that the terms with GR GR can be omitted and only terms with GR GA are kept.0) for |k| = kF . That GR GR is ﬁnite is seen as follows G (k. k2 (15.45) . (15. (15. 0. 0. As explained above. In the following we therefore approximate τ with the ﬁrst Born approximation life time τ0 −1 τ −1 ≈ τ0 ≡ 2πnimp k |u(k − k )|2 δ(ξk − ξk ). and we get γ RA = 1 + The solution is thus simply γ RA = where λ= 2π V nimp uRPA (k − k) δ(ξk ) k 2 2π V nimp uRPA (k − k) δ(ξk ) k 2 k·k k2 τ0 γ RA . γ RA depends only on kF . and since the lengths of both k and k are given by kF . k.39) The last term clearly goes to zero when τ is large and when A is approximated by a delta function. 0.33) then becomes Re σxx = 2e2 Re 1 V Γ0. 0) x k 1 = 2e2 τ0 Re V k kx e2 n kx δ(ξk ) γ RA (k. The solution follows from the integral equation Eq. ε)G (k. but the integrated weight is in fact zero as can be checked by performing an integration over ε. kF . (15. the product nimp GA GR in Eq.40) Because all energies are at the Fermi energy.41) The remaining problem is to ﬁnd γ RA (k. ε) ≈ = R R ε − ξk − ε − ξk ε − ξk 2 + (ε − ξk )2 − 2 + 2 i 2τ 1 2 2τ 1 2 2τ 2 + 1 2 2τ i (ε − ξk ) A(k. (15. The ﬁrst term is a peaked function at ε − ξk = 0.

54). 15.6. and below.46) This expression is precisely the transport time that we derived in the Boltzmann equation approach leading to Eq.e.5. In Sec. Here the coherence length means the scale on which the electrons preserve their quantum mechanical phase. typical coherence lengths are of the order 1-10 µm. 11. and hence the evolution of its phase. and as we know from Chap. At liquid helium temperature. we can go on to calculate various quantum corrections to the Drude formula.48) We thus ﬁnd full agreement with the semiclassical result obtained in the previous chapter. Quantum eﬀects such as interference between scattering on diﬀerent impurities can therefore not be incorporated within the Born approximation scheme. 4.264 CHAPTER 15.44) γ RA becomes γ RA = τ tr . When the coherence length φ exceeds the mean free path imp for impurity scattering.39). At low temperatures the dominant dephasing mechanism is electron-electron scattering. (11.47) Finally.2 K.4 The weak localization correction to the conductivity The Born approximation includes only scattering on one impurity at a time. m (15. We saw in Chap. 13 the scattering rate for these processes is proportional to T 2 . scattering on diﬀerent impurities can interfere.4 it was hinted that such interference processes are represented by crossing diagrams as in Fig. 10 that there was in practice only little diﬀerence between the ﬁrst Born and the full Born approximation. This is what we expected. Hence φ ∝ T −2 can become very large at suﬃciently low temperatures. 11. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY Here the transport time τ tr is deﬁned as τ tr −1 ≡ 2π V nimp uRPA (k − k) |k |=kF 2 1− k·k k2 . If an electron interacts with another electron or with a phonon through an inelastic scattering event its energy changes.41) at zero temperature is σ= e2 τ tr 1 m2 V 2 δ(ξk )kx = k e2 nτ tr . and its coherence length becomes ﬁnite. . When inserted back into Eq. which does take into account multiple scattering does so only for multiple scatterings on the same impurity. spacing 104 -105 atomic lattice spacings. (15. the conductivity formula (15. and thereby having gained conﬁdence in the mathematical structure of the theory. In this section we shall study in detail why that is. τ0 (15. As the temperature is lowered we expect quantum mechanical coherence to become more important because the phase coherence length φ increases with decreasing temperature. The reason is that even the full Born approximation depicted in Eq. the scale on which the wave function evolves according to the one-particle Schr¨dinger equao tion. (15. i. corrections not obtainable in the Boltzmann approach. Due to these processes the phase of the electron wave acquires some randomization or “dephasing”. (14.

THE WEAK LOCALIZATION CORRECTION TO THE CONDUCTIVITY 265 Figure 15. 15. In this regime all kinds of quantum interference processes become important. showing that the low-temperature weak localization correction to the resistivity increases logarithmically as the temperature decreases.2).2). around 1980 it was found through the observation of the so-called weak localization. that even in the case of large samples. If the coherence length φ is longer than the mean free path 0 . Phys.1 the linear behavior at high temperatures is due to electron-phonon scattering. Terms describing interference between the two scattering events will thus contain the factor eik·(R1 −R2 ) . much more dramatic quantum eﬀects appear in small samples in the so-called mesoscopic regime (see also Chap. The relative phase φ1 − φ2 determines whether the contributions from the two paths interfere constructively or destructively.2: (a) A sketch of the electrical resistivity ρxx (T ) of a disordered metal as a function of temperature. However. 721 (1979). If we can £ ¢ ¡§¤ ¢ ¦¡ ¡¥ © ¤ ¢ ¡ £ ¨ ¢£ ¡ @ B A@7 @ 9 78 5 65 4 ¡¤ % $ # "! (')% $& A@7 ¨¤£ 2) 3 0 25 5 41 0 . To picture how averaging over impurity conﬁgurations inﬂuences the interference eﬀects. (11. and most notably cause the appearance of the universal conductance ﬂuctuations shown in Fig. When the electron hits the next impurity at position R2 it has acquired a phase factor eiφ = eik·(R1 −R2 ) . Interference generally means that the amplitude for two paths t1 and t2 are added as t1 +t2 . we follow an electron after it has been scattered to a state with momentum k by an impurity positioned at R1 . the cross-term expresses the interference.2. Only the interference processes which are independent of the impurity positions survive self-averaging.15. but now at low temperatures we have added the small but signiﬁcant increase due to the quantum interference known as weak localization. one very important class of interference processes survive φ the self-averaging. 11. most of the interference eﬀects disappear. (11. 0 L. and it is therefore intuitively clear that these terms vanish when one averages over R1 and R2 . 43. the so-called self-averaging illustrated in Fig. as discovered around 1985. (b) Experimental data from measurements on a PdAu ﬁlm by Dolan and Osheroﬀ. Lett. As in Fig. This is because the limit φ L eﬀectively corresponds to averaging over many small independent segments. but still smaller than the sample size L. 7) given by L φ . In the following we study only the weak localization phenomenon appearing in large samples and not the universal conductance ﬂuctuations appearing in small samples. so that when taking the absolute square |t1 +t2 |2 = |t1 |2 +|t2 |2 +2|t1 t2 | cos(φ1 −φ2 ). Rev. shown in Fig. Naturally.4.

3: Illustration of the two interfering time-reversed paths discussed in the text. these two paths pick up exactly the same phase factor. In order to do so we need to identify the corresponding diagrams. )Uimp (r )GR (r . two impurities located at R1 and R2 . there is a corresponding reverse path which scatters on the same impurities but in the opposite order. As a consequence there is an enhanced probability for returning to the same point. 10. i. ). ikn → + iη. the cross term would thus survive the impurity average. ) + 0 If we for simplicity assume Uimp (r) ≈ at the positions {Ri }. ¥¦¢ ¤¢ £ ¡ (15. First we recall the Dyson equation for the single-particle Green’s functions in an external potential. we now want to calculate the resulting correction to the conductivity. ) = GR (r. 15.49) . say. )U0 GR (Ri . Uimp . which was derived in Chap. r . Writing it in the frequency domain and making analytic continuation. r . and two such paths are shown in Fig. Having realized that the interference between time reversed paths survive impurity averaging. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY Figure 15. ) + 0 i GR (r. 0 Let us look at a speciﬁc process where an electron scatters at. r . short range impurities located (15. ) = GR (r.3. Here the external potential is given by the impurity potential. 0 i U0 δ(r − Ri ).e. Most remarkably.266 CHAPTER 15. ﬁnd two paths where the relative phase is independent of the position of the impurities. and thus their relative phase φ1 −φ2 is always zero independent of the actual positions of the impurities. we have for the retarded Green’s function GR (r. r . r . Thus for two such time-reversed paths there is always constructive interference. and the electrons therefore tend to be localized in space. Ri . This is indeed possible. hence the name “weak localization”4 . r . To study interference eﬀects between scattering at these two impurities we must expand to second order in the impurity potential. r . we have dr GR (r. The interesting second order 4 The term “strong localization” is used for the so-called Anderson localization where a metal-insulator transition is induced in three dimensions at a critical strength of the disorder potential.50) GR (r. The key observation is that for each path that ends in the starting point after a speciﬁc sequence of scattering events. ).

11. R1 . R2 . R1 .61) with the upper lines being retarded and the lower lines being advanced Green’s functions.51) These two terms correspond to the transmission amplitudes t1 and t2 discussed above and illustrated in Fig. r . )U0 GR (Q − p2 . ) 0 0 0 ∗ . )U0 GR (R2 . )U0 GA (p2 . ). r . R1 . First the quantum correction due to interference to the transmission from r to r is δ|t(r. ). )U0 GR (R2 . 0 0 0 (15.4 to be smaller than the Born approximation by a factor 1/kF . r . )U0 GR (R1 . 0 0 0 (15. If we however twist the lower branch such that the Green’s function run in opposite directions while the impurity lines cross. ) 0 0 0 + GR (r. )U0 GR (R1 . R2 . ) 0 0 0 × GR (r.3. R2 . R2 .52) Now reﬂection is described by setting r = r . which we used to derive the Boltzmann equation result. 15. at low temperatures they do play a role as the leading . the diagram looks like conductivity diagram if we furthermore join the retarded and advanced Green’s function like this GR δ|r|2 imp = GA I GR GA GR . (15. ) = GR (r. THE WEAK LOCALIZATION CORRECTION TO THE CONDUCTIVITY 267 terms (there are also less interesting ones where the electron scatters on the same impurities twice) are GR(2) (r. The probability for the process is obtained from the absolute square of the Green’s function. R1 . Doing this and averaging over impurity positions R1 and R2 we ﬁnd the quantum correction δ|r|2 to the reﬂection. we set r = r at the end of the calculation.53) This formula can be represented by a diagram similar to the last one in Eq.4. (15. Nevertheless. r )|2 ∝ Re GR (r. In k-space one gets δ|r|2 imp ≡ δ|t(r = r )|2 1 ∝ Re 4 V imp GR (Q − p1 . )U0 GA (p3 .5. r . GA (15.54) This hints that the interference term coming from time reversed paths can be summed by taking diagrams of this form into account. and in fact they were shown in Sec. and because we want to ﬁnd the correction δ|r|2 to the reﬂection coeﬃcient. )U0 GR (R1 . These crossed diagrams were not included in the Born approximation. )U0 GR (R1 . r . ) 0 0 0 p1 p2 p3 Q × GA (p1 . Notice however that contrary to the usual diagram for conductance the Green’s function and the lower and upper branch run in same direction. )U0 GR (R2 .15. )U0 GR (R2 . ω)U0 GR (Q − p3 .

58) ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ dk (2kx + qx )G(k)G(k + q )C(k. We write the current-current correlation function as Π = ΠB + ΠWL where ΠB is the Boltzmann result derived in the previous section.57) (15. analogous to the normal ladder sum of Eq. but as we shall see they nevertheless yield a divergent contribution.6). Most importantly.24). We have now identiﬁed which diagrams we need to sum in order to get the leading quantum correction to the conductivity. There is however a trick which allows for a summation just like a ladder diagram. Let us twist the diagram in Eq. The crossed diagrams we are about to evaluate are also small by the same factor.. and where ΠWL (˜) = xx q + The full electron Green’s functions in these diagrams are as before the full Green’s function with an appropriately chosen self-energy. they can safely be ignored. (15.56) can be written as ˜ ˜ k k WL Πxx (˜) = q C ˜ ˜ ˜ k+q k +q ˜ =− 1 1 2 V2 (2m) ˜ dk N M . since they only give a small contribution.268 CHAPTER 15. down by a factor 1/kF vF τ0 (see the discussion in Fig. (15. i. This divergence stems from summing the interference of many time-reversed paths.54) but with more crossing lines. and let us sum the maximally crossed diagrams. (15. However.56) Then we see that the full series in Eq. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY quantum correction. This sum is diﬀerent from the ladder diagrams that we summed in the Born approximation. k .. but now with the fermion lines running in the same direction. If we continue this line of reasoning we should include also diagrams where paths scattering on more than two impurities interfere with their time reversed counter parts.55) (15. (15. 11. It is straightforward to see that the corresponding diagrams are of the same type as (15.e. Since we include crossed diagrams in the vertex function we should in principle also include these in the self-energy. this is a contribution which does not disappear upon self-averaging. Let us return to the Kubo formula for conductance.56) with for example three impurity lines so as to make the impurity lines parallel. This class of diagrams are called the maximally crossed diagrams. (15. ˜ where the box C is a sum of parallel impurity lines. q )G(k )G(k + q )(2kx + qx ). This reversed . ΠWL(3) (˜) = q xx J K L + + .

(15. ε − ξk + i/2τ0 (15. ikn + iqn ) ikn kk × C(k + k .62) This can then be inserted into the expression for the current-current correlation function ΠWL in Eq.. (15. and furthermore we restrict the analysis to the case of short range impurities so that we can approximate W (q) by a constant. which couples two electron lines or two hole lines rather one electron line and one hole line.59) (15. ikn )G(k . ikn + iqn )(2kx ). is called a cooperon. iqn ) = − xx 1 1 1 2 V2 β (2m) (2kx )G(k.. It is now straightforward to solve the Dyson-equation for the cooperon ladder and obtain p W0 G(Q − p. ikn + iqn )G(p. THE WEAK LOCALIZATION CORRECTION TO THE CONDUCTIVITY 269 ladder sum. . ikn + iqn )G(p.58) xx ΠWL (0. ε) = G(k. With these approximations. ikn ) V 1− (15. ikn ) = 1 V Q−p Q−p Q−p + . we only study the case q = 0. 1 p W0 G(Q − p. and denoting k + k ≡ Q the cooperon becomes k O P Q R S TU C ≡ + + = + C k Q−p Q−p Q−p C = + + k p p p p p p + . ikn → ε + iη) = 1 . C..60) k V W X Y C(Q. ikn )G(k. It is now simple to ﬁnd the solution for the cooperon C.15.64) where [τ0 ]−1 = 2πW0 d(εF ). ikn )W0 .63) The Green’s function G is here the Born approximation Green’s function which after analytic continuation is GR (k. while the lower ones carry the frequency ikn . ikn + iqn .4. (15. (15.. ikn + iqn .61) Because the impurity scattering conserves Matsubara frequencies the upper fermion lines all carry the frequency ikn + iqn . ikn )G(k . The solution for the cooperon C is found from the following Dyson-like equation In order to simplify our calculation. W0 = ni |u0 |2 .

we obtain from (15.70) p 1 (vp · Q)2 .68) p To proceed further we must now evaluate the p-sum in ζ(Q). 0)GR (k .270 CHAPTER 15. −ξp − i/2τ0 .62) becomes C RA (Q) = ζ(Q) ≡ W0 ζ(Q) . Likewise. (15. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY In the previous section we learned that only the GA GR term in Eq. 0)GA (p. 0. we study −1 the limit QvF τ0 1 or Q 0 = 1/vF τ0 . We begin by studying Q = 0. (15. Taking the dc-limit ω → 0 and the low temperature limit T → 0. 0). 1 − ζ(Q) ni |u0 |2 GR (Q − p. by symmetry arguments the term linear in Q vanish.33) contributed in the limit of weak scattering and therefore we should replace ikn + iωn by a retarded frequency and ikn by an advanced frequency. Here small means small compared the width τ0 of the spectral function. we have WL Re δσxx e2 = 2× 2π 1 m 2 1 V2 (kx kx )GR (k.69) it follows that C RA diverges in the limit of small Q and small frequency. because k and k are connected through C RA (k + k ).66) (15. Furthermore. 2 + (1/2τ )2 ξ −∞ 0 dξ ∞ (15. (15. 0)GA (k. Instead we evaluate the cooperon as follows.68) for small −1 Q. (15. −ξQ−p + i/2τ0 −ξp − i/2τ0 (15. 0)C AR (k + k . However. Combining Eqs. here we cannot replace them by delta functions. After analytical continuation the cooperon in Eq. kk (15.66) and (15. we study this contribution by expanding Eq. followed by inserting the result into Eq.69) where we have used the deﬁnition of the life time τ0 in the Born approximation.64) ζ(Q) becomes ζ(Q) = ni |u0 |2 1 V 1 1 . 0). i. (15. 0)GA (k . Consequently. so we need to go to second order in Q ζ(Q) ≈ 1 + ni |u0 |2 1 + ni |u0 | V 2 1 V p 1 −ξp + i/2τ0 1 −ξp + i/2τ0 3 2 1 −ξp − i/2τ0 −vp · Q+ Q2 2m (15. V p (15. Using Eq.33).e. in which case we have ζ(0) = ni |u0 |2 d(εF ) 1 1 −ξ + i/2τ0 −ξ − i/2τ0 −∞ ∞ 1 = ni |u0 |2 d(εF ) dξ = ni |u0 |2 d(εF )2πτ0 = 1.63) the weak localization correction by the replacements ikn + iqn → ε + ω + iη and ikn → ε − iη. (15.67) where we have introduced the auxiliary function ζ(Q). The dc conductivity is therefore dominated by the contribution from values of Q near zero.65) As in the previous section we have factors of GA GR appearing.

71) 1 2πτ0 dξ −∞ Q2 vF 2 1 . (15. Closing the contour in the lower part of the complex ξ plan. (15. Ndim (15. We emphasize that Eq. Ndim (15. τ0 dominates over τ0 . 0)GA (Q − k. 2 Dτ0 Q τ0 DQ2 (15. and hence smaller than the width of the 0 spectral function. and we end up with ζ(Q) ≈ 1 − where 0 1 Q2 Ndim 2 0 ≡ 1 − Dτ0 Q2 . Now transforming the sum into integrations over ξ and performing the angular integrations.4. we ﬁnd ζ(Q) ≈ 1 + + 1 2πτ0 ∞ dξ −∞ ∞ 1 −ξ + i/2τ0 1 −ξ + i/2τ0 3 2 1 −ξ − i/2τ0 Q2 2m (15. 0)GR (−k. With this result for ζ(Q) inserted into (15. v F 2 τ0 .73) is only valid for Q 0 . DQ2 (15.73) = v F τ0 .72) −1 3 2 To leading order in τ0 . Since Q < −1 . we can approximate Q − k by just −k and obtain 1 V 2 kx GR (k. 0)GA (k. 0)GA (k. 0) = d(εF ) k 2 4πkF 2 kF Ndim ∞ dξ −∞ 1 ξ 2 + (1/2τ0 )2 2 = From this follows δσ WL Ndim 3 d(εF )τ0 .77) e2 =− π kF m 2 2τ0 1 Ndim V Q< −1 1 DQ2 (15. D= (15. 0)GA (−k.75) Because the important contribution comes from Q ≈ 0. δσ W L in Eq.66) we obtain the ﬁnal result for the cooperon C RA (Q. −ξ − i/2τ0 Ndim where Ndim is the number of dimensions.78) . 0) k.76) First we perform the sum over k. (15.Q< −1 0 1 GR (Q − k. we ﬁnd that ζ(Q) ≈ 1 + 2πi 2πτ0 1 i/τ0 2 Q2 + 2m 1 i/τ0 3 Q2 vF 2 . 0) = W0 (1 − Dτ0 Q2 ) W0 1 ≈ .65) becomes δσ WL e2 = 2× π 1 m 2 W0 1 τ0 V 2 2 (−kx )GR (k.15. THE WEAK LOCALIZATION CORRECTION TO THE CONDUCTIVITY 271 where it is indeed seen that the term linear in Q is zero because vp is an odd function of p. 0.74) −1 D being the diﬀusion constant. 0).

1D 2D Dτφ 2 0 = 1 4Dπ 1 2π 2 D 0 ln 1 + 1 √ Dτφ Dτφ 2 0 .79) and evaluate the integral in one. respectively 1 1 dQ = Ndim 1/τ + DQ2 (2π) φ 1/ 0 0 dQ 1 1/τφ + DQ2 1 π τφ D π 1 2π Q 1 Q2 2π 2 tan−1 Dτφ 2 0 . (15.e. We must therefore ﬁnd a method to cut-oﬀ these unphysical paths.82) where τφ = φ/ vF . To properly describe the breaking of phase coherence between the time-reversed paths one should include coupling to other degrees of freedom such as coupling to phonons or electronelectron scatterings.81) (15. ω) ≈ e−γ 1 − Dτ0 Q2 . 0. 0) W0 1 .79) It is evident that this integral is divergent in the small Q limit in both one and two dimensions. τ0 1/τφ + DQ2 (15. If the phase coherence length becomes larger than the sample.272 CHAPTER 15. This is a physical sensible result.83) − 2π 2 D tan−1 .61) has a probability of being destroyed by a scattering event and that this probability is proportional to the length of the path. DQ2 (15. which amounts to 1 V 1 = DQ2 Q< −1 0 Q< −1 0 dQ 1 ∝ (2π)Ndim DQ2 Q< −1 0 dQ QNdim −1 . 0. (15. the sample size L must of course replace φ as a cut-oﬀ length. In a real system the electron cannot maintain coherence over arbitrarily long distances due to scattering processes that cause decoherence. Here we choose to do this in a phenomenological fashion instead. or equivalently to the number of impurity scattering events involved in the path. We can now return to (15. Clearly a path with n scatterings will then carry a factor e−nγ . which does not occur in reality. This can be modelled by including a factor e−γ in the impurity potential so that instead of W0 we write W0 e−γ . because paths longer than the sample should not be included.80) In the limit of large φ (15. the function ζ(Q) is changed into ζ(Q. 1 − e−γ + e−γ DQ2 τ0 or small γ. two and three dimensions. It says that the paths corresponding to a diﬀusion time longer than the phase breaking time cannot contribute to the interference eﬀect. γ = 0 / φ . 0) = C RA (Q. i. Physically this is because we have allowed interference between path of inﬁnite length. Let us suppose that each path in the sum over paths in Eq. and hence the cooperon gets modiﬁed as W0 . IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY We are then left with the Q-integration. 3D . The parameter γ is then interpreted as the amount of decoherence experienced within a mean free path. we therefore have C RA (Q. With this modiﬁcation.

because here the correction is small. 15. In fact it can be shown that a quantum particle in a one dimensional disordered potential is always localized. That it is a small correction to the Drude conductivity can be seen from the ratio WL δσ2D 1 =− σ0 πkF ln 0 τφ τ0 .86) A way to measure this eﬀect is to change the phase coherence time τφ and to look at the change of conductivity. and it is in this case that the term “weak” localization makes sense. one can apply a magnetic ﬁeld which breaks the time-reversal symmetry giving rise to the fundamental interference between time-reversed paths.2. For the two dimensional case we have τφ e2 WL . The phase coherence can be changed in two ways. Two dimensions is in between these two cases.5 Combined RPA and Born approximation This section will be added in the next edition of these notes. 1D WL τ δσ ∝ (15.5. decreasing the tem−1 perature increases the phase coherence time τφ ∝ T α . Secondly. 2D 0 (τ )−1/2 . in the one-dimensional case it tells us that in one dimension the localization correction is enormously important and may exceed the Drude result. 15.84) − ln τφ . φ This is an important result. apart from the logarithmic factor. Foremost. there a metal-insulator transition occurs at a critical value of the disorder strength. it does not depend on the details of the material or the impurity concentration.4 . Furthermore.15. Indeed δρ ∝ −δσ ∝ ln τφ ∝ − ln T as is measured and shown in Fig. COMBINED RPA AND BORN APPROXIMATION 273 which in the limit of large τφ gives us information about the importance of the quantum corrections: − (τφ )1/2 . 3D. (15. which states that due to the localization correction the conductivity decreases with increasing phase coherence time. (15. In three dimensions the situation is more subtle.85) δσ2D ≈ − 2 ln 2π τ0 This result is “universal” since. and a logarithmic increase of the conductivity is to be expected. See also Exercise 14.

274 CHAPTER 15. IMPURITY SCATTERING AND CONDUCTIVITY .

43).2) .4) and in the lattice phonon Hamiltonian Eq.σ ckσ Aqλ . (3. the phonon-induced instability which is the origin of superconductivity. (3. (3. kσ qλ (16. A† ≡ b† + b−qλ = A−qλ . We ﬁrst deﬁne and study the Green’s functions for free phonons in both the jellium model and the lattice model. qλ qλ (16. Hel−ph Aqλ ≡ bqλ + b† −qλ .10) and (3.g. Finally. but rather the operators Aqλ and A† deﬁned as qλ INA It follows from all the Hamiltonians describing electron-phonon interactions. (3. we prove the existence of the so-called Cooper instability of the electron gas.λ introduced in Eqs.22) and appearing in the jellium phonon Hamiltonian Eq.Chapter 16 Green’s functions and phonons In this chapter we develop and apply the Green’s function technique for free phonons and for the electron-phonon interaction. e. With these prerequisites the non-interacting phonons are described by Hph and the electron-phonon interaction by Hel−ph as follows: Hph = qλ Ωqλ b† bqλ + qλ 1 .23). that the relevant phonon operators to consider are not the individual phonon creation and annihilation operators. We also show how the high frequency Einstein phonons in the free-phonon jellium model become renormalized and become the usual low-frequency acoustic phonons once the electron-phonon interaction is taken into account. 16. 2 Hel−ph = 275 1 V gqλ c† k+q. Then we apply the Green’s function technique to the electronphonon interaction problem. We derive the one-electron Green’s function in the presence of both the electron-electron and the electron-phonon interaction.41) and Hel−ph in Eq.1 The Green’s function for free phonons jel in Eq.1) The phonon operator Aqλ can be interpreted as removing momentum q from the phonon system either by annihilating a phonon with momentum q or by creating one with momentum −q. 3.λ and bq. The point of departure is the second quantization formulation of the phonon problem presented in Chap. (3. in particular the bosonic phonon creation and annihilation operators b† −q.

0 ˆ ˆ Dλ (q. τ ) ≡ − Tτ Aqλ (τ )A† (0) qλ 0 ˆ ˆ = − Tτ Aqλ (τ )A−qλ (0) 0 . iqn − Ωqλ iqn + Ωqλ (iqn )2 − (Ωqλ )2 (16. The frequency representation of the free phonon Green’s function follows by applying Eq.4) where Tτ is the bosonic time ordering operator deﬁned in Eq. In the imaginary time domain we ﬁnd 0 Dλ (q. and as in Eq. 10. we can in accordance with Eq. (10.3. iqn ) are found using the boson results of Sec. nk2 σ2 . (1.1 with the substitutions (ν.8) When governed solely by H0 the electronic and phononic degrees of freedom are completely decoupled.276 CHAPTER 16. |Ψbasis = |nk1 σ1 . . for τ < 0. Hel and Hph . (10.106) the basis states are given in terms of simple outer product states described by the electron occupation numbers nkσ and the phonon occupation numbers Nqλ . For clarity.25). (16. (16. . The unperturbed Hamiltonian is the sum of the free electron and free phonon Hamiltonians. εν . 16. Ωqλ . for τ > 0.17) and introduce the 0 bosonic Matsubara Green’s function Dλ (q. Nq λ .3) With this imaginary-time boson operator we can follow Eq. (16. . This is because the number of phonons can vary. H0 = Hel + Hph = kσ εk c† ckσ + kσ qλ Ωqλ b† bqλ + qλ 1 . bqλ ). cν ) → (qλ. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS AND PHONONS Since Hph does not depend on time. τ ). .18) with a plus-sign. (10. . . ωn = 2nπ/β. τ ) and Dλ (q. . and thus minimizing the free energy gives ∂F/∂N ≡ µ = 0. τ ) = − nB (Ωqλ ) + 1 e−Ωqλ τ − nB (Ωqλ ) eΩqλ τ −nB (Ωqλ ) e−Ωqλ τ − nB (Ωqλ ) + 1 eΩqλ τ .9) 1 1 2 2 1 This expression is also valid in the grand canonical ensemble governed by Hph − µN . . iqn ) ≡ β 0 0 dτ eiqn τ Dλ (q.5) deﬁne the ˆ phonon operators Aqλ (τ ) in the imaginary time interaction picture1 ˆ Aqλ (τ ) ≡ eτ Hph Aqλ e−τ Hph .2 Electron-phonon interaction and Feynman diagrams We next turn to the problem of treating the electron-phonon interaction perturbatively using the Feynman diagram technique. |Nq λ . (10. . 0 Dλ (q. τ ) for free phonons.5) 0 0 The speciﬁc forms for Dλ (q.7) where we have used that nB (Ωqλ ) = 1/ exp(βΩqλ ) − 1 . 2 (16. in this section we do not take the Coulomb interaction between the electrons into account. (16. iqn ) = 2 Ωqλ 1 1 − = . (16.6) while in the frequency domain we obtain 0 Dλ (q.

we shall now show that the two expressions in fact are very similar..−qi δλ . (12.λ i j = −|gq λ | i i 2 0 Dλ (qi .16. ..1) that only an even number of phonon operators will lead to a non-zero contribution in the equilibrium thermal average. β 0 1 ˆ dτj P (τj ) = V dτj kσ qλ ˆ gqλ c† ˆk+q. (10.2. ELECTRON-PHONON INTERACTION AND FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS 277 What happens then as the electron-phonon interaction Hel−ph of Eq. so we now write m = 2n.13)..2) is turned on? We choose to answer this question by studying the single-electron Green’s function Gσ (k. and substitutes the two-particle interaction Hamiltonian W (τ ) ˆ (τ ) with the electron-phonon interaction P ∞ Gσ (k.10) can be written as a product of a phononic and an electronic thermal average.10) seems to ˆ ˆ be quite diﬀerent since W (τ ) contains four electron operators and P (τ ) only two.Aqm λm (τm ) 0 Tτ c† ˆk+q σ (τ1 )ˆkσ (τ1 ). we use Wick’s theorem Eq.λ . τi −τj )δqj ..5) and (16.Aqm λm (τm )ˆ† 1 0 = 0 ˆ Tτ Aq ˆ (τ1 ). τ ). P (τm ) 0 ˆ ˆ where the W (τ )-integral of Eq. P (τm )ˆkσ (τ ) c† (0) β 0 (−1)m m! .−qi δλ .10) dτ1 . .13) Note how the thermal average forces the paired momenta to add up to zero. (16.12) It is clear from Eq. And ﬁnally. . a factor n!/2n from all possible ways to combine the remaining n momenta to the chosen ones and symmetrizing the pairs. . ˆ Tτ Aq 1 λ1 1 λ1 ˆ ck+q σ (τ1 )ˆkσ (τ1 ). Hence we end up with the prefactor (−1/2)n /n!.5) we use the interaction picture representation. .. (16. However. β 0 0 ˆ ˆ c ˆkσ dτm Tτ P (τ1 ) .ˆ† m σ (τm )ˆkσ (τm ) c ck+q c 1 . τ ) = − m=0 (−1)m m! ∞ m=0 β 0 β dτ1 .11) At ﬁrst sight the two single-electron Green’s functions in Eqs..ˆ† m σ (τm )ˆkσ (τm ) c ck+q c (τ1 ). (12. .10) is modiﬁed as follows.. In the ﬁnal combinatorics the prefactor (−1)m /m! = 1/(2n)! of Eq. i j (16. (12.79) for boson operators to break down the n-particle phonon Green’s function to a product of n single-particle Green’s functions of the form gq λ gq i i j λj ˆ ˆ Tτ Aq λ (τi )Aq i i j λj (τj ) 0 = ˆ ˆ |gq λ |2 Tτ Aq λ (τi )A−q λ (τj ) i i i i i i 0 δqj .6) is changed into a P (τ )-integral. A sign (−1)n appears from one minus sign in each of the n factors of the form Eq. . but ˆ now in momentum space. Then a factor (2n)!/(n!n!) appears from choosing the n momenta qj among the 2n to be the independent momenta.σ (τj )ˆkσ (τj ) Aqλ (τj ). . 0 ˆ ˆ dτm Tτ P (τ1 ) . In analogy with Eq. (16. For each value of n . (16.. First we note that because the electronic and phononic degrees of freedom decouple the thermal average of the integrand in the m’th term of say the denominator in Eq. (16. all choices leading to the same result. c (16. (16. Next. (16.

. ˜ ˜ (16.16) This interaction operator resembles the basic two-particle Coulomb interaction operator Eq. β 0 0 ˆ ˆ dτn Tτ P(τ1 ) .σ1 (τj )ˆ† 2 −q. P(τn )ˆkσ (τ ) c† (0) c ˆkσ β 0 (−1)n n! . The derivation of the Feynman rules in Fourier space. i. iqn ) qλ.e.278 CHAPTER 16. . At order n draw all topologically diﬀerent connected diagrams containing n 0 1 0 oriented phonon lines − V |gqλ |2 Dλ (q. but while the Coulomb interaction is instantaneous or local in time.14) dτ1 . regarding both the operators and 0 the coupling strength (1/V) |gqλ |2 Dλ (q. 0 and 2n internal fermion lines Gσ (pj . Multiply each fermion loop by −1. and we end with the following single-electron Green’s function. and no spin ﬂipping. ikn ). incoming momenta must equal the outgoing.σ2 (τi )ˆk2 σ2 (τi )ˆk1 σ1 (τj ).15) c† 1 +q. ˆk ck c c From this interaction operator we can identify a new type of electron-electron interaction ph Vel−el mediated by the phonons ph Vel−el = 1 2V k1 σ1 k2 σ2 qλ 1 0 |g |2 Dλ (q. ikn ) (5) (6) 0 1 ≡ − V |gqλ |2 Dλ (q.34). iqn Conserve the spin and four-momentum at each vertex. the phononmediated interaction is retarded. iqn ). . 0 dτn ˆ ˆ Tτ P(τ1 ) . .e. τi −τj ) 2V 2 qλ (16.σ1 (τj )ˆ† 2 −q.σ2 (τi )ˆk2 σ2 (τi )ˆk1 σ1 (τj ). . P(τn ) 0 ˆ ˆ where the P(τ )-integral substituting the original P (τ )-integral of Eq. ikn 0 ≡ Gσ (k. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS AND PHONONS ˆ the 2n operators P (τi ) form n pairs. . . (16. 1 Multiply by βV for each internal four-momentum p and perform the sum pσλ .10) is given by the eﬀective two-particle interaction operator β 0 ˆ dτi P(τi ) = β 0 β dτi × 0 dτj k1 σ1 k2 σ2 qλ 1 0 |g |2 Dλ (q. two external fermion lines Gσ (k. . (2. non-local in time.24): (1) (2) (3) (4) Fermion lines with four-momentum orientation: Phonon lines with four-momentum orientation: kσ. ∞ Gσ (k. τi −τj ). (12. All vertices must contain an incoming and an outgoing fermion line as well as a phonon line. ipj ). τ ) = − n=0 (−1)n n! ∞ n=0 β 0 β dτ1 . however. ˆk ck c c V qλ (16. (16. τi −τj ) c† 1 +q. i. is the same as for the Coulomb interactions Eq.17) .

18) The coupling constant for the electron-electron interaction mediated by these jellium phonons is found by combining Eqs. (3. For simplicity we henceforth study only longitudinal phonons and hence drop all reference to the polarization index λ. 2 2 2M Ω 2 0q (16. In the case of an ion density ρ0 = N/V we found the ion dispersion-less jellium phonon modes in the long wave length limit. 5.21) 16.e. heavy ions as parameters in the Schr¨dinger o equation for the fast moving. phonon-mediated electron-electron interaction is Ω2 1 |gq |2 D0 (q.3 Combining Coulomb and electron-phonon interactions We now discuss the eﬀect of the long range Coulomb interactions between electrons and ions and between electrons themselves. (16. iqn ) = W (q) . COMBINING COULOMB AND ELECTRON-PHONON INTERACTIONS 279 16.20) To discuss the role of the electron dynamics we now add the electron-electron Coulomb interaction Vel−el of Eq. (2. The latter states that it is a good approximation to consider the coordinates Ri of the slowly moving. H = Hel + Vel−el + Hph + Hel−ph . light electrons. This theorem is the condensed matter physics analogue to the well-known Born-Oppenheimer approximation of molecular physics. Likewise.1.1 we have already sketched the ion plasma oscillation that occurs. In the second stage the values of Ri are then changed adiabatically.1 we studied the ion plasma oscillations in the jellium model neglecting the electron dynamics. 1 1 |gq |2 = V V Ze2 q 0 2 e2 Ω 1 N = = W (q) Ω. disregarding all the dynamics of the electrons. if we consider the interaction between the ions and the electron gas assuming the latter to be homogeneous and completely inert.16. but in Sec. In Fig.19) which not surprisingly is proportional to the Coulomb interaction W (q).44) and (16. which is then solved. the question naturally arises of whether to study the inﬂuence of the electrons on the ions before that of the ions on the electrons.1 Migdal’s theorem When the electron-phonon coupling Hel−ph is added. it can be proven by phase space arguments that renormalization of the electron-phonon vertex is suppressed at least by a . bare.18).3. 0M V (16. 3. 3. Note that we have dropped in the last equality in accordance with the convention introduced in Sec. V (iqn )2 − Ω2 (16. Ωq = Ω = Z 2 e2 N . i.34) and study the full Hamiltonian H for the electronic and phononic system.3. The resulting. The answer is provided by Migdal’s theorem. A complete calculation is rather tedious. or vice versa.

the pairbubble of Eq. (12. This combined interaction will be the basis for our analysis of the interacting electron gas henceforth. Eqs. In the following we assume that we can neglect the phonon-induced renormalization of the electron-phonon vertex.22) and (3.22) contains one phonon interaction line and two electron propagators more than the diagram on the right hand side. Now. 16. iqn ) ≡ + . get renormalized by electron screening processes to the experimentally observed low frequency acoustic phonons. M (16.280 CHAPTER 16. due to four-momentum conservation. (16.23) where we have used Eqs. the two internal electron propagators are conﬁned within ωD to the Fermi surface. The ratio between the values of the two diagrams is therefore roughly given by ωD vs k ω W (q) = 1 D =2 × D × d(εF ) = εRPA εF εF 2 vF kF Z 3 m kD ≈ M kF m . a phase space factor of the order ωD /εF must appear in front of the usual unrestricted contribution from two such lines. iqn ) −Veﬀ (q. The important frequencies for acoustic phonons are smaller than the Debye frequency ωD . respectively. eﬀective electron-electron interaction line. Ω.24) . (16. If these phonons are used we can prove Eq. Furthermore. We assume that the high frequency jellium phonons.5) at the ﬁrst and third equality sign.22). (13. ωq = vs q. thus we concentrate on phonon frequencies ωq < ωD .2 Jellium phonons and the eﬀective electron-electron interaction In more realistic calculations involving interacting electrons we need to consider the sum of the pure electronic Coulomb interaction and the phonon-mediated interaction. We therefore study only the inﬂuence of the electronic degrees of freedom on the bare phonon degrees of freedom. The result of the analysis is that the assumption for Migdal’s theorem indeed is fulﬁlled.24) and (16.17).3. Combining the Feynman rules for these two interactions. (16. Eq.37) the typical (acoustic) phonon interaction line for low frequencies. (16. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS AND PHONONS factor m/M ∼ 10−2 . We will just outline the proof of Migdal’s theorem here by studying the simplest phonon correction to the electron-phonon vertex. as shown in the following section. yields the following bare. where m and M are the masses of the electron and ion.21). and if. according to Eq.22) is correct we can prove the assumed phonon renormalization. |iqn | ωD . 1 0 −W (q) − V |gq |2 D0 (q.22) The proof builds on a self-consistency assumption. ≈ m × M . The diagram on the left hand side in Eq. Consequently. χ0 = −d(εF ). respectively. is −W (q)/εRPA . (16. (13. (16.

16. these processes.e. (16. eﬀective electron-electron interaction Veﬀ (q. 0 Veﬀ (q. 16. Before we consider how the phonon propagator is renormalized by the electronic RPA. ω) as a function of the real frequency ω for a given momentum q. (13. in the limit high electron densities are given by RPA.20) into Eq. iqn ) = W (q) + W (q) Ω2 (iqn )2 = W (q) . ω) → W RPA (q) for ω → ∞.26) 0 The real part of Veﬀ (q.25) or going to real frequencies. ω) is shown in Fig.66) between the dielectric function εRPA . Note that the interaction is 0 attractive for frequencies ω less than the jellium phonon frequency Ω.4.61)–(13. let us remind ourselves of the following expressions from Chap. It is seen that the bare. (iqn )2 − Ω2 (iqn )2 − Ω2 (16. eﬀective electron-electron interaction becomes negative for ω < Ω. Now. ω 2 − Ω2 + i˜ η (16. and that Veﬀ (q.1(a). ω) = W (q) ω2 . 13.16. Since Veﬀ (q) is proportional to the bare Coulomb interaction.4 Phonon renormalization by electron screening in RPA The electronic Coulomb interaction renormalizes the bare. ω). Migdal’s theorem leads us to disregard renormalization due to phonon processes 0 and only to consider the most important electron processes. ω) → W (q) for ω → ∞. 13. PHONON RENORMALIZATION BY ELECTRON SCREENING IN RPA 281 0 Figure 16.24). (16. see Sec. 0 The speciﬁc form of Veﬀ is obtained by inserting Eq. At high frequencies the normal Coulomb interaction is recovered. according to our main result in Chap. 16. iqn → ω + iη. the § ! © ¨ ¥¦ £ ¢ ¡ § § © ¦§¨ ¤ ¥ £ ¢ ¡ . at low frequencies the electron-phonon interaction combined with the originally fully repulsive Coulomb interaction results in an attractive eﬀective electron-electron interaction.1: (a) The real part of the bare. 0 Veﬀ (q. Eqs. i. (b) The same for the RPA renormalized eﬀective electron-electron RPA interaction Veﬀ (q. eﬀective electron-electron interaction.4. the interaction is attractive for frequencies ω RPA less than the acoustic phonon frequency ωq . and Veﬀ (q.

i. iqn ) (16. iqn ) = = −D0 (q. iqn ) = 1 − W (q)χ0 (q. (16. (13.30) = + RPA . while the renormalized phonon line DRPA (q. iqn ) W χ0 1 1 1 + W (q)χRPA (q.32) 1− RPA .27a) (16. iqn ) = 1 − W (q)χ0 (q.68) for W RPA and obtain RPA −Veﬀ (q. iqn ) = RPA . The solution for the RPA renormalized phonon line is −DRPA (q. iqn ) = = + RPA is the sum of all diagrams between the ﬁrst and the last phonon line. Here the renormalized coupling gq q RPA gq ≡ is the sum of all diagrams between the outgoing left [incoming right] vertex and the ﬁrst [last] phonon line. (16. and then collecting all the diagrams containing only Coulomb interaction lines into one sum (this simply yields the RPA screened Coulomb interaction W RPA ). iqn ).29) RPA While this expression is correct.33) = + ∗ . 0 1 − Veﬀ (q) χ0 (q.e. iqn ) (16. −DRPA (q. iqn ) −W RPA (q) − V |gq |2 DRPA (q.31) . (16. (16. and the simple pair-bubble −χ0 = . GREEN’S FUNCTIONS AND PHONONS RPA density-density correlator −χRPA = .282 CHAPTER 16. iqn ) has the standard form RPA −Veﬀ (q. without contributions from the external coupling vertices. iqn ) ε (q.27b) (16. iqn ) V |gq |2 D0 (q.28). χ0 (q. iqn ) = = + . iqn ) . iqn ) = 1 + = = RPA .28) RPA The solution for Veﬀ (q. a physically more transparent form of Veﬀ is obtained by expanding the inﬁnite series Eq. χRPA (q.27c) εRPA (q. iqn ). iqn ) = = 1− = 0 −Veﬀ (q) . iqn ) Returning to the electron-phonon problem. (16. 1 1 − χRPA (q. (16. 1 − W χ0 1 − W χ0 ε (q. iqn ) χ0 (q. 1 RPA RPA −Veﬀ (q. while collecting the remaining diagrams containing a mix of Coulomb and phonon interaction lines into another sum. we now extend the RPA-result Eq. iqn ) RPA [ g RPA ].

PHONON RENORMALIZATION BY ELECTRON SCREENING IN RPA Using ﬁrst Eqs. We note from Eqs. Inserting this into 3 2 ρ0 yields the following explicit form of ω : Eq.23) that in this limit εRPA (q.36) The ﬁnal form of the RPA screened phonon-mediated electron-electron interaction is now obtained by combining Eqs. iq ) (iqn )2 − ωq −Ω n 283 (16. (16. we have used the Feynman diagram technique to show how the phonon spectrum gets renormalized by interacting with the electron gas.21) for the coupled electron and phonon problem.20) where the unscreened phonon frequency Ω and the unscreened Coulomb interaction W (q) have been replaced by their RPA screened counterparts ωq and W (q)/εRPA . (16.5) for the dispersion of acoustic phonons in the jellium model. We end by stating the main result of this section.35) for ωq in the static.16. (16. εRPA 0 M (iqn )2 − Ω2 2Ω 2Ω . iq ) ε n = |gq |2 /V ωq (q → 0. (16. 2 ωq 2Ω W (q) = RPA . iqn ) = − V q = + RPA = (1 + W χRPA ) gq = gq .34) (16. In a moment we shall interpret this new frequency.20) and then Eq. The signiﬁcance of this result is that starting from the microscopic Hamiltonian Eq. iqn ) → ks /q 2 = (4kF /πa0 )/q 2 . 3M F (16. The long range Coulomb forces of the non-interacting problem resulted in optical jellium phonons with the high frequency Ω.35) is the renormalized phonon frequency due to electronic RPA screening.66) 2 and (13. A further physical interpretation of this result is obtained by evaluating the expression Eq. but now we have proven it from ﬁrst principles. RPA (q. iqn ) = where ωq ≡ Ω εRPA (q. = 2 2 W (q)χRPA (q.36). namely the explicit form of the eﬀective electron-electron interaction due to the combination of the Coulomb and the . 2 2 2 2 ε (iqn )2 − ωq εRPA (iqn ) − ωq (16. By introducing the electron-electron interaction the Coulomb forces get screened. RPA gq ≡ (16. iqn ) = Z 2 e2 ρ0 ion = εRPA 0 M Ze2 ρ0 el . 0) = Ze2 ρ0 el q= 2 ks 0 M Zm v q.7) and (16. (16. long wave length limit. (16.38) This we recognize as the Bohm-Staver expression Eq.35) and using the relation kF = 3π el q 1 RPA 2 RPA |g | D (q. (3. (16.37) We now see that this renormalized propagator is identical to the free phonon propagator Eq. but before doing so we study how also the coupling RPA constant gq gets renormalized in RPA and acquire the value gq . (13. and as a result the phonon dispersion gets renormalized to the usual low frequency acoustic dispersion ωq = vs q.4. respectively.34) and (16. In more elementary treatments this spectrum is derived by postulating short range forces following Hooke’s law.27c) leads to DRPA (q.

according to the Debye model of acoustic phonons.40) in the form of a Dyson equation for the pair-scattering vertex Λ.. RPA Veﬀ (q. 2 (iqn )2 − ωq (16. iqn ). iqn ) −W RPA (q) − V |gq |2 DRPA (q.40) ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ k↑ p↑ ˜ k↑ p↑ ˜ k↑ k1 ↑ p↑ ˜ k↑ k1 ↑ k2 ↑ p↑ ˜ Suppressing all arguments and stripping away the external electron propagators we can recast Eq. iqn ) = + = −W RPA (q) ˜ −k↓ CHAPTER 16. 13 no instabilities arise due to the pure Coulomb interaction. The instability arises because a certain class of electron-electron scattering processes when added coherently yields a divergent scattering amplitude.5 The Cooper instability and Feynman diagrams In 1956 Cooper discovered that the electron gas in an ordinary metal would become unstable below a certain critical temperature Tc due to the phonon-induced attractive RPA nature of the eﬀective electron-electron interaction Veﬀ (q. (16. and then we will discuss its physical interpretation. Sec. p) = given by the inﬁnite ladder-diagram sum over scattering events between time-reversed electron pairs: (16. (16. This means that most of . In this section we will derive the Cooper instability using Feynman diagrams. see also Fig. 16. According to Eq.284 electron-phonon interaction. is proportional to ε2 or ωq for frequencies less than the Debye frequency ωD = vs kD and zero otherwise.27). 3. ˜ q 0 q q ˜ q ˜ (16. ω) at low frequencies. (16. We will ﬁrst derive this divergence. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS AND PHONONS ! −˜↓ p (iqn )2 . while it becomes attractive instead of repulsive for frequencies below ωq . First we note that according to our analysis of the electron gas in Chap. p).5. Using the four-momentum notation k = (k. 16. Λ which is equivalent to the following integral equation RPA ˜ ˜ ˜ Λ(k. = + Λ .42) RPA To proceed we make a simplifying assumption regarding the functional form of Veﬀ (q.. iqn ) rapidly approaches W RPA (q) for frequencies larger than the given acoustic phonon frequency ωq .1(b): 1 RPA RPA −Veﬀ (q. iqn ) from W RPA (q).39) 16.39) and Fig.1(b). Thus we are really only interested in RPA the deviations of Veﬀ (q. ikn ) we consider the following pair ˜ ˜ scattering vertex Λ(k. The divergence is due to repeated scattering between electron pairs occupying time-reversed states of the form |k ↑ and ˜ |−k ↓ .41) 1 Vβ 0 RPA ˜ − Veﬀ (k− q ) G↑ (˜) G↓ (−˜) Λ(˜. p) = −Veﬀ (k− p) + ˜ " #$%& '( ) −˜↓ p ˜ −k↓ −˜↓ p ˜ −k↓ ˜ −k1 ↓ ˜ ˜ k−k1 ˜ −k↓ ˜ −k1 ↓ ˜ ˜ k−k1 ˜ −k2 ↓ −˜↓ p Λ = ˜ p k−˜ + ˜ p k1−˜ + ˜ ˜ ˜ p k2−k1 k2−˜ + . (3. This discovery soon lead Bardeen. Dion (ε). see Eq. the density 2 of phonon states. Cooper and Schrieﬀer (BCS) to develop the microscopic theory explaining superconductivity. Further.

44) we can take Λ outside the sum. or β = βc . iqn ) q 0 G↓ (−q. the resulting pair-interaction Λ equals the attractive pair-interaction strength V from Eq. (16. This instability is called the Cooper instability. But in our model this would then happen simultaneously for all electron pairs within a shell of thickness ωD of the Fermi surface. Now it is furthermore evident that the p-dependence occurs only in the Λ-function.45) We see that at high temperatures. As T is lowered the denominator in Eq. p) in the summand we can write Λ(p). in the present case the formation of a bound state between the time-reversed pair of electrons. i. whence for the left hand side we conclude Λ(k. Finally. p) to be a constant.e. and the on-set of it marks the transition from a normal metallic state to a superconducting state. p) = Λ(p).43) ˜ ˜ The integral equation for Λ(k.e. p).−iqn ) Λ(q. which we naturally denote Λ. iqn ) G↓ (−q. iqn ) ≈ (16. iqn ) = 1/(iqn − εq ) . p) = V + β ωD iqn 1 V 0 0 V G↑ (q. THE COOPER INSTABILITY AND FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS 285 the phonons encountered have a frequency of the order ωD .43). (16. p) thus only involves frequencies less than ωD . hence a consistent solution is obtained by taking Λ(k.−iqn ) . (16. RPA Veﬀ (q. The critical temperature T = Tc . since the eﬀective pair-interaction is attractive only for energy exchanges less than ωD .45) to zero using Gσ (q.44) The summand on the right hand side does not contain the external momentum k. and a new ground state is formed involving bound electron pairs in time-reversed states. The conclusion is clear: if the pair-interaction strength Λ diverge for a certain critical temperature Tc . and thus for Λ(q. |iqn | < ωD 0.16. for the on-set of the Cooper instability is 0 obtained by setting the denominator in Eq. q (16. It is therefore a reasonable approximation to set ωq = ωD . as a last simpliﬁcation.5. (16.45) can approach zero from above resulting in an arbitrarily strong or divergent pair-interaction strength Λ. (16. |iqn | > ωD . and for those it takes the form 1 Λ(k. and solve for it: V V 1− β |iqn |<ωD Λ= 1 V 0 G↑ (q. the entire Fermi-surface becomes unstable at that temperature. we set the interaction strength to be constant. On the right hand side of Eq. Hence we arrive at the model used by Cooper and by BCS: −V. In quantum mechanics an inﬁnite scattering amplitude signals a resonance. i. β 1/oD.

From this equation Tc is found to be kB Tc ≈ ωD e 2 − V d(ε F ) . it is not possible to reach the new ground state resulting from the Cooper instability by perturbation theory in V of the normal metallic Fermi sea. These problems will be treated in some of the exercise of this chapter and in much greater detail in the next chapter concerning the BCS theory of superconductivity.47) Two important comments can be made at this stage. the critical temperature Tc for the Cooper instability is lowered to about 1 K by the exponential factor.6b.46) where we use the density of states per spin. (16. (16. Consequently. 3. see e. The second comment is that Tc is a non-analytic function of the pair-interaction strength V . 2 2π βc ωD 1. d(εF )/2. Fig. GREEN’S FUNCTIONS AND PHONONS n+ 1 2 : 1 V d(εF ) 1 1 V = iqn − εq −iqn − εq βc 2 q |iqn |<ωD 1 β ω 2π c D 1 π 1 − 2 = V d(εF ) |qn | 2 n+ 1 2 n=0 ∞ 1= V βc dε −∞ |iqn |<ωD 1 2 qn + ε2 = ≈ V d(εF ) 2βc |iqn |<ωD V d(εF ) βc ωD ln 4 . The ﬁrst is that although the characteristic phonon energy ωD is of the order 100 K. .g. since Tc (V ) ∝ exp(−const/V ).286 and qn = 2π βc CHAPTER 16.

1 The Cooper instability 17.Chapter 17 Superconductivity 17.3 BCS theory with Green’s functions 287 .2 The BCS groundstate 17.

SUPERCONDUCTIVITY 17.2 Experimental consequences of the BCS states Tunneling density of states speciﬁc heat 17.4.1 17.4 17.4.5 The Josephson eﬀect .288 CHAPTER 17.

3.3 18.3.3.5 The Luttinger-Tomonaga model .1 18.2.4 18.Chapter 18 1D electron gases and Luttinger liquids 18.spinless case Interacting one dimensional electron system Bosonization of Tomonaga model-Hamiltonian Diagonalization of bosonized Hamiltonian Real space formulation Electron operators in bosonized form 289 .2 18.1 Introduction First look at interacting electrons in one dimension One-dimensional transmission line analog 18.3 18.3.1 18.3.2 18.

8 18.7 18.6.4 18.1 Luttinger liquid with spin Green’s functions Tunneling into spinless Luttinger liquid Tunneling into the end of Luttinger liquid 18. 1D ELECTRON GASES AND LUTTINGER LIQUIDS 18.8.5 18.2 What is a Luttinger liquid? Experimental realizations of Luttinger liquid physics Edge states in the fractional quantum Hall eﬀect Carbon Nanotubes .1 18.6 18.8.290 CHAPTER 18.

The central theorem in Fourier analysis states that any well-behaved function fulﬁlling the periodic boundary conditions. (A.3). Ly . . In all cases the product of the normalization constants should be 1/V.Appendix A Fourier transformations Fourier transformation is useful to employ in the case of homogeneous systems or to change linear diﬀerential equations into linear algebraic equations. Lz and a volume V = Lx Ly Lz .0 . k kx = 2πnx . Lx likewise for y and z. . nx = 0. fk. t) under study on plane wave components. 291 1 V eik·r = δ(r). V (A. (A.4) Note the prefactor 1/V in Eq. travelling at the speed v = ω/|k|. or to put 1/ V in front of both equations.1 Continuous functions in a ﬁnite region Consider a rectangular box in 3D with side lengths Lx . . ±1. k (A.3) (A.5) . (A. Another choice would √ be to put it in Eq.2) 1 V fk eik·r . The idea is to resolve the quantity f (r. An extremely important and very useful theorem states dr e−ik·r = V δk. (A. ±2.4). It is our choice to put it there.ω ei(k·r−ωt) . f (r + Lx ex ) = f (r + Ly ey ) = f (r + Lz ez ) = f (r) can be written as a Fourier series f (r) = where fk = dr f (r) e−ik·r .1) A.

5). 3 1k ←→ δ(r).10) A. to the case where this period tends to inﬁnity.3 Time and frequency Fourier transforms The time t and frequency ω transforms can be thought of as an extension of functions periodic with the ﬁnite period T . (A.11b) (A. Again it is easy to use these expression to verify that Fourier transforming twice brings you back to the starting point.2 Continuous functions in an inﬁnite region If we let V tend to inﬁnity the k-vectors become quasi-continuous variables.10) as the Fourier transform of the constant function f = 1 to delta functions (and back): 1r ←→ V δk. and the k-sum in Eq. (A.11c) . A.11a) (A. (A. (A. A.5) you can prove that Fourier transforming from r to k and then back brings you back to the starting point: insert fk from Eq. dr e−ik·r = (2π)3 δ(k). (A.4) into the expression for f (r) in Eq. discrete k.7) – but with the opposite sign of i due to Eq.8) and (A. FOURIER TRANSFORMATIONS Note the dimensions in these two expressions so that you do not forget where to put the factors of V and 1/V. dk f eik·r . −∞ 2π Note again that the dimensions are okay.3) an reduce by use of Eq. (A. (A.9) −∞ dω −iωt e = δ(t). −∞ 2π ∞ ∞ fω = ∞ −∞ dt f (t)eiωt . Thus t plays the role of r and ω that of k.292 APPENDIX A. (A. continuous ω. continuous k.4 Some useful rules We can think of Eqs. 1k ←→ δ(r).1) – we have f (t) = and also ∞ dω fω e−iωt .7) fk = dk ik·r e = δ(r). and in complete analogy with Eq.6) Now you see why we choose to put 1/V in front of f (r) = and also dk f eik·r . (2π)3 k We have dr f (r)e−ik·r . 1t ←→ 2π δ(ω).3) is converted into an integral. (A. (A. dt eiωt = 2π δ(ω). 1r ←→ (2π) δ(k). (A. (A.5). (2π)3 k (A. (A. 1ω ←→ δ(t). f (r) = 1 V fk eik·r k V→∞ −→ 1 V V (2π)3 dk fk eik·r = k.0 . (A.8) (2π)3 Note that the dimensions are okay. Note also that by using Eq.

The consequences in k-space from this constraint are: dk f eik·(r−r ) ei(k +k)·r .5 Translation invariant systems We study a translation invariant system. For the gradient operator we have r f (r) = r 1 V fk eik·r = k 1 V fk k re ik·r = 1 V ikfk eik·r .k 1 V hk gk eik·r . × ←→ ik × . ds h(r−s) g(s) ←→ hk gk . (2π)3 k.k ∝ δ(k + k ). f (r. and ∂t (remember the sign change of i in the latter): r 2 ←→ ik.A. Any physical observable f (r.12) or in words: a convolution integral in r-space becomes a product in k-space.20) . (A. the invariance of inner products going from r to k. (A. it is obvious from the factor ei(k +k)·r that any reference to the absolute value of r only can vanish if k = −k. By direct application of the deﬁnitions and Eq.8) we ﬁnd f (r) = ds h(r−s) g(s) = ds 1 V2 hk eik·(r−s) gk eik ·s = k.13) A related rule. (2π)3 k k dk h g .19) A. (2π)3 k −k dk h g . (2π)3 k k (A.18) (A. is derived in a similar way (and here given in three diﬀerent versions): dr h(r) g ∗ (r) = dr h(r) g(r) = dr h(r) g(−r) = dk h g∗ .k (A.5. TRANSLATION INVARIANT SYSTEMS 293 Another useful rule is the rule for Fourier transforming convolution integrals.14) (A. r ) = f (r−r ). (A. 2 ∂t ←→ −iω.15) (A.17) Similarly for 2. r ) of two spatial variables r and r can only depend on the diﬀerence between the coordinates and not on the absolute position of any of them.21) Since this has to be a function of r − r .k dk (2π)3 (A. k (A. k (A. r ) = dk (2π)3 dk f eik·r eik ·r = (2π)3 k.16) Finally we mention the Fourier transformation of diﬀerential operators. ×. and thus fk. ←→ −k . f (r.

−k . For a translation-invariant system we now that g(r.22) and by comparing the two expressions Eqs.23) .24) For the discrete case. (A. (A.25) This result is used several times in the main text when we consider correlation functions of the form g(r. we can go through the same arguments or use the formulae from above to get ˜ fk. translation−invariant systems. (A.22) we read oﬀ that ˜ fk. and by using the result in Eq. we can also ﬁnd the Fourier transform of f by explicitly using that f only depends on the diﬀerence r − r ˜ f (r.k = (2π)3 δ(k + k )fk . r ) = A(r)B(r ) . (A. FOURIER TRANSFORMATIONS To ﬁnd the proportionality constant.25) for k = −k we get that g(k) = 1 A(k)B(−k) .294 APPENDIX A.26) where A and B are some operators. r ) = f (r − r ) = dk ˜ ik·(r−r ) f e .k = Vδk. (A. (2π)3 k (A. V (A.21) and (A. r ) ←→ fk.27) (A. or in short f (r. r ) = g(r − r ).−k fk .

(1.j ): j H = −t jδ c† cj . (a) Consider a 1D lattice with N sites.60) with ν Exercise 1. cj } = δj. where with the probability amplitude t one valence electron can hop from an ion j to one of the nearest neighbor ions j + δ (as usual {c† . Hint: use the ν basis transformations Eq. cj = (1/ N ) k eikja ck to diagonalize H in k-space and plot the eigenvalues εk as a function of k. A good starting point for analyzing such systems is to describe the kinetic energy by hopping processes.2 Find the current density operator J in terms of the arbitrary single particle basis states ψν and the corresponding creation and annihilation operators a† and aν . (1. Obtain the ν ν ν ν fermion analogue of Eq. N and δ = ±1. . Hints: write Eq. periodic boundary conditions.63) for fermions: Ttot = fermion operators c† .67) in the real space representation Eq.99a).3 In some crystals the valence electrons are rather tightly bound to their host ions. (1. . and a lattice constant √ Here j = 1. 2. (1.Appendix B Exercises Exercises for Chapter 1 Exercise 1. Argue why in this case one has c† b = c† b cνn c† nj . Exercise 1.νj Tνi νj c† i cνj . Use the discrete Fourier transformation a. . (1.1 Prove Eq. 295 . .62) by moving the pair c† b cνn to the left. What about the ν j fermion anti-commutator sign? j νi . j+δ This Hamiltonian is known as the tight-binding Hamiltonian.

. and perform the 0 dφ and −1 d(cos θ) integrals ﬁrst. (2. where the ions form a 2D square lattice.29 eV nevertheless ensures the stability of the electron gas. Hints: work in polar coordinates 2π +1 ∞ 2 0 r dr r = (r. Prove that the Fourier transform is Vq s = 4πe2 0 2 +k 2 q s e2 . and λF . Diagonalize H by introducing the operator α ≡ a + ω0 /ω and its Hermitian conjugate α† . (2. vF . Exercises for Chapter 2 Exercise 2. a† ] = 1. Exercise 1.5 The Yukawa potential is deﬁned as V ks (r) = r0 e−ks r . Generalize the 1D model to a 2D square lattice also with the lattice constant a and plot contours of constant energy εkx ky in the kx ky plane. while ω and ω0 are positive constants. Exercise 2.4. and X-ray measurements have revealed that it forms a body-centered-cubic (BCC) crystal with side length a = 0.296 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 2 (b) In the high-temperature superconductors the conduction electrons are conﬁned to parallel CuO-planes.34) and (2. and use this value to determine the microscopic parameters kF .43) is not exact ∗ near the energy minimum density rs = rs = 4. Calculate the density n of the resulting gas of valence electrons. where [a. 1.1)? Compare the result to a classical and a ﬁrst quantized treatment of the problem.1 Iron (Fe) in its metallic state has valence II.3 Starting from Eqs. the result E ∗ /N = −1. Exercise 2. In this case the 2D tightbinding model is applicable. Relate the result to the Coulomb potential. with ks being some real positive k constant with the dimensions of a wavevector.2 Use the variational principle to argue that although the expression Eq. What might be the physical origin of the second term in H (see Sec.4 Consider a bosonic particle moving in 1D with the Hamiltonian H = ω a† a + 1 2 + ω0 a† + a . εF .83.47) for the contributions from the direct Coulomb interaction processes to the interaction energy in second order perturbation theory. Exercise 1.45) derive the expression Eq.287 nm. φ). θ. (2. and determine the eigenenergies. The remaining integral is a simple integral of the sum of two exponential functions.

i. . Derive. Assume that |i is a simple but unspeciﬁed product state.3 we saw an example of the existence of 1D electron gases in carbon nanotubes. Exercises for Chapter 3 Exercise 3. Use the result to derive the 1D electron density: kF = 2n/π.e. (c) Show for the state |i that 1 emi τk = 2π q i |gq |2 (Nq + 1) (1 − ni ) ni δ(εk+q − εk + ωq ).1 We want to study the inﬂuence of electron-phonon scattering on a given electron state INA |kσ using the simple Hamiltonian Hel−ph of Eq.σ ckσ bq + q † gq c† k+q. 2. the relation between the 2D Fermi wave vector kF and the 2D electron density: kF 2 = 2πn. For simplicity we restrict our study to processes that scatter electrons out of |kσ . 2. 297 Exercise 2. Exercise 2. Derive. (3.4 In Sec. the relation between the 1D Fermi wave vector kF and the 1D density of states per length.3. d(ε). and an initial state |i having the energy Ei and being speciﬁed by the occupation numbers nkσ and Nq for electron states |kσ and phonon states |q (see Eq. in analogy with the 3D case. |i = † {kσ}i ckσ {q}i √1 Nq ! b† q Nq |0 .σ ckσ b−q . in analogy with the 3D case.41).EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 3. It can be estimated using Fermi’s Golden Rule (suppressing the unimportant spin index): 1 emi τk = 2π f emi f |Hel−ph |i 2 δ(Ef − Ei ). (a) Argue that in this case we need only consider the simple phonon absorption and emission processes given by abs emi Hel−ph = Hel−ph + Hel−ph = q gq c† k+q.3. Use the result to derive the 2D density of states per area.2 we saw an example of the existence of 2D electron gases in GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As heterostructures. involving a sum over all possible ﬁnal states with energy Ef = Ei . and show that 1 c† c b† |i q Nq +1 k+q k emi for a given q = 0 in Hel−ph the only possible normalized ﬁnal states is √ .108)). (1. d(ε). k+q k abs Derive the analogous expression for the scattering rate 1/τk due to absorption.5 In Sec. emi (b) The scattering rate corresponding to the emission processes is denoted τk .

k . Show by dimensional analysis 2 involving the Fourier component e2 /( 0 ks ).42) and Exercise 1. (3. 13 they succeed to do so for distances further away than 1/ks from the ion.. n that ks F 0 1 (b) Show how Eq. (3.2 emi We now determine the temperature dependence of the scattering rate τk in the high and low temperature limits. and the electron density 2 ≈ k /a .42) together with k = k + q change τ emi from Exercise 3. argue why thermal averaging leads to 1 2π = emi τk |gq |2 [nB (ωq ) + 1] [1 − nF (εk+q )] δ(εk+q − εk + ωq ). 1/τk ≈ 0.5). the Fermi energy εF . 3. (a) To obtain realistic results we need to use the screened Coulomb or Yukawa potential for the ionic potential Vq (see Eq. where we here and in the following do not care about the numerical prefactors. k ≈ kF . while emi abs at high T we have 1/τk ≈ 1/τk . εk − εk > ωmax Since dεk = 1 emi τk dωq show in the limit ωmax ωmax 0 εF how to obtain ωmax 0 2 dωq ωq [nB (ωq ) + 1]. As we shall see in Chap.e. We note that since k and k are tied to the Fermi surface the largest q is 2kF . εk − εk < ωmax 0.1d to k 1 emi τk ∝ 2π k ωq [nB (ωq ) + 1] [1 − nF (εk )]δ(εk − εk + ωq ). we employ the Debye model of the phonon spectrum (see Sec. since at low T . and the corresponding largest phonon energy is denoted 1 ωmax ≡ 2vD kF . for T ωmax /kB ωmax /kB . (c) As usual. Now use polar coordinates to obtain k ∝ dεk −1 d(cos θ). i.5): ωq = vD q. . and show using q 2 = |k − k|2 that d(cos θ) ∝ q dq. we are mainly interested in electrons moving relatively close to the Fermi surface (why?). q Exercise 3. With this prove that 1 −1 d(cos θ)δ(εk − εk + ωq ) ∝ 2kF 0 q dq δ(εk − εk + ωq ) ∝ εk −εF ωq . ∝ 2 dωq ωq [nB (ωq ) + 1] [1 − nF (εk )] ≈ (d) Show that the result in (c) leads to the following temperature dependencies: 1 ∝ emi τk T. for T T 3 + const. due to the lack of phonons.298 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 3 (d) Keeping nk = 1 ﬁxed for our chosen state. Furthermore. This immediately gives us the behavior of the total scattering emi abs abs rate 1/τk = 1/τk + 1/τk . The electrons redistribute in an attempt to neutralize the ionic potential.

(3. Exercise 3. to ˙ ˙ ¨ obtain the equations for uj and Uj . from which the (square of the) sound velocity vs is read oﬀ: 2 M ∂t ρion − 2Z ε 3 F 2 ρion = 0. (3. The sites are numbered by j as .EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 3 299 Exercise 3. and the displacements of the • ions are denoted m. The ionic lattice has a unit cell with two diﬀerent ions • and ◦. respectively. 3. N where the electron gas ground state energy E (0) is given in Eq. . . 3. pj and uj . uj−1 . . the momenta.5). where π is the momentum density.1. (a) Verify that the Hamiltonian of the two-atoms-per-unit-cell chain is H= j 1 2 1 2 1 1 pj + Pj + K(uj − Uj−1 )2 + K(Uj − uj )2 2m 2M 2 2 ∂H ∂H ˙ ˙ (b) Use Hamilton’s equations uj = ∂pj and pj = − ∂uj (similar for Uj and Pj ). . 3.3(c) and the eigenmode displayed in Fig.. (d) Check that in the limit M = m the dispersion ωk in Eq.28). The ions are treated as the jellium of Sec. . Uk ). Verify the dispersion curve ωk displayed in Fig. Uj+1 . 3. . while for the ◦ ions they are denoted M . The masses.9) of the one-atomper-unit-cell is recovered.3 we now want to ﬁnd the eigenmodes of the linear 1D chain with lattice constant a mentioned in Fig. which on the other hand is equal to the pressure gradient − P due to the compression of the electron gas following the ionic motion: ˙ π=f =− P = ∂E (0) ∂V .4. (2. 3. uj+1 . 3. All spring constants are the same. (a) Multiply the continuity equation by the ion mass M to obtain M ∂t ρion + · π = 0. We study the situation described in Sec. namely K. uj .4 The task is to prove the Bohm-Staver expression Eq. where the light and mobile electrons always follow the motion of the slow and heavy ions to maintain local charge neutrality. (c) Combine the equations and derive the wave equation for ρion . . ¨ (c) Assume the harmonic solutions uj ≡ uk ei(kja−ω t) and Uj ≡ Uk ei(kja−ω t) to derive a 2 × 2 matrix eigenvalue equation for (uk .3(c). Pj and Uj .2. ˙ (b) Take the time derivative and note that π is the force density f .3 In analogy with the homogeneous 1D chain of Sec. Uj−1 . Uj .

drdr δρ(r)V (r − r )δρion (r ). We deﬁne ρion (r)=ρ0 + δρion (r) ≡ ρ0 +ρ0 ion ion ion ρ(r)=ρ0 ion + δρ(r). ion Using particle conservation show that v(r) = −u(r) ˙ and using this.300 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 3 Exercise 3. derive the Lagrangian as a functional of u L0 [u] = ion 1 2 dr M ρ0 |u(r)|2 − ion ˙ ρ0 ion 2 2 drdr [ · u(r)] V (r − r ) · u(r ) . ion−el Epot = − with the usual deﬁnition el−el Epot = 1 2 drdr δρ(r)V (r − r )δρ(r ). we need only take into account interactions between deviations from equilibrium. The potential energy contributions which involves the ionic system are the ion-ion interaction and the electron-ion interaction ion−ion Epot = 1 2 drdr δρion (r)V (r − r )δρion (r ).34). Because we are interested in the low energy excitations we linearize the kinetic such that T = 1 2 dr M ρ0 v 2 (r). We take the case of a monovalent metal. The classical Lagrangian for this system is L0 = Tion − Vion ion 1 0 Tion = dr M ρion (r)v 2 (r) 2 ion−ion Vion = Epot . When included it gives rise to the term in Eq.e. Because the system is charge neutral as a whole.5 Electrons and phonons in the jellium model In this exercise we quantize the jellium model of the ion system in a solid and derive the electron phonon interaction in a way which is somewhat diﬀerent from the method used in the main text. where v is the velocity ﬁeld of the ions. and ρ(r) is the electron density. First we quantize the ion system and we start by looking at the isolated ion system. · u(r). (2. each ion has charge +e. where u is a displacement ﬁeld describing the deviation of the ion density from equilibrium. . We have not explicitly included the electron-electron interaction here. i.

Ω is chosen such that H is diagonal. one must choose a positive polarization direction. What dispersion relation do you expect? Next you should quantize the ion system and ﬁnd the Hamiltonian.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 3 301 Because the Lagrangian is quadratic in u it is equivalent to a set of harmonic oscillators that describe sound waves of the ion system. 2 q q where the polarization vector has the property that q = −q . The polarization is here parallel to q i. using the well known relation H = 0 Hion p · u − L. First show that the canonical momentum corresponding to the ﬁeld u is p(r) = M ρ0 u(r). q The system is quantized by the condition (canonical quantization) [ui (r). only longitudinal modes exist in the jellium model1 . Deﬁne uq = V † 0 Ω bq + b−q .14).pj (r )] = iδij δ(r − r ).pj (−q )] = iδij V δqq . Verify that 4πe2 ρ0 1 0 ion . that ˙ · u(r)] V (r − r ) · u(r ) 1 = 2 = 1 2V ρ0 p2 (r) dr + ion 2 M ρ0 ion 2 drdr [ 2 q ρ0 p(q) · p(−q) + ion 2V M ρ0 ion V (q) [q · u(q)] [q · u(−q)] . which you can easily check. Furthermore. i. Using the quantization from the previous exercise verify that the Hamiltonian describing the electron-phonon In the general non-jellium case the polarization vectors are eigenvectors of the dynamical matrix D(q) in Eq.e. Exercise 3. ion ˙ and show. (3. namely q .phonon interaction in the jellium model. In the jellium case.6 Bare electron. Show that in k-space this becomes [ui (q). one thus has Dαβ (q) = qa qβ V (q) which only has one eigenvector with non-zero eigenvalue. Now follow the standard scheme for diagonalization of the phonons modes. Ω0 = . 1 . H= Ω0 b† bq + q 2 M q Explain the physics of this result. 2M ρion p−q = i VM ρ0 Ω † ion bq − b−q .e.

q (B. −q Exercises for Chapter 4 Exercise 4. (3) VHF (k) = − 0 π 2kF k k − kF VHF (k) is increasing monotonously with k (which you might check. (2. and assume that nk σ = θ (kF − k ). 2M Ω0 (B. which then gives k2 − k2 k + kF e2 kF 1+ F ln .1 (a) Consider the Hartree-Fock solution of the homogeneous electron gas in a positive background. (c) Now ﬁnd the energy of the electron gas in the Hartree-Fock approximation.1) g(q) = iqV (q) and ρ0 ion . Is it given by ? EHF = εHF nF εHF .39).302 interaction is given by Hion−el = = EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 4 drdr δρ(r)V (r − r )δρion (r ) ρ0 ion V ρ(−q)V (q)(iq · u(q)) q 1 =√ V where g(q)ρ(−q)Aq . After the mean-ﬁeld approximation the Hamiltonian can be written as H HF = k εHF c† ckσ + constant. What is the selfconsistency condition? (b) Consider the zero temperature limit.g. (4. e.25b) and is given by εHF = εk + VHF (k) . k kσ (1) Argue why it is that in this case the Hartree-Fock energy follows from Eq. V (q) = 4πe2 0 q2 (2) The occupation numbers should of course be solved self-consistently. Is that true as well for the mean ﬁeld solution of the Stoner model? . (d) The conclusion is so far that Hartree–Fock and ﬁrst order perturbation theory are in this case identical. Use this to argue that the guess nk σ = θ (kF − k ) is in fact the correct solution. k VHF (k) = − k V (k − k )nk σ .2) (B. graphically).3) Aq = bq + b† . (4) k k k and why not? Hint: show that the correct energy reduces to E (1) given in Eq.

TC η (0) = Tc α . Hint: recall that CV = −T ∂2F . even if the mean-ﬁeld approach gives a good estimate of the groundstate energy.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 4 303 Exercise 4. and A > 0 for T > TC .64). For second order phase transitions only even terms are present in the free energy expansion F (T. 14. uk and vk . η) = F0 (T ) + A (T ) η 2 + C (T ) η 4 .3 In this exercise we calculate the density of states in the superconducting state. has been conﬁrmed in great detail by experiments and is one of the many successes of the BCS theory. make a sketch of the speciﬁc heat of the system and show that it is discontinuous at the transition point. ∂T 2 . Secondly. near d(∆). You can assume that ∆ is real. Use this to argue that A also vanishes at the transition point. Exercise 4. At the transition point η vanishes. 2C Finally.4 In 1937 Landau developed a general phenomenological theory of symmetry breaking phase transitions. and use the principle of minimal free energy to show that η= −A = 2C (TC − T ) η (0) .6. The basic idea is to expand the free energy in powers of the order parameter. See also Table 4. T = TC . d(E). Show that it diverges at the “gap-edge”. ﬁnd the density of states for the excitations in energy space. C (T ) = C. Then write A and C as A (T ) = (T − TC ) α. First go through the arguments that give the so-called coherence factors. (4. E. Consider a transition to a state with a ﬁnite order parameter. It also warns us that the single-particle energies derived from a mean-ﬁeld Hamiltonian are not necessary a good approximation of the excitation energies of the system.2 The Hartree–Fock energies derived in the previous exercise have however some unphysical features. Eqs. Show that the density of states as derived from Eq. and the excitation energies. This conclusion contradicts both experiments and the Fermi liquid theory discussed in Chap.63) and (4. (2) diverge at the Fermi level. The square root singularity that you ﬁnd. η. Exercise 4. and that A < 0 for T < TC . Hint: start with the density of states in k space and translate to a density in energy space.

t0 ) = 3! i 3 t t0 t t dt1 t0 dt2 t0 ˆ ˆ ˆ dt3 Tt V (t1 )V (t2 )V (t3 ) .5 In the jellium model of metals the kinetic energy of the electrons is described by the Hamiltonian Hjel of Eq.4 Due to the equation of motion for operators Eq. (5. (2.4. . Show the very important relations [AB.3 Use the Heisenberg picture to show that for the diagonal Hamiltonian H of Eq.18) indeed has the form 1 1 ˆ U3 (t.19). for some operators A. C]B. and C. while the interaction energy is given by Vel−el of Eq. t0 ) of U (t. Interpret the change of the zero point energy.16) and (5. Solve these equations by introducing the operator α† ≡ a† + ω0 /ω . (5.1 We return to the bosonic particle described by the Hamiltonian of Exercise 1. C] = A{B. Write down the Heisenberg equations of motion for a† and a. Express H in terms of α† (t) and α(t).31) derive the equation of motion for ckσ (t). C} − {A. (5. (2. Exercise 5. useful for boson operators. C] = A[B .22) we have H= ν εν a† aν ν ⇒ H(t) = ν εν a† (t)aν (t). Exercise 5. Hint: study Eqs. In the Heisenberg picture the time evolution of the electron creation and annihilation operators c† and ckσ is governed by the total Hamiltonian H = Hjel + Vel−el . (5.34).304 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 5 Exercises for Chapter 5 Exercise 5. Exercise 5.17) and the associated footnote. C}B. t0 ) in Eq. In analogy with kσ Eq.6) we will often need to calculate commutators of the form [AB. (5.2 ˆ ˆ Show that the third-order term U3 (t. C]. B. [AB. C] + [A . Apply the Hartree–Fock approximation to the result. useful for fermion operators. ν Exercise 5.

and η = 0+ is a positive inﬁnitesimal. Exercise 6. x Exercise 6. where S is the spin density operator S(r) = Ψ† (r)sΨ(r).2 The spin susceptibility measures the response to a magnetic ﬁeld.3. Exercise 6. Show that 1 in this context x+iη can be decomposed as the following real and imaginary parts ∞ 1 1 = P − iπ δ(x). These moments could for example be in the form of a neutron beam in a neutron scattering experiment. r ) is a function of r − r only and that . Express x in terms of a and a† and calculate the linear response result for the expectation value x(t) . but now we treat this force as a time-dependent perturbation H = f (t) x. where f (x) is any function with a well behaved Taylor expansion around x = 0.3 1 We study integrals of the form −∞ dx x+iη f (x). Neutron scattering experiments are the main source for obtaining experimental information about the distribution of spins in condensed matter systems. see Sec. Argue that this result is in fact exact. This means that the conductivity σ(r. 305 Exercises for Chapter 6 Exercise 6. 1. Suppose that a piece of some material is perturbed by external magnetic moments. t) · S(r). S(r. Find the response to linear order in B for the induced spin density in the material.4 In this exercise we consider the conductivity of a translation. for example by considering the equation of motion for x(t) . t) .and rotational-invariant system. The perturbation is in this case given by H = −gµB dr Bext (r. Express your result in both real space and momentum space.4.1 we consider a harmonic oscillator inﬂuenced by an external force f (t).1 As in Exercise 5. x + iη x Here P means Cauchy principle part: P 1 dx f (x) ≡ x −∞ ∞ 1 dx f (x) + x −∞ −η ∞ η 1 dx f (x).EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 6.

i. (8. From this you can derive obtain the long wavelength conductivity σ αβ (0.13). ωm How does this ﬁt with the Drude result (13. 0)] . Hint: diﬀerentiate (8.17) both are solution to the Schr¨dinger equation in Eq. J(0.16) and (8. where the impurity induced scattering time τ tends to inﬁnity (i. ω) = σ(q. Derive the expression for the particle current operator in this limit.1 Verify that the self-consistent equations in Eqs. Show that in the Fourier domain Je (q. (8. t) = 1 m k c† (t) ckσ (t). ω)E(q. σ(q. First consider the conductivity of a non-interacting electron gas at long wave lengths.22) with respect to time using that the derivative of the theta function is a delta function. q → 0. ωτ → ∞)? How does the conclusions change for an interacting translation-invariant system? Exercises for Chapter 7 Exercise 7.42) in the clean limit. . o Exercise 7.5 Consider again the conductivity of a translation-invariant and rotational-invariant system.e. ω). and that r|H|φ = H(r) r|φ Which you can see for example by inserting a complete set of eigenstates of H. t). where J(q) is the particle current operator in momentum space.14b). Find the relation between the conductivity.306 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 7 the conductivity tensor is diagonal with identical diagonal components.22) in fact is identical to the Green’s function by showing that it obey the same diﬀerential equation. (8.e. ω) = iδαβ ne2 . namely Eq. Exercise 6. J α (−q. ω) and the correlation function [J α (q. kσ kσ and show that it is time-independent in the Heisenberg picture.2 In this exercise we prove that the propagator in Eq. (8.

EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 7 307 Exercise 7. (8. Plot the results of I and dI/dV versus V . t − t ) = −iθ(t − t ) Ip (xt). which you see from the Hamiltonian Eq. kσ The result for the dc conductance does not depend on where the current is evaluated (why?). Ip (x t ) where Ip is the operator for the particle current through the wire.42). (4. r . Once you have done that the problem is reduced to ﬁnding the Green’s function of a free particle.5 The tunneling density of states for a superconductor has a characteristic shape which you ﬁnd in this exercise. Exercise 7.3 Find the greater propagator. Can you suggest an experiment (at least in principle) that measures this propagator.66). Hints: use the onedimensional version of the particle current operator Ip (x) = mL k+ kqσ q 2 c† ck+qσ eiqx . assuming the tunneling matrix element to be approximately constant.50) are valid for fermions. First ﬁnd the retarded Green’s function GR (k ↑.65). Exercise 7. From Sec. ω ΠR (x − x . Exercise 7.4 Eqs. Now you can use the method in Sec. t) = −iθ(t) {ck↑ (t). (4.3 we have that the conductance is given by G= ie2 R Π (ω). 6. . ω) nB (ω). t − t ) = − iθ(t − t ) × k+ q 2 2 2 mL nF (εk ) − nF (εk+q ) kqσ ei(εk −εk+q )(t−t ) eiq(x−x ) . ω) = A(ν. (8.6 In this exercise we shall calculate the dc conductance of a perfect one-dimensional wire. ω) = A(ν.and two dimensions. G> (r. c† } k↑ by expressing the c and c† operators in terms of the diagonal γ-operators called bogoliubons given in Eq. iG< (ν. ω) [1 + nB (ω)] . but now in one. Show that the corresponding results for bosons are iG> (ν. 8. Now calculate the tunneling current-voltage characteristics.5 to ﬁnd that ΠR (x − x . ω) similar to Eq.

Hints: Use standing waves in the x-direction fulﬁlling the proper boundary conditions. The Hamiltonian is given by H = E1 c† c1 + E2 c† c2 + tc† c2 + t∗ c† c1 . (9.308 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 8 Setting x = x ﬁnd ΠR (0.1 Consider a physical system consisting of fermions allowed to occupy two orbitals. Exercises for Chapter 8 Exercise 8.22) and (9. What is the electron density as a function of the distance x from the left edge? Take for simplicity T = 0. ω). where the ν-sum runs√ over the appropriately normalized states |ν . you ﬁnd the famous result for the conductance G of a perfect 1D G= 2e2 . and assume quasi-continuous states with periodic boundary conditions in the y direc† 2 tion.20) and (9. 1 2 1 2 Find the Green’s function GR (ij. Don’t j forget to interpret the result.21). h Exercise 7. What will change at larger temperatures? The oscillations that you will ﬁnd are called Friedel oscillations. Find the x-dependent density as n(x) = dy ν cν cν | xy|ν | . Use the equation of motion method. ω) and study it in the low frequency limit. t − t ) = −iθ(t − t ) {ci (t). Show that lim Im Π (ω) = ωπ R 2 ω→0 mL − kqσ ∂nF (∂εk ) q δ(εk − εk+q ) k + εk 2 2 . where i and j can be both be either 1 or 2 and where GR (ij. You may need to know the integral π ds 1 − s2 sin2 (xs) = 8x [x − J1 (2x)].2 Derive Eqs. Do the q-integral ﬁrst and ﬁnd lim Im ΠR (ω) = ωπ 2 m 2 ω→0 m 1 2πL − kσ ∂ nF (εk ) ∂εk k2 |k| ω 1 = .7 Consider a 2D electron gas in the xy plane conﬁned to the strip 0 < x < L. c† (t )} . . −βµ + 1 π e In the limit µ channel kT .23) by diﬀerentiating the Green’s functions in (9. Exercise 8.

and the model was then solved at the level of single-particle Green’s functions. Exercise 8.28) it was approximated by a product of two single-particle Green’s functions. t) and truncate it at the two-particle Green’s function level. (9. Start by combining Eqs.21). 9.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 8 309 Exercise 8.4 In this exercise we improve the solution of the Anderson model presented in Secs. In Eq. (9.60). d† (t )} . ω): ω + iη − εd + µ − ΣR (ω) GR (d ↑.30b) to obtain the following equation of motion for GR (d ↑. ω). The ﬁrst term generates a two-particle Green’s function denoted F R given by F R (kd ↑. (9. d↑ ] + [Hhyb .2. and it is therefore omitted. k k↓ ↓ The last term contains a new type of processes giving rise to higher order correlations (corresponding to spin ﬂips).23). It is therefore a good approximation to assume that the atom is in equilibrium with the metal. (9. When a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is placed near the atom current will ﬂow from the STM tip through the atom to the metal. nd↓ d↑ ] = nd↓ [Hhyb . First ﬁnd the diﬀerential equation for DR by diﬀerentiation with respect to t. If we assume that only a single orbital couples to the metal states. t − t ) = −iθ(t − t ) {(nd↓ ck↑ )(t). Thus we get a better approximation which takes pair correlations into account. Instead F R is coupled back to DR . (9.2 and 9. which we can describe by a tunneling Hamiltonian as in Eq. described by Eq. The electronic states of the atom will hybridize with the conduction electrons in the metal. and show that if you again neglect the term [Hhyb . 9. (8. (9. kd Derive the equation of motion for F R . The two-particle Green’s function DR (d ↑. then the atom and the metal can be described by the Anderson model Hamiltonian Eq. 8 for the tunnel current and the mean ﬁeld expression for the d electron Green’s function. and (9. ω) = 1 + IU DR (d ↑. t) is deﬁned in Eq. Here we go one step further and derive an equation of motion for DR (d ↑.2.26).3 Consider an atom on a metal surface. nd↓ ] d↑ = nd↓ [Hhyb .2. (9.18). d↑ ] + kσ t∗ c† d↓ − tk d† ck↓ d↑ . derived in Sec. nd↓ ] no new Green’s functions are generated. This constitutes our new and improved approximation. Since the atom is strongly coupled to the metal surface the bottleneck for the current is the tunneling from STM to atom. and to use tunneling theory for the current between tip and atom.3.22). Sketch the resulting dI/dV using the expression derived in Chap. ↑ Note the similarity between F R and the single-particle function GR (kdσ) of Eq.17). When you do that the diﬃcult commutator is [Hhyb . and not the tunneling between atom and metal. .

Suppose now that the . solve for GR and show that the result is GR (d ↑) = 1 − nd↓ nd↓ + .6 but this time using the imaginary time formalism.39) by Fourier transforming this equation. The Dyson equation for otherwise free electrons scattering against an external potential is written in Eqs.1 Single impurity scattering. (10. Then show that c† cν ν 0 = Gσ (ν. Finally. τ = 0− ) = 1 β 0 e−ikn 0 Gσ (ν.9).3 According to Eq. for example by considering how the result of Exercise 8.5) and (11. (10. Note that both τ and τ are greater than zero.1 Find the Fermi-Dirac distribution by starting from the Matsubara Green’s function and setting τ = 0− . and show that the resulting equation for DR is ω + iη − εd + µ − U − Σ(ω) DR (d ↑) = nd↓ . Exercises for Chapter 9 Exercise 9.310 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 10 Inset this result into the equation of motion you derived for DR above.3 is changed. Exercises for Chapter 10 Exercise 10. Use the procedure going from Eq.80) to Eq. ikn ) = nF (εν ) ikn − How would you calculate cν c† ? ν Exercise 9.63) the equation of motion for the Matsubara Green’s function of a free particle is −∂τ − p2 0 + µ Gσ (r − r .85). (11.2 Repeat Exercise 7. Exercise 9. (10. τ − τ ) = δ(r − r ) δ(τ − τ ). 2m Show (10. R (ω) ω + iη − εd + µ − Σ ω + iη − εd − U + µ − ΣR (ω) Interpret this result physically.

we can in fact extract the transmission and reﬂection amplitudes t and r.x ) G0R (xx .EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 10 311 electrons are conﬁned to move in one dimension and that the external potential can be represented by a delta-function impurity potential. Derive the same result using the following simple argument involving two paths for an electron to go from x to x: (1) x → a1 → a2 → x. In for example semiconductor heterostructures one can make quantum-well systems which to a good approximation can be described by a one-dimensional model of free electrons with two tunneling barriers. σ σ σ where eiφ(x. Find r and t and discuss the phase shifts that the electrons acquire when they are scattered. ikn ) U0 0 Gσ (0x . where H0 is the Hamiltonian for free electrons in one dimension.2 Resonant tunneling. ω) θ(−x). The transmission is unity when these two paths interfere constructively – as does paths with any number of trips back and forth in the “cavity”. ikn ) + Gσ (x0. e−ika2 · 1 − α −αeiθ −αeiθ 1 − α −1 · eika1 eika2 . For x < 0 we have GR (xx . Exercise 10. ω − εk + µ + iη ivω (do you agree?) where kω = 2m(ω + µ) and v =ω ∂εk /∂k|k=kω . which is 0 G0R (xx . Use this to show that the transmission is unity for the particular values of θ satisfying α = i cot θ. ikn ) = Gσ (xx . ikn ) 1− U0 0 Gσ (00. From the Dyson equation ﬁnd the retarded Green’s function for x < a1 < a2 < x: GR (xx . ikn ). ω) θ(x) + 1 + reiφ(x. Since the retarded Green’s function tells us about the amplitude for propagation from point x to point x. To ﬁnd the retarded Green’s we thus need the unperturbed Green’s function. which is determined by the calculation. Show that in this case the solution of the Dyson equation becomes 0 0 Gσ (xx . The Hamiltonian is then given by ∞ H = H0 + −∞ dx ρ(x) U0 δ(x − a1 ) + δ(x − a2 ) . ω) = σ eik(x−x ) 1+α ivω e−ika1 . ikn ) ﬁrst and insert that in the Dyson equation for G(xx . Here we simplify it somewhat further by representing the tunneling barriers by delta-function potentials situated at a1 and a2 . Hint: solve for G(0x . . ω) = t G0R (xx . U (x) = U0 δ(x).x ) is a phase factor. ω + iη) = σ 1 L k eik(x−x ) 1 ikω |x−x | = e . where k = kω (see previous exercise) and where α = U0 /iv and θ = k(a2 − a1 ). ikn ). and (2) x → a1 → a2 → a1 → a2 → x. ω) = Gσ (xx . Write H in x−space and ﬁnd a formal expression for the Matsubara Green’s function using Dyson’s equation.

0) 0 G(b.312 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 11 Exercises for Chapter 11 Exercise 11. Exercise 11. Use the rule Eq. ikn ) ≡ σ Exercise 11. The unperturbed Hamiltonian is given by H0 = σ (εd − µ) d† dσ + kσ (εk − µ) c† ckσ . see Sec. 9. (12. We employ the mean-ﬁeld approximation given by Eq. Hints.17) and on-site repulsion Eq. (1) Start with the simpler denominator (how many terms?). We return to Anderson’s model for localized magnetic moments in metals. ¯ σ We introduce the following rather obvious diagrammatic notation for the Matsubara Green’s functions and interactions: ≡ ≡ ≡ G 0 (dσ) G (dσ) G 0 (kσ) U ≡ tk ≡ k tk U . (9.1 Matsubara frequency summation. (9. a). the sum of the hybridization Eq.3 Feynman diagrams and Dyson’s equation for the Anderson model.54) for summing over functions with simple poles to perform the Matsubara frequency summation appearing in the following diagrams of Eqs. (2) Draw topologically identical diagrams only once and multiply with the number of them. As in Eq. We study the one-particle Green’s function. iqn ) ≡ ΣF (k. but now to second order in W .27) where the σ spins only interact with the average density nd¯ of the opposite σ spins.27). (12. We wish to derive the Dyson equation Eq. a) = − 0 .30) and (12. ˆ with U (β. 0) Ψ(b) Ψ† (a) ˆ U (β. 0) = Tτ exp − β 0 ˆ dτ W (τ ) . (9.2 The cancellation of disconnected diagrams in G(b.29) using Feynman diagrams. while the interaction part is σ kσ MF given by Hint = Hhyb + HU .2. (3) Get most of the diagrams in the numerator by cutting open and stretching out a Fermion line in the diagrams from the denominator (how many terms?).14) use the Feynman rules to expand the denominator and the numerator.34): Π0 (q. (10. and show explicitly the cancellation of the disconnected diagrams. which in the interaction picture in the presence of the particle-particle interaction W (r − r ) becomes: ˆ ˆ ˆ Tτ U (β. (9.

and derive in analogy with Eq. The tedious work with the equation of motion has been reduced to simple manipulations with diagrams.18). 2. . Treat the ions as an inert.2).19) Dyson’s equation graphically. Consider an electron gas of density n conﬁned in a rectangular box of length Lx in the x direction and having a large surface area Ly Lz in the yz plane (Lx Ly . Derive ωp from the following purely classical argument.3. Give a physical interpretation of the resulting motion of the electron gas. Exercises for Chapter 12 Exercise 12. leaving the ion jellium ﬁxed.30b). (9. (12. Exercise 12. Lz ). Imagine now the electron gas being translated a tiny distance ξ in the x direction (ξ Lx ). charge compensating jellium background. (13. Find the equation of motion for the coordinate ξ using Newtons law and classical electrostatics. (12. The electronic plasma frequency ωp ≡ ne2 /m 0 introduced in Eq. The resulting system resembles a plate capacitor. U U t∗ k + U G 0 (dσ) G 0 (dσ) G(d¯ ) σ G 0 (dσ) G 0 (dσ) G 0 (dσ) + G 0 (dσ) G 0 (kσ) G 0 (dσ) G 0 (dσ) G 0 (dσ) G 0 (dσ) G 0 (kσ) G 0 (dσ) Express the self-energy as a sum of diagrams using a deﬁnition analogous to Eq.30a) and (9..1 A classical treatment of the plasma oscillation.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 12.2 Interactions in two dimensions. Use the obtained Dyson equation to verify the solution Eqs. 313 We write the diagrammatic expansion (here shown up to second order in |tk |2 and U ) for the full d-orbital spin up Green function G (dσ) as: G(d¯ ) σ tk = G (dσ) G 0 (dσ) + G 0 (dσ) G 0 (kσ) G 0 (dσ) G(d¯ ) σ tk + G 0 (dσ) G 0 (kσ) G 0 (dσ) G 0 (kσ) G 0 (dσ) G(d¯ ) σ tk + t∗ k U U t∗ k tk t∗ k + G(d¯ ) σ tk t∗ k +. The electron gas is then released.76) does not contain Planck’s constant and is therefore not a quantum object.. In the following exercises we consider a translationinvariant electron gas in two dimensions fabricated in a GaAs heterostructure (see Sec.

qy ) and where χ2D (q.4 Static screening in two dimensions. i. kB T εF .σ ck −q. y).e. ky ) and r = (x. is given by 2D WRPA (q. the plasmon dispersion relation is ω = vF ks q/2. the relative permittivity is εr = 13. show that W 2D (q) = π e2 2εr 0 q . The electron mass for this material is m∗ = 0. iqn ) is the 2D version of the 3D pair bubble χ0 0 given in Eq. Hint: use 0 dθ cos (α cos θ) = πJ0 (α). For such a system the RPA dielectric function is given by ε2D (q. iqn ) = 1 − W 2D (q) χ2D (q. Show that at low temperatures. Exercise 12. where ks is the ThomasFermi screening wavenumber in 2D. z) = 1 eik·r ζ0 (z). Consider a translation-invariant electron gas in two dimensions fabricated in a GaAs heterostructure. and low temperatures. Find the relation between kF and the electron density. qy ). For a strictly 2D system. 2D 2D q ω/vF .314 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 12 The electron mass for this material is m∗ = 0. Write down the interaction part of the Hamiltonian and show that it is of the form H 2D = 1 2A † W 2D (q) c† k+q. 0) ≡ W 2D (q) = 2εr ε2D (q.3 Plasmons in two dimensions.067 m.50). 2D n2D . where J0 is the Bessel function of the ﬁrst kind of order zero.σ kk q σσ where q = (qx . while the electron density ranges from n2D = 1 × 1015 m−2 to 5×1015 m−2 . 0) RPA e2 .σ ck. Lx Ly where k = (kx . RPA 0 with q = (qx .e. Express ks in terms of the parameters of the electron gas. Show that in 2D the static RPA screened interaction at small wavevectors. (13. 2D 0 (q + ks ) . Is it larger or smaller than kF for n2D = 2 × 1015 m−2 ? Exercise 12. iqn ). q kF .067 m. the relative permittivity is εr = 13.σ ck . while the electron density ranges from n2D = 1 × 1015 m−2 to 5×1015 m−2 . The electron wave function for the two dimensional electron gas is restricted to be ψk (r. while ζ0 (z) is the lowest eigenstate in the z direction. kB T εF .20). i. n = 0 in Eq. and long wave lengths. (2. |ζ0 (z)|2 = δ(z).

Please note that ρ eq = 0 due to charge neutrality. where F is some envelope function. The electron-hole pair continuum is the region in q − ω space where Im χ2D = 0.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 13. Are the plasmons damped in the region q < kF in GaAs with the parameters given above? Exercise 12. a) (you do not have to show that). If the quasiparticles behaves like non-interacting particles why is then the number of quasiparticles conserved on the semi-classical level? To answer this question we introduce the concept of a wave packet. We are not asking q for detailed calculations. Following arguments similar to those of Eq. τ ) = − V Tτ ρ(q.19). τ ) ρ(−q. (14.6 Deriving the Feynman diagrams for χ(˜).9). (12. In the estimate you can use the small-q expressions for the plasmon frequency and the polarization. with f (k−k0 ) = exp − (k−k0 )2 . e. and (14.17).1 Semi-classical motion.g. 2 (∆k)2 Taylor expand ω (k) to ﬁrst order and show that the wave packet can be written as ψ(r. (12.8) for G(b. Then apply Wick’s theorem to obtain the analogue of Eq.e. In the real space formulation χ(b. Then apply Wick’s theorem in this situation to obtain the starting point for the diagrammatic expansion directly in q-space.16) it can be shown that the numerator also cancels in the case of χ(b.8). vk = ∂k ωk = 1 ∂k εk . the wave packet has the energy εk and the velocity vk given by εk = ωk . i. t) = dk f (k−k0 ) ei[k·r−ω (k)t] . a). (13. (12. Write down the expression for χ(b. (14.58).4.53). 315 Exercise 12. We study Eqs. What is the physical interpretation of ∂k ω (k0 )? In conclusion. Exercises for Chapter 13 Exercise 13. ω ) in Exercise 6. a) ≡ − Tτ ρ(b)ρ(a) eq = − Tτ Ψ† (b)Ψ(b)Ψ† (a)Ψ(a) eq . 0) eq as stated in Eq. a) analogous to Eq. (13. you may start with χ(q. Find the condition for the plasmons not to be 0 damped by single-particle excitations for q < kF .18). (12. a wave function fairly localized in both space and momentum space: ψ(r. t) ≈ ei[k0 ·r−ω (k0 )t] F (r − ∂k ω (k0 ) t). see also the form of σ(q.5 Damping of two dimensional plasmons. Alternatively. τ ) for a translation-invariant system. argue with the help of Appendix A that for a 1 translation-invariant system χ(q. and write this in a form analogous to Eq. that you found above. The task is to understand the arguments q leading to the diagrammatic expansion for χ(˜) given in Eq. . Finally.

εk < 4εF . The experimental result ˜ is compared to theory based on RPA calculations of A(k. εk > 4εF . while at higher energies. we can through the power Pk absorbed by the wave packet centered around k deduce the time evolution of k as follows.2 Measuring the discontinuity of the distribution function. q) of incoming photons of energy ω1 being scattered with the energy and momentum loss ω and q. q ) ∝ ˜ dεk nk = dεk A(k. the intensity I(ω1 . ω ) in Eq. I(ω1 . Combine the two classical expressions for the power. q). q) = N (ω1 . ω) is the spectral function and q ≡ mω /q − q/2. At low energies. t) = − V (r.58) and use it to calculate the distribution function nk .316 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 13 For external forces F(r. ω ) nF (ω ). ω . q ) from X-ray scattering on sodium. Pk = F · vk and Pk = εk . ω ). q ) ≡ I(ω1 . is proportional to the number of scattering events on all electrons fulﬁlling the simple kinematic constraint: conservation of energy and momentum. Instead of using RPA. 21#! ) % % $ 21#! ) $ $ &) & $ $ &) & $ 0& $ &0 $ &( $ P RSG 6 Q 8 7P I H &( $ G 3E6 W WP 5 Y V X W 6 P FX &' $ 9 3 G 5 7EF 5 D C 5 &' $$ $ B A @ 9 78 6 5 34 " "# ! & % " "# ! & % $ U$ ¢ T $ $ ¢ ©¤¥ § ¦¥ £ © ¤ £¨§ ¦ £ £ ¤¤ £¥ ¢ ¡ . For an interacting electron gas discuss the spectral function A(k. see Fig. discuss the following simple model for A(k. Exercise 13. Fig. ω ) containing the essential features. 2m m We omit the explicit reference to the ﬁxed ω1 and work with I(q. t) varying slowly in space and time. ω . respectively. ω ) dk nk δ(ω + εk − εk+q ) ∝ dk nk δ ω − 1 2 1 q − q·k . q2 ˜ q2 ˜ q q −∞ 2π 2m 2m where A(k. Demonstrate the existence of a Fermi surface characterized by the renormalization parameter Z. In the so-called impulse approximation for Compton scattering. (14. ω . (b) contains an experi˜ mental determination of I(q. Show ˜ that ∞ 1 ∞ 1 ∞ dω I(q. The value of Z can be inferred from X-ray Compton scattering on the electron gas. to show ˙ 1 ˙ k = F. (a). a renormalized quasiparticle pole of weight Z coexists with a broad background of weight 1 − Z.

This exercise deals with the Kubo formula method applied to impurity scattering in metals. ω ) = Zk 2πδ(ω −ξk ) + (1−Zk ) π θ(W −|ω |).e.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 14. collisions In the homogenous and static case. ω) = 1 − ωp /ω 2 . The Boltzmann equation with inclusion of e-e scattering therefore reads ˙ ∂t (nk ) + k · k nk + vk · r nk =− 1 τk . Exercise 13. absence of external forces. Consider a monochromatic electro−iωt e incident on a metal occupying the half-space x > 0. the left hand side is expected to be zero. Explain Fig.e. The scattering life time in Eq. x k . Hint: Each Na atom donates one electron to the conduction band. (13. The conductivity is in the weak scattering limit given by σxx = e2 1 π V kx m GR (k. Set D = 0 (0. W Zk = Z. 0)ΓRA (k.e. one atom in each corner and one in the center of the cube) with a side-length of 4.23 ˚.4 Why are metals shiny? According to Eq. Explain this. that the right hand side is also zero if we use n = nF . Hint: you may need × ×E = − 2 E. 317 Here W is the large but unspeciﬁed band width of the conduction band. 0. and explain why (polished) metals appear shiny. ω 2 −ω 2 Exercises for Chapter 14 Exercise 14. for k > 2kF . k. ω)E and prove that 2 E(x) = pc2 E(x). for k < 2kF 1. A It is observed that Na is transparent for UV-light with a wavelength shorter than 206 nm.45) expresses the time between scatterings assuming some unknown distribution function n(k). Show that the usual Fermi-Dirac equation solves the Boltzmann equation in this case. Hint: show and use that nF (ε) [1 − nF (ε )] exp (β(ε − ε )) = [1 − nF (ε)] nF (ε ). i. no renormalization occurs. 0). For which frequencies does the wave propagate through the metal.1 The integral equation for the vertex function in the Born approximation. and for which is it reﬂected? From X-ray diﬀraction we know that the unit-cell of Na is body-centered cubic (i. i.3 Detailed balance. 0)GA (k. (c). and the quasiparticle is in fact the bare electron: A(k.75) we have in the semiclassical high 2 frequency. ˆz magnetic wave with E = E(x)e Use the high-frequency limit of Maxwell’s equations in matter. (14. long wave limit that ε(0. Exercise 13.

m e2 nτ0 . 0. 2. Now relax the assumption of short range scatterers but assume instead that u(k − k ) −1 is slowly varying on the scale given by the width of the spectral function. 0). k . 0) = x kx 1 + m V nimp |u(k − k )|2 GR (k . 0. x k 1.2 Life time of the Green’s function in the Born approximation. Now σ= e2 nτ tr . If the impurity potential is short ranged argue that we can approximate it by a constant |u(k − k )|2 ≈ |u0 |2 . i. τ0 . where τ tr −1 = 2πd(εF )nimp Hint: use the ansatz ΓRA (k) = (k/m)γ. k. Explain the physical meaning of the last term and why it does not appear in the result for point-like impurities. Exercise 14. m where τ0 is the Born approximation life time −1 τ0 = 2πd(εF )nimp |u0 |2 . . you will ﬁnd for |k| = kF that ΓRA (k) = with |k | = kF and show that dΩ = d(εF ) k + m 2 dΩ |u(k − k )|2 ΓRA (k ).e. dφ dθ sin θ is an integration over the angle of k . Show that the retarded impurity averaged Green’s function in the Born approximation decays exponentially in time and given a physical interpretation of this result. In this more realistic case. m k·k dΩ |u(k − k )|2 1 − 2 4π kF . 0)ΓRA (k . 0)GA (k .318 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 14 In the Born approximation the Dyson equation for the vertex function is ΓRA (k. Prove that in this case ΓRA = x and use this to ﬁnd that σ= kx .

5) ∗ ω − ξk + i τ2∗ If we include the real part in this way (contrary to Sec. ε) ≈ . ω) = |u0 |2 GR (p − Q. ω) is ζ(Q. where it is neglected) does it lead to a renormalization of the Drude formula? . vk = k/m and the impurity potential in the collision term.4) Note that it is G and not G0 that enters in the self-consistent approximation. Here we consider the weak localization correction at ﬁnite frequency. 1 − ζ(Q. ikn ) = nimp k |uk−k |2 G k . the Boltzmann equation. i. (B. V p 1 and long wavelength QvF τ0 1 limit Show that in this case.3 Weak localization at ﬁnite frequency. ω) = W0 ζ(Q. The real part leads to a renormalization of the mass and to a renormalization of the spectral weight at the Fermi surface.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 14 319 Exercise 14. the low frequency ωτ0 of ζ(Q. 14. Show that the frequency provide a small Q cut-oﬀ in the conductivity correction and try to explain why. In this case the self-energy reads 1SCBA (k. The Drude formula can be derived from e. ω) ≈ 1 + iωτ0 − Dτ0 Q2 . (B.g.3 and Exercise 5.e. The impurities only enter in the scattering time. ω) . 0). The only change in the formula for the weak localization is through the Cooperon which becomes instead C RA (Q. ω) 1 ζ(Q. where the mass enters through the velocity. Let us for instance consider the lowest order self-consistent Born approximation. ikn . when expanding the Green’s function near the Fermi surface we can write Z GR (k. ω)GA (p. If we think about impurity scattering from a microscopic point of view the self energy has both a real and an imaginary part.4 Mass renormalization in Drude formula? The mass that appears in the Drude formula is the bare electron mass (possibly including bandstructure eﬀects). Exercise 14.

z = mV0 / k. where V = µR −µL e + ~ ( ψ+ ∗ ∂x ψ+ − c.2 Landauer-B¨ ttiker formula at ﬁnite temperatures. x > 0. Suppose now that the two ends of the wire have diﬀerent + chemical potential. 1 √ teikx . How would the result look if the transverse conﬁnement was given by a square well? . Hints: vk = 2mi k k Exercise 15. 2m ∂x2 2 eikx + re−ikx .c. where Tn (E) is the transmission probability of a given mode Tn (E) = n t∗ tn n .05. L and likewise for ψ − . For a general mesoscopic system u show that the linear conductance at ﬁnite temperature is generalized to G= 2e2 h ∞ dE − n 0 ∂nF (E − µ) ∂E Tn (E). Show that the current at low temperature becomes I = 2e k>0 + − vk nF (εk − µL ) − vk nF (εk − µR ) = 1 2e2 V. nn Using a model electron waveguide. the transmission coeﬃcient is supposed to be 1 Tn (E) = Θ(E − En ) = Θ(E − (n + ) ωT ). 0.1 Conductance of a delta function barrierAs a model system of a mesoscopic 1D channel take the following Hamiltonian H=− Consider a scattering state + ψk (x) = 1 √ L ∂2 + V0 δ (x) . Plot for example G(h/2e2 ) versus µ/ ωT for two diﬀerent temperatures: kT = (0.15) ωT . h 1 + (V0 / vF )2 εF . Show that ψ (0+ ) − ψ (0− ) = 2m 2 V0 ψ(0) and use it to ﬁnd r and t. where the potential in the transverse direction is a parabolic conﬁnement. so that the distribution function for electrons in the states ψk is given − by nF (εk − µL ). 2 where ωT is the frequency of transverse oscillation. while the distribution function for electrons in states ψk is nF (εk − µR ).) = |t|2 = 1 − |r|2 with t = (1 + iz)−1 .320 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 15 Exercises for Chapter 15 Exercise 15. x < 0. Find an expression for the conductance G and plot the G as a function of µ.

which is also the starting point used by BCS. i. which means that we choose k = −k and σ = −σ . we look speciﬁcally at the interaction between such pairs. in a shell around the Fermi surface. where q is the exchanged momentum and vs is the sound velocity. (16. i. It is attractive for small frequencies. kσ † c† k+qσ ck −qσ ck σ ckσ . . The scale of this energy is given by the Debye energy.e. In order to separate the eﬀect of the interaction on the Fermi sea and on the extra pair of electrons. 321 Exercises for Chapter 16 Exercise 16. and with interactions according to (2). |k | = kF and energy equal to zero. with |k|. i. This observation lead Cooper to study the following model Hamiltonian. According to the variational principle the lowest energy of the two is closest to the groundstate energy. The pairs are thus supposed to consist of electrons with opposite momentum. c† ↑ c† ↓ c−k↓ ck↑ . Exercise 16. H = H0 + H (1a) H0 = kσ (εk − µ) c† ckσ . BCS model Hamiltonian. Anticipating the physical idea that the electrons due to the attractive interaction will form pairs with zero total momentum and spin. 16 it is shown that the electron-phonon interaction leads to an eﬀective electron-electron interaction.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 16.7). We wish to ﬁnd the energy of a pair of electrons added to a ﬁlled Fermi sea state.1 Phonon Green’s function Prove Eq.2 Cooper’s instability In this exercise we shall see that an attractive electron-electron interaction leads to an instability of the Fermi surface.e. µ + ωD ]. the sum is further restricted to involve only states outside the Fermi sea. In Chap. k −k (2) Variational calculation of FS with an added pair of electrons.e. (2) becomes H = −V0 k. 2) The electron pair forms a coherent superposition of pairs not necessary at the Fermi surface. for energies smaller than qvs .k >kF . k −k (3) We look at the diﬀerence between the two situations: 1) The electron pair is added to the Fermi surface. After relabelling we have H = −V0 c† ↑ c† ↓ c−k↓ ck↑ . Thus Eq. (1b) H =− V0 2 (1c) Here the sum is restricted such that all initial and ﬁnal states lie in an interval given by [µ − ωD .

(4) k↑ −k↓ k Show that αk satisﬁes the following equation. (7) where the validity of the ﬁrst one of course must be checked at the of the calculation. The tunnel Hamiltonian is † HT = tkp c† fpσ + t∗ fpσ ckσ . the so-called Josephson eﬀect. which is a superposition of socalled Cooper pairs |ψ = αk c† c† |F S . In the following we assume for simplicity that in the energy range of interest the tunnel matrix element depends weakly on the states k and p. Consider a tunnel junction between two superconductors. respectively. (2εk − EF ) − E (6) In order to ﬁnd the energy E you should make use of the following hierarchy of energy scales E ωD EF . This exercise deals with the supercurrent across a tunnel junction. therefore tkp ≈ t (2) . (1) kp kσ kp where the electron operators for the two sides are called c and f . (5) and that this leads to a condition for E given by 1 = V0 k >kF 1 . αk (2εk − EF ) − V0 k >kF αk = Eαk . (8) Discuss the following two important issues: • Why does this result indicate an instability of the Fermi surface • Could this result have been reached by perturbation theory in V0 ? Exercises for Chapter 17 Exercise 17.1 The Josephson eﬀect.322 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 17 For situation 2 we start by an Ansatz wavefunction. i.e. Find that (reinserting ) E = −2 ωD exp (−1/V0 d(EF )) . two superconductors separated by an insulator. We apply the relations to study the current-voltage characteristic of a tunnel junction in the so-called resistively shunted Josephson junction model. Supercurrent in the equilibrium state.

τ )G12 (p. φc and φf . and ∆ is here taking to be real. The order parameter of each side of the junction have diﬀerent phases. ∂F ∂ HT = (−2e) . Then show that β ∂ t2 eiφ G21 (k. In the following we calculate this so-called supercurrent to second order in the tunneling amplitude. ikn ) ∆d(εF ) 2 ∆d(εF ) 2 ∞ = dξ −∞ 1 (ikn ) − E 2 . The phase diﬀerence between the two side can be absorbed as a phase shift of the tunnel matrix t → e−i(φc −φf )/2 t. Show that to second order in HT ∂ HT ≈ − ∂φ β 0 dτ Tτ HT (τ ) 0 ∂ HT ∂φ 0 =− 1 ∂ 2 ∂φ β 0 dτ Tτ HT (τ )HT 0 .EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 17 The Hamiltonian for the two sides are the usual BCS Hamiltonians Hc = kσ 323 ξk c† ckσ − ∆eiφc kσ k † ξk fkσ fkσ − ∆eiφf kσ k c† c† − ∆e−iφc k↑ −k↓ k † † fk↑ f−k↓ − ∆e−iφf k c−k↓ ck↑ .c. (8) ∂φ β ikn kp where G12 and G21 are the oﬀ-diagonal Nambu Green’s functions deﬁned in Exercise 3. Verify the following steps G21 (k.c. f → eiφf /2 f. This is a current which runs in thermodynamical equilibrium and hence is dissipationless in the sense that it runs without an applied bias (the chemical potential of the two sides is per deﬁnition identical in equilibrium). ikn )G12 (p. (9) 2 =− π 2 kn + ∆2 . (4) by the transformation c → eiφc /2 c. dτ = ∂φ 0 kp ∂ 1 = t2 eiφ G21 (k. ∂φ ∂φ (5) Show that the equilibrium current running between the two superconductors is IJ = I = (−2e) (6) ˙ where I is the operator for the electrical current I = (−e) Nc . (2). −τ ) + c. (3a) (3b) Hf = where the two superconductors are assumed to be equal. F is the free energy and φ = φc − φf is the phase diﬀerence. (7) where the expectation value 1 ∂ 2 ∂φ β 0 dτ Tτ HT (τ )HT 0 means taken with respect to Eqs. ikn ) + c. f−k↓ fk↑ . ikn ) = k p G12 (p.

Thus 1 ˙ V + IC sin φ = φ + IC sin φ. One can measure this frequency by applying external RF radiation to the junction. IC dτ τ= 2eIc R t. We can simply include this phase change in the time dependence of by the following substitution c(t) → c(t)eiV t/2 . R 2eR Write this equation in the dimensionless form I = IN + IJ = η= I dφ = + sin φ. 2eRN 2 = sin φ −1 where the normal state tunnel resistance is given by RN = πe2 d2 t2 / . (2) which is called the second Josephson relations. 2 (10) Exercise 17. which has many applications. (3) (4) f (t) → f (t)e−iV t/2 .2 RSJ model of a Josephson junction. The ﬁnite voltage changes the energy of electrons of the two sides and hence their phase.e. I. The second Josephson relation adds interesting dynamics to the Josephson junction because of the intrinsic frequency 2eV / . With a ﬁnite bias voltage across the junction.e. i. Now we look at the current-voltage characteristic of a Josephson junction in the RSJ model. a junction with a ﬁxed current.324 and use it to ﬁnd that IJ = − π∆d(εF )t 2 2 EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 17 1 β ikn 2 kn 1 + ∆2 e (πd(εF )t) ∆β ∆ tanh 2 2 ∆π ∆β = sin φ tanh . (5) (6) . This is known as the ﬁrst Josephson relation. which corresponds to φ → φ + 2eV t. one can still have a supercurrent running. i. This current is made up by the sum of the supercurrent and the normal current. The current is carried by two kinds of electrons: those that are paired and those that are not. The pair current is described by the Josephson relations while the normal current is supposed to be given by Ohm’s law. (1) is still valid. a current carried by Cooper pairs and the relation IJ = IC sin φ. Consider a current biased setup. The Josephson junction thus acts as a voltage to frequency converter. or 2e ˙ φ = V.

I > IC (7) ˙ ˙ Hint: ﬁrst ﬁnd solutions for φ = 0 and then a “running” solution where φ = 0. For the dφ 1 T 2π last situation the average voltage is V = T 0 dt dt = T . (6) and show that the average voltage becomes V = RIc 0. . Here T is the period of the voltage or the time it takes to increase φ by 2 π.EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 17 325 The voltage is time dependent. I < IC (I/IC )2 − 1. but in a dc measurement one measures the average voltage. Integrate Eq.

13 time dependence. 91 time-derivative. 73 art. insulator. 29. 130 many-particle boson systems. 82 Bohm-Staver sound velocity from RPA-screened phonons. 78 basis states change in second quantization. 241 Born approximation ﬁrst Born approximation. 53 Bohr radius a0 . 140 Bloch Bloch theory of lattice electrons. 56 in second quantization. 40 electron orbitals. 54 326 . 120 analytic continuation. 55 bosons. 3 Green’s function. 13 anti-symmetrization operator. 233 advanced function. 190. 45 Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieﬀer (see BCS). 10 deﬁning commutators. 161. 153 Bohr radius a0 . 3 ground state energy E0 . 10 fermions. 51 boson creation/annihilation operators. 162 analytic function. 12 bra state. 24 BCS theory eﬀective Hamiltonian. 51. 68 atom artiﬁcial. 163 Aharonov-Bohm eﬀect. 12 many-particle fermion systems. 11 deﬁnition. 81 interaction potential model. 1st order. 147 annihilation operators 1D phonons. 165 many-particle basis. 5 frequency. 14 orthonormal basis set. 283 semi-classical. 193 in conductivity. 194 spectral function. 16 complete basis set. 2 systems with diﬀerent particles. 261 self-consistent Born approximation. 145 anti-commutator.Index acoustic phonons Debye phonons. 40 Boltzmann distribution. density matrix. 192 Born-Oppenheimer approximation. semiconductor. 33 bandstructure. 7 antiferromagnetism. 259 full Born approximation. 35 metal. 83 tunneling spectroscopy. 158 Bloch’s theorem. 35 deﬁnition. 52 graphical representation. 26 Boltzmann equation collision free. 31 attractive pair-interaction. 55 adiabatic continuity. 161 Anderson’s model for magnetic impurities. 34 for 1D phonons. 82 self-consistent gap equation. 233 with impurity scattering. 34 Bogoliubov transformation. the art of mean ﬁeld theory. 285 mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian. 2 Brillouin zone bandstructure diagram. 239 introduction. 279 Bose-Einstein distribution. 40 in metal. 281 bandstructure diagram extended zone scheme. 35 Bloch’s equation.

65 Coulomb blockade. 256 RPA renormalization. 279 direct process. 84 crossed diagram deﬁnition. 31 correlation function 327 charge-charge correlation.INDEX broadening of the spectral function. 21 partition function. 44 in conductivity. 23 0 electron-phonon. 213 exchange process. C] + [A. 269 introduction. 100 diagrammatics. 254 d-shell. 148 Debye acoustical Debye phonons. 52 for quasiparticles. 153 Coulomb interaction combined with phonons. 59. 186 Kubo formalism. 217. 92 [AB. 13 general deﬁnition. 63 electron-phonon. 220 creation operators 1D phonons. 59 Debye model. 208 conserving approximation. C] = A{B. 160 Cooper Cooper pairs. 238 contour integral. 284 . 121 conductance quantization. 100. 269 core electron. Π deﬁnition. C]B. 113 universal ﬂuctuations. C] = A[B. 27 temperature dependence. 227 screened impurity scattering. jellium model.. 97 correlation hole around electrons. 91 critical temperature Cooper instability. Feynman diagrams.and paramagnetic terms. 218 coupling constant electron interaction strength e2 . 259 continuity equation for ions in the jellium model. 48 charge-charge correlation function. 98 relation to dielectric function. 166 convergence of Matsubara functions. 3 set of quantum numbers ν. C}B. 52. 26 carbon nanotubes. 81 instability. 254 general Kubo formalism. 43 divergence. 284 cooperons in conductivity. 285 ferromagnetism. 283 integration over. 39 collapse of wavefunction. 44. 196 current density operator dia. 136 broken symmetry. 11 complete basis states. RPA-renormalized. 22 current-current correlation function. RPA-screening. 74 superconductivity. general. 253 Kubo formalism. 23 Yukawa potential. 240 connected Feynman diagrams. 3 conductance conductance ﬂuctuations. 203 conservation of four-momentum. 11 deﬁning fermions. 267 maximally crossed. 116 conductivity cooperons. 81 instability of the Fermi surface. 13 time dependence. 10 fermions. 264 suppressed in the Born approx. 268 crossing diagrams deﬁnition. 27 momentum. 181 second quantization. 62 electron-phonon. lattice model. 104 semi-classical approach. 2 commutator [AB. C} − {A. 103 chemical potential deﬁnition. 52 Debye energy or frequency ωD . 64 electron-phonon. 92 deﬁning bosons. 100 mesoscopic system. 103 current-current correlation. 99 second quantization. 71 canonical ensemble. 55 bosons.

140 diﬀerential equation classical Green’s function. 264 Dulong-Petit value for speciﬁc heat. 240.328 Debye temperature TD . 269 full Born approximation. 26 non-interacting bosons. 246. 226 Kubo formalism. 46 Drude formula. 144. 283 eﬀective mass approximation. 102 relation to polarization function χ. 38 phonons. 282 dephasing. 7 diagonal Hamiltonian. 127 many-body Green’s function. 190 for Πxx . 179 ﬁrst Born approximation. 208 pair interactions in real space. 194 single-particle in external potential. Debye model. 172 Slater. 272 determinant ﬁrst quantization. 29 non-interacting fermions. 45 donor atoms.. 19 lattice vibrations. 136 density waves. 285 delta function δ(r). 143 distribution function Boltzmann. 179 electric potential classical theory. 7 in Wick’s theorem. 59 Debye wave number kD . 223 relation to conductivity. Debye model. 226 the RPA-bubble and phonons. 121 dissipation due to electron-hole pairs. 264. 108. RPA. 256 impurity averaged electrons. 226 self-consistent Born approximation. 184 valence electrons. 59 spectral function. 28 Maxwell-Boltzmann. 193 impurity and interaction. 257 for cooperon. 38 phase coherence. 140 non-interacting electrons. 58 eigenstate deﬁnition. 22 density matrix operator. renormalization. BCS. 1 Einstein model of speciﬁc heat. 59 density of states. 28 Boltzmann. 31 . 205 pair-scattering vertex Λ. Gibbs. 155 irreducible polarization function χirr . 72 density-density correlation function the pair-bubble χ0 ≡ −Π0 . mesoscopic systems. 284 polarization function χ. external potential. 237 electron core electrons. 133 diamagnetic term in current density. 251. 60 dynamical matrix D(k). 26 Bose-Einstein. 216 the RPA-bubble χRPA . 52 elastic scattering Matsubara Green’s function. 189 pair interactions in Fourier space. 283 phonon mediated. 146 Dirac bra(c)ket notation for quantum states. 127 external and induced. 35 eﬀective mass. 1 eigenvalue. 131 single-particle Green’s function. 99 dielectric function ε equation of motion derivation. RPA. 27 density of states measured by tunneling. 231 of electron gas. 52 optical phonons. 1 superposition. 203 disorder. 280 Coulomb and phonons. 2 delta function δ(r). 104 diﬀerential conductance. 178 eﬀective electron-electron interaction Coulomb and phonons. 113 Fermi-Dirac. 59 frequency cut-oﬀ. 4 density in second quantization. deﬁnition of. jellium. 31 density of states. 60 Einstein phonons in the jellium model. 4 disconnected Feynman diagrams. 251 eigenmodes electromagnetic ﬁeld. 57 Dyson equation Feynman diag. 29 INDEX electron reservoir.

43 full self-energy diagram. 243 electron-hole pairs excitations. 48 2D: GaAs heterostructures. 264. 37 Fermi sea with interactions. 53 basis states. Cooper instability. 171 introduction. 13 deﬁning commutators. 276 general introduction. 147 single-particle Green’s function. 36 Fermi wavenumber kF . 244. 51 graphical representation. 36 Fermi wave length λF . 38 ground state energy. 121 ergodicity assumption. 88 in proof of Wick’s theorem. 286 Fermi sea. 144. 25 extended zone scheme. 145 ergodic. 218. 45 introduction. 51 equation of motion Anderson’s model. 46 3D: metals and semiconductors. 75 Feynman diagrams cancellation of disconnected diagrams.INDEX electron gas. 72 Stoner model. 214. 31 electron gas. 33 electron interaction strength e2 . 165 many-particle basis. 23 0 electron wave guides. 223 ﬁrst order perturbation. 145 Matsubara Green’s function. 57 frequency domain. 70 inﬁnite perturbation series. 36 Fermi’s golden rule. 202 ferromagnetism critical temperature. 177 static ion lattice. 35 motion in external potentials. 220 Landau damping. 61. 39 ground state energy. 116 electron-electron scattering attractive interaction. 281 Cooper instability. 13 frequency. 28. 144 Fermi velocity vF . 5 creation/annihilation operators. 36 Fermi sea. 63. 284 dephasing. 169 non-interacting particles. 155 interpretation of RPA. interacting attractive interaction. 222 Landau damping. 220 electron gas. 245 Fermi-Dirac distribution. deﬁnition. 36 Fermi sea diagrams. 230 plasma oscillations. 38 Feynman diagrams. 275 the sound velocity. 147 Heisenberg operators. 177 ﬁnite temperature. 42 Fermi sea. 63 electronic plasma oscillations graphical representation. 222 Hartree–Fock mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian. 73 order parameter. 220. 38 jellium model. 233 microscopic basis. 41. 250 Thomas-Fermi screening. 228 second order perturbation. 276 combined with Coulomb interaction. 63 the jellium model. 231 electron-phonon interaction adiabatic electron motion. 14 fermion loop. 214 full theory. 272 life-time. 149 derivation of RPA. non-interacting Bloch theory. excitations. 240. 43 thermodynamic potential Ω. 275 the lattice model. 213 general considerations. 35 329 Fermi Fermi energy εF . 237 fermion deﬁnition. 53 umklapp process. 281 dielectric properties and screening. 279 Feynman diagrams. in general 0D: quantum dots. 203 . 49 1D: carbon nanotubes. 219 Fermi liquid theory introduction. 153 for ions. 74 introduction. 161. 33 density of states.

150. 188 pair interactions in Fourier space. 170 classical. 27 partition function. 131 translation-invariant system. many-body system. 282 Schr¨dinger equation. 135 quadratic. 208 interaction line in real space. 135. 225 self-consistent Born approximation. 160 introduction. 131 imaginary time. 206 equation of motion. 208 pair interactions in real space. 245 retarded. 39 for ions. 26 grand canonical density matrix. 127 Lehmann representation. 27 Hartree–Fock approximation. 193 impurity averaged single-particle. 254 free electrons. 278 ﬁrst quantization many-particle systems. 78 Landau gauge. 205 pair interactions. 133 non-interacting particles. 145 retarded. 204 irreducible diagrams. 201 pair interactions. 161 free energy deﬁniton. G numerator. 27 ensemble. 127 dressed. 275 greater and lesser. 127 renormalization. 52 . 199 polarization function χ. 182 electron-phonon interaction. Matsubara. 204 pair interactions. 4 name. 131 retarded. 188 interaction line in Fourier space. 202 phonon mediated pair interaction. 67 GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As heterostructures. 207. 204 Feynman rules electron-impurity scattering. 69 four-vector/four-momentum notation. one-body system. 158 Green’s function n-particle. 10. many-body system.330 Cooper instability. 179 impurity averaged Green’s function. 70 Fock self-energy for pair interactions. 194 single-particle. 189 irreducible diagrams. 27 in mean ﬁeld theory. 70 the interacting electron gas. 179 ﬁrst Born approximation. 69 Hartree–Fock approximation introduction. 170 harmonic oscillator length. 70 Hartree self-energy. 47 Gibbs distribution. 177 topologically diﬀerent diagrams. 19 transversality condition. scattering. 130 RPA-screened phonons. pair interactions. 132 two particle. 284 electron-impurity scattering. G denominator. 2 Fock approximation for interactions. 128 o single-particle. 18 second quantization. 146. 276 external potential scattering. 18 Hartree approximation for interactions. 190 full Born approximation. 46 gauge breaking of gauge symmetry. 70 heat capacity for electrons. 184 external potential scattering. 54 basic theory. 134 Poisson’s equation. 132 free phonons. 147 Matsubara functions. equation of motion. pair interaction. imp. 27 gravitation. external potential. 255 Fourier transformation 1D ion vibrations. 19 Gauss box. 69 mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian. 209 Hartree–Fock approximation. 209 Fock space. 291 Coulomb interaction. 1 single-particle systems. 1 Greek letters. 141 Hamiltonian diagonal. 3 INDEX radiation ﬁeld.

264. 90. 149 Hubbard model.. 188 in conductivity. 223 time evolution. 35 ket state. 2 kinetic energy operator including a vector potential. 97 dielectric function. 4 Heisenberg Heisenberg picture. 88 real space Matsubara Green’s fct. 33 Heisenberg model. 220 interaction line general pair interaction in real space. 52 electron-phonon interaction. 63 full electronic self-energy. 217. 189 pair interaction. 200 interference. t0 ). 225 iterative solution. 255 renormalization by RPA-screening. Hamiltonian. 115 u RPA-screening in the electron gas. 208 RPA screened Coulomb line. 33 Hamiltonian. 128 331 jellium model eﬀective electron-electron interaction. GaAs/Ga1−x Alx As. 227 interaction picture imaginary time. 75 hybridization. 100 conductivity. 280 Einstein phonons. 31 irreducible Feynman diagrams impurity scattering. 259 Landau and Fermi liquid theory. 1 hopping. 98. 9 heterostructures. 227 RPA screened impurity line. 40 imaginary time discussion. 204 pair interaction in Fourier space. 214 oscillating background. 222 self-energy for interacting electrons. 205 polarization function χirr . 214 single-particle Green’s function.INDEX Heaviside’s step function θ(x).. 3 ground state energy E0 . conductivity. 3 gauge. 253 impurity self-average. 51 forming a static lattice. ionic ferromagnets.n . 148 impurity scattering. 227 inelastic light scattering. magnetic. 158 Green’s function. 134 . 265 ions ionic plasma oscillations. 139 ladder diagram. 88 model of ferromagnetism. 159 introduction. 4 Kubo formalism conductance. 254 correlation function. 21 kinetic momentum. 184 impurity-scattering line Feynman rules. 85 electron gas ground state energy. 97 tunnel current. 158 Greek letters. 148 hydrogen atom Bohr radius a0 . 162 integration over the coupling constant. 3 Landauer-B¨ttiker formula u heuristic derivation. 160 impurities. 95 Landauer-B¨ttiker formula. 53 electron-phonon interaction. 73 in a metal. 21 second quantization. 73 helium. 233 damping and plasma oscillations. 52 static case. 230 eigenstates. 113 linear response derivation. 33 lattice vibrations 1D phonon Hamiltonian. 144 inﬁnite perturbation series breakdown at phase transistions. 115 lattice model basis in real space. 102 general introduction. 21 Kronecker’s delta function δk. 178 ˆ time-evolution operator U (t. integral eqs. 90 inﬁnitesimal shift η. 40 electron orbitals. 33 basis in reciprocal space. 46 Hilbert space. 61 Lehmann representation deﬁnition.

71 INDEX general Hamiltonian HMF . scattering state. 137 Meissner eﬀect. 68 mean free path. 160 Fourier transformation. molecular beam epitaxy. 194 two-particle polarization function χ. 46 mean ﬁeld theory Anderson’s model. 52 non-interacting particles distribution functions. 66 Hartree–Fock mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian. 168 Matsubara Green’s function elastic scattering. 31 Hamiltonian. 181 general description. 243. 32 observation of plasmons. 135 in conductivity. 46 momentum canonical. 143. 67 the art of mean ﬁeld theory. 167 sums. 181 electrical resistivity. 148 magnetic length. 155 linear response theory introduction. 162 life-time. 72. MBE. simple poles. 132 Hamiltonian. with branch cuts. 46 Newton’s second law for ions in the jellium model. 279 molecular beam epitaxy. 108 nucleus. 12 fermions. 206 interacting electrons in real space. 165 sums. 3 magnetic moment. 91 tunnel current. 261 Matsubara Green’s function. 115 u mesoscopic system. 113 time evolution. 179 electron-impurity scattering. 74. phase transistions. 139 magnetic impurities. 188 interacting elec. 150 BCS mean ﬁeld Hamiltonian. 78 mesoscopic disordered systems. 208 interacting electrons in Fourier space. evaluation of. 2 second quantization. ω). 65 mean ﬁeld approximation. ω). 262 Lindhard function. and GR . 160 relation to retarded function. 28 equation of motion. 135 spectral function A0 (kσ. 190 free phonons. 10 . 82 broken symmetry. 161 frequency. 9 mass renormalization. 199 RPA-screened phonons. 161 sums. 31 occupation number operator bosons. 149 magnetization. G< . 282 self-consistent Born approximation. 193 impurity averaged single-particle. 224 maximally crossed diagrams. 150. 243 MOSFET. 70 introduction. equation of motion. 268 MBE. 161 Green’s function. 135 normalization of quantum states. 95 Landauer-B¨ttiker formula.332 for G> . 107 metal disordering and random impurities. introduction. 219 Migdal’s theorem. 107 measuring the spectral function. 265 systems. 21 kinetic. 147. 149 many-body system single-particle Green’s function. 254 Matsubara function. 121 physics. 229 Thomas-Fermi screening in metals. 164 quasiparticles. in Fourier space. 236. 253 regime. 275 full Born approximation. 21 relaxation. 240. 14 introduction. 3 normalization. 67 partition function ZMF . 233 retarded Green’s function GR (kσ. 147 Green’s functions. 131 ﬁrst quantization. 169 convergence of. 182 ﬁrst Born approximation. 134 Matsubara function.

19 permanent for bosons. 264. 27 333 in mean ﬁeld theory. 99 particle-particle scattering in the collision term.INDEX occupation number representation. 7. Kubo formula. 10 operator adjoint. 186 phase space. Green’s function. 208 self-energy in real space. 40 spin matrices. 281 RPA-renormalized Green’s function. 59 dephasing. 216 self-energy diagram. 275 RPA renormalization. 88 Hermitian. 228 ionic plasma frequency. 26 grand canonical ensemble. 251 life-time. 133 tunneling. 178 inﬁnite order. 52 graphical representation. 245 phase transition breakdown of perturbation theory. 7 in ﬁrst quantization. 55 1D lattice vibrations. 36 photons. 5. 53 electrons. 205 Feynman diagrams. 208 Feynman rules in real space. iqn ). 52 phonon branches. 171 permutation group SN . 211 in the RPA self-energy. 72 pair interactions Dyson equation in Fourier space. 194 order parameter deﬁnition. 282 second quantization. 55. 222 inﬁnite order. 67 Pauli exclusion principle. 72 list of order parameters. Debye model. 138 pair condensate. 184 phase coherence length lϕ . 85 broken symmetry. 208 Dyson equation in real space. 90 second quantization. 60 free Green’s function. 7 in Wick’s theorem. 90 perturbation theory ﬁrst order. 41 inﬁnite order. 55 relevant operator Aqλ . 243 partition function canonical ensemble. 71 order parameters. 275 general introduction. 2 boson creation/annihilation. 204 self-energy in Fourier space. 7 Heisenberg equation of motion. 199 Feynman rules in Fourier space. 87 fermion creation/annihilation. t0 ). 89 trace Tr. 264 phase coherence for electrons. 141 optical theorem. 214 linear response. 218 Feynman diagram Π0 (q. 72 overlap of wavefunctions localized/extended states. 90 phase coherence. 216 paramagnetic term in current density. 148 particle propagation. 210 the correlation function χ0 ≡ −Π0 . 51 Hamiltonian for jellium phonons. 14 ˆ time evolution operator U (t. 53 density of states. 19 expansion of e−iHt . 13 ﬁrst quantization. 172 permutation. 10 electromagnetic ﬁeld. 272 eigenmodes in 3D. 58 Einstein model of speciﬁc heat. 56 optical spectroscopy. scattering theory. 1 real time ordering Tt . 205 pair-bubble calculation of the pair-bubble. 95 second order. 128 ˆ time-evolution operator U (t. t0 ). ground state energy. electron gas. 52 . 72 phonons 1D annihilation/creation operators. electron gas. 27 optical phonons Einstein phonons. 21 periodic boundary conditions 1D phonons. 43 single particle wavefunction. 58 plasma frequency for electron gases in a metals. interacting electrons. 244.

113 relaxation time approximation. 281 reservoir. 2 free particle. 47 Green’s function. 228 ionic plasma oscillations. 178 quadratic Hamiltonian. 228 semi-classical treatment. 247 eﬀective mass. 140 quantum eﬀects. 143. 184 quantum correction. 79 single electrons. 228 plasmons dynamical screening. 246 . 116 quantum state bra and ket state. 135. 2 hydrogen. 226 Feynman diagrams. 229 plasma oscillations. 108. 150. 19 probability current conservation. 163 reciprocal lattice basis. 147 Green’s function. 230 plasmons. 161 Roman letters. 225 Kubo formalism. 51 Landau damping. 107 quantum ﬁeld operator deﬁnition. 4 quantum point contact. 273 quantum dots introduction. 57 photons. 233 life-time. 130 single-particle in external potential. 131. 51 interacting electron gas in RPA. 103 momentum space. 25. 213 rational function. 188 the RPA self-energy. 144 random impurities. 246. 237 Poisson’s equation GaAs heterostructures. 245 of phonons by RPA-screening. 108 resistivity (see conductivity). 170 quantum coherence macroscopic in superconductivity. 220 Fermi liquid theory. 19 Raman scattering. 2 time evolution. 243 renormalization constant Z. 158 RPA for the electron gas Coulomb and impurity lines. 33 reduced zone scheme. 146. 136 propagator Green’s function. 251 Green’s function. 35 reﬂection amplitude. 253. 256 impurity scattering. 173 irreducible Feynman diagrams. 127 polarization function χ Dyson equation. 110 reﬂectionless contact. 181 general introduction. 49 tunneling spectroscopy. 223 two-particle Matsubara Green’s fct. 186 quantum number ν Feynman rules.. 224 polarization vectors phonons. 153 electron-hole pair interpretation. 235 introduction. 132 relation to Matsubara function. 240 resummation of diagrams current-current correlation. 225 free electrons. 17 quantum ﬂuctuations in conductance. 33 reciprocal space. 264. 3 orthogonal. 257 deriving the equation of motion. 243 quasiparticle-quasiparticle scattering. Dyson equation.334 plasma oscillations electronic plasma oscillations. 215 retarded function convergence factor. 238 experimental observation in metals. 142 relation to dielectric function ε. 238. 111 probability distribution. 3 INDEX sum over. 17 Fourier transform. 2 quasiparticle deﬁnition. 236 discussion. 181 random matrix theory. 121 random phase approximation (see RPA). 3 Landau states. 243 radiation ﬁeld.

238 semiclassical. 214 irreducible. 283 Bohm-Staver formula. 217 resummation of the self-energy. 108 scattering state. 215 the dielectric function εRPA . 22 particle density. 151 broadening. 189 interacting electrons. 150 ﬁrst Born approximation. 39 sound velocity Bohm-Staver formula. 193 scattering matrix. 14 particle current density. 137 spin Pauli matrices. 1 operators.. 6 free particle state. 24 change of basis. static. 135 physical interpretation. 223 RPA-screened Coulomb interaction. 237 transport equation. RPA. 218 semiclassical. 265 335 self-consistent equation Anderson’s model. 135 spectroscopy optical. 55 free phonons in 3D. 151 general mean-ﬁeld theory. 205 pair-bubble diag. 128 quantum point contact. 67 self-energy due to hybridization. 177 spectral function Anderson’s model. 208 pair interactions in real space. jellium model. 9 basis for diﬀerent particles. 52 sounds waves. gas. 40 scattering length. 190 Fock diagram for pair interactions. 21 second quantization. 193 Hartree diagram for pair interactions. 2 hydrogen orbital. 16 Coulomb interaction. 259 Rydberg. 261 screening. 108 scattering theory optical theorem. 87 o screening dieelectric properties of the elec. 209 impurity averaged electrons. 117 scattering theory. 19 electron-phonon interaction. 58 harmonic oscillator. unit of energy (Ry). 135 ﬁrst Born approximation. 53 Debye model. 226 the polarization function χRPA . 192 in sums with branch cuts. 227 renormalized Coulomb interaction. 21 . 216 self-consistent Born approximation. 141 tunneling.INDEX plasmons and Landay damping. S. 3 Landau state. 128 time reversal symmetry. 3 Slater determinant. points and integrals. 21 statistical mechanics. 7 Sommerfeld expansion. 226 vertex corrections. 257 pair interactions in Fourier space. 194 semi-classical approximation. 61 free phonons in 1D. 112 time-dependent. 209 full Born approximation. 238 Thomas-Fermi screening. 194 Schr¨dinger equation. pair interactions. interacting electrons. 240 single-particle states as N -particle basis. 2 Schr¨dinger picture. 51 space-time. semi-classical. 184 weak localization. dynamical. 22 spin. 23 electromagnetic ﬁeld. 27 self-average for impurity scattering basic concepts. 18 kinetic energy. 21 name. 25 thermal average. 210 RPA self-energy. fermions. 169 measurement. 193 Schr¨dinger equation o Green’s function. 137 non-interacting particles. 128 o transition matrix. 218 second quantization basic concepts. 136 deﬁnition.

255 dressed vertex function. 160 real time Tt . 124 valence electrons. 138 Stoner model of metallic ferromagnetism. 90 time-reversal symmetry. scattering theory. 91 Heisenberg picture. 7 thermal average. 159 Schr¨dinger picture. 277 WKB approximation. 262 wavefunction collapse. 113 transport equation. 264 introduction. 267 transmission coeﬃcients. 4 STM. 63 unit cell. 99 vertex current vertex. 201 phonon Green’s function. 123 Wick’s theorem derivation. 91 interaction picture. S-matrix. 87 o ˆ unitary operator U (t. 254 Green’s function. 89 time-ordering operator imaginary time Tτ .336 spontaneous symmetry breaking breaking of gauge symmetry. 111 universal conductance ﬂuctuations. 81 order parameter. 88 in linear response. 132 transmission amplitude. 78 microscopic BCS theory. 21 Kubo formalism. 153 derivation of RPA. 78 introduction. 145 tunneling scanning microscope. 137 INDEX umklapp process. 75 superconductivity critical temperature. 204 trace of operators. 24. 19 triangular potential well. 97 operator. 119 Yukawa potential deﬁnition. 138 BCS superconductor. 258. Kubo. 218 . 88 linear response. 150. 242 transversality condition. 140 current. 112 time-reversed paths. 284 vertex correction. imaginary time. 220 Thomas-Fermi screening. 27 thermodynamic potential Ω deﬁnition. 84 introduction. 25 step function θ(x). 95 time evolution creation/annihilation operators. 258 electron-phonon vertex. 72 statistical mechanics second quantization. 280 pair-scattering vertex Λ. 268 Ward identity. 31 vector potential electromagnetic ﬁeld. 28 for the interacting electron gas. 130. 213 RPA-screened Coulomb interaction. 266. 121. 193 translation-invariant system conductivity. 170 interacting electrons. 218. 19 kinetic energy. 110. 268. 254. 55 unitarity. 233 transport time. t0 ). 219. 154 discussion. 257 vertex function. 121. 253 mesoscopic systems. 222 time dependent Hamiltonian. 27 transition matrix. 47 truncation Anderson’s model. 2 weak localization and conductivity. 138 spectroscopy. 72 symmetrization operator. 272 topologically diﬀerent diagrams. 78 Meissner eﬀect.

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