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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab INDEX

Add-on Experiments Sl.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1- AC voltage controller using RLE loads 10 PSPICE Simulation of Resonant pulse commutation circuit and Buck chopper EXPERIMENT NAME 1- Dual converter with R & RL loads. PSPICE Simulation of single phase Inverter with PWM control Forced commutation circuits of SCR 1- Cyclo converter with R & RL loads 41 EXPERIMENT NAME Characteristics of SCR, BJT and MOSFET GATE firing circuits of SCR 1- AC voltage controller with R & RL loads 1- Fully controlled bridge Converter with R & RL loads DC JONES chopper 1- Parallel inverter with R & RL loads 1- Half-controlled Converter with R & RL loads 1- Series inverter with R & RL loads PSPICE Simulation of 1- Full converter using RLE loads and 35 Page No. 2 11 15 18 22 25 28 32

Sl.No. 11 12 13 14

Page No. 48 52 56 66

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1. CHARACTERISTICS OF SCR , BJT and MOSFET


(a) STATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SCR AIM : To plot the characteristics of SCR and to find the forward resistance holding current and latching current. APPARATUS : 1) 2) 3) 4) CHARACTERISTICS STUDY UNIT 0-50V DC voltmeter 0-500mA DC ammeter 0-25mA DC Ammeter

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE : 1) Make the connections as per the circuit diagram 2) Now switch on the supply and initially keep v1 and v2 at minimum 3) Set load potentiometer R1 in the minimum position.

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4) Adjust Ig1 to some value say 10mA by varying V 2 or gate current potentiometer

R2 vary V1 and note down VAK and IA READINGS. 5) Further vary V1 till SCR conducts, this can be noted by sudden drop of V AK and IA readings. 6) Draw the graph VAK vs IA . 7) Repeat the same procedure for different gate currents. MODEL GRAPH:

TO FIND LATCHING CURRENT AND HOLDING CURRENT :


1) Apply about 20V between anode and cathode by varying V1. 2) Keep the load potentiometer R1 in minimum position.

3) The device must be in the OFF state with gate open. 4) Gradually increase gate voltage V2 till the device turns ON. This is the minimum gate current required to turn ON the device. 5) Adjust the gate voltage to a slightly higher value and set the load potentiometer at the maximum resistance position, the device should come to OFF state. 6) The gate voltage should be kept constant in this experiment. 7) By varying R1, gradually increase anode current IA in steps. 8) Open and close the gate voltage V2 switch after each switch. 9) If the anode current is greater than the latching current of device, the device stays ON even after the gate switch is opened otherwise the device goes in to blocking mode as soon as the gate switch is opened. 10) Note down the latching current.
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11)Increase the anode current from the latching current level by load pot R1 or V1. 12)Open the gate switch permanently, the thyristors must be carefully ON. 13)Now start reducing the anode current gradually by adjusting R1. 14)If the thyristor does not turns OFF even after the R1 at maximum position then reduce

V1. 15) Observe when the device goes to blocking mode. 16) The anode current at this instant is holding current of the devices. 17)Repeat the steps again to get the holding current IH. TABULAR FORM : S.NO. VBO1= , IG1= VAK (V) IA (A) VBO2= , IG2= VAK (V) IA (A)

RESULT :

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(b) CHARACTERISTICS OF IGBT AIM : To plot the input and transfer characteristics of an IGBT to find ON state resistance and the transfer conductance. APPARATUS : 1) IGBT 1RG BC 20S 2) Resistors 10K/25w, 75/25W 3) DC voltmeter 0-50V 4) DC voltmeter 0-15V 5) DC ammeter 0-500mA THEORY : It is a new development in the area of power MOSFET technology. This device combines in to advantages of both MOSFET and BJT. So an IGBT has high input impedance like as MOSFET and low ON state power like BJT. Further IGBT is free from second breakdown problem present in BJT. IGBT is also known as metal oxide insulated gate transistor. It was also called as insulated gate transistor. The static characteristics or output characteristics of IGBT shows plot of collector current IC vs collector emitter voltage VCE for various values of gate emitter voltage. In the forward direction the shape of output characteristics is similar to that of BJT and have the controlling parameter is gate-emitter voltage VGE because IGBT is a voltage controlled device. The device developed by combining the areas of field effect concept and technology. CIRCUIT DAIGARAM:

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PROCEDURE : TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS : 1) Make connections as per the circuit diagram. 2) Initially keep V1 and V2 minimum and set V1 ( VCE1) = 10V. 3) Slowly vary V2 i.e., VGE and note down IC and VGE reading for every 1V. 4) Repeat the same procedure for different values of VCE and draw the graph VGE vs. IC . COLLECTOR CHARACTERISTICS :
1) Initially set V2 i.e., VGE to 5V. Slowly vary V1 and note down IC and VCE . 2) For a particular value of VGE1 there is a pinch off voltage VP between collector and

emitter. 3) Repeat the same for different values of VGE and draw the graph between VCE vs IC

MODEL GRAPH:

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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab TABULAR FORM :

S.NO VCE1= VGE (V) IC (mA)

VCE2= VGE (V) IC (mA)

S.NO VGE1= VCE (V) IC (mA)

VGE2= VCE (V) IC (mA)

RESULT :

(c) CHARACTERISTICS OF MOSFET


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AIM: To plot the input and transfer characteristics of a MOSFET to find ON state resistance and the transfer conductance. APPARATUS: 1) MOSFET IRF 740 2) Resistors 10K/25w, 75/25W, 4K/25W 3) DC voltmeter 0-50V 4) DC voltmeter 0-15V 5) DC ammeter 0-500mA THEORY: A metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor is a recent device developed by combining the areas of field effect concept and technology. The transfer characteristics of MOSFET shows the variation of drain current ID as a fuction of gate source voltage VGS. The device is in OFF state upto some voltage called threshold device voltage. The output characteristics of Power MOSFET indicate the variation of Drain current ID as a function of Drain source voltage VDS as a parameter. This device combines into advantages of IGBT and BJT. So this device has high impedence and low ON state power like BJT. It is a new development in the ared of power MOSFET technology. All the devices are mounted on proper heat sink. Each device is protected by snubber circuit. PROCEDURE: TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS: 1) Make connections as per the circuit diagram. 2) Initially keep V1 and V2 minimum and set V1 ( VDS1)= 10V. 3) Slowly vary V2 i.e., VGS and note down ID and VGS reading for every 1V. 4) Repeat the same procedure for different values of VDS and draw the graph V GS vs ID . COLLECTOR CHARACTERISTICS:
1) Initially set V2 i.e., VGS to 3.5V. 2) Slowly vary V1 and note down ID and VDS . 3) For a particular value of VGS1 there is a pinch off voltage VP between drain and

source.

4) Repeat the same for different values of VGS and draw the graph between VDS vs ID

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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab CIRCUIT DAIGRAM:

MODEL GRAPH:

TABULARFORM:
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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS :

S.NO VDS1= VGS (V) ID (mA)

VDS2= VGS (V) ID (mA)

DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS: S.NO VGS1= VDS (V) ID (mA) VGS2= VDS (V) ID (mA)

RESULT :

2. GATE FIRING CIRCUITS OF SCR


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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab AIM: To study and compare resistance firing circuit with the resistance-capacitance firing circuits. APPARATUS: 1) Control HWR and FWR using resistance circuits. 2) Rheostat 50/2A 3) CRO 4) connecting wires THEORY: The most common method for controlling the onset of conduction in an SCR is by means of gate voltage control. The gate control circuit is also called as firing or triggering circuits. These gating circuits are usually low power electronic circuits. The firing circuit should fulfill the functions. An SCR can be switched from OFF state to ON state in several ways. These are forward voltage triggering, dv/dt triggering, light triggering is used in some applications particularly in a series connected string gate triggering is the most common method of turning ON the SCR at desired instant of time. PROCEDURE: R-TRIGGERING: 1) Make connections as per the circuit diagram. 2) Connect the rheostat of 50/2A between the load points. 3) Vary the control pot and observe the voltage waveform across the load, SCR and different points of circuits. 4) We can vary the firing angle from 0 to 90 degrees only in R-triggering. In this synchronized firing angle can be obtained easily and economically in the halfcycle of the supply. 5) But there is a drawback that firing angle can controlled at the most at 900 since the gate current is in phase with the applied voltage. 6) A resistance is connected in series with the control pot so that the gate current does not cross the maximum possible value IG max. 7) Draw the waveform across the load and device for different values of firing angles.

RC-TRIGGERING: 1) Connect a capacitor to R-triggering circuit to realize RC triggering.


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2) Repeat the above procedure and draw the waveforms across the load and device

for different values of firing angles.. CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:

MODEL

GRAPH:

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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab CALCULATIONS: Average output voltage: VO = Vm2Vmsint dt = Vm2 (1+COS) VRMS= 12 Vm2sin2t dt ] TABULAR FORM: R-FIRING: S.NO Firing angle PRACTICAL VM( V) VAVG(V) VRMS(V) THEORITICAL VM( V) VAVG(V) VRMS(V)

RC-FIRING: S.NO Firing angle PRACTICAL VM( V) VAVG(V) VRMS(V) THEORITICAL VM( V) VAVG(V) VRMS(V)

RESULT:

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3. SINGLE PHASE A.C. VOLTAGE CONTROLLER


AIM: To observe the output wave forms of 1-phase A.C. voltage controller with R and RL loads using SCRs. APPARATUS: 1) SCR(tyn612)-2 2) Rheostat 50/2A 3) Inductor 50Mh 4) Cathode ray oscilloscope 5) Connecting wires THEORY: By connecting the reverse parallel pair of SCRs or TRIAC between AC supply and load the voltage applied to load can be controlled. This type of power controller or regulator. Some of the main applications of AC voltage regulator are for domestic and industrial heating. Transformer tap changing, lightening, speed control of 1-phase and 3-phase AC drives and starting of induction motors earlier. The devices used for applications are Auto transformers, tap t/f, magnetic amps, saturable and triac based controller because of their high efficiency flexibility in control. Compact size and less maintaince. A.C.voltage controllers are also closed loop control systems. PROCEDURE: 1) Switch on the main supply of the firing circuit and observe trigger outputs by varying the firing angle. 2) Make sure that firing pulses are proper before connecting to the power circuit. 3) Make the connections as connect the trigger pulses from firing circuit to corresponding SCR TRIAC in power circuit 4) Connect the A.C. supply to power through step down transformer. 5) Connect the load of 50/2a rheostat.

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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab 6) Switch on the step down t/f supply and trigger outputs and observe the waveforms in the CRO. 7) Note down the o/p voltage, firing angle, I/p voltage.

Tabular Forms:
S.no Firing angle () Practical Vavg(v) R-load theoretical Vavg(v) RL- load

Vrms(V) R-load

Vrms(v) RL- load

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

MODEL GRAPHS:

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Result:

VIVA QUESTIONS : 1) What is the specialty of an AC voltage controller? 2) What is the device which can replace the AC voltage controller? 3) What type of commutation is employed in this circuit?

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4. 1- FULLY CONTROLLED BRIDGE CONVERTER WITH R AND RL LOADS


AIM: To study single phase fully controlled bridge converter with R and RL loads. APPARATUS : 1) 1-ph converter firing circuit 2) 1-ph fully controlled power circuit 3) Rheostat- 50/2A 4) Inductor-50mH 5) Power scope 6) CRO THEORY: A 1-ph full bridge converter using four SCRs is shown in figure. The load is assumed to be R and RL. Thyristor pair T1 and T2 is simultaneously triggered and radians after pair T3 and T4 is gated together. During the positive half cycle SCRs T1 and T1I are forward biased and when there two thyristors are fired simultaneously at wt = , the load is connected to the input through T 1 and T1I. In this case of inductive loads during the period <wt < + the input voltage is negative and freewheeling diode Dm is forward biased. Dm conducts to provide the conductivity of current in the inductive load. The load current is transferred from T1 and T1I to DM and thyristors T1 and T1I are turned off due to line or natural commutation. During the negative half cycle of the input voltage thyristors T2 and TI2 are forward biased. The firing of thyristors T2 and T2I simultaneously at wt = + will reverse bias DM. the diode DM is turned off and the load is connected to the supply through T2 and T2I . PROCEDURE: 1) Make the connections as shown in figure 2) Apply triggering pulse to SCR T1 , T1I , T2 , T2I 3) Now vary the firing angle and note down the readings of the output voltage. 4) Observe the fully controlled waveform in CRO 5) Perform the same operations with RL loads and with freewheeling diode with RL load 6) Avoid using two CRO probes as there is a problem of short circuit.
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PRECAUTIONS : 1) Avoid loose connections 2) While turning on first turn on the converter and then turn on the firing circuit. 3) While turning off first remove the firing the pulses and then turn off the converter.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS

1 full converter with RL Load & free wheeling Diode.


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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab

MODEL GRAPHS:

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TABULAR FORM : R-LOAD Sl No. Firing Angle () Output Voltage R-Load Practical VDC (V) VRMS (V) Output Voltage R-Load Theoretical VDC VRMS (V) (V) Output Current Iac(A)

RL-LOAD Sl.No. Firing Angle() Output Voltage RL Load Practical VDC (V) VRMS (V) Output Voltage RL Load Theoretical VDC VRMS (V) (V) Output Current Iac(A)

CALCULATIONS: AVERAGE OUTPUT VOLATGE VO = 1 VmSint dt = Vm 1+cos VRMS =[ 1Vm2sin2 t dt]2 Average load current IDC = 2Vm (1+cos)

RESULT:

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1) 2) 3) 4) What type of commutation is employed in this circuit? Is second quadrant operation possible with R-load? For what firing angle in RL load the average output voltage is zero? The average output power is purely reactive from what firing angle?

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5) The output voltage waveform for R-load and RL-load with freewheeling diode are

similar. Why?

AIM :

5. DC JONES CHOPPER

To rig up DC Jones chopper and to control output average DC voltage both at constant frequency and variable frequency and at different firing cycles. APPARATUS: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) DC chopper power circuit DC chopper firing circuit DC regulated power supply 0-30V/2A Rheostat 50/2A Cathode ray oscilloscope

THEORY: In many industrial applications, it is required to connect a fixed voltage DC source into a variable voltage DC source. A DC chopper converts directly from fixed DC to variable DC and is also known as DC to DC converter. A chopper can be considered as DC equivalent to an AC transformer with a continuously variable turns ratio. Like a transformer, it could be used to step down or step up a DC voltage source. Choppers are widely used for traction motor control in electric automobiles, trolley cars, marine hoists, forklift trucks and mine haulers. They provide smooth acceleration control, high efficiency and fast dynamic response. Chopper can be used in regenerative braking of DC motors to return energy back to the supply and this feature results in energy savings for transportation systems with frequent stops. Chopper can also be in DC voltage regulators. The Jones chopper is another example of class-D commutation in which a charged capacitor is switched by an auxiliary SCR to commutate the main SCR. PROCEDURE: 1) Switch on the DC chopper firing circuit. 2) Observe the point signals and trigger output signals by carrying duty cycle and frequency potentiometer. 3) Make sure that trigger outputs are proper before connecting to the power circuit. 4) Now, make the interconnections as per the circuit diagram. 5) Connect the DC supply from the variable DC source. 6) Initially set input DC supply to 10V. 7) Connect respective trigger outputs from the firing circuit to the respective SCRs in the power circuit. 8) Initially keep firing circuit in OFF position. 9) Switch on the DC supply and now supply main SCR trigger pulses. 10) Observe the voltage waveform across load.
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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab 11) If commutation fails we can see only the DC voltage, in that case switch off the DC supply, switch off the pulses and check the connections and try again. 12) Observe the voltage across the load, across capacitor, across main SCR and auxiliary SCR by varying duty-cycle and frequency. 13)Now vary the DC supply upto 30V. 14) Draw the waveforms at different duty cycle and at different frequencies. 15) Connect voltmeter and ammeter and note down the values. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

MODELGRAPHS:

CALCULATIONS:
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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab

DUTY CYCLE, = TonT Total time period T = TON + TOFF Output voltage VO = VIN volts TABULAR FORM: s.no Capacitor VIN (V) voltage Input VC (V) voltage TON (ms) ON time TOFF (ms) OFF time

ms

Duty cycle ( )

Output voltage (V) Frequenc Practical Theoretical y (KHz) VO (V) VO (V)

RESULT:

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1) 2) 3) 4) What is chopper? What type of commutation is employed in Jones chopper? Is the commutation Voltage or current? Mention any applications of choppers.

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6. 1- PARALLEL INVERTER
AIM: To study the performance of center tapped transformer type parallel inverter at different frequencies. APPARATUS: 1) Parallel inverter 2) DC regulated power supply 3) Rheostat 50/2A 4) Cathode ray oscilloscope 5) Connecting wires THEORY: This circuit is a typical class-C parallel inverter. Assume TN to be in ON and TP to be in OFF state. The lower end of commutating capacitor is charged to twice the supply voltage and remains at the value until TP is turned ON. When TP is turned ON, the current flows through the lower end of primary TP and commutating inductance L . Since the voltage across c cant be instantaneous the common SCR cathode raises approximately to 2V DC and reverse bias TN. Thus TN turns OFF and C discharge through L and supply and then recharges in reverse direction. The auto transformation makes C to charge making now its upper point to reach +2V DC ready to commutate TP when TN is ON. The major purpose of commutation inductance L is to limit the commutation capacitance charging current during switching. Freewheeling diodes DP and DN assist the inverter in handling the wide range of loads and value of C may be reduced since the capacitor now does not have to carry the reactive current. To dampen the feedback diode currents with in the half period feedback diodes are connected to tapings of transformer of 25V tapping. PROCEDURE:
1) Switch on the firing circuit and observe the trigger output T P and TN by varying

2)
3)

4)
5) 6)

7)

potentiometer and by operating ON/OFF switch. Connect DC power supply to power circuit. Connect trigger output to gate cathode by SCR TP and TN. Make the connections as in circuit diagram including Freewheeling diodes. Set input voltage to 15V and aplly trigger pulses to SCR and observe voltage waveform across load. Remove freewheeling diode and observe the waveform. Vary the load and fo and observe the waveform. To switch off the inverter switch off DC input supply first and then switch off trigger pulses.

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

MODEL GRAPHS:

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PRECAUTIONS: 1) Since the parallel inverter works on forced commutation there is a chance of commutation failure. If the commutation fails there is dead short circuit in the input DC supply which will lead to blowing of input fuse. Please check the fuse if the commutation fails. Preferably connect the input DC supply from 30V/2A Regulated power supply which has over current tripping facility thereby protecting the DC power supply unit. 2) If the commutation fails switch OFF the DC supply first and then trigger output. Check the connections again and restart. TABULAR FORM : S.NO VDC (V) TON (ms) Frequrncy (Hz) VLOAD (V)

CALCULATIONS : Resonant frequency fR = 12LC

RESULT :

VIVA QUESTIONS : 1) To what voltage will the capacitor gets charged? 2) What is the need of the transformer is the circuit? 3) What type of commutation is employed in this circuit?

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7. 1- HALF CONTROLLED CONVERTER WITH R AND RL LOADS


AIM: To study single phase half controlled bridge converter with R and RL loads. APPARATUS: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 1-ph converter firing circuit 1-ph half controlled power circuit Rheostat- 50/2A Inductor-50mH Power scope or CRO

THEORY: The circuit arrangement of a 1-ph converter is shown in figure. In the positive half cycle thyristor T1 is forward biased. When SCR T1 is fired at t = , the load is connected to the input supply through T1 and D2 during the period from t + the input voltage is negative and freewheeling diode DM is forward biased. DM conducts to provide continuously current in case of inductive loads. In the negative half-cycle of input voltage T2 is forward biased and triggering of T2 at t = + will reverse bias DM and is turned OFF. Load is connected to supply through T2 and D1. The converter has a better power factor due to the freewheeling diode and is commonly used in applications up to 15KW where one quadrant operation is acceptable. The half controlled bridge has the inhering freewheeling action and analysis is more or less the same with or without a freewheeling diode is connected across the load. In practical it is always adjustable to provide a freewheeling diode in a half-controlled converter so that the commutation of SCRs is assumed inductive loads. PROCEDURE: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Switch on the power circuit and next switch on trigger circuit. Now vary the firing angle and note down the readings of the output voltage. Observe the half-controlled waveform in CRO Perform the same operations with RL loads. Avoid using two CRO probes as there is a problem of short circuit.

PRECAUTION: 1) Avoid loose connections 2) While turning on first turn on the converter and then turn on the firing circuit. 3) While turning off first remove the firing the pulses and then turn off the converter.

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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:

MODEL GRAPHS:
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TABULAR FORM: R-LOAD


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Serial No.

Firing Angle()

Output Voltage R-Load Practical VDC (V) VRMS (V)

Output Voltage R-Load Theoretical VDC VRMS (V) (V)

Output Current Iac(A)

RL-LOAD Output Voltage RL Load Practical VDC (V) VRMS (V) Output Voltage RL Load Theoretical VDC VRMS (V) (V) Output Current Iac(A)

Serial No.

Firing Angle ()

CALCULATIONS: AVERAGE OUTPUT VOLATGE VO = 1 VmSint dt = Vm 1+cos VRMS =[ 1Vm2sin2 t dt]2 Average load current IDC = 2Vm (1+cos) RESULT:

8. 1- SERIES INVERTER
AIM: To study the behavior of modified series inverter by varying load resistance center tap inductance of combination of capacitance at different inverter frequencies APPARATUS :
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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab 1) Modified series inverter 2) D.C.regulated power supply 3) Rheostat 50/2A 4) Cathode ray oscilloscope 5) Connecting wires THEORY : Inverters in which commutating components are permanently connected in series with the load are called series inverter .The series circuit so formed must be under damped. As the current attains zero value due to the nature of series circuit, series inverters are classified as self-commutated (or) load commutation inverter. These inverter operate at high frequencies (200hzto100khz) the size of commutation components is small these inverters are used in induction heating fluorescent lighting etc. Two SCRs T1 and T2 are turned on app. so that o/p voltage of desired frequency can be obtained when T1 ON T2 OFF. Current P starts building up, after reaching some peak value decays to zero at one point. so that the load current tends to reverse SCRT 1 is OFF after T2 turns ON at point B capacitor begins to discharge and load current in reversed direction builds up to some ve peak value and the process repeats at point c.T1 again turned and the process repeats. In this manner DC is converted into AC with help of series inverter. PROCEDURE: 1) Connections are made as per the circuit diagram 2) Now connect trigger o/p from the firing circuit to gate and cathode at SCRsT1&T2 3) Connect DC input from a 30V/2A regulated power supply 4) Switch ON the input DC supply by means of applying triggering pulses to the sets 5) Repeat the experiment for different frequencies and observe the voltages wave forms across the load. TABULAR FORM : S.NO VDC (V) TON (ms) Frequency (Hz) VLOAD (V)

CALCULATIONS : Resonant frequency fr = 12LC

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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :

MODEL GRAPHS:

RESULT:
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VIVA QUESTIONS: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) What is an inverter? What should be the condition between R-L-C components? What type of commutation is employed to turn off SCR? Can two thyristors be in ON condition at the same time? While a capacitor is charging the other capacitor discharges. YES/NO?

9. PSPICE ANALYSIS OF SINGLE PHASE FULL CONVERTER & AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER


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PSPICE ANALYSIS OF SINGLE PHASE FULL CONVERTER WITH RLE

LOAD AIM: To analyze the single phase full converter with RLE Load. SIMULATION TOOLS REQUIRED: PC with PSPICE Software. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
7 3 X T 1
V s

4 X T 3

R 1 0

8
E 1 0 0 V

1 2 6 X T 4 5 X T 2 9

L 1 0 0

SPECIFICATIONS: Sinusoidal input: VOFF = 0V, VAMPL = 169.7V, FREQ = 50 Hz. T1 and T2: V1 = 0V, V2 = 100V, TD = 3333.34us, TR = TF = 1ns, PW = 100us, PER = 20ms. T3 and T4: V1 = 0V, V2 = 100V, TD = 13333.34us, TR = TF = 1ns, PW = 100us, PER = 20ms. Firing circuit: RG = 50 , VX, VY = 0V, RT = 1 , CT = 10uf, RON = 0.0125, ROFF = 10E+5, VON = 0.5V, VOFF = 0V, IS = 2.2E-15, BV = 1800V, TT = 0 sec. THEORY: Single phase full controlled converters are thyristors based circuits which convert fixed alternating voltage into variable direct voltage change in magnitude. The circuit consists to four thyristors connected in in bridge manner.

PROCEDURE:
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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab FOR ANALYSIS USING PROGRAM:


1. Write the program in a new text file in PSpice AD. 2. Save the file using the notation file name .cir.

3. 4. 5.

Activate the file by opening it. Run the simulation process using blue button. By clicking Add Trace icon, get the required waveform.

PROGRAM: With RLE Load SIGLE-PHASE FULL CONVERTER CIRCUIT WITH RLE LOAD VS1 1 2 SIN(0 169.7V 50HZ) R1 7 8 10OHM L1 8 9 100MH VDC 9 0 DC 100V VG1 3 7 PULSE(0 100V 3333.34US 1NS 1NS 100US 20000US) VG3 4 7 PULSE(0 100V 13333.34US 1NS 1NS 100US 20000US) VG2 5 2 PULSE(0 100V 3333.34US 1NS 1NS 100US 20000US) VG4 6 1 PULSE(0 100V 13333.34US 1NS 1NS 100US 20000US) XT1 1 7 3 7 SCR XT2 0 2 5 2 SCR XT3 2 7 4 7 SCR XT4 0 1 6 1 SCR .SUBCKT SCR 1 2 3 2 S1 1 5 6 2 SMOD RG 3 4 50OHMS VX 4 2 DC 0V VY 5 7 DC 0V DT 7 2 DMOD RT 6 2 1OHM CT 6 2 10UF F1 2 6 POLY(2) VX VY 0 50 11 .MODEL SMOD VSWITCH(RON=0.0125 ROFF=10E+5 VON=0.5V VOFF=0V) .MODEL DMOD D(IS=2.2E-15 BV=1800 TT=0) .ENDS SCR .TRAN 1US 60MS .PROBE .END Model Graphs for Full Converter with RLE Load: INPUT WAVEFORM

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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab


200V

100V

0V

-100V

-200V 0s V(1,2) Time 10ms 20ms 30ms 40ms 50ms 60ms

OUTPUT WAVEFORM
300V 200V

100V

0V

-100V 0s V(7) Time 10ms 20ms 30ms 40ms 50ms 60ms

RESULT:

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is your conclusion about this experiment? 2. Briefly explain the operation of single phase full converter. 3. Give the syntaxes for defining the following elements: i. Pulse voltage ii. Sinusoidal voltage iii. Thyristor iv. Switch 1. Explain about the command SUBCKT. 2. How will you give specifications for diode?

EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem

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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab

PSPICE ANALYSIS OF SINGLE PHASE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER

WITH RLE LOAD AIM: To analyze the single phase full converter with RL and RLE Loads. SIMULATION TOOLS REQUIRED: PC with PSPICE Software. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
X T 1

R X T 2

L 1 V S

SPECIFICATIONS: Sinusoidal input: VOFF = 0V, VAMPL = 169.7V, FREQ = 50 Hz. T1: V1 = 0V, V2 = 100V, TD = 3333.34us, TR = TF = 1ns, PW = 100us, PER = 20ms. T2: V1 = 0V, V2 = 100V, TD = 13333.34us, TR = TF = 1ns, PW = 100us, PER = 20ms. Firing circuit: RG = 50 , VX, VY = 0V, RT = 1 , CT = 10uf, RON = 0.0125, ROFF = 10E+5, VON = 0.5V, VOFF = 0V, IS = 2.2E-15, BV = 1800V, TT = 0 sec. THEORY: Ac voltage controllers are thyristors based devices which convert fixed alternating voltage directly to variable alternating voltage without a change in frequency. The circuit consists to two thyristors connected in anti-parallel. PROCEDURE: FOR ANALYSIS USING PROGRAM:
1.

Write the program in a new text file in PSpice AD. 2. Save the file using the notation file name.cir. 3. Activate the file by opening it. 4. Run the simulation process using blue button. 5. By clicking Add Trace icon, get the required waveform.

EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem

Page 37

Power Electronics & Simulation Lab PROGRAM: SIGLE-PHASE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER CIRCUIT WITH RL LOAD VS1 1 0 SIN(0 169.7V 50HZ) R1 2 3 10OHM L1 3 8 10MH VDC 8 0 100V VG1 4 2 PULSE(0 100V 3333.34US 1NS 1NS 100US 20000US) VG2 5 1 PULSE(0 100V 13333.34US 1NS 1NS 100US 20000US) XT1 1 2 4 2 SCR XT2 2 1 5 1 SCR .SUBCKT SCR 1 2 3 2 S1 1 5 6 2 SMOD RG 3 4 50OHMS VX 4 2 DC 0V VY 5 7 DC 0V DT 7 2 DMOD RT 6 2 1OHM CT 6 2 10UF F1 2 6 POLY(2) VX VY 0 50 11 .MODEL SMOD VSWITCH(RON=0.0125 ROFF=10E+5 VON=0.5V VOFF=0V) .MODEL DMOD D(IS=2.2E-15 BV=1800 TT=0) .ENDS SCR .TRAN 1US 60MS .PROBE .END MODEL WAVEFORMS: INPUT WAVEFORM
200V

100V

0V

-100V

-200V 0s V(1) Time 10ms 20ms 30ms 40ms 50ms 60ms

EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem

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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab

OUTPUT WAVEFORM
200V

100V

0V

-100V

-200V 0s V(2) Time 10ms 20ms 30ms 40ms 50ms 60ms

RESULT:

REVIEW QUESTIONS: 1. What is Full Converter? 2. Briefly explain about single phase AC voltage controller? 3. What is the command for calling a subprogram in Pspice? 4. Explain about the command SUBCKT? 5. What is your conclusion after doing the analysis?

EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem

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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab 6.

PSPICE ANALYSIS OF RESONANT PULSE COMMUTATION CIRCUIT AND BUCK CHOPPER


10. PSPICE ANALYSIS OF RESONANT PULSE COMMUTATION CIRCUIT

AIM: Pspice analysis of resonant pulse commutation circuit. SIMULATION TOOLS REQUIRED: PC with PSPICE Software. CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS: Resonant Pulse Commutation Circuit
D 1

10 V 0 V
V C 0 . 1 C y s U

1 0

T 1

4
R m 0 . 5

1 1
F

R 7 5 L

s 0 o h m s

T 2

5
L 5 m M H

2
. 2 U F

3
U H

6 . 4

6
T 3

7
R 1

8
R 2 1 0 M

9
R 3

0 10 V

g 1

GV

g 2

SPECIFICATIONS: VS = 200V, for diode DM : IS=1E-25 BV=1800, Vg1: V1 = 0, V2 = 100V, TD = 0, TR = TF = 1us, PW = 0.4ms, PER = 1ms. Vg2: V1 = 0, V2 = 100V, TD = 0.4ms, TR = TF = 1us, PW = 0.6ms, PER = 1ms. Vg3: V1 = 0, V2 = 100V, TD = 0, TR = TF = 1us, PW = 0.2ms, PER = 1ms. Internal thyristor circuit: switch: RON=0.1, ROFF=10E+6, VON=10V, VOFF=5V, diode: IS=1E-25, BV=10000. Transient response specifications: 0.5US 3MS 1.5MS 0.5US. Conditions: abstol=1.000u, reltol=0.01, vntol=0.1, ITL5=20000

EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem

Page 40

Power Electronics & Simulation Lab PROGRAM: RESONANT PULSE COMMUTATION CIRCUIT VS1 1 0 DC 200V VG1 7 0 PULSE(0 100V 0 1US 1US 0.4MS 1MS) VG2 8 0 PULSE(0 100V 0.4MS 1US 1US 0.6MS 1MS) VG3 9 0 PULSE(0 100V 0 1US 1US 0.2MS 1MS) RG1 7 0 10MEG RG2 8 0 10MEG RG3 9 0 10MEG CS 10 11 0.1UF RS 11 4 750OHMS C 1 2 31.2UF IC=200V L 2 3 6.4UH D1 4 1 DMOD DM 4 0 DMOD .MODEL DMOD D(IS=1E-25 BV=1800) RM 4 5 0.5OHM LM 5 6 5MH VX 6 0 DC 10V VY 1 10 DC 10V XT1 10 4 7 0 DCSCR XT2 3 4 8 0 DCSCR XT3 1 3 9 0 DCSCR .SUBCKT DCSCR 1 2 3 4 DT 5 2 DMOD ST 1 5 3 4 SMOD .MODEL SMOD VSWITCH(RON=0.1 ROFF=10E+6 VON=10V VOFF=5V) .MODEL DMOD D(IS=1E-25 BV=10000) .ENDS DCSCR .TRAN 0.5US 3MS 1.5MS 0.5US .PROBE .options abstol=1.000u reltol=0.01 vntol=0.1 ITL5=20000 .END

EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem

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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab

PROCEDURE: FOR ANALYSIS USING PROGRAM: Write the program in a new text file in PSpice AD. 2. Save the file using the notation filename.cir. 3. Activate the file by opening it. 4. Run the simulation process using blue button. 5. By clicking Add Trace icon, get the required waveform. MODEL WAVEFORMS:
1.

V (1, 2)
1.0KV

0.5KV

0V

-0.5KV

-1.0KV 1.4ms V(1,2)

1.6ms

1.8ms

2.0ms Time

2.2ms

2.4ms

2.6ms

2.8ms

I(C)
2.0KA

1.0KA

0A

-1.0KA

-2.0KA 1.4ms I(C)

1.6ms

1.8ms

2.0ms Time

2.2ms

2.4ms

2.6ms

2.8ms

EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem

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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab

I(VX)
200mA

100mA

0A

-100mA

-200mA 1.4ms I(VX)

1.6ms

1.8ms

2.0ms Time

2.2ms

2.4ms

2.6ms

2.8ms

RESULT:

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. 2. 3.

What is resonant pulse commutation? What is carrier signal? What is the procedure to define a switch and diode? 4. What is sub circuit? 5. What is your conclusion after doing the analysis?

EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem

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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab

PSPICE ANALYSIS OF BUCK CHOPPER AIM: To analyze Buck chopper using PSPICE. SIMULATION TOOLS REQUIRED: PC with PSPICE Software. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
V 0 y V R B T 1 6 8 L 1 e . 8 2 U 4H 0 L . 9 1 U H R

V s 1 1 0

2 V

M V

S g

e 8 . 3 3 V

3 U x F 0

10 V

SPECIFICATIONS: VG: V1 = 0V, V2 = 20V, TD = 0, TR = TF = 0.1ns, PW = 27.28us, PER = 50us. For Ce, IC = 60V. Firing circuit: RON = 0.1, ROFF = 10E+8, VON = 10V, VOFF = 5V, For DT: IS = e-25, BV = 1000V. For DM, IS = 2.2e-15 , BV = 1000V, TT = 0. THEORY: A chopper is a high speed on (or) off switch. It connects source to load and disconnects the load from source at a fast speed. If the average output voltage V 0 is less than the input voltage VS i.e, V0 < VS, then the corresponding chopper circuit is called step-down chopper. The principle of operation is as follows during the period in which transistor (Tr ) is ON, the load voltage is equal to source voltage Vs. During the interval in which Tr is off, the load current flows through the free-wheeling diode FD and load voltage is therefore zero during T off. In this manner, a chopper DC voltage is produced at the load terminals.

EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem

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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab

V0 =V

Where = duty cycle = ON time of transistor(TON) / Total Time(T) Hence, T = constant and Vs = constant Therefore, The load voltage V0 can be controlled by varying duty cycle , the load voltage is independent of load current. PROGRAM: BUCK CHOPPER VS 1 0 DC 110V VY 1 2 DC 0V VG 7 3 PULSE(0 20 0 0.1NS 0.1NS 27.28US 50US) RB 7 6 250OHMS LE 3 4 681.28UH CE 4 0 8.33UF IC=60V L 4 8 40.91UH R 8 5 3OHMS VX 5 0 DC 0V DM 0 3 DMOD .MODEL DMOD D(IS=2.2E-15 BV=1000V TT=0) XT1 2 3 6 3 DCSCR .SUBCKT DCSCR 1 2 3 4 DT 5 2 DMOD ST 1 5 3 4 SMOD .MODEL DMOD D(IS=1E-25 BV=1000V) .MODEL SMOD VSWITCH(RON=0.1 ROFF=10E+8 VON=10V VOFF=5V) .ENDS DCSCR .TRAN 1US 1.6MS 1.5MS 1US .PROBE .END

EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem

Page 45

Power Electronics & Simulation Lab PROCEDURE: FOR ANALYSIS USING PROGRAM:
1.

Write the program in a new text file in PSpice AD. 2. Save the file using the notation filename.cir. 3. Activate the file by opening it. 4. Run the simulation process using blue button. 5. By clicking Add Trace icon, get the required waveform.

MODEL WAVEFORMS: INPUT & OUTPUT WAVEFORMS


120V

80V

40V

0V

-40V 1.50ms 1.51ms V(3) V (1)

1.52ms

1.53ms

1.54ms

1.55ms Time

1.56ms

1.57ms

1.58ms

1.59ms

RESULT:

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. 2. 3.
4.

5.

What is a chopper? What is the syntax for defining an element? What is the procedure to define a switch and diode? What is sub circuit? What is your conclusion after doing the analysis?

EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem

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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab

AIM:

10. SINGLE-PHASE DUAL CONVERTER


To construct a single phase dual converter and to apply reversible voltage to load.

APPARATUS:
1) Auto transformer

2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

Isolation transformer Dual converter power and firing module Loading rheostat-50/8A Digital millimeters Cathode ray oscilloscope Patch cards

THEORY: Dual converter consists of two converters both are connected to the same load. The purpose of a dual converter is to provide a reversible DC voltage to the load. It is needed for DC motor drives where reversal is required. Dual converter provides four quadrant operations hence the name dual. The two modes of operations are the non-circulating current mode and circulating current mode. In the former only one bridge is triggered. When reversal of output voltage is required, the firing pulses for concreting bridge are stopped and second bridge is gated. Since the conducting SCRs in the first bridge will turn off only when the current goes to zero, a small dead time must be allowed before the second bridge is gated otherwise: the AC input will be shorted through the two bridges. In the circulating current mode, both bridge are gated simultaneously, one operating in the rectifying mode and the other in the inverting mode to avoid short circuits. This scheme requires fully controlled bridges. The internal voltage of rectifier is higher and that of inverter is lower than the output voltage. This can be done by two ways 1) by keeping supply voltage V constant and firing bridge 1 (P- converter) at and bridge 2 (N-converter) at (-). By keeping firing angle constant and maintaining supply voltage at rectifier bridge greater than supply voltage at inverter bridge. The dual converters can be operated with or without a circulating current. In this case of operation without circulating current, only one converter operates at a time and carries the load current and the other converter is completely blocked by inhibiting gate pulses. However, the operation with circulating current has the following advantages. 1) The circulating current maintains continuous conduction of both converters over the whole control range, independent of the load. 2) Since one converter always operates as a rectifier and the other converter operates as an inverter, the power flow in either direction at any time is possible. 3) Since both converters are in continuous conduction the time response for changing from quadrant to another is faster.

EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem

Page 47

Power Electronics & Simulation Lab

PROCEDURE:
EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem Page 48

Power Electronics & Simulation Lab DUAL CONVERTER IN NON-CIRCULATORY CURRENT MODE: I) P-Converter is ON & N-Converter is OFF: 1) 2) 3) 4) Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Connect rheostat at 50/8A. Connect CRO across load. Apply AC input voltage using isolation transformer. 5) Made P-converter ON & OFF the N-converter. 6) Vary firing angle observe load voltage waveforms on CRO. 7) Note down load voltage in steps by varying firing angle using multimeter. Sl.NO 1 2 Firing angle in degrees (N-converter) - 00 300 Load voltage VL(DC) In volts

II) N-Converter is ON & P-Converter is OFF: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Connect rheostat at 50/8A. Connect CRO across load. Apply AC input voltage using isolation transformer. Made N-converter ON & P-converter OFF. Vary firing angle observe load voltage waveforms on CRO. 7) Note down load voltage in steps by varying firing angle using multimeter. Sl.NO 1 2 Firing angle in degrees (N-converter) - 00 300 Load voltage VL(DC) In volts

Firing angle of N-converter = firing angle of P-converter = III) DUAL CONVERTER IN CIRCULATORY CURRENT MODE: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Connect rheostat at 2/1A. Connect CRO across load. Apply AC input voltage using isolation transformer. Say 30V range. Made N-converter ON & P-converter ON. Vary firing angle, observe load voltage waveforms on CRO.
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EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem

Power Electronics & Simulation Lab


7) Note down load voltage in steps by varying firing angle using multimeter.

Sl.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 RESULT:

firing angle in degrees ( PConverter) 1800 1500 1200 900 600 300 00

Firing angle - in degrees (Nconverter) 00 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800

Load voltage VL (DC) in volts

Single phase dual converter is constructed and its performance is studied.

EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem

Page 50

Power Electronics & Simulation Lab

10.SINGLE PHASE INVERTER WITH PWM CONTROL


AIM: PSpice analysis of single phase inverter with PWM control. SIMULATION TOOLS REQUIRED: PC with PSPICE Software. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
1
V y 0 R V g 1 T 1 D 1

2
R g 3 T 3 D 3

1 2

7 3
1 V s 0 0 V R g 4 T 4 D 4 V x

1 1 4
2 R . 5 O

5
H

L 1 0 M M S H

0 V

6
R g 2 T 2 D 2

1 4

1 0

1 3

PWM Generator
R 4 K O H M S

R 1 k

5 6
R 1 k 2 in 2 M E R

1 0 0

3
R 7 5 G o O H M S C o 1 0 p f

4
0

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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab

Carrier and Reference signals

1 5

1 6

1 7

R c 2 M

1 E

R c 2 M

3 E

R r 2 M

SPECIFICATIONS: VR: V1 = 50V, V2 = 0V, TD = 0, TR = TF = 8333.33us, PW = 1ns, PER = 16666.67us. VC1: V1 = 0V, V2 = -30V, TD = 0, TR = TF = 1ns, PW = 8333.33us, PER = 16666.67us. VC3: V1 = 0V, V2 = -30V, TD = 8333.33us, TR = TF = 1ns, PW = 8333.33us, PER = 16666.67us. Firing circuit: RG = 50 , VX, VY = 0V, RT = 1 , CT = 10uf, RON = 0.0125, ROFF = 10E+5, VON = 0.5V, VOFF = 0V, IS = 2.2E-15, BV = 1800V, TT = 0 sec. For Dt, IS = e-15, BV = 1000V. THEORY: Dc to ac converters are known as inverters. The function of an inverter is to change a dc input voltage to a symmetrical ac output voltage of desired magnitude and frequency. The output voltage could be fixed or variable at a fixed or variable frequency. A variable voltage can be obtained by varying the input DC voltage and maintaining the gain of inverter constant. On the other hand, if the dc input voltage is fixed and it is not controllable, a variable output voltage can be obtained by varying the gain of the inverter, which is normally accomplished by pulse width modulation (PWM) control within inverter. The inverter gain may be modified as the ratio of the ac output voltage to dc input voltage. The output voltage waveforms of ideal inverters should be sinusoidal. However, the waveforms of practical inverters are non-sinusoidal and contain certain harmonics. For low and medium power applications, square wave or quassi square wave voltages may be acceptable; and for high-power applications, low distorted sinusoidal waveforms are required. With the availability of high-speed power semiconductor devices, the harmonic contents of output voltage can be minimized or reduced significantly by switching techniques.
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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab

PROGRAM: PULSE WIDTH MODULATION VS 1 0 DC 100V VR 17 0 PULSE(50V 0V 0 833.33US 833.33US 1NS 16666.67US) RR 17 0 2MEG VC1 15 0 PULSE(0 -30V 0 1NS 1NS 8333.33US 16666.67US) RC1 15 0 2MEG VC3 16 0 PULSE(0 -30V 8333.33US 1NS 1NS 8333.33US 16666.67US) RC3 16 0 2MEG R1 4 5 2.5 L 5 6 10MH VX 3 4 DC 0V VY 1 2 DC 0V D1 3 2 DMOD D2 0 6 DMOD D3 6 2 DMOD D4 0 3 DMOD .MODEL DMOD D(IS=2.2E-15 BV=1800V TT=0) XT1 2 3 7 3 DCSCR XT2 6 0 9 0 DCSCR XT3 2 6 11 6 DCSCR XT4 3 0 13 0 DCSCR .SUBCKT DCSCR 1 2 3 4 DT 5 2 DMOD ST 1 5 3 4 SMOD .MODEL DMOD D(IS=1E-15 BV=1000V) .MODEL SMOD VSWITCH(RON=0.1 ROFF=10E+8 VON=10V VOFF=5V) .ENDS DCSCR RG1 8 7 100 RG2 10 9 100 RG3 12 11 100 RG4 14 13 100 XPW1 17 15 8 3 PWM XPW2 17 15 10 0 PWM XPW3 17 16 12 6 PWM XPW4 17 16 14 0 PWM .SUBCKT PWM 1 2 3 4 R1 1 5 1K R2 2 5 1K RIN 5 0 2MEG
EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem Page 53

Power Electronics & Simulation Lab RF 5 3 100K RO 6 3 75 CO 3 4 10PF E1 6 4 0 5 2E+5 .ENDS PWM .TRAN 10US 3MS 0 10US .PROBE .END PROCEDURE:
1. Write the program in a new text file in PSpice AD. 2. Save the file using the notation filename.cir.

3. Activate the file by opening it. 4. Run the simulation process using blue button. 5. By clicking Add Trace icon, get the required waveform. MODEL WAVEFORM: OUTPUT WAVEFORM
120V 80V

40V

-0V

-40V

-80V

-120V 0s V(3,6) Time 0.5ms 1.0ms 1.5ms 2.0ms 2.5ms 3.0ms

RESULT:

REVIEW QUESTIONS: 1. 2. 3. What is an inverter? What is the procedure to trace a waveform? What is the procedure to define a switch and diode? 4. What is subckt? 5. What is your conclusion after doing the analysis?

10. FORCED COMMUTATION CIRCUITS


EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem Page 54

Power Electronics & Simulation Lab

CLASS A COMMUTATION

AIM: To rig up turn off circuit for SCR by CLASS-A commutation. APPARATUS: 1) Forced commutation study kit 2) DC regulated power supply 0-30V/2A 3) Connecting wires 4) Cathode ray oscilloscope THEORY: The current reversing property of load will force the device commutation. L,C,R values are chosen such that the circuit is under damped. Since the commutation elements carry load current on a continuous basis their ratings are generally high. For low frequency operation, large values for L and C are required. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM & MODEL GRAPHS:

PROCEDURE : 1) Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. 2) Connect the trigger output T1 to gate and cathode of SCR T1.
EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem Page 55

Power Electronics & Simulation Lab


3) Switch ON the DC supply to power circuit and observe the voltage waveform

across the load by varying the frequency potentiometer. 4) Duty cycle potentiometer is of no use in this experiment. 5) Repeat the same for different values of L, C , R. TABULAR FORM:

S.NO.

TON (ms)

TOFF (ms)

DUTY CYCLE TON/T FREQUENCY(Hz) T=TON +TOFF

OUTPUT VOLTAGE VO (V)

RESULT :

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1) What is the other name for this commutation? 2) What condition should be satisfied for R-L-C elements? 3) Mention any application of class-A commutation.

EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem

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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab

CLASS-B COMMUTATION

AIM : To study CLASS-B commutation circuit. APPARATUS : 1) Forced commutation study kit 2) DC regulated power supply 0-24V/2A 3) Connecting wires 4) Cathode ray oscilloscope 5) Rheostat 50 /2A THEORY : In this type of commutation reverse voltage is applied to the SCR by the over swinging of under damped circuit connected across the SCR. A capacitor charge up to the supply voltage before the trigger pulse is applied to the gate. When the SCR is triggered, a load current flows through the external circuit and a pulse of current through LC circuit and SCR is in opposite direction. This rheostat current tends to turn OFF SCR. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM & MODEL GRAPH:

PROCEDURE 1) Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.


EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem

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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab


2) Connect the trigger pulses to SCR1

3) Switch ON the DC supply and observe the voltage waveform across the load by varying the frequency potentiometer. 4) Repeat the same for different values of R, L and C. Model waveforms are drawn by observing the load voltage using CRO. TABULAR FORM: DUTY CYCLE FREQUENCY(Hz) TON/T T=TON +TOFF OUTPUT VOLTAGE VO (V)

S.NO.

TON (ms)

TOFF (ms)

RESULT :

VIVA QUESTIONS : 1) What is the other name of this commutation? 2) Is it current commutation or voltage commutation? 3) What should be the condition for R-L-C components?

EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem

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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab

CLASS-C COMMUTATION

AIM : To rig up the TURN OFF circuit for SCR by CLASS-C commutation. APPARATUS : 1) Forced commutation study kit 2) DC regulated power supply 0-24V/2A 3) Connecting wires 4) Cathode ray oscilloscope 5) Rheostat 50 /2A- 2 THEORY: This commutation is used to transfer current between loads. The firing of one SCR commutates the other one. Both the SCRs are conducting through the load current. However in some cases the SCR used for turn OFF may cause very small amount of current required for charging. In such cases SCR is called as AUXILIARY SCR CIRCUIT DIAGRAM & MODEL GRAPH:

EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem

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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab

PROCEDURE: 1) Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. 2) Connect T1 and T2 from firing circuit to gate and cathode of SCR T1 and T2. 3) Observe the waveforms across R1, R2, and C by varying frequency and also duty cycle potentiometer. 4) Repeat the same for different values of C and R. TABULAR FORM:

RESULT: DUTY CYCLE TON/T T=TON +TOFF

S.NO.

TON (ms)

TOFF (ms)

OUTPUT FREQUENCY(Hz) VOLTAGE VO (V)

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1) What is the other name of this commutation? Why? 2) Is it current commutation or voltage commutation? 3) Is there a chance for both the thyristors to be in ON condition?

EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem

Page 60

Power Electronics & Simulation Lab

CLASS-D COMMUTATION

AIM: To rig up the turn OFF for SCR by using Class-D commutation. APPARATUS: 1) Forced commutation study kit 2) DC regulated power supply 0-24V/2A 3) Connecting wires 4) Cathode ray oscilloscope 5) Rheostat 50 /2A THEORY: This type of commutation is popular due to the design flexibility. These are may be choppers and inverters under this class. T2 must be triggered first in order to change capacitor C. T2 is commutated OFF owing to lack of current. When T1 is triggered current flows in two paths, load current through R1 and commutating current through C, T1, L nad D. the charge on the capacitor is reversed and held with the hold OFF diode D1. At any desired instant T2 may be triggered which then places C across T1 via T2 and T1 is turned OFF. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM & MODEL GRAPH:

EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem

Page 61

Power Electronics & Simulation Lab PROCEDURE: 1) Make the connections as per the circuit diagram 2) Connect T1 and T2 gate pulses from firing circuit to the corresponding SCRs in the power circuit. 3) Initially keep the trigger to OFF position to initially charge capacitor. 4) Now switch ON the trigger output switch and observe the voltage waveform at different frequencies of chopping and also at different duty cycles. 5) Repeat the experiment for different values of load resistance, L and C. TABULARFORM: DUTY CYCLE TON/T T=TON +TOFF FREQUENCY (Hz) OUTPUT VOLTAGE VO (V)

S.NO.

TON (ms)

TOFF (ms)

RESULT:

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1) 2) 3) 4) What is other name of this commutation? Is it current commutation or voltage commutation? What is current commutation and voltage commutation? Mention any application of class-D commutation.

CLASS E COMMUTATION

EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem

Page 62

Power Electronics & Simulation Lab AIM: To rig up turn OFF circuit for SCR by class-E commutation with an external source of pulse for commutation. APPARATUS: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Forced commutation study kit with transistor DC regulated power supply 0-24V/2A two numbers Connecting wires Cathode ray oscilloscope Rheostat 50 /2A

THEORY: In class-E for turn OFF, reverse voltage is applied to load carrying thyristor from an external source across as in series with the conducting SCR. The turn OFF time of SCR is smaller than the width of the pulse. The conducting period of SCR is from the instant of application of triggering pulses till the external turn OFF voltage is applied. When SCR is triggered load current flows, this connects the negative auxiliary voltage to the SCR to turn it OFF. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM & MODEL GRAPH:

PROCEDURE: 1) Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. 2) Connect the trigger output T1 from the firing circuit to the SCR. 3) Connect T2 to the SCRs base and emitter points.
EEE Department, SVEC, Tadepalligudem Page 63

Power Electronics & Simulation Lab 4) Switch ON the DC supply and external DC supply. 5) Switch ON the trigger output and observe the waveforms across the load. 6) Repeat the same by varying frequency and duty cycle. TABULAR FORM: DUTY CYCLE TON/T T=TON +TOFF

S.NO. TON (ms)

TOFF (ms)

OUTPUT FREQUENCY(Hz) VOLTAGE VO (V)

RESULT:

VIVA QUESTIONS : 1) What is other name for this commutation? Why? 2) Explain the use of a transistor in this commutation.

10. SINGLE PHASE CYCLOCONVERTER


AIM: To study the performance of single phase Cyclo converter. APPARATUS: 1) Cyclo converter power circuit
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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Microcontroller based firing unit Rheostat 50/2A Inductor 50Mh Cathode ray oscilloscope Connecting wires

THEORY : A Cycloconverter is a type of power controller in which an AC voltage at supply frequency is converted directly to an AC voltage at load frequency. There are mainly two configurations for this type of Cycloconverter. They are 1) Centre tapped T/F configuration 2) Bridge configuration In Centre tapped transformer configuration, during the first half cycle when point P is positive and point Q is negative SCR P1 being in conducting mode is gated. The current flows through +ve point P, SCR P1, load and the ve point Q. In negative half cycle, when Q is positive and p is negative .SCR p1 is automatically turned off and SCR p2 is triggered simultaneously path for current flow in this configuration or condition will be from positive point Q.SCR p2,load and negative point o. Direction of flow of current through the load remains the same as in the positive half cycle .Next moment again p becomes positive and Q becomes negative, thus SCR p2 is automatically line commuted SCR p1 is gated simultaneously. The current path gain becomes again the previous case when SCR p1 was conducting .Thus it is seen that the direction of current through the load remains in all three phase circuits PROCEDURE: 1) Switch on the main supply of the firing circuit and observe test points and trigger outputs by changing frequency division and by varying the firing angle. 2) Make sure that firing pulses are proper before connecting to the power circuit. 3) Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. 4) Also connect voltmeter and ammeter in the power circuit. 5) Connect the firing pulses from the firing circuit to respective SCRs in the power circuit. 6) Observe the waveforms in the CRO. 7) Before turning off first remove the firing pulses and then switch off the circuit.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM WITH R & RL LOADS:

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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab

MODEL GRAPH:

TABULAR FORM: R-LOAD:


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Power Electronics & Simulation Lab

S.NO

Firing Angle ()

FREQUENCY 1 VDC(V) VRMS(V)

FREQUENCY 4 VDC(V) VRMS(V)

FREQUNCY 6 VDC(V) VRMS(V)

RL-LOAD: Firing Angle () FREQUENCY(Hz) VDC(V) VRMS(V) FREQUENCY 4 VDC(V) VRMS(V) FREQUNCY 6 VDC(V) VRMS(V)

S.NO

RESULT :

VIVA QUESTIONS:
1) How many AC-voltage controllers are required in a Cycloconverter . 2) What is the difference between a Cycloconverter and an AC voltage controller? 3) What type of commutation is employed in cycloconverter?

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