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HANDBOOK
OF

INDIANS OF

CANADA

Published as an Appendix to the Tenth Report of the Geographic Board of Canada

Reprinted by permission of Mr. F. W. Hodge, Ethnologist-in- Charge, from Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico,
published as Bulletin 30, Bureau of American

Ethnology, and edited by Frederick

Webb Hodge

Reprinted under the direction of James White, F.R.G.S., Secretary, Commission of Conservation

OTTAWA
PRINTED BY
C. H.

PARMELEE, PRINTER TO THE KINQ's MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY
1913

KRAUS REPRINT
New York
1969

CO.

E

LC

13-19813

KRAUS REPRINT

CO.
Limited

A U.S. Division of Kraus-Thomson Organization

Printed in U.S.A.

2

GEORGE

V.

SESSIONAL PAPER

No. 21a

A.

1912

FOREWORD
In 1907, the Bureau of American Ethnology published Part I (972 pages) of the Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico and, in 1910, published Part II (1221 pages). This work which can be correctly characterized as monumental, was begun in 1873, and was completed in 1910, thirty-seven years later. The history of the undertaking is set forth in the Preface and need not be repeated here. As it contained an enormous amount of information relating to the Indians of Canada, geographical as well as ethnological, it was decided that the Geographic Board would republish this portion. Mr. F. W. Hodge having courteously accorded permission to reprint, the undersigned volunteered to supervise the publication. In publishing this work some changes have been made to bring the orthography into accord with English usage. Thus the 'u' has been inserted in such words as colour, favour, labour, etc. The forms discs, boulder, draughtsman, etc., were substituted for disks, bowlder, draftsman, etc. As, in the original publication, the articles respecting Treaties, Dept. of

Indian Affairs and Indian Reserves dealt almost altogether with the United States, new articles relative to Canadian conditions have been inserted, also a list of Indian reserves in Canada. Where in the original, minor errors of geographical description were noted, the corrections were inserted without special note but historical statements that the editor deemed erroneous are
corrected in foot-notes.

A new map showing the territory occupied by the Aborigines of Canada, Alaska and Greenland has been compiled by the editor. It is a revision of the map -prepared for the Atlas of Canada, 1906, but was printed before Mr. Stefansson's return from the Arctic. The information furnished by him, has, therefore, been noted in red by an over-printing. Maps showing the areas in which the Indian title has been quieted by treaties with the native inhabitants have been compiled for this volume. It is hoped that this work will form the basis of a more comprehensive publication which will deal with the Indians of Canada in greater detail than the
scope of the present work permits.
,

(l

^ jjOj Cd^
/
/

JAMES WHITE

2

GEORGE

V.

SESSIONAL PAPER

No. 21a

A. 1912

PREFACE
During the early exploration and settlement of North America, a multitude Indian tribes were encountered, having diverse customs and languages, Lack of knowledge of the aborigines and of their languages led to many curious errors on the part of the early explorers and settlers: names were applied to the Indians that had no relation whatever to their aboriginal names; sometimes nicknames were bestowed, owing perhaps to personal characteristics, fancied or real; sometimes tribes came to be known by names given by other tribes, which were often opprobrious; frequently the designation by which a tribal group was known to itself was employed, and as such names are oftentimes unpronounceable by alien tongues and unrepresentable by civilized alphabets, the result was a sorry corruption, varying according as the sounds were impressed on Spanish, English, French, Dutch, German, Russian, or Swedish ears. Sometimes, again, bands of a single tribe were given distinctive tribal names, while clans and gentes were often regarded as independent autonomous groups to which separate triba designations likewise were applied. Consequently, in the literature relating to the American Indians, which is practically coextensive with the literature of
of

the

first

three centuries of the

New World,

thousands of such names are recorded

the significance and application of which are to be understood only after
study.

much

a comprehensive work on the subject has been felt ever since the Indians was first aroused. Many lists of tribes have been published, but the scientific student, as well as the general reader, until the present time has been practically without the means of knowing any more about a given confederacy, tribe, clan, or settlement of Indians than was to be gleaned from casual references to it. The work of which this Handbook is an outgrowth had its inception as early as 1873, when Prof. Otis T. Mason, now of the United States National Museum, began the preparation of a list of the tribal names mentioned in the vast literature pertaining to the Indians, and in due time several thousand names were recorded with references to the works in which they appear. The work was continued by him until after the establishment of the Bureau, when other duties compelled its suspension. Later, the task was assigned to Col. Garrick Mallery, who, however, soon abandoned it for investigations in a field which proved to be his life work, namely, the pictography and sign language of the American Indians.
of
scientific interest in

The need

Meanwhile Mr. James Mooney was engaged in compiling a similar list of tribes with their synonymy, classified chiefly on a geographic basis and covering the entire Western Hemisphere a work begun in 1873 and continued for twelve years before either he or the members of the Bureau of American Ethnology

knew

of the labours of each other in this field.

VI

PREFACE
2

GEORGE

v., A.

1912

Soon
tribal

after the organization of the

Bureau

in 1879, the

synonymy was formally

assigned to Mr.

work of recording a Henry W. Henshaw. Up to this

time a complete linguistic classification of the tribes north of Mexico, particuWest and Northwest, was not possible, since sufficient data had not been gathered for determining their linguistic affinities. Mr. Henshaw soon perceived that a linguistic classification of the Indian tribes, a work long contemplated by Major Powell, must precede and form the basis for a tribal synonylarly in the

was intrusted the super1885 the Bureau's researches in this direction had reached a stage that warranted the grouping of practically all This classification is published in the the known tribes by linguistic stocks. my, and to him,
therefore, as a necessary preliminary,

vision of such a linguistic classification.

By

Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau, and on
the present Handbook.

it is

based, with few exceptions,

Immediately on the completion of the linguistic classification, the entire force Mr. Henshaw's immediate direction, was assigned to the work that had now grown into a Dictionary and Synonymy of the Indian Tribes North of Mexico. As his special field Mr. Henshaw devoted attention to several of the Californian stocks, and to those of the North Pacific coast, north of Oregon, including the Eskimo. To Mr. Mooney were given the great and historically important Algonquian and Iroquoian families, and through his wide general knowledge of Indian history and customs he rendered aid in many other directions. A list of Linguistic Families of the Indian Tribes North of Mexico
of the Bureau, under

with Provisional List of the Principal Tribal Names and Synonyms (55 pp. by the collaborators of the Bureau in connection with the complete compilation, and, although the list does not include the Californian tribes, it proved of great service in the earlier stages of the work. The 2,500 tribal names and synonyms appearing in this list were taken chiefly from Mr. Mooney 's manuscript; the linguistic classification was the result of the work that the Bureau had been conducting under Mr. Henshaw's
octavo), was at once printed for use
supervision.

Rev. J. Owen Dorsey assumed charge of the work on the Siouan, Caddoan, and Athapascan stocks; Dr. W. J. Hoffman, under the personal direction of Major Powell, devoted his energies to the Shoshonean family, and Mr. Jeremiah Curtin, by reason of his familiarity with a number of the Californian tribes, rendered direct aid to Mr. Henshaw in that field. Dr. Albert S. Gatschet employed his time and long experience in the preparation of the material pertaining to the Muskhogean tribes of southeastern United States, the Yuman tribes of the lower Colorado drainage and of Lower California, and various smaller linguistic groups. To Col. Garrick Mallery were assigned the French authors bearing on the general subject. With such aid the work received a pronounced impetus, and before the close of 1885 a large body of additional material had been recorded. Four years later the elaboration of the material pertaining to the Yuman, Piman, Keresan, Tanoan, and Zunian stocks of the extreme Southwest was placed in charge of Mr. F. W. Hodge, who brought it to
completion.
health compelled his

The work was continued under Mr. Henshaw's supervision until, in 1893, ill abandonment of the task. This is the more to be regretted

PREFACE
SESSIONAL PAPER
No. 21a

VII

as Mr. Henshaw had in course of preparation, a classification and nomenclature of the minor divisions of the linguistic stocks, which is essential to a propei presentation and a clear understanding of the subject. After Mr. Henshaw's relinquishment of the work, Mr. Hodge was given entire charge of it. But other official duties of members of the staff prevented the Handbook as a whole from making marked progress until 1899, when Dr. Cyrus Thomas was intrusted with the task of revising the recorded material bearing on the Algonquian, Siouan, and Muskhogean families. In 1902 the work on the Handbook was again systematically taken up, at the instance of Secretary Langley, who detailed Mr, Hodge, at that time con-

nected immediately with the Smithsonian Institution, to undertake its general The scope of the subject-matter wa,s enlarged to include editorial supervision. the relations between the aborigines and the Government; their archaeology, manners, customs, aits, and industries; brief biographies of Indians of note;

have found their way into the English was proposed also to include Indian names that are purely geographic, but by reason of the vast number of these it was subsequently deemed advisable to embody them eventually in an independent work. Moreover, it was provided that the work should be illustrated as adequately as time and the illustrative material available would admit, a feature not originally contemplated. To fully cover this vast field at the present time h impossible, by reason of the fact that research among the native tribes, notwithstanding the extensive and important work that has been accomplished in recent years, has not advanced far beyond the first stage, even when is taken into account the sum of knowledge derived from the researches of the Bureau and of other institutions, as well as

and words

of aboriginal origin that

language.

It

of individuals.

The lack of completeness of our present knowledge of the tribes was, perhaps never better shown than when an attempt was made to carry out the enlarged plan of the Handbook. With its limited force the Bureau could scarcely hope to cover the entire range of the subject within a reasonable time; consequently various specialists not directly connected with the Bureau were invited to assist
an invitation that was accepted in a manner most gratifying. It is owing to the generous aid of these students that a work so complete as the Handbook is

made possible, and, to them, the Bureau owes its deep appreThat the Handbook has many imperfections there is no doubt, but it is hoped that in future editions the weak points may be strengthened and the gaps filled, until, as researches among the tribes are continued, the compilation will eventually represent a complete summary of existing knowledge respecting
intended to be, was
ciation.

the aborigines of northern America.

The scope

of the

Handbook

is

as comprehensive as

its

function necessitates.

Mexico, including the Eskimo, and those tribes south of the boundary mofe or less aflfiliatedwith those in the United States* It has been the aim to give a brief description of every linguistic stock, coafederacy, tribe, subtribe or tribal division, and settlement knowa to history or even to tradition, as well as the origin and derivation of every name treated whenever such is known, and to record under each every form of the name and
It treats of all the tribes north of
*Only tribes residinK wliolly, or
in part, in

Canada

are treated in the within publication.

Dr. 1912 These synonyms. The late Dr. The late Dr. its location at various periods. Swanton of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Under the tribal descriptions a brief account of the ethnic relations of the trioe every other appellation that could be learned. and these references form practically a bibliography of the tribe for those who desire to pursue the subject further. formerly of the Bureau of American Ethnology. G. in addition to those who have rendered valued assistance by affording information. correcting proofs. . J. the names being arranged in the alphabetical order of the iaitials attached to the signed articles: F. 1906 Alice C. V.VIII PREFACE 2 GEORGE v.) Henry W. The late Dr. Gatschet. The contributors*. William H. N. E. Dr. Alexander F. Otis T. Franz Boas of Columbia University. HrdUcka of the United States National Museum. Dr. as well as to trace the origin of many of the terms that have been incorporated into our geographic nomenclature. The late Dr. are as follows. B. Hodge Bureau of American Ethnology December. Doane Robinson of the South Dakota Historical Society. William Jones of the Field Museum of Natural History. formerly of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Robert H. McGuire of Washington. The late Rev. Washington Matthews. but it is believed that a sufficient number of forms is recorded to enable the student to identify practically every name by which any group of Indians has been known. James Mooney of the Bureau of American Ethnology. *This list contains the names only of those who contributed articles that have been reprinted. Accompanying each synonym is (the earliest known date always being given) a reference to the authority noted. in alphabetic order. George A. Hodge of the Bureau of American Ethnology. of the Eames Dr. Dr. Lieut. Emmons. Henshaw. Holmes of the United States National Museum. Dr. Dr. Cyrus Thomas of the Bureau of American Ethnology. W. B.. F. Fletcher of Washington. and in other ways. Colville of the United States Department of Agriculture. W. Walter Hough New York Public Library. Albert S. are assembled as cross references in Appendix III.. United States National Museum. The late Prof. N. formerly of the Bureau of American Ethnology. H. John R. Dr. Frank Huntington. Hewitt of the Bureau of American Ethnology. F. Dorsey of the Field Museum of Natural History. Mason of the United States National Museum. are included. A. Lowie of Wilberforce New of the York. George Bird Grinnell of New York. J. A. T. A. United States Army. Gerard Fowke of Saint Louis. P. Livingston Farrand of Columbia University. Joseph D. Chambetlain of Clark University. statistics of population. etc. its history. United States Navy (retired. Goddard of the American Museum of Natural History. Owen Dorsey of the Bureau of American Ethnology. It is not claimed that every spelling of every tribal name that occurs in print is given.

Sav. Ky-uk-ahts.A. Oregon. bottom Kilpaulus should read Kilpanlus. Dionondgaes should read Dionondages. Kayo'ykath.— Can. Ky-wk-aht.— Brit. line 22 199. 136. Ky-u-kaht. SESSIONAL PAPER No. 251. Boas in 6th Rep. Col. 23 from bottom. 1912 ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA Page Page Page Page Page Page 192. Col. Ind. line 22 258. Aff.. 308.— Can. 1894. Brit. 31.— Mayne.— Swan. bottom Knu-lana should read Kuulana. Jewitt. 21a A..E. line 3 line from bottom. B.W. Tribes Can. Life.. Page 457. 1890. hne 23 241. Cayoquits. 188. Ind. at end of Kyuquot Armstrong. bottom Higaiu-lanas should read Hlgaiu-lanas. 1883... article. 1857. Ky-yoh-quaht.—Ibid. IX 21a— B . 276. 1849. line 12 from top. Afi.. Kiicii-cut. Kyuquot. 1861. Narr.2 GEORGE V.. top Kutaiimaks should read Kutaiimiks. Kayokuaht. 77. 1875. insert: Page 260. 1872. map. 9 should read 90. top Rodinunschiouni should read Rodinunchsiouni. 1868. line 21 229. Ime 8 255. N. hne 25 from from from from from from bottom Halaut should read Halant. Cayuquets. 52. — — — Page 426. MS.— Sproat.

not Chilliwack. Napiaipi. 21a A. not Kitzilas. Mattawa. not Nalashqvxin. not Temiscaming. not Mattawan. conform to the decisions of the Geographic Board of Canada. not Nascapee. Itamamiou. not Musquarro. the following names have been changed. Kitimat. Kitsalas. not TFeendigo. not PacJieenaht. Chilliwak. Chemainus.2 GEORGE V. not Kitwingach. not Tadousac. SESSIONAL PAPER No. Naskapi. Sumas. Keremeos. not Kitzimgaylum Kitwinga. . not Itamameou. Kispiox. not Le Have. Windigo. Antigonish. Lahave. not Munceytovm. as stated: Anahim. in all cases. not Anaham. Nata^hkwan. not Sumass. 1912 NOTE As the orthography of the original did not. not Athabasca. not Chemanus. Athabaska. not Kishpiyeoux. not Nabisippi. Timiskaming. NipisiguU not Nipigiguit: Pachenaht. not Keremeus. Muncey. Kitsumgallum. not Semiahmoo. not Kitamat. not Antigonishe. Semiamu. Tadoussac. Muskwaro.

after the main body of the Abnaki had removed to Canada.' 'land'. {Wdbuna'ki. v. 1836. Abbitibbes. with mentions as totems In 1906.— Hennepin. RaAmbawtawoot. Tibitibis. 1856 (trans.. Voy. known Algonkin band whose Abitibi lake. A. By the Puritans they were generally called Tarrateens. Ambatawwoot. Compendium. (1736) in N. Voy. Ethnic relations. 1S70.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA Abbatotine tribe living in ('bighorn people').) by some among us. 1705. ing in the present state of Maine. A little W. 1824. 640. 32. Y. — Am. 'half. Abittibis. Balbi. Abittibbes. 1660. 1872. 1855. and ii. Vetro1 17877—1 . Tabitibis.. map. Diet. Tribes.— Keane 556. 1698. 1853. 1855. 271. Hist. New Disc. Stanford. and Abnaki. 'mountain sheep men'). 1853.. in i. Chauvignerie (1736) seems to connect this tribe. been applied also to the emigrant Oneida. original origin of this term. vi. Stockbridges. 1853.. op. —In his tentative arrange- ment Brinton (Len. — Chauvignerie (1736) N. m. the name was applied moie especiThe Iroquois ally to the Penobscot tribe. 1876. the name applied by the French and used by most modern writers. Jones). Franklin. and though that is the general conclusion of modern authorities. Ibid. Maurault (Hist. 2. 28. from wdbun. The form Openango has been used more especially to designate the eastern tribes. The first recorded notice of them in the Jesuit Relation for 1640. 1886. 1882.. Sheep Indians. —Gallatin in Trans.. Ind.. Races. and Trav. Ind. Tribes. A. A Nahane Stewart r. 1826. of L. Abba-to-tenah. — Walch. des Aben. — Abnaki. Ambahtawoot. He Algonquian tribes to include all those of their own stock resident on the Atlantic seaboard.— Du Lhut (1684) in I. Nat. — 525. Leg. 49. 1866. Ibid. hence Wdbuna'ki signifying is an inanimate singular term or 'eastland. — cit. —Franklin. is — habitat has been the shores of Ont. 19. Ambawtawhoot Tinneh. Sheep People. Hist. Nat. — — Outatibes. Latham in Trans. 84. 1885) brings into in Doc. 555. i. Abbetikis. map.— Dall in Proc. 1705.^Richardson. Outabytibis.' 'middle. and valleys. and by the ii. ii.. and Munsee about Green bay. Soc. 69. Tribes. S. 1824. Ind. 498. 1753. Bancroft. t. ii." —Chauvignerie (1736) quoted by Schoolcraft. but this is more of a geographic than a linguistic grouping. 1882.' th^ elements referring to animate dwellers of the east being wanting. Antiq. 1053. It is said in the Relation of 1660 that the Iroquois had warred upon them and two other tribes of the same locality. 11. and the Wabanoaks. Hist. -g. — Trav. which seems to be merely a modification of Abnaki. and More recently it has the Delawares in the S.' 'intei-mediate'. Dec. Affats-tena. ces. ix. Harris. Abbato-tena'..— Bacqueville de one group^ the Nascapee. Du Lhut (1684) includes them in the rior list of nations of the region n..— Hardisty in Smithson. 'those of the this is the reason they are called 'Abena- the pop. III. Jones) A name used by — . Macmillan. map.' and refers to — — the morning and the east. — Bancroft. 1858. Am-ba-ta-ut' tine. Potherie. Narr. Etchimin. iii. they ceded their lands by treaty No. A. 821. A. — Harris.' associated with 'white. a locative suffix: hence 'halfway-across water. 1877. Mountain Slieep — Richardson. 1805. called them Owenunga.. 587.. 1847. map. was 278. upper Pelly. 84. N. 51. Dto^ Dindji6.. Prichard. Abbato-tinneh. 377. Doc. here alluding to water. Soc.— Dall in Cont. 69. 1851. Ambawtowhoot.. V. Narr.. Philol. —Schoolcraft. 311. 7. Lond. Exped. This name was given them because they were toward the east with reference to the Narragansetts. Rep. "Some English authors have 1866) says: called these savages east' kis' . Tabittibis. a term apparently obtained from the southern New England tribes. a secondary stem referring to a state or condition. i. Y.— Jesuit Rel.. Ambata-ut' tind. Ah-bah-to dln-ne. iii.. 1878.' referring to the situation of Abitibi lake. eagle. —Petitot. Micmac. 1852. Chauvignerie Tabittikis. Lond. Supe- whose trade it was desirable should be turned from the English of Hudson bay to the French. Ambah-tawut-dinni. Wis. bi. Latham in Trans. Yukon. Outabitibelc. la 12. 9 and are now under the Temiskaming agency. more particularly the ''Abnaki" in the N. ii.. c. iii. a term 'light. Arct. iii. or Abnaqui. Men. (j. — Atlas Ethnog. Soc. 1054. a'ki 'earth. Phya. Philol. Malecite. 149 (misprint). the partridge the Tetes de Boule.' 'morning-land. xx. Ambawtawhoot-dinneh. Ethnol. there is some doubt as to the abIn later times. 1856. Margry. Abitibi {abi'ta. In 1911. Abitibis. Ambawtamoot. —Schoolcraft. the English and French of the colonial period to designate an Algonquian confederacy centre- ii. IX. estimated at 140 warriors.

as did other Indians. they cultivated the soil in the manner of the They used the rejected and superHuron. and Malecite. they. —The history of the Abnaki may be of said to begin with Verrazano's visit in 1524. History. where. chiefly through the influence of their Their houses or wigwams were conical in form and covered with birch-bark or with woven mats. Pierreville. in the country of the Abnaki. W. in Quebec. 1866) applies to this tribe. near missionaries. was near Pemaquid. they numbered 340 in 1911. The Etchimin. watched for period — the early writers and navigators finally dwindled to a village of a few bark-covered opportunities of revenge. In 1604. were Abnaki. Quebec. E. except in Penobscot to the vicinity of the present Bangor. were guilty of torturing their prisoners. following other authors. situated near the mouth of Penobscot r. Abenakis. as Maurault states. According to the writers on early Maine. as seems evident. and carried on an almost constant war with the EngUsh until the fall of the French power in America. In 1903 the Malecite. or Amahcite.) the different tribes have gradually dwindled into insignificance. inclosed with palisades. Lawrence. Yet they were implacable enemies and. especiSagard states that in his day ally in winter. as the leading tribe. the latter being afterward abandoned by them for St. The accounts of these struggles during the settlement of Maine are familiar episodes in American history. with about 625 Penobscot and Passamaquoddy in Maine. Patsuikets (Sokoki in part) Sokouakiaks . The descendants of those who emigrated from Maine together with remnants of other New England tribes. made peace with the being applied in the restricted sense to the Indians of Kennebec r.DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. Passa- Nurhantsuaks (Norridgewock) Pentagoets (Penobscot) Etemankiaks (Etchimin) Ouarastegouiaks (Malecite). Since that Abnaki confederacy. Although relying for subsistence to a large extent on hunting. From that time the Abnaki formed an important factor in the history of the region now embraced in the state of Maine. the case of females. All these tribes spoke substantially the same language. The Abnaki formed an early attachment for the French. part of the coast of Maine was occupied by other Indians. who were more to the N. of the St. or N. The mythical accounts of Norumbega (q. all the Indians of the seashores. the chief dialectal differences being between the Etchimin and the other tribes of the group. The present Penobscot say they number between 300 and 400. were numbered at 801 in several villages in New Brunswick and Quebec. are now at St. the Penobscot. From partial withdrawal to the time of their discovery until their Canada they occupied who were kindly treated. 25. the Abnaki were more gentle in manners and more docile than their western congeners. if Maurault's assertion (Hist. huts under the name Agguncia. Linguistically the Abnaki do not appear to be more closely related to the Micmac than to the Delaware group. and several families occupied a single Their villages were. while the Passamaquoddy claim as many as 800 souls. thus. and still more on fishing. and. John to the Saco. but the earliest Enghsh accounts indicate that about 1605-20 the S. Who these Indians were is unknown. fluous fish to fertilize their fields. As the whites encroached on them the Abnaki gradually withdrew to Canada and settled chiefly at B6cancour and Sillery. accepting fixed bounds. doubtless an Abnaki chief. one or fish the general region from the St. but these other tribes were finally conquered by the Abnaki and probably absorbed by them. 20. Francis. Champlain ascended the Notwithstanding Vetromile's statement to the contrary.. . 1912 mile (Abnakis. under the name of Abnaki. Customs and beliefs. In customs and behefs they are more nearly related to the Micmac. and similar structures were used by the males of the village who preferred to club together in social . maquoddy. Francis and Becancour. . Each village at least. shore of North America. and Dr. included the Passamaquoddy and Malecite.." following as the principal tribes of the Abnaki confederacy: Kanibesinnoaks (Norridgewockin part. says that we should "embrace under this term all the tribes of the Algic [Algonquian] family. in 1749. however remained in their an lent homes. and who were at war with the Abnaki. WiUiam Jones finds the Abnaki closely related to the central Algonquian languages. 1866). had its council house of considerable size. The Penobscot. v. who formed a subgroup of the English. as the EngUsh termed them. maize was an important article of diet. from Virginia to Nova Maurault gives the Scotia. the name Abnaki (Sokoki) . whose chief seat two being placed near the roots of the plant. A. who occupy or have occupied the E. in some cases dwelling. oblong in form and roofed with bark. or Tarrateen. and their ethnic rela- tions appear to be with the tribes N. and met the "lord" of Norumbega. like most other tribes.

1855 (the same form is used for the Delawares by Maximilian. Hennepin. Penobscot. Pequawket Rocameca. s. Sainte Anne (Missiassik). Maguh-le-loo'. Wabigganus. 125. (j. pt. Abenaques. Sokoki. kwa. were Amaseconti. Becancour. Canada. Pentugouet (Penobscot). 2d Abanaquols. Unyj aware. Old Town (Penobscot). Hist. Doc. they believed. 1824. K'-che-ga-gong'-go. 6. Precaute. Hist. not being satisfied with these.). Sturgeon. of Coll. composed of including males and females. According to Morgan they had fourteen gentes: 1. Ind. Muanbissek (?). — Boyd. 214. Muscongus. Waccogo. Calais (Passamaquoddy) Gunasquamekook (Passamaquoddy). Maine Hist. v. Sokoki (village?). to the governor of New England their Moratiggon (?). Meecombe. presents were offered.. Soc. i. the good and the evil. Pequawket. Y. St Francis. Taconnet. Am. 889. T. (old i. iv. Okpaak. Sebaik (Pas- samaquoddy). Kwupahag. Abenaquls. Y. Ka-bah'-seh. Although really a part of the Abnaki. ix. Inds. Moshoquen. Narantsouuk (Norridgewock). Abena'kes. —Sagard Abanakees. Segotago. 8. Passadumkeag (Penobscot). Tobique (Malecite). Mass. 3. Negusset Norridgewock. Spotted Frog. According to Maurault they believed that the first man and woman were created out of a stone. John rs. Local Names. Muskrat. Etchimin. (?). No. 1858. Aucocisco. Hist. 118. and were known collectively as Etchimin. Abenaqulois. Ab^nakis. —Doc. Mattinacook (Penobscot). 9. — Buchanan. Mattawamkeag (Penobscot). Porcupine. 199. Snake. 1866. Penobscot. Abenakkis. Arosaguntacook. Ammoncongan. Black Wildcat. Viger (Malecite). Wewenoc (village?). Meh-ko-a'. Wolf. The bands residing on St. Arsikantegou (Arosaguntacook). of in Hist. Satquin. and pronounced sentence of death on those deserving that pun- importance ishment. Sabino.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER fellowship. Ah-lunk-soo. Antiquarian Disc. Negas. all wars and after their removal to Canada. in in VI. 1885. 12. D^couvertes. 233. H. Moos-kwa-suh'. Muanbissek. Ma-da'-weh-soos. beaver. pt. respectively. Tribal divisions. Koos-koo'. In a letter sent by the Abnaki in 1721. c. 1859 Abenaguis. map. — Report 1821. — Boudinot. Aquadocta (?). s. N. —Champlain (1632). Ouwerage. pt. X. Travels. Hoyt. Col. x. Norridgewock (the Abnaki in the most limited sense). Ind. Che-gwa'lis.— The tribes included in the confederacy as noted by Maurault have aheady been given. Norumbega. Star the West. Am. 10. Aban1755 N. — La Potherie. but that Kechi Niwaskw. i. —Champlain (1632). 1823. — — 17877— . Cont. 1870. Malecite. Abena'kiss. The former. Croix and St. Pigeon Hawk. (1636). Narakamigou (Rocameca). Each tribe had a war chief. and Wewenoc. The Abnaki believed in the immortality of the soul. Medoktek (Medoctec). although distinct from the Abnaki. 2. Skooke. Bear. while they also had the partridge. Sagadahoc. and also a civil chief whose duty it was to preserve order. Abanaquis. Masherosqueck. the grand and the general. form). Ossaghrage. Pegouakki (Pequawket. — Du Lhut (1679) Margry. Local Names. 1. Abenequas. 1885. Passamaquoddy (village?). They had two councils. (Euvres.. 22. 1753. (Euvres.. Passamaquoddy. consisting of the chiefs and two men from each family. m. Pemaquid. Pesmokanti (Passamaquoddy). of New 1698. Jefferys. 214. Abenaqulolcts. 1855. 98. They are now known as Passamaquoddy and Malecite. VI. Sillery. Bagaduce. 1. and the marriage ceremony was of the simplest character. Spotted Animal. 139. 14. 342. spoke a different dialect from those to the southward. Crane. so far as their names decided questions relating to war. Mals'-siim. Pasharanack. Rocameca. Pocopassum. Lincoln Island. 1886 (mentioned as distinct from the Openagos). 1843). Col. Their were Kechi Niwaskw and Machi Niwaskw. resided on an island in the Atlantic. representing. the former. i. Soc. 1870. Missiassik excavated in the soil.. Pauhuntanuc. v. 1816. while on the other hand the Pennacook tribes. Ah-weh'-soos. and otter totems. Fur Hunters. though this was accomplished through advice rather than by command. Kennebec. — Vetromile 127. Pis-suh'. destroyed them and created two more out of wood. 5. Missiassik. According to Chauvignerie their principal totems were the pigeon and the bear. from whom the Indians are descended. Imnarkuan (Passamaquoddy). Anmissoukanti (Amaseconti).— Ibid. 11.) guntacook. akis. Caribou. The general council. Machi Niwaskw was the more powerful. and on their acceptance marriage was consummated. 7. 21a Polygamy was practised but little.. Doc. 35. they were frequently classed as a distinct body. Ketangheanycke. 2. The following is a full list of Abnaki tribes Accominta. determined matters that were of great to the tribe. 1761. N. Arosadivisions are given as follows: : (Malecite).).. 4. Squirrel. Abenaquioue. the tribe. 95. Mecadacut. Segocket.. Beaver. Abenakias. They buried their dead in graves chief deities have been recorded. — Boyd. 13. (Malecite) Olamon (Penobscot).—French document (1651) in N. were often classed with them on accoimt of their connection during the Indian —Ross. The Abnaki villages. H. Amaseconti. 2. Asnela. Abenati. in Coll. Medoctec (Malecite). edge of N. Ouanwinak (Wewenoc. Ta-ma5. — French Dominions. Abenaka.

DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES
2
Abenquols. ^Hind, Labrador 7en., I, 5, 1863. Abernaquis. Perkins and Peck, Anuala of the West, 680, 1850. Abinaqui. SchoolAbinohkie. Dalton taaSt, Ind. Tribes, vi, 174, 1857.
Beaearches, 90,
1824.

GEORGE

v., A,

1912

Olinacks.—CHnton

— —

(1745) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vi, Onagongues. Bellomont (1701) 281, 1855 (misprint).

in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., iv, 834, 1854.

Onagonque.—

<1783) in Mass. Hist. Soc. CoU., 1st s., x, 123, 1809. Abnakis. Vetroimle in Maine Hist. Soc. Coll., iv, 208,

1859. Abnaqules.

Schuyler (1693), ibid., 64. Onagunga.—Golden (1727) quoted by Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, vi, 174, 1857. Onagungees. Johnson (1750) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vi,

^W^illis

in

Maine

Hist. Soc. CoU.,iv,

592,
ibid.,

1855.
xiii,

Onconntehocks.
378,

— La

Montagne
Onejages.

(1664,)

35, 1856. Abnaquiois. Jesuit Relation, 1639, 25, 1858. Abnaquis. Historical Mag., 2d s., i, 61, 1867. Abnaquois. Vetromile in Maine Hist. Soc. Coll., vi, 214, 1859. Abnaquotii. Du Creux, map (1660) in

1881
iii,

(same?).
68,

Ondiakes.—.Albany

treaty (1664), ibid.,

1853.

— Docu-

Maine

Hist.

Soc. Coll., vi, 210,

1859.

Abnasque.

Vetromile, Abnakis, 26, 1866 (possible French form). Abnekals. Albany conference (1754) in N. Y. Doc. Col.

ment of 1664, ibid., xiii, 389, 1881 (same?). Onnagonges.— Bayard (1689), ibid., iii, 621, 1853. OnnagonOnnagues. Document of 1688, ibid., 565, 1853. gongwe. BeUomont (1700), ibid.,iv, 758, 1854 (used as Onnathe Iroquois name of one of the Abnaki villages)

.

Abonakies. Croghan (1765) in TEst., VI, 886, 1855. Monthly Am. Jour. Geol., 272, 1831. Abonnekee.— Allen in Maine Hist. Soc. Coll., i, 515, 1831. Aguaatoxfti.

gonques.—Schuyler
nogonges.
379,

(1687), ibid., in, 482, 1853.
ibid.,

Onxiii,
ibid.,

Ft.

Orange conference (1664),

1881.

Onnogongwaes.— Schuyler

(Cherokee name for one Delaware; plural, Andguanoxgi). Akotsakannha. Cuoq in Brinton, Lenape Leg., 255, Akdanake. Le 'foreigner'). 1885 (Iroquois name;

—Gatschet, —

Cherokee

MS.,

B.

A.

E.,

1881

IV, 836,
Ill,

1854.

611, 1853.
XIII,

Onnongonges. Bayard (1689), ibid., Onoconcquehagas. Schelluyne (1663),

(1701),

ibid.,

309,

1881.
116,

Onoganges.—Dareth

ibid.,

381.
Ist

Onogongoes.
3.,

—Schuyler
—Ft.

(1664),
in

(1724)

Jeone (1641) in Jes. Rel., i, 72, 1858 (Huron pronunciation of Wabanaki or Abanaki, 'east land'). Albena^aioue.—Sagard (1636), Canada, iv, 889, 1866. AlbeDu Pratz in Drake, Book of Inds., bk., iv, 40, izaquis.

Mag.,

X,

1866.

Onogonguas.

—Stoddert
conference

Hist.

Ono(1753) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vi, 780, 1855. gungos. Governor of Canada (1695), ibid., iv, 120,

1854.

Onokonquehaga.
iii,

Orange

1848.

Alnanbai.—Vassal

in

Can. Ind.
Col. Hist.,

Aff.

1884, 27,
621, 1853.

(1663), ibid., xiii, 298, 1881.

1885 (own name;

'Indians' or 'men').

Anagonges.
iir,

(1689), ibid.,

621, 1853.

Onongongues. Bayard Openadyo. Williamson in

Bayard (1689) in N. Y. Doc. Anaguanoxgi- Gatschet, Cherokee MS., B. A.E., 1881 (Cherokee name for the Dela wares; see Aguanoxgi above (Cherokee name for the Dela wares; see Aguanoxgi above). Annogonges. Bayard (1689) in N. Y. Doc. CcA. Hist., HI, 611, 1853. Anogongaars. Livingston (J730) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., v, 912, 1855. A-p-a

Mass. Hist. Soc. CoU., 3d s., ix, Sanford, U. S., cxxiv, 1819. (1679) in Margry, D^c, vi, 22, La Hontan, New Voy., i, 230,
specifically for the

92, 1846.

Openagl.—

Openagos. Du Lhut Openangos. 1886.
1703 (sometimes used
.

Passamaquoddy)

O-po-nagh-ke.
in

— H.
ably

R. Rep. 299, 44th Cong., 1st

wares).
V, 304,

Oppenago.
the

—Cadillac (1703)

sess., 1,

1876 (DelaMargry, D6c.,

ztax'-ke.

— ten

Kate,
for the

Synonyraie, 11,

1884

(given as

Pawnee, but really for the Delawares). Aquannaque. Sagard (1626), Voyage du Murons, pt. 2, Diet., "nations," 1865 (Huron pronunciaqu=b of 'Abnaki' or 'Wabanaki,' and apphed by tion;

CSioctaw name

1883 ('Oppenago ou Loups,' near Detroit, probO-puh-nar'-ke. Morgan, Delawares). Consanguinity and Affinity, 289, 1871 ('people of the

east':

the Delawares).
2,

(1629),(Euvre3, v, pt.

Ouabenakiouek.^Champlain note, 196, 1870. Suabenakis.^

tljem to the 'Algoumequin' or Algonkin).
Jone.s,

Ojebway

Inds., 178, 1861.

Aubinaukee. Bashabas. Gorges

(1658) in Maine Hist. Soc. Coll., ii, 62, 1847 (plural form lof the name or title of the ruling chief about Pemaquid;

Lusignan (1749) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vr, 519, 1855. Ouabenaquis.— La Salle (1683) in Margry, D^c, ii, 363, Ouabnaquia. Ibid., it, 157, 1877 (used in col1877. Oubenakis. Chauvignerie (1736) in lective sense).

by Gorges as the name of his tribe). Benaquis. Gatschet, Caughnawaga MS., B. A. E., 1882 (name used by French Canadians). Cannon-gagell-ronnons.
iased

Schoolcraft, Ind.

Tribes, in, 553, 1853.

Subenakis.—

lamberville (1684) in Doc. Hist. N. Y., i, 142, 1849 (Mohawk name). Eastlanders. Schoolcraft, Ind. 'iTribes, m, 353, 1853 (given as meaning of 'Wabanakis').

Moassones.

Popham (1607) in Maine Hist. Soc. Coll., V, 357, 1857 (Latin form, from Moasson, Mawooshen, or Moasham, used by early English writers for the Abnaki
Ballard, U. S. Coast Survey Rep. 252, 1871,
is

«»untry. thinks it
jfece').

the Penobscot word Maweshenook, 'berry Willis (?) in Maine Hist. Soc. Coll., V, 359, 1857 (from Popham's form, Moassones). Xarankatnlgdok epitsik arenanbak. Vetromile,

Moassons.

Chauvignerie (1736) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., ix, 1052, Owenagungas. Golden (1727), Five Nat., 95, 1855. 1747 (so called by Iroquois). Owenagunges. BoudiOwenagungles. not. Star in the West, 99, 1816. Macauley, N. Y., ii, 174, 1829 .Owenungas. Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, iii, 513, 1853 (Iroquois name for the Panaxki. Gatschet, Tonkawe Abnaki, Micmac,eto.). and Caddo M.S vocab., B. A. E., 1884 (Caddo name for PSn'ikis. -Hewitt, oral information, 1886 Delawares) (Tuscarora name for Abnaki living with the Tuscarora). Skacewanilom. Vassal in Can. Ind. Aff., 28, 1885 (so

— —

.

Val.,

Abnakis, 23, 1866 ('men living on the high shores of the liver': given as collective term u.sed by .\bnaki to desig3saXe all their
villages;
.

Narankamigdog')
in

real meaning Natio Euporum.

'villages

of

the

Taranteens. -Shea, Mississippi Tarateens.^Barstow, Hist. New Hamp., 13, 1853. Tarcnteens. Godfrey, in Maine Tarentines.— Mourt Hist. Soc. Coll., VII, 99, 1876. (1622) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 2d a., ix, 57, 1822.
called

by

Iroquois).

165,

1852.

— Du Creux,

map

Tarentins.— Bradford
4th
X,
s.. Ill,

(1660) Natio Luporum. Same in Vetro«f the following) Natsagana.— anile, Abnakis, 21, 1866 ('wolf nation'). Catschet, Caughnawaga MS., B. A. E., 1SS2 (CaughnaO-ben-aki.) "waga name; singular, Rutsiigana). O. T. Mason, oral information, 1903 (name as pronounced ffiuvres, V, pt. 2, 196, 1870. Obinacks.—Clinton (1745)
.

Maine

Hist. Soc. Coll., vi, 21], 1859 (misprint

(1650?) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., Tarranteeris. Hist. Mag., 1st s., Tarrantens.— Levett (1628) in 116, 1866 (misprint).
104, 1856.

Maine

Hist. Soc.

CoU

,

ii,

93, 1847.

Tarrantines.—

jn N. Y. Doc.

Cal. Col. Hist., vi, 276, 1855.
(

Obunegos.

Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, v, 19G, 1855

= Delawares)

Mass. Hist. Soc. CoU., 3d s., vi, 117, 1837. Smith (1631) in Maine Hist. Soc. CoU., Tarratines. Wonder-working ProviVII, 101, 1876. dence (1654) in Mass. Hist. Soo. Coll, 2d s., ii, 66, 1814. Tarratlns. Keane in Stanford, Compen., 537, 1878. Tarrenteenes. Wood (1639) in Barton, New Views,

Smith (1616) Tarrateens.

in

HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA
SESSIONAL PAPER
xix, 1798.

No. 21a
for tribes of eastern Pennsylvania,

38, 1851.

Soc. Coll.,

Tarrenteens. Richardson, Arctic Exp,, ii. Tarrentens. Levett (1628) in Mass. Hist. 3d a., viii, 175, 1843. Tarrentlnes.— Smith

— —

New

Jersej',

New-

York, Delaware, and Connecticut). Wobanaki. Kidder in Maine Hist. Soc. Coll., vi, 243, 1859 (title of
spelling

Smith (1631)

(1629) Virginia, n, 192, reprint 1819. in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 3d

Tcrentines.—
s.,

book

of 1830).

in, 22, 1833.

Tercntynes.— Smith goungas.—Salisbury
xiii. 519,

(1616), ibid., vi, 131, 1837.

Una-

Abrading Implements.
numerous implements,
of stone,

In shaping their

(1678) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist.,

utensils,

and ornament*

1881.

Vnnagoungos.— Brockhols

(1678) in

Maine
1846.

Hist. Soc. Coll., v, 31, 1857 (old style).

Wabai, i,

nackies.

— McKenney,

Memoirs and Travels,
Ind. Tribes,

81,

Wabanakees.— Schoolcraft,
1853.

1853 (used collectively).
note,

Wabanakls.

304, 353,

Ibid.,

iii,

Wabanika.— Dorsey MS.

B. A. E., 1878

WSbanike.

Cegiha Diet., (Omaha and Ponka name for Delawares). Dorsey, MS. Kansas vocab., B. A. E.,

wood, bone, shell, and metal, the native tribes were largely dependent on abrading implements, of which there are many varieties. Of first importance are grinding stones and whetstones of more or less grittyrock,

while less effectual are potsherds

and

1882 (Kansa name for Delawares). Maurault, Hist, des Aben., 2, 1866

Wabanoaks.
(English
form).

Wabanocky.
Hall,

— McKenney

(1827)

in

McKenney and

Ind. Tribes, iii, 134, 1854 (used for emigrant Oneida, Munsee, and Stockbridges at Green bay. Wis.). Wabenakies.—Kendall, Travels, in, 61, 1809, WabSa&ki senobe. Gatschet, Penobscot MS., B. A. E., 1887 (Penobscot name). Wabenauki. McKenney and Hall Ind. Tribes, in, 97, 1854 (applied by other Indians to

rf Of the same general class are all sawing, drilling, and scraping tools and devices, which are described under separate headsThe smoothing and polishing implements into which the grinding stones imperceptibly grade
rasp-like surfaces, such as that of the skin

the dogfish.

those of

Hudson

IV, 180, 1860.

— — Hist. Mag., Wampum-makers. —Gale, Upper Miss.,
r.).

are

also

separately

treated.

The

smaller

Wab-na-ki.

grinding stones were held in the hand,

and

1st

s.,

166, 1867 (said to be the

—Vetromile, Abnakis, 1866 (proper form). Wanbanaghi. — 27 (proper form, the an being strongly Wanbanaki. — Vetromile, Abnakis, 27-42, 1866 (proper form; an strongly Wanbanakkie. — Kidder Maine Hist. Soc. 231, 1859 (given as a correct form). Wanbna-ghi. — Vetromile Maine Hist. Soc. 214, 1859. Wapanachk. — Heckewelder quoted by VetroAbnakis, 1866 (given by Heckewelder Delawares). Wapanachki. — Barton, New Views,
banaghi.
19,

in 1666; evidently a corruption of

French name for the Delawares Wapanachki). Wanfirst

were usually unshaped fragments, the arrowshaft rubber and the slender nephrite whetstone of the Eskimo being exceptions.

The

larger ones were slabs, boulders, or fragments-,

Ibid.,

nasal).

in first syllable in

nasal).

Coll., VI,

in

Coll., vi,

mile,

23,

for

xxvii,

(name given to Delawares by western tribes). Wapanaki.— Vetromile, Abnakis, 27-42 1866 (Delaware
1798

Wapa'na'kP. Wm. Jones, inf'n, 1905 (sing, anim. form of the name in Sauk, Fox, and Kickapoo; Wdpana'kihagi, pi. anim. form). Wapanakihak. Gatschet, Sac and Fox MS., B. A. E., 1882 (Fox name for Delawares; singular, WHpandki). Wapanaxki haakon. Gatschet, Tonkawe and Caddo MS. vocab., B. A. E., 1884 (Tonkawa name for Delaware man). Wapanends. Rafinesque, Am. Nations, i, 147, 1836. WapSnih'kyu. Dorsey, MS. Osage vocab., B. A E 1883 (Osage name for Delawares). Wapenacki. Ruttenber, Tribes Hudson R., 51, 1872 (applied to all the
form).

which rested on the ground or were held in the In many localities exposed lap while in use. surfaces of rock in place were utilized, and these as well as the movable varieties are often covered with the grooves produced by the grinding work. These markings range fronj narrow, shallow lines, produced by shaping pointed objects, to broad channels made im shaping large implements and utensils. Reference to the various forms of abrading implements is made in numerous works and articies
treating of the technology of the native tribes..
(W. H. H.)

— —

eastern tribes).
for

Wappenackle.
all

Ibid.,

355 (used either

Delawares or for Wappingers).
(applied to

Wappenos.

Ibid.,

51

eastern tribes).

Wa-pO-nah-ki'.

Grayson, MS. Creek vocab,, B. A. E., 1885 (Creek name applied to the Delawares). Wau-ba-na-kees. Wis. Hist. Soc. Coll., v, 182, 1868 (Stockbridges and Oneidas

Abraham. A. power who succeeded the so-called King Hendricfc after the battle of L. George in 1755, in which the latter was killed. He espoused the English cause in the American Revolution, but was of a pacific character. He was present at the
also called Little

Abraham,

Mohawk

chief of considerable oratorical

— —Warren Minn. Hist. Soc. (1852) 1885 (Chippewa name for Delawares). Waw-,bunukkeeg. — Tanner, Narrative, 315, 1830, (Ottawa name Stockbridge Indians Wisconsin). W'Banankee. — Kidder
at

Green
in

bay.

Wis.).

Waub-un-uk-eeg.
Coll., v, 32,

meeting of the Mohawk with the Americait commissioners at Albany in Sept., 1775, after which he drops from notice. He was succeeded by Brant, (c. t.)
last

for

in

Achigan

(u'shigun,

in

Maine

Hist. Soc. Coll., vi, 244, 1859

(name used by them-

Wm.

Jones).

A

sing. anim. noun. French-Canadian name of the

selves, as nearly as

can be represented in English, accent-

ing last syllable).
281,

1730

(after

Whlppanaps. Humphrey, Acct., John.son). Wippanaps. Johnson

small-mouthed black bass {Micropterus dolomieu), occasionally found in English writings.

(1654) in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 2d s., ii, 66, 1814 (mentioned as part of the "Abarginny men" and distinct from

The word
in 1688.

the "Tarratines").

Y., n, 164, 1829 (used as

Wo-a-pa-nach-ki. Macauley, N. synonymous with Lenni Lenape

is old in French, Hennepin using it Ashigan is the name of this fish in Chippewa and closely related Algonquian

dialects,

(a. f.

c

)

DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES
2 GEORGE
Achiligouan. A tribe or band living between 1640 and 1670 on the N. shore of L. Huron, about the mouth of French r. and westward nearly to Sault Ste. Marie. In 1670 they were attached to the mission at the Sault. In the Jesuit Relation of 1640 their position is given on the N. shore of L. Huron, at the mouth The Amikwa are mentioned in of French r. the same connection as residing on this stream. In the Relation of 1658 they appear to be placed farther N. on the river, and it is stated that they traded with the Cree. In the Relation of 1670 they are said to have been attached to the mission of Sault Ste. Marie, but only as going there to fish. It is probable that they were a Chippewa or a Nipissing band. (j. m.
c. T.)

v., A.

1912

long held at his village that he might return to inform his people of the act of the French com-

mander. An expedition of 1,200 Iroquois fell upon Montreal Aug. 2.5, 1689, when the French
felt

secure in the anticipation of peace, slew

hundreds of the settlers and burned and sacked the place. Other posts were abandoned by the French, and only the excellent fortifications of others saved them from being driven out of the country. Adario led a delegation of Huron chiefs who went to Montreal to conclude a peace, and, while there, he died, Aug. 1, 1701, and was buried by the French with mihtary honours. (f. h.)

Achlligouans.— Heriot,
gouiane.
—Ibid.,
1858.

Travels,

194,

1807.

AchiU1643,
61,

—Jesuit
1646,

Rel., 1670, 79, 1858.

Achirigouans.

Adirondack (Mohawk: Hatirofi'taks, 'they name given in allusion to the eating of the bark of trees in time of famine.— Hewitt). The Algonquian tribes N. of the St. Laweat trees', a

Archirlgouan.— Ibid., Atchiligouan.— Ibid., 1640, 34, 1858.
81.

rence with which the Iroquois were acquainted,
particularly those along
rice rs.,

Ottawa and

St.

MauThree
1761,

Acous.
clesaht,
inlet,

The

principal village of the Chaic-

who were afterward

settled at

situate

W.

coast of

on Battle bay, Ououkinish Vancouver id. Can. Ind.

Rivers and Oka, Quebec.
M.)

Jefferys in

seems to apply the term to the Chippewa.
(j.

Aff., 264, 1902.

Adario. A Tionontate chief, known also as Kondiaronk, Sastaretsi, and The Rat, He had a high reputation for bravery and sagacity, and was courted by the French, who made a treaty with him in 1688 by which he agreed to lead an expedition against the Iroquois, his Starting out for the war hereditary enemies. with a picked band, he was sm-prised to hear, on reaching Cataracouy,* that the French were negotiating peace with the Iroquois, who were about to send envoys to Montreal with hostages from each tribe. Concealing his surprise and chagrin, he secretly determined to intercept the embassy. Departing as though to return to his own country in compliance with the admonition of the French commandant, he
placed his
of the

Adirondacs. Barton, New Views, xxxviii, 1798. Adirondacks. Garangula (1684) quote by Williams, Vermont, I, 504, 1809. Adirondaks. Homann heirs map, Adirondax.— Livingston (1701) in N. Y. Doc. 1756. Col. Hist., IV, 899, 1854. Adirontak.— Vetromile, AbAdisonkas. Martin, North Carolina, nakis, 51, 1866. Adnondecks. McKenney and Hall, Ind. I, 76, 1829. Tribes, iii, 79, 1854. Arundacs. Johnson (1763) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., vii, 582, 1856. Arundax.- Ft. Johnson conference (1756) ,ibid., 233. Honanduk. Coxe, Carolana, map, 1741 (on e. shore of-L. Huron same?). Iroondocks. Carver, Travels, 120, 1778.

— —

Latilentasks. King, Jour, to Arctic Ocean, i, 11, 1836 (at Oka). Orendakes. Martin, North Carohna, ii, 65, 1829. Orondacks.— Johnson (1751) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., VI, 729, 1S55. Orondocks.— Stoddart (1750), Orondoes. Imlay, Western Ter., ibid., 582 (at Oka). Oroondoks.— Stoddart (1753) in N. Y. Doc. 292, 1797. Oroonducks. Lindesay Col. Hist., VI, 780, 1855. ibid., 538. Orundacks.— Dinwiddle (1754), (1749),

— —

ibid., 827.
3,

Rarondaks.

men

in

ambush and made

prisoners

309, 1816.

— —Vater, Mithridates, Ratiruntaks. — Gatschet, Caughnawaga
pt. 3, sec.

members

of the Iroquois mission, telling

the chief of the embassy that the French had

commissioned him to surprise and destroy the Keeping only one prisoner to answer for the death of a Huron who was killed in the fight, he set the others free, saying that he hoped they would repay the French for their treachery. Taking his captive to Michilimackinac, he delivered him over to the French
party.

MS., B. A. E., 1882 (Mohawk name; sing. Rariintaks). Rondax.—Glen (1699) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., iv, 559, Rondaxe.—Von der Donck (1656) in N. Y. Hist. 1854.
Soc. Coll., 2d
s., I,

209, 1841.

Adlet.

A

fabulous people that the Eskimo

believe to be descended from a dog.

A woman
which
the

married a red dog and bore
of

five dogs,

she cast adrift in a boat, and also five children

monstrous shape.

The dogs reached

commander, who put him to death, having no knowledge of the arrangement of peace. He then released a captive Iroquois whom he had
*Fort Cataraqui

other side of the ocean and begot the white
people.
terrible

beings,

The monsters engendered the Adlet, identified by the Labrador
Indians, of

— modern Kingston, Ont.

Eskimo with the
merly lived

whom

they forof the

in dread, also

by the Eskimo

HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA
SESSIONAL PAPER
No. 21a

western shores of Hudson bay, who, however, called this misbegotten and bloodthirsty race Erqigdht. The Eskimo of Greenland and
Baffin island, having

name which
that
his
is

the person receives declares his

relation to all other persons in the family group
to say, should the adopted person be

no Indian neighbours,

named son
status

rather than uncle
in

pictured the tribe of monsters with human heads, arms, and trunks joined to the hind
legs of dogs.

the

by the adopter, community would differ
the political adoption of

accordingly.

From

See Boas

(1) in

Trans. Roy. Soc.

the Tuscarora
1726,
it is

by the Five Nations, about
be adopted
like

Can.,

v., sec. 2, 35,

1888; (2) in 6th Rep. B. A.

evident that tribes, families, clans,
of people could
fictitious

E., 640, 1888.

and groups
persons.

Adia. Boas in Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., op. cit. (sing, form of Adlat). Adl^hsuln. Stein in Petermann's Adlat.—Boas, op. cit. Adiet. Mitt., no. 9. map, 1902. Boasin 6th Rep. B. A. E., 640, 1888. ErqlgHt.—

Ibid.

age might be conferred upon the person adopted, since age largely governed the rights, duties, and position of persons in the community. In this wise, by the action of the constituted authorities, the
age of an adopted group was fixed and its social and political importance thereby determined. Owing to the peculiar circumstances of the
expulsion of the Tuscarora from North Carolina it was deemed best by the Five Nations,

A

Adoption. An almost universal political and social institution which originally dealt only with persons but later with families, clans It had its beginor gentes, bands, and tribes. nings far back in the history of primitive
society and, after passing through

many forms

and day
tion.

losing

much

ceremonial garb, appears to-

in the civilized institution of naturaliza-

In the primitive mind the fundamental motive underlying adoption was to defeat the evil purpose of death to remove a member of the kinship group by actually replacing in person the lost or dead member. In primitive philosophy, birth and death are the results of birth increases and death magic power;
decreases the orenda
(q.

view of their relation to the Colonies at that to give an asylum to the Tuscarora simply by means of the institution of adoption rather than by the political recognition of the Tuscarora as a member of the League. Therefore the Oneida made a motion in the federal council of the Five Nations that they adopt the Tuscarora as a nursling still swathed to the cradleboard. This having prevailed, the Five
in

time,

Nations,

v.)

of the clan or

"We

have

by the spokesman of the Oneida, said set up for ourselves a cradle-board
is,

family of the group affected.

In order to

in the extended house," that

in the

domi-

preserve that magic power intact, society,

by
is

nions of the League.

After due probation the

the exercise of constructive orenda, resuscitates

the dead in the person of another in

whom

Tuscarora, by separate resolutions of the council, on separate motions of the Oneida, were

embodied the blood and person of the dead. As the diminution of the number of the kindred was regarded as having been caused by magic power by the orenda of some hostile agency

made successively a boy, a young man, a man, an assistant to the official woman cooks, a warrior, and lastly a peer, having the right of chiefship in the council on an equal footing
with the chiefs of the other
it is

so the prevention or reparation of that loss

tribes.

From

this

must be accomplished by a
fested in
ritualistic

like

power, mani-

liturgy

and ceremonial.

seen that a tribe or other group of people may be adopted upon any one of several planes
of political growth, corresponding to the vari-

From

the view-point of the primitive mind adoption serves to change, by a fiction of law, the personality as well as the poUtical status

adopted person. For example, there were captured two white pei'sons (sisters) by the Seneca, and instead of both being adopted into one clan, one was adopted by the Deer and the other by the Heron clan, and thus the blood of the two sisters was changed by the rite of adoption in such wise that their children could intermarry. Furthermore, to satisfy the underlying concept of the rite, the adopted person must be brought into one of the strains
of the of kinship in order to define the standing of

ous ages of human growth. This seems to explain the problem of the alleged subjugation and degradation of the Delawares by the Iro-

which is said to have been enacted in open council. When it is understood that the Five Nations adopted the Delaware tribe as
quois,

men

assistants
it

to

the

official

cooks of the

becomes clear that no taint of slavery and degradation was designed to be
League
given by the act. It merely made the Delawares probationary heirs to citizenph'p in the League, and citizenship would be conferred

upon them

after suitable

tutelage.

In thi?

such person in the community, and the kinship

they were treated with

much

greater considcra-

DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES
2
^ion than were the Tuscarora, who are of the language and lineage of the Five Nations. The Delawares were not adopted as warriors or chiefs, but as assistant cooks; neither were they adopted, like the Tuscarora, as infants, but as men whose duty it was to assist the

GEORGE

v., A.

1912

according to some writers, were personal embellishments. Fats were used to beautify the hair and to ceremonially anoint the face and body. Sweet grass and seeds, as those of the columbine, served as perfume.

women whose
was hence
of
fact,

official

function was to cook for

Ear ornaments were a mark of family thrift, wealth, or distinction, and indicated honour

the people at public assembUes. Their office well exemplified by the possession

shown
monies,

to the wearer

by

his kindred.
in

Cere-

occasionally

religious

character,

a corn pestle, a hoe, and petticoats. This misunderstood, perhaps intentionally misrepresented, seems to explain the mystery
wares.

some

of

which seem to relate to

sacrificial rites,

usually attended the boring of the ear.

Each

perforation cost the parent the child or the

women" of the DelaThis kind of adoption was virtually a state of probation, which could be made long
concerning the "making

or short.
of a chief's son by a fellow customary in some of the tribes of the N. W. coast, differs in motive and effect from that defined above, which concerns persons

The adoption

chief,

kindred of the adult gifts of a standard value, and sometimes these perforations extended round the entire rim of the ear. The pendants were of haliotis or other valued shell, or were made of metal or bone, or were long woven bands of dentaUum which reached nearly to the waist. Labrets were used by the Eskimo, the n.
Pacific coast tribes,

alien to the tribe,

ship in the clan, gens
of conferring

upon whom it confers citizenand tribe, as this deals

and some

of the Gulf coast

Indians.

Among some

the labret was worn

only with intratribal persons for the purpose

only by men, in some by women, and where

some degree of honour upon them rather than citizenship and political authority.

The

Iroquois, in order to recruit the great

losses incurred in their

many

wars, put into

systematic practice the adoption not only of
individuals but also of entire clans and tribes.

The

Tutelo, the Saponi, the Nanticoke, and

other tribes and portions of tribes were forced to incorporate with the several tribes of the Iroquois confederation by formal adoption.

worn by both sexes it was of two different styles. At puberty an incision was made in the lip or at the corner of the mouth, and a slender pin was inserted, which was replaced by larger ones until the opening could admit a stud of the size desired. The Eskimo, when travelling, removed his labret to prevent freezing of the lip, but inserted it when entering a Among some of the northern and village. southern tribes the septum of the nose was pierced, and feathers, bark, or rings were
inserted.

(j.

N. B. H.)

Elaborate ornamentation of garments was

Adornment. The motive of personal adornment, aside from the desire to appear attractive, seems to have been to mark individual, tribal, or ceremonial distinction. The use of paint on the face, hair, and body, both in colour

reserved

for

the

gala

dress.

The Eskimo
and

combined

bits of fur of different colours

quality in a pleasing pattern for trimming their

garments, and fishskin dyed in brilliant colours and the plumage of birds were also used for the

and

design, generally

had reference
it

to individ-

same purpose.

Outer garments were made of

ual or clan beliefs, or
courtesy.

indicated relationship

was an act of was always employed in ceremonies, rehgious and secular, and was an accompaniment of gala dress donned to honour a
or personal bereavement, or
It

the breasts of sea birds skilfully joined toAmong the inland tribes the earUer gether.
designs for porcupine and feather quiUwork

The face of the dead was frequently painted in accordance
guest or to celebrate an occasion.

were reproduced later in beads of European manufacture. Feathers were widely used to decorate the robes and garments of warriors

with tribal or religious symbolism. The practice of painting was widespread and was observed by both sexes. Paint was also put

and other distinguished persons, and were woven into mantles by the cliff-dwellers and by
tribes formerly living near the Gulf of

Mexico.

Among the

Plains Indians the milk teeth of the

and children as a protecwind and sun. Plucking the hair from the face and body was generally practised Deformation, as head flattening, and tattooing,
of adults

on the faces

tion against

most costly of adornments. They were fastened in rows on a woman's tunic, giving the garment a value of several hundred
elk were the
dollars.

HANDBOOK OF n'DIAVS OF CAT^ADA
SESSIONAL PAPER
No. 21a
for victory.

Headbands, armlets, bracelets, belts, neckand garters, of metal, seeds, embroidered buckskin, peculiar pelts, or woven fibre, had their practical use, but were made decorative, and often were symbolic. Archeological testimony shows that sea-shell beads, worn as necklaces or woven into belts, were widely used, and they probably found their way into the interior through barter or as ceremonial or
laces,

The

shirt

was occasionally decohair, locks

rated with a fringe of
generally contributed

human

being

by female relatives; it rarely displayed war trophies. The most imposing article of the warrior's regalia was the bonnet with its crown of golden-eagle feathers.
Before the introduction of the horse the flap at the back rarely extended below the waist, but

when the

warriors got to be

friendly gifts.

Wampum

belts figured largely

spine," with its ruff of feathers,

mounted "the was so length-

between the early and the eastern tribes. Discs cut from the conch shell were worn as ornaments and were also offered in certain religious rites; they ranked among the northern tribes as did
in the official transactions

ened as to equal or exceed the height of the

settlers

the turquoise among the people of the S. W. With the Plains Indians a necklace of bear's claws marked the man of distinction. The
head-dress
varied
in

man. Song and ceremony accompanied the making of a war bonnet by warriors of the tribe, and a war honour was recounted upon each feather before it was placed in position. A bonnet could not be made without the consent of warriors, and it stood as a record of tribal
valour as well as a distinction granted to a

man

diiTerent

parts of

the

country and was generally significant of a man's kinship, ceremonial office, rank, or totemic dependence, as was also the ornamentation

by his The
on the

fellow tribesmen.

gala and ceremonial dress of the Pueblo

tribes of the S.
plains,

W., of those formerly dwelling
of those of the Pacific coast,

and

upon

his

weapons and

his shield.

was

replete with ornamentation which, either

In the S.

W.

blankets bordered with a design

in design or material, suggested rites or past

were used on ceremonial occasions, and with the broad belts, white robes, and fringed sashes worn at marriage are interesting specimens of weaving and colour treatment. The brilliant Navaho blankets with their cosmic symbols are well known. The most remarkable example of the native weaver's skill is the ceremonial blanket and apron of the Chilkat tribe of Alaska; it is made of the wool
in colours
of the mountain goat, dyed black, yellow, and green with native dyes over a warp of cedar-

woven

experiences and thus kept alive beliefs and

memories among the people. Such were the woman's dress of the Yurok of California; the fringe of the skirt was wrapped with the same vegetal materials as she used in her basketry, and her apron was an elaborate network of the same on which depended strands of shells with pendants cut from the abalone. In the same connection may be mentioned the manner of dressing the hair of a Hopi maiden; the whorl on each side of her head symbolizes
historic

bark strings. A design of elaborate totemic forms covered the entire space within the border lines, and the ends and lower edge were heavily fringed. According to Boas these garments probably originated among the Tsimshian. In the buffalo country women seldom ornamented their own robes, but embroidered those worn by men. Sometimes a man painted his robe in accordance with a dream, or pictured upon it a yearly record of his own deeds or of the prominent events of the Women wore the buffalo robe differtribe. ently from the men, who gathered it about the person in a way that emphasized their
action or the expression of emotion.

the

flower

of

the

squash,

a

sacred

em-

blem

of the tribe.

The

horses of

warriors

were often painted to indicate the dreams or the war experiences of their riders. Accoutrements were sometimes elaborately ornament"
ed.

Consult Abbott, Prim. Indus., 1881; Beau(1) in Bull. N. Y. State Mus., no. 41, 1901, (2) ibid., no. 73, 1903; Boas (1) in Rep. Nat. Mus. 1895, 1897, (2) in Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Anthr. i, pt. 1, 1898; Dall in 3d Rep. B. A. E., 1884; Fewkes in 19th Rep. B. A. E., 1900; Fletcher in Pubs. Peabody Mus.;

champ

Matthews
in 19th
hist.

(1) in

Mem. Am. Mus.

Nat. Hist.,

VI, 1903, (2) in

3d Rep. B. A.

E., 1884;

Mooney

was common for a tribe to have its peculiar cut and decoration of the moccasin, so that a man's tribe was proclaimed by his foot gear. The war shirt was frequently painted to repreIt

Rep. B. A. E., 1900; Moorehead, PreImpls., 1900; Nelson in 18th Rep. B. A.

E., 1899;

Putnam

in

Peabody Mus. Rep.,

iii,

no. 2, 1882;

Voth. in
(a. c. f.)

Am

Anthrop.,

ii,

1900;

sent the wearer's prayer, having the design on the back for protection and one on the breast

Wissler in Bull.
pt. 3, 1904.

Am. Mus. Nat.

Hist., xviii,

10

DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES
2

GEORGE

v., A.

1912
e

Adzes. plements
times,

Cutting, scraping, or gouging imin

prehistoric

and

early

historic

made

usually of stone, but not infre-

quently of
steel are

shell,

bone, or copper.

Iron and
the present

day.

of a celt, although often somewhat curved by chipping or by grinding at the proper angle to make it

much used by the tribes at The blade resembles that

and warfare as they have been since th establishment of European colonies, can be readily understood, but why writers who have had access to the older records should thus speak of them is not easily explained, when
life

these

records,

speaking

of

the

temperate

regions, almost without exception notice the

fact that the Indians were generally found,

most

effectual.

Some

are grooved for hafting,

from the border
vating the
the
soil.

of the western plains to the

after the

manner

of the

grooved axe, but the

Atlantic, dwelling in settled villages

and

culti-

groove does not extend over the flat face against which the handle is fastened. The hafting takes various forms according to the shape and
size of the blade.

De

Soto found

all

the tribes

that he visited, from the Florida peninsula to

The adze
it

is

primarily a wood-

working

tool,

but

serves also for scraping, as
in other arts, and,
for digging.

in the dressing of skins

no doubt

also

and on occasion,

The

edge of the primitive adze was probably not sharp enough to make it effectual in working

wood save
charring.

in connection with the process of

The

distribution of this implement
of

was very general over the area north
but
it

Mexico

probably reached
specialization
of

its

highest develop-

ment and

working tribes

the

n. Pacific coast.

among the woodThe

scraper and the gouge have

many

uses in

com-

mon

with the adze. For various examples of the adze, ancient
in Bull. in 13th

and modern, consult Beauchamp
State Mus., no. 18, 1897;

Fowke

N. Y. Rep.

western part of Arkansas, cultivating maize and various other food plants. The early voyagers found the same thing true along the Atlantic from Florida to Massachusetts. Capt. John Smith and his Jamestown colony, indeed all the early colonies, depended at first very largely for subsistence on the products of Indian cultivation. Jacques Cartier, the first European who ascended the St. Lawrence, found the Indians of Hochelaga (Montreal id.) cultivating the soil. "They have," he remarks, "good and large fields of corn." Champlain and other early French explorers testify to the large reliance of the Iroquois on the cultivation La Salle and his of the soil for subsistence. companions observed the Indians of Illinois, and thence southward along the Mississippi, cultivating and to a large extent subsisting on
maize.
says,

Moorehead, Prehist. Impls., Rep. B. A. E., 1892; Nelson in 19th Rep. B. A. E., 1899; Niblack in Rep. Nat. Mus. 1888, 1890; Rau in SmithB. A. E., 1896;
1900;

Murdoch

in 9th

Sagard, an eyewitness of what he reports, in speaking of the agriculture of the
in 1623-26,

Hurons
the

that they dug a round place
less,

son. Cont., XXII, 1876.

(w. h. h.
of

g. f.)

at every 2 feet or

where they planted in

Agomiut

month
of

of

May

in each hole nine or ten

('people

the weather side').
of

A

grains

corn

tribe of

Eskimo inhabiting a region

N.

selected, culled,

which they had previously and soaked for several days in

Baffin island bordering on Lancaster sd., con-

two subtribes the Tununirusirmiut in the W., about Admiralty inlet, and the Tununirmiut in the E., about Eclipse sd. They hunt the narwhal and the white whale in Eclipse sd., and in search of seals sometimes cross the ice on sledges to Devon island, there coming in contact with the natives of Ellesmere island.
sisting of

water.

And

every year they thus planted

their corn in the

same places or

spots,

which

they renovated with their small wooden shovels. He indicates the height of the corn by the statement that he lost his way quicker in
these fields than in the prairies or forests (Hist,

du Canada,
Indian

i,

265-266, 1636, repr. 1866).

Agriculture.
in the

An

opinion

long

prevailed

minds of the people that the Indians N. of Mexico were, previous to and at the time Europeans began to settle that part of the continent, vktually nomads, having no fixed abodes, and hence practising agriculture to a
very limited extent. Why this opinion has been entertained by the masses, who have learned it from tales and traditions of Indian

American cereal, from the southern extremity of Chile to the 50th parallel of N. latitude'.' (Brinton, Myths of the New World, "All the nations who inhabit from 22, 1868). the sea as far as the Illinois, and even farther, carefully cultivate the maize corn, which they
corn,

the

great

"was found

in cultivation

make

their principal subsistence"
II,

Hist. La.,

239, 1763).

(Du "The whole

Pratz,
of the

tribes situated, in the

Mississippi vallej',

in

Ohio and the lakes reaching on both

sides of

HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA
SESSIONAL PAPER
No. 21a
those with a red seed.
of the best; in the winter

11

the Alleghanies, quite to Massachusetts and other parts of New England, cultivated Indian
corn.
It

Their squashes are not they dry them in the sun to eat

was the staple product"
i,

(Schoolcraft,

and spring" (Voy. and Discov.,
:f:

Ind. Tribes,

80, 1851).

The

great length of the period previous to

in French, Hist. Coll. La., iv, 33, 1852). * * ^
:t:
:(s

*

the discovery during which maize had been in

(C. T.)

proved by its differentiation into which there were four in Virginia; by the fact that charred corn and impressions of corn on burnt clay have been found in the mounds and in the ruins of prehistoric pueblos in the S. W.; by the Delaware tradition; and
cultivation
is

Ahadzooas.
Qiaht, on Diana

The
id.,

principal village of the

varieties, of

W.

coast of. Vancouver

id.

Can. Ind. AH., 263, 1902.

Ahahpitape {aah'-pun
ple'
:

'blood,'

luppe 'peo-

'bloody band').

A division of the Piegan

by the fact that the builders of the oldest mounds must have been tillers of the soil.

tribe of the Siksika.
Ah-ah'-pi-ta-pe. Morgan, Anc. Soc, 171, 1877. Ah'-pai-tup-iks. Grinnell, Blackfoot Lodge Tales, A'-pe-tup-l.— Hayden, Ethnog. and Philol. 209, 1892. Mo. Val., 264, 1862. Bloody Piedgans.— Culbertson in Smithson. Rep. 1850, 144, 1851.

Some

idea of the extent of the cultivation of

— —

maize by some of the tribes may be gained from the following estimates: The amount of
corn (probably in the ear) of the Iroquois destroyed by Denonville in 1687 was estimated at 1,000,000 bushels (Charlevoix, Hist. Nouv.

Ahahswinnis.

The

principal village of the
r.,

Opitchesaht, on the E. bank of Somass

Van-

Doc. Hist. N. Y., i, 238, 1849). According to Tonti, who accompanied the expedition, they were engaged seven days in cutting up the corn of 4 villages. Gen. SuUivan, in his expedition into the Iroquois country, destroyed 160,000 bushels of corn and cut down the Indian orchards; in one orchard alone 1,500 apple trees were destroyed (Hist. N. Y. Dm'ing the Revolutionary War, ii, 334, Gen. Wayne, writing from Grand 1879). Glaize in 1794, says: "The margins of these
Fr.,
II,

couver id.— Can. Ind.

Aff., 263, 1902.

355, 1744;

also

Ahahweh

{d'hawe, 'a

swan.'— Wm. Jones).

A

phratry of the Chippewa. According to Morgan it is the Duck gens of the tribe.
in U.S. Ind. Aff. Rep., 83, 1850'

A-auh-wauh.— Ramsey

Ah-ah-wai.—Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, i, 304, 1853. Ah-ah-wauk. Warren in Minn. Hist. Soc. Coll., v, 44, 1885. Ah-ah'-weh.— Morgan, Anc. Soc, 166, 1877. Ah-auh-wauh.— Ramsey in U.S. Ind. Aff. Rep., 91, 1850. Ah-auh-wauh-ug. Warren in Minn. Hist. Soc. Coll.,

V, 87,

1885 (plural).
ii,

Ahawhwauk.— Sclioolcraft,
'caribou'

Ind.

Tribes,

142, 1852.

beautiful rivers

the

Au

Glaize

— the Miami of the Lake and — appear like one continuous

Ahdik
deer.'

(udl'k,

— W.

Jones).

A

gens of the Chippewa, often translated
Addick.

'rein-

viUage for a number of miles, both above and below this place; nor have I ever before beheld such immense fields of corn in any part of America from Canada to Florida" (Manypenny, Ind. Wards, 84, 1880).
If we are indebted to the Indians for maize, without which the peopling of America would probably have been delayed for a century; it is also from them that the whites learned the methods of planting, storing, and using it. The ordinary corncribs, set on posts, are copies

—Warren in Minn. Hist. Soc.
Narrative,
314,

Coll., v, 44, 1885.

Ad-dik.—Tanner,

1830.

Morgan, Anc. Soc, 166, 1877. Tomazin, Indian informant.

Atik'.

—Gatschet

Ad-dik'.—
fide

Ahkaiksumiks.
Kainah.
Ah-kalk'-sum-iks.
209, 1892.

A

subtribe

gens of the
Lodge Tales,

—Grinnell,

Blaclcfoot

Ahkaipokaks
'child':

(ah-kai-im'

'many',

po-ka'

'many ^children.'— Grinnell).
Kainah.
Blackfoot

A

sub-

of those in use

among
in

the Indians, which

Law-

tribe or gens of the

son described
1860).

1701 (Hist. Car., 35, repr.

Ah-kai'-po-kaks.
209, 1892.

—Grinnell,

Lodge Tales,

Beans, squashes, pumpkins, sweet potatoes,
tobacco, gourds, and the sunflower were also

Ahkaiyikokakiniks ('white band or gens of the Piegan.

breasts').

A

cultivated to

some

extent, especially in

what

are

According to Beverly (Hist. Va., 125-128, 1722), the Indians had two varieties of sweet potatoes. Marquette, speaking of the lUinois Indians, says that in addition to maize, "they also sow beans and melons, which are excellent, especially

now

the southern states.

Ah-kai-yl-ko-ka'-kln-iks. Grinnell, Blackfoot Lodge Tales, 209, 1892. Kai'-it-ko-ki'-ki-naks.- Hayden, Ethnog. and Philol. Mo. Val., 264, 1862.

Ahkotashiks ('many beasts
subtribe or gens of the Kainah.
Ahk-o'-tash-iks.
209, 1892.

[horses]').

A

— Grinnell,

Blackfoot

Lodge

Tales,

12

DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES
2

GEORGE

v., A.

1912

Ahkwonistsists ('many lodge poles')sub tribe or gens of the Kainah.
Ah-kwo'-nis-tsists.
209, 1892.

A

meat and blubber, which before winter they
bring
to one of their central settlements. Their chief villages are Akudlit, Avilik, Iglulik, Maluksilak, Nuvung, Pikuliak, Ugluriak, Uku-

— Grinnell,
.

Blackfoot Lodge Tales,

Ahmik
Ah-meek.

('beaver')

A gens of the Chippewa.
Amik.

siksaUk;

summer villages

are Inugsuhk, Kariak
in 6th

—Morgan,
Minn.

—Tanner,
A

Narrative, 314, 1830.
1885.

Anc. Soc, 166, 1877.

Ah-mik'. Warren in

Naujan, Pitiktaujang.
A. E., 445, 1888.
AhaknanSlet.
Ill,

—Boas

Rep. B.

Hist. Soc. Coll., v, 45,

Umi'k.—Jones,

inf n, 1905 (correct form).

Ahousaht.
quot
(j.

sd.,

w. coast of Vancouver

in 1911.
R. s.)

about Clayopop. 212 Their principal village is Mahktosis.
tribe
id.;

Nootka

Petitot in Bib. Ling, at Ethnol. Am., 1876 (so called by the Chiglit of Liverpool bay: 'women'). A-hak-nan-helet. Richardson, Arct. Exped., I, 362, 1851. Ahaknanhelik. Richardson, Polar Regions, 300, 1861. Ahwhacknanhelett. Franklin, Journey to Polar Sea, ii, 42, 1824. AivilUrxi,

sig.

Ahhousaht.— Can.
Swan
Col.,
in

Ind.

Aff., 188, 1883.

Ahosett.—

miut. miut.
1885.
1883.

—Boas —Boas

Sproat, Sav. Life, 308, 1868.
1857.
1891.
sett.

Ahousaht.^ Ahous6t.— Mayne, Brit. Ahowartz.—Armstrong, Oreg., 136, 251, 1862. Ahowsaht.— Powell in 7th Rep. B. A. E., 130,
Smithson. Cont., xvi, 56, 1870.

Rep. B. A. E., 445, 1888. EivillinAnthrop. Soc. Wash., in, 102, Elwillik.— Boas in Zeitsohr. Ges. f. Erdk., 226,
in 6th in Trans.

Aiyansh

('eternal

bloom.'

— Dorsey).
villages.

A
r.,

Ah-owz-arts. Jewitt, Narr., 36, 1849. ArhoSwan, MS., B. A. E., Asonsaht. Dept. Ind.

mission village on the lower course of Nass
tants being

British Columbia, founded in 1871, its inhabi-

Aff., 7, 1872.

drawn from Niska

Pop.

Ahulka

(A-hul-qa).

A

village

of

the

133 in 1901.

Ntlakyapamuk, on Fraser r., British Columbia, just below Siska; pop. 5 in 1897, the last time
the

Aiyansh.— Can. Ind. Aff., 271, 1889. Aiyaush.— Dorsey in Am. Antiq., xix, 281, 1897 (misprint).

name

appears.

Ahulqa.— Hill-Tout in Rep. Ethnol. Surv. Can., 5, 1899. Halaha.—Can. Ind. Aff. for 1885, 196 (probably the
same)

Ainslie Creek.

on Fraser

r.,

band of Ntlakyapamuk above Spuzzum, Brit. Col. Can.

A

A tribe of the Upper Kutenai around Ft. Steele and the mission of St. Eugene on upper Kootenay r., Brit. Col. Aqk'amnik. Boas in 5th Rep. N. W. Tribes Can., 10, Aqk'a'mnik. Chamberlain in 8th Rep. N. W. 1889.
Akamnik.
living

Tribes, Can.,

6,

1892.

Ind. Aff., 79, 1878.

Akanekunik
'all

('Indians

on

a

river').
r.

A
at

Aiodjus
of

{^ai'-odjus,

fat

[meat]').

A

tribe of the

Upper Kutenai on Kootenay

Skittagetan town on the

W.

side of the

mouth

the Tobacco plains, Brit. Col.
Aqk'aneqtinik. Boas in 5th Rep. N. W. Tribes Can., Aqk'anequ'nlk. Chamberlain in 8th Rep. 10, 1889. N. W. Tribes Can., 6, 1892. Tobacco Plains KootaTolmie and Dawson, Comp. Vocabs., 124b, 1884. nle. Tobacco Plains Kootenay. Chamberlain, op. cit.,

Masset inlet, Queen Charlotte isds. It was occupied by the Aokeawai before they moved Swanton, Cont. Haida, 281, 1905. to Alaska.

Aisikstukiks
Siksika.
Al-sik'-stuk-iks.
209, 1892.

('biters').

A

band

of

the

table opp. 41.

Yaket-ahno-klatak-makanay.

—Tol-

—Grinnell,
bay,

Blackfoot

Lodge

Tales,

mie and Dawson, op. cit. Ya'k'et aqkinuqtle'et aqkts'ma'kinik. Chamberlain, op. cit., 6 ('Indians of the Tobacco plains,' from ya'k'et tobacco, aqkinuqtle'et

plain, aqkts'ma'kinik Indians).

Aivilik ('having walrus').
lage

An Eskimo
dist.,

vil-

on

Repulse
winter

Franklin
of

the

principal

settlement

the

Aivilir-

miut.— Boas


A

in 6th Rep. B. A. E., 449, 1888. A'-wee-lik.— McClintock, Voy. of Fox, 163, 1881. Aywee-lik.— Lyons, Priv. Journ., 161, 1825. Eiwili.— Klutschak, Unter d. Eskimo, map, 48, 1881. IwlIIichs. Gilder, Schwatka's Search, 294, 1881. IwllUe.—
Ibid., 304.

Akiskenukinik ('people of the two lakes'). tribe of the Upper Kutenai hving on the Columbia lakes, having their chief settlement They numbered at Windermere, Brit. Col.

A

72 in 1911.
Akisklnookaniks.
Lond.,
304,

—Wilson —

in

Trans.

IwilHk.— Ibid.,

181.

Aivilirmiut ('people of the walrus place'). Central Eskimo tribe on the N. shores of Hudson bay from Chesterfield inlet to Fox channel, among whom Rae sojourned in 18461877-79.

5th Rep. N. W. Tribes Can., 10, 1889. Aqki'sk'Enu'kinik. Chamberlain in 8th Rep. N. W. Tribes Can., 6,
1866.
in

AqkiskanukEnik.

—Boas

Ethnol.

Soc.

1892.

Columbia Lakes.

Ibid., 7.

Aktese.
lage
id.,

A

village of the
sd.,

Kyuquot on

Vil-

Kyuquot

W.

coast of

Vancouver

47, C. F. Hall in 1864-69,

They

kill

deer,

and Schwatka in muskoxen, seal,

id.—Can. Ind.

Aff., 264, 1902.

Akudnirmiut
country')
.

('people of the intervening
e. Baffin island,

walrus, trout, and salmon, caching a part of the

An Eskimo tribe of

HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA
SESSIONAL PAPER
on the shore
of

13

No. 21a

Home bay and

northward.

erroneously interpreted, but Hewitt suggests
that
fish
it is

They migrate between
in winter as well as in

their various stations,

probably from (Micmac) algoomea-

summer, in search of deer, bear, seal, walrus, and salmon, having ceased to capture whales from the floe edge
since the advent of whaling ships;

king, or algoomaking, 'at the place of spearing

pop. 83 in 1883 (Boas in 6th Rep. B. A. E., 440, 1888). Their winter settlements are not permanent.
:

Their villages and camping places are
tung,

Arbak-

Avaudjelling,
Idniteling,

Ekalualuin,

Ijelirtung,

Idiutelling,

Karmakdjuin, Kaud-

jukdjuak, Kivitung, Niakonaujang, Nudlung,
Sirmiling.

Akugdiit. A village of the Aivilirmiut at S. end of the gulf of Boothia, on Committee bay.— Boas in 6th Rep. B. A. E., 445, 1888.
the

Akuli.

An

Iglulirmiut village on the isth-

mus
Ibid.,

of Melville peninsula; pop. 50.
Sec. Voy., 316, 1835.

Ac-cool-le.— Ross,

map

facing p. 262.

Ackoolee.

Ibid., 254.

Acculee.— Ak-

koolee.— Parry,

Sec. Voy., 449, 1824.

Akuliak. An Akuliarmiut winter village on the N. shoreof Hudson str., where there was an American whaling station; pop. 200. AkuHaq.—Boas in 6th Rep. B. A. E., map, 1888.

Akuliarmiut two large bays').

('people of the point

An Eskimo

the N. shore of Hudson strait B. A. E., 421, 1888). They go to Amakdjuak through White Bear sd. to hunt, where they

between on (Boas in 6th Rep.
tribe settled

meet the Nugumiut.
Akkolear.— GOder,
Akudliarmiut.
Ill,

—Boas

Schwatka's

Search,

181,

1881.

in Trans. Anthrop. Soc.

96, 1885.

AkuHak-Eskimos.

— Boas in

Wash., Petermanna

Mitt., 68, 1885.

Algic.

A

craft to the

term applied by H. R. SchoolAlgonquian tribes and languages,

and used occasionally by other writer since his time. Algiqvs is employed by some Canadian French essayists. Schoolcraft himself (Ind. Tribes, v. 536, 1855) includes the term in his list of words of Indian origin. The word seems to be formed arbitrarily from Alg, a part of Algonkin, and the English adjectival termination
ic.

and eels [from the bow of a canoe]'). A term applied originally to the Weskarini, a small Algonquian tribe formerly living on the present Gatineau r., a tributary of Ottawa r., E. of the present city of Ottawa, in Quebec. Later the name was used to include also the Amikwa, Kichesipirini, Kinonche, Kisakon, Maskasinik, Matawachkirini, Missisauga, Michaconbidi Nikikouek, Ononchataronon, Oskemanitigou, Ouasouarini, Outaouakamigouk, Outchougai, Powating, Sagahiganirini, and Sagnitaounigama. French writers sometimes called the Montagnais encountered along the lower St. Lawrence, the Lower Algonquins, because they spoke the same language; and the ethnic stock and family of languages has been named from the Algonkin, who formed a close alliance with the French at the first settlement of Canada and received their help against the Iroquois. The latter, however, afterward procured firearms and soon forced the Algonkin to abandon the St Lawrence region. Some of the bands on Ottawa r. fled W. to Mackinaw and into Michigan, where they consolidated and became known under the modern name of Ottawa. The others fled to the N. and E., beyond reach of the Iroquois, but gradually found their way back and reoccupied the country. Their chief gathering place and mission statim was at Three Rivers, in Quebec Nothing is known of their social organization. The bands now recognized as Algonkin, with" their population in 1900, are as follows. In Ottawa: Golden Lake, 86; North Renfrew, In Que286; Gibson (Iroquois in part), 123. bec: River Desert, 393; Timiskaming, 203; Lake of Two Mountains (Iroquois in part), 447; total, 1,536. As late as 1894 the Dept. of Indian Affairs included as Algonkin also
1,679
"stragglers"
in

Pontiac,

Ottawa

co.,

(a. f. c.)

Champlain, and St Maurice in Quebec, but these are omitted from subsequent reports. In 1884 there wer6 3,874 Algonkin in Quebec
province and in e. Ontario, including the Timiskaming. Following are the Algonkin villages, so far as they are known to have been recorded: Cape Magdalen, Egan, Hartwell, Isle aux Tourtes (Kichesipirini and
'

Algonkian. A geological term used to designate an important series of rocks lying between the Archean and the Paleozoic systems. These rocks are most prominent in
the region of L. Superior, a characteristic territory of the Indians of the Algonquian family,

Nipissing),

Rouge River, Tangouaen (Algon(j.

whence the name.
"Algjinkian period."

Geologists speak of the
(a. f. c.)

kin and Huron),
Abnaki.

m.

c. t.)

— For forma

of this

word

gonkin, see Abnaki.

Akwanake.

— Brebceuf quoted

as applied to the Al-

by

Algonkin

(a

name

hitherto variously

and

Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, iv, 207, 1854.

Alagonklns.

14

DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES
2

GEORGE

v., A.

1912

Croghan Algokln.
1830.

(1765) in

Monthly Am. Jour. Geol., 272, 1831. McKenzie quoted by Tanner, Narr., 332,

settlements or bands of the same tribe as
distinct tribes.

As

in the case of all Indians,

Algomeequin.—Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, i, 306, 1851. Algomequins.— Ibid., v, 38, 1855. Algommequin.—Champlain (1632), CEuv., v, pt. 2, 193. 1870. Algomqulns.—Sagard (1636), Canada, i, 247, 1866.
Algoncains. Hennepin, New Disc, 95, 1698. Algongins.— Tracy (1667) in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., iii, 153, 1853. Algonguin.— Morse, N. Am., 238, 1776. AIgonic Indians.— Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, i, 38, 1851. Algonkins. Hennepin (1683) in Harris, Voy. and Martin in BresTrav., II, 916, 1705. Algonmequin. Algonovins. Alcedo, sani, Rel. Abr^gfe, 319, 1653. Algonquains. Jes. Rel. Die. Geog., V, 120, 1789.

travellers, observing part of a tribe settled at

one place and part at another, have frequently taken them for different peoples, and have dignified single villages, settlements, or bands with the title "tribe" or "nation," named from the
locality or the chief.
It
is

generally impossible

to

discriminate betw-een tribes and villages

1653, 3, 1858.
II,

Algonquens.

—Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes,
i,

— —

358. 1852.

Algoomenquini.
1878.
1817.

— Keane in Stanford, Compend., 500, map, Algoqulns. — Lewis and Clark, Trav.,

Algonquin.—Jes.

Rel. 1632, 14, 1858.

New England and along the Altantic coast, for the Indians there seem to have been grouped into small communities, each taking its name from the principal village of the group or from a neighthroughout the greater part of
bouring

Algoquois.— Audouard, Far West, 207, 1896. Gorges (1658) in Me. Hist. Soo. Coll., Algoumeklns. Gallatin in Trans. Am. II, 67, 1847. Antiq. Soc, ii, 24, 1836. Algoumequinl. De Laet (1633) quoted by Vater, Mithridates, pt. 3, sec. 3, 404, Algoumequins. Champlain (1603), CEuv., ii, 1816. Algumenquini. Kingsley, Standard Nat. 8, 1870. Alinconguins.— Nicolls (1666) Hist., pt. 6, 147, 1883. Alkonkins.— in N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist., iii, 147, 1853.
Algoulnquins.

stream

or

other

natural
to

feature.

Whether these were subordinate
tribal authority or of

some real equal rank and interdeaUied,
it is

pendent, although
in

still

impossible Since true

many

instances to determine.

tribal organization is

found among the better
traced in several
it is

known branches and can be
that
it

instances in the eastern division,

presumed

G. B., iv, Altenkins.— Clinton (1745) in N. Y. Doc. 44, 1875. Attenkins.— Col. Hist., VI, 281, 1855 (misprint).
Inst.

Hutchins (1778) quoted by Alquequin. Lloyd in Jour. Anthrop.

Jefferson, Notes, 141, 1825.

was

general.

A

geographic classifica-

tion of the Algonquian tribes follows:

Western

division,

comprising three groups

Clinton (1745),

ibid., 276.

dwelling along the E. slope of the

Rocky mts

Algonquian Family (adapted from the name of the Algonkin tribe). A hnguistic stock which formerly occupied a more extended
area than any other in North America. Their territory reached from the E. shore of New-

Blackfoot confederacy, composed of the SikArapaho and Cheysika, Kainah, and Piegan
;

enne.

Northern

division, the

most extensive one,

foundland to the Rocky mts. and from ChurchThe E. parts of this terriill r. to Pamlico sd. tory were separated by an area occupied by Iroquoian tribes. On the E., Algonquian tribes skirted the Atlantic coast from Newfoundland to Neuse r.; on the S., they touched

W. of the Algonquian area to the extreme E., chiefly N. of the St. Lawrence and the Great lakes, including several groups which, on account of insufficient knowledge of their linguistic relations, can only
stretching from the extreme N.
partially be outlined:

Chippewa group, em-

on the

territories of the eastern Siouan, south-

Muskhogean families; on the W., they bordered on the Siouan area; on the N.W., on the Kitunahan and Athapascan; in Ungava they came into contact with the Eskimo; in Newfoundland they surrounded on three sides the Beothuk. The Cheyenne and Arapaho moved from the main body and Although there is drifted out into the plains. a general agreement as to the peoples which
ern Iroquoian, and the

Ottawa, Chippewa, and Missisauga; Algonkin group, comprising the Nipissing, Tuniskaming, Abitibi, and Algonkin. Northeastern division, embracing the tribes inhabiting e. Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and E. Maine: the Montagnais group, composed of the Naskapi, Montagnais, Mistassin, Bersiamile, and Papinachois; Abnaki group, comprising the Micmac, Malecite, Passamaquoddy, Arosaguntacook, Sokoki, Penobscot,
bracing the Cree
(?),
)

and Norridgewock.
Central
division,

should be included in this family, information in regard to the numerous dialects is too limited to justify an attempt to give a strict linguistic classification; the data are in fact so meagre, in many instances as to leave it doubtful

including

groups

that

resided in Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michi-

gan, and Ohio:

including

the

Sauk,

Menominee; the Sauk group, Fox, and Kickapoo;
lUinois branch of

Mascouten;
the

Potawatomi;

whether

certain

bodies

were

confederacies,

Miami

group, comprising the Peoria, Kas-

tribes, bands, or clans, especially bodies which have become extinct or can not be identified, since early writers have frequently designated

kaskia, Cahokia,

Tamaroa, and Michigamea; of the Miami, Piankashaw, and Wea.

Miami branch, composed

HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA
SESSIONAL PAPER
No. 21a

15

all the AlgonEastern division, quian tribes that lived along the Atlantic coast

embracing

who had taken
during the

War

part against the United States of 1812 made peace with the

Abnaki and including several conand groups, as the Pennacook, Massachuset, Wampanoag, Narraganset, Nipmuc, Montauk, Mohegan, Mahican, Wappinger, Delawares, Shawnee, Nanticoke, Conoy, Powhatan, and Pamlico. As the early settlements of the French, Dutch, and English were all within the territory of the eastern members of the family, they were the first aborigines N. of the Gulf of Mexico to
S.

of the

federacies

feel

the blighting effect of contact with a

superior race.

As a

rule the relations of the

French with the Algonquian tribes were friendly, the Foxes being the only tribe against whom
they waged war. The English settlements were often engaged in border wars with their Algonquian neighbours, who, continually pressed farther toward the interior by the advancing white immigration, kept up for a time a futile
struggle for the possession of their territory.

Government; then began the series of treaties by which, within thirty years, most of the Indians of this region ceded their lands and removed W. of the Mississippi. A factor which contributed greatly to the decline of the Algonquian ascendency was the power of the Iroquoian confederacy, which by the beginning of the 17th century had developed a power destined to make them the scourge of the other Indian populations from the Atlantic to the Mississippi and from Ottawa r. in Canada to the Tennessee. After destroying the Huron and the Erie, they turned their power chiefly against the Algonquian tribes, and ere long Ohio and Indiana were nearly deserted, only a few villages of Miami remaining here and there in the northern portion. The region S. and W. they made a desert, clearing of native inhabitants the whole country within 500 m. of their seats. The Algonquian
tribes fled before

The eastern tribes, from Maine to Carolina, were defeated and their tribal organization was broken up, Some withdrew to Canada, others crossed the mountains into the Ohio valley, while a few bands were located on reservations by the whites, only to dwindle and ultimately become extinct. Of many of the smaller tribes of New England, Virginia, and other eastern states there are no living representatives.
Even the languages of some are known only by a few words mentioned by early historians, while some tribes are known only by name. 'The Abnaki and others who fled into Canada
Lawrence under the prowhose active allies they became in all the subsequent wars with the English down to the fall of the French power in Canada. Those who crossed the Allegheny mts. into the Ohio valley, together with the Wyandot and the native Algonquian tribes of that region, formed themselves into a loose confederacy, allied first with the French and
settled along the St.

them

to the region of the

tection of the French,

afterward with the English against the advancing settlements with the declared purpose of

preserving the Ohio

r.

as the Indian boundary. to the
in

Wayne's victory in 1794 put an end struggle, and at the treaty of Greenville

1795

the Indians acknowledged their defeat and

made

the

first

cession of land

W.

of the Ohio.

upper lakes and the banks of the Mississippi, and only when the French had guaranteed them protection against their deadly foes did they venture to turn back toward the E. The central Algonquians are tall, averaging about 173 cm.; they have the typical Indian nose, heavy and prominent, somewhat hooked in men, flatter in women; their cheek bones are heavy; the head among the tribes of the Great lakes is very large and almost brachycephalic, but showing considerable variation; the face The type of the Atlantic coast is very large. Algonquians can hardly be determined from living individuals, as no full-bloods survive, but skulls found in old burial grounds show that they were tall, their faces not quite so broad, the heads much more elongate and remarkably high, resembling in this respect the Eskimo and suggesting the possibihty that on the New England coast there may have been some mixture with that type. The Cheyenne and Arapaho are even taller than the central Algonquians; their faces are larger, their heads more elongate. It is worthy of remark that in the region in which the mound builders' remains are found, rounded heads prevailed, and the present population of the region are also more round-headed, perhaps suggesting
fusion of blood (Boas, inf'n, 1905).

Tecumseh and his brother,Ellskwatawa, aroused
the western tribes against the United States a few
years later, but the disastrous defeat at Tippe-

canoe in 1811 and the death of their leader broke the spirit of the Indians. In 1815 those

The religious beliefs of the eastern Algonquian tribes were similar in their leading features. Their myths are numerous. Their
deities, or manitus, including objects

animate

18

DEPARTMENT OP MARINE AND FISHERIES
2

GEORGE

v., A.

1912

and inanimate, were many, but the chief culwhom the creation and control of the world were ascribed, was substantially the same in character, although known by various names, among different tribes. As Manibozho, or Michabo, among the Chippewa and other Uke tribes, he was usually identified as a fabulous great rabbit, bearing some relation to the sun; and this identification with the great rabbit appears to have prevailed among other tribes, being found as far S. as Maryland. Brinton (Hero Myths, 1882) beheves this mythological animal to have been merely a symbol of light, adopted because of the similarity between the Algonquian words Among the Siksika this for rabbit and light. chief beneficent deity was known as Napiw, among the Abnaki as Ketchiniwesk, among the New England tribes as Kiehtan, Woonand, Cautantowit, etc. He it was who created the world by magic power, peopled it with game and the other animals, taught his favorite people the arts of the chase, and gave them corn and beans. But this deity was distinguished more for his magical powers and his ability to overcome opposition by trickery, deception, and falsehood than for benevolent
ture hero, he to
quahties.

Cree,

Arapaho, and Cheyenne are without
chief,

clans or gentes.

in some cases was by the heads of other clans or gentes. The tribe also had its chief, usually selected from a particular clan or gens, though the manner of choosing a chief and the authority vested in him varied somewhat in the different tribes. This was the peace chief, whose authority was not absolute, and who had no part in the declaration of war or in carrying it on, the leader in the campaign being one who had acquired a right to the position by noted deeds and skill. In some tribes the title of chief was hereditary, and the distinction between a peace chief and a war chief was not observed. The chief's power among some tribes, as the Miami, were greater than in others. The government was directed in weighty matters by a council,

governed by a
installed

The gens who

or clan was usually

consisting of the chiefs of the clans or gentes
of the tribe.
It was by their authority that war was undertaken, peace concluded,

tribal

territory sold, etc.

The Algonquian

tribes

were mainly seden-

tary and agricultural, probably the only exceptions being those of the'cold regions of

and the Siksika

of the plains.

Canada The Chippewa
Maize was

The

objects of nature were deities

did not formerly cultivate the
of the region of the

soil.

to them, as the sun, the

moon,

fire, trees,

lakes,

the staple Indian food product, but the tribes

and the various animals. Respect was also paid to the four cardinal points. There was a general belief in a soul, shade, or immortal spiritual nature not only in man but in animals and all other things, and in a spiritual abode to which this soul went after the death of the body, and in which the occupations and enjoyments were supposed to be similar to those of this life. Priests or conjurers, called by the whites medicine-men, played an important part in their social, political, and I'cligious
systems.

Great lakes, particularly
extensive use of wild
tribes

the Menominee,
rice.

made

raised enough maize to supply not only their own wants but

The Powhatan

tho*

of the Virginia colonists for

some years

Jamestown, and the New England colonists were more than once relieved from hunger by corn raised by the In 1792 Wayne's army found a connatives.
after the founding of

tinuous plantation along the entire length of the Maumee from Ft. Wayne to L. Erie. Although depending chiefly on hunting and fishing for subsistence, the New England tribes
cultivated large quantities of maize,

They

were

supposed

to

possess

influence with spirits or other agencies, which

they could bring to their aid in prying into the
future, inflicting or curing disease, etc.

beans,

Among
Carolina,

the tribes from

s.

New England

to

Mohegan, Delawares, the people of the Powhatan confederacy, and the Chippewa, descent was
including especially the

reckoned in the female line; among the Potawatomi, Abnaki, Blackfeet, and probably most of the northern tribes, in the male line. Within recent times descent has been paternal also

pumpkins, and tobacco. It is said they understood the advantage of fertilizing, using fish, shells, and ashes for this purpose. The tools they used in preparing the ground and in cultivation were usually wooden spades or hoes, the latter being made by fastening to a stick, as a handle, a shell, the shoulder blade of an animal, It was from the Algonquian or a tortoise shell.
tribes that the whites first learned to

make

among

the Menominee,

Sauk and Fox,

Illinois,

Kickapoo, and Shawnee, and, although it has been stated that it was anciently maternal, The there is no satisfactory proof of this.

hominy, succotash, samp, maple sugar, johnnycake, etc. Gookin, in 1674, thus describes
the

method

of preparing food

among
is

the Indigenerally

ans of Massachusetts: "Their food

while those in the S. beaver. The frame of the hut is made by driving poles into the ground and strengthening them by cross beams. boil in this frumenty all sorts of flesh they take in hunting. in canoes Fish were taken with hooks. were sometimes built of logs. these husked and dried and powdered. and bark. fastened very tight with bast or twigs of hickory. each according to his own fancy. and pompions. and the especially in the winter. and ladles of wood their water pails of birch bark. Canoes used for fishing were of two kinds . The Delawares and some other eastern tribes. dressed deerskins. They capthe smaller tured without much trouble all kinds of fish. and is covered in the same manner. chestnuts. roundroofed house. thus forming a long. Higginson (New England's Plantation. on the cribed by Zeisberger: "They peel sea and in the ponds and rivers. this meal they make bread. and boil them in the aforesaid pottage. covering the dough with leaves. very overset. that they may become flat and even in drying. etc. times." The men went bareheaded. and groundnuts. as ven'son. This framework is covered. made The Mohegan. They make also a certain sort of meal of parched maize. often dragged sturgeon with nets stoutly ma e of Canada hemp" (De Forest. of sheets of birch-bark. feet The legs were protected. or Indian corn. His Inds. and to some extent the Virginia Indians. 1629) says: "Their hair is usually cut before. they beat their maize into it Also. their dishes. both within and without. eels. bent over at the top. . of often ornamented with coloured figures of animals. spears. and covered with movable matting. and walnuts. fea'her garments. they frequently boil in this pottage fish and flesh of new taken or dried. they thereof that they are in no hazard.. which accommodated a number of families. stalks. made constructed long communal houses placed their provisions. a leather shirt. thicken their pottage therewith. in their canoes. built smaller dwellings. and often wore a skin mantle thrown over one shoulder. The men often embroidered with wampun. with leggings. One would shave it on one side and leave it long on the other. or sometimes without. as shad. I have wondered many times that they were not in danger of being choked with fish bones. soft and pliable. These they cut in pieces." Their pots were With with moccasins of soft dressed leather. somemeal and sift through a basket made for that purpose. but they are so dexterous in separating the bones from the fish in their eating Also. with the above-mentioned pieces of bark. as oak acorns. and squashes. The dress of the women consisted usually of two articles. They also had baskets of various sizes in which they of clay. but liable to the other made from clothing the trunk of a Iree. either Also. 1853). somewhat egg-shaped. bear's flesh. ornamented with fringe. large light. 21a ted with paint and beads 17 boiled maize. Conn. preferring to live separately. or undergarment. and sometimes ornamented their heads with bands decorated with wampum or with a small cap. These huts have 17877—2 . also occurred. all sorts. grass. one of birch bark. This meal they call "nokake. they lay heavy stones upon them. baking it in the ashes. and nets. mixed with kid- made from shells- ney beans. and a skirt of the same material Occasionally they decked fastened round the waist with a belt and reaching nearly to the feet. raccoons. woods and lakes was and the conical lodge. and also several sorts of nuts or masts. The women dressed their hair in a thick heavy plait which fell down the neck. rushes. moose. wide. mix with the said pottage several as Jerusalem artichokes. The typical Algonquian lodge of the oval. with their hair fantastically trimmed. leaving one lock longer than the rest. spoons. wood. The roof runs up to a ridge. another left an unshaved strip. were constructed of saplings fixed in the ground. tanned until and was sometimes ornamen- abounding with sap. bark and rushes. usually covered the lower part of the body with a breech-cloth. etc. and other roots. running from the forehead to the nape of the neck. they sorts of roots. Sometimes they make of their meal a small sort of cakes and boil them. they Also. and parts of the W. or sort of fish. which are remarkably tough. any other But they dry mostly those sorts before mentioned. then cutting the bark into pieces of 2 or 3 yards in length. themselves with mantles made of feathers overlapping each other as on the back of the fowl. bones and all. cutting this flesh in small pieces and boiling it as aforesaid. and. The dwelhngs in the N. these were made of corn husks. or a kind of herring. otters.. and utensils of and horn are mentioned by The manner is of con- struction among the Delawares thus destrees. such as lime trees. Mats woven stone. Their was composed chiefly of the skins of animals.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. 2 or 3 in. with a handle. and along the shore. explorers. alewives. doubled up so as to make them four-cornered.

The alliances between tribes were generally temporary and without real cohesion." light enters times rushes or long reed grass. The by small openings furnished with The covering was somesliding shutters. as the Foxes. Judged by the number of vessels found in the graves of the regions occupied by the Shawnee. a frame of movable poles covered with dressed skins among the latter. Usually the body was placed horizonthough among some of the western tribes. cooking utensils. then laid on a mat or skin in the middle of the hut. was widespread. then the grave was filled with earth.. most of was sometimes buried in a sitwas the custom of probably the tribes to light fires on the grave for it It were frequently surrounded with stocktall. and the former two fell by the Virginia tribes. the female relaand friends assembled around the body to mourn over it. were great traders. inside it was lined with bark. After sunin worn hands of deserters from their own ranks. except in one or two tribes. and resisted for . in the deceased's best each in turn found that a single great defeat disheartened his followers and rendered all his efforts fruitless. but lacked their conand capability of organization. and also before daybreak. The usual method of burial was in graves. The grave was dug generally by old women. In no other tribes N. The villages. Some of their great chieftains. especially along the Atlantic coast. indeed. four nights after burial. The more solid and substantial boat of Virginia and the western rivers was the dugout. removed the flesh and for a short time reinterred the skeletons. especially the Ottawa. There seems. tally. The manufacture of pottery. An earlier custom was to set. and when the corpse was placed in it 4 sticks were laid across. of Mexico was picture writing developed to the advanced stage that it reached among the Delawares and the Chippewa. acting as chief middlemen between the more distant Indians and the early French settlements. made from the trunk of a large tree. but stancy. and a covering of bark was placed over these. each clan or gens having its own cemetery. Some of the interior tribes of Illinois and Wisconsin made but Uttle use of the canoe. and some of the westslabs. intelligence. The figures were scratched or painted on pieces of bark or on slabs of wood. attempted at different periods to unite the kindred tribes in an effort to resist the advance of the white race. while others who lived along the upper lakes and the Atlantic coast were expert canoemen. a stick leaning against the outside being a sign that nobody is at home. travelling almost always afoot. was arrayed life. tions place in the grave the personal effects or those indicative of the character and occupation of the deceased. The under the able guidance of Powhatan and Opechancanough. strengthened on the inside with ribs or kne^s. corpse The bodies of the chiefs of the Powhatan confederacy were sti'ipped of the flesh and the skeletons were placed on scaffolds in a charnel house. The eastern Algonquian tribes probably equalled the Iroquois in bravery. etc. The canoes of the upper lakes were of birch-bark. A number of the western Algonquian towns are described by early explorers as fortified or as surrounded with palisades. were accustomed to bury their dead in boxshaped sepulchres made of undressed stone The Nanticoke. and physical powers. 1912 one opening in the roof to let out the smoke and one in the side for an entrance. formed an exception to the general rule. even against. Pontiac. and do not appear to have appreciated the power and influence they might have wielded by combination. The mortuary ceremonies among the eastern and central tribes were substantially as described by Zeisberger. a framework covered with bark among the former. The door is made of a large piece of bark without either bolt or lock. solidity of character. Chippewa. though the product was small. ades of stout stakes firmly set in the The Illinois. A. arid some of the extreme western tribes frequently practised tree or scaffold burial. They presented a united front to the whites. and Tecumseh. as Phihp. Immediately after death the ground. after temporary burial in the ground or exposure on scaffolds. Those of the Chippewa and the Plains tribes were circular or conical. The Shawnee. Some of the tribes.18 DEPARTMENT OP MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. and the arms and personal effects were placed about it. The Ottawa usually placed the body on a scaffold near the grave previous to burial. of the Illinois are described The houses by Hennepin as being "made with long arbors" and covered with double mats of flat flags. ting posture. a common enemy. and possibly one or more of the southern Ilhnois tribes. to have been some element in their character which rendered them incapable of combining in large bodies. ern tribes. as well as food. clothing and decked with the chief ornaments sometimes having the face and shirt painted red. this tribe carried on the manufacture to a greater extent than any other.

1872. Am. — Gallatin in Trans. Soc. Atlas. — — worship and to furnish a place where the worshipper can convey to the deity his offering and prayers. Creuxius places them immediately N.000 are in the United States and 50. 1806. Antiq.000 in Canada. 1848 Opuscula. Victoria. Prichard. Philol.. pt. II. Physik. Hale in and Am.. Hist. map 17..4tl. rocks. (j. U. 'they that live by the river'. 21. 'lower corner')in A 332. — the illustrations of early writers. Berghaus. Physik. of it in Manitoba. of the lake. Ill. Hayden. 401. Nat. caves. a buffalo skull serving the purpose. Shyenne. R. Aff. Ind. Allagasomeda. was a feature of the performance of every ceremony of the AmerAltar. 1861. map. 1862 not easily apprehended an excavation in the earth. Blackfoot. 55. simple that their nature : Gallatin in Trans. end of Hudson bay. 327. map 17. 1858. >Arapahoes.— Brit. for example. migration). In this connection the cloud-blowing Alkakalilkes. xcix. Ethnol. Val. Aff. R. which discharges into Ontario. 1852. Can. Rel. April. of Chemainus lake. From Alkunwea gens. Creuxius.— Bancroft. 232. ii. tubes and pipes of the ancient and modern — Pueblos may also be mentioned. Victoria. Col. Geog. living on 1. Col. Cent. r. 1840. of Chil- and the distinction should be Brit. In pursuance of a like idea the Haida deposit certain deities Alimibegouek (probable cognate with the Chippewa Unlmibigog. consisted of the four divisions of the Cree. Antiq- 23. In individual character many Algonquian chiefs rank high.. and Philol. Physik. Alkali Lake. 1887. and Tecumseh stands out prominently as one of the noblest figures in Indian history.) >Algonkln-Lenape. in <Algonkin. offerings into springs. noted. Berghaus. c. c. — — New France. 1848. >Algonkins. V. of A body of Salish e. Soc. 1895. Downie in Jour. xxxi. Atlas. 305. t. 77. on which sacrifices were made or offerings laid or around which some other act of worship was performed. 1852. Philol. Hist. 1848.. Elem. Some of is these altars are so kind. 112. 21a 19 years every step of their advance until the Indians were practically exterminated. a Kwakiutl the close of the Revolution to the treaty of Greenville (1795) the tribes of the Ohio valley also —Boas Rep. pt. >Saskatschwalner. Alimlbegoueci. Ind. Others. Compend. Map. Ind. Comp. and Arrapaho). Ibid. map 17. Berghaus. presenting a complex assemblage of parts. Jones). 3. Such altars are more primitive than the temporary altars erected for the celebration of a ritual or a portion of a ritual. 327. Ethnog. The altar. rivers. a pile of rocks. A Chimmesyan village on upper Skeena r. Lond. Man- ican Indians.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. map 72. t. Roy. XAIgonkin und Beothuk. Rep. Disc. 1856.. 1872 (probably identical). > Algonquin. Phys. those of the Hopi and the to the Sia. — Latham some cases resemble in form the altars of civihzed people. Soc. 1897. country through persuasions of the traders. Blackfeet. so far as may be learned from offerings in the sea. 1658. pop... iii. •spread connection of fire with the altar an 17877— 2i ... Algonquian family is about 90. S. (A'lkhmweE. Berghaus (1845). 381. 1. Some of the temporary altars of the eastern and southern Indians. 1853. on account of its uni" Latham. a fire. Am. The largest tribes are the Chippewa and the the Cree. are definitely recognizable as altars in (treats only of Crees. Am. 465. of the Woods and e. near Fraser cotin r. made a desperate stand against the Amerof the icans. What part of the Cree of modern times these include is not determinable. 460.) Superior. an oval or circular palisade of carved stakes surrounding an area in the centre of which was a fire or a mat on which were laid various symbolic cult apparatus. 1856 (adds to Gallatin's list of 1836 the Bethuck. 1878 (Ust includes the Maquas. Using the term in its broadest sense. m. lakes. A Shuswap village or band and opposite the mouth 209 in 1911. 447. in the belief that the roads of these —Lewis and extend from these localities. Ind.. Latham. Clark. <Al8onquin. near spots which certain deities are supposed to inhabit. Atlas. They removed before 1804 to the Red r. Soc. The wideis 269. id.. —Turner in Pac. (j. — Allh.. m. Shyennes). of whom about 40. Col. Jes. near the S. Gallatin in Schoolcraft. Wm. Atlas. subdivision of the Laalaksentaio. The present number Vancouver — Brit. and S. 1836. 237. Keane in Stanford. 1724) regards as a fire altar the pipe in the calumet ceremonj' of the Illinois described by Marquette. an altar. map Kilistinons Alimibegouek. The effect of the altar is to localize the — (probably designates the Arapaho). Alkali Lake. Mo. Physik. . 1847 (follows Gallatin).— ii. Mentioned as one of and many tribes throw and rivers. and Iroquois tribe). 1664. A Chippewa band formerly living near L.. mibeg (Nipigon). Mus. Tribes. Altar-shrines are often placed by springs. Ali1. 253.. or trees on mountains and Algonquins of Portage de Prairie. thus renders important aid comparative study of religions.000. >Algonkin. — versal distribution. British Columbia. iii. Lafitau (Mceurs des Sauvages. 1860 (as in preceding). 55. 1883 (treated with reference to Trans. 1862. 1902.

1902) in which it was supported by some and attacked by others. A. — Charlevoix (1743). Interesting Powell. pre-Amerindic.. Soc. Coll. 102. 1053. 1854. opposite Manitoulin id. Soc. Amasaconticook. Coast Surv. 1855. AmasColl.. 1864. AmikoUes. W. Amerindian.—Penhallow (1726) 21. 1747. Rasles (1722) quoted by Vetromile. Me. 3. Nipissing. 4th s.— Niles (1761?). 1761. Coll. CoU. 1837.) the Iroquois compelled the remainder of the tribe to betake themselves. Rel.— quonty. name Nipissing: Chauvignerie.. Amikouest. 3d cit.20 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. m. Soc. writing in 1736. has the support of several anthroplea A by Dr. 247. Travels. —Penhallow. 2d s. 1761. They — — claimed in 1673 to be (j.. F. Y. 1819. pseudo-Amerind.. M. argues in favour of the new word. i. 1640. Quebec. A Trav.—Jes.Amerind. a few miles distant.. Rel. Oct. Amikones. S. Mee- — Heriot. ix.—Gallinee (1669-70) in Margry. Ill. not to the Amikwa yet the evidently Ibid. D&c. 58. Anmlssukantl. 'beaver'). ibid. 566. Am. Sept. The disposition of logs in of "Amerind" was urged by the it late Maj. M6m. H. cruciform pattern for the kindUng of new fire by the Creeks suggests an altar. 1912 J. —Golden — 187S. Five Nations. Amassacanty.. 1861.. or in rare cases. Amicoures. VI. 1885. Hist.. in 1753 La Potherie. ibid. Potherie (Hist. vi. 'herring place').. Hist. 1700). Rep. etc. Amascontie. In 1740 a remnant had retired to Manitouhn id. where they in 1713. Hist.) altars (Thomas. Heriot.. 1902. Y. 1871. (1727 word composed of the first syllables of "American Indian. — sucontu. Hist. has found its way into both scientific and popular hterature.. Doc. T. Hist. Hist. the birch for the Bark tribe. Coll. — Rasles in Me. — Boyd.. ibid. Local Names.^— Ind. of small fish' [herfor-'^t Amikwa (from amik. Huron. Col. 3. Amasecontee. v. 1824. Amicoues. Hist. Local Names. Fr... Coll.. Tribes.— N. 1866.— Neill Amikouis. s. — 1885. Aumesoukkanttl. Col. and partly near the present early New Sharon. 335. Ind. 250.. 1871 (given as the correct — Sandy r) AmaPortsmouth treaty (1713) in Me. 251. . IX. a Mikouest. 1807. J. 81.—Map Amikwa C. S. Amehouest.. 1753) says that they and the Nipissing once inhabited the other Abnaki in the Indian wars against the English and joined in the treaty made at Portsmouth. 1859. IX. a discussion (Wissler). (a. Superior and to Green bay of lake Michigan. Rasles quoted by Ballard.—Jes. (misprint). 82. proto. 48.) Amaseconti ('abundance ring]). conty. Meesee Contee. name until 1809. Y.—Gyles (1726). says of the "The armorial bearings of this the beaver for the nation are. vVmong the Siksika every tent contains an altar a small excavation in the earth where sweet gum is burned daily general adoption appeared in 1900 in the Jour- nal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain.. the heron for the Achague or Heron tribe. vi. Atneko?es. ii.. allies of the Nipissing. H.—Niles (1761?) in Mass. Amicours. N. close relation between the as latter and the Nipis- (1761?) in Mass. among them and retained their distinctive (j. pt. The introduction dic. Abnakis 23-27. C. Amikouai. 62. s." suggested in 1899 by an American lexicographer as a substitute for the inappropriate terms used to desig- Amerind. Rel. nevertheless. Prehistoric altars consisting of blocks of fire-hardened clay. 1858.. Ibid. Hist. Soc. 197. kouys. 20 34. 1807. — Ballard in U. 3d s. Amasaguanteg. Doms. Moorehead. of . 262-3. Bacqueville de la A r. 31 (trans.. 892. r.—Perrot (ca... —Jes...An Algonquian tribe found by the French on the N. Soc. 79. where they were identified in the Jesuit Relations at various dates up to 1672. iv. Mills. v. Amasconly. Amikois. and that they rendered themselves masters of all the other nations in those quarters until disease made great havoc shores of Some of them lingered in their old homes until about 1797..) known to history. Anmessukkantti. 1671.. 1853. Amlkou. 194. small division of the Abnaki merly residing in part at Farmington Falls. They took part with the 1. 86.— Doc. The name. I'Am^r ii. W.. Minn. and pologists. Hist. some to the French settlements. Rel. Abnaki letter (1721) in Mass. Doc. when the last family removed to St Francis. 1858. — — ets. Willis. 722. ibid. VIII. Allen. sing justifies the belief that the writer alluded to the op. of boxes of stone form the essential characteristic many mounds and belong to the class of fire (Science. 1855." may possibly be to AmekoSes [Amikwa].. 47. Hist. 357. (w. 403. 1858. nate the race of man inhabiting the New World before its occupancy by Europeans. 1648. ibid. 162. M. Amikouek.. The reference a gens of the Nipissing and tribe. —Jefferys.. Ind. 246. AmlBeaver 47. 1. H. 1855. Doc. Amicols. 1856..—Boyd.. Soc. Amose- of 1719 cited by Ballardin U. n.. McGee for its examples of the use of fire in ceremony are the Iroquois white-dog rite and the night chant of the Navaho. 25. xvi. Amlcawaes. sacontoog. shore of 1. Col.—Jes. — Chauvignerie (1736) in N. Coast Survey Rep. of 1693 in N. Putnam. Hist. Admesoukkanti.. 1885. others to 1. on Sandy Franklin co. McKenney and Hall. Soc. Amassaconty. 105. * * * * * * * Fowke). Voy. —Niles 1837. Amic-ways. 1670. Coll. in N. 251. The convenience of such derivatives as AmerinAmerindize. Amikouas. 1858. important fact. Amlhouis. — — The use of "Amerind" occasioned at the Interin national Congress of Americanists New York.

coast of Melville atory purposes. Japan. iir.. and northern Asia. 1854. 181. On the plains and in the S. vni. . Ounikanes. The wheel-and-stick game one form or another was well-nigh universal. 181. as well as with the bow or rifle. 1657.— Rasles {ca. football.. The huntthe-button games were usually accompanied with songs and rhythmic movements of the hands and body. or reed. settlement of Like most Indian institutions. as athletic contests of amusements was betting of all and ordinary games. A winter e. iii. (1736) quoted by Schoolcraft Ind. was also univefsal among the warriors and boys of the various tribes. particularly in the tipi or the wigwam fruit dice. Amitormiut place. A sacred variant of the game was played by the priests for divinstone disk. 1888. map. French Doma. W. Lyon. Amittioke. the awl game.. and the game itself had often a symbohc purpose. of An Eskimo tribe narrow on the e. Chauvignerie. game often the Amitormiut on the peninsula. Ibid. 1853 (misprint). 366. Investigations by Cuhn show a close correspondence between these Indian games and those of China. 1858. The gaming arrows were of special design and ornamentation. the had a symbohc significance in connection with a sun myth. Am. pt. throwing of heavy stones. and foot races. Nation of tlie Beaver. Boas in 6th Rep. 1824. Tribes. Amityook. Amitok ('narrow'). Nez Percez.Percys. and story-teUing. knives. Hist. the Indian at home was and the Wichita. — — — 406. variously shaped and marked. or hatchets. or their equivalents.— Charlevoix. and usually were accompanied with the drum or other musical instrument to accentuate the song. 1858. Amitigoke. New France. Target practice with arrows. which feature of the dance. The the Eskimo and extreme northern tribes were chiefly athletic. Amltoq. stern necessity. though evidently due to Indian influence. 1. Ibid. Jes. intended to confuse the parties whose task was to guess the location of the button.— Gilder. 92..'^ ('inhabitants of the —Boas). and the deer-foot game. The deer-foot game was played. the great athletic game was the ball play. 1881. B. 1723) in Mass. wood. In the N. now adopted among civilized games under the name of lacrosse. 206. took the place of the — III. 81. Nez. or wheel.— Jes. pied When not bound down by occu- agricultural tribes. 251. Hist. The were of stone.-Parry. 11. Shea ed. Nation du Castor. had various tally marks along the border for marking the progress of the game. when it fell to — the ground. was played around a blanket. 1636.Omilioues.— Shea. bone. 119. besides the awl game already noted. and competitions were of GuK frequently inter-tribal. coast village is name. 554. From Hudson bay Mexico. Sec. sometimes also by men with a number of perforated bones from a deer's foot strung upon a beaded cord.. 130. They were thrown from the hand or from a small basket or wooden bowl. rested within the crook of the stick. Coll. One form. map. from which they take their Gilder. Rel. or even as a sort of votive ceremony to procure the recovery of a patient. 1855. during the warm season. Though most of the dances were religious or otherwise ceremonial in character. Their principal Amitok. The rattle was perhaps invariably used only in ceremonial dances.. Second Voy. Schwatka's Search. Schwatka's Search. Catholic Missions. thrown from the hand. Ibid. Korea. — Melville penin. frequently netted. Many dances were of pantomimic or dramatic character. 197. confined to the women. 21a 21 (Indians). Nedspercez. a wooden wheel. 1881.. Castor. Tribes. frequently inter-tribal. often elaborately ceremonial in character. E. Amitioke. were common among particularly the sedentary the Pueblos Amusements. The giving of presents was often a night. Rel. Ind. Horse races. one gamester in Special women's games were shinny. 1872. 1819. As played in the E. and tossing to the in a blanket. and in the S. Athletes were regularly trained for this game. during the long winter nights. Jefferys. They might take place in the day or the Games resembling dice and hunt-the-button were found everywhere and were played by both sexes ahke. seeds. 1761.. such as racing. be general or confined to particular societies. especially on the plains. were prominent amusements. shell. and from the Atlantic to the border of the plains. Franklin. with two. while his opponent in such a slid after it a stick curved at one end — — way that the wheel.. having a needle at one enA The purpose was to toss the bones in such a way as to catch a particular one upon the end of the needle. 1825. A. much of the time with dancing. Private Jour. In football the main object was to keep the ball in the air as long as possible by kicking it upward. and the Eskimo had regular pantomime plays. 47. wresthng. gaming. it was played with one racket.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. there were some which had no other purpose than that of social pleasure. Nalz Percez. 2d s. rolled forward a stone disc.— McKenney and HaU. feasting.

The skin appears to be slightly thicker than that of the whites. or 1§ in. race of the separately. The eyelashes are moderately thick and long. With many indiis and neck. but not is The root of the nose depressed. are frequently connected by sparser hair above the nose. of various shades of brown. is The conjunctiva in the Rep. The forehead in adults with undeformed skulls is somewhat low and in males slopes slightly backward. While the American Indians show many minor and even some important physical variations. 24. map. straight. including a breath-holding test. The colour of the hair is generally black. Prolonged exposure to the elements tends. red of the circulating blood. A.22 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. to darken the Indian" of a skin.) bluish.. Anahem. As among civifound the greatest the occupations of the exposed parts of the feet. occupying a valley near r. Aff. moderate in quantity. E?. out the annual reports of the Bureau of AmerConsult especially games of ican Ethnology. The eyebrows. especially the right one. Geog. cradles. the children and buzzes. 33. women and school children or others who wear clothing and live a more civihzed life are lighter in colour. nipples. stands His skin is between the white and the negro. A. and among the Most old men... 1902. 1905. peritoneal regions. and the newborn infant delight in imitating elders. 1892. (Boas in 6th Rep. the fold called Mongolic excessive. 1889. The ('having hair of the head is straight.. Annanetoote. (j. were common. B. in adults. Howgate. who often went nearly naked. The Eskimo form a distinct subMongolo-Malay and must be treated age white person. Okomiut -in Baffin island at the head of Cumberland sd. as with whites. or 18 in. with "wolf" or "catcher. Anahim.. being the higher.. 43 in 1883. hue and moderately tough. and in length 4 to 7 cm. 1884. the continent so that they many features in common may properly be regarded as one great race. wrists. 1842. 1912 Among ing. especially in the S." and various forfeit Cats'plays.— Ibid. admitting of a general anatomical description. they present throughout The rang^of variation in natural length is from 40 to 100 cm.. or nearly so.— Ibid. The face is well rounded and agreeable in childhood. as well as shuttlecocks lized nations. 314. particularly in the cheeks. interesting and occasionally handsome during adolescence and earlier adult life. hue approaching chocolate or even the colour of some negroes are found in more primitive tribes. Lond. m. num- bering 216 in 1901. Cruise of Florence. smell [of wah-us circular in cross-sectidji. not the dull greyish black of the African negro. 1888). 1877. Ind. 415. buckskin dolls and playing-house for the girls.— Anahim. A. from its mouth in British Columbia. slings. The apertures of the eyes are slightly oblique.. especially the old. the axillae. dirty-yellowish. stilts. where not plucked. Soc. and agreeable but much wrinkled in old age. AnaIbid. Aff. Annanatook.—Can. the children there were target shootand tops for the boys. of the same black as the hair. especially superficially. viduals of all ages above early childhood who Numerous references to amusements through- go much with bare head the hair becomes among the various tribes may be found partly bleached. Chilcotin A band of the Tsilkotin. The nails are dull bluish in The Indian. and narily the back of the hands. 60 m. as in most whites. turning to a rusty hue. by Stewart Culin.—Can. The normal corrugations on the back of the hand and wrist are from childhood decidedly more pronounced in Indians of both sexes. and can be separated into several physical types. Wareham in Jour. hlm's tribe. A of varying degrees of dusky red. to The hair in the axillfe and on the pubis 2 J in. almost Anarnitung dung]' ) of . 24th The brown young coloui" of the eyes varies from hazel- to dark brown. XII. or string figures... The iris is often surrounded with a narrow but clearly marked ring.. Both moustache and chin beard are scarcer and coarser than with the whites. the outer canthi. pop. B. E. rather abundant and long. tinged with the in youth. in many of his anatomical char- acters. but side whiskers in many are absent. in some instances nearand on the rest of the body hairs are shorter and less abundant than with the averis ly absent. — — Anatomy. Ind. the American Indians. Amahim. The term "red Very dark individuals is a misnomer. with the lustre and slight bluish or brownish tinge that occurs among whites. 190. 162. 271. to 36 in. is In children usually general. Most male Indians would have a slight to moderate moustache and some beard on the chin' if they allowed the hair to grow. slightly coarser in the A winter village of the Kingua branch than average white. The darkest parts of the skin are ordi- shape of the The size and nose vary much. but it is commonly . 1898.

the styloid process is mostly smaller than in whites and not infrequently rudimentary. and the smaller bones of the upper and lower limbs present many marks The pelvis is well of minor importance. except in old age. while malar is very rare and parietal division in so. The thighs are fulness in later pelvis. formed. third molars rarely absent when adult life is reached. which in often rather large. size. The body as a rule is of good proportions. dimensions.500 c. in later life the become small and flaccid. extremely Intercalated bones are few in undeformed crania. is wider and often shallower. is rare. show more parts of the The proximal second and third toes are often confluent. The malars are in both sexes somewhat large and prominent. occasionThe neck is of fair ally somewhat thick. in shape. ing the quadrilateral. approaching the sors are ventrally concave. approachlarge. Malars are often medium cess. or shallow. The chest is of ample size. is 4.350 The frontal region in men is often low . The toes are rather short. with angles rounded. The bones of the vertebral column. but less than in the negro. breasts the nipple and areola are more in whites. c. children is life. canines not excessive. occasionally U-shaped The teeth are of moderate size. symmetrical. with an aquiline bridge predominating in men. about as thick as in average whites. except occipital septum. and. In many men the point of the nose is lower than the base of the at the the dolichocephalic. the foramen magnum is seldom large. shows in both sexes a degree of prognathism greater than the average in whites. sternum. The lower jaw varies greatly. in women they are small or of is medium size. in front of. The abdomen. also the lower.150 to 1. never very long or thin. men ranges from 1. gutters are rare. less serrated protruding. in sandals. or behind the middle permanent incisors. The prominence of the angles in full-grown males is not infrequently pronounced. and sloping. pronounced than organs do not the whites. clavicles.or ortho-gnathic. moderately spacious. in shovel-shaped. Prognathism is greater than in whites. irregular. the European flat. The feet and hands are well moulded and in many tribes smaller than they ordinarily are in whites. wheiei the people walk much barefoot or or less separation. retains but slight on account of small. 21a and. and. submalar depressions The upper alveolar pro- and well nourished. upper inci- and occasionally The in breasts of women are of medium the childless the conical form pre- dominates. though variations are numerous. barring individual exceptions. but nasal subnasal are rather common. 5. but this effect is due to the greater alveolar protrusion. The genital of differ essentially from those The Indian skull is.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER slightly shorter 23 No. the fossa in rather 31 per .300 to women from about 1. and occasionally also the men. are inclined to corpulence. The glabella. the palate is well formed and fairly spacious. The hps lower. the calves are usually smaller than in whites. the ribs. appears somewhat rather shapely. the lower borders of fossse the nasal aperture are not often sharp. The ears are well formed and of good size. and the bridge Thin noses are not found. Cranial capacity in 1. anterior lacerated foramina are smaller. this becomes especially apparent in old age when much of the adipose tissue below them is gone. as are the size and prominence of the buttocks.c. 3. c nd division is uncommon. slightly smaller than that of whites of equal height. In the more sedentary tribes the women. supraorbital ridges. As to base structures. A supernumerary conical dental element appears with some frequency in the upper jaw between. The chin is of moderate prominence. occasionally high. curves are only moderate. Orbits are of fair volume. the sagittal region elevated. men. the nasal spine smaller than in whites. sometimes square in form. and its position and inclination are very nearly the same as in whites. mostly parabolic. on the average. Sutures are mostly than metopism. The usual cuspidory formula. the distal length exceeding the proximal. c. The nasal bridge occasionally low. The upper limbs are of good shape and medium musculature. petrous portions on the average are less depressed below the level of neighbouring parts than in whites. in whites. in base and relatively wider than in whites. The the ample chest. below. in deformed crania they are more numerous. occipital region marked with moderate ridges at times very The humerus is much so. The chin often appears less prominent than in whites. The protusion on the whole is somewhat greater in the females. but The spinal is not so by actual measurement. The face is meso. 5. above. molars much as in whites. and mastoids in male skulls are well-developed and sometimes heavy. 4. straight especially in division some localities. This peculiarity is especially frequent In women the nasal depression in some tribes. are well formed and.

. being found in the Algonquian and the majority of the Siouan and Plains tribes and among the Siksika. Tewa. g. 71 to 75 (in The femur is quite flat below whites 70 to 74) . Navaho. weighed after removal 1. is perforated. Matthews and now preserved in the U. Mohave. Moderate dohchocephaly. many of the north-western tribes. Apache. Kiowa. The form of the face is generally allied.. dohcho-. 1912 cent. and some of the Sioux and Iroquois. in form of the head and tribes Indians and Eskimo. and the Pima. some Pueblos (e. and among the eastern Cherokee. collected by Dr. short shorter than the men. of the upper part of the The supeshaft of the femur. Harrison Lake Sahsh. Osage. Iroquois. coast. and others. and Seminole. especially in Cahfornia. Cheyenne. The males is 77 to 80 (in whites 71 to 75).304 grams. The Eskimo differs anatomically from the important features. National Museum. with occasional extreme forms. as the Sahsh of Harrison lake and Thompson r. Pure brachycephaly existed in Florida. and Shoshoni. Pima. Comanche. with a pronounced redness of the face. where a relatively narrow nose (leptorhinic) was common. There are numerous tribes in North America about whose cephalic form there is still much uncertainty pn account As to the of the prevaiUng head deformation.. S. with long and high head. and narrow nose. which must naturally be the Hopi. but his skin colour on the whole is lighter. to the form of the head. Among the extremely dolichocephalic were the Dela- many wares and the southern Utah cliff-dwellers. Crows. women among tribes. There is less flattening of the shaft of the humerus. and Wichita. In anthropometric differentiation the native N. many the head it is is rather low. and Iowa the height in male adults ranges between 165 and 170 cm. Both show good gyration. Winnebago.24 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. humero-femoral index. of Mexico are primarily separable into Some of the adjacent Indian tribes show Eskimo admixture. Mesocephaly existed principally among the California Indians. of Mexico all the three principal classes of cranial form. The bones of the body are usually strong. and of the orbits. and of the tibia. there Of thi brain and other soft organs but Uttle is known. Navaho. and in a less degree. are on the average about 125" is cm. among most In (he Apache other tribes moderate. while among the Yuma. and meso-cephahc. found among some of the CaUfor- considered in connection with the cephalic is nian tribes (as the Yuki of cy). as among other peoples.) the tibia. Among the Tigua. Sioux. Washington. and usually spacious. showing alveolar prognathism like the Indians. Osage. nor does it agree wholly with the distribution of the other principal physical characteristics. normally scaphoid. . the nose. and eastern Algonof the Pueblos. Round Valley agen- index. in males. among lar instead of a curved outhne. being yellowish or Hght broAvn. rior border of the scapula shows often an anguflat. It is best repre- sented to-day among the Apache. high orbits. The projection of the upper alveolar region is almost uniformly mesognathic The Eskimo range in height from short to medium. Paiute. majority of tribes and in both sexes is The stature does not regularly found on the W. Orbits show variations. Zuni. Indian in cephalic index tribes that are are found in the territory N. California Mission Indians.191 and 1. though the eyes are more obUquely set. the Cherokee. Excluding known to be much mixed. Havasupai. The Eskimo skull is high. the nasal aperture are generally the principal exception to this quians the prevalent stature of adult men is from 170 to 175 cm. Mohave. is Low stature. of The humero-radial index quency in adult maximum fre- follow the geographic or climatic features. often flat (platyc- The distribution of the Indians according to is of much interest. the than difference greater the tall among the the tuberosities. most of the Rio Grande Pueblos. Walapai. nemic. His hair and eyes are similar in shade. Nez Perces. among the majority of CaUfornia. and prevailed in the mound region and among the ancient Pueblos. in the The range of variation within 30 cm. respectively. A. Yuma. is The nose and mesorhinic. and the nasal from 160 to 165 cm. Two adult male Apache brains. was and is very prevalent. fair uniformity found. Chickasaw. namely. but the prevalent form is mesoseme. brachy-. The Indians among themselves vary considerably in stature. aperture. Shoshoni. W. Arapaho. Chippewa. relatively broad flat face. Winnebago. The face is large and and the nasal bones are narrower than in any other people. Taos). Nez Perces. and Oregon tribes. and some of the tribes of the N. Comanche. but vestiges of asupra-con- dyloid process are much rarer than in whites. being relatively narrow in narrow heads and broad in the brachycephaUc. face. height of the head. northern Ute. coast. W.. Maricopa.

h. W.. Observations. Gatschet.. List of specimens. lat. Travels. Jesuit Relation for 1637. B. 1844. Contributions to encephaUc anatomy of races. W. Note on measurements of Eskimo.. Stone's measurements of natives of the N. Anc. village of the A — Anepo ('buffalo rising up.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER Consult 1839. Hayden. Morgan. Ind. 1902. Franklin.' sibiw 'river. 1900. British Columbia. Wyman.. from the Angoutenc... (a. coast of Boothia bay. side of Eraser r. (2) Measurements of crania from California. ii. Physiology. for 1638.. Crania Americana. on a lake Can. W. Investigations.) treme n. 1858. 1879. A magician or conjurer among the Eskimo. E. J. Anenatea. ten Kate. ObservaFresh water shell 1866. Andlatae.. above Lytton. Nat. 1881. 1809. 35.) Indians. It includes the S. in Ontario in 1637. Peabody Museum. Mus. the word for shaman in the eastern Eskimo dialects. 1847. . 1901. A former Huron village in Ontario. Le bassin suivant les sexes. 178. 1896. —Boas A in 6th Rep. (1) crania of skeleton. Franklin.—Jes. 23. suppl. Hist. Annapolis. 1869. Crania ethnica. Minnesota and the adjacent portion of Manitoba. tribes of British Columbia. Quatrefages and Hamy. 1896. of 1636. —Ibid. Matthews and Wortman. Andiata. 1879.. 'stony little hol- Distinctive characteristics. 38 in 1911. 1878 (said to be the of an extinct animal). Retzius. 1895. Mo. (3) Anthropometrical observations on Mission Indians. at the solicitation of the North West Fur Company. Crani esquimesi. and Philol. E. A Net- chilirmiut winter village on the W. N. 1895. — — 613. 1875. 1892. Schadel und Skeletfe von Santa Rosa. An Eskimo brain. 34. 166 (mis- pop. 1858. Anibiminanisibiwininiwak. (2) mounds. as recognized by First Andeguale. A-ne'-po. 1875. 1841. print) .. Rel. now much used especially in American anthropological literature. Anderson Lake. Angmalook (Eskimo name). Chippewas of Pembena River. Crania from mounds of St. Anonatea. Madison ville prehistoric cemetery. (a. Minn. Eskimo craniology. 1905. (5) Contributions to physical anthropology of Cal.. 1889. Val. 171. Sur les trois encephales des Esquimaux. 1902. S. They removed from Sandy lake.' ('Pembina (cranberry) river men. (2) A.. (2) The Trenton. Com. of the Aff. m. Otis. 1862. (3) Observations on crania from Santa Barbara Ids. Soc.' from nibimina 'high- ininiwak 'men'). A. Virchow (1) in Beitrage zur Craniologie der Insulaner von der Westkuste Nordamerikas. Matiegka. 1901. 1878. r. (4) Notes on the Indians of to A Chippewa band living on Pembina in ex- Sonora.—Boas in 10th Rep. Ethnog. 1880. ra. Human bones of Hemenway collection. in Ontario. — AngSiens. 1778. Anoritok settlement in ('without e. 264. situate on the E.. portion of Micmac Reading Book. Events in Ind. — name Angakok. 81. Pembina band. Nova Scotia. Carr. Rel. 1880. Spitzka. (1) Lytton band of Ntlakyapamuk. AngStenc— Ibid. See Artificial head deformation. 1892. 3 m. Langdon. 1901. (2) 2& No. 1871. U. An Eskima 61° 45'. Boas. Om foramen af hufvudets benstomme. Ojibwa MS. Meddelelser om Gronland. A Huron village situated a league from Ihonatiria. 1888. 1899. (2) Crania Ethnica Americana. — A division of the Kainah tribe of the Siksika. Catalogue of specimens.— Jes.. of 1637. Anektettim low'). Meigs. 172. sit- Angoutenc. A band of Upper Lillooet same name in British Columbia 1898).. 415. wind'). about 2 latter place. Physical characteristics of Allen.. (1) Zur anthropologic der nordamerikanischen Indianer. I-ni'-po-l. 143. 1858. Hist. Sergi. Jes. 1872-73. (4) Notes on crania of New England Gould.. Tribes. 1902. 1878-79. 48-49. 1858. (AnExte't'tim. — Ibid. 141. —Rand. Rep. Eleventh and Twelfth Reps. f. themselves. Angmalortoq. A Niska town inhabited by two Chimmesyan famihes..' —Hayden). to that region about 1807. (1) Observations on crania from Tennessee. 1880. 1902. Tocher. 21a (1) Morton. 1636. former Huron village uated between Wenrio and Ossossane. Verneau. 116 (misprint).. Teit in Mem. 122. the Lakseel of the Raven clan and the Gitgigenih of the Wolf clan. Duckworth. A. territory of One of the 7 districts of the the Micmac. xxv. tions on crania. (3) The Lansing 1903. — Ibid. Chudzinsky. Somatological Observations. Contribution Hrdlicka. A species of salmon (Salmo nitidus) found in the lakes of Boothia peninsula. 1900. Boas and Farrand. Lewis. Fla. 1904. 134. 1881. — Angmalortuk ('the round one'). Anonatra. Fish.. Greenland. Am. N. 1904. Rel. Flower. bush cranberry.. B. Johns r. 1875. 1891. c. J. map.

since to one mind it may signify a short time. investi- Columbian discovery limited to the rather gations in America were taken up. 1886. respect to antiquity. knowlthe have cleared away the Usherian interpretation of events and established the fact of the great antiquity of conclusion of events that transpired is before tradition. and by the internal evi- primitive history had been about the same on both continents. and perhaps belonged to the the native from some Old recent people in yet comparatively times World was very general. The antiquity of man on the American continent is a subject of interest to the student of the aborigines as well as to the historian of the human race. (See Popular Fallacies. Later. and the various problems that arise with respect to it in the region N.. 1786. No one can speak with assurance. or even period. but a more critical examination of the testimony shows its shortcomings and tends to hold final determinations in abeyance. on chronologists level (see Shell-heaps). A. Native Races. and they prove of little service in determining the duration of occupancy of the continent by the race. of Mexico are receiving much scienAs the tribes were without a tific attention. religion. Nova Scotia. It is clear that traces of early man are not so plentiful in America as in Europe. v. but without definite result. system edge of writing available to scholars. although some problems encountered remain still unsolved. however. tribes belief in the derivation of settlement on a river of the same name which rises in a lake near the coast of the strait of Canso. while to another it may suggest a very long the various lines of research. ular species of . and. Attempts have been made to establish a chronology of events in various ways. and esthetics. man in the world.DEPART3IENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 Antigonish. 1912 Mentioned as an Indian of the continent. aided is by geology Modifications of partic- and biology. is thought to indicate a long and more or less exclusive occupancy of independent areas. i. Artlgoniche. But as a criterion of age the testimony thus furnished lacks definiteness. The magnitude of the work accomplished in the building of mounds and other earthworks has been emphasized. is regarded as indicating a long and complete separation from their parental peoples. The fact that the American Indians have acquired such marked physical characteristics as to be regarded as a separate race of very considerable homogeneity from Alaska to Patagonia. Die. and the indefinite testimony furnished by by was reached that the course of the more definite but as yet fragmentary evidences of archeeology. Narrative and Critical History. i.. and the development in one or more cases of new varieties. social customs. Winsor. in "the province and colony of New Scotland. this science furnishing results of the greater of great value. the existence in America of numerous culture groups. Similarly. the time requisite for the growth and decay upon these works of a succession of forests has been computed (see Mounds). suggest very conBut the highest estimate siderable antiquity. 161. such as changes of Archae- ology. the first centuries of European occupancy moUusks between the time of their first use on the shell-heap sites and the present time. on the authority of either tradition or history." It was probably on or near the site of the present Antigonish. This view was based on the apparently solid foundation of the Mosaic record and the chronology as Micmac. The results of researches into the prehistoric archteology of the eastern continent during the last century. however. Observations that seemed dence of general ethnological phenomena. The vast accumulations of midden deposits and the fact that the strata composing them seem to indicate a succession of occupancies by tribes of gradually advancing culture. and for various references consult Bancroft. and many works have been written in the attempt to determine the particular people from which the American tribes sprang. GEORGE v. — Alcedo. can furnish definite data with and the consequent retreat or advance of the sea and changes in river courses since man began to dwell along their shores. 1884). During and must so remain indefinitely. technology. have impressed themselves Native historical records of even the tribes are hardly more to be tradition. and indeed the fallacy has not been entirely extinguished. Geog.. most advanced rehed on than in tracing the more recent course of events connected with the historic peoples. measurably distinct from one to substantiate this conclusion were soon forth- coming and were readily accepted. and investigations have proceeded with painful slowness and much halting along another in language. determined by Usher. in Antigonish co. Striking physiographic mutations. have been carefully considered. beginning in savagery and ending in well-advanced barbarism. Antiquity. of events dating farther back than a few hundred years.

after carefully weighing the evidence collected by himself in Alaska. but geologists are not agreed as to the age of the formation (see Lansing Man). Within this period. in the states that border the St. since the age of the deposits human skeleton were recently found at a depth of 20 feet. one at Madisonville at a depth of 8 feet. at a depth of 16 feet in Glacial gravels (Wright. make estimates based on the erosion of river channels. passing down rather abruptly into a more or less uniform deposit of coarse gravel that reaches in places a depth of 30 feet or more. N. At Clayton. of In a post- epoch. Dall. observation may means of subdividing but under discriminating be expected to furnish valu.HANDBOOK OF SESSIONAL PAPER No. Minn. Holmes). On and near the surface are found village sites and other traces of occupancy by the Indian tribes. Holmes). flood-plain deposits of sand and gravel are found to con- many flood plain finally post-Glacial time. the Glacial or immediately post-Glacial deposits of Ohio a number of articles of human From workmanship have been reported: A grooved and findings not subjected to critical examination by geologists having special training in the particular field axe from a well 22 feet beneath the surface. human presence during their accumulation this is a tubular bone. in a deposit beheved to belong to the loess. Winchell. Nampa Image). but the testimony of these finds can have Uttle value in chronology. chipped stones in gravels. much as 3. not more than 8. apparently indicating early aboriginal occupancy of the St. At the points where traces of man have been reported the section of these deposits shows generally beneath the soil a few feet of superficial sands of uncertain retreating age. These terraces afford rather imperfect Putnam. a chipped object of waster type at Newcomerstown. the geological chronology must be appealed to. bench near Lansing Kans. a clay image is reported to have been brought up by a sand pump from a depth of 320 feet in alternating beds of clay and quicksand underlying a lava flow of late Tertiportions of a see inclosing them remains in doubt. have in some cases left a succession of flood-plain terraces in which remains of man and his works are embedded. Mercer. stone implements and the refuse of implement-making occur. Emmons. shore of lake Ontario Lawrence basin. extending throughout the sand layers. a well-finished grooved axe was found (Peterson). Hrdlicka. is attached. valley. The river ter- these finds warrant definite conclusions as to races at Trenton. From the Glacial gravels proper there has been recovered ary or early Glacial age (Wright. tain At Little Falls. 's believed by some to toward the close of the Glacial period in the valley (Brower. believed to be of Glacial age. years until to we reach the close of the Glacial Abbott. have been the subject of careful and prolonged investigation. In a Missouri r.000 years old. Questions are raised by a . near New London (Claj'pole). when the southern margin of the ice sheet was northward beyond the Delaware valley. Mo. which in middle North America may properly be designated post-Glacial. Wright.. and the Sierras. Upham). at Nampa. 21a INDIANi^ OF CAXADA 27 of elapsed time based on these evidences does a single object to which weight as evidence of not exceed a few thousand years. Nev. and we find no criteria by means of which calculations can be made in are probably as found at a depth On this object the claim for the Glacial antiquity of practically rests man in the Delaware valley and on the Atlantic slope (Putnam. at a depth of 14 feet. an obsidian implement was obtained at a depth of 2. there have been reported numerous traces of man so associated years the remains of a hearth were discovered at a depth of 22 feet by Mr. for example. according to those who venture the Alleghenies lacking scientific verification furnish no reliable index of time.. Tomlinson in digging a well. which.000 or 10. but these evidences come within the province of the geologist rather than of the archaeologist. Glacial terrace on the s. but that able data to the chronologist. reached the conclusion that the earliest midden deposits of the Aleutian ids. part of a striae regarded as human femur and said to show glacial and traces of human workmanship. formed largely of gravel accumulated at the period time is seriously questioned by Chamberlin..000 ago (Winchell). with the deposits of that time as to make them measurably valuable in chronological studies.J.. was.5 feet (McGee). and another at Loveland at a depth of 30 feet (Metz. of 21 feet. Holmes). This have been abandoned by the Mississippi well back artificial objects of quartz. two discoveries that seem to bear on the antiquity of human occupancy have been reported: In a silt deposit in Walker r. In the Basin Range region between the Rocky mts. may well be placed in the doubtful category. Wright. Going beyond this limit. Idaho. Other finds e.. Beneath the soil. Lawrence basin (Gilbert). in cutting their channels through the various deposits to their present level. Post-Glacial rivers.

Rep. 7. A. A. 1877. Claypole in Am. has been reported Am. Sci. human forests race in the Old World. Nat. Dall (1) in Proc. Thus. v.. Hist. no.. and the finds so far made. are characterized from which some at are said to relics least of the relics of defects of observation by so many and record and so many man These come are of Tertiary age. Mus. XI. decisive results are surprisingly meager. erectus of Dubois. 1. 4. These and other equally striking con- 1888.. It is incredible that primitive man should have inhabited a country of caverns for ages without . Lapham ii. Hist. VII. 1878. Pop. Nat. geological... 1901. Geol. 1888. Inst. 1855. 1893. (2) in no.. Geol. (3) in Jour. and evidence of a more conclusive nature may yet be forthcoming. Smithson. (4) in Am. 1892. These finds are numerous and are reported from many localities and from deposits covering a wide range of time. Chamberlin (1) in Jour. Archeol. the acceptance of the auriferousgravel testimony makes it necessary to place the presence of man in America far back toward the beginning of the Tertiary age. i. a period to be reckoned not in tens but in hundreds of thousands of years. 7. siderations suggest the wisdom of formulating xxrv. Pithecanthropus XXIII. may reasonably be expected to contain traces of the peoples of all periods of occupancy. Basis of Foster... within the limits of the United States. 1893. Bancroft. and up to the present time have furnished no very tangible evidence of the presence of men beyond the limited period of the American Indian as known to us. x. Nov. 1899. 1893. Holmes). 1912 number of geologists respecting the value of . Geol. periods and offering dwelling places to the 1889. 1903. AnAm. some period to their hospitable gravel region during pre-Glacial time. S. Farrand. In view of the extent of the researches carried on in various fields with the object of adducing evidence on which to base a scheme of human chronology in America. S. man in apparent incongruities. 2. (2) in Bull. 1891. Acad. Ethnol.. 1902. 1903. Holmes nos. 1902. have come and gone. in Smithson. 1882. 25. but consideration of the even the extraordinary nature of the conclusions de- pendent on this evidence should cause most sanguine advocate of great human antiquity in America to hesitate (see Calaveras Man) Geologists are practically agreed that the gravels but research in this field is hardly begun.28 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE is v. 1899. Hrdlicka V. represent a polished-stone culture corresponding closely to that of the modern tribes of the Pacific slope. Fowke. II. (1) in Rep. Nat. state geologist of CaKfornia from 1860 to 1874. part of the state. Brower. these finds (McGee) The most extraordinary discoveries of human remains in connection with geological formations are those from the auriferous gravels of California (Whitney. Nat. 1888. A. A. Geol.. no. Races.. Emmons in Proc. (2) in The Dial. Ohio. Antiq. (2) ibid. xiii. Prehist. but the deposits forming their floors. 1889. Prehist. Boston Soc.. Anthrop. vi. conclusions with the utmost caution. xxxvii. 4. Boston Soc. resorting at shelter.. ibid. 1892. s. not decisive. Becker in BuU. 1899. 1902. McGee (1) in Am. (2) in Proc. . was a still running wild in the of Java. A. reputed to represent a vast period of time stretching forward from the middle Tertiary to the present. and other students of the subject still regard the testi- mony as convincing. 1893. and Crit. Mo. Soc. and the discovery of bones that appear to have been shaped by human hands. Narr. Am. biological. The University of CaUfornia has conducted excavations in a cave in the N. Anthrop. no. Memoirs. xxix.. Hist. Allen. (3) in Pubs. (2) in Cont. associated with fossil fauna that probably represent early Glacial times. A. A. Lewis. have not been very fully examined.. 7. (1) in and Jan. 1904. for 1899). (5) in Science. 1902. Geol. no. 1885. vii. Kummel S. 1893. no.. 1897. 1. no. XLVi. ir. Am. Phila.. Mercer (1) in Proc. Furthermore. see representative of the Abbott (1) in Proc. no. throp. N. 2. Hist. i. v.. and cultural. Caves and rock tribes that shelters representing various Gilbert in Am. xlvi. 25. that the task ol the chronologist is stiU largely before him. xvin. (3) in Am.. xvi. that he accepted without hesitation the conclusion that man had occupied the auriferous (Sinclair) but the result The apparent absence or dearth of ancient human remains in the caves of the country furnishes one of the strongest reasons for critically examining all testimony bearing on antiquity about which reasonable doubt can be raised. A. Nat. 1889. A.. 1896.. in Proc. (2) in Am. World. A. Geol. Am. Native Races. 1889. with few exceptions. 1902.. Blake in Jour.. Cont. 1897. (See Smithson. in Winsor. So convincing did the evidence appear to Whitney. Hist. 1891. 1880. xxvii. iv.. Nov. Haynes I. n. Am. 1892. Sci.. 4. half -regenerate "Simian. For archaeological investigations and scientific discussion relating to the antiquity of America must have passed through the savage and well into the barbarous stage while the hypothetical earUest man Hist.

(2) in Bull. British Columbia. A local subdivision of the Raven clan of the Skittagetan family. Harrison in Trans. 1903. Sci. 1879. Geol. fixed or moveable. Thomas (1) Hist. 1902. Skittagetan family which received name no. ments of stone left by the workmen are scat" tered about. A division of the Raven clan of the its Shaler in Peabody Mus. Wright. W. Haida. Cont. A gens of the W. and Haynes in Winsor's Narrative and Critical History. 49. — 23. ix-xxxvii. vi. 271. II. while fragticular purpose for Few of these utensils G'anyakoilnagal. Hist. N. Arch. 188183. Rep. 1895. (1) in Proc. Ondironon. 271.. Ahondihronnons. and deriving their name from Masset inlet. Auriferous Gravels of the Nevada. Williston in Science. 1898Keo Haade. to the origin. W. Blackfoot Lodge Tales.. 209.) Anuenes (Anue'nes). Am. of Pa. sec- Aug.. Swanton. (Piegan). where its town stood. dependent on anvil stones in shaping their implements. Squier and Davis. 125.. Aokeawai inlet'). but consisted of boulders or other natural masses of stone. S. no. 1902. 1904. where these people formerly lived. Cont. Am. Masset inlet gave them the separate name. which they were employed. were settled for a time at Dadens. and False Antiq. 1. 1884. and ornaments. la' nas.. Powell in The Forum.— Boas. Cont. Roy. Pop. A.'an Inaga'i. 1897.—Boas Anvils. 4. Tribes. 1. There were two subdivisions Hlingwainaashadai and Taolnaashadai. — Apikaiyiks ('skunks'). xxiii. A. 1905. 1898 (probably a misprint for G'auyakoilnagai. opposite North id. 1888. Stl'EngE 1898. S. XXXIII. — Rel. ii.. 12th Rep. 32. 35. A. Anvils were probably not especially shaped for the purpose. Soc. whence all finally went to Alaska. 1884. 1905. A.. Kao-ke'-owal. for 1648. Soc.. 1893. Peterson in Records of Past. Dec. Sinclair in Pub. iv. 1905. Upham in Science. Anthrop. Skertchley in Jour. index. (3) in — XLVi. 22. however. Hist. Swanton. (2) in Science.. (2) in Peabody Mus. Nat. Anc. for 1640. 1877 (Kainah). have been identified. the chief town of this tribe was sacked by 300 Iroquois. 1858. utensils. breach of neutrality. N. (2) Ice (1) Man and the Glacial Period. who killed a large The progress of opinion and research relating tants and carried number of its inhabiaway many others in capti1858. Ah-pe-ki'. IV. 1848. Wyman in Mem. Munro. (3) in Aondironon. w.— Jes. until within recent the American tribes is vity. Inst. : — Sierra Whitney. Morse in Proc. pt. 1903 Peabody Acad. xiv. and early history of recorded in a vast body of literature fully cited. Soc. A. 'Masset inlet gitA Masset subdivision residing in the town of Yaku. E. h. Primitive workers in metal were Swanton. 1877. Ah-pe-kl'-e.) Nadaillac. 1895. 1882. A. territory bordered xxiii. Winchell (1) in Cont.W. for 1656. Rel. Mus. Swanton. (w. Am. Queen Charlotte ids. May..— Boas. Smithson. A branch of the Yakulanas division of the Raven clan of the Skittagetan family. Aug. Tribes. A. 21a 29 Univ. ica. 1892 (Kainah and — — . 1890. (5) in Rec. A. Reps. 1. Ap'-i-kai-yiks.—Jes. Sept. Ibid. by Bancroft in Native Races. ii. A division of the 171. Archseol. Haida. 1888.... 1895. A. The worker in stone also sometimes used a sqjid rock body on which to break and roughly shape masses of flint and other stone. 1875. 1905. Boston Soc. Study of N. — 1902. (4) Mo.. {^Ao-qe'awa-4. 'middle town people of Masset inlet'). Boas. Cont. British Columbia. ii. S. 31. Tribes. Amerii. its name in the Skidegate dialect). Geol.— Morgan. Harrison in Trans. Hist. xxi.. 1900. the upper surface showing the marks of rough usage. 12th Rep. Grinnell. (w. 1894.. i. Nat.. 1889. 1897..1903. antiquity. 125. 275. I.. B. mainly branch of the Neutrals on that of the Huron In 1648. 1889. Nat. 1905. N. Can. Proc. 1876-1904. xvii. 'Masset 1884. 1904. Kainah and of the Piegan. Ou yaku Ilnige. 1897. ii. Rel. Boston Soc. i. 272. 12th Rep. and the types most utilized by the tribes are left to conjecture. from Masset inlet. Ill. Am. Aon- years. (4) in Rep. Aogitunai {^Ao-gtlAna'-i. Soc.. Am.. owing to an alleged A no.. N. in Proc. Salisbury. Seneca.. Univ. These are found on many sites where stone was quarried and wholly or partially worked into shape. Ontario.. Aostlanlnagai {^Ao inlet sL. Cal. 1897. Can.. Putnam (1) in Proc. 1903. whose in Age. at least. 'those born in the XLVI. h. 1858. in 5th Rep. selected according to their fitness for the par- Aoyakulnagai (^Ao yd' ku Inaga' i.. Ibid. (3) Introd. 1885-88. of the Past. 34. (2) in 12th Rep.... Roy. 1858. h. 1899. A. Tribes. Sci. Nanai- mo. Queen Charlotte ids. 1905.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. which received the name from Masset inlet. dironnons. Part of them. Haida. h.—Jes. Haida uns'). rear-town people'). 22. Prehiat. N.

Archaeology. a brief review of the salient features ' of the archaeology of northern America. 1863. In the present article all that can be included is in Illinois. — Hayden. In no part of America are there remains of man or his works clearly indicating the presence . St. Archaeological researches serve to carry the story of the tribes and past. A. 1854. impossible derivation of this word from the French empechement has been suggested. 1885. Bref Recit. s«. An Ottawa village. Hist. Baffin island. A their general historic habitat for unnumbered division of the Siksika. Nugumiut at cape True. Iroquois deed (1701) in N. burial. Atlantic and Pacific slopes and in the regions A subdivision of the Akud- nirmiut. near. such as dwelling. 1877). These are well illustrated by Ft. Apishamore. The prehistoric remains of the — Grinnell. A. Baffin island. Labrador. A-pi-kai-'yiks. f. and ing (2) the Pueblo country. 788. which in the Chippewa and closely related dialects of Algonquian signifies 'anything to lie down upon. also fortifications and inclosures of extremely varied form and. sissippi valley and the Southern states these works consist of mounds of diversified shapes.. Y. in many instances. Home bay. 1912 Piegan). and parts of Colo- from lower Michigan. (1) (2) The history of the the history of the inferior its separate families. built mainly of earth and devoted to a variety of purposes. tribes...e. Arbaktung. E. and are extremely important In the Misto the student of native history. Rocky mts. 1884. now known among that the sedentary condition prevailed the aborigines to a much larger extent Apontigoumy. Some of these defense. or r. A Montagnais coast of Labrador. 271. Arizona. Blackfoot Lodge Tales ('a various regions thus pertain in large measure to the ancestors of the historic occupants. in- Aragaritka. Huron and 1. of great extent. and Phil- Mo. and Texas. 264. Lawrence below the site of Quebec. Erie and New is Mexico. their culture back indefinitely into the although the record furnished by the various classes of i-eraains grows rapidly less legible as we pass beyond the few well-illuIt is mined pages of the historic period. s. Doc. by the magnitude of their and even such America have occupied primitive groups as the Iroquois. and others ('northern Bloods'). 15. generations. and the Great basin. Within the area of the United States PreColumbian progress was greatest in two principal regions: (1) The Mississippi valley. are of great with investigations in each of these departments. Courcelles (1670) in N.30 DEPARTMEXl' OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. used (a. there is comparatively little save minor moveable relics and kitchen deposits to mark earlier occupancy. Americanisms. the second by its ruined pueblos of stone and —Cartier (1545). Araste. and ceremony. area characterized fixed works. of northern Aputosikainah band of the Kainah Ap-ut'-o-si-kai-nah. The more advanced nations of Middle and South America have been practically stationary for long periods. 1855. compris- Tionontati. 1892..' buffalo-calf skins. viii. Col. (3) the history of culture in multi- farious forms. A saddle blanket. Doc. Hist. 1862 (Piegan). such as The first-mentioned by remains of extensive mounds and fortifications. Col. as on the 32. quois to The name given by the h'othe tribes. 422. Utah. An Iroquoian village in 1535 on.) the aborigines of historic times. as the Cahokia mound and the Etowah mound in Georgia. of prehistoric Europe. 34.. Questions of origin and antiquity are necessarily considered in connection Great lakes. or having culture markedly different in kind and degree from those characterizing of peoples distinct on the great prairies An (Bartlett. Diet. Val. The fixed works which occur in the first-mentioned region are very numerous. Archajologica! researches are applied to the elucidation of three principal departments of inquiry: race and the sub-races. adobe. which compare well in bulk with the There are great pyramids of middle America. Blatt. — on the Stearns. — than has been generally supposed. — rado. Algonquians. they winter generally on cape Bisson. including the Huron and cluding portions of the southern States farther eastward. ol.— Boas in 6th Rep.. — Boas in Deutsche Geog. and social groups. c. 908. Meaning and form make it evident that the term is a corruption of apishimon. and Aqbirsiarbing lookout for whales')- A the record is thus much more simple than that winter settlement of 1888. of the In the remainder of the area. ix. which they drove out from the peninsula between 1.. village architectural achievements. Y. as indicated Appeelatat. Ethnog. B. 209. observation. made of from the Indian and the Eskimo. at- tacked by the Seneca in 1670. the n.. iv.

built of stone in and shelters in the canon walls and along fri- tained in the area N. while in the less favovned regions. and. In connection with fixed works may also be mentioned the petroglyphs. demonstrates the fact that they pertain in large measm-e to the ancestors of the present occupants of the Pueblo towns and that no antecedent distinct people or cul- a gradual advance in arts and industries." were Knowledge Post-Colum- "Moundin no other than Indians. rifts Of unusual ments. The most notable of the latter are the mounds of the Atlantic and Pacific shore which offer a rich as defined by Morgan.) formerly occupied by the tribes also contain deposits of refuse. architecture. as a result of ficance alive. the sites being marked bj^ numerous pittings surrounded with the refuse of manufacture. the native general history somewhat as follows: An occupancy of the study of these various remains. Superior region. occurring principally in the Ohio and upper Mississippi valleys. possessions. There are also numerous copper mines in the L. 21a 31 Adams co. Ohio. extent. deposits marking occupied shell lines. and Mill Creek. reward for the labours of distri- the archajologist. Ark. refuse as well as such as agriculture.. often called the builders. but there appears to be no very close correspondence. marked by excavations of no great depth but of surprising the tribes. distinguish defin- stages of culture progress in America corre- were obtained for the manufacture of implements and utensils. including various regions in very early times by tribes of the skeletal parts. Stone enit tered into the construction where was readily avaQable. A study of the archaeological remains con- — interest are the cliff-dwellings. found in nearly every part of the country. soapstone. and metallurgy accomplishments characterizing a well-advanced — countless sites. Ohio. and. and other varieties down made to to historic times. and their walls display numerous examples of pictography. In the Pueblo region the fixed works consist of villages and dwellings of stone. or rock inscriptions. obsidian. These give little aid. (See Mines and Quarries. successful practice of many arts and industries. an artificial basis of subsistence. Grant co. The animalshaped mounds. Ohio. utensils. demonstrating especially the great enterprise and perseverance of of stone sponding to those established in Europe. resulting in many cases in fully sedentary habits. masonry. clay. and chipped and polished imple- ments appear to have been employed at all periods and by peoples of every stage of culture.. Their lesson is a most instructive one. Wis. and the low culture. comprising perhaps three-fourths of the area of the United stage of barbarism. Ohio. only by these remains but by the presence of traces of extensive irrigating ditches. since they can not be interpreted. sand. of adobe. to the study of aboriginal presence in the region of a numerous sedentary history. sculpture. orna- — pying the general region within historic times. shells. of the Rio Grande as a whole supplements the knowledge gained by investigations the faces of the table-lands or excavated in able chffs. States and a larger proportion of the British the more primitive hunter-fisher stage mainly persisted Efforts have been ite Among fixed works of somewhat wide bution are the quarries where flint. although the polishing processes seem to have grown relatively more important with advanc- . are a striking variety of these remains. Wellknown examples are the Serpent mound. Adams co. especially in favourable localities. The use of stone was universal among the tribes. but rarely as well-built walls or as awakening to the advantages of metal in the Caverns arts. ceremonial and diversional objects and appliances great numbers of which are now preserved in our museums. save in rare cases population relying mainly on agriculture for subsistence. These works indicate the former however.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER' Ancient. quartzite. Such are the extensive workings at Flint Ridge. It is where tradition has kept the of native history in signi- now known. No. indicating the fulness of the native used in these structures include earth.. along the coast. weaving. Hot Springs. In the districts lying outside of the areas referred to above are encountered occasional burial mounds and earthworks. earlier among the living tribes in such a The advanced condition of the is way as to enable us not only to prolong the occupants of the region indicated not vista of many tribal histories but to outline. ture can be differentiated. in the southern Pueblo area. that these people. mica.. ful A care- tentatively at least. 111. and some cases at least the ancestors of tribes occu- bian as well as in Pre-Columbian times is greatly enhanced by a study of the minor remains and relics the implements.. the more recent archaeological investigations. pottery. and the earthworks at Newark. and the so-called Elephant The materials mound.

. S. contains do not contain any references Canadian Indiana. being capable of producing art works of the higher grades. Primitive Industry. possibly ten thous- by Schoolcraft. Prehist. are his arts. International Congress of American- Washington Historical Anthropological Wyoming and Geological Society. Ape Heads. University tions. Lapham. ro. and others. with papers found to include remains of man but beyond this time the traces are so meagre and elements of doubt so numer- and and years. . 1893. very extensive and can not be cited here save in outline. containing papers by i-iv. 1897. Allen. Mound Builders. Bulletins. 1885. Fewkes. Academy Journal. Journal of American Ethnology and Archeology. Cliff Archaeology and False Antiquities. with papers United States. Dall. Geological formations in the Ethnological Society.. Starr. Davenport Academy of Science. Mercer. Prehist. Troost. American Museum of Natural History. reaching well back toward the close of the Glacial period. is National History Society of ists. 1878. National Museum Reports. and Associations: of Phila. were in the use of of the more advanced making marked headway metals. 1898-1903. 1904. Smith. Mindeleff. 1879. containing articles by Abbott. therefore. Interior Dept. Wyman. Scidp. Museum of Arts and Science University of Pennsylvania. Proceedings. Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society. Y. i-iv. American Naturalist. Science. Mason. North Americans 1880. The literature of the northern archaeology to Papers. Jackson. : Annual Reports. Holmes. Schumacher. papers by Dall. Putnam. Knowledge. Native Races. Terry. Prehist. The Archeologist Popular Science Monthly. Foster. papers by Abbott. Fewkes. and others. Laidlaw. First Steps in Field list is Columbian Museum. and Whittlesey Short. League of Iroquois. containing articles by Bandelier and others. Ohio. New York and the West. of Surveys. Ewbank. Henshaw. WiUoughby. Primitive Man in Ohio. Culin. Am. Loew. DeUenbaugh. ous that conservative students hesitate accept the evidence as satisfactory. Hunter. Wilson. Academies. taining con- by Abbott. Rau. Bulletins. Antiq. Bulletins. Dwellers of the in Mesa Verde. Yarrow. Hough. 1881. and others (see published list).. American Journal of Science and Art. Toronto. Canadian Institute. 1900. Recherches sur les antiquites de I'Amer. McGuire. of Antiquity. Brower. Am. Fewkes. American established. Morgan. Contributions to Miscellaneous Collections. of Tenn. Society. American Journal of Science. North Americans of Yesterday. Survey of Territories. Remains.32 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. World. Thomas. Phillips. but the culture was every- Some papers by Dorsey. Whittlesey. Papers. 1892. Squier and Davis. Worthy of particular mention are pubhcatioas* by (1) Government Departments: U. and others (see pubarticles iUshed list). Bureau of American Ethnology Reports. Schoolcraft. American Antiquarian Boston Society of Natural History. Read 1877'. Archajol. 1902. Races.. 1854. containing papers by Beauchamp. reprinted verbatim from the Handbook to of American Indians and. Pubhcations. Archeol. papers by Boyle. Antiquities of Human Progress. *This ithat Fowke. Bancroft. Transactions. Memoirs. War Dept. Canada: Reps. Monumental Remains Antiquities of of Georgia. and others. but as yet it is agreed that any great antiquity is in Societies. 1851-57. by Sinclair and others. Jones. Wilson. and Ethnol. and others (see published list). 1912 ing culture. Memoirs of Explorations. State Museum Reports! University of the State of New York. 1891-94. Periodicals: American Geologist. Dall. containing of California. Publications. Southern Indians. Pro- ceedings. Archaeological Institute of America. (1) (2) Holmes. (1) Prehistoric Implements. and others. of Natural Sciences with numerous memoirs by Moore. Holmes. Holmes. 1876. American Anthropologist. The antiquity of man much discussed in recent not fully America has been years. N. Proceedings.. 1905. Sept. of Minister of Education. 1873. Publicamany works Squier. and others. containing articles by Abbott. and others. (4) . Ethnology. Journal of Geology. 1861. and Smithsonian Inothers. Nordenskiold. 1882. (2) Fort the (3) Ancient. by Farquharson.. 1901.. Rau. and others Peabody Museum Reports. U. Thurston. (5) Separate individual publications Abbott. 1891. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Reps. Putnam. Bulletins. Clark. Mun- Nadaillac. Indian Tribes. Holmes. 1895. Society. 1890. 1884. American Antiquarian. Contributions to N. Warden. Fowke. while flaking processes are not. containing articles by HrdUcka. containing papers (3) where essentially that of polished stone. Memoirs. vols. Ohio Centennial Rep. S.. (2) Institutions: stitution Bulletins. Hist. A. Powers. with papers by Bessels. McLean. New Brunswick. Moorehead. with numerous papers.: Reps. Anthr. containimg articles by Cushing. 1851. Education Department. tribes of the S. Prehist. Jones. and others.

they will here be history. and in the s. 1897. and available in the semi-civilized Indians of central Mexico. N. Even the characteristics of the particular site impress themselves strongly on the buildings and the buikling group. that in many cases where the conditions have remained reasonably stable distinct styles of building exist almost side by side. (5) In any area the natural resources have much to do with determining the economic status of the people and. resources. 1881). affected is by outside In the n.) as the food quest or the pressure of foes requires. but is the primary dynamic factor ment. vegetal.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER 1827. canals. Prehistoric Man. since he is not only the product. Various branches of the building arts are treated separately under appropriate heads. environment and as illustrations of the manner in which beginnings are made and the higher architectural forms are evolved. storage houses. of Mexico. Along with the succession of steps in culture progress like illustrate many of the initial steps in the evolu- there goes progressive differentiation of use. The building materials available to a people exercise a profound influ- Mexico the various phases characterizing the culture of numerous tribes and groups of tribes are marked by more or less People of the lowest social grade are content with nature's canopies distinctive habitations. as his culture. For archaeological bibhography of OntaCanada. H. and those of rich alluvial bottoms from those of the land of plateaus and cliffs. (b) people. reservoirs.religious. animal. pueblos of hewn stone or adobe. and rain. climate. con- Architecture. The kind and character of briefly treated as products of portation. thousand miles separate the tribes of our border from siography of the district occupied. those of a country of forests from those of an arid region. sky. Man and the Glacial Period. technical. shelters for domestic animals. so light that they may be carried from place to place Minister of Education. nearly a s. namely: The building arts of the tribes n. 21a Wilson. the influence of neighbouring cultures. and characteristics of the the cultural and especially the (c) Mexico have been influence. Winsor. Some build lodges of skins and mats. The manner which social status is determines the character of habitations dwelt on by Morgan (Cont. — the 1884. ence on the building arts. These the area here included. Dwellings on the open plains necessarily differ ftom those in the mountains. wind. careful consideration they are hence worthy of The less advanced tribes have only the dwellin addition. (4) It is apparent at a glance that the physiographic characters of a country exercise strong influence on aboriginal building arts. 1862. foster or discourage progress in the arts. (1) In these studies it is necessary that the man ties himself and especially his mental capaci- and characteristics should be considered as is essential elements of the environment. towers. and may be referred to somewhat at length. by the student ing. (3) the buildings in a given district or region de- pend on a number of conditions. (w. civic structures. and the overhanging rocks^or construct simple shelters of brush or bark for protection against sun. rio. and have so existed from time immemorial. H. while others. (e) the and mineral. higher in the scale. The presence of 17877—3 . temples. which have little social status of the particular peoples. (2) in all culture develop- The and culture status of the people — the far their particular stage of then. and various constructions employed in transSocial customs and religion play each a part in the results accomplished. of iv. observation of culture fortifications. see 9th Archaeological Report of Ontario. and so fully does en- the main are the determining factors in the art development of all peoples in all times. to the apparent exclusion of other criteria. while the more cultured have. although almost exclupractical their purpose. the one acting on the habitation and the other giving rise to a separate and most important branch of the building arts. according as thej' are favourable or unfavourable. Narrative and Critical History of America. dams. Wright. the forest. tombs. aesthetic development— goes the in toward determining character of buildings. Ethnol. (d) the phy- to give. of little (a) The capacity. especially the building (/) So slowly did inter-tribal influence act within materials within the area. sively The simple in constructions of serve to struct strong houses of timber or build fortress- the tribes N. and at the same time have much to do with the trend of culture in general and with results finally achieved in civilization.. social. 33 No. habits. 1895. i. but as these topics are there considered mainly in their ethnologic aspects. tion of architecture. vironment control culture. Within the area n. of present and past environments. A. there only a limited contact with the Siberian tribes.

better to withstand the cold. and remarkably uniform over the vast extent of the Arctic shore line. Snow.. is Their at the displays results due to the local conditions. interior or exterior. (7) the woodlands of the N. and these are utilized for dwellings and is storage places according to the requirements and capacities of the tribes. The summer houses are mere shelters of driftwood or bones covered with skins. but by permitting the blocks to crystallize by freezing into a solid dome of ice so solid that the key block may be omitted for a window or for the passage of smoke without danger to the strucThis house lasts during the winter. drifts Wood is known ment of the native tribes in only as from the s. it is not likely that sesthetic effect in their buildings. and the results compacted snow any of the ordinary principles of construction. are utilized in the construction of dwellings unique on the face of the earth. permits and encourages rapid development of these arts. no doubt. that has been observed. They it is The houses of the and effects is not yet possible. and partly. coast derive their character largely from the vast forests of yellow cedar. The people do but the others conditions are greatly diversified. in the siunmer melts away. carefully constructed dwellings are essential to life. ice. Within some of these the conditions are practically uniform over vast areas. and these results may now be passed Among the most clearly briefly in review. which alone of the materials available to uncivilized man for building purposes is sufficiently permanent to permit the cumulative growth necessary to the evolution of the higher forms of the art of architecture. The large winter houses are entered by a long underground passage. stones. (6) Climate is an element of the highest significance in driftwood are the materials available for building. Rio Grande to produce the diversified results observed. ous more or less distinct styles of house construction having developed almost side by side. and not to be expected that the building arts can flourish within the Arctic circle. W. perhaps. numer- not lack in ability and industry. ever re- are uniform in proportion. There is no opportunity for of blocks of These are built held in position. prevails. highlands. N. well adapted to building pui'poses. The house depressed beneath the surface of the groiind. bones of animals. The highest development is not possible without stone. but well perfected. place in the culture ladder by no means may be in observed that of the various condition- lowest rung. The whale-ribs covered with earth. and people apphed to building with stone in a stone environment might well have placed among the foremost builders in America. 1912 plentiful. (3) the Middle Pacific area. environment blocks the restricts constructive effort to the effectual!}'- barest necessities of existence and As with the larger areas. The conditions thus outlined have operated of the in the various culture areas n. but ing agencies of environment one may dominate one district and another in another district. along the icy shores.. shore line agriculture is it indicate on the part of the builders decided abihty in planning and remarkable enterprise in execution. the low walls of which are constructed of whale bones. In warm. but with our present imperfect knowledge of the facts in a majority of cases the of conditions It is full analysis far from the highest. A.34 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. W. . arid districts shelter is not often a necessity. The habitations of an arid region natur- ally differ from those of a region where moisture available for the greater part of the year. (2) the North Pacific area. and E. each inferior division It way to higher development. while in ceived serious consideration. and are in their minor art clever as the Eskimo work. stone.. are substantial and roomy structm-es. (4) the arid region of the S. and a primitive people may have no buildings worthy of the name. but in the far N. wood construction The genius of this them Vast and save for the presence of oil-producing animals of the sea primitive man could not exist. while its absence may seriously retard their development and in fact may be accountable for the backward condition of a people not only in this activity but in the whole range of its activities. and (8) the Gulf coast and Florida. which the enterprising people were strong enough to master and utilize. not by utilizing — aesthetic display in such houses as these.. while the house has a framework of timbers or the history of building. (6) the Mississippi lowlands and the middle S. Along the many thousands of miles of n. partly. and ture. because of the lack of necessary timbers to build walls and span the space required above ground. They mark the highest achieve- out of the question. particularly a product of the N. The groundplan and interior arrangement are simple. defined and characteristic of these environments are (1) the Arctic area. or timbers. easily quarried stone. snow house is Snow and ice. (5) the Basin range and Rocky Mt.

21a 35 labour was expended in getting out the huge trunks. The art of the stone-mason was mastered. led inevitably to the building of houses of masonry. while to the S. and the cumulative result was the great pueblo. partaking of textile technique. With greater ability. but they were still in the elementary stages of the arts of construction. coast and those of the Pueblo region is most striking. In the highlands of. between the buildings of the N. in carving the house and totem poles. with aldic its columns. The fagade. The stone-builders had the most promising outlook. in use at the beginning of the historical period. described by Vancouver and other pioneer explorers. In the N. The defensive motive being present. rocks from the fornia afford a were characterized by elements of symmetry. posts. were It is striking and important constructions. 17877—31 . one passes through varied environments where timber and earth. In none of these areas had the tribes reached — the stage in the building arts where constructive features or architectural details are utilized A people stone and could decorate pottery and weave baskets of admirable pattern could not mould the unwieldy elefreely for purposes of embellishment. W. mythological paintings and huge herIn impressive. but probably little thought was given to the to architectural effect as this is known more civilized Yucatan. In these things the native mind certainly took some pleasure. were found. grass. due to differences in environment. Although they were acquainted with many essential elements of construction. The primitive habitations of the Pacific slope strait of Fuca to the gulf of Calimost instructive lesson. results of the skill probably useless to speculate on what might have been in •='tore for the native builders had they been permitted to continue unmolested throughout the ages. the skins of animals. and story grew on story. is distinctly and caves. and the dwelling group became a great stronghold. while in the arid region the stone- builders to had introduced a number of features relieve the monotony of walls and to add to the pleasing effect of the interiors. but in the S. door and window openings were accurately and symmetrically framed with cut stone and spanned with lintels of stone and wood. and the sculptured and painted details lent much aesthetic interest. that could carve wood and ments of the building into aesthetic form. rapidly decay. with scarcity of wood. rushes. such as the grass lodge and the mat house. indeed a matter of regret that the genius of such a people should be expended upon a material of which no trace is left. stronger and stronger waUs were built. Some of the lower types of structures. and beams. They had not made the one essential step toward great building the discovery of the means of covering large spaces without the use of wood. who such as the Maya of spent a vast amount of time an^j tribes. entirely of the feudal castles of the Old World. the stones were hewn and laid in diversified courses for effect. The contrast. offer suggestions unappreciated. while with the Pueblos the and effort of one generation were supplemented by those of the next. mark the reeds. and houses of bark. the vigorous tribes had risen to the task of utilizing the vast forests. described by Lewis and Clark. aesthetic suggestions But and features did not pass and towers of picturesque outline situations. the Great Divide and in the vast inland basins of the N. the improvident and enervated natives were little short of homeless wanderers. in picturesque now often in ruins.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. grass. where the means of subsistence admitted of the growth of large communities and where the readyquarried stone. highest limit in the building arts. save in museums. grace. and in erecting the massive structures. the northern peoples laboured under the disadvantage of employing materials that after the lapse of a and rough timbers covered with earth gave only necessary shelter from winter blasts. had massiveness of form and boldness of outline. W. perhaps. and brush in turn played their part in the very primitive house-making achievements of the strangely diversified tribesmen. than the Pueblos. the building arts did not flourish. bark. In the N. On the Gulf coast the simple pile dwellings set in the shallow waters were all that the conditions of existence in a mild It is cUmate required. it directed the genius of the people toward continued and united effort. the roomy communal dwellings of the Columbia valley. The wooden house of the N. early days the fortified towns. Cumulative results encouraged cumulative effort. and rhythmic repetition of details. they had devised neither the offset span of stone nor the keystone arch. In the whole expanse of the forest-covered E. The lot of the Pueblo tribes fell in the midst of a vast region of cliffs and plateaus. in hewing the planks. the palisaded fortress and the long-house of the Iroquois. few generations.

Fewkes. Rel. has been described by Mercer. iv.s. 61. Phila. and arrow and spear head. Stevenson. Voy. Dawson in Proc. Elisabeth. Smithson. Inst. w. Hist.. Rel. Ind. 1858. Rep. but the more massive varieties. repr. A.—Jes. A Huron village in Ontario about Builders. Schoolcraft. Ahrenda. 1893. Rel. Swan in Mem. Arenda. 1635.. 67. Atironta..—Jes. Ind. tribe of the Huron. 1. 109. Catlin. 3. 1640..— Sagard. for 1657.. Antiq. Anthrop. Rel. 1890. Ethnol. 1590-1628. was in very general use by the tribes n.. 1858. The women are supposed to be of ordinary stature. Rel. 182. cited.. Nat. Rep. Virginia. and Turner in various Reports. of Mexico. n. and an ancient quarry of this mateiial. 1881-92. 1865. 1853. 1912 energy on the purely decorative features of their stone buildings. 1858. Y. Arenda- — 1642. and ornaments. First Plant. 1858. 1887. i. Starr.. N. Arendarhononons. h. Mag. Jackson in Metropol. Ibid. The typical slates. Smithson. Jes. 1905. Am. in. Jes. i. 1858. 1895. Hoffman. tablets. of them. — — Nation Jes. no Lewis and Clark. who are covered with hair and are so tiny that they carry them about in their hoods. Tribes.— Jes. B. 1865. Am. Cont. and perforated years. for 1640. 1858. 522. for — — New France. knives. were used to some extent for implements. Nat. h. for 1640. 24. Beauchamp. ir. somewhat problematic banner-stones.— Boas in 6th Rep... A. iv. is much Can. Dorsey. — Nation de Ibid. du Can. situated at Point Pleasant. including leaf-shaped blades. Arendaronons. 90. Cliff Dwellers of the Mesa Verde. 1866. Nat. — Ibid.. Eells in — Kingsley. cronons. Gr. and Trans. (j. —Sagard.) 18. Sci.55. including so-called and Ste. It is use. h. no. A. E.. A Huron village in Ontario about 1640. Teit in Mus. Rel. Squier. 640. Smith. no. — — for 1637 6. Jes. MacLean Mound Arente. 1874. They constituted the Stone. Moore. Arendaenhronons. Hist. 150. Del- Enarhonon. Rep. 1881. Foster. the inhabitants of St.. the Thomas. Goddard in Univ. Hist. 79. characterized by their decided foliate structure. having the most striped slates of the Eastern and Middle states and claiming to be the first the French. or Rock. 1877.. for dahs. Arendaonatia. Anendaonactia. 3. 1858..—. 1872. various reports in Papers Arch. as the greenish striped slates of the Eastern states. of Mexico for the manufacture of utensils. Acad. the argillite of New Jersey.— Jes. 1893. Nordenskiold. Hist. Arendoronnon. Schoolcraft. for 1641. Louisiane. 82. 1758. and West. 234. 159. They hunt in kaiaks and provide for their husbands. Arendaehronons. Du Pratz. ronons. Rel..Shea. 1775. various memoirs in Jour. Iroqouis Trail. St. 189. such diversified in and Davis in Smithson. Coues ed. Inds. index.. Pa. Cal. some varieties of this stone had special significance with the . 1858. Nelson. Jes. coast were usually preferred for polished implements and carvings. The fine-grained greenish and four chief tribes of the Huron. pt. lenbaugh. Squier i. who founded among them and Canada were extensively used in the manufacture of several varieties of objects of the missions of St. Nation du Roclier. 1893. which character. Miss. i. Royal Soc. 1848. Rel. Amer. B. 1900. Rel. Bandelier. Antiq. i-iv. but only submitted in a body to the Seneca.50 bird-stones. on the political des- truction and expulsion of the Huron tribes by probable that. xxi. Hrdlicka in Am. Renarhonon. Pennsyls.. 1858.. iii. Am. Ethnol.. Morgan in Cont. A mythical people believed by the Central Eskimo to live far to the n. la Roche. First Steps in Human Progress. 1892. Ill. and the states to the slate of the and the black See Habitations. 1901 Inst. Argillite (slate). xxii. Hist. Adair.36 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. 1888. Mindeleffs. 40. and these are widely distributed over the Middle Atlantic Arendahronoii easterly situation allies of ('rock people')- One of the states. Rel. Inds. Rel... 99. Nat. Exped. 23.. and for carvings in general. 1888. 1897. Prehist. This material. vania. Mus. vii.. Mus. for 1637.58 1636.. — Cath. Jean Baptiste. 1841. 1851-57. of Tenn. Narr.. for 1644. W. the Iroquois. 1891. Mrs. Morice in Trans. 165. 1889. Am. 1858. 1903.. Ahrendah- — — Charlevoix. 1819.— Jes. Rel. Am. (1635) E.' for 1858. Arendarrhonons. N. hke the green agates and jadeites of Mexico. Powers in Cont. 1878. 18. Boas in N. See Jesuit Relatiste the more important publications will here be tion for 1639. De Bry. 123. In 1649. North Americans of Yesterday. Hist.5. whi adopted them. Stand. 1897. 72. Jes. Arendaronnons.. for 1637. See Boas. (w. repr. ix. 1851. Thurston. 1905.) Ardnainiq. Harlot. Can. Joachim. Va. Races. Aven1883' d' 154. ii. 1894-1905. N. B. ArgiUite was much used by the tribes of the Delaware and Susquehanna valleys. 1879. Tribes. 83. Jes. 1895. implements. Pubs. N. Cont.. 1S5S. (1804-06). Collectiones Peregrinationum. Jean Bap- Numerous authors dwell more or less on the buildings of the tribes n. Niblack in Nat. Ahrendaronons. In 1639 they were said to have been residents of the Huron country for about . iii.. Material from this and other quarries in the Appalachian region was used mainly for flaked implements.

f. 1848. of the elk. Va.. Columbia r„ tribes. it may be said that the shield and lance were used chiefly by the equestrian tribes of the open country. coats. Worthy of special mention are Abbott. A. was on Androscoggin Lewiston.. 1858.— Jesuit Relation for 1636. viii. At the suggestion of Mosco and the friendly Indians. 1824. Helmets and head defences are found among some of the tribes of the North Pacific coast. Holmes 1896). were With the exception shield 4 to 5 ft. W. probably near indiscrimi- The various names used nately for the tribe and the river solved into the forms may be re- Ammoscoggin and Aro- saguntacook. It is black and takes an excellent polish (Niblack). presence of interpretations. References to the use of argillite and slate occur in many works relating to ethnologic and archa^ologic subjects. made use of the to — "Massawomek I. 18. E. W. while body armour. slats (N. Niblack other parts of the country. Powhatan. iron (Eskimo^ Chukchi). moose. ser. twined wooden rods (Aleut. 21a 37 The tribes of the N.. John Smith. The Eskimo are have been said not to Rep.. N. E. 355. Mohawk. The ceremony of the Hopi and the heraldry of the shield among the Kiowa have respectively been specially studied by Dr. the Indian shield The decoration etc. Mercer in Pubs. 69° 11' 3. coast. "about the forepart of our Boat. Shoshoni. but so firmly that no arrow can possibly pierce them). Ontario. B. 62. Boas in Deutsch. Nat. from whence we securely beat back the Salvages from off the 185. which the Haida obtain chiefly from deposits on Slate cr. Nat. and httle small sticks woven betwixt strings of their British Columbia. These the English set plaine without any hurt. its coast region. osiers or bark (Virginia Indians. shore of Nottawasaga bay. of Mexico.. i.. An Eskimo village of the Akudnirmiut. targets. 1872..) long. but it was in use by "these light Targets (which are made of among the tribes of the plains. Nat. vi. Haida. etc. Ran in Smithson. 34. A. when fighting a tribe on the Chesapeake. Mus. on the in N. Anthrop. etc. Sh ields and body armour app 3ar to in more or less general use among the Indian tribes n. which have received different all seeming to refer to the in fish the stream. Baffin island. Arontaen ('it is a lying log. One sort of defensive armour did the early English adventurers in Virginia good service on one occasion. coast employ a fine-grained slate in their very artistic carvings. n. which bore the same CO. and occasionally among the eastern Indians. h. seems to have been used only for the part of . cedar rods (Navaho). Cont. covered made their shields of buffalo with buckskin or elk skin. No. James Mooney of the Bureau of American Ethnology. and. in 13th 1885.3". in the art constitute important chapters and religion of the aborigines. the S. 133. Me. formerly living in AndroscogginTheir village. An Iglulirmiut Eskimo village near Melville pen. like a forecastle. Queen Charlotte ids. Iroquois and other The Plains Indians hide. This slate has the desirable qualities of being soft and easily carved when freshly quarried. 1893. of hardened hide (Tlingit. W. do with the nature of armour. Hist. with the knife and tomahawk. 1890. (w. Walter Fewkes and Mr.HANDBOOK OF IXDIAXS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER native tribes. Hupa. e. twined wooden Shasta.. bands of skin arranged in telescoping and of growing harder with time. in The presence and of the buffalo 1881. others used basketry (Pueblo). Univ. A tribe of the Abnakf confederacy." or shields (Smith. lat. Pawnee. protected employ the shield. The name Rows of overlapping plates of ivory. Iroquois). hempe. In general. Navaho.. W. e. Klamath. The data concerning armour among the Indians are summarized by Hough (Primitive American Armor. the its acquisition. by the Mem. and are often ornamented with the crest of the owner. since contact with the whites. Holmes in in 15th Rep. Geog. of elk hide of the shield. Asiatic plate (Japanese) origin. etc. The ivory armour is believed by Boas t(ft)e an imitation of the iron armour of the Chukchi. 1897. 1819. c. fashion (Chukchi). Industry. but are not sufficiently important to be given in full. Blatt. and the other plate armour may also be of n.) Arlagnuk. Am.... bone. Penn. Hupa. Armour. of Home bay..5-651). 1900). Rep. on Iglulik id." And so. had much Rep. Iroquois.). — ceremonies connected with use in ritual. coasts Virginia Indians). etc. Capt. J." the English drove back the enemy.. Chinook.. Mus. in the Mississippi region. Second Voy. (Teit in i. r. name. h. Franklin. Arliaktung. 1888. Rep..— Parry.' Hewitts A Huron village situated near Point Cockburn. 1873. B. Prim.. of a sort of oblong armour- more in favor with those of the timber and (a. Iroquois. Squier and Davis in Smithson.) . North of Mexico body armour presents at least five tj-pes: shield Arosaguntacook... 1636.. Mus. 1897. made Ntlakyapamuk is circular..

Hist. H. Falmouth conf. Indians. Trag. Hist. kooks. Arreseguntoocook.. French letter (1721) in Mass.. Y. Ameriscoggins. Douglass. 4th s. Very few flint arrowheads are as much as 2 inches long. Amarascogin. Ersegontegog. Coll. Hist.. Inds. Ill. 1861. Col. Mass. pt. Compend. Soc. Amoscongen. Hist. Ill. ArsikantegS. Francis IndiAmarascoggin. Amlreaneau.. 1819.. II. Doc.38 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE in v. Coll. Arrasaguntacook. Hist. Arresa(1727) in Maine Hist. in which they took a prominent part from 167. 1878. Doc. 1753. Magnalia (1702) quoted by Drake. Falmouth treaty report (1726).. 186. pi. 641. Soc. bk. 1753. near Jay and those near Lewiston. Aruseguntekooks. Coll. Inds. La Aresaguntacooks. Anasuguntakook. Tribes. As the settlements pushed into the interior the Wawenoc. Arosagantakuk. 185. and at a later period the combined tribes moved still farther up and joined the Roca- meca.— Gyles (1726). Y. viii. FalSoc. 1827. iv. La Tour.. GeorgeIX.. ix. thick or strong ones are flesh..... ibid. II. Am. 189. 152. 1819. Quebec. Massakiga. Arouseguntecook. Hist. Coil. 1848. Inds. the principal tribe and their dialect (Abnaki) — Document 1856.. in Stanford. v. antler. Y.5. Vater. ii. Arreraguntecook. 40. 1827. — being almost as resistant as soft rubber. v. Penobscot MS. 1848. (1727) in N. Gallatin in Trans. 1876.. IT.— Schoolcraft. pt... rawhide. — — — — — — — — — — — sion in the statements of writers. ix. 500. Aniircankanne. cook. Casco conf. so Hist. 177. 223. Many of them are notched. of The separate tips or points the who were frequently (j. The Arosaguntacook lived on the edge of the first Annirkakan. 150. Bk. 261. vi. as the united —Falmouth treaty journal (1749). 2d s. — Sullivan in 527. 3. Soc. Falmouth treaty re129. Hist. s. Amarosccggen. Ibid. repr. 1855. 113. Soc. Arreguntenocks. 1827. Hist. Am. A.. 1818. 386. 185. Tribes. 1855. The shape of the stone arrowhead among the Indian tribes is usually triangular or pointedoval. 1859.... ii. 185.. can be obtained from a bow without artificial is not at the command of a savage. and these are quite slender. Drake.. report 261. 271. Ammascoggen. Soc. — Schoolcraft.—Penhallow (1726) in N. Hist. Bk. Those without notches were secured by the cord passing over and under the angle at the base in a figure-8 fashion. op. Coll. bk. 1853. and consequently suffered much in the various Indian wars. 1836. were made and other varieties of Adgecantehook. These were set in a slot in the end of the shaft and tied with sinew.5.— Drake. Record (1755) in Maine Hist. guntecook. 1S4S. of — Ibid. 1856. 613. 904. Mag.. i. Ind. 1800. 365. 1755. ibid. Arresaguntacooks. 1853. — — — wood. Coll. Copper was much used by such tribes as were able to obtain a supply from the L. v. Amaris- —Gatschet. Mithridates. True in N. 1861. Hist.. were commonly known by the name of the leading one.—Smith (1629).. 262. 3. (1727) in Maine Hist. m. hoi'n. Keane Arosaguntacook. 3d s. Maine Antiq. map. 1804. many. 1761) in port. in. ArunsegunteHist. 1855. 86. Francis. 3. Doc. Bk. Mass. all the inhabitants of the vil- Arrowheads. or aid which cord. Ind. 1804... sent between the falls The prename was obtained by changing the first part of the word to Andros in comphment to Gov. as well as bone. though some have very slender blades with expanding base. VI. sec.. Arreruguntenocks. — — — — . iv. Y. was adopted by lage. Amonoscoggin. Amerascogen. much shorter. — — English settlements in Maine. Arlsaguntacooks. 210.v. 1S48. 1825. 242.. the Arosaguntacook or AndrosThese tribes. Doc. Hist. Trumbull. Hist. Arreaguntecooks. known collectively arrow-shafts.. Col. Hist.. Soc. Soc.. Col. Wild. 1825. Coll.scot name for the St. IX. Anasagunticooks.. Col. — —Colman (1726) 144. ii. Hist. Col. 1. Bk. i. 238. mouth treaty report (1726). 1853. Niles {ca. 1. 1761. Anasaguntakook. — — — Hist. AssaguntiJeflerys. Doc. La Potherie. ibid. (1695) in N. 386390. 1855 (misprint). Andros. Sagadahoc treaty (1090) in Mass. 210. Arreseguntecook. 1853. 1779. Drake. Arseguntecokes. 3. Hist. 390. Hist. Coll.— Doc.. Amerriscoggiii. Coll. Amarescoggin. French Dom. A..— Church (1690) town treaty (1717) in could not be penetrated by a large projectile unless it were propelled by greater power than — in Mass. 413. soon after the defeat of the Pcquawket by Lovewell Here the Arosaguntacook were still in 172.) N.. H. 104. 1841.. Ammarcscoggin. 1912 the river in Androscoggin co. V. 1st s. Amasagunticcok. together with the Pigcoggin. Soc. Same in N. Ainerescogin. 4th 3. Douglass.. 475. ibid. bk. Alsigant^gwiak).. which passed through the notches. Amonoscoggan. and copper. moved up and joined the Arosagunta- cook. vii.. Hist. Arresuguntoocooks. of 1693 in N. tribes These movements led to much confu- Arosaguntakflk. Arresagontacook. Androscoggins. 357. ibid. Coll. Soc. vi. 438. 261. Ammarascoggin. map. ments of this class the only line of distinction between arrowheads and spearheads is that of size. Casco conference (1727) in N. 152. 77.. Conn. Solid Vaudreuil (1721) in N. 157. Summary. B. Soc. of 1709 in Alsigantegwi. Y. 571. Ind. iii. Soc. 156. Soc. Sullivan in Mass. coggins. 1848.. Anasaguntacooks. Coll. at the mouth of the river. largely taken the place of these materials since — — — — — — — In stone implethe coming of the whites. 108. 115. Among of flint Indian tribes as Arosaguntacook. Virginia. — Drake. Stoughton ans. 155.— Purchas (1625). Potherie. wacket. It is said that war arrows often had the head loosely attached. . 357. Doc. Summary. Falmouth conf. 1887 (Penob. vii.. Coll.. Drake. ix. Y. 1864. Coll. H. ^heir town was burned by the English in 1690. Hist... 3. shell.. iii. i. Bk. stone. Soc. Coll. — Williamson in N. iii. Soc. 1st ix. 1764 in N. 1857 1853. Coll.. 3. Col. Mass. Pike (1690) in Drake. cit. Doc. Ist s.5 until their removal to Canada. 1824. Antnoughcawgen.. 1816. 1755.. Am. Wars. Y. Amresscoggin. Coll. 32. — Maine Hist. bk. Inds. E. Soc. Soc. 1855. Superior region and to some extent by those Iron has of British Columbia and Alaska. Mather.. H. removed to St.

feathers are whole. They are relatively few in number. In addition to their use in hunting and in war.ainted with stripes for identification. Mus. shaftment. E.. or wood the barbing is either bilateral or mo employ though widely distributed in area. or ened foreshaft of hard wood serves for the head. Blunt tribe. though it is sometimes a little on one or known as side. length. w. coast they are wooden shafts. (g. 1896. (2) in Surv. Smithsonian Inst. 1902. arrows are either withor three-fea- heads The are for stunning. League of the Iroquois. the Reports of the Anthropologist. a sharp- rounded is squared instead of flattened a "bunt. as among most of the Eskimo and some S. Mesa Verde. A complete Indian arrow is made up of six parts: Head. Antiquarian. coast arrows have heads of ivory. A. 16. the Archaeologist. Plains Indians and the Jicarillas cut shallow Arrows. vii. or copper. to stim birds or small game. Nat. and manner of setting. and number of feathers and in their form. Among certain Hopi priesthoods arrowheads are tied to bandoliers as ornaments. feathering. wood. Rau lashed together. arrows are commonly used in games and ceremonies. Arrowshafts of the simplest kind are reeds. Morgan. tang. but in the long examples from ivory. foreshaft. of Sharp arrowheads are two classes. 1881. and are rather short. 1879. three-pronged. two-feathered. the the Wilson in Rep. but most of them have no marks of use except occasionally such as would result from being shot or struck against a hard subIt is probable that their purpose was stance. 100th Merid. Among the Eskimo the barbed shaped. according to individuals. f. W. being top-shaped. 1893. arrowheads from those two areas are either harpoontwo-pronged. while the hunting point was firmly secured in order that the arrow might be recovered entire. In the Arctic region they are made of driftwood or are bits of bone canes. in order to secure the pelt or plumage free from cuts or blood stain. 1899. N. of shafts of pithy or other light by the Indians n. The Eskiarrowheads of stone of usual forms. the the scarcity of material. differing in the species of birds. NordenskiChff Dwellers of one-barbed or many-barbed... 1876.. xxii. bone. and nock. Fowke in 13th Rep. Bows and Quivers. but on the W. by riveting. Beauchamp in Bull. the point or for rendering the fastening more A specimen which has the end In the S. Arctic and N. or with gum. chipped or polished. the Zufii they are frequently attached to fetishes. in California. Among Am. 1900. owing to in Smithson. The barbs of the ordinary chipped head are usually alike on both sides. h. Impls. 21a would remain in the wound when the shaft was withdrawn. the Eskimo. as if used for knives or scrapers.. 50. locality. arrows for killing birds. elsewhere they are more generally of Many of the stone. and barbs. though some appear to have been originally made in this form. The bow and arrow was the most useful and universal weapon and implement of the chase possessed hard wood or wood. W.. so that this will come out and the head rankle in the wound. Ute. or stems of wood. These differ in material." or "blood grooves. of hard wood on cane shafts. knives. which can be withdrawn. and assemblage. old. Y. form. of Mexico for striking or p. from California across the continent to Florida. and no. The foreshaft is a piece of ivory. Consult Abbott (1) Prim. State Mus. or redressed arrowheads whose points have been broken off.. intended for holding game or for rankhng in the wound. The piercing distant objects. A few are smooth or polished at the ends. W. For the greater part these seem to be ordinary spearheads. gum. — grooves lengthwise down their arrowshafts. ahke on the two sides or different. 1904. 1897. bone.) Arrows. decoration. Antiquarian. h. as well as of stone. Prehist. the kind and the Arrowheads have three parts: Body. the blunt and the sharp." As a nde both faces are worked off equally so as to bring the edge opposite the middle plane of the blade. no. measurement. There are two kinds of arrowheads. The former are used on hunting. The feathering is an important feature in the Indian arrow. The shaftments in most arrows are plain. and others tied short sticks crosswise on the end of the shafts of boys' out feathering. the lanceolate. The head is attached to the shaft or by lashing with sinew. Glue. or heavy wood. called "lightning marks. and among unilateral.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER that it 39 No. and the sagittate. shaft. the latter on war or retrieving arrows. bone. Cont. Indus. W. B. foreshaft head of bone is stuck loosely into a socket on the shaft. As to form. 1897. Moorehead. . As to number of feathers. Paiute. thered. and cement were used in some sections for fixing secure. foreshafts are of bone or ivory on Am." and also are said by Indians to keep the shaft from warping (Fletcher) or to direct the flight.

Wrist-guards were also release is one piece. (See Boas in 6th Rep. A. E. 1884. due perhaps to the twist needed to make a tight fit. Nat. nocks. Asiatic influence is apparent in them. of the Rockies have little dis- Eskimo and Pacific slope varieties have flat wings. and in localities where the shafts were cut. The varieties are as are distinguished Wrist-guard. 811-988. many are strengthened by means of a sinew lining on the back and cross wrap- The bows e. and stories about them are greatly exaggerated. varied environments quickened the inventive and produced several varieties.^il) Self -bow of osage orange or other hard wood. A. in rain-making. which are known as back. is cut in at one side Bow-strings are of sinew cord tied at one end and looped at the other. A. The utmost flight. a self-bow. Compound bows in the E. Fraser-Columbia region. — section. arrows. (2) compound bow. follows: (1) Self -bow. Arrow release. of several pieces of wood. The hunter or warrior got as near to his victim as possible. B. In length they vary from the very short feathering on S.. B. 7. In the W. in which the nock is held between the thumb and the first joint of the forefinger. Similar to No. special forms of the arrow were employed as a toy.— A long slender stick of rude form. in the S. The modulus in arrow-making was each man's arm. very clumsy. 5.. in symbolism. The nocks are in some tribes alike. with their short shafts of hard wood. rectangular in walnut or other hard wood. but the w. in which . — Bows — with rounded of grip and flat wings. Nat. and the former shows connection with Asia. of Mexico. bulbous. made of decorated for ceremonial purposes. in the Arctic. Arctic.— Arrow of holding the in the way nock and letting loose the arrow shooting. (2) a compound bow of several strips of buffalo horn lashed together 4.40 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. or it is sinew-backed bows were made on bodies of driftwood. 133617. 6. but with wings much shorter and the nocks curved sharply outward. In some cases bows were decorated in colours. the certainty of aim. Besides its use as a piercing or striking projectile. In some arrows there is a slight rifling. a bow of driftwood or other brittle wood. His bow register scarcely exceeded 60 pounds. Murdoch in 9th Rep. — The nocks not said that this feature is intentional. Rocky mts. 1887. 307316. of arrows. the back of which is further strengthened with sinew glued on. They by the materials and the parts. for 1884. with long reed shafts and heavy fore-shafts. the wings of whale's ribs or — bits of wood from whalers. and Rep. though tribes. 1912 halved or notched on the edges. fingers are which the middle and the ring The varieties characterizing the culture areas laid inside of the string. 6. St. while the first three fingers are hooked on the string. in divining. the three being Indian: (1) Primary release. straight or doubled under. Long. Interior basin. to the long feathering on Plains arrows. cylindrical. wings. yet arrows are said to have gone quite through the body of a buffalo (Wilson in Rep. bows 3.— When the bowman's left arm was exposed he wore a wrist-guard of hide or other suitable material to break the blow of the released string.) Long bows. The manufacture of arrows was usually attended with much ceremony. Mus. but among the Plains tinction of parts. and the piercing power of Indian arrows are not known. oak. in gaming. with wooden wristguards projecting from the belly. Northern Athapascan. Morse describes four methods first among the tribes n. the ends are lashed with sinew. osage orange (bois d'arc). flat. In shooting he drew his right hand to his ear. for 1897. whose arrows have a flat nock. Gulf States. reinforced with cord of sinew wrapped many times about it lengthwise. confined to the Eskimo. 8. from wing to wing. where reed shafts were employed. grip. — Lawrence and Eastern United States. second-growth hickory. W. Bows.. the part containing the Self-bows of ash. North Pacific coast.— The bows of the North Americans Indians the lower nock are quite as interesting as their arrows. owing to scarcity of material.) 2. bone. usually made yew or cedar. (3) tertiary release. of and strengthened. (4) sinew-lined bow. in (2) secondary release. 399669.. or other hard wood. faculty The only. E. the grip may be of wood. are. and strings.. or horn lashed together. ia are distinguished as follows: 1. straight of willow or birch. (3) sinew-backed bow. notch for the string. (4) the Mediterranean method. The feathers are set on the shaftment either flat or radiating. Mus. and in miniature forms with prayer-sticks. excellent which the nock is held between the ends of the forefinger and the middle finger. in ceremony. pings. belly. and the middles are either free or glued down.

Deformahuman head have been known since They are divisible classes. or of a series of small cushions. of the Intentional deformations. narrow parietes. Micmac. 45-74. coast. Ottawa. mountain lion. as the French and Wends. into distribution is well defined and limited. Smithson. variations. widely distributed form. known as macrocephalous.. world and in all periods. same elsewhere. conical. that of occipital compression. Arrow Release. the Omaha. m. and Zuni the secondary. as s. are apparently insig- . among it nearly all the southwestern and once extended over Head Deformation. produces a more or less conical. determined by the region. Bows. some Turkomans. The Aymara variety existed. Mason. more southerly peoples. board or a variety of cushion. and the result is regarded one important.— The form of the quiver depended on the size of the bow and arrows. A. W... as the ancient Avars and Krimeans. drawn with the board. The with which this article alone conor cerned. w. Am. and a protruding occiput. t. as well as among some civilized peoples. Culin. and most of the Indians of the Unintentional occipital comgreat plains. The effects of the various deformations on brain function and growth" as weU as on the as a health of the individual. in different parts of the Old World. Chcj'enne. (o. 1884. Essex Inst. Siksika. is United States (excepting Florida) above mentioned. one among the Natchez and in a few other localities along the northeast coast of the Gulf of Mexico. present two important forms only. in all parts second. A. In the second form. 1885. Aymara. On the Pacific coast cedar quivers are employed by the canoe-using tribes. etc. Anthrop. Africans. and others make them of skins of the otter. Inst. Assiniboin. hence is considered one of propriety and duty. finds that among the North American flattened by the Navaho.) Artificial tions of the over the frontal region and under the occiput. The flat-head variety existed in two widely separated foci. A. also various Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER the string is 41 No. Quivers. Unintentional mechanical deformations of the head present but the custom has become fixed through long practice. and Quivers. A. passing etc. those of pathological artificial origin.. the materials. some of which are sometimes improperly described as separate Among the Indians n. deerskin are common in Canada. 1893. truncated. characterized by low forehead. in Bull. XLiv. the tertiary. and both varieties existed from prehistoric through historic time to the present. all of the Algonquian.. Crows.. along Columbia r. In addition to the works cited under the subject Arrowheads. VIII. are skin or wood. Nat. Murdoch. 1905. Among these are included many of the Athapascan and Californian peoples. Oregon as far N. All of these forms present numerous individual types of deformation. of the Rockies and in the Interior basin. but chiefly w. Anthrop. Morse. 1891. W. and some Navaho. only on and near the n. 21a tips of the first. Arrows. 1894. other of these varieties of One the mechanical defor- mation has been found among numerous primitive peoples. pression is observable tribes. and Eskimo tribes. Arapaho. applied about the head. Vancouver id. Indian Games. in Rep. sug- two main and gesting a comparatively late introduction from those of mechanical or latter. Toulousian. and the other on the N. B. bag-like. Am. the nock being Hghtly held between the^rst and the second fingers. It also exists in ancient skulls found in some parts of the N. also e. in Am. 1885. or coyote. Mus. are again divisible into unintentional and intentional deformations. The motives of among the Indians. Study of Eskimo Bows. Arrows and Arrow-makers. intentional so far as deformation known. S. 1896. Their geographical of the s.. coast from s. and third fingers.. Both forms of intentional deformation are found in North America. are the as those that lead to similar practices among a number of Indian tribes throughout the Western hemisphere. N. while the parietes of the head undergo compensatory expansion. 24th Rep. the forehead is Morse tribes. Shoshonean (except the Hopi). Sealskin quivers are used in the Arctic beautifully decorated examples of region. or irregular deformity. In the first of these. the flat-head form. Rep. Malays. often with a depression just behind the frontal bone. Chippewa. (2) in Am. most of the range of the tribes the writings of Herodotus. consult Cushing (1) in Proc. Comanche. of Mexico there are numerous tribes in which no head deformation exists and apparently has never existed. and means the Penobscot used the primary release. Chippewa. of the Cascades. E. of a the pressure of bandages. 1895. extremity of Vancouver id. which results from prolonged contact of the occiput of the infant with a resistant head support in the cradle- mark of distinction and superiority. and still exists.

The absence of the larger beasts of burden and the accommodating waterways together stimulated the perfecting of various boats to suit particular regions. 1881. rying. Essai sur les deformations artificielles du decreasing. the flint arrowhead or blade could be used for both killing and skinning a buffalo. (5) the using up or enjoyment of finished products. Nat. Rep. gradually and by percussion was also practised. no. mechanical devices. arts and industries in places were greatly improved. tools. the secondary or inter- du crane. travelling d'anthrop. but neither beast nor wind nor water turned a wheel N. The savages were just on the borders of machinery. for example. the making of vessels for plying on the water.. Gosse. 360. de Medic. vegetal. Crania Americana. kiinstlichen Schadelverbildun- dustries. paratus of another. 226. Diet. et de Chirurg. Die kiinsthchen Schadelverbildungen. h. up materials mediary arts arts for use. vii. from the rudest Stone craft. or consmnption. Beitrage mechanism of exchange. 1885. multiplied in ties too. 1872. others by both sexes.. on the whole. and elasticity were employed mechanically. tools. the temporary ones of snow cut in blocks. Broca. Some arts or industries were practised by men. the ultimate arts and in(4) the Kenntniss d. which was the mother of many arts. 1869. Great difficulties embarrass the student in deciding whether some of the early crude inventions were aboriginal or introduced. Anthrop. . poses. Am. 19ir The tribes that practise indication of greater mortality at those among which it it show no any age than does not exist. crane. and industries. Mus. including or of doing work. Bancroft. (3) transporting or Lenhossek. Sur la deformation Toulousaine or manuf actm-es devices. Hrdhcka. The products of one gen. i-ii. Porter. Brass. far more important than any of these. or into ornaments and sculptures. their ceremonies and their tabus. once acquired. The deformation. GEORGE v. Many activinot so much in the service of these for their own sake as for others. Another branch is the gathering of stone on hide. Elem. Catlin. and digging ditches. The Arctic permanent houses were made of earth and sod. — This includes activities and in finding. were fied. for building. a technic was developed to gratify the sesthetic sense. 1905. perceptible. and heating water. Native Races. and the production of fire with the they show a larger percentage of imbeciles. and in irrigation. and art was ancillary to social and ceremonial institutions and was employed in' inscribing speech the material conditions of to such as exhibit the best expressions in fine art. 1889. No hereditary effect of The custom head deformation is among the Indians. and rendered more complex by the introduction of metallurgy. Head deformation among the Klamath. Notes on Artificial Defor- art or industry were often the material or ap- mation of Children. Topinard. Industrial activities were of five kinds: (1) Going to nature for her bounty. 1839. The arts and industries of the Indians were called forth and developed for utilizing the mineral. i. existed. Gravity. all artificial many tools could be employed in more than one. persists throughout life. They had their seasons and their etiquette. This embraces all the operaand apparatus employed in gathering and quarrying minerals and working them into paints. and more efficient engineering. number. also. and the continudrill The preservation of and the indications are that in a few generations it will have ceased to exist. implements. inventions storing. 1855.. carconstruction purbuilding sod and using the excavating soil for and snow houses. the skull and brain compensating for the compression by augmented extension in directions is of least resistance. A. some by women. 180. cellars. methods of making things numerous and diversi- — tions. The arts and inof the North American aborigines. 1887. du crane. Earth work. — To this belong gathering. since they were not limited in purpose to life. concerned carrying. 1841. bark. gen^r. of Mexico in Pre-Columbian times. or stone. fire and its utilization in many ways were also known. and animal products of nature and they were modified by the environmental wants and resources of every place. (a. nor do buoyancy. the bow and strap drills. or of insane or neuropathic individuals. and dustries Arts and Industries. Consult Morton. See Flatheadk. Water industry. Dogs were made beasts of burden and of traction. 1874. and utensils. After the coming of the whites... and in the service of rehgion. the (2) or exploiting arts and industries. z. domestic animals. having the reciprocating two-hand drill. North American Indians. 739. Deformations artificielles x. in records of tribal lore. ous-motion spindle. called also shaping . 2.DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 nificant. primary working Lunier. et seq.

21a 43 which were laid in spiral courses to form low domes. and cypress. such as pine. and some were employed in furniture. and apparatus of travel and transportaPictographs were drawn on specially tion. for gorgeous head-dresses and robes of ceremony the rarest and finest products of anitents. Pacific coast. Root craft. The Eskimo were especially ingenious in solving the mechanical problems presented by their environment of ice. storing. totem poles. on ground cleared with the help of fire and was cultivated with sharpened sticks and hoes of bone. W. poplar. milling. fishing. skindressing in all its forms. structures and utenCotton was extensively cultivated in the S. cedar. ration. quills. Tobacco was cultivated by many tribes. Superior and those of the Pacific slope worked little in clay. The tribes of the Pacific coast lived in partly subterranean In the S. and stone. hematite and meteoric iron.. for textile — Far more important than roots the stems. The softest woods. and nugget gold and mica. embossing. the timbers being moved by rude mechanical appliances and set in place with ropes and skids. much of which has great artistic merit. bone. (See Hunting. leaves. admirable. others yielded shredded fibre. food receptacles. — textiles.) involve cooking and otherwise preparing food. Metal of ores craft. the roots of plants developed a industries. extreme W. No smelting was done. teeth. The stems of smaller trees were used also for many purposes. and hair. the Gulf states. The metals were copper.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. cooking. W. drums and other musical instruments were made of skins and membranes. number of special arts and Fibre craft. and shell into things of use. knew how to gather and mix clay and form it into pottery. agriculturists. lead in the form of galena. horn. which lack proper stone. and domestiThe secondary arts cation. kneaded with their fingers lumps of clay mixed with blood and hair into rude lamps and cooking vessels. inner and outer bark of plants and the tissues of animals. and each region shows separate types of form and deco- and serving.As there were no saws. W. cutting garments. boats.. houses. engraving. Driftwood was wrought into bows by the Eskimo. with innumerable observances of days and seasons. . cubic feet of earth were built up into geometric forms. The carving on house posts. and purposes. and returned They planted gourds in autumn in fa- to har- Maize was regularly planted vest the crops. erecting houses and walls of Some remains of stone stones. sils. Arts and industries depending on the animal kingdom include pri- Animal — marily hunting. and work in feathers. Not content with merely taking from the hand of nature. receptacles. W. and grain and other seeds — operations in plastic materials. yarn. the material often having been borne long distances by men and women. but the Indians of the Atlantic slope. string. Practised for food. trapping. Serving the purposes of wood. ing out and digging irrigating ditches and in the buOder's art. and especially of the S. and Canadian tribes undertook no earth-building that required skill. pise. Ceramic — This industry includes all Seed craft. tribes in the The Arctic developed primitive methods of gathering. totem poles. show much art. — This included mining. house frames. grinding and paint. Wood craft. — and hundreds of smaller articles and sewing them with sinew and other thread. in their mounds and earthworks developed engineering and co-operative ability In some cases millions of of no mean order. The imconsciously stirred the better growth. and other large objects. underground stems were carved into objects of use and ceremony. basketry. Lawrence Atlantic. the butchering and skinning of animals. tribes of Canada and of the n. prepared hides. . fish-poisoning. tier of states w. or adobe. and multifarious ceremony and lore. but those of the Mississippi valley. working claws. costume. trunks were split and hewn into single planks on the N. the Indians were primitive carrying. shell. were chosen for canoes. ornaments. and overlaying with plates. In gathering roots they first soil and stimulated voured places. taste in arrangement. Here belongs the felling of trees with stone axes and fire. This industry was quite generally woman's work. of 1. cold-hammering. having each its special qualities. dyes. acorns and other nuts. Some of these materials were used for siding and roofing houses. rubbing. and money. These industries went far beyond the daily routine and drudgery connected with dress. some of which planted nothing else. of the Mississippi valley. and household furniture was often industries. Immense communal dwellings of cedar were there erected. The Pueblo tribes were skilful in lay- engendered a whole series of arts. clothing. and rope. and the far S. but in the zone of intense cold besides the ruder form there was no pottery. The St. The harvesting of berries. etc. medicine.

mands for Eskimo had in hunting. Moorehead. also the Memoirs and Bulletins of the American Museum of Natural History. A. 1904. pottery. 1901. roasting. and luxury. 159. the wood-worker. Rep. worked bark and bedding. T. but the North Americans were skilful in secondary arts.. rabbit skin in strips. The artisans of both sexes Ashkanena of the Crows. vessels of clay. modelled and decorated pottery in an endless . Nat. 725. 1897. 1890. 1890.44 DEPART ME^-T OF . 1901. Rep.. and sometimes grass and roots. (6) in Am. and these developed deboiling. Holmes (1) in Smithson.. Tribes. 1902.. but had nowhere attempted massive stone architecture. They built a different kind of house in each environment in one place snow domes and underground dwellings. (4) ibid.. i-v. 1888. — their gala dress for festal occasions. (1) ibid. 1894. Ra\i (1) in Smithson. or vegetal and industries. ('Blackfoot lodges'). Native Am. and houses of sods or grass laid on a of the Consult the Annual Reports and Bulletins Bureau of American Ethnology. ibid. utensils. 1901. the Hist. and the makers of rope and babiche. Evolution of arts. traffic. Mus. fur suits that they all The would not wear the deer-chasing tribes had One of the three Bellacoola Aseik {Ase'lx) towns of the Talio division at the head of South Bentinck arm. and the patterns of the industrial workers were carried in their minds. Knowl. 531. Mason. The methods preparing food were baking in pits. 49. 1890. N. wood-worker. The workshop was under the open sky. W. material. the netter. Niblack in Nat. Cont. Anthrop. 1901. in one region they were devoted to quill-work. 1891. 1898.411. British Columbia. 1896. Hoffman ii Nat. 1889. Nat. and skins of birds. the dyer. the painter. 1897. Powers in Cont. V. the weaver. i.. the tribes of the central area erected elaborate earthworks workers on the Pacific coast made matchless basketry. the southern and western tribes wove marvellously fine and elegant robes of hemp. upon which much time and skill were expended. the stone-worker. The — Indians n. McGuire. 1891. Boas in 7th Rep. 3. invention was necessary and apparatus for getting and transporting food materials had to be devised. N. Tools. one person would be skilful in several. mals were requisite. Mus. 1905. M. 684. 3. goat's hair. ii. Ethnol. pole arboui's covered with matting or with cane. 1863. North Americ- ans of Yesterday. 623. Asenane {AsE'nane). (O. (2) in Smithson. Life and the tanner. (2) in Am. et al. Rep. Wilson in Nat. made of hides of animals. iii.) . Mus. (2) ibid. A former Bellacoola town on Bellacoola r. Anc. Willoughby in Am.. nos. The need of clothing the body also offered employment to some of these and of Culture of the Hupa. vii. The arts and industries associated with the use and consumption of industrial products were not specially differentiated. and implements were worn out in the using. 1903. Hough (1) in Nat. 1901. the skilful basketmaker. higher grades of industry. 739. and in other regions conical tents of the next area to carving wood and slate the — ones living across the mountains produced whole costumes adorned with beadwork. Moore. those of the S.. A band were instinct with the aesthetic impulse. Rep. and the Memoirs and Papers of the Peabody Museum.. the carvers of bone and ivory. those Ash-kane'-na. W.. — Morgan. ibid. See also the articles on the subjects of the various individual arts and industries and the works thereunder cited. Rep. 1897. Am. Indian Tribes. Goddard. 1903. 1877. Anthrop. (3) ibid. 1886. 171. or hide for serving food. Willoughby.— Boas in 7th Rep. ceremony. 1891. developed the potter. therein. and the stone-cutter. These arts were not finely specialized. Boas in Mem. 1885. Races. xxv. of Mexico were generally well advanced in the simpler handicrafts. 3.. embroiderers everywhere most skilfully used quills and feathers. 1895. A'seq. 27. 501. 19ir . gave rise to other industries. the fabricator of weapons. Anthrop. little and Mus. McGuire. 1851-57.. Tribes. Schoolcraft.. Mus. (2) ibid. variety of shapes and colored designs. which framework of logs. 1891. and worship. XV.. the seamstress. British Columbia. See. (5) ibid. 237. W. See also Bancroft. Hist. 4. 553. Rep. i-vi.. becoming manufacturers when nature did not supply their demands. The in- are replete with information regarding Indian arts vention of house furniture and utensils. Much was gathered from nature for immediate use or consumption.1891.. 1899. 45. such as cooking vessels of stone. 1899. 1889. A. 1903. Dellenbaugh. 1877 .. 1894. in. 395. There was also some going about. Boas in Bull. Mus. These demands developed the canoemaker and the sled-builder. N. basketry.MARINE AXD FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. in another houses of puncheons hewn from the giant cedar. 1888. but utensils 1896.

i. Aspenquid's day was celebrated in Halifax. spelt also where they were living as early as 1670. c. then drifted northwestward to the region about L. A. Agamenticus. I. Nipigon. An Abnaki of Agamenticus. 21a 45 tish Ashnola. Brit. F. 4. Assiniboin (Chippewa u'pwdw^ 'he cooks by roasting' by the use of stones. u'sini : 'stone.— Schoolcraft. w. March. but it must Assacumbuit. rior between JefTerys' L.B. On map 1762 this name is applied to L. probably in of the Assiniboin or Chippewa. then defended by Capt. of L.. 1744) located one division of the Assiniboin some distance n.— Can. Mass. 1824). Assigunalck. squirrel A dictionary name for the flying {Sciuropterus volucella).. He is sometimes mentioned under the name Nescambioiiit. See Am. Chauvignerie (1736) places them in the same region. Marie on the first coming of the Ottawa and Chippewa. Legend. 1696. — Brinton. John. With two other chiefs and a have taken place before 1640. 307. (j. The Relation of 1658 places them in the vicinity of L.HAyDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. Their separation from the parent stem. r. where he is reported to have appeared in 16S2.' Aff. Ind. w.' W. Assigunaigs. Winnipeg and the other immediately w. Sauk and Fox J. op. Bone Indians..) d'sepdn'^. and of on De risle's map 1703 to Rainy lake. and were thus located on Lahontan's map of 1691. Assegun (probably from Chippewa u'shigun W. bodies of the tribe and heard by the Assapan. Asilao. and died among his own people Up to 1775-76 at the age of about 100 years. N. t. was a faithful adherent of the French and rendered important aid to Iberville and Montigny in the reduction of Ft. 152. Tribes. An Abnaki ("Tarratine") He chief who appeared in history about 1696. the end of the 16th century and converted to have preached it to the Indians. in 1874.). lake. In Drake's New England Legends there is a poem. of an unidentified lake placed n. They are said. between . Notes and Queries. who knighted him and presented him an elegant sword. Wars. Alimibeg. d'sipun. a? the Jesuit Relation for that year mentions the Assiniboin as distinct. Assacumbuit returned from France in 1707 and iiL the following year was present with the French in their attack on Haverhill. and apparently correctly. (a. He is said to be buried on the slope of Mt. after boasting that he had slain with his own hand 140 of the King's enemies in New England (Penhallow. ii. From that time until his death in 1727 nothing further in regard to him is recorded. by a clam dinner.). much. and in one instance as Old Escambuit. Nova Scotia. — Yanktonai. British Columbia. Me. Lenape — Schoolcraft. Aspenquid. f. J. w. Supeof and Hudson bay. Rainy A band. A. It is probable that they first settled about Lake o the Woods. evidently cognate with Chippewa (a. fi.— Ibid. and to have made the bone deposits in n. St. Asila'o. which was saved by the timely He assisted the arrival of an English vessel. and to have been driven by them southward through lower Michigan. for 1901. in 1703. A body of Okinagan in s. 1894. "St.. the vicinity of pop. BriColumbia. Ind. 202-4. French in 1704-5 in their attempt to drive out the English who had established themselves in Newfoundland. Me. Asseguns. of L. Dobbs (Hudson Bay.' 'one who cooks — A large Siouan a part of the tribe. from the forest limit well up to the headwaters of the former.) Ind. forming a curious figure in New England He is said to have been born toward tradition. few French soldiers Assacumbuit attacked the fort at Casco.. c. the Assiniboin appear to have separated from their ancestral stem while the latter resided somewhere in the region about the headwaters of the Mississippi. Christianity. 191.' — Aspenquid. These divisions he distinguishes as Assiniboin of the Meadows and Assiniboin of the Woods.54. Can. 30. A traditional tribe said to have occupied the region about Mackinaw 'bhick bass. Michigan. 245. Winnipeg.. Nov. In 1775 Henry found the tribe scattered along Saskatchewan and Assiniboine rs. Ind. 1875. 'raccoon. 228. 1885. and in 1706 visited France. pop. 1857. See Mascoutin. Winnipeg. originally constituting 1889. vi. to judge by the slight dialectal difference in the language. He is thought by some to be identical with Passaconaway. to travelled and Sault Ste.) From a tradition found in the widely scattered first Europeans who visited the Dakota. 85..— Boas in Rep. cit. could not have greatly preceded the appearance of the whites. Ontario. assaphan. Rep. 37 in 1911.. and this region. (c. J.. M." by John Albee. whence they moved northward and joined the Cree. pt. where he became known to Charlevoix and was received by Louis XIV. A Helatl town on lower Fraser above Yale. i. 1851. to have been either connected with th Mascoutin or identical with that tribe. 40.) Assabaoch.

who continually made war upon them. (5) . rounded by large and hostile tribes.. at their stopping places. without permanent villages. (7) Tanintauei (gens des A osayes). has not been identified with any named by Maximilian.000. which they bartered to the whites United States are in Montana. The only Assiniboin mentioned in print is Pasquayah. Oseegah. . Henry (. or divide.. 1862) Hmits the Sioux on the s. Foot. now [1856] reduced to 250 lodges. Rabbit. generally are similar to those of the Plains Cree. they were almost constantly at war with the Dakota. and customs of the head. 194. Lewis and Clark mention as divisions in 1805: (1) Menatopa (Otaopabine of MaximiHan). Until the year 1838 the tribe Missouri. as far as the beginning of the Cypress mts. and these in turn were covered with earth. etc- Dogs are said to have been sacrificed to their their range at that time as follows: "The Northern Assiniboins roam over the country from the w. (4) .000 perished. 1897) enumerated 11 bands in 1808. was the country over which they continued to range until gathered on reservations. it is seldom cut. lation at 8. The Assiniboin now (1904) living in the making pemmican. their history has been one of conflict with surrounding tribes. Tschantoga (gens des bois) (6) Watopachnato (gens de I'age). In 1890 they numbered 3. Polygamy is common. and Philol. and Swampy Ground Assiniboin. and another the name of which is not The whole people were divided into stated. owing to the loose organization and wandering habit of the tribe. the corpse was deposited in a sitting postiu-e in a circular grave about 5 feet deep. 522-523. It sometimes reaches the ground. and Those-who-have-water-forthemselves-only can not be positively identiThis last may be Hayden's Minishinafied. village Turtle Mountain Sioux. along the Missouri coteau. parent stem and joined the Cree until brought under control of the whites.000 to 1. Belknap agency and 535 under Ft. direction to the Wood mt. from 1. but they observe more decorum in camp and are more cleanly. The names of their bands or divisions. 387). the tribe. of the Missouri.. ii.. the northern and southern and into the forest and prairie bands.008. and their hospitality is noted by most traders who have visited them. thence souri to down still the Mis- White Earth r. Wawaseeasson. (8) Chabin (gens des montagnes). of which the Red River. band mentioned by Hayden (op.200 lodges. Arrived at the burial place. Other divisions mentioned. the starting point. thence n. Hayden (Ethnog. w. Eagle Hills.. and on the banks of the small lakes frequently met with on the plains in that district. 699 under Ft. W. and Assabaoch (?). deities. Big Devils (Watopachnato). extending up that river to and as far beyond its source as the Grand coulee and the head of Souris river. but is generally wound in a coil on top Their dress. on the E. tobacco. of them number Porter (1829) estimated the Assiniboin popuDrake at 10. if death happened in winter at a distance from the burial ground of the family. it was then covered with bark. and in this way their number was diminished. though at the present time they are slowly on the increase. lined with bark or skins..600. banks of the Saskatchewan and Assiniboine rs. for liquor. 2.000. on the N. as follows: (2) (1) when the smallpox reduced them to They were also surless than 400 lodges.. Gens de Feuilles [for filles] (Itscheabine). amongst some of the small outliers of the Rocky mts. over which logs were placed. Mo. A. the Minishinakato. They conThe remainder of sist of 250 or 300 lodges.46 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v.. balls.S. chiefly kato. down that river to its junction with the Missouri.. e. 1912 and the Siksika on the w. While the buffalo abounded their principal occupation consisted in Gallatin (1836) placed the the U. at 7. occupy the district defined as follows: Commencing at the mouth of the White Earth r. fork of Milkr. Maximilian (Trav.000. N. at 6. Physically the Assiniboin do not differ maThe men dress terially from the other Sioux. vary considerably... out of reach of dogs and beasts of prey. tents. the body was carried along during their journeying and placed on a scaffold. during which 4.000 before the smallpox epidemic of 1836. in 1904. numbered According to Alexander Henry. and frequently false hair is added to lengthen the twist. Saskatchewan. powder. geographical. almost wholly on the plains." From the time they separated from the Itscheabin^ (gens des (gens des roches) large). are: Assiniboin of the Meadows. and w. moving from place to place in search of food. Jatonabin^ (3) Otopachgnato (gens du Otaopabine (gens des canots). Peck agency.Jour. Indian Report of 1843. Val. trading on the 1843) names their gentes filles). in a w. as given by different writers. their hair in various forms. but as it grows is twisted into small locks or tails.. cit. As they have lived since the appearance of the whites in the N. knives.

ibid. 1839. Hist. ii. 1849. 1861. sinaboin. Pike's Exped. Hist. 1667. Assenlpoulacs. Alcedo. 1703. (j. Hayden. — Assinipouars. Pachot (1722) in Margry.. Assinlboesi. Carolana. Hennepin (1680) Assenipoulaks. 1st sess. Mo. Star in the West. B.—Gallatin in Trans.. VI. i. 381. 1886. Mo. Rel.. 23.— 1670.. — — Louisianes. 20 their chief). Asinlpovales. Margry. 1821. de la Langue Algonquine. 50. ibid. Hayden..— Am. Sept. 1756. 232. Joseph's band 143 and Paul's of 142 at Edmonton of agency. Assini-poytuk.. Asseniboines. Disc. Voy.. Anville. 222. 176. Carte de I'Am. 21a 1883. 11. 212. Rep.. 210. Hist. Hind. Lewis and Clark. Assinlpoels.. Assineboin. Tales of N. Assinlbois. Hayden. Ramsey in Ind.. Bonner. 270. in vi. vi. 1766. 1723. Ibid. Voy. Rel. — Chauvignerie — Coues. Ramsey in Minn.— Hutchins (1765).. Ethnog. 665. Hayden.. Assenipouvals. 30. 1849. pt. Schoolcraft..— Trumbull. 77. Val. Assinibouane. iii. 51. Perrot in Minn. iv. — Dobbs. boin... ibid. Hohe. Anthrop. Assenpoels. Coll. Assinepoualaos... I. Assenipoels. 1850.. Carolana. Hist. 68 in number...— La Harpe (1700) in French. 1778. 63. 55. Nacota.. 158. Disc. M^m. Dorsey. v.. map. 80. Perrot — — — — — — — — — (1721) in Minn. 23. 70. Rep... i. Coll. HohPhilol. name).. Hist. Inds. 1876 (misprint).. (1671) in 1849. IX. in in 123.. Asseniboualak.. Carry-the-Kettle band under Assiniboine agency. C. 1698. ii.— West. 1836 ('rebel': sometimes Hohays. Ibid. . Williamson in Minn. 91. Hennepin. Hennepin misquoted byNeill. Jan.. Assineboes. 134. 1851. Rev. 498. Soc. Vaudreuil and Assinlpoileu. D6c. — Asslnlponiels.393. v.. lac. Atlaa — — — Lloyd in Jour. Views of La. La. Travels. IV. Ricordi. i. 1826. 43. map. 470. —Keane Stanford. DSc.. Hist. 1846. 1886. Jes. tion for Santee). 1855. Trav. 286... Siouan Indians. B. Assinebolnes.. Du Lhut — —Perrot. Col. 1855. note. 1886.. Asslnibouets. . vi. Antiq. Asinbols. 1703. 1805. 123. Aff. Ibid. Mo. and Coll. 1851. Ethnog. 238. 22d Cong. Labr. Jour. A-si-ni-poi'tuk. Y.. Hayden. 21. W..1850. Am. Y. Ho'-he. Assinabwoines. Soc. B^gon (1678). Hoheh. from i-ta-ha-toki. Assinipovals. Ethnog.. — Du Lhut (1684) 1640. Franklin.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER total.. Ho-ha. Assinipotuc. Y. ibid. Ind. Assinaboil.1880. 1855. — sey Ausinabwaun. 86. 44. 1854. ii. slnlboualas. — Assinaboins. 131 1852 (trans. Assinipou— Lahontan. Long. AssMe.. Expld. Hist.. — Ibid. Perrin. Asslnipoile. MS. — — — 1683 in N. Ethnog. M^m. 19. Aff. Ill. Doc. D^c. 165. 1876. 'fish-eaters'). Assimpouals. Nar. Smith. Assenipoualacs. Ind. 22. Assinniboine Sioux.. Oct. Y. Powell in 7th Rep. 1830. 1870. 1886. D^c. 1862 (Cree and Chippewa name). 1878. M. ExAssinlpwanak. Arsenipoitls.. — vi.— Jes. 1893 (Chippewa Lewis and Clark Exped. 1886. — Maximilian. Margry. Asiniboels. 286. See Col. sinipoulac.. 245.— Dorsey in 15th Rep. 231. Ojebway Inds.. 1055. Hist.. 1851 (translation of the French name of — — —Keane in Stanford. 1850. ibid. Journ. — — Mantopanatos.234.. map.. 55. map of Am. 79. 1862. and Philol. — — — hays. Assiniboels. Natur. same as Dakota: 'our Nation of the great Water. Disc. 798. Am. in Assenipouel.— Denonville (1685) in N. Mo. 69.) Apinulbolnes. 92. Assenipoulaes. Hudson Bay. AssinipotiaAssinipoualaks. 14. Asseeneepoytuck. 501. vi. and Philol. Asinibwanak. i.. Guer- Es- — — — rlers riers de la Roche. Du Chesneau (1681) in N. E. 69. n.. Assinpouele. ix. 1858. 1895. Parker. Tribes.—Gass. Chiripinons. i.— Perrot. — —Harris. Asslniboelle.. Asslnpoulac.. 207. 517. 1897. — Assinnlbains. Assinebwannuk. arrows'). 1741.. 1867. 263.. 297. Can.. 1862. Die.— Ibid. — — 178.. 72. 1858. Asseenaboine. Haha. i. Ensayo. Doo Asslniboiiles. A. A. La. and Ocean Man's. — — — — inopoils. 1809 (erroneous identificaIssatl. Schoolcraft. Balbi. Pen. in French. Pheasant Rump's band.. and Philol. 1897 (Dakota name: 'rebels'). map. Coll. Col. 381. 51. dans les Asselibois. originally 69. 1816. 1862 (Hohe or. (Chippewa name). Left hand. Assenipouals. 1824. i. Coll. Rep. 1864. Rep. D^c. Minn. Trans. 148. 1. 510. 1705. 1863. Arct. iii. 185. 1862 (Cheyenne name). Exped. 1886.. Hist. ii. Valley. Bk. Col. 1851. and Trav. Trav... 1698. Doc. Indiens. Soc. Col. Henry. B. Asslnlpour. E-tans-ke-pa-se-qua. III.. people'). Assinib'wans. 'stone warriors'). 1786. 48. Assenepoils.. Richardson. 1861. Tribes. v. vi. — — — Jour. Assenipovals. B.— Balbi. note. — — — Margry. al. 556. D^c. Doc. AssenipouaRadout (1710) lak. in Jes. 13. Doc.— Le Sueur (1700) in ii. Wars. Assinniboine. applied by other Sioux tribes). Val. Ind. Compend. 77. Hennepin. 1891 McGee. — — — Ind. 1853. Asslnibouels. Morgan in N. A. 1857. 94. N. Dfic. 380. map. Assenlpoils. 600. Bowles. 21. Ixxxiv. Guerde pierre. 1855. 153. S^pt. Travels. Coll. Val. — Le Jeune 35. 1843 (own name. Brackenridge. Assinepoins. Lahontan.— Frontenac (1695).— (1702) in Margry.. 1886. were united with White Bear's band of Cree and Chippewa in 1901. 21. 829. 1830. Antiq.. A. ii. Hist. E. 1856. Aff. 1788.Pierre.Y. Assinlpoals. Ethnog. ii.. Rocky Mts. 1872. 1832. vi. Hist. 193. New Voy. Bouquet's Exped. — Gallatin 1886. Lewis and Clark. Alcedo. Du Lhut (1678) in Margry. 1880. E. Handb. Rep. 43. Asslnnaboines... Couea.. ibid. Mo. 82..— Hist. Compend. Soc. in Ind. Coll. As1658. 99. ix. 2. pt. As-ne-boines.—Hayden. and Philol. 1826. Assinepoel. T. 1835. AsAssiniboleses. 1855. i. 1886. 1836. 1824. 289. Ho-he'-i-o. Siouan Sociology. Jones. Ill. Margry. 24. 348. 185. 1806. Atlas Ethnog. Hennepin quoted by Shea. D6c. Ethnog. Ethnog. Assenniboins. Cuoq. New Discov. ped. Minn. Life of Beckwourth. Beauharnois and Hocquart (1731) in Margry. Asslnlbolnes. Tribes. Val.— Vaudreuil (1720). 143. 64.. 1815. Assinniboins. (1716). 1882 (wrongly — — — — — given as Dorsey's spelling). Assinaboes.. 27. Soc Coll. 213. Ex. Barcia. 157.— Iberville. 90. 1878. Am. 246. Paris. Geog. Asiniboines. Asi'-ni-bwa". 1826. Lahontan. 125. Assinnee-Poetuc. 15th Rep. — — — Chauvignerie (1736) in N. Assilibouels. — Drake. 1853. Shea. Assinibolns. Arsenipoits.. Barcia.. verb.. 557. New Voy. Assinaboine. Arot. Assinepoils. — Richardson. Assiniboils. 97. total.. and the bands Asslnlboile. Snelling. Balbi. Ind. 1823 (Hidatsa name. VI. 1. 556. 496. Anon. Asslnne1848. Geog. 500. 1859.. Lex. 55. 1851. Vaudreuil and B^gon (1716) in Margry. Soc... 1862 (trans. Rel. d. 24. map. 1658. vi. 77.. — 1858. Ramsey in Ind. Asslnnaboin. 168. Asslnipoils. — Gatschet. Ind. 290. of — Doc. Doc. Aff. Boudinot. iii. Coxe. In Canada there were in 1911 the Mosquito and Bears' Head and Lean Man's bands at Battleford agency. McKenney and Hall. Inst. Carver. 21. — 1858. index. 1741. Ensayo. Coxe. Am. 1864. 1864. 381. Culbertson in Smithson. D6c. 1807. ibid. iii. — — on Stony res. 568.. 1872. 193. and Philol.. E.. Ibid. New Discov. — — 1864. Diet. Atlas Ethnog.. 55 (Cree name). 2. iii. Dakota name). 1886. vi. 18 06. . Rep. Assinpouls. 47 No. — Du Lhut (1678) in Margry. Capellini. — — — — (1736) quoted — by Schoolcraft. 296. — Tanner. ix. Hist. Assinepotuc. i. Polar Sea. Assiniboan.. quoted by Ramafter 1750. D^c..— Proc. Alberta. 'long Fish-eaters. 1723.

side of Thompson r. 'reaches the top of the brow or low because the trail here passes on top of a hunt over the great plains between the Saskatchewan. id. — E. A trading post of the same name was on that river in 1832. Athapascow.. Atacon- Jes. Red River Exped. them as a part of the Chipewyan They do not differ essentially from tribes.— Gatschet. xx. for 1640. Ossnobians." although saying that they were not descended directly from her but from some people who drifted ashore at the their Rocks. 1741. Chipewyan. Cont. Coll. 1848. — vi. II. 1858. — . {Atd'na). 1876. 273. Hind. ii.. Stone IndiStone Roasters. Rel. Petitot. and Yellowstone rs. New —Tanner.. He says they doubtful. hence 'grass or Hewitt). it would seem 41. Accord- parts of the continent from the Arctic coast far into N. Jefferys. of Rep. Hist. up Saguenay r. 1830 (Chippewa name). Lawrence r.. of ple from above'). — — — same place in a cockleshell. Mentioned as one of the small tribes n. among whom the Marie was established. 35. ('peoYeta-Ottine. greater topers. St. Andowanchronon. 1886 (the common name used by Keane in Stanford. Trav. index. cit. Trav. band or settlenmet about the headwaters Saguenay or St. 1878. Compend.. "1878.. 104. Alberta and Saskatchewan. Missouri. neighbouring Athapascan Ind. Lewis and Clark Exped. 1809. e.. B. Stonies.. 3 m. 1809. iii. pt. nebolne. A 1911) 360 were enumerated at Ft. — Hearne. A division of the Assiniboin described by Dobbs (Hudson Bay. 77. 1858). Ataronch. 1848) estimated them at 300 lodges.— Henry. Otaopabine . Stand. Assuapmushan. — — — Jes. de I'Oregon. 178. de I'Oregon. Am. 1858 Jes. (Cree Autour du name). — the willow Esclaves. note Ossinlboine. — Drake. 1848.. Assiniboin of the Plains. 114. 24. Sioux of the — — — who became the ancestress of the Tadjilanas. for Jesuit mission of Sainte —Henry. 1912 Osinipoilles. of the Ataronchronon. Inf'n of Chas. 61. 1883. 277. Aff.— Keane in Stanford. 59. 58. 1880. 51. Nat. from the Pacific to at the N. A. into L. In 1911 (Can. 1744. 1830. —Tanner. 35. distributed of of all The most widely Atana or Atana. The town was occupied by the Tadjilanas. Queen North America.. Athapascan Family. Thickwood.' sig. 1863. Quebec. Assinibouels of the Meadows. Hud. 154. British Columbia. Weepers. was the second to appear above the waters of the flood. of L. 1878 (applied to the Assiniboin of the Rocky mts. pt. i. Stoney Indians.' 'reeds'. Hist.). Ayabaskau. Teit in Mem. of floor'). back in the n ountain? from Spence Bridge. Rel. 1903 ('cutthroats': Kutenai name). tot. 25. Smet. Hind.. 363.' i. map.. of St.48 DEPARTMENT OP MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. 106. Journ.son Bay.. Ross (MS. Dindjie. At that time there was sitting upon it a woman mouth of Hudson bay and from the Rio Colorado to the a territory the Rio Grande at the s. of floor. Atchitchiken {Atd'lcikEn. of Ft. — Petithe poplar 187G ('people Diet. Ibid.— Fisher. Aff. 38.— in Stanford. N.. (Torest Cree: Athabaska sion ' alhap 'in succes- abine. and are perpetually at war. Ocean. 1806. Watopachnato. steep. Ussinebwoinug.. — woods "are more expert in thieving. De Smet (Miss. 52. British Columbia. Rel. N.. for 1637. 172 1812. 316. op. Labrador.) regards — — proper. 156. Astouregamigoukh. Petitot. Disc. Diet. id. A northern reeds here and there.. HI. Rel. One of the minor tribes Huron confederation.. Nat.. ii. pt. Den^-Dindjit'. ca" Cree name). 536. Chamberlain. Stone. Cris.. Manitoba. Inds. Nar. and in the English edition of his work (Oregon Miss. Kkpay-tpele-Ottine.— Kingsley. Kkpest'ayle-kk6 ottine.. in Am. Compend. formerly extending over Charlotte group. E. Mass.. 177.— to have been abandoned prior to 1836 — — — Swanton. A.. ing to Skidegate legend. 1905. Assiniboels of the South. 80. Can. wooded country. Ossi1744. 1640. Coues. xx. Mus. 536. 1891 ('people des Chipewyan). — — askaw 'grass. 38. II. 6. (Jes. residing around Athabaska lake. Clark. and as compared with the Assiniboin of the bench and enters Spapiam valley). the Indian linguistic families coast of Moresby House id. Trav. — 26. probably at the entrance of Ashuapmuchuan r.. Probably a Montagnais 1643. 1858. A village of the Spence Bridge band of the Ntlakyapamuk on the n.. or Nkaitu'sus. Jes. Plain Assineboins. A liaida town on House. Ind. 104. B. Compend. Lewis and Stoney. Autour. Narr. Bk. As the name does not occur in John Wark's list. 1795. des Diet. 1744) as distinguished from that portion of the tribe hving in the Andoouanchronon. Dobbs. Haida. Stone Sioux. Athapuscow. Assinlboins des Plaines. 536. 173 1900. 286. 35. Montagnais mission founded by the Jesuits in 1661 about 300 m. from which the stock name is derived. 1858. MS. 46.. English in Canada). 1847) the number given is 600 lodges. The Kagialskegawai also considered her as "grandmother. Red. inf'n. Petitot. 1893. chronons. Soc.— Ramsey Keane in Ind. On his map they are located w.' Athapascan tribe.and Jaton- Hist. Miss. A.. DSn^Athabaskans. They include the Itscheabine. Maurice r. Winnipeg. Mexico. John. ans.. Tlu'tlama'Eka. 1794. 152. 1874 ("Athabas— Lacombe." but that in general the men are more robust and of commanding stature. 1850. Bell. I.. lac e. French Dom. 1860. Rep. Winnipeg. — Arabaskaw. Rel.

independently of the others. The wide differences in physical type and culture and the differences in language point to a long separation of the and the Salish. and lower Mackenzie r. Chimmesyan. of Yellowknife r. the Sekani. are. and Cook inlet. and Southern. 51° 30'. and the lower Mackenzie (where they are often spoken of as Loucheux) the Ahtena of Copper r. for their E. and here and there surrounded. and the Khotana of the lower Yukon. Morphologically they are marked by a sentence verb of considerable complexity. the Nahane. 21a 49 extending for more than 40° of latitude and 75° of longitude. and W. appears. neighbours are the They are said to show considerable this variety of physical appearance. culture and language. and Churchill r. r. the middle course of the Yukon.. on Mackenzie at the N. The shore-lands to the between the on the seacoast and those of inland mountain valleys. and some 500 m. in California. The south-westcipal divisions: . bounded on the e. and the Chilcotin who live in the valley of the river to which they have given their name. andria on Fraser kotin). 'E. the Babine (Nataotin). Their S. folklore and religion of the people of this region. the name they apply to themselves. a small tribe allied and adjacent portions of British territory as lar as the Rocky mts. ern group occupies the mountainous interior of America from the upper Yukon to lat. and were surrounded by. in language there was a gradual transition through intermediate dialects from one end of the region to the other. each language. barrier. the Sarsi. a narrow but continuous strip of Eskimo territory bars them from Hudson bay and the Arctic ocean. The tribes composing group according to Morice. e.. There were no tribes in this region.. are members of the Algonquian family. The languages which compose the Athapascan family are plainly related to each other and. but groups of villages which sometimes joined in a raid against a common enemy and where the same of the great differences life conditions of dialect weis spoken. are held by the Eskimo. on the s. on the shores of a lake bearing that name... except at Cook inlet and Copper r. rather uniform and somewhat limited on Very little is known of the its material side. ous languages The Kutchin of Porcupine and Tanana rs. and partly because there was little intercourse between the river valleys of the region. r. beginning the Kawchodinneh or Hares. and while certain and with the Skittagetan. because of certain peculiarities. The eastern group occupies a vast extent of continuous territory. beginning at the valley of Umpqua r. due largely to many decayed prefixes and to various changes of the root to indi at3 the number and character Between the variof the subject and object. The culture throughout this territory was by no means uniform.. and Wakashan families between them words are found to be common. by the watershed between the Athabaska and lower Peace To the rs. Their in length. the south-western. or D6n6. Athabaska lake. Their neighbours on the This s. the Siksika. the Thlingchadinne or Dogribs. stand out from the other American languages with considerable Phonetically they are rendered distinctness. Koyukuk r. The northwestern group occupies the interior of Alaska lined. territory was cut through at one point by the Yurok on Klamath r. the Chipewyan on Slave r. Geographically consists of three divisions: the Carriers (Takulli). certainly it covering many centuries. For the greater part. has formed many nouns by composition and transformed the structure of its verbs. N. Pacific. the consists of three groups: north-western.. These villages were in many cases separated by low but rugged mountains. Koluschan... The Pacific division consisted formerly of a small band in Washington and of many villages in a strip of nearly continuous territory about 400 m. The following dialectic 17877—4 . There were probably 5 of these dialects which were mutually unintelligible. by the Rocky mts.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. tory from Stuart lake southward to Alex- The Northern division. The people seem to have been too much occupied with the severe struggle with the elements for a bare existence to have developed much material culture^ They are usually distinguished into three prin- many continuants. especially of vowels. The eastern. the small stocks characteristic of the region.. family. Pacific.. the Tsattine or Beavers on Peace r. beyond the area out- with their Algonquian neighbours. in Oregon and extending toward the s. and the Etchaottine or Slaves. who occupy the terri(Tsil- Northern. and frequent checks and aspirations. with the Rocky mts. group seems to constitute a culture area of its own. beginning at the E. to the s. between Great Slave and Great Bear lakes. known as the Tinneh. and N. along the coast and Coast Range mts. to the headwaters of Eel r. British much regular phonetic change. harsh and difficult for European ears because of series of guttural sounds. partly The principal tribes are the Tatsanottine or on account Yellowknives.

in Cahfornia. Although in this respect the Athapascan resembles the Salishan and Shoshonean famihes. a fact noted by missionaries among the northern Athapascans up to the present day. and the Lipan formerly in w. such as Not included in the three divisions described the beaver and hare. deer. and Ronde res. and Kuneste in the valley But few of the memof Eel r. without clans or gentes. Kawchodinne. The bodies of the dead were placed on the ground. and even of the Apache. and were subdivided into family groups or loose bands. So far as is known the language and culture of this division are quite uniform. and its tributaries. such as the Chipewyan. 1912 Broups made up this division The Kwalhioqua ^n Washington. in Oregon. many years ago. the TsiLkotin that of the Sahsh. the Mattole on the river of that name. They killed deer numerous by driving them rows into an angle of stakes. and their sayings were of much influence with some of the people. had assimilated many of the customs and arts of the Eskimo. its phabiUty and adaptabihty appear to have been much greater. the Taltushtuntude. a small band which has maintained its own language while hving on intimate terms with the Kiowa. those of California homes. Passing to the Pacific group. 25°. lying in in his formed by two converging where they were shot by hunters wait.. Lassik. lakes and rivers.50 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. together with smaller animals. of San Juan r. and the n. although differing comparatively Httle from that of the northernmost Algonquian tr bes and the neighbouring Eskimo. Tatsanottine. practically no difference is found between the culture which they presented and that of the surrounding tribes of other stocks. including most of Arizona and New Mexico. Shamans existed. of the mythology of the Tsimshian. Texas but now hving with the Mescaleros in New Mexico. but had excuse in the Thus. At the same time they had . the Takulli had adopted the social organization and much especially in Alaska. covered with bark and surrounded by pahngs. whose bodies were placed in boxes on the branches of trees. e. which recognized a kind of patriarchal government and descent. various kinds of birds. and the lodges of deer or caribou skins. the diiference between success and failure on such a quest being frequently the difference between the existence or extinction of a band. In summer. and Tututunne on Rogue r. indeed. borders of Kansas and Texas. the Tolowa on Smith r. Arizona and N. dren.. New Mexico. W. and several varieties of fish found in the above are the Kiowa Apache. in winter the dogs carried most of the household goods. while the Sarsi and Beavers possessed much in common with their Algonquian neighbom-s to the S. to say whether such a culture ever existed. portion of Utah and Colorado. Stuichamukh. Chastacosta. bers of this division now remain. The man was complete master lodge. transportation was effected in birch-bark canoes. and E.. the Apache (really a group of tribes) on all sides of the NaVaho except the N. some times replaced by bark farther s. the Sinkyone.. for many years. part of Mexico to lat. musk-ox. in n. were due to Pueblo influences. moose. especially of female chilits to adopt the culture of neighbouring peoples marked that it is difficult to determine and describe any distinctive Athapascan culture or.. formerly on rivers of these names. The Oregon portion has been on the Siletz and Grande : social organization and many of the rites and ceremonies of the Navaho. the Hupa and Tlelding on the lower portion of Trinity r. these tribes had little coherence. the Hoilkut on Redwood or. the Umpqua and Coquille (Mishikhwutmetunne). and the Chetco on Chetco r. except in so far as they were assisted by the women. the s. stiU reside near their ancient The Southern division held buffalo. They seem never to have been connected with the Southern division. and assuming the most laborious Infanticide. If a true Athapascan cultm-e may be said to have existed anywhere. the tribes of the extreme N. it was among the eastern tribes of the Northern group. Their principal neighbours were the members of the Shoshonean family and the various Pueblo tribes in the region. and Thlingchadinne. sway over a vast area in the S. Clothing was made of deerskins in the hair. A. except in the case of noted men.. and about Crescent City. his wife being entirely sub- own The so tendencj' of the members of this family is servient duties. the western culture of the Thngit. Nahane had adopted the and it is evident that the hard life these people were obliged to undergo. was common. Their food consisted of caribou. and on the barren grounds they were provided with sledges.. The peoples composing it are the Navaho s. but religion does not seem to have exerted as strong an influence as in most other parts of America. w. Perhaps the strongest authority was that exercised by the leader of a hunting party. Although recognizing a certain individuality. but appear to have come from the N. the w.

Assylitlh.. Schouler in Jour. Archiv. 37. Langue Dtod-Dindji6. Autour du lac des Esclaves. Aff. Deneh-Dindschieh. 6. Man. although not Canadian Indians. 1831. 205. Proc. Nar.— Franklin. 1856. Diet.. Geol. 375. insignificant Chilliwak set- Petitot. Danites. Ethnol.— Zagoskin in Nouv. lac des Atlkuma (A-tl-kuma) . the numerous writings of Emile Petitot. 1898. 374. MS.. 48. at-se'-na. N. — —Pritchard. Standard Nat. Alaska. litch. g. MS.. 10th Census. Tutu vocab. Ill. Galice Creek vocab. Athapascan.. Ddn^Dindji6. W. Am. 1853. 1880. Dinne. Aa'ninSna. Tinai. —Hardisty Smithaon. 1891. 1872. 1849. Diet. 'larvse in i. 1876 chodinne name). Autour du Es- claves. — Morice 3d 113. Tene. — Halleck (1868) quoted by 'DtinnS. 1887. in vji. pt. — Petitot» Diet. Kingsley. Sekani. ii. iii. 4 in Aitchelltz. 428. Ethnol. inf'n xix. Roy. 1888 (used by by Dall. 147. 4. B. E.. Richardson. Victoria. Aff. Gallatin in — (Kaw- Wakeman British Columbia. Zagoskin quoted by Dall in Cont. 641.— Ibid. A Bellacoola village where the present mission is situated. Tannal. 380. Athapaches. Ind. on the N. Tede. Can. 401. Hardisty and Jones in Smithson. 3d.. Petitot in — 1884 (used by Tutu- Jour. 1851. 1878. Dindjie. 1872. Schoolcraft. — Zagoskin. Chlppewyan.. xix. 1874. A'tsElits. 1.. Diet. s.— Petitot... Ind.. A Tlauitsis village Phys. 1884 (used by Tolowa).tploratioa of th3 Ciuadiaa west 17877— 4i . Diet. 1891 (used by Chipewyan). Arabasca.. Dorsey. 1883. 1866. 1888. Rep. Tinnfe. Nat. ni. Exped. Rep.972 see total. 1836. Ttynai-chotana. Gallatin in Trans. Tennai. MS. Richardson. — Zagoskin quoted by Bancroft. — — Beavers. Cal.. Brit... Dend-Dindji§. Athapascas. 1. Antiq. Slaves. E. DfinS-Dindji^..— (used by Tsilkotin) Ttynal. 1884.—Cox. 641. Alaska. i. Atlalko. 1889 (used by TakuUi). vocab. Geog.) Alaska. — — 1841 (partial synonym). Diet.. ii. Univ. Dinneh. Roy. Dorsey. said to mean under Cf. Ann. II. 1895. ii. Nearly all have now been Christianized by Roman Cathohc missionaries and seem to be devout converts. Autour du lac des Esclaves. nai. Dogribs. 539. 1831. Irkp616it'. pt. Surv. In the synonymy which follows the names are not always to be accepted as true equivalents. 5th s.. 1865 (used by Kutchin). near its mouth. Ethnol. Morice (1) in Trans. 78.. 143. 1. TlnnStte. Kingsley. B.. Soc. Surv. of A Hahuamis sd. Athabasca. Can. 480.— Pinart in Rev. Am. 1898.— Rafinesque. 3d s. N. 1889 (used (Tlinby Thiingchadinne). Chepewyan. Map. 566. R. Keane in Stanford.... 363. 1870. 276. Toene.. Boas in Mem. 1889 (used by Etagottine).—Butler. Nat. B. Cr. 1884. —Richardson. meh. 1886. 357. and elsewhere. in in in Inst. A. 303. —Richardson. 11. i. B. xi.— Brit. Races. 1877. see the special articles under the tribal names and articles dealing with other tribes in the same locahties. 1.) 6.. there are numerous references to them in narratives of e. Petitot in Jour. 98.. E. de Philol.— Assy- — —Can. 1882. 1883. 1795. A£f. 1877. Atselits. Wild N.. Roy.' — —^Grinnell. 1876 (used by Tukkuthkutchin).. Tflde. s. Sarsi). Tanai. British Columbia. Canadian Inst. in Ethnol. R. —Swanton. Races. Rep. 1878. Dindjitch. 1884 (used by Taltushtuntude) Tu. 21a absolute faith in the necessity and efficacy of charms which they tied to their fishing hooks and ilets. Soc. Tribes. Hist. Tinneh. Petroff. 241. Bancroft.. Soc. Antiq. Soc. Arct. side of Bellacoola r. 3. Petitot. DenS-Dindji^. (used by Kutchakutchin).500. 1875. For the Pacific division: Powers in Cont. ii. n. — — 1898. Richardson. v.. Dinnee. 1876. — Ibid.. Arathapescoas. Turner in Pac.865. Geog. Corbusier in Am. —Morice git lice'). — Keane Stanford. 1851. Kenalzer. Nat. Soc. et d'Ethnol. (2) Trans. MS. Sarsi. 276.. Atchellty.. Geolog. Arct.) (p. 226.. 1.. name: 'strange people'). i. Corbusier Thnalna. xix. A. 178. Tceni.. — — Atlklaktl (Alqla'Xh). 1824. Far North. xix.— Petitot. 218. Kenalans. Arct. A. Geog. Alaska. Native Races. j. pt. Travels. Dinais.. A. 25. Proc. Ibid. Aff. Lond. — Dall Cont.— Dall. Voy. Pop. 1851. 1876 (used by Knaiakhotana) 146. Nations.. Can. Inst. Petitot. Holmberg quoted in Am. i. vii. Athapaccas. Hares. Dendjye. 1816. side of Cracroft id. — *The Atsina note has been inserted because. Exped. Exped. 1878. 374. 1851. R. N. Am. E. Athabascan.. Exped. Dinni. 1850. Compend. — — II. (See Treaties. Col. Thynnfi. Chipewyan. (Can.— Petitot. on N. 1804. — An s. 316. 40. Wabasca. 413. Boudinot. Soc.— Dorsey. 113. Ind. Gunana. 113. no. 2. 1903. iii. Compend. Dun&. Cox. e.. Mus.. —Dawson Petitot. Land. The Northern Athapascan or Den6 are usually meant. 1851.—Petitot. Assyletch.. 98. Northern. —Zagoskin (1842) quoted by Petroff. s. Columbia — B. 3. Mackenzie r. 1891.. Can. 1883. Arct. tunne). Tinney. Den6-Dindji6. 1870. 1. Applegate — — — For the Northern division of A'hapascans Hearne. 1. Ayabasca. Dorsey. Chepeyans. A. Dln6. Hist. 428. Ind. 1883.. 1847. British Columbia.. 1912. Geog. 1886. Stand. Dnaln^. 1876 (Eskimo name: ol Itynai. Surv. 1883. MS. It was one of the 8 villages called Nuhalk. 1876. 1866. 1886. Col.. Hist. pt.. Roy. 512. on the N. r.. 1836.— Wilson in Rep. in Inst. Nat. Explor. passim. 1873. In 1911. D&nfi. 84. 641. — — — — A-tl-al-ko. 1870. 127. vocab.— Ibid. I.. 25» 1877 (misprint). vii. A. R. 17. 428. quoted by Schott Erman. Hist. —Hill-Tout —Can. Searching Exped. A. Columbia.. E. Smith R. vii. *Atsina (Blackfoot: 'gut people. Athapasques. 6.. 10th Census. 1884 (used by Dakubetede). 180.— MS. Tribes Can.. i... map. Dawson in Can. D6nS-Dindjie. Arct. Ttyn589. Russell.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER certain 51 No.. ii. Morice in Proc. approx. 276. A. Altchelich. Ind. Bancroft.. in village at the head Ad6ne. Dan6.—Petitot in Jour. Star in the West.^ TOnnS. 99. Holmberg quoted by Dall. map. 1902. Petitot. Can.. 125. Alaska. tlement in 1911. Antiq. 38. Roy. Goddard in Pubs. xxr. the population of the Canadian Athapascans was as follows: Yellow-Knives. For an account of the culture of the remaining Athapascan tribes. xix. Ibid. Canada. 1872.

Champlain (1618). Brackenridge. Travels. Atignenonghac— Ibid. Attiquenongnahai. Essays.. 1848 (by confusion with "Gros Ventres"). Gallatin in Trans. 1632. 955. —Hayden. Val. for for 1638. Soc. 73. MaximiUan. pt. Val. 1865. Gros Ventres. Nat. missions of St. Ind. E-tdnl-o. iv. 1858. Bahwetegoii.. Latham in Proc. — De Smet. Bear Nation. 1878. VI.—Jes. 47.— Hayden. op. 1854. At58.—Jes.. 86.— Lewis and Clark. for 1636. 1858. 1823 (Hidatsa Atlgnaoiiantan. 61. Atingyaholntan.. Atingyahoulan. 1639. Carolana. Rel. 422. Jour. Kingsley. to Sec. for- m. n. Attignaoou- — — — inf'n. Bk.. 1856. Rel. Jour. and Philol. Pawistuck-Ienewuck..— McCoy.. — 1858. where in 1904 they Arapaho). said to mean 'gut people'). — ingueennonnihak. Soc. Pawaustic-eythin- — — Attigneenongnahac—Jes. Minnetarees of the Prairie.' but are known to the other Arapaho as HitunSna. Bahwetig.. B. — Gros they were said to have 3 villages.. e. In 1638 they were settled in 14 towns and villages (Jes. B..' the Gros Ventres of the French CanaThe dians and now their popular name correctly 14th Rep. 204. Bot-k'ifi'- ago.. Atinouaentans. 21. 1853. Hist.. 1896. Coll. Pawistucienetnuk. ii. Mont. — people': Ibid. for 1636. i. Keane in Stanford.. 1870. Rel. the other and more common being Histuitanio). II.).. Rel. 85. 1871. 1807. A. 131. They have been constantly confused with the Hidatsa. s. Bowwetig. Latham. 81. Reg... Morse. 1862 ('people that beg': Arapaho name for HitOnSna). Gass. for 1858. Rel. —Hayden. 1741. 204. Ibid. — 1640. Ixxxiv. 530. 1858. Ind. Tribes. 1806. 123. 1854.' mag 'fish': 'whitefish. Bowwetegoweninnewug. 28. 1866 (Huron name). 1815. Gros Ventres des Prairies.— Lewis and Clark. iv. -Attig- weninnewug. 1854. Attignawantan (Huron: ohniS" 'bear': hali 'they. Minetares of the Prairie. — . 1870. 64. Ethnog. in Mooney — Atsina-Algo. op. 1896 ('bellies': Shoshoni name). for 1644. Nat. 1644. Drake. Azana. Rel. (Ottawa name). for 1639. Attigouantan. Simcoe. 169. Lond. — — Sagard. 1836. 276. Rapid Indians. 63.. Is-tick — — — numbered called 535. Maximilian. 1814. E. for Attigneenongnahac. 62. Missions... 61..— Henry. Lewis and Clark. iv. 61.. 1862. Rel. 1866. Rel. living of the others. 290. Soc. — AttignaSantan. Ahnenin.' whence the tribal sign. Attigouautan. naouentan. Nation de I'Ours. Voy. Joseph was established t mong them. 1.. Joseph and established The Jesuit La Conception were (j. Soc. steadily decreasing. — name is also applied to the Arapaho). Soc.. 23. for 1858. iii. commonly but inrendered 'belly people. 326. 77. at I-e-ne-wuck. (Sioux To-i-nin'-a. Stand. Ventres of the Prairie. pt. 1637. by Schoolcraft (Ind. Coxe. Hist. 1896 ('begging men": — Arapaho name)... 530. E.. Harmon. Gr. 1839 (Siksika name.. A band of . Mo. 270. 12. Coll 2d 36. — entan.. for Attigneenongnahac—«Jes. Sa'pani.. in.Sagard (1632). Mooney in 14th Rep. Hist. — — merly living on Nottawasaga bay. Umfreville (1790) in Maine Hist. and in most respects are regarded by the Arapaho proper as inferior to them..' or 'big bellies. Die. iv. Attigouantines. iv. They mean 'white clay people. Achena. Hitu'nSna. Inds. Can. E. See under that name. Tribes. 1820. note. War. A. Latham in Trans. Mo. — Alcedo. B. 1859. note. A-re-tear-o-pen-ga.. —Grinuell. Atsina. 1641. 332.. 154. Atinniaognten. Paw- Attikamegue (Chippewa: Mi'k 'caribou. VI. 'beggars. Altignenonghac—Jes.Jes. 56. 50.— (1632). Grosventres of the Prairie. Rel. — Jes. Attinquenongnahac—Jes. 955. Mo. 226. Mo.. cit. 1858. vi. Prairie Grossventres. 1870.. Ind.—Jes. 6. Ibid. Hist. Soc. name). tignouaatitans. 154. Ixxxiv. Atigagnongueha. 1860. 1848. Attingneenongnahac—Jes. ibid. Rel. i. Missions. 1912 A detached branch of the Arapaho one time associated with the Blackfeet. — — — among them. 14. Attingneenongnahac Jes. 1822. 1870. Sagard (1632).—Jes. Hist. 1848. Philol. — Schermerhorn (1812) in Mass.. AtinniaSenten.. 341.. A. 955.—Jes. 1823. Aff. De Smet. 174. Morgan. 1786. 1858. Systems of Consang. 1853. Philol. Ethnog. Fall Indians. 78. —Tanner. vocab. 1640.— Mooney in 14th Rep. 234. MS.— Jes. 1844 (a similar 1848. 1808 (Siksika name). Aitigfia- Narr. Rel. Mooney in 14th Rep. quoted by Hayden. iv. 1862 ('people:' one Cheyenne name for them. 245. A.) A^'nlnSna. 470. Stand. Alesar.— Jes. comthe Huron population. Acapatos. — Kingsley. German form). Hahtz-nai koon. Ind. E. 1854. Mlnnitarees of Fort de Prairie. Abahnelins. 1858. Gros Ventres of the Falls. 253. Polar Sea. Explor. Ontario. Schoolcraft. ii. name). Rel. Jour. Compend. Philol. J.— Latham in Proc. Rep. b.'—W. or Gros Atsina are not prominent in history. for 1649. yoowuc. Exped. Exped. 1853) to des- cribe the confederate Atsina and Siksika. Rel.. Tribes. Travels. and Philol. 290. Tribes. Rel. v.—Jes. One of the Huron confederacy. Ibid. The Jesuit mission of St. At-s6'1905 (Blackfoot name. 1896 ('belly men'). 544. — Schoolcraft. Lond. His-tu-i'-ta-ni-o. 83. Sku'tanl. At1858. One of the four — tribes of the Huron confederation. Gros Ventres des Plaines. for wantan.. Ibid. Minnetarees of Fort de Prairie.. 38. and Philol. — Schoolcraft. Tanner. Can. — 1640. Rel..' anni- 'bear largest tribes of the prising about half people'). Duflot de Mofras.—Schoolcraft. 79. —Champlain (1615).. 127. 1858. Am. 1824.' or 'spongers. cit. Long. 1830 ('fall Chipjjewa name). Ventres of the Missouri. 109. 198. 955. Views of La. for 42. 1858). 1883. Journ. Ann.. Ethnog. Ibid. Val. B. Geog. said to themselves Aa'ninSna. ii. map.) — Rocky Mts. 1862 (Cheyenne name: elanio = 'people'). Long. — Ind. iv. Nation d'Entauaque. Lond. Ethnol. 344.. 1638. Rocky Mts. for Nation des Ours. An adjective invented i. 87. Rel. 50. 1814 (French name). HitunSnina. Minitares of tlie Prairie. Ethnog. Attiguenongha. 1858. i. 1820. Travels. Ahnl-ninn. 1858. 79. — Franklin. 1858. and Philol.. for 1858. h. — — on lake In 1624 s. ii. A. 253. but now with the Assiniboin under Fort Belknap agency. Atignenongach. 247. Tribes. x. 1858. Ontario. 1839. 315 — — —Champlain (1616). Trav. 1883. 140. Gros ventre of the Fort prairie. Harmon. 6. pt.52 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. ffiuvres. 78. Attiquenongnah. CEuvres. 1635. Val. 544.. Rel. na. Hayden. 67. Minnetarees of the Plains. Attigneenongnahac. for 1642. (j. A-ian-sar.

Awassissin.— Drake.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. 1888. probably Algonquian. map. Awighsaghroone. 1858. the complete or entire pecked in a ridge encircling the axe. map. In the latter case it is always one of the narrow sides that is left without a groove. while the partial groove is sunken in the body of the implement. 1755.. Les Caribou. 1854. As these extreme sizes could serve no economic purpose.. Attlkamegs.— Jes. map. 446. Ah-wah-sis'-sa.— Ibid. as trap. Soc. Brit. Col. 1836. Cartier to Frontenac. (j. he adds: "sometinies they call the people of this totem 'those who carry their young. Voy. is Among the stone specimens there — a very wide range the largest weighing upward of 30 1770. the smaller may have been amulets or talismans. Atticamlques. Jefferys. 1639. Axes with two or more grooves Ordinarily groove is . Attlkamegouek. Aff. 1816. A-waus-e-wug. Lab. 1858. E. 1784. La Tour. sionaries as a quiet. — Awighsaghroene. Mub.— Ibid. Baffin island. Exped. Hist.. 1858. 1902.. Atticameoets. leaving a protuberance above and below. 1851. — Attibamegues. Attikou Iriniouetz. (awasisi. As a rule the groove is at a right angle to the. 37. Inds. 1894. Gens du Caribou. iii. Ind. Rel. 332. Rep. New Voy. or Missisauga. iii Mithridates. 1637.— Drake. 125. Ahwa-sis-se. Warren in Minn. — pounds and the smallest scarcely an ounce. 1858. Richardson. 1877.. Rel. with rounded angles and an encircling groove near the top for securing the Attikiriniouetch {udi'kvnniniwiig 'caribou W. French Doms. 39. — The grooved axe takes a prominent among the stcne implements used by the northern tribes.. i.m. map. They were so harassed by the attacks of the Iroquois that a part at least fled to the vicinity of Tadoussac.—Jes. pt. Chron. Rel. ren a phratry including all a fish).S. 1640. Ind. map. 82. Maurice. Ramsey — — — — — in U. as sandstone or slate.— Attekamek. Star in the West.. Ojibwa MS. B. J. 6th Rep. Gatschet. Nat. Arct. Nat. Rel. Ungava bay. Rel. pt.—Jea. A Col. Maurice basin (Jes. 1784. they were probably for ceremonial use. 171. Chmasi. greenstone. Jes. . — Pen. AewaS'LEla. 1784 (misprint). for 1643. 161. Boudinot.. — — — — — — Awighsaghroone. Quebec. for 1643. Suhinimiut Eskimo Hind. tough stone. map. syenite. Cf. vi.. map. 21a A'wa-iLala. Attlkamigues. zin it is by smallpox as a tribe. ' — Copper axes are in size. Baffin island. 1766. Attlkouetz. Awaitlala ('those inside Kwakiutl tribe on Knight Their town is called Kwatsi. 1882. —Jes. inoffensive people.) Altihatnaguez. v. La Tour. 1878. 152. inlet'). average. ascend the St. A-waus-is-ee... 315.— Winaor. 166.. Attlkamek. E. end of Home bay. Bk. map. that lived about the upper Great lakes and which sent a friendly message to the Seneca in 1715. A According to War- the fish gentes of the Chippewa. 81. A. 8. Am. Poissons blancs. 3. Compend. — Livingston (1715) in N. 1858. 1850. 1755. ii. Rel. Narr. 230. A. —Hervas quoted by Vater. 38. in Mem.. E. Aukardneling. 1858. Rel. people. — Boas ('red') in Aukpatuk vill: A ge on II. readily disposed to receive religious instruction.. Tribes. 122.. 3. Attik Iriniouetchs. — Boas —Boas in Rep. 1872 (given as Oughtella. 1858. map. 91. handle. La Tour. Tanner. Ind. Quebec. i. Letter. Keane in Stanford. Altlkamek.). map. side of A village of the Talirping- miut division of the Okomiut Eskimo on the w. or hematite. Morgan. Avaudjelling. Col. 1779. 19. 1896. in Quebec province. La Tour. 1863. Outakoua1636. Aff. v. pt.— Atlkamegues. Perhaps identical with the Assisagigroone.' from the habits of the small catfish"). 12. Awausee 'bullhead. 1848.' Chippewa phratry or gens. 1. Attikameques.. — wedge. granite. Jes. though sometimes it is oblique. 1830 ('small catfish'.. 1858). map. Bellin. A tribe. Y. 37. the inlet. B. map. Attikamegues. Ind. Bellin. and this is frequently flattened or hollowed to accommodate the handle better. 1816. Lawrence to trade with the French. Hist. and acoustomed to Victoria. Bellin. A. Altikameques. — McKenney and Hall. Mus. B. index. 87. map. where such can be procured but when these are not available softer material is utiUzed. 1755. given by Tanner as a gens. A summer settlement of Akudnirmiut Eskimo at the N. of the St. when first known. sec. 1779. 1636. 347. Outakouamlouek. Atticameouecs. Attikameguekhl. La Tour. n. and it may extend entirely or only partially around the axe. Anc. which mark close to the limits of utility. 1855. Soc^CoU.— Brit. Auqardneling. The majority range from 1 pound to 6 pounds. map. Cumberland sd . White Fish Indians... Hist. Gens du Caribon. name of town). A Montagnais tribe formerly living northward from Manikuagan lake. Rel. Atticamoets. Doc. 502. Jes. Boas in 6th Rep. i..' — — but there is great variation from the Usually the implement is made of some hard. so nearly destroyed they became extinct They were esteemed by the misin 1670 that They were According to Morgan and Tomaa gens in itself. Charlevoix says their chief residence was on a lake connected with the St. ca. Awaus-e. place thick ihlwek. 1703. 1761. of rare occurrence. 53 the Montagnais residing. 44. longer axis. 1897. 1885. Charlevoix (1743). v. 1888. The normal form is that of a Axes.— ^ahontan.

E. hair. Indust. and the like. the United States and were used for a great purposes in the in the chase. United States. basketry. Antiq. in 1697 regions. rawhide. cloth. Jones. with holes drilled for the insertion of a handle are common in Europe. B. A division of the Cree (q'. Axes are well distributed over the country wherever good material is readily available. grass. of example. fur skins. but this method of hafting was of very rare occurrence among the American aborigines. Impls. The material was tawed leather of various kinds. 1900. and Alaska. E. mens are found in the soapstone quarries of e. and various pouches served in their stead.. B. (Margry. diately out of use on the introduction in See Abbott. A. f. was used for the gathering. Many varieties bags and pouches were made by the Indians number of purposes.. the Nataotin. the top of T being set against the flattened or hollow Axes side of the implement and firmly lashed. The haft was Ayabaskawininiwug.' Babine ('big lips'). The original source is probably the old Micmac ababich. 666. w. xxii. transportation. according to Morice (Trans. are found in some sections. A branch of the TakulK comprising. skins of birds. A thong of skin. the Babine proper. Given by La Chesnaye vi. Squier and Davis in Smithson. where they were used for cutting out masses of this rock. cord. Thruston. 1912 are rare excepting in the Pueblo country. Axes of rude shape. 1896.) babish. Jones in Smithson. 1902.e was given to them by French Canadians from the custom of wearing labrets. 27. W. It is Bags and Pouches.). bark. and indeed their entire culture was greatly afi^ected by that of the coast tribes. 1883. 1873. The pouch was a receptacle of flexible material for containing various objects and substances of personal use or ceremony. I.) form a pouch for carrying the baby. Moorehead. Wilson in Smithson. stomach or pericardium of animals.. but heavier T-shape sticks were sometimes used. being quite unlike those of the Pueblo country. 'thread. occurring in Hennepin (1688). larger and simpler. it would serve. fibre. 100th Merid. The bag. but it is manifestly not well suited for such work.numbering from 200 to 300 1886) as the name men. Rectangular or oval pouches were made with a flap or a gatheringstring and with a thong. h. from one of the eastern dialects of Alg nquian. On occasion articles were tucked away in the cloth- ing or were tied up in bits of cloth or skin.. h. etc. beadwork. 1887 and 1888. eel skin. f. British Columbia rare. 1893). Stevenson in 2d Rep. Hist. and' storage of game and other food. A cognate word is Nouv. Prim. 1612). Holmes in 15th Rep. or strap for attaching them at the shoulder or to the belt. of probable that the axe served various arts. shore of lake Superior. B. tanned leather. 'thread' (Lescarbot.. Cont. Antiq.. The nam. commonly known as Wood Cree. particularly of -The word is derived through Canadian French. Inds. the Chippewa assa(a. A. buckskin or wool. and was generally an adjunct of costume. Fowke (1) 13th Rep. The grooved axe is said to have been used in felling trees and in cutting them up. and especially in war and The costume of' the Numerous badly fractured speci- aborigines was universally destitute of pockets. (g.. (2) Arch. 6. Cont. A. in which the term is old. 1879. c. France. with a people of the same nama. and among the Eskimo the woman's coat was enlarged over the shoulders and at the back to The hafted stone axe passed imme- by Europeans of the iron axe. 1876. and although plentiful in the in Bagoache. Dec.. Prehist. with a total population of 610 in 7 villages. copied from the Chimmesyan. placed parallel with the blade and was usually a withe doubled around the groove and fastened securely with cords or rawhide.. vii. Inst. 18 7. however. the bladder. So. to assist in cutting wood in conjunction with charring. where multiple grooves are common. Hist. 'cord. Putnam in Surv.54 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v.. British Columbia.. for of a country about the n. Can. 1897. The blanket also served at times for a bag. A. and the Hwotsotenne tribes living about Babine lake. Reps. made by flaking a flattish boulder along one end and breaking notches in the sides for hafting. 1848. E. which was the first and most obviously useful tool that the Indians saw in the hands of the white man. The Eskimo had pouches with a flap that could be wrapped many times around and secured . 1881. v. the axe was roughed out by chipping and was reduced to the desired shape by pecking with a hard stone and by grinding. Tenn. When not made from boulders closely approximating in shape the desired implement. Ohio. examples from the Atlantic mound region are seldom found The shapes vary with the different slope. cord of babiche. mounds. where specimens are exceedingly Few are found in Florida..' Babiche. the excepting in the Pacific states.

deep or shallow. 1900. Culin. Mason (1) Aboriginal American Rep. N. and spun or woven. but in the S... somewhat resembling tennis rackets.) it is 1905. The Eskimo bag was provided with an ivory handle. no. m. IV.. and prayer under Skin pouches. known Mexico. and the object of each party was to drive the ball under the goal of the opposing party by means of the racket without touching it with the hand. xvni. 1. E. Nat. 4. generally superseded in the fasting. trinkets. and other trees was in some locahties torn into strips. Hist. They were square or oblong.. Two goals were set up at a distance of several hundred yards from each other. Anthrop. Mus.. said. It was found also in CaUfornia and Bark.. and Turner. 1902. or a spherical block of wood. Bags were made for containing articles to be packed on horses. the bags of the Nez made of apocynum fibre and cornthe woven hunting bags of northern where it is still kept up with the old ceremonial and enthusiasm. Nat. Bags showed less variety of form. Nat. Ball play. Small pouches were used for holding toilet tools. ibid. Games of N. 1890. the player used a pair. In the N. 1902. B. Hist. Bull. pipes. It was stripped from trees at the right season by hacking all around and taking it off in sheets of desired length. perhaps elsewhere on the Pacific coast. 4. among which mare. elm. made of babiche. and with 1 or 2 netted rackets. Unknown Mexico. Mooney. Catlin. but was W. suppl. such as the bandolier for personal use. by some form of shinny. 1792. 1894. It was played with a small ball of deerskin stuffed with hair or moss. (j. quillwork. Bartram. and in very few other belongings of the Indian were displayed such fertihty of invention and such skill in the execution of the decorative and symbolic designs. The Arapaho. 1904. crescent-shaped pouches into the horns of which objects are thi-ust through a central opening. and by the Louisiana French Creoles as raquette.. the ball was manipulated with a single racket. Willoughby in Am. -The Indians of many tribes played other games of ball. 1902. Trav. After picking up the ball with the racket. Lumholtz. the direction of the medicine-men. Am. Most bags and pouches were ornamented. of the Thlingcha- husks. Preceding and accompanying the game there was much ceremonial of dancing. shredded. Teit in (w. and the Plains Indians. tribes used this amilarly diversified. A. Am. Ill.. Two settlements or two tribes generally played against each other. bleeding. Lumholtz. Am. no. Boas in Jour. which was frequently decorated with etching. Hist. 1904. Perces. VII. Nez Perces. who have carried it with them to their present homes in Oklahoma. Shorn of its ceremonial accompaniments it has been adopted by the Canadians as their national game under the name of lacrosse. Inds. in 24th Rep. Bags of textiles and basketry are The allied game as a stratagem to obtain entrance to Ft.. and the painted rawhide pouches and bags of the tribes of the Great plains. 55 No. the northern Athapascan and Algonquian tribes. fetishes. 21a and an ivory fastener. Many of these were provided with a shoulder band. the player might run with it in his hand until he could throw it again. however. Among the resources of nature utiby the tribes of North America bark was of prime importance. the players numbering from 8 or 10 up to hundreds on a side. 1902. 1896. Hist. among others. Am.(2) Primitive Travel and Transportation. tobacco. lized . frequently joined together Uke saddle-bags. The tribes of the far N. Nat. 3. Large pouches pouch of the Chippewa. The inner bark of cedar. E. Inds. elaborately orna- mented with beadwork. Un- Mus. made use of large sleeping bags of fur. A. nos. Hoffman. which. Nelson. and high stakes were wagered on the result.. Mus. medicine. tribe. 1905. i. Am.. etc. The bark of wild twisted. Anthrop. flax (Apocynum) and the Asclepias were made Bark had a multitude of into soft textiles. Decorated bags and wallets of skin are characteristic of the Aleut. is the kicked ball noteworthy of the Tarahu- Consult Basketry. gave the name to the Consult Adair. 1775. Mus. h. sewing- sacred meal. Mackinaw in 1764. many with a carrying-strap and a forehead band. in Reports of the B. The common designation of a man's game formerly the favorite athletic game of all the eastern tribes from Hudson bay to the Gulf. catching the ball between them.. Salish. ammunition. Inds. 1841. Especially note- worthy are the muskemoots dinne. flat or cylindrical. were made by various tribes. Cherokee Ball Play. woodland tribes..HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER by means The Zuni of a string use. anointing.) Mem. paint. and dyes. pigments. articles. Am. Boas.. Kroeber. A. Holmes. Numerous places bearing the name of Ball Play give evidence of its old popularity among the former tribes of the Gulf states. held smaller pouches and articles or bags.

including watthng... juices. In the S. those living about the Great lakes chewed that of the slippery elm. certain kinds also the the spring. 1896.. and furnished strings^ some S. tribes made cakes of the soft inner bark of the hemlock and spruce. and in what way to com- bine different plants with a view to the union bast shredded. with woof from other materials. 1896. Willow bark and other kinds were smoked in pipes with or instead of tobacco. Winnebago. 1900. Basketry. twine. A. The conical house. in Hoffman in 14th Rep. their foreheads being often flat- tened by means of pads of the same material. were most skilful of tools fingers. and bags for his wooden canoes. tribal history social the potter's art It among non-sedentary tribes. W. rope. Holmes in 3d and 13th Reps. Finally it comes into the service of ceremony and reUgion. T. how to harvest. carrying. mats. Jenks in 19th Rep. B. dishes for serving. Dyes were derived from bark and and overlaying in basketry. e. could be formed by merely bending large sheets and sewing or simply tying the joints. world. 1894. were inscribed thereon.. beauty and strength in the product. Clothing of bark was made chiefly from the inner portion. a stone knife. was frequently covered with this material. In later times knives. who was nearly always a woman. bark of birch. and here bark aided in developing their skill and intelligence. E. elm. 1888. Both men and women were food gatherers.56 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. gathering. it many tribes with an article of diet in garments. W. the baby-board had a cover of matting. B. Such a series of masks and dance regaUa as Boas and others found among the Kwakiut! illustrates how obligingly bark lends itself to co-operative activities. Rep. and other trees was so handy as to discourage ing. B. E. and bagging. W. For gathering. and in some instances the bark was chewed and the sphnt drawn between the lips. Jones in Smithson. A. whether in amusement. preserve. The fisher wrought implements out of it and poisoned fish with its ropes.' was applied by the Mohawk to certain Algon- also lent themselves to embroidery with quills Bark was material of slow-matches and torches. where it was also woven into hand or for nippers. (2) ibid. matting. 1912 functions. winter medical formulas. which was stripped into ribbons. and thus both sexes were refined through this material. Habitations in Canada. E.. functions or adoration of the spirit was wrought into yarn. E. garnering. and many textile utensils connected with the consumption of food in ordinary and in social life. The hunter made all sorts of apparatus from bark. A. preparand serving food. and 8. and Mescaleros. ibid. Drink was made from bark by the Arapaho.. pine. 1884. and the juices of barks were employed in medicine. whole or prepared. 1897. dry. vessels for storing. There are also rites connected with gathering and working bark. She knew a multitude of dyes. the tribal habitat for the best. while on the Pacific coast infants were borne in wooden cradles or baskets of woven bark on beds of the for floors.. (3) ibid. even his bowstring. Bast could be pounded and woven into robes and blankets. their period of greatest need. The Canadian and Alaskan tribes carried their children in cradles of birch bark. or twisted for the warp ia weaving articles of dress.) Basketry. 1867. B. Mus. but preparing and serving were women's arts. 1895. E.. Rep. and partitions. in some and cartogra- phy. and counts. cooking pots for hot stones. Nat. and polishers of shell or gritty stone. beds. art.. In connection with the most im- supplied portant of wants. Niblack. and prepare the tough and pliable parts for use and to reject the brittle. A. while many Indians chewed the gum that exuded from trees. United States. for a third . as for petticoats in the S. Mason (1) in Rep. 1889. (o. signifying 'they eat trees. Its materials include near kin of the tipi. 1890. Mus. Turner ia 11th Rep. receptacles of mjo-iad shapes. A. may be defined as the primitive textile textile plants. 1894. 1904. 1887. Pacific and as his wrapping material. as in the cedarbark country. The n. ging in the same favourite spot for roots and the clearing away of useless plants about the chosen stems constituted a species of primitive agriThey knew the time and seasons for culture. locahties were favoured The beginnings of writing by bark. Among the Iroquois the dead were aided by finger nails for gauge. The name Adirondack. The and apparatus of the basket-maker. wallets. canoes. teeth buried in coffins of bark. Matting was made use of nearly the whole series of North American and the Indian women explored Constant dig- Trays and boxes. 1872. baskets. shredded and fringed. M. a bone awl. See Boas in Nat. Alaska often had roofs and sides of bark. 1902. served as padding for the carrier's head quian tribes of Canada in allusion to their and back and custom of eating bark. the necessity for food. 1896.

4. Of coiled basketry there are the without with foundation. Such designs pass over into the realms of symbolism and religion. Nat. jars. and interesting. wrapped. producing by varying width and colour an endless variety of effects wickerwork. no. This art — species there are the following varieties: Checkerwork. and the weft. twilled work. or bird-cage weaving. twined work. This is always added in connection with the weaving or sewing. . 21a ing. and three-strand braid. In E. the great delicacy of technic. 1905. Aboriginal American BasMus. artisans twined work. The chief use of baskets is as receptacles. shields. is wrapped once around it. or the sewing may form genuine lace work of interlocking stitches without foundation. beading. in which the warp of one larger or two or more smaller elements is inflexible. and Fuegian hole stitch. in which each element of the weft passes over and then under two or more warp elements. or by them the Tlingit and the Haida also practise twined work only. also Barrett in Am. in a flat or ascending coil. cones. aiid the bibUography therein. 1904. in which the warp and weft pass over and under one another singly and are indistinguishable. Of this steel and for the disposal of the dead. Dixon in Bull. and the bending is done in the weft. which is effected by dyeing. to the exquisite California art work. using materials of different colours. Holmes has been able to reconstruct the ancient processes. three-rod foundafollowing varieties: Coiled work foundation. and leads up to loom work in softer materials. Basket work was employed. one of them passing behind each warp element as the weaving progresses. 57 No. adding pitch or other resinous substance. United States almost all of the old-fashioned methods of basket making have passed away. in which the warp is not bent and the weft is made up of two or more elements. and the infinite number of purposes that it serves. Am. or quite under the foundation. In forms. Of this last variety there are on account of the technical processes employed. in fences. tworod-and-splint foundation. and plaiting. besides great variety in form and technic. simple interlocking coils gave a mosaic or conventional appearance to all decoration. were naturally suggested. The motives in ornamentation were various. Consult Mason. the greatest variety of basket making in every style of weaving is practised. stitches. single-rod foundation. Coiled basketry is not weaving. twilled twined. and leads up to point lace. wherein the warp is not flexed. and it receives various names from the kinds of foundation employed and the manner of applying the stitches. is and other utensils and tools of were added. not only cylinders. varied by drawing both warp and weft tight so as to form half of a square knot. clothing. The work is done by sewing or whipping together. or grass. through trays. The Indian women have left the best witness of what they could do in handiwork and expression in their basketry. weirs. pots. in passing a warp element. rod-and-splint foundation. manufactured both woven mattings and wallets and coiled basketry of pliable grass. grass-coil foundation. Woven basketry has warp and weft. bowls. he uses. moreover. through. as in gambling and bread plaques. overlaying. From British Columbia. two-rod foundation. but. cradles. game drives. threestrand twining after several methods. and feathers.. Imitation of pretty objects in nature. 1902. scissors. and is further increased with decorative beads. The Athapascan tribes in the interior of Alaska made coiled basketry from the roots of evergreen trees. VII. but on account of the ornamentation. wrapped work. In the southern states the existence of pliable cane made possible twilled weaving. of the Rocky mts. splint foundation. Anthrop. but sewing.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER awls. In coiled work in which a foundation is used the interlocking stitches pass either above. beginning with the Salishan tribes. baskets were made water-tight for holding or carrying water for cooking. identical with the button- By using choice materials. This is now alive and in full vigour among the Hopi of Arizona. which may still be found among the Cherokee and the tribes of Louisiana. and designs used by other tribes. showing that they did not differ in the least from those now extant in the tribes w. a continuous foundation of rod. crossed or divided warp with twined work. splint. In its technic basketry is divided into two species woven and coiled. The Eskimo about Bering str. southward to the borders of Mexico. hence every activity of the Indians was associated with this art. shells. such as snake-skins. The Aleutian refined islanders are in now among the most South of tion. for harvest- ketry. basketry varies from flat wattling. Rep. No doubt a sense for beauty in articles of use and a desire to awaken admiration and envy in others were uppermost. shredded fibre. The geometric forms es of decussations and stitch- many styles —plain twined. by taking impressions of pottery.

(O. (See Reade. I. and in cutting.58 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. but without success. and their use stiU continues When the wall of the bone to give a spher- among some was thick the ends were ground form. pp. as well as that of metal tools for making the old varieties. encrinite sections.) and paraphernalia. leaders in are used by the ceremonial dances and serve for claws were wrought into beating time. A. 1897.. plants were cut into sections for the same pur- But far the largest share of beads were Batons. N. 1895. and 17th centuries influenced to some extent the Indians of New France and Acadia. places the columellEe. tm-quoise. and song leaders on state occasions. pt.. silver "a good deal of Basque was mixed.. and. Attractive and precious ob- perforated usually through the middle and strung for various purposes. in later times. 21-39. T. 1912 fail Mus. c. E. carved to The beaks and ceremonial of the puffin. Beads of marine or fresh-water shells were made by bivalves shells grinding off the apex. But such influence was only of a temporary character. M. Roy. were objects from the same materials called pendants. h. iii. spheres. made from animal materials— shell. Powers in Cont. 4. many sizes and glass.) southern nia. Nat. through the middle. especially along the tier of states from Florida to Califor- nuts were widely used for beads. from which beads were made. Hist. as in the case of dentalium. the used in marking particular signi- canine teeth of the bear. Willoughby in Am. batons were in common use among the more advanced northern tribes.. tribes of n. and after the discovery the introduction of of glass beads and porcelain. of the Pacific Slope tribes. . 1612) states that a sort of jargon had arisen between the French and Basque sued by the latter. In prehistoric times long knives of stone. The Basques in North America. ical ceremonial weapon. grinding. ibid. or the unchanged shells of were merely perforated near the hinge. hematite. of brate skeletons. Anthrop. Among vege- Canada. 1905. to Basque influence. horn. 1905. jects. Nat. Here they are carried in the hands of chiefs. Lescarbot (Hist. as well as in polishing and perforating substances. They were perforated near the end or edge and hung on the person or on garments. or animal substances. Rust and Kroeber in Am. and probably the most conspicuous modern representatives are the carved wooden batons of the Haida and and other north-western tribes. 1888. Kroeber in Univ. no. Weapons of various kinds were similarly used and probably had kindred significance. Nouv. 695. and the relations of the Indians with the Basques were only such as naturally came from the industry purAtlantic in the 16th Akin to beads. in which magnetite. some of them very hard. Univ. Cal. bears' the Kwakiutl and batons. the incisors of the horse were worn. no. Anthrop. no. seem to have been a favourite form were cut into In etc. As emblems of authority or rank. A great deal of taste and manual skill were developed in selecting the materials. Among other tribes the club-shaped ally in California. 1. substances seeds and.) Attempts have been made to detect pre-Columbian influences through alleged lexical and other resemblances between Basque and Indian languages. sec. Publ. vegetal. pottery. ii. 1890. i. claws. 1903. The Beadwork. The Basque fishermen who frequented the fishing grounds of the N. and the incisors of rodents were highly valued. and. Pearls were bored spindles. and are permitted only to such personages. shamans. 1905. ii. vii. Many of dress the cylinders are several inches long. of large conchs were removed and pierced through the long diameter Bone beads were usually cylinfor stringing. soapstone. All were made from mineral. Nat. while the Pomo and their neighbours make large cylinders of a baked mineral (Kroeber). A.) the Indians of North America did not develop." but does not give examples of it. Soc. 1888. which w. teeth. and here of pretty or scented and there stems and roots pose. h. i. Goddard in Publ. (a. were cop- per. Cal. Mineral substances showing pretty coloured or brilliant surfaces.. and other metals. slate. f. constitute a class of ornaments universally esteemed. and ivory. xvii. as jasper. and scarcely separable from them.. 1902. and rolling them into shape and uniform size. (w. in later times. France. bone. all kinds of quartz.. serpentine. were of tal porcelain. greatly multiplied their employment. Goddard. especi- Batons time are probably without ficance as emblems. They and shapes. in Trans. masterpieces of the chipping art. Ethnol. ders produced by cutting sections of various lengths from the thigh or other parts of vertediscs.. Mus. and cylinders. Niblack in Rep. represent various animals. 1877. the talons of rapacious birds. vii. fishermen and traders and the Indians. The milk teeth of the elk. California wrap dentalia with snake skin glued on in strips. Consult Boas in Rep. Mus.

and Philol. Glass beads thus woven produce effects like those of cathedral glass. turquoise ple cylinders. The price of dentalium shells increased rapidly after a certain length was These beads were decorated with grass. Sumner. Nat. The Yukon-Mackenzie tribes were most skilful in quillwork.) states used pearls . Again. or were attached to bark and wooden textiles. They were woven into wrought into network. and spindles were cut from the valves of the clam (Venus mercenaria) In Virginia a cheap kind. such as treaties. T. but early made the acquaintance of the trader. Anthrop. abalone. 1903. worn singly or in strings from the ears. tribes pounded and melted glass and moulded it into beads. The length of the wrought bead represented a certain amount of work and established the of bears I'uminants. Hoffman in 14th Rep. They served not only for personal adornment. and feathers. Consult Beauchamp in Bull. i. often in vast quantities. or moccasins. Mus. In the St. Currency. but later decked their garments and other useful things with glass beads. 18. arms. (O. carved images of wood. their varied and bright colom-s not only enhancing beauty but lending themselves to heraldry. The Hyde Expedition found more than 30. Hidatsa. 1902. 271. tacles. and clam shells furnish the most valuable materials. skin. All along the Pacific slope dentalium. but were hung to all sorts of skin and inlaid upon the surfaces of those made of wood and soft stone.. Unknown Mexico. someand other fabrics or times entirely covering head-dress. A. also as tokens and in records of hunts or of important events. N. Matthews. Catlin. State Mus.. The Pueblo Indians string the yellow capsules of Solanum. M. to enhance their worth. make pretty mosaic figures on gourds. and were offered in worship. The modern tribes also used the teeth of rodents. Am. Mex. After the colonization cradles and articles of skin were profusely covered with beadwork replete with symbolism. bits of goat and sheep horn. They were and carnivores. 1901. and cyUnders. E. 1829. with colored beads of glass. Annals. and on all sorts of recep- The old-time technic and designs of closely quillwork largely are imitated. They were tied in the hair. they were embroidered on every part of ceremonial costume. etc. 1841. portion of the interior weU supphed with bead material. Powers in Cont. and rolled copper. employed as gifts and as money. also fiat discs an inch or more in width being bored through their long diameters.. and perforated of seeds. much as $600 or $800. Subsequently imitated by the colonists. leggings. the whalers to the central. Inds.. vessels. weU as the stone with the dead. of which they have gi-eat store. 485-510. regalia.000 turquoise beads in a single room at Pueblo Bonito. Y. wrist. coat. A. A.. 2. no. A. 4. Ill. The Cherokee name for beads and money is the same. 1896.. Canine teeth of the elk were most highly esteemed. Hist. N. money value. The Huichol. 1877. in the httle flat-shell discs as driU. seeds. In each of the ethnic areas of North America rial to and they knew how to reduce them to uniform diameter by rolling long strings of them between slabs or through grooves in sand- nature provided tractable and attractive matethe bead-maker. called roanoke. using wax as an adhesive. the claws and lower limbs. 1905. The California coast tribes and the ancient peoples of Santa Barbara ids. and the dewclaws of Nuts and berries were universally strung and worn. In the N. They were conspicuous accessories in the councils of war and peace in the conventional expression of tribal symbolism. Ethnol. The tribes of the n. discs. B. N. called wampum. waist. Lawrence-Atlantic area whole shells were strung. The mound-builders and other and the Gulf and beads of shell. basin were not ration in dewclaws. and a garment covered with them was valued tribes of the Mississippi valley and other varieties of bright-coloured stones. A series of Ute costumes made before the advent of glass shows much pretty decostone. They were regarded as insignia of functions. and were buried. 1874. Nelson in 18th Rep. basketry. and the Mandan and other Missouri R. B. Pepper in Am. 1877. these beads received a fixed value. 1899. on the neck.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. matting. recently being worth 50 cents to $1 each. were rich exceeded. seashells. Hohnes. served for orna- ment and were used in elaborate treaty belts and as a money standard. Ethnog. In the Arctic region it was walrus ivory and the glossy teeth of mammals. E. and the Russians to the western tribes. They were carefully saved. no. and in traditional story-telling. vii. Lumholtz. 21a at as 59 The general uses to which beads were put are legion. 73. 1899. 8. sections woody stems of plants. N. small white and piu-receptacles . were made from oyster shells. The Danes brought glass to the eastern Eskimo. Mason in Rep.

A 1888.— Boas^ in Cont.— Tolmie and Dawson. Halltzuk. I.. called Heiltsuk from the native name of the Bellabella.. — — Bece. but distinct from "KinfiaStarkge"). while war parties of stantly raiding their coasts. 1859.. A village on Quebec. A. 2d a. Soc.. Haida from the Queen Charlotte ids. A (Micmac?) mission estabby the French in the 17th century. 122. Kwakiutl tribe Col. (Chimmesyan name). 1844. 1852. have paternal descent.. total. 1855. and in 1911 Lawrence r. 1782. Coll. Beauancourt. In the Canadian reports on Indian affairs the name is restricted by the separation of the Tallion (see Talio) and the Kinisquit (people of other furthermore in having a system of clans with descent through the mother derived probably from their northern neighbours while — — Dean inlet). This name is that given them by Brit. 155. Tribes Can. Becquancourt. 1897. The folsd. W. Quebec. i. Ibid. 145. Col.. 1880. BScandeS. Hist. Y. Haeeltsuk. in 1858 they numbered 172. Millbank Indians. settled removed from Maine in 1713 when the area east of the Penobscot was confirmed to England by the treaty of Utrecht. Bentinck arm. the BeUacoola and Tallion band included 225 persons and the Kinisquit band.— Dunn. e. Millbank Sound Indians.. or rather aggregation of tribes. Ethnol. HHetsuck. ibid.— Hist. I. Vocabs.. Hist. 1848.— RasHist.. Scouler in Jour. Latham in Jour. Becquencourt. by fugitive Huron.— Ibid. 164.. in Quatsino sd. Halhaiktenok (KiUerwhale).. Kitlope. band was 321 -Can. 328 (own name). A. the pecuUar secret societies of the- N.. and in 1884 they were reduced to 39. living on MilBellacoola (Bi'lxula) . and s. Ind.... Can. 361. Tolmie and Dawson. and Oeahtk.. for 1895. Coll.. in Petermanns Mitt.. 7. Oetlitk. 1889 (Bellacoola name). the most important of which evifirst dently had their origin in war customs. W.. Expl. 1855. viii. Haeltzuk. Ojebway Bellabella (an Indian corruption of Milbanke taken back into English). Val. 1853. Vancouver id. were conFor this reason. and most of their ancient culture and ritual have been abandoned. Chauvjgnerie quoted by Schoolcraft. Witsta. Miss. 1872.—Gibbs He'iltsuk. 216... Pop. Brit. in Missisauga village in Ontario Inds. Tribes Can. (j. Haeeltz. to Arctic Ocean. The language spoken by this tribe and shared also by the Kitamat. arose Becancour. 117b. Ind. VI. Doc. was often visited. 183. Lond. les (1724) trttns. iii.) — — map. 224. 1855. IX. — — N. Haeeltzuk. Shea. Expd. Koetenok (Raven). Lond.. 1846. — — Ibid. Oregon Ter. He'iltsuq. 5. 315. 196. by Abnaki who St.. 1855. from the remaining tribes of which they are separated by the Tsilkotin and the Kwakiutl. A coast SaHsh tribe^ lowing clans are given: Wikoktenok (Eagle). S. Mus. 130. 1861. Col. 86. pt. i. In 1736 they were estimated at about 300. Ilet Suck. among them.* The chief divisions mentioned are the Anciently the Bellabella *In 1911. 1887. Y. Doc. Hist. vi. and its inhabitants were therefore among numbered 27. La Tour.. banke Their septs or sub tribes are Kokaitk. a character largely attributable to the fact that they were flanked on one . Afl.. Tribes. op.— Hale in U.— Shea.. In 1911. 1841. 1836 (incorrectly given as an Iroquois village at Lake of Two Mountains.. Ethnol. 233. 64. and Wikeno Indians is a peculiar dialect of Kwakiutl. Becancour. 358. Bekancourt. Beauport. in Mass. S. side by the Tsimshian of Kittizoo and on the other by the BeUacoola. 1855. 1891.— Latham. 240. offers When voyagers first begaa frequenting the n. 1912 lished Beaubassin. Geog. Hist. BellaBelbellahs.. Boas in Rep.60 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. and Bellacoola r. B#cancourt. They are members of the Roman Cathohc church. Dean inlet. of Koprino harbour. Haeetsuk. in Nicolet. 202. — Dawson in Trans.— Vaudreuil (1721) in N. Milbanke sd.. 553. Elk-Ia'sumn. 1889. 272. Scouler in Jour. Col. 271. Aff. the population of the Bellabella the contact..) King. Lond. Ind.— Beldom.. 1856. Ethnol. I. who removed in the next year to the island of Orleans. 1883. Brit. Ibid. 229. there being no native designaThey form the tion for the entire people. Discov. 246. Col.. 47. VI. An abandoned village of the Koskimo. 11. Latham in Trans.— Dunn. 9.. Miss. The popular name of an important Iletsuck. which one of the few good openings into the inner ship channel to Alaska.. 1848.. Jour. Nat. 1819. 1911. Vaudreuil (1710) in N. 1877. were very warlike. N. Wutsta'. Hudson R. 1845.—Can. Soc.. 223. 311. Cath. Col. Roy. 1884. the whole being called the Tallion nation. 9. 281. Pacific coast. Hlletsuk. 1784. The population in 1902 was the Bellacoola and Kwakiutl to the S. Vaudreuil (1724) in Maine 849. Philol. N. the Kwakiutl. Oreg.— Jones. Ha-Ilt-zukh. 904. Haeeltruk. on n.. 1841. Lond. i. Ind. 252.. Boas in 5th Rep> 191. Soc. DeLancey (1754) in Ruttenber. W. Doc. coast. (j.— Can. Geog. Hailtsa. Soc. ibid. Boas in 5th Rep.— Powell. China Hat. Bella. Soc. — first to be modified by European Together with the other Heiltsuk tribes they have now been Christianized by Protestant missionaries. Soc. R. Y. perhaps. — — — — — — — Bece.— Clinton Tribes (1736) (1745) in N. m. 221. cit. Scouler in Jour.. 6 m.. Becun- court. Becancourians.. A village established in 1650 in Quebec co.. Besangon. with French admixture. Lond. These tribes resemble each northernmost division of the Salishan stock. Soc. AIT. Soc. ix. 321 in 1911.

Ethnol. Brit. Ethnol. Voy. BUlikula.) 267. Some of the characteristics in which the Beothuk differed from most other Indians were a marked lightness of skin colour. Satsk. Siatlhelaak. requiring much ballast to keep them from overturning. Senktl. 122b. Bilqula. i. end of Grand Pond. it is deemed best to regard them as constituting a distinct linguistic stock. although existing vocabularies indicate marked dialectic differences. 315.— Dunn. Nuka^mats. Ilghi'mi. Nuhalk division: Keltakkaua. 1855. 224. called Beothuk. the hair black. De Laet (Novus height of the body Orbis. BU- Jioola. la. spears.. Roy. For a time these dwelt in amity arisen. A." The extinction of the Beothuk was due chiefly to the bitter hostiUty of the French and to Micmac invasion from Nova Scotia at bark canoes. Brit. Spatsatlt. Potlas. Nat. 21a the beginning of the 18th century. .. Being nomadic. 1844. indeed. Slaaktl. He des- constituted this family. ais. BellaghBellahooBell-houBelll-choola. They had both summer and winter dwellings.. Brit. Jukes 1842) describes their deer fences or deer stock- ades of trees.. I. The gentes of the Bellacoola without reference to the tribal divisions are: Hamtsit. Peisela. •Scouler in Jour. Oregon. the more numerous Micmac hunted and gradually exterminated them as an independent people. the 61 and Nuhalk.— Boas in Rep. Nuiku. Blllechoola.' or 'Red Indian'. Ind. Nusatsem. —Schoolcraft. Col. in 1810 Sir Thomas Duckworth issued a proclamation for their protection.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. stuffed in gut. Snutlelatl. Snutele. Setlia. to Newfoundland. kune. Exasperated by the petty depre- dations of these tribes. the use for storing food. but now. which probablj' signifies 'man. Aff. 30 to 40 feet in circumference and constructed by forming a slender frame of poles overspread with birch bark. 1884. Noothlakimish. Belhoola. —Tolmie and Dawson. Sakta. Nuskek. Hist. Ethnol. 1877. At first the Beothuk were classified either as Eskimauan or as Algonquian. Noutchaoff. 234. who visited Newfoundland in 1622. Stskeitl. N. which had sharp keels.. with the The Bellacoola after Boas) are: Aseik. are still traceable. It is cribes also their peculiar crescent-shaped birch- probable that in 1497 Beothukan people were met by Sebastian Cabot when he discovered Newfoundland. Tribes. stated that the dwellingplaces of these Indians were in the n. 34. not only their skin but also their garments with a kind of red colour. 417.' but was employed by Europeans to mean 'Indian. which inhabited the island of Newfoundland when first discovered. darts. Kookotlane. 1877. Ind. 488. the latter often accommodating (Excursions. s. and a sort of pudding. ICinisquit. 1862. 1884. 1848. —Mayne. for 1895. Soc. They employed pits or caches and used the steam bath in huts covered with skins and heated with hot stones. Spukpukolemk. Tsomootl. A.. Smoen. —Scouler in Jour. these were not more than 20 feet in length and they could bear at most 5 persons. which often extended for 30 miles along a river. 2. Tribes of Can. eggs. a destructive battle Tumkoaakyas. r. I. Vocabs. 1633) describes N. and w. Taho. Whitbourne (ChappeU.— 7th Rep. all the males are beardless. the French. Newfoundland as hunters and fishermen. adding that "in war they use bows and arrows. Col. Koatlna. of trenches in their lodges for sleeping berths. and composed of and other ingredients. Osmakmiketlp. Nukits. and shngs. 122b. the nose flat. Mua. 1818). they frequently change their habitations. Atlklaktl. Tskoakkane. N. 241. portions of the island. the face broad. Bl'lxula. Koapk. Nuskelat.' or 'human being. in the middle of the 18th century.—Can. Aff.—Tolmie and DawTallion Nation.. 267. quarrels having was fought between the two peoples at the n. Stuik." seal's fat. as he states that he met people "painted with red ochre. la.—Gibba quoted by Ball in i. 1841. Col.—Gibbs Bellacoola. however.. and the two peoples visited and traded with each other. The EngHsh treated the Beothuk with much less rigour. Can. Komkutis. "The medium. largely through the researches of Gatschet. Geog. v. 320. and both sexes tint these Newfoundland Indians as follows: is Beothukan Family (from the tribal or group name B^thuk. They had a kind of cake made with eggs and baked in the sun. Asenane. Uutltleik. The banks of the river of Exploits and its tributaries appear to have been their last inhabited territory. but in 1770. Tkeikts(j. Lond. To gain this reward and to obtain the valuable furs they possessed.— fion. Soc. clubs. 146. Sotstl. offered a reward for Selkuta. •Cont. Vocabs. lalostimot. Remains of their lodges. choolas. and the eyes large.— 1880. in the latter case because the Beothuk coloured themselves and tinted their utensils and arms with red ochre) So far as known only a single tribe. about 20 people each. 1898. W.. And they dwell in certain conical lodges circle and low huts of sticks set in a and joined together in the roof. 1891. or Quebec Montagnais. Micmac settUng in w. . every head of a Beothuk Indian. livers. in Cont. as gentes of the The following are mentioned with the Beothuk. and Tokovillages (chiefly The Beothuk. Ind. Tlakaumoot." which is a marked characteristic of the Beothuk of later observers. lived on friendly terms Naskapi.

meus. Betsiamits. Anthrop. Inst. the nondomestication of the dog. Doc. Atka John Veniaminoff's translation of St. followed by the Gospel complete New translated by E. Rel. quoted by Lloyd in Jour. the whole Bible is in print. Macquaejeet. Beothlk. printed in part or in whole in 32 Indian lan- — — — — — guages N..' but evidently a trader's or fisherman's rendering of the European 'Red Indians').. 1885 (quoting older form). ni. Canad.. 1885. were soon brought under the influence of the missionaries. Bersiamits. Labrador Renin. Gatschet in Proc. Good-night Indians. v. J. 1885 (Micmac name: 'red man... of Mexico.— Stearns. it. iv. I. 1863. 410. Tribes. CEuvres. Am. — McKenney and Hall. Soc. 224. 75 miles below Tadoussac. ii. 1885. Beoths. — Rel. 1854. and as a whole in 1766.) (Newfoundland in 1842) states that the Beothuk used the inner bark of Pinus balsamifera as food. A. wright (1768) quoted by Lloyd in Jour. of the European 'Red 38. Le Clercq quoted by 1853. Latham in Trans. Soc. (said to be the Micmac name. 1876.) Tribes. Tribes. 1854. Labrador Penin. Gospels. — The Norwegian missionaries. following blunder of Latham. in Jour. for 1884. the New Testament or more has appeared. B^hathook. 22. Ind. op. mitts. Inst. —Cart- printed before the close of the 18th century. iv.. 1885 (quoting older form). 1885 ( ='Red Indian man'). but these have melted away under the influence of civihzation. 34. the Massachuset. 410. Cormack's conducted in Rep. Ind. 411 (Abnaki name).. they perhaps tribe. 1880. one or more portions have been printed. Inst. 410. 26. — Boucher in Can. Hans and Paul — — Egede. Aff. quoted by Gatschet. Rep. A£F. Tribes. iv. 105. declares ejq^edition. and the dearth of evidence of pottery making. Rep. This was of St.— McKenney and Hall. Bersamis. although the island was crossed centrally in the search. cit. A revision of this translation. V.' evidently a transl. 786. Bertiamites. in 9 others. Am. Soc. 1890-91. and being of a peaceable and tractable disposition. 79. 47. also in 1848 A trading post called Bersimis. IV. Anthrop. Soc.. M. s. cited by Lloyd. Bussen- A£f. pt. MacDougall in Trans.. 1858. — McKenney and Hall. pi..—Jes. John in 1810. Inst. 1875. —Can. Ind. Beothics. Anthrop. n. is not stated. 1863. Baislmetes. Ill. which ran through seveNearly three-quarters of the Old Testament was printed in the same language between 1822 and 1836. Beothuk. Soc. Oumamiwek. 21. iv. which enters St. and in 5 — — — namely. Ind. Philos. Labrador. 58. Latham — and in 1822 the Moravian Brethren brought translation. Boeothick. 229. Ind. 81. One of the small Algonquian tribes composing the eastern group of the Montagnais. Ind. Labrador incorporated Beathook. and all of the Old Testament between 1834 and 1867. in the Aleutian Una- laska dialect. Labrador Eskimo. 1875) mentions the fact that they obtained fire by igniting the down of the bluejay from sparks produced by striking together two pieces of iron pyrites. Bersiamites. King quoted by Gatschet in Proc. They were accustomed to assemble once a year with cognate tribes at Tadoussac for the purpose of trade. — Leigh — Bible translations. 1912 the peculiar form of their canoes. Abnakis. 1854. pi. 1884. Notre Dame de Betsiamits. crossed the strait of wi(ijji Belleisle (j. Vetromile. them. 185. (quoting old form). which appeared in 1800. was twice Indian'). 1875. Oct. when the work was discontinued. Ulnobah. Anthrop. 1876.. and became a. As they were on good terms with the Naskapi of Labrador. Pe^nin. Lloyd. with adaptation also to the dialect. Am. 1855. miouek. Beothugs. Hist. h. — Iroquois treaty (1665) in N. Ibid. Bethuck. while Lloyd (Jour.. Gatschet in Proc. ibid. Philoa.62 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE r. Peck. Red Indians of Newfoundland.. Betsiamites. 223. and Tukkuthkutchin.. Bersia125. 1. Albanel (1670) quoted by Hind. failed to find a single individual of this once prominent (1632). Peyton. that the sun was the chief object of their worship. Philos. 79. Philos. 38. Oumamioucks.—Gatschet in Proc. In Labrador Eskimo the earout a printed Bible text was the new liest Harmony of the Bersiamite. 1866.. Gatschet in Proc. UIn6 mequaegit. Ibid. 1884. Jes. Cree. 122. ix. 81. 36. Inst. Anthrop. ibid. In 18. — — ral editions. their version of the New Testament being printed in part in 1744. were the first to translate any part of the Bible into Greenland Eskimo. Shawatharott. Jour. Soc. 1. 98. facing p. Inst. Elias TishnofE's translation of the same Gospel. Y. IV. in. in. Sliawdtliarut. in. sig. 1875. facing p.— Memoir of Bethsiamits. 1875. Philos. and in Kaniagmiut. 1706. g. . Lawrence r. pt. — Hind. Oumamlois. Col. the Testament in 1840. Lohabiting the banks of Bersimis r.. — McKenney 126. 1875. 1858. Anthrop. Inst. languages. 1885 (mission name). in 1827.— and Hall. 1856. These Indians became known to the French at an early date. for 1640. 33. v.. 408. Beothucs. —Hind. Ibid. Anthrop. .— Can. Bertiamistes.. — 'red man.. Ind. 1854. Gatschet. Am. iv. Santee Dakota. Beothues. b. Oubestai. i. 410. Philol. 38.Inst. Boeothuk. Bonnycastle at the mouth of Bersimis 550 Indians attached to of them were Bersiamite had in 1911 some but whether any (j. by Otto Fabricius.. Matthew's Gospel in 1848. — Champlain behalf of the Beothic Society for the Civilization of the Native Savages. 1870. for 1643. Lloyd io Jour. The Bible has been Am. Lloyd in Jour. 1863. Lond. 263. In other Eskimo languages there were printed In Labrador Eskimo some New Testament extracts in 1878 and the Four Gospels in 1897.

in 1844. In the Cherokee language St. were printed in 1891-97. were printed in 1856 and 1853. by J. in the Arapaho. Mark's Gospel. C.) translated the Psalms (1856) and the Pentateuch (1861). Martha's Vineyard. Matthew. Meeker's translation of St. Three languages of the Iroquoian family pos- sess parts of the Bible. and J. the complete New Testament Archin 1859. came out The Massachuset which comes next in geographical order. The only part of the Old Testament in Abnaki. In the Chipewyan. Kirkby's transla^tion of St. and Bishop Bompas' of the New Testament between 1883 and 1891. St. by Johnston Lykins. Dencke's of translation the epistles of St. published as bulletins by the Bureau of American Ethnology. Matthew's Gospel was translated by S. and his complete New Testament in 1876. and a third by F. and McDonald translated Birch River. John came out in 1882-84 In the Tsimshian language. by Roberts. printed in 1839. by Norton. besides the books of Genesis. A. in 1846. Wilkes. A. Mark. Genesis and Exodus. of the Wakashan family. translations of three of the Gospels and of the Acts. by Peter and John tagetan family. St. printed in 1829-31. Matthew and the in the Siksika. were printed in 1885-89. and St. in 1874. The Gospels were translated by Robert McDonald and printed in the Tukkuthkutchin language of Mackenzie r. translated by William Duncan. was printed in 1836 and a revision in 1842. by Harris. Mohawk is Isaiah. In Chippewa. also by Worcester. beginning with the printing of St. C. Hess. W. Keen. and in the Cheyenne. in 1890. in the Micmac. 21a Four languages of the Athapascan family have been provided with Bible translations. and Isaiah. H. In the Delaware. was printed in 1844. B. Archdeacon Kirkby's translation of the Gospels appeared in 1878 and the whole New Testament in 1881. St Luke. of the Psalms and John's Gospel. Mr. besides some portions of the Psalms. Between 1827 and 1836 the rest of the New Testament was translated by H. William Mason's work comprises several editions of the Gospel of St. A. by Rand. Exodus. In the Shawnee language. the Twelve Minor Prophets (1874). also translated in 1870. St.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. the Gospel of St. extracts Bishop Horden's Four Gospels in Cree was printed in 1859. A. John made between 1851 and 1857.. and the Psalms. Pilling. in the lect of Wampanoag dia- St. John's Gospel in 1870. 1680-85. E. in 1787. John appeared in 1841-44. in 1903. and the Acts in 1897. In the Cree. St. St. John. of the Chimmesyan family. in the Potawatomi. Luke and St. Luke. in One by Edwin James in 1833. and St. another by Henry Blatchford in 1844 (reprinted in 1856 and 1875). St. Translations have been made into 13 languages of the Algonquian family. the Gospels of St. printed in 1829. near lower Sas- . and the whole was printed in A new version of the Gossuccessive parts. in the Etchareottine. John by Petter. O'Meara also Consult the various bibliographies of Indian languages. St. by Francis Barker. John. the earliest translations were those of the Gospels of St. the Four Gospels. and Luckenbach's Scripture Narratives in 1838. was the first North American Indian language into which any Bible translation was made. and in the Malecite. and in the Tsattine. in 1874. A. John Eliot began his Natick version in 1653 and finished it complete New Testament was issued in 1860. A. Acts. and in the Niska language J. was printed in 1880. Hill. Hall's translation of the Gospels of lished his translation. translated by Wzokhilain. There are three complete translations of the this language: New Testament and J. in 1805. McCuUagh began work on the Gospels In the Haida language. Proverbs. O'Meara in 1854 (reprinted in 1874). In the from the Bible were printed as early as 1716. by Tuns. John was printed in 1818. Matthew's Gospel. by Brant. John's Gospel. and the Four Gospels. was by Asher Wright. in 1661-63. and the whole Bible in 1861-62. respectively. Matthew and St. until the John's Gospel. Garrioch's vension of St. by Lykins. the other Gospels and the Epistles following. Matthew and St. In the Ottawa. Mark's Gospel in 1886. In Mohawk. Zeisberger's Harmony of the Gospels in 1821. and the whole Bible in 1898. Worcester and printed in 1829. who has published also some other portions of the Bible. Rand continued at work until the whole JSTew Testament was published in 1871-75. J. deacon Hunter's version of three of the Gospels in the same language appeared in 1853-55 (reprinted in 1876-77). of the Skitin 1894. by Chief Onasakenrat. In the Seneca language. pels. (w. Matthew and St. language. by Charles Harrison Jones. Matthew's Gospel in 1853. with a revised edition in In 1709 Experience Mayhew pub- In the Kwakiutl language. A local name applied to the Maskegon (Swampy Cree) res.

weaving. and cradles of them for their and receptacles for a thousand things —Petitot. and. wild hemp. When first called in the and burdens. North. as well as in the N. bark. he attacked Montreal who were retaken by a pursuing party. Bes-tchonhi-Gottind. were conspicuous in wedding and other ceremonies. partitions.. division of the Etch- the women dried fruit on them. tassels. hair. and to the Indians Can. Aff. but before it was concluded he was murdered by some Algonkin while hunting near Cattaraugus.64 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIEa 2 GEORGE v. not only by the Pueblos and cliff-dwellers but quite extensively in the E. Divisions of the Siksika proper. babies. skill and taste and much mythology. of Montreal. north-western Alberta. The European was not slow in observing a widespread want and in supplying the demand. In the following season he laid waste the French settlements in w. featherwork. awnings. it. although his force was in the end wiped out. pendants. in the best examples. The details of the great mander by captive Indian women who escaped. In 8. wolves. Intribes that worn robes. Ind. Their plans were revealed to the French com- ning. and carried off many prisoners. which were neatly trimmed with fur. Alaska originated what is popularly patience and called the Chilkat blanket —a marvel of spin- French war the governor in Montreal sent one of his officers with 300 men to attack the Iroquois at Niagara. When furs became scarcer blankets were in greater demand everywhere as articles of trade and standards of value. feathers. and South. In 1697 he arranged a peace with the French. and had many and various functions. and were decorated with strips of fur. the preparation of . The former was the whole hide of a large mammal made soft mythic design are carefully wrought in by the woman in twined weaving at the same time that a dainty lacework is produced on the selvage. In 1691 the Iroquois planned the destruction of the French settlements and trading posts w.. passim.. 1692. 339. bed and covering. The apparatus for this seems inadequate. These were all woven with the simplest possible apparatus and by purely aboriginal technical They were the groundwork of great processes. Lawrence retaliated rs. or pelts of foxes. v. 1912 katchewan gathered on r. Black Kettle by killing Indians who traded with Montreal and the French escort sent to guard them. rabbit. or other tender skins were cut into ribbons. beadwork. 1891. from which the latter were the chief sufferers. q. and in the same season he attacked the party of de Lusignan and killed the leader. Blankets. — doors. The long ends are made into balls and covered with membrane to keep them clean. After the advent of the whites the blanket leaped into sudden prominence with The latter were manufactured by basketry processes from wool. A sunshades. fringes. The woman hangs her warp of mountain goat's wool mixed with shredded cedar bast from a horizontal bar. the down of birds. the blanket became a standard of value and a primitive mechanism of commerce. down. W. although he had notified the French commander at the fort of the peace negotiations. Eaclavea. Middle. Weft is not even wound on a stick for shuttle. and mythic designs. gave the invaders a long running fight. in the night they were both had no weaving and had previously which was most exhausting. and among the Atlantic and Pacific coast tribes generally soft barks. producing their finest art work in weaving and embroidery. nor is there even the rudest harness or batten. or Bistchonigottine. fur. cotton.. or bird. money. A. finally. W. Farther southward on the N. On July 15. The process ends with a long heavy fringe from the unused warp. They were worn like a toga as protection from the weather. An Onondaga chief. Black Kettle. Manitoba. they even then exhausted their skill upon them. and such creatures were sewed together. and native and pliable by much dressing. E. with 80 warriors. Canada. coast cedar bast finely shredded served for the weaving of soft blankets. The Nez Percys and oliher tribes in the Fraser-Columbia area were extremely skilful in producing a heavy and tastefully decorated blanket in twined weaving from mountain goat's hair with warp of vegetal fibre. Black Kettle. for the home they served for hangings. which were twisted or woven. rabbit skins. Autour du Lac des Blackfoot. made vehicles aottine on Bistcho lake. and the plumes of feathers were put to the same use. by the French Chaudibre Noire. etc. Blankets of cords wound with feathers were produced. In the popular mind the North American Indian is everywhere associated with the robe or the blanket. and after the defeat of the expeditions the French destroyed parties that were encamped in their hereditary hunting grounds between the Ottawa and St. fringing.

B. Mandan. 3. in 1831 a 65 No. Lawrence southward along the Atlantic slope. Elias southward r. — made from some of giant cedar and other light woods. bar- ring the occasional use of corracles logs. and traditional fluencing the culture of the people of these sections. both were important elements in in- over him. 1902. Anthrop. or pirogues. On the California coast and navigable streams n.. the quality of the material. at least from the streams emptying into the St. Anthrop.. Russian baidarka) and the woman's boat {umiak. the covering or sheathing of bits of tough bark sewed together and made water-tight by means of melted pitch. is an open scow with little modification of bow and stern. 1900. On the w. On the Missouri r. effective devices for water travel in the world. A. or woman's boat. Everywhere else in California. On the e. these boats are interesting subjects of study. ket Indians. the n. Rep. where the water sometimes turbulent. Voth in Am.) division of bull-boat. ii. coast rendered possible for the natives to pass from one to the and thus they were induced to invent sea-going canoes of fine quality. the canoe is pointed at both ends and partly decked over. vi.. 1895. Immediately in touch with the skin-boat countries all around the Arctic.. 4. pointed at either end under the water. Nat. eastward of the Rocky mts. {kaiak. B. from mt.. The umiak. were the instruments of navigation.. of the Yukon. With framework of light spruce wood. but the man's boat is one of the most man's boat — them nearly 100 off The multiit tude of islands other. 1897. as on Clear lake among the Pomo and Tulare lake among the Yokuts. Pepper in Everybody's Mag. 1895. Aff. E. Stephen in Am. He moves himself through the water by means of a paddle.. from Labrador to Kodiak in Alaska and southward to the line of the white birch. and caulked. existed the birch-bark canoe.. as the exigencies of navel and portage. while in citizen's garments the red man ceases to be picturesque. In certain spots in California. immense Spaniards central California the Indians corracle-like baskets. in the jacket is Here also from tribe to tribe the forms differ somewhat as to the shape of the bow and stern and the ornamentation. those tribes that were unwilling to adopt modern dress were called "blan- Near the mouth In art the drapery and colours have had a fascination for portrait painters. Anthrop. Arikara. and all over the plateaus of British Columbia and N. coritas. M. Hodge in Am. no. to Eel Cal. propelled with large oars and a sail made of intestines. A curious form has been reported by travellers among the Beothuk of Newfoundland. coast. T. The delegations visiting Washington during the 19th century wore this article conspicuously.— Can. Mat- 3d Rep. The Eskimo have two forms the and Hidatsa women for carrying their goods down or across the rivers. Mus. the Asiatic form. scarcely a drop enters the craft. 2." Consult Boas in Rep. H. locally known as the Boat Harbour. side of Canada the bow and the stern of the canoe are greatly rounded up. (2) Navaho Legends. in most cases a double one. no.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER deed. and in our system of educating them. generally. monitorshaped. if not always. and elsewhere a small tub-shaped craft of willow frame covered with rawhide. Hohnes in 13th Rep. W. and including the country of the Great lakes. transportation and rafts of by water was conducted by means less of balsas.. A Micmac village near Nova Scotia. From the n. wellmade wooden dugout canoes were used wooden . is made from pine bark instead of birch bark. his water-tight is The man sits in a small hatch. consisting of rushes tied in bundles. made chiefly of planks lashed together lashed to the gunwale he practically shut in. less so elsewhere in the state much made with (Kroeber) . Pictou. excellent dugout canoes were ft. On the Kootenay. lighter forms. It was so light that when one was emptied a woman could take it on her back and make her way across the land. 1884. St. long. On the lower Rio Colorado called and in s. 1897. (O. with no is home Buffalo for the manufacture of what was called the Mackinaw blanket. were used region. viii. was used by Sioux. Jan. Washington. Russian baidarra) made by stretching a covering of seal hide over a framework of whale ribs or of driftwood. A. boundary of the United States. dugout canoes. E. 46. 1880. and. so that though the water may pass entirely in the Santa Barbara Id. 1881. Ind. bow or stern. these tule balsas were important fac- tors in native life. when canoes. 1893. 21a plant was established in ideas produce different forms in different areas. of cape Mendocino. Under this general term are included various kinds of water-craft used throughout North America wherever waters favoured. with more or approximation to a boat of cigar shape. 1896. Boats. thews (1) in no. by the which were coated 21a— 5 .

scrapers. Personal ornaments and toilet articles of bone . laden with both passengers and merchandise. Nat. caches. and their skill in shaping them and adapting them to their needs in the rigorous Arctic environment is truly bear. musk-ox. flint- flaking implements. 1888..) New shores wood is brought oversea from distant by winds and currents. Anthrop. such as knives. A. reindeer. Bone. or grooved to be hung as pendant ornaments or were sewed on garments or other objects of use. netting. Coues. M. Win- and by the small carved bone pendants ship in 14th Rep. B. 407. like lagan. 1912 bitumen or other waterproofing and used for fording the streams.. of the whale. Hoffman. Ganong notes. 18th Rep. for ribs of boats. The Menomini Indians." He thinks bogan. ample. A. 1892. and sewing implements. E. B. saws. A. teeth. the horns of the sheep and ox. The Coast Indians of Southern Alaska and Northern British Columbia. drills. It is possible that "bogan hole" may be a folk etymologizing of pokologan. picks. and capacity for high variety of appliances and tackle employed in rigging boats. 1896).' but to suit Relation of Boeuf. are in good local use and occur in articles on sporting. were used as dice in playing games of chance and gaming sticks of many varieties were made of bone. Ethnological Results of the Point Barrow Expedition. Murdoch.) attached to the edge of the garments of the ancient Beothuk (see Adornment). gravers. the by the buckskin Plains among the Simms in Am. it is to be expected that in numerous instances their bones had a special sacred significance and use. carved.. by the beartooth necklaces of elk-tooth many of the tribes. for weaving. wolf. Consult Boas. moose. etc. E. The larger bones.. turtle-shell. f. 14th Rep. c. 1888. seal. for sleds. in. A. what people some it refers is unknown. A. E. Both words. were strung as beads. A. in preparing the product of the chase for consumption. toys. 1877. and artistic carvings of many kinds. Nation du. and antler were utilized for bows... fetishes. bear. spears. as well as stone. harpoons. In pre-colonial times bone had to be cut. 191. scrapers. In the Chippewa language a marsh or bog is totogun. Ethnol. Ganong saj's fm-tfier: "A word very much used by guides and others who go into 1903) exceptional importance in the far N. 1S99. 1896. including antler. in trans- and their pleasing colour polish caused them to be valued for personal portation. the teeth of the and reindeer. and the teeth. The Eskimo about Bering Strait. 1900... and the bones of the smaller quadrupeds and various birds. the skulls and paws of small animals were used for mixing medicine. (O. B. in fishing. These uses are illustrated in the necklaces of crab claws and the puffin beak ceremonial armlets of the Eskimo. boxes. Although indispensable to primitive tribes everyw'here. The Central Eskimo. etc. are employed in constructing houses. 8. wakus. a corruption of pokologan. vi. horn. Garces Diary. The name signifies 'Buffalo Nation. the beaks of birds. the (a. N.. and shelters. Exactly the same thing the Indians call a pokologan. clubs. Mus. whale- bone. The use of bone and related the whale. Niblack. this material occupies a place of Roy. dolls. and claws versal of many among Indian toughness of these able for was almost uniThe hardness and materials made them desircreatures. the whalebone of the right-whale. where the only available Brunswick woods is bogan. and the antlers of the moose and deer. were perforated or rattles. E. household utensils. hoofs. it may have designated either the Buffalo clan or gens of tribe or one of the buffalo-hunting tribes of the worked bone discs and lozenges. Soc. fossil ivory. T. the ivory of the walrus and narwhal. as the ribs of Bone-work. knives. of embellishments costumes of the women Indians. Nelson. Can. The Eskimo have the bones wolf. remarkable. a still creek or bay branching from a stream. and Trans. and claws of various animals. and a wild sheep. 6th Rep. 209. such as the metacarpals of the Mentioned in the Je1662 as a tribe against which the Iroquois that year sent out an expedition.. (j. in hunting. and a great many kinds of implements and utensils. A. B. In a letter (Apr.. 1896. for ex- kinds have an amulets. gaming implements. as when. Powers in Cont. various Since both man and beasts of important place in aboriginal mythology. ivory. tobacco pipes. E. M. W. and engraved with implements of deer. ornaments. arrows. ivory.) and grinding stones. A marshy the tribes the primitive methods prevail. probably the common name in Maine for the same thing. B. Bogan. beyond the hmits of forest growth. runners and plates for armour (Nelson). called also bogan hole (Ganong in Proc.66 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. and with some still of cove by a stream. tribes. beaks. 9th Rep. 1904. Teeth and small bones. Not uncommonly the small bones. materials. Rep.

or to bands for the wrists and ankles. Bonne Esperance. Books in Indian languages. 21a 67 and kindred materials are more numerous in where beads.) mounds must be depended on knowledge of the aboriginal largely bone-work of these regions. Goddard. labrets. and were also. 293. Boas). Lawrence. belt clasps. gorgets. illustrated by the plated jawbone of a wolf obtained by Moore from a Florida mound. The art of the tribes of the Fraser S. and turtleshell. and and spoons of horn. are especially note- with copper. 264. Ontario. and shells of turtles for rattles. scapulse of large animals by the The formed convenient hoe blades and. engraved batons. Nelson. pendants. are largely made and ingeThe artistic work of these niously applied. ornaments. were probably universally display aesthetic appreciation of a high order (Niblack. as were the antlers of deer. awls. employed by the native is agriculturists. but there seems to be sufficient ground for the opinion Alaska. buffalo and simply useful or ornamental. and the latter were often sections bones of deer there also. pins. versions of the Bible and the 21a— 5i . Their carvings in bone. wristlets. made also of beaks of birds and hoofs and dew- claws of deer and other animals. often inlaid ladles. though much scattered. and is embodied mainly in reports on field researches published by the Smithsonian Institution. In addition to dictionaries. etc. the leading museums and academies. In the wonderful collection of objects worthy. or over another scapula. The literature of this topic is voluminous. both useful and ornamental. The mounds of the Mississippi and Ohio valleys and the Southern states have yielded a wide tribes to some extent in their to contact with Indian tribes range of objects. hence finds from village sites. Murdoch. and totemic and symbolic carvings of the N. is much more primitive. pins. 1884. shore. Smith). and Turner. fish-hooks. Champlain illustrates a game drive in which the drivers appear to be beating with bones upon clavicles of some large animal. W. gaming articles. the objects of art shaped from these materials by the Arctic peoples of the present period will be more fully appreciated by reference to the works of Boas. ivory. combs. on the N. antler. The ancient Pueblos inlaid some of their implements and ornaments of bone with bits of turquoise and other bright stories (Fewkes.. (w. and the graceful and elaborately carved cups. antler. great bers being preserved in our museums. utihzed in head-dresses The ancient as well as by the present peoples. A novel use of bones that of plating them with abalone.. are worthy of note. the great divide. and among the Plains that these particular phases of their art are development and are due to men and as a result of the acquisition of metal tools and perhaps also largely of recent association with white and the Pueblos a sort of saw-fiddle in which sometimes a scapula is drawn over a notched stick. pendants.. but metal has largely usurped their place. the Mississippi valley. turn have been influenced by the The wide range and vast numbers of arrow-points. and ornaments (Abbott. Among the tribes of many Some Naskapi are probably and the larger birds were used for flutes and whistles. still bone. h. etc. and are. A Montagnais settlement on the islands and mainland at the mouth of Eskimo r. num- Many employ of the tribes of the arid region. and in works of a more general nature. coast tribes are often admirable and Pacific coast. Labrador. and burial for from the Hopewell mound. as such.— Stearns. Of the latter class. the Reports of the Minister of Education. Ohio. such as Moorehead's Prehistoric Implements and Fowke's Archfeological History of Ohio. and by a visit to the ethnological museums. horns of the mountain sheep were made into dippers and cups. and the -E. belt ornaments of reindeer teeth. cutting tools made of beaver and scraping tools are the most important. the Bureau of American Ethnology. of basin and the Pacific slope Puget sd. beads. Bone and the allied substances have been. especially for implements. horn. cemeteries. utensils. utensils. h. hair-pins. though bone was in general use for implements. or by attaching these articles to parts of the costume. is employed.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. teeth. favourite materials with the tribes of the implements. for keeping time in ceremonial dances. in the annual reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology. and various carvings that would seem rather to be totemic and symbolic than which whites. Of the former class. to a large extent. There are also bone whistles and flutes. the National Museum. musical instruments. Pepper). gulf of St. Powers. is a human femur engraved with intricate and finely executed symbolic figures (Putnam and Willoughby). near Chillicothe. northern peoples is shown in their extremely clever carvings in ivory and their engravings of various ornamental and pictorial designs upon objects of use and ornament.

and Ethnography (Cont. E. and his Morphology of the Hupa Language (1905) perhaps belongs here also. etc. B.. the numerous monographs of Dr. XV. Eisner. and into Cheyenne by Rev. John Eliot translated in 1664 Baxter's Call to the Unconverted. 29. B. in 1665 Bayly's Practice of Piety. E. by Father Le Jeune. by C. 1896).. A. Am. and other writings on the Eskimo. A. 1912 Prayer Book. B.. Am. A. A. 1893). Newton's The King's High- Legends (1885). theSalishan by Teit and Boas' Traditions of the Thompson River Indians (1898) the Wakashan (Kwaki. here briefly noticed.. A. Archjeol. Wandall (1848). and in Santee Dakota in 1876. In Greenlandic Eskimo there is an abridged version of Stoud-Platon's Geography. the last the great national ritual of the northern Iroquois. Nat. books of and description.68 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. Thalbitzer's Phonetical Study of the Eskimo Language (1904). WilUams. sented by Boas' Tsimshian Texts (BuU. Janssen (1861). R. Bible stories •complete and summarized.. the last relating to the Tu- nuna dialect of Alaska. and other books circulated in manuscript. The manuscript collection of the Bureau of American Ethnology is rich in texts of myths. VI. in ethno- <«i{tcal tfEvel and linguistic monographs. S. Perkins' Six Principles of Religion. the Life of Hans Egede. 1888). have pubhshed Hist. a History of the World. Chinook Jargon not merely a (a. the Iroquoian by Mooney's Sacred Formulas of the Cherokee (7th Rep. text-books. P.. 1903). Krummacher's Parables and Feast Book. with the aid of the Cherokee and adapted alphabets. which translation of English verse. i. 1903).. by A. by Paul Egede (1787.. Omaha and Ponka Letters (Bull. and in 1689 Shepard's Sincere Convert. A. legends. A. and Barnum's Grammatical Fundamentals of the Innuit Language (1901). by E. and Kathlamet Texts (Bull. Into the Massachuset dialect of the Algonquian stock Rev. in native languages. 'Sky Goddard's Hupa Texts (Publ. who several pamphlets. A. in Petitot's Traditions way. Hemans published a Santee the Siouan stock. more or less be found in the i^eriodical literature of anthropology. the Siouan by Riggs' Dakota Grammar. which contains the text of the Walum Olum.' Rev. A.. Goodrich's Child's Book of the Creation was translated into Choctaw by the Rev. Dorsey's Cegiha Language (Cont. E. Chinook jargon also furnishes some titles. 11. In 1879 Rev. The monographs of many laws. Hewitt's Iroquoian Cosmology (21st Rep. F. D. B... E. E... Peter Kragh's translations of Ingemann's Voices in the Wilderness. the Kwakiutl. catechisms. Fletcher on the ceremonies of the Pawnee (22d Rep. E. Nat. Hist. E. R. A Geography for Beginners was published in Chippewa in 1840. Mus.. 20. Franz Boas on the Bellacoola. 1891). A. is . Ethnol. Ethnol. and Osage Traditions (6th Rep. 1901). W. to Exclusive of occasional texts.. S. 1890). 1904). 26. 27. Univ. A.. A. N. the scattered texts in the works of Schoolcraft. Am. 1891). 1904). Hoffman. although there are be mentioned Brinton's Lenape and Their version of Rev. contain much textual material. etc. repre- The literature in the magnitude and value. the stenographic periodical Karnloops Waiva. Mus. likewise Matthew's Navaho Legends (1897) and The Night Chant (1902). Texts. whole and in part. 1902) the Chinookan by Boas' Chinook Texts (Bull. of increasing accredited observers. was published in 1880. E. the Skittagetan by Swanton's Haida Texts (Bull. The civilized tribes of Oklahoma. ix. the Eskimo best by the texts in Boas' Eskimo of Baffin Land and Hudson Bay (Bull.. 1902-05). men of science and other competent stock is The Chimmesyan . E. f. brief. etc. and another by S. in the native languages. B. E. B. B. 1901). In the Labrador dialect a geography. B. A. etc. of James Mooney on the Ghost Dance ReUgion (14th Rep. a Thomas a Kempis' Imitation translation of of Christ.) Language (1878-89).. the body is of linguistic lating a considerable literatiue of texts by material. about 1687 the Rev.. revised 1824). A. and Hale's Iroquois to travelling he went. C.. N. e. This same book was transby Archbishop Vincent (1886). is also the author of of Worthy Myron Eells' Hymns in the mention is Rev. lated into Cree The Algonquian to texts rather than is represented by scattered by books. the literature translated into Indian languages embraces some interesting volumes. the Athapascan by cognate works. Petter (1904). W. etc. As a whole. Under the title Mahpiya ekta oiciniani ya. In 1839 the Rev. R. B. L. c. Riggs published in 1857 a translation of Bunyan's Pil- Book of Rites (1883) — the grim's Progress into the Dakota language of second records cosmologic myths.. and Ethnol. g. Kleinschmidt (1859). and The High Game. and the Cree and Siksika Legends Indiennes du Canada Nord-ouest (1887). there is accumu- Miss Alice C. Cal. 1905). and utl-Nootka) by Boas and Hunt's Kwakiutl Texts (Mem.

in Simms. Rel. usually bowls are stone. Aff. and future events. 1890. and from w. being hollowed out with fire and the knife. living in 1658-71 and thought that water standing over night in gaming bowls would reveal by its appearance past. as tribal possessions. In certain ceremonies of the Wahpeton and Sisseton Sioux and of other tribes a game was played with plum-stone dice thrown from a wooden bowl. Arapaho. In some cases the kind of wood was prescribed. in the making of which great skill and care were exercised. According to Dr. Jan. supernatural powers to certain of their bowls. The name "boulder mosaics" was first applied to them by Todd. Bouscoutton. structures of this type have been found from w. drying. The Omaha and others had excellent wooden bowls.. A. winnowing. Apr. n. shell. Kimus. 374. D^c. include the towns of Spaim. T.. and in connection with milling. though not by the Siksika. * * * * The most ancient permanent cooking utensil of the Plains tribes was a bowl made by hollowing out a stone. Among the Crows of Montana a boulder outline figure is made in the form of a woman Am. 1658. but they appear to be. and other figures outlined upon the surface of the ground. 158 in 1911 (Can. 'they dwell at the elbow. of the Cree. to the name Bouscoutton. Bouscouttous. Perrot. The Micmac accorded July. in one form or another. Minnesota through North and South Dakota to Montana. The materials employed in making Suk. Bowls that had been long in use for these games acquired a polish and colour unattainable by art. i. With many tribes bowls are made from large knots. bone. and were prized less ***** Consult Lewis 1889. Bowls are also used in primitive agriculture for gathering. The use of bowls in the preparation and serving of food is treated under Dishes (q. 1894. In- dians of Salishan stock on Fraser Brit.. Tzaumuk. These remains consist of animal. 1875 (comma evidently inserted by mistake. The Blackfeet and Cheyenne say that in very early times they boiled their meat in bowls made of some kind of soft stone. E. formed of boulders a foot or less in diameter.' This antawdt is probably the term usually prefixed. No. (c. 21.— Jes. and roasting seeds. in the familiar seed game. According to Lewis. Cheyenne. 'at the man's elbow. especially soapstone. In Dakota the outhnes are generally accompanied with small stone circles. Col. William Jones the Chippewa refer to the northernmost dwelling place of theCreeasIniniwitoskwuning. or rather to have been. known to be old tipi sites In some instances long lines of boulders or buffalo bones and small stone cairns have been found associated with them or occuriing in their immediate -neighbourhood. probably of Certain outline surface Siouan origin.. These appear to be the only baskets made by these tribes (Grinnell). Bows. as shells.). ibid. Bowls are often adapted natural forms. the unfaithfulness of a wife. taouoisbouscottous. 1858. present. skin. Pop.. to commemorate ii. Prise de possession (1671) in Margry. gourds. indeed. for 1911. and other Plains tribes. With the Indian the bowl serves a multitude of purposes: it is associated with the supply of his simplest needs as well as with his religion. Thus woodland tribes . 97. note. The northernmost division about the s. Boulder outlines. 12th Rep. but this does not necessarily indicate great antiquity.. Iowa and Nebraska to Manitoba. v.. either unmodified or more or fully remodelled. figures. though a few consisted of buffalo bones. Among many Indians bowls were used in games of chance and divination.. usually on elevated sites. in Anthrop. See Arroivs. their frequent association with tipi circles seems to denote that they are comparatively recent. 534.) Naturalist. and basket bowls are used by many tribes. and serpent figures being by far the most numerous. Bowls and trays of basketrywere used by the Sioux. 224). Ind.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER Boothroyd. Tailhan. more frequent in South Dakota than in any other section. the human. Like the boulder circles these are more or less embedded in the ground. Thomas Todd in Am. The distribution of tribes using boxes and chests illustrates in a striking manner the effect of environment on arts and customs.' and Antawat-otoskwuning. and bark. wood. v. III. 21a of 69 A body to Ntlakyapamuk r. The name seems have been employed to Bowls. the standard of beauty being symmetry of outline and the grain of the gnarled roots from which they were made. turtle. horn. 1884. Outaouois. Ataouabouscatouek. 293. and Nkattsim. s. and concretions.) — Ou- — Boxes and Chests. shores of Hudson bay. B. 1903. human. 1864. Some bowls were supposed to have mysterious powers which would affect the person eating or drinking from them.

18. Decorative Art of the Indians of the North Pacific Coast. for head-dresses.. Nel- Eskimo about Bering Strait. through what is now e. Washington. B. The N. IX. and basket Boxes and chests of wood are pracwallets. and powder is due the great number of small boxes manufactured by the Eskimo. 94 Can. Nat. Col. Hist. The eastern woodland tribes made boxes of birch bark. arrows. of California cylindrical made a nia and crossing the Alleghenies they spread over the w. A. W. Virginia. clothing. the Pima. 1. for drums and these were usually decorated with carving or painting. boxes were better than pouches for keeping the contents dry. 1905. E. Swanton in Mem.. B. solely for holding the feathers used in ceremonies.) Brant. Stevenson in 2d Rep. At that time the herds ranged from below the Rio Grande in N. 1912 made boxes of suitable timber. but smaller boxes were not so common ing the great summer and winter migrations and southern herds. though wood was scarce. Ind. Am. 1899. range depended largely on the and clothing. Joseph. v. for the interment of the dead. Mus. difficult of transportation even on water. Michigan and 1. for ripening salmon eggs. 1888. Winnipeg and 1. Georgia.. Swan. with the influence of the habits of the animal. A. wood. W. of the among them among the Eskimo northern These . Pennsylva- wooden box in two sections for storing valuables. Bull. 1897. above Lillooet. arrows. pop. A band of Upper Lillooet occupying the village of Kanlax. lanceheads. and the horse and the dog as pack and draught animals. This is more clearly seen in the also made as long boxes as quivers for where the people were in constant contact with the buffalo durtribes w. Erie to the vicinity of Niagara. portion of Maryland. and British Columbia. Kroeber 1. almost as rigid as a wooden box. as Cavetown. and All the tribes N. Nat.. A. pt. to Great Slave lake they roamed the valleys of Saskatchewap and Red rs. Mississippi and Louisiana. Am. 1902. and displayed extraordinary skill and inventiveness in their manufacture. must Consult Boas. Tribes that moved freely about stored and transported their goods in bags. See Thayendanegea.. or cases of rawhide. pt. for fastening them to the person to prevent Boxes and chests. Remains of the early species of the bison are found from Alaska to Georgia. Hist. percussion caps. some of the tribes hving on the The first authentic knowledge of the bison or buffalo by a European was that gained about 1530 by Alvar Nuiiez Cabeza de Vaca. New Mexico.. keeping to the w. coast tribes as far s. Mus. as Washington made large chests of wood for storing food. Indians of Cape Flattery Smithson. Oregon. being loss in the snow. Niblack. Allegheny mts.. in which. and there is documentary evidence that the animal ranged almost if not quite to the Georgia coast of which had abundant skins of large animals out of which to make receptacles for their possessions. although it was not unknown rivers. Hist. E.. While traces of the buffalo have been found as far e. North Carolina. These and other tribes uses. The Plains tribes and some others — the lack of remains in the shell-heaps to the Atlantic shore seems to indicate its absence generally from that region. 1890. Rep. w. for cooking. and the culmination of their manufacture is found among the tribes of the N. made box-like cases or trunks of rawhide similar in shape to the birch-bark boxes of the eastern tribes. Eskimo boxes are provided with cords etc. parfleches. or both. 1883. tinder.. Nat. The Eskimo had a great variety of small boxes of bone. Md. thence crossing the mountains Mexico made etc. however.. Some of the Plains tribes.. rawhide cases. It appears that to the introduction of tobacco. ii. Mus. pt. and this dependence. be looked living in for chiefly among sedentary tribes Buffalo. a tically was chiefly between the Rocky and unknown among the Plains tribes. This was in large measure due to their damp and freezing environment. Bridge River Indians. Utah. and ivory. Bridge r. the most widespread use of which was for the storing of feathers. South CaroUna. Nat. Papago. 18th Rep. Objects and materials that could be injured by crushing or by dampness usually required a box. no. Brit. etc. 1911. and usuallj^ Mohave made and the Pueblos excavated from a single piece of cottonwood. (w. although they had previously many boxes for trinkets. but the range of the present type {Bison americanus) wooded country. of the Mississippi. Mus. of 1. employed a box. h. who described the animal living in freedom on the plains of Texas. xviii. whalebone.. and the Sioux made plume boxes of wood. The Yurok basket cases for feathers. Am. 10. coast. of 1. there turning southward to w. on which flows into the upper Eraser in 1911. Superior and s. Aff.70 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. 1870. in Bull. Coast Indians. Cont.. son. profoundly affected tribal customs and within this buffalo for food religious rites. xvi.

ceremonies were held in its honour. of the Missouri the hunting party. and its folk tales delighted old and young. (a. was animal and the distribution of the parts. not to the ceremonial exactions of the Upon the plains of Kansas and Nebraska the hunters formed a circle around the herd and then. As the main supply of meat and pelts was to be obtained. and The multifarious benefits derived from the sometimes even to death. belts. and at that time the animal was hunted for the pelt as much as for food. The texture of the buffalo hide did not admit of fine dressing. Tribal regulations controlled the cutting up the herd. as on the upper Mississippi. nia of The woven into reatas. 14th Rep. for the buffalo was never solitary except by accident. Butchering was generally done by rules men on the field. tribal hunt. dividing into four parts. packs. Sometimes. which was poured into skin bags. the flesh being then in the best condition for food and the pelts easiest to dress on both sides for the making of clothing. leading the herd to a precipice where many were killed by the headlong plunge. July. its habits gave designations to the months. This hunt occurred in June. independent but organized parties. among the helpers. hence was used for coarse clothing. chips. and other articles.) . A. Geol 1876. of the heifer killed in the fall or early winter The annual summer hunting party generally consisted of the entire tribe. upon which. penalty of flogging. animal brought the buffalo into close touch with the people: It figured as a gentile totem. Trade. The hide parfleche cases. he was punished. and the tallow. healing plants and the manner a man slipped away to hunt for himself.Survey of Chittenden. 1902.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER great herds 71 No. pressed in ments. closed the selected herd in a square. The practical extinction of the buffalo with the last quarter of the 19th century gave a deathblow to the ancient culture of the tribes living within its range. "Still were observed throughout the hunting" was forbidden under if dreams where to find of their use. thread for sewing. 1887. which afforded an opportunity to the poor and disabled to procure food. a hunter disguised in a buffalo skin acted as a decoy. 1871. f. a leader and to the establishment of rules to insure an equal chance to every member of the party. In the N. These severe regulations were in force during the tribal or ceremonial hunt. besides the marrow. Smith trans. in ii. is The accuracy of this statement questioned by Indians. firing the prairie grass. used in the autumn to drive the deer from the prairie into the woods. The buffalo was supposed to be the instructor of doctors who dealt with the treatment of wounds. E 1896. and fibre for ropes. Relation of Alvar Nunez Cabeca de Vaca. snowshoes. 1889. into which the herds were driven and there killed. Mus. when the animals were fat and the hair thin. pt. and it became the symbol of the leader and the type of long life and plenty. The ' ." Early writers say that among the tribes e. i. shields. the and certain parts of the carcass belonged to the man who had slain the buffalo. Mem. pens were built of tree trunks lashed together and braced on the outside. religious rites made the finest robe. myths recounted its creation. pelts secured at this time were for bedding and for garments of extra weight and warmth. moccasins. and the . tent and boat covers. The shot the animals with arrows. The meat was cut into thin sheets and strips and hung upon a framework of poles to dry in the sun When fully j erked' it was folded up and put into parfleche packs to keep for winter use. in . thereby scattering a herd and causing loss to the tribe. B. The dried droppings of the known among plainsmen as "buffalo were valuable as of the fuel. B. The horns were made into spoons and drinking vessels. 21a were composed of innumerable smaller ones of a few thousand each. This habit affected the manner of hunting and led to the organization of hunting parties under sinew of the animal furnished bowstrings. The subject buffalo was hunted in the winter by small. which was preserved in bladder skins. ropes. was and personal ornaanimal. being hedged by flame. tent covers. each man's portion being taken to his tent and given to the women as their property. ' Consult Allen Kentucky. teaching them in time. Nat. for.. Winship Coronado Expedition. its appearance and movements were referred to in gentile names. they say. tips were used for cupping purhair of the buffalo poses the buffalo horn was also worn as insigoffice. c. rushing in. and Fire was sometimes fire would injure the fur. the remainder was divided according to fixed skin The only time the gTass would burn well was in the autumn. Fur Hornaday Rep. A cow was estimated to yield about 45 pounds of dried meat and 50 pounds of pemmican. bags. then. slaughtered. and August.

. They related a tale that below the falls of Cobbosseecontee r. of Indian Affairs to one of 6 divisions of the Squawmish. which is often painted with symbohc designs. suspended by one end to a cord. were named Cabbassaguntiac. A. A.. 14th Rep. the autumn. the rock was hewn by the ax of a mighty manito. and winter were recognized and specific names applied to them. varied according to latitude and environment. E. The local for a body of Squawmish of Fraser River agency. and from which their names were derived. The alternation of day and night and the changes of the moon and the seasons formed Calendar. 1858. A. (1615). Warren in Minn. and decay of annuals. sacred implement. B. where the Jesuits had the mission the Baptist in 1640.. A. Custom and Myth. 39 in 1911. 1870. name The years were snows. many winters or so many Gulf states. 88 (plural). 92. Brit. 187. in the far n. according to Boas. when their number was given as 232. E. iii. Bus-in-aus-ewug. b. Vereins f. Ghost Dance Rehgion. the the springing forth. Medicine-men of the Apache. The budding. 1892. to 2 ft." A r. Unterhaltung zu Hamburg. d. wind. Businausee 'echo. 'people of Cabassaguntiquoke. B. the term for year had some reference As a to this season or to the heat of the sun. B. In North America it has been found among the Eskimo. Fewkes. Rel. especially — Aff. The bullroarer. (their former place of among the and ¥ is — Pomo.' from huswawag.— Ibid. crane). Hist. consisting of a narrow. noted only in 1884. A Huron village in Ontario. whizzing stick.. the progress of the seasons. Can. four seasons spring. in Kennebec co.. and the pulsation of the air against the slat gives a characteristic whizzing or roaring sound. usually counted as so many nights or sleeps. e. Kendall.. but also as true cabassas. By some tribes it retains this sacred character. 124.. h. 219. and fruiting of vegetation. the Indians n. but among and Cahiague. but the natural phenomena by which they were determined. 1885. i. n. leaped into this stream and never returned in human form. lightning stick.) bases of their systems. A. pop. migration. and as to whether the tribe was in the agrirule — — on St. Consult Bourke. for 1640. Dept. Study of Man. Me. of St. and rhombus. 16th Rep..' ('echo maker.. 39.. pairing. 1897. Ute. Murdock in 9th Rep. The instrument has also been called whizzer. Bus-ln-as-see. Tusayan Snake Ceremonies. Schmeltz in Verh. as so but in the referring to the achichdk. long and 5 in. Soc. and its use was quite general. (w.) Cabbassaguntiac. E.. 1898. 3 Reserve. q. 1809. it it is nearly 2 ft. wide. of Mexico had not brought them beyond the simplest stage.— Champlain S. Haddon. iv. (j.. An instrument for producing rhythmic sound. Although the methods of computing time had been carried to an advanced stage among the cultured tribes of Mexico and Central America. cais. Apache. regarded themselves not only as inhabitants of Cabbassaguntiquoke. h. Lang.72 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. The bulh-oarer a Cahiague. B. where snow is rare and the heat of summer the dominant feature.— Jes. Some authorities . growth. Pueblos. 29. Kwakiutl. lean Baptiste. These Indians it is reported. v. including the Navaho. the day differed. 44. by Kendall. The divisions of many tribes recognizing 4 — the rising and setting full of the and midnight —while days were Burrard Saw Mills Indians.. or sturgeons. 9th Rep. associated with rain. Travels. The name given by the Can. Ibid.' The form Cobbisseconteag has been replaced by the modern Cobbosseecontee as the name of what formerly was Winthrop pond and outlet which flows into Kennebec r.. Ind. John and among the Kwakiutl. Col. having declared that he was a sturgeon. in which they cultural or the hunter state. naturw. ix. Cabbassaguntlquoke. 46. v. long). to 2 in. ***** lightning. of animals and birds were used to denote Burrard Inlet No. generally reckoned. 1912 Bullroarer. noon. for which use its European antitype also survives others among civilized nations. Arapaho. etc. has degenerated into a child's toy. CEuvres. — — Cabbasagunti. 1884. 1892. usually rectangular slat of wood. Mooney. Francis Quebec... in — settlement). Ibid.. blooming.. small body of Indians dwelling in 1807 in the village of "Saint-Fran- summer. A phratry of the Chippewa. Coll. 90. because one of their ancestors. the central Cahfornian tribes (v/here. 1896. Bus-in-aus-e. 1885. * * the ancient cliff-dwellings. with ghosts. and the moulting. and most western tribes. diurnal periods sun. is whirled rapidly with a uniform motion about the head.' signifying 'the place where sturgeon abound. the latter often being provided with a wooden handle. E. from about 6 in. 1896. leafing.

^ ) months are "nameless. described tion to the seasons. 1. coast divided the year into two equal parts. after the colours of the prayer-sticks sacrificed in and De- shawm. somewhat generally as did the Kiowa. The first six months have definite and appropriate names. 21a 7$ state that the Indians of Vii'ginia divided the year into five seasons: spring. are designated.. Another series is the calendar history of the Kiowa. the Takulli in January. solar trip between one the middle of the shepherd's pipe. Some of the northern tribes kept records of events by means of symbolic figures or pietographs. From the meagre descriptions of the calumet . painted with symbolic colours and adorned with various symbolic objects. 1903). 331. etc. v..time division to the Indians n. it was not universal in the past to correlate the moons with the year. says that when stone. or month. One of these is an extended calendar history. 12 was the number usually reckoned. west. presents the peculiarity of half a moon in one of the unequal four seasons. flute. called the "Lone-dog winter count." the other half "named. is Among the Zuiii half the 17th Rep. 58. and occurring about the 19th of cember usually initiates a short season of great religious activity. in ritualistic speech. B. reed. the Kiowa about Oct. thick. and time. respectively represented by those colours (Gushing in Mill- for the breath or spirit. Anthrop. English. east.).EA'NDBOOK OF lyDIAX^S OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. some counted moons to the year. usually includes the pipe. and some others counted 13. a notable tally date in Indian time reckoning. and Black. a tube. thus beginning the year with the last half of a by Mooney ^^ irt moon. So far as can be ascertained. have a pipe bowl to contain tobacca for making a sacred offering of its benevolent smoke to the gods. Either one of 2 highly symbolic shafts of reed or wood about 2 in.." the seasons the "steps" of the year. Low Latin.' The year called a "passage of time. A. 160. summer another. usually perforated for a pathway diverse rotation at the full of each moon to the gods of the north. in order that the moons should bear a fixed relaof the tribes of the n. The Haida formerly intercalated what they called a "between month. half in counted Indians the preceding and half in the follow- ing year. especially a a new mooi^ The new year e. the Cree. gathering. pipe. while called the "nameless" months. B." probably because each begins with Calumet. of Mexico was the moon. calamellus. but few Indians of mature years could possibly tell their age before learning the white man's way Sticks were sometimes notched by the Indians as an aid in time counts. (Norman-French form of literary French chalumel. with 6 months or moons to each part. where correlation was attempted. Many tribes began the year with the vernal equinox. Anthrop. or fall of the leaf. or may not. the one representing the male. Its colouring and degree of adornment varied somewhat from tribe to tribe and were largely governed by the occasion for which the calumet was used. the Hopi with the "new fire" in NovemThe most ber. Yellow. which they term the lost moon. and it is likely that this was sometimes omitted to correct the calendar (Swanton in the year into five seasons. their count of this period beginning with the new moon. Old French chalemel. Provengal caramel. and nadir. others began it in the fall. as those of New England. or highest sun." said to have been painted originallj^ on a buffalo robe. or roasting-ear (4) corn(5) summer. winter According to Mooney the Cherokee and most state that of the southeastern tribes also divided thirty moons have waned they add a supernumerary one. a parallel of chalumeau for chalemeau. Swanton and Boas Am. and 18 in. the summer period extending from April to September. J^ in. E. south. ages calculated their The by some remarkable event or phenomenon which had taken place within their remembrance. the other the female shaft. important. IX. Blue. (2) (3) (1) The budding of the earing of corn. In modern usage the term There appears to have been an attempt on the part of some tribes to compensate for the surplus days in the solar year. (cohonk). of counting time. 1796). to 4 ft." because between the two periods into which they divided the year. reed). 123/2 v." i. long. although counting 12 moons to the year. A. and which may. Apr. The Creeks adding a w. speaking of the Sioux or the Chippewa. zenith. Red. is termed "midsolstice journey of the sun. White. Spanish caramillo. the figures of which cover a period of 71 years from 1800 (Mallery in 10th Rep. broad. Carver (Trav.. a flute. the winter period from October to March. 1903) dates from the meteoric shower of 1833. and the other half in the following season. Variegated. the others. The Kiowa system. and the months "crescents. 1884). but some of the tribes. The oldest of these among the Pima (Russell in Am. moon at the end of every second year. E. found among the Dakota. diminutive of Latin calamus. 76.

in some of the elaborate ceremonies in which it was necessary to portray this symbolism the employment of the two shafts became necessary. He says that if the calumet is offered and accepted it is the custom to smoke in the calumet. and whose feathers However. As the colours and the other adornments on the shaft represent symbolically various dominant gods of the a pretty strong reed or cane. and "is of light wood. They sheath that reed into the neck of birds they call huars [loons]. Moreover. A. though water be their natm-al element. in order to obtain favour of the gods. is made of following description of the calumet feathers of by its convention united the already highly symbolic calumet shafts and the sacrificial tobacco altar. Some. interlaced with locks of women's hair. such persons were doomed to die at the hands of the person so naming them. that in strictly the those designed for public ceremonial purposes this shaft is very long. and feathers of the most beautiful birds. or that staff ambassadors did formerly carry when they went to treat of peace." (1721) it is the birds and was denominated the male.74 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. but to accept or to refuse the offer of the calumet is optional. in just so far as such human Perrot also says things are inviolable. that among is those nations it is among which to ratify the alliance of friendly tribes. and when such bargains are made an exchange of calumets is usual. By naming in the chant the souls of those against whom war must be waged. or else of a sort of ducks who make their nests upon trees. adorned with all colours. male power arid his aids. A chant and a dance have become known as the chant and the dance of the calumet. learned that the stem or shaft of what is commonly called the calumet pipe. to bring needed rain. the pipe-bowl.. because the one with its colours and accessory adornments represented the procreative according to their they have in their ********* From Charlevoix calumet is own genius and own country. They tie to it two wings of the find. convenience and by The Hennepin may be given: "The quill. . if an adversary offer the calumet to his employed also in banishing evil and for ob- taining good. hence it became one of the most profoundly sacred objects known to the Indians of northern America. 1912 and its uses it would seem that it has a cere- moniallj' symbolic history independent of that of the pipe. To smoke it was prohibited to a man whose wife was with child. nation adorns the calumet as they think fit. which makes their calumet not much unlike Mercury's wand. and to attest contracts and treaties which could not be violated without incm-ring the wrath of the gods. opponent and he accept it. which are as big as our geese and spotted with black and white. in this manner rendering the contract or bargain sacred. painted with different colours. ficial and that when the pipe became employment for burning sacritobacco to the gods. The use of the calumet was inculcated by religious precept and example. and it is more frequently employed for pAce than for among war. and the other with its colours and necessary adornments represented the reproductive female power and her aids. together they were employed as an invocation to one or more of the gods. an altar. The calumet was wampum belts and strands among the nations among whom these things are in use. the motherhood of nature. There are calumets for various kinds of public engagements. that the Indians believe that the sun gave the calumet to the Pawnee. every are of many different colours. most curious birds they Indian polytheon. sacrificed to them. the fatherhood of nature. they ate the food and chanted and danced for the calumet. it was used in ceremonies designed to conciliate foreign and hostile nations and to conclude lasting peace. as the visible food some animals in spirit was not con- sumed visibly by the gods. and. and was denominated the female. that Pawnee tradition asserts that the calumet is a gift from the sun. lest he perish and she die in childbirth. The Indians profess that the violation of such an engagement never escapes just punishment. and the engagements contracted are held sacred and inviolable. The dance and the chant were rather in honour of the calumet than with the calumet. In the heat of battle. tails. The calumet was employed by ambassadors and travellers as a passport. that the calumet is in use more among the southern and western nations than the eastern and northern. which is commonly two foot and a half long. wings. to the calumet in use as sacred as are the secure favourable weather for journeys. and adorned with the heads." which he beheved were "only for ornament" rather than for symbolic expression. of the calumet it follows that the symbolism and pipe represented a veritable executive council of the gods. the weapons on both sides are at once laid down.

Quamasia quamash. 1885. de la Louisiane. (a. 1758. Mem. and are still much used. Moeurs des Sauvages. (j. Sihasapa.. w. c. and Clarke co. v. Siksika. The Latin name of the plant also preserves the Indian appellation. It is is The Indians in general chose not or dared not to violate openly the faith attested by the calumet. Santee. The bulbs. and perhaps some other device indicating the motive of the alliance. On one occasion a band of Sioux. seeking to destroj' some Indians and their protectors. It was vitally necessary. Utah. and that on the shaft was graven the figure of a viper. The size and oi'naments of the calumets which are presented to persons of distinction on occasions of moment are suited to the parties. Chitimacha.. Nat. The camas prairies of the w. and in Canadian French. c. Journal. rv. 1724. and . guage of Vancouver id.. and a town. Nez Perrot. For more detailed information consult Charlevoix. but the feathers only on one side may be red. In the Ohio and St.. and eastward to the northern Rocky mts. Missoula co.. Piegan. who caused him to see the that among the 12 one of the calumet shafts was not matted with hair like the others. Any species of plant belonging to of alliance against a third tribe. and it is claimed that from the disposition of the feathers in is is possible to know to to be presented. f. When the calumet is designed to be employed in a treaty Camas. 1896-1901. Oreg. and sought to deceive an intended victim by the use of a false calumet of peace in an endeavor to make the victim in some measiire responsible for the consequences. Lawrence valleys and southward its use is not so definitely shown. especially be painted on the shaft. Illinois. N." was widespread It has been found among the Potawatomi. E. Camas it usually blue-flowered and in other respects also There were calumets for commerce and trade and for other social and political purposes. i-iii. La Danse du Calumet. and in other the Chinook jargon. McGuire in Rep. From its habit of feeding on this root the camas rat received its name. Perccs. American tribe claimed a certain locality as its habitat and dwelt in communities or villages about which stretched its hunting grounds.. but the officer.. f.. 1897. the four world-quarters. pomme blanche and pomme des prairies. E. a serpent may the genus Quamasia {Camassia of some later authors).) Camping and Camp circles. Kamas. Each North The use of the calumet. B. in Summit co. apparently of sometimes called wild hyacinth. Skitswish. sometimes called "peace-pipe" and "war pipe. Mont. W^ash. Camas is found from w. Fletcher in 22d Rep. coiled around it. A. with a suitable invocation. kam. 1864. H. coast tribes. Cheyenne. were long famous. to which related. and Natchez. California and British Columbia. Kansa. however. A. in Les Soirees Canadiennes. The word. 1904. Idaho. nais. It botanically was most extensively utilized in the valleys of the upper Columbia r. much resembles the hyacinth. quamash.) to the requirements of the case. quamish. seeds. Crows. 1864. ways. Yankto- in the Mississippi valley generally. consulted an astute Indian attached to his force.. Chippewa. which were a staple food of several n. signifying 'sweet' in the Nootka lan- peace. The officer was made to understand that this was tlfe sign of covert treachery. Lafitau. Winnebago. i-lxxiii. Dorsey in 3d Rep. As all the inland people depended for food largely on the gathering of acorns. but the most important were those designed for war and those for peace and brotherhood. 12 calumets. came into English through Its' ultimate source is chamas. a French officer and his men. some instances it what nation the calumet B}^ smoking together in the calumet the contracting parties intend to invoke the sun and the other gods as witnesses mutual obligations assumed by the and as a guarantee the one to the other that they shall be fulfilled. Lesueur. Cree. Chickasaw. presented. From camas have also been named villages in Fremont co.oire. Relations des Jesuites. Allied Jesuit Relations and Thwaites ed.. watershed. thus frustrating the intended Sioux plot. also is the edible bulb of these plants. Pawnee Loups. Washington and Oregon to n. 21a 75 When war is contemplated. 1761. Hist. and the earth. Shoshoni.HAXDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. but improperly.ass. B. Le Page du Pratz.. are prepared for food by prolonged steaming. spelled also camass. slopes of the Rocky mts. Documents. in the guise of friendship. Choctaw. lest through ignorance and inattention one should become the victim of treachery. B. 1899. Mus. not only the it is shaft but the feathers with which dressed are coloured red. 1858. likewise a Camas valley in Douglas CO. who was versed in such matters and whose suspicion was aroused by number offered. This is accomplished by blowing the smoke toward the sky. that they should be distinguishable at once.

and donned their best garments to be ready to receive the escort which was always sent to welcome the guests. one composed of 4 and the other of 3 concentric circles. 10 to 20 poles were cut and trimyear. im- Long for journeys were frequently undertaken pressed upon the beholder the relative position of kinship groups and their interdependence. For particular ceremonies. the Kiowa. unchangeable place in the line. cut. The oblong frame was made of saplings tied together with bark fibre. made up of the different political divisions tribal circle. were rolled into a long bundle when a party was travelling. but when near their destination. or on hunting for meat and skin clothing. its care during a journey fell upon her. These dwelUngs were brush shel- the mat house and birch-bark lodge and the skin tent of the became a vast dressing room. fit. and men. they were dragged by ponies. in fixed The and regular order. near of kin being neighbours. Fletcher in Publ. and fhe laden ponies formed the body of the slowly moving procession. the head of a family or of a kindred group. gens.. save a man's perat night. The rush mats of different sizes. and riding horses. women> and children shook off the dust of travel) painted their faces.). a camping place was reached the mat were all up each gens was in the position to which it was entitled by the regulations that were connected with ancient beliefs and customs. Peabody Mus. the party halted and dispatched one or two young men in gala dress travelling When both for the maintenance of order and government within and for defense against enemies from without. The Dakota a political group of kindred. Cheyenne.. Each of the 10 weapons. friendly visits or for inter-tribal ceremonies. in later years. each political divisions. The women of each gens knew where their tents belonged. but the skin tents were set up in a circle. of the plains. were controlled parties. E. and when a camping ground was reached each drove her ponies to gentes had the proper place. the women and children.76 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. A. an opening being left in the middle for the escape of the smoke from the central fire. especially the great annual sun dance (q. med by the men and preserved from year to To tan. v. For the skin tent. throughout the journeyings. while the opening to the e and the . ters. acted as a police guard to prevent any straggling that might result in personal or tribal danger. He decided the length of a day's journey and where the camp should be made As all property. W^hen the tribes of the buffalo country went on their annual hunt. The Omahaand close cognates. when on the annual circle representing call buffalo hunt and during the great tribal cere- monies camped in a circle. Hunting. woven by the women. each segment composed of a clan. from the initial rites. the catching of salmon when ascending the streams. the ponies and other valuable possessions were kept within the space inclosed by the circle of tents. and they prevented any private hunting. They ones were overlapped to make a rain-proof roof. The details of the camp by the women. ceremonies attended every stage. themselves the "seven council fires. protected on either side by the warriors." and say that they formerly camped in two divisions or groups. See Dorsey in 3d and 15th Reps. men. While the messengers were gone the prairie little with the parts were held together in a compact whole. A. visiting or war parties were more The leader was generally or less organized. If danger from enemies was apprehended. 1912 roots. Dogs formerly transported the long tent poles by means of travois. to the thanksgiving ceremony which closed the expedition. as it might stampede a herd that might be in the vicinity. position of the ceremonial tents recalled the religious rites and obUgations by which the many packet of tobacco to apprise the leading men of the village of their approach. they camped in makeshift shelters or portable dwellings during a considerable part of the year.. Matthews . except with war When when men did the work. but. its. and smaller for their trustiness and valour. when the leader was chosen. tribal organization made a living picture of It and responsibilities. or he was appointed to his office with certain ceremonies. encumbered only by their weapons. Sometimes the camp was in concentric circles. and others camped in a circle houses were erected as most convenient for the family group. belonged to the woman. or band. forest tribes. The longest and widest mats were fastened outside the The long selected by wan-iors chiefs procession was escorted by the leader and the frame to form the walls. and camping the people kept well together under their leader. so that tribe Omaha when the tents of the who walked or rode. On the tribal hunt the old sonal clothing. B. and the circle was often a quarter of a mile or more in diameter. and sew the skin cover and to set When in on the annual hunt the its tribe camped a circle and preserved up the tent was the special work of women.

the Assiniboin. — tion of a part of his body. of small quanti- — consumed by boys or even by women and In some cases a small portion of the children. the Aztec and other Mexican tribes. now more commonlj^ used than the older term anthropophagy. There writers in a designates the chief of Stadacon6 (Quebec) as the king of Canada. B. though blood. and some of the tribes of Maine. and with the acquired taste for kawa. Kiowa.) Canada. warriors. from necessity as a result and has been witnessed among the Huron. their special seat in the heart. of references The parts were eaten either raw The heart belonged usually to the but other parts were occasionally Mexico. and the Ton- seems that among a few tribes. the Algonkin. The New England writers sometimes designated as Canada Indians those Abnaki who had removed from Maine to St. in the s. portions 17th Reps. 1881. hence this organ Cannibalism. Mooney kandda. Micmac. Col. 1744.— Gardener (1662) in N. Kickapoo.' and other Heiltsuk. or cooked. Foxes. (j. according to one of the as a matter of ceremony. In one form or another cannibalism has been practised among probably all peoples at some period of their tribal life. in the n. Canadenses. Canada- — — map (1621) in N. 14. farther w. coa. In most of such instances recourse was had to the bodies of those who had recently died. Ottawa. 26.) of the continent. the Thngit. Dobbs. In America there are nunierous recorded to its occurrence within historic times among the Brazilians. and Iroquois. Canada. and prevalent form of cannibalism was a part of war custom and was based principally on the belief that bravery and other desirable qualities of an enemy would pass. of his own flesh. more A term used to designate Kwakiutl. His vocabularies indicate an Iroquoian (Huron) people living there. Etchareottine. ii. Miami. Lawrence. and Winnebago. w. of famine. f. Chippewa. XIII. to the consumption of such parts for food under stress of hunger. The early French writers used the term Canadiens to designate the Algonquian tribes on or near the St. Nootka. or marrow. Hist. Finally. and apphes the nams to the country immediately adjacent. as the Tonkawa. brain. 237. tlement. in 14th and 'set- and Comanche(?) Athapascan . 1545. through actual ingesthese was accidental. cannibalism formed a part of one of their ceremonies. Cree. by early Cartier and the Ute. Carib of northern South America. Col. is derived from Carib through Spanish corrupRestricting treatment of the subject to tion. B. title. Among the tribes which practised it. Doc. ties of human flesh. the people who built the Jesuit fathers.. Canadese. mounds in Florida (see Colusa). and recently among the Tsimshian and Kwakiutl. 1830 (Latin form). uals Several instances are recorded in in which cannibalism was indulged while in a frenzied by individit state.. (a. Sioux. if not the chief. Hudson Bay.' all (Huron: tribes. of Mexico. Among the Heiltsuk. Such qualities were supposed to have Doc. Francis and Becancour.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER in 5th 77 No. Tsimshian. E.— Dutch — — Cartier. perhaps obligatory. Canadiains. One of tribes below the Saguenay. and among many of the Indians n. lUinois. the Thhngchadinneh 'village. 1856 (located north of Chaleur bay). Attacapa. many evidences of cannibalism in some form are found from the ingestion. 21a Rep. Lescarbot quoted by Tanner.. but cases are recorded in which individuThe second als were killed to satisfy hunger. A. as distinguished from the Algonkin and Micmac. and others. blood. incentive. Iroquois. the eating of captives was con- sidered a religious duty. Micmac. the tribes n. brain. some of the Californian tribes. Hist. Nar. and w. and the Attacapa. or even as a matter of taste. Canadiens. Lescarbot (1609) quoted by Charlevoix. 225. Among the Iroquois. . in one or another of these forms. mar- row. E. Tonkawa. though still with captives as the victims. it appears that cannibalism n. of the Mexican boundary existed in two chief forms. Canide Indlanes. Brief Recit. Armouchiquois. man-eating. and allusions to the custom among other The tribes of Arizona and New Mexico. is the Indians of Canada. 1866. into that of the con- sumer. especially the Naskapi and the Montagnais Canada among the Hopi. Siksika. i. and others. may be mentioned the Montagnais. Caddo. Jes. and other Texas tribes were known to their neighalso a tradition of the practice bours as "man-eaters. c. was chiefly sought. A. One of the means of torture among the Indians of Canada and New York was the forcing of a prisoner to swallow pieces . was practised on a larger scale. Mohawk. Y. —Cartier). Chippewa. Rel. Karankawa. human flesh as one. Y." Taking all the evidence into consideration. and flesh were in many instances also swallowed.. The word itself. M. New France. 1858. 1632. and also restricted sense. heart or of some other part of an enemy might be eaten in order to free the eater from some The idea of eating any other tabu (Grinnell) human being than a brave enemy was to most Indians repulsive.

1879. 1875). 1892. Toward a person belonging to some tribe with which there was neither war nor peace. Lawrence in 1670.. Col. 1857. 1887. gentile. id. d'Anthrop. Ind. Folk-lore. for Cape Breton. m. where slavery was an institution. 72. and other consanguineal Indian society. and might be broken in an instant. especially where there had been a long-standing feud. applied by New is England writers to those living near cape Sable. A.. he was among. x. Nat. Karankawa Inds. (A. Toward other clans. Quebec. In such cases the virtues of evident. 355. ing stories of great misfortune overtaking one who refused hospitality to a person in distress. Kohl. 123. Cape Sable Indians. even when there was apparently no self-interest to be served in extending hospitalThere are not wantity. Dom. or bands of the same tribe his actions Consult Bancroft. the members of that from its about 300 m. pop.. gentes. H. (2) Rep. . Am. v. A peace of this kind was very tenuous. he might be entirely ignored. as well as some men long associated with them.. if not entirely cut off. i. including the Chuckchuqualk. offered succour. Algonkin mission established on the St. at the beginning of the 19th century. for Human Remains Johns r. 515. Kitchigami. One of the seven districts of the country of the Micmac. 3 leagues below Three Rivers. 203. 1761. Stud. And finally. 1883. especially active in the wars on the (j. XLii. 1888. Thus John Jewitt. Soc. Schaafhausen. and of great good fortune accruing to him who deflecting trade. Micmac The term They were used by Hubbard as early as 1680. Sci. Mo.) name occurs in a list of 1760 Micmac village or band. Wyman (1) the bands or tribes good relations were assured only by some formal peace-making ceremony. Boas (1) in Jour. the existence of a higher ethical feeling toward strangers. Gatschet. Somers in Pop. 128 in 1911. II. 10. 1912 yet the Tonkawa.. Brit. Thwaits ed. It Cape Magdalen. by Indians who removed from the latter place on account of spiallpox. Can. Letourneau in Bull. If nothing were to be had from the stranger. in the Shell (2) Fresh-water Shell Heaps of St. declared that the eating of human flesh by them was only ceremonial. Brit. 1891. organizathe tions of From mem- Indian mythology and beliefs are replete with references to man-eating giants. Am. 309. 1860. The local name with civihzed people for ties is one of the best guaranfear of against a body of Shuswap of Kamloops-Okanagan agency. Mooney. — Aff. 1875. certain ethical duties were anthropophagy in some form was a practice with which the aborigines have long been acquainted. Megapolensis (1644). Anthrop. q. war —the If disturbing or —Can.. Native Races. exacted of an Indian which neglected without destroying could the not be of fabric society or outlawing the transgressor. 110. in Nova Scotia. he brought among them certain much-desired commodities. New England settlements.. 58... which point to the possibility that bers of his own consanguineal group.. as the location of a (j. mouth. Decouvertes. Aff. Pacific coast. 27. the attitude was governed largely bj' the interest of the moment. Our Last Cannibal Tribe. Jesuit Relations. Fr. Penicaut (1712) in Margry. Col. 1888. on Cape Breton Nova Scotia. but with remote Mohawk Inds. de Paris. 1911. him as a brother and extended their protection over him.) the clan or gentile organizations as peace-making factors in the tribe made themselves if the stranger belonged to a clan or gens represented Canoe Creek. and deities.) At the same time the attitude assumed toward a person thrown among Indians too far from his own people to be protected by any ulterior hopes or fears on the part of his captors was usually that of master to slave.. pop. An was abandoned before 1760. The treatment accorded captives was governed by those limited ethical was preserved as a slave by the Nootka chief . pt. 504. Ind. the first impulse might be to take these from him by force and seize or destroy his person. i. 1895. but it would quickly be seen by wiser heads that the source of further supplies of this kind might thereby be imperilled. were also governed by well recog- nized customs and usages which had grown up Mus. near upper Fraser A Shuswap village and band r. early A name s. 129 in 1902. 18. Captives. Mounds. pt. v. or what was considered such. monsters. concepts which went hand in hand with clan.. Sketch of during ages of intercourse. is often in evidence. This was particularly the case on the N. tribe (Rand. and xi. 1901. 1885.. however. 777. Another defence for the stranger was what clan or gens usually greeted — Canoe Lake Indians.78 DEPARTMEyr OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. Jefferys. The chief of this district First was the head chief of the Micmac Reading Book. The m.

the contrary was often the case. America. and the continual threats to which they were subjected. while the Creek peace towns also secured immunity adoption. sometimes they were drawn on an improvised sledge or ing the extent of his hardships. From Ortiz. especially since many tribes are said to these might be placed at their disposal. however. recorded in connection with these dances after the return from war. and a few were usually subjected to revolting tortures and finally burned was that he might fill the place of someone who had died. It was often thought that the captive's supernatural helper had been destroyed or made to submit to that of the captor. a certain post. The usual object in thus adopting a prisoner were expected to play a conspicuous part. and among some of the Texas and Louisiana tribes this disposition of the bodies of captives appears to have been something more than occasional. respected by her captors among on the Columbia r. and. w. Although the custom among the eastern Indians of holding white prisoners for ransom dates from early times. unless they attempted escape or were unable to keep up with the band. region. who was captured by the Abnaki in 1689. Juan taken prisoner by the Florida chief Ucita. or some other goal. the experiences of the Spaniard. though where not put to death with torture to satisfy the victor's desire for revenge and to give the captive an opportunity to show his fortitude. it is questionable whether it was founded on The ransoming or sale of aboriginal usage. and customs. These were considered to have forfeited their lives and to have been actually dead as to their previous existence. and other weapons. captives. at least temporarily.. Each person taken was considered the property of the one who first laid hands on him. Doubtless it became common in dealing with white captives owing to the difficulty of reconciling adult whites to life one instance several days. but sometimes they settled the controversy by torturing him to death on the spot. whatever his own character. yet a certain amount of consideration was often shown them. and spared. The Iro- some Algonquians. was common among the Plains and s. but were^ neither tortured nor regularly adopted. They were often placed in the centre of a circle of dancers. he was treated exactly as he possessed the character of his John Gyles. those who reached the chief's house. as well as those of other whites. however. Among the eastern tribes. were sometimes compelled to sing and dance also. Among many who reached other tribes an escaped captive the chief's house was regarded as safe. The rapid retreat of a war party bore particularly hard upon women and children. at which the captives of that limit. Pacific coast was In most of North certainly pre-Columbian. or unless the band was pursued too hotly. in the woman was but w.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. Sometimes the male captives were allowed to help them along. however. w. but usually where their lives were spared they were held for ransom or adopted into the tribe. Instances of cannibalism are at the stake. in 1528. plains. while the custom of ransoming slaves on the n. Offering food to a visitor from the numerous accounts of white persons who had been taken by Indians that the principal immediate hardships they endured were due to the rapid movements of their captors in order to escape pursuers. . tomahawks. from pursuit to the persons who entered them. it was probably a rare pro- When two or more claimed a prisoner he was sometimes kept by all conjointly. These threats were not usually carried out. while captives taken from another tribe no doubt settled down into their new relationships and surroundings very contentedly. were those taken in war. because he was an ironworker and would be valuable property. and the character of this individual had much to do in determinIt is learned was usually equivalent to extending the host's protection over him. and several western tribes forced prifeonei's to run between two lines of people armed with clubs. Dorsey says of some Siouan tribes. Most of the other whites who fell into the hands of Indians manner. he might in a way be reborn by undergoing a form of on this coast were treated of in a similar The majority captives. informs us that a prisoner was brought out to be beaten and torif predecessor. and in the s. 21a 79 Maqiiinna. however. that their captives were allowed either to go home or settle among themselves. travois. Pacific coast. while have disowned any person who once had been taken prisoner. 0. if there were horses in the party cedure. is recorded in which the child of a It is female captive was carried by her master for worthy of remark that the almost always the tribes e. it would appear that captives were sometimes held in a sort of bondage elsewhere than on the N. J. quois. and it is affirmed by one writer that. Indian honour of a white of the Mississippi. tribes. on arriving at the village a dance was held. however.

Captivity among the Indians. sometimes married their captors and became free. of Charles Johnston. Spears (ed.. as it often resulted the formation of a new clan from their descendants.. Gilbert. Quanah Parker (q. 1857. Instead of receiving commenda- were sometimes taken for the express purpose of being trained to the performance of certain ceremonial duties. True Stories of New England Drake. Among the Tlingit. another Mexican still man of influence among the Zuiii. v. 1898. and quickhatch. 1880. E. and Spanish descent were At the same time youth. etc. of a was in of special importance. or the people of the town from which they had been taken had committed depredations.. 1904. but such a fate seldom overtook them (Dobbs). while another prominent Haida clan was called "the Slaves. the Algonkin qwingwaage (Cuoq). 1851. as in even rose to high the case of a Frenchman who of these Elvas. Slave women. Publ. 1871. never returned. Narr. 1912 their tured during the war dances unless his master paid over a certain amount of property. Kiowa.). Carcajou. erated tribes of Comanche. Gentl. Captivity of the Oatman Girls. B. The present chief of the Comanche. From Oregon ment to s. of Captivity among the Sioux. 1903. Spencer. The spared unless such captives had committed some great injury to the victorious tribe that prompted immediate revenge. successful of war chief of the Comanche a in 1855. of various authors. Besides the numbers of who had escaped suffered a certain opprobrium which could be removed only by the expenditure of a great amount of property. A. and it is probab. French. Indian Captivities. Capture and Escape. Kelly. Cabega de Vaca. of Some positions. Severance (ed. Smith transl..). Indian Hunter. of Captivity.«. and Kiowa Apache still hold at least 50 adopted white captives. the Cree quiquakatch (Mackenzie). Mooney in 17th Rep. Herrick. Captives. unless Women and children were generally preserved and adopted. Seven and Nine Years among Camanches and Apaches. Incidents attending the Capture. owing to the strong caste system that here prevailed. the it is related of the greatest Skidegate chief that he had been enslaved in his taken into the tribe of their captors and. and bodies of slaves were thrown into the" holes dug for the posts new house. though there are instances in which white women were tortured to death. tion. Indian Captivity. Such. Captivity of Benj. Narr. and it is said of the Ute that female captives from other Indian tribes were given over to the women to be tortured. 1904.. a slave the Plains tribes captives. . of a who and is recorded as Mexican the most prominent and Narr. ix. quiquihatch. queequehatch might be killed at any moment by their masters. 1851. it is evident from all the accounts that have reached us that many of English. Consult Baker. Dangers and Sufferings of Robert Eastburn. The Ute clan of the latter was recruited by a systematic capture and purchase of Ute girls Four prominent Haida clans and one clan among the Tsimshian are said to have originated from marriages of this kind. is the son The confedof a captive American woman. 1827. B. became chief of the Attacapa. doubtful. Stratton.) of captives was brought about by the existence of a slave class. A. gwin-gwawah-ga (Tanner). 1854.. in Hakluyt Soc.. Harris. 1830. kikkwhhkkhs (Lacombe). or Life among the Sioux. Whether male slaves ever rose to a high position is undertaken with the object of supplying the Among tribe with good basket makers (Culin) . white persons carried away by Indians and subsequently ransomed. Larimer. Three Years among the Camanches." though it is impossible to say whether they were descended from slaves or whether the term is applied ironically. Among tribes possessing clans the adoption of captured women masters became involved in a property contest. 1897.. etc. no doubt. 1834. especially children.. Tanner. either because carried off when very young or because they developed a taste for their new life. 1859. Relacion of Alvar Nunez Life of Horatio Jones.«0 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. The same is probably true in nearly equal measure of the Apache of Arizona. the most valuable property a man could have. After this they Chippewa gwingwaage (Baraga).le that fully one-third of the whole population have a traceable percentage of captive blood.. 1823. especially if they were knowTi to be of noble descent. The Canadian French form of (Montagnais Algonquian kar-ka-joo) the the lives of those taken in war were always name for the wolverene {Gulo luscus). Eastman. however. 1870.). slaves were killed during mortuary feasts. while male prisoners who had distinguished themselves were sometimes dismissed unhurt. 1874. was the origin of the Zuiii and Mexican clans of the Navaho. Lee. Johnston. Alaska a different treatSince slaves were (. until they grew too old to work.

. 1890) as "a meeting of partisans. gested a derivation from cawcawaassough. [Malecite].) The sug- Carhagouha Huron village in the forest' tp. 1877) "as a private meeting of the leading politicians of a party. H. Quebec. with a tail so long by the party. caucusing. Among the Canadian French diable deti bois is also a name ('in of this little beast.. iv. i. Am. the and to the English interests. 'one who encourages. f. Lafontaine. arctiThe word came into English from the French of Canada. of which there are Amertwo chief cari- pushes on." has now a In Ma'isachusetts it is legal signification. are de(a. Mis- 361. in 1769 (Hawkins. held for the nomination of a candidate for election. B.' The name carcajou has been incorrectly applied to several animals. to decide upon the action to be taken (Diet.H AX D BOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER are parallels. c. word nifies in the Virginian dialect of Algonquian. Ind. The origin of the word is seen in the cognate Micmac x^-^'i'bu and the Passamabou) cus. to Gatschet Phila. species. 21a By a freak of popular etymology animal received the name of "glutton. For instance "the carcajou Charlevoix. coast of Vancouv^er Aff. of Caucus. nilla pt.. the The common name of the ican reindeer. that it twists it several times around his body..—Doc. a Carhagoua.. and the Mohawk tongue. A origin of the word Philo. in contradistinction to the Iroquois. Miss. Frangois-du-Sault were founded. cockarouse. and to other places in Canada and the United States.) on the St. to agree upon the plans to be pursued in an approaching election. (1615). says the most cruel is This word. 'to Caribou. 28. Americanisms. 264. 'at the rapAn Iroquois settlement on the Sault ids)'." as all understanding the Micmac language. (j meeting of the voters of a ward of a city. about 1640. 1855. or of delegates to a political convention. but from the Algonquian myth of the firedragon. in goua. 'glutton. as one of their gentes is the Magu"leboo. a kind of cat. When St. f. SagardTheodat using it in 1632. speak and the barren-ground caribou {R. or of a town. 3. 'dweller among rocks. 1902.) From Chippewa gagansoma. In accordance with this plan these Indians were finallj' induced to settle. 1900) 'pawer' called or 'scratcher. Trumbull 1872) Tiny about 2 m. the hostility of the pagan Iroquois to the quoddy megaVi-p. which gave name to the Cariboo district in British Columbia." and by Norton (Polit. Josselyn has the Quinnipiac form maccarib and the synonym poharw. Free Mus. woodland caribou {Rangifer courage. —Shea.. 1870. n. sions.Can. the name of this animal in these eastern Algonquian dialects. A became the speech Nitinat village of the whole body of this several unsuccess- near Boid. and Carribous. urges. In 1676 they were removed from this place to Sault St. 21a— 6 . in 1668 at Laprairie. w. in describing one of the enemies of the deer. Marashites speaks of the "Micmacs. village.' dialects Related words the Abnaki arouse. somev. village has been removed several times within a limited area. In Micmac x«^^^w' mul-xadeget means 'the caribou is scratching or shovelling." N. According missions established in their territory frustrated the object of the French to attach the (Bull. for the election of a political committee. 40 ^n 1902. incite. (Euvres. or Caribou. D^c. 1878. 166. It sig- Cath. Louis. defined by Bartlett Americanisms. three tribes of New The mission of St. pop.' verb. *At the head of the Lachine rapids. of (Trans.) Caughnawaga {Gd-h?ia-wa"-ge. which to. and the caucus. or quincajou. is used both as a noun and a rived caucuser.hat modified. these 191. (a. Lawrence. 30. famous for its gold mines. in which it is old. Probably the Abnaki or a part of them. The Iroquois made w.' Formerly the word was often spelled cariboo. LawTehce r. Ontario. etc. this 81 No. s. 1845). These converts were usually called ''French Praying Indians" or ''French Mohawks" by the English settlers. —Hewitt). words signify the animal being so Sci. The majoi-ity of the emigrants came from the Oneida and Mohawk." Its Finnish name is ficel-frass. Louis* on St. 28. near Montreal. Carmanah. former to their interests. the Jesuits deter- mined draw their converts from the confederacy and to establish them in a new to from habit of shovelling the snow mission village near the French settlements with its forelegs to find the food covered by snow. Wood. is not clear. c. Assoc. where Caughnawaga and the Jesuit Brunswick.. of 1637 in Margry. Carta- perhaps identical with advises. who adhered to their own customs Caribous. or of a representative district.—Champlain Carragouha. 106.' its and Art. congressional or otherwise.. II.' corrupted by the Germans into vielfrass. other Algonquian en- are kakesojnan." defined as "any public a description taken evidently not from nature.

Cognawagees. in the Great lakes they were accompanied by Caughnawaga hunters. 695. Conwahago. — — quoted by Kauffman. Y..— Johnson (1747) in Cognawago. KachaHist. Cohunnewagoes. Doc. Johnson (1747). Y. 1912 ful efforts to induce the converts to return to by Drake. Vt. 9. Wild. 359. Hist. Penn. Ter.. (1749) in 8. v. Cochftowagoes. Cahnawaga. Hist. 544.. xl. ibid. 69. Coll. W. Iroquois of the Sault. Soc. Hist. v. 1851. in Oregon. goes.515 at St.— N. Penn. B. Doc. 1855. and about 1. nawaga. Hist. B. Ant. Cohnewago. 51. ibid. Stevens (1749) in N. — From (1741). 1878. Y. ibid.. Col.. Seneca MS. Hist. in Ma..— Johnson (1755). vi. A. some distance farther up the St. 1857.. Clarke. 1866. Doc. VI. Y. 282. 1798 in Williams. Lloyd in Jour. Soc. Coll. Cognahwaghah. Hist. 120.. 1851. Caughnawaga. 156. of 620. W.. I. — — — — — Osault au Francois XaSaint vier du Sault. 1855.. 1795. 582. v. Kachnuage. Pap. 553.— Doc. 283. 747. Col. Hist. Hist.. Coughnawagas. 1855. Pap.— Mercer Hist.. iv...— Doc. 1855.. app. in. Soc.. Peace r. Shea.— Doc. 1875. and 1. 629. 1854. 1st s. Regis. Cagnuagas. II. 1778. Com- After the peace of Paris.. Y. — — — 1747. Regis.. way westward from —Johnson (1763) — 1797. Hist. i. Col. Mag. 156.. iv. 'at St. Louis. Coghnawagees.54. 359.. 1855. 1837. 3. Co- W. many of them relapsed into paganism. Conaway Crunas.. 186. Hist. Mith. Louis. Coll. others found their down and the way about the same period mouth of Columbia r. Cath. 1824.. their village on the Sault Louis and 1851.. — — nuage. of 1695 in Peter's. Caynawagas. 32. of Geol. 120. 1st s. N. Cagnawaugen.. H.. Ind. A. 1855 (for fall'). 92. Schuyler (1724) quoted in Hist.— Livingston (1700). (1792) in Cochenawagoes. 55. 359. Am. Hist. Caughnawageys. vii. Y.. 207. Col. H. 129. — — craft. pt. their con- ibid. 4th s. Col. Inst. Trav. Saut Indians. Cagnawauga. 272. Doc. of 1763. 1809.— Doc. 569. N. CohunCohunne- W. Smith (1799) quoted by Drake.. Caknawage. Buchanan. Mercer (1759) quoted by Kauffman. 115. Johnson (1747). 3. 1825.. 582.. B. Y. Sault St.— (1724) in N. of 1698.) 747. 1855. Cochnawagah. 186. Cohnawaga. and there were besides a considerable number from the two towns who were scattered throughout the W. 1855. number of this (1758) quoted was incorporated with the to the Salish.. ibid. DougKanatakwenke.— Freerman (1704). W.. 1856. Hoyt. Anthrop. French trader quoted by — Macauley...— Bouquet (1764) quoted by Kauffman. i. 362. of 1695 in N. Trag. 525.82 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE 1848. Ibid. sec. vii. 1163. Bouquet (1764) quoted. 1832. Jernaistes. Cagnowages. Kachnauage.. where they numbered 200 at the outbreak of the American Revolution. (j. H. In 1884. 1841. of them N.. 509. ibid. 241. ii. 686. 1829. —Goldthwait (1766) 121. Coll. Col.— Golden in Am. Res. of 1694. Col. B.— Golden (1727). Doc. Y. 1753. New Views. principally about Sandusky and Scioto rs. Doc. Doc. 1798. Soc. Hist.— Barton. Schuyler — — N. IV. 1854. 1871. 1841. Tribes. — Vater. — Ka'hnrawage lunuak. Livingston (1700)... Doc. — Barton. 1832. CoghCoghnewa- 1831. KanawarkS. Y. H. 1855. Croghan (1765) quoted in Am. Y.— Hist. Gatschet. Coll. Cochnewakee. Doe.. N. Hawley (1794) in Mass.. — — — — Imlay.— Johnson they still retained their French allegiance and maintained connection with their brethren on the St. pendi. as far as in Alberta. Kagnawage. 1798. Stevens (1749). Cocknawagees. — Schuyler ibid.. Johnson Hall conf. Kachanuge. 141...— Penhallow 57. A. About 1755 a colony from nawayees.. 1836. 270. 272. E. In 1911 there were 2. 1747. Caughnewago. tact with N. Y. as Iroquois. Five Nat. lass.. in 1853. Col. French trader (1764) quoted by School- — Col. 920. 1824. Doe. (1726) in N. Inds. Hist. Doc. Cunnlwagoes. ix. 1816. 1832. nawgoes. (1763) N. Inds. they are commonly known Some of the Indians from St. 304.. and finally renounced them in 1684. Hist.ss. As early as 1820 a considerable tribe —Carver.. Penobscot MS. Soc. ibid. vr. N. 104.. viii. IV. ibid. ibid. Sault Indians.—Lindesay Y. 200. Col. Kannaogau. Coghnavfages. Cochnewagos. — Summ.. in 1763. 1855... Iroquois du Sault. IV. — Keane Am. Bouquet's Exped. Soc. (1759) Kanung6-ono. 194.. G. Doc. 204. ibid. Caughnawanga. Col. 44. Kahnuages.. — Croghan French (1757) in N. — in the confederacy.— Knox 1832. iii.. —Stoddert (1750) Stanford. Col. 689.—Washington (1796) in Am. 285.. the wilder tribes of that region. St.. ibid. Y. Cuoq — — — Lex. 1755.— Stoddert (1750). Kannawagogh..485. iv. (1700). Caughnawaga had a population of 1. 1856. Lawrence. Miss. 1856. — — (1747). La Barre (1684) in N. vi. Coehnawaghas. Trag. Lawrence. St..— Doc. Cohnawagey. 546. 1809. Hist.. Oneida letter Cahg(1776) in N. 1887 (Penobscot name). N. 187. 129. Arct. 1824. in.. 1766.. Johnson (1749). Cahnawaas. took up their residence in the valley of Ohio r. Que. Cagnawagees. 163. Ocean. ibid.. N. Regis reserve. Caughnawaga formed a new settlement at St. Doc. 1st s. 946. Jour. (1700). Y..— Bleeker (1701) in N. Doc. Cahnuaga. 696. while hunewagus. ibid. Penn. Y. 1882. 173. Conawaghrunas. 270. 692. Cohnawahgans. Pap.. app. ix. Peters (1760) in Mass. V. Eastburn Wild.. Mohawks. Lydius (1750) in N.. Canawahrunas. ibid.200 on the St.—Johnson (1750). A local name for two — bodies of Upper Lillooet Indians of Salishan stock near the junction of Bridge and Fraser . by Drake. Cocknewagos... vi.. 1882 (Seneca name). 538. Y. Doc. 67. Regis (in Canada and New York) had about 2. of 1695 in N. 585. St.. X. vii. I.. although Coghnawagoes. Hist. 18. gagoes. 553. ibid.. Pickering (1794) Konuaga. Cagnawaugon.— Schuyler (1689) quoted Cayoosh Creek. 732. As the fur traders pushed their N. ibid. ibid.. — Regis Smith. — undertook these distant wanderings. New Views. Hist. iv. St.. Caughnewaga. Notes. came an important in their from which time Caughnawaga beauxiliary of the French wars with the English and the Iroquois. in 235. ibid.— Doc... Doc.. 291. Kaughnawaugas. left many St. Cagnawage. 319.. In also Thompson quoted by Jefferson. — Gatschet. E..240 on the Caughnawaga res. vi. iv. while St. Cagnewage. 542. Bacqueville de la Potherie. Coll. Cocknawagas. 1854. X.King. ix..075. Col. Louis St. Bk. Col.

1816. 1856. Hist. Ind.. ibid. also called Pashilqua. ibid. Barton.. 281. of 1688. 1614. local council Tour. conf. 1853. 1703. Caljougas. 1855..—La cupying the shores of Cayuga lake. and Neodakheat. Y. Col. in.— Andros 722. S. Jes. 1867.— Doc... Soc. Antiq.— Albany 'the (1700).. Kanadaga. were Ganogeh. iv.— Ibid.. Coiejues.. Gojogouen. 1851. Y. Schuy- Y. 317. 1770. John- son conf. Bacqueville de yogans. — Weiser (1736) quoted by School1794.. Y. 75. Dwight and 1855 (misprint). Voy. Cajoegers. —Maryland 1809. sec. 1853. 300. Cuyahuga. — — BcUin. 1753. 262. vii. Hist. Penn. Doc.. 1st 121.. place where tribe euges. among the other tribes of the confederacy. Ill. Goyogoans. Jes. New Views. Caiougues.. — — — — Loskiel. — Coujougas. GoPotherie.— Marshe VII. E. Ind. 1st s. Goyoguans. Gandaseteigon.. IV. ca.— Maryland treaty (1682). Cajukas. vi. Hist. Bk.. Tribes.—Weiser (1736) conf. Gayagaanha. Denonville Go-yoHist.— Albany conf. 384.. St.. Doc. ibid. app. Doc. 1806. 1856. in i. Cojoges. (1736) quoted by Schoolcraft. Breth. — (1751). 531. 555. Cayounges. Hist. 321. Cajugu. — — iv.. Gayuga. (1765) in N. ibid. Culukguos.. (1690) in N. app. treaty (1682). Livingston (1698) in N. xiii. 313. MS. St. Kawauka. Cayougas. Doc. Others were Chonodote.. 295. Chyugas. (ca. vii. map. H.— locusts were taken out. 4. Cayonges. Cayuges. Population of one of the bodies W.— Bellomont (1698). 55. 22. These are now in Oklahoma. Weiser (1748) quoted by Kauffman. —Ft. 211. 3. — gw6"''.. Ga-u'-gweh. 21a Brit. 1854. oronons. Gachoi. 1858. Caiougos. 1858. 1854. 719..— Drake. Cayoogoes. 126.. vi. Goyoguin. — Chauvignerie Am. Jes. Pap.. Gachpas. near Brantford. 60. (1697). iv. J.. iv.— Doc..— Albany v. and Onnontare. Soc. in. Hist.. Y. ii.— and this was composed of 4 clan phratries. 694. and Geneva MS.— Pouchot (1758) in N.. Penn.— Johnson Hall in 1911. A Ingoldsby (1691). n.— Goldx. quois. 1798. 231. ibid. i. Cayuaga. ibid. 132. Mith. for 1878. La Hontan. for 1670. Goyogouens. ibid... pt. ibid. 719. 285. — Barton.. Gogouins. Ind. 1753. in.) Caeujes. map. Kanadaga and Geneva MS. 27. n. 1779 (misprint). Doc. form became the pattern.. tradition says. thwait (1766) in Mass. Kauffman. A.— Ft. CayCayeugoes. Col. Aff. 1858. Mag. ibid. Col. 1857. of 1792 in Mass. Goiogoiiens.— La Hontan. 279. some went to Ohio. In 1670 they had three vilGoiogouen. Johnson conf.— Rel. where they joined other Iroquois and became known as the Seneca of the Sandusky.. ix. Doc. in 1848. Louis XIV (1699) in N.. I. 372. others are with the Oneida in Wisconsin.... Y. — 548.. deed (1789) Proud. map. Col. app. Y. Cajyugas. Hist. 74. A. — La Hontan (1703) quoted by Vater.. iuges. (1756) in N. CayaCrepy.. Doc. Col.. VII. Soc. Hist. Cayoush. in. Cayugas. 732. Goyoguoain. Doc. er (1699) in N. (1775). Hist. Chuijugers. New Goyogoin.— Doc. Hist. ibid. 16.— Ft. I. Partridge (1754) in Mass. 83 No. Bacqueville de la Potherie. — Ibid. 1798.—Can. Coyougers. Mohawk vocab.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER rs. Tribes. 75. 1755. 1832. 294. iii. Cay1854. s.. 15. 1875. and Onyadeakahyat.. Pap. 1st s.. Doc. map. 1801. of that of the confederation of the Five Nations of the Iroquois. vii. E. GoiogouiRel.— Hunter (1714) in N. PashilPashilqua. V. iv. while the rest were scattered Penhallow (1726) in N. Doc.— Iroquois iv.. 22.100. Ind. Col. Rel. (1685) in N.— La Hontan.. Goyogouans. ibid... 1858. pt. (1744) in Mass. 797. Hist. Hist.— Wessels (1693). Y..— Survey map. iv. Ind.. 1855. Y. VI. Coll.. 370. (1698) in N. (1746) in N. Caygas. (ca. — Zeisberger 332. Gaiuckers. Cajugas. 352.. 1851. — Courcelles 1670) Gooi1858. while the majority. 2d s. of 1676 in N.— Jamison (1697). 1854. 527. ibid. 39. I.. 1854.. in. D6c. New B. Coll. Am. are on the Six Nation res.— Andros (1690) in R. Greenhalgh (1677). Caujuckos. 724. iv. — Penn. Coll. 7. quoted by Schoolcraft.— Map of 1616 in N. N. Col.— Hewitt. 1853. lages Goiogouen was the principal village. Col. Doc. Chingas.—Wessels (1748) Cajouges. 18.. Doc. quoted by Cajuger. of the other. 1854. M.. — Dellius (1698) N. At the beginning of the American Revolution a large part of the tribe removed to Canada and never returned. Hist. N. v. 500. (1737). Cojages. Gacheos. Coll. Oneniote.. Col. Office. Tribes. Kente. Doc.— Doc. pt. Inds. 7.. Hist. 342. Unit.' — Hewitt). ibid.. 1854. Goyogoiiin.. Johnson cbnf. Col. Cayowges. 534. West. Goyagouins. 1882 2lA— 6i .. Ont. Caiyougas. Doc.. 41. 3.. 251. Conestoga treaty (1721) in Proud. Hist. in which the Cayuga had 10 delegates.. ibid. Gachoos. Caijouges. 1703. in 67. (1750) quoted by Conover. York. according to Morgan.. In 1660 they were estimated to number 1. New Voy. Aff. — Pyrlaeus 1750) quoted in 159. 1824. 369. — Boudinot. formerly ocIts Park conf. 347. 1832. Y. for 1891. 1853. — Lotter. 1816. Ibid. i. iv. Chlugas. 1853. 210. 1881. Col. A. (1744). Col. Hist. vni. Y. Miss. 1798. 186. Kayuse Creek. Hist. Soc. iv. iii. 1855. i. Greenhalgh (1677) quoted by Conover. U. Cayagoes.— Leisler (1690). 1. conf.—Albany Cayukers.. for 1671. Y.. Hist. Am. New Views.— Weiser 323. 1881. Coyouges. ogouen. — Barton. Caiouga.—Teller (1698). W. 1856. 190.. 1854. 1855. Goyoguen. 120.. Hist. 1855 Y. v. 178. 1855. VI. ibid. app.— Can. Hydr. N. — — auge. i. ca.. Penn. ibid. 1st s..—Guy Caynga. B. 282..— Vetch (1719) in N. Col. ca. 175 are with the Iroquois still in New York. Cayuga of the {Kwehio'gwe"'. Their clans were those common to the Irotheir lands in New ibid. numbering 1. (German form). 1700 in Hist. Caiuges. ca. ibid.— Map. Rec.. for 1911. — — — 1703.. Bellomont Cayauga.. 30. Hist. la 3. Col. Y.. in. 339. iv.. (1756) Doc. 563. Ind. 3. 1853. '798. 1853. Tiohero. 251. 1884. 1855. iv. B. Y.quia.500. Cahugas. Col. 1856. was their chief Their other villages village in modern times. Col. 99.— Livingston cuges. 698. Hist. Cajougas.. ibid.. Gajuquas. B. ibid. Am. app. 1854. 1755. 1882. Gewauga. and in 1778. (1737). 1854. Doc.— Dongan (1688) in N.. (j. (1788) in Cayogas. Cajyougas. ix. New Voy. 103.-^Albany conf. 189. E. (1756). ibid. Cayouges. Col. of the modern period. League Iroq. Doc. 1851. Hist.. Cayougues. Hist. 532. Soc. Gajuka. — Morgan. 3.Can. craft. 1798. map. Ca- index.063. Cayhuga. conf. of 1684. ibid. — Margry. 1816.. Col.Y. Gakaos. 650. in. Star in the Views. Soon after the Revolution these latter sold Cayungas. — Phelps deed Am.. Coll. 1856. Y.— Vaillant (1688). Iroquoian confederation. I. Ill. H. Aff. X. given by Morgan. 7.

death.) Ko-yo-konk-ha-ka. Cayuga MS.) Cements. A. An Indian pony. for 1635. (1721) in Ma. 35. Qulquogas. vocab.. which are the expression of some phase of religious emotion. II. — — D6c. 2d s. Soc. Animal cement was obtained by the Yokuts of California by boiling the joints of various animals and combining the product with pitch (Powers. council name. Macauley. ii... 504. ii. c. 1882 ('big pipes': Seneca ceremonial name). 185. Rel. Hist.. Hewitt. A.. II. 1881 — — head of animals until it was softened into glue. B. — — — — nons. Rel. (French name). Gatschet. vegetal. There are ceremonies of less importance that are connected with the practices of medicine-men or are the property of cult societies. which may readily be melted at the fire and applied to various uses. of New Disc.. OuioenrhoJes. 1882 (a Mohawk name). Kuenyugu-haka. Greenhalgh (1677) in N. Jes. 1. Morgan. Antiq. E. 34. 93. 373. ni. 3. vocab. Such glue-sticks formed a part of the equipment of the bow-and-arrow maker. Kanawa. nons. 1879 1656. Y. A. 558.. Sanonawantowane. Y. 1886). 220. Gatschet. Canada and the n. for 1657. Homann Heirs' map. 1829. Y. Onionenhron1877.. Jefferys. — Indians are regarded as ceremonies. B.. Ceremonies may be divided into those in which the whole tribe participates and those which are the exclusive property of a society. A. 1698. ibid. Seneca MS.. were bi'ed by the Cayuse. Ibid. war.. The Indians used cements of and mineral origin. w. Gwe-u-gweh-o-no'. iv. 1761. land': — — — Ibid.— La Barre Petuneurs. ii.... Cont. for 1640. Seneca MS. Hewitt. 18. Gwaugueh. Quiuquuhs. and the horn arrow-straighteners of the S. Jes. for — — Oiougovenes. 1653 (misprint). B. Tribes of Cal. xiii. f.. An examination of these rites. Y. Kayowgaws. 1858. Oueyugwehaughga. tribes are often filled with resin. Hewitt. Oiogouan... Ibid. 1st 146. B. W. baskets etc. Rel. Gatschet. Oulouenronnons. Ceremony. Rel. N. as they marriage. E. 1858. Oiogouanronnon. and. La Salle (1679) in Margry. 1884 (another Cayuga name. 1881. Jes. — — — — . 1723. for 1647. Tuscarora MS. Oniouenhronon. employed by northern tribes for pitching the seams of bark canoes. 176. 1912 (Mohawk name). are successively performed. The horses. Soon-noo-daugh-we-no-wenda. or of an individual. The Hupa boiled the gland of the lower jaw and nose of the sturgeon and dried the products in balls (Ray in Smithson. generally a secret one.. Ibid.. such as chiefs or medicine-men. Rel. N.. Rel. League Iroq.. Shoneanawetowah. 1882 (Tuscarora name). (Mohawk name). map. puberty. 1829. Hist. after the Indians had come into contact with the whites. Coll.. S'ho-ti-non-n5-wa— t6'-n3.. 51 ('people of the tops of deer horns boiled to a jelly the Virginia Indians made glue that would not dissolve in cold water. B. Col. Shawnee MS.) League Iroq. Col. 1809. 1875. and sometimes combined two of these or added mineral substances for colouring. Practically all ceremonies of extended duration contain many rites in common.. Macauley. Oiogouenronnon. 1858. such as the rites which pertain to etc. and from a merely local use the word has attained an extended currency in w. 1851. 1882 (Seneca name). Wax and albumen from eggs had a limited use.. Dom. and chief among these was the exudation from coniferous trees. B. Honosuguaxtu-wane. Macauley. Fr. Oiogouin. Sometimes one end of the hearth of the fire-drill bears a mass of resin. for Oiogoenhronnons. X. 1756. Ko-'se-a-te'-nyo". birth. 252. (w. Mohawk MS. 1657.. Arizona and California. to the germination or ripening of a crop. Shononowendos. 185. The Plains tribes boiled the skin Gatschet. among the Plains tribes. 117. Kei-u- — — — gues.. Barcia. Capt.) (misprint). 75. 330. Kayugueono". Ibid 29. 423. Coursey (1682) in N. Morgan. 1879 (Shawnee name). 244. pt. 20. Guigouins. 1858 (misprint)... A.s. D6c. which they dried in masses on sticks. Mohawk MS. for D6c. (1683) in Margry.— La Barre (1683) in Margry. 332. E. which was used by the Indians of s.. I.. E. E. A. The only mineral cement known to the tribes was bitumen. 1877. E. 401 in Mas. reveals the fact Smith states that with sinew of deer and the . Gatschet. John but in the arbitrarily restricted sense in which the term is here used a ceremony is understood to be a religious performance of at least one day's duration. of the mucky own name). A.—Dudley VIII.— Jes. 1829. as a convenient way to carry this substance. animal. Doc. and the Eskimo used blood mixed with soot. or to the most important food supply. Pacific states..84 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. Kuyiiku-haga. 225. from the name a Waiilatpuan tribe. 1853 (^ueyugwe. 1877). i. — — — — drama which has an Ceremonies spring from many diverse tendencies. Vegetal cements were numerous. Quingoes. The chief use of animal cement was in the manufacture of bows and arrows. Ojongoveres. 1864. Rel. 15. Many features of the culture of the North American ultimate object. Rep. Hist. A.. 229. (a. Gatschet in Am. 46.. Ensayo. from Tuscarora informant. Y. A ceremony is the performance in a prescribed order of a series of formal acts often constituting a Soc. of Cayuse. Coll. Oyogouins. — — — Oiogoen. Hist. 1858. Stone. Doc. Jes.ss. Hennepin. These ceremonies generally refer to one or the other of the solstices.. in joining the stems of certain kinds of pipes. 1819. Life Edwards (1751) — — of Brant. N. Oiogouen. 1851 ('great pipe': council name). 1886 ('they are great pipes': So-nus'-ho-gwa-to-war.. 1858. B. H. or of a group of men of special rank.. E. Orongouens. Jes. 185.

take place in the open but which are undertaken The time of the performance of ceremonies Some are held annually. in the smoke of the incense. as a rule. and the uninitiated may not accompany them. generally represents a minor deity. as greatly subordinated to the the Hopi. and which is generally indicated in such a manner that the public may not mistake it. thus arrayed.HAXDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER that they follow one order. the prayer has been breathed. of which may consist of a bufTalo skuU. or chamber. The most prominent feature is the dance. predominates among Pawnee. no special Some are to take place. upon which. The remaining performances include such rites as smoking. certain tabus are enforced. or some object of a special ceremonial nature. or within the secret lodge of do the events or episodes of the ritual. Following the dance. etc. preceded or followed of prayers. 21a another in prescribed ure. Either within this enclos- held during certain seasons. of The most promis feature the altar a palladium. thurification. Early in point of time in the secret rites is the procession of the priests for objects the earth or the heavens. similar in origin to the rite of smoking. such are the solstitial or tion of the site of the public performance. procession of priests is be used for paraphernalia or This generally symbolic. by a sacrifice of food. or some other object or of raw material to be used in the preparation an altar. The rites of the public performance may be considered The secret rites as the actual play or drama. or seasonal provision for the erection of a bower or lodge within which it is necessarily which made. ceremonies. women semi-public performances. first. sweatlodge purification. the most common by the priests exclusively or by all those taking part in the ceremony. Falling within this semi-public period is often a contest. of the year. the winner being favoured by the gods or receiving some tangible object which possesses magic potency. are almost invariably performed in a specially constructed lodge. of vegetation. is by priests exclusively. drama. the secret rites being proprietary. It often symbolizes. of the rainbow. The costume worn in public is often supplemented with paint upon the body. in which the smoke of some sweet-smelling herb is offered direct to the deity. or some god or the home inent of a god or the gods. which may be either fraternal or direct offerings in the nature of secret a sacrifice to the gods. that they may be divided into secret and public. Pueblos and of the Plains tribes (see among which it is always symbolic.. preparation. and. among others. and the manufacture or redecoration of ceremonial masks and garments to be worn during the public performance. within which it is supposed to reside or which is typical or symbolic of the spirit or deitj'. as 85 No. the singing of traditional songs. supposed efficacious nature. an ear of corn. either and offerings of prayer. The public performance is usually ushered in by a stately procession of priests. in the ritual. and its explanation must generally be sought the Altars). is of a dignified and stately nature. but . is or that part of the ceremony especially the case with the This ceremonies of some tribes. Such is the prepara- at stated periods. the dancers being appropriately costumed and otherwise adorned. is generally a ceremonial removal of the costume. or he places himself. sacrifice of food. in an attitude of defiance to the deity and thus opposes his magic power to that of the supernatural. This may be followed by an act of self-inflicted torture. or by masks over the face. is generally found a recognition in one form or another of the gods of the four or six world -quarters. room. The dancer. or into which. or biennially. however. During the entire ceremony. which. whereupon the dancers undergo a purification ritfe. an altar is may be erected. otherwise in the public performance. or the priest bathes his body. by virtue of the character of his costume. a flint knife. varies. as the it is spoken or sung. occupying the mcjor part of the ceremony. often in the form of a powerful emetic. into which none but the priests or initiated may enter. generally a foot race. often forms an intrinsic part of the public performance. In enumerating the rites of the ceremonies it may be noted. also. as a whole. On the altar. which may vary in duration from a few minutes to several days. as a rule. rites of smoking. which. The which ritual. a ceremonial feast. or lodge. of the lightning. the offering which to may the direct appeal be in the form of a gods or through the instrumentality of material prayer offerings. as a rule. Occupying in point of time a period between the exclusively secret performances and the public presentation of the tain drama may be which cer- being a prohibition of the presence of during menstruation. which may be either secret or or to public.

they are. A. includes those connected with in the planting Among tacular the Plains tribes the most specis and reaping of of the maize. and of the . others among the . In the Sun dance of all tribes are found certain common features. or the first This varied from an annual performance. During the public performance the dancers are symbolically painted and otherwise so adorned that their evolutions are supposed to lead to a distinct While the result the production of rain. The second group of ceremonies are those performed by cult societies. its own paraphernalia. to exorcise the spirit which possesses him and him from often distinct gradations in rank. primarily. who is the when he to restore has returned in a state of ecstasy. or. These are generally held in winter and are of short duration. the remainder consisting largely of rings of cedar bark (see Bark) which constitute the badges of the ceremony. Membership into acquired by marriage or through is war.86 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. coast. have societies and winter ceremonies similar to those of the Kwakiutl. generally four or more in number. and are either ceremonies in which one or more meiiicinemen perform for the benefit of the sick. from whom they are probably mainly derived. Sun dance varies from tribe to tribe. such are the ceremonies of the medicine-men. which. cere- Among the best known of these are such as prevail over a large portion of North America. at which time the or of chiefs or lesser individuals it and the characteristic dance altai from 1 to 4 days. and Siksika. predominates. game the hunting season. not only in its symbolism but also in many important details. nected with the gift be noted. The last group of Plains ceremonies some of the better-defined areas. and then. to a presentation only as the direct result of a vow. while the which belongs exwhich there are several gradations of rank. substantially made of wood. of is spying out the world. r. whenever occasion may demand. is The who may have pledged perform the ceremony. more often. in which all the medicine-men of the tribe join in a performance to make public demonstration of magic power through sleightof-hand. Pacific s. ceremonies of from 1 to 4 days' duration abound. the ceremonial erection which the centre pole the most prominent feature. the erection who make' an opportunity to display personal wealth. A fourth group comprises those of the medicine-men. A few characteristic ceremonies may be considered for taken a vow to Others are held at usually the acquisition and perpetuation of magic power. as among the Ponca and some other Siouan tribes. although monies. generally secret." the performance of these ceremonies special paraphernalia are worn in which the mask. their special character depends on the state of culture of the people by which they are performed. 1912 basis are dependent on the will of an individual or the Buffalo. any season. strictly speaking. are not found. procession of priests in of search of an object generally symbolic of the great lodge. coming of life. as among the Cheyenne. In the ceremonies of the cult societies masks are worn. his holy madness. and its ritual generally recounts the origin or the rebirth of mankind. of Among the Eskimo extended ceremonies. Arapaho have a clusively to the society These objects During are attained by songs and dances.. the manufacture of objects to be used on the public altar. women. these are often spoken of as dances. extending from Columbia to Alaska. cult societies replace the gentile organization lasting which prevails the society is in summer. it seems primarily to have been a rain ceremony. The tribes to the n. The mem- bership is generally exclusively male. They are rather to be characterized as dances or festivals. conof food for the sustenance it may Arapaho. was derived from the animal after which the society takes its name and from which it is supposed to have originated. the On the N. The object of the winter ceremony "to bring back the youth who is supposed to — stay with the supernatural being protector of his society. the Bear and the Elk. Each society has its special esoteric songs. The third group comprises the performances of cult societies in which the warrior element does not predominate. The most important of these are the Feasts to the Dead. or the first killing ceremony the Sun dance. Those of the Kwakiutl of this region are held in winter. These are performances of cult societies. hence there are at least as many kinds of ceremonies as there are phases of culture in North America. of the fish — all. such as the secret tipi or tipis of preparation. although a limited number of maidens are admitted into the societies of the Cheyenne. Inasmuch as ceremonies form intrinsic features and may be regarded as only phases of culture.

m. and the performances of the medicine-men. Ex e ni nuth. representing supernatural or superhuman beings. Cha-atl..-Hill-Tout in Rep. Brit. Hence the greatest number of extended and complicated ceremonies are formed among the Pueblo people of the S. not having been occupied before for fear of the Lekwiltok. 1859 (probably the same. This seems to have — Hutchins (1764) quoted by Schoolcraft.Boas. 1901. Lond. Ind. 293. may be discovered only by taking into universal the Assiniboin. Kow-welth. may in therefore be noted that the need for them superintendency. Can. Col. A Nootka tribe on Ououkinsh and Nasparti inlets. it Brit. in comS. As a ceremony of any extended duration makes great demands upon the tribe.. A. Chakkai.. Brit. consideration human lines tendencies 1843. highly developed and extended ones are not possible Chak ('eagle'). 474... —Hill-Tout in Jour.. of the Cont. on the N. Tcakqal. 1882... W. app. Chaahl (Tc'd'al). Tribes. Col. Grant in Jour. 21a 87 Alaskan Eskimo are the Asking festival.— — — Nespods. Tribes. in which the strongest sj'stem of government is found.. Acous is their principal town. 1868. 488. Naspatl.. and having 130 warriors.. Teak!. Col. 104 in 1881. Ind. A. ibid. Chalkunts. — Chatelech ('outside water'). Soc. accordance with the character of their life.— Can. A Squawmish village community 1900. 1855 in — Kane. Lond... Kaw-welth. Am.. 1857. (g. 234. 21. 1880. S. 168b. but many more are said to have existed before a great fire which destroyed a large part of the town. Can.—Smith been the Kow-welth of John Wark. tribe Chala. w. Brit. 1890. possibly a Gyeksem gens of the Kwakiutl. Tca'lkunts. and pre-supposes law and order. which develop along certain according It Gens des Montagnes. It was occupied by a family same name who afterward moved to Alaska and settled at Howkan.. 1904. Life. coast Charlotte ids. To'e'k'tlisath.. Naspatte. are worn.— Kane. B. 281. 1853. A. the Bladder feast. in N.. Inst.. S. misprint from Wark. Rep. — Checkleslt... Col. Roy. AiT.. 308.. V. 'large-cut-inbay people'). Queen Chalas. from Wark's table). 1855 (probably the same. 489. Haida. 1864. 158. Col. Col. on the E. Ind. Chethl'. Cont. A name given by the northern Tlingit to one of the two phratries into which they are divided.— Hill-Tout 1900. In later times the people moved to New Gold Harbour.. and in the village communities of the N. Col. Lawrence in connection with the Abnaki. Man. Jacob in Jour. AfT. Anthrop. 1836^1). Cex-e-ni-nuth. Soc. Q. Feb. Dawson. Naspatle. Ind. A Squawmish village munity on Gambler id.— Dall. 553. In some of the festivals wooden masks. (from qe. ids. N. 1890). Wand. As a permanent settlement dates only from Chaahl (Tda'al). Geol. TcatEletc.. A former Haida town on the E. Ind. 1848. Queen Charlotte Bishop Durien's time {ca.. 1859. 337. Brit. Cexeninuth. Col. Alaska.) 414. coast of North id.. 1900. 1870. 280.— Swanton. Brit. 1897. numbering 61 in 1911. Ind. and thence into Skidegate— Swanton. who assigned to it 35 houses with 561 inhabitants in 1836-41. Brit. Nat. and Malecite.. Chahthulelpil.. N. 1905.HANDBOOK OF lyDEiKS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. Pacific coast. d. Anthrop. 474. kisaht.— Swanton. 1904. Ethnol. areas Chaicclesaht {To'e'k'tlisath. Sav. A of former Haida town mentioned by Hutchins in 1764 as living on the St. coast of Vancouver id. among the Indians of North America varied pop. Tribes. 6th Rep. a. As monies stated at the outset. Geog. end of Maude id. xi. app. field notes. A Moresby id.—Hill-Tout Rep. among the Eskimo or the tribes of California. Chay- Can. . Second only in importance to the ceremonies of these two areas are those which are found among the tribes of the Plains among which ceremonies abound. Chants on Burrard A Squawmish inlet. Surv. — Maximilian. the root of cere- Chabin of 'mountain'). 301. Chaic-cles-aht. Scouler (1846) in Jour.— Schoolcraft.— Schoolcraft. — Ibid... Charlotte Ids. A division 194. A tribe or division about Queen Charlotte sd. 1850. Aff. side of Howe sd.— Sproat. Latham. to historical or geographical environment. on the E. The present town of the Seechelt Indians on Trail bay. 258. Brit. A. A body Trav.. Soc. Hist. in village community 475. w.— Can. v. — i.. at the neck of Seechelt penin. old Victoria of Salish of the Brit. A. Wand. A.. 1905. Brit. Micmac. (misspelt). Thus it is found that in those tribes or in those extended forms abound where there exists a sessile population or a strong form of tribal government. Brit. ^. Tcants. Old people recall the names of 28 houses. (1785). Haida. W. Chatas. Tribea. Am. A..

. Tribes. Saells. Victoria. A Squawmish munity at Seymour cr. so named from an island in the upper expansion of Masset inlet. Rep. Vancouver id. 12th Rep. Tce'was. Brit. Cheshish. Chichula. Cont.-Can. A Squawmish village community on Burrard inlet. S.—Can. Brit. ii. A. pop.. situated back of Bligh id. of Naikun or Rose spit. side of A Squawmish Col. 4. living along the middle course of Harrison r. Col. Surv. in pt. II. end Chets (Tcels). A division the Toquart.. N. Quesnelle Brit. a a Chekoalch. — Col. S. The principal village of the 1902... Notes on W. Mus... A village of the Ntlakyapamuk..'). Victoria. Che-ahm. {Tcets-gitAnd'-i. Mouth. 1892. 16 in 1897. 1891. 1905. 1890. Brit. Brit. for Brit. 11. Pop. bay. 474. Soc. the last time it was separately enumerated. of nis. — Morice in Quesnel. Chetsgitunai Ind.. Roy. 1872. Ind.. map. Col. (Teals xa'da-i.. Brit. Chemainis. 1900' Rep.—Can. Cont. for 1891. Col. S. Aff. of Songish at Becher Vancouver id. Cheatn. A. but evidently containing representatives of other tribes as well. 32. 1895. Tceko'altc— Hill-Tout 1900. Chenachaath of (Tc'e'natc'aath). A Naskotin village of on r..— Can. Haida. Chechelmen. 454. Chichkitone. on Fraser r.— Aff.. ('spotted frog'). in village com474. Nat. 5. at the Brit.— Swanton. 454. A. A. for 1911. Col. Aff. A when the name Chawack. 1900.. Ind. Chehalis..—Brit. — — Hist. — Harrison A 124. Brit. W. A Squawmish inlet. Brit. for 1880. Ind. last appears. Haida. Brit. in Haida family belonging to the Kaigani group. A. Brit.. 12th Rep. Chehalis and Koalekt were their (of Cheuek. 'the Stustas from Low-tide r.. S. A. A.. munity on Burrard 1900. Ibid. in Brit. Brit. — Boas. 2. a Nootka tribe. D^n^s. 1912 Chats-hadai people'). Quesnel Cheatn. sec..— Swanton.. Ind. Can.. Chewas. 1901. 281. 1902. S.. s. side of Fraser r. Pop. 158. Haida family of the Eagle clan. Aff. Rep. Brit. A body of Salish under Wil- liams Lake agency. 1884. Victoria.— Chegwalis Abnaki. Cont. 'Gituns of Cheerno. — Can. Col. Chataway. X. It perhaps Pop. village inlet. {SlsEe'lis). — Morice. Can. pt. in Proc. Aff. 264. 32 in includes the Kekayaken gens. Haida. S. Chehales. A subdivision of the Stustas. 275. Can. The creek where they camped and which gave them the name is on the coast a short distance s. 66. a Cowichan tribe of lower ChiUiwak r. Ethnol. Soc. map. —Tolmie and Dawson.— — Chechilkok. Col. at the mouth of Tsooskahli. Col. Col. N. Ind. A. Victoria. W. Chehalis Brit. 317. 1872. for 1884. map. 1894. Brit. — Can. 78.. Brit.. Cheerno.— Hill-Tout Rep. Chawagis-stustae {Tcawd'gis slAsld'-i. 1911.. 18 in 1911. Ind. 23. Brit. map.— Hill-Tout Rep.. A town said to belong to the Pilalt. A. Ibid. mouth 24. coast the E. Seymour Creek. 276. Brit. Tce'lam. 1901. Can.— Boas.. A Haida town. A.. They formed one group with the Widjagitunai. — Brit. Aff. Aff. TcS'tawe. .— Swanton. Tcentslthal'a. Hill-Tout in Rep. Col. map. 1899 (the village). 6th Rep.. 308. StsEe'Hs. Chetawe. Roy. on an island at the mouth of Tsooskahli.. A.171 in TcEue'q. They were probably named from camp- ing place. Surv. 1902. on Ethnol. 169. Brit. Ind. Vocabs. map. Brit. 1879 (probably the same). S. 160. Victoria. Trans.— Boas in tribes Can. 1872. 230. pop. 9 in 1891..'). Col. above Yale.. villages. where they once lived. ii. 1900. ChemaChemainus. Tca'tua. N.. Col. Chatowe. Tche-a-nook. 1905. A Cowichan settlement on Vancouver id.— Swanton. a great Haida family of the Eagle clan. 1905.— Brit.— Hill-Tout Rep. Aff. A. 23. Ind. Col. Haida. A. A Cowichan tribe Tribes Can. Cheewack. Tohlka-gitunai. Chets id. on the E. presumably on the bay and river of the same name. 1878. 1900.83 D?JPARrME]\T OF MARINE AXn FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. 1872. in village on the w.. Can.. Chentsithala. TsiQua'gls stastaai'. map. W.— Boas — in Muchalat. A body of E. Aff. Tcetce'lmen. formerly occupied by the Chets-gitunai and Djushade. 1893. A. S. — Howe sd. Fraser r. Burrard Col. Am. Ind.. 1905. Nootka sd. Boas in Rep. 1899. village of the Ntlakyapamuk above Lytton. ir. Graham id. 'Teats river A subdivision so of the Koetas. Masset inlet. 1872. 251. Col. Tcetcilqok. Aff. Teit in Mem. 158. 1899. pop. Cont. 475.— Can. Can. sec. tribe or village) 1. 109. Tsets gyit'inai'. 474. A gens of the Afterward they moved to the mouth of Masset inlet. A.— Hill-Tout Ind. pt. Col. Can.. A. Cheewack. A. 272. 100 in Brit. A... and Djushade. about 16J/^ m. Aff. 1898. comBrit... 1898. Col. Col.

u. John band of Montagnais was sometimes referred to (Jes. de I'Am^r. the tribe. vi. rites. 658.— Can. Col. — La Galissoniere 183. Tcitcile'Ek. pt.— Can. Col. com- Brit. 4. Tzeach- ten. 1901. Tcia'qamic— Boas MS. The clan or gens embraces several such chieftaincies. perform grades of chiefs are found. Checoutimi. Chegoutimis. 1753. Col.— Ibid. Hist. La Chesnaye (1697) in Margry.S. A£f. with several kinds of officers and varying grades of councils of diverse but inter- II. Among the North American chief may be generally defined as wholly absent may the simplest type of chieftaincy be found. chosen for personal merit. S. 1661. Chicontami. — Lords Trade 1764) in Chekoutimiens. (misprint) 635. 21a lyP INDIAyS OF CANADA 89 village community on a creek of the same name. The clan or gens.). 1856 Chicoutime. Only Chiefs. and generally trading with the English on Hudson bay. II. B. Chibaouinani. and traditions.) diverse jurisdiction. TcIa'ktE'l. J. The wandering band of men with their women and children contains the simplest type of chieftaincy found among the American Indians.). n. Rel. Am. La Cloche. Rel. in (1748) in N.. and has a more highly developed definite Chichigoue (seemingly cognate with Chippewa shishikuoe. 43 in 1904.. stituted a class of chiefs whose upon . map. 'passage- — W.— Johnson (1764) in N. stages of social progress lay between the small — — band under a single chief and the intricate permanent confederation of highly organized tribes. and the multiplicity and diversity of duties and related jurisdictions. hence various kinds and There were in certain communities.) Chichigoue. ibid. Checoutimiens. With the advance in political powers and functions were multiplied and diversified. La Potherie. Rel. 1856. 1784. Brit.— Jes. A. The name of a locality. women. 1858. 'rattlesnake. 160. 1885. Doc. Hist.. for such a group has no permanently fixed territorial limits. Many but they were evidently Algonquian. Hist. Y.A. and the confederation present more complex forms of social and political organization. political organization functions required different grades of officers them. and no definite social and political relations exist between it and any other body of persons. A Squawmish and to conserve their customs. E. A tribe mentioned by La Chesnaye as living n. B.naning. of The stituted several clans or gentes and the the of lake Superior in 1697.— Hill-Tout in Rep. 1900. 1887. and religion. civil chiefs and subchiefs. internal pohtical structure tribe is with con- — land boundaries. of Manitoulin' id. Montagnais of Lake St. 1902. 1886. Chicoutimi. These several grades of chiefs bear distinctive titles. Chiaktel. who usually owes 1661. i. usually to its — — 18. To reward the merit statesmanship Iroquois office. 49. and executive powers delegated to him in accordance with custom for the conservation and promotion of the common weal. Can. Jes. 1902.. Y. Doc. Chicoutimi.' W. Doc.. 1900. lake Huron. Chichigoueks. not his to the chief. ( 1755. A. 14. Brit... constituents. Surv. C. Chibaouinani way. . Both in the lowest and the highest form of government the chiefs are the creatures of law.. I. 474. vii. 1858. Col. and permanent and temporary war chiefs. D6c. Jefferys. 1858. 475. J. No.. Tcia'kamic— Hill-Tout in Rep.. X. 185. A. French Dom. John numbered 583 and most of them resided on a reservation at Pointe Bleue. immunities. and obligations. A Chilliwak village in s. The title to the dignity — belongs to the community. of his chieftaincy. 7. He exercises legislative. 1761. They cannot be identified with any known tribe. (j. A. The French formerly had a mission of the same name on the right In 1911 the Monbank of the Saguenay. Hist. among and the Iroquois. Johnson (1764) — La Tour. on Cloche id. Rep. Ind. by which the Lake St. different Indian political Among social communities the varied and structure greatly. but in nomination to the suffrages of his female most communities he is installed by some authority higher than that of .HA\DBOOK SESSIONAL PAPER Chiakamish. vii. 1661. Ind. Quebec.. 1884. M. — N. where agriculture is Where as the civil structure is permanent personal in- there exist permanent military chieftainships. Ibid. pop. John. Y.. Brit.. expressed in welldefined customs.. St. Aff. map. Tyeachten. indicative of their to. (j. judicative. confederation of several tribes. A Squawmish village munity on Burrard inlet. Chixoutimi. 664. A La known as former Missisauga village. Chichilek.— Bellin. the head of ship navigation of Saguenay r. also {Shibd.— Hill-Tout in Ethnol...— Ibid. as the Iroquois and Creeks. a tributary of Skwamish r. Col. 13. tagnais of L. pt. traditions. 1858).. m. Cloche. Indians a a political officer whose distinctive functions are to execute the ascertained wiU of a definite group of persons united by the possession of a common territory or range and of certain exclusive rights. 13. 224. Chekoutimis.

and bestowed upon them the fullest expression of affection and solicitude. W. in fact. The Mexico." In the Creek as in the case of Powhatan. Canada. although the child is in fact the bond of family life under a system which allowed polygamy and easy separation. even in the in- simplest character the authority of the chiefs seems to have been chiefly non-heredita^}^ Any ambitious and courageous warrior could apparently. Life Chiefs (j.) of when the tribe or confederation was powerful and important. Sec. A Municipal system may also be adopted by the bands whenever the Governor(D. Canada. stitutes a tribe. was concurrent with that of the chiefs. The subject of Indian child has been but very lightly treated by ethnologists. Cap. federal Chikauach.. ostra- Among the Plains the chieftaincy They could not be deposed. in anticipation of the notably those of the new arrival the of Indian Affairs.au'atc. first chief of the Onondaga federal roll acted as the chairman of the federal council. the highest traits of Indian character. The chieftainship was usually hereditary in certain families of the community. Councillors and head or until their removal men now living may was due largely to the recognition and the domination of certain religious beliefs and considerations. They were called "the solitary pine trees. n. 'foot cloth'). Elections may be set aside by the Governor-in-Council for cause and Chiefs and Councillors may be deposed by the same authority on the ground immorahty."and were installed in confederations. more than one Chief and 15 Councillors and the latter may be in the proportion of two for every two hundred Indians. Col. A s. in which each retained part of its original freedom and delegated certain social and political powers and jurisdiction to the united community. — *By the terms of the Indian Act. was evolved an assembly of representatives of the united bands in a tribal council having Frye (1760) 115. bay. 17. and official titles were generally traced through the mother. the rule of the chiefs at Note.. Scott. in strict accordance with custom. R. make himself a chief by the acquisition of suitable property and through his own force of character. Both parents alike were entirely devoted to their children. 94. Mass. strongest The all relation of parent to child brings out a definite jurisdiction. Communities are formed on the basis of a union of interests and obligations. MS. From were organized In the council This latter provision was made to obviate a large representation and avoid a change in the established roll of chiefs. whose jurisdiction though subordinate. — Boas Rep. there was. for the governing power of the confederation was lodged in the council. 1912. The Act also provides for the election of Chiefs and Councillors is term of three years. although in some communities any person by virtue but of social castes of the acquisition of wealth could proclaim continue to hold rank until death or resignation by the Governor-inCouncil for dishonesty. 1st oyer the other chiefs ended. intemperance or Chief and Councillors may make rules and regulations under the 98th clause of the Act for the government of the Band.. By the union of several rudimentary communities for mutual aid and protection. the most complex aboriginal government n. plains. With this. incompetency. "king" or "emperor. Tribes Can. if they committed crimes rendering of them unworthy of giving counsel. intemperance or incompetency. Where the civil organization was was most nearly despotic. confederation and of in that of the Iroquois. some stances where the civil structure was complex as among the Natchez. no head chief. Soc. Child life life. 1912 the death of the holder. Early writers usually called the chief who acted as the chairman of the federal council the "head chief" and somehimself a chief. Hist. property.S. The federal council was composed of the federal chiefs of the several component tribes. immorality... the tribal council consisted of the federal chiefs and subchiefs of the tribe. . 1890. Chignecto (from sigunikt.. on N. C. in-Council deems it advisable.) 81. Tcik. s. remained vacant. A Songish band at McNeill id. dishonesty. No Band for a allowed Descent of blood. and by virtue of his office he called the federal council together. Coll. times. To these chiefs were sometimes added subchiefs. b. all pre-eminence Micmac X. end of Vancouver in 6th Brit. 1809. The enlarged community con- 'Memorandum from Dept. of and times became this in a measure tyrannical. h. village in in Nova Scotia in 1760. Among some tribes. of the Iroquois had no voice or recognition.90 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE tribes v. the same manner as the others. A. but merely cized. There were therefore several confederation the subchiefs tribes grades of councils constituted.

With the Powhatan of Virginia. inclining to dolls and "playing girls house. Among the Choctaw. is made either by the grandmother or by some woman noted in the There were tribe for her superior e. On the other hand. with the result that infant mortality is exceedingly high in almost every tribe. and are rather feared. weaving. 21a prepares is the to wooden frame its of the it power. mothers' companions and all The :]( name :f. Catawba. The first tion of the labret are also celebrated tribes practising such customs. babe. many well-marked vi^rieties of cradle. The child is kept is in its cradle usually only during a journey or while being carried about. ashes or sacred meal are rubbed on the newborn longer. and perform their work with the instinct of little the mother is put under regular instruction for their later responsibilities. mythologic thus characters are The like be named soon after birth. and not. and hunt-thebutton games are all favourites. One cradle was used for bones were still soft. but only a small boys passed through an initiation ordeal at an early age. among the In many or same family. Among the Hopi. and wherever it is possible nearly half the time in warm weather is spent in the water. except in extreme weather. rolls commonly supAt home it and marksmanship. shinny. this child name. particularly puppies. :fe :}. who may have been about 10 years of age at the time. The body of the cradle. upon their backs of like babies. sometimes as with the Zuni. and in rare cases much With the affection of the mother. or girl grows significance. by conits fringes were formerly regarded as abnorkilled. with ornamentation of bead or quill design. and turned over to another matron to nurse until the mother's successive infants in the health is restored. They are very fond of pets. differing with the tribe. or not for a year or more after. even for 2 years or more. up for another of more important child . Formerly. etc. from their fathers in hunting. there was used a special attachment which. is often :}: are initiated at an early period into arts of the stowed by the grandparent. Among is the Plains tribes the ceremonial boring of the ears for the insertion of pendants often made the occasion of a more or less public celebration. With some Oregon and other coast cradle which is be portable bed until able to walk. and other former tribes of the Southern states. the mothers. figurines according to the tribe and climate. the declared purpose being to take away the memory of childish things so that they should wake up as men. being discarded as the boy be- sacred traditions in tangible form. many in children being born. if we can believe the old chroniclers.. so that even the first degree of the warrior society and former times the tribal population remained almost stationary. are their impressing the the first teeth. is tinued pressure upon the forehead while the observed with a quiet family tatooing and the first inser- produced the so-called "flat-head. child may distributed as dolls to the children at cere- monial Girls performances." while the boys turn to bows.xpertness. If. as posed. riding. There are instances of deformed well authenticated children being put to death at birth. as young as 5 years (see Ordeals). and whatever duties. were actually rendered unconscious.HAyOBOOK OF lyOIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER father 91 No. while the investment of the boy with the breechcloth at the age of 9 or 10 years rejoicing. or boating ." esteemed with these tribes a point of beauty. no clothing was worn during waking hours up to the age of from 5 to 10 years. Lactation all is long continued. children crippled by accident are treated by parents and companions with tribes they mal and one or both were the greatest tenderness. still Among the the Zuni and principal Hopi wooden and in some tribes this practice prevails. the boys. as possessing occult The boys as naturally pattern riding. darts. while occupied with other duties. and among the Chinookan and Salishan tribes of the Columbia. ignorant the of women are almost completely ordinary sanitary rules as to feeding. and bangles. skates of rib-bones. else pertain to their later Twins are usually regarded as uncanny. With the Hopi and Zuni the child is lightly whipped with yucca switches when initiated into the Kachina priesthood. home life — sewing.{. The newborn infant is commonly treated at once to a cold bath. Children of both sexes have toys and games. during most of the time. Tops. may cooking. hummers. On the plains the boys at about the same age were formally enrolled into most tribes the proportion coming to maturity. little girls frequently dress and carry. exposure. The child's sisters or cousins of the baby are its attendants. in imitation of their mothers. balls. which the about upon the grass or on the bed without restraint.

give Mason in Rep. and Jenks. 562. Chelkatskie. Chilukweyuk. mainly on the Skaialo.) Chilkat (said to be from tct\-xdt.. B. Aff. Ethnol. but with the precocity incident to a wild. i. Rep. now speaking the Cowichan dialect. Childhood of Jishib. Skizz. in N. 1855. the Chilkoot. especially Stevenson in 5th Rep. 1896.— Ibid.. Chilkoot. Alaska. E. Aff. hood (autobiographic). 105. 6. Cheelcat. moral suasion alone. 1886.— Halleck in Rep. i. Leg. .. moment of anger.— Halleck in Rep. Census. Hist. vocab. 1901 (autobiographic). 'store- pertaining to the tribe. 1848. 1893. Alaska. free life. 1. 232. B. 232.— Dall in Cont.. Alaska.—Wrangell. the boy after the initiatory ordeal to which. 1839. Alaska. Tschishl142. Owens. Hlukahadi. I. Anderson quoted by Gibbs in Hist. 75. 1861. The Can. Cond. — TUnkit Ind.. 100. Wand. The Middle Five. 242.. N. Cheelhaats. Nat. 1892. Tchilcat. 31. 38. ciently Nooksak according to Boas. Stand. Wilson in Jour. Ind. Anthrop. Thaltehch. 1844. so quarrels are less frequent dren. Chilcales. Nat. Checlkaats. Skwealets. I.. a sympathetic sketch of the not only in household arts and hunting methods. admission to fuU manhood responsibilities the TschishlkhSthkhdan. thg not identifiable with any of the above. 1884. and which are Spencer. 281. Ind. Sec. 30. 1870. Ethnol. Rep. Skaukel.. Yendestake. Tschischlkhathkhoan. A Sahsh tribe on a river of hood Consult Chamberlain.. Fewkes in Am. Skway. A. Their villages. 1902. Natal Ceremonies of the Hopi. Mus. Soc. 1903. 1884. Ill. 3. Kagwantan. iv. perhaps a year or two earlier. 330 in 1911. puberty for both —Krause. Ethnol. career of an Indian boy from birth to man(j. War. Every- thing The shared alike in the circle of playmates. — some he was subjected.. (2) in 21st Rep. vn. petent to take his place as a man among the For a year or more before his warriors.. pt. as instruction and obedience are enforced by houses for salmon'). 1902. Skagway. 1884. B. 1903.. 132.... physical punishment very rarely going beyond a mere slap in a Smaller towns: Deshu. 1899. hood.. in the keeping of the idea The prevalent that the Indian child grows up without instruction is entirely wrong. are Atselits. Nushekaayi. E. Indian child has to learn his language as other children learn theirs. Aff. 1885. Tsoowahlie.. The special cere- monial observances are various societies. authority of Hill-Tout. As aggressiveness and the — idea of individual ownership are less strong with the Indian than with his white brother. Katkwaahltu. 11-12. 314. Ethnol.— 11th Census. Chllcoot. Mag.. War. 1868. kh&th. Folklore. Creek Migr. Chllcat. 1862. These people are often regarded as a separate division of Koluschan. pop. Skway). Aff. lisping his words and confusing the grammatical distinctions at first.— Scouler in Jour. 31. E. 1884. 295. B. La Flesche.. 102. at Chilkoot young man cultivated a degree of reserve amounting even to bashfulness in the presence At about the same time. his sister's friends mission in 1890. Aff. 1883.— Krause. app. S.— Elliott. and Yukweakwioose.— Scott in U. Ind. 288. At about 15 years of age in the old days. arm of Lynn canal. — throughout the eastern and central region. dance. Chilcates. 227. A. Social divisions: Daktlawedi. 1887.). Shlalki. MS.—Holmberg. Nachr. pt. Doc. Chllcahs. N.— Ibid. Sec. Mus. 1. 116. S. Chiaktei. in tribes. Zapiski. 278. Chilkatskoe. Ind. Lond. Emmonsin Mem. Bri. among the chil- and fighting is is almost unknown..— Kane. 1859. A. Alaska. Chilkasts. Kokaia. ChlChillwayhook. — *Trade with the Indians of Yukon ter. Chilkaht-Kwan. Education of the Pueblo Child. but also in the code of ethics. S. Ethnol. and the religious ideas elders. Dorsey in 3rd Rep. A Thngit tribe about the head of Lynn canal. Fletcher in Jour. A. Chllkhat. A. 242. Dyea. then.* Pop. the traditions.— Halleck in U. 309. Soc. Ex. made solitary fast and vigil to obtain communication with the medicine spirit which was to be his protector through life. loweyuk. Ethnol. e. Child and Childin Folk Thought. gathered to celebrate her life and thenceforth child was at an end. Indian Boy(1) same name in British Columbia. 3. Ind. Rep.— Petroff in 10th 37. 1869. Alaska. 562. E.— Dunn. A. iii. Tschilkut. pt. 1888. 2d sess. M.. Oreg.— Veniaminoff.— Beardslee in Sen. 31. pt. Tschilkat.. Stlep. 38. 1887. Klukwan. TschJlkfit-kdn. Nat. Chilcaks. Am. the youth was com- Kingsley. Alaska. Ganahadi. 1880. 1877.* noted for the manufacture of the famous blankets to which they have given ^heir name. —Petroff in 10th Census. he usually acquires correct expression at an earlier age than the average white child. but are practically the same as the Chilkat. Gatschet. or of strangers. 1868. 1900. Col. Jackson. 1875. map. Takestina. Hist. Am. 1840. A Tlingit town on the n. Chilkat-qwan.92 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. Chitl-kawt. Reports Koquapnt and Skwah (distinct from Boas gives Keles. A. Lond. 1912 Boys and by their girls alike are carefully instructed Ojibwa. 988 in 1880. and 812 in 1890. 1880 (native pronunciation of name of Chilcat r..—Gibbs. 1877. Chilkats. Chilkahts. Powers in Cont.— Mayne. Eastman. 1869. 1868. A. although it may be said that he grows up practically without restraint. 1870.— Halleck in U.. Winter towns: Chilkoot. 106... Tlinkit Chilliwak. Hist.. though anPop. ii. 46th Cong.— Ibid.

Lond. There were four clans or phratries Kanhada or Raven. — Tc'ileaue'uk. Like other coast tribes. under him were the members of his household. 1841. Rep.. In physical characters and social organization the present culture of the is Chimmesyan tribes the Chimmesyan resemble the Haida similar to that of the neighbouring coast is and Tlingit. and other wild animals are hunted. Although good carvers and canoe builders. Vocabs. and are sold to other tribes for the same purpose.— HillRep. ditions among W. and Gyispawaduweda or Grizzly Bear. Tribes. Geog. and numerous temporal and modal particles (Boas). Brit. origin of This suggests an in- by an extreme use of reduplication.— Boas in Tcll'Qe'uk. This view is corroborated by the account of the Niska tribes given by Boas (10th Rep. moun- tain goats. 220. though their language is time local groups. XHaldah.) Chimmesyan with the =Chemme8yan... (1846) in Jour.. 1900.. the oil being in great demand all along the coast. lxiv. Brit. =Chyniseyans. of lower Skeena r. concerning which the information is conflicting. 1902.. and more nearly approach their inland. n. A. Ethnol. nibal ceremonies. —Kane. while others treat them as family : Chimai. S. prefixes principally signifying local relations. 3. Lakski3'ek ('On the Eagle'). not necessarily confined to one place. Brit A. Eulachon are a great source of their food The annual runs revenue to the Niska. there assimilation. If their organization was anything Hke that of the Haida. by the peculiar divergence of their mythological tales from those of neighbouring tribes. plateaus and of the plains than like the tales of the N. and accommodating from 20 to 30 people. Their houses were often huge structures made of immense cedar beams and planks. Tribes Can. Geog. the Gitksan of upper Skeena r. some regarding them simply as names for the people of certain towns. 1859. The horns the Bellabella. and Tsimshian an inland their ancestral of adverbial home is described as on a prairie at the headr. 120b. as Milbanke The 3 main divisions are the Tsimshian sd. Coast tribes. of salmon on the Skeena and of eulachon into the Nass furnish them with an abundance of provisions at certain seasons.HAXDBOOK OF IXDIAX^ OF CANADA SESSrONAL PAPER 186fi. Can. Duncan's colony in Alaska in 1890. Col. xr. and the is historical value of the traditional evidence increased from the sea and the rivers. Soc. .389 In 1902 there were reported mountain goats are carved into handles for spoons used at feasts and potlatches. Brit. A small linguistic family on Nass and Skeena rs. and the servants and slaves. 3. Descent is reckoned in the female line. If) t. Each clan comprised a great number of subdivisions.. 487. and indispensable for the great winter potlatches. Roy. —Scouler Lond. TshlthTolmie and Dawson. Skeena r. Their names. more particularly the winter ceremonial with its can- Bear. they obtain the largest part of the tribe. Wand.341. I. Lakyebo ('On the Wolf). 1841. Soc. and those of neighbouring have descended Nass and Skeena paratively According to their own tratribes. his more distant clan relations. Lond. Jour. — — — Scouler in Jour. but the Kitksan. Scouler in =Chimsyans. in Tcimai'. and the Niska of Nass r. The Chimmesyan tribes have also adopted customs of their s. In some evidence of most of the as their recent type. 21a Squahalitch. was presided over by a house chief. waters of Skeena land. on the left A Squawmish village community bank of Skwamish r. v. W. S. placing the Tlingit. 93 No. neighbours on the coast. 219. Ind. in comdis- recent times to the coast. Col.— Hill-Tout Rep. the Chimmesyan are surpassed by the Haida. a great abundance of plural forms. 233. but it is probable that many of them have been displaced from their ancient seats or have settled in more than one place. N. A. Surv. and the neighbouring coast as fars. terized The Chimmesyan language by a very extensive use is charac- myths they appear primarily tribe that lived by hunting. 1884. Ethnol. Brit.. 49). seem to have mixed with the Athapascan tribes. the most characteristic tales of the Tsimshian being more like the animal tales of the w. as far as obtainable... while eveiy family and every town had a superior chief. which they obtained from particularly of by the interior tribes.. Schoolcraft. A. Tout in wyook. in N. 1855. 474. A. Col. they rs. 1848. the total is about 4. Each in British Columbia. the subdivisions were at one with the Haida of Queen Charlotte ids.').. =Chiminesyan. W. app.. While strikinglj' different itself and must be the tongues placed in a class by of the N. The closest cultural affinities of these people are groups. 48. Soc. in which the human element plays an important part. from whom they still purchase canoes. i.— Ibid. s. r. (j. living farther peoples. and 952 enumerated as forming Mr.. Chimmesyan Family 'people of (from Tsimshian. will be found under the separate divisional headings.. 1894. and the Tlingit of the Alaskan coast.

— Dall in Vocabs. B. Tolmie and Dawson. Tolmie channel and Mussel pop. C. Ind. A. >Naas8. and 1. 1848 (includes other tribes). xi. 36. Ethnol.552 phrases. 1890. Gibbs. after contact with the fur companies. It was first brought to public notice in the early days of the Oregon fur trade.. Bancroft. Tolmie and Dawson. D^n^s. Compend. otenne Stuart at rs. I. having its parallel in the so-caUed "Mobilian language" of the Gulf tribes and the sign language of the plains.. Soc. A. e. Dall in 564. Nat. 1877. to which were added. — — Words contributed =Nasse. il. B. 109 in 1911.. French. N. N.. 8. combinations of mamook in 1863. Salish and other languages. with Nootka. Hale.. Aff. S.94 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. 1895. although his dictionary cites 1. Proc. 1885. — Morice. 473. in 1841. foundation of the jargon is the Chinook proper. ]17b. —Scouler Cont. Chinook jargon. other tribes). A. Ibid. Col. 220. 114 in 1901. annihilated in one night. recorded ('do'). Soc. 1884. Oe'qaes. Ghinlak. >Naas. C. A. i. 1884. ii. Gallatin in Trans. Geog. Vocabs.. guage of the The Indian trade lan- Columbia River legion and the adjacent Pacific coast from California far up into Alaska. (includes many =Tshiinsian.. — Keane Am. in Stanford. Pt. that the Tsilkotin practically 25. their (seemingly a corruption of own name). 1911. Can. in 1894.. all three being the outgrowth of an extensive aboriginal system of The Indian inter-tribal trade and travel. Xa'exaes. Kitasoo. 52. 662 being obsolete. Notes on W. Haihaish. Mus. A the former village of the Tanconfluence of Nechako and which had a flourishing Brit. >Nass. inlet. In addition to the Indian incorporated numerous words from various European languages. 6th Rep.. Ethnol.402. 114b. corrupted English. Eells. 379. = Northern. in Jour. 1912 >Hydahs.— Boas in Rep. III. estimated the number of words in the jargon at 250. Col. population Tcinlak. but there can be no doubt that the jargon existed as an inter-tribal medium of communication long before the advent of the whites. — 328 (own name). — — China Hat Xd'exaes.. yielding 209. Nat. of certain languages in the its jargon as recorded at various periods of although there are great differ- ences in the constituent elements of the jargon as spoken in different parts of the country: . 1882 (includes other tribes). 1841. — pt. and pos- elements it has now sibly Russian terms. about 500. The following table shows the share existence. A speaking the Heiltsuk dialect Kwakiutl tribe and residing on Brit. Tribes Can. about 1810.— Boas. =Tslmpsi-an'. 1878 (includes other tribes). counted 740 words actually in use. Roy. 1893. W. A. 77.. Races.

297. ii. Chipiouan. Soc. E.. 380. 1836. were now willing to con- being the tectors. B.. Ind.. A. and not devoid of originality. Chlppewyan. 1848.. Compend. MS. 18. 60° to 65° and from long.' weyanaw Cree name for the parkas. MS. 1814... — Tinne. Notes on Chepeyan. trees'). Etheneldeli. — — and the forest between it and Great Slave lake being then the domain of the Etchareottine. Canada. shore of lake Athabaska by the martial attitude of the Chipewyan.. and the tales told by the The deerskin early travellers of a race of people living in There were 230 Cree at La-Crosse lake in 1873.. 100° to 110°. the people who wear them). Hist. System of Mod. — . 224. 1878. Nat. Chlppeweyan. Athapasca. the Chipewyan were living on Peace r. B. — Kennicott.. Chipewyan. A. Can. E. — Ibid. like shirts worn by had the queue behind a poncho. Ethnol. La Mer Glaciale. of Ft. A. The Report of the Department of Indian Affairs for 1911 enumerates 1. the Thilanottine. Oregon. 1877. 2d s. Hist. Gallatin in Drake. Gah-t6w-g6 B. Travels. Ibid. which they called — Tanner.. A. 390. extended it to include all Atha- pascan tribes known to using it them. Nar. Sci. 1887) characterized these people as innocent and natural in their and manners. Kane. Expl. Chipwayan. 1826. Chep— Balbi. and numbered 7. the whites. after they had obtained guns from the French. Ta-laottine. Lewis.— Balbi. Resolution on the s. Inds. 'stone-house people. 20. attacked these latter and drove them from their hunting grounds. these people with the pointed shirts. according to Petitot. — — — — Drake (Bk. E. 244. Chipwayanawok. Howe. 58.. 114. 1874. A. 21a Northwest Territories. i. Rec. 349. Schermerhorn (1812) in Mass. Autour du lac des Esclaveg. Tchin-tpa-gottin^. I. the descriptions given by other Indians 303. 1830. MS.. 1891. The term was originally applied to the Chipewyan who called the the assailed the Cree about lake Athabaska. are generally separated in popas a synonym of clude a lasting peace (Petitot. notes on Tinne. 337. B. 95 No. Kingsley. Nat. n. B. Hudson's Bay. 143. Races.— Balbi. Petitot (La lives Mer Glaciale. embracing the Desnedekenade and Athabaska. N. Y. r.. Hare Ind. the far N. subse- quently the Cree and. although the Tatsanottine. 1884. 47. these people sometimes onl}^. W. In 1718. — Keane Stanford. 6. Coll. Chippewayan. — Dufiot de Mofras. B. chart.. B. — Ross. MS. Atlas Ethnog. G3h-tau'-go ten'-ni. Mexican Letters. Che-pa-wy-an.) gave the habitat of — 143. Paris. — Gallatin Trans. before Etheneldeli.885 Chipewyans in the Northwest Territories. ouyan. As a result of this contest the Thilanottine obtained for themselves the upper waters of Churchill r. Soc..' or Theyeottine. already driven back to the s. Gens du Poll. ii. 1883. as Ft. in the Chipewyan as Churchill lakes. ular usage. These last became known as the wayanawok. or Yellow-knives. Athabasca. Cheppeyans. Alberta. T. i. 1851. vii. Chlp-pe-wi-yan. 508. — — Rep. Stand..— Everette. Ghlpeouaian. from chipwa ok plural 'pointed... tin'-ni. vocab. Chippewayanawok. Chepewyan. hence. the whites Tinneh. Wanderings in N. river Tsades.. about Ile-a-laCrosse lake. th(^ Chipewyan proper the former tSne'. name Chipewyan proper. 42.' (pointed sign: skins.. MS. vii.. du grand lac tot. Ross (Notes on the Tinne. r.' Cree Chib- to live in the neighbourhood of the English of Fort Churchill. Coll. for trade with the Eskimo.) said their territory ex- tended as far n.— Latham. McLean. (Cree name). E. having a sition tail stage between and being in a trananimal and man. 1850. 1887). the shores of lake Athabaska Good Hope and between the and Great Bear lake. Geog.— Drake. Petitot in Bull. the river of beavers. Tecumseh. 58. Chlpewan. while a part went Chipewyan 'skin. 1814.500 in 1812. many of whom were half-breeds bearing French names. ChepeMS. A. had of — — their foundation in the misrepresentation of — Chepayan. pewyan. 55. Atlas Ethnog. Bk. Chlppewayeen. Macauley Hist. — Kennicott. 58. or shirts of many northern Athapascan tribes. 1820. Chipeway.. pointed and ornamented with tails and behind. Atlas Ethnog.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER Mackenzie N. Chepewayan. Tutu vocab. in Inds.. Chipewayan. 1893.. E. A. vocab. Cree and Chipewyan were decimated by the malady. A. but were forced back again by the Chipewyan tribes.. 1826. 'eaters of reindeer meat. pt. Mackenzie misquoted by Brackenridge. 1826. imbued with a sense of justice. Maskegon. An Athapascan linguistic group. Hist. 85. 1852. B. E. — Harmon. and Tatsanottine. Petitot often uses the term synonymously with Kawchodinneh.— Petitot in Can. — Ross. In 1779 the French Canadians brought smallpox to the shores of Ile-a-la-Crosse and Athabaska lakes. but it is now confined to the linguistic group above referred to. 1865 ('dwellers at the end of the pine Tchin-t'a-gottin6. 1848) noted that they claimed from lat. 171. shore of Great Slave lake. N. i. following their example. 1875. 130. 264. Chippowyen. and Cree. Chipewyan Tlnneys. G^og.' the latter that they gave their proEnghsh. 1829. E.. Chlpweyan. 1844.. and the former. ii. 1809. des Ours. A. and Morse. 1849. domain post of the Etchareottine. and Athabaska and Great Slave Ken- nicott (MS. and 600 Thilanottine Chipewj'an. The Cree. and Saskatchewan. Am. 362. E. 1883.. 1859.— Petitot. PetiTcln-tat' tot. Journal.. newly established on Hudson bay at the mouth of Churchill r. endowed with sound sense and judgment. Bancroft.— Peti- MS.

or at any rate prior to 1670 (Jesuit Rel. 1872. or when it had reached the vicinity of the Sault. Oochepayyan.96 DEPARTMEIS'T OF MARINE A\D FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. Although strong in numbers and occupjang an extensive territory. were apparently incorporated with the latter while they were at the Sault. Hist. — — Warren and Verwyst in regard to the early residence of the tribe at — La Pointe. Petitot. whose range was formerly along both shores of lake Huron of lake Superior in 1670-99. Gens des Montagnes. 1st s. Oregon Miss. Foxes. the name of the ordinary red squirrel {Sciuriis hudsonicus).. By folk etymology. Hist. Diet. A. 152. —Hooper. Tckippewayan. Coll. of Mackinaw. end of lake Superior. 1886) says that about 1612. 1891. doubtless the Sioux. of Mexico. 1883. W. — Ross.' uh-ivay 'to roast'). if not an actual division of the Chippewa. including the Ottawa and Potawatomi. cultivated some and lake Superior.. 195. French Dcm. nais. The Chippewa word signifies 'head first. 2d Exped. Yatchee-thinyoowuc. Chip-wyan. —Anderson. 1741. 1912 Essays. where Father Allouez found them in 1665-67. f. Engl. side of the lake as their country. Coll. Ottawa. the Algonquian word represented by the Chippewa atchitaino" has become. McLean. 243. 1776. 1828. Shepeweyan. It seems to be well established that some of the Chippewa have resided n.' referring to the puckered seam on their moccasins. Montagnees.. which separated into divisions when it reached Mackinaw in its westward movement. Geog. Soc. 1670).—Snelling. E. from ojib roast till century the Three Fires. Jour. Soc. extending across Minnesota to Tiu'tle mt. chitmunk. Coll. 1847.. Am. 73. Hudson's Bay.' from atchit 'heladlong. It is singular that this author omits to mention wild rice (Zizania aquatica) among their food supplies. 1876. Hist. having come from some point n. 227. des D6ne Tchippewayans. Trav. by way of chilrmink. frequently designated in the Chippewa 'to (popular adaptation of Ojibway. The Indian word applied originally to the common red squirrel and not to the chipmunk. Dend Dindji^. body. Chyppewan. tagnez. Tents of Tuski. Wetshipweyanah. Mountain Indians. iii. owing to their remoteness from the frontier during the period of the colonial wars. ii.. — Henry. They 226. 289. — — settled ^t the w.' a7n 'mouth. chipmuck. xix. Autour du lac Esclaves. map 2.. Diet. Jefferys. Warren (Minn. Expl. Mountaineers. These and the Marameg claimed the N. c. 1830. map. On the n. the Chippewa. of lake Superior after the quian origin. Hudson's Bay. Petitot. Wachipuanes. 649. Notes and Queries.— Belcourt in Minn. 24. since the possession was one of the chief causes wars with the Dakota. Montag- — Petitot. Roy. A remnant or offshoot 155.. Mountains. B. and Mrs. Jefferys. 173. note. Coll. Hist. and others occur. and other nations.. The Marameg. 1849. — Franklin. possible that Nicollet met them 1634 or which the variants chipmonk. 1889) it is clearly of Algonis of the tribe resided n. A.. B.. Grand lac des Ours. Am. 363. Polar Sea. or n. in Can. 403. 'people of the it Chipmunk. v.) Chippewa are so closely connected with the Cree and Maskegon that the three can be distinguished only bj' those dialects intimately ac- and customs. 1809. In 1642 they were visited by Raym1639. i. while on the s. Dene-Dindji^. and Potawatomi have always formed a sort of quainted with their loose confederacy. 1860. Wis. Atlas. who found them at the Sault and at war with a people to the w.. the Chippewa atchit- main body moved s. and in is striped ground squirrel {Tamias slriahis).. Aclast 'to pucker-up.. to Sault Ste. e. Highlander. A. 1872. to Perrot some of the Chippewa although the largest tribes n. 1824 ('strangers': Cree name). many of them going back to the Sault. in her Canadian Crusoes.. — Tales of N. Can. Manitoba. notes on Tinne. The word chipmunk really identical with the adjidaumo ('tail-in-air') of Longfellow's Hiawatha.. Belcourt in Minn. baut and Jogues. writes the English word as chitmunk. The Chippewa vocab- ulary of Long (1791) gives for squirrel chetamon. MS. while others — Ouachipuanes. xx. MS. a tribe closely related to. of lake Superior from time immemorial. our familiar chipmunk. the Chippewa were never prominent in history. 1854. E. According to tradition they are part of an Algonquian maize. 1853. about the time of the discovery of America. 1876. 1893. and were then at peace with the neigh- bouring Sioux. therefore. 169. 275. — — Petitot in Jour. puckered up. -nTiter (1786) in Mass. but (Chamberlain in Am. — McKeevor. (a. MontagMonnes. they suddenly abandoned this locahty. i. as residing at the Sault. the amo". Tchip1819. 1794. Marie. Petitot. relying chiefly on the chase. — Franklin. iii. The word has been usually derived from the "chipping" of the animal.' from the animal's habit of descending trees. There is nothing found to sustain the statement of wayanawok. One of cording living s. were first noticed in the Jesuit Relation of 1640 under the name Baouichtigouin (probably Bawa'tigowininiwiig. Traill. i. and Verwyst (Missionary Labours. The common name of the of Sault'). — De Smet. 193. who dwelt along the north shore of the lake. Polar Sea. 1885) asserts that they were settled in a large village at La Pointe. and according to Jenks (19th of wild-rice fields of their .

and continued their westward march across Minnesota and North Dakota until they occupied the headwaters of Red r. although they still call themselves Ojibwa. Their creation myth is that common among the northern Algonquians. driving Mississippi. and indeed it still occurs among the more wandering bands Their wigwams were made of birch (Jones). leaving a smoke hole at the top. Indians. who sold their lands in s. poles were first planted in the ground in a circle.000 Chippewa in the United States use it at the present time. and the whole region was occupied by the Chippewa bands.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. About this time they first came into possession of firearms.. N. human flesh occurred Michigan. of his people. A. 21a 97 Rep. Ashland co. 1891). and the act of capturing a wounded prisoner on the battlefield earned -the disLike the Ottawa. compelling them to take refuge with the Sauk. E. with the possible Their long and successful contest with the Sioux and Foxes exhibited their bravery and determination. but in winter The after snow falls. are in a torpid state. so long as the body not reduced to dust. Kans. to Minnesota r. while Father Belcourt Chippewa Canada they In the beginning of the 18th century the Chippewa succeeded in driving the Foxes. Chippewa regard dreams as revelations. They then turned against the Sioux. after the death of the body. conservatism of the little effect It is affirmed by Warwho is not disposed to accept any statement that tends to disparage the character The French. William Jones (inf'n. with horror. and North Dakota. was formerly a powerful organization of the Chippewa. Michigan in 1836 and are now with the Munsee in Franklin co.. and were pushing their way westward. Pillager band to allow a warrior who scalped an enemy to wear on his head two eagle feathers.. E. 7th Rep. It is northern is Chippewa a general belief that the among spirit the often returns to visit the grave. assert that cannibalism and s. which are ever wakeful and quick to hear everything in the summer. Although they have long formed of the exception of the Foxes. according to tradition. Those living within the United States made a treaty with the Government in 1815. or grand medicine society (see HofTman. treated the vanquished with most horrible bar- barity and at these times ate human flesh. The Chippewa are a timber people. reestablished a trading post at division of the tribe residing at affirms that. Such objects are manitus. tinction of wearing five. in 1692. polygamy was common.. They imagined that the shade. followed a wide beaten path. Wisconsin. on them. that. which became an important Chippewa settlement. W. been in friendly relations Christianity has had but owing largely to the native medicine-men. in all the wars against the frontier settlements to the close of the war of 1812. who was personally acquainted with the Chippewa and married a woman of the tribe.'ding to Dr. except under such Acco.. B. of lake Superior.. finally arriving in a country abounding in everything the Indian Leech lake.. Wisconsin. and in their early history depended largely on fish There is abundant evidence that for food. ren. from N. others overran Huron and lake Erie. Wis. and have since re- mained peaceful. and established their westernmost band in Turtle Mt. bark or of grass mats. 1905). describes the Chippewa warriors as equalling in physical appearance the best desires. B. Like most other tribes they believe that a mysterious power dwells in all objects. 1900) 10. The Medewiwin. which conanimate 2lA— . Schoolcraft.. conditions. dist. alternately at peace and at war with the Sioux and in almost constant conflict with the Foxes. although the La Pointe of practised cannibaUsm. they were expert in the use of the canoe. now La Pointe. and the bark or mats thrown over them. with the exception of the small band of Swan Creek and Black River Chippewa. A. Minnesota. It was not until after 1736 that they obtained a foothold w. The Chippewa took part with the other tribes of the N.. most of whom are now known as Missisauga. already reduced by a war with the French. The Iroquois were forced to the peninsula between lake withdraw. looked upon cannibahsm. the tops bent together and tied. with the whites. during It was the custom of the stress of hunger. which had long been claimed by the Iroquois through conquest. the Shaugawaumikong. and some object which appears therein is often chosen as a tutelary deity. W. and inanimate. in all residing on reservations or allotted lands within their original territory and that since 1902 the eating on Rainy r. While the main divisions of the tribe were thus extending their ally practised ceremonially was occasionby the Chippewa possessions in the w. the Pillagers of them across the Bear of of id. leading toward the w. yet they were uniformly friendly in their relations with the French.

000. Merman. 76 Chippewa and Munsee. Noka. estimates take no account of more remote Pike (Pickerel) gentes.000 m. Sheshebe (Duck). Mesheka (Mud Mikonoh (Snapping turtle). but these are now consolidated and no differences are recognized excepting between the common and the grizzly bears. Wisconsin.. the Fish gentes. Nama = Kinozha. 1877) names the about 13. 1843. 1912 movements obstacle to of the tribe and was a of it following 23 gentes: (Bear). named by Morgan: Manumaig (CatNebaunaubay (Merman). the in winter being Chippewa of Fond du = Wa<=wa<'. and fish). Mourn- ing for a lost relative continued for a year. or to was Myeengun (Wolf). Sturgeon. Ahahweh. from e. Munominikasheenhug. of lake Superior when the tribe moved w. As the Chippewa were scattered over a region extending 1. Authors of the differ as to the Chippewa gentes. Marie.. Namabin (Carp [Catweh [ Lac. = Kagagi. Saskatchewan and the Northwest Territories there were about 8. names and number which range all the gives 21 gentes. while in Manitoba. It is impossible to determine the past or present numbers of the Chippewa. [ wrapped in birch bark. Warren says. bands. of v/hich there were formerly several named from parts of the bear's body. they had a large number of villages. Wazhush (Muskrat) Wabezhaze (Marten). and the forked tree as totems among the Ottawa and Chippewa. covering it wadare (Little Chueskweskewa Ahdik [ (Reindeer). from Sault Ste. being a name for the the crane. and Mousonee. Nekah (Goose). poles or birch -bark were According to McKenney (Tour to placed. (Duck). though it is also called Waubishashe.000. as in former way from of 11 to 23. (Pickerel). though the Loon gens is called Mong.. practised scafTold burial.00038. 5. by the 7neda or by certain Kenozhe (Pike) Tanner gives also the Pepegewizzains (Sparrow-hawk).000. The Maskegon sprang from the Reindeer. 1827). in n. and Cormorant gentes. ahahweh being a name for the loon. 10 of these principal divisions: Kechegumme- wininewug. Morgan (Anc. Wis. Mous (Moose). Betonukeengainubejig. in Kansas. 3. or river near which they resided.656.000 in Canada and 14. Some of the bands bore the name of the village. on the headwaters of St . Soc. 1783 and 1794. have but few members and are not known to the tribe at large. 'echo-maker. exclusive of about 3. Omegeeze (Bald Eagle). often in a sitting grave facing scoop a shallow cavity in the earth and deposit the body therein on its back or side. The entire number in the United States at this time was therefore In Canada those of Ontario about 16.DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE trolled the v. Raven]. Gyaushk (Gull). including the Nipissing. (Sturgeon). and local divisions.000. the Lakes. Pike Whitefish and Sucker gentes — all haps one-third are Chippewa. Mousonee seems to be the proper name of the phi-atry. shore of lake Superior. unless shortened exploits in war.000 in Michigan. Ahwahsissa (Bullhead).885. Warren which the following are not included among times only a small part of the tribe came in contact with the whites at any period. 3. The Ahahweh phratry includes Loon. (Snipe). 166. which went to the n. on the s. lake. in Wisconsin. Mussundummo (Water Snake). about 15. businausee. Ojeejok (Crane). B ar gentes. and those they are now so mixed with other estimates tribes in many given. to w. Moose and Reindeer gentes. the corpse fish]). over which boards. from the important Marten gens which is said to have sprung from the incorporated remnant of the Mundua. The Mousonee phratry includes the Marten.000. about 30. Ahah- with earth so as to form a small mound. Goose. Swan]. When a Chippewa died posture. turtle). customary to place the body w. In 1884 there were in Dakota 914. Meskturtle). Among some of the Chip- bands.000. Makwa Ahmik (Beaver). quarters that no separate returns are The principal are as fol- low: In 1764. and per- pewa these gentes are associated in 5 phratries 6. returned separately. Udekumaig (Whitefish). formidable the introduction in a Christianity. about 25.. 1851.000 in the United States. Some of them. Mooshkaooze (Heron). about It is probable that most of these 28. A.000 Chippewa and Ottawa. Kakake (Pigeon hawk). and distinct called Morgan makes Ahahweh them the 'Duck' gens.' The Businausee phratry in- numbered in 1911 cludes the Crane and Eagle gentes. The Awausee phratry inthe Catfish.T^enabig (Snake). Bear) phratry included different The Noka the (Ko-'ke. Lynx. Mong (Loon).500 in Minnesota. Besheu (Lynx). in Michigan. Pickerel]. of whom the Awausee.000—21. cludes Businausee. The Chippewa now (1912) probably number 35.000 under the same agencies. but these were grouped under larger divisions or sub-tribes which occupied certain fixed limits and were distinguished by marked According to Warren there were differences.

Minn. 250. Epinette (1744). on the n. vocab. M. 1877 (Hid. Minn. Doc. ibid. Khahkhahtons. A. Cockburn Island. Wikwemikong. w. — — — — Flats conf. 1869 ('long ears' Tsattine name). Coll 1st s. Minn. — — — Ibid. Soc.. Chippeways.. Douwaganhas. 27. vi.. 287..— Johnson (1763) in N. Feb. vocab. Chlppawees. Sheshegwaning. Mattawan. and Nibowisibiwininiwak in Saskatchewan. 434. : (Sioux mts. 86. side of lake Superior at the Canadian border. V. 1854. Tribes. Islington. Hare MS. for 18S4. v. B. note. Min. 1797. Col. 1871. 1858.— Treaty of 1820. boundary of Minnesota. West. 1855. Cheveux-relev^s of the French). B. xiii.. New Views. E Baouichtigouin. 737. Caradoc. 1864. Hist. Sucker Creek. Y. 975.E. 969. BtUomont (1698) in N. Chibois. 583. Hewitt.). Treat. Sarnia. Bungees. about the N. 1798. Ibid. 1800. Lake Nipigon.— Edwards (1788) in Masi. 1855. Dwika-nha'. New Discov. Kitchisibiwininiwug. and Omushkasug. Chipaways.. 791. vocab..A. i. A E. West wan. Geol. (ca. Wabigoon. 143. 782. 1867. 556. Estiaghes. — — — — Batchawana. vii.. Portage de Prairie in Manitoba. ibid. Doc. Chipeweghs. (Mohawk name. 37. Col. Hist. Y. 1778. Bawichtigouin. S. Hist.tsa name).— Jes. Obidgewong. Heckewelder quoted by Barton. 1798. Chiappawaws.. 1852) in Minn.. Cabellos realzados. Henry. Y. Hist... 144. (j. 4th s. Dokis. 1853. 43. Ibid index.. Rel. Mississippi in Minnesota. ii. Mukmeduawinine- or Pillagers. Hist. at the head of Wisconsin r. 1649. Ter. vocab.) Dewoganna's. 1857. Chipaweighs —German Trag. 1858. 1847. Hist. K guttural). 36. E„ 1882 (Fox name). Dowaganahs. Soc. — Uppe. 1841.—Cortland ibid. Coll. 321. Johnson conf... rendered 'leapers').— and Raymbaut in Jes. 150. and Nameulini. Petitot. Bawichtigouek. — (1687). iv.. Col. Long Lake. 1858. Dwa-ka-nfi". Hrah-hrati-twauns. Chepawas.. Chippeweighs. Coll. VII. Soc. Ind. Caughnawaga MS. 150. Manitou Rapids. — Matthews. ways. Col. Michipicoten..— Gatschet. ibid. op. 1882 (Caughnawaga name). Hist.. 1855. wish-in-aub-ay.— Gatschet. U. are recognized as belonging to various settle- ments. —Ramsey (misprint). Gibba- Ibid. 1858. Neill. Y. — Smith by Drake. Chippoways. Garden River.. 205.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. incorrectly — 1882 (the Raised-hair tribe of Shea's Peiialosa.. Khakhatonwan. Cypoways. name. Williamson..— Croghan . Coll. 72. Soc. 34. 526. ii. Matthews. Nar. Doc. 293. 1812 (so called by Hudson's Bay traders). Doc. VII. Coll. Hist. 1855.. . Writer of 1756 in Mass. 2lA—7i . or divisions of the tribe in Canada: Nawash.— Bouquet (1760) in Mass. Rama. (1770) in N.. n. Parry Island. 1S56. ibid. Dovaganhaes. —Croghan Coll. 4th s.. B. 1784.-. ibid. MS.A. 50.— Cortland (1687). 1864.. Col. E. vi. 296.. of 1691.. cit. 899. Ind. No. 1.. (1691). 1881 1640. S. —Prise de Possession (1671) in Perrot. — Rocky Ixxxiv. Doc. on Leech lake.. B.. IX. in Mass. 213. Hist.. 398. Icbewas. 229.. —Shirley by Proud. ibid. 1858 (incorrect translation of Saulteurs). ibid. Pic River. on Rainy lake and r. 'Hewitt.. in N. Spanish River. 1854. Y. A. Khakbatons. Hahatona. Ethnog. bands. Croghan (1759) quoted by Kauffman. Nopeming. 1871. Hennepin.. Soc. 1855. Chipoes. 1855. (1759) quoted Penn. on the upper Wis.— Loudon. ix.. Haliatonlapi Oaye. 1S04. 1st b. Washington (1754) quoted by Kauflman. Col. Ibid. Ottawa Lake Men. — — . M6m. Chlppawas.. B. 1856.— Croghan (1760) — ibid. Fox MS.— Imlay. Rel.. Chepeways. 1st s. Mohawk MS. Hah-hah-ton-wah — — — Gale.— Snelliug. ii.. 1816 (1799) quoted Croghan (1760) 1871. Chlppewaes.— Hayden.) Achipoes. Hist. Dowanganhaes. Walpole Island. 21a Johnson (1763) 99 Croix r. Doc. 19. ibid. Seneca and Onondaga vocab B. Chipwaes. 808. Star in the West. 1642. Bedzaqetcha. Don Diego de Pcrialosa. A. (1755) in N. 1. map U. Sugwaundugahwininewug. Bouquet (1760) in Mass. Soc. 2. 1851. Hidatsa Ha-hot-tang. CoU. Hist. Chipe- ways. 67. 113. — Livingston 1700... ibid. Kojejewininewug.. Montagnais MS. Timagami.. ix. Hist. VI. Eagle Lake. 2. Minn. Chipewas. 123. Chippeouays. 132. Hidatsa Ha-haInds. 235.E. 4th s. . 1825.— Croghan (1765). Doc. Fort William. 1877 HaKatonway. E.— Ft.—Johnson (1763). Chippewas. Bagoache. 363. vocab. app. 1698 (incorrect Nation du Sault. Penn. — Warren in Minn. i.. Chebois. 95.. iv.— Johnson (1767) in N. of lake Superior. Hist.... . 1854. Chlplwa. app. Hist. Goldthwait (1766) in Mass. 122.. ix.. Doc. 778. Duro. in.. Ne-a-yaog'.. 1830 (Sioux name).. 295. 126. Rep.. — Axshissaye-runu. Hist. B.. in Wisconsin and Minnesota.— Doc. m. ix. Star in the West. 525. 1853. Estiaghicks.. Chippewals.. 1872.. Soc. 1854. Y. Oueschekgagamiouhmy.— Golden (1727). Jibewas. Etchipoes. 1801. Cheppewes. Achipoue. Nipissing. quoted by Jefferson. 1869 (Kawchodinne name). pt. 1885 ('spontaneous men').. n. 140. 1858 (Huron name. Chippewaus. Col. Saugeen. 126.871. Minn.. Anchipawah. Chippuwas. Assabaska.' — Prise de possession (1671). Jogues rendering of Saulteurs). V. Albany conf. Soc. 776. Beausoleil. 4th s. 1808.. Soc. — — Haliatorjwar). Eskiaeronnon. Soc. E.— Gatschet. vii.. De-wa-ka-nlia. 47. i. 6. Y. (Bell copy.. Hist. Hist. Wyandot MS B.^ Chauvignerie (1736) quoted by Schoolcraft. in — — — Boudinot.— Perrot (ca. Washington (1754) in Mass. 107. 1839. Dakota Diet. iv.. (Onondaga name).. Val. Estjage. Hist. 1862 ('those speaking the same language': Cree name). Y. Soc. Lac des Mille Lacs. on Lac Courte Oreilles.. name). Doc. 350. Gass. Coll. III. twawns. in N. Coll. Featherstonhaugh. Toussaint. Mississagi River. map of Am. vii. 701. note 1807. 434. West Bay. viii. (1759) IX. Tales of the Northwest. Chippewyse.. Maganetawan. 1823 (Hidatsa Exped. Mo.. Wahsuahgunewininewug. Ouasouarini. Int... Pays Plat. Tahgaiwinini. A45. Penn..— Neill. —Petitot. Lac Seul.. X. Douaganhas. Ha-ha-tu-a-.— Carver (1766) Trav. Canoe Voy. Hist.— Lattrf. Mishtawayawininiwak. Notes. 1852 (Sioux — — name). 24. Chepowas. Hewitt says it signifies 'people of the falls').— Neill 1885. Lac la Croix. Col.Mis. 18561873- —Prise de Possession (1671) 803. 137. (1755). Dshipowehaga. 407. A. Onondaga MS...Y. West. Jumpers. in Ontario. Rel. Wild. 92. A. Beltrami quoted by Neill. Jour. name). Chipways. 300.. 1027.. 1856- Chlpeweighs. Doc. Hewitt. B.. (Wyandot 34. A. — Long. 1st s.(1726) in N. 1856. of Dowaganhas.s. 1721) in — Minn. Chipawavvas. Livingston (1701). Coll. Leapers. Riggs. 1880 (Seneca and Onondaga name). c. Coll. Besides these general divisions the following collective or local names wug. IX. and PhUol. 1884 (Sioux name). Hist. was. 1809. Bedzietcho. Ccl. Kutaki. 369. Jes.. Sheguiandah. 1851. Coll. Croghan Chip(1765) in N. 1816 An-ish-in-aub-ag. — Inds. E.. T.— Boudinot..

1871.. Kelton. Outchi- settlement about the bay of OutchipMargry. 193. 53. in — Odglboweke. Paoultagoung.. Arct. Ibid. Hist. B.— Ibid. Tsipu'.?. x. 1886 (Winnebago name: plural. Otchipwe Gram. Winter in the Far West. 39. 42d Cong. I. Exped. all in lake Nipegon The aggregate number in 1884 was 426.. Columbia R. 1859. 1670. Ochipewa Richardson. Gaz. Sautor.. 42d Cong. Ethnog. 163. ix. — island. Ochipawa. Cox. 1849. 163. Bradstreet (ca. 1814. 1882 (Kansa name). sess. Shepevvas. Ojebway Inds.. 1853.. Ojibbeways. Ojibways. Hist. Coll. — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Chippewa band of officially Lake Nipigon. 6. Allenemipigons. Ibid. Rep..Y. 563. Wrangell. 156. 227. 1856. 1854. in Sen.— Hale.. Doc. A. Inds. 1824. (1669) in Rel. 1872. or Outchibouec—Jes. ii. Ojeebois. ii. B..500 acres. — Denonville A (1687). Am. Soc. Sothuze. 79.. 438.— Vaudreuil (1710) in N. 1848. 1st s. app. 1830 (Assiniboin name). 1812. St. ii. 1885. 843. and Affin. Soc. Y.. vii. 1744 (misprint). La Hontan (1703). IV. 1670. 24. I. Tribes. 36. Paouitingouach-irini. 585 acres and —Writer 428. La Hontan. Stand. 1703. vi. vocab. Mar. Sautoux. Journ. Ojib- — away. quoted by Richardson. Oa-qa-to"-wa°. 1858. after passing the Eskimo. Hist. Hist. 7. Col. Jour. D^c. 1859. Mem. Sauteurs. Dorsey. Tribes. vocab. oral inf n. Ind. 1875. E. Souteus.— M'Lean Hudson Bay. Ojibua. 1886. 151. —Warren (1852) in Minn. 97. 1884 (Cayuga and Oneida name). ii.. 1798. 1839. 71.— Dalton (1783) in Mass. 694. Mackinac. Kansas MS.. Coll. in 1901. Ibid. 6. 100.— Lewis and Clark. 432. Gunn in Smithson. Soc. Tuscarora MS. 1851.. where they had killed 7 savages. 193. Consang. app. Cayuga and Oneida MS. Am. A. 307. 749. Doc. 1885. map. 1831. vocab. 1872.— Henry. Paouichtlgouln. 6. E.. 1851.— Dorsey. 1886 (Sioux name). teuse. 1858. note. Col. 400. 1836. 1877. 123. iii. of the Saints. Hist. 1798 (German form). Doc. Am. 230. 1st s. 1798. pt. 287. A.. Wah-kah-towah. 1805 (German form). 19.. to Arct. Otchipwe. OstlagaMinn. n.— Gallinee (1669) in — Hist. Hist. 48. IV.. Ethnol. 9. the vicinity of lake Nipigon. — — — — — Rep. MS. Odjibevcais. —Schoolcraft quoted 1885. 1858. A.. St. Col. 153. 1850. 1854.. A. 187. Odchlpewa. 1667. i. 1853. — — 1867. 1849. iii.. Sauteux. Hist. Ind. 270. 1855. 94. Osage MS. Ouchibois. band. S. Sotoos. 79. B. Exped. O-jebway. Col. 270. D6c. Montagnais tribe. Mo. Ojibwaig. Uchipweys. 96.. Doc. Sauters. Sautous. 1878. 113. i. Trav. Jone. Sault Indians.shore of the gulf of St. 96. Ft. 46. Wanderings in N. 1871. vocab. Coll. Soulteaux. Coll. Dec. title. wais. ni. 79. Santeaux. vocabs. Rep. Doc. Hist.— Hildreth. 1824. Sauteus. 87. ibid. bous. Oshibwsk— Belcourt 227. 1832. Ouchipoe.. vi. Peter's R. Soc. 893. Coll. In the Relation of 1640 it is stated that in ascending the St. Otchepose. Papers. E. 52. "we meet with the people of Chisedech and the stated in the Jesuit 1645 that certain savages . A. 556. 3d sess. ir. Walch. 538. Hist. — 228. New Views. Sotto. Aff. Outehlpoues. Kingsley. 1850) in Minn... Ontehibouse.— Yorlc (1700) in N.— Buchanan... Doc. of 1761 in Mass. Gamelin (1790) in Am.. — Outchipoue. 1868. i... 1821. Bell in Can.— Dobbs. Coll.. 135.. Lawrence. Gunn in Smithson. 1886. 406. ii.. ii. and AfEn. as of it is — — Ra-ra-t'wans.. Doc.— Carver (1766). They occupy reserves at Jackfish 286 acres. 1871. Ochippewais.. vocab. 35. Ninniwas. 1838.. Franklin. Pioneer. ii. Schipuwe Heckewelder quoted by Barton. Tschipeway.. 1741. 1886. Objibways. index. Hist.— Jes. Y.. Vaudreuil (1719) in N. Journ.). 1831. 164.. 1824.100 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. La Salle (1682) in Margry. 190. 1858. Ogibols. Minn.. New Voy. ii. Soc Coll.— Ramsey 1850 (Sioux name). La. 454. Tribes.. 38.. 1843. 270. 315.— Hewitt. Soc. Ojibwe. 1. Ostiagaghroones. A. Odjibwe. 1809. and Surg. 70..— Maximilian. 1864. 150. Nachr. — Margry. 224. Ne-gAtc-hi-ji"). Saulteux. 123.. Ottapoas. O-jib-wa-uk'. 1885 (Iroquois name). v. 1873. in. (j.. Smith.—Perrot. Nations. Rafinesque. 400.. Ibid. Doc. (Bell copy. New Voy. Ojibboai.. pas. Misc. Ojib- way-ugs. 6.. Trav. Rel.. B. Narr. Rep. 1817 (misprint). Schoolcraft. Stiaggeghroano. 1856. in Canajoharie conf. in Margry. vii. Y. 15. — 1 Long. Tanner. Lindesay (1749) in N. 143. E. 2d s. Heckewelder quoted by Barton. A. B. Ibid. Brown. Soc. 1880 (Tuscarora name. Aff.. 1861. 1836. Doc.— Jes.Livingston (1700) in N. ii. 1850 (probably a misprint). Ochlpoy. Coll.. Ind. Oucahipoues. 3d 1 — Foster 1873. iv. 1806. Hist. Hist.. Hist. Coll.. Cox. 1868 (misprint). B. app. ix. 1735. 518. — Foster in Sen.. West. Ind. Ocean. — — — Bacqueville de Rep.— La Salle (1682) in French. 1883. Consang.). 26.. Hist.. in U. Exped. Henry. Ouchlpawah.— U. Dalton (1783) in Mass. Otchipoeses. of lake Superior in Ontario. Stiagigroone." probably Eskimo.— Neill Margry. Ind. 1854.. 32. 1667. (1745) in 1 12 — Saulteurs. 384. v. i. i.) Schoolcraft. Ibid.. Shepuway. Tcipu'. Narr. 1884. Annals of the West. O-jlb-wage. Saul(ca. Baraga.. Aff. Arct. 72.—Pike (1697) in (l806) quoted by Red Rock on Nipigon bay. OutacheMcKenney and Hall. Coll. 1855. Trav. Ind..— Belcourt (1850?) in Minn. 1890. i. Ojibeways Perkins and Peck. Hist. Shepawees. Coll. Ojibwas. Otchlpoises. (1641) quoted in 17. La Chesnaye Ouchipoves.. VI. Saulteaux. Polar Sea. M^m. (Bell copy. Col. 1912 Ne-g4-tc6. horoones. The name appears to have been applied to a locality and the people of that locality. Rel. Souties. Od-jib-vfag. Hist... They are connected with the band at VI.— Umfreville (1790) in Me. Kane.. II..— Morgan. 265. E. Otjibwek.—Perrot. — Chisedec. Soc. X. 1849. Otchi(1759) in N. Pioneer. Hist. MS. Gull bay. D6c. BeauharMinn. and Philol. Y.. Santena. ir. II. Paouitigoueieuhak. Columbia R. v. Soc Coll.—Am. 1872. A Chippewa known by this name hunting in pois. St. Coll. — Seven Islands on the N. Hud- son Bay. Med. Post (1758) quoted by Proud.. Cyr. 1. ii. Hoffman. i. Tribes.— Tanner. 287. Penn. Proces verbal (1682) in French. (1?50?) in Minn. 1875. 1855. Hist. 1864. ix.— Belcourt Coll.— Schermerhorn (1812) in Mass. Carolana map. 1778. 6. Ra-ra-to-oans. Grand bay.s. Ojibbewaig. erie.. Hutchins (1770). 1883 (Osage name). Tw5'kS-nhS'. v. 4th s.— King. N. 1843. Soc. Pioneer Hist.. Lawrence. 1858. Tschippiweer. Nwi-ka. Y. inl911. 1812. 1846. 1875. Soc. I. and Apr.. country of the Bersiamites.— Raymbaut U. 1851. oral inf'n.. 1765). Hist. Coxe. E. . O'chepe'wag. 1843. m. 123.. Ojibois. —Morgan. 39. 737. Rel. Odjibwas. New Views. 1753. Dorsey. Nat. Sauteaux.. Val. Je. 1861 S. Chauvignerie (1736) quoted by Schoolcraft. Odjibwek. 397. Ind. Hist. 192. City — Misc. nois Santeurs. Sotoes. — Burton. La. Soc. 1846. Col.— Gallinee — — 24. la Poth- Relation boasted of their warhke actions "at Chichedek. 1830 (Ottawa name).S. Salteur.. 323.

The word is said to be taken from one of the Algonquian dialects of the region. Surv.) Ghomonchouaniste. former Canadian tribe Sagard (1632). and change of occupation. s. 34. c. coast of Moresby id. ii. bay. Hist. 1905. 244. British Colum- aboUtion of many of his social usages. A village of the Lytton band of Ntlakyapamuk on Eraser r. 101 No. of lake St. 48.—Jes. — — Can. Istes. 1777. Brit. map. have but slight Lescarbot says of the river m. (Jhuchunayha.. It is possible. Soc.. 1895. 1660.— Dawson ii. The tribe. Can.— Hill-Tout 1900. an A Indian appellation (Hind). said to have been so named from an inlet in and out of which the tide rushes with great force. Chakchuqualk. a Cowichan tribe of lower Chilli- — wak r. w. 277. Roy.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER Bersiamites. Brit. North River. 1886. if intended for the Chisedec would indicate a locality in the distant n.) designation of a people the name dropped N. 1784.. N. Col. 191. To the aboriginal inhabitant of this continent. 'mouth of the tide'). 230.. pt. Siska Flat. Esnauts and Rapilly map. Chiserhonon. 'uncle'). Brit. Mus.— Ibid 78. Ind. OuakSiechidek. Aff. Tck'unfte'n. 1894. AfF. 171. 312. but all possessed rules of conduct which must be obeyed. the the Similkameen group.— Ibid. Chuchu- wayha.— Ibid. which enters into or near the bay of Seven was changed to Chi-sche-dec. Tcuti'l.. pop. Tsuk-tsuk-kwalk'. 1858. for 166. 1886. Brit... Teit in Mem.') A gens of the (j.— Can. The name to the Indians. — 1900. Boas in 6th Rep. a family of Ninstints. wherever it chanced to be.— Ibid. I. Col.. for 1880.. A Dutch map of 1621 names the bay or locality Chichedec. Quebec. Cont. 32 in 1902.. Chukeu {Tcuq!e-u'.. A. 52 in 1901. used in 1660 as that of a tribe in connection with the Outabitibek (Abitibi). 1885. Ouakouiechidek. Doc. Chutil (named from a slough on which it was situated). A Shuswap village on North Thompson r. 'to go for cedar planks'). ir. below Lytton. W. twyi). Haida.— Ibid.. particularly the lake herring (Coregonus artedi) Chomaath {Tco'mdath).— Can. Ibid. W. ca. A body s. Perhaps it is but its origin is not clear. Am.— Ibid. wandering on the plains in pursuit of game. in Tcuk"tcuk'ts. N. North Thomp74. Rep. tribes Can. 8 m. 1878. the re- Cheh-chewc-hem. A former village or camp of the Pilalt. whether resting at home in the village. 196. 1894. 1640. 1891. 1878. 12. civilization entailed the over- Chuchunayha. bia. A name given on several maps as that of a tribe formerly living N. Cisco. in w. iv. Ibid.. Chichedec— Dutch map (1621) in Chichedek. 278. of Civilization. therefore. As the (c. Si'ska. Tribes Can. 17. Ind. 1645.. munity on the Brit. 1755. 317. of fish A name apphed to various species end of Vancouver in 6th found in the region of the great lakes.. to who seem Chukchukts. t. S. Hist. 128 in 1911.— 1893. Chomonehouanof Okinagan. sec. 1905.—Ibid. Wakouiechiwek. from history at an early date. Canada. applied have been closely connected with and possibly were a part of the Bersiamite tribe.. N. 277. 1858. Probably a Montagnais band or settlement. ('snipe. or . Brit. Ind.— Hill-Tout. 37... Chomoncouanistes. Haida. A Haida town on the s. 1902. 1892. Chomonchouanistes.— Ibid. Chkungen.— Ibid. Brit. 44. — Lattr^ — Letter map. Toquart. Col. pop. 1858. No community of natives was devoid of a social organization and a form of government. Chemonchovanistes. Chuchuqualk. 1866." which we Chueskweskewa Chippewa. — A sept of the and the lake noon-eye (C. 1883. . Col. A left Squawmish village combank of Skwamish r. Chuckchuqualk ('red place'). some tribes being much more highly organized than others (see Clan and Gens).. a Nootka tribe. 21a of two small nations knowledge.. near Houston Stewart channel and the abandoned town of Ninstints. pop. a reduction of ciscoetle or siskomt. w. f. 1858 (same?). in Ethnol. Chukchukualk. Swanton. else punishment would follow. (a. 1887. Rel.. 32.. Cont. A subordinate to the Ottawa. Chisedech. Aff. 1856. John. w. These varied. which carried with it the obligation of mutual protection. Col. 1890. 1755. Ill. It was occupied by the Sakikegawai. Chukchuqualk. index.) that in his time (1609) the Islands name Chuga {Tdu'uga. 277. 8on. Col.— Swanton. Chuk-chu-quaeh-u. adjustment of his ideas of property and personal rights. — Boas Rep. A Songish band at McNeill id. in Trans. Bellin map. Nat. 1890... 1901. 474. that the name Haida town of the Gunghetgitunai. Native organization was based on kinship.. Can. Queen Charlotte ids. Y. was that of the river and referred only to a settlement. A. — — Cisco {Si'ska.. turning of his ancient form of government. Col. 1902.

A ttalish tribe on Toba dialect. Kane. Clan and Gens. and children must inherit theii- from both parents and be_ subject to of the and beliefs as are required by Yet many have done so. and evincing a degree of courage. lized The results of genera- tions of training are of little avail to the civi- male Indian. employed on the railroads. are spared the abrupt change through which their fathers had to struggle. Cle-Hure. not that of a clan or gens. and the legislator.3. was endowed with life by some power that pervaded the universe. 1869. was her religious right by tribal law. — Tolmie and Dawson. and other im- Wherever the envii'onment permits. pans. MS. Inter-tribal wars have ceased. Aft. Brit.ssible. Whymper. are wiped out by civilization. organized to promote their social and political welfare. born zation. a place in the management tribal affairs. Most life common occupations of tribal under the new conditions. and long life.. Ind. 1887. Vocabs. many cases. and holding positions of Indians. As among all races. the employments of the white race are now those of the Indian. and clergymen. Brit. Tribes. while the white man's factories supply cloth. trust in banks and mercantile houses. whereas the organization which civihzation imposes on the native is based on locahty. Modern civilization demands the abro- gation of the clan or gens. 1884. 1862 (name of — Downie Mayne. f. from that of road master to that of The school. subject to Nevertheless of the ancient the breaking down forms of worship through the many tives It is changes and restrictions incident to the settlement of the country has caused the na- common much distress laws and having equal responsibilities. are practising as lawyers. or gens is An American an intra-tribal Indian clan exogamic group of persons either actually or theoretically consanguine.. — Ind. and strength of character that can not fail to win the admiration of thinking men. or through their mother and are members of her clan. Under tribal conditions woman held. and ba.. The younger generation. a power to apprehend the value of new ideals. 1855. the missionary. home. 1862.— Ibid. Alaska. clothing. for 1874. 144... 1891. life are slowly but surely changing the Indian's mode of thought as well Civilization puts an end to lier outdoor altered conditions of as his tribe mode of living. 49. Cle-Huse. those Hving within certain hmits being. the preparing of food. Klahous. 1912 scattered in quest of fish on the rivers or sea. is and race memory and a Clahoose. always preserved its organization and authority intact. and the family is differently constituted. Brit. of pure race or of mixed blood. 488.. physicians. speaking the Comox pop. 449. but the incentive was the desire for food. and the makers of bows. and with them the hunter.'ent to conserve the to be found tilling his farm. for none of the native industries can survive in competition with machinery.. Clahoose. Klashoose. the making of clothing. app. in of Upon her devolved partly the the dressing of skins. and a wilhngness to accept the inevitable. v. husband and wife very often must belong to According to the custom of different units. they have mac^e their way in literature and art. A. c. is Already the Indian plements of the chase. mere kinship warrants no claim. authority. A. in N. Clayhoosh.— Can. Ind.. work and consigns her to the kitchen and the washtub. in common with all created things. A. TIahu's.. showing a grasp of mind.skets. priestcraft overlaid many of the higher thoughts and expressive of them. spears. while the rites and ceremonies inculcated certain ethical relations between man and man. the production of pottery and baskets. B.— Mayne. In one branch of the intro- Eskimo change has come through the duction of the reindeer. loses her importance in public affairs and all and that v. 24. it has been a slow and difficult process for the aborigines to accept to such radical changes of organi- In the tribal family and conform civihzation. and are serving the public in national and state offices. the members being class usually denoted bj^ a common name derived . app. 1859. Klahoose. the herds of buffalo and other animals are gone. Col.. in Brit. self-restraint. 119b. not surprising that and mental confusion. Klahose. No group of peoples on the continent were destitute of — behefs or of rites and ceremonies These beliefs were based on the idea that man. arrows. inlet). 142. regardless of relationship. map. moreover.) tradition. the particular tribe the children trace descent through their father and belong to his gens. Col Tlahoos. for 1874. The methods of appealing to this power varied with the environment of the peoples. and the old Hfe of his becoming more and more a (a. pots. . teachings of native religion and led to unworthy practices. Wand.102 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. customs. working in mines and logging camps. inlet. and war honours are no longer po. Col. plying the trades.— Boas. Col. the independent ownership of property that 68 in 1911. E. health. Aff. Schoolcraft. — — Can. cultivation of the fields. Woman.

chira and the initial step in the deposition of a chief while in the gens they devolve or sub-chief was taken by the women's council organizations are line. The Mohawk clans. There were clans possessed titles in which several ohwachiras to chiefships. and. by titles in trust placing these chira of the with a sister ohwa- ohwachira a member. which is usually that two or more actually or an animal. development of In the a clan by the coalescence of theoretically related lowing are some of the characteristic rights and privileges of the approximately identical Iroquoian and Muskhogean clans: (1) The right to a of common clan name. (2) Representation in the that council of the tribe. was the exclusive property women. chira. conferring certain social. a Mohawk term signifying the family. the tribe only through adoption into one of the ohwachiras. one of the fundamental rules of the constitution of the League of the ently through the coalescence of two or more ohwachiras. comprising all the male and female progeny of a of all her female descendants in the female line and of such other persons as may be adopted into the ohwachira. not an essential feature of clan and The terms clan and Every ohwachira of the Iroquois possessed and worshiped. life The of a ohwachira was bound to purchase the and religious and rights that are denied to member who had forfeited it by the killing of a member of the tribe or of an alUed tribe. owned by called oiaron or ochinagenda. It may be composed of one or more firesides. be conferred on a The primary unit of hogean peoples generally constituted of one the social and political organization of Iro- quoian and Muskhogean tribes is the ohwachira. women of childbearing age of The married such an ohwa- and sub-chief of the clan confirmed and installed by the tribal coimcil. The right to chiefship or subchiefship titles. The members of an ohwachira have (1) the right to the name of the clan of which their Its is was developed apparmore ohwachiras having a common abode. gentile is individuals or groups of which. one or deities. Clan and gentile by no means universal among the North American tribes. inheritance of personal and common property. by Powell. duties. among the Iroquois in later times by the League elected chief . 21a some fact relating to the habitat of the group or to its usual tutelary being. All the land of an ohwachira of its Consanguine kinship among the Iroquoian and Muskhogean tribes is traced through the blood of the woman only. privileges. In the clan lineal descent. Iroquois provides for the preservation of the titles of chief and sub-chief of the ohwachira. tribes have only 3 each of communal totems by persons. bird. aliens. had the right to hold a council for the purpose of choosing candidates for chief and subchief of the clan. the through the male of the ohwachira to whom the title belongs. In the event of the extinction of an ohwachira through death. and it possessed the right to spare or to take the of prisoners life it By the legal fiction of adoption the made in its behaK or offered to blood of the alien might be changed into one of the strains of Iroquoian blood. The or clan among is the Iroquoian and the It Musk- person of alien lineage. reptile. or natm'al object ohwachiras. An ohwachira woman and never bears the ty. The fol- the right to take part in councils of the ohwa- The titles of chief and sub-chief were the heritage of particular ohwachiras. and (3) the pleasure of the League council. possession or even the worship of personal or and Oneida chiefships. privileges. they are used defined here practically as more tutelary which were customarily the charge of wise women. in addition to those gens as defined and employed by Powell denote and political organization. (2) the right of inherit- same clan. munal property have its of the tribe. has 3 chiefships and 3 sub- organizations. only certain ohwachiras obtained the inheritance and custody of the titles of and consequently the right to choose chief and sub- may formerly have been regarded as a guardian deity. (3) Its share in the com(4) Very rarely were the offspring of an adopted alien constituted an ohwachira having chief. Where a single ohwachira represents a clan it was almost always due to the extinction of sister ohwachiras. no better names having been useful discriminations in social proposed. during ing property from deceased members. the chief matron of one of the ohwachiras being the trustee of the titles. name of a tutelary or other deihead is usually the eldest woman in it. and membership in a clan constitutes citizenship in the tribe. Amalgamation natm^ally resulted in a higher organization and an enlargement and multiplication of rights. political. and one or more ohwachiras may constitute a clan. however. and totemism. if there be such. An alien could be taken into the clan and into individuals. and the hereditary right to public office and trust are traced through the female line. and thus citizenship in the tribe could for adoption. and obligations.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER generally from 103 No.

A clansman in speaking of a person of the opposite gious rites. and finelooking. although belonging to the same stock as the last two. the whole was closely interdependent and cohe- The clan or gentile of the name is not usually the common name which the clan may animal or object after be called. The duties incident to clan (1) mem- bership were the following: The obligation not to marry within the clan. because they are in "a peculiar transitional stage." or whom I have made. is governed on the same principle. (5) (6) The right to the protection The right to the titles of the The of it e chief- monly named ha'nowa from the clan designation is carapace. which has the onomatopoetic name dowisdowi' but nostrils are large . All these rights and obligations. such as the League of the Iroquois. are not always found of a clan to any ohwachira obhgation resting on members of a phratry to "find the word" of the dream of a child of the The phratry is the unit of other phratry. The The okwawhich such titles are hereditary to elect the chief and sub-chief. to be bestowed upon its members." The Kwakiutl is exogamic. do not have animal totems. formerly not even within the phratry to which the clan belonged. names. or may coast. The Huron and the Cayuga appear formerly to have had 4. One of the Seneca clans is named from the deer. The or both together.' Another Seneca clan is named from the sandpiper. and number is 3. or totemic emblem. chants. The simpler unit of of its autonomy organization surrendered to the higher unit so that together. Haida. the clan name is hodi'nesiio' . be an archaic name of it. The government of a clan or gens. is seemingly a development from that of the ohwachira.' The number clans in the chiras. One The clans of the phratries are regarded as brothers Bub-chiefs. The establishment of each new duties. the Onondaga 8. 1912 council. A. "maternal organization" in which the totem groups are exogamic. and a confederation. The phratry has a certain allotted space in every assembly. suk. while the Seneca have 9. tribe. portion of this coast area a woman's rank and privileges always descend to her children. The smallest and its religious observances. (8) different Iroquois tribes varies. right to a (11) (12) Clans and gentes are generally organized common burial ground. ." hence the is and the female mem- The joint obligation to purchase the life of a member of the clan which has been forfeited by the homicide of a member of the tribe or of an allied tribe. but the into phratries ally only 2 phi-atries are Cayuga to-day assemble in 2 phratries. while the clan name is hadiniongwaiiu' 'those whose . usually the side of the fire opposite to that held by the other phratry.104 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE its v. to hold right to certain personal found in the Mohawk and Oneida. Still another clan is called after the turtle. when analytically studied. and public festivals of the tribe. some sive. the male members of it mutually regarded them. but denotes some necessarily produced privileges. but as 'a phratry it has no officers. 'cloven foot'. (2) obligation to aid and defend feUow-members redressing their their death. Heilt- commonly called neogSx. (10) The right to adopt aliens through the action of a constituent ohwachira. As the crest. (14) The right to share in the reli- one to another and cousins to the members of the other phratry. as the Tlingit. right to certain songs. ceremonies. however. higher unit rights. 'they of but have ships and sub-chief ships hereditary in its ohwa(7) upright necks. by supplying wrongs and (4) their needs. the chiefs and elders of the clans composing it serve as its directors. haunt of it. the matron of such ohwachira having the right to ask that thia obligation be fulfilled. and salient feature or characteristic or the favourite According to Boas the tribes of the N. com- and Kitimat. The right of men or councils. organization of the people for ceremonial and other assemblages and festivals. a. the phratry being a brotherhood of clans. and a..' referring to the sand- piper's habit of running along the water's edge where the sand is washed by the waves. or more clans may compose a phratry. have animal totems. (13) The right of such women to impeach and thus institute proceedings for the deposition of chiefs and right of the child-bearing chiras in of the women and phratries into tribes. descends in the female line through marriage among the Kwakiutl. The government of a tribe is developed from that of the clan or gens. injuries. (3) The bers as sisters. W. In the n. Usufound in the modern organization of tribes. Tsimshian. (9) women. however. the Wyandot 12. and are so addressed. 'those who come from the clean sand.selves as brothers phratry may "He also say is "He a child my father's clansman. hadiniaden'. The Kwakiutl. and avenging The joint obligation to obtain prisoners or other persons to replace of members lost or killed which they are related as father's clansmen.

Clemclemalats.. Victoria. w coast of Vancouver id. but blankets (q. Grant in Jour.. was worn and even for Climate.. 1862. The tribes of the s. hoofs. 189. and cotton has been woven by the"Hopi from ancient dresses times.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER somewhat similar 105 No. A Nootka tribe living on Meares id. 1879. Among has been brought the Haida and Pacific coast. Pacific. A former village 12 m. were applied as ornaments or charms. Soc. R. 1861. Vancouver id. Clothing. of Suwany in r. Aff. Aff. Tlemtle'melets. pop. A.." Natives do the Eskimo.. Kla-oo-qua-ahts. pt. remnant a clan.. 264. was provided with sleeves and was designed to be drawn over the head. Xfaoquatsh. Geog. 1872. Col. 1st sess. Clao-qu-aht. 188. portion of the by according to the same authority.) were substituted for these The costume presented tribal differences later. I.— Ibid. leggings tied to a belt or free over the hips. of Kam- of.— Ibid. 52. Tlao'kwiath. 1802. 357. 1862. and southern regions. 308. a breechcloth. Clock-toot. 1901.... sewing was practised by both sexes. Can. while elk or moose skin. edges were generally fringed.. although soft. 2. Clem-clemalets. for robes The hide of the buffalo not always consider themselves descendants of the totem.. under-Coat. Ibid. Unlike many other arts.. 1890. MS. Map. A Nitinat village at the mouth s. hair.. quates.. the exceptions being those inhabiting the into one garment. July 19. 19.. Clem-clemClymclymalats. The typical — — Comp. 1883. 1841. The Alaskan Eskimo costume also is quite similar.. mountainsheep wool. Feb. and each sex usually — made its own clothing. man of a Philol. painting. was too thick. Claucuad. tribe about An unidentified (Wakashan) Queen Charlotte sd. ii.v. Clyquots..— Can. Lond. having become reduced from about 1. and quill embroidery and beadwork. 1899. 26th Cong. Rep. 1887. coast of Vancouver id. Klay quoit. 146. and dressed fur skins and pelts of birds sewed together were invariably used Kitimat coast. while the men wear and breeches stockings. Clyoquot. Ind. R. under-trousers. 417. 194 in 1884. 403. Elem. Ind. Pueblo.. Cle-li-klt-te. Clayoquot. Mayne. Claiakwat. and feathers were made in the n. Findlay quoted by Taylor in Cal. etc. h. 1849. Aff... — Clelikitte. the Tsimshian have 4. Scouler in Jour. 1862. Bone awls were used in sewing. and legging and moccasin are made it is belong in general to the wholly clothed peoples. . Tanned skin of the deer family for clothing was generally the material the Tlingit there are respectively 2 phratries. A body of Shuswap i. 80 1902. 308. . woven fabrics. Ind.— Can. elevation. and leggings by older people. W. Jewitt. Doc. feathers. and ornamentation. Brit. 209 in 1911. but fibres of plants. ii. fur. colour. — Sproat. 1902. 1840. Galiano. especially the agave. Narr. 1884. but the woman's coat is provided with a hood. pop. 6. 1864.— Brit. except that Clo-oose. The woman's costume differed from that of the man in the length of the shirt. 1897.. Aff. Am. the Heiltsuk 3. A Salish tribe speaking the Cowichan dialect and residing in Cowichan Vancouver id. United States and the ing. Boas in 6th Rep.— EcUs in 1. Brit. Klah-oh-quaht. Clayoquotoch.. pop. The older needlework is of exceptionally good character and shows great skill with the awl. Life. — — — Soc. animals. or of feathers were also worn. Antiq. 224. Ind.. but rather of some ancestor of the An adopted clan who obtained the totem. Wand. The tribes of northern America made largely of woven fabrics. and Torfino inlet. Bulfinch in H. The typical dress of the Pueblo Indians is generally similar to that of the Plains tribes.) Clayoquot. scalp-locks. Sav. 37. A. Latham. and oceanic currents determined the materials used for clothing as well as the — Swan. and the throughout the greater portion of the country. Soc. Anthrop. Brit. — 1898.100 in 67 years. by tribes of the plains. are "purely paternally organized. were also employed. environment. 211. The shirt. 1859. inland from Clayoquot town. Farmer. and boots. — — Kla-oo- — Sinew from the tendons of the larger animals was the usual sewing material.— Kane. ° ° ° — Boas. 112 in 1911. Fabrics of bark.. in N. ° and low moccasins. shells. B. which hung Clocktoot. 43... whicb had short sleeves hanging loosely over the upper arm..— Can. N. 1868.. Geog. tails waist-strap. bone needles were rarely employed and were too large for fine v/ork. 1875. and more familiar costume of the Indian was of tanned buckskin and consisted shirt. Aff. — demand for clothing. of a tribe may sometimes (j. loops agency. E. 164. Robes of skin. Ilaoquatsh. Roy. b. Clecksclocutsee. Tlaoquatch. claws. Am.— Bulfinch in H. — Jacob in Jour.. but the leather was too harsh for clothing generally. Clayoquot sd. Can. Klahoquaht. who were semi-clothed. 43. Col. 26th Cong. Lond. 31. Doc. the garment at the waist. 1st sess. Col.. pt. Tribes Can. Clem-clem-a-lats. The free in cut. E. pop.. valley. Aff. Relacion. 76. Ind. MS. app. Besides the heavy fur outer cloth- warmer regions of s. and in the absence of the breechWomen also wore the belt to confinecloth. on the w. 21a result about among them. 1840. B. 251. Col. a-lits. Ind.. constitute N.

1904. Knowledge of pre-historic and early historic primitive textile fabrics has been derived from impresssions of fabrics on pottery and from fabrics themselves that have been preserved by char- Consult the annual reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology. workbag. leggings.) Men: Robe. Dellenbaugh. shirt-dress with sleeves. thigh-leggings. leggings. long of rabbit skin. breechshirt- hat and hood. i-vi. The Chilkat of s. belt. For occasional use in cooler weather a skin robe or cape was thrown about the shoulders. leggings. Columbia tribes made twined robes of frayed cedar bark and sagebrush bark. and sandal-wearing tribes once ranged widely in the S. half or fuU boots. Women: Long women was coat. 1894. in Proc. Schoolcraft. legging- moccasins. moccasins. leggings(?). moccasins. They also make waterproof coats of the intestines of seal and walrus. The Hupa. and bracelets in infinite variety formed a part of the clothing. the Gulf. basket hat. fringed apron. long coat. gown. usually of basketry. trousers or legging-moccasins. and bordered them with otter fur. Tribes. e. (1) The list is necessarily in- complete. or protection in caves. Native Races. 1912 (the latter in s. a fringe-like skirt of bark. Women: Tanned shoulder-robe..) short breeches. belt. Hariot. Women: more elaborate than that for ordinary wear. was general. Publ. of Cal. {Arctic. Larger pouches and pipe bags of fur or deerskin. (2) trousers. Mittens were used by the Eskimo and other tribes of the far N. and of plain skin. nos. Indian Willoughby in Am. Women: Shirt-coat with large hood. sometimes a shoulder mantle. and the Atlantic coast. legging-moccasins. is worn. (6) North Pacific mat {Chilkat). which In s. short leggings. Indian costume was profoundly modified over a vast area of America by the copying of European dress and the use of traders' stuffs. 1590. 4. {Southern. Mason. were slung from the shoulder. mittens. shirt-coat (rare). Plains. Belts of various materials and ornamentation not only confined the clothing but supported pouches. A. charms. on gown or cap. Am. Those have also been found in Kentucky caverns. Alaska still weave remarkable ceremonial blankets of mountain-goat wool over a warp of twisted wool and bark. paint bags. or. moccasins. Anthrop. breechcloth(?). Eskimo Men: Shirt-coat with hood. Univ. Men: Long coat. or woven stuff. Manners and Customs N. Bancroft. Necklaces'. loins. moccasins. netting. from the elements A synopsis of the costumes worn by tribes follows.106 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. gloves or mittens. W. Mus. (W. trousers.. trinket bags. Antiq. made of squii-rel pelts. a large robe moccasins. head-dress. 1851-57. Alaska a long outer dress without hood. Among the Pacific Coast tribes. breechcloth. cap or head-dress. Nat. long dress-shirt. 1841. (o) Men: Buffalo robe. Women: Long shirtdress with short ample cape sleeves. along the Mexican border. are worn on hunting trips in the kaiak. 1871. trousers. Men: Robe. Carr. 1901. etc. (3) ALGONQtriAN-lROQUOis {Northern). bandoleer bag. Am. woven of strips Ceremonial costume was much leggings. Primitive Travel and Transportation. moccasins. stockings. Shirt-coat. a costume indicating Russian influence. Some tribes near the Mexican boundary wear sandals. In general the Eskimo costume was more complete than that of any The British tribes within the United States. needle-case.. contact with copper. breechcloth. turban. hood Athapascan {Mackenzie and Yukon). etc.. worn around the In certain seasons or during special occupations only the loin band was worn. Inds.) Men: Robe. strung seeds. beaded or ornamented with quillwork. 3. under exceptional conditions. Alaska of twined grass) are found necessary by the Eskimo as a protection from the cold. belt and mittens. North Americans of Yesterday. shii-t to knees or longer. and those ring in fire. cap. shirt-coat. belt. and the wrist-guard to protect the arm from the recoil of the bow-string Long dress-shirt. the customary garment of Men: cloth. Rep. and shirt-dress. 1897. or peltry. vii. cord. Goddard. for on account of the abandonment costumes the data are chiefly his{Northern). living in the 1 1 geographical regions of northern America of tribal torical. were worn by many Pacific Coast tribes. moccasins. but in the warmer parts and in California their use was unusual. legging-moccasins. earrings. 1.) . Vu-ginia. Moccasins and leggings were worn throughout much of this area. open in front. 1905. {Western. H. moccasins. belt. Catlin. Women: Robe. boots. Soc. repr. leggings to the knees. Hats. Shortly after the advent of whites.. Men: Blanskin ket or bark robe.

the common form being a stone set on a short handle by means of rawhide. and others have pendants. and the handle was so attached as to leave a pliable neck. a bunch of hawk or owl of bone. or a single eagle feather. the elaboration of the war-club may be followed in one line through the straight-shafted maul-headed club of the Zuni. salmon. often with carved handles. Starting from the simple knobstick. domestic. Niblack in Rep. Kiowa. and includes the and otherwise worked into shape.Kickapoo. knife-blades. Ceremonial clubs and batons were used. made wood. 1880. and special functions. or the like. 2 or 3 in. Outside the Pueblos few missile clubs are found. as well as some of their ordinary club weapons. and clubs of similar shape have been found in caves in s. and pounding pemmican. Mohave. Savage Weapons at the Centennial. in modern times often double-pointed and polished. which shrank in drying and all fast. Oto. No. between the head and the upper end of the handle. The stone-headed clubs were usually made by paring thin the upper end of a wooden staff. the Apache. Kiowa. and which could be used as such on occasion. There is. Nat. masher-shaped club in battle. though few specimens of these now exist. that could be concealed about the person. 21a 107 but. The Zuiii employ in certain cere- They are from 18 to 24 in. Mus. is a modern process. Captain John Smith describes The coup stick was often a clubs 3 ells long. Pima. etc. curved club with a knobbed head (Alg. Shorter clubs. and in the New-fire ceremony of the Hopi a priest carries an agave-stalk club in the form Batons were of a plumed serpent (Fewkes). lanceheads. cassefete) belonging to some Sioux. the other end of the stone being capped with rawhide. and the elk horn with sharpened prongs belongs to this class. and for ceremony. tribes of British Columbia and s. Consult Boas in Rep. stone. 1851). as the bow and the lance. The heads stone. Aztec maquahuitl (Morgan. Mauls resembling clubs. It is noteworthy that the parrying club was not known in America. seal. League of Iro- The chief man of the Mohave carried a potato- A series of interesting paddle-shaped clubs. The slaves. especially on the in man}' cases merely a part of the costume. long. Mus. however. The hide-working maul followed the form of the typical club. inlaid. catlinite being sometimes the material. Rep. Ute. These clubs were usually handsomely carved. ancient and modern. feathers.. often carried as badges of office by certain officers of the Plains tribes and those of the N. was inserted in a socket bored but this. it would seem. also plains. 1879. clubs became tribe in Every covering the withe part and the rest of the staff held with wet raw-hide. Moorehead. to the slungshot club of other Pueblos. copper. rarely. clubs Most were designed for warfare. after the adoption of America used clubs. to the club with a fixed stone head of the Ute. Navaho. and Oto. e. League of the Iroquois. were found among most tribes. are found in the culture area of the Salishan tribes. and painted. Shoshoni. foi'ming a weapon quois. but was grooved usually musket-shaped club of the northern Sioux. Comanche. Nat. Alaska made a variety of clubs for killing The Plains tribes and those of the n. coast. inclosed in rawhide. and. but a few clublike mallets of ivory and deer-horn in their domestic arts. The head of the slungshot club was a round or oval stone. Morgan. Clubs of this type are often set with spikes. Le Moyne figures paddle-shaped clubs that were employed by Floridian tribes which in structure and function suggest a transition toward the sword. of the rigid clubs were of hard club of the typical pueblos. much smaller. The Eskimo did not make clubs for war. employed by women for driving stakes. and to the Chippewa. archteological evidence that rows of flint splinters or horn points were set in clubs by the Iroquois and the Indians of North Carolina. often a cow's tail. Irapls.. Prehist. or •were relegated to ceremonial. beating bark and hide. and the flat. In many cases. 359. 1900. Fr. like the enemies. the handle in the stone head. ceremonial club. pogamoggan. long. and Sioux. Arizona. w. forest country furnish many examples of dangerous looking ceremonial clubs of this character. 1895. Smithson. There was great variety in the forms of this weapon or implement. 1897 Knight. the Zuni and Hopi. 1904. and monies huge batons made of agave flower stalks. often flattened. . Another line begins with the carved. and the Sauk and Fox and other Algonquian tribes. The pemmican maul had only one working face. Menominee.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER Clubs. more effectual weapons. bending it round the stone in the groove. and the Siouan tribes. Most Indian clubs are furnished with a thong for the wrist. and other timber Algonquians. were also used. Paiute. entirely inclosed in rawhide.

Aff.. Col. Evidences of widespread commerce and lude media of exchange in North America are found in ancient shellheaps. Ind... They lived beyond the timber line. 1869. 1879. Brit.— Can. Ethnog. whose great rivers all end in frozen tundras and arctic wastes. Col. 1S9S. into culture areas in a itive The North American continent is divided way conducive to primcommerce. These they traded in every direction for supplier to satisfy their needs (see trade). 318. 61 in 1911. — money. 1890..Yukon tribes were in the lands of the reindeer and of soft fur-bearing animals. Atlantic. 1887. last Mo. — 40 in 1889. 1856. inRemnants of cluding the use of firearms. which must have been transported commercially from afar along the water highways in birch-bark canoes and dugouts. E. A medium of navigable for canoes.. and graves. the neighbouring Caribbean area. The salt-water New World bays and inlets circle and on Hudson bay. Lake agency. Morice. Alaska.. H. and driftwood for sleds and harpoons could be found. 1880. hence the Athapascans brought vessels of wood and baskets to trade with them for oil and other arctic products. A Salish tribe speaking the Cowichan dialect and inhabiting part of Cowichan valley. their Hayden. A. abalone. and used them for traffic. 459. Nat. in which neigh- portion of this slope reveal artifacts bouring waters are connected for traffic by easy portages. the Iroquois were ennobled and became the leading family of this area. MS B. Anthrop. for 1889. Comiaken. The Great lakes and the St. Smith Nelson in 18th Rep. The Mississippi area was a vast receiving depot of commerce. where most deficiency in the of the commercom- The gia Atlantic slope from Labrador to Georspecial animals originated.— Val. 1889. A Cree band of 100 s. 62. 237. to whom the Arctic area belonged. named from Philol. Commerce. The Eskimo. carried on extensive commerce among themselves and with the western Athapascan tribes and the Algonquian tribes to the E. Saskatchechief. time the name appears. areas were Certain resom'ces of particin ular universal demand.. and decoration and Cokah wan. The mounds of the of s. skin lodges on the Fishing lakes. merce was made up by the waters. Overland. The Mackenzie. Aff.. in (eyes 'open'). 1899. E. continuously inhabited by the homogeneous along the Arctic crustaceans.. Inland were found . used as a pack beast The Russians in Alaska and the Hudson's Bay Co. 1912 mica> 1888. conus. Chamberlain in Am. placed the tribes about them in touch with the copper mines of lake Superior. Mississippi. conditions in the section of the Natural and turkeys. fish. the Can. Old World. the only domestic animal for long-distance transportation being the dog. 1904. N. shells obsidian. a condition contrasting with that of Siberia. as dentalium. A. in the in inlets of the Atlantic coast. as the Siksika of the plains and the Takulli of British Columbia (Havard in Smithson.. Aff. A body of Salish of Williams Brit. such obsidian. vi. mounds. and aquatic birds in vast Eskimo.— Can. moreover. Ind.deer. Comea-kin. home of Algonquian and The means of land Iroquoian bears. tribes. amd Colchopa. Whymper. this trade was done on foot. . Iroquois bands that were employed in the fur trade have been found on Rainy lake.—Boas. made from clam shells. Mackenzie. 269. Comiakin (Qumie'qmi). not only supplied molluscs. Vancouver id. E. Comiakin.) as copper. Lawrence. soapstone. Ind. Ko-ne-a kun. Xume'Xen. and shell. Int. in Mem. jade. but stimulated easy transportation and commerce. Better still by far for the trader were the fresh-water cellent rivers. Mus.. Am. as the Polar sea and as far w. (w. A. Fur- 417. having easy touch with other areas about it by means of portages between the headwaters of innumerable copper. Lawrence. stimulated them to the utmost and taught them new means of capture.. British Columbia and numbers. on Red and for the travois and the sled. 1903. B. and in archipelagoes of the s. oliveUa. 271.. St. of the Yukon. 316. even as far n. was the foxes. Rep. encouraged and developed ex- Through this enlarging influence water craft for commerce. e. Alaska. jade for blades. pop. pop. and Columbia systems.108 DEPARTMENT QF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE for v.— Ibid. 1904. 1862. and clam shells.. exchange was invented in the shape of wampiun. s.) See Caughnawaga. the objects having passed fiom hand to hand often many times. In this respect the north temperate zone of America was in marvellous contrast with the same latitudes of the cial and Saskatchewan rs. They knew where soapstone for lamps. paint-stones. Hist. .

. fire- keeper. trans- craft. v. A. Vocabs. fur for by the supreme counthrough instruments appointed in the compact or afterward devised.. 18S9. wooden dishes. and baskets were bartered for other baskets and the teeth 311. 21a 109 streams. trade active. A. Their proper name. The tribes forming a confederation surrendered to the league certain powers and rights which they donkeys. Ethnol. wood suitable for boxes. 269. Tribe. Elias s. and Sliammon. W. Brit.. to California. Every tribe of the federation were exercised example. Co-moux. visited their The Haida regularly Tsimshian neighbours. Buffalo skins and horns were demanded by the Pueblos. to exchange canoes for eulachon oil. Copper. and to its agents were guaranteed freedom safety. catlinite. door-keeper.als.. 1S4S. Roy. beadwork. with the e. 18G1. and cil individually. just as the clan Commerce was greatly stimulated through is the unit of the tribe. i. and native manufactures. From mount was 1889. Brit.) Catlo'ltq.— Sproat. Comox. N. 1877 (Uguultas name). Col. 1857. 1877.HANDBOOK OF IXDIAXS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. eulachon. Brit. the Great there were inter-tribal laws of commerce. An on both sides of Rockies.— Boas 10. judicial functions of the con- products desired by the Indians. copper from lake Superior. Geog. from home. Boas. The Coast tribes occupied two areas Homalko. 1SS4. into n. besides this. A looser. Kowmook. and the Mackenzie basins through the Ohio and the main stream. A political league for and defense was sometimes formed by two or more tribes. and implewoven goods.— Boas in 5th Rep. obsidian from the important coast Sahsh tribe Discovery passage. the lated barter. Grant in Jour. Ethnol. K.s.. that present quite opposite conditions in re- in 5th Rep. ivory carvings. Komux.—Scouler (18-16) in Jour.—Gibbs in Cont. Eeksen. W. a speaker. who entered into a compact or formal statement of principles to govern their separate and collective action. Pop. has been taken by Boas as the designation of one dialect of Comox. Catlo'ltx.. The supreme federal council had practically the same officers as a tribal council. between Chancellor channel and cape Mudge. 488. and (o. 185. Ind. through the Missouri and lakes. The conof the coming of the whites by the introduction and poultry. Rockies and Columbia r. Mayne. and objects from the Atlantic. Tatpoos. Money is lavished on fine basketry. i. ******** Pacific coast Salish. and less cohesive alliance of tribes was sometimes formed to meet some grave temporary emergency. Soc. N. and wampum-keeper or . less formal. The mounds reveal dentalium shells from the Pacific. sheep.— School234. camass and moose were articles of commerce. silver work. representatives from the several contracting tribes of which it is composed. (j. On the Columbia r. Lend. S'tlaht-tohtlt-hu. by for federation has a supreme council composed of domestic animals. while pemmican and beads enlivened trade. also for the furs of the interior Indians. (own name). the vastly enlarged demand skins of anim. of those speaking the dialect. — — of a large southern shark. and the sub-chiefs handiwork have commerce. including. i. confederation was generally entitled to representation in the supreme federal council. Savage Life. — Tolmie and Dawson. with the Chesapeake bay.— Gibbs in Cont. Xomoks.) other great branches of the Mississippi in the w. chiefs of the federal council travelled with kinds the traders w. B. both Indians were drawn far Iroquois. S'komook. costumes. fish. waters and the lands offered Soc.. The executive. K o'moks. Ko-mookhs.5. feather and quill work. Ibid. 120b. about 300. 1887 (Lekwiltok name). St. of the tribe 38 in 1911.. Ethnol. A. The The effects of this stimulated trade were profound. for good and evil. — — natural products easy of access that stimu- Tribes Can. pipes of and black steatite from Minnesota and Canada. ivory. MS. E. 181. The confirmation their installation the officers of of officials and were functions delegated to the confederation. t. Commagsheak. Comuxes. m. The unit of a confedoffense eration or gens is the organized tribe. while the Tlingit were intermediaries in diffusing the copper that came from the n. goats Confederation. and especially Navaho blankets and Hopi and Zuni textiles. and other European had exercised legislative. and Chilkat blankets were exchanged for abalone and dentalium shells. N. horn for spoons. In ancient times of Many Indian of each tribe constituted the local council of entered into world the tribe. Tribes of Can. wampum belts. the Clahoose.. Col. portation being effected in excellent dugout canoes. The Canada. ******** cattle. R. gard to commercial activity. horn spoons. especially horses. 10. namely. 1868. Col. Kaake. and mountain-goat horn. mules. 269. by offering in exchange iron tools ments. 293. s. Kakekt.

and the far S. Iroquois confederation was not based on ths clan as its unit.. Mohawk. A. but the peculiar qualities of the metal must in time have impressed themselves upon the acute native mind. Aff. That any extensive trade sprang up between the N. rules. Oneida. which. The supreme federal council of basis 104. 1902. A body of Ntlakyapamuk. and the region of the Gieat lakes.110 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. The representation in the council of the 1911. and treated and used as were stones of similar size Seneca. and other varieties of implements would be evolved. the Mohawk-Seneca phratry. for 1635. of St. Rel.— Can. 183 in rules. See Konlareahronon. To these may be added the loose Caddo confederacy. app. 35. A Rel. 185S. and shape. of which the Mohawk and Seneca formed the first.) demand country. and it is not unhkely that it extended to Mexico. Aff. w. spearheads. was held together largely by religious affiliation. while others Rep. and Potawatomi. for 1656. Tne council. The icign of stone. for 1640. in the event that they offer differing votes or opinions.— Champlain Contareia.— Jes. (1615). for hereditary in certain specified clans. principles. for many clans had no repre- Cooptee. in 1635. The records are insufficient to tribes of Virginia define with accuracy the political organization of these groups. A Nootka winter village near the head of Nootka sd.. Kontarea.-\\it(.. was beginning to give way to the dominion of metal. but its pleasing colour and its capacity for taking a high polish must lit. like the others. however. Narr. —Breboeuf Konkhandeenhronon. 94..s. the 7 council and the alliance of the fires of the Dakota. awls. Simcoe co. under the Kamloops agency. coast of Vancouver id. One of the principal Huron Tiny vil- copper in the lake region passed in course of time beyond the local tribes.-hite race in the power to confirm. The metal was too soft to wholly supersede stone as a material for the manufacture of implements. which in early times had been undisputed.d use among Copper had come into very gcnethe tribes n. drill. 1858. properly be mentioned that of the Chippewa. Ottawa. b. and Maryland called the Powhatan confederacy. situated tp. or on constitutional or other grounds to reject. Ind. 1858. near the present Lannigan lake. Rel. requiring procedure strictly to Superior region. 1 brotherhoods of tribes. 10. and where the red metal was in great demand. where the metallurgic arts had made remarkable headway lages in Ontario in the 17th century.. Reps.ve led at an early date to its use for personal ornaments. 282 in 1882.. Contarrea. but having no right to discuss any question bej'ontl suggesting means to the other phratries for reaching an agi-eement or compromise. of Mexico before the Mississippi arrival of tlie v.^Can. heard and determined causes in accordance with established principles and supreme federal Copk Ferry.— Jes. (Euvres. Col. Rel. and implement^ were shaped by hammering instead of by pecking. It is probable that copper came into use in the n. for this purpose over nearly the entire of the discovery of deposits of Conkhandeenrhonon. of which one phratry acted as do the presiding judges of a court sitting without a jury. Contarea. lor 1636. as a result of the disvalley covery of nuggets or small masses of the native metal an^ong the debris deposited over a large area s.— J. Ind. Lawrence r. 1858. conform to these where the possible. Coop- had several. 1870. the votes or conclusions of the two other pliratries acting individually. 1849. iv. and precedents of the council. having of tribal phratries or . 33. (j.. Coopte. h. would take on new forms. 27. Onondaga. Cayuga. knowledge Gonkhandeenrhonons. tee. Rel. in Je8. of the lakes by the sheets of glacial ice and at all times being jealously careful of that swept from the N. aci'oss the fully exposed surface of the copper-bearing rocks of the lake the customs.. the Oneida and Cayuga the second. 1612. Carmaron. and on the arrival of the whites it was in great n.— Jes. pop. 83. The con- These pieces of copper were at first doubtless stituent tribes of the Iroquois confederation. sitting as a court without a jury. Erit. this confederation was organized on the Copper. but after a while the celts. may hatchets. the name and the title of whom were annalist. 1858. An Iroquoian tribe living s. — Jes. Among alhances. piobabh' belonging to the Nicola band. seems improb- . knives. suggested by the peculiar properties of the material. constituted three tribal phratries. sentative in the federal council. 1912 In the Iroquoian confederation the original 5 tribes severally had a supreme warchief. the looser confederations. and the Onondaga the third but in ceremonial and festal assembhes the last tribe affiliated with . At first the forms pi-oduced would be much the same as those of the stone implements of the same people. etc. 74.

so that.t in dealing with thin sheets of the metal. using a bit of native copper with boulders and pebbles from Mexico. however. The very considerable progress of the native very skilful methods of on American shores. found Considerable discussion has arisen regarding the origin and antiquity of certain objects of sheet copper. later. the most interesting being jaw-bones of wolves plated with thin sheets of copper. wood. formed of thin sheets of copper over a most skilfully executed. Certain objects of sheet copper with repousse designs obtained from Indian mounds in Illinois. although little evidence to this effect has yet been obtained. Johns r. near Chillicothe. North Carolina. A head-dress in draw a very definite line between the aboriginal and the accultural phases of the art. Tennessee. That the ancient mines of the Lake Superior region are this belief. antlers are formed of wood and neatly covered or plated with sheet copper (Putnam). considering the whole period of aboriginal occupancy. belonging to a personage of importance buried one of the Hopewell mounds. No specimen of pure copper has been found which has a greater degree of hardness than can be produced by hammering. however.) c. The Lake Superior copper can often be distinguished from other copper by the dissemination through it of minute particles of silver. the sheet being laid for treatment on a mould of stone or wood. had a process for hardening copper. as a result. con. It is not at all certain. 21a inevitably methods advanced peculiarly such communication would have led to the introduction of southern of manipulation among the more tribes of the Mississippi valley made of sheets of copper covered with indented figures. and Nova Scotia. by experiments conducted by Cushing. United States came mainly from the Lake Superior region. pressure with suitable tools was employed to produce repousse effects.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER able. wood base. The processes employed in shaping copper were at first probably confined to cold hammering and gi-inding. or on a pliable pad or a plastic surface. including the Mexicans and Peruvians. A popular belief exists that the Egyptians and other ancient nations. Fla. considerable extent before the coming of the whites. which were readily made by hammering with stone implements and by grinding. That primitive manipulation well within the reach of the aborigines are adequate to accomplish similar results is shown. and that. since 111 No. probably ear ornaments. and possibly Alaska before the arrival of Eiu-opeans. but that most of the articles recovered from aboriginal sites are aboriginal and made of native metal cannot be seriously ques- tioned. Other objects similarly treated are discs of limestone copper There seems to be little doubt that was somewhat extensively used in and beads of shell. and Willoughby has very effectively imitated this work. the most conspicuous of which are by Moorehead. it is difficult to now metallurgist in copper working is well shown by examples of plating recovered from the mounds in Ohio and elsewhere.. and Florida have attracted inacli attention on account of the treatment shown. but there is no way of satisfactorily determining this point. There can be no question that the supply of copper used by the tribes of e. It is true that the influence of French and English explorers and colonists was soon felt in the copper-producing districts. there can be no doubt of its extensive and widespread utilization before the coming of the whites. C'. Although copper probably came into use among the northern tribes in comparatively recent times. and the vast extent of the work warrants the conclusion that they had been oper- purely aboriginal character and ated hundreds of years before the white set foot man Georgia. is amply shown by their by the implements left on the ground. but heat was employed to facilitate hammering and in annealing. Of the same kind of workmanship are numerous specimens obtained by Moore from mounds on St. It is possible that a small percentage of the copper found in mounds in the Southern states came from Cuba and Mexico. but there is no real foundation for The reputed hardened product is always an alloy. and led in time to modifications in the methods of shaping the metal and in the forms of the articles made from it. although native copper in small quantities is found in Virginia. Other examples from the same source are spoollike objects. other materials. foreign copper became an important article of trade. and possibly rude forms of swedging in m^oulds and even of casting were known. Ohio. high frontal piece and The the Gulf coast and to the frequent presence of Mexican artifacts in the burial mounds. It appears tha. bone. out of which rise a pair of antlers imitating those of a deer. New the beach as tools.. that the natives utilized these latter sources of supply to any Arizona.sists of a .

The tion with the ceremonial head-dress. made as in the spud. needles. according to the relative position of the blade and handle. the long use. employing to some extent methods introduced by the Formerly the natives obtained copper whites. esting objects of copper do not The most mtercome within and the weight ranges from a few ounces to The implement is never perseveral pounds. The forms are greatly diversified. and blades of various forms were in use. shell. supposed to have been intended to aid in fixing the haft. Ohio. but many specimens are in perfect condition. for the insertion of the handle. of the Great lakes. ear-discs. The evident antiquity of the which these objects were found and the absence in them of other objects open to the suspicion of foreign (European) origin or influence tend to confirm the belief in their American origin and pre-Columbian age. 1912 several human figures in elaborate repousse distribution is limited the district lying work. copper. Of the various implements of copper. bone. but more frequently having a socket. retained the high. The socket is usually formed by hammering out lateral wings at the upper end of the implement and bending them inward.112 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE to v. the largest examples being 2 or 3 ft. including beads. The celt These and certain of their features are suggestive of exotic. carbonates. usually these are drawn natives out into a long point at the haft end for insertion into a also lance wood or bone handle. gorgets. though not of European. sometimes shaped for insertion into the end of the wooden shaft. through the action of the copper and spear heads. Many specihicns.. Arrowheads as are latter being of various ordinary shapes are common. They could be hafted to serve as axes. pins. forms grade into other more slender shapes which have chisel edges. and these into drills and graver-like tools. Ross co. are nearly straight on the sides. fishhooks. resulted in the preservation of occur in considerable numbers. and where found appears to repeat the stone forms of the particular district. from one of the Etowah mounds in Georgia. and a large number of objects of sheet copper cut in conventional patterns. pendants. Ohio. Ross co. in length and weighing several pounds. Drills. practical use of it whatever. The . Other remarkable objects found in mounds at Hopewell farm. appear to have been intended for some special symbolic use rather than for personal adornment. earrings. The purpose of this implement is not fully determined. the celt. as usual means of attachment are not provided.. influence. the blade is sometimes widened toward the cutting edge. especially along the Atlantic mention the use of tobacco pipes of There is much evidence that implements as well as ornaments and other objects of copper were regarded as having exceptional virtues and magical powers. making no coast. adzes. however. Personal ornaments are of great variety. . tapering points. probably in connec- doubtedly used. while following in turn are needles and poniards.. and textile materials. who are skilful metal workers. although they doubtless served in some way as adornments for the person. and certain early wTiters aver that some of the tribes of the Great lakes held all copper as sacred. forated for hafting. early voyagers. while others are long and somewhat narrower toward the point. A. With a long and straight handle it would serve as a spade or digging tool with the handle sharply bent near the point of insertion it would become a hatchet or an adze. Analysis of the metal in this and similar cases gives no encoiu-agement to the theory of foreign origin (Moore). found in a mound on Hopewell farm. has. suggesting the adze or gouge.'W. Squier and Davis illustrate a twoedged specimen with a hole through the middle of the blade from face to face. has the widest dis- tribution. the latter being generally cylindrical. although hafts were un- either of the ordinary classes of ornaments. bracelets. utensils. As with our own axes. which is convex in outline. Copper was not extensively used within the area of the Pacific states. portions of these having been preserved in a few cases. had already come to appreciate the value of copper for knives. or gouges. in the Northern states... or chisel-like hatchet. but was employed for various purposes by the tribes of the N. etc. The state of preservation of the implements. pins. especially many precious things which otherwise would have entii-ely disappeared. Related in general shape to the axe is another type Its of implement sometimes called a spud. Some have one face flat and the other slightly ridged. etc. and ornaments found in mounds and other places of buiial varies greatly. surface polish acquired in It happens that the presence of copper objects in association with more perishable objects of wood. are made of sheet copper. with long. some having mounds in immediately s. The best examples are from one of the Etowah mounds in Georgia. The grooved axe is of rare occurrence.

1S98. quetlum.54. et al. B. Ancient Mining on Lake Superior. France. Sherman Hall in the translation of the Gospel of St. i. 1838). The origin of these "coppers" and of their peculiar form and use is not known. chief. Gillman in Smithson. 1878. 1895..HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. no.A. Tribes. Reynolds in Am.. Brit... on Superior Land District Geol. — Co- Koquitan. 31st Cong. 1796.. 1880 1894. 69. Travels of Kah-ge-ga-gah-bowh (George Copway). 17. Soc. Germany. Copway. 21a VIII.. L. no. 1879.. It is used very largely for ornaments. (2) in The Antiquarian. Copper Impl. 1855. Kwi'kwitlEm.— Ibid. Mus. Mound Builders. Hamilton in Wis.— Boas (named a3 MS. Anthrop. Col. New Moorehead (1) Prehist. of Sci. Boas in Nat. 1902. in Am. in British bia. 1887. 1894-1905. State. vii. Squier and Davis. Running Sketches of Men and Places in England.. "i. 1st sess. Smithson.. no.— Can. 1876. Mus.. Hearne. 1851. and masks are sometimes made of it.. Short. 1888. Ibid. Rep. McLean. and Topog. Winchell (w.. Nadaillac. Lapham. 1855. v. 1878.. 1889. Among his published writings are: The Life. Coquitlum. Antiq. no.. Aff. a Tale of the Northwest. 1878. H. Archseol. in Victoria. 79. Ohio. 1889. Can. The upper. Ind. Perhaps the most noteworthy product is the unique. i. Hist. of Antiquity. pt. Recollections of a Forest Life. Y. Wil1903.. 1876. 2lA— . H.— Ibid. Hist.. iii. Holmes in Am. Packard in Am.. 1850. First Steps in Human KwikotLem.... and in cases the lower part. Schoolcraft.) Engin. Ancient Monuments. especially knives. Strachey (1585). The largest are about 3 ft. 1903. in length. Albany. Davenport Acad. George (Kaglgegabo. The Life. 268. Mus. being practically slaves of the Kwantlen. The Traditional History and Characteristic Sketches of the (H. Rep. Piehist. Sept. Hist. George was educated in and after acquiring considerable Illinois.. 1890. n. 1900. or stem. History. 1851.. 1872. Mus. VII. 24 in 1911. Colum- Rau (1) . Prehist. (2) in Am. 1851. 1879. 1851. s. and Min. 1837) and the Acts of the Apostles (Boston. A. stands forever. 1881. 1896. 1894. of N. The Ojibway Conquest. are: Beauchamp in Bull. 1874. 1894. 1. Anthrop. Aff 413.. Boston. XVII. 1850). i.— Can. wrote a hymn in the Chippewa language (London. Foster.. and Speeches of Kah-ge-ga- and Whitney. no. Ontario.. Edinburgh. 1850. J. Trent r. 1894. A coast Salish tribe speaking the Cowichan dialect and inhabiting Eraser valley just above the delta. They owned no land. New York. Mass. Ind. Va. viii. 1873. Nat. Belgium and Scotland. was a medicine-man.. N. no.. Pop. various memoirs in Jour. Coquitlan. Sci. xiii.. Mason in Proc. 1902. Coquitlatn. Slafter. Thomas in 12th Rep... Coll. Col. and the West. Journey. Lewis in Am. in Am. rattles. 1884.. 5. and whistles. Reps. 1895. IV. Anthrop. E. Chippewa. 1863.— Ibid. Ind. Soc. Hoy in Trans. knowledge in English books returned to his people as a Wesleyan missionary. 73.. Phila. Map. 1847. 1884. Organization of a New Indian Territory East of the Missouri River. Letters. A. Whittlesey. 1850.). Antiq. but the market is now well supplied with the imported metal. Anthrop. London and Dublin. Moore.. Y. 309.— Hill-Tout Ethnol. Coll. Nat. Wis. (2) in Proc. Mus. Impl. Sci. . 1879.. Luke (Boston. B. 1893. 316. Coquitlane. Boas). R. 5. Races. 1862. 1897. XVI. about 1863.'— W. Man. i. gah-bowh. Rep... 1903. Nat. Antiq. Foster I. 1895. and London. Acad. and Philadelphia. shield-like "coppers" made of sheet metal and highly esteemed as 1843. N. 1876. xliv.ol. Rep. Indian Life and Indian History. (2) in Smithson. Mich. A. Antiq. Coquet-lane. VII. Rep. 1875. Moore. 3. Farquharson in Proc. especially those contributing original material. 1902. no. 1873. xi. wider portion. New York. 113 from the valley of Copper r. 1. Trutch. 1880. Jour. and aeologist. Am. 1848. Butler in Wis. For many years he was connected with the press of New York city and lectured extensively in Europe and the United States. and Dublin. 1850. Cont. S. Prehist. the principal works. Coll. of Wis. 4. His parents were The hterature of copper is extensive. New York. He died at Pontiac. in loughby Wilson. 1851. 276. Surv. 1897. xxxii. Rep. Map Ccquitlam. Squier. 1874. until his conversion. 'he who symbols of wealth or distinction. 1888. London. 1843.. Ojibway Nation. in the A of young Chippewa born near the mouth autumn of 1818. xv. 1858. are ornamented with designs representing mythical creatures (Niblack. no. York. 1901. Putnam (1) in Peabody Mus. Niblack in Nat.\rcha. Prehist. A. a town). 1870. Progress. 1. 1851) and cooperated with the Rev. 2. Publ. Anthrop. Archseol. Patterson in 1888-89. Amer. no. Gushing (1) in The ArchII. Coquilain. and Boston. Acad.. Doc. Hakluyt Soc. 1847. 74. and elsewhere.E. McGuire. 1872 in Starr.. v. Copway also Nova Scotia Inst.. Hist. Davis in Smithson. Fowke. for utensils. — Brit. but he is noted chiefly as one of the few Indian authors. and his father.. .

of Columbia r. in both systems by adding 2. tha in the Takulli dialect of Athapascan 3 things.. Zuni. on the Pacific slope. Montagnais (Algonquian). Such classifiers are thailioh. as among the Eskimo and Tlingit. the thumb being counted 6. with minor tribal In Siouan and Algonquian the differences. A. 1912. making the complete "man. The common Indian method on the hands. Konkau. thus 4. tically or theoretically the 20 ample. counted the second 10 in 1. Haida. On the Atlantic side the decimal system was Both used by all except the Eskimo tribes. aU 3 things. 'one Iroquois dialects. in is in Abnaki. 'ten hand-claps. the thumb being the fifth or 5. in 3 ways.' Bellacoola name signifies back on the knuckles. Two systems of counting were formerly in use among the Indians of North America. found in many dialects. among the Eskimo of Pt. Nishinam. thus.' in some cases it is based on 4. use of numeral classifiers on each side. for ex- was to begin with the clenched hand. and religious acts.' and the Haida '4 and 4'. thus. in 3 places. etc. as among the Montagnais. as excluding thumb. receiving names having reference to the feet. Alaska. and in many dialects 6 = 'l on the other hand. The numbers from 6 to 9 are generally based on 5. the count of the second 10 was prac- performed on the feet. etc. 17 = = 10+5+2. 6 = 5 + 1.' and in the Kwakiutl and some other languages it is '2 from 10. Siksika. 3. that. which in most cases refers to one hand or fist. as perhaps is counting usual with most savage or uncivilized peoples.000.' that ten hundreds.' the number name was modified according to the articles counted. There are some indications." and often. Gabrieleno. that thus. Im signifies a number of languages the name for 9 1 from 10.ost cases as given above. Among the tribes using the vigesimal system. etc.' In Ottawa the that area and the border of Mexico meaning was 'one body'. Tlingit. 7 'to the other hand 2'. which would be 10. Barrow 6 is 'to the other hand 1'. word for 2 is generally related to that for arms or hands. thauh. For 7 is also considered a sacred number. opening the among the Zuni.114 DEPARTMENT OF JIARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v.' thus counting the second 5 was subject to greater variation. but the Montagnais say '4 on each side. w.. Cushing says it refers to the 4 car- . in some + 1. and in some are quite numerous. was to "tell off" the fingers of the left hand. probably owing to the frequent reference to the cardinal points in ceremonies the Eskimo of n.' 'second '3 and made is. box'. 17 15+2. its signification is 'great 100. and in Catawba. who say '4 and 3. as with the Kwakiutl. etc. is 3 and 3 in in Haida and some other the The Zuni. thatsen. Counting. The latter. the Pawnee 2 and or 2 times as in was usually reversed. 3 means times. based apparently on the finger and hand count.. has become Creeks. but in the vigesimal the quinary Cherokee. the Pawnee. as Tlingit. and some others. the Zuni. thane. and most of the Plains tribes.' name signifying 'all the or the 'fingers of the hand. was also in general use n. Tuolumne.' Eight is generally expressed by 'the third finger on the second hand'. or. of a more primitive count. 11 to 19 are usually 1. name for 4 signifies most of the Shoshonean dialects. while a number of languages. systems. or the names refer to the fingers of the second hand as used in counting. while in counting the right hand the order 1..' Baraga and Cuoq give terms for figures up to a million or more. but there were several western tribes whose custom fingers as the count proceeded.. the to the term for feet. the order of formerly applied a fingers. 16 being 15 dialects. as the Pomo. Catawba. Although 7 is usually 'the second finger on the second hand. were as a rule fundamentally quinary. Among the The numbers from formed 4. and Achomawi. sacred or ceremonial. 1. 3 is expressed by joining the words for 2 and count is carried out. In many 2. others the 2. The movement was therefore sinistral. which was used in Mexico and Central America. Certain numbers have been held as sacred by most tribes. the forefinger 7.' There the are exceptions to this rule. the decimal and the vigesimal. Many of the Indians could count to in some by a regular system. Five has usually a distinct name. It was a common habit to bend the fingers inward as counted. however. and the Heiltsuk. beginning with the little finger. Cherokee. 'the whole hand hundred. 3 persons. and in Athapascan dialects In a few languages. to 10. however. Indians often in counting. but it is doubtful if such were actually in use before of contact with Europeans. however. 7 = 5+2.. in Karankawa it signifies '2 fathers. Although the order in counting the first 5 on the left hand was in m. in Kiowa. 6 dialects. etc. and apparently Kiowa. while between it was employed by only a few tribes. and so on to the little finger.

Tsakuam. Number Concept. and Zurii being notable exceptions.. 1855. 1887. ii. Ohamil.— Boas in 5th Rep. 1877. for Oauitcln. Geog. s. K. Rep. Ibid. (J. 1855. W. 59. of Mexico was rare. 1862. 1862. Hue-la-muh.— Jones Cong. Conant. 1862.) Cowichan. Among the Cheyenne it was even a point of bravado for a single warrior to rush in among the enemy and strike one with quirt or gun before attempting to fire. 224. vii. 1891. 170. the simple touch scoring — — the victory. Canad. 1892. s. Matsqui. MS B. 1878. in Halkome'lEm. Koksilah.. as used the Plains tribes.329. The following list of Cowichan tribes is based on information obtained from Boas: On Vancouver id. 115 No. Tateke. 220. Nicomen. The stealing of a horse from a hostile camp also carried the right Ca-witchans. might be made with whatever was most convenient. Kelatl. Hellelt. Soc. (c. ing a single dialect and . Kilpanlus. Origin of Sacred Numbers. Ewawoos. 1902 (name of Fraser R. Anthrop. to count coup. Cowichan Lake. The stroke (coup) Ethnol. Hum-a-luh. and centre Coast Indians regard 5 as their sacred number. . Soc. Oregon. Ethnog. Ethnol.Kulleets. Ethnol. Kawatskins. 1874. Indian Numerals.. Corapend. Siyita. Can. S.. i.. M. and Philol." as of victory Coups are usually was termed that is. In ceremonial Geog. Sumas. Philol. A group of Salish tribes speaks. 181. The various bands and tribes belonging to this group aggregated 2. the Pawnee. Quamichan. Soc.. 1859. Can. Comiakin. 578. Taylor in Cal. Aff. Somenos. for 1891. Wand. Surv. Can. A.S. 1900. — — — parades and functions an ornamented quirt or rod was sometimes carried and used as a —Stevens in U.UAynBooK OF iMJuys of casada SESSIONAL PAPER or ego. CowMackay quoted ichan for themselves). Nanaimo. Starling. Cowegans. Cowitchins. pt.S. Cushing. sec. Hopi.occupying the coast of Vancouver id. Ind. nearly to Spuzzum. 19th Rep. 21a— 8i . Soc. Rep. Clemclemalats. Farmer.—Shea. A. 1857. Hale in U. Katsey. scalping an enemy. Kowitchans. 272. "capture" the tipi. Ind.. end of Cowichan lake. Ex. Gibbs in Pac. McGee. Canadian term adopted to designate the formtoken or signal of victory in battle. Coquitlam.' 'stroke'). 246.. R.au'itcin. Mo. Cowe-wa-chin. AfF. Aff.. Kowitsln. 1894. 247. Col. On lower Fraser r. Keane in Stanford. Kawichen. people': name by which the Cowichan of Yale and Hope Kaultchln. e. — in U. ('the 7 ('the people': own name).. . i. ibid. and the valley of lower Fraser r. i.) Caw-a-chim. 1854. N.— Hill-Tout in N. or being first to strike an enemy either alive or dead. Kwantlen. Kenipsim. II.. The French- between Nanoose bay and Saanich inlet. Scowlitz. De Smet. In this way he was said to at the N. 1911. Numerals in American Indian Languages.. 10. Wilson.— Kane. 1889. Mayne. Kow-ait-chen. 1863. Kowailchew. Roy. Quamitchan. by Dawson in Trans. such as striking an enemy within his own tipi or behind a breastwork. i. Brit. Hayden.. Vancouver There were only 6 there in 1911. B. Fitzhue Rep.. Tait. — — — — — Miss. —Gibbs —Boas. — Gibbs in Hist. nadir. The noted Sioux chief Red Cloud stated in 1891 that he had counted coup 80 times. Val. and Yekolaos. Pilalt. 1857. Musqueara. R. in Jour. T. Cowichln.. Trans. . Popkum.991 in 1902. Numeral Sj'stcms of Mexico and Central America. Chilliwak. A local name who in summer live on a Nootka reservation upon the next new tipi which he made for his own use and to perpetuate the pattern in his family. Aff. 1858. Trumbull. Ass'h. 234. and in a few tribes 4 were allowed. 1848. 455. Cowitchens. 5. Expl. Squawtits. Am. Lond. Anthrop. A. —Scouler (1846) in Jour. Primitive Numbers. 74."Vlthough 13 appears in most of the calendar and ceremonial counts of the cultured nations of Mexico and Central America. 1852. Snonkweametl. Three different coups might thus be counted by as many different persons upon the body of the same enemy. credit — was taken. July 19. thus doubly risking his own life. even with the naked hand. Kawitsklns. Sewathen. but to be first to touch the R. Cath. The warrior who could strike a tipi of the enemy in a charge upon a home camp thus counted coup upon it and was coup stick. (1853) in H. were selected to preside over the dedication of a new tipi. Penelakut. Warriors who had made coups of distinguished bravery. killing an enemy. Thomas. Doc. Scouler 1841. Miss. Malakut. in Cont. Exped. Each one of these entitled a man to rank as a warrior and to recount the exploit in public. entitled to reproduce its particular design Indians id. 1847. Siccameen. Kawitchen. 1896. Ind. Am. Manual Concepts. Lilmalche. Ix. Snonowas. viz. — Ind. vi. Skawawalooks. 1854. Anderson quoted by Mag. Tribes Can. i.. E.. 54. — Ind. Consult Brinton. Roy. Can. E. Chehalis.) Coup al ('blow. 221. its use as a of the Pacific Some sacred or ceremonial number among the Indians N. 21a dinal points plus the zenith.. N. Col.. Rep. 1846. for three brave deeds. ibid. R. 76. 34th enemy was regarded as the bravest deed of all. Kawitshin. 10. as it implied close approach dming battle.. 1877. and Tsenes. (j... it — among "counted.— Douglas in Jour. Brit.. Lond. call themselves). 475.. Am. Am. 433.

and tastefully adorned with quillwork. and the adze habit. the awning. maker. also. in which symbolic and heraldic devices were wrought. in the best examples. The region furnished material. the foot-rest. cradles were not used. and the relaxation of the child's body in place of al- straight lacing. The bed was of soft fur. more the latter. It served Cradles. where it partly rode and partly clung. Board cradles. and in much the same way. as in Siberia. made the manufactiu-e easy. The infant. Adopted in the area of the buffalo and other great mammals. They were made of a single piece of birch or other bark. among cradles made throughout the interior basin the basket cradle piedominates and exists in great variety. The tree for the Pawnee cradleboard was carefuUy selected. but the chUd. Equal care was taken that the head of the cradle away evil spirits. the devices for suspension. the lashing of babiche. — On the Pacific slope and Lailice cradles. the bow. or rested in hammock-like swings. It was frequently carved and gorgeously — The bow was also bent to a right angle and decorated. 1912 In North American ethnology. the lashing. Over the face was bent a fiat bow adorned Form. rectangular board takes the place of the lattice. Skin cradles. and others. for both cradle and baby's carriage. The whole upper surface of the hide was a field of beadwork. serving for rattles and moving attractions as well as for keeping with pendants or amulets and covered. bent into the form of a trough. — On the n. acquired in canoe excavation. the bow the sky. including those for head flattening. was entirely encased. and the trinkets and amulets. Mailing cradles cradles. Among some tribes the upper ends of the frame projected upward and were decorated. cradles. — Closely in allied and are similar the in to dugout arrangement of parts those found contiguous areas made from the bast of cedar. Pacific coast little form and decoration. and had a projecting foot-rest. The Salish have developed such variety in basketry technic that mixed types of cradles are not surprising. wildcat skin used for a cover symbolized the stars. Decorative features are most wanting. when composed of hide only they were seldom decorated.. the Mackenzie River tribes put the baby In the warmer regions in a bag of moss. the pillow and other appliances for the head. after swaddhng. the bed and covering. the pads of shredded bark for head flattening. In these are to be seen the perfection of this device. decided the the infant was placed in a box of cedar. or other decoration. of dressed skins fiat were lashed to a lattice of sticks. the device in which the infant was bound during the first months of life. They were carried on the mother's back by means of a forehead band. wrapped in furs. The hide with the hair on was rolled up. wearing little clothing. In British Columbia the dugout cradle is beautifully copied in coiled work and decorated with imbrications. and the middle taken out so that the heart or life should be preserved. whose power was typified by the arrows tied to the being those best adapted for the purpose that nature provided in each culture area. in which a thin. The spots on the and decoration. with a costly hood. A. quillwork. technic. with a hood. especially In the arctic region. and the crooked furrow cut thereon signified the lightning.. The frame was supported and carried on the mother's back or swung from the pommel of a saddle by meaps of bands attached to the lattice frame in the rear. the infant being carried about in the hood of the mother's fur parka. from the boundary of Mexico southward. was in some way attached to the mother and borne on her hip. where the extreme cold would have been fatal. — On the plains. Basket cradles. Cradles should follow the grain. but all the tribes now borrow from one another. Nearly akin to the last named is the form seen among the Iroquoian and Algonquian tribes of the E. instead of bark. was laid painted. the former differ in form. such as dewclaws. 'and they. . Dugout AH the parts were symbolic.116 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. frames were not universal. to hold the infant. and lashed fast by means of a long band. which is found in great variety. quite as much as the wish of the bow (Fletcher). Bark Cradles. The territory between these extremes was the home of the cradle. else the child would die. These were used in the interior of Alaska and in the Mackenzie drainage basin. In the coast region of N. structure and decoration are borrowed from contiguous regions. upon the board. Comanche. The infant. Interesting peculiarities of these cradles are the method of suspending them horizontally. Materials and designs were often selected with great care and much ceremony. The parts of the cradle are the body. especially the Kiowa.

21a California and Oregon cradles are little . New Mexico wicker coverings are placed over cradles. but were attracted by the buffalo. and it sits in if cradle for each child. B. 1887. in 15th Rep. in Am.— (Jones. later on a larger one prepared. 211. The Apache. If the infant died while in the use of basketry in cradles the Shoshonean tribes. but was laid on a robe or mat and allowed free play of number Cree (contracted from Kristinaux. closely related.. When the mother was working about the home the infant was not kept in the cradle. The Navaho are said to adjust the padding under the shoulders also. result in the death cradle object. but the Jesuit Relations of. — Ojebway Inds. Pop. w.. like Chippewa. and among certain tribes this action was enhanced by pressure of pads. I. shredded. French form of Kenislenoag. The a mother on the death of an infant is intensely pathetic. on Grand r. About 1850 they removed to Tuscarora tp.. Ontario. Navaho. A. Anthrop. M. An important Algonquian tribe of British America whose former habitat was in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. by invitation of the Iroquois. more like much more tribes. to is fit the body. known it is to the Jesuit missionaries a part of in the region of them resided on the James bay.) pt. Mus.. them. west of Toronto.. in nos. as in life (cliff-dwellers. the process taking a year or more. 264 (Dept. 2. but particularly. Mason Rep. In many tribes scented herbs were placed in the bedding. E. Porter. broken up. Some tribes make a new the child's feet are free. inhabited for a time the region about Red r. people. 10 m. Aff. and northwestward almost to When they first became Athabaska lake. tribes and the Wichita of so The Yuman made them. Elsewhere in California In the interior basin the is was a sacred and the number of children it had carried was frequently shown by notches on the frame.) sleeping place is better fulfilled. Hrdlicka finds skull deformations more pronounced and common in males than in females. this vehicle for the object of her affec- Trinkets. costly. the former being part of the tribe.. and the board cradles. the Cree. being of the essentially a forest Cree were virtually nomads. 3. In these the true function of the cradle as a bed is Hrdhcka 1905. The cradle distorted the head by flattening the rivers of the north sea where Nipissings go to trade with them". ibid. Among cradle is the San Carlos Apache at least the made after the baby is born. as stated as early as 1640 that "they dwell body and limbs. other varieties serving rather for carrying. Among the Yuma difference was sometimes made in adorning boys' and girls' cradles. the Navaho covering the framework with drapery of the softest buckskin and loading it with ornaments. or placed on the grave (Navaho and Apache). in 1911. or bm-ied with the corpse. Hurdle burned. A Missisauga band formerly living on Credit r. as appears from the tradition given by L^combe (Diet. a certain of days elapsed before the act was performed with appropriate ceremonies. grief of — These consist of a number Kiowa). and the child is held in place in some examples by an artistic wrapping of coloured woven belts. of the child. Nat. the hurdle. The final escape was grad- ual. 161(O. handed down in the family. Cris). cottonwood bast. The doll and the cradle were everywhere playthings of Indian girls. given as one of their own names). Ind. and Pueblo tribes combine the basket. 1661 and 1667 indicate a region farther to the n. 22. vir. 1911. as the home of the larger occiput as a natural consequence of contact between the resistant pillow and the immature bone. their movements being governed The Cree are largely by the food supply. complete the the baby lies flat. The woman lavishes her skill upon tion. Here and there were tribes that placed their infants in network or wooden hammocks suspended by the ends. laced up inside.. Consult Fewkes 1897. 1861. Lang. between Red and Saskatchewan rs. Credit Indians. the cradle was either thrown In certain pueblos of away (Walapai and Tonto). A portion of the Cree.) 212. T. intermingled with the to the plains Chippewa and Maskegon. They ranged northeastward down Nelson r. face protectors. The of rods or small canes or sticks arranged in a plane on an oblong hoop and held in place by lashing with splints or cords. and soft beds outfit. Hammock cradles. the among the Pueblo the basket as getting ready for emancipation fi'om restraint. Its sale would... characteristic of helpless age. Many bands Unguistically and otherwise.. after birth The infant was not placed at once into the cradle after the washing. 213-235. The ancient cliff-dweUers used both the board and the hiu-dle forms.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER chairs 117 No. to the vicinity of Hudson bay. . it is thought.

Their eyes are black. with moccasins and mittens. Indians. that any deviation from these traits is to be sleeves. The united tribes attacked and that they are more inclined to be lean of body drove southwestward the Siksika and allied tribes who formerly dwelt along the Saskatchewan. Indian finesse. according to Hind. as well as those of surr rounding tribes. In regard to the women was not considered a virtue among them. attributed to the influence of the white traders.much greater curiosity than a sober one. in consequence of a quarrel. and Harmon says that those of the tribe who inhabit the plains are fairer and more cleanly than the others. and penetrating. In 1786. well proportioned. speaking of the region of Churchill r. from whom Mackenzie is appears to . descriptions given by explorers. arms were covered to the wrist with detached UmfreviUe says that in trading. probably Slaves. were reduced to less than half their former numbers by smallpox.. Mackenzie. a vest or shirt reaching to the hips. but the extended to the knees. strip of cloth or leather ft. as well as just in their dealings among themselves and with strangers. they have lived chiefly in scattered bands. and by some in its natural state. At some comparatively recent time the Assiniboin. As the people Henry says the young Their dress consisted men shaved off the hair except a small spot on the crown of the head. He also describes them as generous. belt to constituted their apparel." Umfreville. broke away from their brethren and sought alliance with the Cree. and the Maskegon another division of the same ethnic group. and until quite recently were left comparatively undisturbed in the enjoyment of their territory. though infidelity of a wife was sometimes severely punished. as Mackenzie r. and the regularity of their on this continent. Chastity copper-coloured and their hair black. 1912 Chippewa. as is com- mon among keen. depending largely on trade with the agents of the Hudson's Bay Co. mostly with the Chippewa. Their dispersion into bands subject to different conditions with regard to the suppl}^ and than otherwise. Hayden regarded them as an offshoot of the latter. says the original people of this area. This consists almost wholly of their contests with neighbouring tribes and their relations with the Hudson's Bay Co. says they are of moderate stature. thereby forming friendly relations that have continued to the lo the he says: "Of all the nations which I have seen Knisteneaux women are Their figure is generally well proportioned. there has been but little recorded in regard to their history. cunning." Clark (Sign Language. these Indians. since game has become scarce. the the most comely. and when a man's wife died it was considered . At present they are gathered chiefly in bands on various reserves in Manitoba. Their complexion is characteristics. left by the Cree. being fastened over the shoulders with cords and at the waist with a belt. and every concomitant vice was practised by them from the boy of 12 years to the octogenarian. hospitable. who describes the Cree comprehensively. The same disease again swept off at least half the prairie tribes in 1838. wide and 5 long passing between the legs and under a around the waist. sometimes a cap for the head made of a piece of fur or a small skin.118 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v.. reaching nearly to the hip. even to the Rocky mts. and as far n. and of great activity. the character of their food has resulted in varying physical hence the varying Mackenzie. In more recent years. features would be acknowledged by the more Europe. a branch of the Sioux. fraud. and sometimes a robe thrown over the dress. They were thus reduced. The dress of the women consisted shirt of the same materials. and exceedingly good natured except when under the influence of spirituous liquor. ally mild and affable. the ends being allowed hang down in front and behind. according to the tribal divisions. and having a flap at the shoulders. Their hair was cut in various fashions. Polygamy was common. A. have copied in part here stated. a about 1 ft. but where trade was not concerned they were scrupulously Mackenzie says that they were naturhonest. These articles. were driven out of this tribe have been friendly from their first intercourse with both the English and the French. according to Hind. Their complexion is civilized people of has less of that dark tinge which common to those savages who have what less cleanly habits. a corpulent Indian being "a . saya present day. 1885) describes the Cree seen by him as wretchedly poor and mentally and physically inferior to the Plains Indians. After the Cree obtained firearms they made raids into the Athapascan country. The enmity between these tribes and both the Siksika and the Sioux has ever since continued. of tight leggings. to one-sixth or one-eighth of their former population. their countenance open and agreeable. The latter received them cordially and granted them a home in their territory.

Voy. West. which states that they are composed of four nations Alimibegouek. their chiefs: Apistekaihe. according to Richardson. Their skin tipis. deceased had distinguished himself in war his body was laid.. and a kind of thread given in the Jesuit Relation of 1658.) The gentile form of social organization Ana." . feasting. Annah. and Nisibourounik. 649.000. Alberta). Roy. The fibrous roots of the white pine were used as twine for sewing their bark canoes. On account of the uncertain application of the divisional names given by the Jesuit missionaries and other early writers it is impossible to identify them with those more modernly recognized. their bodies with lines name Kihstenaux. Saskatchewan who were not attached to any band. Ayisiyiniwok. •*Probably an error for " 12. Petitot in Jour. but at a later date burial. were raised on poles set up in conical form. Penn. the population of the Cree proper was estimated at about 15. arrow-points. (j. Stanwix conf. B. if she had one. Mackenzie. Although these are treated as distinct tribes.000.500 to 13. So far as now known the ethnic divisions. are the Maskegon. Every small band. that the but some of the men covered and figures. Richardson says: "It would. Muskwoikakenut. Hayden says they did not practise tree or scaffold Tattooing was almost universal among it was abandoned through the The women were influence of the whites. people designated by the early French writers. be an endless Kutchin MS. and awls from bones of the moose. Kilistinons of the Nipisiriniens. Soc. Castanoe. (1759) in Rupp.— MaxiPetitot. Spoons and pans were fashioned from the horns of the They sometimes made fishmoose (Hayden) hooks by inserting a piece of bone obhquely Their into a stick and sharpening the point.. and in some sections a sort Where the of canopy was erected over it. The first notice of the Cree divisions and other edged rib. they form. In 1856 the Cree were divided. was anciently applied. 21a duty to marry her sister. it and Ayabaskawininiwug (those of Cross *lake and those of N. aside from the Cree proper. It was to the Maskegon. of James bay. and it is evident from the Relation that at least 3 of them were supposed by the writer to have been somewhere s. Geog. according to Hayden. The Cree of the Woods are expert canoemen and the the lower jaw.. with which Henry apparently women by the use ef the canoe. tools of knives of buffalo fishhooks made out of sturgeon bones. a conclusion agrees. Their religious beliefs are generally similar to those of the Chippewa. lines were either thongs fastened together or braided willow bark. The dead were usually buried in shallow graves. A. and the Monsoni. Athapascans. in its many forms. Peisiekan. before smallpox had greatly reduced them. Cokah. M. They occasionally erect a larger structure of lattice work. w. A double-head drum and a lighten considerably their labours rattle are used in all religious ceremonies except those which take place in the sweat house. Most of the estimates during the last century give them from 2. there were approximately 18. In 1776. like those of the n. the body being covered with a pile of stones and earth to protect prey. all from beasts of or nearly all taking their with branches. on a kind of scaffolding.** In 1911.. — — — — task to attempt to determine the precise *Probably Lac Ile-a-la-Crosse. hatchets. Kilistinons of the bay of Ataouabouscatouek. flint. 291. beyond doubt. or s. as follows: from a weed for making nets. Piskakauakis.000 Crees in Canada. however. Nothing additional is heard of them in the subsequent notices of the tribe. the Cree before content with having a line or two drawn from the corners of the mouth toward the angles of Mataitaikeok. covered with birch bark. Shemaukan. 1846. 1883 (name used by themselves). The arms and utensils used before trade articles were introduced by the whites were pots of stone. the former subdivided into Sipiwinini(river and lowland the latter into Sakittawawininiwug assemble for council. T. 1802 ('foeg': Chipewyan name). which is otherwise divided into the Paskwawininiwug and Sakawininiwug (people of the plains and of the situated wug and Mamikininiwug people). into the following bands. lined The grave was names from Kiaskusis. vocab. Muskwoikauepawit. naming itself from ing grounds.500 to 3. according to Mackenzie. besides several smaller bands and a considerable number around lac Ile-a-la-Crosse in N. but were usually more commodious. app. or peoples.. Chahis. integral parts of the Cree. in which 40 men or more can . appears to be wanting. or rehgious rites. and Wikyuwamkamusenaikata. especially where lakes and rivers abound. some of the articles belonging to the deceased being placed in it. 1869 ('foes': Kutchin name). was described as a nation. c.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER his 119 No. woods). E. 140. At least 3 of these divisions are erroneously located on the Creuxius map of 1660.000." is its hunt- different spearheads.

Trav. Petitot in Jour. 410. Ne-aya-6g. 1816 Klllestinoes. Hist. iii. Cyininook. — — — — Farnham. 33. 1871. 1869 ('foe': Kawchodinne name). Am. 1816 (misprint).— Du Lhut (1684) in Margry. Expd. Roy. Soc. ii.— Long. Lacombe. 1878 (Chippewa name). Ill. 27. neaux. 54.. Knisteneux.— Richardson. Exped. Hudson Bay. 556. D^c. Soc. Hist. 1855. St. Y. Ibid. ii. 1820. Geog. 1816. Ethinyu. 1858. 649. Diet. ley.. Christenois. tenoos. 1823. Geog. — — Boudinot. 556. ii.. 1883. Inlnyuwe-u. Vater.. 1816. Henry. X. Soc. 71. 3. ibid. Rep. ii.— Petitot in Jour. 1847. 1903 ('liars': Kutenai name). to Marshall. 7. pt. Kenistenos.— Rafinesi. 3.. Kilisti- Burton. 1883. Voy.S.. Bcleourt (before 1853) in Minn. Lewis and Clark. Jour. i. in. Rep. 1672. Rel. Kriqs... 1868. pt. III. Ind.. 1858. Eithinyook.. note. S. Writer of 1786 in Mass. Geog.. . 1814. — Am. Array officer (1812) quoted by Schoolcraft. Nat. Arct. naux.. HI.. Kristi- — no. 650. vr. 1885 (Chippewa name). City of the Saints. — Gass. Exped. Kinsteneaux.^ — . Trav. Trav. Trav. map. Mith. Trav. Stanford. Hist. Jes. Mo.. 1824.. 11. 1855.— Du Chesneau (1681) in N. 1st s. Hist. map. 1806. Hist. 3. 1858.— Harmon. 1851 ('exact men': own name). Hillini-Lle'ni.— Harmon. Knis" 23. 1867. in Can. Ibid. 1. Cristeneaux. Rep. — —Franklin. Knisteneaux. Kinistinons. 70 (name used by themselves). 1851. Ethnol. vi. 649. 6. 148. Doc. Narr 315. Am. kind. in ii. Petitot in Jour. Mith. Stand. ManNahioak. Rep. Ind. Kllllstinaux— . 1812. Jour. Knistineaux. Kinisteneaux. 1883.. Gallatin in Trans. KyristinSns. Hist. Hii5t. in Keane in Ministeneaux.. Doe. Chauvignerie (1736) quoted by Schoolcraft. A.. 30. Aff. 1670. D6c. Tribes..454. D^c. Gallatin in Trans. 650. Am... Miss. Clistinos.— Mass. Killistins. 1641. Hist. 20. 1853. 105. Phys. pt. i. Arct. Coll. 100. 1824 ('southern men'). Soc. 24. Mith.. 1695. Kneestenoag.. — Cries. Ill. pt. Crlstinos. lyiaiwok. 1883. Fisher. 1703. Ke- —Prichard. Richardson. 19.. A. 38. Jefferys. pt.—Umfreville (1790) quoted by —Shea. 410. 1858. Hist. Killstinos. Am. Kristenaux. Killistinoes. Killisteneaux. Charlevoix (1667).. 109. . 1851. Kri^s. Ibid.. (1770) i.— Doms.. Jes. Klllistini. tenos. Gunn in Smithson. 1794..— Dobbs. Nahea- wak. Kinishtiank. 1744. 1809. S.. Nathe'-wydu Grand Rat. 1883. 257. 348. Soc.— Jes. Roy. 1883. Killistinoes. Col. — 454. la Le. Knisteneau. 117. 33. 1809. 86.— Gallatin neaux. Christinaux. Coll. 1836. Kili. Hist. — — — Mass.— Vaudreuil (1716). Petitot in Can. Christineaux. Cath. Ky.. pt... Trav. 1848. 1809. 1836. Antiq. Eta. Nehlyawok. Ibid.. Kenis- — Ind. Ibid.. Soc.. 1886. 247. Gallatin in Trans. 313. 1851. 1851. see. Cris. Interesting Acct. Rel. 42.— Henry. La Harpe (1700). 1816..stlnon.. ii. 231. ii. Ojibwa Diet. — (1671) quoted by Ramsey in U. 1885.. quoted by Richardson. StEind. Kingsley. Grists. — Kingsley. Jour.. i. Naehiaok. Cithinistinee.st. 45. Geog. Ind. Stand. Baraga. 1840. Killistinons. 3. Coll. Soc. Hontan. Geog. IX. 1640 Kislistinons. in Can. Mehethawas. 'enemies': Athapascan name). 1824. Polar Sea. Soc..— . to Sec. 1886. Jour.. — Baudry des Lozieres. 1760. B. — — — — — Soc. 1816.. Rel. vocab. Kinishtino.— ChamberIain.. 1875. 1853. Criques. 1912 milian. 148. 1744.. 71.—Jes. Ibid. 72. 556.. 23. E. and AfBn. Coll. 1851. Cnistineaux. Tribes. Minn. 36. 3. Christianeaux. ColL La. Jes. 399.. Keiscatch-ewan. sec. Hisf.— Morse. Kricqs.. Roy.. Hist.. 32. 104. Phys. ii. 127. nlsh-t6-no-wuk. Petitot. 1670. Jour. Coll.: 'being held by the winds').. — within-yu. 1850.— Baraga. Ramsey in U. Eng. Am. Soc. 1848. 7. Dobbs. Hutchins (1764) quoted by — — 234. 107. 1850. Diet. 1820. —Gallatin Trans. Hist. des Cris x. Arct. 289.—West. 1839.. Bell copy. Etinas. Richardson. 190. 1807. 156. 1843.— Stand. 3. Rel. MS. 49. Clistenos. 357. 227. Gale. Killistinoer. Charlevoix quoted by Vater. Rep.— Jes. 1824. 649. Nation Chesnaye (1697) in Margry. 6. — map.^ Lewis and Clark quoted by Vater. Boudinot.. ni. — — — — Henry. Star in the West. 1824. Y. Natawawa. Kristinaux. Aff. Ind. VI. — hethowuck. ii.. Kinstinaux.. 1878. 6. Coll. Eithinyoowuc. Inninyu-wuk. Compend.. ii. Trav.-Otch. Journ.. 1838. Ind.. 3. 1851. Soc. Hist. Soc. Franklin.. 141. 99. Inds. ^La Neill. 97. 1861. Christeneaux. to Polar Sea. Kiristinon. Val. 1858. i. quoted by — Richardson. 247. Upper Christianux. Ethinu.. Eythinyuwuk. Ethnol. Rel. vi. 649. Ne-heth-a-wa. Krees. Soc. Soc. — —Tanner. 23. Hutchins (1770) Miss. 37.. Ist 3. Ibid. Exped. Christianaux. — — Coll . 11. in. New Voy.. 3. Rel. 44. 34. — que. sec. 422. of La. la i.. — Maximilian. 34. Nehiyaw. Cristineaux. v. V. Chrlstinos. Mankind. 3. War. in French. 1878 (Chippewa name).. Soc. 79. 107. 1883 (Chippewa name).. 1872 (trans. Nathehwy-within-yoowuc. Soc. pt. Soc.— KiHsteno... — — — Coll. 170. 1884 ('strangers'. Kinistinuwok. E. 92.. Kelis- 96. 51. — Franklin. '"Nahiawah. Knisteno. Trav. 63. Tribes.—Wrangell. Morgan. 1885. Antiq. v. 32.— Hutchins (1770) quoted 408. and Philol. hahwuk. Chrlstlnou. Keiskatchewan. inf'n. Kinisti- — — — — — — Chritenoes. Klistinaux. 1753. Killistenoes. ii. 67. Geog. Kisteneaux. Nah- Narr. 6. Am. 1820. 1836.. ix.. Tanner. B. 1886. Jour. 20. — — — — — — in Trans. Schermerhorn (1812) in MassHist.. 3. Nehethwa. Views 1815. Hare MS. Knistenaus. Petitot in Jour. Star the West.— U... Buchanan. 1850 (misprint). 1883. 214. Crus.—Hutchins ii. Howe. 148. sec. 649. pt. Ibid. Soc. 1855. Mith. 1 (own name). 1816 — — (German form). Soc. 270. map. 55. Prichard. V. Lewis and Clark. — Shea. 1874 (own name. 1867. Klistinons. Edif.. Arct. a 242. 92. Warren (1852) in Minn. 521.. Nat. Soc Coll. — Bacqueville de Potherie.. Exped. Nat. Antiq..120 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. Klllistinous. 1853.— Henry. Ind. 59. ix.Henry. Kris. Writer of 1719 in Minn. 1883. vi. Soc. 376. Mackenzie (1801) quoted by Kendall. Missions.— Jes. Trav. Ka-lis-te-no. Cristinaux. Antiq. 2d B.— Duponceau Rel. 247. 1868 (so called by Canadians). sec. Vater. Trav. vocab... Ethnol. Knistinos. Hist. Aff. Klistinos.. 1859. 1760. 1858. i. Arct. 287. Ibid. 1830 (said to be their own name). Aff. Col. 1806. 34.— Schoolcraft. Neheth^-wuk.. Knisteaux. 33. I. 23. i. 1857. CUntinos. Hist. Roy.. Mith. Hervas (ca. Roy. French writer (1716) in Minn. Ke-nis-te-noag. Nachr. Hudson Bay. 38... 1802. 1836. 37. 96. 107. 1839. map. 407. 2d s. in Can. 1858. naux. Nat. Ramsey in U. by Richardson. Coll. — Edwards (1788) in Chris'-te-no. Umfreville (1790) in Maine Hist. S. Nenote in Charlevoix. 313. 148. Schoolcraft. 1324. tenoo. i. 96.. Fr. II. Hi. Knlstenaux.. Roy. 1862 ('those who speak the same tongue': own name). Guilistinons. Crlqs. Nahathaway. Jefferys. 1658. Tribes. N. Arct. (1812).— La Chesnaye (1697) in Margry. Gfi'tskia'we. Lewis and Clark. Killini. 1841 (Hidatsa name). 1809. 1824 ('men': — — — — — — —Brackenridge. 1809. Dom?. 1883 ('men': name used by themselves). 1851 ('people of Saskatchewan r..'). — — Rep. Roy. 496. 722.. 235. Petitot in Jour. 424. Knistinaux. — KingsKristeneaux. —La Naka-we-wuk.— Lettres 645. pt. 1883. New Fr. Jour. 1804. Rec Sci. 71. ChristaChriste- quoted by Petitot in Jour. V. 214. — to Polar Sea. Exped. 1822. Petitot in Jour. Fr.. 1785) quoted by Vater. Geog. Ind. Harmon. Trav. Exped. Kilistinous. 1847. A. 315..— Hayden. 418. Hist..— Crees. Peter's R. — Kingsley. 1830 (Ottawa name). Montreal treaty (1701) in N. Kinlstinaux.— De Smet. in Can. New France.— Proces verbal (1671) in Margry. Consang. — — — — their ow-n name). introd. 161. D6c.

it the Djahui-skwahladagai. — making of stabbing implements and the long 2-pointed copper poniard of the region of the Great lakes was a formidable weapon. Koumcbaouas. xr. e. 1880. Kit-ta-was. It figures prominently in accoimts of early voyagers. — 279. Roy. Cumshewa. Mus. h. of Tenn.— Matthews. 1905. {Da'xua). 251. 342. Cumshewes. 73. — Swanton. Journ. — They were of low social name was used probably in con273. Cont. Cont.) Daiyu town')- {Daiyu'. — Kumshewa. 162. Maximilian. Jour.. Hayden. Duflot de Mofras.. It was the chief town of the Yaku-lanas previous to their migration to Prince of Wales id. i. Soc. Haida. in Stanford. 1824 ('men of the woods').— Swanton. 1897. Soc. — — Dagangasels (Ddganasels. Blackfoot Gram. By the natives it most entirely occupied (q. 1879. Trav. — from which it would appear either that Cont. Swanton. belonged to coast of North fronting Parry passage.— Swanton. Mo. Cont.— Dunn. Downie. afterward the site was used as a camp.. Shi-e-a-la. it is said. Culbertson in Smithson. —Walch. sa-he'. Nena- Da'dens Inaga'-i.' 'strangers'). modelled after European and Asiatic patterns. id. CumCan. 233. A Haida town on the Queen Charlotte s. and Diet. XXII. Hist. Dahua Lawn hill. Dadens {Da' dens). W. Charlotte Ids.. cit. by the Hudson Bay traders). Cont. 1905 (Haida name). coast^ in which the latter were defeated.. 1877 (Assiniboinname). Haida. Hind. 1862 (Sioux name). Quenistinos. rank. and the (Assiniboinname: 'enemies. 1899. Compend. Tales from Hidery. Col. 281. tempt.. Franklin.. — Swanton. and among the N. Lab. — — — — — shuvvaw. 279. id. — Dawson. This agrees closely with that still given by Cumshewa people as the former number. Cumshewa (corrupted from Go'mshewah. Oueristinos. 1841 (Hidatsa name). cit. — — Dadjingits {Dadjt^ngils. Lke'nAl. 1890. 1880 (Tsin. 1884. Queen Charlotte ids. Polar Sea. Crosswer. 219. 124. Cumshewa. 56.. Southern Indians. 1880. wewhk. Oreg. for metal daggers. Daggers of stone do not take a prominent place among the weapons of the northern tribes. ii. D^c. Queen Charlotte Ids. Coast Indians from those of Skidegate inlet. Kum—Tolmie and Dawson. Ethnol. Nenawehks. ii.. Northern Uttawawa.. i. A Haida town on the N. xxxi. (j. 200. sha-i-ye. Col. Casswer. Q. op. op. Coll. poniards. Brit. mouth Skidegate It inlet.. 235. Philol. cit. For daggers of stone consult Moorehead. Iberville in Margry. Daggers. 600. Lond. see Niblack in Rep. Cumshawas. Col. 337. W. Coast tribes the manufacture of broad-b laded daggers of copper and iron or steel. 1876. Brit. Rep. Harmap. Swanton. 38. Nithe-wuk. 525. Dawson. Vocabs. 122. A Haida town on Shingle bay. 1836-41. O'pimmitish Ininiwuc. British Columbia. was not reoccupied as a town.. Keane map. Roy. entrance of Cumshewa inlet. Oreg. Matthews. 1844. op. Hist. 234.. 21a of the first race'). 279. It — . Tartanee. h. s. 168. Sharp-pointed. 1900. which resulted in separating the later N. Soc Lond. Re-nis-te-nos. Charlotte Ids. Antiq. Comshewars. was occupied'^for a brief time — — by part of the Gitins of Skidegate. Tims.shian name). 26. Hidatsa Inds 200. at the A Haida town of n. 10.. Hutchins (1770) quoted by Richardson. Nat. Saie'kuun. Soc.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER from iyiniwok. there were then 20 houses in the place save in rare cases where the handle was worked in a single piece with the blade. was known implements. Downie in Jour. Ethnol. — — — Douglas Cont. The introduction of iron soon led to the making of keen-pointed knives. 1889 (Siksika name: sing. the name of its chief).3. Hudson Bay. Queen Charlotte ids. — Rau in Smithson. 1877 (Hidatsa name). 'those 121 No. Dobbs. Haida. ISSO. 1848.— mon.. Impls. Shi-e-ya. 168 1856. Penin. 1805. 279. Skidegate inlet. 1872. during a tempo- — rary difference with the other branch of the group.. and was noted in legend as the place where arose the troubles. Cumshewa was one of the last towns abandoned when all the Indians of this region went to Skidegate. Dawson.) Brit. Hidatsa Inds. and Philol. Queen Charlotte ids. lance-heads. intended to thrust and stab.. Iberville (1702) in Minn. or Go'msewa. afterward known as Nasagas-haidagai. 281. Kunashahas.. 128. steamers'). 1844. Bone was welt and 286 people. 'common-hat village')..) It was alby the Stawas-haidagai. 1905. Ind. 186. Schahi. shore of Bearskin bay. 1905 quoted by Dawson. Latham in Trans.. suited for the Prehist... . V. iv. It was also the scene of a great battle between the inlet people and those of the N. became an important industry. Thruston.. Soc. 1905.. ii. — 1878. Aff. Haida. 168. 'common food- — A subdivision of the Kona-kega- wai of the Haida. i.). 95. Val. Tlkinool. 'giving-food-to-others e. and they are not readily distinguished from knives. and projectile points. edged as Hlkenul. 1905.. Arct. — Dawson. A former Haida town at the n. (Inaga'-i ='town'). but. (w. 168b. 1851. According to John Wark's estimate. 1861. The exact use of this group of objects as employed in prehistoric times must remain largely a matter of conjecture. Brit.. 1851.. Geog. of was still occupied in their time or that it had only recently been abandoned. Scouler in Jour. Q. Nena Wewhok. W. 82.. Haida. shiwa. Geog. 1744 (so called Ibid. Col. Exped. Cont. 1888. of (Haida name). as the dirk. 1850. Haida. 1820.. 1841. Scouler in Jour.— Deans.

song or songs with words and accompanying music. or fraternities. comic.122 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v.' It formerly occupied the coast between Alliford bay and Cumshewa point. to no period of ancient or modern time. figures. and other activities designed to avoid evil and to secure welfare. of Mexico the dance Haida. of which it has become a part. the number then being limited only by the dances are for space available. and ceremonies performed in accordance with well-defined rules Morgan (League fist of 278. rattles. 1905. regarded as immanent in universal and instinct- Primarily the dance expresses the joy of the exuberance of Ufe and it the rite or ceremony of which the dance was a dominant adjunct and impulse. fraternal. hence it is found among both savage and enlightened peoples in many complex and differing forms and kinds. then these ceremonies and observances must be defined strictly as normal developments of the dance. A second name form band was Kasta-kegawai (Q'. and there are also social. For if the dance is to be regarded as the basis of these activities. Usually the changes of position of the dancer are slow. 1889.a'sta qe'ga- 'those born at Skidegate cr. Drums. usually consists of rhythmic and not always graceful gestures.. miUtary or warlike. is the ready physical means of manifesting the emotions of joy and of expressing the exultation of conscious strength and achievement the Like modern music. religious. or dancers or Canada. not the motive of their observance. of music. the body and limbs. 24 . Strictly interpreted. 269. cit. among which are the shuffle. But the dance of the older time was fraught with symbolism and mystic meaning which it has lost in civilization and enlightenment. and well as those expressive of gratitude giving. Moresby id. A. mourning dances. Among the Indians n. which received one of its and usages. invocative. Brit.1898. and sometimes bone or reed flutes are used to aid the singers. — Swanton. Fifth Rep. ('one Hke those all the Onthonronlha among the Iroquois. attitudes. op. but is now nearly extinct. Twelfth Rep. classes of persons. It is confined to no one country of the world. The women employ several steps. inter-tribal dances. rites. In general among the American Indians the heel and the ball of the foot are lifted and then brought down with great force and swiftness in dances. members societies. N. Cont. dancer. K"astak'e'rauai. The word or logos of the song or chant in savage and barbaric planes of thought and attitudes. 279. military. Nature The dance is is prodigal and esoteric magic power. Cont. of which 6 are costume men and women. 1912 Welcome point. mimic. division of the and movements of A Raven clan of the Haida. ive. culture expressed the action of the orenda. Haida. Qla'sta qe'ftawa-i. therefore. offertory. 1904) gives a 32 leading dances of the Seneca Iroquois. 11 for and 7 for women only. Three of the costume dances occur in those exclusively for men. still others are for specified of certain orders. or Dance. that the dance is only an element. 'people town where they always give away food'). W. which not only started and accompanied but also embodied it. Tribes produced either by the dancer by one or more attendant singers. It was owned by a small band. therefore. 14 are for both only. not the basis.. tribal. N. i. the dance seems to constitute an important adjunct rather than the basis of the social. A contrary view renders a general definition and interpretation of the dance complex and difficult. Canada. 26. The dance was a powerful impulse to their performance. patriotic. w. energy. names from that of the town. chants') others belong respectively of to individuals. men such wise as to produce a resounding concussion. energy. There personal. through long development and divergent growth the dance has been adapted to the environment of many and diverse planes of culture and thought. the . In the lower planes of thought the dance was inseparable from the song or chant. and the other 3 in those for both men and women. plane of human culture. clan or gentile. erotic. but the changes of attitude are sometimes rapid and violent. 1905. Col. and costumes. W. of the several festivals. Some dances are performed by a single biotic exaltation. of life Tai'otl la'nas. Tribes rhythm. Some dances are peculiar to men and others to women. a procedure which The truth appears to be is plainly erroneous. sometimes employed also by the men. apparently requiring a detailed description of the various activities of which it became a part. of its towns.— Swanton. of the Daiyuahl-lanas {Daiyu al la'nas. and to no the ecstasy of successful — fruitage of well-directed energy. are. the Daiyuahl-lanas or Kasta-kegawai.— Boas. as and thanksof the Iroquois. accompanied by steps usually made to accord with the time of some named from one for the wa-i). other who may wish to take part. Every kind and class of dance has its own peculiar steps. — Swanton. — Boas.

In the Santee Dakota dance a similar movement around the "centre of the circle from right to left is Dasoak ('flying'). 1724. Morgan. Among some tribes. in the so-called green-corn dance. Dekanawida together. in the main. The Mandan and other Siouan in tribes dance an elaborate ceremony. the snake dance. i-vi. conjointly with Hiawatha. This movement of the circles from right to left seems designed to prevent the dancer in the the obstacles and difficulties of he displayed in negotia- . the two circles Muskhogean move in oppo- Apparently a division of the northern Athapascans. born in in the Kingston. alteradvancing either shoulder slightly. i-lxxiii. form a circle around the song altar (the mat or bench provided for the singer or singers). also observed. shamans urge show of the bles- gratitude for bountiful harvests. outside of this circle the men. He was reputed to have been one of 7 brothers. which gives them a peculiar swaying or rocking motion. Rev. Consult Bartram. these. the women performed appropriate dances to insure Among the same their safety and success. the sun dance. Then the two circles. Among the Santee the women may dance only at -the meeting of the "medicine society" of — Hewitt). these circles. which are usually not closed between the leaders and the ends of the circles. planned and founded the historical confederation of the five Iroquois tribes. League of the Iroquois. which by metonymy have been called by the name of only a small but conspicuous part or element of the entire ceremony.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER glide. so that every two hops the position is slightly advanced. move around the song altar from the nately right to the left in such around the song altar from turn- ing his back to the sun. ing to a circumstantial vicinity of tradition. whose apparent motion is conversely from the left to the right of the observer. Holding both feet together and usiiallj' facing the song altar. 1758. They do not employ the violent steps and forceful attitudes in vogue among the men. they alone dance the scalp dance while the warriors sing. 123 No. women men from turning from right to left. Moeurs des Sauvages. called the Buffalo dance.— De Smet. Flatside Dogs (ThUngchadinne). 1875-86. one of the names for "woman" {walhonwisas. among the Onondaga. John Eastman says that in dancing the Santee form 3 circles. the the people to participate in order to tion of their lives.' ('two river-currents flowing site directions. Indeed. Definite tradition gives him rank with the demigods. among and the the Natchez. 1904. Deer Skins. under like leadership. the scalp dance. b. Accordhe was Ontario. and other Iroquois tribes. A clan of the Huron. They keep the body quite erect. 1896-1901. Dec. each performed for one or more purposes. Le Page du Pratz. 1857. statesman. which they are members. are invocations or prayers for rain and bountiful harvests and the creation of life. but rather the dance has become only a part of the ritual of each of these important observances. The ghost dance. Among the Iroquois. owing to the masterful orenda or magic power with which he worked tirelessly to overcome his task. Lafitau. Jesuit Relations. Thwaites. (j. In like manner the Indians of the arid region of the S. men with t^e course of the sun and the women contrary to it (Bartram). maintaining an interval of from 2 Then. 1847. to bring game when food is scarce. and Slaves. and the outermost of women. the astuteness opposite directions. h. to 5 feet. resembling the waving of a windrocked stalk of corn. the innermost composed of men. however. as they are mentioned as belonging to a group including the Beaver Hunters. are not developments from the dance. W. and who. Oregon Missions 164. According to Le Page Du Pratz. the women generally take a leap or hop sidewise in advance and then a shorter one in recoil. the preserva- and appreciation sings of the expiring years. in accordance with a well-defined ritual. and lawgiver. 1792. 'she sways or rocks') is a term taken from this rocking or swaying motion. when the warriors were absent on a hunting or war expedition. perform long. the middle of children. and intricate ceremonies with the accompaniment of the dance ceremonies which. Hist. An Iroquois prophet. form another circle at a suitable distance from that of the women. ed. the left to right. 21a entire course and the hop or leap. Margry. manner that at all times de la Louisiane. moved in what then was probably Huron territory. Cayuga. the Among the tribes.) the heads of the circles of dancers move along a course meeting the advancing sun (their elder brother). and the calumet dance. n. who Uved probably during the second and third quarters of the 15th century. Travels. people in the dances in which women may take part. under the conduct of a leader with one or more aids.

Konoka.' Hence. (j. saying that he must take up his fore-ordained work. han. His band usually He Thames. Wis. he had hung in a corner of the lodge." but Beis equally well known as Schachipkaka.) nawida was probably a Huron by blood. these tribes. and none has done what I have. 1912 tion.^as a very old man when he was a member of an embassy at Albany in 1726. he could forbid the appointment of a successor to his office. the Mrs. and so resolved to rear him. He was held for a time. 165. sought to spare their country woes by attempting to drown the new-born infant by thrusting it through a hole made in the ice covering a neighbouring river. 89. most or indeed of and venerable of his own any other tribe. century. chiefly through his oratorical powers and his efforts to maintain peace with both the French and the English. but in the morning after each attempt the young Dekanawida was found unharmed in the arms of the Thereupon the two astonished mother. referring to the destruction of the Huron confederation by that of the Iroquois. Hence at his birth his mother and grandmother with true womanly patriotism. of the constitutional principles. and regulations of the confederation are attributed to him. and that he "had for many years the greatest reputation ing. among the Five Nations for speak- and was generally employed as their speaker in their negotiations with both French and English. first assuring his mother that in the event of his death by violence or the otter skin flayed entire which. Kinzie (Wau-Bun. so far as known. His chief ship did not belong to the hereditary class. to the French in 1688. fore his father's death. Hence it is the peculiar honour of the merit chiefs of to-day not to be condoled officially after death. Konoka had joined a band of Winnebago who took part. du Chien Aug. In the long and tedious negotiations preceding the final estabhshment of the historical confederation of the five Iroquois tribes. He was named Konoka ('Eldest') Dekaury. "To others let there be successors. while his to him nor to have successors to their chieftaincies. as he i. 1755) says Dekanisora was tall and well made. but to the merit class. He was first mentioned by Charlevoix in 1682 as a member of an embassy from the Iroquois to the French He was also one of the embassy at Montreal. 1825. on lower Sandusky r. Stephenson. blaming the French for the purpose of widening the breach between them and the Iroquois. Many laws. in encamped site of commonly styled the 'pine-tree chiefs. Golden (Hist.. 20. dignified. George Crogsuccessor of knew and their representatives probably of Dekanawida's Huron extraction.. and could exclaim. with the head downward. birth. H. Rapidly he grew to man's estate. in 1813. and exhibiting a demeanour always courteous. Ohio. An Onondaga chief who came Omens foreshadowed into prominence in the latter part of the 17th his and portents accompanying this event revealed the fact to his virgin mother that Dekanawida would be the source of evil to her people. as a hostage at Prairie du Chien for the deUvery of Red Bird. and then released by the wily captor under the plea that there had been a mistake. B. and is often mentioned as "Old Dekaury. he endeavoured to persuade the Erie and the Neuter tribes also to join the confederation. his head bald except for noble. a solitary tuft of long. 1856) describes him as "the at the portage of Wisconsin the present Portage. The eldest son and Choukeka Dekaury. on behalf of the Winnebago.. were always friendly with the Huron Dekaury. 1836. silvery hair neatly tied and falhng back on his shoulders. i. born in 1747. and then. would vomit blood. in the attack led by Proctor on Ft. departed southward. and the wisdom he exhibited in framing the laws and in establishing the fundamental principles on which they were based and on which rested the entire structm-e of the Iroquois confederation." But probable that prohibition was attributed in later times when the true nature of the merit chiefs had become obscured. I have estabhshed your commonwealth. Five Nat. women decided that it was decreed that he should live. For these reasons the title Dekanawida does was always neat and unostentatious." having a fine Roman countenance. not belong to the roU of 50 federal league chiefships. people. Three attempts were made. whose name has been variously written DeKaury. but perhaps an Iroquois by adoption. and died on Wisconsin r. in 1827. DeKaudress He signed the treaty of Prairie ." His death is supposed to have occurred about 1730. it is r. Other members of the family. A. Dekasorcery. (c. Apr.. in 1816.) Dekanisora. N. t. 19. which was captured by Adario (Le Rat). fought also in the battle of the Canada. for hke them they can advise you. which was defended by Maj.124 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v.

tribe had been gathered on a reservation in Kansas. The Len&. treated by Munsee. The work of the devoted Moravian missionaries in the 17th and 18th centuries forms an important part tribes (see Missions) . By 1820 the two bands had found their way to Texas. are descended several well-known families of Wisconsin and Minnesota. Munsee. Dacorah. about the present Germantown. suburb of Philadelphia.' a tribal designation in the by the same pressure and afterward consolidating with them. Each of these had its own territory and dialect. they began to form settlements in E. T. and under various local names occupied the whole country along the river. where the Delawares numbered at that time probably By the year 1835 most of the at least 700. By virtue of admitted priority of political rank and of occupying the central home territory. under the sanction of the Iroquois. who had accompanied them from the E. but regarded themAbout the selves as part of one great body. besides which there are a few scattered remnants in the United States. DeCorrah. who married white men. They LenApe or Leni-len^pe. The different bands ways been closely connected with other tribes. and Moravians. asserted their independence of the Iroquois. and incorporated with the to Oklahoma Cherokee Nation. DayKauray. genuine men'." a recognition accorded by courtesy also by the Huron. and afterward to Arkansas. Tamehend. Conoy. settling at Wyoming and other points about 1742. made their first the Delawares Shackamaxon. Another band is affiliated with the Caddo and Wichita in w. crowded them out of tneir ancient homes. called themselves 'real men. by invitation of the Huron. by permission of the Spanish government. New York. together with a band of Shawnee. where at one time they had 6 villages. Shawnee. and were noted.) Delaware. were known as Wapanachki. the far Munsee as particularly being so to differentiated frequently be con- sidered an independent people. 'easterners. formerly the most important of the Algonquian stock. In 1751. Oklahoma. 'wolves. under the various names of Delawares. the English knew them as Delawares from the name of their principal river. (C. The Delawares being now within reach of the French and backed by the western tribes. e. the French called them Loups. afterwards extended to the Munsee division and to the whole group. Walam Olum.' or eastern land year 1720 the Iroquois assumed dominion over them. Unami. 21a frequently acted separately. a condition which lasted until about the opening of the French and Indian war. they were accorded by all the Algonquian tribes the respectful title of "grandfather. viz: were composed 3 principal tribes. The is early traditional history of the Lenape the contained in their national legend. To with Penn. occupying the entire basin of Delaware r. In 1789. from which they removed. As the whites. To the more remote Algonquian tribes they. From Choukeka's daughters. together with most of New Jersey and Delaware.. forbidding them to make war or sales of lands. They soon crossed the mountains to the headwaters of the Allegheny the first of them having settled upon that equivalent to stream in 1724. owing to the fact that they have al- had their Council fire at this early period belongs their great chief. a part of them removed to Missouri. The Nanticoke. and Unalachtigo. Ohio.' or 'native. being term which appears also as a specific form of Abnaki.' a term probably applied originally to the Mahican on Hudson r. of the history of these About the year 1770 the the tradition of a common origin. together with all their cognate tribes along the coast far up into New England. and in the subsequent wars up to the treaty of Greenville in 1795 showed themselves the most dedrive 1 out termined opponents of the advancing whites. in 1867. from which most of the cognate tribes had diverged. 125 No.. of or Delawares proper..pe. with several hundred in Canada. in Delawares received permission from the Miami and Piankishaw to occupy the country between the Ohio and White rs. the Delawares removed to the Susquehanna. from whom the Tammany Society takes its name. Day Korah. and Mahican claimed close connection with the Delawares and preserved people.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER ray. with more or less separas Morgan ate identity. Ohio. besides which some of the New Jersey bands may have constituted a fourth. together with the Munsee and Mahican. in e. phratries. . A confederacy. and in a few years the greater part of the Delawares were fixed upon the Muskingum and other streams in e. Pennsylvania and s. in Indiana. treaty When they 1682. It is impossible to get a definite idea of the numbers of the Delawares at any given period.

Bethlehem (Moravian). N.' 'woK'). Chinklaca- moose (?). Bald Eagle's Nest. Fridensstadt (Moravian). not including 2 subclans clans. (9) Moonhartarne (digging). (8) leaving the Atlantic coast. Unami held the hereditary chieftainship. Black Leg's village. Alamingo. or lowing 12 subdivisions: feet). Conemaugh (?). Kechemeche. 171. Wawarsink.. Okla. visions in all in di- Among the Unalachtigo — . (ruler).' 'turkey'). All the Tungulungsi (smallest (7) Welunungsi (httle turtle) t (9) turtle). divided into 34 subclans. (5) Olumane (vermilion). Munsee." Ontario. Communipaw (Hack- following (high 10 subdivisions. to p)eriod Sewapoo (perhaps in Delaware)." Ontario.. 95. Catawaweshink (?). Au Glaize. KahanKonekotay. Custaloga's Town. 2 others being extinct: (1) Okahoki (2) Takoongoto bank shore). Wichita res. Crossweeksung. perhaps 260. Incorporated with Cherokee Nation. Jerjsey The New an early branch probably formed a Yacomanshaghking. which are the and Mahican. fom'th divisidn. Eriwonec. Assunpink. (6) Muhhowekaken (old shin). the Delawares. (?).. Hackensack. Greentown (?). and Manta (perhaps a (Chiconessex). (3) (4) wungwahoki pain). Aquackanonk. clans as given Munsee village.000. (12) Mawsootoh (bringing along). Gosh" goshunk. Bullets Town (?). division). Edgpiiliik. has the folescape the inroads of the Conestoga. to Ruttenber. Beaversville. According to Morgan (Anc..126 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. Allaquippa. Y. Munsee. (10) Kwisaese- connected tribes from about 2. Pennsylvania and Delaware were probably the Neshamini. (4) Weyarnih- kato (care enterer. Mamekoting. Many of them had originally removed from the w. Frankstown. and the Wysox probably belonged to the Munsee. or Turkey clan. Tirans. These same among the Munsee Waranawonkong. Ahasimus (Unami ?). Naraticon. 171. The following were Delaware villages: Achsinnink. i. the high Indians. Siconesses and became incorporated with the others. in The Nyack band. Clistowacka. and Unalachtigo. cave enterer?). (2) (1) Maangreet (big Weesowhetko (yellow tree). and Catskill. Passay onk. (11) (10) Muhkarmhukse (pine face).900. Eriwonec. the 3 divisions of now extinct. Rancocas. in Kansas. (2) Lelewayou (eye (bird's cry). 1912 and have hardly formed one compact body since (green turtle). Their present pop- The lowing Pullaook. and Haverstraw. Maharolukti (brave). The 3 by Morgan are treated under the better known geographic names. "Moravians of the distributed as follows: Thames. estimates of the last centui-y give their them and Leekwinai (snapping keesto (deer). or phratries. Chilohocki (?). Raritan.e. The Pokekooungo. Cashiehtunk (Munsee ?). Axion. is about 1. karnu (scratch the path). Soc. 870. including the Munsee. are: (1) Took-seat ('round paw. in Wisconsin. has the (across the river) (6) Tooshwarkama Rockland co. but there were others Pennsylvania. A. (5) Opinghaki (opossum ground). Matanakons.' turtle'). Calcefar. 1877) the Delawares have three clans (called by him gentes). has the fol12 subdivisions: (1) Moharala (big ulation. Oklahoma. (10) Nonharmin (pulling up stream). MookMooharmowi- Grand r. Buckstown. or Lewere probably of the Unami Among the New Jersey bands not The Gachwechnagechga. These (3) Pullaook ('non-chewing. (2) Pokekooungo ('crawling. according were the Minisink. division. (9) Muhkrentharne (red (12) (root digger). with Six Nations on bird). in N. exclusive of the New Jersey According to Brinton they are not clans. Wolf. and Nantuxets. Gnadenhuetten (Moravian). (7) PunaryOu (dog standing by fireside). bank of Delaware r. Waoranec. perhaps 45. leaves). 112. . with Chippewa. (3) Pasakunamon (pulling corn). The divisions of the Munsee. Gekelemuk" pechuenk. Friedenshuetten (Moravian). (4) Oleharkarmekarto (elector). Coshocton. Koowahoke region). Hickory Indians (?). or Turtle clan. (7) Tongonaoto (drift log).. He names among the Unami divisions the Navasink. may have The Papagonk band belonged to the Unami. Pompton (probably a classified are the suk. Unami. Asomoche. and Turkey — are comclans monly given as synonymous with Munsee. (8) Kwineekcha (long body). Of these branch. Grapevine Town (?). Okahoki. Tappan. Chikohoki (Unalachtigo). The Took-seat. (3) Seeharongoto (drawing down (5) hill). (8) Noolamarlarmo (hving in water). Black Hawk.. Turtle. with Stockbridges. 335. or Wolf clan. Ontario. Shackamaxon. Aquackanonk. but those bands broke up at Munsee division). . but mere totemic emblems of the 3 geographic divisions above named. Meletecunk. Oochukham (ground scratcher).400 to 3. Alleghany. ''Munsees of the Thames. Longiishharkarto (11) (brush log). while the estimates within the present centm-y are much lower. New Jersey. (6) Tooshkipakwisi ensack). Mosilian.

Delewares. v. 1855. 3. x. Bk. 248. 65. ('people of the great in —Lords Trade (1756) in N. — — — — — — by Brinton. s. E. inf'n.. 1st s. A. Lenalenape. 44. Lennape. 294. Pakadasank (Munsee ?). A.— Xuttall. Kat" amoonchink (?). Seven Houses.. Pequottink (Moravian). A-kots-ha-ka-nen. I'pper Miss.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. Lenape. 1855. Kanestio. Lenelenape. E. Ann. — Duponceau in Mass. Tullihas. 4th s . 1826.. Minisink (Minisink). Delawaras. Jeromestown (?). 268. B. A-ko-tca-ka-nha'. in pt. to Marsha. Llnapiwl. E. 1821. Queenashawakee. — Mohawk MS. 1870. Am. and Onondaga name). Lenappe. 1816.. Ostonwackin. Hewitt. v. — Easton treaty 44. Tca-ka'-nha'. 623. Linapis.. Hogstown (?). bk. A. Abnaki. Ana-kwan'ki. — in Beach. Tioga (with Munsee and others).. Lenni-Lenape. Soc. Passayonk.— Cowley (1775) in Arch. 1856.\m. Oneida MS. Ind. Barton. Star in the West. see For various forms applied to the Delawares. League Iroq. Lichtenau (MoKishakoquilla. Jour. Wakatomica (with Mingo). Gordon (1728) quoted Geog. —Thompson Jefferson. 1836. Leg. ii. Kiskominitoes. MisLenapees. Ind. Lenelenoppes. Stiles (1756) Mass. A. 179. 295. 33. Maximilian. Inds vii. Tca-ka'-ng". Roymount. Weehquetank (Moravian). 1816. Coll. Lenape II. Skehandowa Sheshequin.. Local Names. Loskiel (1794) quoted by Barton. White W^oman. 94. Lenape Leg. 127. Town. 1885. x. Remahenonc (Unami). 1801. Ind. Hist. KiUbuck's ix. Lennl-lappe. Wyalusing. 1844. Y. Lenepee. A. B. — — . Pion. 1843. quoted by Schoolcraft. 74. Mex... 1824. Antiq. Notes. 19th Rep. 1877. Hist. Oneida. Lennl-Lennape. (Moravian). Loup. Wapeminskink. 3. Lenno Lenapl. and Mahican. Ind. Soc. 1. Salt Lick. Auquitsaukon.. — Vater. 524. Soc.. Shawnee MS vocab. Kuskuski.. — Schoolcraft. Newcomerstown. Alberta and Mackenzie. 47. 508. Doc. i. Llnnelinopies. 28. E. Doc. Col. 'easterners'). Llenilenapes. 1825. Passycotcung (Munsee ?). Dlllewars.. Lewis and Clark. Hist. Schoolcraft.. strange E. Soc. 1885. Lenno-Lennape. 1836. by Jefferson. Tuscarora.. Ibid. 34. Shannopin's Town. 4th s.— Croghan (1759) quoted Linni linapl. 98.utour du lac dea . Pakataghkon. Schepinaikonck (Munsee). Coll. — Rafinesque. A-ko-tc5-ka' ne"'. Will's Town (?). — Gallatin in Trans. 1882 ('one who stammers in 338. 31. Mohawk and Onondaga MS. Hist VI. Lenappys. Salen (Moravian). 'Wolf. 1816. Tribes Hudson R.— Croghan Soc.. 127 Gweghkongh (Unami(?). B.— Campbell of . M. — Boudinot. 127. ibid. Hopocan. app.. 1871. White Eyes. (1760). Coll. 977.. (1755). Meochkonck (Minisink).. Marcy.) Meggeckessou (?).. 1884 (Cayuga. note. Hespatingh (Unami (?).. Hist. Lenape Leg. Hist vii.. 1885. 121. Delawar. A-kutca-ka"-nha'. 1877. Lenap. 1. 1848. Snakestown (?). ibid. but properly the form used by the New Jersey branch of the tribe). — Morgan. Hockhocken. 12. (Oneida Hewitt. Delewars. 1821.. Muskingum. 1857. Col. Soupnapka(?) Three Legs Town (?). Wyoming. Tribes. Mohickon John's Town (Mahican ?).— Mooney 1900 (Cherokee name. Sawkin (?). Am. 120. Esclaves. (Moravian) Lawiinkhannek (Moravian). 189. New Views. 1798. Schipston (?). 80. Kohhokking. Ind.— Hewitt.—Glen (1750) in N. vocab. 1856. Antiq. 44. his speech': Mohawk name See other tongue. (j. — Chipewyan group^of the Athapascan family living along the banks of Slave r.— — N. 1842. Tom's Town. Lenawpes. Reg. Red River. vi.— Boudinot. (?). Macock. Llnnope. B. vocabs. Oneida. — Conference 1759 quoted by Brinton.) Am. Hist. 1855. Shackamaxon. (Mohawk form). Gatschet. 1885. 1854 (Wichita name) Renapi. Leni-Lenape. vn.— Lords of Trade (1721). Mochonies. Pematuning (?). N. Kanhanghton. Owl's Town. Hickorytown.. Heckcwelder in Mass.. Jacob's Cabins (?). — Soc. Nar-wah-ro. Wekeeponall. Soc. ibid.. For various forms applied to the Delawares see under Ahnaki. under Abnaki. Playwickey.— Am. 283. Rancocas.— Nuttall. 363. Ind.— — 1843. Outaunink (Munsee). Miscel.. Proc. There were 129 enumerated at Ft. 1871. Wapicomekoke.. Pohkopophunk. Delaways. Jour 250. i. (?).. 21a (1761) in Mass. Jefferson (1785?). 1851. Mith. in vi. Cayuga. Mo- — Renni Renape. hawk MS. . — used in derision of the forms under Mahican). 1806. Tribes. Nain. Kickenapawling (?). . vocabs. Notes. 27.. Languntennenk. Coll. Trav.scarora form). 1822 (form used in New Jersey Sag-a-na'-ga. an attempt at the Algonquian in and Onondaga MS. 1879 (Shawnee name). Lenais. name). Smith and Hewitt. Resolution and tribe of the A 227 at Fort Smith Des-nedhe-kk6-nad6. Mechgachkamic( Unami ?. — Hewitt. 1823. Nations. 366. of Md.. note. 1886 (Tu. Lenalinepies.. Welagamika. sec. 588. Macharienkonck (Minisink). 2d s. x. inesque (1833) quoted by Brinton. and Delaware). — Petitot. E. Munceytown (Munsee). — Deluas. — Linnilinopes. Schoe^brunn (Moravian). Lenno — — Schoolcraft ii. Wapanachki. Tribes.. 28. Lenop(1757) pea. . Y. Ibid. Shamokin (with Seneca and Tutelo). 1891. 1798. B. Hist. introd. 5. A.. 408. Coll. 1881 (Mohawk and Onondaga name). Kalbauvane (?). Boyd. 1872 ('Grandfather': title given to the Delawares by those Algonquian tribes claiming descent from them). Lenopi. 1851 (Iroquois name). Proud. Johnson Conference ibid. Aff.. Kittaning. Mahoning. B.. Wapanaqli. Penn. in 1911.— Smith and vocab. Leonopy. Hist. Mamalty. — Squier quoted in Beach. Munsee. Ky. — — . Pion. Col. 273. Gale. Drake. cel.. Convention. Delawares.. of Md.. vocab. New Town. Seneca.. 1892. Shenango (with others). 669.— McCoy. 39. (Seneca name). Trav. Deleways. 1867. i. 162. vir. Papagonk (?). Y. Nyack (Unami).. A.' the name applied by the French to the Delawares. for forms see under Mahican. Squier quoted . Ind. 1836 (given as Swedish form. ii. 423. 1836. Jour.. (with Mahicans and Shawnee). Lenapegi. Peixtan (Nanticoke ?). Mt.. 573. — — Desnedekenade river').. Lenna-lenape. Star in the West. Venango (?). Lennapewi. in of i. W^ysox ravian). 283. Soc. Leonopl. Kiskiminetas. De Lawarrs. Y. 1855. Meniolagomeka. B. Lackawaxen.— Raf142.. Doc. Tsa-ka-nha'-o-na"..— Rafineaque. Hewitt.A. Sawcunk (with Shawnee and Mingo). — — map.— Watts (1764) in Mass. Tuscarawas. 2d VII. Yates and Moulton in Ruttenber. Peckwes (?). Soc. Matawoma. E.— Gallatin in Trans.

besides extended glossaries of the Cherokee. the Shawnee.). the Delaware. the threefold dictionary of Petitot for the Montagnais (Chipewyan). MS. the 1840.). Of 122 dictionaries mentioned below more than half are stiU in manuscript. pottery. aU MS. 187880). 1667.). by Bourassa (da. B. MS. by Erdmann (1864). for the Hupa (1904. NisqualUby Gibbs (1877). Laure (1726.). MS. Kahspel by Giorda (1877and MS. Anthony below'). Mathevet (ca.). and (Kutchin) (1876). A. by Gatschet (1894. Chiglit (Kcpagmiut). and Brinton and (1888). Of the languages of the Algonquian family. 1788. Dencke {ca.). 1780. Wilson (1874). 1870. 1912 Desnedeyarelottine river living ('people of the great Zeisberger (1887). and English-Micmac. 1880.) serving and and other purposes were manufactured by all Indian tribes. MS. Tate (1889).). MS. by Rasles (1691. 1800. and Chinook jargon by Blanchet (1856).). and a wide range of material. MS. decoration.). 1854.). While Vessels for the preparation food their use as receptacles prescribes a concavity of circular. by Jesuit fathers (printed in 1860). An Etehareottine of the division on the banks upper Mackenzie lac r. by Gatschet (1881. MS.). Iroquois Onondaga. etc. the Peoria Illinois. Lesueur {ca. by Petitot (1876). 1820. 1865). xx. MS.).) In the Iroquoian languages there are dictionaries of the Huron (Wyandot). horn. ivory. .). or oblong outline. MS. 1888) the MalecitePassamaquoddy. MS.). E. Tsimshian. Des-n6dhe-ya/56-rOttin6. the Montagnais. and MS. MS. —Petitot. 1720. Nudenans (1760. the Iroquois Seneca.. MS.). Nor. MS.). by Trumbull (1903). Thavenet {ca. by Demillier (ca. of Matthews (1890. Eells (1893. MS. MS. Tess-cho tlnneh. MS. MS. bark. by Jaunay {ca. MS. by Krake (1882-89.). Marcoux (1844.). the Menominee. MS. {ca. bone. by Boas (1898.). MS. by Le Boulanger {ca. and Vetromile (1855-75. by Mrs. besides Indian languages belonging to 19 linguistic many vocabularies of other languages. Kitunahan. 1840.) and Hoffman (1892). West.) and Hewitt (1886. Rink (1877). mer (1891. 1688. of Garrioch (1885) for the Beaver (Tsattine). rawhide. as stone. MS.128 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. first printed in 1833). Ojibwa (Chippewa). A. the Miami Illinois. 1750. Ddn^-Dindji^. Esclaves. Chimmesyan. 1880. Favre (1696. of 1680.) and Gailland {ca. and Lemoine (1901). and of that of the Kaniagmiut (1871-72. E. oval. of the Iroquois Tuscarora. ****** Dishes. MS. de Lievre (Kawchodinne). Chinookan.). Gill Coones (1891). and McLean (1890. MS. Chilkat.) and Weber and of Goddard (1905. 1840.) and 1 each by Andre {ca. and Cuoq (1886). Chaumonot and Carheil (1744. Petitot. Kleinschmidt (1871). Ter. Chinook by Gibbs (1863) and Boas (1900. Salishan. Gens du Fort Norman. repr. MS. Breboeuf {ca. Aubery (1712-15. 1740.).. of Morice for the Tsilkotin (1884. by Le Caron (1616-25. St. MS.). MS. MS. Onge (1892. MS. Gibbs (1882). ('people on the — water'). MS. Prosch (1863).). by Everette {ca.).). Beginning with the Eskimauan family. Lacombe (1874). MS. gourd. by Silvy {ca. In the Athapascan languages there are the dictionaries of Vegreville for the MS. MS. 1891. vocabularies of Greenland Eskimo have been supplied by the labours of Egede (1750). Ross quoted by Gibbs.) and Gatschet (1893. TPi-kkaGottine.. and Cuoq (1882).). Fabricius (1804).). MS... Dictionaries. by Rand (Micmac-English. of of Labrador Eskimo. the Natick Massachuset.). the Cree has dictionaries by Watkins (1865). Sagard (1632. B. the {ca. 1815. and F6rard (1890. MS. the Abnaki. by Lacombe (1882-83. of the Iroquois Mohawk.). MS. of Radloff for (Knaiakhotana) (1874). 19th Rep. 1866. 1678. according to individual taste or tribal custom. the Ottawa. Autour. 79). and 1900. MS. the by Jesuit fathers (MS.). cit. Diet.) for the Navaho. by Belcourt new ed. Dictionaries made of at least 63 different have been North American families. MS. the Algonkin. MS. Smith (1880-82. 1662. MS. of (w. by * * Chamberlain (1891-1905. MS.). MS. MS. and Kjer and Rasmussen (1893). MS. . Chipewyan Peau Loucheux the Kenai (1853-90. Autour du des — Petitot.). A. and basketry. the Potawatomi.. 3 by anonymous Jesuit fathers (1661.). shell. MS. MS.). Tims (1889).). 1640.). MS. Baraga (1853. 363. Bul(1888).). MS. and there are collections by Pinart of the Aleutian Fox (Unalaskan Aleut) dialect (1871. MS. MS. by Gravier {ca. Kutenai.). by Bruyas (1862). Blackfoot (Siksika). Demers (1871).)..) and Mooney (1885. A. and Vegreville {ca.). op. MS.). Hemy (1860. the Micmac.). Twana by Eells (m.). there is a great variety of shape. 1876. wood. E. MS.). E. by Ettwein {ca. 1710. Other lingiiistic families are represented by dictionaries or extended glossaries as follows: * * * * * * Koluschan.

Kaiahl-lanas. but they usually had a rim of bent wood fastened to the excavated bottom and were oval in shape. Swanton in Mem.. some specimens were well carved and finished. etc. and sometimes 1905.. but the Indians also had excavated dishes carved to represent animal forms in great variety. Georgia and Florida. and trays of birch bark folded and sewed... Moresby id. of born on the seaward side of A subdivision of the Hlgahet- Brit.. — Haida. Am. i. The Plains Indians also used in preference burl or knot DjiguaahHanas guatown people'). were for game. and trays for drying fruits. {Dji'gua al la'nas. Mus. basketry and bark were common. Turner in 11th Rep. N. (Djaxui' giiind'i.. They considered themselves a part outward down Skidegate of the Gitins of Skidegate. 279. Brit.) Djahui-gitinai Eagles'). 12th — Djigogiga (Djigogi'ga). oval. 'DjI'- A prominent division of 2lA— . 1898. B. {Dji'gua). the Haida of Queen Charlotte ids.H. and Stawas-haidagai is said to have come.. 1894-1903. and Fasciolaria. Phila. eome made of wood from Florida. wooden vessels were made. held the com- or for mixing or preparing food. made of excellent dishes. for the Indians common. They formed the main part of the Eagle population at Naikun and cape Ball. 12th Rep. mats. v. Some dishes had special uses. E. Queen Charlotte ids. in which they were cooled and eaten.. Eskimo wooden dishes were sometimes cut from a single piece. N. Haida.. 1905.. 1905. as platters. From archaeological sites have been collected many examples of dishes. Moore in Jour. Col. Publ. Djigua on the tress Cont. Those of the N. They were probably once a part of the Skwahladas who lived on the w. dishes of rectangular. small quantities of delicate foods. The northern Athapascans as a rule used dishes. Haida. 1905. Haida. and also from Cassis. A. cut prinfornia. Mus. W. were found in Southern states. 21a 129 vessels for serving food were not used to hold individual portions. Cont. The Chippewa had well-finished wooden cups.. Coast tribes were boxes of rectangular shape. 26. A legendary Haida town of the Kasta-kegawai on Copper bay. 26. Col. burl wood. — 269. of the Raven clan of the Haida. (Djaxui' sqoa'lada- Djahui-skwahladawai ga-i. furnished them with handles.. Nat. 1892. and the trays and bread.. etc. Sirombus. 'seaward A division of the Eagle clan of the Haida. 5th Rep. Holmes in 20th Rep. lived farthest and in Wyoming and CaliVessels formed of seasheUs. Cont. Rep. 94. 'those {Djaxui'lgd'-xet Pebble town'). Murdoch in 9th Rep. ibid. 274.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER The ate in No. Cont. Acad. etc. 1889. 274. roasting seeds. and Ethnol... The Indians in general used dishes of wood. No. or circular shape. Djaaqui'sk'uatl'adaga'i. Boas. B. Hist.. A. 5th Rep. 1889. Tribes Tsaagwisguatl'adegai'. Queen Charlotte ids. A division was introduced they were excavated by means fire and stone tools. W. being distinguished from them by the fact that they lived seaward {djahui) down Skidegate inlet. Haida. Swanton. Dj'aaquig'lt 'ena'i. Brit. E. etc. from many Iowa. E. Swanton. Queen whence the ances- N. and portions were In wood..— Ibid. The larger dishes contained platters preparations of corn and other soft vegetables. 25. Boas. Some made of fioapstone were found in several Eastern and many cases the cooking pot mon meal. B. 1899. 1905. 1890. baskets. and as ceremonial bowls. Am. Consult Goddard in Univ.— Swanton. shore of ids. Sci. Niblack in Rep.. — bowls. E. being simply those who inlet. Indiana. 1903. 1.. 1898.. Cont. A.— Ibid. and small bowls of horn occur. 1888. A legendary Haida town inlet.. The Salishan tribes made dishes of wood and horn which were elaborately carved. Nelson in 18th Rep. Tsaagwi' gylt'- — Inai'. B.. W. gitinai. Swanton. taken out by means of small dishes and ladles.. Col. cipally from Busycon. Tribes Can. x-xii. A. but before metal of Djahui-hlgahet-kegawai qe' gawa-i. and while as a rule their dishes were simple in outline and homely.. Each region supplied suitable woods. 'down-the-inletSkwahladas'). coast of Queen Charlotte ids. Nat. The Iroquois etc. the Djiguaahl-lanas. 25. and even where pottery. platters. Can. Arkansas. 1903. — Swanton. but the little dishes held salt and other condiments. 1905.. Brit. with scarfed and bent sides attached to the bottom. Archseol. Kona-kegewai. Col. The n^ajority of existing wooden vessels were fashioned with iron tools. Nat. 1894 (w. Ohio. A predilection for burl wood and knots was general. Cal. Col. Crumshewa Charlotte of Brit. Dishes of pottery come parts of the United States and Illinois. but among some tribes the dishes were like those of the Eskimo.

. In pre-Columbian times the dog was the most perfectly subdued animal of the North Americans. for serviceable animals to devour. corralling ruminants. their towns and camping places were on the w. weU as birds. 1912 the Eagle clan of the Haida. 1898. mountain hon. Kona- kegawai. game or catching division of the Eagle clan hawks for kiUing birds. 1898. 1905. Cont. Tribes. is said to have come. for riding. {Djus-xade. A — Haida." 3. Actually breaking them to work. Dog Creek. South America.. by the actions of animals in their wild state. 1898. but afterward to the Chawagis-stustae. Haida. But other species of mammals. and their uses multiplied. Swanton. 12th Rep. and the Indians could obtain those to tame only by robbing nests. A r.030 acres at the head of French r. 280. Brit. as the name imphes. training on a reservation of 39. Lawson says of the Congaree of North CaroUna that "they take storks and cranes before they can fly and breed them as tame and famiUar as dung-hill 2. side of Cumshewa inlet. Swanton. Cont. Col.. Col. hauhng travois. their (j. Anciently it belonged to the Naikun-kegawai. hving on an island of the same at the entrance of Tsooskahli. for their fleece. hides. 'people of the Djus A division of the Eagle clan of the Haida. on upper Eraser cotin r. They lived in the town of Kloo. The Indian learned a great deal from and was helped in his efforts whence their ancestress.w. gradations 1. 1905. Domestication. The sale of valuable timber has made their chief.— Boas. 'always low water'). or fatten them for eating. as band the wealthiest in Ontario.130 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. of the Haida. 'Gitans of the coast'). fowls. Cont. various creatures for cere- They are said to have branched from the Mamun-gitunai. The band numbered 62 in 1884 and 89 in 1911. coast of Queen Charlotte id.000. N. A.. pt. 275. After the coming of the whites the methods of domesticating animals were perfected. name Queen Char- and closely related to the Widja- gitunai. W. coast of Djihuagits {Djixudgits. 1904. Can. 14 m 1904. but few wild birds will thus propagate. are Roman Cathohcs..— Swanton. gallinaceous fowl last. represented by such actiand other aquatic animals in ponds. so that these may The coyote said to reveal the presence of the Graham id. as much so as the Uama in w. and Chets-gitunai. and obtain a livelihood by hunting and fishing and by working in adjacent lumber camps. Commensalism begins when food give notice of danger or advantage. N. Shuswap village or band Brit. Boas. and tame animals would be regularly fed at later and stages. Togyit'inai'. W. In this process there are left — Tribes Can. and cattle for packing. etc. later. their capital funds amount to $757. and. 1904. keep them away from their enemies. n. to They afterwards moved Masset received inlet. Swanton.. Dokis Band. Aff. is is Masset dialect Chawagis. consti- tutes complete domestication. 275. Ontario. 72.) tractable. below the mouth of ChilPop. of Naikun. Moreover. the mouth of branch of the Kuna-lanas the same name. The aborigines had no difficulty in breeding some animals in confinement. tying up dogs or muzzHng them. where it leaves lake Nipissing. Roger WiUiams says the Narraganset Indians of Rhode Island kept tame hawks about their cabins to frighten small birds from the flelds. 2. Tribes Can. feathers. 22. 273.— Boas. Tohlka-gitimai. W. and.. as dogs for retrieving fish. Haida. 1905.00. A Haida town on a creek just s. Plants would be sown to attract such creatures as bees. 23. Col. and taming them for amusement and monial or other purposes.. 12th Rep. Keeping animals for their service or pro- Do-gitunai west off {Do-gttAna'-i. flesh. Cont. Dzos haedrai'. were in different degrees rendered M. N. from A Chippewa band. for their skins Small animals are tolerated — flesh. and Stawas-haidagai. sledding. caging birds and carrying off their young.. residing dogs. TsegoatI la'nas. The period of domestication began when he held them in captivity for the gratification of his desires or they became attached to him for mutual benefit.— Can. and hobbhng or tethering wild horses so as to have them near. Haida. 25. so named 4. e. 12th Rep. Confinement keeping is vities as fish Ind. Djus-hade island'). so named from a legendary town on the n. 1905. milk. horses. A duce. Brit.. They have a large admixture of French blood. were a later development. . of who was also the ancestress the Kaiahl-lanas. lotte ids.

. 'those who left the west coast'). 'sons. the whole polar area of America was exploited by the Eskimo. Although Cartier was well received and kindly treated by this chief. — Dotuskustl {Do't. —Harrison Can. such as black bears. and these profoundly domesticated among thein in the common sense of the word..' etc. IX. v. 'grand- Birds were never caged. and ceremonial purposes. inf' n. Yukon district is a canoe imtil the country. Y. who found these an excellent means of rapid transit from Asia to As the dogs were never perfectly tamed. T. which they took when young and kept as pets. he managed. and uniformly gray. cattle... sec. aa long as they remained in a state of subjection. Brit. Such animals. coast methods of domestication were still prac- section Queen Charlotte ids. Labrador.'an-lnaga'-i. and fostered a greater diversity of occupations. a division of the Eagle clan of the Haida. 47.. with pointed. A subdivision of the Sagua- lanas. were considered as members of the family and regarded as dogs. 1898. — Hewitt. and poul- try were added to the Ust. it became Stlenga-lanas. The horse was A local subdivision of the apotheosized. circumstances which would seem to imply that the domesticating process had remained incomplete. ('plover. Soo. Cont.. n.' —Hewitt). marmots. Haida. — Morgan. modified the manners and customs of many Indian tribes. coast of Queen Charlotte ids. — French TS-wls-ta-wls. only the dog was ever •Have also been introduced into N. —French writer 1855. the puppies. In a broader sense. TostlEngllnagal'. Pacific area dogs were trained to hunt. partly by stratagem and partly by force.. throughout the middle region. multiplied his wants. (c. aided above the plane of low to go about.) and St. N. Not more than 50 pounds could be borne by one dog. this animal attained its best as a hunter and a beast of burden and traction. 21a 131 horses. erect ears. Dostlan-lnagai {Do-sL. in 1535. among the Algonquian and Siouan tribes of the Great lakes and the plains. and domesti- cation of the dog was not vigorously prosecuted Hudson's Bay Company gave the But southward. to convey the latter aboard his vessel and carry him to France where he soon died. Quebec?. tion. took the load from the back of women. 12th Rep. artistic. but might be seen at times hobbling about with the tips of their wings cut. but in historical times they were in 2lA—9J . Col. A clan Asco. those aborigines also occasionally domesticated and mitting care. In the Arctic region the dog was pre-eminent. helped him and was small." * * * (o. divisions a standard of value. form). Lawrence rs. w. Doc. sheep. Morice writes of the Athapascan tribes of the interior of British Columbia: "Owing to the semisedentary state of those Indians and the character of their coimtry. Roy. and provided more abundant material for economic.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF AN ADA SESSIONAL PAPER No.'Ask. 271. Hist. 46. Iroq. 1851 writer (1666). residing with his chief Donnacona.) the Atlantic.* among the Alaskan The Mackenzie- people at the junction of St. furnished pets for old and young. foxes. yet by the aid of dogs and sleds. it was reared with unrein raising the Indian savagery. But the more primitive tised on the Raven of side. and Trans. Col. all of which at once adopted the new instrument of travel and transportastimulus. t. 22. This had a sort of wolfish aspect. who did not generally eat that of those of European descent. In the N. etc. The coming of the horse (q.'AsL. W. m.) Doosedoowe of the Iroquois. Charles r. though often called by the endearing names of sons.' 'daughters. 2. furnished a standard of property and a medium of exchange. Domestication of animals increased the food supply. op. 2d s. but twice that amount could be moved on a travois. (1666) in N. to imply that they formerly- W.. Tribes Can. League Nicoh6s.. of them was called in Proc. Ufe was trained have continued to domesticate other animals. Doo-ese-doo-w6. The name seems lived Brit. Boas.. Domestication had a different development in each culture area. 1905. 1895. In recent years the successful found by Jacques Cartier. 'west-coast rear-town people'). A Huron introduction of the reindeer tribes has proved a blessing. all its women it often suckling the to the sled. donkeys..) to the Great plains was a boon to the Indian tribes. (Seneca cit. hogs. Canada and on the w. one of the larger Haida Col. who hved on the n. tied up to the tent post or free. in combination with umiaks. It was also reared for food and for ceremonial purposes.' it was no easy task to drive a team of them. The flesh of these wolf dogs was relished by the employees of the North West and Hudson's Bay companies. Du Haade. but here and elsewhere this use of the dog was doubtless learned from the whites. 1886 (Tuacarora name). Swanton. 124. A small Kaiihll-anas. Croix (present St.

Wash.. and in some tribes determined his affiliations. Every religious rite had its dramatic phases or episodes expressive of Proc. 1900. and to become able to fill the office of priest or of leader. the visions during an ecstasy the man was either wholly or partially unconscious of his surroundings. for sown. 67 in 1911. 275.. episodes were introduced in which a humorous turn was given to some current event in the tribe. to his kindred. 1912 the town of Kung. 1900. in Rep. Hist. A. Most revelations mythical. 1897. or but in certain instances the dramatic element dominated and became differentiated irom the ceremony. E. B. Bandelier translates the name of the Koshare of the Queres villagers. Am.. social in general character. A. It had no reference It was his sacred object. for their skill ordinary sleep in which this object appeared Seeds were had meaning heeded. c. blossomed. constitute a society which performs comedies in the intervals of the public dances. Haida. (a. 1902. emotions. A. ii.132 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. effigies. in the cultural history or the tribe were represented. 1900. E.. Folklore. while religious in initiative. (2) were dramatic in character. Nat. to control disease. myths and legends were dramatized. Fletcher in Proc. —Swanton. Jour. 1905. as coming from the supernatiural powers were believed to be received in dreams or visions. tribes ceremonies Among many Consult Bandeher." as erally beheved that such men had power to bring or to avert disaster through direct com- munication with the unseen. liistorical or life of Am. Acad. f. Sometimes clowns apof toward the mysterious frequently became shaleaders in rites which dealt with the Such persons.. but was strictly personal in its efficacy. 1900. Through them were bestowed on man magical abilities and the capacity to foresee future events. cultivated their ability to visions. XLV. In such cases there were masked and costumed actors with stage setting. Brit. and behefs. plants grew. B.. Anthrop. A.. and yielded fruit. from the time of their occult. DeUght Makers.. desires. and events. Mus. inland peoples. life. A..) Dreams and of Visions. ser. Nat. Powell in 19th Rep. B. —a call for Any dream of The Pawnee were remarkable in sleight-of-hand performances. A. Stevenson in 23d Rep.. Matthews in Mem. They por- and the thing seen at that time trayed episodes in the past history of the tribe for the instruction of the younger generation. Publ. The performance took place at one end of the house. coming to him before or during infancy. A. coast. open lodge with no apparent means of concealment. Sci. and there were devices to give reahstic Songs effect to strange and magical scenes. 1905. Col. where concealed openings in the painted waU admitted the actors who personated gods and heroes. VI. Fewkes (1) in 15th and 19th Reps. and he painted it on his person or his belongings as a prayer for assistance help in directing his actions. In the large wooden dwellings of the N. E. S. Mus. as well as in matxu-e In general the initiation of a man's personal relations to of the great tribal ceremonies of the Some were the unseen through dreams and visions took place during the fast which occurred at puberty. pop. There were societies a part of whose function medium of supernatural help became the and knowledge. Among the Pueblo Indians these "dehght-makers. in other Sagua-lanas. W. This was done by means of song and the dramatic representation of the acts the song commemorated. Mus. It was gen- when peared and by their antics relieved the tensity the dramatic presentation. During many dramatic representations. . believe that the dream seeks the birth. and other properties. It was the common behef of the Indians that these dreams or visions must be sought through the observance of what was regarded by the Indians some rite involving more or less personal is privation. Anthrop. and dances accompanied the dramatic presentation. Naden harbour. W. an exception found in the Mohave individ- who ual. 1895. (3) various articles in Am. Dorsey and in Field Columb.. The most elaborate of these exhibitions were those of the Pueblo peoples and the tribes of the N. particularly those which took place in the open air. Douglas. spears were thrust through the body and many other surprising feats performed in the Men him and its suggestions were with a natural turn of mind mans and first fast. with the Cent. Boas Voth Dramatic representation. to have the dreams dream and came during natural sleep. 1896. The local name for a body of Lower Lillooet between Lillooet and Harrison lakes. was to preserve the history of its membership.

The frequency with which objects are found bored from both sides is proof that the Indian appreciated the advantage of reducing friction. stone. and Africa. much depends on its hardness. The general belief concerning dreams and Europe. and instances are not rare in the mounds of Ohio and elsewhere in the United States. shell-heaps. 1903. as the leader of a war party. Some found in mounds. The rapidity with which a drill cuts depends on the velocity of the revolution. others thought that the vision came to the man as a picture or in the form of a complete dramatic ceremony. have been that the mental images seen with closed eyes were not fancies but actual glimpses of the unseen world where dwelt the generic types of "all things and where all events that were to take place in the visible world were determined and prefigured. 1896. the actual performance following faithfully in detail the prefiguration of the vision. especially if he had carried with him some one of the sacred tribal objects as a medium of supernatural communication. several inches long. their coatents So. Points of hard stone or metal usually cut by direct contact.. ivory. was wound around the neck of a man until the gentle pressure on the veins caused insensibiUty. Forecasting the future was deemed possible by means of artificially induced visions. no.. but in North America solid Grass drill points were generally employed. but where the points were of wood. E. for like purposes. United States were perforated with surprising accuracy. The point used is indicated by the form of the perforation. many of the shrines and setting it in a transverse handle increased pressure and leverage were obtained. and from a fourth of an inch to 6 Shell. stone. and whistTubes in les were made of stone and bone. B. The point was set in a socket ceived through visions. Kroeber in Am. and its depth. or copper which was held in one han^ pressed against development speed of revolution. too. visions seems to (a. was believed by certain tribes.. a sharppointed instrument of bone. dry or wet sand proved more effectual. E. Stone pipes with b«wl and stem openings of different sizes were common. or of solid metal.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. The points of drills were made of copper rolled into a hollow cyUnder or of pieces of reed. are The time for the performance of rites connected with a shrine. iv. This object was supposed to speak to him in dreams and give him directions which would insure safety and success. That the body and travelled independently. the hardness of the abrading material and of the object drilled. with increased penetrating power. in.) the weight and size of its different parts. If the drill-point be of wood. c. with walls scarcely an eighth of an inch thick. It has been said that in prehistoric times the natives bored holes through pearls by means of heated copper spindles. A. Consult Fletcher in 22d Rep. stone. pottery. and was able to discern objects distant both in time and space. and stone were drilled to make beads. f. eighth to a half inch in diameter. Artificially bone or wood. frequently depended on an intimation received in a dream. fish bones. By were believed to have been supernaturally bestowed in a vision upon some one person whose descendants were to be the hereditary keepers of the sacred articles. were often regarded as significant. Anthrop. as the peyote. going and figured. 2. B. then in a vision he saw the place toward which his party was all that was to take place was preIn some tribes a skin kept for this special purpose was held sacred and used for divining by means of an induced vision. were accurately The columella of the Busy con shell was bored through for beads. The first drill was a of the primitive awl. and burial The holes vary from an places of the Indians. it was common also in Mexico. being worked by twirUng between the thumb and the index finger. A. Mooney in 14th Rep. The skin of a freshly killed animal. com- mon to all periods of the world's history. perforated objects of bone. The dreams of a man filHng an important position. the diameter of the hole. 21a 133 Many among of the elaborate ceremonies observed the object. and wood. or one that had been well soaked for the purpose. Asia. Boring by means drilled. and turned back and forth until a the tribes were said to have been re- hole of was bored. The graceful butterfly-shaped objects found throughout e.stone. and bristles were also used as drills. and also other ceremonies. 1902. or spirit left the mescal button. or piore in depth. Progress in the elaboration of drills consisted mainly in heightening Drills and Drilling. of hollow drills of was usual among all early races Indians employed plants. for when too hard the wood grinds the sand to powder . bone. At times the points were separate from the shafts and were firmly attached to the latter by strings of hide or vegetal fibre. or wood. shell. caves.

cross-piece to reach close to the disc. The thong was sometimes furnished with hand pieces of bone or bear's teeth to give a firmer alternately to the right grip Dyes and Pigments. as with the strap drill. A name for a band of Okinagan in s. The shaft is kept in position by means of the headpiece of wood. To a person using the strap is The California tribes and many who made baskets were usually satis- drill the jar to the teeth and head at first quite severe. when This turned to wind the string about the shaft. or at times the object was held between the naked feet while object held in the the drill This drill is and 39). is pulled Duck Lake. and a cross piece through which the shaft also runs. pop. disc is in length. this is the only form of drill referred to by early The pump drill.. forward motion of the bow The Hopi. Closely related to the strap drill. drill. and after wrapping around the shaft. Antiq. which pigments alone could not supply. or. and a brownish red from alder attached to the two ends of a bow. Most of the tribes of the S. which by successive pressure and been taken. Mus. for 1894. for 1901. The demand for these dyes arose when basketry. A thong that is wound once round the shaft. British Columbia. as degree of advancement. American is writers. m. but a great improvement over the latter. the drill being pressed against the left is made to revolve and the disc receives sufficient impetus to rewind the string. has been used by the Greenlanders from early times and is employed also certainly permanency Dyes. The insides of drill holes show by the character of their striae whether the cutting was accomplished by direct pressure or with in a shaft which passes through a disc of or wood. This drill. notably a black or dark grey on splints which had been buried in mud. and the right hand release. pottery. of Mex. varying of an inch in diameter from a fourth to three-fourths and from 10 in. local d. have a larger . which was apparently used only in the far N. 166. 24 m 1901. a perforator. is the bow drill. ii. pi. another colour from the roots of the Oregon grape. to each end of the cross-piece is attached a string or bucksists of stone. Rep. however. it was rolled up and down the point of the thigh with the right hand. With the exception of the strap drill. rarely. By pressing down the crosspiece after a few turns have the shaft was held horizontally. Nat. The head piece of the bow drill is held in position with the left hand. McGuire. is base of the cavity and cut away the shaft. was revolved between the hands. this raises the crosspiece. others fied by the Aleut. pt.. to 2 ft. is alternately revolved by a backward and is bark. and the brown of root bark. Only wood of proper texture holds the sand as known to the Iroquois and is used by the Pueblo Indians. A few dyes were known. Mus. and there was need of diversity of colour in ornamentation. as well as was to the early peoples of Greece. one end being held in each hand. and India. This drill consaid to have been a matrix and enables it to cut to the best advantage. W. Aff. ***** (j. and. continues the necessary to cutting. used both as a fire drill and as an improvement on the shaft probably of foreign origin.) both in the number of its revolutions and in the pressure which may be imparted to the shaft. however. of colour. skin thong having sufficient play to allow drill it to The simplest form of was a straight cross the top of the shaft and to permit the shaft. Rep.. sensation disappears with use. red dyes. w. The strap drill. although long common use among the Pueblo Indians. A. the shaft hand. but much of the disagreeable and black with natural colours. The Hupa obtained bright yellow from lichens. quillwork. for 1888. Most of the Indian North America made permanent dyes from organic materials. while the strap the pale yellow of peeled rods or rushes. A Study of the Primitive Methods of Drilling.134 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE employed v. Consult Hough. and other tribes of textile industries had reached a considerable to the strap. is left free to hold the object that is being in is codices (Kingsborough. Nat. Ind. Egypt. use only black for designs on baskets. apparently it known to the cave people of France. Firemaking Apparatus. 1912 while if it be too soft the grains catch at the The pump drill.—Can. which can be revolved with much greater speed. which is held in the teeth. the aid of sand. and to the left. This shaft was revolved in alternating directions between the hands. reciprocal movement The speed attained by the pump drill is much greater than with the bow drill or the strap drill. These are the red of bark. was in use at the time of Columbus the only one represented in the Mexican i. drilled. the white of grass stems. still in the arts.

charcoal. 1898. Anthrop. 3. in Papoose. E. 21a 135 of native dyes for basketry splints bearing minerals. green. and the northern Athapascans Quillwork. face paint was mixed with grease or saliva. The search for good was assiduously pursued. mortars and pestles. The Nez Perc6s and the Navaho foruse only applying the pigments varied with the objects to be decorated and with tribal or personal In general. and Havasupai have a number of vegetal dyes that are not used in basketry. an emulsion of fat seeds was made with Consult the pigment. Pigments were used for facial decoration.W.. green and blue from copper ores. Am. and in southern regions the prickly pear. Holmes in Am. and the Apache. there should is no reason why the Indians have become acquainted with various mordants through the practice of the culinary art or other domestic arts in which fire is employed. A. H.. 1902. tipis. as brown. was genby beadwork. as well as to colour their faces red and to dye mantles of deerskin and the rushes for baskets and mats. merly used permanent vegetal dyes of pleasing coloms for wool. The Virginia Indians. who BtiU retain them in weaving their ceremonial shawls. coast €mployed a number of harmonious vegetal Most of the native colours in their baskets. 3. Pigments were rubbed into soft tanned skins. goldenseal. for which reason the vermihon of the trader was eagerly adopted. Nat. low. arrows. quarries were opened and a commerce in their products was carried on. brushes and paint sticks. Stephen in Intemat... ser. It has been assumed that. not Rep. and an iron salt mixed with organic acids to produce black.. especially. Mus. Kroeber in Bull. Native Navajo Dyes. for this purpose urine was commonly employed by the Navaho. 1898.. or glue.) Pigments. In connection with the preparation and use of pigments are grinding slabs and mullers. B. alone practise quill working in its purity. 1898. and the native dyes employed in the art have fallen almost into disuse. The and stained earths. the Eskimo. powdered coal. in particular. at least. yel- Abnaki and other tribes made fugitive stains from pokeberries and fruits of the blueberry and elder. bloodroot.. 1884. pt. Goddard. giving the effect of dye. The N. The media for among the Chilkat of Alaska.. but the intent of face painting was generally totemic or religious. White was derived from kaolin. Matthews in 3d Rep. Mus. according to Hariot. and the bark of the butternut and other trees were also used by the northern and eastern tribes. Nat. and purple. B. spears. Dorsey in Field Coliunb. colours shields. Hopi. used sumach. Lichens. robes. Among the many birds held in superstitious and appreciative regard by the . A. 1903. pt. E. or soot. W. blue. 1904. limestone and gypsum. aixd this was applied by spurting from the mouth. These furnished various tints. controverts Coast Indians put grease on their faces before applying the Among some the Pueblos. indeed. may have received them from the Spaniards. red being most prized. No. W. a kind of seed. the opinion that the Navaho learned the art of weaving from the Pueblos. in turn. XI. Publ. Anthrop. The use of dyes required a knowledge of mordants. red. of have given way so recently to aniline colours that the details of their manufacture have not become lost. Walapai. and Zuni. in Mus. in Bull. etc.. Matthews. 1902. formerly widespread. and a great variety of pouches and pots for carrying or for preserving Native vegetal blanket dyes are found in them . Aboriginal American Basketry. while the medium for usage. than any other tribe. and the bark of a tree to dye their hair. dyes of the Indians were superseded by others introduced. and were mixed with various media for painting the wood and leather of boxes.. orange. Among the Southwestern tribes. 1. Hough (2) (1) in Am. in May. Fewkes 17th Rep. (w. Some of the N. i. 1903. Anthrop. Am. Nat. since the weaver's art seems to be accultm-al with the Navaho. however. Life and Culture of the Hupa. Mason. 1900 and 1901. in late years. With the latter these dyes wood or skin was grease paint. phosphate of iron. The tribes of the N. such as ochres and other ores.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER number No. erally superseded pigments paintings were mixed with of sand iron for dry while pigments earths or kaolin were employed for decorating pottery. V. and not merely ornamental. Coast tribes. Feb. Hist. besides an impure native alum. Wissler. parfleche cases. the mordant dyes may have been derived from the Pueblos. black from graphite. Folk-lore Cong. but its former range was extensive. and. XVIII. The inorganic colours used by the Indians were mostly derived from iron- - Eagle. 1902.. a small root. xviii. by aniline colours. etc. Mus. who. Pepper. Hist.

This eagle is expressed in the employment of the and grave posts. Among the Hopi the eagle is generally associated with the Sky god. and it (Fewkes). the white plimaes with black tips. and objects It was also represented in the primitive drama connected eagle kachina of with ceremonies. though the feathers are also regularly plucked and form a staple article of trade. in its The eagle held an important place in It sym- bolic art. appear- reason of nature. with bars Plains tribes was across the feathers. Chippewa to allow a warrior who scalped an enemy to wear on his head two eagle feathers. pose a great quantity of feathers required. quillwork. prayer-sticks. and other cult objects For this purentering into ceremonies. A. was depicted by all the methods . solitary. B. It is probable that nearly every tribe in the United States recognizing clan or gentile organization had an eagle clan or gens at some period history. are regarded as inferior down in was probably a general custom. The wing bones were fashioned into whistles to be carried by warriors or used in ceremonies. or otherwise decorated with some cognizance of the wearer. house became an especial object of worship. textiles. and the act of capturing a wounded prisoner on the battlefield earned the distinction of wearing five. The Tlingit and other North for ceremonial bird. of the greatest importance. the feathers were. it was often trapped. and Among some to of tribes eagle-killing was the delegated difficulty certain men.. requiring great skill. feathers shed by eagles. the eagle. and these feathers were often cut. As one of the prominent totemic animals. killed The eaglets. It was the custom of the yearly The Hopi clans claimed the eagle nests in the locahties where they formerly resided. E. for it is said that one pony was the price of a perfect tail of 12 feathers of the "war eagle. the Hopi of Arizona. and it is probable that the customs of many tribes prescribed like discriminations as to feathers of different species. by of art expression known to the Indian. beadwork. Warriors of the Plains tribes usually wore the feathers of the golden eagle only. The wing-bones were often employed as sucking tubes. totem poles. and war costumes and paraphernaUa.136 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. crests.. being blown through a tube or sprinkled by hand. Many tribes possessed eagle as the Kwahu. other tribes. is wore one or more eagle feathers in the hair. basketry. the eagle gave its name to many clans by Teit to Near the present Hopi villages there are shrines in which offerings of eagle eggs carved from wood are placed The interior Salish also are said have property in eagles. The striking war bonnet of the 616. including shields. The mythology of almost every tribe is replete with eagle beings. and the wide-spread thunderbird myth relates in some cases to the eagle. The Miwok of Among the Haida. on the hair. with which medicine-men pretended to hazardous branch of hunting. 1896). which offerings of small wooden images and bows and arrows are yearly deposited. when required for have their heads washed. masks. Many tribes The use of eagle feathers in religion is nowhere better shown than among the Pueblos. during the winter solstice for the increase of Among the Zuiii. or the was still Pacific tribes used eagle down visited to secure the young. when downy plumes are attached to masks. (Mooney). Owing to getting within bowshot of the eyrie remove disease. pipes. Eagle feathers were also attached as ornaments to the buckskin shirts worn by men. by the Indian for religious and aesthetic purposes only. e. pertaining to cult and ceremony. they are by pressure on the thorax. feathers. In''Hopi myth the Man-eagle is a sky and religious fraternities." i. and the Eagle god of the however. its majestic. and the talons formed powerful amulets or fetishes. rattles. and mysterious ing on pottery. rattles. passes made with eagle capture of eagles for their feathers was a fans were thought to be effectual in conjuring. 1912 aborigines of North America. Eagles are sprinkling kept in captivity by the Pueblo Indians as in the time of Coronado (14th Rep. and caught in traps or took from the whose down was used in cere- monies. the California. it was also scattered in the air. A. and its feathers are used with discs to represent the Sun god ceremonies. Other varieties. this use reappears in many tribes. coloured. their captive eagles have special significance. The Pawnee and other Plains tribes as well as the Pueblos also used the made of eagle feathers and was highly valued. having secondary value as ornaments. deities. and dance costume. Fans made of the primary feathers of the eagle formed an accessory to the costume of the Sioux and Pillager nests eaglets. shields. and buried rites with appropriate in in special cemeteries. were ornamented with them..

"Coucoucache. Hist. Motives of pride or shame. 20. Col. which would have contained nearly a 1900.— Mc- —hunting. Fewkes. Later it came to be included within the limits of Masset. 304^ 1885 ('people of Edjao'. The aborigines of North Amerhad their own systems of education. An Athapascan tribe of the Chipewyan group Uving along the banks of Buffalo r. Edenshaw (or Edensaw. Bark Col. 363. Quebec. See among Edjao i^I'djao)..) Eagle Bear ed. and it was through his influence that a missionary was sent to Masset. he protected the crew of an American vessel when threatened by other or maleficent power. L'Ecureuil. Shortly after boy and girl became the accomplished man and woman. Boas. myth is widely diffused. (j. which is still standing. Tribes.. etiquette. and himting. Tlinkit-Indianer. at the mouth of Naden harbour. setting them difficult Names in Quebec. and South Saskatchewan Sas- katchewan. -fishing. Place and boys. —Chauvignerie N. Swanton^ Cont. closest association. probably the same)..) natives. (2) in 19th Rep. Tribes Can. in. at the e end. handicraft. 1900.. Mooney (1) ibid. Through the exercise of his the whole tribe (Heckewelder) . from a Tlingit word referring to the glacier) The Haida chief . s. A. according to the old men. Property Rights in Eagles the Hopi. the stimulus of flattery or disparagement. A Haida town situated around a hill of the same name. possibly about the lake named ouanon in the Jesuit Relations.— Krause. Edjifere-tpou-kke-nade. His relations Champlain cc. through which the young were instructed in their coming labours and obUgations. ii. and the hero who slays him is carried to the house in the sky by eagles of several species... 1897. Brit. By unconscious absorption and by con- best known to the whites. to draw their enemies into an ambush.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER being in 137 Na. Edjieretrukenade ('buffalo people'). B. and. and household work—but speech. The Attikamegs thinking there was a flock (wache) of owls (cou-cou) landed to hunt there. Kenney and Hall.—Jes. he moved with them to Kung. Anthrop. his people having fallen off in numbers. Twelfth Rep. 1898. not of the parents and grandparents alone but of stant inculcation the 1860. customs. Haida. most tribes regarding this being as a manifestation of either helpful with the whites were always cordial. lake. social obligations. "coucou-kwache" became 'coucoucache'. B. Queen Cbarlotte ids. — trihe. and.* Ecureuil (French: 'squirrel'). 1896. (w. who was the charge. to the council and solemn feast following it. Loskiel (p.. showing them how to solve them. evidently intended for L'Ecoree. —Petitot. Brit. generally the nephew of the principal chief. and were shot down by the Iroquois.. embracing not only the whole round of economic pursuits ica Escurieux. 1661. transl.. in 1736. 21a who lays aside his plumage after flights which he spreads devastation.. 1853. Ha-ju hade. 1855. Quebec. Chauvignerie calls them L'Ecoree. 1854. Doc. — Chauvignerie (1736) IX. A monument mentioning his kind treatment of the whites stands in Masset. L'Ecoree. 523. wrought constantly upon the child. 1905.. Autour du lac do9 Spoken of between Tadoussac and Hudson bay. Hoffman in 14th Rep. He succeeded early in the 19th century to the chieftainship of the strong Stustas kinship group which centered in the town of Kioosta on the coast of opposite North id. 139) says the Iroquois are particularly attentive to the education of the young people for the future government of the state. Am. agriculture. A band of Nipissing living at Oka. later. — Ecorce. Esclaves. of parents . and tribal lore. 23. for education.. consisted in later times of about & houses. Rel. as a tribe formerly living Education. Ind. 690-707. fine art. Graham id. Col. Y. 99. and for this exceptional abilities in trad^ and in various other ways he became one of the wealthiest of the * purpose admit a boy. E.. A. N. Maurice Ouapichir. imitated the cry of the owl. 79. W. II. It was occupied by the Aoyaku-lnagai. of Masset village." (White. Hai'ts'au. Tribes. and asking boys how they would meet a given emergency Everywhere there was the (see Child life. A Assiniboin of 35 lodges living in band of 1808 between r.) problems in canoeing. male or female. where he erected a large house. quoted by Schoolcraft. H. 554. R. Ind. Coues hundred persons. Probably a Montagnais band Hving about the headwaters of the St.. 1891 ('buffalo people'). Their totem was the birch. destroyed by the Iroquois in 1661. Haida river chiefs. Among other good offices to the whites. in. each one in The Man-eagle its turn bearing him higher. Alberta. hills Hills Assiniboin. — Henry-Thompson Join-. a branch of the Yaku-lanas. sledding. in 1053. He died about 1885. E. and The Eskimo were most their girls careful in teaching about 1660 a party of Iroquois hid at the mouth of the Coucoucache river.

of things in who learned the names and uses colonization and settlement. and metal tools and utensils. beadwork. It was through these and other practical lessons that could control her movements. pupils. potters. Domestic animals (horses. At a tender age they played at serious business. to jump into cold water. and the appearance of Cabeza de Vaca in Mexico prompted Fray Marcos de Niza's journey to the n. and many others. All the natives. Instruction. and dress were her who came to Christianize young Indians and bestow on them an education. and were followed by the English in Virginia and in New England. customs. Narvaez. the whole training tending to make him skilful. was moribund. . strong. donkeys. and fearless. Colonial and nature. watchers of crops and flocks. the inevitable action of arts mind upon mind.138 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE (3) v. and they were stimulated by the tribal law of personal property. The Indian passed at once into the iron age. and motives. were and all the whites who came in contact with them were instructors. as well as a friar and a lay brother at Tiguex and Pecos. The Apache boy had for pedagogues his father and grandfather. The undesigned on the spot. and the adoption of firearms. boys following men's purChildren were fiu-nished with approsuits. first can not be measured. the Swedes in New Jersey. the Dutch in New York. young and old. archers. besides carrying on their proper missionary work they exerted themselves to mitigate the eastern tribes that trate their true life it is diSicult now to illus- in museum collections. stone workers. and opened friendly relations. first lessons in basketry with yucca care. The French appeared in Canada and in the Mississippi valley. and of the contrary influences of first many of the whites who were of zeal or ability. girls attending to household duties. The Norwegians began their accul- turation of Greenland in the year 1000. So radical was the change in the instruction patronage. sheep. (4) the growth of the national pohcy. all destined to be killed by the natives. which was inviolable. cattle. goats. the bettering of their own. the missionaries and teachers cooking. cooks. then up and down hill. immediately ensued. the all the coming of the whites a new era of secular education. The ward to social duties and initiation. 1912 with children. and of the expedition of Coronado. and to impress or force upon them the social organization of their conquerors. It consisted in rising early. A. the discipHne beginning as soon as the child Spanish pioneers were Ponce de L6on. Portions of the area here considered were discovered and explored by several European nations at dates wide apart. designed and undesigned. the stone period. Failures to accomphsh the most cherished object of the missionaries grew out of the great distance which separated the two races. on the Kansas plains. to acquaint the harsh treatment visited on the Indian. to teach reading and writing in the foreign tongue. and the fashion of hving. traded their manufactures for Indian products. carrying water. Among the Pueblos cult images and paraphernaha were their playthings. to break branches from trees. and to race. they became httle basket makers. An account of the designed instruction would embrace all attempts to change manners. water carriers. and minding children. designed and undesigned. priate toys. knew. (2) Padre Juan Juarez. De Soto. The girl was trained in part by her mother. but its effect was profound. to run on level ground. Marcos de Niza. All of them aroused the same wonder at first view. smoked the pipe of peace. the range of instruction being Hmited only by Personal responsibilities were tribal custom. and (5) the present system. Later on decorated baskets. laid on them. Cabrillo. weavers. who left Fray Juan de PadiUa and a lay brother in Quivira. but chiefly by the grandmother. who began early to teach him counting. the Quakers in Pennsylvania. By the subtle process of suggestion. whether pm-posely or through the influence of their example and On Indians received incalculable training in began. Coronado. The history of this systematic instruction divides itseK into the period of (1) discovery and exploration. and they early joined the fraternities. respectively.. helping about the home. except in ceremony. In the 16th century the expedition of Narvaez to Florida was a companied by Franciscans under Indians with new arts and industries. girl At 6 the little took her leaves. looking for- Revolutionary times. and the Russians in Alaska. eaddle-bags. as far as Zuni. not from lack efficient The Roman Catholic most agents clergy were at of the direct instruction. Cabeza de Vaca. were more successful instructors than they of the early days. teaching the Indians many foreign industrial processes. poultry) and many vegetables found congenial environment. but never be- coming regular or severe.

the their language by EUot. the settler. was to bring the infidels and savages to human civihty and a settled and quiet government (Neill). the trader. Schools were formally opened in Kodiak in 1794. the offering of their children for translation of the Bible instruction. during the In 1567 the agricultural education of Indians was tried in Florida by the Jesuit Fray Rogel. the founding of (1646-90) Early in the 17th century Franciscan missions were estabhshed among the Apalachee and neighbouring tribes. under VitUs Bering and his successors. In all was founded in 1618. Domestic animals. Education and Civihzation. and the founding . 1606 and repeated in that of 1621. schools were founded. models will. Dall (Alaska. whenever it took place. and built commodious houses (Shea). 139 No. (4) the Ottawa in Wisconsin and Michigan. the series of lessons given for the acculturation of the Aleut. Ind. utensils. the labours of Eleazer Wheelock (1729). Princeton College special provisions were for their education. cation. Eskimo. and Government cation. planted the first Catholic mission among the Sahsh tribes. and along the coast of Washington. afterward to be abandoned. of Dartmouth College in 1754 (see Fletcher. Government. Henrico College mentioned geometry. had in their hearts of thrift and good wherever they went the welfare of the aborigines as a private and pubUc burden. and a httle This chapter in education inlater in Sitka. for example). the appointment of a superintendent of Indians (Daniel Gookin. were chiefly practical and social. and the provision for Indian youth in Harvard. Company's schools. The early French missions in North America were among (1) the Abnaki in Maine. a civil course of life. and (6) the tribes of Louisiana. Pupils were taught the Russian and EngUsh cludes the Russian as miUtary. Foreign plants. were permanently acquired. arithmetic. W. geography. made The Moravians. and the Moor's charity school. and navigation.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER The subsequent ings. Between 1741 and 1761 began. 1870) speaks of the great aptness of the Aleuts in receiving instruction. were introduced. superintendent of education at Henrico. Brasserton manor was purchased through the charity of Robert Boyle. into founding of Natick. Old things passed away whose nature and very existence and structure can be proved now only by impressions on ancient pottery or remains in caverns and graves. came into vogue. cation in New England 17th century. (2) the Huron in Ontario. and Canadian priests visited the natives on Puget sd. history. (5) the lUinois in the middle W. The making of treaties with the Indians afforded an object lesson in practical aflairs. kind. Bishop Laval founded a school at Quebec for French and Indian youth. good and bad. 1888) In New York and other northern states large sums of money were appropriated for the instruction of Indians. The results achieved by the missions inthe S. and Indians of Alaska. and modes of preparing and eating food. for the instruction of Indians (Hist. and in gunpowder was adopted in place of the bow. new materials and fashions in dress and implements for making The . records a ham and Mary series of disasters to the immediate undertakin practical edu- but permanent success In Maryland no but the settlers and Indians exchanged knowledge of a practical College. 1874). 21a history of the S. the trapper. the yearly rents and profits being de- voted to a boarding-school foundation in Wil- contact. trigonometry. and special provisions were made in the charter of Virginia useful trade. but forming the first Unk in the chain of causes which has brought these Indians through their minority under guardianship to mature seK-dependence. had its effect in a generation or two. The twofold education embraced new dietaries. Michigan and Ohio. The spirit and methods of instruction in the 18th century are revealed in the adoption of Indian children by the colonists (Samson Occum. the missionary. the school-teacher. gave a cheering account of his labours in 1621. Concentration for practical instruction was established in Cahfornia by the Franciscans. and in some George Thorpe. College of areas the voyageur. Father de Smet grapes. peaches. in the charter of languages. Bishop Berkeley's gift to Yale.. with the art of domestication and industries depending on their products. The council of Jamestown in 1619 voted to educate Indian children in religion. and new practices and customs. who selected lands. (3) the Iroquois in New York. WiUiam and Mary College was founded in 1691. Many youths were taken to England to be educated. 1656-86). procured agricultural implements. The interesting chapter of Indian eduincludes. Industrial training was compulsory in many cases. including wheat. W. authorities were partners in edu- WiUiam and Mary. One of the objects in colonizing Virginia. as well and church schools.

Catesby. Archseologia Americana. Spencer. new social institutions. 1874. for when houses are furnished with stoves. i-iv. Eastman. 1820-60. United Brethren. Leg..140 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. Hist. repr. 1912 clothing. 1880. Education has made the aborigines law-respecting. (3) Western Missions and Missionaries. Prov. After the confederation was taken up systematically and contract schools were estabUshed and put into the hands of the Christian denominations. estabhsh systematic training in those provinces. 1520-1522. The able- borrowed from the conquerors. Soc. 1845.. 1855. 1889. especially 20th and 24th.519-528. Hall.506-516. 1883. and Methodist schools founded by Lord Elgin and others. for 1904). new productive Competition in ties. Rep.. 1878. beds. 1888. In 1911. Education of the Indian. 1765. 73. N. 1904. there were 19 industrial. De Smet 1887. 1902. see Reps.. and fashions. musical instruments. i-cix.. Coll. of the Mission of the vate industrial training for various bread- winning trades. 1897. Hist. Baptists. 1743. for the better. and the NorthwestTerritory into the Dominion. Rep. domestic animals. 1865. Hist. tables. Indian Boyhood. 1873. Off. and Congregationahsts. customs. woodcraft.. Hist. Loskiel. Camden Soc. 1847).. Assemb. Ind. Carolina. 541-544 and 746-754.. 1660-1874. 1863. Indians become individual owners of farms and of flocks and herds and sell the produce. and and exhibitions stimulates-and the new activiThe piu-pose of the Canadian governfairs mining. Pratt. especially for 1898 years. 1900. new aesthetic ideas. Childhood of Ji-shib'. Old Regime in Canada. 1882-85. Jenks. (o..Can. College of William and Mary. 372-376. i-x.) . Adolescence. (2) New Indian Sketches.. Rawson et al. The Middle Five. Hist. of Can. La Flesche. Spotswood.. Aff. Manitoba. chairs. 1899. xii. trapping. Doc. 8 and 657-660. Soc. and fishing. Stith. 1888. Canadian Ind. Va. steps were taken to tive 4. Aff. 339-354. 1794. Hist. as well as bettered health and raised the moral tone.402-411. 1871. Co. 278-280. of the Mission of the United Brethren. and subsequent Biu-eau of Education Reports for 1870. Haihnann. also circulars 3. ReUgious Life of the Zuni Child. and sewing machines. 1886. changes in the clan and tribal life. 281-286. Hist. The Roman Catholic missions inherited from the French.. Reps. normal schools and girls' homes have been estabhshed to teach self-support under new conditions. The schools discoiu-age employment for wages. 58- work (see Missions). (1) Shea. 999-1004. Reps. Catholic Missions. they contribute in many ways to its welfare. governments piior to confederation. not always foreign words and jargons for ideas new and activities. In the Canadian colonies little was done for secular vincial bodied in the mixed farming districts have become and industrial education by the pro- Can. Neill. VI. and the habit of steady supervision. Mass. 1872. practically self-supporting (Pedley in Ind. 1879. Va. Fletcher. Far from being a menace to or a burden upon the commonwealth. m. proficiency in both the old industries and new methods of quarrying. Oregon Miss. Parkman. and 251 day schools in operation throughout Dominion. 1900. Hist. 469-480. Stevenson. Letters (1710-22). hunting. as well as those managed by Presbyterians. and contented. 1838-72. the boarding schools especially culti- Heckewelder. Y. manners. After the admission of British Columbia. all combined common school instruction and training in the practical arts with their special ******** Aff. app. In addition to the works cited. Bulletin 1 of the New Orleans Exposition. they partake of the benefits of commerce and transportation and acquire thrift. Bacon.405-418. Pubhcations. the tastes of the occupants are elevated and other thoughts stimulated. the New England Company's missions among the Six Nations and Mohawk. 54 boarding. Narr.. Anglican missions sent from the mother country. and accessions to native beliefs and forms of worship premature marriages and educate the young^ prospective mothers.34-43... 1865. Indian Education and 1849-51. of Commissioners on Indian Education in 1844 (Jour. 1792-1809. and foreign handicrafts. 1820. 1869. Aff. new or modified habitations and their appurtenances ^nd furniture. In the older provinces agricultm-e and other industries had largely taken the place of primi(1867) the subject arts. i-ii. Commr. 1904. prosperous. Va. the adoption of calendars to encourage the Indians to emerge from a condition of tutelage and continue voluntarily what they have learned under close ment has been and clocks. Civihzation. Nat. ii. the introduction of gunpowder. A. on Carlisle School in An. t. Improvement iu dwellings has developed a stronger attachment to home. Day schools among the tribes aim to secure the co-operation of the the parents. Laws of Md. 1875. Education of the Pueblo Child. Ind.

Soc. 101 in 1902.— HiU- Eleidlinottine ('people of the fork'). A 1649. Siksika Val. W. 1862. — Dawson Trans. 1637. Exalualuin. Autour du lac des Escla£l6-idlin-ottine. affluent Pop. larger part of the supply of dentalium shells extensively used on the Pacific coast as media inlet. E. Ehateset. Ekalukdjuak. Ehatt-ls-aht. 1888. 141 No. xx. W. MS. Rel. A. B.). 1862. Egan.. A.. Baffin island. A. 1888. EkionKhiondaesa- han. 1641.. Ekuhkahshatin. Baffin island. £k"uks.. and Tach4 Mackenzie. Wand. Petitot. 69. 1830.— Boas in 6th Rep. Ekaentoton. A£f. A Huron village in On- Ehwae. 1876. 1887. with Skichisin since about Grinnell. 171. . They have now joined the Seshart. Baffin island. Ehressaronon. Ind. 1859.— Can. N. division of the Piegan tribe of the Ehatisaht.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER Eeksen (E'exsen).—Shea. coast of Vancouver id. Ekaentoton. The Huron name of a tribe mentioned by Ragueneau in 1640 as living s. shore of Cumberland sd. Armstrong. for 1891. Morgan. 31. Rel. Sainct Ekhiondaltsaan. I'Isle de E'kuiks. v. Grandin. Exaluqdjuaq. 1888. 1887. ii. A.. Can. It can not now be identified with any 1858). map. 136. 1875... 162.. Mo. pt... 1858. v.. A 264. Ethnog. 1888. E-kuh-kah'-sha-tin.. e-ka-to'-pi-staks.— Boas. A summer settlement of Talirpingmiut Eskimo on the s. tario about 1640. 1888. MS. 1897. Dindji4. Exaluin. 1858. ves.. Brit. Col. in the Piegan tribe. 439. B. 6th Rep. 70. datsaan. ath.T. B. Howe sd. map. N. 1640. Rel.93 in 1911. village on A society of the Ikunuhkatsi. 2. in ('one battered — Hewitt). E-koolth-aht. Soc. sec. Am. Eh-aht-tis-aht. in N. Ind.— Jes. Sav.— Mayne. Ees-tey-toch. 474. Brit. E-ko'-to-pis-taxe. Rel. 21a Oyster bay. A Nootka tribe on Esperanza w. Equalett. Rel. Diet. coast of Ekalualuin.. Col. B. 1849. Given as a tribe on the Cascade inlet.. A.— Can.— Boas in 6th Rep. tan 118 in 1904.. 221. — Boas in 6th Rep. Exoluin. quoian.. Ottawa co. Einake (E-ln'-a-ke.. 68. 1891. Baffin island. pop. 153. 'catchers.. has been obsolete Thompson (q. 357.— Boas Rep.—Jes.. Saincte Marie. Iro-.. as are some of the tribes mentioned in the same list. Oregon. whose territory extends lakes. Tribes. Tout in Rep. in 6th Ehatisaht..W. (q. E. Brit. Eesteytoch. ii. Exaluaqdjuin. A.. 1892. B. The Huron name of Manitouhn id. E.— Ayhuttlsaht. Padlimiut Eskimo settle- Etchareottine tribe at the confluence of Liard ment in Padh fiord. of of — Boas in 6th Rep. 158. 35.' or 'soldiers'). Lawrence r. Ano. fel'6-idIin-Gottine.. Oregon. 1900. A summer settlement of the Saumingmiut subtribe of the Okomiut Eskimo. Charlevoix.— Kelley. La Martre.. 6th Rep. Brit. 1879. Perhaps Ekoolthaht ('bushes-on-hill people').— Can. of exchange. 1860. in 6th and Mackenzie to rs. and of the Indians (Amikwa) living on it in 1649. B.C. speaking the Comox dialect. Eku'lath. Ai-tiz-zarts. Nar. and Philol. app.. Ind. E. E.—Petitot. An Algonquian settlement in Maniwaki township. 6. 48 in 1879. Aff. of St. the right Ekuks. (Jes. of Cumberland sd.). Their principal From their waters came the village is Oke. probably a village group of the Bellacoola.— Boas. — Ekatopistaks (half-dead 'meat' Morgan'. A Nootka tribe formerly inhabiting the shores of Barkley sd.—Jes. or All it Com- Deadman rades. 31. Aff. Col. A. 1857. village of the Tionontati existing in 1640. Ind. probably extinct. Life.. Ekaluin. E'hatls1890.—Jes. 1875. Aff„ 308. Rel. An Ekaloaping. and perhaps earlier. a small branch of of A Shuswap cr.. Rel. Sproat. 52. Ekiondatsaan. n. E. 1878. e. Roy. 363. of the St. chart. A summer settlement Nugumiut Eskimo of Baffin island the the at — Kane. Gens de D^nd la fourche du Mackenzie.— Boas. A summer settlement of the Akudnirmiut Eskimo on Home bay.— Jewitt. A note 1866. 441. 1868. 308.. tribe s.— Boas Rep.. r. S. Exaloaping. — Jes. 1890. 441. Soc. Can. pop. It was the ancient home of the Ottawa. Paris. index. Ill. B.. coast of Vancouver id. E. Tribes Can. containing 421 Indians in 1911. Col.— Boas. it'. —Hayden. A. a n. i'' 8. B. E. — Ehouae EhSae. 1888. 1901. 95. A Squawmish village community on bank of Skwamish r. New France. Blackfoot Lodge Tales. 1G37. A Salish tribe about Vancouver id. ii. Baffin island. 1858.— Can.. of Ekaluin. 1858. head of Frobisher bay. w. Lawrence. 36. Quebec..— Petitot in Bull. N. — Ibid. A summer settlement the Kingua Okomiut Eskimo at the head Cumberland sd. B.. 1858. Pierre et sainct Paul. map. Brit. — de Geog. Aitzarts. 1640.. A. 251. A. 44.—Jes. Ekaluakdjuin. 'the band that have finished packing' Hayd- — — den)..

and else_ . g. down to the Mooney in 17th Rep.. id. •whom hardly more than (see his name is known When the pohtical ambitions of the English colonists were aroused conflicts with the In- dians soon occurred. English Institutions and the American Indian. 549. Scotchmen. A Dogs Naked. seeing. Ind. B.. complish it. Brit.E. foreperhaps. however. Some of the New England such as the Pequot. With a few noble exceptions. Capt. A. or All Comrades. 1900) and the Tlingit of Alaska. Aff.." which it was the duty of good be "for the education and instruction of youths of the Indian tribes in this land. in the old provinces of Canada. colleges for Indian youth. the clergy of the English colonies were not nearly so sympathetic toward the natives as were the French missionaries in Acadia and New France. were whole or in part. the result of their advent. but in 1605 So. on tribal government and land ten- Emitaks (E'-mi-taks. 1912 Elhlateese.) at the head of Uchucklesit harbour. too. The principal village of the Uchucklesit (q. in the beginning the natives of the New Eng- charter of Dartmouth College (1769) specific- land coast." Harvard had during the colonial period one Indian graduate. e. — Har- vard. and the extermination of these Indians ensued tribes. It appears. from heathen ways and institutions more and more as their power grew and their land hunger increased." and "for civilizing izing the children of pagans. Caleb Cheeshateaumuck. E. 'dogs'). A. and in the Hudson's Bay Company's territories have played a conspicuous part as associates and leaders of the time of William Perm (1682) present (see 193. it is composed of old men who dress like. Elothet. rum and brandy among the Indians worked infinite damage. among the eastern Cherokee (Mooney in 19th Rep. despising the treaties could be made. however. B. The introduction of on at the present time work on the Brantford Iroquois reserve and in other partg of Ontario. E'-mi-tah-pahk-sai-ylks. for example. describe as peaceful and amiable people. When commissioners visited the Cherokee they induced these to elect an "emperor. Grinnell. 265. A. institutions the benefit of the Indian during the early periods of American history does not seem to have been proportionate to the hopes and ideals of their foimders." and ChristianThat of Har- vard looked to "the education of the English and Indian youth in knowledge and godliness.. Blackfoot Lodge Tales. and the former came to James." with whom lift the pride of the Indians. 176. 1899). 1892.. of exercising great personal influence over the Indians. 35 in 1911. whose operations were transferred to carries the Indians. Canonicus were always suspicious of their English friends.. like the Baptist seem to have furnished many Roger Williams (1636). —Grinnell. 221. they paid little attention to them at once to their own plane. ascribed by Pastor Cushman in 1620 to the Indians of Plymouth colony was forgotten when theological zeal saw in the aborigines of the New World ''the accursed seed of Canaan. and dance with and like.— Can. English influence Blackfoot Lodge Tales.142 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. individuals capable. The first ' English visitors to the coast of Virginia-Carolina were well received by the Indians. and he soon The good character had many imitators.. v... of Christians to exterminate. pop. as but their graduates of aboriginal blood have been few indeed. for example. The Friends. ('dogs naked'). in the Piegan tribe. Even men like Canada in 1822. 1830) as a Given by Kelley (Oregon. that the English colonists paid for most of the land that they took from the Indians (Thomas in 18th Rep. possibly intended when the whites were strong enough to ac- for Ucluelet. whom the early chroniclers. Emitahpahksaiyiks division of the Siksika.. though forming a different society. A ure was perceptible as early as 1641. in the W. Col. and never really opened their hearts to them. while they are now all high-class institutions The royal for white men (see Education). 1911. were inimical to the English from the first. under chief Wickaninish. and the College of William English influence. E. Dartmouth. as Hariot. Vancouver id. in the S. The aim of the English has ever been to transform the aborigines and regard the latter as the natural enemies of the whites in the onward march of civilization.. 208. Unlike the French. Alberni canal. at Kuper id. The New England Company established for the propagation of the gospel in America (1649). the Issui. A. Nootka town on Vancouver 68. 1892. 1894). like Roger Williams and John Eliot. B. 1898). in and Mary aU began. society of The success of dehberately planned educational for the Ikunuhkahtsi. — Ibid. The Quakers still continue their work. Weymouth ally states that it is to forcibly carried off five Indians.

and the plough were in pretty general use.402) whose Eells cites 570 as English. 469-476. n. all ordinary petroglyphs may be classed as engravings. the loom. since the work ia executed in shallow lines upon smooth rock smfaces. and importance must consequently be attached to the effects of such intermingling in modifying Indian customs and institutions. in contact with the English bark. Enghsh influence has made itself felt also in W. horn. based on the Christian code of morals. 'milk'. Englishman. English words having taken their places. As no definite hne can be drawn between the lower forms of relief sculpture and engraving. tools..' in use among the Canadian Abnaki. The constant mingling of men with their white neighbours of the young women out to more and more the old ideas which are doomed "to disand the going service are nevertheless weakening appear as a system long before the people die That they have survived so long is remarkable. English beds and other furniture were adopted by many Indians in colonial days. 1904).. G.. according to Morice (Trans. as is now being done by the out.' The English 'cheese' has passed into the Nipissing dialect of Algonquian aa The Chinook jargon (q. 'cheese'. koppee. Hill-Tout (Rep. The vo- cabularies of the eastern Algonquian tribes Mexico. 'coffee'. the engraver's art did not rise to a high degree of artistic excellence among the tribes N. Inst. which faciUtated himting and fishing and made possible the manufacture with less labour and in greater abundance of ornaments. Point work is common on wood. Inst. A Shawnee vocabulary of 1819 has for 'sugar' melassa. Although extensively em- ployed in pictographic work and in decoration. 'apple'. Of recent yeara "many words of Indian origin have been dropped. Manypenny. nibil. Brinton and Anthony's the designs run the entire from graphic to purely conventional representations.. gubulnol. esthetic to simply trivial motives. and other articles of trade. Engraving. skulin. out of 1. English influence made itself felt in colonial days in the introduction of improved weapons. has Its 143 No. Perhaps the most artistic and technically perfect examples of engraving are those I of .' mulugech. s. representing the language of about 1825. See also Friederici. and in 1801 the agent reported that at the Cherokee agency the wheel. 'beer'. f. in.. 'King James. 1876. who have come contain others. MacMahon. and a Micmac vocabulary of 1800 has blaakeet. and the full range of significance from purely symbolic through technique." of N. Clothing and certain ornaments. Can." In colonial days English doubtleaa had some influence on the grammatical form and sentence-contruction of Indian languages. cheesawa. Spinning wheels and looms were introduced among the Cherokee shortly before the Revolution. Indianer und Anglo-Amerikaner 1900. 'governor. and 57 in 1863. is very seriously affecting the purity of the British Even the Athapascan Nahane Columbia have.) contained 41 words of English origin in 1804. concerning certain Salishan tribes. gamut of style Lenape-English Dictionary (1889). and this influence still continues: the recent studies by Prince and Speck of the PequotMohegan (Am. Our Indian Wards. of English influence on the languages of some of the aborigines has been considerable. bone. v. while in 1894. The Anglo-Saxon and the North American Indian. contain evidence of this. that "the spread and use of English among the Indiana the languages of the N. 1902) observes. Anthrop. Canad. 263-273. added a few English words to their vocabulary. 18-45. metal. its and other particular other the loan-words. Anthrop." tribes of the n. (a. The supplying of the Indians with domestic animals also took place at an early period. testifies to the power of English ideas in the 17th century. Ethnol. 1880. See Sagaunash. 'to 'blanket. The word Kinjames. Surv. who tells us that "all for which Iroquois paganism is indebted to European culture" is the possession of some ideas about God or the Great Spirit and "a few suggestions respecting conduct.. 529. total is number 1. after these. B. which seems to be English 'molasses'. Each material has and own Micmac Dictionary among Jak-ass. shell. 1903). 'milk'.082 words (the tchis. mellik. The pagan members of these Indians have recently been investigated by Boyle (Jour. The intermarriage of Englishmen and Indians has been greater all over the country than is commonly believed. apel. s. has amel. 21a institute. c. ford. 'hammer'.. 1900). surfaces. trinkets. vi. etc.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER where. (1888) following: Rand's Englishcontains.) native speech. and. n. origin is known." the young keep school. Mohawk near Brant- had a powerful Lafluence among the Iroquois of Ontario. clay. 18.' which may be partly from English and partly from German. Pacific coast.

The climate zones which Merriam has worked out for the U. indeed. Omitting the Eskimo. Ohio (Putnam and WiUoughby).... Murdoch in 9th Rep. Putnam and WiUoughby in Proc. A. Nat. XLiv. Aff. and this alone would have a marked effect on the execution. Twelve ethnic environments may be distinguished. especially by the ancient potters Powell's map (see Linguistic families). Mus. E. as in Asia. blue fox. (3) predominant plants. who executed elab- orate scroll designs with gi-eat precision (Moore. Nelson. driftwood. ornaments. Department of Agriculture in regard to their animal and vegetal life correspond in a measure with the areas of linguistic families as delimited on entire region and in some cases considerable skill was shown. B. W.. B. the technical excellence of their work being well illustrated by examples from the mounds and dwelling sites of Ross co. and few barriers E. ities and activ- Rep. stimulating and conditioning their contrasted greatly with life and activities. executed on slate utensils and on ornaments of metal (Niblack). Holmes (1) in 2d Rep. and water. B. x-xii. In decorating their earthenware the native tribes often used the stylus with excellent The yielding clay afforded a tempting effect. E.. sm-rounded The the natural aborigines phenomena of North With both of these peoples the processes em- America. Acad. about six months day and six months night. intellectual. S. E.. differences in the The ployed and the style of representation have probably undergone much change in recent times through contact with white people. A.. 1898. area there is (1) Arctic. but no timber and little fruit. to which primitive peoples are especially amenable.. in 1902 reduced to a polar bear. practically all the peoFew imples dwelt in the temperate zone. 72> 1902. H.. Examples of engraving are given by Boas in 6th 1888. that Environtnent. are good examples of the native engraver's art. 1883. 1895. Ohio. although these are not designed either for simply pictorial or for decorative effect. Sci. The picture writings on bark of many of the northern tribes. memoirs common to several. 1912 ii. single individual. aesthetic. A.. B. B. A. Mus. the industrial arts. Rep. as is illustrated by numerous ornaments recovered from mounds in the middle Mississippi vaUey. 1888. Mus. immense archipelagos. . predominance of ice and snow. 1903. In some respects. two environments do not lie alone in physical geography and in plant and animal life. the N. B. There are cosmopolitan characters in Nat. yet the graphic productions of the Eskimo on ivory. those of the Eirropean-Asiatic continent. Hoffman.. and by others from the Turner mounds in Hamilton co. producing variations in temperatm-e and water supply. 1896. and religious hves. 1897. clothing. Holmes). and minerals that supply the materials of drink. trailing The point was used for incising. Nelson in 18th Rep. A. and the objects of hvmting. E. bone. and indenting. passable barriers separated the culture areas. E. The steel point is superior to the point of stone. Fewkes in 17th Rep. S. Coast tribes of the present day. Hoffman in Nat. 1901. Within the American continent n. (2) climate. the sun operating on air. Rep. B. surface. the formed one environment. connected with travel. land. and s. (w. E.. — Can. The of the lower Gulf states. A. houses. Niblack in Rep. painted surfaces to develop delicate figures in the light colour of the underlying paste. and no accessible elevations: good stone for lamps and tools. transportation. and commerce. Moore. Phila. A. having easy communications n. and w. The ancient mound builders were clever engravers. — The characteristics of this en- 1894. but are largely meteorologic. 1894-1903. and antler have sometimes a considerable degree of merit (Boas. 1890. A. fuel.. food. A. executed with bone or other hard points. social. Murdoch. (2) in 20th Rep. since lore and mythology were based on them. Nat. A. 1899. Lillooet on Seton lake.144 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. E. of Mexico there were ethnic environments which set bounds for the tribes and modified their industrial.) Enias. Ind. medicines.. but in each an ensemble of qualities that impressed themselves on their inhabitants and differentiated them. animals. A. war. Hough furniture and utensils. A local name for a body of Upper vironment are an intensely cold climate.. 1892. H. Turner). and among ancient Pueblo potters was sometimes used upon dark- environmental factors that determine cultural development of various kinds and degrees are (1) physical geography. Turner in 11th Rep. and as a result entirely new vegetal and animal forms. various in Jour. Shell also was a favorite material for the graver's point. The planets and stars also affected cultural development. pt.

Brit. (3) St. patches. The social order and habit of semi-nomadic wandering about fixed centres were the direct resxilt of the surroundings and discouraged agriculture or the much pottery. and Chinookan tribes. rice in the w. excellent forests. (2) 21a— 10 . At the headwaters of its rivers it communicates with the areas lying to the e. and of spruce. whitefish. the pomme and an abundance of edible roots and fish. Haida. yielding bark utensUs. e. by savages. Sm-v. The shores are bathed by the warm cm-rent of the N. hair. Into this area came the Athapascan tribes who developed through its resources their special culture. and industrial arts depending on the flesh. Col. — This environment — This includes lies the adjoining basins of these streams and contiguous inhabited principally by Sahshan. Artistic and symbolic designs were painted on the rawhide. molluscs. clothing. light. hand characterize this environment.. canoes. 1894. To the n. Consult Morice Inter. bear. Dependence on the buffalo and the herbivorous animals associated with it compelled a meat diet. island groups and landlocked waters favourarchipelago and . Pacific. and beaver. squash and beans in the moose. bones. and other hard woods for bows. porcupines. porcupines. 21a profusion. land wood and stone. — This is Merriam's separated transcontinental coniferous belt. Abnaki. The climate is boreal.. The manifold resources and varied physical featm-es fostered a great variety of activities. The Missouri and Arkansas and many tributaries drain the area. maize. No canoes or other craft than Mandan and Hidatsa skin boats. beaver. was the area inhabited by the Tlingit. pottery scarce. foot.. In the s. The plants were bois d'arc. Canada and N. and the fertile lands w. and other wants in the exacting climate. migrating birds. immense forests of cedar. for lodge poles. and waterfowl ready at but there were no fine textile fibres. and coast Salish. and. is a coast destitute of islands. D^n^s. It was the home of the Iroquois. clothing of bark and hair. Nootka. but draining into arctic seas. sinew. mixed with berries. large communal dwellings. supplying food. on the seacoast. willows for beds. Merriam (1) Life Zones. caribou. Yukon-Mackenzie. This is a transition belt having no distinct lines of separation from the areas on the n. Shahaptian. Chippewa. (2) 145 No. It has poor material resources. (2) N. Caddoan. it stretches into N. about the Rio Grande. There are a vast expanse of lowlands and numerous exlakes spruce and other evergreen trees for houses. grindlength. Agr. sugar maple. Kiowan. and includes Manitoba. Tsimshian. berries. canoes. and imfettered travel dugout canoes. textile plants. 1904. (1) W. and Snow necessitates snowshoes of fine mesh. elm. and basketry. From mount St.. The horse afterward wrought profound changes. The natural products are abimdant — evergreens.. New England. andSask. Biol. and fish. exquisite twined and checkered basketry to the discouragement of pottery. (9) Columbia-Fraser region. Algonquian. Canoe travel. Travel was on with or without snowshoes. between the Rocky mts. and houses. mountain goat and bighorn. deer. and fish. with skin and wool for clothing. wUd birch. blanche for roots. a roving life. across the mountains. of the Mississippi. maiine products in greatest variety and abundance. This environment induced a diet of fish. cedar (7) Plains. s. and transportation was effected by the aid of the dog and travois. carvinexhaustible and water birds in immense flocks. with extensive. and it terminates at the s. which provided opportunity for the f uU development of the dispersive clan ing in in system. white rabbit. and their nearest kindred. The tribes were Siouan. and barren grounds here and there. and im- mense inland waters make portages easy for bark canoes. Lawrence and Lake region. Its saving riches are an abundance of birch. 20. birds. — The in days in different seasons vary greatly material resources are black slate for carving and good stone for pecking. EUas to the Columbia mouth. lying along the by mountains covered with snow.cut off from the interior able to canoe travel. furnishing textile roots and other necessaries. The It occupies the entire drainage of the great ing and sawing. wolf. musk-ox. (8) North Pacific coast. and the etc. red fox. Dept. It has a moist. temperate chmate.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER aquatic birds. bear. binding materials. Bull. hide and horns of those animals. Rich lands. and Shoshonean. and other fur-bearing mammals.. fruits. a mountainous coast. good minerals for industries. a mild chmate. and s. skin clothing and dwellings. bear. fire. from the arctic environment by the timber line. Alta. and sea food in great variety and in quantities tensive inland waters. totem-posts. mammals in migratory myths and tales related largely to the buffalo.

) doubtedly to this people. ferring 'it is long-taUed. to Sonontouan. it is stated.. to the eastern puma a or panther. land in order to escape their enemies whom they have toward the w. signifying 'people of the panther. 1895. yond the Cat Nation. From the same source it is possible the four or five to make a rough estimate of the population of the Erie at the period of this final war.Geo. II. Dept. Am. Compare the forms however. The Jesuit loca- the place of Relations give only a few glimpses of them while describing their last wars with the Iroquois confederation. Smithson. McGee. 'lion. At the taking 1654 it is of the Erie town of Riqu6 in claimed that the defenders numbered that the territory of the Erie and their allies joined that of the Neutral Nation at the end of lake Erie). Land Mammals. (for the Jesuit Relation for 1640-41 says r. A. lake Erie and Miami and w. Influence of Environment.. Cal. M. Mendocino Co. Fewkes in In1903. the Iroquois. Basis of Am. although it is not stated which of territory extending from lake Erie prob- Conestoga along the e. 7th Rep. they were constituted of several divisions. Am. exclusive of women and children. use.' re- Erie and their poHtical and social organization. Nat. Lingiiistic Families. A Chippewa band which formerly lived on the n. Bull. as was customary.000 and 4. tradition.. 1896. N. 3. to Ohio r. Fauna. shore of lake Superior.. and to those of the Seneca along the line of the w. so that at that time the Wenrohronon may have been either entirely — independent or else confederated with is the Erie. Barrows.. by certain peoples whom we call the Cat Nation. Cont. Forest Trees. 1912 N. Dellenbaugh. the Awem-ehronon. A. (2) Trees (3) Silva. no. 1905. A. 1902. watershed of r. Powell. N. Bot. Their lands between 3. border of the lands of the Neutral Nation.. of the Erie and apparently separate from the Neutral Nation. (2) Plants used by Inds. and Riqu^ronon of the Jesuit Relations. the Relations mentioned it is learned puma and the lynx originally had gener- that the Erie had villages. 1904. Rigue.. U. and n. gives the occasion of the final struggle. but it may be inferred to have been Tuscarora. (1) N. 1901. referring un- Farrand. they had been allied. to renew the existing peace. were left a prey totheir enemies. losing the powerful support of the populous Neutral Nation. Sargent (1) Distrib. 3 and 16. thus placing them at this time e... was meant. E.' It is probable that in Iroquois the cords the probable fact that the Erie had had many From previous wars with these hostile tribes. Field Columb. B. Dobbs. the 17th century the and spoke a language resembling that of the Hinons. kS^'raks.. 1891. Bull. speaking of lake Erie. vii.000 combatants. The Jesuit Relation for 1653. watershed of Genesee r. 20. Div.146 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. Am. ibid. EUiott. 1901. of Mammals Geog. of lake Erie. Am. Cong. E. Hist. 1. tives Eri'e. Historically httle definitely known of the Erie (Huron: ySnresh. The Jesuit Relation for 1655-56 (chap. Ethno-botany of Coahuilla Inds. probably on a hne running eastward from the head of Niagara r. watershed of Allegheny r.. (o. xxx. of Michipicoten r.. but they were forced to proceed farther in- period. Hudson's Bay.500 would probably be a conservative esti- mate of the population of the Erie at this probably adjoined those of the Neutral Nation w. modern whence the 'at similar to that of the Hurons. and that they cultivated the inhabiting in s. 1900.. Am. usually called "Wendat" (Wyandot) by themselves. Herb. and that. dwelt be- Epinette. Agr.. 32. T. that many sedentary towns and soil ically the same name and that the defining term has remained as the name of the puma or panther).. S. to the lands of the Huron dialects.. . Publ. to the w. the Wenrohronon. Chestnut Poisonous Plants." In this eastward movement of the Erie is probably found an explanation of the emigration of the Awenreh- of N. Mus. says that it "was at one time inhabited toward the s. Mason.. 10th Census. 1901. the panther. with whom. ronon (Wenrohronon) to the Huron country in 1639 from the e. 1744.. Hist. ably to Ohio E. 1895. Rep. Anthrop. Zool. (3) Bio. Eriechronon. North Americans of Yesterday. Nat. Ontario. and Rique. consequently. 1892 and 1893. to those of the Neutral Nation. But the earlier Jesuit Relation (for 1640-41). although the reason there given is that they had for some unknown reason ruptured their relations with the Neutral Nation. A populous sedentary Iroquoian tribe. but as it is not likely that aU the warriors of the tribe were present^ 14.' Gallicised into Eri and Ri. Miller.. Boston Soc. re- Erieehronon. ternat. maps. 4.' are derived.. the Seneca capital. Beginning Agr. xi) Thirty ambassadors of the Cat Nation had been delegated. no. vin. says that a certain strange nation.

for 1635. Rel. Kakwas. Ind.. Erlelhonons. 21a— 10^ . i. 1703. N. 33.000 and 4. — Rel. Erieronons. Rhllerrhonons.. in order to frighten du Chat. and was assailed by about 1.. 1798. Tribes. After a stubborn resistance the Erie palisade was carried. was asked or given on either side in this war. by the French the 'upper four tribes. 37. 344. i. Errieronons. 1867. the converted chief gently asked the besieged to surrender. Fr. 3. 1829. 1872. "one of the greatest captains. The Erie were reputed brave and warlike. 290. Tribes. — — — II. between the Erie 180.. Y. Ga-qua'-ga-o-no. Only two of the Erie villages are known by name— Riqu6 and Gentaienton.. who were compelled to remain in the enemy's country two months to care for the wounded and to bury the dead. Ehrlehronnons. Eves.800 Iroquois. 1858. which raised 1. 1858. Nation des Chats. Brians. Irrironons. 1877. and that it was they who were actively fomenting the war that was then striking terror destroyed or dispersed or led into captivity. — Ind. New Voy. Ind. New Discov. for Rafinesque. 1854. called Cayuga. for 1660.— Day. 1858. (j. 1641. 1853 (Seneca name). for 1660. These two chiefs dressed as Frenchmen. Morgan. i.—Jes.. 309. when the on the political destruction of their country Erie power was broken and the people were some Hurons sought asylum among the Erie. Nat. the former assaulted and burned a Seneca town. 1641. ibid.— Jes.. Following the ruptiu-e of amicable relations Cat Indians. and cut to pieces its rear guard of 80 picked men. Rigneronnons. 1836 ('lynx-like': the Erie by the novelty of then* garments. 29. for 1661. These acts kindled the final war between the Erie and the confederated tribes of the Iroquois. (misprint).—Jes. 1851. — — one of the Erie strongholds. Jes. chief. Oneida. for 1640. 71. sustaining the first charge of the N. name).. 1858. The victory at Riqu6 was won at a great loss to the Iroquois. — — — — — — Schoolcraft." discharging 8 or 10 before a musket could be reloaded. They are said to be of a very low grade of culture and to practise cannibalism. Ind. Eriez. 207.. Esbataottine (? 'bighorn people'). Rel. 21a 147 But through the misfortune of an accident one of the men of the Cat Nation killed a SenThis act so incensed the Seneca that they massacred all except 5 of the ambassadors in their hands. map. KahKwah.— Schoolcraft. Penn. Rlquehronnons. Upper Miss. 103. 1852. for 1654. and Onondaga. 1858. H. ii. exclusive of women and children. Ky. who chanced to be in the country at the time. 1760.— Delaware 1858 138. B. Erieckronois. for and the Iroquois tribes in 1653. Rel. New Views. (1646?) quoted by Barton. Rel. 1824) quoted by School1798. pursued an Iroquois war party returning from the region of the Great lakes. Erieehronons. 52.' Iroquois sup^rieurs. 148. Heries. i. Rel. 1777. 71. Tribes.— Macauley. A portion of the so-called Seneca now living in Oklahoma are probably descendants of Erie refugees. 300* Cusic (ca. 36. Tribes. Am.— Jes. Marshall.) armed with our muskets. Nation Pungellka. iv. 1843. employing only bows and poisoned arrows.— Lahontan." No quarter 1666. Jes. 7." "Who is this Master of our lives?" the Erie defiantly replied. McKenney and Hall. 1824." All this roused the Iroquois tribes.. led to the Iroquois country to which would indicate that they used firearms. Six hundred siu-rendered at one time and were among the Iroquois tribes. ii. Doms. Brit.—Jes. Misc. especially the eca. which was defended by between 3. and then f aUing upon them with a hailstorm of are who poisoned arrows. 35. Eries. and was baptized. Erlgas. 1858.' It is or 'les fm'ther and there wrought such carnage among children that blood was kneedeep in certain places. A Nahane tribe living in the mountains between Liard and Peace rs. vi. map.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. It is also said that they "fight like Frenchmen. 7. Evans Esnauts and Rapilly. 311. in. Smith quoted by Proud. Harvey quoted by Day.. was converted by Father Simon Le Moine. telling them: "The Master of Life fights for us. Ind. Tribes.800 Eriehronon. and the Onondaga "entered the Seneca. "We acknowledge none but our arms and hatchets. introd. especially powder. Kahquas. 1698. probably under stress of himger. while the Erie scouts had come to the very gates of one of the Iroquois palisaded towns and seized and carried into captivity Annenraes (Annencraos). Irrironnons. 217. Jes. bravely Iroquois.—Jefferys. Cat Nation. 110. 9.— Schoolcraft.— Gale.. Ixv. 1858. craft. 1854 Ruttenber.. Browne in Beach. 1857. This devastating war fort the women and learned from the Jesuit Relation for 1654 that lasted until about the close of 1656. for Rel. Col. you will be ruined if you resist him. 79. Gahkwas. Jes. lest they be destroyed should they permit an assault. Penn. — — men to chastise the Erie for these losses. Rafinesque. When this army of invaders had surrounded Rel. (probably their Huron name). 41." This was at the town of Riqu^. League Iroq. although the Jesuit Relation for 1656 declares that they were unable to defend one of their palisades against the Iroquois on account of the failure of their munitions. Rlgueronnons.. —Hennepin. in.000 combatants. Rel. be adopted as one of the constituent people of the Iroquois tribes. Tribes Hudson R. Ind. A young one of the two leaders of this levy. 1858 (misprint).

1869 . B. Roy. Ind. Koniag or Kadaik). >Eski- stance has class induced many ethnographers to are them with the Asiatic peoples. their skin is light brownish yellow with a ruddy tint on the exposed parts. >Ugal- Cont. 218. of Aleutian arch. the Chippewa equivalent. i. 1848. or from Ashkimeq. Eskegawaage. with Akkhas of res Bancroft.. have abandoned the n. ceded from this extreme range and in the s. XTinneh. it is evident that bands formerly wintered as far N. Ethnog. 1885.' — W. 288. iii. 266-274. — Eskimauan Family. Holmberg. 1870. A.A. comprising two well-marked the Aleut. 1862. Cent. 9. but >lJniidun.. for 1884.w. Zapiski. which formerly occupied nearly all the coasts and islands of Arctic America from e. Dall. Atlas. 1877 his Orarian group). Ethnol.. 1860.A. Lond. 1853. 1875. and mount St. 1878 (excludes Aleutian).. Am. —Petitot. lac des Esclaves. on the n. and the s. 1891.. 1891. Berghaus. particularly the seal. Soc. 367-371. Ind. shores of Hudson bay. Greenand the N. Dall in Proc. perhaps Athapascan^ >Aleuten. — — — du lac des Esclaves. Hist. divisions. Holmberg. Atlas.— Dall in (Aleuts a di\-ision of Berghaus. Nat. shore of the gulf of St. Gallatin in Trans. 385. like those of other American tribes. their hands and feet are small and well formed.. hunting and" fishing grounds. 374. Dall in Cont. >Ounangan. A. A.. 202b. have a Mongoloid character. A. Latham. 269. James bay. between Prince William sd. in Saguenay co. In summer they hunt caribou. to Stanford's Compend. 1840 (Aleutians only). the n. 1869 (includes "UgalensS"). July. Nat. Petitot..148 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v.) family Soc'. Hist. Elias. — — ceptionally high.). (1845) from the Abnaki Esquimantsic. Surv. — Veniaminoff. > Aleutians. A. 1891 (trans. 'early berry. shore of the St. Latham. > Esquimaux... anos. E.A. signify- 1848. Opuscula. Geog. or <isMm'tn. r.— Petitot. Ethnol.. —Gallatin x.A. Ethnog.S.. 402. Cent. 1841 (same as his Northern family). Latham in Jour. Esba-t'aotting. ficouler in Jour. 9. iii. In disposition the Eskimo may be described as peaceable. in Schoolcraft. Quebec. Am.S. Tribes.A. The name Eskimo (in the form Excomminquois) seems to have been first given by Biard in 1611. — Can.— Dall •of in Proc.. 1882. 301. Philol. XNorthern. Autour Petitot. The Eskimo have permanent conveniently situated for settlements. 1887 (excludes the Aleutians). 1882 (two dialects. 1891 ( ='goat people'). A£f. 374. app. Phys. Ethnog. app. > Unangan. Lawrence. 1853 — Gallatin 60°. Dawson in Rep. N. Espa-tpa-Ottin6. Montagnais 97 acres on the s. A. Gens des chfevres. i. and various birds. N. Although . Dall. Races. 1875 (= 'dwellers among the argali'). 1. Buschmann. A. map croft. 1887. It includes E. pt.. Physik. a distance of more than 5. 9. is (The following synonymy of the chronologic.. Am. Tribes.—Dall in Cont. a»d So. Man. which circuming 'eaters of Innuit. 1852. the Ugalakmiut.. Am. 1887 (excludes the Aleutian). Nat. Soc. 562. Ind. Gens des Bois. Ban17. and So. among the tribes — Jachmutzi. 1847 (fol- — lows Gallatin). Ethnol. 1870 (in both places a >Aleuts.). — Keane. Scouler. 362. 1836. v. 1855 (island of =Orarians. >Konjagen.' They call themselves meaning 'people. XHaidah. From remains found in Smith sd. 22. 305. cheerful. > Aleut. 1855. 185.. 401. A. their eyes.. Unalaska and Atkha). Spuren der aztek. quoted by Dawson. 574. cit. 562. exceptionally loose in sexual morality. Campbell.. Skizzen. their heads are also exis most marked Mackenzie r. map 72. 1878 (consist of Unalaskans of main- — division of his Orarian family). 1869 (group name. chart in Bull. 460.— Berghaus Physik. Espa-to-tl-na. 224. They numbered 53 in 1884.— Dall in Proc. Nova Scotia from Canso to Halifax. xi. Antiq.S. map 72. said to come >Esklniauz. Geol. One of the 7 districts of the territory of the Micmac as recognized by themselves. II. Comp. ibid.. the Eskimo and See Powell in 7th Rep. A.. A Eskimo. truthful and honest. end of Newfoundland. — m — — — Escoumains band living (probably from ashklmin.S. 1841 (includes Ugalentzes of present family). 266. Rep. N. ibid. de G^ogr. ii. while in Alaska one Eskimo tribe. > Innuit. Can. 1869. op. Rand. Alaska. Soc. 1859. They characterized by very broad faces and This type e. 1877. includes Innuit. Lawrence. Mankind. i. in Trans. (treats raw flesh.A. Atlas. Physik. 54 in 1911. and Coll. Parie. 81. 8. 1912 t Autour de grand Dounle'Espa-tpa-Ottinfe. 77. N. Knife Indians. coast of Siberia. = Eskimo. 79° and had summer camps up At the present time they have reto 82°. 301. certain — marking — in Proc. Keane. Soc. 32. Atlas. Elem. but possess uncommon strength and endurance. 'bighorn people'). Alaska. of A linguistic stock North American aborigines. It is Escoumains. to Stanford's Compend. 266. as lat. Ethnol. 1848. 71. Autour du lac des Esclaves. 1. Tuski). Sprache. A group of American aboriginesj forming part of the Eskimauan linguistic stock. 1850 (general remarks on origin and habitat). Alaskan Eskimo and Tuski only) Berghaus. map 72.A. Aleutians. 689. has practically become Tlingit through intermarriage. Physik.' The Eskimo constitute physically a distinct type. Ethnol. > Eskimo. 1889. Latham.t. of narrow. Prichard. 265. 182-191. high noses. Gallatin in Schoolcraft. A. Dall in Cont. for 1887. side of Escoumains on a reserve of r. musk-oxen. pt. First Micmac Beading Book.000 m. 460. They are of medimn stature. 1877 ("Major group") of Orarians: treats of Alaska Innuit only). Dall (lat. i. even extending to the E. Races. II.. — land and of Fox and Shumagin ids. Ethnol.A. 1877 (so called by Hudson's Bay people). iii.J. i. Skizzen. end of Newfoundland to the westernmost Aleutian ids. in winter they live principally on sea mammals.

the for Greenland was occupied during 10th and 11th centuries by Norwegians. but a second owing to the remoteness of their situation have always been much less affected by outside influences. mo The Eskimauan ceedingly loose. their personal or whale ribs. There has always been extensive intertribal communication. howmissionaries. Although hardly deserving designation. The Eskimo have an exceptional knowledge of the geography of their country. or shamans. although there are customs and precedents. the Eskimo proper and tha . coasts. whose expeditions did not extend as far as the American mainland. The Eskimo believe in spirits inhabiting animals and inanimate objects. but he has fishing. Her power over these animals arises from the fact that they are dwellings are made wood deity. however. marriage is unusual where a man's first wife has borne him children. their designs by her father when she first took up her abode in the sea. The chief duty of angakoks. one of which stays with it when it dies and may temporarily enter the body of some chUd. The men engage while of all hunting and fall the household duties to the lot cook. strait make some use of paints. many of their ethnic pecuharities notion. especially in connection cisions or of make atonement by public confession or with their reUgious observances. 21a their houses differ with the region. however. particularly as to the change of village sites. when they or seal skins stretched on poles. are' opposed to such a and it is often convenient for the ethnographer to make a more extended use In matters of governof this native custom. Those of the central groups. and recent researches seem to indicate that their movements have rather been from E. to W.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER form in the 149 No. no power to enforce his opinions. although persons inhabiting a certain geographical area have sometimes taken the name of that area as a more general and the latter are generally more desirable. they occupy tents of deer Their winter either in shallow excava- law is largely left to the individual. while the other goes to one of several lands of the souls. In some tribes skin dressing is done by the men. and dry the fish and meat and stow them away for the winter. some beneath. the women tattoo their and some Alaskan tribes wear studs openings through their cheeks. The central Eskisuppose two spirits to reside in a man's body. tribes. Poetry and music play an important part in their life. and Danish representatives of the family have in others by the women. in the ocean tions covered with turf and earth laid upon a framework of built of snow. poall practised. social organization is ex- In general the village is the largest unit. Their chief is an old woman who resides and may cause storms or withhold seals and other marine animals if any of her tabus are infringed. and the same might almost be said for each family. or they are Their clothing is of skins. Among in most faces. make and and repair the kaiaks and boat covers. This occupancy in its earUer period proved disastrous to the Aleut in particular. The execution ef The Eskimauan marked stock embraces two well- divisions. their occurrence being governed somewhat by the relative proportion of the sexes. Later Frobisher and other European navigators encoimtered the Eskimo along the e. they con- main travel. ment each settlement is entirely independent. The Eskimo have proved almost ever. Some of the lands of the souls lie above the earth's surface. confession to the angakok. has much in weight. while the Russians discovered and annexed the w. which define the relations existing between them. the name of chief. while the mend clothes. indispensable assistants to Arctic explorers. Although the theory of Asiatic origin of the Eskimo was long popular. who were harshly dealt with and whose number was greatly reduced during the Russian domination. there is usually some ad- visory head in each settlement whose dictum in certain matters. who is then named after the departed. lygamy and polyandry are Monogamj'^. the women— they must The larger portion of the Greenland and Labrador Eskimo have been Christianized by Moravian Alaskan had Russian missionaries among them for more than a century. portion of their domain. the Eskimo are excellent draughtsmen and carvers. to three types: In summer. pitch the tents. They are pecuhar as being the only race of American aborigines who certainly had contact with white people before the days of Columbus. is to find who has infringed the tabus and thus brought down the wrath of the sections of her fingers cut off at the time usually consisting either of simple linear in- supernatural beings and to compel the offender to animal forms executed with much The people about Bering life and freedom. Considering their degree of culture. and adornments are few. especially with regard to hunting and fishing. and bloodrevenge is universally exacted.

169. 1876. New Voy. Aivilir- for this group.. there were on the Arctic coast of Alaska from the British border to Norton sd. Ethnol. D^nS — A'lva1904 (Chukchi: 'those 316. Diet. Ara-k'6. Eskimaux. 1798.—Tanner. Kevalingamiut. Lyon. Eskima'ntzik. Chuckchee.— Lahontan. i. Sinimiut.. exclusive of the 968 Alfut. (Peaux de Lidvre name. Okomiut. 9. Hist. w. including the Kangormiut and Kidnelik.— DaU in Cont. 367. Selawigmiut. —Petitot. Ungava.. Ugalakmiut. Escoumlns. N. 'those who eat their food raw'). on the s. of 8. Kuskwogmiut. sd.—Hervas. Itivimiut.. 40. Morse. A. 1776.. and CoroVI. 414. and in Labrador). Archaeol. Chnagmiut. 1912 inhabitants of the Aleutian ids.. 169. shore of Norton in sd. iii. in 1912. pul. Hohn (1884-85) placed the number of East Greenland Eskimo at 550. 1. Hudson's Bay. 1885 — — Sidarumiut. Cont.. 1877 (Abnaki name). Ibid. 1. embracing the Agomiut. Idea deU' Uuiverso. The Alaskan Eskimo. N. Am. A. Chingigmiut.170. . Morse. giving a total The Eskimo of for this group of 10.. Dto^ Dindji^. This N.. Kangmaligmiut. the Nageuktormiut at the mouth Provisionally they of may Coppermine r. Hiis'ky. Otchipwe-Eng. 1819. Innuees. Eskimesi. The Eskimo Devon were originally Eskimo. and the stock about 32. s. of New Discov. Hennepin.. 9. in the Yukon s. Inuissuitmiut. 'ennemis(Bastard Loucheux name. 11. IV. 1851. estimated the Canadian Eskimo at 4. 1880 (Ojibwa: Gordon. i. Am..670. Eusquemays. They can be separated. 1703. 27. 9. The Eskimo of Boothia penin. Kaumauangmiut.. Nimatogmiut. however. 1784. Ont. Franz Boas): I. in the valley of Nushagak 1. but present Tahagmiut. Herschel kenzie r. and r. the last transitional between the Greenland Eskimo proper and the next ^oup. Aguskemaig. Eskimauk. 86. Rel. Kinugumiut. 1825. — Bogoras. West Greenlanders. En-na-k'i6. Iglulirmiut.—Hutchins (1770) quoted by 669. id. 1905. Nuwukmiut. Esquimant- Esquimau. — — — — sic— Prichard. Tikeramiut. subdivided into Greenlanders.906. The Yuit of Siberia are estimated miut. the Aleut. which may. Kigiktagmiut.. Voy. Suhinimiut. — —Baraga. and the Kopagmiut of Mackenzie r. King William island. Huskemaw. Other divisions are rather geographical than political or dialectic. embracing aU those within the American territory. Am. Jefferys. These include the Netchilirmiut. — — — — Kukpaurungmiut. n. Inguklimiut.. Sec. ReIll. Nushagagmiut. Baffin island. the total is Hudson bay. 555.. n. perhaps. 87. Hist. valley. Eskimeaux. and the Dominion Government.600. Ethnol. Rcl. 1896 (= 'excommunicated'). nation gulf. A. Exped. are reckoned with the Tliagit. Eskima. Kaviagmiut. 1698. and Labrador. Ikogmiut. Utukamiut.embracing the following divisions Akudnirmiut. r. The Yuit of Siberia. Enna-k'6. Pilingmiut. jargon). The Eskimo between cape Bathurst and The Eskimo of Victoria island (Loucheux name: trans. The w. In'nOit. Dindjifi.... Kinipetu. 38.. Esklmantslk. index. 1611. Narr. IX. VII.. Magemiut. 1876 (sing. 67.200. Am. 1612-14. 5. and for our purposes are best placed in that island. Imaklimiut. Idea dell' Universo. Cont. McKeevor. of Melville penin. VIII. xix.150 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. 1830. Nugmniut. Adding these. in 1888. 126.952. Hervas. Spr.122 by the Royal Greenland Co. Hudson Bay. Parry. Chugachigmiut. map. Diet. Buschmann. 1744. w. yfi'lilit. Nunivagmiut. Kunmiut. Unaligmiut.. Malemiut.. therefore. by Bogoras at 1. shore of category. Thwaites ed. Esquimeaux Indians. 1877 (Hudson Bay Innolt. 203. 29. and the Ita Eskimo numbered 234 in 1897. v. Esquimones. Labrador were estimated at 1.. xvii. II. Eskimos. pt. same meaning). (name given by a missionary — DaU in — — 1824. N. 1820. Ukusiksalirmiut. Utkiavimiut. In-nu. 208. A. Eicomminqui.— Esquimaux. Rel. Kowagmiut. Aztek. Eshkibod.— Dobbs. 114. Arct. 95. N. Padlimiut. Voy. Ugjulirmiut. 1.439. Jea. Ibid. Sauniktu- 13. Eskeemoes. Rep. Baffin island. (Slave name: — — trans.. 7. be one tribe. Koungmiut. 117. Eskimo. the East The Greenland Eskimo. same meaning). group includes the Aglemiut. Togiagmiut.) now extinct. Richardson. 1760. Packard in Am. Biard in Jes. Petitot. and the neighbouring mainland. Potts (1754) quoted by Boyle. The Eskimo. (h. The Eskimo proper... there being great similarity in language and customs from one end of the Eskimo domain to the other. ii.— Jes. map. into the following fairly well marked ethnological groups (based on information furnished by Dr. 1847. 1859. xvii. According to the census of 1890. on the coast. Ling. 1784. 1858. Kiatagmiut.729 Eskimo.254. Hist.. i. and the N. French Dom. et Ethnol. h. Anda-kpoen. 1876 of alien language'). pieds'). number about 31. miut. Kuskokwim valley. Phys. i. Spuren d. Am. and Ita Eskimo. This group approximates the next very closely. Excomminquois. 2. 2. pt. Sikosuilarmiut. 1858.298.200. therefore. Natural. Amitormiut. Ethnol. j.. The Ugalakmiut they of Prince WiUiam num- bering 154. The Sagdlirmiut of Southampton id. 'steppes-ennemis'). coast Greenlanders were given as 10.se Bay. III. Akuliarmiut. v.300 in a recent report by the Government of Newfoundland..Dall in Cont. Petitot in Bib. Ibid. Innok).. Diet. of — Mem. including the mouth of Mac- be divided into the Kitegareut at cape Bathurst and on Anderson r.. KaiaUgmiut. Kaniagmiut.

Coll. 169. Antiq. 1813.. 1847.— Ibid. ISO.. 38. Etcha-Otdnd. SkroeUngues. Kalallk. 66. of Great Slave lake between Liard r. Autour. 362. Maurice r. Polar Regions. Life.— Ibid. 12. — Bessels Archiv Anthrop. Esquimaux. Hunlao des Esclaves. Exped. 1904 (from fct'imi. Dall in Proc.— Mass. 1820. 1891 (trans. montagne Petitot. 1904 ('opposite shore people': Yuit name). Gens en I'alr. IX.— Petitot. Petitot. probably about the headwaters of Saguenay or St.— Nansen. 363. S KraelHng8. ii. — Petitot. N. and the divide.— Franklin. Roy.— Hayden. Travels. 75. ii. xx. Uskees. Worm People. Dte^-Dindji6.. xx. 21a 16 in 1911. Ddnd Dindji^.. i. 1891. 84. Aff. 66. Petitot. E. <Enne. 340. and Philol. of Great Slave lake and upper shelter'). i. w. Hooper. Etchaottine.. xiii. Arct. 1852. 66°. 226. viii. Greenland. Yikirga'uht. Val. Diet. i. — 1887-88. pt. 1869. Expl.ca. 1872 (Saulteur name: 'eaters of raw flesh'). TciS'^kr(in6". Songish at the The s. Dobbs. 1860. Schultz in Trans. Daho'-tena'— DaU in Cont. ii. MS. f^ta-OttinS. 265. Soc. 66. Crantz. Gens des MontagnesRocheuses Petitot. 34. Dabo'-tena Can. Ind. DtoS Dindji^. Mountain Indian. local name B. 377.— Ibid. is the lynx. 87. ii. Ki'imilit. Paya-lrkets.A. 21. Geol. Morse. 271... Sicanees. 11. Hudson Bay. i. Hist. O'Reilly. 21. —Stearns. Chukchee. SQckSmds. 1877 (Athapascan name). Esclaves. for a under the Cowichan agency. Col.— Richardson.— PyrIeeus (.. Amer. Ot'el'nna.. Lond. Arct. Skraellingar.. Exped. 1820 (applied by the Norwegians). 79. bank of the St.— DahadinnSs.' 'enemies. KaraUt. 1875. £hta-tch6-Gottind. 1882. Diet. Grand lao dea Oura. A.—Grinnell. Quebec. Coll.. iv. Da-ha-dumies Hind. 1892. 1744. 1851 (same derivation as Seymds) Ta-KUtchi. Lawrence. Diet. cit. 13. Y6ta-ottin6. Their totem is a white wolf. Ethnol. 55. Arct. Philol. Gens du xx. 1875. 66. 1876. Inuln. Hist.. A Montagnais mission settlement on the N. and Mackenzie. 159. NoIi'ha-i-6. inf'n (Seneca name). Exped. 59. Blackfoot Lodge Tales. Dtoft— Kennicott. 1851 (so called by Kutchin). 262. 400. Point. Exped. 233. N. Ibid.. I.. 1877. Grand lac dea Ours. lat. i. Tents of Tuski. Ibid. 1643. An Etchareottine division w. Dobbs. Oregon. an inhabitant of C. Autour du lac des Eta-gottln6. A division Etatchogottine ('hair people'). 1744 ('snakes': Siksika name). Autour du Grand 1891. — —Petitot. —Middleton Dobbs. T. 298. said to be a corruption of Danish Skraeling). in Uskimay.S. 1844. Hewitt. Rel. A. 7. Chukchee. lac la Truite. Autour du Grand lao des claves. in Stanford's Compend. 1884. Can. Dahodinni. 1893. Bogoras. — Murdoch in 9th Rep. Ibid. living village formerly in Eskusone (now Eskasoni) A Micmac Cape Breton. (trans. — Petitot. 103. B. Keralite. i. 2.— Prichard.— Dall in Cont. Bogoras.— Belcourt (before 1853) Minn. 180. 189.. 15 in 1901.. Ultsehaga.. Esquimalt. — Ours. — . 151 No. and E. pt. Soc. Blackfoot Lodge Tales. 114. Skrellings. 137. Bancroft. Richardson. 1851 (used by sailors of Hudson's Bay Co. op. 301. Ethnol. A.. 1861. pt. Grinnell.. Pa-erks. 1878. .HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER 1877 (own name).Ethnol. 149. 1895. Greenland. Greenland. — Esksinaituplks ('worm people')of the Piegan.Rich- — ardson quoted by Petitot.. Ethnog. KaladHt. 1892. Espamichkon.. 1858). Their — totem Surv. Arct. Ibid. of — about 20 m.. Nochways. British America. 'dwellers in the air'). Diet. Soc. 225. Prince of Wales: Yuit name). N. Esk'-sin-ai-tOp-Iks. 301. 1891..— Heriot. 1853 (Chukchi name for Eskimo of American coast). 33.. cheux name: 'enemies').. Narr. A. —Coats. 340. Geog. 42. Dunn.. and n. Portland. Hist. Beaver. 123. Mo. 200B. Latham in Trans. — — — — — 1818. Ddnd-Dindji4. i. Diet. Hudson Bay. 209. Nodways. — 6ta-Gottin6 — —Petitot. UsVee'mi. 1862. 1889. (Kutchin name: 'ocean people'). Usquemows. Daha-dtinne. i. N. A Nahane band or division in the valleys of the Rocky mts. 1824. 1893. Daha-dinneh. Daho-tena. 2d s. Grand lac dea Gens D^nd-Dindji4. 1891.— Petitot. Mackenzie. Phya. A.. 1856. 66.— Rand. pop. and Willow rs. along Black. Dawhoot-dinneh. 1778. Mingan. 408. Bistchonigottine and Krayiragottine are two of the divisions. Gens d' En-haut. Am. Autour du lao des The — Esclaves. 291.— Can. Autour du Grand lao des Es- — — — Bay.A. Benin. 'Rocky mountain people'). Polar Regions. 1851. W. Uske€-ni6s. 21. 1876 (LouOrarians. D6n6 fetcha-Ottinfe. Tchiechrone. 169.. Hist. Soc. Hist. 300. 12. Dall in Cont. B. Brit. 107.. — Hind.' applied to people of alien race regarded as natural enemies). Exped. Richardson. 1911. 1851 (Kenai name: 'slaves'). end of body of Vancouver id. A division of the Kawchodinneh dwelling n.— Ibid. vocab. 1892. n. 2d ser. 1822. 9. Ehta-GottinS. Esquimaux Point. 'a ships: derived from the Eskimo cry of greeting Seymo or Teymo) Skraelings. of the St. — — — 33. 1867 'mountain people'). Esquimaux Pointe des 1863. 1877 (sometimes so called by traders). E. Richardson. Lab.A.. — Richard- son. Dindji6. First Micmac Reading Book. 1870. A small Montagnais tribe Lawrence in 1643 (Jes. 1893 (trans. — Petitot. Hudson in of — ters. — Ross i. —Petitot. N. 15.— Richardson.. — Diet.. Arct. Hist. is-ksi'-na-tup-i. Chukchee. 1748) quoted in Am.— Petitot. Hudson Bay.— Keane Crantz. in f. XVIII. Ultsehna. Ro'C'hilit. Petitot. 'steppes-ennemis'). Weashkimek. Labrador. 1904 (Yuit name). de la — 1876. Native Races.. quoted by Dawson in Rep. e. of Great Bear lake and on Great cape. 1902. Esclaves. 126. 1851 Naha-'tdinne. 1893 (name which the Greenland Eskimo give themselves. Inuit. Karaler. between the Esbataottine and the Tukkuthkutchin. Etchareottine ('people dwelling in the An Athapascan tribe occupying the country w. Exped. claves. Richardson. 363. Es- . Seymds. 1881 (German form of Seneca name: 'seal people'). — Etagottine ('people in the air'). i. 517. I. ii. 1876 (Montagnais name: trans. v. Eskimo 8.— Bogoras. Slaves proper. 264. 1876.. xx. Kalalit. 1744 (Algonkin: 'snakes. 1861 (Scandinavian name: 'small people').

B. who speak the same dialect with them and bear a hke reputation for timidity. Edchawtawoot. Philol. n. 1824. Hist. 1824. Franklin. Etcheridiegottme. 293. Tribes.. division of the Etchareottine occupying the country between Great Slave and La Martre lakes. lower Liard valley. Ind.. 1876. B. Liards Indians. 1851. Kennicott. Latham in Trans. Ddn^-Dindji^. Horn Moun- — — — — An Athapascan tribe Uving e.. 1836. Richardson quoted by Petitot. 69. 1875. MS. the fork of the Mackenzie. Edshawtawoots. B. Franklin. 1891). Journ.T. Deerhom mountaineers. 1824. Diet. indicating a riparian fisher folk. . 429. pacific people. —Franklin. Journ. A. cit.. 1830. Rev. Sea. —Tanner. Ibid. —Gallatin Trans. Dawson in Rep. Mackenzie in Mass. 87. 200b... Journ. ii. Surv. Etchap6-ottin6. Narr. Slave Indians of Ft. Achoto-e-tennL—Pope. Surv. Schoolcraft. 1891 (English form). 1814. notes on Tinne. Tsillawadoot. 363. Acheto-tena. A.. Polar Sea Ettieneldeli ('caribou-eaters'). E. MS. Etcheridiegottine ('people of the rapids'). Sicanny vocab. 1852. Great Slave Etchesottine. II. Ross. to the Rocky mts.. Their range extends from Hay r. whither they were still followed by the Cree. notes on Tinne. Strong bow.: 'bush-woodmen'). Edchautawoot. E. and have absorbed their manners and customs and adopted their dialectal forms to such a degree that they have been frequently confounded with the one tribe An or the other. 58. Norman. MS. 'people of the lowlands'). Sicanny vocab. D^n6-Dindii6.. E. Can. montagne la Corne. N. Antiq. known only as Enna. — Tsillawdawhoot Tinneh. MS. Richardson.. MS. dinneh. arelottine (Petitot. ces. Tribes. 1912 Mackenzie r. N. to Polar Sea.T. Am. 363. Ross. 1865. 1871 (trans. de Geog. Tribes. — — The bands — or divisions are Eleidlinottine. —Franklin. found among them a — — variety of physiognomy that he ascribed to a mixture of races. 28. Petitot. Consang. lin. to Polar Sea. including the Schoolcraft. rich in fish and game. Pope. 1889. E. and Ft. Dawson. Edchawtawhoot tinneh. to Polar Erettchi-ottinS. 293. to Great Slave lake.. 1824. 1891. 1856 (trans. lac — Franklin. 2d s. them off into 18th century they were dispossessed of their home. Tents of Tuski. began their northerly migration at the same time. Philol. Petitot restricted the term to the Etcheridiegottine. Soc.. 1887-88. called 'the people sheltered by willows' by the Chipewyan. 1870. des Esclaves. 303. probably comprehended under the name Awokanak. D^n^Dindji6. In his monograph on the DeneDindji^. by the Cree. 43. D^nS-Dindji^. Arct. notes on Tinne. I. Beaver... — Lond.. E.' a name still mentioned with horror as far as Great Bear lake. tain Indians. 1876). and driven northward to Great Slave lake. Mackenzie. 1882. Gens de Petitot. 363. of lake Caribou and lake Athabaska. Arot. 6. 27. A. Can. 145.— Petitot. iii. 69.. 181. Geol. Ross in Smithson. lake. E. Lond. Tslllawdawhoot-dlnneh. (so called Slavey. Ettch6ri-di6-Gottln6. called them Awokanak. Awokanak. ii. Autour du lac des Esclaves. 363. Ross quoted by Gibbs. On the islands where they took refuge a fresh carnage took place. 1891.152 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. Morgan in N. B. — Petitot. Diet.— Ross. A. MS. not opprobriously. Klodesseottine. Acheo-tenne. Soc. —Petitot la in Bull. Rep. B. Autour du lac des Esclaves. The ThUngchadinneh and Kawchodinneh.W. and DesnedeyAutour du lac des Esclaves. Diet. Nat. ('people of the mountain river'). — Etechesottine ('horn mountain people'). and Affin. Edchawtawhoot. 1824. 200b. Slaves. 262. Tslllaw-awd<Jt-dinni. 308. 87. Alaska. 1887 Brushwood Indians. La Mer Glaciale. those who are not are called dogs. Etchaottine. 1876. Autour du lac des Diet. 289. 1891. Franklin XX. Paris. Ind.. Ndu-tch6-ottinn6. 305. to Polar Sea. 1887). —Gallatin 1824.W. —Bancroft. 1887-88. in the barren grounds which extend to Hudson bay (Petitot. ii. Ball. by fur-traders). Halkett.— Latham in Trans. 1853. — and plundered them and carried bondage. but rather affectionately. (Journ.Cheta-ut-tdinnd. and they once lived on the shores of lake Athabaska and in the forests stretching northward They were a timid. Esclaves. MS.. A-cha'-o-tin-ne. Franklin erro- A — enously considered them Thlingchadinneh. 292. xx. Many of the males are cir- — — cmncised in infancy. Etchareottine division which hunt along Liard r. 262. Richardson. 1870. Coll. 1866. 1852. ii. xx. whom he distinguished from the Slaves proper. ii. Ra- Horn mts. Danltes Esclaves. E. A-tsho-to-ti-na. Narr. E.. Trans. Morgan. Bastard Beaver Indians. Exped. op. 1872. Early in the who harried Esclaves. A-che-to-e-ten-nl. ii. 1851. Hooper. 'slaves. chart. British Columbia. B. Dan^ Esclaves Petitot... xx. 289. Exped. Slave Indians. making the latter a separate tribe with divisions at Hay r.. 19. Soc. Their Cree neighbours.. Ross quoted by Gibbs.. Dawson in Rep. 1889 ('people of the rapids': Kawchodinneh name). Scethtessesay-tlnneh. MS. — fet6-ches-ottln6. Autour du 542. Ind. Soc. n. to Ft. Acheto-e-Tinne. — — — — Petitot La Mer Glaciale. Antiq. Mackenzie dist. Geol. Frank('slaves': Cree name). 'the enemy. Am. ii. 1876. Etsh-tawfit-dinni. A. in Tslllawawdoot. vocab. 1853. Liard Slaves. in 19. They have intermarried with the Etchaottine and with the Tsattine in the s. TsUla-ta-ut' tinfi. Liard.' an epithet which in its French and EngUsh forms came to be the name under which they are best known. A. 1865. Narr. —Schoolcraft. Am. Soc. 260. A. Journ. A.— Petitot. B. A. and neighbom-ing regions to the border of the Etchaottine country near old Ft. probably under the same impulsion (Petitot. 7.. TslUa-ta-ut'-tinn6.. 'thickwood-men'). . B. ii. 1836.—Petitot.. Good Hope. 1856 (trans.

Philol. while the neighbouring tribes called them by the same name that they had given to the English. Ethen-eldfeU. but is — — from all that is known of the natives of this continent that there existed among them character. Rising Sun men. Autour du It is lac des Esclaves. itot. B. XX. Hist. Prichard. Exped. Fond du Lac in 1911. A. £:then-elt^Il. 634. Ddnd-Dindji6. II. Keane in Stanford. Roy. Richardson. extending Rocky r. Ross (MS. ii. vocab. Compend. Th6y6 Ottin6. Rosa quoted by — peoples would lead too far afield. 464. Soc. 1891. 1851. 172. 306. A. 'eastern — — — — pangs. A. 1824) placed them between Athabaska and Great Slave lakes and Churchill r. 1855. D^nd-Dindji^. Diet. Franklin quoted by Schoolcraft. and E. Hudson Bay.. Phys. Schoolcraft. Th6-y6-Ottin6. 5. Ind. difficult for a person knowing only one code of morals or manners to appreciate the customs of another who has been reared in the knowledge of a hence it has been common for such a one to conclude that the other has no different code. See-lssaw-dinni. but there are still some which have held aloof from the and have been Httle contaminated by it. and North Indian lakes. Sawcesaw-dinneh. Journ. r. Sah-se-sah tinney. Rep. II. 'eastmen'). Ross quoted by Gibba. E.. 1891 ('people of the stone fort'). are the barren grounds to which they resort every year to hunt the caribou. E. Men of the Stone House. 651. Gens du lac Both from of Autour du Grand 1876. which supplies practically all their needs. ney whence they resorted to Ft. Fort-de-plerre. 1824 (trans. E. Hearne saw them in 1769. to dispute the Hudson Bay region with the Maskegon and Cree. Mangeurs de cariboux.. and Petitot found them there still a century later. V. 1891. It is often difficult to teU how much of Indian manners and morals may have been derived from white people. Diot. — Richardson. Ettine-tlnney. and we have the testimony of early writers to guide us. To clear discuss the rise of ethics among primitive it Cariboo eaters. The latter may be narrow in their judgment of Indian conduct tribes intrusive race while they are accurate in describing it. Notwithstanding the differences which necessarily exist between savage and civilized ethics. numbering 900. Prince of Wales. — standards of right conduct and Gibbs. notes.. Fond du Lac at the head of lake Athabaska. 363. and were called the Northern Indians by the English and the Mangeurs des Cariboux by the Canadian French. 'Indiana head of lake Athabaska. of the from the rising sun. Rising Sun Folks. Mlchinipicpoets. ibid. Chipewyan. B. who were still in the barbarous or the savage stage. B. Arct. Schoolcraft. Tribes. 1872. 5. 376. 1856 (trans. Sawassaw-tln- and public opinion was the power that com- . 241. which displayed a regard for the happiness and well-being of others. choicest furs The British eager to extend their trade. Sa-essau-dinneh. Soc. v. ('caribou people'). to the end of Great Slave lake. Geog. 363. xx.' Sawessaw tinney. the two systems must evidently have much in common. 69.. travellers have given testimony of customs and manners of Indians. 363. Lond. rules in barter for furs at Ft. and such rules may be found more rigorously observed and demanding greater self-denial among savages than among civilized men. she made of her her escape to the English and told them own people on Peace cheap. One of their women who was held in captivity by the Maskegon was astonished at the weapons. Eastern Folks. who held the traders. their habitat being to the n. Latham in Trans. and advanced eastward from Peace r.. 1883..HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No.. Exped. 1847. ii. people'). where caribou were abundant. The Navaho designate by a term which signifies "that standing within me which speaks to me. In separates them from the Tatsanottine. (trans. whom she per- suaded to migrate to the barren grounds near Hudson bay.' or 'eastern Indians). —Petitot. Tribes. Northern Indians. 5. —Petitot.. among all the tribes. MS.." Abundant evidence might be adduced to show that Indians are often actuated by motives of pure benevolence and do good merely dread of conscience from a generous delight Social ethics obtained in the act. About 300 traded at Ft. Sa-i-sa-'dtinnfe. sent her with a safe conduct to her people. 1852 (trans. They were a part of the migrating Chipewyan who descended from the Rocky mts. — des and other sources we learn conscience among the Indians and of their folk-lore its Dobbs. ir. 27. Ind. 1744 ('people of stone of the great lake': Cree name). Arct. who told her that they made these articles themFinding at last that they got them selves. Exped. Compend.. Keane in Stanford.. — — — — Franklin. 1878. MS. the E. utensils. —Petitot. 1865 ('stone people'). 25. 21a 153 n. They settled around Reindeer. A. 1866.— Petitot. Arct. Polar Sea. 1851. 1876.— Petitot in Jour. and clothing of European manufacture that she saw among her captors. Ross in Smithson. 1853. Big. B. 542. for from the days of Columbus to the present. Autour du lac des Esclaves. Ethics and Morals. Saw-cessaw-dinnah. Petitot. 17. Esclaves.) makes them a part of the eastern Tinne. Ibid. 1878. There were 445 enumerated at Every community has adapted to its mode of life and surroundings. in. 'rising-sun-men'). 1851 ('people of the rising sun'). Pet- — — — MS.. Richardson. manners or no morals. 241. Saw-eessaw-dinneh. notes. E. Tli6-Ottin6.

154 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. dying in order that the young might live and the tribe maintain its existence. the loss of the property taken. Scouts must report accurately or meet disgrace. system of ethics having once taken shape. either power to punish . This duty sometimes extended to one's relations. flogging. onerous tribes rules. hence for their security the sorcerer must be put to death. the desire for the approval of one's associates and the wish to hve at peace furnished sufficient incentive for compliance with the less inviolate. on leaving home. The Zufii. and they were an encumbrance to travel. and a degree of authorities When punishment of the thief. all ethical barriers. As war rewas legiti- The steahng of horses was a common object of war parties. and social customs enforced their observance. While the young were everywhere taught to show respect to their elders. Honesty was inculcated exacted in the tribe. Instances could be multipHed to show the security of personal effects in a tribe. (\ c v w m social ") The emblems in attest- ation of the truth of their statement. which had limited Murder within the tribe was always punby exile. close and seal the door with clay. which was as inviolable as a separate Etiquette. in the young and In some commimities the rule was limited in its operation to those within the tribe itself. by inexorable ostracism and the making of gifts to the kindred of the slain. pillage and moved mate. As the aged could not take care of themselves. and no one molests the dwelling. the choice being frequently left it to the aggrieved party. otherwise he would not be permitted to receive the badge of honours rightfully won. Some had executive bands. among other tribes there was no power to punish. they were mutual enemies. but the lawful victim of their vengeance. such as violation of the orders of the tribal council.offenders in certain cases. 1912 other A pelled the most refractory to obedience. the community could not otherwise keep together. The custom was due to a lack of knowledge of the causes of disease and to mistaken ethics. or by suffering the murderer to become ished. but he has faith in good and bad luck. and while years and experience were supposed to bring wisdom. The pagan Indian is destitute of the faith in heaven and hell. honesty and the safeguarding of himaan life were everywhere recognized as essential to the peace and prosperity of a tribe. and the young and active found it diflScult to secure food for themselves and their children. There are many instances of Indians keeping their word even at the risk of death. The manner of punishment varied among the tribes. drown you!" are their imprecations. A. care of one's family was regarded as a duty and was generally observed. or bound by some friendly tie. for example. An unaccredited stranger was always presumably an enemy. Some regard various inanimate objects as the agents of these "May the cold freeze you!" punishments. keep a promise deliberately given was equivalent to lying. they acquiesced in their fate as a measure of prudence and economy. much less hold its own against enemies. on their return to camp. they had to give. Among the Apache When during the tribal hunt runners were to disfigure was the common custom an erring woman by cutting off sent out to seek a herd of buffalo. The common punishment for lying in many of the tribes was the burning of the liar's Not to tent and property by tribal sanction.. nor were there even the rudiments of a court of justice. and it remains social ostracism constituted the The interior of most native was without complete partitions. yet there were tribes among which it was the custom to abandon or to put to death the very old. which affords a strong incentive to moral life among many of our own people. The witch or wizard was beheved to bring sickness or death to members of the community. their report in the presence of sacred her nose. tribe. for except where tribes were allies. Where this custom prevailed the conditions of life were generally hard. The Nez Percys and many tribes lean a pole across the door to indicate the absence of the family. The successful warrior must not claim more than his due. But these motives were not sufficient in matters of graver import. "May the fire burn you!" "May the waters Truth. but it was not un- common allies to find its obligations extended to to all friendly tribes. yet each member of the family had a distinct space. Adultery was punished. dwellings . The cruel punishment of witchcraft everywhere among the tribes had its ethical side. and frequently attaches different imaginary punestablished ishments to different offences. but only from a hostile a theft was committed the tribal demanded restitution.

and also. a visitor made his way. some tribes men and women In used different back part of the dwelling. wife. as mother. facing the entrance. an Among many when speaking be used. lodge. to which. the younger members kept silent unless called on to say something. facing the entrance. the arms hung down. tribes etiquette required that to a person a term or of relation- ship rather than the personal name should An elderly man woman was usually addressed as grandfather or grand- apology must be made. he must excuse himself to show that it was through no disUke of the food. which was unbroken for some little time after he was seated. Among all the tribes haste was a mark of ill breeding. At meal time. or trod upon his foot. and a similar title was also applied to a man of distinction." ***** never allowed to meddle with anyone's possesWhen more than one family occupied a dwelling." A member of the tribe. During certain ceremonies no one may speak above a whisper. There was an etiquette in standing and sitting that was carefully observed by the women. A conventional tone was observed by men and women on formal occasions which differed from that employed in every- day life. mother. for a space of time.. the latter were prominent. forms of speech. only the of the party or of the tribe spoke. greetings were at once exchanged. W. Uncle or aunt might be used for persons of about the same age as the speaker. was spoken to by a term of relationship. A space was generally set apart for guests. In many tribes also the names of the dead were not likely to be mentioned. Among the Plains tribes this place was at the some instances a similar restriction was placed on a woman addressing her father-in-law.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No." or "my cousin. if one could not eat all that had been put upon hia dish. Etiquette between the sexes demanded that the man should precede the woman while walking or in entering a lodge "to make the way safe for her. who would accept for him. or the large wooden structure of the N. to share the food. and the distinction was carefully observed. among the Iroquois. nor could personal questions be asked or private matters mentioned. reserve characterized the general behaviour of men and women toward When older men a delegation was received. aunt. a httle toward the front. They stood with the feet straight and close together. Children played together in their own spaces and ran in and out of that belonging to the mother. and in Among house. it must be returned with a portion of what had been cooked in it to show the owner the use that had been made of ttie utensil. within which each member had a place. a word was substituted for the especially if name of a deceased person. he entered in silence. No one could be interrupted when speaking or forced to speak when inclined to be silent. but they were forbidden to intrude elsewhere and were sions. A friendly visitor from outside the tribe was addressed by a term meaning "friend. If it was necessary to pass between a person and the fire permission must be asked. the serious purpose of the visit not being mentioned until considerable time had elapsed. but to a younger man or woman the term of address would signify younger brother or sister. in courtesy. saying "Your uncle (or aunt) has heard. as the earth lodge. particularly •during official or ceremonial proceedings. if a cooking vessel had been borrowed. on entering. and the visitor when entering a lodge and going to this place must not pass between Among many tribes his host and the fire. the long bark a number of tribes etiquette required that there should be no direct speech between a woman and her son-in-law. each other. Respect must be shown to elders in both speech and behaviour. and with some Indians. which was equivalent to thanks.. one of the opposite phratry was greeted as "my father's clansman. and if the hands were free. If he was a familiar friend. and if one brushed against another. although of a different clan or gens. for example. the place of honour was at the w. 21a walls. and when he had finished he must not push away his dish but return it to the woman. On such occasions conversation was opened by reference to trivial matters. speaking a term of relationship. the person invited did not respond a relative or friend was present." ." Famihar conversation could take place only between relatives. Among some tribes. but if he had come on a formal mission. visitor could leave the No dwelHng of his host without some parting words to show that his visit was at an end. and here his bed was spread at night. 155 apartment enclosed by In this space When the bearer of an invitation entered a if the personal articles of the occupant were stored in packs and baskets. every family had its well-known limits.

detail in the etiquette of family social gatherings. Ind.A. of Mexico. Diet. 429. Mar. Halr. Europeans intertribal trade had resulted almost everywhere in America in the adoption of certain standards of value of which the most . Ross (MS. — — — — Slavfe in the fire before eating. another in the neighbourhood of old Ft. had its etiquette.156 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v.) the various tribes living N.. A.E. 474. 1876 ('people who act contrarily'). training of children in tribal etiquette Etskainah the Siksika. cit. Et-se-kln. 15 in 1911.. Petitot. The members carry a crooked staff and are supposed to have magical powers (Wissler.C. 1887 sec. Piegan. now extinct. 168. 1901. — Dawson in Trans. XX. 1912 the fingers extended and the pahns hghtly pressed against the dress. the tobacco could be returned with an accompanying gift. Brit. 1872). 1891. 66. A. No. Roy. Pacific coast of found in the waters of the N. the Indians of that region for food and the production of grease and Other forms ii) (Christian Union. 1892. 1871) are hoolikan and varied life. 22. op. ('people tribe of who act contra- which one division lives on Frangais lake. Fraser r. Rep. B. Arct. tion. A.^ith the northern It is On the N.. Indians. Adm. or All it is Comrades. 'horns')- Am. 1900. So. but A society Piegan The of the Ikunuhkahtsi. Blackfoot Lodge Tales. Mauvais Monde. Aff. A. Lolhng in company was considered a mark of bad manners among the tribes.) of and oolichan. Geog. (Eis-kai'nah. Philol. obsolete among still exists T. ii... Brit. and Irving (Astoria. and the visit would be postponed without any hard feeling. 1851. should their coming prove to be ill-timed. cites the (a. 1906). whether social or ceremonial. Ewahoos..) gave their pop. Ettcha-ottinfe. Morice. The Sinopah (Kit-fox) society among the Southern Piegan is practically idenit.. Exped. Can. One of the names of the candle- fish (Thaleichthys pacificus). 221. Ela-a-who. distinctions were everywhere more or less observed. Soc. Before the arrival Etsekin.. Howe sd. c. ence between high caste and low caste was strongly marked. Women sat with both feet under them. Ibid. c.. Etleuk. B. —Richardson.. Arct. MS. media of of. particular parts of the animal belonged by etiquette to the noted warriors present. British Columbia. B.— Ewa'wus. Exchange. D6n6s. Alaska. pt. America and is much used by oil. i. Etle'uq. 65. Among some tribes when a feast was given a pinch of each kind of food was sacriCeremonial visitors usually made their approach known according to the local custom. above Hope. f. Soc... Smoking. 2 m. Ewawoos. 'Dtcha-ta-'uttinnn6. A Nahane kett. and among the Hopi one would not sit with legs extended during a ceremony. one must sit on the forward part of the seat in an alert attitude to observe good form. 1870. and the Kainah. Ettchaottine rily'). Annong some of the Plains tribes the visitors dispatched a runner bearing a httle bunch of tobacco to apprise their host of their intended visit. Exped. 1851.. w. Their name came from their warlike habits. in 1858 as 435. 1879. A winter village of the Kwakiutl proper on Havannah channel. pop. in Bull. 1856. There was much ficed — Richardson. Men usually sat cross-legged. 6. Can.. A Squawmish village commimity on the right bank of Skwamish r. Certain lines of conduct tical is with said to such as being a too frequent guest. E. ii. and the ceremonies (a. it was of low caste to lean backward. closely related to the smelt name of this fish in It is one of the from the Chinookan : dialects.— DaU. when a was served. Netsilley. and these were presented by the server with ceremonial speech and movements. f.—Boas.C. (Hardisty in Smithson. Wild Na- Eulachon.. of the family Sal- monidoB.— Boas Etsi-kln. Notes on W. 229. and the strict observance of etiquette and the correct use of language indicated the Class rank and standing of a man's family. 2. coast of British Columbia. were denounced as of low caste.— Brit. Dte&-Dindji6. 1887. inf'n. The present Etskainah society have taken on some of the functions of the Stumiks (Bulls).— Hill-Tout in Rep. 16. form uthlecan. turned to one side. See GrinneU. Soc. Col. Latham in Trans. A Cowichan tribe whose town was Skeltem. 401. among the southern and grammatical speech began at an early age. Richardson. among the Haida. 309. much form was used in exchanging smoking materials and in passing the pipe in smoking and in returning feast it. Ewa-woos. Liard In certain societies. 311. 1893. Bad-people. too. Pacific coast the differ- regarded as having originated with the latter and extended to the other divisions. Chart.. Lond. 1917 S. B. 1866.

but of stone. two." each fathom of them being worth 5 Dutch guilders. were soon introduced. but inferior. In exchange two white beads were equivalent to one black known were valued in proportion In w. coast of kind was employed. but a brown one is worth a piece of silver. and in his time would bring $5. California shell currency of another This was made from the (money tooth-shell). made not only out of shell. long was Their value was from 25 to 50 cents.v. to establish the when he reached described in one of the earliest accounts of this region. was collected as far n. The longest known shells were about 23^ in. horn. in Esperanza inlet. the shells had shells. w. A shell called tcwolahit. a slender imivalve found on the w. The next smaller shells were called kiketHkiUxoi. was the least common multiple of the individual standard lengths. thus entangling the by comparison with money of known length as measured by someone else. hands and arms are not of the it was necessary for the man. The given fol- lowing further description of these is by are measured and by the creases on the left hand. $1. Dirring the early colonial period pum was almost the only cm-rency white people as well. The principal place where it was obtained is said to have been the territory of a Nootka tribe. This. as it appears. was the largest niunber placed on a string. On and the Pacific coast between e. These lines indicated the length of 5 shells of the several standards. and in spite of all attempted regulation the value of wampum dropped continually until in 1661 it was declared to be legal tender no longer in Massachusetts.) were very convenient. and even wood. preticsum The length of the shells smaller than the first mentioned was determined by applying them to the creases of the middle and other fingers of the left hand. glass. reckoning 4 beads for every stiver. In the Chinook jargon it was called hiaqua. its latest recorded use as currency being in 1693. Holm says.50 each. but <3uatsino inlet. and a year or two later the same fate overtook it in the other New England colonies. and in addi- tion usually bear a tuft of red feathers. as The method of procuring it is it same length. The value of such a piece in early days was about $5. Alaska N. and 14 of the smallest shells. Among the Hupa of Califor- one. in this respect having a decided advantage over skins. however. According to Boas. These strings are approximately 25 in. Dentalium. Shells smaller than these were not rated as money and had no denomination. his maturity. Washington the standard of value was 40 to the fathom. ''The brown beads are more valued than the others and fetch a higher price. called moanadink. One of them would reach shells Goddard "The individual their value determined from the crease of the last joint of the little York "In trade they measure those strings their length. while very long single shells were worth more than a dollar. long. In California and on the plateaus farther n. A fathom of 40 was formerly equivalent to a slave." s. "This money was strung on strings which reached from the thumb nail to the point of the shoulder. a block of cedar was spUt up at one end so that it formed a kind of brush which opened when pushed down into the water and closed when pulled up. The shell currency of the Atlantic coast consisted of small white and black or purplish beads cut from the valves familiarly of quahaugand other shells and These as wampum. Eleven of the largest size filled such a string and was therefore called moanala. He also had a set of lines tattooed on the inside of the left forearm. incised designs. a white bead is of the value of a piece of copper money. as they could be strung together in quantities and carried any distance for purposes of trade. from the end of the nail to the first joint makes 6 beads. Twelve shells of the next smaller size composed a string and were called moananax.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. (q. 21a 157 important were shell beads and skins. to the effect that a white bead was worth one stiver and a black bead Jersey: [of wampum] by on the palm opposite the knuckle joint of the same finger. bone." Holm quotes another authority. and measured about 2| in. In New appears to have held on longer. the Ehatisaht. prob- ably from the woodpecker's crest. according to Gibbs. coasts of Vancouver and Queen Charlotte ids. their The latter says also that "their is of measuring the strings manner by the length of thumbs. These shells to their individual lengths. The measures were sub- values of the creases on his hand . long. "Since all Vancouver id. Shells of this length were called dinket. speaking of the Delawares of New it wamamong nia they are decorated ally with fish by being wrapped spirskin or snake skin. and the value fell off rapidly above that number. Thirteen shells are called moanatak.. They were worth about finger to the crease about If in. poorly finished kinds. the Narrative of John Jewitt.

a fourth of a pound of powder. and afterward between English and Indians. Report on Queen Charlotte . and other skins. was a single 2J^-point blanket. coat. furs. but were used for ornamental purposes and in trade with the interior Indians." The tied in lots sufficient to sold in this way. the unit of value of the lower skin. "certain small. and in 1613 the statement is made that it was the basis of all trade between the French of Canada and the Indians. long and 2 in. at least among the Haida. of Vancouver Among the northern tribes in the n. Here this standard passed out very rapidly with the coming of white men. Kansa. especially the skin of the beaver. woven into their texture.158 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE make a v. by points or marks more usual standard of value among interior people. to Another standard universal in this region slaves. By the interior Salish of British Columbia Indian hemp bark was put up in bundles about 2 ft. and 6 of these bimdles constituted a "package. long joined together at the distance of a foot. id. but the term has come to have a fixed value of 50 cents in Canadian money." says Nelson. cited below." Among the coast tribes n. or a portion of little blue beads. are moanala pal first short. and so on. or 40 skins of Parry's marmot or of the muskrat for a coat. times all these were replaced by of value. elk and moose skins seem formerly t& have constituted one of the standards although the skins of other animals doubt used to some extent as well." ****** i. Even on the Atlantic coast it was used from the very earUest times side by side with wampum. though strictly speaking they were legal tender of varying value which had to be fixed by means was of some other standard. were no In later blankets The whole is introduced by the Hudson's naki eik. was the pelt. it is A worth in 1880 a Kttle more than $1. from 10 to 12 raccoon. and one of the lines more beaver the beads. and tied at both ends. Consult Bourke. according to the value of made beaver. According to Hunter it was also the standard of value among the Osage. including the the foregoing list exhausts their nuimber. it is now rated at about 50 cents. even a large 4-point blanket being said to be worth so many "blankets. "is equal to 24 skins. and called naki eik ('bead clothing'). one or which were distinguished on the edge. or 4 or 5 wildcat (lynx ?) skins were valued at one beaver skin. For a list of comparative large hair seal." This shell carried in special elk-horn boxes. Ids. Dawson. the smallest and poorest 1-point. Pacific dentaha were not so much in vogue. Chittenden. the beaver. pelt of a wolf or wolverene is worth several of pelts of "skins" in trade. used for making fur coats or blouses. The acknowledged unit of value. In former days.. and these sets are known by terms designating these bxmches.." meaning beaver skins. Everything was referred to this unit. 1878) learned that a beaver skin was worth a fathom of tobacco. and are 4 skins of reindeer fawns. but on the coast farther s. according to Jones." each stick numbering 100 * ' * * * * * fish (Teit).. 260.. there being lines of moanala long and skins. but in the great fur regions of Canada it remained the basis of value first between French and Indians. untanned articles of trade are sold as 1885. 1902. He adds that 2 good otter skins. now valuations in one tribe see Teit. Bay Company." while dried salmon was generally by the "stick. coast area. The standard of value among the Kutchakutchin and neighbouring tribes consisted of hues of beads 7 ft. in diameter. The 5 on the string were measiu-ed by holding first shell at the thumb nail and drawing the string along the arm and noting the tip of the the tattooed fifth shell. while a number money was muskrats or Parry's marmot are required to make the value of "a skin. This was the princi- method of estimating the money. sold Although standards. according to Dawson." In 1670 (Margry. such as blankets or Pieces of slaves." "In addition to this. 164. 6 knives. It requires mark reached by the butt of the In like manner the last and intermediate sets of 5 were measm-ed. before the arrival of the Russians. however.50. A. Up to the present time everything is valued in "skins. p. the best being 4-point. 1912 divided. numerous standards of a more or less evanescent natm-e arose. for various more prominent by no means where articles of among the Eskimo Yukon was a full grown land-otter given place to which was equivalent the skin of the This has all kinds were continually bartered. and "a skin" and multiples and fractions of a "skin. cedar bark prepared for roofing sometimes appear as units of value also. and their neighbours. D6c. Snake Dance of the Moquis. Omaha. Oto. and perhaps the remarkable copper plates should also be mentioned. where dentalia were not so much valued. Am. Fur Trade.

present and future. of the deceased. Ethnol. it ap- pears that the family group among the Iroquois Powers Hist. guard and care for the bodylying in state and prepare it for burial. at which his property was divided among his heirs and friends. 21a 15» Geol. 1866. 1794. Some of the duties and obligations of the clan or clans whose sons have taken wives from a clan stricken by death are to condole with it. 1866. Dixon in Bull. and within each of these groups a more or less complex system of relationships definitely fixes the status of every person. In case of the death of a chief or other noted person the clan mourned for an entire year. and even within each of these planes of culture several marked types tures. the propositus. Nelson in 18th Rep. of Can. scrupulously refraining from taking part in pubHc affairs imtil Family. 1815. Mem. There are important differences in the organization and in the func- tions of the family as found respectively in savagery. On the other hand there are found in these dialects several different bility that until after the installation of a successor to the names designating the group called a clan..HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER Mus. of the family. and obligations of the person. and long before the development of the clan organization. Am.. Missions. in addition to those Univ. E.. Holmes in 2d Rep. 3. Hist.. when had a comit form two subdivisions of a larger group of kindred the family— of which any given per- — mon history and tradition. The tutelar of every person is named and made by the members of the paternal clan. iii. But is not son. in Cont. determines the civU or other rights. (J Nat. is the family systems in a all. The youth's equipment for life would not be regarded as complete were the performance of these clan duties neglected. 1883. strictly accurate to call or a clan a family. B. Archa. A. No. N. The clan owes the child of its son certain civil and religious rights. 1877.. Surv. Captivity. and to perform all the other needful duties due from clana bound together by marriage. 1900. of the Indian tribes n. inherited from the clan of the mother. During the interim the bereaved clan was represented by the clan or clans bound to it by the ties of maryage and offspring. in in one person.. not yet possible.ol. N. In communities like those of the tribes. and civilization. several ohwachira clan. is usually denominated the Gibbs 1877. Mus. Hardisty in Smithson.. are although in other cases comprised under one the expiration of this period and The term ohwachira is common to all the known dialects of the Iroquoian stock. Smithson. Descr. not to say of Mexico. construct the scaffold or dig the grave. Teit. E. A. two radically different organic groups of persons exist to which the term family may properly be applied. prepare the death feasts. Holm. Cal. The first and larger group of kindred of juncture. Am. 1872. The duties just mentioned do not end with the death of the person. It was regarded as unseemly for the stricken clan to do anything but mourn until the body of the dead had been placed in its final resting place and imtil after the feast of "re-associating with the public. Nat. Rep. 1872. Goddard In view of the rights and obligations of the father's clan to a person.. B. of is the local point or point speaking. Rep. immunities. ^3) material and Muskhogean tribes is composed of the maternal and paternal clans. who propositus. owing to lack of material. 1905. provide suitable singers to chant the dirges at the wake lasting^ one or more nights. 1823. and Ethnol. if occasioned by war or by murder the loss must be made good by the paternal clan supplying a prisoner or the scalp of an enemy. xvii. Muskhogean and the Iroquoian in which the clan system has been so highly developed. These two clans are exogamic groups. pt. Cont. barbarism. A. Jones in Jewitt. 1899. and is bound to the child by obligations which vitally concern the latter's life and welfare." held ten days subsequent to the death.. 1903. Thompson 11. that. Am. seemingly indicating the proba- dead officer. exist. make the bark burial case or wooden coffin. acquired by birth or adoption. an ohwachira a family. Loskiel. 1880. Narrative. Publ. a status. Ethnol. so that in specific cases the 'two are virtually identical. Strictly both clans form incest groups in relation to him. differing radically one from another in many characteristic fea- To determine definitely even the main organic features of majority. (the Among the Iroquois the ohwachira common Iroquoian name for the maternal blood family) was becoming merged into the clan. is Every includes the entire body some member of the community therefore the . New Sweden. Hunter. 1834. A. entirely the family as an institution existed the several tribes still distinct before the child's birth. i. Indians.

is the product of the union by marriage of two persons of which does not establish between the husband and wife the mutual rights and obligations arising from blood feud and from inheritance. the wife or wives to those of their respective clans. both have. does not become a member of his wife's clan. tradition. but is nevertheless under the rigid control of family law and usage. and so sometimes family government comes into conflict with public law and welfare. by adoption. On the other hand. Where there are several wives from several different families. each is an incest group in so far as its own members are concerned. but remains a member of her own clan. equally important. In a measure they are not within the jurisdiction of public enactment. likewise. in different measiu"e. even to the beginning of civiMzat'on. The of members of the fireside are affected it is by the fact that every member directly subject to the general rule of the clan or higher kinship group — the husband to but in differing degrees. and the common law do not regard the wife. or wives. embody the common sense of her husband or from his clan. Both of these clans owe the offspring the rights and obligations of kindred. belong to the same family and are kindred. The second and smaller group. the rights and obligations of kinship to him. for if he be murdered the family avenges his miu-der or exacts payment therefor. rights of inheritance of and she acquires no property either from lying motives. she transmits to her children the right of his advocates and his blood feud the family defends him and his cause. is gradually limited. even with their Uves. It is precisely these mutual rights and obligations that are peculiarly characteristic of the relations between clansmen. Therefore. And when the family becomes a unit or is absorbed in a higher organization the individual acquires . Custom. the community placed reliance largely on the family for the maintenance of order. the husband acquires no rights from his wife or from her clan. whether acquired gamic groups of persons. status of the husband and and their children makes this evident. or household. In the savage and barbaric ages. for in these communities the clan is exogamic. and the clan is thus organized and limited. the fireside or household. for they subsist only between persons of different clans. It is thus apparent that these two groups of lesser that of his clan. or wives. But by the increasing power of tribal or public law through the community. who have common blood with one another. and this care ends not with his death. this group in its family relations becomes very intricate. The members of the family to persons are in fact radically distinct. then. and. such customs and laws constitute of daily rules of action. and their children. his wife or wives. although in specific cases the violation of family rights and obligations incurs the legal penalties of tribal or public law. which. of the household as belonging to the clan of the husband. by birth or husband and wife do not belong to the same clan or family. includes only the husband. family custom and law are administered within the family and by its organs. Thus a person may be said to have two clans. tection first of all.160 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. Both clans exercise rights and are bound by obligations to "the household of which he is a member. and the children to those of both parents. A. As there is a law of the clan or exogamic kinship group governing acts and relations as between members of the same clan group. with their vmder- membership in her clan. the redress of wrongs. which fix absolutely the position and status of everyone in the group. centralization of power and political organiza- tion the independence of the family in private feuds. The dominating importance apparent. it is the social organization of a primitive people one of the most vital institutions founded by private law and usage. and he. or with a third person. In such a community every member is directly obligated to the family. But the fireside. Concerned wholly with the intimate relations private life. By marriage the wife acquires no right of membership in her husband's clan. but in different kind and of the family in is degree. In the grim crime. that is to say. if need be. regarded as dangerous to the of the good order community.. so there are rules and usages governing the household or fireside and defining the rights and obligations belonging to relations of the various its jurisdiction. Those. 1912 point of contact and convergence of two exo- common blood. Within these clans or exogamic groups the mrmbers are governed by rules of a more or less complex system of relationships. for the group is not merely a portion of the larger. The relative his wife. for the pro- that safeguards his welfare. moreover. and the punishment of which he belongs are sureties. in some measure that of his mother and that of his father.

but there are duties of protection by these toward those who cannot act for themselves for any reason whatever. This is a principle so well established that the chief was exercised over lawless men who otherwise were beyond restraint. immunities. and on the n. from its expediency. To exercise the right of feud was lawful only to avenge the guilty murder of a the birth or the adoption of many men in a clan or exogamic kinship group is a great clansman. of the paternal clan or matron exogamic kinship might oblige these offspring of diverse households (as go to war in fulfilseemed good to her. would inform one of the children whose fathers were her clansmen. and there is need that it be made good by replacing the departed with another or by many others. no. their honthonni' that it was her desire that he form and lead a war party against their enemies as suffice) to many ment might of their obligation. coast. several poor relations or proteges who acted as servants. it is known that the incest groups on the maternal and the paternal sides are largely determined by the system of relationships. allied to it by the ties of that of — protection. having decided that the time was at hand "to raise again the fallen tree" or *'to put back on the vacant mat" one of the clan whom death removed. of is a great loss. She enforced and confirmed this commission with a belt of wampum. pleasing to her and her advisers. the children of such unions are bound in a measure to the clan or exogamic kinship group of their fathers. The wealth and power person had only to interpose their and authority to bring to naught the best concerted designs and enterprises of these ambitious war chiefs.W. 1905) says that in addition to the "husband. But Outlaws were denied family and The renunciation of clan kinship among loss the Iroquois the duty of restoring the entailed the loss of every right and immunity does not devolve directly on the stricken clan or exogamic kinship group. In the blood feud the paternal kin did not not interfere except by counsel. tribal rights. n. This was soon iccomplished. or she might stop them if they wished to undertake a war which was not. an to be restored. The control clan or family was made useful by the which advantage to it. Onondaga ficed chieftain of the 17th century. through come separated through the obligation marrying into clans or such groups other than theii' own. Anthrop. The person whom she selected was one judged most capable of executing her commission. according to the relative standing and importance of the person For example. one of the surest methods they might employ to frustrate those enterprises was to win the chief and the Muskhogean tribes does not exist.'hrn increased by a number who lived with the house owner on almost equal terms." In tribes where a clan or gentile organization similar to that of the Iroquoian the council chiefs did not favour the de- signs of certain ambitious war chiefs in raising levies for military purposes. and children.s. rights. one a clan or family depend primarily on the dearth or abundance Hence the loss of a single of its niunbers. 4. a household was often of relations purpose of securing a prisoner or a scalp for the purpose named. for although these men beof tribe as a police organization. e. So powerful was this chief matron of a clan that for the v. who are legally deThe modern law of guardianship of is minors and imbeciles evidently but a survival obUgation of protection in the primitive family and clan. Swanton (Am. and extension of this . which fixes the position and status of every person within an indefinite 21a— 11 .. upon those whose fathers hontonnishon' So are clansmen of the person to be replaced.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. 21a 161 certain rights at the expense of the family^ is matrons of the clans whose clansmen were the fathers of the recruits from the other clans. for the right of appeal to the higher tribunal of these.. but to avenge the death of a clansman of their father was an obligation.. Aharihon. sacri- 40 men to the shade of his brother to the great esteem in show which he held him. but upon all inhering in kinship. for it is a principle of humanity that they who are legally independent should protect those pendent. even to the taking of life for cause. fearing that they might injure the best interests of the tribe. Speaking generally of the tribes of theN. wife. This is ample evidence that these women had an influence in some these chief matrons influence degree exceeding that of the council of the ancients and tribal chiefs. Every clan had jurisdiction over the Uves and property of its members. vii. Pacific coast as many slaves as the house owner could afford or was able to capture. Therefore this chief matron. The fundamental concept and obligations is in the organic structure of the family with its what is termed i. as The mutual obligations of kindred subsist between persons who can act for themselves.

the former being the most wealthy and the latter the poorest. arrangement has had a most beneficial effect in allaying the deadly feuds formerly so frequent among them. thye kindled.. Irrespective of tribe they are divided into three classes.162 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. with female descent. Klamath these relationships are defined by be able to fulfill the duties of hia reciprocal terms defining the relation rather than the persons. B. if any . Am. Initiation into religious societies was accom- panied by fasting. Fasting was also a means by which occult power was believed to be acquired. f. Mus. H. E. 1894. Anthrop... it is impossible to say what. c. B. Simple garments or none were worn when fasting. 1864. ranging in importance from that of the little child to its playmate up to those which were a all Among tribes there were part of the great sacred ceremonies. and Tanges-at-sa. and tears were shed as the appeals were ' celebrated in a feast of thanksgiving tribes able to secure the fish rivers. a long fast the quantity of food taken was It was not uncomto fast. Mus. Hist. Occasionally chiefs or leaders tribal fast in order to avert have appointed a thi'eatening disaster. Pacific coast the On by the n. mon for an adult when about prise. but no detailed information on the subject is (J. marriage and cohabitation may not subsist between persons related to each other within prescribed Hmits on both the maternal and paternal sides. 1865). food. or by one appointed for the task. A Chit-sa gentleman will marry a Tanges-at-sa peasant without the The offspring in every least feeling infra dig. Among the upon an important enterwar or hunting. as a prayer for success. feasts. At the conclusion held a feast.. however. A. (1) Consult Dorsey and Voth in Field Colmnbian Publ. That is to say. when the youth wae sometimes sent to a sequestered place and remained alone. and Archseol. A. ally included abstinence Fasting gener- food. Kirkby (Smithson. and in some of the great ceremonies all the principal actors were obliged The length of to fast prior to taking part. however. iii. vi. organization existed Apparently a similar social among the Natchez. (2) in 19th Rep.) simply served. These so-called feasts were never elaborate and were ^^^^^b^^- N. Chitsa. Nate-sa. or even longer. Feasts were held at stated times. the The fii'st coming of the salmon was all fast took place at puberty. when the Eskimo had gathered their winter store. it being the rule for a man not to marry in his own. the middle classes. and from water as weU as The reason for fasting has been explained by a Cherokee priest as "a means to spiritualize the human nature and quicken the spiritual vision by abstinence from earthly Other tribes have regarded to it the poorer orders of civilized nations. made to the unseen powers. E. B. or continued 4 days and nights. . from inlets or Farther fruits s. In one respect. in 19th Mooney Nat. at which time gifts were exchanged. In November. At this time or during similar fasts which followed." As no fiu-ther data are given. these fasts varied with the ceremony and the tribe. The maturing of the maize was the occasion for tribal festivities. turbulent. and the incest group is reckoned from each propositus. Mat1902. and all past enmities forgiven. 1900-03.. they greatly differ.was the internal structure and organization of these three exogamic classes. Among some tribes clay was put upon the head. 1912 group. the ripening of acorns and similarly other was observed. respectively. Rep. 1900. Rep. at that time the Creeks held their S-days' ceremony known as the Bwsfc when the new corn was eaten. each portion being ladled from the kettle by the hostess. of regulated for several days. Am." as a of the method by which remove "the smell" common world. a shaman had to fast frequently to enter in order to office. Feasts. Fasting. Ethnol. iv. fasting and praying from 1 to 4 days. of a more interesting and important character than that of the tribes just mentioned. but to take a wife from either of the other classes. as although kinship may be recognized as extend- ing beyond the prescribed limit. This case belong to the class of the mother. In speaking of the fierce. A rite widely observed among the Indians and practised both in private and in connection with public ceremonies. 1900. Fewkes in Joiu-. another division says: among them. ser.. and cruel Athapascan tribes of the valley of the Yukon. A. (a. thews in Mem. "There is. the new fire new garments worn.. just as the term "cousin" is employed between cousins. faintly repre- senting the aristocracy.) mentioned above. and ranged from midnight to simset. termed. he was supposed to see in a dream the object which was to be his special medium of communication with the supernatural.

i-lxxiii. B. plentiful" (Nelson). the flesh stripped from the bones.. but the head chief appointed one ties in their the calumet. 1896. Am. 18961901. 177. The feathers of birds en- host was careful not to include in the food or tered largely into the industries. were always accompanied with a feast. according to early writers. Fewkes in 15th. which was an offering of thanks for the gift of food. at which time a feast was held. Jesuit Relations. Mus. At all feasts the Featherwork. the spirits of the departed were also supposed to be present. and 19th Rep. Anthrop. A. Matthews in Mem. supposed to swim far out to sea and then enter the bodies of unborn animals of their kind. Nelson in 18th Rep.. During the full the dishes used anything that would be tabu moon of December the Eskimo held a feast to which the bladders year were brought. The food was provided by the family at whose lodge the society met. Thwaites ed. which tended to good feehng and fellowship. and the dead were supposed to be present beneath the floor of the dwelling where they enjoyed the festivihonour. in others it was prepared in different societies within the in the presence of the assembly. 1897-1900.A. or shades of the animals. with brought their own eating vessels. On such an occasion the host and his family did not eat with their guests. Peabody Mu- seum. rarely at the beginning. and with other tribes after nearly a year. on any occasion. 1899. ******* feast of any kind. B. for at these feasts one had to eat all that was served to him or take what was left to his home. Hoffman in 7th and 14th Reps.. 21a 163 this a temporary relationship was formed between the giver and taker. Nat. a failure to observe this important point would be considered an insult. Respect to chiefs and leading men was expressed by a feast..) of the guests to act as server. The feast was one of tribal importance and was accompanied with religious rites. thus becoming reincarnated and rendering any of his guests.. ser. The meetings of secular societies among the Plains tribes. the Iroquois after 10 days. At the feast for the dead held by the tribes on the N. but the herald of the society went to each lodge and gave notice of the meeting. Mindeleff in 17th Rep.E. Pacific coast. a bit or small portion was first lifted to the zenith. or by certain other duly appointed to persons.. The time which must elapse after a death before the feast could be given varied among the tribes.. Feasts were given on the completion of a house. In some instances the food was brought ready cooked to the lodge. when all who had died during the year were disinterred by their kindred. every one present remained silent and motionless. where food was to be eaten. Publ. The people ness took place at the planting of "the maize. Creek Migr. i. and when a child was named. it Among some of the Plains Indians occurred after 4 days.. A. although sometimes they marked a particular stage in the proceedings.A. sometimes presented to the four cardinal points. B.. 1898. (a. f. 1884. At every Consult Dorsey and Voth in Field Columbian Mus. 16th. and the ceremony near relatives were the hosts. and then dropped upon the earth at the edge of the fire or into the fire. for which certain prescribed food was prepared and partaken of with special ceremony. the owner feasted his fetish. 1900-03. and perhaps other tribes. Fletcher in Publ. and receiving the clothing put as a gift upon their namesakes. Among the Iroquois a feast was held to keep the medicine Religious ceremonies to insui'e fruitful- same tribe. decoratioDB 21a— lU ." On the sixth and last day the bladders were taken out to a hole made in the ice. Feasts in honor of the dead were widely observed. 1891. 1902. E. B. and was usually accompanied by an exchange of presents. Jenks in 19th Rep. In most tribal ceremonies sacred feasts occurred. The preparation for the feast varied game more alive.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER by No. During this act. A. It was incumbent on an aspirant to tribal honour to give feasts to the chiefs. and these wrapped in new robes and laid in the clan burial pit. iii.E. and thrust They "were into the water under the ice. but the portions of food intended for them were passed through the fire and reached them in this manner. Gatschet. The the Iroquois. VI. Feasts of this kind often took place at the close of a ceremony. c. 1900. Among of their memorial feast late in The Eskimo held November. Leg. The Huron held their ceremonial feast in the fall. 357. There was no public invitation. E. E. was always concluded with a feast. they provided the food and the dishes. whether the membership was of one or both sexes. of animals killed during the These were "supposed to contain the inuas. at a marriage. Hist. and one who desired initiation into a -society must piovide feasts for the society. B. partaking of the food and water cast there for them.

the essential charwhich enables the object to acteristic. feathers of eagles were made into war-bonnets. plants. eagles. were used for beautiful embroidery and. wild turkeys in their habitat.. B. every area were used. trees. Feather technic in its highest development and night and all possess vohtion and immortal life. Winship in 14th Rep. and the various bodies of nature are verily the living — belongs to South America. v. Feathers worn by the Plains tribes in the hair indicated rank by their kind and number. Turner in 11th Rep. woodpeckers. B. Creation and other myths spring out of fea- possessor. art'. altar decorations.. 'made by art'. Mason (1) in and orioles in the Pueblo region. regarded as possessing consciousness.134 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIE!^ 2 GEORGE v. Native Races. in addition to those that are usual. although lakes and seas may wTithe in billows. (Portuguese: fetish — 'enchantment' adjective. Rep. stars. xvii. the American Indians an object. T. that rocks. yet many of these are held in perpetual bondage by weird spells of some mighty enchantment. larks. Mus. E. 1892. E. B. Hohnes (1) in 6th Rep. pt. Goddard in Publ. Nat. A. i-v. Hist. Consult Bancroft. being both a standard' of value and a Fetish 'sorcery'. All common processes from the n. while brooks and rivers may run and bound over the land.' the English 'artificial'. B. Mountains and hills of the may throb and quake with pain and grief. water birds during their annual migrations. B. Am. B.A. 1912 war and worship of the Indians. Pacific coast were copiously adorned with down. clouds. the limbs and parts of the body. 'artful 'made by by magic').. 1889. (2) in 13th Rep. —-whence Among feitigo. Among the Eskimo and some of the southwestern Indians the feathers were Among California tribes bird laid on flat. E. — men. yet even they may be held by the potent magic power god of winter. turkeys. species in * * * Rep. — thers. 'stocks and stones'. and California. in The most striking uses of feathers were connection with social customs and symbolism. imagined possession of this potent mysterious power that causes an object to be regarded as indispensable to the welfare of its monies of the N. E. or by the manner of mounting or notching. hsLtin factitious. and the California Indians decorated their exquisite basketry in the same manner. and The downy aspergills were made of them. i. 1904. . The uses of feathers in The Western decoration were numberless. 'skiKully contrived'. meadow crested quail. 1874Boas in 6th Rep. part of America south- species lent their plumage on occasion. the eagle everywhere. there were some that were especially sought in the Arctic regions.. Mallery in 10th Rep. Cal. 1894.E. 1905. Am. but they cannot travel over the earth because they are held in thraldom by the powerful Thus it is spell of some potent enchanter. they cannot traverse the earth. (2) in The prominent * son. volition accomplish. Univ. 1888. plumes and long trails for dances and solemnities. 1896. and especially orenda or magic power. and in hawks. Pacific coast.. 3.. 1896. 1903. A.. A. For giving directness to the flight of arrows feathers were usually split so that the halves could be tied or glued to the shaftment in twos or threes. large or small. A. 1893. The decoration of the stem of the calumet (q.) was of feathers. but ward. rocks. bones. scalps were used as money. Archseol.. all things are lands. ravens and flickers on the N. (O. B. but there is continuity in the tombs of diverse beings and spirits. and Polynesia. parrots especially. and immortal life. Mus. A. In the Pueblo region feathers played an important role in symbolism and worship prayer-sticks. E. In the belief of the Indians. wands. roots. Nelson in 18th Rep. natural or artificial. beasts. animate and incarnate waters. and Ethnol. A. The masks and the bodies of performers in cere- abnormal results in a mysterious manner. A.) Fans and other accessories of dress were made of wings or feathers by the Iroquois and other tribes. trees. medium of exchange.. spht and dyed. 'a charm. E. Dixon in Bull. 1902. .. A.. 1886. Eskimo sewed little sprays of down into the seams of garments and bags made of intestinal membranes. blackbirds. E. 1888. M. 75. 1899. mallard ducks. jays. winds. Central America. The quills of small birds. Nat. Apparently in any specific case the distinctive function and sphere of action of the fetish depends largely on the nature of the object It is the which is supposed to contain it. Muidoch in 9th SmithRep. So.. B. basketry in the same way as porcupine quills. feather was to the mind of the Indian a kind of bridge between the spirit world and ours. the colours of which depended on the purpose Whole for which the calumet was offered.

by flint-and-pyrites (the progen- by the shaman. however insignificant in itself. concealed between the covers of a shield. 1899. or reptile. A. The tutelar has a particular name as a class of beings. The fetish is clearly segregated from the group of beings called tutelars. Jesuit Sauvages 1896-1901. A person may have one fetish is or many fetishes. attached to some part of the dress. a small bag of pounded welfare gradually becomes useless and may charcoal mixed with in fact. Nelson in 18th Rep. a carved or painted stick. loaned or inherited. a tuft of hair. B. Gospel among the Dakotas. 1879. the tribes of the n. for along with the adoration of the fetish the continent from Columbia to Newfoundland and around the entire Arctic coast. 1724." Consult Bourke in 9th Rep. The infer- earth. a feather. E. as well as by ranging r. and also throughout New England. herited fron kindred. B. Moreover. A fetish is not a product of a definite phase tribes of religious activity. Orig. human moon. Rev. or even a trophy taken from a slain enemy. while. it some- times called hecasto theism. Indian Sign Language. in describing the fetish.) the articles found in the medicine sack of the shaman. its and protection. the pindikosan of the Chippewa. B. bark. It might be fastened to the scalp-lock as a pendant.aking at . 21a the kingdom of the fetish. The fetish must A be carefully distinguished from the tutelar of every person. ******* feasts. These are commonly otter. a curious fossil or concretion. while others are bought Relations. so far as known. sacrifice.. trees. a family. and ence is that this method of fire-m. or guardian spirits. the dried 'hand of an enemy. Thwaites ed. thus for Moeurs des constituting a valuable article of intertribal commerce. provided it be Easily portable and attachable. or.. the tutelar is never sold. in the owner's mind at least. 1843. Riggs. 1892. is scrupulously discriminated from all those objects and beings which may be called fetishes.. Zuiii many other tribes.. Murdoch in 9th multifarious reasons. 1892. fire Two methods of making were in use among the American aborigines at the time of the discovery. from neighbouring tribes at a great price. indicative of their functions: ochina'k&"'da' for fetish. Travels. some symbohc connection with occult power. bird. and of Religion. a fetish is an object which may also represent a vision. to be subjected to the same severe test of efficiency in promoting the well-being of their possessors. John Eastman says that this is true of the Santee. Among the Iroquois these are or k^wn by distinct names. or a bird. snake. and berries of many kinds. no matter how uncouth or unaccountable. H. Pacific coast. Mothers some- times tied the fetish to the child's cradle. ill and from it Mooney says. hung. 1883. and oidro"' for the tutelar. a necklace of red berries. and other skins. inherited. potent powders. a dream. The name also applied to most of N. 1885. Among the Santee and the Muskhogean and Iroquoian tribes the personal tutelar. Clark.A. B. much less is it the par- Stikine ticular prerogative of any plane of goes life.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER Of such is 165 No. 1869. having a different origin. since it may be bought or sold. E. a thought. or an action. B. It is also acquired by choice Growth Maximilian. Some fetishes are regarded as more efficacious than others. culture. and it is probably true of which the owner's medicine dream or imagination might suggest. roots. a people for the purpose of promoting welfare. 2d Rep.. (j. It is therefore erroneous to assign the fetish to the artificial stage of religion. loaned. with the Iroquois. Then other fetishes are acquired. from the bridle bit. In return. mountains. across in British the worship of the sun. Lafitau. water. Rep. human blood — anything. or a talisman —a charm. the stuffed skin of may a lizard. Mliller. Gushing. A. storms as the embodiment of as many personalities. degenerate into a sacred object amulet. E. that votaries receives or good treatment in accordance with the character of its behaviour toward them. an — and finally into a mere ornament. The fetish might be the inspiration of a dream or the gift of a medicine-man. Some fetishes are in- Fetishes. The first method. or guarded in a special repository in the dwelling. and a heterogeneous collection of other things emploj'ed Fire-making. Ameriquains. animal. owl. a stone arrowhead. it had always. fetish is acquired by a person. but. A. The fetish which loses its repute as a promoter of be "a bone. was practised by the Eskimo and by the Athapascan and Algonquian itor of flint-and-steel).E. the fetish requires from its owner worship in the form of prayer. rivers. for even the least of these may be chosen.

follows no regular order. These features also seem to have an criminate distribution in the area mentioned. in simplest form. cedar by the N. of the the New-fire and Yaya ceremonies Hopi. cutting a socket. Among the Eskimo and some other tribes the simple two-piece fire drill became a machine by the use of a hand or mouth rest containing a stone. although the presumption is that the cord drill is the older. make drill. From the socket a narrow canal is slender rod or drill hemisphere. fire drill The glowing coal from the was usually made to fall into a small heap of easily ignitible material. the stems of the yucca by the Apache. which are confined to the Eskimo and their neighbours. leads to the assumption that they are of recent introduction. The wood in different localities. From the Onon- daga also there is an example of the fire plough The second method. in view of its distribution in northen Europe. In one the canal leads down to a step or projection from the side of the hearth. was introduced into America through Scandinavian contact.166 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. From the striking of a spark to the well-started skill camp-fire considerable and forethought were required. fire with inferior wood. maple. or some form of slow match was prepared from bark. The Eskimo observed in the prized willow ventions uniform and rapid motions and gi'eat pressure were effected. There is no other evidence that like that of the Polynesians. and (6) the bow drill. W. The (a) four-part ma- driU consisted of two kinds: The cord Touchwood or punk for preserving fire which requires the co-operation of two its working. the root of the willow by the Hupa and Klamath. By these in- selection of tinder. the simplest and most widely diffused type of fire-generating apparatus known to uncivihzed man. flint-and-steel is clearly an introduction of recent times. or one or other may be used alone. In some instances sand was placed in the fire cavity to increase friction. The hearth alone embodies two interesting modifications which reflect the environment. consists a the fire plough ever existed in the western selected for the fire drill varied and a lower piece or hearth. other tribes used fungi. It appears probable that flint-and-pyrites. and a cord with two handles or string on a Thus the weathered roots of the Cottonwood were used by the Pueblos. the object in both cases being to prevent the fire from falling into the snow. as within this the heat rises to the ignition point. bark and swung in the Fire-making formed an important feature of a number of ceremonies. Coast tribes. tion of was widespread in America. they may be used together in the same tribe. . or wood socket for the upper end of the drill. softened bark. or other ignitible terial. the White-dog feast of the Iroquois. which it is invariably used in connection with firemaking by wood friction. A similar discriiuination is bow for revolving the drill. but the pump drill is of little practical use in fire-making. elm. the proper kinds and quahties being a matter of acquired acknow- cut in the edge of the hearth. the Indians of the N. The distribution of these varieties. New fii-e was made in the Green-corn ceremony of the Creeks. The pump drill has been employed for firemaking only among the Onondaga of Canada. 1912 indis- one time was general in this area. persons in was obtained from decayed trees. by reciprocating mowood on wood and igniting the gi'Oimdoff particles through heat generated by friction. able. or is The accultural either from Europe or Asia. who used it in making sacred fire for the White-dog feast. where it was the most valued as well as the most effectual process paratus. the function of which off is to collect the powdered wood gi-ound by the wood meal This is friction of the drill. W. which enables one person to make fire or to driU bone and ivory. and in the other the drilling is done on a longitudinal slot in the middle of the hearth. coast used frayed cedar bark. grass.. cutting a groove in which the wood meal produced by friction ignites. or the spark with the small kindling was gathered in a bunch of grass or a strip of air. where it was encouraged by fanning or blowing until actual flame was produced. but the observations on which its distribution is based are from widely separated localities in. in an area where the simple drill was common. often two men twirled the drill alternately for the purpose of saving labour or when the wood was intractledge. known in its to the aborigines. The apof which a stick is held at an angle between the hands and rubbed back and forth along a plane surface. A. near the border of which the drill is worked by twisting between the palms. bone. and buttonwood by the eastern Indians. The appearance of these diverse methods in one tribe. rendering it possible to catkins.

W. sharpened at both ends and fastened at its middle to a ing birds. was used for taking cerused. 1896. 1. consisting of a sharpened spine of bone attached with a pine-root lash to a whalebone. or several spikes were set in. Turner in 11th Rep. B. 21a 167 and among many other tribes in widely separated localities.. line.. Usually. Publ.. This is the most complete hook known in aboriginal America. 1899. in which the unbarbed curved spike of metal was set. of maintaining a perpetual fire. forming a gig. Sci.) 1888 and 1890. 1906. Putnam Wheeler Surv. XIII. 1890. Nat.. 3. (2) ibid. 1903. B. Mus. A. Nat. A leader of quill was attached to the hook and a bait of crab carapace was hung above the spike. 1883. 4. Mus. Archseol. No.pt. On the introduction of flint-and-steel and matches the art of fire-making feU into disuse by the old methods speedily among most tribes and was fire perpetuated only for procuring the new by lashings of split quill. This series does not of a pliant shaft. XVII. the Eskimo hook had the upper half of its shank made of stone and the lower half of ivory. A. At the first coming of the Europeans the waters of this continent were found teeming with fopd fish. Palmer in Am. creasing wariness. line. A. xxv. vice of attatching the bait to the end of a and other tribes lines of twisted fibre. Pacific tribes. B. Goddard in Univ. E. (e)the barbed hook combined with sinker and lure. MiUs (1) in Ohio Archseol. Alaskan tribes used either a simple hook of bent wood having a barb lashed to a point. Holmes in 2d Rep. in (w. B. 1903. Mus. ix. Cont. the mounds with a view. bone.. and kelp. E. (w.. Starting from the simple de- lines of twisted bark. or copper lashed or set on the outer end of the splint. pine root. by the jaw. Anthrop. unbarbed hooks of bone having been found on a number of Ohio sites and gorge hooks at Santa Barbara. The Makah of Washington have a modified form of the gorge hook. XI. Nat. or a compound hook consisting of a shank of wood.. consisting of a hoop of wood. Hough in Rep. shell. Nat. A. consisting of a series of hooks attached by leaders to a line. the evolution may have been effected of the different species of fish by the habits and their in- The Haida. Moore PhUa. In other regions able that long poles of cane or saplings were a device used also for catch- (6) a spike set obliquely in the end In some regions. 1905. etone. Rau in Smithson.. by the Eskimo and it is by the Indians seems to be as follows: (a) The gorge hook. 1879.. xii. as on the N. Hist. Mus. coast. the habits of the fish. and a simple or barbed spike of bone. B. The material used for hooks by the Indians was wood. and the Natchez built their consisted frequently of a shank of bone with a curved. E. Nelson in 18th Rep. h. and the ends of the hoop snapped together. No. the fish and copper. Cal. 6. H.. however.... it is said. Nat. xii. Nat. 1899. holding tain species of fish. a spike of bone or wood.. A.. E. living The of species in American waters . 1888. or sinew. (2) ibid. Hoffman in 14th Rep. Murdoch in 9th Rep. vii. British Columbian and s. Eskimo hooks cactus. Lines and poles varied like the hook with parts being fastened together demanded by religious rites. 2. the great abvmdance of which quickly attracted fleets of fishermen from list all civilized parts of the Old World. xv. 1878.. 1901. quill. The Cherokee and other southern tribes believed that a perpetual fire burned beneath some of the mounds in their country. i. a trawl. Pacific tribes. Pacific tribes and the Eskimo of Alaska. (d) the barbed hook. The fishhook of recent times may be best studied among the n. 1888. Consult Boas in 6th Rep. wood. spines The Mohave employed of the recurved certain species of which are natural hooks. (c) the plain hook. 1894. exactly represent stages in invention. Teit in Mem. sharpened spike of metal set in the lower end. (3) ibid. Am. pt. Consult Dixon in Bull. E. Data on the archaeology of the fishhook have been gathered from the Ohio mounds and the shell-heaps of Santa Barbara. Quar. Cal.. 1. Short prob- the progressive order of fishhooks used poles or none were used N. The Eskimo used lines of knotted lengths of whalebone. pt. the n. hair. (1) in Jour. and the environment. Am.. ii. Niblack in Rep. made a snap hook. Am. Acad... a splint of pine-root lashed at an angle of 45° to its lower end. 1905. This peg was displaced by the fish on taking the bait. Hist. 1900. and Ethnol. and Hist. There are also many legends and myths grouped about the primitive method of obtaining fire at will. 1884. the ends of which were held apart by a wooden peg. Rep.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. 1892. B. A.. No. iron. 1. E. the customs of the fisherman.) Fishing. according to Swanton. Fishhooks.

employed along the n. Sahnon and herring eggs formed one of the staple articles time of need. A. while the smaller ones were taken by the aid of bow Apache.). held the fish fast. fish are found during the greater portion of. In appearance in vast shoals in the spawning beds of the coast and Capt. dull. pollock. but where fish was used at ajj by the Indians. It is recorded in the Jesuit eels Relations that of the St. and many northe/n fishes went to more Atlantic coast varied with the their brittle and were easily knocked off. Fires or torches were used along the shore or on boats. Lobsters and crabs furnished the no vast inconsiderable as well as to the use food supply. fish were drugged with poisonous bark or other parts of plants. Atlantic coast. if not throughout. in parts of California extensive use ployed. Another ingenious device graves in the interior. and all varieties of shellfish. On the northern and eastern coasts the fish disappeared to a great extent when the waters became cold at the approach of winter. and other plants for Carved fishhooks (q. pike. while farther n. the gleam of which attracted the game easily or fish to the surface. mackerel. Navaho. mouth which was then Artificial bait. and elevated on branches of a tree stripped of its smaller limbs. all while was made deposits of shells along tidewater regions. like the of a spht stick.) of shell and bone have been found in shell-heaps and of soap root this purpose. relates. Pacific coast. shad. sharp at under water at low tide a row of hemlock branches. and. and Zuiii. otter. but were dried for Shellfish were dug or taken by wading and by diving. made in so primitive a manner as to indicate aboriginal origin. the sea lion. even in killing the whale (v. though the natives of the Pacific coast used fishhooks of wood and bone combined. the year. being gorged by another fish. eel. The salmon of the Pacific coast are still found in enormous schools. cod. or the seal. many of the interior rivers. in his history of Vi gin'a. made is of stone bone combined. hand in In shape these resemble the hooks of metal from Europe. then branches were fastened together and a float was fixed at one end. annual spring run of herring above Washington is still almost great enough to warrant the Fish life varied with locality and assertion. season. and and was artificial the another ingenious gig. when they were taken by hand or with a net. 1912 by the Indians would fill a volume. was used as a quite as attractive to fish as bait of the civilized fisherman. they not only supplied a large part of the daily food of the people. salmon. fish Large and marine mammals were cap- dogfish. When these boughs were found to be covered with eggs they were taken into a canoe. porpoise. catfish. early in the 17th century.168 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. Among the better known lion. came to the mouth and were trapped by long journeys to get the Indians. months when the waters are free of ice. trout. a jerk of the string caused the points to pierce the of the fish. John Smith in the bays and rivers. practically everything edible that came from the water was consumed. or in taking shellfish in the waters of the seal. flounder. perch. Iroquois. Pacific coast for catch- To collect herring eggs these tribes laid down ing fish consisted of a straight pin. On the middle and s. of diet of the tribes of the n. gigs. who made the season's supply. Still lure. way of catching fish was by "pinching. herring. fishing is confined more to the spawning seasons and southerly waters. swordfish. and in the smallest streams. . whitefish. By some tured by means of the harpoon. halibut. which were held in position with weights. bearing the owner's mark." by means which. but on taking them down great care had to be exercised. fish were tabu as food. or weir. In methods of capturing sea food the native had little to learn from the white man. Those not immediately consumed were put up in the intestines of animals and laid aside very spring the fish made for winter use. trap. this pin was run through a dead minnow. bass. as the and arrow. many Lawrence r. plaice.hich to the food products furnished by the waters of the country may be mentioned the whale. Experience taught the natives when to expect the coming of the fish and the time when they would depart. ocean haddock. Among the Cherokee. where they were left to dry. easily taken from the water. The abundance or scarcity of this food on the utilized season. carried ashore. that on one occasion fish were encountered in such numbers in the Potomac The as to impede landing from his boat. and in the canning industry hundreds of persons are emtribes. turbot.. smelt. testify made of shellfish by the aborigines. and other tribes. sturgeon. When first placed in pos'tion the eggs adhered firmly to the boughs.v. because they were both ends and fastened to a line by the middle. net. sea was treated as royal game on the coast of Vancouver id.

340. and and (2) agricultural. repr. fish were shot. so people now known in official as to drive the fish into shallow or narrow reports as Flatheads— the Salish proper (q. W. Mus. 1860. B.. Indians. Hist. predominantly. for 1891. 190. fish were also Brushwood mats were and most of the Salish of Puget sd. A. single ones were caught n shallow water by any of the above methods. portion of the conwas three-fourths animal food. seeds. (Trans.. R. historic Fishing. the Chinook of Co- In general. Turner in 11th Rep. Margry.. Great supplies of fish were cured by drying in the sun or over fires. pt.. vegetal food. Decouvertes. Soc. Inds. B. Queen Charlotte Ids. and Clark.) found. Va. 81. however. Animal food was obtained from the game of the environment. r. crops. xv.. grown by the majority and wild rice in the area of the upper lakes. 1892. Lewis Jour. so that it is in regions tribes are is where commonly said that the meat eaters exclusively.v. vegetal food also of importance. Carolina. may Ind. animals n. animal food. Food. A name applied to several dif- preparation of food on the woman. food supply. of Mexico is found except case of the turkey and the dog. having a central opening through which forced into a trap. and vice versa. tinent the diet in v. or the gather- ing of self-sown fruits. speared or netted. doubtless are still. of the tribes. where a sort of semi-agricult\ire was practised to some extent. 1901. Am. No strict lines separate these classes. E. A. — Can. while on the other hand. the s. Inst. 1. i-viii. Hist. (j. A. when the northern waters were frozen.. the latter ferent tribes usually owing to the fact that they were accustomed to flatten the heads of their added to the diet substances derived from the vegetal kingdom. holes were cut in the ice. by which many salmon were and. B. PreSmith. children artificially.. ed. See Agriculture.. Lawson. 1889. down flrst Canadian voyageurs because slaves from the coast with deformed heads were among them. In s. of if it ever existed. 1819. 1.5. No pure hunter stage can be the D. pt. like seines. United States the Catawba and Choctaw were sometimes designated by the term Flatheads and the custom extended to nearly all Muskhogean tribes and no aboriginal domestication (q. see Flatheads in the index. tended to restrict the range of other tribes to the places where the supply could be gathered. Can. Nat. 1884. sec. Jesuit Relations. Along the shores of themselves on rocks or staging and speared fish as they rapid streams stationed — never the flattened the head... Boas in 6th Rep. (1) I. E. repr. Hist. v. or (a) the raising of root Consult Adair. 79. For the names of the tribes to which the term has been applied. (2) in Bull. Am.) Flowpahhoultin. Orig. such as the capable of furnishing an adequate 1883. (j. Am. Archseol. Am. the made.' 361. Similarly no purely agricultural stage with exclusively vegetal diet existed. and through these. originating in the harvesting of roots of wild plants. captured. and sometimes the product was finely ground and packed in passed up or stream. Tonika. was that of knocking them on the head with a club.) of in the as well as to the Natchez and the Id. 1878. and the term has been applied to all as a body and Curiously to some of the separate divisions.. Brit. 1896-1901.. Dixon in Bull. E. buffalo. Mus. 6) men that they were so named (Tetes Plates) by During winter. Nelson 18th Rep. After a great run of fish had subsided. Morice in Trans.. Gatschet in Am. Dawson. 21a 169 In shallow rivers low walls were built from one side of the stream to the other. Publ. and the settlement and movements of some tribes depended largely on sisting chiefly of maize. lumbia many of the Vancouver part it was three-fourths vegetal. s. food stuff's are (1) pre-agricultural. the limit of habitat of water animals. Hist. con- 1903. 1888. and Ethnol. Dawson imphcs ii. Anthrop. ThwaiteS Hist. A. xvii. Goddard in Univ. Col.. as the salmon. and British Columbia were addicted to the practice. e. 1904-05.. 1880.) where they were readily taken by the hand or with dipnets.. The areas occupied by the Indians be classed as supplying. which were moved along places. Rau. B. Vegetal roots. Roy. enough. 3. the location or range of animals. E. in 9th Murdoch in Rep. in the n. v. and (b) of cereal products.. pt. There are still indications that from an early period a trade existed betiveen the fishing Indians and those of the interior who gained their livelihood by other means. skins or baskets for future use. Can. i- Lxxiii. while . A small body of Sahsb of Fraser superintendency. Nat.. 1893. 1892. in 1878. In the N. and mixed diet. Probably the most primitive of all methods of fishing. 1894. 1714. Cal. for while the capture animals devolved on the man and Flathead. nuts.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. Aff. 1775. M.

the last-named process boiling.. in othsr localities it The whose was approx- was obtained in crystal form from salt lakes and springs. mountains. it was derived from the willow and the vine. Following maize in order of importance came beans. which is of Mexican origin. often being eaten In numberless cases wild plants have preserved tribes from starvation when culti vated crops failed. which were gi'own in variety. and boiling. In general. ate uncooked meat only when absence of fuel prohibited cooking. as the hver. . causing the diet at different periods of the year to vary in its ratio of animal to vegetal constituents. In some cases salt was made by the evaporation While salt peoples. in order of importance. whos3 name signifies 'eaters of raw flesh'. the former was in general use. meat-eating tribes were. certain parts. varying with the tribes. and in many cases both animal and vegetal substances advanced toward putrefaction were preferred. the meal cakes. The food supply also changed with the seasons. squashes. the deer family. an introduced plant. or parts of plants used as greens. As in Mexico. and the agave were most important elements of the food supply. whereas and flowers of grasses and other plants. as well as sweets. melons and chile. diffusion.170 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. or as a side dish. food especially requires the agency of fire to render it fit for human digestion. nourishing food. as a ruh. tribes Some woodland and depended on deer. and fish were the animals most useful for food. Tuckaho way. some of was tabued by the Onondaga and lye substituted by some of the southern Indians. of of natural were the most valuable. animal food in this may be consumed in a raw state. and immature corn in the ear. and another In some localities clay was eaten. buffalo. W. and ears after the feasting the surplus of roasted Throughout New England and s. is the porcupine of food animal of have been the chief the Montagnais. W.. The Eskimo. Uncultivated products of plant life. The mature was milled raw or parched. flavours. and condi- approaching in variety and methods the art lock and spruce. which the Hurons are said to have soaked in water until it became putrid. Most tribes knew how to prepare savoury and nom-ishing dishes. In the S. pones. duct as are also the yellow flowers of the squash imately vegetarian practised all the methods. A. e. in the S. Contrary to popular belief. of the The n. AU the edible portions of the animal were put to use. Amphibwhile depended on religious customs and habits which modified or regulated the food feature used. pumpkins. Canada sugar was produced by the evaporation of maple sap (see Maple sugar). In general. the roasted fleshy leaves and leaf matrix of the agave were prized as sweet. mesquite beans. the Indians." often being that tribes known diet as "stone of the water of salt springs. when soup was made of it. mammals sustained the Eskimo. 1912 with the tribes of the coast. The absence of milk food. lakes. sweet inner bark of the hemSavours. is still in uss there to flavour and colour food. and other fungi were used eastern Indians. entering into various mushes. by the Alaskans. and saffron. The preparation of maize as food involved almost numberless processes. potatoes.. while the coast river tribes usually made special use of fish and 'other pioducts ious of the waters. when maize reached the edible stage the ears were roasted in pit ovens. W. ments. Vegetal plants also entered into the dietary. cactus and yucca fruits.. it varied according to the food supply. roasting. and commerce in this pro- was widespread. among civilized peoples. grain was dried for future use. which have been adopted by civilized The methods of cooking among the broiling. roots. as seeds. became known throughout the S. The range said to game animals food plants influenced the range of man Vegetal food comprised a vast array of the in America quite as much as the distribution predetermined his which roots and seeds The most important food plant possessed by the Indians was maize which formed and still forms their principal subsistence. were valued by the Indian. either alone or mixed with food or taken in connection with wild potatoes to mitigate the agav?. preferred cooked food. as salmon eggs which were stored in sand. wafers and other soaked in lye The grain was obtained from wood ashes to bread. Pacific tribes made to a remarkable degree of proficiency. and plains. peas. other than the maternal lactation. who was also fond of chewing gum. to a considerable extent limited the natural increase of the population. for food by the "tuckaho bread" was well Among ried the Pueblo Indians cooking is car- known in much use the S. Chile. for flavouring. griping effect of this acrid tuber. etc.

. 1877. roots. The Moki Bread. Narr. H. Com'r of Agr. 456. 21a Proc. at least. 1632. Grand Voy. desert tribes. Schoolcraft. (2) Aboriginal American Zootechny Am. grass seeds. Goddard in Univ. These were often polygonal.. 1900. Tubers were frequently stored in the ground or near the fireplace. Powers in Cont. (2) in Rep. 1834. Coville. Antiq. to granaries Fortification nature. Hough (1) in Am... as Squier has shown. Am. Jan. 1897. Month. 1885.. Payne. Hist. forms the favorite food of S. Infusions of leaves. or oily seeds and nuts. The Millstone. consult Barber. i. Nat. 1892. Sagard-Theodat. forming for use pemmican (q. pt. XVII.. acorns. That war was waged and defensive measures were necessary in prehistoric times is shown by the remains sections of fortifications in on journeys on account of its keeping Fruits were pulped and dried or properties. are the fermented beverages best known. Vegetal food stuffs were preserved by dryand among the less sedentary tribes were or storage. Anthrop. Carr.. 1902. Moqui "three courses of rampires. xii. as at Fort Ancient. consisting of ground parched corn. Fewkcs in Am. preservation. or were until recently. 1878.. 1884-85. as were also maize. Jan. Smith trans. Ohio. Ill. 3. Am. bibliographies under the articles above cited. Smithsonian Rep. America. parched and ground. Nat. New Sweden.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. 376-400. of various herbs were drunk by the Indians as medicine. Barrows.. Cal. Food of Certain American Indians and their Method of Preparing It. 1871. xix.. Hist. Soc. from its perishable character. 1900 Mason (1) Migration and the Food Quest. Pinole. N." one within anbraces Food preparation. There are. 1851-57. and it is doubtful if the process was known in America before the discovery. Jenkins. 1896. Anthrop.. Am. In addition to the reports of the Bm'eau of on the lowlands which are generally supposed to have been built for defensive purposes. v. Publ. Nat. but they could hardly have been effectual unless stockaded. (W. Animal food. descr. 171 remove the horny envelope and was then boiled. mark the sites of palisaded other inclosures forts similar to those of the Iroquois observed by Champlain and Cartier. earthen embankments and inclosures in New York which. xi. Some were strengthened by and had beams running round them near the top.. 1895. 1898. the The simplest defences were furnished to Indians by In the forest regions battles were fought in the shelter of trees. but no stimulating beverage of the character of tea or coffee has been observed. i. Am. and the former know how to preserve it thi'ough the agency of salt. etc. Tribes.. especially chile. A yeast formed by chewing corn has long been known to the Zuni and Hopi. Cabeza de Vaca. and Defence. Dixon in Bull. 1878. Archajol. 1905. 1870. (2) ibid. Pop. gave rise and other storage devices. B. Cushing. making a concentrated food of gi-eat nourishing power in small bulk. besides using condiments. where defensive walls of earth or stone surround a peak or hiUtop or skirt a bluff headland. Ethnol. Indianapolis. Holm. Anthrop. The Pueblos add wood-ash lye to their "paper bread.) strung or tied in bundles for facility of transportation The preservation of etc. 1865.. mesquite beans. Indian Corn and the See also ing. the most common being the so-called hill forts. fruit. forming hominy.).. Palmer (1) in Am. i-vi. x.. the Virginian tribes preserved tubers for winter use in this the mound area of the United States. 155-190. of double or triple stockades.. but at times was preserved by smoking. was often dried or frozen. maize. Ethnobotany of Coahuilla Inds. greens. Nat. i.. and in stony grease. repr. These are of different types. Wokas.. Zuni Breadstuffs. meat.. which was consumed dry or in water as gruel. Sturtevant. reparched and reground. 1871. octagonal... 1899. Nuts were often ground before being stored. as that at Hochelaga which Cartier says was of American Ethnology. A. Jenks in 19th Rep. A Primitive Food of the Klamath Inds. x. as cider from manzanita ber- used by the tribes of California. A. Mus. W. Drinks made from ries. 1900. xii. The 5 Iroquois and other eastern tribes cooked maize with beans. this in turn was often dried. or vegetables. and the legumes. Am. 402. 225. ix and x. and way. and a beverage made from cactus fruit by the Pima and neighbouring tribes of Arizona. E. etc. square. where stones and other missUes were placed ready to be hurled upon besiegers . Indian. There are also circular. The fermentation of corn to make beer was not generally practised.. 1894. other. valued from sheltering rocks. Ind. Sci. Dried meat was sometimes pulverized and mixed with berries. and Ethnol. 1903. IX." and prepare their bread and mushes with meat.

1886. according to Wilkes. 271-274. New One of the polygonal forts in York. 16th Reps. have been observed on Stone mt. The influence led to French missionaries on many of the Indian tribes was marked. B. A term used by early the Abnaki and England frontier. was overlooked by a from which arrows could easily be shot Most of the early figures had a fort of pickets. coast. when in danger of palisades was practically the same. were at one time These defences. whether they inclosed a single house or 50 houses. square. for example. Vancouver (Voy. consult Bancroft. the breastwork here being only 4 or 5 ft. which shows these forts represent as them few places. R. there is one. which are represented in De Bry as single with one opening where the ends overlap.. V. 1910. and covered with brush and earth. 18..I. Stockaded villages were also common as far w.. according to Swanton. situated on the summits of steep. flanked by a great At abatis. Native drawings of some of these defences are given by Mooney (17th Rep. some of the stockades of British Columbia were provided with underground passages as a means of It has been a general custom of the escape. both A few within and outside of the palisade. (C. II.. 1891. Squier and Davis.— Can. Georgia. generally sandy soil. C. 1798) mentions villages on Kupreanof id. and the speedy introduction of other commodities of trade long-continued associations with the Iroquoian tribes in particular. of having a single entrance between overlapping ends of the stockade.E. the in- but the circular form generally prevailed (Willoughby in Am. which were constructed of pickets about 30 ft.A. throwing the earth around the margin to crease the height of the defence. of the forts in s. Brit.. Stone walls which C. outside of which was a deep ditch.E. which projected at the sides so as to overhang the declivity.. above Lillooet. combined dwellings and forts. acof logs cording to consisted placed lengthwise on the ground one above another two overlappings. Yona. as Wisconsin. Jones considered defensive. 1911. De Soto found strongly fortified villages in his passage through the Gulf states and Ar- The fortress at bank of a creek or a gully be ng selected when within reach. to dig a pit or pits in the loose.. French interest. of N. News from America. inhabiting. Mindeleff in 13th and Thomas in 12th Rep. whilst the ditch was crossed by a single log which served as a bridge. Aff.ites ed. loopholes being left at places between the logs. The use of glass beads in barter gave an impetus to the fur trade. roofed over. on the E. however (Underhill. and a similar custom was followed by some of the Haida clans.. 1848. Col. Y. B. French Indians. Mindeleff in 8th Rep. with the Shuswap. Ind. The supply of peltries was increased by furnishing the Indians with firfearms. T. i. 1. B. consisted of a double row of palisades. however. Boas. In some sections a ditch was usually dug. E. and other peaks of n. high. Squier. mt. Wilkes mentions also inelosures 400 ft. No. W. long. and this passage was defended by a well-constructed blockhouse. 1897. iii. No stockades seem to have been used by the Ntlakyapamuk.) band of Upper Lillooet. At the edge of the platform there was usually a sort of parapet of logs placed one upon another. 289. A. built by King Philip in the swamp South Kensington. long thrust deep into the ground. 1590-1634. The influence of the French colonists on the Indians began very early. 1912 The 20 w. 1894. i-Lxxm. E. 1638). 1896-1901. The Skagit tribe. English writers to designate the tribes in the especially their congeners on the New Frencii influence. but also fortresses or fortified houses in use in a into the inclosure. Collectiones Peregi'inationem. 1896.. A. 150 ft. the Montagnais and the Huron in the early days.. According to the same authority. This type. B. Jesuit Relations. Antiq. A...) ****** In addition to the authorities cited. pt. Indians of The construction of these surrounding the Plains. was quite common on the N. New England were square. almost inaccessible rocks and fortified with strong platforms of wood laid upon the most elevated part of the rock. A kansas. being attacked by a superior force. the interior being divided into roofed lodges.. Ancient Monuments. When first seen by the whites most of the villages from Florida to the Potomac were protected with surrounding stockades. Thw. 1851. 1906). hill walls of high. v"!!!.A. Anthrop. bank of Eraser r. as defense of one side only was necessary.. Bry. Fountain.172 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. 244 in 1911. some of these fortifications were The Clallam ft. and divided into compartments for families. which enof the . one comer a gap of the length of one log was left as an entrance. the village of Huhilp. C. pop. Native Races. 1898.

"idyllic.' The French hon jour! from whom they could easily procure rum and brandy. noted by Hewitt. the Virgin Mary).' is The Micmac element civilized in the population of these regions of term for apple wenjoosoon. to use the word of Friederici.' indicative of the it is no wonder that the greatest intermixture between the Indian and the European N. Indian. This state of affairs arose both from the peaceful efforts of the missionaries and from the desire aborigines as of the authorities to use the a is the contribution of Canadian French to the Chinook jargon (q. Least of did they despise the languages of the aborigines. 421. and they also have a more copious lexicon of Caughnawaga and other settlements Lawrence r. To her alliances with the Algonquian tribes of the Great lakes and the region s. 'coat. formerly angalesha. Among early. Another example of French is in with several tribes of the country. Another example. The being. In the Iroquoian languages an example of French influence is seen in Onontio ('Big Mountain').) Malo. than do their brethren on Six Nation res. sition to the sale of liquor to the Indians. France owed in great part her strength on this continent. Chippewa shaganash. but actual toleration . word kapolewian. voyageurs. is represented by the mixed-bloods of Canada and the N.. that the Mo- The existence of a large number of hawk of mixed-bloods able to speak both their own tongue and French was a distinct advantage The I'elations between the French and the Acadian Indians. and later a corresponding French element is to be found in the Algonquian languages of the region beyond Montreal (Chamberl in in Canad. Under the leadership of clergy of New Mgi*. The French are also the subject of many the natural enemies of the Algonquian peoples contributed largely to her overthrow. including New France and Acadia. To salve their feelings the matter was referred to the Sorbonne and the University of Toulouse. the term applied by the Mohawk to the kings of France. appears 'Shishe Tie (i. 1778) contains the succeeded in getting Colbert to prohibit the traffic. of them.). the Rocky mts.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. 'French seeds. Naskapi. and their descendants. while on the other to missionary teaching. 21a 173 abled them to travel with impunity and gave them a superiority over the neighbouring tribes which they were not slow to take advantage of. Pacific cOast etc. 'of (St. caused the reversal of this policy. e. the Abnaki intermixture began very French character impelled the colonists With them the term for mixed-blood to see in the Indian a fellow human malouidit. Montagnais agaleshu.. hence almost from the beginning the French settlers came into and the government of New France more or less sympathetic contact supposed to be derived the word for 'English' a number of these languages: Micmac aglasedoo. etc.. 'flour. the name of Champlain'a successor as governor of Canada.) Malo. They all ruled as while seeming to yield. and Several words of French origin crept very early into the Eastern Algonquian tongues.. with the Chippewa radical suffix -xvaian. 1891). and source of the fathers in most of these mar- The wheat introduced from France was termed maloumenal. who form no small wenutsiminar . is Indian stories from the Atlantic to the Pacific. partly due influence bulwark against the power of the English in North America. Finallj^ a sort in the form hoju! is now the salutation in several Algonquian dialects. There is also a French element in the modern tales and legends of the Indians of the Canadian Northwest and British Columbia. de Laval the France made strenuous oppo- some exaggeration in these old accounts. Cree akaydsiw. side of hand the confederacy of the Iroquois. 'skin. of the Mexican boundary. such as Montagnais. Feb. against the protests of missionaries and the church. the latter declaring it permissible. as pictured by Lescarbot. Indian's pride often sharing in his ceremonies.' In the 17th century the Abnaki called peas riages." though there is doubtl ss to the colonists. Nipissing aganesha.. but the necessities of the political schemes of Frontenac and the fact that the Indians turned to the English and Dutch. In tales of the n. coureurs de bois. and E. From {les) anglais of theoretical prohibition of liquor selling resulted. and IVhcmac. which seems to translate Montmagny. 'Mani' (i.' which is the French capote. e. the former pronouncing against the sale of liquor to the Indians. Trav. Ontario. speak far more rapidly modern terms. were. and won his confidence by respecting his institutions and America. and in some of those of Indians on the^E. Jesus Christ). The Chippewa vocabulary (Carver.' In a Missisauga vocabulary of 1801 appears napaiie. W. partly to the fires camp- of the trappers. v. is the rich records of the missionaries abundantly prove. 'grains of (St. on St. 'French cranberry' The French recognized the and prejudices..

partly round the room. wood. i-lxxiii. The Plains tribes stored their food and other articles in packs made of parfleche and ornamented . and later.. A. (a.. gourd. the hair of elk. Niches in the walls served as shelves or closets. against the partitions that marked a family's space in the communal In the earth lodge and similar habitations stationary couches. for hulling. W. (3) Pioneers of France in the New World. The household meal trolled its furnishing. Mackenzie (Voy. 351. which served as seats day and as beds the walls.174 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AXD FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. but generally the upper one was used for storing the property of the person to whom the compartment belonged. Household utensils. for the character of the habitation con- the fire. The skin animal. a mat of willows stretched upon a low platform its tapering ends raised and fastened to tripods which formed head and fqpt boards. but in n. and the Pueblos employed a similar implement for passing bread in and out of the ovens. metal kettles. The Pueblos tied a bunch of coarse grass near the middle. varying in coarseness. Brit.. ture There was little regular furni- among the Indians. or. and used as cushions to sit on. and the floor four tall posts on which were supported two shelves. was a reed curtain. 1802) to an Athapascan upper village. platters. Utensils varied with the methods of cooking in the different parts of the coimtry. was trimmed to 8^ the bed and served as the mattress. and from the crotch hung one or more smaller crotched sticks directly ove ' and wants were few.'tar vsed for pounding nr-aizc was set at the righ' of the entrance and held firmly in place of the was often served on a mat. eating. for cooking.) were spread as bedding. In the lodges of some tribes. in addition to a masonry bench extendIn n. spoons of horn. and consisted of baskets. ing round o. coast long settees were the deer or its pointed base well into the earthen In every habitation a suspended pole or rack was placed near the fire for the drying of placed facing the dwelling.. In the dwellings corn-growing Plains Indians the wooden mo. Mats of plaited bark or of woven rushes and skins dressed only on one side were spreftd as seats. or bunks. tribes used a wooden spadelike implement to remove the snow from the ground about the entrance of the lodge. hung on a rod fastened across the two front poles. in some cases scrapings from the hide. fire. Some of the household utensUs were ornamented with carving or painting. killed in of an winter. by sinking floor. using the butt end for brushing the hair and the other for sweeping the floor. Among some tribes a bearskin was the seat of honour. Some of the Plains and Rocky Mt. Jesuit Relations. and was set at a sufficient distance from the wall to permit the women to kneel comfortably at their work and face the apartment. Among some tribes a made by to sleep. were arranged against These were made by planting in moccasins or other clothing. which could be rolled up or dropped to give seclusion to the occupant of Another form of bed consisted of the berth. 1896-1901. In aU classes of habi- tations seats were generally arranged along the walls. c. folding a skin about two ropes. and pillows. wooden and pottery vessels. on Salmon r. as in the S. and drinking. The trough was of stone and generally contained three metates. but were all constructed on the general plan of a portable box and adapted to the age of the child. In the pueblos seats were of stone. and ladles.. probably of the Takulli. were usually kept in or near the space belonging to the housewife. In the Pueblo house the mealing trough occupied a corner of the room. and not infrequently were treasured as both shelves were used as beds. hammock. In the California stools were circular in form. as the buffalo bull. of wattled twigs. cracking. Brooms of coarse grass or twigs were used to sweep the floor. was Furniture. les Little children occupied crad- The name given by Friendly Village. which varied in form and ornamentation. gray Spanish moss. they were baskets. on which robes or blankets heirlooms. the long. f. Sometimes bowls of wood or pottery. or pottery. Col. 1912 Consult Parkman (1) Jesuits in North America. The fiurniture of the tipi differed from that used in the communal dwelling. California were of wood and were used only in the men's sleeping lodge. (2) Conspiracy of Pontiac. and other works. on which the bedding was placed. were stuffed with feathers.. serving as hooks for kettles in cooking. Thwaites ed. formerly having skin cases. as home life wag simple hung between posts and used to swing children A crotched stick was thrust slanting into the edge of the fireplace. or were rectangular stools made from a single block of wood. by by night. houses of the N. and the wing of a bird served as a brush to keep the central fireplace tidy. and mealing the grain. boxes. Pillows such as are described above were used. on account of his kind treatment there.

53.. and Wisconsin in particular owe much of their early development to the trader and the mLxed-blood. the Pueblos used wooden receptacles cut from a single stick.. ult'mately ta':'ng pos-:ession f the vast intei'ior of Canada. Canada and the great W.. mented shields. and others have influenced the development of civilization in North America. Hist. In the lodges of the Plains tribes the orna-. The French fur companies of early days. 1896. 1896. The forts and fur-trading stations of these (for Company Sweden.. 1834. and Ethnol. such as Intimate contact the Northwest Company. the RussianAmerican Company. i. Am. Hoffman in 14th Rep. 1895. that the early white trader established himself. and N.. but other routes used by fur traders are still. usually of cottonwood. ser. 1891. Publ.. where there were faUs or rapids in a river. Dorsey in 13th Rep.. whose successors are the free traders on the upper Mackenzie today. The pioneers of the fur trade were the solitary trappers and buyers. 1903. A. Manitoba. Goddard in Univ. J. Cal. and Scotch. se tlements.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. and gave colour and decorative interior of effect to the otherwise plain the native dwelling. saddles. It was often at a portage. 0. The various fur and trading companies established for traffic in the regions and is now transformed into a modern city. of rather empire over a solid white favoured amalgamation and heat and served as a stove for cooking. E. In winter painted or embroidered skins were suspended between the inner circle of posts of the earth lodge and.. The activity of the free trapper and solitary hunter meant about the fire. B. B. 6th Rep. xviii. finally. French. Dorsey (2) in and Voth 1896. Hough in Rep. That the Hudson's Bay Company abandoned its line of forts on the seacoast and went to he Indian hunting grounds. Descr. The fur trade was an important and settlement of North America by the French and the English." Long before his time the profit to be gained in factor in the conquest companies long represented to the Indian tribes man and his civilization. Among the extermination of the Indian where possible. coast elaborately carved boxes w.. of the Great lakes and in the Hudson Bay country exercised a great influence upon the aborigines of by bringing into their habitat a class and frays were made for this purpose. in Field Columb. 1888. W. the Alaska Commercial Company. rather than initiated by. on the N. and various accoutrements were always hung on the posts within the lodge. not out of royal treasuries. A. Am. for preserving feathers until needed. the Hudson's Bay Consult Boas (1) in Rep. and were handed down from one generation to another. Archffiol. E. which the Eskimo the stone lamp was the essential article of the household. E. W. like an arras. B. The method of the great fur companies. the Northwest Company. Kroeber in Bull. bridles. B. trading posts. passage to the South sea were met. with the Indians as the best means of exploiting the country in a material way. Nat. E. W." Lahontan (New Voy. 1703) said: "Canada subsists only upon the trade of skins or furs. pt 3. were long little more to the world than the ''Fur Country. A.) Fur trade. inclosed the space men.. pt 1. Mus. 1899. E. the Hudson's Bay Company. thus introducing a mixed-blood element into the population. Hist. but from presents and articles of barter received from the Indians. adding much to the attractive- ness of this picturesque habitation. Dixon in Bull. who would intermarry with them. A. (a. New two centuries ruler of the major portion of what is now Canada). Mus. Publ. Portages and paths that were first used by the Indian and afterward by the fur trader are now changed to canals and highways. i.. It furnished light had no dreams population. in regions . They blazed the way for canoe trips. f.. the Missouri Fur Company. Mus.. with Indian tribes was thus forced on. while the remote regions o" the N. B. 21a 175 with painted designs. English. and. could best be exploited by the fur companies. At such places afterward sprang up towns whose nufactures were developed by means of the water power. Mus. fur brithe white gades. Am. Mindeleff in 8th Rep. Such lamps.. The proximity of hunting grounds to the settlements beyond the Alleghanies favoured the free hunter and the single trapper. Nat. The Indian village also often became a trading post the fur sippi traffic with distant tribes encouraged adventurers to make their way to the Missis- m and beyond. weapons. An- throp. c. Holm. Minnesota. Nat. Mus. 1902. cost much labour. while the expenses of not a few ambitious attempts to reach Cathay or Cipangu through a N. xvii. cut from steatite or basalt. Nat. W. 1905. and provided with a countersunk lid. A. was due largely to the competition of riva' fuv traders. the American Fur Company. Nelson in 18th Rep. three-fourths of which come from the people that hve around the great lakes.

1912 years. The development of intertriba' commerce among the Plains Indians was much stimulated by the hunt of the buffalo and its material rewards.. The Tsattine. name for a like reason. This is particularly true of the Th Before the advent of the Europeans the fur trade had assumed considerable proportions in movements of the buffa'o (q. and even and other devices. season.) and the gun led to the extermination of the buffalo by Plains Indians and whites. nbt of the animal. and shelter. Mus. The occasional and finally complete disappearance of the buffalo from these regions has weighed heavily upon the Ind an tribes. I believe. Asia existed long before the advent of Europeans. A.x of Bell (Jour. 346. of the I"ar N. is shown in the designation "Hareskins" for one of the Athapascan tribes (Kawchogottine). v. like to Great Bear lake. Thus the Kutenai. 1898) and affected likewise the ceremonies of other tribes. their chief source The of food^ fuel. slavery. At Kotzebue sd. there is still held a summer fair (Nelson in 18th Rep. which is having its due effect on the natives: "The influx of fur traders into the Mackenzie River region." The effect upon the summer travel and pleasure. though the decrease of other large game was often the compelling motive of tribal m'gration. are followed by white men for much altered the character of the northern Indians. extermination of the wild buffalo caused thedis" continuance of the Kiowa sun dance (Mooney in 17th Acoma obtained deerskins from The trade between Ottawa r. Some. Canada are having their effect upon the Indian tribes of that region.173 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. missionaries in the beginning of the 17th cen- In the time of Lewis and Clark the Arikara obtained furs from other tribes and tury. various parts of the continent (Mason. Indians of the s. A. produces a picture. influenced the movements o' Indian tribes. 1894). In the N. B. In the 16th century the Pecos obtained buffalo skins from the Apache and bartered them again with the Zuni. 229. and Hudson bay was well known to the Jesuit of the Navaho. Here. kat proper and the Chilkoot even The Chilnow act as Rep. within the last has. and Atsina have all hunted together on the plains of the Saskatchewan and the upper Missouri. Sarsi. E. another Athapascan tribe. 586-589. and their commerce influenced the conditions of their social institutions. very two w. In certain parts of snares of the continent skins primitive money. certain changes in the status of etc. whose skin was used to make coats and tipis by certain Indians of the Canadian Northwest. lated the aboriginal talent in th production 1903) has noted the advance of the free and use trader on Athabaska r. the grande route from Montreal to the country of lake Superior. and unions for the season of the chase among The people different sto . middlemen in the fur trade between the whites and other Indian tribes. Siksika. 349. Rep. Folk-lore.. The hunt tribes of- of the buffalo led to certain alUances Nat. received their pai'tiy women.. when he draws a beaver. only primitive paths.). of the waterways appearance and disappearance of furbearing animals. v.ks. them with the whites for various and the SkiUoot used to get buffalo skins from tribes on the upper Missom'i to bartered articles. clothing. the existence of a class of nobles. giving rise to a barbarous border civilization. all W. like that of the whaler on the shores of Hudson bay and the rancher and miner on the Peace and other mountain si reams. perhaps. and ake. a few of whi jh may have become permanent. A . their retreat from one part of the country to another. even if they did not improve the morals of the Indians. E. The tribes about the mouth of the Columbia were also middlemen. the buffalo having been to some of them what the bamboo is to the Malay and the palm to the West African. 1899). e. Atlantic region of the coming the fur trade followed st he course of large of the white trader was early noted by Adair eams. The introduction of the horse (q. 74. In several tribes the buffalo dancj was an important ceremony and buffalo chiefs seem to have been e'ected for duty during the hunting The importance of the northern hare. By inducing the natives to trap and hunt the wild animals of the northern portion of the continent on a large scale for the sake of their valuable skins the fur companies stimuin furs The trade Am. too.. between the Eskimo of Alaska and the peoples of extreme n. xvi. the trader not infre- quently married into the tribe and became an agent in modifying aboriginal culture by the introduction of Eui'opean ideas and institutions. were a lasis of value Kutenai. The Iroquois war against the Neutral Nation was due to the growing scarcity of beavers in the Iroquois countr^^ The recent inroads arctic of the whites upon the musk-o. and in some parts the lead ng clans derived much of their power from the control and others. B. making possible. barter off with other Indian tribes. Fur-trading voyages are common in this region. A..

—Swanton. 10. W. Col. Rep. even before the advent of the Russians. Lau Siory of the Trar:per. Indiana counted their wealth in skins. at variou times and places W. Cont.Swanton. Given by Boas (5th Rep. American Fut. Cont. of cape Ball. Gamgamtelatl.— Kane. and other animals were the Queen Charlotte it ids. Swanton. and N. Wark assigned .. pt. Nat.of Houstoninlet. English traders reckoned prices in skins and French traders in "plus" (pelus. Morgan. (q. f. 'strait town where no waves come ashore').. N. Skins of sea tribes of the Gaesigusket {Ga-isiga's-q!eit. from Wark).. shore of a small inlet just N. end of Alaska). shore o^ Alliford Queen Charlotte ids. 1905. 1905. Col. Cont. Haida. 'high A Haida town n. country. during the pioneer occupancy of the Altoge her the fur rade 1 l may 120 people in 9 houses in 1836-41 A se-guang. Yukon. Toward the interior the beaver skin was the ruling unit. R. A-se-quang. in native mythmade insane by land otters. v. and in the potlatch of some tribes the skin preceded the blanket as a unit of value in Gagihetnas-hadai house people'). A Tlingit division which is said to have moved from below the present town of For Simpson. Ga-na'doque. ii. Col. somewhere near the s.Trade o: the Fa. Haida. 1905. A Haida town on the n. Wi 'son. residing pop. which were preferred most other substitutes that were offered by white men. Haida. 278. 277. The Great Company.. Haida. With the Eskimo of the Brit. by the skin of the beaver (Nelson. 0'a'm3'amtElaL.West.EA^^BBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER but of its 177 No.— Swanton. of many made So named because fronted on smooth water. 21a— 12 . otters. and to-day in some parts such unit is the skin of the muskrat. Queen Charlotte ids. (Gdli'nskun.. op. furs During the colonial period were legal tender in some parts of the also coast of Brit. Ind. 502. cit. 473.. Ganadoke. near the site of Toronto. Cont. 1902. the skin of the full-grown land otter. Graham id. {GaiEgA'n kun). A in se guang. s. Brit. Consult Bryc\ Remarkable History of the Hudson's Bay Company.. E. the name given by him. 1904. N. Col. 1911. until the practical extermina- tion of some of these species necessary a — Swanton. be co sid red one of he most impo ant and interesting phases of the intercourse between the Europeans and the North Ameri an Indians..— Swanton. 279. ways moving to and the N. V. of 1676 in Doc.— Doc. (j. Haida. — — 1881. Aff. by the Naikun-kegawai. N. basis of the wealth. 280. e. 1756. Wand. and of late years this has been replaced band of It belonged to the Tadji-lanas. 1905. has been human being who. is said to have been applied to some high land back of the town. 1855 (after Wark. said to Gali'n- Gaiagunkun town Brit. 27.— Boas Gado {Gado'). Cont. Morice. provided in the blankets of the Hudson's Bay Company. Homann Heirs' map..i Col. Tribes Can. app. A by id. 31 in 1911.. side of Lyell id. a socially low branch of the Djahui-skwahladagai. 232). 277. skun. Another town of the same name is said to have stood on the E. Gachigundae {Galc!igu'nda-i fro') 'village al- in s. 280. that is. Mus. 1851.' an island Gaedi {Ga-idi. s. Y. Cont. A Haida town said to have stood on the side of De la Beche inlet. xiii. near the town of Hlkia.) who speak a Cowichan dialect. 489. c. Pacific coast. 1900. Tribes. 1902.. 1905- Galiano Island. Brit. 1900. a Ninstints. —Schoolcraft. A.. up on a on the occupied to it the distribution. 278. Col. Mores- former Iroquois village on the Canadian shore of lake Ontario. the name of a fish). 331. also. 1889) as the name of a subdivision of the Yaku-lanas. Haida. Haida.. 1904. A Haida . Vancouver — Can. British Columbia the word for a quarter of a dollar s khanko ('muskrat').' at a point opposite Hot Springs It id.. Ganadoga. League Iroq. Queen Charlotte ids. 1905. peaux). Moresby id.. A in gens of the Tenaktok.. new to currency. Brit.. 1905. Ganahadi ('people of Ganak. Haida town on bay... occupied by A Ind. beavers.) Gahlinskun point'). E. the unit of value was "one skin". Chittenden. 21a cured skin. 1859 (misprint — Swanton.) A id. The Gagihet (Gagixi't) is a ology. 'land-otter belonged to the Hagilanas of the Ninstints. Cont. Kanada* gerea. E. a Kwakiutl tribe. History of Northern British Co'umbia. A Haida town on Murchison id. E. have stood near Hot Spring id. 1836-41). Col. Hist. a division of the Raven clan of the Haida in Alaska. It is in reality only a house name belonging to that band.. band of the Penelakut (a. N. {G'Egihe't-?ias:had'd'i. Among the Kutenai of s e. 1895.

shore of lake Ontario. Cont.. a third at Chilkat. Ibid. 1875. ix. Denonville (1687) in N. and Assiniboin. KanSch-adi.. Gatga-inans (Gd'tgaina'ns).— Ibid. map. Doc. Col.. or k4chpi. Frontenac (1673) in N. Ordeals. 110 in 1911. Bearskin bay. from having worked in the fapiily s. seems already to have established his reputation as a medicine-man when. Col. Ganneous. Col. of A name given by eady French writers to a part of the Micmac living about Gaspe bay on the gulf of St. 1868. according to one informant. Alcedo. — map. 1755. Ganneious. his own people Wovoka were known to those farther and commonly called by the whites Jack Wilson.A Haida town on the s. Hist. 280. 1755. 1905. Queen Charlotte It is in possession of the A Haida town ids. occupied by the Hlgaiu-lanas family. Hist. Homann Heirs' map. 112.. Ganaraske. Col. Queen Charlotte ids. 1905..— Henry (1808) in Coues. Gandaseteiagon. shore of Lina id. 'drum village'). Ganadatsiagon. 140. N. Brit. Cont. a fourth at Yakutat. Doc. — Fron- Gens. Gaspesies. 117. another at Taku. 183.. village exist- Gandaseteiagon. 112. Gaspesien {Gaspe 'the is from gachepe. New France. Bellin.— Lahontan ii. 1756. Brit. (j. N. Ganatoheskiagon. M known among ('Cutter'). i. he was attacked by a dangerous fever. Haida. nauts and map. — map. cov. Saskatchewan. 494.. —Hennepin. 1703 (common English form). pop. Ganeousse. 1755.178 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AAW FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. Crepy. 230. 1875. Ganeldos. — eov. inf'n. Ganatschekiagon.— Denonville (1687) N. note Charlevoix. Crepy. occupied by^the family Hlgaiu-lanas. New Light.) of a ranchman named Wilson. New DisGaspeslans. of Eagle hills. It is often referred to in the native stories. Bearskin bay. Doc. Gandatsiagon. Geog.. 523.. Ontario. — — — — a part of the in Maskegon. at that time not yet 35 years of age.—Krause. 120. R. 1855 (misprint). 32. (1703) Ghost dance. Ontario. 1698. end of lake Ontario. Gonaraske. ii. about the close of 1888.) Brit. A. Queen Charlotte ids. See Captives.. A Cayuga "Micmacs of Gaspe" in Maria numbered (j. II. (j. coast of Queen Charlotte ids. 183. Ganejou. D^c. about 1670 at the mouth of Trent near the n. — — — Lahontan. e. Hennepin. ix. r. i. Y. mann Heirs' map. branches. Frontenac Die. Gandatskiagon. gon. 1855... Ganciou. Haida. generally Indian.—Swanton. Alcedo. r. from Missouri to or The prophet of the religion beyond the Rockies. endeavoured to draw their trade to the French. Haida. Puandarosque. GandascheklaCol. 1855. Ganeious. While he was ill an ecUpse spread excitement among the Indians. Y. Gannejouts. r. D4c. with the re- .. map. Ontario.. Ibid. Gonejou. Hist. 1885.. 1855. ca. Die. Doc. connected with the messiah doctrine. —Lotter.. Swan- — ton. Lahontan Ganeyont.. of A former Iroquois vi lage on the N. s. — Swanton. Foot Asslniboines. Col. in 1684.—Parkman. A Haida town on the n. Y. the Eskimo and Papinachois. 1904. and may have been living N. 1756. 1829. frequently crossed the gulf Micmac. 1912 and to have separated into several which one settled at Tongas... GannaraskS. ibid. Dgc. map.. was a young Paiute as Gao-haidagai ('inlet people'). Hist. They and made war on In 1884 the tp. — — Gens de the fir tree'). 1735. 1787. — Gens de Pied (French: 'foot people'). in iii. Ganneouse. ^ a fifth at Klawak. la Sapiniere (French: 'people of tenac (1673) in Margry. 7. ac. on the present site w. on Hippa id. (1773). See Clan and Gens. (1697) Margry. Brit. cited in N. Quebec. A former band of Assiniboin in 33 lodges w.. ii. Gauntlet. 233. and spread rapidly among other tribes until it numbered among its adherents all nearly the Indians of the Interior basin. 279. map (1753).. ing about 1670 near Port Hope. Lawrence. map. Du Lhut. Frontenac (1674). New Voy. IX. w. Swanton. Dec. 191. 1756. 279.— Ho(1673) in Margry. — Homann Heirs' map. end. New Voy. i. i. ca. 1905. Y. Wovoka Gasins {Gast'ns. 1897. Ganeroske. — 1756. and. Gaodjaos {Gaodja'os. 233. Ganaxte'di. in Frontenac. EsRapilly. 116. 1698. 101. 1787. A numerous tribe formerly 369. — Ganneious. family Do-gitinai. Ganeraske. on 71 persons. 110. Napanee. Chippewa. 1886. s. what from that of the other Tlinkit Ind. Ganerask€. shore of Lina id. 1777.) the shore of lake Ontario. An Iroquois village that stood r. perhaps 'gambling sticks'). Vaugondy.. 233. which among the Paviotso in Nevada about 1888. of lake Superior and trading with the English on Hudson bay. Geog. Gancydoes. IX.^La Chesnaye vi. They were distinct from the Cree.. Their dialect differs some- Ganax^'di. Cont. Kanach-tedl. 1883.. Col. 1875. Y. — —Shea.' — Vetromile). 1755.'map. —Bellin. M. 1770.. Frontenac (1673) in Margry. Col. 362. New DisBellin.. The name asset inlet and of by which the Haida of the N. A ceremonial religious dance originated quoted by Macauley.

and the name of the subdivision would naturally have been Hlgaiuas in a similar case at Masset. of the expands into the inner bay. Haida. B. Tribes Can. 26. grievances. inferior were the Tees-gitunai and the divisions Sadjugahl-lanas. Brit. A family of the Eagle clan of This family. the prophet Tenskwatawa (q. and the dance social function. aggravated by of 1890-91.) and his brother. Col. Col. Gituns {GitAns. Haida. Brit. where it became known commonly as the Spirit or Ghost dance.). Brit.— Boas. Roy — Soc. 1905. synonym gitinai. God of the Indians. M. Tribes Can.. ibid. now faded out.. The doctrine has exists Wounded Knee. 1905. a later development from the Ghost dance proper. pt. W. 29.. Its prominence at Masset. 273. Two the principal subdivisions gitunai recognized. Cont.. Can. notably true of the Pontiac conspiracy in 1763-64. representing themselves as the long-expected restorers of ancient happiness. It was divided into two principal branches Nayuimshaidagai and Nasagas-haidagai. the revelat'on was to the effect that a new dispensation was close at hand by which the See Dance. who are of low social rank and are distributed among the houses of the Gitins of Skidegate.ITA\nBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER suit that 179 No. Subordinate branches were the Lagalaiguahl-lanas and the — peoples that have been long subjec'ed to alien Gitin-gidjats. Among the Sioux in local 1889. Harrison in Proc... Twelfth Rep. N. the drum is used.. for Eagle clan. only as an occasional Gitins {GitVns). dialectic variant of Gitins) An important family group of the Haida. A E. v. Dakota the excitement.. 1905. Gyitlngits'ats. many the of them that they gave up their town and independent entering different houses of the Gitins as servants. 1898. 21a— 121 . but the family was so prominent that. s. Fifth Rep. 1898.'a-ld'na). Kitans. including even the hypnotic trances. were Mamun- This some messianic prophet.. was such that no further designation was used. it came to be called simply Gitins. v. (j. Both the Quichua of Peru and the Aztec of Mexico as well as more cultured races. where it and the massacre at Dec. This was the subdivision who shall restore his people to a condition of pr'mitive simplicity a d happi- probably as universal as the race. — Swanton. of the mountains. and Trans. Tribes Can. 1890. 125. and many of the ordinary tribal dances have incorporated Ghost-dance features. like that of the Gitins at Skidegate. or deliverer. N. Mythology. men and women together. The belief in the coming of a messiah. (j.— Boas. and take on special emphasis ness. but people of Kloo enslaved so family organization. Gyit'ingyits'ats. sec. living at Masset. 14th Rep. Dec. 24. Queen Charlotte ids. on Shingle bay Queen Charlotte ids. once had a town in connection with the Lana-chaadus. Within a very short time the dance spread to the tribes E.— Boas. See Mooney. In some cases the idea seems to have originated from a myth. Twelfth Rep.. ii recent 1896. important subdivision Gitins is a Cheyenne and Arapaho. R. Queen Charlotte ids. Within the United States nearly every great tribal movement originated in the teaching of Gylt't'ns.W. Cont.) Gitin-gidjats the Gitins'). held hands and moved slowly around in a circle. shortly before the War of 1812. domination. 'servants of Indians would be restored to their inheritance and reunited with their departed friends. ii.— Swanton. Ghost Dance Religion. had elaborate messiah traditions. 15. TV. Haida. and that they must prepare for the event by practising the songs and dance ceremonies which the prophet gave them. of which the first Spanish invaders were quic'c to take advantage. Brit. An In the Crow dance of the Eagle clan of the Haida.. on the inlet. 25. Col. 24. the Haida. Briefly stated. and of the combination organized is and the Undlskadjins-gitunai. Col. Hypnotic trances were a common feature of the dance. by Smohalla.— Boas. — Swanton. 12th Rep. 21a delirious Wovoka became and im- agined that he had been taken into the spirit world and there received a direct revelation frorn the times is the doctrine formulated on Columbia r. {Giiin-gl' djals. The dancers.) by Tecumseh (q. keeping time to songs that were sung without any instrumental accompaniment. Of similar nature in more Gyit'i'ns.. 1895. A town of The principal events in this con- the Yagunstlan-lnagai of the Haida. led to an outbreak in the winter Gitinka-lana shore of Masset (Gi'linq. is human among or family that owned the town of Skidegate. Cont. but .'n general it may safely be assumed that it springs from a natural human longing. 281. 273. N. facing toward the centre. nection were the killing of Sitting Bull. 1898.

— Brit. Haida. After the long Ar ti2 winter comes the trying season of the measure of justice obtainable bj' government is found in the care and protection of the young and the aged. AfF. Col. A bahd of Algonkin occupying a reservation on Golden lake. Mui-doch. The Masset dialect made these ^ot and Giluns. 131. 1904. above Hazelton. 1868. Am. 113. are observed. 2. 5. map. the Among are found the Indians of North America there Eskimo have succeeded in perfecting such apparatus. B. Goch ('wolf'). Quebec. 139 in 1911. 1872. Aff. Brit. Got. t. 145. pt. A on the right bank of 4 m.) Go9siIa ('north people'). 1911. 1887.— Can. glancing over :he snw. A. — notes. method of attachment. speaking the Kwakiutl subdialect. 1880. — Kane. the maintenance of peace. 1905. Swanton. in exogamic phratries or clans of the Haida. the eady assistance rendered to comrades and the unfortunate. the welfare and prosperitj^ of human southern Tlingit to one of the two sides or phratries into which the Tlingit are divided... pt..— Can. Col.— Boas.. 117b. 6th Rep. These differences in Museum for is 1894 well organization are do ermined larg ly by the extent to which the functions of government this device . II. E.. Pop. A Wakashan tribe of Smith inlet. Nelson and Turner in the Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology. activity. 1887. app.. N. respectively. and governments are organized.. writings of Arctic explorers also goggles are 8. Petermanns Mitt. 1902. the recognition of the equality of persons. Soc. 15-35) planes of culture. — Tolmie and Dawson. The name given by the Government is the basis of society. They differ in materials. Brit. Government. In the illustrated. 316. Soc.. A trading station of the the MonGod- tagnais and Nask. workmanship. Ind. pop. 1890. Geog. Got {(rot. all differing widely in degrees of structural complexity. the liberty of judgment Goggles.. The Eskimo and Aleut spend much pains and skill in the manufacture of their goggles. 1912 living Glen-Vowell Band. the preservation of the equivalency of rights. Tribes Can. Ind. Sisintlae.Can. 212. Ind. Lawrence. 226. form. 100 in Consult also Boas. AH northern peoples wear visors of some kind. mercj^ for vengeance in and the substitution of the punishment of Among primitive folk rules of conduct. Inventions relating to the visor and eyeshade. punitive measures. Renfrew co. 1879. 1911. 53. The northern G5tc. Cont. Am. and Komkyutis. Golden Lake. and these are enforced ultimately by corrective But justice is not secured thereby. KwashiUa. In the Report of the National (pp. Alaska. Queen Charlotte Ids. and so some other method whereby causes in contention may be more promptly adjudicated is devised. Kwaw-she-lah. Aff. Guasi'la. Indeed. Col. Aff. 414. W.— Can. and A ctic waters nearly blinds the hunter and fisher. 'eagle'). formulated by common consent or by customs derived from high ancestral usage. everj' one of which is characterized by widely differing forms of government from the simplest family group and village community to the most com- many — plex confederation of highly organized tribes. Brit. many localities the shade and goggles From E. Geog. 70. s.. to the farthest W. and amoui' of foreign ac:ultu ation according to locality and exposure.. — Koot.180 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v.api at mouth of bout r. Goggles or eye shades were rarely worn by the Indians. but it is not enough Ihat the Eskimo should have his eyes shaded.— Scott she-lah. he must have a device through which the eyes look out of narrow slits or small elliptical holes. Dall. Bull. lative A The super- Godbout. Wand. band of Kitksan upper Skeena r.— Swanton. 86 in 1900. in are united. figs. 134b. Tlingit call this phratry Chak. to reduce the amount of funlight penetrating the eye. Khais government is an organic institution formed to secure the establishment of jus. 1870 (the word for petrel here used erroneously). 226. 209.. One of their towns is Waitlas. m. passim. 1904.1879. In this area there are scores of distinct political governments. Rep. A synonym for the term was Gitins. Kwawshela. Aff.. field n(ikh. in N. (j. on the St. Vocabs. pop. pt. — Boas Kwasila. Bonnechere r. low sun which. 1905. 1904. Gua-shll-la. Dawaon.. Quaw1887. 1884. Ontario. Am..— Boas in in Ind. Ind. 28 in 1911...— Boas in Bull. A.. R. Col. — Ouoislllas. the mean'ng of which is uncertain. ice by safeguarding rights and enforcing the performance of duties in accordance with the experience and the established customs and rules of conduct of the governed.) Ouatsinas. 48 in 1901. Ousisillas. 1859. the poplation having been stationary for 20 years. and personal crime. 281^06. In 1904 the Indians there numbered 40. One of the two great Ooasi'la.. mentioned (o. The gentes are Gyigyilkam.

most of the tribes of North America a family councils. clan councils. Tribes. and that the title of the Crown was not unencumbered until the Indian rights had been properly ceded. the eastern Cherokee. 21a correlative special- by the leading council men of of the tribe. for the fundamental unit the social structure are groups of consangu'ne kindred. the clan or gens.HA'S'DBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA 181 SESSIONAL PAPER are discriminated and ization of organs thus No. The known units of the social and political organization of the North American Indians are the family. The confederation of tribes was not usual. the tribe. The can hold a council. of. Governmental * policy. it would seem. The civil chief was not by virtue of his office a military leader. They are considered minors in the eye of the law. The important exceptions being Quebec.. it might be concluded from the case of the California Indians that natural advantages were an impediment rather than an incentive to progress" (Univ. com- posed of the chiefs and subchiefs. basis of the of of government among the Indians North America. The chiefs of the clans and gentes are the tribal chiefs. it may be said in is general that kinship. of whom there were commonly several grades. In tribal society every structural unit has.) council judicial. like the Five CiviHzed military were carefully discriminated from the functions. civil In most tribes the Some ui of the tribes. had followed certain policies with reference to Indiana which did not recognize their right to the soil. Archseol. since then. N. and Ethnol. but on occasions of is great emergencies a grand council held. The clan or gens has the right to hold a council. councils. the right to hold a council. This question of the effect of environment on the activities and development of 1901). If the degree of civilization attained by people depends in any large measure on their habitat. In some regions nature is so niggard of her bounties to man that savagery and barbarism had not devised means to enable their sons to dwell there in organized political communities. as might be. and the administration inaugurated by Sir William Johnson will be found referred to in the article on the Indian Affairs. we notice the first indication of all Government policy of civilization and. if such it may be named. But a thorough comprehension of the Indian nature has led the Canadian Government to of The policy and method . constantly governed Canadian action. and the Seneca The civil government was New York. and whereas the lack of development of the Eskimo on many sides of their nature is reasonably attributable in part to their difficult and limiting environment. and because statesmanship of the needed breadth and astuteness was usually wanting. Cal. and the united ohwachira councils with their officers form the council of the clan or gens. Usually the chiefs were organized in a exercising legislative. The greater portion of the territory now comprising the Dominion ha? been ceded by the Indians to the Crown. the phraty. real or fictitious. B. peoples study. so far as known. So there are councils. terned largely after European ideas. The policy of the several governments* toward the Indians and Among the Iroquois the civil chief in order to go to war had to resign his civil function during his absence on the warpath. Thepolicy as to territorial rights. which recognized that the Indian title was subject to special surrender or treaty. gentile councils. who ohwachira form the tribal council. 81. H. ii. tracing descent of blood through the male or the female line. as does not seem likely. 3. Of these are and the confederation the only units completely organized. have written constitutions pat- lodged in a chosen body of men usually called chiefs. Am. hence here may be found some of the lowest forms of social organization. Kroeber saj^s: "In general rudeness of culture the California Indians are scarcely above the Eskimo. and executive functions in matters pertaining to the weKare of the tribe. New York.. Dept. Besides. and their property is administered for them as such. Hence tribal government remains as the prevailing type of social independent jurisdictions. Publ. The tie of sentiment which has led the Indian to consider the King as his "great father " has also led the Government to adopt a paternal position toward the Indians. the Indians of California inhabit a country naturally as favourable. no. tha fixed aim of all Government administration to Canada has been to render the Indian self-supporting and to gradually win him to complete citfzenship. For close the confederation. and the tribe the confederation. hence the generalizations possible may as yet be applied safely only to those peoples that have been most carefullj' studied. About the year 1830. and that of the Iroquois is the tj^pe example. tribal study and analysis of the social and political organization are wanting. there is the made necessary. where a certain state of Indian aflairs existed at the time of the conquest and British Columbia which. before Confederation. the matrons and head warriors of the ohwachira. ures of only The struct- two or three confederations are known. and confederation respectively exercising sway in separate and However. because the union of several tribes brought together many conflicting interests which could not be adjusted without sacrifices that appeared to overbalance the benefits of permanent confederation. the family can hold a council. is ****** one still requiring much scientific organization in this area. That of the Seneca is confirmed by the legislature of (j.

c. was adopted. The Indians were admitted to be the rightful occupants of the lands. up to the present time. f. these Indians. lib. which ted States usually allowed to the land claimed. other than those of the United States and the colonies. for a time. Denmark. Russia. went upon the war-path and committed serious depredations. The earliest charters. as well nies. 1774). while. Tuscarora MS. It has been deemed not inconsistent with the best interests of the Indians to maintain reservations in which they have special protection. on Grand Sweke-aka. while the method of carrying it into effect by those to whom this duty was entrusted was sometimes unjust. The governor of Canada equipped an army in 1684 mouth'). 1912 their methods of pursuing it were often at variance. i. 583 et seq. The policy itself may have been just. under various pretexts. but they were gradually readmitted and received no permanent punishment for their overt acts. The governments.050 in 1902. In the Riel Rebellion of 1885 certain Indians of North Saskatchewan and Alberta. (a. all agreed in assuming the right of dominion. ***** they established Though the brief rule of the Dutch in New York was marked chiefly by an irregular and vacillating policy in their dealings with their necessarily to a considerable extent curtailed Mcintosh.466 in 1911. Indians were forced to submit to the same fate. the Uni- broken. 8 Wheaton. An incident indicative phase of the policy of the colonies in their dealings with and management of the Indians is that Indian captives were held as slaves in some of the colonies. whose right name was Haaskouan ('Hisf mouth is large').). — Grangula (from French grande gueule. Sweden. E. After the country was pacified. efforts to this of one United States in 1786. influenced by the Half-breeds. In all the con-. 1885 (Tuscarora name). of Mexico are Great Britain. ii. The questions of most importance in the relations of the whites with the Indians were those relating to the title to the soil. The Iroquois living They numbered 3. The sacrediess of obligation entered into between the Indians and the Government has been so fully recognized that there have never been hostilities between the two parties in Canada.. but who was also known as Otreouati. the Canadian Government has made no serious mistake by admitting Indians into full citizenship although many of them may be already quite prepared for that condition. It has thus followed that. whenever the boundaries between the different tribes It were duly recognized. when. tests between the European nations regarding their claims to territory in the forming Indian reservations was adopted from the necessity of bringing tribes under the more complete conplan of trol of the Government and them to to definite limits for the better preservation of order. A. while make no allusion to the most of those of the 17th cen- The same was followed in Canada under both French and English rule. and therefore should not be confused.. * * * make haste slowly in the matter of wholesale or even individual enfranchisement. with right of possession over so much as v. A.. Gatschet. as those to policy Raleigh and Gilbert. but these acts did not arise from any hostility occasioned by the disregard of treaty stipulations.230 in 1884. * ***** of confining restrict as of the colo- The have had control of portions of the territory N. and the ill-advised English policy relative to the Indians of the northern districts prevailed until 1765. France. oppressive. natives. Although each government insisted on the right of dominion in its acquired territory and that of granting the soil. and end were made to some extent in most of the colonies. B. While Spain limited it to the lands actually occupied or in use (Recop. 'big An Onondaga chief. during a period in the history of South Carolina. a more satisfactory and practical method of dealing with the Indians. and it was inaugurated by the industries (see Reservations). based on discovery. and The NetherAlthough the policy adopted by them lands.) Grand River Indians. In 1664 New Netherlands passed under English control. This was a most important step in the process of leading the natives to abandon the hunter stage and to New World the depend for their subsistence on agriculture and rights of the Indians nowhere were allowed to home intervene. de Leyes de los Reynos de las Indias. especially as to their territorial rights.182 DEPARTME^^T OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE it v. the rights of the original inhabitants were in but few instances entirely disregarded. and to some extent by the colonies.. in dealing as tribes. Spain. 4. without regard to the natives. yet the policy of the various governments differed in the extent to which the exercise of this right was conceded. though they were tury call briefly for their Christianization. and aimed especially to them less territory in order that the whites might obtain the use of the residue. Ontario. in their deaUngs with the Indians difTered in some important respects. was the usual policy of the United States with the Indians to treat them * and other governments. 4. a trading post at Albany in 1615 and entered into treaties with the Iroquois that were never was necessary for their use. equitable. and humane. r. did not enjoy their full rights under the treaties. through the efforts of Sir William Johnson. . and dishonest. (Johnson and Graham's lessee Algonquian neighbours.

Gov- elaboration or embelUshment of sculptured or modelled figures or images of ernor de la Barre crossed lake Ontario to offer peace. basketry. representing the Five the realm of the graphic as here defined. The graphic art of the northern tribes. or aesthetic impulse or fancy. some religious. pictorial arts. are considered. which he sought to make conditional on by adding details of men and beasts anatomy. and other tribes with arms and ammunition to fight them. and shell. (6) names and direction. The Sickness troops having prevented the among the expedition. Illinois. other distinctive surfacing. but may be classified as follows: (1) Application of colour by means of brushes and hard or soft points or edges. where small bits of coloured material are The figures are drawn in outline simply. as in pictography and denotive devices. the figure becoming the formal sign of an idea. engraved or painted on rock surfaces. denotive. Graphic the arts With the tribes n. Pacific coast. (6) inlaying. or where semblance to the original is entirely lost. as in weaving. that pictorial. bone. in- tended to excite mirth. and symbolic. recorded. although displaying much rude there vigour. the picture as such has no reason to be perpetuated. Grangula. ivory. as in mosaic. of including personal distinction. or certain inscriptions of somewhat problematical origin. etc. as the result of contact with the whites. (5) textile methods. made to gratify the pictorial (2) trivial. of the native tribes in the pictorial art. enumeration. 21a colour or 183 to crush the Five Nations because they interfered with French trade. determine. or conveyed. standing be expressed. like those of the Micmac. etc. and would continue to treat as enemies French traders who supplied the Miami. which is accomplished by (2) scratching and pecking with hard points. there is a tendency in frequently recurring use to progressive simphfication.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No.. replied defiantly that the Iroquois much progress has been made by some but would trade with English or French as they chose. Shawnee. that in very many cases there must be uncertainty as to the motives prompting these graphic representations. as the and that is. and the significance attached to them.. however. and is especially exemplified in the work of the more advanced peoples. difficult to Grave Creek Moimd tablet and the Davenport tablet (Farquharson). (3) simply decorative. the utensils and the carvings of the tribes of the n. on birch-bark. In recent times. marks senting ownership. and shade and perspective were unknown. When the delineaentirely tions are devoted to the presentation of nonsymbolic ideas merely. Portraiture and landscape belong apparently to much more advanced stages of culture than have been reached by any of the northern tribes. is often other occult concept. repreheraldic. and by developing the form in pulverized pigments. or are filled in with and ceremonial costumes. unless modern alphabets. shows no very significant progress in this kind of specialization. serving to embellish the person or object to which they are applied. The graphic work of the Eskimo has a peculiar interest. and so set as to form the figures. Aboriginally. are found in nearly every section of the country. or however. and this simplification in time reaches a stage where a part takes the place of the whole. Nations. and walls and floors chambers among various tribes. since it seems to have been somewhat recently superposed upon an earlier system in . comes also within Enghsh. beadwork. totemic. the purely aboriginal work. of sacred pricked or cut in the skin. in colour or by engraving. markings. feather- work. such as represent persons and things in a manner so realistic that the semblance of the original is not entirely Graphic delineations may be (1) simply lost. (4) tattooing. horn. and on objects of wood. It is manifest. of expression in graphic art are The methods extremely varied. was light little attempt at effective grouping of the subject save as required in decoration. and embroidery. as in caricature and the grotesque. Similar work was executed by many of the tribes on dressed skins. even where the tribes using them come directly under observation. shows little advance toward the higher phases of the art. thus increasing the the restoration to French merchants of the trade that the Iroquois had diverted to the realism of the representation. The delineation of life forms in decorative and symbolic art is hardly less universal than in simple pictography. engraving. term graphic are practically identical with the is to say. the intro- duction of colouring matter into designs Graphic delineations are most extensively employed by the tribes in pictography examples of which. of Mexico that may be comprehended under the art. for ideas to (5) (4) simply ideographic. (3) indenting and stamping where the surfaces are plastic. as the pottery of the mound builders and Pueblos.

A clan of the Wikeno.s. Kwa-wa-ai-nuk. s. Gu'lga. and more especially with the Athapascan and other Indian tribes skilled in graphic work (Hoffman). but was apparently content to suggest the particular subject of his thought in a striking and forcible though conventional manner. Vancouver id. Guetela.. Kroeber in Am. 5. 1905. W. Phila. Nat. Nelson. Holmes). Kroeber. Kwa-wa-a-nuk. (j. Gunaqa'. Tribes. W. Quilh- cah. Mus. Col. Geog. 228. The clans are Maamtagyila. kiutl tribe.. and Niblack in Rep?. sec. Boas in Petermanns Mitt. Rep. 55. Quauaenoq. J. B. Grosse. 1859. Antiq. Am. Gushing. Soc.. Brit. Usually decorative designs were executed without pattern or copy. Skill in graphic work was highly regarded among many of the tribes. pretends to say what family occupied this town. Ouai-nu. Murdoch.G.A sept of true Kwakiutl which formerly formed one tribe with the Komoyue. 10th Rep. Haida. for example. A. Mus. Guhlga on the lotte {Gu'lga). Gol. — Ibid. iii. 1899. 73. and Kwikoaenok.. (w. Andrew The Indians wick. 1912 which simple geometrical figures predominated. 1872. 1895. Laalaksentaio. but the desirability of portraiture does not seem to have occurred to him.. Mooney). Fewkes. C. r. and Turner in Reps.. W. Tribes Can. They now live a Ft.. Brit.) former Passamaquoddy vilNew Brunslage on the site of St. ('long gravel ba oining Thruston. — Boas — in 6th Rep. N. Among the numerous authorities to be consulted on this topic are Boas. Guau'aenoq.. Can. 1897. Davenport Acad. Col. 330. 330. and others in Memoirs and Bulletins Am. Cont. A Djahuiskwahladagai. Beginnings of Art. 279. Ibid. Holmes. in N.R.. Guau'aenox. Sci. A phratry of the Caughnawaga Iroquois. Boas. Stevenson. Evolution in Art. by such examples as the Thruston tablet (Thruston. shore of Skidegate inlet. i-vi.— Swanton. 67. Hist. Gunakhe.. 130. Tribes Can.— Boas in Nat.—Swanton.— Deans. n. and M.. Swanton. Farquharson in Proc. 1887. 1895. Brit. Mug.. 3i memoirs 1905. shore of Alliford bay. Queen CharAnother name for this lotte ids. and often with remarkable skill. Wand. ii.. The principal village of the Had- Lakweip. Rupert. Kukwakum.Wissler. ii. Mason. 1887. Cont. 1901. and the artist took particular pride in his work. applied to earth- Gue'tEla. (='feIIows of the Kueha'). — Kue'- enware vessels and other objects. the Davenport tablet (Farquharson) and the battle and hunting scenes of the Plains tribes (Mallery. Anthrop. Kane. Mooney. Ind. Acad. Boas 1890. He might have delineated a species of animal with accuracy. were not sketched out but were drawn at once.. E. and with much directness. Matthews. 18771880. however. A legendary Haida town The native artist did not draw directly N. pt. patterns were often cut out of cedar bark and the conventional life forms worked in their handsome blankets and capes were drawn out full size on a pattern board. Gyeksem. Nat. Am. Haida. Hoffman. but kept in view rather the preit the present town of Skidegate. Drury yilkam. and is much more prevalent where these people have been for a long time in contact with the whites. 1895. Summer villages are Hohopa and Kunstamish. Col. — among the Indian tribes in the S. Schoolcraft. app. Mus. Col. B. situated on a branch of upper Stikine Brit. ally successful Guetela ('northern people'). the .. H. Nat. The most intricate patterns. Tales from Hidery. Gunasquamekook the island'). (probably identical with above: 'wo- man's needle case'). Pop. 1897.. map. on Passamaquoddy bay.) 1905. 18941851-57. Moore various Sci. 1895. don.. 1887. Roy. A Kwakiutl tribe hving on The gentes are GyigKwakowenok. various authors in the ethnological and archaeological journals. Ibid. 46 in 1885. Mallery. place (or for one near it) was Skama. A. H. in Jour. just above from natiu-e. inlet. delineating in the con- ventional form common to his tribe. 1895. Dawson in Trans. He might have been able to produce a portrait.. It was occupied by a low social division of the sel-chewing town'). probably 'mus- Haida town on the s. Mus. Boas in Bull. Sqa'ma. and when especi- Ouai-iunough. Rep.. Brit. — — — — became in a sense professional. Dixon. — the engraving of hunt- and exploits of various kinds on objects of ivory and bone — works paralleled Kwauaenoq. x^mut.. and Sisintlae. Nat. Soc. A special feature of the art of the Eskimo ing scenes is Guauaenok. 279.. No native sentation of the idea. 331. where there are now works for refining dog-fish oil. N.— Boas. i A . but separated on account of some quarrel.. Gueyniotiteshesgue ('four tribes'). in a Kwa- — Boas Nat. Coast tribes. Moresby id.184 DEPARTMENT OF MARI^^E AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. Gulhlgildjing {GAllgi'ldjin. Queen Charids... in Rep. Among the N.

. (j.— Boas in Rep. 1980. Mus. Can. Haida. Gwaeskun A {Gwa-iskun.. Cont. Nakomgyilisala Tlatlasikoala. but it has long been abandoned. S.. Cont. Cont. W. 1830.. ' Awaitlala. Gweundus (GweA'ndAs). 1905. 21a settled at by the whites and were Pleasant Point. Hamalakyause. Tenaktak. A former Niska village on Nass field Brit. 1889) as gens of the Koskimo. N. in Gyi'gyilk am. (Gutgune'st nas:- Gyeksemsanatl chiefs').. ('gull').) i. Given by Boas (Fifth Rep. Cont. 270.Boas in Rep. — Gwinwah. r.. Mus. 5. James tribe. field notes. tained from the Haida). — Harrison kill people'). a division of A {G''eg''d'te. Swanton. 329.. GA'nxet Xa'-idAga-i. Gyigyekemae {G'l'g'EqEmae. v. The principal gens in Gunghet-kegawai. — Boas Rep. Brit. 1905. Queen in Proc. sland G'i'g'ilqam. famous native legend. a the Raven the Haida. The remnant lives principally at Skidegate. Soc. W. note. Rep. — Ibid. always wantTsawatenok.. Haida. Walaskwakiutl.. xix. to be distin- Gyekolekoa *((? eg' o'ZgSoa).. 329-331. 1905.) Gunghet-haidagai ('Ninstints people')A part of the Haida living about the s.. 1895.s. Queen Charlotte Ids..HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER were dispossessed finally 185 No. Hist. Col. Cape St. Mus. 1900-01 what from that spoken by the Haida farther N. of the Gyaushk (q. A gens A — a Kwak'utl tribe.. gens of the Chippewa 315. 1880 (proper name of the village. Nat. clan of A Gyegyote Gj'ote'). Mus. 1905. It A 1890.. It is really only a house name belonging to that family. 1885. 1897. Tribes Can. — Gyeksem the ('chiefs'). Haida. 281.— Boas in 6th Rep. (j. Tribes Can.). Gutgunest-nas-hadai had'd'i. Kunqit. s.. Tlatlasikoala. 1872. 'highest 'owl-house people'). A subdivision of low social rank of the Hlgahetgitinai. {G'e'xs-Ems'anaij. Mus.. Gunghet - kegawai (GA'nxet-qe'gawa-i. following tribes Kwakiutl — Ge'xsEtn. Cont. Vetromile. on Queen Charlotte ids. gens or gentes. having the same name. Guetela. 1895. 272. Boas Gye'qsEtn. former Haida fort belonging to the Kadusgo-kegawai of Kloo. and Wiwekae. from the name by which their chief town was generally known.— Swanton. A a division of the Raven clan of the Haida. (name of ancestor). 'chiefs').. 1895. 329. the name of a subdivision of the Yaku-lanas. Gyigyilkam ('those who receive first'). Warren in Minn. Col. Gi-osiik.— Swanton. end of Queen Charlotte ids. 'descendants of subdivision of the Lalauitlela. 331. 'those born in the Ninstints country'). 26. 1895. Goasila. Boas in Rep. Nim- — Swanton. Boas 55. — Dorsey (name obin Am. 1905. Nat.. Narr. tribe. Nakoaktok. 125. Swanton. Me. {Gwai-dalga'-igi\s. R. W. 130. sec* II. 44. Antiq. Gwaidalgaegins that floats along'). 1895. Hahuamis. In the Masset dialect their name is Anghethade. a Kwakiutl tribe. Nat. They were sometimes called also Gunghet-gitinai. the Ninstints country. KunxJt. 274. a Kwakiutl tribe. 1866. Tlauitsis. (j gens of the Tsawatenok.sland'). Nat. 195. 55. R. It was named from the cape near by and is said to have been owned by the Stustas. . in the following Kwakiutl tribes and septs: Wikeno.— Boas 331 1895. 169. — — A in in 6th Rep. 53- 270. probably descended from women who had It is married in gens of the Tlatlasikoala. guished from another and more A gens of the in important division of the same name at Ninstints which belonged to the Eagle clan. 1887 Boas Petermanns Mitt. 328-331. — Swanton.. Hahuamis. Gyi'SyElkam. Their language differs some- Gu'nwa. Haida.— Boas in Rep. Komoyue sept of the true Kwakiutl. N. 1895. Brit. A subdivision of the Eagle clan of the Haida. Koskimo.. to one of the Ninstints or Gunghet group. Coll. Tribes Can. Matilpe. Mus. s. Swanton. 332. 'end of Formerly the northernmost Haida town on Queen Charlotte ids. Wi- wekae sept of the Lekwiltok. Col. Angit Haade. in was near the mountain called Kinggi. a Kwakiutl Nat. v. Haida. and septs: Koskimo. a family of the Eagle clan of the Haida. Gyaushk. 1900-1901. Charlotte Ids. The whites formerly called them Ninstints people. pt.— Dawson.) Gyagyilakya ing to {G' dg' g ilak' a Royal Soc. n Rep Nat. 281.. r. Gwinwah. subdivision of the Stasaos-kegawai. 1895. kish. Mus. Guauaenok. Abnakis. Nat. as the name implies.. belonging. Brit. Col. Ninstance being the name 'of the chief). Koeksotenok. Poole. N. 55.— Tanner.

dwellings. Ethnol. 49-50. as those GyispotuwE'da. 'going through'). A gens of the Hahuamis. at the mouth of Nass r. A side a door.186 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. Nat. 330.. these are constructed by digging a square pit 2 ft. which accommodate 3 or 4 families. Brit. side of Skeena r. a smoke hole. Haida. on Nass r. Mus. 49. and on the eastern Haailakyemae ('tha shamans').. or iglu. N. comparison with that of the southern (Mor. Gyitktsaktl lake shore'). and some other build substantial rectangular houses with sides and ends formed of planks and with the fronts elaborately carved and tribes Haailakyemae. deep. pt. 49. above the surface of the ground and covered with a domeshaped roof of poles or whale ribs. .— Boas Ztschr. village Indians.. were 50 to 100 ft.. Gyitsaek (Gyits'd'eK). N. W.. A Ha'anaLendx. Col. front of the house a totem pole is Directly in placed. 54. Rep. Tribes Can. Kitwinshilk. not. W. the interior was divided into compartments and a smoke hole was left in the roof. 232. Haanatlenok.. — Boas in Petermanns Mitt. The TUngit..^ 49. 'people of the A subdivision of the Kitzilas living in a village on the in s. side of f. — Boas. Col. on Nass r. A gens of Komoyue.. Gyitkadok {GyitHk'' ado'k'). 6th Rep. Nishka division of the Gyispawaduweda clan. of Kitlakdamix. A Tsimshian family living at Kitsalas. 1887. living in the town of Kitwinshilk. with a frame of wood or whalebone. Laqse. living in the nity" in the sense of comprising more than one family) and single. 330. Nat. 5. painted with symbolic figures.. — Boaa in 5th Rep. on the n. Boas in 10th Rep.. 1888. Haai'Jak'Etnae. Mus. Entrance is gained by an underground passageway. house. a subdivision of the Kwakiutl. Tribes Can. 131. Tribes Can. on Skeena r. gan) The typical community houses.. in 10th on Nass r. 1895. Col. 331. W. and . 232. usually of the elm. built of blocks of snow laid in Gyitwulnakyel division of the Niska in the The Kaniagmiut build large Lakyebo clan Hving town Boas 1895. ('the archers'). 1912 Gyilaktsaoks {Gyilaxtsa'oks.. N. poles or whale ribs. f.— Boas in 10th Rep. —Boas in Petermanns Mitt. deep. 54. "The house is architecture of the northern tribes in itself considered.. 1890.— for Boas 1895.—Boas in Rep.. Col.. N... town of Lakkulzap. (Gyitxtsd'xtl. 131. — Boas A Eskimo dwelling spiral courses. in 6th Rep. on Nass r. caUed barabara by the Russians. 'grass people'). on Nass r. Boas. Tribes Can. (using the term "commu- Gyiskabenak A Niska division of the Lakskiyek clan. Col.. 'A Niska division of the Lakskiyek clan living in the town of in Other forms. Mu3. or winter residence.. permanent houses. 1895 (sig. 1889. in the roof is Haaialikyauae {Haai'alik'auae. 1890. Brit. The habitations of the In- dians of Northern America may be classed as 1895. found ainong the Komoyue and Matiipe subdivisions." Tribes Can.. 1888. 5. now in the town of Andeguale. — — Ha'nartlno. W. bark. Ethnol.. A. and four Tsimshian clans.. ibid. 50. 9. are the following: the karmak. Gyitgyigyenik {Gyltgyigye'niB. Col. W. W. N. the sides of which are lined with planks that are carried to the required height above the surface and roofed with boards. Tribes Can. with frame of poles and with sides and triangular roof covered with of the Iroquois tribes.. W. Brit.— Boas in 10th Rep. Brit. Tribes Can. N. Gyispawaduweda One of the in 10th {Gyispawaduw as an outcome of their social condition E'da. 1890.. 1895.— Boas in 10th Rep. 49. Rep. Rep. 1895.) A Niska division of the Lakyebo clan. some community and others Among the Eskimo. Skeena r. 'people of the canoe planks'). Habitations. of little importance but 'bear'). 49. The temporary hunting lodge of the Labrador Eskimo was sometimes constructed entirely of the ribs and Another form of vertebrae of the whale. 6th Rep. N. constructed within 2 or 3 ft.— Boas in Rep. Brit. W. a Kwakiutl tribe. Ha'anatlenoq.. Boas in Nat. 1895. is the hemispherical snow 10th Rep. now living in the town of Lakkulzap.—Boas — W — the Gyisgahast {Gyisg''ahd'st. N. 'the shamans'). 330. Col Boas in Ztschr. Mus. is highly important. Brit. Halalikya'uae. Boas in Rep.. pt. N.. long by 16 to 18 ft. {Gyttwulnaky'e'l). wide. community houses (Gyisk'ab'End'q). 49. 1895.. Tribes Can. Brit. Tribes Can. and a Kitksan division living in the town of Kitzegukla. or family. turfed and earthed over. Brit. A Niska division of the Kanhada clan. Col. for which a pit of the required diameter is dug 5 or 6 ft. gens of the Kwakiutl proper. 54.. Nat. thickly covered with grass. Tribes Can. 1895. N. 1887. La'xse. 1895. W.

32. and also a "cloake of Paris red. Dawson in Trans. in the Nootka and Salish region.. xi. 1874. tending their supposed origin (see Hagi) the family claimed to be the oldest on the islands.. 1905. Hariot. vm. Houses and House-life of the American Aborigines. 1879-80. 6th Rep. 1903. 1887. Life and culture of the Hupa. 120. 1904. 500 in 1870. — Harrison in Proc. Afif.. 230.. Roy. 1880. which would indicate a population of about 150. be- longing to the Raven clan and occupying the "Queen Charlotte town ids. 31. gave this chief 2 small boys to learn the language. Can. Narr. 1905. 480. Geog..— Brit. Surv. pt. Boas in Bull. map. Hatca'ath. A. viii. v. in his third voyage. 1895 (Khina = Haena) Cont. Aytch-arts. town'). Am.. Geol. 385. ii. T. 3. 'people (?) of striped ******** 1905. in local mythology. Lawrence. Sec.) his guard against the machinations of the chiefs of the peoples dwelling around Stadacona and elsewhere on the St. Col. N. 1892....) Khina Haade. There were two subdivisions. Hagonchenda. Roy. New Gold Ids. — Swanton. 131. D and in recent years it havebeen occuj ahui— skwahwas reoccupied Achwiget. Navaho Dellenbaugh. Col. Goddard.) Hagwilget (Tsimshian: chief village of the r. Haida. AfF.: Boas. Nat. A. of to Cartier on his second voyage. Harbour Village. B. formerly lived on or n. R^cit. 1. Lawrence. Holm. s. 268. 39. 1874. Ethnol. — Dawson. Schoolcraft.. gate about 1880. Bref. A. 1889. Skidegate inlet. and Turner for the Eskimo. repr. Soc. who desired to be nearer the traders. i-vi. but it is now represented by only two or three individuals.. 1872.. —Swanton. There are said to have been 13 houses. 6th Rep. Anthrop. E. N. A subdivision of the Haida. Descr. Boas.' 125. No. 1881... Nat.^ Ibid. sec. Yesterday. 1863. AfT. Chachamatses. 1903. 1905. 73. Mindelefif for the Navaho and Pueblos. Rep. E. Vancouver id.. MS. Brit. Formerly some of the Haida houses arc said to have been built on platforms supported by posts.. and and placed Cartier on Ijachaath. 'well dressed'). the var1851-57.— Scott in U. Ind. Xa'ina. Col. houses are sometimes 40 by 100 ft. C. Col. Tribes. Haida. 1881. Manners and Customs N. Hwotsotenne. Inst.— Swanton. or sept of the Lekwiltok. 1902 (Kitksun E.. 1906. Fewkes for the Pueblos: Hoffman for the Menominee and Chippewa.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. (j. 1890.— Morice Tsitsk. and V. was the first land to appear above the waters of the flood... Wa'-Ht-sum. and situated in 1535 no far from the junction of Jacques Cartier r. Mus. in 1540. by the west coast Haida.S. and are occupied by a number of families. Soc.. (j. It Kahk-ah-mah-tsis. Soc. Nelson. 21a 187 These nearby a memorial pole is erected. W.— Can. Dawson in Rep.Can. H'ah'amatses. Am. 1901. Virginia. 563. 119. 1887. An extinct Nootka small belles. N. For this reason Cartier. Bandelier in Hist. H. B. Catlin. W. N. with the St. some of these seen its name from a reef which. Brit. end of A Maude id. Queen Charlotte Haida. Hagi {Xd'gi. Haena. 1841. A. 1890. — — . 212. Tschah. Indians." tribe which S:e Cartier. Can. Dorsey Omaha. of Barkley sd. Cont. R. 43 in 1904. a Kwakiutl name because they were the slaves of the Wiwekae sept.. Ind. Cont. VII. Brit. New Sweden. Jewitt. 1591. in Trans. From the circumstance at- 1904. Roy. Col. A Haida town on or near the largest of the Bolkus ids. — 279. 277. 1869. 37. 165 in 1911. * Hagi-lanas {Xdgi-la'nas. 168b. the people map. MatLegends. ious reports of the B. A-y-charts. 1905. Kakamatsis. Anthrop. which cloake was set with yealow and white buttons of Tinne. 'the great received their ones. The town was occupied by a Ninstints division of the same name. XVII. 2. Boas in Petermanns Mitt pt. vi. Cont. 20b. — .— Boas. Ind. note.. but. the Huldanggats and the Keda-lanas. 1834. (c. Queen CharIt is lotte ids. above ground. Dixon in Bull. 51. 1897. A former Iroquois town. Hagulget. Horetzky. The chief of this town gave a small girl North Americans thews. on Bulkley of Hazelton. of all the by sut^h early navigators as Van- couver were 25 or 30 ft. — — Hagwilget. Ind. 1887. s. iv. access being had by notched logs serving as ladders. Canada on Pac. 5. 103. America. Tribes Can. 67. former Haida town on the e. 1880. Tribes Can..— Henshaw. Pop. various papers of the Archseol.— Can. 55.. Brevis Narratio. The — 3 m. Ha-gwn'-k6t. pt. Murdoch.. Recently they have taken the name of Walitsum. said to pied in very early times by the ladagai. 53 in 1901. said to mean 'striped'). after a comparatively short occupancy. Hrdlicka in Am.. Consult Boas in Proc. probably belonging to the people of Tequenondahi. Brit. De Bry. pop. Haca'ath. also. Ahwilgate. Willoughby in Am. 1906. Aff. A subdivision tribe. Qa'qamatses. 1870. bearing the ancestress derived Raven people upon it. on Hagi id.— Ibid. form) moved to Skide- Hahamatses They ('old mats'). 1905. of Hagi. for the etc. 1849. Morgan.. Queen Charlotte ids. and Trans. Ind. Can. Mus.

. for 1887. the de Santa Margarita. EcquaBrit. as superior to They are genthem by the from part of Prince there.— Boas in Rep. — Boas in Rep. — — which business the vo agers reaped golden harvests. On the ground of physical characteristics the Haida. 5.. Boas in Petermanns Mitt. 1880).. Douglas. v. Mu3. Haqua'mis. After that time scores of vessels from England time they were divided into officially reported. 1887. in the corvette Santiago.— Boas in Rep. According to theu own traditions the oldest Haida towns stood on the e. and by the Presbyterians Nearly all the people at Howkan. in earlier lotte ids. Masset go to the mainland to -work in salmon The Masset people also make many canoes of immense cedars to sell to other coast tribes. painters. Soc.. R. The most mpoi'tant expeditions. Afif. Tlingit. Wau-lit-sah-mosk. sec. Bodega and Maurelle visited them the year after. 1879. map. making it Ha'de in one dialect and Haidaga'i in the other. 189. ii. They and New England resorted to the coast. A station of the Hudson's Bay Company was long established at Masset.. canneries. but the population of 2 of them. A-qua-mish. Ah-knaw-ah-mish. disas- trous to the natives. Several English variants of this word owe their origin to the fact that a suffix usually accompanies it in the native language. Mus.. 331. and Haaialikyauae. Capt. is 1912 Can. Wand. that Ind. Dixon spent more than a month around them. A Kwakiutl tribe hving on Wakeman last sd. Can. but is now no longer remunerative. Capt. Bull. Ensign Juan Perez. Brit. W. Soc. sec.. as usual.. and the end of Prince of Wales Alaska. 'people'). W. Kaso. but in summer all the Indians from this place and have improperly restricted the application of the term to the Queen Charlotte islanders. comprising the By the natives (q. The native and Queen s. They were soon stripped Haida popular Charlotte {Xa'ida. were by Capt. . Ah-wha-mish. and Capt. Nat. Roy. Col.. v. AfT. (Dawson. pt. 1892. a gens of the Tlatlasikoala (q. Col. 1895. 332. prin- Gyeksem. and Tsimshian peoples should be gi'ouped together. is inconsiderable. Ahknow-ah-mish. Although it the of is Wales id. — Dawson in Trans.. 1895. In 1786 La Perouse coasted the shores of the islands. Tlingit. Jos. Waw-lit-sum. 331. Language and social organization indicate stiU closer affinities between the Haida and Tlingit. The Haida. 63 in 1901. Of alt peoples of the N. 1895.N. Etienne Marchand in the French ship Solide.an and Klinkwan. Ind. and between 150 and 200 years ago a still larger section. shore. V. H'ah'uamis. 314. 1859. Vancouver. the Kaigani. by the Church of England at Masset. Col.. and than many white of the tribes farther erally regarded settlers. Nat. Kane.).— Boas in Rep.— Boas.— Can. pop. the Queen Charlotte. He named the n. Mus. the first *No Spaniards reached it before 1774. as those of which there is some record. A-kwa-'amish. — — The advent of whites was. and Tsimshian seem to show greater adaptability to ' to civilization display less religious conservatism s. Nat. 1887. 189. Neighbouring salmon canneries give them work all summer. Hahuamis. 149. Later a portion of the people moved to the w. which furnish employment of their valuable furs. themselves the term may be applied generally to any human being or specifically to one speaking the Haida language. Geo. Aff. Gyigyilkam. and the following year Capt.. 6th Rep. Xa'xamatSES. are three gentes: Nat. 55.. Boas in inish. by Ind. 1884. Mus. Geog. descendants of A subdivision of the Lalauitlela.5.— Can. in N. for the Indians of the Bi-it. id.app. N. Haxua'mis. Queen Charcipally to trade for furs. 189. Ingraham. 1884.. are nominally Christians.— Ibid. name ids. calling the Alaskan Haida. point of the islands Cabo Hahekolatl Hakolatl'). and settled not impossible* that Queen Charlotte ids. drove the Tlingit Mission stations are ma'ntained by the Methodists at Skidegate.). At Skidegate there are works for the extraction of dog-fish oil. and. and canoe and house builders. 228. A. a Kwakiutl tribe. 65. Kaigani (q. of Boston. 130. 65. {Hd'heqolaL.. at Naikun and on the broken coast of Moresby id... 1897. The Kaigani still occupy 3 towns.. and they still earn considerable money by selling carved objects of wood and slate to traders and tourists. 1887. 331. in Can. — Sproat certain account of their discovery in 1774. coast the Haida were the best carvers. and the islands are named from his vessel. Chachua'mis. 364. Tribes Can.. it. and they certainly showed themwar and in the arts. thoy have been rebeen reduced in the last 60 years to one-tenth of their former strength. Alaska. Standing in the tribe depended more on the possession of selves such in .188 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. Am. to the people during much of the year. v.— Ibid.. Am.). 1872. were visited by Spaniards during the 17th century. Some authors Skittagetan family through smallpox and general immorality. 1890. coast.

6. the beliefs of the Ha'da reincarnation held a prominent place. left 272) it gave only 637.. *and Gold Harbour was taken the year after (Ann. Huados. b. Hagi-lanas. a. pop. woman. Masset band. Kaadnaas-hadai. and put together at great feasts called by the whites by the jargon word ^'potlatch" (q. An estimate of the Haida population made. Theoretically each clan was descended from one below. 280). so that considerable interchange of goods took p ace and the people became sharp traders. Hlgagilda-kegawai.' {Gao xa'-ida-ga-i). in 1880 as between 1. out of consideration the people of New Kloo. The morals of the people were. 239. however. Rep.) 1. Skidegate. Kadusgo-kega wai Yaku-lanas. Rep. embracing 1. 'inlet Canoes were to the people of this coast what the horse became to the Plains Indians. v. The dead were placed in mortuary houses. Dj ahui-skwahladagai Hlgaiu-lanas. a. Kuna-lanas. end of Queen Charlotte ids. They were hollowed out of single logs of cedar. According to the census of LSOO there were 391.'els xa'de). Yehlnaas-hadai. a. Teeskun-lnagai. An estimate made for the Canadian Department of Indian Affairs in 1888 (Ann. Hlingwainaas-hadai.328. Houses were built of huge cedar beams and planks which were worked out with adzes and wedges made anciently of stone. 2. aijd they are now (1905) estimated at 300. very loose. Each hous. In 1904. on the Queen Charlotte ids. by John Wark. 317) give. Naikun-kegawai. Rep. The figures for the year following were 593. All of these latter finally settled in the town known to whites as Ninstints. or sometimes in caves. d. Yagunkun-lnagai. but this figure may be somewhat too high. ordinarily had and those living around the southern point of the group are called Gunghet-haidagai (GA'nxet-xd'-idAga-i) from the name of one of the most southerly capes in their territory. however. The entire stock is divided into two "sides" or clans — Raven (Hoya) and Eagle (Got) afterward & single carved pole in the middle of the gable end presented to the beach. a. 372 Kogangas. means 'people of the strait. and Skidegate band. which probably of people *In 1911. Keda-lanas. a. they had suffered a sharp decline to 587. Nakeduts-hadai. when these were first added to the list. (Alaskan branch. however.000.700 and 2. Saguikun-lnagai.593 Queen Charlotte Islanders.. Aoyaku-lnagai. between 1836 and 1841. Skwahladas. and hence came to be called Ninstints people. b. b. Dawson estimated the number Taolnaas-hadai. Petroff in 1880-81 reported 788 Kaigani.735 Kaigani and 6. and were sometimes very large. Shamans were placed after death in small houses bu'lt on prominent points along the shore. a. Skistlainai-hadai. Stasaos-kegawai a. but from that time showed an increase and stood at 734 in 1902. but the figures were evidently exaggerated.HANDBOOK OF INDIANS OF CANADA SESSIONAL PAPER No. Daiyuahl-lanas (or) Kasta-kegawai.. according to Dawson.' The people o Masset inlet and the n. 3. b. 21a 189 property than on ability in war. c. in boxes on carved poles. generally are called by their southern kins- men Gao-haidagai people. Nasto-kegawai. The entire Haida population would thus seem to be about 900. a. In 1894 (Ann. Sels.500. . Hlgahetgu-lanas a.). the entire Haida population was found to be 639. 4. Often the end posts in front were also carved and the whole house front painted.) Raven Aokeawai. Hlielungukn-lnagai. for when a census of Masset. The Alaskan Haida are called Kaigani. Kilstlaidjat-taking-galung. 2. since Dall about the same time estimated their number at 300. as given (The braces indicate that the families grouped thereunder were related. Among each of which into is numerous smaller subdivided and resubdivided local groups. By the Queen Charlotte Islanders they are designated Kete-hade {Q. . gives a total of 8. This. Gunghet-kegawai. Huldanggats.

Dagangasels. In addition there was formerly an immense number of small towns hardly distinguishable from camps. Skidegate. Gweundus. a. Kangguatl-lanas. Klinkwan. and Ninstints. a. Tlduldjitamae. Yagunstlan-lnagai. Huadjinaas-hadai. Kayung. Lana-chaadus. Kloo. Tadji-lanas. Kahligua-haidagai. b. Yaku-gitinai. Sus-haidagai. of this There were two great divisions name. Skedans. Dotuskustl. Widja-gitunai. c. d. b. 1. Eagle Djahul-gitinai. and Yan. c. Kona-kegawai. a. Lanagukunhlin-hadai. Hlielung. Sa-haidagai. a. e. e. and mytliic or semi-mythic towns. Skidaokao. Tigun. c.* Kung. b. c. Gahlinskun. contemporaneously. A. d. c. Dostlan-lnagai. a. 4. a. b. Yaku. Sagui-gitunai. Chaahl-lanas. Otnaas-hadai. [Stagi-lanas. Hotagastlas-hadai. Gitingidjats. 1. Stulnaas-hadai.* Masset. fDo-gitunai. Saki-kegawai. are the following. Nasagas-haidagai. Skahane-hadai. b. the southern one with a sub- Gunghet-kegawai. Haena. Skidegate are now inhabited. the Kaigani towns being marked with an asterisk: Chaal. Kogahl-lanas. Howkan. Nayuuns-haidagai. a. d. a. a. Mamun-gitunai. c. Kas-lanas. e. Yadus. a. Aostlan-lnagai. Sukkwan. Hlielung-stustai. Teesstlan-lnagai. Lgalaiguahl-lanas. a. The known to have been occupied by large bodies of people in comparatively recent times. b. b. Kaiihl-lanas. Sagangusili. Kasaan. Hlgahet-kegawai. Kahlgui-hlgahet-gitinai. Kialdagwuns. Chawagis-stustae. Hlkaonedis.). Djus-hade. d. Kasaan. a. Djahuihlgahet-kegawai. b. 2.* Kayung. Undlskadj ins-git unai. b. Masset. Nekun-stustai. /. Tees-gitunai. Kaiahl-lanas. although not always D j iguaahl-lanas a. a. Koetas. Klinkwan. Heda-haidagai. Neden-hadai. d. Ao-gitunai. Sadjugahl-lanas. Kagials-kegawai. places that had been occupied as towns at some former time. Hlgahet-gitinai. 1. Tohlka-gitunai. Naalgus-hadai. Stustas. Sagua-lanas. Hlielung-keawai. Kweundlas. c.* Kaisun. division called Kaidju-kegawai. a.190 DEPARTMENT OF MARINE AND FISHERIES 2 GEORGE v. Hlimulnaas-hadai. principal towns d. (Gituns I (of M asset). Dadens. c. 1912 Stlenga-lanas. d. Gitins of Skidegate. b.. Kils-haidagai. Nahawas-hadai. Stawas-haidagai a.* Of these only Howkan. Taahl-lanas (clan uncertain). The following . Stasaos-lanas. Nakons-hadai. Kawas. Nakalas-hadai. Naikun. 5. Otkialnaas-hadai. Kiusta. Cumshewa. (KianusiU. Chats-hadai. Salendas. Chets-gitunai. 3. g. Ildjunai-hadai. Skidai-lanas. (on Moresby id. b.

Gaedi. Hlgadun. Anc. in Jour. Dadjingits. Djihuagits. broken by the circle that separated the scalp-lock. Hlakeguns. 1885. Queen Haldah. of the child. was Lanas-lnagai towns). Kogalskun. Gitinkalana. Ind. 332. Koga.' The same style of shaving the head and roaching the hair was common among eastern and western tribes. Djigogiga.* Kasta. Gwaeskun. Kunkia. W. Atanus. subservient nape of the neck. Kadusgo. Hyder. Kunhalas. hair loose The Eskimo wore the The first cutting of the hair was usually religious rites. Dahua. The scalper. during which period the spirit was supposed to linger near. July 19. Huados. Charlotte Ids. Nagus. I860. Djigua.ched and it is mysteriously life and fortune. was believed to be closely connected with a person's life. Gado. With the Eastern or timber tribes. Hlgai. derived from pariki. Skaos. attended with first Among the Kiowa and from the other southern Plains tri