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Operati Onal Gui deli nes
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California POST
POST2005TPS- 0369.1
C a l i f o r n i a C o m m i s s i o n o n P e a c e O f f i c e r S t a n d a r d s a n d T r a i n i n g
contents
cOpyriGht
n
SWAT Operational Guidelines
and Standardized Training Recommendations
Copyright 2005
CaliforniaCommissiononPeaceOffcerStandardsandTraining(POST)
PublishedJuly2005
RevisedAugust2006
Allrightsreserved.Thispublicationmaynotbereproduced,inwhole
orinpart,inanyformorbyanymeanselectronicormechanicalorby
anyinformationstorageandretrievalsystemnowknownorhereafter
invented,withoutpriorwrittenpermissionoftheCaliforniaCommission
onPeaceOffcerStandardsandTraining(POST),withthefollowing
exception:
CalifornialawenforcementagenciesinthePOSTpeaceoffcerprogram
andPOST-certifedtrainingpresentersareherebygivenpermissionby
POSTtoreproduceanyorallofthecontentsofthismanualforinternal
usewithintheiragency/school.
Allotherindividuals,privatebusinessesandcorporations,publicand
privateagenciesandcolleges,professionalassociations,andnon-POSTlaw
enforcementagenciesin-stateorout-of-state,mayprintordownloadthis
publicationfornon-commercialuse.
Questions about this copyright information or about obtaining permission
tousePOST-developedpublicationsmaybeaddressedtothePublications
Manager at publications@postcagov
POST2005TPS-0369.1
contents
the missiOn
n
of the California Commission On Peace Offcer Standards and Training
istocontinuallyenhancetheprofessionalismofCaliforniaLaw
Enforcement in serving its communities
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cOmmissiOners
n
Anthony W. Batts Chief,LongBeachPoliceDepartment
Ron Lowenberg Dean/Director,GoldenWestCollege
John Avila NarcoticsDetective,FresnoCounty
Lai Lai Bui Detective,SacramentoPoliceDepartment
Collene Campbell Public Member
Robert Doyle Sheriff,RiversideCounty
Bonnie Dumanis DistrictAttorney,SanDiegoCounty
Deborah Linden Chief,SanLuisObispoPoliceDepartment
Nelson Lum Sergeant,SanFranciscoPoliceDepartment
Henry Perea Councilman,CityofFresno
Laurie Smith Sheriff,SantaClaraCounty
Michael Sobek Sergeant,SanLeandroPoliceDepartment
Bill Lockyer ExOffcioMember,AttorneyGeneral’sOffce
Ken O’Brien ExecutiveDirector,POST
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acknOwledGements
n
Thismanualcouldnothavebeendevelopedwithoutthecombined
effortsofagreatnumberofdedicatedindividualsandinterestedparties.
POSTwouldliketoextenditsgratitudetothemanylawenforcement
offcers,supervisors,managers,andsupportstaffwhocontributedtothe
success of this project
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FOrewOrd
n
PenalCodeSection13514.1directstheCommissiontodevelopand
disseminateguidelinesandstandardizedtrainingrecommendations
forlawenforcementoffcers,supervisors,andadministrators,whoare
assignedtoperform,supervise,ormanageSpecialWeaponsandTactics
(SWAT).
TheoperationalguidelinesaddresslegalandpracticalissuesofSWAT
operations,personnelselection,ftnessrecommendations,planning,
tacticalissues,safety,after-actionevaluationofoperations,logisticaland
resourceneeds,uniformandfrearmsrecommendations,riskassessment,
policyconsiderations,andmulti-jurisdictionalSWAToperations.
POSTassembledover130lawenforcementpractitioners,managers,and
executivestodeveloptheseguidelines.SWATsubjectmatterexperts
metthroughout2004toprovideinputregardingthehighlyspecialized
componentsofSWAToperationsandtraining.TheSWATExecutive
Committee,comprisedoflawenforcementchiefexecutives,administrators,
andSWATpractitioners,mettoreviewrecommendationsofsubcommittees.
TheCaliforniaAttorneyGeneral’sBlueRibbonSWATReport2002has
beenconsideredateachstepintheprocessandusedasaguidingdocument
indevelopingtheseoperationalguidelinesandstandardizedtraining
recommendations.TheCommissionappreciatestheeffortsofthePOST
SpecialWeaponsandTacticscommitteememberswhodevelopedand
reviewedtheguidelines.
TheseSWATguidelinesrefectrecentlawchangesandcontemporary
thinkingconcerningtacticallawenforcementoperations.Theyare
deliberatelybriefandareintendedtobeelaborateduponbylaw
enforcementadministratorsandtrainingpresenters.
Forquestionsconcerningtheguidelines,pleasecontactTrainingProgram
Servicesat(916)227-4885.Forquestionsconcerningbasicorupdate
training,pleasecontactyourareaconsultantinTrainingDeliveryat(916)
227-4863orviatheRegionalMaponourwebsiteatwww.post.ca.gov
KENNEThJ.O’BRiEN
ExecutiveDirector
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cOntents
Foreword iv
introduction 1
1.0 DefnitionofSWAT 2
20 SWATTeamComponents 3
3.0 PolicyConsiderations 4
4.0 RiskAssessment 6
50 Planning 7
6.0 LogisticalandResourceNeeds 9
7.0 LegalandPracticalissuesofSWATOperations 10
8.0 Uniforms,Equipment,andFirearms 11
9.0 PersonnelSelection,PhysicalFitnessandCoreSkillsProfciency 12
10.0 SWATTraining 14
11.0 Multi-JurisdictionalSWATOperations 18
12.0 After-ActionEvaluation 19
13.0 SpecializedFunctionsandSupportingResources 20
Appendices
A BasicSWATTeamOperationalComponents 29
B BasicSWATCourseTopics 30
C SWATCoreCompetencies 34
D SWAT/TacticalCommanders’CourseTopics 38
E CoreCompetenciesforSWATK-9Teams 41
F BasicCrisisNegotiatorCourseRecommendedCourseTopics 42
G Crisis Negotiations Core Competencies 47
h LongRife/ObserverTeamCourseTopicRecommendations 49
i TacticalWaterborneCoreCompetencies 52
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intrOductiOn
n
Thefollowingareguidelinesandstandardizedtraining
recommendationsformanaging,operating,andtraininglaw
enforcementSWATteamsintheStateofCaliforniainaccordance
withPenalCodeSection13514.1.Theintentoftheseguidelinesisto
providehelpfulguidancetolawenforcementagenciesintheformation,
oversight,operation,andtrainingofeffectiveSWATteams.Tothe
extentpossible,“bestpractices”havebeenidentifedandincorporated
intotheseguidelines.Whiletheseguidelinesencouragesomedegree
ofstandardizationofSWAT,itisrecognizedthatlocalconditionsand
needsvaryconsiderablyandthereforefexibilityisaffordedagencies.
TheseguidelinespayparticularattentiontotheSWATaspectsthat
focusoneffectiveness,safetyandpreventionofproblematiccritical
incidents.
NOTE:inthefollowingsections,operationalguidelinesand
standardizedtrainingrecommendationsareidentifedinregular type
withexplanatoryinformationinitalicized type
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1.0 deFinitiOn OF swat
1.1 ASpecialWeaponsandTactics(SWAT)teamisanydesignatedgroupof
lawenforcementoffcerswhoareselected,trained,andequippedtowork
asacoordinatedteamtoresolvecriticalincidentsthataresohazardous,
complex,orunusualthattheymayexceedthecapabilitiesoffrst
respondersorinvestigativeunits.
u TheprimarycharacteristicofSWATthatdistinguishesitfromtheother
unitsisthefocusofeffort.SWATteamsarefocusedontacticalsolutions,as
opposedtootherfunctions,suchasinvestigation.ThepurposeofSWATisto
increasethelikelihoodofsafelyresolvingcriticalincidents.Nothinginthese
guidelinesisintendedtoprecludeagenciesfromutilizingspeciallytrainedunits
inareassuchasnarcoticsinvestigations,felonyapprehension,andothertasks.
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2.0 swat team cOmpOnents
2.1 SWATteamsshoulddevelopsuffcientresourcestoperformthethree
basic operational functions:
1. CommandandControl
2 Containment
3. Entry/Apprehension/Rescue
u Appendix Aprovidesasuggestedlistingofactivitiesforeachoperational
component.
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3.0 pOlicy cOnsideratiOns
3.1 Aneedsassessmentshouldbeconductedtodeterminethetypeand
extentofSWATmissionsandoperationsappropriatetotheparticular
agency.Thisassessmentshouldconsidertheteam’scapabilitiesand
limitationsandshouldbereviewedperiodically.
3.2 PoliciesandproceduresspecifctoSWATorganizationandoperations
shouldbeestablishedandmaintainedbytheagency.Thesepoliciesand
proceduresshouldaddress,ataminimum:
nThelocallyidentifedspecifcmissionstheteamiscapableofper-
forming
nTeamorganizationandfunction
nPersonnelselectionandretentioncriteria
nTrainingandrequiredcompetencies
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3.0 continued pOlicy cOnsideratiOns pOlicy cOnsideratiOns
nProceduresforactivationanddeployment
nCommandandcontrolissues,includingaclearlydefnedcommand
structure
nMulti-agencyresponse
nOut-of-jurisdictionalresponse
nSpecializedfunctionsandsupportingresources
u ThesepoliciesandproceduresshouldtakeintoconsiderationPOST
guidelinesandstandardizedtrainingrecommendations.
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4.0 risk assessment
4.1 Agenciesshouldconductathreatassessmenttodeterminethe
appropriateresponseandresourcesnecessary,includingtheuseof
SWAT.
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5.0 planninG
5.1 Missionbriefngsshouldbeconductedpriortoanoperation,unless
circumstancesrequireimmediatedeployment.
u Whenpossible,briefingsshouldincludethespecializedunitsand
supportingresources.
5 2 SWATteamsshoulddesignatepersonnelresponsiblefordevelopingan
operationalortacticalplanpriortoandduringSWAToperations.
5.3 AllSWATteammembersshouldhaveanunderstandingofoperational
planning
u SkillredundancyinknowledgeofplanningproceduresforSWATteam
membersimprovesperformanceinrapidlydevelopingscenarios.
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5.0 continued planninG planninG
5.4 SWATteampoliciesandtrainingshouldconsiderplanningforboth
spontaneousandplannedevents.

5 5 SWATteamsshouldincorporatemedicalemergencycontingency
planningaspartoftheSWAToperationalplan.
u Whereresourcesallow,considerationshouldbegiventointegrating
TacticalEmergencyMedicalSupport(TEMS)personnelwithinthestructureof
theSWATteam.
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6.0 lOGistical and resOurce needs
6.1 SWATteamsthatanticipateaugmentationbyspecializedresources
shouldincorporateuseofthoseresourcesintotheirplanningand
training
u Refertosection13.0forfurtherguidelinesonSpecializedFunctionsand
SupportingResources.

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leGal and practical issues OF
7.0 swat OperatiOns

7.1 Agenciesshoulddevelopprotocolstomaintainsustainedoperations,
whichmayincluderelief,rotationofpersonnel,andaugmentationof
resources
7.2 Agenciesshoulddevelopproceduresforpost-incidentscenemanagement,
includingdocumentationandtransitiontoinvestigationsandother
units
7.3 Agenciesshouldconsidertheuseoftacticallytrainedpersonnelfor
communicationsandrecordkeepingduringSWAToperations.
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8.0 uniFOrms, equipment, and Firearms
8.1 SWATteamsshouldwearuniformsthatclearlyidentifyteammembers
aslawenforcementoffcers.
u Itisrecognizedthatcertaintacticalconditionsmayrequirecovert
movement.Attiremaybeselectedappropriatetothespecificmission.
8.2 SWATteamsshouldbeadequatelyequippedtomeetthespecifcmission
identifedbytheagency.
8.3 Withintherespectiveagency,weaponsandequipmentusedby
SWAT,thespecializedunits,andthesupportingresourcesshouldbe
agency-issuedorapproved,includinganymodifcations,additions,or
attachments
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persOnnel selectiOn, physical Fitness
9.0 and cOre skills prOFiciency
9.1 Minimumrequirementsforbothinitialselectionandfulldeployment
withtheSWATteamshouldbeestablishedbytheagencybasedupon
resourcesavailableandidentifedlocalneeds,POSTguidelines,and
soundriskmanagementpractices.
u AgenciesshouldensurethattheSWATselectionprocessisreasonable,job
related,andunbiased.
9.2 Agenciesshouldestablishphysicalftnessstandardsfortheselectionand
retentionofSWATteammembers.
u Agenciesshouldconsiderconductingphysicalfitnessassessmentat
leastannually.Policiesshouldbeestablishedforfailuretocomplywiththese
standards.
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persOnnel selectiOn, physical Fitness
9.0 continued and cOre skills prOFiciency
9.3 AgenciesshouldestablishSWATcoreskillsprofciencylevelsforSWAT
team members
u Agenciesshouldconsiderconductingcoreskillsproficiencyassessment
atleastannually.Policiesshouldbeestablishedforfailuretomaintainthese
proficiencies.
u SeeGuideline 10.2andAppendix Cforalistingofcorecompetencies
andelements.
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10.0 swat traininG
10.1 Initial Training
10.1.1 SWATteamOperatorsandSWATSupervisors/teamleadersshouldnot
bedeployeduntilsuccessfulcompletionofthePOST-certifedBasic
SWATCourseoritsequivalentasdeterminedbytheagency.
u Appendix BprovidesthetrainingrecommendationsforthePOSTBasic
SWATCourse.
10.1.2 Appropriatetraining,priortofulldeployment,shouldalsobe
incorporatedintoagencypolicyforthespecializedSWATfunctionsand
other supporting resources
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10.0 continued swat traininG swat traininG
10.2 Recurrent Core Competency Training
10.2.1 SWATteamsshouldparticipateindocumentedandverifablemonthly
trainingtomaintainindividualandteamcorecompetenciesas
determinedbythetypeandextentofSWATmissionsandoperations
performed.
u SWATcorecompetenciesfallwithinthreegeneralcategories:
nWeapons,munitions,andequipmenttraining
nindividualandteammovementandtactics
nDecision-making
u Appendix CprovidesalistingofSWAToperatorcorecompetenciesand
elementsforeachcompetency.
u Ongoingtrainingintherespectivecorecompetenciesshouldalsobe
incorporatedintopolicyforthespecializedSWATfunctionsandsupporting
resources.
10.3 Update and Refresher Training
10.3.1 SWATteamOperatorsandSWATSupervisors/teamleadersshould
attend24hoursofPOST-certifedSWATupdateorrefreshertraining,or
itsequivalent(asdeterminedbytheagency),every24months.
u Appendix CprovidesalistingofSWAToperatorcorecompetenciesand
elementsforeachcompetency.
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10.0 continued swat traininG swat traininG
10.4 Supervision and Management
10.4.1 Commandandexecutivepersonnelwhoprovideactiveoversightat
thesceneofSWAToperationsshouldunderstandthepurposeand
capabilitiesoftheteam(s).
u Commandandexecutivepersonnelareencouragedtoattendtrainingfor
managingtheSWATfunctionattheorganizationallevel.
10.4.2 Commandpersonnelwhomayassumeincidentcommandresponsibilities
shouldattendaSWATorcriticalincidentcommandercourse,orits
equivalent.
10.4.3 SWATcommandpersonnelshouldattendaPOST-certifedSWAT
commanderortacticalcommandercourse,oritsequivalent.
u Appendix DprovidesthetrainingrecommendationsforthePOST
TacticalCommanderCourse.
10.5 Approval of Prior Training
10.5.1 AgencieswithSWATteamsshouldestablishprocedurestorecognize
previoustrainingofmemberssoastoprecludeunnecessary,redundant
training
u Asageneralrule,previouslycompletedtrainingmaybeconsidered
equivalentwhenthehoursandcontent(topics)meetorexceedagency
requirementsorPOST’sstandardizedtrainingrecommendations.
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10.0 continued swat traininG swat traininG
10.6 Training Safety
10.6.1 Useofadesignatedsafetyoffcershouldbeconsideredfortactical
training
u RefertoPOSTGuidelinesforStudentSafetyinCertifedCoursesfor
furthertrainingsafetyinformation.
10.7 Scenario-Based Training
10.7.1 SWATteamsshouldparticipateinscenario-basedtraining.
u Scenario-basedtrainingthatsimulatesthetacticaloperational
environmentisanestablishedmethodofimprovingperformanceduringan
actualdeployment.

10.8 Annual Training Plan
10.8.1 SWATteamsshoulddevelopanannualtrainingplanbasedonatraining
needsassessment.
u AnannualtrainingplanhelpsSWATteamstoidentifyandprioritize
trainingneedsandscheduleaccordingly.
10.9 Training Documentation
10.9.1 individualandteamtrainingshouldbedocumentedandrecords
maintainedbytheagency.
u Documentationofindividualandteamtraining/performancecan
contributetolong-termreductionofliabilityandaidininvestigations.
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11.0 multi-JurisdictiOnal swat OperatiOns
11.1 TheSWATteam,includingrelevantspecializedunitsandsupporting
resources,shoulddevelopprotocols,agreements,orworking
relationshipstosupportmulti-jurisdictionalorregionalresponses.
11.2 SWATmulti-agencyandmulti-disciplinaryjointtrainingexercisesare
encouraged.SpecializedSWATunitsandsupportingresourcesshould
also participate
u SomeagenciesmaychoosetoconsolidateresourcesintoaregionalSWAT
teamconcept.
u Samplesofinitialsuggestedprotocolsandmulti-jurisdictionalagreements
canbeobtainedthroughthePOSTclearinghouse,uponrequest.
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12.0 aFter-actiOn evaluatiOn
12.1 After-actionteamdebriefngsshouldbeconducted.
u Evaluationandanalysisofcriticalincidentsaffordsopportunityfor
individualandteamassessment,helpstoidentifytrainingneeds,andreinforces
soundriskmanagementpractices.Whenappropriate,thedebriefingsshould
includespecializedunitsandresources.
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specialized FunctiOns
13.0 and suppOrtinG resOurces
13.1 SWATK-9Teams

u Theseguidelinesareintendedashelpfulguidanceforagencieswhoutilize
K-9teamsonarecurrentbasisfordeploymentwithatacticalteam.
DefnitionofaSWATK-9Team
u ASWATK-9teamisadesignatedunit,consistingofahandleranddog,
whichisspecificallyselected,trained,andequippedtoworkinconjunctionwith
SWAT/tacticalteamstoassistintacticalincidents.
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specialized FunctiOns
13.0 continued and suppOrtinG resOurces
FormationandPolicyConsiderations
nAgenciesshouldestablishproceduresforbothinitialselectionand
fulldeploymentofcaninehandlerswiththeSWATteam,whichare
consistentwithPOSTK-9guidelines.
nAgenciesshouldestablishproceduresfortheselectionofdogsused
aspartoftheSWATK-9team.
nNotallpolicecaninesaresuitableforSWAToperations.
Planning
nSWATK-9handlersshouldbeprovidedwithappropriateSWAT-
specifcsafetyandcommunicationsequipmentappropriatetothe
assignedtacticalmission,consistentwithdepartmentpolicy.
nSWATK-9teamsshouldparticipateinmissionbriefngspriortoa
tacticaloperation,after-actionevaluationsandteamdebriefngs.
Training
nAgenciesshouldestablishSWATK-9coreskillsprofciencylevelsfor
K-9tacticalteams.
nAgenciesshouldconductcoreskillsprofciencyassessmentonan
ongoing basis
nAppendixEprovidesasuggestedlistingofcorecompetenciesfor
SWATK-9teams.
nSWATteamsandSWATK-9teamsshouldjointlyparticipatein
documentedquarterlyscenario-basedtrainingtomaintainSWAT
K-9teamcorecompetencies,consistentwiththetypeofSWAT
missionsperformed.
nitisrecommendedthattheK-9handlerandK-9successfully
completeaSWATorientationprogramthatemphasizesbasicSWAT
procedures,practices,andequipment.
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specialized FunctiOns
13.0 continued and suppOrtinG resOurces
nCommandpersonnelwhomayassumeSWATK-9Teamcommand
responsibilitiesandSWATK-9handlersshouldremaincurrenton
legalissuespertainingtolawenforcementK-9deployment.

SafetyConsiderations
nRescueproceduresfortheSWATK-9team(i.e.handlerdown)
shouldbedeveloped,trained,andpracticedpriortodeployment.
nMedicalemergencycontingencyplanningshouldbeincorporatedas
partoftherescueprocedures.
LegalandPracticalissues
nSWATK-9Teamsshouldbeevaluatedastotheirsuitabilityfor
deploymentwithatacticalteampriortodeploymentandonan
ongoing basis
13.2 CrisisNegotiationsTeam
DefnitionofaCrisisNegotiationsTeam
u ACrisisNegotiationsTeam(CNT)isadesignatedgroupofpersonnel
specificallyselected,trained,andequippedtoassistintheresolutionofcritical
incidentsbymeansofcommunicationandnegotiationwithcriminalsuspects
andotherpersons,ofteninconjunctionwiththeSWAT/tacticalunit.
Formation
nAgenciesthatfeldaSWATteam,orwhoparticipateinaregional
ormulti-jurisdictionalteam,shoulddevelopaCrisisNegotiations
componentforresponsetoidentifedcriticalincidents.
nACrisisNegotiationsTeammaybedevelopedasanintegralpartof
theSWATteam/unit,orasaseparateentitywithitsowncommand
structure
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specialized FunctiOns
13.0 continued and suppOrtinG resOurces
PolicyConsiderations
u AgenciesshouldorganizeCNTwithregardtothefollowingpolicy
considerations:
nDevelopmentofwrittenoperatingprocedures.
nidentifcationofpersonnelresponsibleforoperations,training,and
equipmentmaintenance.
nDevelopmentofwrittencriteriafortheactivationanddeployment
ofaCrisisNegotiationsTeam.
ninstitutionofproceduresforestablishingandrunningthe
NegotiationsOperationsCenterincoordinationwiththeTactical
CommanderandtheincidentCommander.
CNTOperationalFunctions
u AgenciesshoulddevelopresourcessufficienttoperformthefourCNT
operationalfunctions:
nCommunications/Negotiations
nintelligence
nTacticalLiaison
nLogistics
initialTraining
nCNTmembersshouldsuccessfullycompleteaPOST-certifedBasic
CrisisNegotiatorcourseoritsequivalent.
nAppendixFcontainsalistingofrecommendedtopicsfortheBasic
Crisis Negotiator course
RecurrentCoreCompetencyTraining
nCNTmembersshouldparticipateindocumentedquarterlytraining
thatmaintainsprofciencyincorecompetencies,consistentwith
thetypeofSWATmissionsidentifedbyagencypolicy.Periodic
scenario-basedtraining,inconjunctionwiththeSWATteam,is
encouraged.
nAppendixGprovidesasuggestedlistingofCNTcorecompetencies.
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specialized FunctiOns
13.0 continued and suppOrtinG resOurces
CNTSupervisionandManagement
nCommandpersonnelwhomayassumeCNTcommand
responsibilitiesshouldattendaSWATorcriticalincident
commandercourse,oritsequivalent,whichincludescurriculum
regardingcrisisnegotiationsprotocols.
13.3 LongRife/ObserverTeams
DefnitionofaLongRife/ObserverTeam
u ALongRifle/ObserverTeamisadesignatedunitoflawenforcement
officerswhoareselected,trained,andequippedtoworkasanelementofthe
SWATteamintheresolutionofcriticalincidentsbyprovidingobservation,cover,
andtheemploymentofprecisionfire.
nLongRife/ObserverTeamsaremostoftenacomponentofSWAT.
however,itisrecognizedthatsomeagenciestrainanddeployLong
Rife/ObserverTeamsincoordinationwith,butdistinctfrom,the
SWATteam.
FormationandPolicyConsiderations
nAgenciesshoulddevelopsuffcienttrainingandresourcestoperform
thebasicfunctionsoftheLongRife/ObserverTeam.
nALongRife/ObserverTeamshouldconsistoftwooffcers,cross-
trainedasbothLongRifeOperatorandObserver.
initialTraining
nLongRifeOperatorsshouldnotbedeployeduntilsuccessful
completionofaPOST-CertifedBasicLongRifeCourse,orits
equivalent.
nAppendixhprovidesinformationabouttheBasicLongRife
Course
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specialized FunctiOns
13.0 continued and suppOrtinG resOurces
RecurrentCoreCompetencyTraining
nLongRifeOperatorsshouldparticipateindocumentedand
verifabletrainingonamonthlybasisthatmaintainsindividual
andteamcorecompetenciesconsistentwiththetypeofSWAT
missionsperformed.
LongRife/Observercorecompetenciesfallwithinthreegeneral
categories:
nFundamentalsofPrecisionShooting
nTactics
nObservation/Communication
LongRifeOperatorsshoulddemonstrateprofciencyonatleasta
quarterlybasiswithassignedfrearms.
SafetyConsiderations
nAppropriatesafetyprecautionsshouldbeincorporatedintoLong
Rife/ObserverTeamtraining.
nTheuseofasafetyoffcerisrecommended.

u RefertoPOSTGuidelinesforStudentSafetyinCertifiedCoursesforfurther
trainingsafetyinformation.
13.4 SWATOperationsinaWeaponsofMassDestruction(WMD)/Terrrorism
Event
u SWATteamsmaybetaskedwithpreparingthetacticalcomponentof
thegovernmentalresponsetoapotentialexposuretochemical,biological,
radiological,nuclear,orexplosive(CBRNE)hazards.Agenciesshouldrecognize
thattacticaloperationsinaCBRNEenvironmentarehighlyspecialized.SWAT
teamsmaynotbepreparedtohandletheseincidentsalone,andshouldconsider
acoordinatedregionalresponsebylocal,state,andfederalagencies.
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specialized FunctiOns
13.0 continued and suppOrtinG resOurces
13.5 SWATWaterborneOperations
u Definition
Forthepurposesofthissection,waterborneoperationsrefertothedeployment
ofspeciallytrainedSWATOperatorstoengageintacticaloperationsassociated
withthewaterborneenvironment.
NeedsAssessment
nAneedsassessmentshouldbeconductedtodeterminethetypeand
extentofSWATwaterbornemissionsandoperationsappropriateto
the agency
Training
nSWATteamswhoanticipateutilizingwaterbornesupportin
recurrentmissionsshouldcompleteinitialvesselorientationand
trainingpriortodeployment.
nSWATTeamswhoanticipateutilizingwaterbornesupportfor
recurrentmissionsshouldincorporatemaritimetraininginthe
annual training plan
nAppendixiprovidesalistingofSWAToperatorcorecompetencies
associatedwiththemaritimeenvironment.
Planning
nConsiderationshouldbegiventotheproperselectionofequipment
relatedtolocallyidentifedmissionprofles.
nVesseloperatorsshouldparticipateinthedevelopmentphaseof
mission planning to ensure appropriate assets are in place for the
identifedmissionprofle.
nPriortocommencingunderwayoperations,thevesseloperatorsand
crewshouldconductasafetybriefng,includingvesselsafetyand
emergencyprocedures.
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specialized FunctiOns
13.0 continued and suppOrtinG resOurces
Multi-jurisdictionalissues
nAgenciesinvolvedinwaterbornetacticaloperationsshoulddevelop
protocols,agreements,and/orworkingrelationshipswithother
agenciesthatmaybeoperationallyaffectedduetostatutory,cross
jurisdictional,ormulti-jurisdictionalrequirements.
13.6 SWATAiRBORNEOPERATiONS
u Definition
Forthepurposesofthissection,atacticalairborneoperationreferstotheuseof
airsupportasaresourceincoordinationwithSWATtoresolvecriticalincidents.
nFormationandPolicyConsiderations
Aneedsassessmentshouldbeconductedtodeterminethetypeand
extentofSWATairsupportmissionsandoperationsappropriateto
the particular agency
nTheagency,incoordinationwithSWATandtheairsupport
provider,shoulddevelopproceduresforthetacticaluseofthe
aircraft
Planning
nAircrewsshouldparticipateinthedevelopmentphaseofmission
planningandriskassessmenttoensureappropriateassetsarein
placefortheidentifedmissionparameters.
nAircrewsshouldparticipatewithSWATinafter-actionevaluationof
operationsanddebriefngs.
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specialized FunctiOns
13.0 continued and suppOrtinG resOurces
SafetyConsiderations
nPriortocommencingoperations,adesignatedaircrewmember
shouldconductasafetybriefng,includingaircraftsafetyand
emergencyprocedures.
Training
nSWATteamswhoutilizeairsupportforrecurrentmissionsshould
incorporateairbornetrainingwiththeaircraftandaircrew
members in the annual training plan
Firearms
nAgenciesshoulddeveloppoliciesregardinguseoffrearmsand
frearmstraininginanairborneenvironment.
nWeaponssafetyisofextremeimportanceinairborneoperations.
SWATteamsinvolvedinairborneweaponsutilizationshould
conductperiodictrainingusingtheaircraftasashootingplatform.
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Basic swat team
appendix a OperatiOnal cOmpOnents
n
SWATteamsshoulddevelopresourcessuffcienttofulfllthefollowing
three minimum operational components:
1. Command and Control Element
a, Planning,organizing,staffng,anddirectingtheoverallSWAT
operation
b. CoordinationwiththeCrisisNegotiationsTeam
c. Liaisonwithalliedagencies
d. Missiondocumentation
e Communications
f. Medicalsupport
g. Missiondebriefngs
2 Containment Element
a Control of inner perimeter
b Evacuation
c. Tacticaldeliveries(chemicalmunitions,equipment,etc.)
d. Precisionlongrife/observerdeploymentandsupport
3. Entry/Apprehension/Rescue Element
a. Scoutingmissions
b. Breaching
c. Enter,search,andsecureobjective(s)
d. Rescueoperations
e. Subject/suspectdetention
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appendix B Basic swat cOurse tOpics
n
Thesecoursetopicrecommendationsaredesignedforoffcerswho
areassignedtoaSWAT/tacticalteam.Thetopicsaddressthebasic
conceptsofSWAT,andincludepracticalapplicationandproblemsolving
simulationsaseffectivelearningmethods.Typicalscenarioswould
includebarricadedsubjects,hostagesituations,warrantservice,active
shooters,andotherhigh-risksituations.Thecourseshouldincludethe
followingtopics:
1. Introduction
a Course Objectives
b. POSTSWATProjectandGuidelines
c. historicalPerspectiveoftheSWATConcept
2 Performance Evaluation of Team Members
a. CoreCompetencyTrainingandCompliance
3. Policy Issues
a. Legalissues/CivilLiability
b. UseofForce
c. MutualAidProcedures
d. SWATPoliciesandProcedures
e. importanceofCorrectTerminology
4. Basic SWAT Concepts
a. CommonSWATResponses
b. incidentCommandandDirectSupervisionoftheSWATteam
c. SWATActivationCriteria
d. TeamCompositionandDuties
5 Psychological Considerations
a. Post-TraumaStress
b. StressManagement
c. MentalConditioningforConfrontations
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Appendix B continued Basic SWAT Course Topics
contents
6. Physical Considerations
a. FitnessStandardsforSWATTeamMembers
b. LifetimeFitnessRecommendations
c. PhysicalTrainingforSWATTeamMembers
d. EmergencyMedicalProcedures
7. Overview of Individual and Team Equipment
a. UniformEquipment
b. WeaponsandFirearms
c. CommunicationsDevices
d. SupportEquipmentandTechnology
8. Operational Planning
a. importanceofPlanning
b. StructuredPlanningFormat
c Principles of Containment
d. intelligenceGathering
e. Pre-EventPlanning
f Contemporaneous Planning
g. implementation/Resolution
h. incidentDe-Briefng
9. Overview of Specialized SWAT Functions
a Canines
b. Airborne
c Crisis Negotiations
d. ExplosiveBreaching
e. LongRife/Observer
f Rescue Operations
g. MobileAssaults
h. SWATResponsetoWMD-relatedincidents
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Appendix B continued Basic SWAT Course Topics
contents
10. Command Post Operations
a. FieldCommandPost
b. TacticalOperationsCenter
c. MediaConsiderations
11. Individual and Team Movement
a. CoverandConcealment
b. TeamCommunications
c Overcoming Obstacles
d. PracticalApplication
12. Basic Entry and Search Techniques
a. SWATArrestandControl
b. BuildingsandStructures
c. MechanicalBreaching
d. OpenAreaSearches
e. PracticalApplication
13. Chemical Agents in SWAT Operations
a. OverviewofChemicalAgents
b Less Lethal Munitions
c. PracticalApplication
14. Diversionary Devices
a. OverviewofDiversionaryDevices
b. PracticalApplication
15. Crisis Negotiation
a. NegotiationConceptsandStrategies
b. RelationshipBetweenSWATandCrisisNegotiationTeams
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Appendix B continued Basic SWAT Course Topics
contents
16. Individual and Team Firearms Training
a. handguns
b. Shoulder-fredWeapons
c. PracticalApplication
17. Training Scenarios and Problem-Solving Simulations
a. TableTopExercises
b. Reality-basedExercises
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appendix c swat cOre cOmpetencies
n
Thislistisintendedtoassistagenciesindeterminingareasof
responsibilityforindividualSWATteamsandindevelopinganannual
SWATtrainingplan.
1. Weapons, Munitions, and Equipment
a. ArmoredVehicleOperations
b. EquipmentFamiliarizationandMaintenance
c. FirearmSkills(livefre)
(1) handgun
(2) Lowlight/nighttraining
(3) Shoulder-fredweapons
d. individualOperator’sUniformMaintenanceandWear
e. LadderandOtherhighAngleAccess
f. LightingSystems(personal,weapons,other)
g. MechanicalBreaching
(1) 12-gaugeshotgunbreaching
(2) Rams,picks,pullers,etc.
h Munitions
(1) Chemicalagents:Optionsanddeliverysystems
(2) Lesslethalimpactmunitionsanddelivery
(4) Light/sounddiversionarydevices
(5) Otherlesslethaldevices
i. NightVisionEquipment
j. UseofBallisticShields
k. WeaponsMaintenance
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Appendix C continued SWAT Core Competencies
contents
2 Individual and Team Movement/Tactics
a. ActiveShooterResponse
b. Aircraftintervention
c. BarricadedSubjectOperations
d. BoobyTraps
e. CamoufageTechniques
f. ConductingEvacuations
g. ContainmentTechniques
h. CoverandMovement
i Covert Clearing
j. DownedOffcer/CitizenRescues
k. DynamicClearing
l. EmergencyDeploymentTechniques
m Entries
n. highRiskWarrantService
(1) Contain&call-outs
(2) Dynamic
(3) Remotetakedowns
(4) Ruses,etc.
o. homicideBombers
p. immediateActionDrills
q. LongRifeinitiatedAssaults
r Night Movement
s. Rappelling(ruraland/orurban)
(1) Airborne
(2) Static
t Reactionary Responses
u. RescueOperations–Basic
v Rural Operations
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Appendix C continued SWAT Core Competencies
contents
w. Scouting
x. SearchingTechniques
y. SmallUnitTactics
z. TacticalOperationCenter
aa. VehicleAssaults
(1) Busassaults
(2) Car/van/truckassaults
3. Decision-Making
a. MissionandTacticalContingencyPlanning
b. TrainingSimulations(scenario-basedtraining)
c. Barricadedsubject/suspect
d. highRiskWarrant(dynamic,contain&call-outs,etc.)
e. hostagesituations
(1) Suicideintervention
(2) Other
f. WarrantServiceWork-upsandPlanning
4. SpecializedFunctionsand/orSupportingResources
a. AirborneOperations
b. Counter-Terrorism
c Executive Protection
d. ExplosiveBreaching
e. LongRife/Observer
f. MarijuanaGrowOperations
g. RescueOperations–Advanced
h Riot Response
i. Surveillance
j. SWATCanineintegration
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Appendix C continued SWAT Core Competencies
contents
k. TacticalEmergencyMedicalSupport
l. TeamLeaderTraining
m. Train/TrolleyAssaults
n WaterborneOperations
o. WMDResponse
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swat/tactical
appendix d cOmmanders’ cOurse tOpics
n
Thesecoursetopicrecommendationsaredesignedforsupervisoryand
commandleveloffcerswhohaveSWAT/tacticalteamresponsibility.
ThetopicsaddresstheemploymentofSWATteams,longrifes,and
observers,negotiators,containment,commandposts,andother
specialoperationsresources.Typicaltrainingscenarioswouldinclude
barricadedsubjects,hostagesituations,warrantservice,activeshooters,
andotherhigh-risksituations.Thecourseshouldincludethefollowing
topics:
1. Introduction
a Course Objectives
b. POSTSWATProjectandGuidelines
2 Defnition of a Critical Incident
a. historyofTacticalOperations
3. Administrative Duties and Responsibilities
a. PersonnelSelectionandRetention
b. CoreCompetencyTrainingandCompliance
c. Documentation
d. PolicyandProceduresUpdateandCompliance
e. Equipment/NewTechnology
4. Legal Issues
a. CivilLiability/CaseLaw
b. UseofForce
5 Mutual Aid Procedures
a Policy
b. MOU’s
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Appendix D continued SWAT/Tactical Commanders’ Course Topics
contents
c Communications
6. Deployment Guidelines
a. SuspectinitiatedEvents
b. DepartmentinitiatedEvents
7. Tactical Team Operations
a. WarrantService
b. hostageRescue
c. BarricadedSuspect/Subject
d. MobileSuspectinterdiction
e. OpenAreaClearing
f. SpecialtyTactics
g. ProtectionDetails
8. Command and Control
a. incidentCommand
b. TacticalCommand
9. Command Post Operations
a. DefnitionandFunctions
b. DutiesandResponsibilities
c Communications
10. Tactical Operation Procedures
a. SituationAssessment
b Operational Planning
c. ForceOptions
d. MedicalSupport
e. Briefng
f. PostOperationalDebriefng
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Appendix D continued SWAT/Tactical Commanders’ Course Topics
contents
11. Tactical Components/Capabilities
a. SWATTeam
b. LongRife/ObserverTeam
c. CrisisNegotiationsTeam
d. TacticalDispatch
12. Tactical Considerations/Missions
a. Containmentteam(SWATorPatrol)
b. TacticalEmergencyMedicalSupport(TEMS)
c. AirSupport
d. Evacuation
e. Arrest/ReactionTeam
f. ChemicalAgents
g Less Lethal Munitions
h. Breaching
i. ThrowPhone/FoodDelivery
j. hostageRescue
k. BombSquad
l. WMD
13. Training Scenarios and Problem-Solving Simulations
a. TableTopExercises
b. Reality-basedExercises
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cOre cOmpetencies
appendix e FOr swat k-9 teams
n
SWATK-9handler:
1. Firearmsqualifcationwithassignedweapon(s)atleasttwiceper
yearwithK-9incloseproximitytohandler.
2. Teamandstealthmovementtechniques(tacticalobedience)
3. Teamapproachtoobjective
4. Teamentryintoobjective
5. Directedandnon-directedtacticalsearches
6. Confnedspaceandlimitedaccessinsertionandextraction
7. Limitedaccesssearching(confnedspaces–attics,crawlspaces,
vehicleinteriors,etc.)
8. Long-lineutilization
9. AbilitytorecallK-9duringtacticalsearches
10. AuditoryalertbyK-9uponlocatinginaccessiblesuspect
11. handand/oraudibledowncommandsforK-9duringtacticalsearch
12. Calm/controlledbehaviorbyK-9duringsearchexercises.
13. Calm/controlledbehaviorbyK-9withteamduringlivefre
exercises
14. Operatinginachemicalagentandsmokeenvironment
15. Operatinginconjunctionwithdiversionarydevicedeployment
16. Tacticaloutandteamarrestprocedures.
17. Tacticaltrackingconsistentwithagencyprocedures
18. Suspectcontainment
19. Suspectapprehension
20. Suspectdistraction
21. Clearinghigh-riskareas(entryways,stairwells,hallways,etc.)
22. Extractionofanon-complianthigh-risksubject
23. Otherskillsconsistentwithagencymissionprofle,basedonlocal
needs
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Basic crisis neGOtiatOr cOurse
appendix F recOmmended cOurse tOpics
n
Thesecoursetopicrecommendationsaredesignedforpersonnelwhoare
assignedtoaCrisisNegotiationTeam(CNT.)Thesetopicsaddressthe
basicconceptsofcrisisnegotiations,andincludepracticalapplication
andproblemsolvingsimulationsaseffectivelearningmethods.The
courseshouldincludethefollowingtopics:
1. historicalPerspective
a. SignifcantEventsAffectingEarlyNegotiations
b. ModernDayNegotiations
c. Centralizedvs.DecentralizedTeamConcepts
2. BasicNegotiationsTheory
a. Three“Cs”ofNegotiations
(1) Containment
(2) Control
(3) Communication
3. CrisisNegotiationsTeamStructure
a. VariousAgencyStandards
(1) CommandPostOperations
(2) iCS
(3) TacticalElement
(4) Positions,Roles,Responsibilities
b Logistics
(1) OnSiteSupport–CNT
(2) OnSiteSupport-Tactical
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Appendix F continued Basic Crisis Negotiator Course Recommended Course Topics
contents
c. intelligence
(1) interview
(2) SubjectProfle
(3) informationSharing
4. incidentTypes
a.hostageSituations
b.Non-hostageSituations
c.SpecialCircumstances
(1) Custodial/Correctionsincidents
(2) SuicidebyCop
(3) RepeatOffenders
(4) LawEnforcementPersonnel
5. SubjectTypes
a. Mentalhealthissues
(1) PsychologicalDisordersandDiagnosis
b. Suicide
c. interruptedCrimes
d. DomesticViolence
e. Terrorism
f. Chemicalinfuence
6. ResponseProtocol
a. TeamActivation
(1) FirstResponderEvaluation
(2) DepartmentPolicyissues
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Appendix F continued Basic Crisis Negotiator Course Recommended Course Topics
contents
7. CriticalincidentAssessment
a.RiskAssessment
(1) Typeofincident
(2) AppropriateActiontoResolve
b. Walkawayassessment
(1) ToNegotiateorNottoNegotiate
c. StockholmSyndrome
d. Victimology
e. hostageBehavior
8. Equipment
a. CNTSpecializedEquipment(UseandMaintenance)
b. Technology
9. NegotiationTechniques
a Verbal Communications
(1) FacetoFace
(2) ElectronicCommunications
(3) ThirdPartyCommunications
10. NegotiationStrategies
a. CommunicationSkills
(1) ActiveListening
b. indicatorsofProgress/Violence
c. TimeConsiderations
11. SurrenderPhase
a. Tactical/CNTCoordination
b. TransferofCommunications
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Appendix F continued Basic Crisis Negotiator Course Recommended Course Topics
contents
12. Debriefng
a. incidentReview
(1) individual
(2) Team
(3) Tactical/CNTJointDebriefng
b. CriticalincidentStressDebriefng
(1) incidentDriven
(2) individualAssessment
13. MediaRelations
a. MediaManagement
(1) 409.5PC/MediaAccess
(2) NoFlyZones
14. PostincidentConsiderations
a. CrimeScene
(1) Evidence
(2) SecuringfromtheScene
b. hOBAS/LEO
c. Documentation
(1) ReportsandRecordedMaterial
15. LegalAspects
a. RiskManagement
b Ethics
c. CaseLaw
d. individualNegotiators’Resumes
(1) ExpertWitness
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Appendix F continued Basic Crisis Negotiator Course Recommended Course Topics
contents
16. TrainingScenarios/Role-Playing
a. Safety
b. GroupScenarios
c. DebriefngofScenarios
(1) StudentPerformanceEvaluations
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crisis neGOtiatiOns
appendix G cOre cOmpetencies
n
CNTcorecompetencieswilldiminishunlessmaintainedthrough
meaningful,recurrenttraining.Baseduponaneedsassessment,
departmentpolicy,andsoundriskmanagementpractices,Crisis
Negotiatorsshouldmaintainprofciencyinthecorecompetencies
deemednecessaryfortheirlocalareaorregion:
1. CoreCompetencies:
a. Knowledgeofincidentmanagement,teamrolesand
responsibilities
b. Equipmentandtechnicalknowledge
c. Communicationsskills
(1) Activelistening
(2) Tacticalcommunications
(3) interviewandinterrogationskills
d. Riskassessment/incidentevaluation
(1) Behavioral/emotionalfactors
(2) Diminishedcapacity
e. homicide/Suicideindicators
2. ExpandedListing-Knowledgeof:
a. Drug/alcohol/medicationinteractions
b. Third-partyintermediaryskills
c. Juvenileissues
d. Faith-basednegotiations
e Extremist groups
f. Mediainfuencesandeffects
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Appendix G continued Crisis Negotiations Core Competencies
contents
g. Criticalincidentassessment(feedbacktoincidentCommander)
h. Suicidology(‘SuicidebyCop’)
i. Mentaldisorders
j. Specialcircumstances(negotiationw/knownpersons,agency
personnel,etc.)
k. Mutualaidprotocols
l Linguistics
m. Socio-culturalawareness
n. Legalissuesandcaselawregardingcrisisnegotiations
o. Prison/jail/holdingfacilityissues
p. Afteraction/incidentreporting
q. Emergingtechnologyissues
r. Jointtrainingwithtacticalunitsandothergroups
s. Otherhighriskincidents
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lOnG riFle/OBserver team
appendix h cOurse tOpic recOmmendatiOns
n
Thesecoursetopicrecommendationsaredesignedforoffcerswhoare
assignedtoaLongRife/ObserverTeam.Thesetopicsaddressbasic
conceptsofLongRifeTeamfunctionsandincludepracticalapplication
andproblemsolvingsimulationsaseffectivelearningmethods.The
courseshouldincludethefollowingtopics:
1. Safetyissues
a Classroom
b Range
c Operational
2. WeaponsandEquipmentConsiderations
3. RolesandDuties
4. CommonMissionProfles
5. Legalissues
a Use of force – policy issues
b. Casestudies
c. Documentation
(1) Trainingrecords
6. FundamentalsofPrecisionShooting
a. Mentalandphysicalpreparedness
b Optics
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Appendix H continued LongRife/ObserverTeamCourseTopicRecommendations
contents
c. Low-lightshooting
d. Fundamentalsofshootingascopedrife
(1) Zeroing
(2) Coldborezeroing
f. Windandrangeestimation
g Position shooting
h. Rifecare
i. Databooks
7. Ballistics
a. internalballistics
b External ballistics
(1) Environmentalfactors
(2) Angleshooting
c. Terminalballistics
(1) intermediatebarriershooting
8. BasicFieldcraft–UrbanandRural
a. Camoufage
b. Coverandconcealment
c. hides
d. Movement
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Appendix H continued LongRife/ObserverTeamCourseTopicRecommendations
contents
9. Observation/CommunicationSkills
a. Observation/retentionexercises
b. intelligencegathering
c Reporting
(1) Observationlog
d. Diagramming
(1) Rangecards
(2) Fieldsketching
e. Teammembercommunications
10.Practicalapplicationandevaluation
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tactical waterBOrne
appendix i cOre cOmpetencies
1. iflimitedtoboatoperations:
a. UseandmaintenanceofaPersonalFlotationDevice
b. Basicwatersafetytechniques
c. Nightandlowlightconditions
d. Familiarizationwithvesseloperations,includingsafety
briefng
e. Smallboattactics
f. Boardingtechniquesandtactics
2. ifconductingsurfaceswimmeroperations:
a. Agency-approvedswimtest,toincludewatertread
b. Self-rescuetechniques
c. Boardingandoffoadingtechniques
3. ifconductingsub-surfaceoperations:
a. Certifcationfromarecognizedcertifyingagency,including
NAUi,PADi,themilitaryorequivalent.
b. MedicalexamandcertifcationforSCUBAasperCalOShA
guidelines
c. CalOShAregulationspertainingtounderwateroperations
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contents

California POST

SWAT
O peratiOnal G uidelines s tandardized
and

t raininG r ecOmmendatiOns
POST2005TPS- 0369.1

Cali fo r ni a Co m mi s si o n o n Peac e O f f ic e r St a nd a rd s a nd Tr a ining

contents

cOpyriGht
n
SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations

Copyright 2005 California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST) Published July 2005 Revised August 2006 All rights reserved. This publication may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical or by any information storage and retrieval system now known or hereafter invented, without prior written permission of the California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST), with the following exception: California law enforcement agencies in the POST peace officer program and POST-certified training presenters are hereby given permission by POST to reproduce any or all of the contents of this manual for internal use within their agency/school. All other individuals, private businesses and corporations, public and private agencies and colleges, professional associations, and non-POST law enforcement agencies in-state or out-of-state, may print or download this publication for non-commercial use. Questions about this copyright information or about obtaining permission to use POST-developed publications may be addressed to the Publications Manager at publications@post ca gov

POST2005TPS-0369.1

contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations the missiOn n of the California Commission On Peace Officer Standards and Training is to continually enhance the professionalism of California Law Enforcement in serving its communities POST  .

Batts Ron Lowenberg John Avila Lai Lai Bui Collene Campbell Robert Doyle Bonnie Dumanis Deborah Linden Nelson Lum Henry Perea Laurie Smith Michael Sobek Bill Lockyer Ken O’Brien Chief. Attorney General’s Office Executive Director. Santa Clara County Sergeant. City of Fresno Sheriff. San Leandro Police Department Ex Officio Member. San Francisco Police Department Councilman.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations cOmmissiOners n Anthony W. Golden West College Narcotics Detective. Riverside County District Attorney. Fresno County Detective. Sacramento Police Department Public Member Sheriff. San Diego County Chief. Long Beach Police Department Dean/Director. San Luis Obispo Police Department Sergeant. POST POST  .

POST would like to extend its gratitude to the many law enforcement officers. supervisors. managers.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations acknOwledGements n This manual could not have been developed without the combined efforts of a great number of dedicated individuals and interested parties. and support staff who contributed to the success of this project POST  .

and SWAT practitioners. supervise.gov KENNETh J. who are assigned to perform. please contact Training Program Services at (916) 227-4885.ca.1 directs the Commission to develop and disseminate guidelines and standardized training recommendations for law enforcement officers. SWAT subject matter experts met throughout 2004 to provide input regarding the highly specialized components of SWAT operations and training. or manage Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT). These SWAT guidelines reflect recent law changes and contemporary thinking concerning tactical law enforcement operations. and executives to develop these guidelines. and multi-jurisdictional SWAT operations. POST assembled over 130 law enforcement practitioners. risk assessment. supervisors. planning. The operational guidelines address legal and practical issues of SWAT operations. fitness recommendations. please contact your area consultant in Training Delivery at (916) 227-4863 or via the Regional Map on our website at www. For questions concerning the guidelines. safety. logistical and resource needs. administrators.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations FOrewOrd n Penal Code Section 13514. For questions concerning basic or update training. tactical issues. after-action evaluation of operations. and administrators. personnel selection.post. met to review recommendations of subcommittees. comprised of law enforcement chief executives. managers. The Commission appreciates the efforts of the POST Special Weapons and Tactics committee members who developed and reviewed the guidelines. They are deliberately brief and are intended to be elaborated upon by law enforcement administrators and training presenters. The California Attorney General’s Blue Ribbon SWAT Report 2002 has been considered at each step in the process and used as a guiding document in developing these operational guidelines and standardized training recommendations. uniform and firearms recommendations. The SWAT Executive Committee. O’BRiEN Executive Director POST v . policy considerations.

Equipment.0 4.0 Definition of SWAT SWAT Team Components Policy Considerations Risk Assessment Planning Logistical and Resource Needs Legal and Practical issues of SWAT Operations Uniforms.0 8.SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations cOntents Foreword introduction 1. Physical Fitness and Core Skills Proficiency SWAT Training Multi-Jurisdictional SWAT Operations After-Action Evaluation Specialized Functions and Supporting Resources iv 1 2 3 4 6 7 9 10 11 12 14 18 19 20 Appendices A B C D E F G h i Basic SWAT Team Operational Components Basic SWAT Course Topics SWAT Core Competencies SWAT/Tactical Commanders’ Course Topics Core Competencies for SWAT K-9 Teams Basic Crisis Negotiator Course Recommended Course Topics Crisis Negotiations Core Competencies Long Rifle/Observer Team Course Topic Recommendations Tactical Waterborne Core Competencies 29 30 34 38 41 42 47 49 52 POST v .0 7.0 50 6.0 9.0 10.0 2 0 3.0 11.0 12.0 13. and Firearms Personnel Selection.

operation. operational guidelines and standardized training recommendations are identified in regular type with explanatory information in italicized type POST  .1. While these guidelines encourage some degree of standardization of SWAT. These guidelines pay particular attention to the SWAT aspects that focus on effectiveness. oversight. “best practices” have been identified and incorporated into these guidelines. safety and prevention of problematic critical incidents. and training of effective SWAT teams. operating. NOTE: in the following sections. it is recognized that local conditions and needs vary considerably and therefore flexibility is afforded agencies. and training law enforcement SWAT teams in the State of California in accordance with Penal Code Section 13514.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations intrOductiOn n The following are guidelines and standardized training recommendations for managing. To the extent possible. The intent of these guidelines is to provide helpful guidance to law enforcement agencies in the formation.

as opposed to other functions. The purpose of SWAT is to increase the likelihood of safely resolving critical incidents. 1 deFinitiOn OF swat A Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) team is any designated group of law enforcement officers who are selected. SWAT teams are focused on tactical solutions. or unusual that they may exceed the capabilities of first responders or investigative units. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude agencies from utilizing specially trained units in areas such as narcotics investigations. and other tasks. trained. and equipped to work as a coordinated team to resolve critical incidents that are so hazardous. such as investigation.0 1 . u The primary characteristic of SWAT that distinguishes it from the other units is the focus of effort. felony apprehension.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 1. POST  . complex.

contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 2. POST  . Entry / Apprehension / Rescue u Appendix A provides a suggested listing of activities for each operational component. 1 2 Containment swat team cOmpOnents SWAT teams should develop sufficient resources to perform the three basic operational functions: 1.0 2 . Command and Control 3.

2 forming n Team organization and function n Personnel selection and retention criteria n Training and required competencies POST  . Policies and procedures specific to SWAT organization and operations should be established and maintained by the agency.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 3. This assessment should consider the team’s capabilities and limitations and should be reviewed periodically. 1 pOlicy cOnsideratiOns A needs assessment should be conducted to determine the type and extent of SWAT missions and operations appropriate to the particular agency. These policies and procedures should address. at a minimum: n The locally identified specific missions the team is capable of per- 3 .0 3 .

0 continued n Procedures for activation and deployment pOlicy cOnsideratiOns n Command and control issues. POST  . including a clearly defined command structure n Multi-agency response n Out-of-jurisdictional response n Specialized functions and supporting resources u These policies and procedures should take into consideration POST guidelines and standardized training recommendations.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 3.

0 4 . POST  .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 4. 1 risk assessment Agencies should conduct a threat assessment to determine the appropriate response and resources necessary. including the use of SWAT.

unless circumstances require immediate deployment. All SWAT team members should have an understanding of operational planning 5 2 5 . briefings should include the specialized units and supporting resources.0 5 . POST  .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 5. 3 u Skill redundancy in knowledge of planning procedures for SWAT team members improves performance in rapidly developing scenarios. SWAT teams should designate personnel responsible for developing an operational or tactical plan prior to and during SWAT operations. u When possible. 1 planninG Mission briefings should be conducted prior to an operation.

0 continued 5 . POST  . consideration should be given to integrating Tactical Emergency Medical Support (TEMS) personnel within the structure of the SWAT team. 4 planninG SWAT team policies and training should consider planning for both spontaneous and planned events.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 5. 5 5 u Where resources allow. SWAT teams should incorporate medical emergency contingency planning as part of the SWAT operational plan.

contents

SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations

6.0
6 . 1

lOGistical and resOurce needs
SWAT teams that anticipate augmentation by specialized resources should incorporate use of those resources into their planning and training

u Refer to section 13.0 for further guidelines on Specialized Functions and Supporting Resources.

POST 

contents

SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations

7.0
7 . 1 7 . 2

leGal and practical issues OF swat OperatiOns
Agencies should develop protocols to maintain sustained operations, which may include relief, rotation of personnel, and augmentation of resources Agencies should develop procedures for post-incident scene management, including documentation and transition to investigations and other units Agencies should consider the use of tactically trained personnel for communications and record keeping during SWAT operations.

7 . 3

POST 0

contents

SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations

8.0
8 . 1

uniFOrms, equipment, and Firearms
SWAT teams should wear uniforms that clearly identify team members as law enforcement officers.

u It is recognized that certain tactical conditions may require covert movement. Attire may be selected appropriate to the specific mission.
SWAT teams should be adequately equipped to meet the specific mission identified by the agency. Within the respective agency, weapons and equipment used by SWAT, the specialized units, and the supporting resources should be agency-issued or approved, including any modifications, additions, or attachments

8 . 2

8 . 3

POST 

0 9 . 2 u Agencies should consider conducting physical fitness assessment at least annually. Agencies should establish physical fitness standards for the selection and retention of SWAT team members.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 9. 1 persOnnel selectiOn. job related. POST  . and sound risk management practices. and unbiased. POST guidelines. physical Fitness and cOre skills prOFiciency Minimum requirements for both initial selection and full deployment with the SWAT team should be established by the agency based upon resources available and identified local needs. 9 . Policies should be established for failure to comply with these standards. u Agencies should ensure that the SWAT selection process is reasonable.

POST  .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 9.2 and Appendix C for a listing of core competencies and elements. u See Guideline 10.0 continued 9 . Policies should be established for failure to maintain these proficiencies. 3 persOnnel selectiOn. physical Fitness and cOre skills prOFiciency Agencies should establish SWAT core skills proficiency levels for SWAT team members u Agencies should consider conducting core skills proficiency assessment at least annually.

1 Initial Training swat traininG SWAT team Operators and SWAT Supervisors/team leaders should not be deployed until successful completion of the POST-certified Basic SWAT Course or its equivalent as determined by the agency.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 10. should also be incorporated into agency policy for the specialized SWAT functions and other supporting resources POST  . 1 10 . 1 . u Appendix B provides the training recommendations for the POST Basic SWAT Course. 2 Appropriate training.0 10 . 1 . prior to full deployment. 10 .

3 u Appendix C provides a listing of SWAT operator core competencies and elements for each competency.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 10. 1 SWAT team Operators and SWAT Supervisors/team leaders should attend 24 hours of POST-certified SWAT update or refresher training. POST  . every 24 months. 3 . 1 Recurrent Core Competency Training swat traininG SWAT teams should participate in documented and verifiable monthly training to maintain individual and team core competencies as determined by the type and extent of SWAT missions and operations performed. u SWAT core competencies fall within three general categories: n Weapons. 10 . 2 10 . and equipment training n individual and team movement and tactics n Decision-making u Appendix C provides a listing of SWAT operator core competencies and elements for each competency. u Ongoing training in the respective core competencies should also be incorporated into policy for the specialized SWAT functions and supporting resources. 2 . or its equivalent (as determined by the agency). Update and Refresher Training 10. munitions.0 continued 10 .

4 . 4 . or its equivalent. 2 Command personnel who may assume incident command responsibilities should attend a SWAT or critical incident commander course. u Command and executive personnel are encouraged to attend training for managing the SWAT function at the organizational level. 5 . 10 .0 continued 10 . 4 . POST  . previously completed training may be considered equivalent when the hours and content (topics) meet or exceed agency requirements or POST’s standardized training recommendations. Approval of Prior Training 10 . 3 u Appendix D provides the training recommendations for the POST Tactical Commander Course. SWAT command personnel should attend a POST-certified SWAT commander or tactical commander course. redundant training 10. 10 . or its equivalent. 5 u As a general rule. 1 Agencies with SWAT teams should establish procedures to recognize previous training of members so as to preclude unnecessary. 1 Supervision and Management swat traininG Command and executive personnel who provide active oversight at the scene of SWAT operations should understand the purpose and capabilities of the team(s). 4 10 .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 10.

Training Documentation 10 . 1 Training Safety swat traininG Use of a designated safety officer should be considered for tactical training u Refer to POST Guidelines for Student Safety in Certified Courses for further training safety information. 7 u Scenario-based training that simulates the tactical operational environment is an established method of improving performance during an actual deployment. 10 . 1 Annual Training Plan SWAT teams should develop an annual training plan based on a training needs assessment. 6 10. Scenario-Based Training 10 . 7 . POST  .0 continued 10 . u An annual training plan helps SWAT teams to identify and prioritize training needs and schedule accordingly. 10 . 8 10 . 9 . 6 .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 10. 1 SWAT teams should participate in scenario-based training. 10 . 9 u Documentation of individual and team training/performance can contribute to long-term reduction of liability and aid in investigations. 1 individual and team training should be documented and records maintained by the agency. 8 .

contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 11. 11 . 1 multi-JurisdictiOnal swat OperatiOns The SWAT team. should develop protocols. POST  . upon request.0 11 . including relevant specialized units and supporting resources. agreements. Specialized SWAT units and supporting resources should also participate u Some agencies may choose to consolidate resources into a regional SWAT team concept. or working relationships to support multi-jurisdictional or regional responses. 2 SWAT multi-agency and multi-disciplinary joint training exercises are encouraged. u Samples of initial suggested protocols and multi-jurisdictional agreements can be obtained through the POST clearinghouse.

the debriefings should include specialized units and resources. helps to identify training needs.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 12. and reinforces sound risk management practices. u Evaluation and analysis of critical incidents affords opportunity for individual and team assessment. When appropriate.0 12 . POST  . 1 aFter-actiOn evaluatiOn After-action team debriefings should be conducted.

consisting of a handler and dog. and equipped to work in conjunction with SWAT /tactical teams to assist in tactical incidents.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 13. POST 0 . which is specifically selected. Definition of a SWAT K-9 Team u A SWAT K-9 team is a designated unit. 1 specialized FunctiOns and suppOrtinG resOurces SWAT K-9 Teams u These guidelines are intended as helpful guidance for agencies who utilize K-9 teams on a recurrent basis for deployment with a tactical team.0 13 . trained.

tactical operation. which are consistent with POST K-9 guidelines. as part of the SWAT K-9 team. consistent with the type of SWAT missions performed. complete a SWAT orientation program that emphasizes basic SWAT procedures. n Agencies should establish procedures for the selection of dogs used n Not all police canines are suitable for SWAT operations. n SWAT K-9 teams should participate in mission briefings prior to a Training n Agencies should establish SWAT K-9 core skills proficiency levels for K-9 tactical teams. practices. and equipment.0 continued Formation and Policy Considerations specialized FunctiOns and suppOrtinG resOurces n Agencies should establish procedures for both initial selection and full deployment of canine handlers with the SWAT team. n SWAT teams and SWAT K-9 teams should jointly participate in documented quarterly scenario-based training to maintain SWAT K-9 team core competencies.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 13. n it is recommended that the K-9 handler and K-9 successfully POST  . after-action evaluations and team debriefings. ongoing basis n Agencies should conduct core skills proficiency assessment on an n Appendix E provides a suggested listing of core competencies for SWAT K-9 teams. Planning n SWAT K-9 handlers should be provided with appropriate SWAT- specific safety and communications equipment appropriate to the assigned tactical mission. consistent with department policy.

and practiced prior to deployment. part of the rescue procedures.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 13. trained. or as a separate entity with its own command structure POST  . Safety Considerations n Rescue procedures for the SWAT K-9 team (i. handler down) should be developed.0 continued specialized FunctiOns and suppOrtinG resOurces n Command personnel who may assume SWAT K-9 Team command responsibilities and SWAT K-9 handlers should remain current on legal issues pertaining to law enforcement K-9 deployment. should develop a Crisis Negotiations component for response to identified critical incidents. trained. and equipped to assist in the resolution of critical incidents by means of communication and negotiation with criminal suspects and other persons. n A Crisis Negotiations Team may be developed as an integral part of the SWAT team/unit. or who participate in a regional or multi-jurisdictional team. n Medical emergency contingency planning should be incorporated as Legal and Practical issues n SWAT K-9 Teams should be evaluated as to their suitability for deployment with a tactical team prior to deployment and on an ongoing basis 13. Formation n Agencies that field a SWAT team.e.2 Crisis Negotiations Team Definition of a Crisis Negotiations Team u A Crisis Negotiations Team (CNT) is a designated group of personnel specifically selected. often in conjunction with the SWAT/tactical unit.

consistent with the type of SWAT missions identified by agency policy. n institution of procedures for establishing and running the Negotiations Operations Center in coordination with the Tactical Commander and the incident Commander. n identification of personnel responsible for operations. CNT Operational Functions u Agencies should develop resources sufficient to perform the four CNT operational functions: n Communications/Negotiations n intelligence n Tactical Liaison n Logistics initial Training n CNT members should successfully complete a POST-certified Basic Crisis Negotiator course or its equivalent. and equipment maintenance. in conjunction with the SWAT team. POST  . Crisis Negotiator course n Appendix F contains a listing of recommended topics for the Basic Recurrent Core Competency Training n CNT members should participate in documented quarterly training that maintains proficiency in core competencies.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 13. is encouraged.0 continued specialized FunctiOns and suppOrtinG resOurces Policy Considerations u Agencies should organize CNT with regard to the following policy considerations: n Development of written operating procedures. n Appendix G provides a suggested listing of CNT core competencies. Periodic scenario-based training. training. n Development of written criteria for the activation and deployment of a Crisis Negotiations Team.

which includes curriculum regarding crisis negotiations protocols. trained as both Long Rifle Operator and Observer. and equipped to work as an element of the SWAT team in the resolution of critical incidents by providing observation. n Long Rifle/Observer Teams are most often a component of SWAT. cross- initial Training n Long Rifle Operators should not be deployed until successful completion of a POST-Certified Basic Long Rifle Course. 13 . and the employment of precision fire. the SWAT team. Formation and Policy Considerations n Agencies should develop sufficient training and resources to perform the basic functions of the Long Rifle/Observer Team. but distinct from. however. or its equivalent. it is recognized that some agencies train and deploy Long Rifle/Observer Teams in coordination with. or its equivalent. cover.0 continued specialized FunctiOns and suppOrtinG resOurces CNT Supervision and Management n Command personnel who may assume CNT command responsibilities should attend a SWAT or critical incident commander course. n A Long Rifle/Observer Team should consist of two officers. 3 Long Rifle/Observer Teams Definition of a Long Rifle/Observer Team u A Long Rifle/Observer Team is a designated unit of law enforcement officers who are selected. trained. Course n Appendix h provides information about the Basic Long Rifle POST  .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 13.

biological.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 13. n The use of a safety officer is recommended. Safety Considerations n Appropriate safety precautions should be incorporated into Long Rifle/Observer Team training. u Refer to POST Guidelines for Student Safety in Certified Courses for further training safety information. and federal agencies. Long Rifle/Observer core competencies fall within three general categories: n Fundamentals of Precision Shooting n Tactics n Observation/Communication Long Rifle Operators should demonstrate proficiency on at least a quarterly basis with assigned firearms.4 u SWAT teams may be tasked with preparing the tactical component of the governmental response to a potential exposure to chemical. state. POST  . nuclear. SWAT Operations in a Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)/Terrrorism Event 13. Agencies should recognize that tactical operations in a CBRNE environment are highly specialized. and should consider a coordinated regional response by local. or explosive (CBRNE) hazards. SWAT teams may not be prepared to handle these incidents alone. radiological.0 continued Recurrent Core Competency Training specialized FunctiOns and suppOrtinG resOurces n Long Rifle Operators should participate in documented and verifiable training on a monthly basis that maintains individual and team core competencies consistent with the type of SWAT missions performed.

0 continued 13.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 13. the vessel operators and POST  . n Vessel operators should participate in the development phase of mission planning to ensure appropriate assets are in place for the identified mission profile. waterborne operations refer to the deployment of specially trained SWAT Operators to engage in tactical operations associated with the waterborne environment. crew should conduct a safety briefing. Needs Assessment n A needs assessment should be conducted to determine the type and extent of SWAT waterborne missions and operations appropriate to the agency Training n SWAT teams who anticipate utilizing waterborne support in recurrent missions should complete initial vessel orientation and training prior to deployment. including vessel safety and emergency procedures.5 SWAT Waterborne Operations specialized FunctiOns and suppOrtinG resOurces u Definition For the purposes of this section. n Prior to commencing underway operations. n SWAT Teams who anticipate utilizing waterborne support for n Appendix i provides a listing of SWAT operator core competencies Planning n Consideration should be given to the proper selection of equipment related to locally identified mission profiles. recurrent missions should incorporate maritime training in the annual training plan associated with the maritime environment.

should develop procedures for the tactical use of the aircraft Planning n Aircrews should participate in the development phase of mission planning and risk assessment to ensure appropriate assets are in place for the identified mission parameters. POST  . cross jurisdictional.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 13. and/or working relationships with other agencies that may be operationally affected due to statutory. or multi-jurisdictional requirements.0 continued specialized FunctiOns and suppOrtinG resOurces Multi-jurisdictional issues n Agencies involved in waterborne tactical operations should develop protocols. n Formation and Policy Considerations A needs assessment should be conducted to determine the type and extent of SWAT air support missions and operations appropriate to the particular agency n The agency. 13. agreements.6 SWAT AiRBORNE OPERATiONS u Definition For the purposes of this section. in coordination with SWAT and the air support provider. n Aircrews should participate with SWAT in after-action evaluation of operations and debriefings. a tactical airborne operation refers to the use of air support as a resource in coordination with SWAT to resolve critical incidents.

a designated air crew member should conduct a safety briefing. n Weapons safety is of extreme importance in airborne operations. Training n SWAT teams who utilize air support for recurrent missions should incorporate airborne training with the aircraft and air crew members in the annual training plan Firearms n Agencies should develop policies regarding use of firearms and firearms training in an airborne environment. including aircraft safety and emergency procedures.0 continued Safety Considerations specialized FunctiOns and suppOrtinG resOurces n Prior to commencing operations. SWAT teams involved in airborne weapons utilization should conduct periodic training using the aircraft as a shooting platform. POST  .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations 13.

Coordination with the Crisis Negotiations Team c. Medical support g. Mission documentation e Communications f. and secure objective(s) d. organizing. Liaison with allied agencies d. Subject/suspect detention POST  . Scouting missions b. staffing. etc. Entry/Apprehension/Rescue Element a. Rescue operations e. Planning. Tactical deliveries (chemical munitions. search.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations appendix a n 2 Basic swat team OperatiOnal cOmpOnents SWAT teams should develop resources sufficient to fulfill the following three minimum operational components: 1. Breaching c. Mission debriefings Containment Element a b Control of inner perimeter Evacuation c. Enter. equipment. and directing the overall SWAT operation b. Precision long rifle/observer deployment and support 3. Command and Control Element a.) d.

Basic SWAT Concepts 5 a. Team Composition and Duties Psychological Considerations a. active shooters. POST SWAT Project and Guidelines c. Mental Conditioning for Confrontations POST 0 . Stress Management c. Typical scenarios would include barricaded subjects. Legal issues/Civil Liability b. hostage situations. The topics address the basic concepts of SWAT. Introduction a Course Objectives 2 b. Mutual Aid Procedures d. Core Competency Training and Compliance 3. Use of Force c. The course should include the following topics: 1. Common SWAT Responses b. importance of Correct Terminology 4. Post-Trauma Stress b. and include practical application and problem solving simulations as effective learning methods. incident Command and Direct Supervision of the SWAT team c. historical Perspective of the SWAT Concept Performance Evaluation of Team Members a. SWAT Activation Criteria d. Policy Issues a. and other high-risk situations.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations appendix B n Basic swat cOurse tOpics These course topic recommendations are designed for officers who are assigned to a SWAT/tactical team. SWAT Policies and Procedures e. warrant service.

Operational Planning a. Lifetime Fitness Recommendations c. Weapons and Firearms c. Structured Planning Format c Principles of Containment d. Physical Training for SWAT Team Members d. Long Rifle/Observer f Rescue Operations g.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix B continued 6. implementation/Resolution h. Overview of Specialized SWAT Functions a c Canines Crisis Negotiations b. importance of Planning b. Mobile Assaults h. Uniform Equipment b. Airborne d. intelligence Gathering e. Pre-Event Planning f Contemporaneous Planning g. incident De-Briefing 9. Emergency Medical Procedures 7. Fitness Standards for SWAT Team Members b. Physical Considerations Basic SWAT Course Topics a. Overview of Individual and Team Equipment a. Explosive Breaching e. Communications Devices d. Support Equipment and Technology 8. SWAT Response to WMD-related incidents POST  .

Field Command Post b. Diversionary Devices a. Practical Application 15. Cover and Concealment b. SWAT Arrest and Control b. Negotiation Concepts and Strategies b. Overview of Diversionary Devices b. Command Post Operations a. Practical Application 12. Mechanical Breaching d. Tactical Operations Center c. Chemical Agents in SWAT Operations a. Crisis Negotiation a. Overview of Chemical Agents b Less Lethal Munitions c. Basic Entry and Search Techniques a. Open Area Searches e. Relationship Between SWAT and Crisis Negotiation Teams POST  . Team Communications c Overcoming Obstacles d. Media Considerations Basic SWAT Course Topics 11.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix B continued 10. Practical Application 14. Practical Application 13. Individual and Team Movement a. Buildings and Structures c.

Individual and Team Firearms Training 17. handguns b. Shoulder-fired Weapons c. Table Top Exercises b. Reality-based Exercises POST  . Training Scenarios and Problem-Solving Simulations a.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix B continued a. Practical Application Basic SWAT Course Topics 16.

Weapons. etc. Munitions. Firearm Skills (live fire) (1) handgun (2) Low light/night training (3) Shoulder-fired weapons d. Mechanical Breaching (1) 12-gauge shotgun breaching (2) Rams.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations appendix c n swat cOre cOmpetencies This list is intended to assist agencies in determining areas of responsibility for individual SWAT teams and in developing an annual SWAT training plan. weapons. Equipment Familiarization and Maintenance c. Lighting Systems (personal. and Equipment a. Weapons Maintenance POST  . h Munitions (1) Chemical agents: Options and delivery systems (2) Less lethal impact munitions and delivery (4) Light/sound diversionary devices (5) Other less lethal devices i. Ladder and Other high Angle Access f. picks. Armored Vehicle Operations b. 1. individual Operator’s Uniform Maintenance and Wear e. Use of Ballistic Shields k. other) g. Night Vision Equipment j. pullers.

Barricaded Subject Operations d. etc. Camouflage Techniques f. high Risk Warrant Service (1) Contain & call-outs (2) Dynamic (3) Remote takedowns (4) Ruses. immediate Action Drills q. Active Shooter Response b. Booby Traps e. Cover and Movement i Covert Clearing j. Rescue Operations – Basic v POST  .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix C continued 2 a. Aircraft intervention SWAT Core Competencies Individual and Team Movement/Tactics c. o. Rappelling (rural and/or urban) (1) Airborne (2) Static t Reactionary Responses Rural Operations u. Containment Techniques h. Long Rifle initiated Assaults r Night Movement s. Emergency Deployment Techniques m Entries n. Conducting Evacuations g. homicide Bombers p. Dynamic Clearing l. Downed Officer/Citizen Rescues k.

etc. Rescue Operations – Advanced h Riot Response i. high Risk Warrant (dynamic. Decision-Making a. contain & call-outs. Training Simulations (scenario-based training) c.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix C continued w. Airborne Operations b. Surveillance j. Scouting x. Mission and Tactical Contingency Planning b. Specialized Functions and/or Supporting Resources a. Marijuana Grow Operations g. hostage situations (1) Suicide intervention (2) Other d. Tactical Operation Center aa. Vehicle Assaults (1) Bus assaults (2) Car/van/truck assaults SWAT Core Competencies 3. SWAT Canine integration POST  . Searching Techniques y. Counter-Terrorism c Executive Protection d. Small Unit Tactics z. Warrant Service Work-ups and Planning 4.) f. Long Rifle/Observer f. Barricaded subject/suspect e. Explosive Breaching e.

WMD Response SWAT Core Competencies k. Train/Trolley Assaults n Waterborne Operations o. Tactical Emergency Medical Support POST  .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix C continued l. Team Leader Training m.

hostage situations. history of Tactical Operations 3. Documentation d. Use of Force Mutual Aid Procedures a Policy b. and other special operations resources. The course should include the following topics: 1. Policy and Procedures Update and Compliance e. Equipment/New Technology 4. Personnel Selection and Retention b. negotiators. containment. active shooters. Civil Liability/Case Law b. POST SWAT Project and Guidelines Definition of a Critical Incident a.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations appendix d n swat/tactical cOmmanders’ cOurse tOpics These course topic recommendations are designed for supervisory and command level officers who have SWAT/tactical team responsibility. warrant service. command posts. and other high-risk situations. Administrative Duties and Responsibilities a. long rifles. Core Competency Training and Compliance c. The topics address the employment of SWAT teams. Introduction a Course Objectives 2 b. Legal Issues 5 a. MOU’s POST  . Typical training scenarios would include barricaded subjects. and observers.

Force Options d. Tactical Command 9. Tactical Operation Procedures a. Warrant Service b. hostage Rescue c. SWAT/Tactical Commanders’ Course Topics Communications Deployment Guidelines a. Tactical Team Operations a.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix D continued c 6. Suspect initiated Events b. Mobile Suspect interdiction e. Barricaded Suspect/Subject d. Duties and Responsibilities c Communications 10. Protection Details 8. Briefing f. Definition and Functions b. Medical Support e. Command Post Operations a. Open Area Clearing f. Situation Assessment b Operational Planning c. Command and Control a. Department initiated Events 7. incident Command b. Specialty Tactics g. Post Operational Debriefing POST  .

Chemical Agents g Less Lethal Munitions h. Table Top Exercises b. Tactical Emergency Medical Support (TEMS) c. WMD 13. Bomb Squad l. Air Support d. Breaching i. Tactical Dispatch 12.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix D continued SWAT/Tactical Commanders’ Course Topics 11. Arrest/Reaction Team f. Long Rifle/Observer Team c. Throw Phone/Food Delivery j. Training Scenarios and Problem-Solving Simulations a. Containment team (SWAT or Patrol) b. Tactical Components/Capabilities a. Tactical Considerations/Missions a. Reality-based Exercises POST 0 . SWAT Team b. Evacuation e. Crisis Negotiations Team d. hostage Rescue k.

based on local needs POST  . Clearing high-risk areas (entryways. Tactical out and team arrest procedures. Team entry into objective 5. Calm/controlled behavior by K-9 during search exercises. Operating in conjunction with diversionary device deployment 16. crawlspaces. etc. Team and stealth movement techniques (tactical obedience) 3. Suspect apprehension 20. hand and/or audible down commands for K-9 during tactical search 12. hallways. Limited access searching (confined spaces – attics. Firearms qualification with assigned weapon(s) at least twice per year with K-9 in close proximity to handler. Directed and non-directed tactical searches 6. Suspect distraction 21. Ability to recall K-9 during tactical searches 10.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations appendix e n SWAT K-9 handler: cOre cOmpetencies FOr swat k-9 teams 1. vehicle interiors. Extraction of a non-compliant high-risk subject 23. Operating in a chemical agent and smoke environment 15. stairwells. Auditory alert by K-9 upon locating inaccessible suspect 11. Other skills consistent with agency mission profile. 2.) 8. etc. 17. Team approach to objective 4. Calm/controlled behavior by K-9 with team during live fire exercises 14. Confined space and limited access insertion and extraction 7. Tactical tracking consistent with agency procedures 18. 13.) 22. Long-line utilization 9. Suspect containment 19.

The course should include the following topics: 1. b Various Agency Standards (1) Command Post Operations (2) iCS (3) Tactical Element (4) Positions. Roles.) These topics address the basic concepts of crisis negotiations. Modern Day Negotiations c. Responsibilities Logistics (1) On Site Support – CNT (2) On Site Support - Tactical POST  . historical Perspective a. and include practical application and problem solving simulations as effective learning methods. Centralized vs. Three “Cs” of Negotiations (1) Containment (2) Control (3) Communication 3.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations appendix F n Basic crisis neGOtiatOr cOurse recOmmended cOurse tOpics These course topic recommendations are designed for personnel who are assigned to a Crisis Negotiation Team (CNT. Decentralized Team Concepts 2. Crisis Negotiations Team Structure a. Basic Negotiations Theory a. Significant Events Affecting Early Negotiations b.

hostage Situations b. Team Activation (1) First Responder Evaluation (2) Department Policy issues POST  . incident Types a. Suicide c. Response Protocol a. Mental health issues (1) Psychological Disorders and Diagnosis b. Domestic Violence e. Subject Types a.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix F continued Basic Crisis Negotiator Course Recommended Course Topics c. Chemical influence 6. Special Circumstances (1) Custodial/Corrections incidents (2) Suicide by Cop (3) Repeat Offenders (4) Law Enforcement Personnel 5. interrupted Crimes d. Terrorism f. intelligence (1) interview (2) Subject Profile (3) information Sharing 4. Non-hostage Situations c.

Negotiation Strategies a. Walk away assessment (1) To Negotiate or Not to Negotiate c. Critical incident Assessment a. Transfer of Communications POST  . Risk Assessment (1) Type of incident (2) Appropriate Action to Resolve b. Negotiation Techniques a Verbal Communications (1) Face to Face (2) Electronic Communications (3) Third Party Communications 10. Victimology e. Communication Skills (1) Active Listening b. indicators of Progress / Violence c. Stockholm Syndrome d. Technology 9. Time Considerations 11. CNT Specialized Equipment (Use and Maintenance) b. Surrender Phase a. Equipment a. hostage Behavior 8.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix F continued Basic Crisis Negotiator Course Recommended Course Topics 7. Tactical / CNT Coordination b.

5 PC / Media Access (2) No Fly Zones 14. Documentation (1) Reports and Recorded Material 15. individual Negotiators’ Resumes (1) Expert Witness POST  . Case Law d. incident Review (1) individual (2) Team (3) Tactical / CNT Joint Debriefing b. Media Management (1) 409. Risk Management b Ethics c. Crime Scene (1) Evidence (2) Securing from the Scene b. Debriefing a. hOBAS / LEO c. Legal Aspects a. Media Relations a. Post incident Considerations a.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix F continued Basic Crisis Negotiator Course Recommended Course Topics 12. Critical incident Stress Debriefing (1) incident Driven (2) individual Assessment 13.

Safety b. Debriefing of Scenarios (1) Student Performance Evaluations POST  .contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix F continued Basic Crisis Negotiator Course Recommended Course Topics 16. Training Scenarios / Role-Playing a. Group Scenarios c.

Faith-based negotiations e Extremist groups f. recurrent training. Crisis Negotiators should maintain proficiency in the core competencies deemed necessary for their local area or region: 1. Core Competencies: a. and sound risk management practices. Third-party intermediary skills c. team roles and responsibilities b. Risk assessment/incident evaluation (1) Behavioral/emotional factors (2) Diminished capacity e. Knowledge of incident management. Communications skills (1) Active listening (2) Tactical communications (3) interview and interrogation skills d. Equipment and technical knowledge c. Based upon a needs assessment. Media influences and effects POST  . homicide/Suicide indicators 2. department policy.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations appendix G n crisis neGOtiatiOns cOre cOmpetencies CNT core competencies will diminish unless maintained through meaningful. Drug/alcohol/medication interactions b. Juvenile issues d. Expanded Listing - Knowledge of: a.

Mutual aid protocols l Linguistics m.) k. Prison/jail/holding facility issues p. Emerging technology issues r.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix G continued Crisis Negotiations Core Competencies g. Suicidology (‘Suicide by Cop’) i. Special circumstances (negotiation w/known persons. Socio-cultural awareness n. etc. Joint training with tactical units and other groups s. Critical incident assessment (feedback to incident Commander) h. Mental disorders j. agency personnel. Legal issues and case law regarding crisis negotiations o. After action/incident reporting q. Other high risk incidents POST  .

contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations appendix h n lOnG riFle/OBserver team cOurse tOpic recOmmendatiOns These course topic recommendations are designed for officers who are assigned to a Long Rifle/Observer Team. Legal issues a Use of force – policy issues b. Safety issues a b c Classroom Range Operational 2. Weapons and Equipment Considerations 3. Common Mission Profiles 5. The course should include the following topics: 1. Documentation (1) Training records 6. These topics address basic concepts of Long Rifle Team functions and include practical application and problem solving simulations as effective learning methods. Case studies c. Mental and physical preparedness b Optics POST  . Roles and Duties 4. Fundamentals of Precision Shooting a.

contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix H continued Long Rifle/Observer Team Course Topic Recommendations c. Ballistics a. Rifle care i. Fundamentals of shooting a scoped rifle (1) Zeroing (2) Cold bore zeroing f. Camouflage b. Terminal ballistics (1) intermediate barrier shooting 8. Cover and concealment c. hides d. internal ballistics b External ballistics (1) Environmental factors (2) Angle shooting c. Movement POST 0 . Wind and range estimation g Position shooting h. Data books 7. Basic Fieldcraft – Urban and Rural a. Low-light shooting d.

e.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations Appendix H continued Long Rifle/Observer Team Course Topic Recommendations 9. Practical application and evaluation POST  . Observation/retention exercises b. Reporting (1) Observation log Diagramming (1) Range cards (2) Field sketching Team member communications 10. Observation/Communication Skills a. intelligence gathering c d.

Self-rescue techniques c. Night and low light conditions d. Familiarization with vessel operations. Boarding and offloading techniques 3. if conducting surface swimmer operations: a. Cal OShA regulations pertaining to underwater operations POST  . Small boat tactics f. PADi. Agency-approved swim test. if conducting sub-surface operations: a. Certification from a recognized certifying agency. to include water tread b. b. Boarding techniques and tactics 2. including safety briefing e.contents SWAT Operational Guidelines and Standardized Training Recommendations appendix i tactical waterBOrne cOre cOmpetencies 1. Use and maintenance of a Personal Flotation Device b. Basic water safety techniques c. if limited to boat operations: a. the military or equivalent. Medical exam and certification for SCUBA as per Cal OShA guidelines c. including NAUi.

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