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Bluetooth

Bluetooth

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Published by: Sk Imran Islam on Jul 21, 2011
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05/24/2012

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An Overview on

BLUETOOTH
Jaap Haartsen Ericsson Mobile Communications The Netherlands

*Third party marks and brands are the property of their respective owners. **The Bluetooth Specification is still preliminary.All information regarding Bluetooth is subject to change without notice.

PHYSICAL INTEGRATION

Cell phone

PDA

communicator storage notebook

Jaap Haartsen, Ericsson

Oct 1999

2

FUNCTIONAL INTEGRATION

headset

mobiele telefoon

PDA

extern geheugen

notebook

Jaap Haartsen, Ericsson

Oct 1999

3

DESIGN GOALS  low cost  low energy consumption  robust operation  high aggregate capacity  flexible usage  multi-media support  global usage Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 4 .

Ericsson Oct 1999 5 .WHAT DOES BLUETOOTH DO? Cable Replacement Personal Ad-hoc Networks Data/Voice Access Points Jaap Haartsen.

Ericsson Oct 1999 6 .Harald Blåtand ³Bluetooth´ II King of Denmark 940-981 This is one of two Runic stones erected in his capitol city of Jelling  The stone¶s inscription (³runes´) say:  Harald christianized the Danes  Harald made piece  Harald thinks notebooks and cellular phones should be seamlessly connected Jaap Haartsen.

NOKIA. Ericsson Oct 1999 7 . INTEL)  over 1000 adopters  Definition of radio en link protocol  Definition of profiles  License free Jaap Haartsen.GLOBAL INDUSTRY STANDARD  Interoperability  Special Interest Group  5 promoters (ERICSSON. TOSHIBA. IBM.

BLUETOOTH STACK Applications TCP/IP HID RFCOMM Data L2CAP Link Manager Baseband RF RF Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 8 .

1600 hops/s  GFSK modulation  1 Mb/s maximal Jaap Haartsen.45 GHz  79 carriers at 1 MHz spacing  FHSS with nom.BLUETOOTH RF INTERFACE  ISM band at 2. Ericsson Oct 1999 9 .

Ericsson Oct 1999 10 ._2MHz  PRadj._1MHz  PRadj.RECEIVER SPECIFICATIONS  RXsens  C/Ico-channel  PRadj._>2MHz -70 dBm 11 dB 0 dB -30 dB -40 dB Jaap Haartsen.

Ericsson Oct 1999 11 . accuracy 0 dBm +20 dBm 1 MHz ±75 kHz Jaap Haartsen.TRANSMITTER SPECIFICATIONS  PTX_nom  PTX_max (power control)  -20 dBc BW  freq.

BLUETOOTH STACK Applications TCP/IP HID RFCOMM Data L2CAP Link Manager Baseband RF BASEBAND Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 12 .

Ericsson Oct 1999 13 .PICONET slave 3 slave 1 master slave 2 Jaap Haartsen.

PHYSICAL CHANNEL master BD_ADDR p sequence master CLOCK p phase slave 1 master slave 2 slave 3 slave 4 Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 14 .

HOP SELECTION NATIVE CLK phase sequence HOP offset MASTER BD_ADDR Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 15 .

Ericsson Oct 1999 16 .HIGH CAPACITY Freq. time Jaap Haartsen.

ADDRESSING 
Bluetooth Device Address (BD_ADDR) 
48-bit IEEE 802 address  24-bit lower address part (LAP)  8-bit upper address part (UAP) 

Active Member Address (AM_ADDR) 
3-bit active slave address  all-zero broadcast address 

Parked Member Address (PM_ADDR) 
8-bit parked slave address
Jaap Haartsen, Ericsson

Oct 1999

17

CONNECTION ESTABLISHMENT

INQUIRY

PAGE

CONNECTION

Jaap Haartsen, Ericsson

Oct 1999

18

INQUIRY

A

Jaap Haartsen, Ericsson

Oct 1999

19

Ericsson Oct 1999 20 .MAKING CONNECTIONS D slave D slave C A master A B slave B Jaap Haartsen.

Ericsson Oct 1999 21 .FH/TDD CHANNEL f(2k) master t f(2k+1) f(2k+2) slave t 625 Qs Jaap Haartsen.

Ericsson Oct 1999 22 .PACKET FORMAT 72 54 0-2745 access code packet header payload Jaap Haartsen.

ACCESS CODE 34 24 6 BCH LAP BRK 4 64 4 PREAMBLE LSB SYNC WORD TRAILER MSB Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 23 .

PACKET HEADER 3 AM_ADDR 4 TYPE 1 FLOW 1 ARQN 1 SEQN 8 HEC parameter AM_ADDR TYPE FLOW ARQN SEQN HEC information slave active member address payload type LC flow control ACK/NAK retransmit ordering header error check Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 24 .

PHYSICAL LINK DEFINITION SYNCHRONOUS CONNECTION-ORIENTED (SCO) LINK  circuit switching  symmetric. Ericsson Oct 1999 25 . asynchronous services  polling access scheme Jaap Haartsen. synchronous services  slot reservation at fixed intervals ASYNCHRONOUS CONNECTION-LESS (ACL) LINK  packet switching  (a)symmetric.

MIXED LINK EXAMPLE SCO ACL SCO ACL ACL SCO SCO ACL MASTER SLAVE 1 SLAVE 2 SLAVE 3 Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 26 .

Ericsson Oct 1999 27 .MULTIMULTI-SLOT PACKETS 625 Qs f(k) f(k+1) f(k+2) f(k+3) f(k+4) f(k+5) f(k) f(k+3) f(k+4) f(k+5) f(k) f(k+5) Jaap Haartsen.

PACKET TYPES segment type 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 SCO link ACL link NULL POLL FHS DM1 HV1 HV2 HV3 DV AUX1 DM3 DH3 NULL POLL FHS DM1 DH1 1 2 3 4 DM5 DH5 Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 28 .

8 172. Ericsson Oct 1999 29 .8 258.2 108.4 286.3 57.6 Jaap Haartsen.DATA RATES type DM1 DH1 DM3 DH3 DM5 DH5 symmetric 108.8 172.1 390.6 477.9 asymmetric 108.8 172.4 36.7 433.8 387.4 86.2 585.8 54.8 723.

AUTOMATIC RETRANSMISSION A B B X C MASTER SLAVE 1 G F H SLAVE 2 Z Z NAK ACK Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 30 .

FAST ARQ RX CRC check ACK/NAK ACK/NAK retransmission TX new Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 31 .

Ericsson Oct 1999 32 .LINK CONTROL PACKETS  ID packet  NULL packet  POLL packet  FHS packet Jaap Haartsen.

FHS PACKET  BD_ADDR  DAC  AM_ADDR  class of device  paging class  real-time clock Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 33 .

OPERATIONAL STATES    stand-by. scan page. inquiry connection active  hold  sniff  park  Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 34 .

HOLD MODE ACL ACL ACL ACL ACL ACL ACL MASTER LOST SLAVE 1 HOLD INTERVAL SLAVE 2 Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 35 .

SNIFF MODE ACL ACL ACL MASTER LOST SLAVE 1 SNIFF INTERVAL SLAVE 2 Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 36 .

PARK MODE active slave master parked slaves  BEACON  PM_ADDR Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 37 .

BEACONS PARK INTERVAL BC ACL ACL BC MASTER SLAVE X SLAVE 2 SLAVE Y Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 38 .

SCATTERNET LAN access point mobile phone headset printer master slave mouse laptop laptop master/slave Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 39 .

Ericsson Oct 1999 40 .BLUETOOTH STACK Applications TCP/IP HID RFCOMM Data L2CAP Link Manager LMP Baseband RF Jaap Haartsen.

LMP: PICONET MANAGEMENT attach and detach slaves master-slave switch establishing SCO and ACL links handling low-power modes     Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 41 .

LMP: LINK CONFIGURATION supported features quality of service (packet types) power control    Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 42 .

LMP: SECURITY authentication encryption key management    Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 43 .

ACO (96 bit)  One-sided or mutual authentication ACO = Authenticated Ciphering Offset Jaap Haartsen. Claimant addr. (48 bit). Ericsson Oct 1999 44 .AUTHENTICATION  To verify claimed identity  Challenge-response system  Algorithm E1:  Input: RAND (128 bit). link key (128)  Output: SRES (32 bit).

ENCRYPTION  To prevent (un)intentional eavesdropping  Stream ciphering  Algorithm E0:  Input: RAND (128 bit). Kc (128 bit)  Output: cipher stream  LFSR restart for every slot  Encrytion of payload only  Point-to-point or point-to-multipoint Jaap Haartsen./clock. master addr. Ericsson Oct 1999 45 .

KEY TYPES Link keys Encryption key Temporary Semi-permanent Master Key Unit Key Combination Key Initialization Key Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 46 .

BLUETOOTH STACK Applications TCP/IP HID RFCOMM Data L2CAP Link Manager L2CAP Baseband RF Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 47 .

Ericsson Oct 1999 48 .LOGICAL LINK CONTROL & ADAPTATION PROTOCOL     multiplexing segmentation & reassembly quality of service groups Jaap Haartsen.

no streams  packet boundaries are preserved  Relies on baseband layer for data integrity and delivery in order  Connectionless:  supports group abstraction Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 49 .PROTOCOL ARCHITECTURE  Connection-oriented:  channel ID used to label connection  channel assumed full-duplex  QoS flow specification assigned to each direction  Datagram based.

PACKET FORMAT Length (16 bits)     DCID (16 bits) Payload (0-65535 bytes) Short L2CAP Packet Header (low overhead) Length (of payload) Destination Channel ID Payload:   Data received from and sent to the network layer Maximum transmission unit (MTU) limits payload sizes Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 50 .

SEGMENTATION & REASSEMBLY L2CAP packet L2CAP Header L2CAP Payload Baseband packet Access Code (72) Header (54) Payload Header CRC  Use logical channel information from Baseband to determine start of an L2CAP packet Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 51 .

SAR EXAMPLE Source Datagram 1 to 1 mapping L2CAP Packet Intermediate Transport (e.g. HCI) Baseband Packets L2CAP Packet Destination Datagram f1 f2 f3 f4 f1 f2 DH5 DH1 DH5 DH1 DH5 DH1 DH5 DH1 Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 52 .

Ericsson Oct 1999 53 .QUALITY OF SERVICE Application Configuration Request L2CAP Scheduling of L2CAP messages Application Link Configuration: QoS Negotiation L2CAP Scheduling of L2CAP messages HCI QoS Parameter Link Manager / Link Controller Polling (BB) HCI Link Manager / Link Controller Polling (BB) Polling Jaap Haartsen.

SOFTWARE STACK WAE Still Image WAP vCard/vCal OBEX Printing Audio HID Service Discovery TCP/UDP IP RFCOMM TCS L2CAP Host Controller Interface Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 54 .

HOST CONTROL INTERFACE (HCI) Bluetooth Host  Host Controller Interface (HCI) provides a common interface between the Bluetooth Host and the Bluetooth Module Host Drives and Applications Bluetooth HCI driver Bluetooth HCI Transport driver (USB. PCI) HCI Transport Bus HCI Transport Firmware Bluetooth Host Controller Link Manager Bluetooth Baseband Bluetooth Radio Bluetooth Module Jaap Haartsen. PC Card. Ericsson Oct 1999 55 .

Ericsson Oct 1999 56 . 1394. LPC Jaap Haartsen.HOST CONTROLLER TRANSPORTS  HCI-USB Notebook integration  PC add-on     HCI-UART HCI-RS232 Others will be defined as needed  PCI.

PROFILES  Represents default solution for usage model Vertical slice through the protocol stack Basis for interoperability and logo requirements Each Bluetooth device supports one or more profiles    Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 57 .

Ericsson Oct 1999 58 .PROTOCOLS AND PROFILES applications protocols profiles unit A unit B Jaap Haartsen.

Ericsson Oct 1999 59 .BLUETOOTH PROFILES Generic Access Profile TCS-BIN-based Profiles Service Discovery Application Profile Serial Port Profile Dial-up Networking Profile Fax Profile Generic Object Exchange Profile File Transfer Profile Object Push Profile Cordless Phone Profile Intercom Profile Headset Profile LAN Access Profile Synchronization Profile Jaap Haartsen.

CONCLUSIONS     World standard for ad-hoc connectivity Specification 1.0 release July 1999 First products Q499/Q100 IEEE 802.15 PAN standardization ongoing Jaap Haartsen. Ericsson Oct 1999 60 .

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