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The Procedure of textbook development in Pakistan

CONTENTS

S.No.

Topics

Page No.

1. Introduction 2. Curriculum 3. Textbook

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02 03 03 03 05 06 07 08 09

4. Definitions of textbook - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - 5. Viewpoints about textbooks - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6. Textbook & Curriculum ---------------

7. Need & Importance of Textbooks - - - - - - - - - 8. Benefits of Textbooks - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - 9. Characteristics of good textbook - - - - - - - - - - - Physical Features Academic Features 10. Drawbacks of textbooks - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11.The procedure of textbooks development in Pakistan 14. Conclusion ------------------------

12 13 13 15

15. Bibliography - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - -- - - - - - -

By: Sohail Ahmed

The Procedure of textbook development in Pakistan

Introduction

n education textbooks are very important because these are helping in attaining the school curriculum. Textbooks stated

at the heart of educational enterprise. In case of developing countries like Pakistan where other instructional materials are not available, the role of textbook is vital. Generally we know that a textbook is a prescribed book for the student of a particular age group. It covers the items as given in the syllabus. Such a book forms the basis of teaching learning in the class. In this assignment we discuss about the share of textbook in curriculum, it means what is the part of textbook in school curriculum and how textbooks are helping or aiding to achieve the objectives of school curriculum and facilitating the teaching learning process.

By: Sohail Ahmed

The Procedure of textbook development in Pakistan

Curriculum
Curriculum is that reconstruction of knowledge and experiences systematically developed under the auspices of the school ( or university) to enable the learner to increase his or control of knowledge and experience. Tanner and Tanner (1980)

Text-Book
Textbook is frequently the most important teaching tool because it can determine no only what will be taught but also how it will be taught. Although television, computer, internet and other new media are rivaling printed materials of communication, textbook remain major sources in school and colleges. Among various instructional aids such as textbook, supplementary books is presumably the most important because it is used in formal as well as informal situations of instruction and also in situation of self study. This is the cheapest of all the aids enumerated above and also the teachers.

Definition of Textbook
A textbook has been defined as an instrument of instruction that facilitates the teaching learning process. It is written on the basis of a prescribed syllabus in which the major ideals of the subject mater are selected and summarized judiciously. They are organized logically according to the mental makeup and psychological requirements of the students so as to facilitate teaching; sometimes a text book is called The teacher in print

Some Definition of Textbook


Websters Dictionary A text-book is any manual of instruction, a book containing a presentation of the principles of the subject used as a basis of instruction.

By: Sohail Ahmed

The Procedure of textbook development in Pakistan

Encyclopedia of Educational Research (Third Edition) In the modern sense and as commonly understood; the textbook is a learning instrument usually employed in schools and colleges to support a Programme of instruction. In ordinary usage the textbook is printed, it is non-consumable, it is hard bound, it serves as an avowed instructional purpose, and it is placed in the hands of learner. Dictionary of Education C.V Good It is any manual of instruction; a book dealing with a definite subject of study, systematically arranged, intended for use at a specified level of instruction, and used as a principal source of study material for a given course. International dictionary of Education Terry page & J.B Thomas Basic book used in a particular course of study Tanner & Tanner (1975) Textbooks are useful guides for teachers and stable orientation for the students. Marsh (1992) A tool used by teachers to motivate students and to give them maximum understanding about a topic or problem. * S.k kochhar Any book used as the basis or partial basis of a concern of study can be called a textbook. It is specially written book which contains selective and systematic knowledge. Every care is taken for coherence and sequence. It is made simple to the degree that suits the intended learner. Analysis of the definitions of a textbook gives us a few characteristics.
*

It is a manual of instruction. It is a standard book in the subject. It is both content and technique. It contains selected material. It is meant both for student and teacher. It presents material in grade form.

Marsh, Colin (1992) Key concepts of understanding curriculum

By: Sohail Ahmed

The Procedure of textbook development in Pakistan

It is the foundation on which the course is built up. It is used for formal as well as informal education. It is a tool for realizing the instructional objectives of the subject. It is a principal source of study material for a given course. It is the most economical instructional material among others.

Of late, a serious reaction has set in against the use of textbooks. The currents of movements generated by the thinkers like Rousseau, Froebel Dewey and Allama Iqbal amounted to revolt against bookish knowledge. Some of the educationist in Pakistan was also against the bookish knowledge (see urdu page). This led to attempts made some for dispensing with the requirements of book as an instrument and tool for imparting knowledge. Recently in the first half of 20th century, a thorough research was undertaken by some thoughtful students of education in the U.S.A. Who experimented with the bookless or nearly bookless system. They arrived at the conclusion that text book could not be dropped out of the system of education. The consensus of opinions of educationists in Pakistan as well as abroad reveals that the textbook is an integral part of any educational system. In case of developing countries like Pakistan where other instructional materials are not available, the role of textbook is vital. In much of the Third world, textbooks become far more important in the educational enterprise than the industrialized world, in the United States, Canada, the Soviet Union and Western Europe, Schools are well equipped with audiovisual aids, libraries and some times computers. In the these countries, teachers have access to duplicating machines and can select class room materials on their own from a wide variety of sources to supplement and in some cases, replace textbooks. In Third World countries there are few instructional materials available at all.(Altbach & Kelly-1988, cited in Farooq, 1993 p.53) And the country like U.S.A the position of textbook has been summed up in these words: Although textbook are considered only one of many instructional resources, the fact remains that many teachers are generally dependent on them Generally speaking, textbooks play a more prominent role in high school instruction than in the elementary grades. In some schools, the course of study for a given subject is still determined by the contents of textbooks.i

. S.K Kochhar Teaching of History

p-94

By: Sohail Ahmed

The Procedure of textbook development in Pakistan

TEXT-BOOK & SCHOOL CURRICULUM

Schooling Hidden curriculum


Situational, Incidental, auto/self learning (un Conscious learning ) Teachers, peers, environment

Planned curriculum

Academic or

(social Attitude, Values)

Curricular activities
Syllabus Text Book
(Languages, Maths)

Co- curricular activities


(study tour, Field trips)

Characteristic of Traditional / Old Textbooks

Text

Questions Exercises

Characteristic of Modern Textbooks

unit Objectives

Text Illustrations Questions Figure Exercises Activities

Instructions Chapter for Teacher summary ( T.Guide) Points

The hidden curriculum refers to the outcomes of education and/or the process leading to those outcomes, which are not explicitly intended by educators.(

By: Sohail Ahmed

The Procedure of textbook development in Pakistan

Need and Importance of textbook


Textbook are indispensable for the study and teaching due to various reasons: To help the teacher: The text book provides useful guidelines along which the teacher can plan his day-to-day teaching; it serves as a reference book while actually teaching in the classroom; provides suggestions for some assignment; suggests activities to be taken up in the classroom and out side. To help the pupil: For the pupil textbook is the most accessible guide, a dependable reference book and an all-time companion. The pupil makes use of the textbook to prepare himself in advance for learning in the classroom; refers to it during the course of learning in the classroom; revises and reinforces the class room learnings; does assignment at home; prepares for the examination; reads for pleasure; and seeks guidance and references for further studies. To give the minimum essential Knowledge at one place: All teachers are not in a position to dig up facts. Some mature, welltrained, experienced teachers may find it possible to use their out-lines and thus find it possible to dispense with a basal textbook, but most teachers cannot and should not do it. To help in self-teaching: The tradition of imparting education through the instrument of lecturing has high value especially when the teacher is armed with special gifts, i.e., inspiring the gifted and encouraging the weak students, etc. But it needs to be admitted that even impact of best spoken message is necessarily Transitory in character and even the most attentive listener loses any but the obvious connection in the lesson. The efficacy of the textbook lies in making self teaching a possible proposition through printed materials. Thus, a good textbook can prove an insurance against illiteracy at home which is normal in the case of many children.

By: Sohail Ahmed

The Procedure of textbook development in Pakistan

To provide logical and comprehensive material: A good textbook provides material in a systematic and comprehensive form. That why, it sets a standard of minimum essential to be achieved by pupils of all categories. It gives the beginner a grasp of new matter. It also gives direction for further studies to enthusiastic pupils. To ensure uniformity of good standard: The text book provides a highway for carrying better practices to all Schools. Some sort of uniformity of good standard is ensured. The Textbook furnishes a common basis on which to master the process of reading, analyzing, outlining and summarizing. It, thus, furnishes a common laboratory in which to develop study skills. To provide a base from which both the teacher and the pupil may start and continue to work: The textbook contain the minimum essential knowledge and can, thus, provide appoint of departure for more comprehensive link. Further, it provide the common ground which both the student and teachers may explore together. Also it can focus attention on the same issues - event, sequences and circumstances and serve well as rallying points. To provide both confirmation and sustenance: The textbook is supposed to contain the facts which are carefully sifted and examined. Thus it can confirm the knowledge obtained elsewhere.

Benefits of Textbook
A good text book is very important because it serves as guide to the syllabus, Particularly suggesting what should be taught. Textbook also provide exercises, activities and suggestions for further reading, which encourages the teacher to supplement material from other sources. A good textbook can be a supplement to the instruction received in the classroom; students can look up specific in formation, catch up when they missed school and spend more time concentrating on comprehension than on copying down every word.

By: Sohail Ahmed

The Procedure of textbook development in Pakistan

A good textbook may also help to promote learning. eg. A student may get interested in a topic that was introduced in class and want to know more about it. So he/she consult the textbook and in this way not only increases knowledge but also prepares in advance for the next lesson in class. Further more the students learn to be an independent learner in this way. The exercises at the end of a lesson in the textbook help to give the students practice and also help them to retain information and apply it to different situations. The same exercises help to the teacher in giving home work, assignments and for revision purposes. Textbook can also have a motivation effect on the students in the fact that it may have attractive features and suit the interest and level of the reader. The fact that the reader possesses the book also makes it available to read at all times and when ever possible. Textbook help the teacher to individualize instruction in the sense that the teacher may permit each student to read it his/her own rate of comprehension. Textbooks are also a very good means to an order of procedure, a topic sequence and to specify required of standards. In this sense they are also great time savers.

Characteristics of a good textbook


A textbook is called good one if it contain both Physical and Academic features. Physical Features: 1.Size of the book It is suitable for the learners. It is convenient for in handling and carrying. It is neither too big nor too small for the students for whom it is meant.
By: Sohail Ahmed

The Procedure of textbook development in Pakistan

2. Printing of the books The printing is neat and clean. It is free from any type of errors. The spacing between the words, line and paragraph is even and satisfactory There are sufficient margins on all sides of the page. Each chapter beings on a fresh page. Length of a line is within the eye span of child. 3. Type Size (font) of Textbooks Different type size is used for the cover page. Title, text and captions. The font size used in the book is suitable for the age group. An balance in the use of different font size is maintained (same theme maintained for all book) It does not strain the eye sight of the pupils. 4. Paper used in Textbooks It is adequately thick. It is durable. It is smooth. It is reasonable of good quality. 5. Binding of Textbooks The binding of the book is sufficiently strong. It opens flat easily. The sides of the book are properly trimmed. The cover page of the book is durable. 6.Price of Textbooks The price of the Textbook is reasonable. It suits the pockets of majority of the parents. 7. Over all getup of Textbook The get up of the book is fine Its title page is attractive

By: Sohail Ahmed

The Procedure of textbook development in Pakistan

Academic Aspect of the book From academic point of view, a good textbook has the following features. 1. Thematic Content of book The subject matter is according to the mental level of the learners. It is capable of sustaining interest of the student. The facts given are correct and up-to-date. It provides new information to the learners. It is free from such incidents and references as may hurt the felling of children. 2. Organization of the contents and its presentation The subject matter is divided in to convenient units Length of each lesson suits the learners. The reading material is graded in order of difficulty. The style of presentation is simple and clear. The title of each lesson is brief meaningful and suitable. 3. Textual Language The textual language is according to the mental level of the learners The language used is correct. It is appropriate to the situation or context. 3. Illustrations (Visual Aids) used in Textbook Abstract concept of the book is clarified with the help of pictures and diagrams. It makes easy to comprehend. The pictures used in the book are drawn well. They are realistic. They are relevant to the text They develop interest and motivate the learner. They are properly distributed throughout the book. 4. Textual Exercises in Book Every lesson is followed by exercises Instructions to do the exercises are clear There is avariety of exercises are on each lesson The exercises for each lesson are purposeful and adequate.
By: Sohail Ahmed

The Procedure of textbook development in Pakistan

They help the teacher to evaluate the achievements of the students.

Drawbacks in using Textbooks


Yes, there are some drawbacks in using Textbooks. Too much dependence on the textbooks gives temporary bookish knowledge. There is lack of direct experiences. The students acquire second hand knowledge. Teaching and learning become very rigid. The teacher has to teach whatever is given in the book exactly. The textbook oppose the dynamic methodology of teaching learning. They are, in fact, not suitable for teaching according to new progressive methods. The textbooks are some times replace the teacher. When the student find material better explained in the text-book, they do not shown due regard to the teacher. It is undoubtedly, right to say that there are some drawbacks in the textbook used in the schools. At the same time advantage cannot be set aside especially Pakistani classroom situations. Here in this country we need well graded, organized printed material in the form of textbook and this we shall ever need in times to come. Without textbooks our system of education may lag behind. The best way out is to have good books written by distinguished writers.

The procedure of textbook Development in Pakistan


The period from 1947 to 1962 may be considered as a period of trial and Error in this field. In 1962, on the recommendation of high-power committee, Textbook Board was established in the then two provinces of Pakistan under the legislative provision of the West Pakistan Textbook Board Ordinance, 1962 respectively.
By: Sohail Ahmed

The Procedure of textbook development in Pakistan

Since 1971, development of textbooks for classes I to XII has been the sole responsibility of the four provincial textbook Boards Punjab Textbook Board Lahore, Sindh Textbook Board Jamshoro, N.W.F.P Textbook Board Peshawer and the Baluchistan Textbook Board Quetta. Earlier The West Pakistan Textbook Board Lahore and the Textbook Board, Decca played this rrole from 1962, the year of their establishment Textbooks related to higher education or for classes above XII are developed, Published and marketed by the private sector publishers or the concerned universities. But how the textbook developed, produced, printed, published and marketed in Pakistan? The textbook Boards receive the curriculum/syllabus from the curriculum wing, Ministry of Education, Islamabad. Subject Specialist may be considered as the Key Person in the whole business of book development in the board. He is mostly a well qualified and experienced person with a master degree and relevant on job experience to his credit. At the very outset, the subject specialist goes through the syllabus thoroughly and prepares a report and working plan with time scheduling for the particular book. At each and every stage he takes his immediate supervisor, the Editor-in-chief, who normally happens to be amore experienced and versatile person, into confidence. The working plan is approved by the director concerned who usually has a doctorate or is an experienced academician/teacher. There are two modes of developing the the manuscript. Either senior or experienced specialist/teachers are invited through the press to develop a manuscript or the Board itself commissions authors. Manuscript received through any of the above mentioned methods are refereed by a panel of three eminent scholars/retired teachers/university professors. The best one, thus selected is sent to the external editor commissioned by the Board for purpose. The external editor scrutinizes and reviews and some and some time amends it to make press-worthy. Finally the subject specialist of the board himself works on the script for the purpose of technical editing. Before handing over the manuscript to the publisher/printer the subject specialist discusses the lay-out and designed of the book with the artist of the Board. The artist prepares the illustrations/title according to the content of the book in consultations with the subject specialist. When the subject specialist is satisfied that the manuscript is up to the mark, it is sent to the curriculum Wing Ministry of Education, Islamabad for approval. The curriculum wing convenes a two or three days long
By: Sohail Ahmed

The Procedure of textbook development in Pakistan

meeting of the National Review committee in Islamabad or the premises of the concerned Board for scrutiny of the manuscript and formulation of recommendations. The Board start printing of the book when approval letter of the ministry is received. The procedure for textbook development is explained in figure on the following page.

Curriculum Wing M.O.E

National Curriculum

Provincial Textbook Board

Textbook

SUBJECT SPECIALIST (Keyperson- Technical Editor

Artist

Author/ Editor

Publisher

Designer

Developer

Printer

The procedure of textbook Development in Pakistan

By: Sohail Ahmed

The Procedure of textbook development in Pakistan

Conclusion
Textbook occupy a very important place in the field of education in Pakistani situations, their importance is all the more as we have shortage of instructional materials like OHP. Multi Media, Computer, T.V etc. Undoubtedly textbook is the core around which subject are taught. In very real sense, in Pakistani situations where instructional materials (A.V Aids) and facilities (library, study tour, field Trips) are not available and teachers are not well trained and equipped professionally, the TEXT-BOOK is the Curriculum.

By: Sohail Ahmed

The Procedure of textbook development in Pakistan

BIBLOGRAPHY R. Nacino-Brown et. al. Curriculum and Instruction. Macmillan Publishers Dr. Shurma Curriculum and Instrucation, Manu Publications, Delhi Husain, S. Sajid Education & Methodology, Kifayat Academy,Karachi

By: Sohail Ahmed