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100 DBA Questions

100 DBA Questions

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List components of an Oracle instance? An Oracle instance is comprised of memory structures and background processes.

The Systems Global Area (SGA) and shared pool are memory structures. The process monitor is a background process (DBWn, LGWR, ARCn, PMON, SMON any others??). The Oracle database consists of the physical components such as data files; redo log files, and the control file. Which background process and associated database component guarantees that committed data is saved even when the changes have not been recorded in the data files? LGWR (log writer) and online redo log files. The log writer process writes data to the buffers when a transaction is committed. LGWR writes to the redo log files in the order of events (sequential order) in case of a failure What is the maximum number of database writer processes allowed in an Oracle instance? The maximum is ten. Every Oracle instance begins with only one database writer process, DBW0. Additional writer processes may be started by setting the initialization parameter DB_WRITER_PROCESSES (DBW1 through DBW9). Which background process is not started by default when you start up the Oracle instance? ARCn. The ARCn process is available only when the archive log is running (LOG_ARCHIVE_START initialization parameter set to true). DBWn, LGWR, CKPT, SMON, and PMON are the default processes associated with all instances (start by default). Describe a parallel server configuration. In a parallel server configuration multiple instances known as nodes can mount one database. In other words, the parallel server option lets you mount the same database for multiple instances. In a multithreaded configuration, one shared server process takes requests from multiple user processes Choose the right hierarchy, from largest to smallest, from this list of logical database structures. Database, tablespace, segment, extent, block.


followed by the fetch operation and the execute operation. When a server process is terminated abnormally. What stages are part of processing a query? When processing a query or select statement. What is a dirty buffer? A dirty buffer refers to blocks in the database buffer cache that are changed. which background process is responsible for releasing the locks held by the user? The process monitor (PMON) releases the locks on tables and rows held by the user during failed processes and it reclaims all resources held by the user. the parsing operation occurs first. Which component in the SGA has the dictionary cache? The dictionary cache is part of the shared pool. when processing a DML statement. PMON cleans up after failed user processes. This occurs under two circumstances – when a checkpoint occurs or when the server process searches the buffer cache for a set threshold. 2 . However. If a query is executed again before it’s aged out of the library cache. and stores its parsed representation there. the parse operation is conducted as well as the execute operation. but not the fetch operation. Which background process is responsible for writing the dirty buffers to the database files? The purpose if the DBWn is to write the contents of the dirty buffer to the database file. but are not yet written to the disk.Which component of the SGA contains the parsed SQL code? The library cache contains the parsed SQL code. what will be the minimum amount of information read to the database buffer cache? The block is the minimum amount of information read/copied to the database buffer cache. During parsing. Name the stages of processing a DML statement. The shared pool also contains the library cache and control structures. Oracle allocates a shared SQL area for the statement in the library cache. If you are updating one row in a table using the ROWID in the WHERE clause (assume that the row is not already in the buffer cache). Oracle will use the parsed code and execution plan from the library cache.

used for recovery and read-consistent queries. The recycle buffer pool removes the buffers from memory when it’s not needed. PL/SQL proceduares. Parse also determines the optional execution plan and finds a shared SQL area for the statement. The large pool is an optional area in the SGA. and control structures. When a SELECT statement is issued. delete. Which memory structure records all database changes made to the instance? The redo log files holds information on the changes made to the database data. or drop commands. They are written only when the dirty buffers reach a threshold or when there are not enough free buffers available or when the checkpoint occurs. When are the system change numbers assigned? System changed numbers (SCN) are assigned when a transaction is committed. which stage checks the user's privileges? Parse checks the user’s privileges. The default buffer pool contains the blocks that are not assigned to the other pools. The keep buffer pool retains the data block in memory. private SQL areas. update. recycle buffer pool. alter. create. In other words. The library cache contains the shared SQL areas. Changes are made to the database through insert. syntax correctness. The database buffer pool consists of the keep buffer pool. and the column names against the dictionary. and packages. Name the parts of the database buffer pool. The SCN is a unique number acting as an internal timestamp. and the default buffer pool. the SCN number is assigned to the rollback statement to mark it as a transaction committed.What happens next when a server process is not able to find enough free buffers to copy the blocks from disk? To reduce I/O contention. the DBWn process does not write the changed buffers immediately to the disk. Which memory structures are shared? Name two. What is the minimum number of redo log files required in a database? The minimum number of redo log files required in a database is two because the LGWR (log writer) process writes to the redo log files in a circular manner. List all the valid database start-up option? 3 .

tablespace modifications. or for performing a full database recovery. Oracle will also roll back uncommitted transactions during start-up. USER_DUMP_DEST directory has the trace files generated by user sessions. CORE_DUMP_DEST directory is used primarily on UNIX platforms to save the dump files. recovery.STARTUP MOUNT. and the data file modifications Which parameter value is use to set the directory path where the alert log file is written? The alert log file is written in the BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST directory.’ SERIAL #’. rollback segment modifications. STARTUP NOMOUNT is used for creating a new database or for creating new control files. what should the value of the parameter REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE be set to? The value of the REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE parameter should be set to NONE to use OS authentication. renaming. Finally. ALERT_DUMP_DEST is not a valid parameter. (if you have problems starting up an instance. enabling or disabling archive logging. To use operating system authentication to connect the database as an administrator. Ex. This option shuts down the instance without dismounting the database. shutdown. 4 . STARTUP NOMOUNT. The alert log also records information about database start-up. internal errors. archiving.) STARTUP FORCE shuts down the instance if it is already running and then restarts it Which two values from the V$SESSION view are used to terminate a user session? The session identifier (SID) and the serial number (SERIAL #) uniquely identify each session and both are needed to kill a session. STARTUP FORCE is used to start a database forcefully. and the nondefault initialization parameters used at instance start-up. What information is available in the alert log files? The alert log store information about block corruption errors. STARTUP MOUNT is used for performing specific maintenance operations such as renaming data files. the value should be either EXCLUSIVE or SHARED. This The The core Which SHUTDOWN option requires instance recovery when the database is started the next time? SHUTDOWN ABORT requires instance recovery when the database is started the next time. To use password file authentication. and STARTUP FORCE. adding or dropping redo log files. directory also records the trace files generated by the background processes. SQL > ALTER SYSTEM KILL SESSION ‘SID’.

At which stage of the database start-up is the control file opened? The control file is opened when the instance mounts the database. the background processes are started. the user sessions are disconnected and the changes are rolled back. When using SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE. When you queired the V$SESSION view. SHUTDOWN NORMAL waits for the user sessions to disconnect from the database. Which parameter in the ORAPWD utility is optional? The parameter ENTRIES is optional. you can mount the database and open the database in read-only mode. When the instance is started. Oracle waits for the users to either commit or roll back their pending transactions. or change the database to restricted mode by using ALTER SYSTEM ENABLE RESTRICTED SESSION. The password file created will be used for authentication. You can start up the database in restrict mode by using STARTUP RESTRICT. if the database is started up by using STARTUP RESTRICT? RESTRICTED SESSION privilege is required to access a database that is in restrict mode. Once all users have either rolled back or committed their transactions.Which SHUTDOWN option will wait for the users to complete their uncommitted transactions? When SHUTDOWN TRANSACTIONAL is issued. You must specify a password file name and the SYS password. the STATUS was INACTVE. the database is shut down. Which priviledge do you need to connect to the database. the STATUS in V$SESSION will show as KILLED. How do you make a database read-only? To put a database into read-only mode. User SCOTT has opened a SQL * Plus session and left for lunch. The data files and redo log files are opened after the database is opened. This can be accomplished in one step by using STARTUP OPEN READ ONLY. When SCOTT tries to perform any database activity in the SQL *Plus 5 . Which role is created by default to administer databases? The DBA role is created when you create the database and is assigned to the SYS and SYSTEM users. You terminated SCOTT's session in V$SESSION? When you terminate a session that is INACTIVE.

shut down the database and start up the database in a single command? STARTUP FORCE will terminate the current instance and start up the database. list two options which show the value of the parameter DB_BLOCK_SIZE? The SHOW PARAMETER command (SHOW PARAMETER DB_BLOCK_SIZE or SHOW ALL) will show the current value of the parameter. the changes are rolled back and an error message is written to the user’s screen Which command will "bounce" the database-that is. dismounts the database. The Navigator pane displays a hierarchical view of all the databases. closes data files and redo log files. and other services in the network and all their relationships. Using SQL*Plus. nodes. Jobs. The Events pane is the user interface to the Event Management System. Group. If you provide parameter name. if you omit the parameter name. he receives an error that his session is terminated. and shuts down the instance How many panes are there in the Enterprise Manager console? There are four panes in the Enterprise Manager console: Navigator. When performing the command SHUTDOWN TRANASACTIONAL. not the parameters. When an ACTIVE session is killed. SHOW ALL in SQL *Plus will display the SQL *Plus environment settings. its value is shown. all the values are shown. 2) closes all sessions. The Group pane enables you to graphically view and construct logical administrative groups of objects for more efficient management and administration. and 6) terminates the instance. 15. Once no transactions are pending. 6 . It is equivalent to issuing SHUTDOWN ABORT and STARTUP OPEN. The Jobs pane is the user interface to the Job Scheduling System. 3) performs a checkpoint. Oracle performs the following tasks in what order? wait for all user transactions to complete.window. which can be used to automate repetitive tasks at specified times on one or multiple databases. 4) closes the data files and redo log files. listeners. which monitors the network for problem events. and Events. it disconnects all sessions and proceeds with the normal shutting down process. 5) dismounts the database. The normal shut down process performs a checkpoint. SHUTDOWN TRANSACTIONAL waits for all user transactions to complete.

Which view has information about users who are granted SYSDBA or SYSOPER privilege? A dynamic view of V$PWFILE_USERS has the username and a value of TRUE in column SYSDBA if the SYSDBA privilege is granted. view and change memory allocations. and archive logs. SQL *Plus). and profiles. Storage Manager allows you to manage tablespaces. roles. including advanced queries and Java-stored procedures. and create and alter users. rollback segments. which helps administrators with their daily routine tasks. Which DB administration tools are included in the DBA Studio Pack? The DBA Management Pack is a set of tools integrated with the OEM. Schema Manager. or drop any schema object. alter. The DB Studio Pack includes Instance Manager. and archival status. Oracle connects you to this instance. When you connect to the database without specifying a connect string. These tools provide complete database administration. Instance Manager allows you to startup or shut down an instance.When you issue the command ALTER SYSTEM ENABLE RESTRICTED SESSION. or a value of TRUE in column SYSOPER if the SYSOPER privilege is granted. Security Manager allows you to change the security privileges for users and roles. through DBA Studio. You can clone any object. what happens to the users who are connected to the database? If you enable the RESTRICTED SESSION when users are connected. data files. and Security Manager. or by individually accessing each tool. Future sessions are started only if the user has the RESTRICTED SESSION privilege. redo log groups. via GUI tools (vs. redo logs. nothing happens to the already connected sessions. based on the filenames specified in the CONTROL_FILES parameter of the parameter file Which environment variable or registry entry variable is used to represent the instance name? The Oracle_SID environment variable is used to represent the instance name. the control files are created when you create a database. 7 . age resource allocations and long-running sessions. Storage Manager. Schema Manager allows you to create. How many control files are required to create a database? You do not need any control files to create a database. and can be accessed by using the OEM. modify parameters.

To use the REUSE clause.Optimal Flexible Architecture is a set of guidelines to organize the files related to the Oracle database and software for better management and performance. which already exists.What is the recommended configuration for control files? Oracle allows multiplexing of control files.log’) GROUP SIZE 5M 1 REUSE. The parameter name is CONTROL_FILES. When creating a database. Which command should be issued before you can execute the CREATE DATABASE command? You must start up the instance to create the database. If this parameter is not specified. ‘/oradata03/PR0D01/redo0202. What happens if the size of the log file redo0101. and the CONTROL_FILES parameter can be changed if the files are copied to a new location. the file that exists should be the same size as the size specified in the command. 2 SIZE 5M REUSE The CREATE DATABASE command fails. the location and name depend on the OS platform 8 . Oracle creates a control file.log’) GROUP (‘/oradata02/PR0D01/redo0201. You have specified the LOGFILE clause in the CREATE DATABASE command as follows.log’. where does Oracle find information about the control files that need to be created? The control file names and locations are obtained from the initialization parameter file. Which initialization parameter cannot be changed after creating the database? The block size of the database cannot be changed after database creation. What does OFA stand for? OFA. one disk failure will not damage both control files. If you have two control files on two disks. The database name can be changed after re-creating the control file with a new name. is 10MB? LOGFILE (‘/oradata02/PR0D01/redo0101.log’.log. Connect to the database by using the SYSDBA privilege and start the instance by using the command STARTUP NOMOUNT. ‘/oradata03/PR0D01/redo0102.

The base tables for these views are created by the script sql. Which data dictionary view shows information about the status of a procedure? The DBA_OBJECTS dictionary view has information on the objects. and modification timestamp and status.Which script creates the data dictionary views? The catalog. 9 . and for SYSTEM it is MANAGER. The SYS and SYSTEM users are created when the database is created. How do you correct a procedure that has become invalid when one of the tables it is referring to was altered to drop a constraint? The invalid procedure. trigger. What is the default password for the SYS user? The default password for the SYS user is CHANGE_ON_INSTALL. Who owns the data dictionary? The SYS user owns the data dictionary. which is executed when you issue the CREATE DATABASE command. these views provide information on all the objects in the database and have an OWNER column. the files will be used for the SYSTEM tablespace.bsq.sql script creates the data dictionary views. You should change these passwords once the database is created. their creation. They cannot be created at the database level. How many data files can be specified in the DATAFILE clause when creating a database? You can specify more than one data file. The files specified cannot exceed the number of data files specified in the MAXDATAFILES clause. Which event trigger from the following cannot be created at the database level? DML event triggers should always be associated with a table or view. The ALL_views show information about the structures owned by the user. or view can be recompiled by using the ALTER <object> COMPILE command. All other event triggers can be created at the database level. Which prefix for the data dictionary views indicate that the contents of the view belong to the current user? DAB_prefixed views are accessible to the DBA or anyone with the SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE privilege. package.

access. MAXLOGHISTORY. MAXLOGHISTORY – is used only with Parallel Server configuration. and their contents related primarily to performance. The view V$VERSION has the same information. MAXLOGMEMBERS. and analyze data needed for Geographical Information Systems (GIS)? The Oracle Spatial component installs procedures and functions needed to access spatial data. The views are called dynamic performance views because they are continuously updated while the database is open and in use. MAXINSTANCES). 10 . This option can be installed after creating the database by running the script catmd. and the synonyms have a V$ prefix. Data files are created when you create a tablespace. The actual views have the prefix of V_$. MAXLOGMEMBERS – specifies the maximum number of redo log members (copies of the redo logs) for each redo log group.Which data dictionary view provides information on the version of the database and installed components? The dictionary view PRODUCT_COMPONENT_VERSION shows information about the database version. What is the prefix for dynamic performance views? The dynamic performance views have a prefix of V$. MAXDATAFILES – specifies the maximum number of data files that can be created in this database. MAXDATAFILES.sql. What is the best method to rename a control file? Use the ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE command. If you want to change any of these limits after the database is created.specifies the maximum number of redo log groups that can ever be created in the database. you must re-create the control file. because Oracle pre-allocates space in the control file. or add more space to a tablespace by adding a data file. MAXINSTANCES – specifies the maximum number of instances that can simultaneously mount and open this database. It specifies the maximum number of archived redo log files for automatic media recovery. Which clauses in the CREATE DATABASE command specify limits for the database? The control file size depends on the following limits (MAXLOGFILES. Which optional component in the database creation process sets up functions and procedures to store. MAXLOGFILES .

The control files include the following: Database name the control file belongs to. most recent checkpoint information. c. The initialization parameter file has LOG_CHECKPOINT_INTERVAL = 60. data files. e. d. and start up the database. change the CONTROL_FILES parameter. current log sequence number. rename the control file by using an OS command. you avoid the risk of a single point of failure. What is the biggest advantage of having the control files on different disks? By storing the control file on multiple disks. Which data dictionary view shows that the database is in ARCHIVELOG mode? The V$DATABASE view shows if the database is in ARCHIVELOG mode or in NOARCHIVELOG mode. the database has to be: Not mounted. database creation timestamp. LOG_CHECKPOINT_TIMEOUT ensures that no more than a specified number of seconds worth of redo log blocks need to be read during instance recovery. Shut down the database.b. Which file is used to record all changes made to the database and is used only when performing an instance recovery? 11 . Put the database in RESTRICTED mode and issue the ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE command. Shut down the database. If you mount the database it automatically opens the database. redo log files. tablespace names. and restart the database after changing the CONTROL_FILES parameter. and Recovery Manager’s backup information When you create a control file. What does this mean? LOG_CHECKPOINT_INTERVAL ensures that no more than a specified number of redo log blocks(OS blocks) need to be read during instance recovery. What piece of information is not available in the control file? The instance name is not available. Re-create the control file using the new name. Which data dictionary view provides the names of the control files? V$CONTROLFILES shows the names of the control files.

Use the REUSE option if the file already exists. The maximum number of redo log groups is determined by the MAXLOGFILES database parameter. INVALID. How many ARCn processes can be associated with an instance? You can have a max of 10 ARCn processes associated with an instance What are the valid status codes in the V$LOGFILE view? Valid status codes V$LOGFILE views include STALE. or by changing the parameter to point to a different archive location. Which two parameters cannot be used together to specify the archive destination? a. When the GROUP option is specified. What will happen if ARCn could not write to a mandatory archive destination? Oracle will write a message to the alert file and all database operations will be stopped. The MAXLOGMEMBERS database parameter specifies the maximum number of members per group. DELETED means the file is no longer used. LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST and LOG_ARCHIVE_DUPLEX_DEST b. how many disks does Oracle recommend to keep the redo log files? You should keep a minimum of two redo log groups. you can specify all the archive destination parameters with valid 12 . '/logs/file2' REUSE) The statement creates a new log group with two members. INVALID means the file is not accessible.Redo logs are used to record all changes to the database. What happens if you issue the following command? ALTER DATABASE ADD LOGFILE ('/logs/file1' REUSE. you must see a higher integer value. which is used to roll forward. Use the SIZE option if you are creating a new file. Oracle will automatically generate a group number if the GROUP option is not specified. The redo log buffer in the SGA is written to the redo log file periodically by the LGWR process. None of these. or the status can be blank. and blank status means the file is in use. Database operation resumes automatically after successfully writing the archived log file. LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST1 and LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST2 d. STALE means the file contents are incomplete. DELETED. or to update. Oracle recommends that you keep each member of a redo log group on a different disk. If the archive destination becomes full you can make room for archives either by deleting the archive log files after copying them to a different location. LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST and LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST1 c. the data files during an instance recovery. with a recommended two members in each group. If you have two redo log groups with four members each.

you can specify up to five archiving locations. fixed width). 2) use an OS command to rename the redo log file. Querying which view will show whether automatic archiving is enabled? Automatic archiving is enabled by setting the initialization parameter LOG_ARCHIVE_START = TRUE. the ARCHIVE LOG LIST command will show whether automatic archiving is enabled If you need to have your archive log files named with the log sequence numbers as arch_0000001. %s specifies the log sequence number. Create a statement that will add a member /logs/redo22. what should be the value of the LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT parameter? The LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT parameter should be arch_%S. you cannot use the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST or LOG_ARCHIVE_DUPLEX_DEST parameters to specify other archive locations. %S specifies the log sequence number. List the steps needed to rename a redo log file. leading zero filled. If the number of operations required for recovery at any point in time exceeds this limit. 5) ALTER DATABASE OPEN. Also. What packages are associated with the LogMiner utility? DBMS_LOGMNR is used to add and drop files (including redo log files) and to start the LogMiner utility. %t specifies the thread. and %T specifies the thread.destination names When using LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_N parameter. Using a LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_N parameter. then Oracle writes the dirty buffers to disk until the number of I/O operations needed for instance recovery is reduced to the limit. DBMS_LOGMNR_D is used to create the data dictionary. 1) shut down the database. The script dbmslogmnrd. Of the four formatting variables available. V$PARAMETER. 4) ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE ‘oldfile’ TO ‘newfile’. will show all parameter values.sql creates the DBMS_LOGMNR_D package. leading zero filled. 13 . 3) STARTUP MOUNT. Which parameter is used to limit the number of dirty buffers in the buffer cache. This parameter limits the number of I/O operations that Oracle should perform for instance recovery. arch_0000002. the instance recovery time can be controlled. and so on (zero filled. Querying the parameter view. and 6) back up the control file. thereby limiting the time required for instance recovery? By setting the parameter FAST_START_TO_TARGET to the desired number of blocks.log to log file group 2.

if the file is already part of a tablespace? To enable auto=extension. If you create an object in the database without specifying any storage parameters. the second is 20KB. CREATE TABLESPACE USER_DATA DATAFILE 'C:/DATA01. establishing a standby database. and third is 32KB (because the block size is 4kb). The INCLUDING CONTENTS clause is used to drop a tablespace that is not empty. redo log files are copied to other locations on or off site. Oracle does not have to update the data file. Which operation is permitted on a read – only tablespace? A table can be dropped from a read-only tablespace. Oracle does not remove the data files that belong to the tablespace. The first extent is 20KB. Oracle assigns (5 X DB_BLOCK_SIZE) to INTIAITAL and NEXT. When a table is dropped. you need to do it manually using an OS command. This process allows for recovery in case of failure.DBF'. what will be the size of the third extent that belongs to the object? When you create a tablespace with no default storage parameters. How would you drop a tablespace if the tablespace were not empty? Use DROP TABLESPACE <TABLESPACE NAME> INCLUDING CONTENTS. 14 . use ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE <FILENAME> AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT <INTEGER> MAXSIZE <INTEGER>. You can manually coalesce a tablespace by using ALTER TABLESPACE <TABLESPACE NAME> COALESCE. The database block size is 4KB. Which command is used to enable the auto-extensible feature for a file. Any change to data or creation of new objects is not allowed in a read-only tablespace. You created a tablespace using the following command. In using the ARCn (archive) process. it updates the dictionary tables. PCTINCREASE is 50. The third extent would be 50 % more than the second.log When adding log files. you should specify the group number or specify all the existing group members. Oracle updates only the control file.ALTER DATABASE ADD LOGFILE ‘/logs/redo/22. or allows auditing of the database through LogMiner When does the SMON process automatically coalesce the tablespaces? When the PCTINCREASE default storage of the tablespace is set to 0.

Need to do media recovery when bringing the tablespace online. Which statement is true regarding the SYSTEM tablespace? A. How would you determine how much sort space is used by a user session? The V$SORT_USAGE shows the active sorts in the database. The V$SORT can be joined with V$SESSION or V$SQL to obtain more information on the session or the SQL statement causing the sort. D. it shows the space used. Data files can be renamed. The size of a temporary file can be changed using ALTER DATABASE TEMPFILE <FILENAME> RESIZE <INTGER>. Oracle does not perform a checkpoint and does not make sure that all data files are available. it is possible to rename the datafile of the system tablespace too. Keep PCTINCREASE equal to zero. the extent management of a tablespace cannot be altered. A locally managed permanent tablespace cannot be made temporary. B. A. D. provide the default storage of the temporary tables as (INITIAL 136K PCTINCREASE 0 MAXEXTENST UNLIMITED).Which statement is false? A. You must perform a media recovery when the tablepace is brought back online. Place the following logical storage structures in order-from the smallest logical storage unit to the largest. Can be me made read only. C. Tablespace D. This can be done when the database is in the mount stage. Block C. What are the recommended INITIAL and NEXT values for a temporary tablespace. Once created. Data files cannot be resized Yes. If you issue ALTER TABLESPACE USERS OFFLINE IMMEDIATE. SQL address. Does not ensure that the data files are available. and hash value. if you r sort area size is 64 kb and database block size is 8KB. T C. Can be offline. D. which of the following statements is true? A. username. All data files belonging to the tablespace must be online. Segment B. B. A temporary file cannot be renamed. Dictionary-managed temporary tablespace can be made permanent. The size of the locally managed temporary tablespace file cannot be changed. to reduce fragmentation? The recommended INITIAL and NEXT should be equal to each other and it should be a multiple of SORT_AREA_SIZE plus DB_BLOCK_SIZE to reduce the possibility of fragmentation. Need not doe media recovery when bringing the tablespace online. Extent 15 . It also provides the number of EXTENTS and number of BLOCKS used by each sort session. Fro example. C. and the username. B.

Performance improves. A separate tablespace for rollback segments and temporary segments should be created. and C. Before any DML operation. A data block is the smallest logical storage unit in Oracle. INITRANS reserves space for the transactions in the block. undo information can be written to the same tablespace. If you do not specify the size. where is the before image information (which can be used for undoing the changes) stored? Rollback segment. PCTINCREASE B.A. the undo information (before-image of data) is stored in the rollback segments. Choose the statement used to manually de-allocate the extents used by a rollback segment. You can also specify a size for the rollback segment. What happens if you create a rollback segment in the same tablespace where application data is stored? Choose the best answer. D . None of the above is true. because when changes are made.B. When a table is updated. A segment consists of on or more extents. ALTER ROLLBACK SEGMENT RO1 DROP EXTENTS. ALTER ROLLBACK SEGMENT R01 DEALLOCATE. C. B. This information is used to undo the changes and to provide a read-consistent view of the data.. Oracle will shrink the rollback segment to INITIAL + [NEXT x ( MINEXTENTS –1)]. Which storage parameter is applicable only to rollback segments? A. Which data dictionary view would you query to see the free extents in a tablespace? 16 . For ex. None of the above. C. A. An extent is a group of contiguous block. If OPTIMAL is not set. B. ALTER ROLLBACK SEGMENT RO1 SIZE 10K. The application tablespace can become fragmented. D. D. A tablespace can have many segments. None of the above. ALTER ROLLBACK SEGMENT RO1 SHRINK TO 100K would shrink the rollback segment to 100KB. ALTER ROLLBACK SEGMENT RO1 SHRINK. A. Oracle will shrink the rollback segment to the OPTIMAL size. Which parameter specifies the number of transaction slots in a data block? INITRANS specifies the number of transaction slots in a data block. TRANASACTIONS D. The tablespace will be fragmented.D. A transaction slot is used by Oracle when the data block is being modified. A segment can belong to only one tablespace. There should be a minimum of two data files associated with the tablespaces when rollback segments are created. because of the allocation and deallocation of extents by the rollback segments. MAXEXTENTS C.

Which portion of the data block stores information about the table having rows in this block? Row Data. The row directory stores information such as row address and size of the actual rows stored in the row data area. What is the minimum number of extents a rollback segment can have? The roll back segment should always have at least two extents. DBA_EXTENTS shows all the extents that are allocated to a segment. When creating a rollback segment. The table directory portion of the block stores information about the table having rows in the block. 17 . the MINEXTENTS value should be two or more.DBA_FREE_SPACE shows the free extents in a tablespace.

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