# Research Variables

Action Research Workshop July 24, 2006
Prepared by Dr. Margarida Southard

math program.computer labs.student outcomes.instructional strategies. Examples: race. parent satisfaction. readiness for first grade etc. . reading program.gender.Identifying and Labeling Variables Variable – Any observation that can take different values.curriculum used.student attitude.

Two Kinds of Variables Independent variable (IV) Dependent variable (DV) Choice of IV (actions/interventions) Change in the DV ( results/outcomes) .

Examples IV Changes in teaching skills and methods Changes in school procedures Changes in curriculum New programs .

Examples of DV Changes in academic performance Changes in student behavior Changes in student attitude/affect .

Conceptual Definition of Variables Example Independent Integrated ProblemSolving Mathematics Curriculum Dependent Mathematics Achievement: Student Motivation for Math Attitude toward Math Retention of basic math facts and functions Special Tutoring Parent-Teacher Conferences .

.Operational Definition of Variables In conducting action research.we must convey the meaning of the dependent and independent variables in sufficient preciseness An operational definition is a definition based on the observed characteristics of that which is being defined.

. Example : Description of an instructional strategy to teach problem solving. qualities of people or things. Type B: Defined in terms of concrete. observable behaviors. Example: A “motivated” parent – parent who frequently attends parent-teacher conferences.Alternative ways of developing operational definition Type A: Defined in terms of procedures that must be performed. fractions. Type C: Defined in terms of observed characteristics.mastery of benchmarks related to basic skills. Example: Mathematics Achievement. and whole numbers. decimals.

Increasing attendance/ participation of students in group projects Acceptability of school activities.what.such as solving equations with one unknown.Examples of Operational Definition Independent variable: Integrated Problem.when etc.) Competency and mastery of skills in algebra. Dependent Variable Student Achievement Student Motivation Attitude toward school . school rules.Solving Math Curriculum Operational Definition Describe the intervention (who.how.