P. 1
Final Report

Final Report

|Views: 92|Likes:
Published by Lalit Prakash

More info:

Published by: Lalit Prakash on Jul 22, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

07/22/2011

pdf

text

original

2010

SUBMITTED BY :
SAURABH KUMAR 0631484907 EEE 7th SEMESTER

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Saurabh kumar, student of B.Tech. Electrical and Electronic Engineering from M.A..I.T, Rohini has successfully completed her industrial Training in NORTHERN RAILWAYS at New delhi, from 1st June to 13th July, 2010. He has completed the

whole training as per the training report submitted by him.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
With profound respect and gratitude, I take the opportunity to convey my thanks to complete the training here. I do extend my heartfelt thanks to all my teachers for providing me this opportunity to be a part of this esteemed organisation. I am extremely grateful to all the technical staff RAILWAYS for their cooperation and guidance that has helped me a lot during the course of training. I have learnt a lot working under them and I will always be indebted of them for this value addition in me.

SAURABH KUMAR B.Tech (Electrical & Electronics engg.) M.A.I.T, Rohini.

the first passenger train service was introduced between Bori Bunder. With a passage of one and a half years. In the year 1844. Madras and Calcutta (three major port cities). This innovative plan was first proposed in 1832.500 km (9. however no auxiliary actions were taken for over a decade. The credit from the UK investors led to the hasty construction of a rail system over the next few years. Once finished. In 1880. Bombay and Thana on the providential date 16th Apr' 1853. By the year 1845. the first train came on the track to carry the construction material at Roorkee in India.HISTORY OF INDIAN RAILWAYS The novel plan for the introduction of a rail system. who was the Governor-General of India. transformed the whole history of India. the company would be transferred under the Government ownership. The British Government approached private investors and persuaded them to join the race with a system that would promise an annual return of 5% during the early years of operation. yet the operational control will be enjoyed by the original company. two companies were formed and the East India Company was requested to support them in the matter. private entrepreneurs were allowed to launch a rail system by Lord Hardinge. This rail track covered a distance of 34 kms (21 miles). mostly working through Bombay. the rail network acquired a route mileage of about 14. the rail service in India never turned back.000 miles). Ever since its origin. On 22nd Dec' 1851. .

In 1920. In 1901. Indian Railway Zones Indian Railways has sprawled a huge network of rail tracks throughout the . a Railway Manager and an Agent respectively. the condition of railways became miserable. In 1995. the Government captured the administration of the Railways and the linkage between the funding of the Railways and other governmental revenues was detached. The Railway Board worked under the guidance of the Deptt of Commerce and Industry. Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh. It was comprised of three members . With the Second World War. the Railways instigated to draw a neat profit. In view of the War.By 1895. On the whole. most of the rail companies were came under the government control. the railways got incapacitated since the trains were diverted to the Middle East. The existing rail networks were forfeited for zones in 1951 and 6 zones were formed in 1952. the maximum share of the railways went under the terrain of Pakistan. the whole railway reservation system was rationalized with computerization. the railways were exclusively used by the British. the diesel and electric locomotives took the place of steam locomotives. In 1907. 42 independent railway systems with thirty-two lines were merged in a single unit and were acknowledged as Indian Railways. In no time. Subsequently. For the very first time in its history.a Chairman. During the First World War. With 1985. different kingdoms assembled their independent rail systems and the network extended to the regions including Assam. On the occasion of India's Independence in 1947. a Railway Board was formed though the administrative power was reserved for the Viceroy. the first electric locomotive emerged in the next year. India had started manufacturing its own locomotives. Lord Curzon.

Each and every zonal railway further comprises several divisions. 1951 Nov' 5. Northern Railway North Eastern Railway Abbr. 1998 SER Kolkata SCR Secunderabad SR CR WR Chennai Mumbai Mumbai SWR Hubli NWR Jaipur WCR Jabalpur NCR Allahabad South East Central Railway SECR Bilaspur. 1951 April 1. 5. 2003 April 1. 10.country. 11. Indian Railway serve the rail users in each and every part of the country. 12. 16. The list embracing the names of seventeen railway zones. Headquarters NR Delhi Date of Establishment April 14. CG East Coast Railway East Central Railway Konkan Railway ECoR Bhubaneswar ECR Hajipur KR Navi Mumbai . 2003 Oct' 1. headquarters and date of establishment is given here. Calcutta Metro is exclusively operated by Indian Railways. Whether it is a remote village or developed metropolitans. 13. 7. 2. S. 1952 1952 NER Gorakhpur Northeast Frontier Railway NFR Maligaon (Guwahati) 1958 Eastern Railway South Eastern Railway South Central Railway Southern Railway Central Railway Western Railway South Western Railway North Western Railway West Central Railway North Central Railway ER Kolkata April 14. 1966 April 14. This widespread network is classified into sixteen zones for administrative purposes. 4.No Name 1. 15. 2003 April 1. abbreviations. 14. 9. 1951 Nov' 5. 2002 Jan' 26. 2002 April 1. 2003 April 1. 6. Konkan Railway is the recent addition to the listed railway zones of India that is controlled by the Railway Ministry and the Railway Board. 8. 3. yet it doesn't form the part of any zone. 17. 2003 Oct' 1. 1952 1955 Oct' 2.

Southern Indian Railway Southern Railway (SR) is credited to be the first railway zone that sought establishment in liberated India. Southern Railway was established by combining three state railways including Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway. South Indian Railway and Mysore State Railway. being the headquarters sited at Churchgate (Mumbai). Along with headquarters of Central Railway. Mumbai enjoys the authority over this railway network too. and Asansol for better administration. On April 14th 1951. serves as the headquarters of Northern Railway.The major railway zones that have been covered here are as follows: Central Indian Railway The Central Railway (CR) is perhaps the oldest railway zone of Indian Railways. the Eastern zone is segregated into four divisions including Howrah. This is one amongst the largest of the sixteen zones bifurcated by Indian Railways. Western Indian Railway The Western Railway (WR) is one amongst the most hustling rail networks in India. POWER HOUSE OF NEW DELHI RAILWAY STATION:- MAIN RECEVING SUB-STATION (MRS) . Malda. the capital city of India. Eastern Indian Railway The Eastern Railway is one of the major zones of Indian Railways. Northern Indian Railway The Northern Railway (NR) is one amongst the nine older zones of Indian Railways. Delhi. Fairley Place in Kolkata being its headquarters. Sealdah.

If winding temperature gets increased then alarming system consists of mercury floating system is used to decrease burden on load. The transformers are also provided with protective relay. According to load. Isolators Whenever maintenance and repair work is to be done on equipment in a sub-station transformer is disconnected from the supply using isolators. The 33kV feeder is transformed into two 11kV feeders with a bus-coupler in between them. Moisture is one of the vital factors in proper working of transformers and is adsorbed from transformer oil through silica gel. For low rating transformers protection over current relays are used. Other protection devices like Schulz relay and Explosion Diaphragm (mechanical system arrangement) are also used. Advantage of ring system is that each sub-station is fed from two sides. Transformers are protected from short circuit and overheating. Three transformers are used such that one is kept as standby at a time. which is gas actuated. If in case one line is faulty then the sub-station is fed from the other line.MRS receives supply from BSES and NDMC at 33kV. Two transformers each of capacity 1000kVA are used. . This is facilitated through “trip arrangement”. supply can not be resumed till the breakdown is cleared. They are operated on no load. The MRS follows a ring type distribution system for supplying power to NDLS. But the major disadvantage of the ring system is that it is too costly. This is stepped down to 11kV with the help of two 750kVA transformer. This disadvantage is eliminated in radial system but in this system no reliability is assured i. Under fault conditions the temperature of the oil increases resulting in decomposition of the oil. Isolators are generally interlocked with CBs and earthing switches. VARIOUS COMPONENTS USED IN MRS Transformer The transformers are used to step down 33kV to 11kV. This gas is trapped in glass window.e. if excessive moisture is present. capacity is increased or decreased.

of turns is wound on the core. The instrument or the relay is connected to the secondary. 1)600 KVAR 2)1200 KVAR 3)1800 KVAR It can be operated up to 800 operation hours continuously at a time. The secondary rated voltage is 110V to line. It may be iron core type or capacitive type transformer.F 11000V 56 Amp 10625 kVA 0. Capacitor Bank They supply the reactive power to the loads and thus help in improving the power factor. This current is fed to the ammeter that is calibrated to show actual current in the line. A potential transformer is used to step down the system voltage to low voltage for metering and relaying.Current and Potential Transformers A current transformer steps down the line current for the purpose of metering and relaying. They are switched on during peak load conditions and switched off during off pack condition.8 . The rating of 850 KW DG set is as follows: Voltage Amperes KVA rating P. Safety devices like over voltage and over current relays. CT and PT are generally used for: • • Metering and measuring. The secondary having large no. The line or conductor passes through the core and acts as primary. There are following capacity banks available.

Auxiliary excitation 160V. 266 Hz This one can be operated up to 1200 operations continuously at a time. Minimum oil circuit breakers are remotely controllable. The 1750 KW DG set produces a voltage of 440 V. which is strapped up to 11 kV with the help of transformer while the 850 KW DG set produces electricity directly at 11 kV. Usually off load tap changing arrangement is used however on load tap-changing system is also available. Also since VCB are expensive so in LT side they are not used. Circuit Breakers Circuit breakers play an important role in power system protection. Instead Air Circuit Breaker or Bulk Oil Circuit Breaker is used in its place. Gang operating switches are used to switch all three phases of supply on/off simultaneously. The circuit breaker disconnects and isolates the faulty section. PTs are installed in line to tell voltage while CTs and MOCB are installed in every phase. Following type of circuit breakers are used HV (33 kV) side: • • • • Gang operating circuit breakers (GO) Vacuum circuit breakers (VCB) Bulk oil breakers Mini oil circuit breakers (MOBC) In VCB since air is pumped out so no sparking problem exists. The rating of OCB is as follows: Service voltage Normal ampere Frequency Breaking capacity 400/450 V 1200 A 50 Hz 38 kA .

Power. Protective Relays Whenever the fault occurs. 0. The typical ratings of the relays used are as follows: • • • Definite time reversed power relay type – 5A. Over current relay 2. 50V.98 or 0. current is inversely proportional to the power factor.99.16 ohm. 0. MRS has a trailed to the over current relay. We know that. 0. p = 1. the current would be high and it would result in increase of diameter of conductor. Hence it is necessary to maintain the pf within the specified range. Hence if the pf is low.732×V×I×pf Since power and voltage both are constant hence.Making capacity 72 kA Rating of VCB is as follows: Service voltage Making current Insulation 11 kV 33.5-10A.4 kA 28/75 kA These are installed in HV side the power factor is continuously maintained 0.5-2A.12 ohm. 50-110V. Auxiliary power supply .14 ohm. The relay is mounted in the panels in the control room. Earth fault relay 0. the protective relay operates and sends a trip signal to the CB. 50V.

When power supply from BSES is interrupted. One DG set has capacity of 250 KVA.8 50 Hz. 11000 V.10% 790 A 500 KVA 0. 3-phase GENARATOR STRUCRURE . three DG sets are installed in MRS are started to give supply to DLW. 425/245 +/.C. another has capacity of 500 KVA and the third one has capacity of 500 KVA.C. star connected 790 A 500 KVA 0. The ratings of 250 KVA DG set: • • • • • Voltage Amperes KVA ratings Power factor AC 11000 V. star connected 348 A 250 KVA 0. 3-phase The ratings of 500 KVA DG set: • • • • • Voltage Amperes KVA ratings Power factor A. 3-phase The ratings of 500 KVA DG set: • • • • • Voltage Amperes KVA ratings Power factor A.8 50 Hz.8 50 Hz.

(Mainalternator) (Excitation) (Auxiliary excitation) The DG set was composed of three segments viz. Due to heat the resistance of armature winding gets increased and the losses become even higher. This provides the DG set an initial drive so as it continues to move further. main alternator. The alternator is started initially with the help of an air motor. Due to friction between moving parts and due to various losses in alternator the heating occurs in the generator so. And the efficiency gets reduced. Cooling is mainly done by means of lubricating oil or by means of chromate water . Air motor is an air powered motor which moves on the pressure of the air which is created in a compressor. The auxiliary winding serves the purpose of field excitation for the excitation segment and starts it as alternator and as soon as current develops in the excitation it moves the main alternator. proper cooling arrangement is done. excitation and auxiliary windings. This type of arrangement provides super fine control over the speed of the alternator and thus over voltage and frequency.

gas and water utilities. These services also require a continuing reduction of operating cost to affect ever-increasing expenses of procurement of resources. stringent quality control and safe operation. non stop availability. railways require continuous adjustment to user demand. The user interface or the man machine interface (MMI) provides various options of data presentation according to specific application and user needs. .SCADA SYSTEM Public services such as electric. Supervisory control and data Acquisition (SCADA) achieves this requirement collecting reliable field data through remote terminal units (RTUs) Intelligent Electric Devices (IEDs) and presenting them to user requirement.

.Nelco has been developing and supplying SCADA systems for industries such as electrical utilities. water distribution. The SCADA Software NELCO SCADA software is one of the most advanced master station software available in the market. It has evolved and delivered customer specific solutions by adding and adopting the latest in technology without losing sight of flexibility of growth and easy interface capabilities to systems of other vendors. oil and gas industries since 1982. railways. steelplants. The unique features of the system are : • • • • • • • • • • • MMI Functions System security Zoning Downloading of database from master to RTU Safety Tagging Periodic data update Auto fault isolation: Online reporting of I/O module failure Event logging at RTU Time stamping of events at RTU Calc programming Ladder logic implementation.

Features  Auto fault isolation  Under voltage tripping  Fault localization program  Maximum demand calculations  Safety tagging Pioneers in Railway SCADA: NELCO is one of the few organizations who have been supplying telemetry / SCADA system to the railways. The various systems under installations at present reflect our commitment to the industry . since the past 15 years with more than 17 successful installations. a SCADA system that is technologically up to date with the best in the world. the various device status. The system consists of master station in dual redundant mode configured on ethernet (LAN).FOR RAILWAY APPLICATIONS: The NELCO SCADA system has all the features to control and monitor various substation parameters. NELCO has progressively offered the railways. Beginning with hardwired logic system. microwave or fiber optic cables over long distances. It communicates with the remote terminal units through telephone. the voltage and current parameters and maximum demand in a section can be monitored and controlled by the system. Virtually any requirement of SCADA system in railways is synonymous with NELCO.

A typical SCADA system for railway traction control is depicted in the figure above Electric Traction Supply System on Indian Railways Nothern Inidan Railways.Meeting railways standard: The NELCO SCADA system fully meets the RDSO specs. 5000 crores every year on account of traction energy charges which constitutes about 20% of total revenue budget of Railways. approximately 30 billion units of electricity is consumed by Railways. Railway is paying approximate Rs. besides meeting many standards. Out of total RKM 19000 RKM is electrified which carries 60% of total freight as well as passenger traffic across India. . 3. The power supplies are derived from 220 KV / 132 KV 3 phase transmission system from the various grids.C supply system for traction purposes.4 billion units are used for electric traction purpose. out of which 10. which normally feeds power along the track for 35-40 Km. The system is field-proven and time-tested and has several successful installations in the field. Annually. The typical schematic of power supply arrangement is shown in fig. Traction Power Supply Scheme Indian Railway has adopted 25 KV industrial frequency ( 50 Hz) A.1 The basic arrangement constitutes incoming supply to Railway traction sub station at a voltage level of 220 KV / 132 KV . Allahabad Introduction Indian Railways is the largest government institutional costumer and purchaser from various Electricity boards and other Electric Supply Authorities.

output is fed to the 3 Phase induction motors through 3 Phase invertors. series traction motors placed at the underframe of a conventional loco motive. Out put voltage at 25 KV is fed to overhead wire running along the track through single pole circuit breaker and remote controlled interrupters. Protection Scheme . Level of voltage is reduced to 25 KV for the end use of locomotives by 21. This alternating voltage is converted into D. However.Adjacent traction sub station are fed from different phases in rotation in order to balance the 3 phase load in its entirety. Overhead lines are separated at periodic intervals through sectioning post(SP) and sub sectioning post (SSP) for isolation of faulty section through remote control. Locomotive Power Schematic 25 KV input voltage.C. in modern 3 Phase locomotives. is transformed to low voltage through loco transformer equipped with on-load tap changing facility.C. Details of TSS 2 Phase (R-Y) incoming 220/132 KV supply from Power supply authorities is fed to traction transformer through double pole isolators and circuit breakers with relevant protection scheme.C. Neutral sections are provided in between two adjacent sub station to prevent the bridging of different phases while passing the electric locomotive. the rectified D.6 MVA signal phase power transformers placed at traction sub stations which are located at every 30-35 Kms distance along the track. voltage by the rectifier and smoothing reactor circuitry before being fed to set of six D. Sub sector are further sub divided into different elementary section through manual isolators in order to reduce the faulty section to the bare minimum and carry out smooth train operation the advancement healthy section. fed to the locomotive through over head wires running parallel to track.

A number of protection equipments are provided at traction sub station as well in the locomotive for protection of traction equipments. These relays are having parallelogram characteristic instead of circular characterstices with feature of inbuilt fault locator. Traction Power Control . old electromechanically and solid-state type relays are being replaced by microprocessor based numeric 2 relays in a phased manner. Following protective device are provided at traction sub-station:- i) Differential protection ii) Restricted earth fault protection iii) Buchholz relay iv) Oil temperature indicator v) Winding temperature indicator The following further protective relays are provided for protection of overhead line against any fault i) Mho relay for distance protection ii) Wrong coupling relays between two sub station iii) Over current relays for fault closure to sub station. iv) Panto flash over protection With the emerging digital technology.

Main server & stand by server and window based communication processor. IEC 61000-3-2/4 describes current distortion limits at PCC for different power system voltages & fault levels and for different equipments respectively. Performance standards like EN 50160 describe limits of voltage un balance. SCADA system is so designed that RTU at various switching posts shall be able to communicate as standard communication media. Remote Control System constitutes standard SCADA software and remote terminal units provided at TSS/SP/SSP. The communication protocol is employed for present SCADA system has been standardized and based on IEC. FSK.Supervisory control and data acquisition system ( SCADA) is in place for operation and control of traction power supply. The data from Remote Control Center is communicated through 600/1200 BPS. which may be optical fiber cable . based on Pentium IV processor. chord cable or through microwave. Power Quality aspects of Electric Traction The term power quality is used to describe the extent of variation of the voltage. IEEE 1159 describes recommended practices for monitoring of power quality. Power Quality Standards While IEEE 519.870. Remote control center are provided with operator works station.1 . modem and sent to remote terminal unit via communication media which interact with various controlled and protective equipments provided at the controlled posts. All the switching operations required for maintenance as well as segregation of fault is being performed from Remote Control Center through SCADA. current and frequency on the power system . The variation of voltage and current can either be in terms of magnitude or waveform shape/ distortion. VHF radio patch. The typical schematic block diagram of complete SCADA is shown at fig 7. . harmonic distortion that have been fixed for utilities.

• Limitations of signaling track circuits. Phase shifting transformers are used to combine 6 – pulse bridges to construct 12/24 pulse converters. • Limitations of harmonic injections into public utility. Controlling Harmonic currents Shunt filters are tuned series L-C circuits. • Phase multiplication. • Harmonics are also non useful reactive energy and cause poor PF. i. The basic 3.Phase converter is a six pulse unit. Increase of form factor means reduction in ability of loco to absorb power from system.e. Main features of Traction Load .Effects of harmonics in the system • Form factor deterioration. • Harmonic compensation or injection using voltage source converters or active filters. • Interference to telecommunication. On IR presently HT capacitor with 13% reactor acts as harmonic filter. • Increase in line current and losses. ratio between the RMS and the Average value of the rectified traction voltage.

• Static VAR compensators ( SVC ) : It uses switching devices to control capacitive or inductive energy into the system. Compensation of reactive power to improve power factor Reactive power compensation Methods of improve PF • Using HT capacitors with 13% detuned reactors. swell and flickers is not being done by the railways.7 to 0.8. at present. Because of presence of nonlinear components like thyristors.e. It also act as passive filters for filtering of harmonics. sag. wide variation of load in a very short duration leads to voltage flickers and fluctuations (swell and sags in power quality terminology) and also results into poor voltage regulation. Effort taken by Indian Railways for improving power quality Compensation of reactive power in order to improve power factor is being done by series parallel combination of LC circuits. • Compensation or elimination of harmonics in the system. Moreover. power-diodes etc.Traction load is inductive in nature with a poor power factor in the range of 0. • Reduction in voltage imbalance in 3 phase supply system of Grid is being achieved by balancing the traction load over a bigger geographical arena by alternatively changing the pair of incoming phases taken from the grid for supplying successive RTSS. • Self commutated VAR generators: The fast switching power electric devices are used to act either as voltage or current fed inverter to inject required amount of leading / lagging reactive KVAR into the system. . locomotive is nonlinear and prominent source of generation of odd current harmonics ( 16-20%) THD). Although conventional locomotives do not have elaborate provision for containing harmonics. Thyristor controlled reactors with passive filters ( TCR). Available SVC configurations are Thyristor switched capacitors ( TSC). advanced locomotives which are equipped with three phase technology do have extensive circuits for harmonic filtrations as well as voltage regulation. • Monitoring of short duration voltage disturbances i. for improvement 4 in voltage form factor and reduction of line losses is achieved by using passive filters (LC circuits) at RTSS.

Power is directly tapped from the grid at Traction Sub Stations(TSS) located along the railway line.Northern Railways Traction Power Monitoring & Control Indian Railways uses SCADA system for monitoring and control of Traction Power system which is responsible for providing power to the electric trains. The challenge lied in developing the interfaces to the RTUs and the MIMIC Controller as the details of the interfaces were unavailable. . The 230 km long Delhi-Ambala Section of Northern Railways is controlled from a control room located near New Delhi Railway Station. Northern Railways entrusted Synergy Systems and Solutions with the task of Upgrading the SCADA system (originally installed by SIEMENS)retaining existing Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) and the MIMIC hardware.

Traction Power data is presented using Single Line Diagrams(SLD) of each of the 18 posts separately using Circuit Breakers(CB). Transformer Tap Positions.. 1500 I/O..18 RTUs on 600 baud. Minimum & Average Value ! Precise Values for all the curves The following reports have been provided: ! CB Tripping: Records the daily trippings along with the reason. The following additional information is also displayed ! Maximum. The status is also displayed on the Wall MIMIC. . MIMIC Board with 500 I/O..’ Reports & Trends: Trends of selected analog parameters is shown with 1 second resolution.. ‘. Breaker Mains(BM).

‘. Maximum Demand.. The following railways specific applications were implemented: . Data synchronization is achieved between the servers in real-time over Local Area Network.! Analog Report: Voltage and Current of all the 18 posts. text and post. Auto Fault Localization (AFL). Time Sync.Power Block.. Reports. The operator can select the post as well as parameters for display ! Historical Events: Events can be filtered on time...

Auto Fault Localization: AFL process automatically segregates the faulty section in the Event of tripping of associated CB at TSS. Railways is not allowed to exceed this limit for more than 15 minutes. The project was successfully commissioned in August. disconnects all subsections by opening the associated BMs and then connects each sub section one by one to the TSS by operating the BMs. Power Block is granted on a section or sub-section that cuts off the power of the section. Communication Servers and Printers. E. SCADA Servers. The project scope included design. An alarm is generated on the expiry of power block period. New Delhi: Industry chamber Assocham has mooted a proposal for introduction of End on Generation (EOG) system initially in about 1500 trains in a bid to make railways more efficient . engineering and supply of redundant SIRIUS SCADA Software licenses. 2004.G.Power Block: For day to day maintenance. Maximum Demand: The Railways is given a predetermined power it can draw from the grid. The SCADA system alerts the operator by raising an alarm in case the current demand remains higher than the Maximum Demand. The process. When the CB trips again.O. The command automatically opens the associated BMs of the section and starts monitoring. then the last subsection connected is the one having the fault.

Assocham president. Indian railways runs about 1500 passenger trains and if this gets applied to all trains. Each power car has two DG sets and each DG set is rated at 300 kW. . which need to be replaced with efficient EOG systems. Reduction of over all rate of the train can bring in savings of Rs11 lakh per train per annum. The system comprises two power cars per train. Economic benefits for railways on a conservative estimate with introduction of EOG system can be savings in capital investments with building new trains to the tune of Rs93 lakh per train. Each DG set will be rated between 300 KW to 400 KW depending on the need. Recurring returns in energy savings due to increased operational efficiency can be to the tune of Rs130 lakh per train per annum. The power generated by these DG sets is utilized for hotel load of the train. In its pre-railway budget memorandum submitted to Ministry of Railways. These are mounted inside the power car or the entire power car coach which is dedicated for these power plants. There will be no infringement in revenue earning space of SLR coach as DG sets will be mounted under the coach.in energy savings and to increase their speed. Release of traction hauled loads can improve average speed of coaches. Introduce lighter EOG system in all locomotive hauled mail/express trains All mail/ express trains would work on the following lines: each SLR coach to be equipped with 1 unit of underslung diesel generator set. This will enable the railways to save Rs234 lakh per train annually and usher in a second phase of modernization. Venugopal N. Dhoot said that railways currently use self generation system in a number of trains. returns will be substantial. End on Generation (EOG) is the system used on fully air conditioned Rajdhani and Shatabdi trains. EOG concept to step up energy efficiency According to estimates EOG concepts bring in multiple advantages to railways and release hauling capacity of locomotives while saving energy efficiency by over 90%.

corresponding batteries. the system has an efficiency of 50%. The conversion ratio of usable hotel load to locomotive energy is approximately 1:2. belts.. pulley. This is a huge and recurring wastage and is used on all conventional mail. express and passenger trains.5 kw per standard coach and 2x25 kw per AC coach). I. A 100% back up in the form of second DG set will be used on the second SLR of the train.EOG concept will eliminate axle mounted generator and corresponding battery bank and inverter on each coach and replace it with one unit of DG set under the SLR. The energy to turn the axle mounted generator comes from locomotive. inverters. SG coaches need an axle mounted generator (1x4. .E. regulator and battery box.

Basic Refrigeration Cy Compressor .

.

Types of compressors The main types of gas compressors are illustrated and discussed below: .

Condensor • The pu pressu liquid. • It does always • • Air passing over the condens The condenser often looks li Condensers used on R-12 and R-134 has a different molecular structure a .

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->