This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Sep 24th, 2008 by ayyarao Tags: Gas Insulated substation Gas Insulated Substations(GIS) is a compact, multicomponent assembly enclosed in a ground metallic housing which the primary insulating medium is compressed sulphur hexaflouride(SF6) gas. It generally consists components Of a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) Bus bars Circuit Breakers Disconnecting switches Earthing switches Current transformers Voltage transformers Cable and boxes Gas supply and gas monitoring equipment Densimeters and Local control
Why we need GIS 1) Gas insulated Substations have found a broad range applications in power systems over the last three decades because of their high reliability Easy maintenance, small ground space requirements etc.,. 2) In our country also few GIS units have been in operation and a large number of units are under various stages of installation. 3) Although GIS has been in operation in several years, some of the problems are needful attention 4) These problems include VFTO during switching operations or earth faults and transient enclosure voltages and particle contamination.
d) e) f) g) Frequent flashovers and breakdown occurs. Installation time is also more. installation is not subject to environmental pollutions. as experienced along coastal areas or certain types of industries. industrial townships. where cost of land is very high and higher cost of SF6 insulated switchgear is justified by saving due to reduction in floor area requirement. Disadvantages with Air Insulated Substations: a) b) It requires huge amount of area . c) Since most of the construction is modular and the assembly is done in the works. Each and every component of substation is exposed to air and pollution. More concrete work is necessary. Maintenance cost is more. filled with pressurized SF6 gas.. . c) Particularly in coastal area all the insulators are exposed to air and saline contamination. one site erection time both for supporting structures and switchgear is greatly reduced. b) Such installations are preferred in cosmopolitan cities. etc.Advantages of GIS: a) Because of the entire equipment being enclosed in enclosures. It is not necessary that high voltage or extra high voltage switchgear to be installed out doors.
Conducting contamination (i. Typically a GIB of inner and outer dia 102/292mm have been considered for a 245KV system.1 to 0. Co-efficient of restitution and pressure have been varied from 0. such as breakers and disconnectors. 1) Different metallic contamination viz Cu.1 to 0. copper and silver particles) could.8mm.). Gas Insulated Substations (GIS) can be used for longer times without any periodical inspections. bushing etc. Al and Ag have been considered for the above study. aluminum. Compressed SF6 has been used as an insulating medium as well as arc quenching medium in electrical apparatus in a wide range of voltages. Metallic particles can be either free to move in the GIS or they may be stuck either to an energized electrode or to an insulator surface (spacer.5mm and length from 1mm to 10mm have been used for simulation. seriously reduce the dielectric strength of gas-insulated system B) The origin of these particles : Metallic particles in GIS have their origin mainly from the manufacturing process or they may originate from moving parts of the system. With the change of pressure the movement is found to be almost same for majority of particles considered . 4) Whereas in the case of variation of length from 1mm to 16mm the radial movement increases from 1mm to 9. 2) Wires of radii varying from 0.e.9 and 0.1Mpa to 1Mpa respectively. 3) Typical results show that for a variation of copper particles of radii from 0. the maximum radial movement reduces from 6mm to 1mm. however.2 to 5mm.A) The necessity of this study : Extremely high dielectric properties of SF6 have long been recognized.
The dielectric strength of SF6 gas at atmospheric pressure is approximately three times that of air. colourless and chemically inert. 2. and the voltage required for breakdown of the GIS will be dramatically decreased. Space requirement is only 10 to 25 percent of what is required is a conventional substation. makes them hazardous to the electrical system. The introduction of SF6 gas has revolutionized not only the technology of circuit breakers but also the layout of substations. non toxic. in turn. the particle will act as protrusion on the surface of the electrode. in terms of partial discharges and breakdown. 7. Thus where creation of a substation becomes necessary but adequate space is not available. It is incombustible. as well as the geometry and voltage levels of the system. 1. 5. the particles get more or less influenced by the electric field which. It has arc-quenching properties 3 to 4 times better than air at equal pressure. 3.If a metallic particle crosses the gap and comes into contact with the inner electrode or if a metallic particle adheres to the inner conductor. such as in big cities or otherwise highly populated areas. GIS is the solution . A metallic particle stuck on an insulator surface in a GIS will also cause a significant reduction of the breakdown voltage Depending on the shape of the particles. 4. 6. This enables the substation to be laid in a much lesser space.
In early generation SF6 installations. The concern was the integrity of the seals at the point where the original installation and the expansion came together.other environmentally sensitive installations. The footprint of 765kV conventional substation is enormous. so this problem is less significant today. . Gas insulated substations originated in Japan where the there a major need to develop technology that would allow substations to be made as compact as possible. . It is generally not practical to build an air-insulated substation inside a building. GIS technology is used for installations in areas where the cost of real estate is a significant consideration . The main applications for gas insulated substations today are: . GIS technology is popular in desert and arctic areas because it can be enclosed in a building with some environmental control.indoor installations (which are more common in urban areas for aesthetic reasons). but GIS can easily go inside buildings. Gas insulated substations also contain the electrical components within a Faraday cage and are therefore totally shielded from lightning. something that is not practical with air insulated technology. the ability to provide environmental containment. . One of the problems with GIS technology is that the handful of suppliers. Usually. or the fact that the substation is totally shielded from lightning. In most cases. a dual-pressure approach was required . Modern equipment uses a 'puffer' technique in which SF6 gas is forced into the space between breaker contacts as they are opening.A gas insulated substation is an electrical substation in which the major structures are contained in a sealed environment with sulfur hexafluoride gas as the insulating medium. The additional capital cost is justified based on the reduced cost of real estate. but there are hybrid installations (especially at lower voltages) in which breakers use vacuum interruption. The gas pressure required for SF6 to serve as an interruption medium is much greater than the pressure required for it to be an insulation medium. a purchaser who committed to a GIS installation was perpetually tied to the supplier of that installation for any future expansion needs. manufacturers have overcome the technical issues of assuring the reliability of the seals between dissimilar equipment. GIS installations tend to be much more expensive that air-insulated installations with the same rating. there was also a concern that only the original manufacturer of an installation would be willing to accept the risk of offering an expansion to that installation. the more favorable gas insulated technology becomes.high voltage installations (usually 115kV and above although some manufacturers offer equipment with voltage ratings down to 20kV). and this put the purchaser at the mercy of that supplier in future expansions. but not always. the circuit breakers in gas insulated substations employ SF6 as the interrupting medium as well as the insulating medium. increasing local gas pressure enough to support interruption.one gas pressure in those areas where SF6 is only an insulating medium. In recent years. That was complicated and expensive and required high maintenance. The higher the voltage. In the past. this causes some to be concerned about the competitiveness of commercial offerings. and GIS technology allows a significant size reduction. and a higher pressure inside the breaker interrupting compartment.urban installations. As a result.
Reprint Testing of Gas Insulated Substation with AC Voltage On-Site .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?