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Engineering Geology

Engineering Geology

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FEATI University Helios St., Sta.

Cruz, Manila SY 2011-2012

Engineering Geology


Laylo, Ma. Kristine S. Plate No. 1 Bachelor of Science in Geodetic Engineering Engineering Geology

Tools of Geologist Page 1/16

Prepared by: Laylo, Ma. Kristine S. Bachelor of Science in Geodetic Engineering

Prepare to: Engr. Bryan Avila Professor

Brunton Compass

A Brunton compass, properly known as the Brunton Pocket Transit, is a type of precision compass made by Brunton, Inc. of Riverton, Wyoming. The instrument was patented in 1894 by a Canadian-born Colorado geologist named David W. Brunton. Unlike most modern compasses, the Brunton Pocket Transit utilizes magnetic induction damping rather than fluid to damp needle oscillation. Although Brunton Inc. makes many other types of magnetic compasses, the Brunton Pocket Transit is a specialized instrument used widely by those needing to make accurate degree and angle measurements in the field. These people are primarily geologists, but archaeologists, environmental engineers, and surveyors also make use of the Brunton's capabilities. The United States Army has adopted the Pocket Transit as the M2 Compass for use by crew-served artillery. The Pocket Transit may be adjusted for declination angle according to one's location on the Earth. It is used to get directional degree measurements (azimuth) through use of the Earth's magnetic field. Holding the compass at waist-height, the user looks down into the mirror and lines up the target, needle, and

Laylo, Ma. Kristine S. Plate No. 1 Bachelor of Science in Geodetic Engineering Engineering Geology

Tools of Geologist Page 3/16

etc. directional measurements are made in reference to the Earth's magnetic field and will thus run into difficulties if in a region of locally abnormal magnetism. As with most traditional compasses. if the user is near an outcrop that contains magnetite or some other iron-bearing material.guide line that is on the mirror. Once all three are lined up and the compass is level. foliation. sedimentary strata. Since they are measured only using a rotating level. Dip is taken by laying the side of the compass perpendicular to the strike measurement and rotating horizontal level until the bubble is stable and the reading has been made. Arguably the most frequent use for the Brunton in the field is the calculation of the strike and dip of geological features (faults. dip measurements are unaffected by magnetic fields. compass readings can be affected anywhere from several inches from the outcrop to tens of yards away (depending on the strength of the magnetic field). . the reading for that azimuth can be made. If properly used and if field conditions allow. additional features of the compass allow users to measure such geological attributes from a distance.). contacts. the strike is measured by leveling (with the bull's eye level) the compass along the plane being measured. If next to the feature. For example.

the angle of each of these axes can be measured with great precision. and have been adapted for specialized purposes in fields like meteorology and rocket launch technology. typically to seconds of arc. A modern theodolite consists of a movable telescope mounted within two perpendicular axes — the horizontal or trunnion axis. 1 Bachelor of Science in Geodetic Engineering Engineering Geology Tools of Geologist Page 5/16 . When the telescope is pointed at a target object. History Laylo. Kristine S.Theodolite A theodolite is a precision instrument for measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical planes. Theodolites are mainly used for surveying applications. and the vertical axis. Plate No. Ma.

The etymology of the word is unknown. or δοῦλος "slave". meaning "evident" or "clear". It was only a matter of time before someone put two measuring devices into a single instrument that could measure both angles simultaneously.Even as late as the 19th century. There is some confusion about the instrument to which the name was originally applied. Some identify the early theodolite as an azimuth instrument only. who made the device in the same year. which was published posthumously by his son. It has been also suggested that -delitus is a variation of the Latin supine deletus.hus the name originally applied only to the azimuth instrument and only later became associated with the altazimuth instrument. or an unattested Neolatin compound combining ὁδός "way" and λιτός "plain". Waldseemüller called his instrument the polimetrum. He also described an instrument that measured both altitude and azimuth. a Rhineland topographer and cartographer. which he called a topographicall instrument . which he published in Strasburg in 1512. Gregorius Reisch showed such an instrument in the appendix of his book Margarita Philosophica.or δολιχός "long". instruments such as the geometric square and various graduated circles (see circumferentor) and semicircles (see graphometer) were used to obtain either vertical or horizontal angle measurements.Prior to the theodolite. The first part of the New Latin theo-delitus might stem from the Greek θεᾶσθαι. "to behold or look attentively upon"or θεῖν "to run". The first occurrence of the word "theodolite" is found in the surveying textbook A geometric practice named Pantometria (1571) by Leonard Digges. Thomas Digges. the plain theodolite. The 1728 Cyclopaedia compares "graphometer" to "halftheodolite". It was described in the appendix by Martin Waldseemüller. the instrument for measuring horizontal angles only was called a simple theodolite and the altazimuth instrument. in the sense of "crossed out". In Digges's book. .but the second part is more puzzling and is often attributed to an unscholarly variation of one of the following Greek words: δῆλος. the name "theodolite" described an instrument for measuring horizontal angles only. while others specify it as an altazimuth instrument.

Kristine S. charts and maps.[3] The first mention of the Laylo. since Foullon's description was of a complete.[3] However. 1 Bachelor of Science in Geodetic Engineering Engineering Geology Tools of Geologist Page 7/16 . Plate No. it must have been invented earlier. published in Paris.Plane Table A plane table (plain table prior to 1830)[1] is a device used in surveying and related disciplines to provide a solid and level surface on which to make field drawings. History The earliest mention of a plane table dates to 1551 in Abel Foullon's "Usage et description de l'holomètre". Ma. fully developed instrument. The early use of the name plain table reflected its simplicity and plainness rather than its flatness.[2] A brief description was also added to the 1591 edition of Digge's Pantometria.

it could be used by those with less education than other instruments. The alidade. A drawing sheet is attached to the surface and an alidade is used to sight objects of interest. also known as Johannes Praetorius. in modern examples of the instrument a rule with a telescopic sight.[4] a Nuremberg mathematician. since it was relatively easy to use. there were those who considered it a substandard instrument compared to such devices as the theodolite. By using the alidade as a surveying level.[2] Its use was widely taught. The plane table became a popular instrument for surveying. Distances to the objects can be measured directly or by the use of stadia marks in the telescope of the alidade. .[1] By allowing the use of graphical methods rather than mathematical calculations.[1] Some have credited Johann Richter. can then be used to construct a line on the drawing that is in the direction of the object of interest. Interestingly. information on the topography of the site can be directly recorded on the drawing as elevations. Use of the Plane Table In use. in 1610[5] with the first plane table. a plane table is set over a point and brought to precise horizontal level.device in English was by Cyprian Lucar in 1590. but this appears to be incorrect.

Ma. Plate No. The method is called "polarized light microscopy" (PLM).Petrographic Microscope A petrographic microscope is a type of optical microscope used in petrology and optical mineralogy to identify rocks and minerals in thin sections. a branch of petrology which focuses on detailed descriptions of rocks. Depending on the grade of observation required. The microscope is used in optical mineralogy and petrography. 1 Bachelor of Science in Geodetic Engineering Engineering Geology Tools of Geologist Page 9/16 . petrological microscopes are derived from conventional brightfield microscopes of similar basic capabilities by: Laylo. Kristine S.

Using one polarizer allows for looking at the slide in plane polarized light. to the light path between objective and eyepiece adding a Phase telescope. often with one in a filter holder beneath the condenser. . and produced with convergent polarized light. The two filters of the petrographic microscope have their polarizing planes oriented perpendicular to one another. It is also possible to remove an eyepiece lens to make a direct observation of the objective lens surface. a "simple polarizing" microscope is easily made by adding inexpensive polarizing filters to a standard biological microscope. However. and a second inserted beneath the head or eyepiece. However. or glass exists between the filters. To observe the interference figure. most crystalline materials and minerals change the polarizing light directions. A particular light pattern on the upper lens surface of the objectives is created as an conoscopic interference pattern characteristic of uniaxial and biaxial minerals. which allows the viewer to see conoscopic interference patterns adding a slot for insertion of wave plates Petrographic microscopes are constructed with optical parts that do not add unwanted polarizing effects due to strained glass. or polarization by reflection in prisms and mirrors. called the analyzer. water. while using two allows for analysis under cross polarized light. also known as a Betrand Lens. These might be sufficient for many non-quantitative purposes.adding a polarizer filter to the light path beneath the sample slide replacing the normal stage with a circular rotating stage (typically graduated with vernier scales for reading orientations to better than 1 degree of arc) adding a second rotatable and removable polarizer filter. all light is blocked. true petrographic microscopes usually include an accessory called a Bertrand lens. When only an isotropic material such as air. which focuses and enlarges the figure. These special parts add to the cost and complexity of the microscope. which allows some of the altered light to pass through the analyzer to the viewer.

1 Bachelor of Science in Geodetic Engineering Engineering Geology Tools of Geologist Page 11/16 . Plate No. Electron Microscope An electron microscope is a type of microscope that uses a particle beam of electrons to illuminate the specimen and produce a magnified image.000. non-confocal light microscopes are limited by diffraction to about 200 nm resolution and useful magnifications below 2000x. Kristine S.000 times shorter than visible light (photons).000x. into the optical train between the polarizers to identify positive and negative birefringence. Electron microscopes (EM) have a greater resolving power than a light-powered optical microscope. quarter-wave mica plate and half-wave mica plate). and in extreme cases. Laylo.In addition to modifications of the microscope's optical system. and can achieve better than 50 pm resolution[1] and magnifications of up to about 10. because electrons have wavelengths about 100. the mineral order when needed. petrographic microscopes allow for the insertion of specially-cut oriented filters of biaxial minerals (named the Quartz Wedge. Ma. whereas ordinary.

Biological specimens typically require to be chemically fixed. In transmission. but different from the glass lenses of an optical microscope that form a magnified image by focusing light on or through the specimen. large molecules. the electron beam is first diffracted by the specimen. The real image thus formed is magnified by a factor ranging from a few hundred to many hundred thousand times. The advantages of electron microscopy over X-ray crystallography are that the specimen need not be a single crystal or even a polycrystalline powder.The electron microscope uses electrostatic and electromagnetic "lenses" to control the electron beam and focus it to form an image. Industrially. the electron microscope is primarily used for quality control and failure analysis in semiconductor device fabrication. and crystals. and then. capable of four-hundred-power magnification. History In 1931. typically about 100 nanometers. metals. Sections of biological specimens. and can be viewed on a detecting screen or recorded using photographic film or plates or with a digital camera. Electron microscopes are used to observe a wide range of biological and inorganic specimens including microorganisms. the German physicist Ernst Ruska and German electrical engineer Max Knoll constructed the prototype electron microscope. the electron microscope “lenses" re-focus the beam into a Fourier-transformed image of the diffraction pattern for the selected area of investigation. the apparatus was a . biopsy samples. organic polymers and similar materials may require special `staining' with heavy atom labels in order to achieve the required image contrast. and also that the Fourier transform reconstruction of the object's magnified structure occurs physically and thus avoids the need for solving the phase problem faced by the X-ray crystallographers after obtaining their X-ray diffraction patterns of a single crystal or polycrystalline powder. dehydrated and embedded in a polymer resin to stabilize them sufficiently to allow ultrathin sectioning. cells. These lenses are analogous to. The major disadvantage of the transmission electron microscope is the need for extremely thin sections of the specimens.

because he wanted to make visible the poliomyelitis virus. obtained the patent for the electron microscope in May 1931. Although contemporary electron microscopes are capable of two million-power magnification. the scientific director of Siemens-Schuckertwerke. and Albert Prebus. and employed Helmut Ruska (Ernst’s brother) to develop applications for the microscope. and Siemens produced the first commercial transmission electron microscope (TEM) in 1939. Manfred von Ardenne pioneered the scanning electron microscope. James Hillier. The first practical electron microscope was constructed in 1938. Family illness compelled the electrical engineer to devise an electrostatic microscope. Ruska built an electron microscope that exceeded the resolution attainable with an optical (lens) microscope. Moreover. the firm financed the work of Ernst Ruska and Bodo von Borries. Two years later. Kristine S.practical application of the principles of electron microscopy. especially with biologic specimens. they remain based upon Ruska’s prototype. Ma. by Eli Franklin Burton and students Cecil Hall. applying concepts described in the Rudenberg patent applications. Applications Semiconductor and data storage • Circuit edit • Defect analysis • Biology and life sciences • • Diagnostic electron microscopy Cryobiology Failure analysis • Protein localization Laylo. as scientific instruments. Also in 1937. Plate No. In 1932. Reinhold Rudenberg. Five years later (1937). at the University of Toronto. in 1933. Ernst Lubcke of Siemens & Halske built and obtained images from a prototype electron microscope. 1 Bachelor of Science in Geodetic Engineering Engineering Geology Tools of Geologist Page 13/16 .

• • • • • Electron tomography Cellular tomography Cryo-electron microscopy Toxicology Biological production and viral load monitoring • Nanoprototyping • Nanometrology • Device testing and characterization Industry • High-resolution imaging • 2D & 3D micro-characterization • Macro sample to nanometer metrology • Particle detection and characterization • Direct beam-writing fabrication • Dynamic materials experiments • Sample preparation • • • • Particle analysis • Pharmaceutical QC • Structural biology • 3D tissue imaging • • Virology Vitrification Research • Forensics Mining (mineral liberation analysis) Chemical/Petrochemical Electron beam-induced deposition • Materials qualification • Materials and sample preparation .

Kristine S. Laylo. The needle must be accurately balanced so that only magnetic torques are exerted on it. Plate No. 1 Bachelor of Science in Geodetic Engineering Engineering Geology Tools of Geologist Page 15/16 .Dip Needle The Dip Needle is a compass pivoted to move in the plane containing the magnetic field vector of the earth. It will then show the angle which the magnetic field makes with the vertical. Ma.

Magnetometer . and the results averaged. with the poles of the needle reversed by remagetization between trials. Some instruments allow the needle and circle to be rotated to allow use as a compass.Some texts suggest that the dip angle be measured twice.

pronounced mag-ne-TOM-e-ter. Laylo. produced either in the laboratory or existing in nature. Canada and Australia classify the more sensitive magnetometers as military technology. Plate No. Ma. Some countries such as the USA. is a scientific instrument used to measure the strength and/or direction of the magnetic field. and control their distribution. 1 Bachelor of Science in Geodetic Engineering Engineering Geology Tools of Geologist Page 17/16 .A magnetometer. Kristine S.

000nT (equator) to 80.The Earth's magnetic field (the magnetosphere) is a Potential Field.001nT). but can detect such metals buried much deeper than a metal detector. where 1 Gauss = 100. while a metal detector's range is unlikely to exceed 2 meters.000nT (poles). which measure magnetic fields. positioning weapons systems. including inhomogeneity of rocks and interaction between charged particles from the Sun and the magnetosphere.000. sensors in anti-locking brakes. heart beat monitors. a magnetometer can detect only magnetic (ferrous) metals. Electrical engineers measure large magnetic fields in Gauss. There is a daily variation of around 30nT at mid latitudes and hundreds at the poles. The most sensitive magnetometers can measure relative field strengths to 1 pT (0. drill guidance systems. 1nT = 1 Amp / meter. See International System of Units. The earth's magnetic field.01nT. The most sensitive absolute instruments (Overhausers) can measure to 0. which is relatively weak. Geomagnetic storms can cause much larger diurnal variations. The terrestrial field varies from around 20. which detect hidden metals by their conductivity. Magnetometers. is measured in nano Tesla (nT). Magnetometers are capable of detecting (large objects like cars at tens of meters.000 nT. It varies both temporally and spatially for various reasons. are distinct from metal detectors.000nT. weather prediction (via solar cycles). The field strengths at the poles of small magnets are of the order of 10. depths of steel pylons. locating hazards for tunnel boring . detecting unexploded ordnance. Uses Magnetometers have a very diverse range of applications from locating submarines and Spanish Galleons. locating toxic waste drums. When used for detecting metals.

magnetometers can be deployed in spacecraft. towed at a distance behind quad bikes (sled or trailer). Kristine S. archaeology. Sub-audio Magnetics (SAM).machines. Induced Polarisation (IP). to radio wave propagation and planetary exploration. Ma. lowered into boreholes (tool. helicopters (stinger and bird). seismic refraction. 1 Bachelor of Science in Geodetic Engineering Engineering Geology Tools of Geologist Page 19/16 . Plate No. Self Potential (SP) and Very Low Frequency (VLF). seismic reflection. electromagnetics (EM). on the ground (backpack). probe or sonde) and towed behind boats (tow fish). Plate Tectonics. Magneto-Tellurics (MT). aeroplanes (fixed wing). Laylo. Mise-a-la-Masse. Resistivity. Magnetometers applied to the study the earth are called geophysical surveys . And there are many more applications. Depending on the application. finding a wide range of mineral deposits and geological structures. hazards in coal mines. Controlled Source Magneto-Tellurics (CSAMT).a term that also embraces a wide range of other geophysical techniques including gravity.


usually phosphor. 1 Bachelor of Science in Geodetic Engineering Engineering Geology Tools of Geologist Page 21/16 . called a scintillator. The scintillation counter was invented in 1944 by Sir Samuel Curranwhilst he was working on the Manhattan Project at the University of California at Berkeley. plastic (usually containing anthracene). or organic liquid (see liquid scintillation counting) that fluoresces when struck by ionizing radiation.Scintillation Counter A scintillation counter measures ionizing radiation. The PMT is attached to an electronic amplifier and other electronic equipment to count and possibly quantify the amplitude of the signals produced by the photomultiplier. consists of a transparent crystal. Ma. Plate No. The sensor. Kristine S. A sensitive photomultiplier tube (PMT) measures the light from the crystal. and it is based on the earlier Laylo.

• Medical imaging • National and homeland security • Border security • Nuclear plant safety .work of Antoine Henri Becquerel. have better intrinsic energy resolution than scintillators. Liquid scintillation counters are an efficient and practical means of quantifying beta radiation. achieve high electron densities as a result of the high atomic numbers of some of the elements of which they are composed. In the case of neutron detectors. However. detectors based on semiconductors. The quantum efficiency of a gamma-ray detector (per unit volume) depends upon the density of electrons in the detector. Scintillation counters are widely used because they can be made inexpensively yet with good quantum efficiency. such as sodium iodide and bismuth germanate. who is generally credited with discovering radioactivity. high efficiency is gained through the use of scintillating materials rich in hydrogen that scatter neutrons efficiently. Applications Scintillation counters can be used to measure radiation in a variety of applications. and are preferred where feasible for gamma-ray spectrometry. and certain scintillating materials. notably hyperpure germanium. whilst working on the phosphorescence of certain uranium salts (in 1896).

in which the principal parts or functions are represented by blocks connected by lines. and process flow diagrams.Block Diagram Block diagram is a diagram of a system.[1] They are heavily used in the engineering world in hardware design. Ma. The block diagram is typically used for a higher level. that show the relationships of the blocks. 1 Bachelor of Science in Geodetic Engineering Engineering Geology Tools of Geologist Page 23/16 . Contrast this with the schematic diagram and layout diagram used in the electrical engineering world. Because block diagrams are a visual Laylo. Kristine S. less detailed description aimed more at understanding the overall concepts and less at understanding the details of implementation. where the schematic diagram shows the details of each electrical component and the layout diagram shows the details of physical construction. electronic design. software design. Plate No.

A Function block diagram is one of five programming languages defined in part 3 of the IEC 61131 (see IEC 61131-3) standard. it is highly formalized (see formal system) with strict rules for how diagrams are to be built. The rules require the logical sequence to go from left to right and top to bottom. Since this is a real. These blocks portray mathematical or logical operations that occur in time sequence. They do not represent the physical entities. . bona fide computer programming language. that perform those operations. such as processors or relays. Each block is therefore a black box. and function outputs to inputs of other functions. it is possible to formalize them into a specialized programmable logic controller (PLC) programming language. function outputs to output variables.language for describing actions in a complex system. Directed lines are used to connect input variables to function inputs.

Kristine S. Bedding planes and structural features such as faults. foliations. 1 Bachelor of Science in Geodetic Engineering Engineering Geology Tools of Geologist Page 25/16 .Geologic Map A geologic map or geological map is a special-purpose map made to show geological features. folds. Isopach maps detail the variations in thickness of stratigraphic units. Ma. Rock units or geologic strata are shown by color or symbols to indicate where they are exposed at the surface. in some discontinuities. Plate No. mixed. or where they are otherwise disturbed. It is not always possible to properly show this when the strata are extremely fractured. Laylo. Stratigraphic contour lines may be used to illustrate the surface of a selected stratum illustrating the subsurface topographic trends of the strata. and lineations are shown with strike and dip or trend and plunge symbols which give these features' three-dimensional orientations.

History The oldest preserved geologic map is the Turin papyrus. made around 1150 BCE for gold deposits in Egypt. The first geologic map of Great Britain was created by William Smith in 1815. .

Topographic Map Laylo. Plate No. Ma. Kristine S. 1 Bachelor of Science in Geodetic Engineering Engineering Geology Tools of Geologist Page 27/16 .

in the vernacular and day to day world. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both natural and man-made features. but historically using a variety of methods.A topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief. these represent elevation on a topographic map. in the technical sense) called "topographic". A contour line is a combination of two line segments that connect but do not intersect. while interested in relief. History . the representation of relief (contours) is popularly held to define the genre. However. "planimetric maps" that do not show elevations. The study or discipline of topography. The Canadian Centre for Topographic Information provides this definition of a topographic map: A topographic map is a detailed and accurate graphic representation of cultural and natural features on the ground. such that even small-scale maps showing relief are commonly (and erroneously. usually using contour lines in modern mapping. they are distinguished from smaller-scale "chorographic maps" that cover large regions. is actually a much broader field of study which takes into account all natural and man made features of terrain. made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map. A topographic map is typically published as a map series. and "thematic maps" that focus on specific topics.

the national map-making function which had been shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879. As they evolved. Ma. Although the project eventually foundered. orienteering.Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements (thus the name and history of the United Kingdom's Ordnance Survey). it left an indexing system that remains in use. As such. 1 Bachelor of Science in Geodetic Engineering Engineering Geology Tools of Geologist Page 29/16 . Laylo. Kristine S. Plate No. topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. where it has remained since. elevation information was of vital importance. mining and other earth-based endeavours. earth sciences and many other geographic disciplines. and recreational uses such as hiking or. in particular. Uses Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture. Excluding boundaries each sheet was 44cm high and (depending on latitude) up to 66 cm wide. which uses highly detailed maps in its standard requirements. In the United States. 1913 saw the beginning of the International Map of the World initiative endeavoring to map all of Earth's significant land areas at 1:1 million scale on about one thousand sheets covering four degrees latitude by six or more degrees latitude.


Kristine S. Ma.Alidade Laylo. 1 Bachelor of Science in Geodetic Engineering Engineering Geology Tools of Geologist Page 31/16 . Plate No.

to draw a line on a plane table in the direction of the object or to measure the angle to the object from some reference point. vertical or in any chosen plane. There may also be a pointer or pointers on the alidade to indicate a position on a scale. the name is applied to complete instruments such as the plane table alidade. for example. Origin The word is Arabic (‫ العهدة‬al-idhâdah. Angles measured can be horizontal. slot or other indicator through which one can view a distant object. brass and other materials. alhidad. and linea fiduciae. particularly those used on graduated circles as on astrolabes. This task can be. The vanes have a hole. were also called diopters. rod or similar component with vanes on either end. Alidades have been made of wood. With modern technology. At one time. The earliest alidades consisted of a bar. alidad) is a device that allows one to sight a distant object and use the line of sight to perform a task. . In Greek and Latin. ivory. "dioptra". where it signifies the same thing. "fiducial line". it is respectively called διοπτρα.An alidade (archaic forms include alhidade. "ruler"). some alidades. The alidade was originally a part of many types of scientific and astronomical instrument.

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