Evaluation of Classroom Instruction

Regardless of the perspective about teaching, and even as the debate on art versus science continues, what is undeniable is the complexity of the teaching-learning process, and consequently of the evaluation process.
Prepared by: Joycelyn Solis-Copia

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Why Evaluate Classroom Instruction?
Evaluation is important and crucial process that is the parcel responsibility of the instructional supervisor. Despite the problems encountered in the evaluation of classroom instruction, it is still used in many schools to: 1.Help the instructional supervisor know how to assist teachers in their work 2.Assess the quality of instruction 3.Monitor teachers’ progress in instruction 4.Serve as basis for administrative decision making (rehiring, retention, 2 promotion, and termination).

An Overview Evaluation of Classroom Instruction

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TEACHING: “ART VS SCIENCE” PERSPECTIVE

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Teaching as “Art vs Science “ Perspective
“Science of teaching” perspective emphasize the notion that teaching is a series of highly integrated skills that can be acquired and developed. “Art of teaching” perspective lies within the application of knowledge and skills, taking place in the context of the unique, situational nature of the classroom. However, regardless of the teaching-learning process perspective (art vs science), there is a consensus that teaching is indeed, a complex and multi-faceted process. One cannot truly become an effective teacher without integrating both the art and science of teaching.

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DIMENSIONS OF EFFECTIVE TEACHING
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A Continuum Model Of “Art and Science” Reyes (2002) developed a Filipino model of expert teaching based on a study of 69 expert teachers in the Philippines. The study surfaced the following dimension of expert, as well as responsible teaching:

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DIMENSIONS OF EFFECTIVE TEACHING  Expert Teaching § Subject matter expertise § Classroom management expertise § Instructional expertise § Diagnostic expertise § Communication expertise § Rational expertise  6 .

It includes 2 subdomains. 7 .DIMENSIONS OF EFFECTIVE TEACHING  Responsible Teaching § Learner-centered teaching § Skills in developing students’ responsibility for learning § Skills in values integration  The Filipino model developed by Reyes provides a continuum of the “art of teaching” and “science of teaching” perspectives. the essentials and enhancers.

Manila: De La Sale University Press 8 . F (2002).A Pyramid Model of Teaching Expertise in Philippine Higher Education E S S E N T I A L S E N H A N C E R S Source: Reyes. Unveiling teaching expertise: A showcase of 69 expert teachers in the Philippines.

Summative – when the purpose of evaluation is to use the results for making administrative decisions. 9   .TYPES OF EVALUATION  Formative – when the purpose of evaluation is primarily to determine the effectiveness of the delivery of instruction that will serve as the basis for improvement.

Instruction-related behaviors – pertain to the methods and strategies including effective communication 3.Classroom management-related behaviors – are associated with effective classroom organization 10 .CATEGORIES FOR EVALUATION 1.Climate-related behaviors – are concerned with the physical and socio-emotional environment conducive to learning 4.Content-related behaviors – relate to the mastery of the subject matter 2.

Communication skills (verbal and non-verbal) 2. Attitudes that foster learning (personality) 11 . Mastery of subject matter (content) 5. Skills in assessing learning outcomes (evaluation of learning) 6. Skills in classroom management (classroom discipline) 7.TEACHING COMPETENCIES Parry (1998). Skills in planning and organization (planning) 4. considers the following items as constituting teaching competencies:   1. Knowledge of a variety of teaching strtegies (instruction) 3.

and resolving conflicts in the classroom 12 .TEACHING COMPETENCIES Communication Skills  Simonds (2001) argues that :  ü communication plays an important role in instruction ü Involves the use of verbal and non verbal language to stimulate and maintain student’s interest ü Establish a climate conducive to learning ü Use to manage student behavior ü Tool for mediating. negotiating.

it is necessary for teachers to develop good questioning techniques as an essential communication tool. It enables the teacher to: ü Assess students progress ü Stimulates thinking ü Emphasize key points ü Motivates students to pay attention 13  .TEACHING COMPETENCIES Callahan and Clark (1988) maintain that the use of questions is one of the most important teaching techniques. Thus.

Instructional Skills These skills pertain to the ability of the teacher to use a repertoire of instructional strategies that lead the students to be involved actively in the learning process.TEACHING COMPETENCIES According to Christenbury (2000). Teachers who listen and allow their students to speak in class without interrupting make their students feel that what they say is important and worth the attention. one vital aspect of communication is listening.  14 .

TEACHING COMPETENCIES Instructional skills are demonstrated by competent teachers through:  ü the application of motivation and presentation strategies suited to the topic and class level ü use of appropriate instructional materials ü selection and pacing of learning activities that sustain students’ interest ü ease in explaining difficult concepts by using simple terms ü the art of questioning 15 .

materials.TEACHING COMPETENCIES Organization and Planning ü The organization of content. and written description of how the students will be evaluated. ü Lesson plans contain learning objectives. and methods of classroom instruction requires careful planning. required materials.   16 . instructional procedures.

” 17 . ü A saying says “You can’t give.TEACHING COMPETENCIES  Mastery of the Subject Matter ü Teachers are expected to be expert on the subject matter being taught ü Teachers should be well-versed about the topic under discussion ü A common reminder to teachers is to make sure that he/she is not only one chapter ahead of the students . but several books ahead instead. what you don’t have.

an assessment conducted at the end of the lesson is an evaluation of the quality of the teacher’s performance. or sometimes re-teaching. additional explanation. ü Evaluation results can be used as bases for improving instruction through further clarification. ü In effect. 18 .TEACHING COMPETENCIES  Evaluation Skills ü The teacher can use the evaluation results to determine whether the concepts and skills emphasized during instruction were understood or not.

activities. there is all around readiness in terms of the room. materials and more importantly the students. classroom management includes all of the things a teacher does in pursuit of two important objectives: 1. To foster students involvement and cooperation in all classroom activities 2.TEACHING COMPETENCIES  Classroom Management According to Kounin instructional management. To establish a productive working environment in the classroom It is important for a teacher to make sure that before instruction takes place.  19 .

Classroom observation must also focus on student outcome variables because student achievement is the goal of instruction and therefore the success of the lesson depends on how well the students realize the learning goals.LEARNING OUTCOMES OF STUDENTS  According to Cangelosi.   20 . it is necessary to know the degree to which the students have achieved the learning goals specified by the lesson. classroom observation should not concerned only with teaching competency variables. This is based on the assumption that the quality of the product reflects the quality of the process that produce it. and to determine the other influences of the instruction on student progress and development. In evaluating teaching effectiveness.

TYPES OF OBSERVATION 21 .

TYPES OF OBSERVATION 22 .

TYPES OF OBSERVATION 23 .

TYPES OF OBSERVATION 24 .

TYPES OF OBSERVATION 25 .

teacherstudent. suitability of the strategies. and different use of rewards and reinforcers Task Orientation – implementation of well designed lessons and effectiveness of the teacher in maintaining the smooth flow of the lesson 26 • • • •  . effective use of audio-visual aids. logical sequence of the lesson. provisions for different modes of learning. smooth flow of the lesson. quality of the Q & A that promote higher thought process. variations in the use of non verbal. and observance of classroom rules and routines Lesson Clarity – clarity of explanations or directions. and teacher’s expectations of students Classroom Management – student behavior. student observance of class rules and procedure. cleanliness and orderliness of the environment. students practical application of concepts and theories learned Variety – variety of teaching strategies.LENSES OF OBSERVATION • Learning Climate – facilities and materials. student-student interactions.

timeliness of feedback and corrections • • Higher Thought Process – teacher provides activities and ask questions that require critical thinking. problem sets. reasoning. feedback to guide students • • Student Success . and group activities. the monitoring of such activities.LENSES OF OBSERVATION • Student Engagement – quality of learning activities which may include exercises.students’ completion of work at moderate or high level of success. seat works. and problem solving for higher order thought processes and discovery 27 .

A high inference criteria will yield to a subjective interpretations. low inference criteria uses specific indicators which are measurable and observable. A well-designed instrument when properly used by trained observer produces a measurement results that have high degree of validity and reliability. Supervisors must be careful in the use of the evaluation instruments. 28   . On the other hand.MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR EVALUATION   Because life in the classroom is based on context and dependent on situation the use of the evaluation instruments are needed to gather empirical observations.

The teacher used effective and appropriate 3. The teacher conducted communication.MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR EVALUATION An Example of a Pseudo Instrument ITEM 1. RATING 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 2. the class very well. The teacher displayed mastery of the subject matter. 29 .

5. Give accurate answers to students’ questions. 2. Related the subjects to other fields. 4. 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 30 . Taught without notes. 3.MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR EVALUATION Examples of Low Inference Indicators of Subject Mastery ITEM RATING 1. Provided examples to illustrate terms or concept. Related the topic to real-life situations.

Measurable and observable indicators are identified for each sub-variable. 2. 1. as well as on statistical analysis (factor 31 . 5.The items are developed and then reviewed for content validity by experts. 3. 4.DEVELOPING A MEASURING INSTRUMENT  Shrinkfield and Stufflebeam (1195) proposed guidelines for developing a measuring instrument.The development of the measuring instrument is done collegially.The instrument is revised based on the comments and suggestions of experts.The purpose of evaluation is clarified by defining the evaluation variables with specific sub-variables.

The instrument is field-tested with several classes. The items are modified based on the feedback obtained during field-testing.DEVELOPING A MEASURING INSTRUMENT 6. 7. Feedback from the field tests is used to finalize the instrument 9. 8. 32 . The revised draft i pilot-tested in one or two classrooms to obtain feedback on clarity of directions and procedures potential for validity and reliability. A formal test is conducted to assess reliability of the instrument.

ASSESSING MEASUREMENT VALIDITY AND RELIABILTY Degree Consistency 33 .

VALIDITY  1. Concurrent-Related Validity Evidence Definition: The evidence shows the degree to which performance on one instruments relates to performance in a standardized instrument Illustration:     Prepared Instrument Commercial Instrument approximately the same time Given at Results are highly correlated 34 .

Illustration:    ANALYSIS Abstract Concepts Observable Items / MAKING JUDGMENT Example: Creativity Specific Indicator Use of different attention-getting devices 35 . Construct-Related Validity Evidence Definition: The evidence shows the degree to which an instrument measures a trait (construct) that is abstract and therefore not directly observable.VALIDITY   2.

Illustration:    CONTENT ( INDICATORS ) CONSISTENT DEFINITION OF VARIABLE 36 . Content-Related Validity Evidence Definition: The evidence demonstrates the appropriateness and comprehensiveness of the content to the particular variable being described.VALIDITY   C.

Predictive-Related Validity Evidence Definition: The evidence provides information as to the degree to which estimated performance becomes a reality. Illustration:    Evaluation Instrument A Given at present time Evaluation Instrument B Given at some future time Results are highly correlated 37 .VALIDITY   D.

RELIABILITY   1. Stability-Related Evidence Definition: This evidence refers to the degree to which some scores of a group of individuals on the instrument administered on one occasion are consistent with the scores of the same group using the same instrument at later date Illustration:    Evaluation Instrument Evaluation A Given at present time Same group  InstrumentSame instrument Given at different dates A Scores are consistent Given at later data Scores are highly correlated 38 .

Illustration:    Evaluation Instrument Evaluation Instrument A B Same group Different instruments Results a\re equivalent Results are similar or identical 39 .RELIABILITY   2. results. if not identical. Equivalence-Related Evidence Definition: This evidence refers to the extent to which two forms of measuring instrument yield similar.

Internal Consistency-Related Evidence Definition: This evidence provides information on the agreement of the different items in one instrument Evaluation Instrument A Illustration:     Item 1 Item 2 Item 3 Item 4 Item 5 Item 6 Item 7 Item 8 Item 9 Item 10 Same instrument Split-method Results are correlated Results are strongly correlated 40 .RELIABILITY  3.

Beginning teachers are generally occupied with feeling of doubt and fear of inadequacy. challenging. The first three years of their professional careers are the most significant. These feelings are compounded by heavy workload that neophyte teachers are not prepared to handle because of lack of experience. and threatening.EVALUATION OF TEACHERS   Evaluation of Beginning Teachers Cangelosi (1991) maintains that the most challenging and difficult evaluations are those involving beginning and marginal teachers. These problems and concerns will impact the evaluation of classroom performance. 41      . It is during these early years that neophyte teachers try to adapt to their new career and working environment.

If misplaced individuals are allowed to go on.  On the other hand. The misplaced individual will perpetuate instructional incompetence that will be difficult to reverse as time goes by. This has dismal consequences. may ruin potentially satisfying careers that may be a valuable resource for the school and the teaching profession.EVALUATION OF TEACHERS  Evaluation of Marginal Teachers  The more problematic area is distinguishing between the potentially competent and the misplaced individuals. they are prevented from seeking more satisfying careers for themselves. potentially competent teachers who are not identified and given support. because instructional incompetence is disservice to the community and taints the teaching profession.  42 .

EVALUATION OF TEACHERS   Evaluation of Expert Teachers In order to reward and motivate teaching excellence. excellent instruction from a teaching performance that is merely competent. Summative evaluations for expert teachers are designed to identify exemplary meritorious instruction. They can be recognized through: ü Consistent high summative evaluations ratings on classroom performance over a period of 3 years ü Endorsement from peers (colleagues and professional groups) ü Fulfillment of higher level credentials (i. ü 43  . and career ladder programs (schemes to enhance teachers’ opportunities for promotions). Cangelosi (1991) suggests summative evaluations based on costeffective measurements to serve as bases for designing merit-pay programs (based on levels of productivity). graduate programs) ü Scholarly work (research and publications).. The success of these strategies depends on how well the evaluation instruments discriminate meritorious.e. This presupposes that they are properly identified and screened.

correlate with qualifications for meeting the responsibilities of the advanced position? For example.  To avoid this Cangelosi. antagonism and perceptions of unfair treatment when expert teachers fail to qualify for advancement because of the evaluation results. relative to the summative evaluation variables. conflicts. How well does performance.e. suggests that these crucial questions be resolved: 1. Are criteria. will an expert teacher whose instructional performance rates higher.e. Does the evaluation discriminate only on relevant variables (i. or when they think that others have been unfairly promoted ahead of them. be better qualified to serve as a master teacher for a teaching team than one whose teaching receives lower ratings but whose interpersonal skills rate higher? 2.. ethnicity.EVALUATION OF TEACHERS Because evaluation affects professional satisfaction and income. sex)? 44 3. according to the summative evaluation.. it can also create controversies. ones subsumed by teaching performance). and the process for making  . and not on irrelevant variables (i. evaluation variables.

EVALUATION SYSTEM • The choice of criteria is usually guided by the mission-vision of the school. demonstration of ethical 45 conduct. the evaluation system implemented in a school is clearly defined in faculty and administrative manuals. community involvement and other . objectives and benefits to be derived from the evaluation system Ø Areas of evaluation – identify the different dimensions to be assessed in addition to classroom teaching such as efforts exerted towards professional growth. • Evaluation systems include specific elements such as: Ø Rationale – explains the nature. as well as accepted concepts and principles found in the literature. • As a rule.

46 . they concentrate on making more effective and efficient in-service and staff development programs. • The evaluation procedure specifies the following: Ø The data-gathering process (including the instruments to be used) Ø The feedback mechanism Ø The needed documents to be submitted to support claims about accomplishments and achievements. According to him when instructional supervisors are freed from the burden of conducting summative evaluations.EVALUATION SYSTEM • Cangelosi (1991) contends that instructional supervisors who try to help teachers improve their craft should not be involved in summative evaluations.

assistant principal. subject area coordinator) Ø It also explains the way the different criteria will be assessed and the weight apportioned for each criterion 47 .EVALUATION SYSTEM Ø The schedule and frequency of the evaluation Ø The identification of the evaluators (i. principal.e.

48 .(2004).EVALUATION SYSTEM Overall Faculty Evaluation Form Area of Evaluation Teaching Performance Professional Growth and Community Development Service Professionalism OVERALL RATING Overall Rating Weight Final Obtained % Per Area Rating Remark Source: Balajadia. R. De La Salle University. Unpublished Dissertation. Development and validation of faculty evaluation system and instruments for archdiocesan elementary schools in Pampanga. Manila.

EVALUATION SYSTEM An Example of Assigning Weights Evaluator Weight (%) Principal Vice-principal Grade level head Subject area coordinator 10 20 30 40 49 .

When the evaluation procedure is clear. In order to diminish the subjectivity of the evaluation. The clarity and specificity of the measures plus the skill of the evaluator in conducting evaluation will help insure the credibility of the process. and fully understood by all those concerned. conflicts that usually surround the process are lessened if not totally avoided. it is necessary to develop instruments based on accepted criteria that are specific and measurable.EVALUATION OF CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION   Conclusion Evaluation requires personal judgment which makes it a difficult process whose results are oftentimes challenged. 50   . These instruments must pass the test for validity and reliability. welldocumented with specific guidelines.

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