Budgetspeech Nepali

;DdfggLo ;efd'v dxf]bo

,
1

2

3

4

5

6

g]kfnL hgtfn] xfn;Dd k6s k6s ub{} cfPsf P]ltxfl;s ;+3if{, hgcfGbf]ng / dw]z
cfGbf]ngsf] andf u7g ePsf] ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rgkl5 ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq
g]kfnsf] rf}yf] ah]6 k|:t't ug{ ;DdfgLt Aoj:yflksf—;+;bdf pkl:yt x'Fbf d uf}/jflGjt
ePsf] 5' . cfufdL cfly{s jif{sf] k"jf{4{df /fhgLltsbnx?sf] ;xdltdf dfcf]jfbL ;]gfsf
n8fs"x?sf] ;dfof]hg tyf k'g:yf{kgf ;DkGg x'g] / ;+ljwfg;efn] gofF ;+ljwfg hf/L ug{]
h:tf] dxfg P]ltxfl;s sfo{ ;DkGg x'g] ;Gbe{df of] ah]6 k|:t't ub{}5' . o; cj;/df
nf]stGq, u0ftGq / ;+3Lotf :yfkgf ug{ cfˆgf] cd"No hLjg alnbfg ug{' x'g] ;Dk"0f{ 1ft—
c1ft zlxbx? k|lt efjk"0f{ >4fGhnL ck{0f ub{5' .
kl5Nnf] k6ssf] /fhgLlts ;xdltaf6 ylkPsf] ;+ljwfg;efsf] ;dofjlw leq} gofF ;+ljwfgsf]
d:of}bf hg;dIf Nofpg] k|ltj4tf cfPsf] 5 . cfufdL s]xL dlxgf leq} zflGt k|lqmofn] k"0f{tf
kfpg] / g]kfnL hgtf cfkm}n] n]v]sf] ;+ljwfg hf/L eO{ /fhgLlts pknlAwsf] ;jf{lws
dxTjk"0f{ cWofo yk x'g] ljZjf; lnPsf] 5' . gofF ;+ljwfg hf/L ePkl5 g]kfnsf] /fhgLlts,
cfly{s, ;fdflhs / ;f+:s[lts cj:yfdf u'0ffTds kl/jt{g x'g] ljZjf; lnPsf] 5' .
;+ljwfg;efsf] u7gkl5 klxnf] k6s Aoj:yflksf—;+;bdf k"j{ ah]6 5nkmn ;DkGg
ePsf]5 . ;+;bdf dfggLo ;ef;bx?n] ah]6sf l;4fGt / k|fyldstf Pj+ ;/sf/sf] gLlt tyf
sfo{qmd pk/ lbg' ePsf ;'emfjx?nfO{ uDeL/tfk"j{s dgg u/L ah]6 th{'df u/]sf] 5' .
g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfgn] lglb{i6 u/]sf p2]Zo, l;4fGt tyf gLlt, lqjifL{o of]hgfsf] nIo,
cfly{s jif{ @)^*.^( sf] g]kfn ;/sf/sf] gLlt tyf sfo{qmd, ;x;|fAbL ljsf;sf /fli6«o
nIox? tyf /fhgLlts bn, Aoj;flos hut, af}l4s ;d'bfo nufot ;dfhsf ljleGg
kIfx?af6 k|fKt ;'emfjx?nfO{ ah]6 lgdf{0fsf] cfwf/ agfPsf] 5' . o;y{, cfufdL cfly{s
jif{sf] ah]6nfO{ ;a} g]kfnLn] cfˆgf] ah]6sf] ?kdf :jLsf/ ug{ ;Sg] u/L cu|ufdL, hgd'vL,
;Gt'lnt, ;dfj]zL / n}lËs—pQ/bfoL agfpg ljz]if k|oTg u/]sf] 5' .
kl/jt{gsf/L /fhgLlts zlQmx?sf] ;xdlt / ;dy{gdf u7g ePsf] jt{dfg ;/sf/
;fdGtjfbsf ;a} ?kx?sf] cGTo ub{} ;/sf/L, ;xsf/L / lghL If]qsf] dfWodåf/f ;d[4,
cfw'lgs, :jfwLg, Gofok"0f{ / ;dfj]zL gofF g]kfn lgdf{0fsf] cleofgdf h'6]sf]5 . d}n] ut
@)^& ;fn r}t @( ut] ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] b]zsf] cfly{s l:ylt tyf ;/sf/sf] gLltut
cjwf/0ff ;DjGwL Zj]tkqdf o;nfO{ :ki6 ?kn] pNn]v ul/;s]sf] 5' . oxL gLlt tyf
cjwf/0ffaf6 lgb{]lzt eP/ d}n] ah]6 th{'df u/]sf] 5' .
d'n'sdf Psflt/ pTkfbg / pTkfbsTj Go"g /x]sf]5 eg] csf{]lt/ ;Lldt pTkfbgsf] klg
Gofof]lrt ljt/0f x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . cy{tGqsf] of] cfwf/e"t ;d:ofnfO{ ;+af]wg ug{ s[lif tyf
pBf]usf] pTkfbg / pTkfbsTj j[l4 ug{], cf}Bf]lus tyf k"jf{wf/ If]qdf lghL If]qsf] nufgL
j[l4 ug{], k|fKt cfly{s pknlAwx?sf] Gofof]lrt ljt/0f u/L u/LaL / c;dfgtf 36fpb}
1

;fdflhs Gofodf cfwfl/t ;Gt'lnt / ;dfj]zL ljsf;sf] cfwf/zLnf v8f ub{} :jb]zleq 7"nf]
;+Vofdf /f]huf/L l;h{gf ug{] lbzfdf ah]6sf] Wofg s]lGb|t u/]sf] 5' .
7

d'n'ssf ljBdfg ;|f]tx?sf] klxrfg, kl/rfng / k|fyldsLs/0f ub{} k|fs[lts, cfly{s tyf
dfgjLo ;|f]tnfO{ pTkfbgsf] dxTjk"0f{ ;fwg / zlQmdf ?kfGt/0f ug{ d}n] ;/sf/L, ;xsf/L /
lghL If]qsf] ;dGjofTds / kl/k"/s e"ldsfsf] vf]hL u/]sf] 5' . g]kfnL hgtfsf ljsf;sf
ck]Iff Pp6} ah]6jf6 k"/f ug{ ;Dej x'Fb}g . t/ hgtfsf cfzf k'/f ug{] lbzfdf xfdL cu|;/
5f}+ eGg] ;Gb]z of] ah]6n] lbg] ljZjf; lnPsf] 5' .

;efd'v dxf]bo,
8

d'n'ssf cfly{s—;fdflhs kl/;"rsx?sf k|j[lQ / ljz]iftfx? ;dfj]z u/L tof/ kfl/Psf]
cfly{s ;e{]If0f, @)^& / ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfgx?sf] jflif{s l:ylt ;dLIff o; ;Ddflgt
Aoj:yflksf—;+;bdf k]z ul/;s]sf]5' . ca d ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rgkl5sf tLg jif{ / rfn"
cfly{s jif{sf] xfn;Ddsf] b]zsf s]xL ;dli6ut cfly{s kl/;"rsx? k|:t't ug{ rfxG5' .
-s_

rfn" cfly{s jif{ cfly{s j[l4 #=% k|ltzt /xg] cg'dfg 5 . ut tLg jif{sf] cf};t
cfly{s j[l4b/ g} $ k|ltzt eGbf tn /x]sf]5 . nuftf/ b'O{ jif{ b'O{ c+sdf /x]sf] d"No
j[l4b/ o; jif{ Psn c+sdf em/]sf]5 .

-v_

rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] !! dlxgf;Dddf lgof{t / cfoft b'j} s/La ^ k|ltztsf b/n]
a9]sf 5g\ . cl3Nnf] aif{sf] t'ngfdf j:t' lgof{tdf j[l4 ePklg ljut tLg jif{b]lv
Aofkf/3f6f nuftf/ a9L /x]sf]5 . To:t}, cl3Nnf] cfly{s jif{b]lv g]kfnL cy{tGqn]
zf]wgfGt/ 3f6f Aoxf]g{' k/]sf]5 . o;sf] afah"b ljBdfg ljb]zL d'b|f ;+lrltn] eg] &
dlxgfsf] j:t' tyf ;]jfsf] cfoft wfGg] cj:yf5 .

-u_

rfn" cfly{s jif{df ?= #)^ ca{ @& s/f]8 s'n vr{ x'g] ;+zf]lwt cg'dfg /x]sf]5 .
rfn" vr{ ?= !*) ca{ !$ s/f]8, k"FhLut vr{ ?= !)* ca{ * s/f]8 / ;fjfF e'QmfgL
?= !* ca{ $ s/f]8 x'g] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . ah]6sf] cfsf/ nuftf/ j[l4 x'Fb} uPklg
rfn" vr{ tLa|?kdf a9]sf] x'Fbf ljsf; lgdf{0fsf nflu k"FhLut vr{sf] pknAwtf
;Lldt aGb} uPsf]5 eg] j}b]lzs ;xfotfsf] vr{ ug{] Ifdtf eg] qmdzM IfL0f x'Fb}
cfO/x]sf] 5 .

-3_

rfn" jif{ ;dodf ah]6 gcfPsf], cfly{s ultljlw a9\g g;s]sf] / cfoftsf] j[l4b/
sd ePsf]n] /fh:j ;+sngdf k|lts"n k|efj kg{ uPsf]5 . of] jif{ ?= @)^ ca{ /fh:j
;+sng x'g] ;+zf]lwt cg'dfg /x]sf]5, h'g ut jif{sf] oyfy{ /fh:jsf] t'ngfdf !$=$
k|ltztn] a9L xf] .

-ª_

;dli6ut cfly{s kl/;"rsx?nfO{ ;'wf/ ub{} cfly{s j[l4b/ pRr ug{, ljQLo k|0ffnLdf
t/ntfsf] cefj x'g glbg, k"FhL ahf/sf] lj:tf/ / ljZj;gLotf a9fpg, ef}lts tyf
cfly{s k"jf{wf/x? lj:tf/ u/L lghL If]qsf] nufgL k|j4{g ug{ / pTkfbgzLn If]q tkm{
2

cfly{s lqmofsnfkx?nfO{ 8f]¥ofpg cfufdL cfly{s jif{sf] ah]6 s]lGb|t ug{'kg{]
ePsf]5 . of] ah]6n] ;/sf/L, ;xsf/L tyf lghL nufgL j[l4 u/L cy{tGqdf
ultzLntf NofO{ tLa| cfly{s j[l4 / ;dGoflos ljsf;sf] jf6f] ;dfTg] ljZjf;
lnPsf]5' .
9

rfn" cfly{s jif{df k|To]s dGqfnox?nfO{ 5'6\ofOPsf] vr{sf] /sd, ;f] vr{ cg';f/sf] nIo /
k|ultsf] dGqfnout ljj/0f cfh} d}n] o; ;DdfgLt ;bg ;dIf k|:t't u/]sf]5' .

ah]6sf] ;f]+r / cfwf/e"t l;4fGt
;efd'v dxf]bo
10

cfly{s ljsf;sf] sfo{;"rLn] k|fyldstf kfpg g;Sg', ;femf cfly{s sfo{;"rL aGg g;Sg',
;+qmd0fsfnLg /fhgLlts cj:yf, nufgL—d}qL jftfj/0fsf] cefj, s[lif / pBf]u If]qsf]
ljsf;df kof{Kt Wofg k'Ug g;Sg', pmhf{ ;+s6 b]vf kg{', ljQLo If]qdf t/ntfsf] cefj
b]lvg', pRr d"Noj[l4 x'g', ah]6 sfof{Gjog / cfof]hgf Aoj:yfkg lkmtnf] eO{ ;fj{hlgs ;]jf
hg:t/df kof{Kt dfqfdf k'Ug g;Sg', lje]b / al~rlts/0f sfod} /xg' tyf u/LaL, cefj /
k5f}6]kg sfod /xg'n] xfn;Ddsf] /fhgLlts pknlAwnfO{ g} r'gf}tL lbO/x]sf] d}n] dx;';
u/]sf] 5' . o; ah]6n] oL r'gf}tLx? ;fdgf ug{ lgDg cfwf/e"t l;4fGtdf /xL sfo{qmd cl3
;f/]sf] s'/f d o; ;Ddflgt ;bgnfO{ cg'/f]w ug{ rfxG5' .
-s_

;fdGtjfb / Psflwsf/ k"FhLjfbsf ;a} zf]if0f / pTkL8g ;dfKt ub{} ;dfhjfbpGd"v,
hgd'vL / nf]s sNof0fsf/L cy{tGqsf] ;~rfngaf6 :jfwLg, ;d[4, Gofok"0f{ / zfGt
gofF g]kfn lgdf{0f ug{] . o;sf nflu ;/sf/L, ;xsf/L / lghL If]qsf] ;xeflutfdf
b]zsf] cy{tGq ;~rfng ug{] cGtl/d ;+ljwfgsf] tLg vDa] cy{gLltnfO{ hLjGttf
lbOg] .

-v_

;dfhdf ljBdfg ;a} k|sf/sf c;dfgtf, lje]b, zf]if0f, pTkL8g / cGofoaf6 cfd
hgtfnfO{ d'Qm u/L ;fdflhs Gofo / ;dfj]zL kl/kf6Ldf cfwfl/t cfly{s ;fdflhs
;+r/gfsf] cfwf/zLnf v8f ug{] . o;sf nflu e"ld nufot pTkfbgsf ;|f]t / ;fwgdf
u/La tyf ljkGg ju{sf] :jfldTj Pj+ kx'Fr a9fpg] .

-u_

åGåkLl8t, zlxb tyf j]kQfsf kl/jf/nfO{ /fxt k|bfg ul/g'sf ;fy} åGåsfndf
elTsPsf ;+/rgfx?sf] k'glg{df{0f / lj:yflktx?sf] k'g:yf{kgsf] sfo{ ;DkGg ug{] .

-3_

If]qLo tyf hg;f+VoLs ;Gt'ng sfod ub{} d'n'ssf] efjL ;+3Lo 9fFrfnfO{ ;3fp k'Ug]
u/L ef}lts k"jf{wf/sf] lgdf{0fdf hf]8 lbg] . 7"nf ef}lts k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0fdf ;fj{hlgs—
lghL ;fem]bf/Lsf] cjwf/0ff cg'?k lghL If]qsf] nufgL k|f]T;fxg ug{] . hnljB't
nufot ef}lts k"jf{wf/sf 7"nf kl/of]hgfsf nflu ljb]zL k"FhL leq\ofpg cfjZos
sfg"gL Aoj:yf ug{] .
3

-ª_

;dli6ut cfly{s :yfloTj sfod /fVg], ljQLo :yfloTjsf nflu ;'wf/ / ;'zf;gsf
sfo{ cl3 a9fpg], ah]6 3f6fnfO{ lglZrt ;Ldfleq /fVg], If]qLo tyf hg;f+VoLs
;Gt'ng sfod x'g]u/L ah]6 ljlgof]hg ug{], ljQLo pQ/bfloTj / kf/bzL{tf clej[l4
u/L cfly{s cg'zf;g sfod ug{], ;fj{hlgs ljt/0f k|0ffnLdf ;'wf/ u/L cfk"lt{
Aoj:yf ;xh t'Nofpg] / d"No cg'udg k|0ffnLnfO{ ;zQm t'Nofpg] .

-r_

l5d]ssf b'O{ 7"nf pbLodfg / ultzLn cy{tGq ef/t / rLgsf] tLj| cfly{s ljsf;sf]
nfe xfl;n ug{ ko{6g, k"jf{wf/ ljsf;, pBf]u :yfkgf, ;]jf tyf j:t'sf] Aofkf/
lj:tf/ ug{ ljz]if hf]8 lbg] .

;efd'v dxf]bo,
ah]6sf p2]Zox?
11

cfufdL cfly{s jif{ @)^*.^( sf] ah]6sf p2]Zox? lgDgfg';f/ /x]sf 5g\ .
-s_

zflGt k|lqmofsf afFsL sfd k"/f ug{ / gofF ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f ug{sf nflu ;xof]u
k'¥ofpg],

-v_

cfdhgtf, åGåkLl8t / zlxb tyf j]kQfsf kl/jf/nfO{ /fxt lbg'sf ;fy} k"glg{df{0f /
k'g:yf{kgfsf] sfo{ ;DkGg ug{],

-u_

:jb]zL k"FhL / /fli6«o ;|f]tx?sf] clwstd pkof]u u/L :jfwLg, :jtGq / cfTdlge{/
cy{tGq lgdf{0fsf] cfwf/zLnf v8f ug{] tyf e"ld nufot pTkfbgsf ;fwg Pj+ ;|f]tdf
u/La tyf ljkGgsf] kx'r k'¥ofO{ ;fdflhs åGåsf] Go"lgs/0f / ;dfj]zL ljsf; k|lqmof
cl3 a9fpg],

-3_

;/sf/L, ;xsf/L / lghL nufgL j[l4 ub{} s[lifsf] Aoj;flos/0f, cf}Bf]lus k'g?{Tyfg /
;]jf If]qsf] lj:tf/ u/L ;fdflhs Gofoo'Qm / /f]huf/Ld'ns pRr cfly{s j[l4 xfl;n
ug{],

-ª_

ef}uf]lns, If]qLo tyf hg;f+VoLs ;Gt'ng ldnfpg] / efjL ;+3Lo :j?knfO{ ;3fp
k'¥ofpg] u/L ef}lts k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0fnfO{ tLa|tf lbg], /

-r_

;dli6ut cfly{s :yfloTj sfod ug{] / ljQLo If]qdf ;'zf;g ;'b[9 u/L hg ljZjf;
clej[l4 ug{] .

;efd'v dxf]bo,
ca d of] ah]6sf gLlt tyf sfo{qmd k|:t't ug{] cg'dlt rfxG5' .
zflGt :yfkgf, ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f / åGåsf] lbuf] ;dfwfg
12

zflGt / ;+ljwfg jt{dfg ;/sf/sf] d'Vo sfo{ef/ /x]sf]n] dfcf]jfbL ;]gfsf n8fs"x?sf]
;dfof]hg / k'g:yf{kgf u/L zflGt k|lqmofnfO{ k"0f{tf lbg cfjZos ;|f]t ;fwgsf] Aoj:yf
4

u/]sf] 5' . g]kfnL hgtfsf] a[xQ/ lxt x'g] u/L /fli6«o ;xdltdf gofF ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f u/L
;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqnfO{ ;+:yfut ug{ kof{Kt ah]6 5'6\ofPsf] 5' .
13

14

15

16

17

zlxb tyf j]kQfsf kl/jf/ / hg cfGbf]ngsf 3fOt]x?nfO{ /fxt pknAw u/fpg ah]6sf]
Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' . åGåkLl8t / lj:yflktx?nfO{ k'g:yf{kgf ug{ tyf zlxb / a]kQfsf
3/jf/ljlxg kl/jf/nfO{ k'g:yf{kgf Pj+ hLljsf]kfh{gsf] nflu ljz]if sfo{qmd NofPsf] 5' .
a]kQf kfl/Psfx?sf] vf]hL ug{] cfof]u, pRr:t/Lo ;Tolg?k0f tyf d]nldnfk cfof]u u7g
ug{], uf]s0f{ / t/fO{ dw]zdf ;lxb kfs{ / dw]z cfGbf]ng :d[lt kfs{ lgdf{0f ug{] / hgtfsf]
kxndf zflGt cleofg sfo{qmd ;~rfngsf nflu ah]6 Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' .
ljutsf] åGådf a9L k|efljt dWo / ;'b"/ klZrdsf lhNnfx?nfO{ nlIft u/L ljz]if sfo{qmd
;~rfng ug{ cfjZos /sd ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5' . of] sfo{qmd ;~rfng ;DaGwL lgb{]lzsf
@)^* sflQ{s dlxgfleq th{'df ul/g]5 .
tLj| cfly{s ljsf;af6 lbuf] zflGt xfl;n ug{ ;lsg] ePsf]n] ufpF:t/;Dd ljsf; lgdf{0fsf
sfo{x? ug{ zflGtsf nflu ljsf; sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug{ cfjZos /sd k|:tfj u/]sf] 5' . of]
sfo{qmd ;+rfngsf] lgb{]lzsf @)^* sflQ{s leq th{'df ul/g]5 .
åGåsfndf elTsO{ k'glg{df{0f ug{ afFsL /x]sf ;+/rgfx?sf] k'glg{df{0f ug{ cfjZos /sd
5'6\ofPsf] 5' .

cfd hgtfnfO{ /fxt lbg ;fj{hlgs ;]jf k|jfx / cfk"lt{ k|0ffnLdf ;'wf/
18

19

20

21

22

;'ky d"No k;n dfkm{t cfk"lt{ k|0ffnL / ;]jf k|jfxdf ;'wf/ ub{} s[lqd d"Noj[l4 lgoGq0f ug{
ahf/ cg'udgnfO{ k|efjsf/L t'NofOg]5 . cfk"lt{df cj/f]w, d"No ldnf]dtf] / ahf/df u}/
vfB j:t' ld;fj6 u/L hg:jf:Yodf k|lts"n k|efj kfg{] hf];'s}nfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd s8f
sf/jfxL ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' .
b'u{d If]qsf] vfB ;'/Iff ;'lglZrt ug{ vfBfGg 9'jfgL, e08f/0f / :yfgLo pTkfbg j[l4df
ljz]if hf]8 lbPsf] 5' . b'u{d If]qdf vfBfGg / g"g 9"jfgLdf lbOb} cfPsf] cg'bfgnfO{
lg/Gt/tf lbPsf] 5' .
afl9, klx/f], v8]/L h:tf k|fs[lts k|sf]k / ljz]if kl/l:yltdf vfBfGg ;+s6 cfpg glbg
b]zsf ljleGg :yfgdf qmdzM cfw'lgs uf]bfd3/x?sf] lgdf{0f ul/g]5 . df}h'bf ;fs{ vfBfGg
;'/Iff e08f/ / /fli6«o vfBfGg ;'/Iff e08f/sf] Ifdtf clej[l4 ul/g]5 .
k]6«f]lnod kbfy{sf] cfk"lt{nfO{ ;xh / Aojl:yt t'Nofpg pRr:t/Lo ;ldltn] lbPsf
;'emfjx?nfO{ qmdzM sfof{Gjog ub{} nlug]5 .
sf7df8f}+ pkTosfsf] Aojl:yt zx/Ls/0f, vfg]kfgL cfk"lt{sf] ;'b[9Ls/0f ug{ / 6«flkms hfd
x6fpg r/0fj4?kdf sfo{qmd ;~rfng ul/g]5 .
5

qmddf df]tLb]jL :d[lt h]i7gful/s cfjf. x?jfr?jfsf] tYof+s .L. x?jfr?jf.~rfng ug{ k|:tfj u/]sf] 5' .'s'Djf.xsf/LnfO{ .f]h d.dGjo . If]q.fy} pknAw u/fOPsf] 5fqj[lQ /sd j[l4 u/]sf] 5' . /f]huf/L. >j0fxLg / ./.d'bfodf .xof]u pknAw u/fOg]5 .sf] Aoj:yf ub{} hfg] gLlt cjnDag ul/g]5 .fdflhs .fdflhs .ldltnfO{ yk lqmofzLn agfOg]5 .kmfO / Ifdtf j[l4sf sfo{qmdx? . g]kfnsf ljleGg If]qdf zf]lift.dfwfgsf nflu xfn .fGt leq lgb{]lzsf hf/L ul/g]5 .dfhsf nflu cd"No hLjg . lnË.fdflhs Gofo / .fy} . u[xsf] lgdf{0f ug{ .DkGg ul/g]5 .+rflnt sfo{qmdx?nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbOg]5 . .xsf/Ltfsf] dfWodaf6 Aoj. b]z / .a} gu/kflnsf / .':tdgl:ylt ePsf gful/sx?nfO{ /fHosf tkm{af6 k7gkf7gsf] . .du| ljsf. d'lZndx?sf] .x'lnotk"0f{ Aofhdf lagf lwtf] C0f pknAw u/fpg] Aoj:yf ul/g]5 . . . d'Qm xlnof. cfufdL cfly{s jif{leq k'g:yf{kgf x'g afFsL d'Qm sd}of kl/jf/sf] k'g:yf{kgfsf] sfo{ . jf0fLxLg.'s'Daf.L . 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 .+rfng u/]df To:tf .sf b[li6n] kl5 k/]sf cGo lhNnfx?df klg qmlds?kdf lj:tf/ ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' .b/d'sfdsf . 6 . kLl8t hLjg ljtfO/x]sf sdn/Lx?sf] lzIff. s]nfbL3f6 / l/8L3f6df /x]sf j[4f>dx?nfO{ h]i7gful/s u|fddf ?kfGt/0f ul/g]5 .'ne Aoj:yf ug{'sf .sf] ljz]if sfo{qmd .sf nflu d'.+sng u/L k'g:yf{kgfsf] nflu cWoog ul/g]5 .+rflnt sfo{qmdx?nfO{ Aojl:yt ?kdf sfof{Gjog ug{ @)^* c. kfFr jif{d'gLsf s0ff{nL c~rnsf .DkGg agfpg cfjZos P]g th{'df ul/g]5 .fo ./ j[l4 ug{ ljz]if Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' . sd}of.'/Iff eQf kfpg] Psn dlxnfsf] pd]/sf] xb x6fO ljwjf ePs} lbgb]lv eQf kfpg] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' . /fli6«o blnt cfof]unfO{ clwsf/ .ldltx?df lj:tf/ ul/g]5 .'/Iff sfo{qmd qmdzM lj:tf/ ul/g]5 . lhNnf:t/df ul7t blnt ju{ pTyfg lhNnf . k|hgg :jf:Yo lzIff.fdflhs .s b'O{ . nf]kf]Gd'v hft—hftL.fj{hlgs / lghL If]qdf /f]huf/Lsf] cj..f]jf. xlnof. af. uGwj{ / afFwf dhb'/af6 d'Qm kl/jf/sf] cfo cfh{g. sdn/LnfO{ pRr lzIffdf lglZrt .a} ufpF ljsf. ju{. d'.Lkd"ns tflnd / k'g:yf{kgfsf] nflu . / skf. a}+lsË k|0ffnL dfkm{t pknAw u/fpg z'? ul/Psf] . . o. . afbL.a} / cGo If]qsf blntsf afnaflnsfnfO{ dfl. lzIff / a. Psn dlxnfn] . sdn/L.+/If0f cg'bfgnfO{ dfgj ljsf.+Vof 5'6\ofpg'sf . dw]zL.osf b/n] lbOb} cfPsf] afn . b]j3f6..'/Iff eQf ljt/0f sfo{nfO{ cfufdL cfly{s jif{b]lv .dk{0f u/]sf h]i7 gful/sx?nfO{ j[4 cj:yfdf ufF.~rfng ug{ ah]6 Joj:yf u/]sf] 5' .ndfg cfof]u u7g ul/g]5 .ndfg / lk58fju{sf] pTyfgsf nflu /f]huf/d'ns tflnd.dfj]zL ljsf.d:of . g]qxLg.

Aofwf. t].'rf? eO hgtfx?nfO{ nfe k'Ug] ljZjf. dlxnf. s'. ljkGg Pj+ lk5l8Psf If]q / ju{nfO{ k|ToIf . jemfË. .+sng / k|zf]wg ug{ k"FhLut cg'bfg pknAw u/fpg] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' . c5fd.'b"/ klZrdf~rnsf] . aemfË.a} lhNnf / afh'/f.s]sf sl7g e"agf]6sf s0ff{nL / s0ff{nL jl/kl/sf lhNnfx? tyf t/fO{ dw]zsf lk5l8Psf lhNnfsf] cfly{s . hfh/sf]6.]jf k'¥ofpg] u/L z'? ul/Psf] g]kfn pHofnf] sfo{qmdnfO{ yk . afbL. bfr{'nf. .L.ndfgsf] tYof+s . uGwj{ / u/La d'. sfo{qmdx?sf] nflu cfjZostfg'. x'Dnf. afh'/f / bfr{'nf lhNnfx¿df . sfo{qmd . clt ljs6 tyf lk5l8Psf If]q ljsf. d'. bdfO{.du| ljsf. hghftL.sf nflu .~rfng ul/g]5 . h'Dnf. hl8a'6L / kmnk"mnsf] pTkfbg. If]qdf ljsf. b}n]v.L.sf] d"n k|jfxdf .'ljwf pknAw u/fpg o:tf hftLx?sf] jfx'Notf /x]sf] If]qdf ljBfno ejg lgdf{0f ug{sf nflu 5'6[} ah]6 Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' .]jf lj:tf/ ug{ ljz]if sfo{qmd tyf ah]6sf] Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' .af6 To. c5fd. vTj].'08f. blnt. u/L ?s'd. ckfË.fdflhs k"jf{wf/ / .ndfg.fgf hnljB'tsf] ljsf. hghftL. sfo{qmd 35 36 37 38 /fli6«o ljsf. lnPsf] 5' . s0ff{nLsf . clt ljs6 sflnsf]6.32 33 34 u/LaL lgjf/0f sf]if dfkm{t u/LaLsf] /]vfd'gL /x]sf dlxnf. cflbjf.|f]lnËL.+rfng x'g] Ps s/f]8 ?k}of eGbf dflysf ljsf. o.fw.zlQms/0f 7 .+sng u/L pgLx?sf] pTyfgsf nflu ljz]if sfo{qmdx? . 8f]Nkf.Dk"0f{ 3/ w'/Ldf ljB't . blnt.xsf/Lsf] dfWodåf/f s[lif. 8f]d.'b[9 ub{} cfufdL cfly{s jif{ s0ff{nL If]qdf lj:tf/ ul/g]5 . b'. nf]kf]Gd'v hftL / blntx?sf afnaflnsfx?nfO{ k7g—kf7gsf] . hghftL tyf lk5l8Psf ju{nfO{ nlIft u/L NofOPsf] sfo{qmdnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfOg]5 . /fp6]. d'zx/. ljsf. lgdf{0fsf sfdx? . sfdL.'emfj lbg Ps cfof]u u7g ul/g]5 . b'/f. . rdf/. n}lËs . hfh/sf]6 / /f]Nkf lhNnfsf .d]l6g g. aemfË / afh'/f nufot k"jf{wf/ / dfgj ljsf. cflbjf.fsL{. dw]zL. :yfgLo:t/df n3' tyf . ?s'ddf :yfgLo u|L8 lgdf{0f u/L d'Vo k|zf/0f nfO{gdf hf]8g] gd'gf kl/of]hgf cl3 a9fOg]5 ."rsf+sdf k5fl8 k/]sf lhNnfx?df /f]huf/L k|Tofe"lt sfo{qmdsf] ?kdf qmdzM lj:tf/ ul/g]5 . dw]zL.f/ ax'jifL{o 7]Ssf k|0ffnL cjnDag ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 . .dfgtf / .~rfng ubf{ u/La.+nUg u/fpg] Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 . s0ff{nLdf sfof{Gjogdf /x]sf] æPs kl/jf/ Ps /f]huf/Æ sfo{qmdnfO{ hfh/sf]6. d':tfË. d'u'. hfh/sf]6 / ?s'd lhNnfx?df .

o !) ufpF ljsf.'wf/ ljw]ossf] d:of}bf th{'df ul/g]5 . sfg"gL . cfufdL cfly{s jif{sf] c.fGtleq e" pkof]u gLlt th{'df ul/g]5 .~rfngdf /x]sf] dlxnf ljsf.+/If0f / k'g:yf{kgsf sfo{qmdx?nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbPsf] 5' .zlQms/0fsf] dfWodaf6 n}lËs . . e"ld Aoj:yfkgdf cfwf/e"t kl/jt{g / .foLs tflnd / Joj.'wf/ cfof]usf k|ltj]bgx?sf] .foLsf] dfWodaf6 dfq ug{ kfpg] Aoj:yf ul/g]5 . dlxnf lj?4sf] kmf}Hbf/L / n}lËs lx+.Dk"0f{ sfo{ sDkgLsf] ?kdf btf{ eO{ cfGtl/s /fh:j sfof{noaf6 :yfoL n]vf gDa/ lnPsf bnfn Aoj.dfgtf sfod ug{ n}lËs pQ/bfoL ah]6sf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ cem} k|efjsf/L 9+udf sfof{Gjog ul/g]5 .Dk"0f{ gfkL sfo{nfO{ of]hgfa4 ?kdf cl3 a9fpg gfkL u'?of]hgf tof/ ul/g]5 .Dk"0f{ . 3/]n' lx+. sfo{qmdnfO{ cfufdL cfly{s jif{df yk @ .39 40 41 42 43 n}lËs d"nk|jflxs/0f / .'wf/ sfo{qmdnfO{ cl3 a9fOg]5 .DkGg ug{ gofF e"ld.fo z'? ug{ k|fljlws / Joj.gnfO{ l8lh6nfOH8 k|0ffnLdf ?kfGt/0f ug{] sfo{ z'? ul/g]5 .'wf/sf sfo{x? .'emfjx?nfO{ qmdzM sfof{Gjog ul/g]5 .'g'jfO{ cbfntsf] :yfkgf ug{] sfo{ z'? ul/g]5 .f .sf nflu .fo :yfkgf ug{ nfUg] vr{df cg'bfg lbg] Joj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' .]jfx? pknAw u/fpg] sfo{ cf/De ul/g]5 .+:yfx?sf] .lxtsf] . 8 .fdlos . dgf]a}1flgs k/fdz{. ljkGg dlxnf / ljBfno 5f8]sf lszf]/Lx?nfO{ :j/f]huf/ Joj. xfn sfod /x]sf] k/Dk/fut gfkL k|zf.ldlt u7g ul/g]5 .]jf s]Gb|x?nfO{ yk . .o *) j8fdf lj:tf/ ul/g]5 . .^( b]lv nfu' x'g]u/L 3/hUuf jf hUuf vl/b ljqmL . cfufdL cfly{s jif{b]lv sf7df8f}+sf] l8NnLahf/ / nlntk'/sf] gfkL sfof{noaf6 k|jfx x'g] .f tyf of}ghGo b'Ao{jxf/af6 k|efljt dlxnfx?sf] nflu !% lhNnfdf dlxnf .faf6 kLl8t / k|efljtx?sf] p4f/. e"lddf u/La tyf ljkGg ju{sf] :jfldTj Pj+ kx'Fr clej[l4 44 45 46 47 e"ldnfO{ pkof]usf cfwf/df juL{s/0f ug{'sf] .]jf nufotsf .]jfx? sDKo"6/ k|0ffnLaf6 pknAw u/fO{g]5 .]jf. ljutdf u7g ePsf e"ld. dlxnfnfO{ k|ToIf nfe k'¥ofpg] ah]6sf] cfsf/ j[l4u/L ?= &# ca{ ## s/f]8 k'¥ofPsf] 5' .fy} pTkfbsTj j[l4sf] nflu a}1flgs e"ld .d'bfosf] pTyfg sfo{ ug{ afbL ljsf.f]h d.dGjodf .'/lIft cNksfnLg cf>o . cfly{s jif{ @)^*. u|fdL0f tyf ljkGg dlxnfx?sf] ljsf. afbL .ldltsf ! xhf/ $ .DaGwL . .'b[9 ug{ Psåf/ s]Gb| dfkm{t kLl8t dlxnfx?nfO{ :jf:Yo .+rfngdf /x]sf . dlxnf j]rljvg / cGo n}+lus lx+.DjGwL d'2fx? l56f] sf/jfxL / lsgf/f ug{sf nflu b|"t .

s[lif k|.'/Iff.xsf/L .f/ 5'6sf . .fem]bf/Ldf s[lifoflGqs/0f dfkm{t pTkfbg ug{nfO{ cfjZos s[lif cf}hf/ cfoft ubf{ eG./sf/L :jfldTjdf /x]sf lgiqmLo Pj+ cg'Tkfbs s[lif tyf kz' ljsf. /f]huf/L l.xof]u pknAw u/fOg]5 .flos kz'kfns ls. cleofgnfO{ Aofks agfpg pGgt gZnsf efn]x?sf] cfoft ug{'sf cltl/Qm s[lqd uef{wfgsf] .'ljwfx?nfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpb} yk . kz'kfngtk{m gZn .fgnfO{ kz'lrlsT. kfFr} ljsf. 9 .+:yfx?. aLp nufotsf .flxt ul/g]5 .fynfO{ k|j4{g ug{ pknAw u/fOPsf .ldltn] k|fKt ug]{ cg'bfgdf s[lif.dlztf]i0f If]qx?df t/sf/Lsf] æd"n aLpÆ pTkfbg a9fpg ?s'd. kmfd{x?nfO{ .xsf/L dfkm{t kz' k|hgg s]Gb|sf] :yfkgf ul/g]5 .f/ .fgf] . /f]Nkf nufotsf If]qdf k|of]uzfnf :yfkgf.flos/0f ul/g]5 .'wf/ /fli6«o cleofg .DalGwt sfo{qmddf slDtdf !% k|ltzt 5'6\ofpg] Joj:yf ldnfOg]5 . cfoft k|lt:yfkg / lgof{t j[l4 ug{ .fy} l.f .xsf/L / lghLIf]qnfO{ pTk|]l/t ul/g]5 . kz'kfng ug{] .sx?sf] .+u .u/dfyfsf] prfO{ lgwf{/0f u/L k|df0fLs/0f ug{ cfjZos ah]6sf] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' . lxdfnL lhNnfx?df pGgt hftsf rf}kfofsf] Aoj.xof]u ul/g]5 .'ljwfnfO{ ufpF ufpFdf lj:tf/ ul/g]5 .'ljwfx? . If]qdf . v]tL tyf r/0f If]qsf] Aoj:yf ug{ cfjZos . aLp pTkfbg / KoflsË ug{ cg'bfg lbg] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf]5' .+3 .fj{hlgs—lghL .Fusf] .h{gf. s[lifdf Aoj.]jf k'¥ofpg'sf .fdGtjfbL s[lif k|0ffnLsf] cGTo u/L cfTdlge{/ cy{tGqsf] lgdf{0f ug{ s[lif If]qsf] ?kfGt/0f ul/g]5 .Dd dlxnfnfO{ lgo'Qm ug{] / o:tf] k|fljlws lzIffdf dlxnf egf{ clej[l4 ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' . .~rfng ug{ .fem]bf/Ldf s[lif kmfd{ v8f ug{ cfjZos .]jfdf dlxnf h]l6÷h]l6P tyf kz' lrlsT.+rfOsf nflu . cfocfh{g. cfufdL tLg jif{ leq vfBfGg nufot s[lif hGo j:t'df cfTdlge{/ aGg æpTkfbg j[l4 u/f}+ cfTdlge{/ agf}+Æ eGg] /fli6«o c7f]6 lnO{ s[lifnfO{ Joj.foLs/0f 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 d'n'ssf] vfB tyf kf]if0f . b'Uw pTkfbg / k|zf]wg Aoj.+Vof clej[l4 ug{ vfnL b/jGbLdf pknAw eP. .'lglZrt ul/g]5 . rSnfaGbL u/L 7"nf] kmfd{ v8f u/L lghL jf . k|To]s ufpF ljsf. s[lifsf] pTkfbg / pTkfbsTj j[l4 ug{ .xof]u pknAw u/fOg]5 .d"xdf rSnfaGbLdf cfwfl/t v]tL ug{] s[ifsx?nfO{ cg'bfgdf pknAw x'g] dn. s[lifIf]qsf] ?kfGt/0f / Aoj. cf}iflw.'ljwf k|bfg ul/g]5 .fem]bf/L / . b]zsf] .xsf/LnfO{ lglZrt cjlwsf] nflu ktL{ hldg lgMz'Ns pknJw u/fpg sfo{ljlw th{'df ul/g]5 .flos/0f Pj+ cfw'lgsLs/0f u/L pTkfbg tyf pTkfbsTj j[l4 ug{ rSnfaGbL v]tL k|0ffnLnfO{ k|f]T.48 /fli6«o :jfledfgsf] kl/rfossf] ?kdf /x]sf] . o.fy} 3fF.~rfng ul/g]5 .

'n / shf{sf] Aofhdf cg'bfg lbOg]5 . ul/g]5 .xof]u k'¥ofpg .fxg lbOg]5 .+af]wg sfo{qmdnfO{ s[ifs—d}qL 9+un] yk k|efjsf/L agfOg]5 .+/If0f / hnjfo' kl/jt{gaf6 s[lifdf kg{.xsf/L .56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 uf]7 esf/f] .fxg ul/g]5 . /f]u lgoGq0f.'ky d"Nodf pknAw u/fpg lb+Ob} cfPsf] cg'bfg /sddf j[l4 u/]sf] 5' .Gwfg sfo{qmdx? .. lrof. dnaLp 9'jfgL / l.+3nfO{ sf7df8f}+ pkTosfdf pko'Qm hldg pknAw u/fOg]5 .folgs / k|fËfl/s dn .xsf/L / lghL If]qn] tf]lsPsf] Ifdtf eGbf a9Lsf] zLt3/ lgdf{0f u/L . .h{gf ul/g]5 .x'lnot Aofhb/df C0f .'kf/L / dx k|zf]wg ug{] d]zLg cf}hf/sf] vl/b nufotsf] k"FhLut vr{df %) k|ltzt cg'bfg lbg] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' . kmnkm"n v]tLsf] .fgf ls.+rflnt vfB . s[ifsx?nfO{ Aofj. s[lif pTkfbg a9fpg /f.'wf/ tyf :ofpnf cflbjf6 k|fËfl/s Pj+ h}ljs dn pTkfbg / k|of]u sfo{qmdnfO{ k|f]T. s[lif ks]6 Onfsfx?df g.Dd pmhf{ pTkfbg ug{] 5'6[} cfof]hgfsf] lgdf{0f yflng]5 . cb'jf./ nufot s[lifIf]qsf] ljsf.fg .fgfls. t/fO{.+:yf dfkm{t .+rflnt cfof]hgfnfO{ cfufdL cfly{s jif{b]lv yk @% lhNnfdf lj:tf/ u/]sf] 5' ./x? l.|f]tsf] .'df cfTdlge{/ x'g] c7f]6sf . afnL tyf kz' aLdf ubf{ nfUg] lk|ldodsf] %) k|ltzt /sd cg'bfg lbg] Aoj:yfnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbPsf] 5' . pRr tyf dWo kxf8sf @# lhNnfsf s[ifsx?nfO{ aLp pTkfbg / e08f/0f.'df cfTdlge{/ sfo{qmdnfO{ cfjZos ah]6 Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' . cfufdL tLg jif{leq df. . o. æPs ufpF Ps pTkfbgÆ sfo{qmdnfO{ cem k|efjsf/L agfO ufpF 3/d} /f]huf/L / cfocfh{gsf cj. s[lif k|ljlwsf] ljsf.~rfng ul/g]5 .flos s[lifsf] nflu . If]qdf zLt3/ :yfkgf ub{} hfg] gLlt lnOg]5 .Sg] k|lts"n c. 10 .sf nflu cfjZos cg'.o d]ufjf6.sf nflu kz'kfns / df5fkfns s[ifsx?nfO{ .'ne C0f pknAw u/fOg]5 .xsf/L . h}ljs . .fy rfn" cfly{s jif{b]lv k|f/De ul/Psf] df. kfFr} ljsf. skmL.nfO{ rflxg] pmhf{sf] nflu Ps.flxt ug{ To.fg .+rfO . pGgt aLpljhg. s[lif yf]s ahf/sf] Aoj:yfsf nflu . o.+s6 .'ljwf pknAw u/fpg] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' .{/L :yfkgf ug{ k|f]T. s[ifsx?nfO{ pGgt aLpljhg vl/b d"Nodf .xsf/L . s[ifsx?nfO{ /f. o:tf If]qx?df k|zf]wg s]Gb| :yfkgf ug{ ah]6 ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5' .folgs dnsf] sf/vfgf :jb]zd} vf]Ng k|f]T.+:yfnfO{ cn}+rL.DefAo :yfgnfO{ ks]6 If]qsf] ?kdf ljsf. kz'gZn .fgf ls. dw]z / dWokxf8sf @% lhNnfx?sf s[lif pTkfbgx?sf] Eofn' r]g clej[l4df .d]t cg'bfg k|bfg ug{] yk Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' .'ljwf pknAw u/fpg .+rfng u/]df ljB't dx.sf nflu ?= # ca{ ah]6 5'6[ofPsf] 5' .'wf/.fgx?sf] .

xsf/Lsf] dfWodaf6 pTkfbs zlQmdf ?kfGt/0f ul/g]5 . hghflt. kmfd{ v8f ug{ ah]6 Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' .xsf/LnfO{ :yflkt ul/g]5 .xsf/L 3/3/df /f]huf/LÆ /fli6«o sfo{s|dnfO{ cleofgsf] ?kdf lj:tf/ ul/g]5 . kmnkm"n. dw]zL h:tf ju{.Sg] k|lts"n k|efjx? Go"gLs/0f ug{ z"Go hf]t k|fs[lts v]tLaf/] . e"ldlxg / cgf}krfl/s If]qdf sfd ug]{ >ldsnfO{ æ. . .dfj]z u/L ljiffbL k|of]u .+rflnt vfB k|zf]wg . a}+ssf] .flos .d'bfo / b'u{d If]qnfO{ .+:yfut tyf nufgL Ifdtf clej[l4 ul/g]5 . 11 .+ul7t u/L cfw'lgs Aoj.ndfg. rdf/.dL / a]df}.dL t/sf/L.a} lhNnfx?df :ofpsf] Joj. :yfgLo . sfdLx?sf] k/Dk/fut k]zfnfO{ Joj. k"FhL / >d pkof]u u/L . /0fgLlt / s[lifhGo pTkfbgsf] ahf/ Aoj:yfkg /0fgLlt tof/ ul/g]5 .h{gf / .xsf/LnfO{ pTkfbg j[l4.+zf]wg ul/g]5 . . åGåkLl8t.Lk.folgs dn / ljiffbLsf] c. d'. df}. cn}+rL v]tLdf nfUg] /f]usf] /f]syfdsf nflu pkrf/sf] Aoj:yf ldnfpg.'ljwf lbOg]5 . dlxnfx?sf] . e"ldlxg ls.xh t'Nofpg s[lif ljsf. bdfO{.+:yfx¿nfO{ kl/of]hgf k|:tfjsf] cfwf/df aLp k"FhL pknAw u/fOg]5 .fy} aLp k"FhL pknAw u/fOg]5 . hflt. k|s[lt / dfgj :jf:Yodf kg{. u/LaL tyf c.befj k|j4{g ug{] cfwf/zLnfsf] ?kdf ljsf. ljiffbLsf] k|of]usf] dfkb08 / To.Gwfg ul/g]5 . s[lif ljsf.xsf/L v]tL k|0ffnLdf l.xsf/L .foLs v]tL k|j4{g ug{.dfj]zL cfly{s cfwf/ lgdf{0f ug{] . :ofp cfTdlge{/ sfo{qmd cGtu{t dgfË.DefAotf cWoog / cg'.df hf]8 lbOg]5 .{/L :yfkgf ug{ / Onfddf cn}+rL ljsf.+rfOsf] Aoj:yfsf nflu cfwf vr{ .dfgtf Go"gLs/0f.|f]t.fwg. cfoft k|lt:yfkg.fg.+nUg x'g ljz]if cg'bfg / . d':tfË / s0ff{nLsf .sf] cg'udgsf] :ki6 Aoj:yf . Ifdtf / cfF6nfO{ a9fjf lbg dlxnfx¿åf/f . ljkGg d'.jn vDafsf] ?kdf .66 67 68 /f.x/ / kxf8sf .d"x.xsf/L s[lif yf]s tyf v'b|f ahf/ ljsf./sf/n] sfo{ljlw th{'df ug{]5 . s[lif C0fnfO{ .xsf/L sf]ifÆ v8f u/L sf]ifdfkm{t cfocfh{gsf] lqmofsnfkdf . lrof.DaGwL P]gdf cfjZos . .sf] /fli6«o d"nk|jfxaf6 k5fl8 kfl/Psf dlxnf. lnË. ug{ æufpF ufpFdf . lgof{t k|j4{g. blnt.Gt'lnt k|of]uaf6 e"ld.fodf ?kfGt/0f ug{ cg'bfg lbOg]5 .xsf/LnfO{ cy{tGqsf] Ps d'Vo vDjf x'g] u/L k|j4{g / lj:tf/ 69 70 71 72 73 ztfAbLof+}b]lv ljsf. . skmL / hl8a'6Lsf] v]tL / df5f tyf kz'kfng ug{ rfxg] x?jfr?jf.xsf/Ldf . s[ifsx?nfO{ cg'bfg .'ljwf pknAw u/fpg g]kfn . lk5l8Psf ju{./sf/n] Aoxf]g]{ Joj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' . jfbL / u|fdL0f e"ldxLg dlxnfx?nfO{ . cn}+rL g. . lk58f ju{. cfufdL cfly{s jif{ ævfB tyf kf]if0f of]hgfÆ th{'df u/L sfof{Gjogdf NofOg]5 .fsL{. /f]huf/L l. . t/fO{sf 8f]d.x'lnot b/sf] C0fsf .fdflhs Gofo / . zlxb kl/jf/.

ldltdf cTofjZos pkef]Uo j:t' .+:yfx?n] b'UwhGo kbfy{ lr:ofg s]Gb| / k|zf]wg ug{].xsf/L cleofgnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpFg df}h'bf P]g lgoddf cfjZos .+:yfx?sf] Ifdtf clej[l4df hf]8 lbOg]5 . k|To]s ufpF ljsf.f/ 5'6 lbOg]5 .+nUgtfdf oftfoft . y|].fg lrof .d"xn] .+zf]wg ul/g]5 .'ky d"Nodf laqmL ug]{ tyf :yfgLo:t/df pTkflbt j:t'x? vl/b u/L ahf/.~rfng ug{ rfx]df kl/of]hgfsf] cf}lrTo x]/L To.xsf/L :yfkgf u/L 9'jfgL . .74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 emfkfsf] k[YjL gu/df aGg uO/x]sf] . art tyf C0f .fgf 6'qmf hldg ePsf .xsf/L .8s..'ljwf pknAw u/fpg g]kfn .xsf/L .fgf ls.xsf/L k|0ffnLdf v]tL u/]df 6«]S6/.'zf.xsf/LnfO{ sf/vfgf :yfkgf ug{ k"FhLut cg'bfg / .fwg k}7f/L ug{ eG.x'lnotk"0f{ shf{ pknAw u/fOg]5 .f/ 5'6 / cg'bfg . .+3÷. .xsf/L dxf.DalGwt . vf]lnPsf 6«ofsx? :t/f]Gglt ug{ / 3'ld{—v'sf]{6 / afUn'Ë—a'lt{afË v08df sfnf]kq] z'? ug{sf nflu ?= ! ca{ &% s/f]8 ah]6 ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5' . cToflws uf]ne]8f pTkfbg x'g] .fgf—.Fu .+:yfnfO{ eG.xsf/Ldf ljQLo . kz'kfns jf b'Uw . t/sf/L tyf kmnkm"n k|zf]wg ug{] d]zLg cf}hf/ cfoft ubf{ eG.xsf/L cfGbf]ng.L . 82 k"j{—klZrd kxf8L>[+vnfsf] hLjg/]vfsf] ?kdf lgdf{0ffwLg dWokxf8L nf]sdfu{ -k'iknfn dfu{_ sf] afFsL 6«ofs vf]Ng. 12 .fgf ls.nf{xLsf] nfnaGbLdf .f/ 5'6 lbOg]5 .x/L If]qdf oftfoft dhb'/x?s} .~rfng u/]df To:tf] .fgx?sf] .xsf/LnfO{ cf}lrTo x]/L 9'jfgL .xsf/L :yfkgf u/L 7"nf a.f/ 5'6 lbOg]5 . .f/ . tyf 6\ofS.Dd k'¥ofpgsf] nflu ax'p2]ZoLo . .n :yfkgf u/]df To:tf] cf}iflw k.nsf] nflu aLp k"FhL pknJw u/fOg]5 . pTkfbg sf/vfgf :yfkgf ug{] .DefAotf cWoog ul/g]5 ./sf/n] sfo{ljlw th{'df ug{]5 .g sfod ug{ cg'udg k|0ffnLnfO{ .Gw'kfNrf]s—g'jfsf]6—wflbË— uf]/vf—nDh'ª—sf:sL x'Fb} hfg] a}slNks dfu{sf] . .zQm agfOg]5 ./.]jf s]Gb| jf cf}iflw k.xsf/L sf/vfgfsf] lgdf{0f ug{ . kfj/ l6n/. /fli6«o . k'n / cGo k"jf{wf/sf] ljsf. sf7df8f}+sf] oftfoftsf] rfk 36fpg / nf]sdfu{nfO{ 5f]6f] b'/Lsf] agfpg l.xsf/Lx?n] ufpFdf e]6]/g/L . .+3sf] s]Gb|df lgdf{0f ug]{ ejgsf] nflu Ps s/f]8 ?k}+of pknAw u/fOg]5 . sf7df8f}+ pkTosf / . vfB.'ljwf lbOg]5 .fwgdf eG.xof]u pknAw u/fOg]5 . wfg s'6\g] ldn / cfjZos d]lzg/L tyf pks/0fx?sf] k}7f/Ldf cf}lrTosf cfwf/df eG./L vl/b ul/g] oftfoftsf .

'?ª dfu{ lgdf{0f ug{] sfo{ oyfzL3| cf/De ul/g]5 .8s v08sf] lgdf{0f sfo{ cl3 a9fOg]5 .ldsf]6.8snfO{ k|fyldstfdf /fvL lgdf{0f sfo{ cl3 a9fOg]5 . nfdf].8snfO{ ^ n]gdf lj:tf/ ug{ cfufdL cfly{s jif{b]lv lgdf{0f z'? ul/g]5 . lrtjgsf] d+unk'/—z'qmgu/ k|r08 dfu{sf] :t/f]Gglt ul/g]5 .dn6f/L—Ko"7fg—bfË.Lk'/—. cf]nfËr'Ë uf]nf. r}gk'/—tfSnfsf]6.df kg{] k'nsf] lgdf{0f sfo{ l56f] eGbf l56f] . jL/uGh—kyn}of / a]nlxof—a'6jn .DkGg ul/g]5 . :ofk|m'a]. ug{] qmddf rqmky lgdf{0f ug{ ah]6sf] Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' . 8f]Nkf—dl/d / hfh/sf]6—b'g} df]6/af6f]sf] 6«\ofs vf]Ng] sfo{nfO{ tLj|tf lbOg]5 .]g / . bfËsf] 3f]/fxL—yjfË zlxbdfu{sf] afFsL 6«ofs vf]Ng] sfo{ .fy} oL nf]sdfu{x?nfO{ x'nfsL /fhdfu{.fFv'—sfpn].8s k'¥ofpg lnld—nfKrf— l. a. . a]+zLzx/—rfd] .DkGg ug{ ?= $ ca{ (* s/f]8 ah]6 5'6\ofPsf] 5' . tD3f. 6f]vf—u'h{] eGHofË. dfN9'Ëf—Ko"7fg. gfu9'Ëf–gf}aL.DkGg ug{ cfjZos ah]6 ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5' .'v{]t— l.8ssf] lgdf{0f sfo{ cufl8 a9fOg]5 . lxn]kfgL—lbSt]n. hgsk'/ gu/kflnsfsf] k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0fdf hf]8 lbOg]5 .Nn]/L .ofsf]6.Ddsf] t/fO{—dw]zdf . sf]zL sf]/L8f]/ -3'dL{—rt/f_ v08sf] 6«ofs vf]Ng.8s lgdf{0f sfo{ .DkGg ug{ tyf k'nx?sf] lgdf{0f sfo{nfO{ k|fyldstfdf /fv]sf] 5' . 13 . d'u'sf] udu9L—GofSr] nfUdf. d':tfË—8f]Nkf. 3f]/fxL gu/kflnsfnfO{ cfw'lgs .LtfkfOnf–wfs]{ .x/sf] ?kdf ljsf. /fS.}jif{ :t/f]Ggltsf] sfo{ z'? ul/g]5 .] / ledkm]bL–x]6f}8f .Nofg. .Fu hf]8g] Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 .— r'Dr]t—5]sDkf/.—l. l/8L—aNsf]6—ljh'jf/—df8Lrf}/— .L—/. la/f6gu/—lsdfyf+sf nf]sdfu{ -sf]zL nf]sdfu{_ sf] lgdf{0f sfo{ cl3 a9fOg]5 .8sdf a]+zLzx/af6 o.lb{jf.8s lgdf{0f sfo{ cfufdL cfly{s jif{leq .b/d'sfd g5f]Psf lhNnfx?df @ jif{leqdf . blIf0f 9f]sf—.8s rf}8f ug{] sfo{ k|f/De ul/g]5 .83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 emfkfb]lv sGrgk'/.'v{]t . l. df]6/ af6f]n] . s0ff{nL sf]l/8f]/sf] . 3f]/fxLb]lv 3lt{ufpF v08df sfnf]kq] ug{] sfo{ z'? ul/g]5 .'jfu9L .fFkm]au/—dft{8L. w/fg—rt/f—s6f/L— x]6f}8f / gf/bd'gL y'n'Ë dfu{ -n]u'jf3f6—ef]hk'/_ lgdf{0f ug{ ah]6sf] Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' . .fFkm]ju/—dËn. cd]lnof—t'n.DkGg ul/g]5 .fF3'—lh/L .Dk"0f{ 6«ofs vf]Ng] sfo{ cfufdL cfly{s jif{leq .Fu 5f]6f] b'/L d} hf]8g] sf7df8f}+—t/fO{÷dw]z b|'t dfu{sf] . k|d'v Aofkfl/s dfu{x?sf] ?kdf /x]sf /fgL—O6x/L—w/fg.Nofg—. rGb|lgufxk'/—uf}/.]—d+unaf/]—g]kfn6f/. .Gtk'/—t]x|y'd.DkGg ul/g]5 .8sx?sf] :t/f]Gglt cfufdL cfly{s jif{ .d[l4sf] jfxssf] ?kdf /x]sf] x'nfsL /fhdfu{ / To. pQ/—blIf0f nf]sdfu{x?sf] lgdf{0f sfo{nfO{ tLa|tf lbg'sf . lh/L—. /fhwfgLnfO{ t/fO{—dw]z.

k6s].'v{]tsf] e]/L k'n./sf/n] s]Gb|Lo. nf]sdfu{ Pj+ lhNnf . sf7df8f}+df ˆnfO{ cf]e/sf] lgdf{0f sfo{ b|'t ultsf .8ssf] lgdf{0f sfo{ ./sf/ / z}lIfs k|fl1s . 7"nf ef}lts k"jf{wf/ cfof]hgfx?sf] .dod} .f}o{ pmhf{. o:tf cfof]hgfx?sf nflu dxTjk"0f{ lg0f{ox? ug{ æzL3| lg0f{o k|0ffnLÆ cjnDag ul/g]5 .DkGg ul/g]5 .fosf] lj:tf/nfO{ nlIft u/L rfn" cfly{s jif{b]lv .Dd lj:tf/ ul/g]5 .dod} .8sx?sf] :t/f]Gglt u/L cfjfudgdf b]lvPsf] sl7gfOnfO{ . If]qLo.DaGwL sfo{x? of]hgfa4?kn] .'ljwfhgs agfpgsf nflu ?= # ca{ !) s/f]8 ah]6 Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' . ko{6g Aoj.+rfO tyf vlgh cGj]if0f / pTvgg\ sfo{df ..DefAotf cWoog sfo{ z'? ul/g]5 . z'? ug{ cfjZos ah]6 ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5' . o:tf k"jf{wf/ lgwf{l/t .}u/L /fgL—l.DkGg u/L oftfoft .~rfngsf nflu .8s tyf k'n lgdf{0f Pj+ dd{tsf] u'0f:t/ / dfkb08 tf]Sg]5 .+rflnt cfof]hgfx?sf] k|fljlws k/LIf0f. sf7df8f} nufot .8s k'nx? lgdf{0f ug{ ?= @ ca{ ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5' . l. . k"j{ klZrd t/fO{ /]ndfu{ lgdf{0fsf] sfo{nfO{ cl3 a9fOg]5 .DkGg ul/g]5 .+:yfut dfWodaf6 ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 .]jfnfO{ jlb{jf. ko{6g . sf]zL gbL nufotsf 7"nf gbLdf hndfu{sf] ljsf.xh agfOg]5 . g]kfn—ef/t . lhNnf:t/sf .DkGg ug{sf nflu ah]6sf] Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' . cg'udg / d"Nof+sg Aoj:yfnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfOg]5 . .8s lj:tf/ ug{ z'? ul/Psf cfof]hgfx? .92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 b'u{d u|fdL0f If]qdf . /0fgLlts dxTjsf k'/fgf k'nx?dWo] wgu9Lsf] uf]bfj/L k'n.8sx? / nf]sdfu{x?sf] lgoldt. pmhf{ .+rfng 5'6[} .'?jft ul/Psf ko{6g .'/lIft / .Ldf If]qdf klxrfg ePsf cGo /]ndfu{x?sf] lj:t[t cWoog sfo{nfO{ tLa|tf lbOg]5 . g]kfn hogu/—hgsk'/ /]Nj] . .x/L If]qsf . o.]tL nf]sdfu{ / dxfsfnL nf]sdfu{sf] lgdf{0fsf nflu ?= * s/f]8 5'6\ofPsf] 5' . . sf7df8f}+ pkTosfdf d]6«f]÷df]gf]/]n .+:yfaLr xft]dfnf] ug]{ cleofg z'? ul/g]5 . cfsl:ds dd{t / k'glg{df{0f tyf k'g:yf{kgf .8ssf nflu yk ah]6sf] Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' .]jf .fy cufl8 a9fOg]5 .'Ng] Aoj:yf ul/g]5 . /fhwfgL nufotsf k|d'v zx/x?sf] k|j]z dfu{x?sf] n]g lj:tf/ / zx/sf leqL .lsofxL—lj/f6gu/ /]Nj] . d'n'ssf] k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f. wfs{] tyf d'lUnËsf k'nx?sf] dd{t sfo{ cfufdL cfly{s jif{ . .doeGbf cufa} lju|] eTs]df lgdf{0fdf .+nUg 7]s]bf/af6 Ifltk"lt{ c. hnljB't\.]jfnfO{ .+s6 lgjf/0f cleofg 14 . s~rgk'/sf] rfFbgL bf]wf/f k'n lgdf{0f sfo{ . If]qLo .b/d'sfd hf]8g] .]jfsf] lgdf{0f sfo{ z'? ul/g]5 . tfbL.DkGg x'g] Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 .8ssf nflu yk ah]6sf] Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' .

fxg k|bfg ul/g]5 .fxg ul/g]5 .DkGg æa'9Lu08sL len]hÆ lgdf{0f ug{] k|aGw u/]sf] 5' .fy} cfjZos hUuf .Ddsf] n3' hnljB't cfof]hgf .'Svf ofddf ljB't pTkfbg / dfudf /x]sf] c.Gt'ngnfO{ Go"gLs/0f ug{ 7"nf hnfzoo'Qm cfof]hgfx?sf] sfof{GjognfO{ k|fyldstf lbg'sf] .ldlt u7g ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' .+oGq lgdf{0f ug{] p2]Zon] ?= cf7 ca{ r'Qmf k"FhL /fvL hnljB't ljsf. o.+/If0f / Aojl:yt k'gjf{.o d]ufjf6sf] a'9Lu08sL hnfzoo'Qm cfof]hgfsf] lj:t[t kl/of]hgf k|ltj]bg -l8=lk=cf/=_ tof/Lsf] nflu cfufdL cfly{s jif{df sfo{ z'? ug{ ah]6 ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5' . ljZj.'ljwfo'Qm s/ k|0ffnL / nufgL lkmtf{ n}hfg kfpg] .dGjonfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg tyf ljBdfg ljleGg k|lqmofut emd]nfx?nfO{ Go"gLs/0f ug{ Psåf/ OsfO{sf] :yfkgf u/L cfof]hgfx?sf] sfof{Gjog k|lqmofnfO{ .} jif{ cWoog sfo{ k|f/De u/L k|To]s bz jif{df cBfjlws ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 .+s6 lgjf/0f sfo{qmddf pNn]v eP adf]lhd Ps d]ufjf6. jiff{ / .xof]u h'6fOg]5 .'ljwf.nfO{ pRr k|fyldstfdf /fv]sf] 5' . cfufdL tLgjif{leq pQm cfof]hgfnfO{ sfof{Gjogsf] r/0fdf k'¥ofOg]5 . hnljB'tsf] s'n .xh agfOg]5 .flxt /x]sf] d}n] kfPsf] 5' . g]kfnsf] pmhf{ cfof]hgfx?df nufgL ug{ :jb]zL tyf ljb]zL nufgLstf{x? cToGt pT./n Pj+ .x'lnot / .DaGwL . hnljB't cfof]hgfx?sf] cg'dlt kq k|bfg ug{] k|lqmofnfO{ a}1flgs / kf/bzL{ agfpFb} pmhf{ .+s6 lgjf/0fsf ./sf/L lgsfox? aLrsf] .'ljwfsf] e/k'/ pkof]u ug{ .fwg kl/rfngsf] k|efjsf/L ./sf/sf] wf/0ff / efjL sfo{qmd ./sf/ b[9tfk"j{s nfu]sf] 5 . .DefAo Ifdtf olsg ug{ o. tyf nufgL sDkgL btf{ ul/Psf]5 . cf}Bf]lus zflGt. pmhf{df nufgL a9fpg cfGtl/s / jfXo .fj{hlgs hfgsf/L jQmAo d}n] o. 5 . pmhf{ . pQm cfof]hgf sfof{Gjogsf] nflu 5'6[} ljsf.a} /fhgLlts bnx?nfO{ cfAxfg ub{5' . /fli6«o dxTjsf] of] sfo{df cf—cfkmgf] tkm{af6 .dIf @)^& r}t ( ut] k|:t't u/]sf] lyPF . k|efljt 3/kl/jf/sf] k'gjf{.sf] nflu u'?of]hgf tof/ ul/g]5 .102 103 104 105 106 107 108 pmhf{ ljsf.+:yfnfO{ k|f]T.|f]t .xof]u k'¥ofpg . 15 .gLo .sf] nflu cfjZos gLlt agfOg]5 .bg .d:of xn ug{ tTsfn s]xL n3'.+:yfsf] .Ddflgt . dWo / bL3{sfnLg lx.fjn] ljB't .sf nflu ldq/fi6« / bft[ .DjGwdf .'/Iff Aoj:yf. hnljB't ljsf.xh Aoj:yf ldnfP/ nufgL pTk|]/s jftfj/0f lgdf{0f ug{ . pmhf{ cfof]hgfx?sf] sfof{Gjogsf] nflu ljleGg . .DkGg x'g] cfof]hgfx?nfO{ yk k|f]T. demf}nf / 7'nf ljB't kl/of]hgfx¿ z'? ul/g]5 .+s6sfnleq lgdf{0f .xsf/LnfO{ k|:tfj ul/Psf] .sf] nflu ljz]if .~rfng ug{] . pmhf{ . .xsf/L . oL sfo{qmd sfof{Gjogsf nflu cfjZos ah]6sf] Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' .

DkGg ul/g]5 . sflnu08sL.~rfngdf cfpg] k~r]Zj/ cfof]hgf sfof{Gjogsf nflu jt{dfg . ! .s]sf rf/j6fdWo] dflyNnf] !$ bzdna ^ d]ufjf6sf] . tfdfsf]zL kfFrf}sf] . :yfgLo lgsfo / ljleGg .109 110 111 112 113 114 115 & .dembf/Lkqdf x:tfIf/ eO. ! . . ldq/fi6« ef/tsf] .xeflutfdf hgtfsf] hnljB't sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog ul/g]5 . ! .+/rgf lgdf{0f sfo{ rfn" cfly{s jif{b]lv k|f/De ePsf]df of] cfof]hgfnfO{ cfly{s jif{ @)&!.a} ufpF pHofnf] agfpFÆ eGg] rfxgfnfO{ . cGo /fi6« .]tL. lrlnd] hnljB't sDkgL / sd{rf/L . lnv'—% nufotsf hnfzoo'Qm cfof]hgfx?sf] yk cWoog u/L sfof{Gjog k|lqmof cl3 a9fOg]5 . lr./sf/n] k|fyldstf lbg]5 . /fx'3f6. To:t}. (! d]ufjf6sf] OGb|fjtL.|f].fsf/ ug{ cfufdL % jif{ leq k|To]s 3/w'/L.fy} cGo cfjZos Joj:yfx? ldnfOPsf]5 .xof]udf .o %) d]ufjf6sf] klZrd . .f~h]g cfof]hgfx?sf] l.Sg] u/L cfufdL cfly{s jif{ 5'6[} Ps gofF hnljB't cfof]hgf sfof{Gjogdf NofOg]5 . s0ff{nL.|f]t h'6fO{ dflyNnf] df]bL æPÆ / dflyNnf] lqz'nL—# æaLÆ sf] lgdf{0f sfo{ klg cfufdL cfly{s jif{b]lv z'? ul/g]5 .xsf/L .Dd ljB't kx'Fr lj:tf/ ug{ /fli6«o u|fdL0f ljB'tLs/0fsf] u'?of]hgf tof/ ul/g]5 .+:yfsf] k|ToIf . cfGtl/s .Sg] Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 . 16 . lghfdtL sd{rf/Lx?af6 jflif{s ?kdf !@ ls:tf.~rosf]if aLr C0f . b'wsf]zL.len . u|fdL0f ljB'tLs/0fnfO{ k|efjsf/L 9Ën] sfof{Gjog ug{ 5'6[} . sGsfO{.o @ d]ufjf6sf] dWoef]6]sf]zL / ! . lgl:bkgfxf.o @& d]ufjf6sf] dflyNnf] .o %^ d]ufjf6 Ifdtfsf] tfdfsf]zL hnljB't cfof]hgfsf] d'Vo l. % .d]t oxL 9fFrfdf nufgL ug{. rd]lnof / dflyNnf] lqz'nL—# æPÆ hnljB't cfof]hgfx?sf] lgdf{0f sfo{nfO{ tLa|tf lbOg]5 .len sfo{sf] lgdf{0fsfo{ k|f/De ul/g]5 . # .Dddf .]tL.]jsx?n] .f~h]g / $@ bzdna % d]ufjf6sf] .o %) d]ufjf6sf] tdf]/.o d]ufjf6sf] pQ/u+uf.fj{hlgs . afudtL. $ .o *) d]ufjf6sf] cfFwLvf]nf.o d]ufjf6sf] /.'jfu9L cfof]hgfx?sf] lj:t[t kl/of]hgf k|ltj]bg tyf cGo lgdf{0f k"j{tof/Lsf sfo{x? ul/g]5 .+/rgf lgdf{0f ul/g]5 . æ.jf{lws /fli6«o dxTj /fVg] $ . lgdf{0ffwLg hnljB't tyf k|zf/0f cfof]hgfx?sf] lgdf{0fnfO{ tLa|tf lbOg]5 .DkGg ug{ nufgLsf . s'n]vfgL t].Dddf slDtdf Ps dlxgfsf] tna z]o/ nufgL ug{.&@ .o d]ufjf6sf] gnl.+uf8.DefAotf cWoog cfufdL cfly{s jif{ leq .+:yfdf /x]sf] hu]8f k"FhLnfO{ hnljB't pTkfbgdf nufgL ug{] / ljt/0fdf .fkfgL.xefuL u/fpg] gLlt cjnDag ul/g]5 .

d:of{ª\bL.'b[9Ls/0f / lj:tf/df . /fli6«o ljB't k|zf/0f k|0ffnLsf] .fd'bflos ljt/s .'wf/ sfo{x? cleofgs} ?kdf yflng]5 . tL dWo] 9Ns]jf/–leQfdf]8–d'Hhkm/k'/ k|.Def/ nufotsf cfjZos .dfh lgdf{0f u/f}+Æ eGg] cfAxfgsf .f/0f nfOgx? k|fyldstfsf .+:yfx?nfO{ x:tfGt/0f ug{ k|f]T.'gf}nL–uf]/vk'/. lghL If]qaf6 pTkflbt ljB't k|.{+/rgf e}.+3. g]kfn– ef/t aLr ljB't Jofkf/ k|of]hgsf nflu $ . xfn .o d]ufjf6 ljB't pTkfbg ug{] kl/of]hgfdf nufgL ug{ cfXjfg ub{5' .Eo .fd'bflos .fy lgdf{0f ul/g]5 .f/0f nfOgsf] lgdf{0f sfo{ z'? ul/g]5 . ljB't r'xfj6nfO{ Go"gLs/0f ug{ æljB't rf]/L aGb u/f}+.f/0fsf nflu sfnLu08sL.~rfng ul/g]5 .s]kl5 hn.fxg ul/g]5 .fy r'xfj6 lgoGq0f sfo{nfO{ cleofgsf ?kdf cl3 a9fpg] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' .~rfng ug{ dd{t . u}/ cfjf.~rfngdf /x]sf ljB't pTkfbg s]Gb|x?nfO{ k"0f{ Ifdtfdf .|f]t Joj:yfkg .|f]t pkof]usf cfwf/x? ljsl.f}o{ aQLdf ?kfGtl/t ug]{ sfo{ tTsfn} k|f/De ul/g]5 . /fhgLlts bn.DaGwL cWoog ul/g]5 .+rfng ul/g]5 . cleofgdf :yfgLo lgsfo. ubf{ ljB'tsf] afFsL aSof}tf g/x]sf] k|df0f k]z ug{'kg{] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' . sf]zL / sfa]nL sf]l/8f]/ nufotsf k|.j{. kqsf/.fwf/0f .+nUg u/L Pp6f 7"nf] kl/of]hgf .a}af6 .DkGg ul/g]5 .t ug{ hn. 17 . ljB'tLs/0f ePsf 3/hUuf gfd. pmhf{sf] cfk"lt{ / vkt cj:yfsf] ljZn]if0f u/L /fli6«o PsLs[t pmhf{ art /0fgLlt th{'df ul/g]5 .+3Lo :j?kdf /fHosf] k'g.xof]usf] ck]Iff u/]sf] 5' .LdfGts[t / nf]kf]Gd'v kl/jf/x?nfO{ ljB't h8fg z'Nsdf ljz]if 5'6sf] Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 . . .+:yfut . o.8s jQL h8fg ug{ hgtfsf] /x/ pHofnf] zx/ sfo{qmd .+hfn b]ze/ lj:tf/ ug{ /fli6«o k|zf/0f nfO{g u'?of]hgf tof/ ul/g]5 .Lo g]kfnLx?nfO{ ! . b'xjL–hf]ujgL–k"l0f{of / 9Ns]j/–leQfdf]8–d'Hhkm/k'/ k|. k|zf. ./sf/n] hf]8 lbg]5 .+:yfx?nfO{ To:tf If]qdf ljB't lj:tf/ ubf{ nfUg] vr{sf] () k|ltzt cg'bfg pknAw u/fpg] Joj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' . clt . cfufdL cfly{s jif{leq ljB't gk'u]sf If]qdf ljB't ljt/0f ug]{ sfo{ . sf7df8f}+ pkTosf nufot b]zsf d'Vo zx/x?df /fte/ glgEg] u/L gofF k|ljlw dfkm{t . .Dd . g]kfn ljB't k|flws/0fsf] .g. o:tf . lg/k]If u/LaLsf] /]vfd'gL /x]sf blnt.+:yf / .+/rgfdf cfd"n kl/jt{g ul/g]5 .116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 b]ze/Lsf OR5's g]kfnL gful/snfO{ .8s aQLnfO{ ln8 aQL / .o s]=eL= Ifdtfsf a'6jn–.f/L jf /lhi6«]zg kf.f/0f nfO{gsf] lgdf{0fsfo{ cfly{s jif{ @)&). k|zf/0f nfOgx?sf] .&! . sf7df8f}+ pkTosfaf6 z'? u/L qmdzM b]ze/Ls} .'/Iff lgsfo.

e"ldut l.dfwfg ug{ ef}uf]lns cjl:ylt cg's"nsf gofF k|ljlwdf cfwfl/t yf]kf l.fgf l.6f/.fgf.lDd>0f /x]sf] bfË pkTosfdf lj:t[t l.fy z'? ul/Psf] l. ljut jif{b]lv lgdf{0fsfo{ z'? ePsf demf}nf l.+rfO cfof]hgfsf nflu ?= &* s/f]8 ah]6 5'6\ofPsf] 5' .+rfO . .f/L6f/.+rfO k'g:yf{kgf sfo{ k|f/De ul/g]5 .fj{hlgs lghL .+rfO / gbL lgoGq0f 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 t/fO{ dw]z / kxf8sf .~rfng ul/g]5 .+rfO cfof]hgfx? . /f]Nkfsf] v'ËL.Nofg6f/. klZrd t/fO{sf] #% xhf/ % . 18 .dod} k"/f ug{ ?= (( s/f]8 ah]6 Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' . / km]jf.o x]S6/df l.'ljwf lj:tf/ ug{ t6jGw lgdf{0f sfo{ cleofgsf] ?kdf . s}nfnL lhNnfsf] /fgLhd/f–s'nl/of l.'ljwf pknAw u/fpg cfufdL jif{ wflbªsf] .'ljwf k'¥ofpg] nIosf.+rfng u/L cfufdL & jif{ leq .L.DefAotf cWoog u/L sfof{Gjog yflng]5 . .S6f l.+rfO cfof]hgfx?sf] l.+rfO . pi0f. sfnLu08sL–gjnk/f. k"j{ d]rLb]lv klZrd dxfsfnL. kj{tsf] kmn]jf. afFs] / alb{of If]qsf ^) xhf/ x]S6/ hldgdf l. lqz'nL–lrtjg.Lsf] 8]9ufpF6f/. Ko"7fgsf] .{g ax'p2]ZoLo cfof]hgfsf] lgdf{0f z'? ul/g]5 .+rfO cfof]hgf sfof{Gjog ul/g]5 . .DefAo 7xl/Psf cfof]hgfx?sf] lj:t[t kl/of]hgf k|:tfj tof/ ul/g]5 .+rfO / kf]v/L k|0ffnLsf] k|of]unfO{ cleofgs} ?kdf lj:tf/ ul/g]5 . .+rfO cfof]hgf.+rfO .fgf tyf demf}nf l.a} s[lif e"lddf l. gjnk/f.+rfO .fem]bf/Ldf .'gsf]zL–sdnf / tdf]/–df]/ª 8fOe.DkGg ug{ / gofF cfof]hgfx? klxrfg u/L k|f/De ug{ ah]6sf] Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' . cGo afFsL sfo{x? lgwf{l/t .flos/0f ug{ tTsfn n3'.DefAo s[lif e"ldx?df ef}uf]lns cjl:ylt cg'. cfufdL cfly{s jif{df t/fO leqL dw]z / kxf8sf @^ lhNnfx?df ( xhf/ j6f e"ldut :ofnf] 6\o'jj]n / l8k6\o'jj]n h8fg ul/g]5 .+rfO .+rfO cfof]hgfsf] !% lsnf]ld6/ d"n gx/ lgdf{0f sfo{ cfufdL cfly{s jif{leq .'lawf lj:tf/ ul/g]5 .'wf/ u/L l.DefJotf cWoog sfo{ z['? ul/g]5 . s[lifsf] Aoj.+rfO . kfNkfsf] /fdk'/ kmfF6 / :ofª\hfsf] rfkfsf]6 6f/ l.+rfO cfof]hgf / 7"nf l.l.'ljwf lj:tf/ ug{] / $* d]ufjf6 ljB't pTkfbg ug{] nIo /flvPsf] e]/L–aaO{ 8fOe. . a]ugf. dWo kxf8L e]usf vfB e08f/sf] ?kdf k|lz4 6f/ tyf kmfF6x?df l.]jf lj:tf/ ug{] u/L l.{g cfof]hgfx?sf] .+rfOsf] . demf}nf / 7"nf l.Dd gbL lgoGq0f / l.+rfO cfof]hgfx¿sf] dd{t .+rfO cfof]hgfx? . pkf]i0f / zLtf]i0f hnjfo'sf] . tgx'Fsf] /D3f6f/.+rfO . sfnLu08sL–ltgfp.DkGg x'g]5 .d:ofnfO{ . / UofFbL ?s'dsf] rf}/hxf/L6f/.+rfOsf sfo{qmd cl3 a9fPsf] 5' . ndh'ªsf] /fOgf. kxf8L If]qsf s[ifsx?n] ef]Ug' kl//x]sf] l.fgf—. hgtfsf] t6jGw sfo{qmdnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbPsf] 5' .fy}. sf:sLsf] ljhok'/.f/sf] .

Sg] u/L ljb]zL .f}Gbo{. o'jf :j/f]huf/ sfo{qmd 136 s[lif. . . -v_ o'jfju{df pBdzLntf / .x/ / kxf8sf sfdL. -3_ l/S. ."n 5'6 lbg'sf . dlxnf.fj{hlgs.xsf/L / lghL If]qsf] .+rfng ug{] k|:tfj u/]sf] 5' . r]kfË tyf /fp6] . bdfO{.L cfoftdf nfUg] eG. 6f/. k"j{tof/L tyf k'g:yf{kgf sfo{nfO{ Aoj:yfkg ug{ ljkb hf]lvd Aoj:yfkg .]jf Aoj.df o'jf :j/f]huf/ sfo{qmdnfO{ /fli6«o cleofgsf] ?kdf lj:tf/ ul/g]5 .f/ dx. skfn sf6\g].L hghflt.a} gbL lgoGq0f ul/.xsf/L / lghL If]q dfkm{t Aofks?kdf /f]huf/L l. k"jf{wf/ ljsf.Lk ljsf. cfof]hgf dfkm{t 7"nf] ./sf/L.foLx?sf af/]df 1fg. -u_ k/Dk/fut .fy o'jf zlQmnfO{ :j/f]huf/sf] cj.DaGwL lgMz'Ns tflnd lbOg]5 . df6f] k/LIf0f nufotsf .fy .L rnfpg] Aoj.fo . .flos v]tL.d]t h'6fO{ gbL lgoGq0f. æ/fi6«sf] .+rfng ug{ ljgflwtf] .'/Iffsf] klxnf] dfWod ePsfn] gful/sx?sf] /f]huf/Ldf kx'Fr lj:tf/ ug{ .+/If0f / pkof]usf] tTsfnLg. -ª_ afbL .h{gf ug{ . åGåkLl8t tyf z}lIfs o'jf j]/f]huf/nfO{ nlIft u/L Aoj. d'. ahf/ ./sf/n] hf]8 lbg]5 . a:tL. cGtu{t b]xfosf sfo{qmdx? . blnt. .fsL{.d'bfosf o'jfn] .fy} 6\ofS. ug{ Aoj.L vl/b ug{ . 19 ./sf/L.+o'Qm k|of. dWosfnLg / bL3{sfnLg sfo{of]hgf . .134 135 k|fs[lts k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f.fodf cfslif{t ug{ pGgt aLp / k|ljlwsf] k|of]uaf6 clwstd pTkfbg lbO{ /x]sf s[lif Aoj.DaGwL P]g th{'df ul/g]5 .f dhb'/nfO{ l/S. . kz'kfng. cflbjf. .a} If]qaf6 pko'Qm jftfj/0f l.Dd C0f pknAw u/fOg]5 . s[lifhGo pBf]u.dflxt ul/g]5 .h{gf 137 /f]huf/L cfly{s . o'jfx?nfO{ s[lif Aoj.Lk ePsf t/fO{sf 8f]d.x'lnotk"0f{ Aofhb/df C0f pknAw u/fOg]5 .f vl/b ug{ .fosf] ?kdf ljsl.ft jif{ leqdf b]ze/Lsf .Lk / cg'ejsf] cfbfg k|bfg u/fpg cjnf]sg e|d0f u/fOg]5 .lxtsf] u'?of]hgf th{'df ul/g]5 .xfotf .d"x agfO{ 6\ofS. 3/]n' pBf]u. rdf/.f dflns agfpg] cleofg cGtu{t l/S.+rfng / Aoj:yfkg .+rfng ug{ rfx]df cf}lrTo x]/L 6\ofS.x'nLotk"0f{ Aofhb/df C0f pknAw u/fOg]5 ./ pknAw u/fpb} /fi6« lgdf{0f cleofgdf kl/rfng ug{ .fo .fo . -s_ cfly{s ?kdf k5fl8 k/]sf ljkGg ju{. pBf]u. .d'bfosf o'jfsf] k]zfnfO{ cfw'lgs Aoj.+/If0f / hnk|sf]k Go'lgs/0f sfo{qmdx?nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbPsf]5' .d[l4—o'jfsf] /f]huf/LÆ eGg] /fli6«o cleofgsf .xsf/L / lghL . o.t ug{ of] sfo{qmddf k|fyldstf .x'lnotk"0f{ Aofhdf k|lt AolQm ?= b'O{ nfv.+Vofdf /f]huf/L l.h{gf ul/g]5 .

~rfng ul/g]5 .fdflhs .DaGw ljsf.'/Iff s/af6 of]ubfgstf{ sd{rf/L÷sfdbf/x?sf] lxtdf k|of]u ug{ :yflkt . :yfgLo.+rfO. .Lk ljsf.Lo tyf u}/ cfjf. cd]/Lsf.df .fod"ns tflnd sfo{qmdnfO{ Aofks?kdf ./sf/ k|oTgzLn /xg]5 . hghflt.'/Iffsf] cg'e"lt lbnfpg /f]huf/LnfO{ clwsf/sf] ?kdf :yflkt ug{ . u|fdL0f If]qdf Joj.]jf k|bfosx?.fox?df ckfË / czSt AolQmx?nfO{ /f]huf/Lsf] Aoj:yf ug{ k|f]T.+rfng ul/g]5 . ko{6g / s[lif If]qnfO{ /f]huf/Lsf] d'Vo If]qsf] ?kdf ljsf.fGtleq gofF /fli6«o .'/Iff sf]ifnfO{ cfufdL jif{af6 20 . dlxnf sfdbf/x?nfO{ j}b]lzs /f]huf/df hfg' cl3 j}b]lzs /f]huf/ k|j4{g af]8{af6 lgMz'Ns ?kdf cled'vLs/0f tflnd lbOg]5 . /f]huf/L k|Tofe"lt P]gsf] th{'df u/L sfof{Gjog z'? ul/g]5 . dw]zL.Lkd"ns Joj. u/L /f]huf/ Ifdtf a9fpg . ul/g]5 .sf nflu :yflkt .flxt ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' . ef/t.]bf/L l.+hfnsf] pkof]u u/L g]kfnd} a. cfly{s jif{ @)^^.Lo g]kfnLx?nfO{ ufpFdf nufgL ug{ k|f]T./sf/L lgsfo / lghL If]qsf pBf]u Aoj. blnt. sNof0fsf/L / . cltl/St j}b]lzs /f]huf/df uPsf sfdbf/ tyf ltgsf] kl/jf/nfO{ nlIft u/L sNof0fsf/L sfo{qmdx? .Lkd"ns tflnd k|bfg ul/g]5 . .flos tflnd k|bfg ug{ clek|]l/t ul/g]5 .foLs tyf . 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 cfly{s j[l4 ug{ dfq geO{ To.+rfng ul/g]5 . hfkfg. d]l8sn 6«fG. /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o >d ahf/sf] dfu cg's"n x'g] u/L .~rfng ul/g]5 .^& b]lv k|f/De ePsf] . OG6/g]6 . l. gLlt th{'df ul/g]5 .+/rgfx?nfO{ k'g/fjnf]sg ug{ cfufdL sflt{s d. pmhf{.sf nfex?sf] Gofof]lrt lx:. j}b]lzs /f]huf/df hfg] dlxnf sfdbf/nfO{ nlIft u/L .lqmK.fdflhs . k|fylds pBf]ux?. ef}lts k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f x'g] sfo{:yndf :yfgLo:t/sf] /f]huf/LnfO{ k|fyldstf lbOg]5 . o. cf}Bf]lus zflGt / c.r]tgf. cfGtl/s / jfXo ahf/sf] dfu adf]lhd . .foLs lzIff / .Lk ljsf. 1fg.Lk / cg'ej ePsf cfjf.]/ a]nfot.8s.Lk tyf Aoj.Lk ljsf.g. /f]huf/d"ns . >dd'ns ef}lts k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0fdf hf]8 lbOg]5 .fxg ul/g]5 .]jf Aofkf/ .Lk ljsf.DaGwL sfo{qmdx? .n cf}Bf]lus .Fu sn .3fp k'¥ofpg 6«]8 o'lgog lzIff sfo{qmd . Psn dlxnf / cGo dlxnfx?dWo]af6 @! xhf/ hgfnfO{ Joj..'ljwfx? pknAw u/fOg]5 .fd'bflos dfWolds / pRr dfWolds ljBfnox¿nfO{ k|fljlws tyf Joj.DaGwL sfo{x? ug{ o'jfx?nfO{ cfslif{t ug{ /fHosftkm{af6 .'/lIft tyf dof{lbt sfd . rLg nufotsf b]zx?df /x]sf .fgf hnljB't nufotsf k"jf{wf/ .]jfdf nufgL ug{ ljz]if u/L zx/ tyf ljb]zdf sfo{/t k"FhL. n]vf h:tf .]G6/.flos s[lif. . ug{ zlxb kl/jf/.h{gf u/L cfd gful/sx?nfO{ cfly{s .

'/Iff P]gsf] th{'df u/L pQm P]gaf6 sf]ifdf /f]huf/bftf tyf .xof]u / . If]q.sfof{Gjogdf NofO{ o. /fli6«o ljB't k|. j}b]lzs /f]huf/Ldf hfg] AolQm / /f]huf/bftf aLr ePsf ./.df u/LaLsf] /]vfd'lg /x]sf ju{."rgf s]Gb|x?nfO{ /f]huf/ ljlgdo s]Gb|sf] ?kdf ljsf./sf/sf] of]ubfg . /f]huf/ . o.Demf}tfx?sf] k'g/fjnf]sg ul/g]5 .Gbfx?nfO{ ljB't .fy} ePsf .xof]u k'Ug] .Ifd / k|lt:kwL{ agfpg cGt/f{li6«o dfu cg'?ksf] .Lk / 1fg clej[l4 ug{ tflnd k|bfg ul/g]5 .Demf}tfsf] kfngf eP gePsf] cg'udg ul/g]5 . j}b]lzs /f]huf/df uO{ cnkq k/]sf g]kfnL >ldsx?sf] zL3| p4f/ ul/g]5 .d]G6.h{gf x'g. ljk|]if0f cfonfO{ pTkfbgd"ns If]qdf nufgL a9fpg yk k"FhL lgdf{0f ug{] / a9L k|ltkmn lbg] pTkfbgzLn If]qx?df nufgL ug{ pTk|]l/t ug{] p2]Zon] nufgLsf pko'Qm k|:tfjx? .f/0f nfO{g gk'u]sf b'u{d If]qx?sf jfl. lnË. cfufdL cfly{s jif{df l.Lk clen]v tof/ ul/g]5 .'/lIft Pjd\ dof{lbt t'NofpFb} b'u{d / ljkGg ju{sf] kx'Fr .dGjodf /fli6«o cg's"ng sfo{qmd / hnjfo' kl/jt{g gLltnfO{ qmdzM sfof{Gjog ul/g]5 . 148 /f]huf/L vf]Hg]x? / /f]huf/L lbg]x?nfO{ .Defjgf /x]sf d'Vo uGtAo b]zx?.+nUg x'g] hf] sf]lxnfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd s8f sf/jfxL ul/g]5 .fdflhs . hfthflt tyf åGå k|efljt If]qsf o'jf o'jtLx?nfO{ ljz]if k|fyldstf lbg] Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 . j}b]lzs /f]huf/ / ljk|]if0f cfo 149 150 151 152 j}b]lzs /f]huf/LnfO{ . ug{ cfjZos kxn ul/g]5 . hnjfo' kl/jt{gaf6 l.Ddsf n3' tyf .lxtsf] /fli6«o nufgL sfo{of]hgf th{'df ug{ pRr:t/Lo sfo{bn u7g ul/g]5 .'lglZrt ul/g]5 . j}b]lzs /f]huf/Ldf hfg] o'jfx?nfO{ . qm. j}b]lzs /f]huf/Lsf] a9L . :jR5 jftfj/0f / a}slNks pmhf{ 153 154 155 156 a9\bf] k|b"if0f lgoGq0f ug{ cfjZos jftfj/0fLo dfkb08sf] th{'df u/L sfof{Gjogdf NofOg]5 . kf]v/fnfO{ rnlrq gu/Lsf] ?kdf k|j4{g ul/g]5 . ljb]zaf6 kmls{Psf o:tf AolQmx?nfO{ :jb]zdf g} sfd ug{] jftfj/0f tof/ ug{ >lds k'gP{sLs/0f sfo{qmd .Demf}tf ug{'sf .]jf pknAw u/fpg cfufdL cfly{s jif{df Ps d]ufjf6. cfufdL jif{ leq . ub}{ nlug]5 ."rgf k|jfx ug{ /fli6«o .'lglZrt ul/g]5 .Sg] k|lts"n k|efjx?nfO{ Go"gLs/0f ug{ /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o lgsfox?sf] .fgf hnljB't cfof]hgfaf6 $ xhf/ % 21 .f/ gofF >d .af6 sfo{:yn b'3{6gf. k"jf{~rnsf] Onfd / dWoklZrdf~rnsf] 3f]/fxL gu/kflnsfnfO{ xl/t gu/sf] ?kdf ljsf. k|hgg :jf:Yo / :jf:Yo aLdf h:tf l:sdx? z'? ul/g]5 .~rfng ul/g]5 .Fu cfjZostf cg'. j}b]lzs /f]huf/Ldf x'g] 7uL nufotsf ljs[lt lgoGq0f ug{ o:tf] sfo{df . cf}Bf]lus j|f]On/ / h]g/]6/sf] u'0f:t/ dfkb08 agfOg]5 .

u|fdL0f k"jf{wf/ tyf gd'gf ufpF 159 160 161 162 :yfgLo hgtf / . .f}o{ pmhf{ dfkm{t ljB't .~rfng ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' .~rfng ug{ ah]6 Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' . . .fd'bflos .x'lnot Aofhb/df C0f pknAw u/fOg]5 . .]jf. . :yfgLo :jfoQ zf.fd'bflos ejg. jg jfl6sf. oL k"jf{wf/x?sf] ljsf. .o 3/ kl/jf/nfO{ . @)%% sf] k|fjwfg adf]lhd o. @)%% sf] 22 . dfWolds ljBfno. æufpFnfO{ dfof u/f}+M cfwf/e"t .Defjgf ePklg o.'ljwf ufpFd} k'¥ofcf}+ Æ eGg] d"n gf/fsf .df nufgL ug{] lghL If]qnfO{ k|f]T.xefuLtfdf lgdf{0ffwLg s]Gb|Lo:t/sf .lxtsf] k|x/L rf}sL /xg] Aoj:yf ul/g]5 . :yfgLo ljsf. o:tf gd'gf ufpFdf df]6/ rNg] .oj6f .xsf/L k.Gbfx?nfO{ vfg]kfgL .. clt b"u{d / ljs6 If]qsf afl.g P]g.DaGwL gLltsf] cefjn] of] If]qdf ck]Iff u/] cg'. s'nf]. clws[t txsf ufpF ljsf. dnvfb aLpljhg .'ky d"No .]jf pknAw u/fpg Ps.f}o{ kDk cfof]hgf .xeflutfdf u|fdL0f ljB'tLs/0f./sf/sf] nfut . oL sfo{x? . vfg]kfgL. ug{sf nflu o:tf ufpF ljsf.8s.ldltn] l..ldltx?nfO{ ?= @) nfv yk cg'bfg pknAw u/fOg]5 .fxg lbOg]5 .g P]g.n. dGqfno cGtu{t hg.DkGg ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 . cgf}krfl/s lzIff.fy cfufdL cfly{s jif{ k|To]s lhNnfdf Ps÷Ps j6f gd'gf ufpF v8f ul/g]5 .~rfng ug{ :yfgLo lgsfox?nfO{ cg'bfg pknAw u/fpg] sfo{nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbPsf] 5' .]jf pknAw u/fOg]5 . 6]lnkmf]g. :jf:Yo rf}sL nufotsf . gd'gf ufpFsf] plNnlvt k"jf{wf/x?sf] ljsf. b]zdf afo'pmhf{ / h}ljs OGwgsf] k|r'/ .fd'bflos :jf:Yo jLdf.fj{hlgs lgsfox? / :yfgdf .f}o{ 3/]n' ljB't k|0ffnL h8fg u/L ^ xhf/ % . k|x/L lg/LIfs.fgf / demf}nf k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f sfo{ cleofgsf] ¿kdf .+rfng ug{ .o lsnf]af6 ljB't pTkfbg ul/g]5 . dxTjk"0f{ .o o'jfx?nfO{ lgMz'Ns Ao.f}o{ pmhf{ dfkm{t ljB't pknAw u/fpb} hfg] gLlt lnOg]5 . gd'gf ufpFx?df slDtdf Ps .xsf/L v]tL / kz'kfng. lgdf{0fsf sfo{x? . dlxnf ljsf. afo'pmhf{ tyf h}ljs OGwg sfo{qmdnfO{ :ki6 lbzflgb{]z ug{ cfufdL cfly{s jif{ leq afo'pmhf{ tyf h}ljs OGwg gLltsf] th{'df ul/g]5 .f}o{ pmhf{ k|j4{g / lj:tf/ ug{ pRr k|fyldstf lbOg]5 . x'g .8sx? .]jf . jhf/:yn. u|fdL0f cf}Bf]lus If]q. .lxtsf] s[lif / kz' k|fljlws .kmfl/z u/]sf] cg'.f/ ljsf. :jf:Yo rf}sL. h}ljs Uof.fo . . :yfgLo lgsfo cg'bfgsf] nflu ?= !$ ca{ %^ s/f]8 ah]6 Joj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' . ljB't\. af6f].DkGg ug{ ?= ! ca{ $( s/f]8 ah]6 ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5' ."rLdf pNn]v eP adf]lhdsf $! j6f gofF gu/kflnsfx? @)^* >fj0f ! ut]b]lv nfu' x'g]u/L u7g ePsf] 3f]if0ff ub{5' . :s'n. k':tsfno / v]n d}bfg.s]sf] 5}g . :yfgLo :jfoQ zf. 157 158 . pTkfbg sfo{qmdnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg ?= $! s/f]8 ah]6 5'6\ofPsf] 5' .cl3 ul7t k|fljlws .lrj. æcfˆgf] ufpF cfkm} agfpFÆ sfo{qmdaf6 z'? ul/Psf] :yfgLo ljsf.flos tflnd lbO{ Aoj.

oftfoft / cGo ef}lts k"jf{wf/sf] ./L lhNnfsf $ j6f gu/kflnsf / cf.fGt.b'kof]u u/L cfly{s .dofg's'n kl/dfh{g u/L gofF gu/kflnsfx?sf] 3f]if0ff ug{ cfjZos cWoog u/L g]kfn . u|fdL0f oftfoft k"jf{wf/ ljsf.'g.Dddf PsLs[t dfu{ bz{g th{'df ul/g]5 . lgdf{0fdf ePsf] vr{sf] bx|f] cg'udg ul/g]5 ./. a'6jn—e}/xjf / sf]xnk'/—g]kfnuGh If]qdf lj:tf/ ul/g]5 .ldltsf nflu lj/f6gu/ If]qdf lgdf{0f ug{ nfluPsf] PsLs[t kmf]x/d}nf Aoj:yfkg s]Gb|sf] lgdf{0fnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbPsf]5' . of] cjwf/0ffnfO{ x]6f}8f—jL/uGh.DkGg ug{] u/L cfjZos . :yfgLo lgsfoaf6 kl/rfng x'g] ljsf.o j6f emf]n'Ë]k"nsf] lgdf{0f .+rflnt u|fdL0f vfg]kfgL tyf .'ljwf pknAw u/fpg] nIosf .sf !) j6f ufpF ljsf.'wf/ Nofpg cfufdL cfly{s jif{sf] sflQ{s d.d]t gu/kflnsf agfpFb} n}hfg] k|of]hgsf] nflu jt{dfg dfkb08df . kmf]xf]/nfO{ .xeflutf j[l4 ug{ ljut jif{x?b]lv k|rngdf cfO{/x]sf] pkef]Qmf .|f]tdf ?kfGt/0f ug{ k|f]T./ kfg{] kmf]x/d}nfsf] . dfgjLo :jf:Yo / .Dkfbg dfkgsf . lgdf{0fsf sfo{x?df .f/ ljB't. kf]v/f—n]vgfy. To:tf 7fpFx?df emf]n'Ë] k'n lgdf{0f ul/g]5 .'ljwf k'u]sf gu/ pGd'v If]qx?nfO{ .+rf/. t/fO{sf b'u{d :yfgx?df cfjthfjtdf .dGjofTds ?kdf hjfkmb]xLk"0f{ 9+Ën] ug{'kg{] Aoj:yfsf] k|efjsf/L cg'udg ul/g]5 . 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 :yfgLo lgsfodf hfg] cg'bfgsf cfwf/ / dfkb08df klg .ldlt dfkm{t cfof]hgf sfof{Gjog ug{] k|0ffnLdf u'0ffTds ./sf/L ./sf/n] k|fyldstf lbg]5 .ldlt u7g ul/g]5 .dfwfg ug{ æ. 23 . vfg]kfgL.fj{hlgs—lghL .DkGg ul/g]5 . kxf8.+zf]wg ul/g]5 . /sdsf] b'?kof]u x'g lbOg] 5}g .d:ofnfO{ . lxdfn. b]zel/s} t'Og .fy &% j6} lhNnfx?df .|f]tsf] Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' .kf. . :jR5 lkpg] kfgL tyf .fem]bf/LÆdf kmf]x/d}nf . .dofg's"n . k|zf]wg.+/rgf lgdf{0f ug{] k|j[lQsf] cGTo ul/g]5 .kmfO{sf] .dembf/L u/L . k|To]s sfo{qmdsf nflu 5'6[} ./sf/nfO{ k|ltj]bg k]z ug{ @)^* efb| d.lqmo hg.Fu . ljsf.~rfng ul/Psf] emf]n'Ë]k'n lgdf{0f cleofg cGtu{t $ .Eotf pk/ g} k|lts"n c. u}/ .'ljwf k'¥ofpg] p2]Zon] ./sf/n] vl/b u/L x6fOg]5 . b'?kof]u u/]sf] kfOPdf bf]ifL pk/ s8f sfg"gL sf/jfxL ul/g]5 .fxg ul/g]5 .Aoj:yf cg'. ug{ k|ydr/0fdf gd'gfsf nflu & lhNnfx?af6 k|f/De ul/Psf] If]qut cjwf/0ffnfO{ cfufdL cfly{s jif{df yk !) lhNnfdf lj:tf/ ul/g]5 .|f]t kl/rfngsf] b[li6sf]0faf6 clek|]l/t u/L bL3{sfnLg ?kdf .+:yfx?n] :yfgLo:t/df .|f]t kl/rfng ubf{ :yfgLo lgsfo.kmfO{ sfo{qmd cGtu{tsf cw'/f / qmdfut cfof]hgfx? cfufdL b'O{ jif{ leq ./.fGtleq Ps k|fljlws . df]/Ë / .~rfng ug{ . :yfgLo lgsfox?sf] Go"gtd zt{ tyf sfo{.+sng. k'gp{kof]u ug{] sf/vfgf . :yfgLo lgsfodf ljsf.dfgfGt/ ."rsx? kl/dfh{g u/L yk glthfd'vL agfOg]5 .

]jf s]Gb|x?sf] :yfkgf / .ldlt / &% k|ltzt /sd . 9f]/kf6g l..g P]g tyf lgodfjnLsf] Aoj:yf cg'. l.]—kmf]S.'b"/ klZrdf~rnsf] PsLs[t ko{6sLo ljsf. ug{ ah]6 ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5' ..DefAotf cWoog cg'?k lghu9df bf]. nfË6fË— uf}/LzÍ/.f/ lhNnf ljsf. h. /f/f. n'lDagL. l5Ggd:tf. ko{6g If]qsf] hgzlQm ljsf. ltnf}/fsf]6.f/]sf] 5' . ug{ . . :yfgLo :jfoQ zf. b]zsf .fy ko{6g ljsf. /f/ftfn. . ?? /].'wf/ / . dWo tyf .d|f}gu9. l.'08f].DefAotf cWoog ul/g]5 .|f] cGt/f{li6«o ljdfg:yn lgdf{0fsf] yfngL ul/g]5 . u/L ljZjsf] gd"gf ko{6g b]zsf] ?kdf :yflkt ul/g]5 . ljZjsf] gd'gf ko{6g b]zsf] ?kdf :yflkt ug{] nIonfO{ xfl.]jfsf] ljsf.n ug{ g]kfn ko{6g jif{nfO{ cleofgfTds ?kdf lg/Gt/tf lbOg] 5 .df vKt8—dgf:n'. sf7df8f}+.sf nflu Ps bL3{sfnLg of]hgf tof/ u/L cfjZos k"jf{wf/sf] lgdf{0f ug{] tkm{ ah]6nfO{ nlIft u/]sf] 5' . cGgk"0f{ / dgf.f{sf] hL/fejfgL.+rfng ul/g]5 ./sf/ / gu/kflnsfx?n] p7fpFb} cfPsf] 3/jxfn s/nfO{ Psåf/ k|0ffnL cGtu{t Aojl:yt u/L :yfgLo lgsfoaf6 dfq p7fpg] Aoj:yf ug{] . k. . g]kfnsf] xjfO{ If]qsf] k'jf{wf/ ljsf.nx].+hf.Defjgfx?nfO{ b[li6ut u/L !& j6f ko{6sLo If]qsf] cjwf/0ff cufl8 .DalGwt lhNnf ljsf.h{gf / u|fdL0f :jf:Yo ko{6gsf] k|j4{gsf nflu PsLs[t ko{6g .'Ëf. sfo{qmd yfngL ul/g]5 .:g]. ljb]x—ldlynf.nfO{ b[li6ut u/L lqe'jg cGt/f{li6«o ljdfg:ynsf] u'0ffTds . c?0f / d]rL kxf8L ko{6sLo If]qx? /xg] u/L tL If]qx?df ef}lts k"jf{wf/ / ko{6g .bx? dfkm{t vr{ x'g] /sdsf] k|efjsf/L pkof]u / cg'udgsf] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' . cfufdL !% jif{leq g]kfnnfO{ pTs[i6 uGtAosf] ?kdf ljsf.DalGwt gu/kflnsfdf hfg] u/L dfnkf]t sfof{noaf6 .u/dfyf.ef. hnhnf If]qnfO{ hf]8\g] u/L ax'cfoflds ko{6sLo kl/qmdf dfu{ lgdf{0f ug{ . .171 172 173 . k'kfn. /f]huf/Lsf] l. tyf k|j4{gsf sfo{qmdx? .ldlt / gu/kflnsfsf] vftfdf :jtM hDdf x'g] Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 . o. ko{6g k|j4{g 174 175 176 177 178 179 ko{6g If]qnfO{ g]kfnsf] cy{tGqsf] alnof] d]?b08sf] ?kdf :yflkt ug{] p2]Zosf .DjGwdf cfjZos cWoog ul/g]5 . 24 . df]/Ësf] lj/f6 /fhfsf] b/jf/.ldltn] k|fKt ug{] 3/hUuf /lhi6«]zg b:t'/sf] /sd dWo] @% k|ltzt /sd lhNnf ljsf. . vf]6fËsf] j/fxkf]v/L.~rfng ub{} hfg cfjZos ah]6sf] Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' . u9LdfO{.n'df ko{6sLo kl/qmdf k}bn dfu{ vf]lng]5 . .a} efudf /x]sf ko{6sLo . /fdf/f]zg / a9Ldflnsf nufotsf :yfg ljsf.

+/If0fsf]] nflu hg kl/rfng ul/g]5 / o. .nfO{ 6]jf k'¥ofpg a'6jndf cGt/f{li6«o:t/sf] cTofw'lgs .180 181 182 183 184 185 186 uf}tda'4. Onfdsf] . ug{ k|efjsf/L sfo{qmd .fk]If k'g/fjnf]sg ul/g]5 . /fli6«o dxTjsf ljsf.flos k|of]unfO{ pRr k|fyldstf lbO{ ax'p2]ZoLo sfo{qmd . /fli6«o kj{x?. lbuf] jg ljsf. ug{ cfjZos ef}lts k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f ul/g]5 . ./ gkg{] u/L jgsf] If]qkmn .DkGg u/L lgdf{0fsfo{ z'? ul/g]5 .|f] cGt/f{li6«o ljdfg:yn lgdf{0f ug{ .fy} /fhlj/fh ljdfg:ynnfO{ uh]Gb| gf/fo0f l. n'lDagLdf cGt/f{li6«o zflGt zx/ lgdf{0f ug{ cfjZos j}b]lzs .DkGg ub{} nlug]5 . af/fsf] lghu9df bf].+3 . kf]v/f. ug{ ah]6 ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5' . bfË / kmfKn' ljdfg:ynsf] :t/f]Gglt ul/g]5 . ul/g]5 . o.d]tsf] .do .Demf}tfnfO{ ..fxg ul/g]5 . lgdf{0fsf cfof]hgfx?nfO{ k|lts"n c. n'lDagL If]qsf] . jg ljsf.lxtsf] k"jf{wf/ ljsf.DaGwdf lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] /fli6«o k|ltj4tfsf] sfof{Gjog ug{.efxnsf] lgdf{0f sfo{ z'? ul/g]5 .s]lgbfdf kmfNu'0ffgGb ljdfg:yn lgdf{0f ug{'sf . ljjfx cflbdf j[If/f]k0f ug{ 25 .xof]u lnOg]5 .DefJotf cWoog .+/If0f ug{. hgsk'/ / .~rflnt / lgdf{0fflwg ljdfg:ynx?sf] qmdzM :t/f]Gglt / lgdf{0fsfo{ .~rfng ul/g]5 .'v{]tnfO{ If]qLo cGt/f{li6«o ljdfg:ynsf] ?kdf ljsf.+/If0f. u'0f:tl/otf. lbuf] jg.du| cj:yfsf] :ynut u/fpg] p2]Zon] /fhg]tfx?nfO{ b]z bz{g sfo{qmddf nUg] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' .jx? Pj+ AolQmsf] hGd. s0ff{nL c~rn nufot b'u{d If]qx?df xjfO{ oftfoftnfO{ lgoldt / hgkx'Fr of]Uo agfpg ljdfg:ynx?sf] cfw'lgs k|ljlw . xjfO{ gLlt / . jg If]qsf] . b]ze/sf xfn . jg pkof]usf] j}1flgs Joj:yfkg ug{ bL3{sflng of]hgf th{'df ul/g]5 . If]qsf nflu ?= % ca{ @* s/f]8 ah]6 ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5' . g]kfn jfo'.fy{s agfpg Ps ufpF Ps g.sf nflu /fhgLlts kf6L{x? .fy}.+:yfsf jflif{s pT.sf nflu ah]6sf] Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' .Gbe{df jgh+unsf] . g]kfn jfo'.{/L :yfkgf ug{ k|f]T. jg . . k|yd blnt . lj/f6gu/. kxf8.u/dfyf cf/f]x0f cleofgsf nflu ?= @ s/f]8 ah]6 ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5' .|f]t h'6fpg k|of.]jf lgudsf] nflu cfjZos hxfh v/Lb ug{ g]kfn . jg k|df0fLs/0f / jg pBd / Joj. hgzlQm / k|fljlws kIfsf] u'0ffTds ljsf.d[4 hLjgnfO{ . 187 188 189 jg dfly cltqmd0f a9L/x]sf] . t/fO{ dw]z . lxdfn. ul/g]5 ./sf/ hdfgL /xg] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5' .~rfng ul/g]5 .+x ljdfg:yn gfdfs/0f u/L :t/f]Gglt ul/g]5 .du| ljsf. g]kfnuGh / wgu9L ljdfg:ynnfO{ If]qLo xa ljdfg:ynsf] ?kdf ljsf.]jf lgud / g]kfn gful/s p8\8og k|flws/0fsf] Ifdtf. o.

dsjfgk'/ nufot pRr kxf8L lhNnfx?df h}t'g -cf]lne_ pTkfbgsf] nflu g.d.xsf/L / lghL If]qnfO{ k|f]T.f]h dlxgfleq th{'df ul/g]5 . blnt / åGåkLl8t dlxnfnfO{ .sf] .+/If0f sfo{qmdnfO{ pRr k|fyldstfsf .Defjgf af]s]sf] Onfdsf] dfOIf]q.+nUg ul/g]5 . kfFr} ljsf.+u .fkfgL b]lv dxfsfnL.Defjgf /x]sf]n] . /fdf/f].foLs ?kdf pTkfbg ug{ ljz]if sfo{qmd nfu' ul/g]5 . afh'/f.Gwfg.cfXjfg ub{5' ./x? l.+nUgx?nfO{ k|f]T. tflnd / k|zf]wgsf] .fxg ul/g]5 . .foLs b[li6n] dxTjk"0f{ u}/sfi7 jg k}bfj/ / hl8a'6Lsf] v]tL . r'/] efj/ If]qsf] e"ld.xefuL x'g] cj.+3 nufotsf . . uf]8d]n Pj+ .~rfng ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' . jg .lhjg -Hof6«f]kf_sf] Aofj. 8f]Nkf.'ljwf pknAw u/fpg hl8a'6L kmfd{ :yfkgf ul/g]5 .xefuL u/fO jg If]qdf Joj.+/lIft ag If]qsf] ?kdf ljsf.d'bfodf cfwfl/t . cleofgaf6 o. tL lj?jfsf] l. sfo{qmdnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbPsf] 5' .8s lgdf{0f ubf{ lgdf{0fstf{n] .+/lIft jg If]qsf] ljsf. If]qdf xfjfkfgL cg'?k hl8a'6Lsf] pTkfbg a9fpgsf nflu cg'.'ljwf pknAw u/fpg] sfo{ljlw cfufdL c. O6x/Lb]lv sfs8le6[f.3g / ax'p2]ZoLo agfpg jg If]q glhssf Go"g cfo ePsf kl/jf/x?nfO{ . sf7df8f}+ pkTosf / t/fO÷dw]zsf tf]lsPsf lhNnfx?df xl/ofnL sfo{qmd . .+/If0fsf nflu of] If]qnfO{ . cfly{s jif{df # s/f]8 lj?jf /f]lkg] nIo lnPsf] 5' ./x? pknAw u/fpg Ps lhNnf Ps gjLg sfo{qmd . jg pkef]Qmf dxf. Go"g cfo ePsf kl/jf/nfO{ cfo cfh{gsf lqmofsnfkx?df .h{gzLn pkof]u u/L :yfgLo hgtfnfO{ cfo cfh{gsf cj.'g.fy sfof{Gjog ul/g]5 . hn. s0ff{nL lr.+rfO. jg Joj:yfkgnfO{ .Dkbfsf] l.fem]bf/L u/L .{/L :yfkgf ug{] / k|zf]wg s]Gb| :yfkgfsf] nflu .+rfng ug{ ?= @^ s/f]8 ah]6 ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5' . h}ljs ljljwtfsf] b[li6n] dxTjk"0f{ / ko{6g ljsf.h{gf ul/g]5 .+rfng ul/g]5 .g.sf] nflu ljleGg sfo{qmdx? . o.+/If0f If]q / k./L df]/Ësf] d+unaf/] a'9Lvf]nf l.+/If0f sfo{df .~rfng ul/g]5 ./ lj:tf/ ug{ sa'lnotL ag tyf kz'ljsf. . al9dflnsf.+/If0f If]q. cfufdL cfly{s jif{ g]kfnuGhdf hl8a'6L k|zf]wg s]Gb| :yfkgf ug{ ah]6 5'6\ofPsf] 5' . h+un / lhljsf]kfh{gsf] PsLs[t sfo{qmd .}kfn jg tyf . 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 rfn" cfly{s jif{b]lv cf/De ul/Psf] /fli6«o dxTjsf] /fi6«klt r'/]efj/ If]q .xsf/Lsf] dfWodaf6 xl/t pBf]u :yfkgf ul/g]5 .+:yfx?.8ssf b'j} tkm{ ?v /f]Kg' kg]{ clgjfo{ Joj:yf ul/g] 5 . o:tf] . aLp. afUn'Ësf] 9f]/kf6g / tsdf hl8a'6L pTkfbg s]Gb| :yfkgf ul/g]5 .f{ jf/f cf/If If]qsf] lj:tf/ ul/g]5 .Ddsf] r'/] dxfef/t If]q.'?jft u/L xl/t /f]huf/Lsf cj.f/ jg tyf .+/If0fdf lgs6td ufpFsf Psn. 26 .fxg . cf}iflw.Ddsf] t/fO{ If]qdf /x]sf] h+un / h}ljs ljljwtfsf] . g]kfndf afof]l8h]n / afof]la|s]6sf] k|r'/ . ul/g]5 .

27 .d:of . cfufdL cfly{s jif{leq ljz]if cfly{s If]q . lghL If]qsf] pBdzLntf ljsf. >d ljjfbsf] GofoLs Aoj:yfkg / pBf]u k|j4{gdf . /fd]5fk / l.fj{hlgs lghL .+/If0f sfo{ cl3 a9fOg]5 . bf]nvf.sf] nflu ljz]if Wofg lbg'kg{] cfjZostfnfO{ Wofgdf /fvL cfufdL cfly{s jif{b]lv /fli6«o dxTjsf !) j6f l.'/Iffsf] e/kbf{] Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 . k"jf{wf/ .df hf]8 lbOg]5 .d. nufgL af]8{ P]g / cf}Bf]lus gLlt.DjGw ljsf.+/If0f sfo{df k|of]u x'g] cTofw'lgs pks/0fsf] vl/bsf nflu ah]6 Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' . /f]huf/Lsf cj.'/lIft ug{ cltqmd0f lgoGq0f ub{} cltqmldt hldgnfO{ h+undf k"g:yf{lkt ug{] sfo{df . cfly{s j[l4.+s6 .fem]bf/L / . :jR5. nf]kf]Gd'v aGohGt' k|hfltx?sf] .xsfo{ ul/g]5 . ul/g]5 .Ifd.+VofnfO{ cfufdL !) jif{ leqdf bf]Aa/ agfpg] nIosf . pRr d"Nosf hl8a'6Lx?sf] cg'.+/If0f sfo{nfO{ pRr k|fyldstf lbOg]5 . gful/s. . cf}Bf]lus If]qnfO{ zflGtIf]q 3f]lift u/L .Dd]ng cfof]hgf ul/g]5 .+3÷.+/If0f tyf ljsf.xof]u ug{ d .dfh./sf] j[l4.Fu xflb{s clkn ub{5' .Gwfg.f/ If]qsf] Aoj:yfkg. eQmk'/sf] . jg If]qnfO{ .fy .a} /fhgLlts bn. ljb]zL nufgL tyf k|ljlw x:tfGt/0f gLlt th{'df ul/g]5 . af3 / u}8fsf] xfnsf] . . k|lt:kwL{. k|zf]wg / ahf/Ls/0fnfO{ lj:tf/ ul/g]5 .fo P]g NofOg]5 . lgof{t k|j4{g / cfoft k|lt:yfkg Pj+ k"FhL lgdf{0f ug{ .+:yfx?. g]kfnsf t'ngfTds tyf k|lt:kwf{Tds nfe ePsf pBf]ux?df ljb]zL nufgL cfslif{t ug{ cfufdL jif{ Pp6f j[xt cGt/f{li6«o nufgL .Gw'kfNrf]s lhNnfsf] lxdfnL tyf pRr kxf8L If]qnfO{ ljz]if hl8a'6L If]qsf] ?kdf ljsf.o'Qm lghLIf]qsf] ljsf.198 199 200 201 hl8a'6L k|zf]wg s]Gb|x? / cfo'j{]b c:ktfnx?sf] jLrdf sfof{Tds ."o{ ljgfos If]qdf cGt/f{li6«o :t/sf] lrl8ofvfgf :yfkgf ug{] sfo{ k|f/De ul/g]5 .+/If0f / lbuf] pkof]u ug{] sfo{ k|f/De ul/g]5 . lghL If]q ljsf. aL/uGh. ld>Lt cy{k|0ffnLsf] hudf cy{tGqsf] cf}Bf]uLs/0f Pj+ cfw'lgsLs/0f. @)^& cg's"n x'g]u/L gofF cf}Bf]lus Aoj.]jfsf] lj:tf/. ul/g]5 .dfwfg ug{ lj/f6gu/. v]tL.dfwfg. u}/ .DaGwL P]g.d. ul/g]5 . l. kf/bzL{ / cfTd ljZjf. ljB't s6f}tLsf] sf/0f pBf]ux?nfO{ k/]sf] . sf7df8f}+ / a'6jn—e}/xjf If]qdf cnUu} ljB'tLo kmL8/ :yfkgf ug{ ah]6 Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' . sfo{qmd 202 203 204 205 lghL If]qdf nufgLsf] pko'Qm aftfj/0f lgdf{0f ug{ pmhf{ ./sf/L .f/ If]qsf] .

'ljwf.]jfx? .fxg ug{ kfFr ljsf.DjGwL sfo{ljlw th{'df u/L nfu' ul/g]5 . 28 .xsf/L agfO{ d]sflgsn.DkGg x'g]5g\ ./sf/n] Psd'i6 k"FhLut cg'bfg lbg] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' .fgf tyf 3/]n' pBf]usf] k|j4{gsf nflu 3/]n' u|fd lgdf{0f ug{ hUufsf] Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 . @)^& cg'?ksf .[hgf ug{] sfo{sf nflu s'g} .DaGwL sfo{ljlw th{'df ul/g]5 .xof]u pknAw u/fOg]5 . u|fdL0f /f]huf/L / cfocfh{gsf] alnof] dfWodsf] ?kdf /x]sf] 3/]n' tyf . dlxnf pBdLnfO{ k|f]T. .d]t ljz]if cfly{s If]q lgdf{0f ug{ cfjZos k|f/lDes sfo{x? tLa|tfsf . h'Dnf / kfFrvfndf .o hgf eGbf a9Lsf] . If]qdf Ps÷Ps j6f .]DanL.~rfngsf] qmddf cltl/Qm ljB't pTkfbg u/]df .d"x jf .sf] nflu pko'Qm aftfj/0f l. k'tnLsf k|hftL nufot ljZjd} b'n{e 7flgPsf / pRr dfu ePsf k"mnx¿sf] Joj. lghLIf]qn] .xof]u k'¥ofOg]5 .sf If]qdf :jb]zL / ljb]zL nufgLnfO{ cfslif{t ug{ ljz]if sfo{qmd NofOg]5 .xsf/Ln] cfoft ug{] d]lzg/L / k"FhLut j:t'df .f/ dx. hn.d"x jf .fgf pBf]ux?sf] ljsf. k"jf{wf/ ljsf. ljz]if cfly{s If]q ljsf.+3 . ufpFdf lzIff / :jf:Yo .+:yfn] bfg u/]df cfos/df To:tf] vr{ s6[L ug{ kfpg] Aoj:yf nfu' ul/g]5 . dlxnf pBdL sf]if v8f ug{ ?= Ps s/f]8 ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5' .h{gf ul/g]5 .f] ljB't g]kfn ljB't k|flws/0fn] vl/b ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 . ko{6g. cf}Bf]lus If]qdf :jb]zL tyf ljb]zL lghL nufgL k|j4{g ug{ cfjZos sfg"gx? tTsfn th{'df ug{] / cf}Bf]lus gLlt.dod} ljgf em0em6 Ps} ynf]af6 pBf]u Aoj.fgf tyf 3/]n' pBf]ux?nfO{ k'g?Tyfg ug{ cfjZos .'n 5'6 lbg] Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 . .x'lnot / k"jf{wf/ nufotsf . ljutdf cf/De ul/Psf ljz]if cfly{s If]qsf cltl/Qm lj/f6gu/.foLx?nfO{ pknAw u/fpg PsnljGb' . sfo{qmd cGtu{t e}/xjfdf :yfkgf ul/g] ljz]if cfly{s If]qsf] k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0fsf] afFsL sfo{x? cfufdL cfly{s jif{ .fo lj:tf/df .206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 sfg"gåf/f k|bQ . ?U0f cj:yfdf /x]sf . o. g]kfnaf6 ljb]zdf uO{ kmls{Psf Ps} vfnsf] sfdug{] Ps. . lghL If]qn] pBf]u .]jf tyf /f]huf/L . o. jg:ktL. kf6{k"hf{ lgdf{0f sfo{df .]jfs]Gb| :yfkgf ug{] k|:tfj u/]sf] 5' . g]kfnsf] ef}uf]lns ljljwtfsf sf/0f ljleGg yl/sf kmnk"mn.fdfgdf eG.fy cufl8 a9fOg]5 .+nUg . P.'ljwfx? pBf]un] kfpg] Aoj:yf ul/g]5 .|f]t.flos v]tL k|j4{g u/L ˆnf]/LsNr/ Aoj.f}o{ nufotsf] a}slNks pmhf{ pTkfbg ug{ cfoft ug{] d]lzg/L .

{+/rgf tyf cfjZos k"FhLs/0f ul/g]5 .+/If0f sf]if :yfkgfsf nflu cfufdL cfly{s jif{df cfjZos tof/L k"/f ul/g]5 .+:yfdf ?= !) nfv jf . ljQLo If]q / k"FhLahf/ 220 221 222 223 224 a}+s tyf ljQLo . k/LIf0f u/L pkof]usf] sfo{of]hgf agfO{ . .Gt'lnt lj:tf/ / ljQLo ck/fw lgoGq0fsf sfo{x? cl3 a9fOg]5g\ . s]Gb| / 3/]n' u|fdsf] :yfkgf ul/g]5 .h{gf ug{ .+:yfx?k|lt ljZjf. sDkgL jf .DklQ vl/b ubf{ cfo.~rfngdf NofOg]5 .Sg] / z]o/sf] lwtf]df lbOg] C0fsf] .'ne?kdf pknAw u/fpg pko'Qm :yfgdf x:tsnf u|fd.'b[9 agfpg .fjfF gjLs/0f ug{ .ldltsf] Ifdtf clej[l4 u/L a}+s tyf ljQLo .flos hgzlQm .jf/L . j:t' ljsf. / cGo Aoj:yfksLo sfo{x?nfO{ k|efjsf/L 9+un] cl3 a9fpg Aofj. lwtf]kq. vlgh.215 216 217 218 219 cf}Bf]lus If]qdf nufgL cg's"n jftfj/0f l.+:yfaf6 lnPsf] C0fsf] Aofh a'emfO .l~rt /x]sf ax'd"No wft'.+:yfx?sf] .Ddsf] . sfo{qmdnfO{ lj:tf/ ul/g]5 . dfgj a]rljvg / . .+:yfx?sf] cg'udg / . ug{ k|ljlw :t/f]Gglt sf]ifsf] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5' .flos 3/ lgdf{0f / 3/hUufsf] sf/f]jf/ Pj+ ahf/sf] lzlyntfnfO{ .fwg / Ps s/f]8 ?k}ofF .f] eGbf a9L lgIf]k /fv]df o:tf] /sd cft+sjfb. ljsf.Ldf .DklQ clwsf/sf] .ldltnfO{ yk lqmofzLn agfOg]5 . o.+:yfn] s'g} a}+s jf ljQLo . k"FhLahf/sf] . b]zsf ljleGg :yfgx?df .~rfng ul/g]5 . a}+s tyf ljQLo .+:yfut . pRr:t/Lo ljQLo If]q . sf7df8f}+sf ljleGg :yfgx?df pTvgg ul/Psf] k|fs[lts Uof.|f]t v'nfpg' gkg{] Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' . t]n / cd"No kTy/x?sf] pTvgg / pkof]usf nflu ljz]if cleofg . 7"nf pBf]ux?nfO{ cfjZos . sfo{qmdnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbOg]5 .lxtsf] PsLs[t .'kl/j]If0fnfO{ k|efjsf/L t'NofOg]5 . nfu' kbfy{ sf/f]jf/. cf}Bf]lus nufgL .DaGwdf a}+s 29 . g]kfn lwtf]kq af]8{ / aLdf .+nUgtf ePsf a}+s tyf ljQLo .Daf]wg ug{ k"FhLut nfes/sf] b/nfO{ 36fPsf] 5' .+:yfx?sf] k"g.fdu|Lx? ./sf/n] .|f]t v'nfpg' kg{] ljBdfg Aoj:yfnfO{ kl/jt{g u/L ?= %) nfv.+j4{g. s[lifdf cfwfl/t k|fylds pBf]ux?sf] Ifdtf / k|ljlwdf ljsf. .+ul7t ck/fw nufotsf ca}w . cltl/Qm a}+s tyf ljQLo . g]kfn /fi6« a}+s.'wf/.+/If0f. cf}Bf]lus af}l4s ./sf/sf] . $% lhNnfx?df sfof{Gjogdf /x]sf] n3' pBd ljsf.Ddsf] 3/ hUuf vl/b ubf{ .'zf. cfufdL jif{b]lv nfu' x'g] u/L s'g} AolQm.g sfod ub{} t/ntf Aoj:yfkg. Aoj.|f]tx?af6 cfh{g ePsf] xf]Og eGg] :j3f]if0ffsf] gofF Aoj:yf g]kfn /fi6« a}+sn] ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' .~rfngdf NofPsf] cf}Bf]lus k"jf{wf/ ljsf.+u7g :yfkgf ul/g]5 .dGjo .sf] jftfj/0f .

'/If0f lgsfosf] k"FhL a9fpg ?= %) s/f]8 yk nufgL ul/g]5 . z]o/ sf/f]jf/sf jf/]df . s]Gb|Lo lgIf]k k|0ffnLnfO{ sfof{Gjogdf NofO . lgIf]k .+:yfn] cfkm}+ lg0f{o ug{. b]zsf k|d'v zx/x? / ljb]zaf6 ."rgf k|ljlw d}qL agfOg]5 .fwf/0fsf] cfsif{0f j[l4 ug{ ljBfno.xsf/L .f/ ul/g]5 .fy}. Ifdtf clej[l4 u/L ljZj.dGjodf g]kfn /fi6« a}+sn] ug{] Aoj:yf nfu' ul/g]5 .fo btf{ ug{] / To. 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 Aoj.]jf k|jfx ug{ a}+s tyf ljQLo .d]t lwtf]kq sf/f]jf/ ug{ . a}+s / art tyf C0f .flos tyf cfjf.f] j/fj/sf] ljb]zL d'b|f eGbf a9L d'Nosf] ˆNof6 jf Pkf6{d]G6 vl/b ug{ lbg]. ljb]zL sDkgL jf AolQmnfO{ klg b'O{ nfv cd]l/sL 8n/ jf .s]sf] hfgsf/L u/fpg rfxG5' .'wf/ tyf Aoj:yf dGqfnon] @)^* sflQ{s leq cfjZos sfo{ljlw tof/ ug{]5 . clgjfo{ lgIf]k aLdfsf] /sd a9fO{ qmdzM ?= % nfv k'¥ofOg]5 . k"FhL ahf/df b]lvPsf] lu/fj6nfO{ Wofgdf /fvL .Lo 3/df nufgL a9fpg o:tf Pkf6{d]G6 jf ˆNof6 g]kfn . o.sf cfwf/df shf{ lnO lgotj. ljQLo If]q k|ltsf] ljZj. g]kfnL d'nsf ljb]zL gful/snfO{ g]kfnL lwtf]kqdf nufgL ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfpg @)^* sflQ{sleq g]kfn lwtf]kq af]8{n] cfjZos sfo{ljlw agfpg]5 .df /lhi6«]zg z'Nsdf 5'6 lbg] Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' .'b[9Ls/0f.gLo .'/If0f ug{] gLltnfO{ æsÆ ju{sf a}+sx?df lj:tf/ ul/g]5 .xof]udf tof/ kfl/Psf] kfFr aifL{o k"FhL ahf/ ljsf.fxg ug{ g]kfn /fi6« a}+ssf] l.Dd laqmL ug{ gkfpg] Aoj:yf ug{ e"ld.kmfl/. C0f gltg{] C0fLx?nfO{ sfg"gsf] bfo/fdf NofOg]5 . .+:yfut nufgLstf{ / . sn]h / ufpFufpFdf Aofks k|rf/ k|. sfg"gL / . a}+s tyf ljQLo If]qaf6 lnOPsf] shf{ tf]lsPsf] If]qdf nufgL gu/]/ cGo If]qdf nufgL ug{] Pj+ shf{ lngsf nflu pBf]u Aoj./sf/af6 g]kfnL d'nsf ljb]zL gful/s egL kl/ro k|fKt u/]sf AolQmnfO{ tf]lsPsf zt{sf] clwgdf /xL vl/b ug{ lbg] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' . 30 .'wf/ u/L lgIf]k .lsg] agfpg lwtf]kqsf] ljB'tLo sf/f]jf/ z'? ul/g]5 . n3'ljQ ljsf.'/If0f ug{] lgsfosf] Ifdtf clej[l4 ul/g]5 .+/rgfTds . / lj:tf/sf] nflu cfjZos yk sfg"g cfufdL cfly{s jif{leq th{d ' f ul/g]5 .xsf/L .fd"lxs nufgL sf]if dfkm{t ul/g] nufgLnfO{ .+:yfx?nfO{ k/:k/ ufEg k|f]T.+:yfsf] cg'udg / .xsf/L ljefusf] .+:yfx?sf] ."rLs[t lwtf]kqx?sf] sf/f]jf/nfO{ :jR5 / . ljsf. u'?of]hgf cfufdL cfly{s jif{b]lv r/0fa4 ?kdf nfu' ul/g]5 . jflif{s ?= kfFr s/f]8 eGbf a9L sf/f]jf/ ug{] C0f tyf art .Sg] Aoj:yf g]kfn /fi6« a}+sn] ul/.x'lnot lbOg]5 .gLotf a9fpg lgIf]k .tyf ljQLo .j{. ljZj a}+ssf] k|fljlws .'kl/j]If0f ./L vl/b u/]sf] ˆNof6 jf Pkf6{d]G6 % jif{ .

sf] nflu Pp6f 5'6[} n3'ljQ sf]ifsf] :yfkgf ug{] sfo{ cufl8 a9fOg]5 . rfn' cfly{s jif{b]lv z'? ul/Psf] lgof{td'ns pBf]ux?nfO{ lgof{tdf lbOg] k|f]T.fo ug{ cfjZos k"jf{wf/ tof/ u/L sDkgLdf kl/0ft ul/g]5 .. If]qLo tyf ax'kIfLo Aofkf/ .~rfng u/L lgof{tstf{x?nfO{ .]jfsf] lgof{t a9fpg . a]df}.dL t/sf/L lgof{t ug{]nfO{ ljz]if ./x?nfO{ /fli6«o lxtdf clwstd pkof]u ul/g]5 .+:yfx? .L u[x .fxg .LdfIf]qsf pko'Qm :yfgx?df .xL af6f]df n}hfg cfjZos kg{] sfg"gL tyf . .lGw.'ljwfsf] Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 . dWosfnLg / bL3{sfnLg sfo{qmdx? sfof{Gjog ul/g]5 .xhLs/0f ug{ ljleGg sfo{qmdx? .'wf/ u/L .lh{t cj.'ljwfnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbPsf]5' .+/rgf u/L k'gaL{df Aoj. lgof{t k|j4{g 238 239 240 241 242 243 jfl0fHo gLlt / g]kfn Aofkf/ PsLs[t /0fgLltsf cfwf/df j:t' jf . hl8a'6L. cGt/f{li6«o Aofkf/ j[l4 ug{ cfly{s s'6gLltnfO{ yk k|efjsf/L agfOg]5 . n3'ljQ ./sf/L If]qdf /x]sf a}+s tyf ljQLo . cfsl:ds aLdf sf]ifsf] k'gM. :jb]zdf pTkflbt j:t'x?sf] u'0f:t/ k|df0fLs/0fnfO{ Aojl:yt / cGt/f{li6«:t/sf] t'Nofpg k|df0fLs/0f ug{] k|of]uzfnfx?sf] :t/f]Gglt ul/g]5 . cn}+rL. o.'sfpg] / KoflsË ug{] cTofw'lgs .]jfnfO{ b'u{d u|fdL0f If]q tyf Go"g cfo ju{.+:yfut Aoj:yfdf yk .Dd k'¥ofpg] p2]Zosf nflu of] jif{ s]xL kxf8L lhNnfx?df k/LIf0fsf] ?kdf n3' aLdf sfo{qmd k|f/De ul/g]5 . 31 .~rfng ul/g]5 .DklQ z'4Ls/0f P]gnfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf sfof{Gjog ul/g]5 . lgsf.DalGwt lgsfosf] . skmL.dGjodf tTsfnLg. låkIfLo. aLdf .x'lnot Aofhb/sf] Aoj:yf ul/g]5 .'ljwf lbOg]5 .'Svf aGb/ufx lgdf{0f ug]{ sfo{nfO{ tLa|tf lbOg]5 . lgof{t ul/g] cn}+rLsf] u'0f:t/ clej[l4 ug{ .DefAotfsf] cfwf/df ufEg] sfo{ cl3 a9fOg]5 .d]t .+:yfx?af6 x'g] sf/f]jf/sf] bfo/f km/flsnf] kf/L u/La tyf ljkGgju{df hfg] shf{df .Demf}tfx?af6 l. 234 235 236 237 cfly{s ultljlwx?df x'g] ck/fw lgoGq0f u/L cy{tGqnfO{ . s[lifhGo pTkfbg lrof.

'wf/ sfo{qmdsf] p2]Zo cg'?k sIff ( b]lv !@ .'lglZrt ul/g]5 .a} 5fqfx¿nfO{ sIff !@ . lzIff If]qsf] nflu k|fyldstfsf . o. ljBfno . ljBfnosf] ef}lts k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f.'wf/ u/L pRr lzIffnfO{ u'0f:t/Lo.fd'bflos ljBfnosf sIff ! b]lv !) .fd'bflos ljBfnox?sf] dd{t . zf}rfno / kl/. ljBfnox?nfO{ zflGt If]q 3f]if0ff ul/. lqjifL{o of]hgfsf] . pRr lzIffdf nlIft . lzIf0f k]zfdf n}lËs .fd'bflos ljBfnox¿df lgMz'Ns cWoog ug]{ Joj:yf ldnfOg]5 . lnPsf] 5' .'wf/ / z}lIfs k|zf.ef. vfg]kfgL.bx?nfO{ hfgsf/L u/fpg kfpFbf dnfO{ v'zL nfu]sf] 5 .Dd .+/rgfTds ./ kfpg] ljZjf. oL pknlAwx?sf] cfwf/df casf] z}lIfs k|0ffnLnfO{ 1fgdf cfwfl/t cy{tGqsf] lgdf{0f tkm{ nlIft ul/g]5 .a} blnt ljBfyL{x? / . u'0f:t/Lo lzIffdf .Def/sf nflu cfjZos ah]6sf] Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' . k|lt:kwL{ Pj+ cg'.dofjlw leq} .Ddsf] PsLs[t dfWolds lzIffdf .+3 .DkGg x'g] u/L lg/Gt/tf lbOPsf] 5' .+qmd0fsfnLg k|lts"ntfx?nfO{ l5rf]Nb} lzIffIf]qn] kl5Nnf s]xL jif{ otf pNn]vgLo k|ult u/]sf] 5 .lsPsf]5 .Dd cWoog/t .dLIff x]bf{ lzIffsf nflu lgwf{/0f ePsf .Dd dlxnf lzlIfsf lgo'Qm ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf]5' .Gwfgd'ns agfpg pRr lzIff 5ftf P]g th{'df ul/g]5 .~rfngdf /x]sf] ljBfno If]q . .dtfd'ns kx'Fr lj:tf/ / u'0ffTds . ljBfno If]q .'wf/ sfo{qmdnfO{ lgwf{l/t .'wf/ Pj+ kf7\oqmd kl/dfh{g ul/g]5 .d"xsf] kx'Fr a9fpg v'nf ljZjljBfno 32 ./ nufotsf jfXo aftfj/0fsf] .jf6 g]kfnL laqm]tf / cGt/f{li6«o qm]tfx?n] Ps} ynf]af6 Aofkf/ lj:tf/ ug{] cj. .x>fAbL ljsf. @))& . pRr lzIff gLltdf k'g/fjnf]sg u/L gofF pRr lzIff gLlt th{'df ul/g]5 .'b[9Ls/0fsf nflu .fIf/tf cleofg 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 .a}sf] kx'Fr .flos .fy ah]6 ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5' . lzIff / .sf /fli6«o nIox? k|fKt x'g] tkm{ pGd'v /x]sf] dfggLo .+nUg lgsfox?sf] . .a} afnaflnsfx?nfO{ kf7\ok':ts lgMz'Ns pknAw u/fO{g]5 . nlIft au{sf ljBfyL{x?nfO{ sIff !@ . lzIfs Aoj:yfkgdf .'wf/ ug{ sfg"gL Aoj:yf./f]sf/jfnfx?sf] .244 ljb]zl:yt s'6g}lts lgof]ux? / j:t'ut Aoj.+rfngdf /x]sf .fn eGbf cufl8 :yfkgf eO{ . ljZjljBfnox?sf] Aoj:yfkgdf .+:yfx?nfO{ kl/rfng u/L sf7df8f}+df j[xt Aofkf/ d]nf cfof]hgf ul/g]5 .dfgtf sfod ug{ vfnL b/jGbLx?df pknAw eP. cfwf/e"t lzIffnfO{ qmdzM clgjfo{ u/fOg]5 .Ddsf] kf7\ok':ts lgMz'Ns ljt/0f ug{] Aoj:yf ul/Psf] 5 .xsfo{df of] 3f]if0ffsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog ul/g]5 .'wf/ NofO{ lzIfssf] k]zfut bIftf clej[l4 ul/g]5 .gdf .

a} 5fqfx?.xof]u pknAw u/fOg]5 .~rfngdf /x]sf] gl. . xlnof nufot >ddf cfl>t ju{sf] ljsf.Ddsf .sfo{qmdx? .'lglZrttfsf nflu xfn ljleGg lgsfox?af6 pknAw u/fOb} cfPsf] 5fqj[lQnfO{ Psåf/ k|0ffnL dfkm{t ljt/0f ug{] Aoj:yfsf] nflu cfjZos tof/L ul/g]5 .f/ 5f]6f] cjlwsf]. ckfËtf ePsf .fd'bflos ljBfnosf sIff * .+:yfx?df cWoog/t k|ltefzfnL ljBfyL{x?sf] klxrfgsf] nflu k|ltefsf] vf]hL sfo{qmd . dhb'/.~rfng ul/g]5 .o . >d ahf/sf] dfu cg'.fd'bflos ljBfnox?nfO{ k|bfg ub{} cfOPsf] lzIf0f cg'bfgnfO{ ah]6df . /f]huf/ / :j/f]huf/d'vL Aoj. ljBfno tyf z}lIfs .a} afnaflnsfx? / nlIft . tflnd / k|lzIf0fsf] Joj:yf ldnfpg ?= !% s/f]8 ah]6 ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5' . sfo{qmd lj:tf/ ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' .~rfng ul/g]5 . t/fO{sf bz lhNnfsf blnt÷ljkGg.dfj]z u/]sf] 5' .+rfngdf /x]sf db/.fy cfufdL cfly{s jif{ #) ljBfnox?df k|fljlws lzIff Pg]S.~rfngdf NofOg]5 .d'bfonfO{ x:tfGt/0f ul/g]5 .a} blntx?.fg.lxtsf] k"0f{ 5fqj[lQsf] Joj:yf k|bfg ug{ cfjZos Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' . cfufdL cfly{s jif{df @% . aL/uGh / g]kfnuGh tyf k|f}Bf]lus nufotsf k|:tfljt ljZjljBfnox?sf] :yfkgf sfo{ cl3 a9fOg]5 .d"xsf .flos tflnd .a} afnaflnsfx?nfO{ 5fqj[lQ k|bfg ug{ ah]6 ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5' . s0ff{nL c~rnsf .a} ljBfyL{x?nfO{ bLjf vfhf pknAw u/fpg] Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' . d'l:nd dlxnfx?nfO{ nlIft u/L . /fHosf tkm{af6 nlIft 5fq5fqfx?nfO{ pknAw u/fOPsf] 5fqj[lQ k|fKt ug{ sf]xL g5'6\g] / sf]xL gbf]xf]l/g] .~rfngdf cfPsf] lbjf vfhf sfo{qmdnfO{ klg lg/Gt/tf lbPsf] 5' . k|lt ljBfyL{ OsfO nfutsf cfwf/df . 33 . ljBfno txb]lv g} lzIffnfO{ k|fljlws / . ug{ k|f]T. ls.{Ë lzIff sfo{qmd cfufdL cfly{s jif{ klg . ljut cfly{s jif{b]lv .fx?nfO{ .Lkd'ns agfpg] p2]Zosf .fd'bflos ljBfnox?sf] Joj:yfkg :yfgLo . nf]kf]Gd'v hftLsf afnaflnsfsf nflu u'0f:t/Lo lzIff k|Tofe"t ug{ sIff * b]lv !@ . /fhifL{ hgs.fxg lbOg]5 .~rfngdf /xg] 5g\ .sf nflu k|fljlws lzIff.fd'bflos ljBfnodf cWoog/t . . dft[efiffdf lzIff lbg] sfo{qmdnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfOg]5 . 5flgPsf k|ltefzfnL ljBfyL{x?sf] k|ltef ljsf. ljleGg :yfgdf . 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 .Ddsf] lzIffdf lghL If]qsf ljBfnon] k|bfg ug]{ !) k|ltzt 5fqj[lQ cGtu{t o:tf ljBfyL{nfO{ cfjf.

ejg lgdf{0f ug{ ?= Ps s/f]8 5'6\ofPsf] 5' . :jf:Yo .h{gf x'g] cfly{s . o.fdflhs c. ug{ xfn. cfufdL cfly{s jif{df yk kfFr . a}t8Ldf ledbQ kf]ln6]SgLs OlG:6Ro"6.d]t kf]ln6]SgLs OlG:6Ro"6sf] :yfkgf ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 . lzIffdf . s]Gb|x? .{Ë SofDk.d'bfo / u}/ cfjf.'emfj lbg Ps .]jf cGtu{t dlxnf :jf:Yo . of]u tyf k|fs[lts lrlsT.d]t cfslif{t ug{] u/L o:tf] u|fdsf] ljsf.ldlt u7gsf] k|:tfj u/]sf] 5' . kfNkfsf] bds8fdf kf]ln6]SgLs OlG:6Ro"6sf . s}nfnLsf] u]6fdf zlxb bz/y rGb :jf:Yo lj1fg k|lti7fg :yfkgf ul/g]5 . PsLs[t afn :jf:Yo Aoj:yfkg.~rfngdf cfO.xsfo{ ul/g]5 .fjn] cltljkGg ju{sf jfnjflnsfsf] lzIffdf kx'Fr ljsf.~rfng ul/g]5 .]jf 270 271 :jf:Yo .'b"/k"j{sf u|fdL0f 5fqfx?nfO{ nlIft u/L eb|k'/df :yfkgf ul/Psf] dbg :d[lt gl.+:yfut 9+un] cl3 a9fOg]5 . 34 .'wf/.'/Iff. OG6/g]6 .LdfGts[t Pj+ h]i7gful/s :jf:Yo .Gbe{df cWoog u/L .]jf pknAw u/fpg / ljZjsf pTs[i6 ljBfnodf kx'Fr a9fpg cleefjs. .Dd @* xhf/ & .dfgtf 36fpg . u'0f:t/Lo k"jf{wf/ / :t/Lo lzIffsf] dfWodåf/f l5d]sL /fi6«sf ljBfyL{x? . :yfgLo .xof]u pknAw u/fOg]5 .Lksf] ljsf. sfo{qmdnfO{ yk k|efjsf/L agfpg klxnf] r/0fdf 5flgPsf !@ xhf/ j8fx?df .]jf z'Nssf] .DalGwt j8fsf dlxnfnfO{ k|fyldstf lbO{ cleoGtf lgo'Qm ul/g]5 .Lo g]kfnL.264 265 266 267 268 269 a9\bf] l8lh6n l8efO8af6 l. .fy}. If]qdf d]l8sn sn]h :yfkgf ug{] gLlt cg'?k klZrdf~rnsf] a'6jn / dWoklZrdf~rnsf] .s]sf 5g\ .sf] ?kdf d]l8sn sn]h :yfkgf ug{] sfo{ cf/De ul/g]5 . s]Gb|x? :yfkgf ug{] k|:tfj u/]sf] 5' .fdflhs lx. lk5l8Psf] If]q :jf:Yo .]jfnfO{ hgtfsf] cfwf/e"t clwsf/sf] ?kdf :yflkt ug{ gofF :jf:Yo gLlt th{'df u/L nfu' ul/g]5 . k|To]s ljsf.sf nflu Onfddf /Tgs'df/ jfGtjf kf]ln6]SgLs OlG:6Ro"6. zlxb :d[tL k|lti7fg emfkfsf] ejg lgdf{0f ug{sf nflu ?= Ps s/f]8 ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5' .flos . dgdf]xg :d[lt sn]hsf]nflu ejg lgdf{0f ug{ .fnonfO{ . .o afnljsf.'/Iff / gd'gf :j:Yo ufpF sfo{qmdx?sf] Kofs]h agfO{ k|efjsf/L?kdf . ul/g]5 .'v{]tdf lqe'jg ljZjljBfnosf] cf+lus SofDk.fj{hlgs ljBfnosf kf7\ok':tsnfO{ l8lh6nfOH8 ug{. wflbË / /f]Nkfdf . cfwf/e"t :jf:Yo . cfly{s / .fj{hlgs lghL .Fu .o &@ afnljsf.fem]bf/Lsf] cjwf/0ff cg'?k gd'gf z}lIfs u|fdsf] lgdf{0f ul/g]5 . cfufdL tLg jif{leq lg/If/tf pGd'ng ug{] u/L sfo{qmd th{'df ul/Psf]5 . Aoj.fy} /f}tx6. xfn nfu' /x]sf] Ps k|ltzt lzIff .

]jf lgMz'Ns ?kdf kfpg] Joj:yf ldnfOg]5 .'ljwf. ægofF g]kfnsf] cfjZostf :jf:Yodf .ldltdf /x]sf] dlxnf :jf:Yo :jo+ .]jf k|jfxdf . jflif{s ?kdf ."rsf+s Go"g ePsf b'u{d lk5l8Psf lhNnfx?nfO{ nlIft u/L PsLs[t hg:jf:Yo cleofg .+:yfx?df jly{ª ./sf/sf] .+qmfds÷c.'?jft ul/g]5 .'/lIft dft[Tj. rLg .s]sf] 5 .a} k|sf/sf :jf:Yo .xof]udf jL/ c:ktfndf :yflkt 6«df.]ljsf sf]ifdf yk /sd 5'6\ofpg'sf .]jf :yfgLo:t/df pknAw u/fpg hg.~rfngdf NofOg]5 .Dd cfO{k'Ubf d'n'ssf ljleGg efusf ! xhf/ pk:jf:Yo rf}sLx?nfO{ :jf:Yo rf}sLdf :t/f]Gglt ug]{ sfo{ .fy} lb+b} cfPsf] kf]zfs .]jf pknAw u/fpg lqe"jg ljZjljBfno lzIf0f c:ktfn / zlxb u+ufnfn /fli6«o x[bos]Gb|af6 .272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 g]kfn :jf:Yo If]q sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog of]hgf cg'?k xfn .DkGg c:ktfnsf] ?kdf ljsf.xh / k|efjsf/L agfpg ef/t . x/]s txdf lgbfg . ef}lts lj:tf/ ub}{ hfg] jt{dfg . :yfgLo lgsfox?sf] .]G6/nfO{ Jojl:yt ?kdf . .~rfng ul/g]5 . cfufdL cfly{s jif{ yk % . uDeL/ k|s[ltsf b'3{6gfsf lj/fdLx?sf] pkrf/nfO{ .a} ufFp ljsf. :jf:Yo :jo+ ./sf/sf] . of] c:ktfnnfO{ dfgj c+u k|Tof/f]k0f ug]{ .'wf/ / z}of nufot .Dd lj:tf/ ul/g]5 .xsf/LtfÆ eGg] d"n gf/fcg'. rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] cGTo.s :jf:Yo nufotsf :jf:Yo . hgcfGbf]ngsf 3fOt]x? / u/LanfO{ .Gwfg tyf tflnd s]Gb|nfO{ .~rfng ul/g]5 .]jfnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbPsf] 5' .'b[9 t'Nofpg pko'Qm :yfgdf :jf:Yo . .j{.+:yfx?sf] .]jfsf] .f/ :jf:Yo . k|To]s .]jfx?nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbPsf] 5' .]G6/sf] :yfkgf ul/g]5 .+:yfsf] :yfkgf.]jfnfO{ :jf:Yo rf}sL./sf/sf] gLlt /x]sf] 5 .xeflutf clej[l4sf nflu ljz]if sfo{qmdx? .o pk:jf:Yo rf}sLx?nfO{ :jf:Yo rf}sLdf :t/f]Gglt u/L yk !%) j6f :jf:Yo .~rfngdf /x]sf .DkGg e}. :jf:Yo .+qmfds /f]ux?sf] lgoGq0f tyf rf]6k6s Aoj:yfkg / dfgl.'ljwfj[l4 ug{] k|:tfj u/]sf] 5' . eQmk'/ c:ktfnsf] gjlgld{t ejgdf d[uf}nf pkrf/ .xof]udf lgld{t /fli6«o cfo'j]{b cg'. 35 . afn:jf:Yo tyf kf]if0f.'b[9Ls/0f ub}{ nlug]5 . ub{} nlug]5 .]ljsfx? :jf:YosdL{x?sf] Ifdtf clej[l4sf sfo{qmdx? . b'u{d tyf lk5l8Psf If]qx?df /x]sf c:ktfnx?nfO{ :t/f]Gglt ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' .xeflutfdf .'ne / k|efjsf/L :jf:Yo .]jf / k|]if0f k|0ffnLnfO{ .xeflutfdf cfwf/e"t :jf:Yo . .]jfnfO{ .~rflnt .~rflnt æufpF3/ lSnlgs sfo{qmdÆ nfO{ yk k|efjsf/L agfOg]5 .xsf/L . dfgj ljsf. &% jif{ gf3]sf h]i7 gful/s / !% jif{ d'lgsf jfnjflnsfx?nfO{ d'6' /f]usf] lgMz'Ns pkrf/ .~rfng ul/g]5 . zlxb kl/jf/.~rfngdf NofOg]5 .

fd'bflos If]qdf .sx?sf] . .sx? aLr obfsbf l. cfufdL cfly{s jif{leq c:ktfnx?sf] gS. .fem]bf/Lsf] cjwf/0ff cg'.]jf pknAw u/fO{ .]jfk|jfxdf :t/Lotf sfod ug{ cfjZos P]g.fxg :j?k ljleGg . hgtf cfjf. .]jfnfO{ .~rfng. vfg]kfgL / ./sf/L tyf .DkGg ePsf !) :yfgdf PsLs[t ef}lts tyf . uGwj{.'/Iff Aoj:yfsf] dfkb08 tof/ u/L sfof{Gjogdf NofOg]5 .]jfnfO{ cem k|efjsf/L agfpg cfjZos sfg"gL Aoj:yfsf nflu cfufdL jif{ vf]k ljw]os th{'df ul/g]5 .{+/rgf ul/g]5 .fdflhs :jf:Yo aLdf sfo{qmdsf] /0fgLlt tof/ u/L sfof{Gjogdf NofOg]5 .'b[9 ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' ./.fhGo kmf]x/ hg:jf:Yo Pj+ jftfj/0fLo b[li6sf]0fn] hf]lvdo'Qm ag]sf 5g\ . .xh.'ljwf pknAw u/fpg] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' . ug{ k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0fsf] sfo{ yflng]5 .+Vof / ef}uf]lns cjl:yltsf] cfwf/df k'g. lgb{]lzsf agfO{ k|efjsf/L lgodg .lsPsf] 5 . 36 .df cfw'lgs zx/ lgdf{0f ug{ rfn" jif{b]lv sfof{Gjogdf cfPsf] sfo{qmd cGtu{t . clwsf/nfO{ . ljkGg kl/jf/sf] cfjf.]jf.+rflnt c:ktfnx?sf] .+/rgf.. . lghL. o:tf kmf]x/sf] j}1flgs / Jojl:yt Joj:yfkgsf] sfo{nfO{ hf]8 lbg cfufdL cfly{s jif{ kf]v/fdf .'/]n / ljut åGåsf] qmddf 3/jf/ljlxg ePsf kl/jf/nfO{ klg cfjf.fhGo kmf]x/ Joj:yfkgsf] gd'gf sfo{qmd cf/De ul/g]5 .+oGqsf] ljsf. vf]k . sflnsf]6.Fu .xof]u Aojl:yt ?kn] kl/rfng ug{ / vf]k . of] cfof]hgf.kmfO{ 290 291 292 dWokxf8L nf]sdfu{ cf. DofUbL / /.+zfwgnfO{ hg.Dddf # xhf/ (! kl/jf/nfO{ cfjf.fj{hlgs–lghL .f/ lrlsT.f]jf. ljleGg vf]kx? . sfo{qmd cGtu{t rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] cGTo . cfjf.d'lrt Aoj:yfkgsf nflu pkrf/sf qmddf lj/fdL / lrlsT./sf/sf] tkm{af6 k|f]T. dfkb08.DaGwL cGt/f{li6«o . u|fdL0f If]qdf 5l/P/ /x]sf 3/ kl/jf/nfO{ 3gfj:tL sfo{qmdsf] dfWodaf6 Aojl:yt a.xof]u pknAw u/fOg]5 . ul/g]5 . sfo{ z'? ul/g]5 .'jf lhNnfsf s]xL :yfgx?df 3gfj:tL ljsf.h{gf x'g] u/]sf cf/f]k k|Tof/f]k / em}emu8fx?sf] .f+sg ug{] sfo{qmd /fv]sf] 5' .:tf] / k|efjsf/L agfpg lghL If]qsf] dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf /x]sfn] .'lglZrt ug{ nlIft of] sfo{qmdnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lb+b} cfufdL cfly{s jif{b]lv afbL. jgs/Lof.DefAotf cWoog . . z'Ns / . :jf:Yo If]qsf] ljBdfg . c~rn c:ktfnx?nfO{ .fdflhs k"jf{wf/ ljsf.kf.Gbe{df lj/fdL / lrlsT. lgod. x'Dnf. u/fpg k|f]T.~rfng ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 .Dk"0f{ sfo{x? k|fyldstfsf .DaGwL sfo{qmdx?nfO{ PsLs[t ug{. :jf:Yo .283 284 285 286 287 288 289 lrlsT.DalGwt cGo . :jf:Yo pkrf/sf .fxg ul/g]5 . u}/. u'NdL.fy . ef}lts k"jf{wf/ Pj+ dfgj . Ko"7fg.

aL/uGh rqmky lgdf{0f k|f/De ul/g]5 . kfgLsf .a} . dWod:t/Lo / . lgodg / u'0f:t/ k/LIf0f.a} g]kfnLx?nfO{ :jR5 vfg]kfgL kof{Kt dfqfdf .Lx?n] nfdf] .dob]lv k|tLIff ul//x]sf] d]nDrL vfg]kfgL cfof]hgf lgwf{l/t .DkGg eO . sfo{ . d'n'ssf ljleGg efux?df w]/} jif{ cufl8 cfof]hgfx?sf] dd{t .dfwfg ul/g]5 .f]jf.+lxtfsf] kl/dfh{g u/L sfof{Gjog ul/g]5 . u/L zx/L aftfj/0fdf .Dej 6\of+s/ nufotsf] a}slNks pkfoåf/f kfgL ljt/0f ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 . vfg]kfgLsf] k|0ffnL Aojxf/df NofOg]5 .sLo Ifdtf ljsf.Fu hf]l8Psf] of] cfof]hgf .~rfng ul/g]5 . jL/uGh / a'6jndf PsLs[t zx/L k"jf{wf/ ljsf. d'n'se/ /x]sf / cj aGg] ejgx?nfO{ k|fs[lts k|sf]kaf6 . cfufdL kfFrjif{ leq . .Fu d xflb{s clkn ub{5' .'ljwf pknAw u/fpg . kfgL .'s'Djf. sf7df8f}+ pkTosfaf.fy sfof{Gjog ul/g]5 .Def/ tyf k'g:yf{kgfsf u'0f:t/ . e"ldut hn.DalGwt . zx/L .zQm agfOg]5 .]g. vfg]kfgL h:tf] hgtfsf] clt cfwf/e"t .~rfngdf NofOg]5 . ul//x]sf bfh'efO lbbLalxgLx?nfO{ lk/f]ln/x]sf] vfg]kfgL .d:ofnfO{ lbuf] ?kn] .kmfl/.doleq .fgf zx/x?sf] PsLs[t k"jf{wf/ ljsf.befjsf nflu .]jf. .293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 /fli6«o zx/L gLltsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog ug{ lj/f6gu/.flos tj/n] e"ldut kfgL lgsfnL laqmLljt/0f ug]{ sfo{ a9\b} uPsf]n] o:tf sfo{x?sf] Ohfht.~rfng ug{ :yfgLo lgsfox?sf] Ifdtf ljsf.'/Iff . O6x/L.'wf/ Nofpg cfufdL cfly{s jif{b]lv PsLs[t zx/L jftfj/0f . ljtl/t kfgLsf] u'0f:t/ sfod ug{ cg'udgnfO{ .xof]u / .L Pj+ Go"g cfo ju{sf AolQmx?nfO{ cfjf.|f]tx? gePsf zx/L If]qx?df oyf.fy vfg]kfgL ljt/0fsf cfof]hgfx? .'ne 9+un] pknAw u/fpg] nIosf . tfg. n]vgfy / afUn'Ë gu/kflnsfx?df cfufdL cfly{s jif{b]lv zx/L zf.|f]t pknAw gePsf 7fpx?df vfg]kfgL .]jf lj:tf/ ug{sf nflu aiff{tsf] kfgL .DkGg ug{] /fli6«o k|of.df .'lglZrt ug{ pko'Qm kfgL k|zf]wg of]hgfnfO{ k|fyldstfsf .sf nflu d]rL gu/.+/If0f / pkof]usf] sfo{of]hgf agfO{ ljs6 8fF8fkfvfx?df a. sfo{qmd cf/De ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' . lj/f6gu/ rqmky lgdf{0f sfo{nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbOg]5 .DefAo Aoj:yfsf] klxrfg u/L l.'wf/ cfof]hgf z'? ul/g]5 . sf7df8f}+ pkTosf leq vfg]kfgL cfk"lt{ ug{sf nflu lghLIf]qaf6 Joj. cg'udg. vfg]kfgLsf] . ug{ Ps sfo{bn u7g ug{] k|:tfj u/]sf] 5' .DaGwL dfkb08 th{'df u/L sfof{Gjogdf Nofpg] Joj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' . 37 .+sng k|ljlwsf] clwstd pkof]u ul/g]5 ./f]sf/afnf.DkGg ul/g]5 .'/lIft t'Nofpg /fli6«o ejg . kfgLsf d'xfgx?sf] klxrfg. .fy}. wgs'6f.|f]tsf] cToflws bf]xg sfo{nfO{ lgoGq0f ub{} e"ldut hn k'ge{/0fsf nflu ljleGg sfo{qmdx? .~rfngdf /x]sf vfg]kfgL nflu ah]6 Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' .

+:yf / :yfgLo lgsfosf] .]jfsf?kdf ljsf.a} / t/fO{ dw]zsf kfFr lhNnfnfO{ cfufdL tLg aif{ leq v'Nnf lbzfd'Qm If]q 3f]if0ff ul/g]5 .fwgx? h'6fpg hf]8 lbOg]5 .f]s If]q / sfe|]knfGrf]ssf] ltdfn If]q h:tf cToGt . b"/. kfFry/sf] of.kmfO{./.+rf/ gLlt / . OG6/g]6 .Gw'kfNrf]ssf] afx|lj. g]kfnnfO{ pknAw Aof08 ljOysf] pkof]u u/L e" pku|x s]Gb| :yfkgf ug{ cfjZos sfg"gL Aoj:yf ul/g]5 . .'wf/sf nflu jfUdtL.]jfnfO{ vlr{nf] agfPsf] 5 . s0ff{nLsf . e]/Lsf] b}n]v / /fKtLsf] /f]Nkf lhNnfdf vfg]kfgL.~rfng ug{ u|fdL0f hn.~rfng ul/g]5 . x'nfs .kmfO{ .]jf jf s]a'n ljt/0fsf nflu .]jfsf] Joj:yf ldnfpg cfjZos sfg"gsf] th{'df ul/g]5 .+rf/ jf k|zf/0f k|ljlwsf] clwsQd pknlAw x'g] u/L o:tf ."rgf tyf . . ul/g]5 ./.|f]t.'Vvfu|:t If]qsf hgtfnfO{ vfg]kfgL tyf .u/dfyf nufotsf pRr ljGb'x?df .x nufgLdf cfof]hgfx? sfof{Gjog ul/g]5 .DkGg ug{sf nflu cfjZos ef}lts k"jf{wf/sf] ljsf.fy ljz]if cfof]hgf sfof{Gjog ul/g]5 . .'ne agfpg b"/./. ug]{ sfo{sf] yfngL ul/g]5 . s0ff{nLsf] x'Dnf. 38 .+rf/ . nIonfO{ dWogh/ u/L .+rf/ . /]l8of] tyf 6]lnlehg k|. .Eotf cleofgnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lb+b} kz'klt cfo{3f6 If]qnfO{ :jR5 /fVg ljz]if sfo{qmd .302 303 304 305 306 jfUdtL . :jb]z d} .'ne rkL{ Pj+ . .dofg's"n kl/dfh{g ul/g]5 .+rf/.DefAotf cWoog ul/g]5 .]. /fd]5fksf] .'ljwf pknAw u/fpg k|fyldstfsf .+:yfx? .+rf/ 307 308 309 310 311 æufpFufpFdf a|f]8Aof08 . sf7df8f}+ pkTosfsf] jftfj/0fLo . o.]tL / dxfsfnL c~rnsf .'Vvfu|:t If]q.xeflutf / ./f]sf/jfnf .|f]t Joj:yfkg kl/of]hgf nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbPsf] 5' .'ljwf lj:tf/sf] nflu pkef]Qmf . lji0f'dtL nufotsf gbLgfnfx?nfO{ . .xsfo{df yk ufpF ljsf.'/If0f d'b|0f .]jf k|zf/0f ug{ e"—pku|x /fVg] af/] .f/0f.kmf.a} zx/df kmf]g cg l8df08Æ cleofg .+o'Qm pkef]u ug{ .flos .fy sfof{Gjog ul/g]5 .x.j{.]jf k|bfosx?n] Ps cfk. :jR5 / k|b"if0fd'Qm agfpg jfUdtL sfo{of]hgf cGtu{tsf sfo{qmdx? tLa|tfsf .]jfnfO{ k|ljlwdf cfPsf] kl/jt{g cg'?k ljljlws/0f u/L cfTdflge{/ Pj+ Joj. .|fAbL ljsf. l.kmfO{ .df k"jf{wf/sf] .nfO{ ldtAooL Pj+ .Sg] u/L gLltut Aoj:yf ul/g]5 ./. lgodx?df .kmfO{ sfo{qmdnfO{ Aofkstf lbOg]5 .DaGwL ljBdfg P]g.ldltx?nfO{ lbzf d'Qm If]qsf] ?kdf ljsf.a}n] 5'6[f5'6[} k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f ug{] jt{dfg k|rngn] o. gu/ pGd'v zx/L If]qdf vfg]kfgL tyf . d'b|0f . l.d]tsf] .+rfO / n3' hnljB't pTkfbgsf sfo{qmd . .a} lhNnfx?. /fli6«o tyf . ul/g]5 .]jfsf nflu ef}lts .

+:s[lt tyf wfld{s./sf/L sfof{nox?df lgj]bg lbFbf lgj]bgdf clgjfo{ ?kdf bz ?k}ofFsf] x'nfs l6s6 6fF:g] Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' .flxTosf/ ejfgL leIf'sf] :d[ltdf cIfosf]if v8f ul/g]5 . cfufdL cfly{s jif{b]lv . 39 . .df .f+:s[lts tyf P]ltxfl.flxTo.+/If0f. lj1fg k|ljlw 314 315 316 ag]kf l:yt .312 313 . g]kfn kqsf/ dxf.+lut gf6\o k|1f k|lti7fgsf] ejg lgdf{0f nufotsf ef}lts k"jf{wf/ ljsf.xof]u pknJw u/fOg]5 .fdflhs .+x :jf/sf] of]ubfgnfO{ rL/:d/0fLo agfpg sfo{qmd .+:yfnfO{ . gf6\o .f/ hL0ff{]åf/ / k'g?Tyfg ul/g]5 .Dj4{gsf nflu .flxTosf/ eLdlglw ltjf/Lsf] ztjflif{sL sfo{qmd .fj{hlgs—lghL .a} efiffsf] .xof]u k'¥ofOg] 5 .~rf/ k|lti7fg :yfkgf ul/g]5 .fj{hlgs—lghL—. cf0fljs k|ljlw s]Gb| / cGt/LIf k|ljlw s]Gb|sf] :yfkgf ul/g]5 . d'n'ssf kfFr If]qdf :yfgLo efiff.fem]bf/Ldf ."rgf k|ljlw pBf]ux? .fb b]jsf]6fsf] :d[ltdf g]kfnL efiffsf kfFrhgf ljlzi6 . . snf / .DaGwL sfo{ljlw @)^* c. /fli6«o ljlw lj1fg k|of]uzfnfnfO{ cTofw'lgs pks/0f vl/b ug{ ah]6 5'6\ofPsf] 5' . g]kfn nlntsnf k|1f k|lti7fg / g]kfn . / kxndfgl.|f]t h'6fO{ cfjZostf cg'.d. dl:hb / luhf{3/x?sf] . . jl/i7 . g]kfn k|1f k|lti7fg.l4r/0f >]i7.xof]u k'¥ofOg]5 .d|f6 afns[i0f . .+:s[lt 317 318 319 g]kfnL efiff nufot b]zdf af]lng] .flxTosf dxfslj ljBfkltsf] gfddf lgdf{0ffwLg ljBfklt d}lynL .~rf/sdL{x?sf] Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{ cfw'lgs . o.fem]bf/Ldf .Gwfg s]Gb| :yfkgf ul/g]5 . .h{snfO{ k|To]s jif{ ?= ! nfvsf] b/n] k'/:sf/ k|bfg ug]{ Joj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' .f]h leq tof/ ul/g]5 .xof]u ul/g]5 .df ljz]if Wofg lbOg]5 . d}lynL .flxTosf/ l.+rfng ul/g]5 . .a} hfthfltsf] snf / k/Dk/fut .'/Iffsf]nflu aLdf ug{ ækqsf/ aLdf sf]ifÆ v8f u/L /sd ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5' .l4bf.fxg ul/g]5 . kqsf/x?sf] cfly{s / .{jfb cWoog cg'. slj uf]s'n hf]zLsf] k|sflzt / ck|sflzt s[lt k|sfzg ug{ .+:s[lt cWoog k|lti7fg :yfkgf ul/g]5 .+/If0f / . ljleGg d7 dlGb/.DalGwt . dfS.+3sf] ejg lgdf{0f ug{ ah]6 ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5' .~rfng ug{ / ck|sflzt s[ltx? d'b|0f ug{ .flxTo. o'uslj l. dxfslj nIdLk|. u'Djf. k|j4{g tyf To:tf If]qsf] k"jf{wf/ ljsf. .f+:s[lts ejg lgdf{0f ug{ ."rgf k|ljlw kfs{df .s :ynx?sf] . h}ljs k|ljlw gLlt / k/df0f' gLltsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog ug{ h}ljs k|ljlw s]Gb|.~rfng ug{ k|fT] .'ljwfo'Qm .

+u|xfnosf] lgdf{0f u/L . uh]Gb| gf/fo0f l. dbg e08f/Lsf] of]ubfgnfO{ rL/:d/0fLo agfpg :yflkt k|lti7fgx?nfO{ cg'bfg lbg] Aoj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' .f+:s[lts .d]tsf] . x/]s jif{ /fli6«o hLjgsf ljleGg If]qdf pNn]vgLo of]ubfg k'¥ofpg] Pshgf ljlzi6 AolQmnfO{ . 40 . u'?of]hgf cg'?ksf sfo{x? qmdzM cufl8 a9fpg ah]6 Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' .'wf/ ug{ PsLs[t 5ftf P]gsf] th{d ' f ul/g]5 . cflbjf. ljZjzflGtsf] cf:yfsf] w/f]x/sf] ?kdf /x]sf] n'lDagLnfO{ u'?of]hgf cg'?ksf] sfo{ cfufdL # jif{leq .fb sf]O/fnf.Dkfbg .lGwdf x:tfIf/ ul/.f+:s[lts .L hghfltx?sf] dft[efiff / . u0f]zdfg l.Gwftf wd{u'? kmfNu'0ffgGbsf] .+/If0f ug{] p2]Zon] u7g ul/Psf ljleGg . a/fxIf]q.dlk{t u/]sf >4]o jL=kL= sf]O/fnf.|f]tsf] ?kdf kl/rfng ug{ a}1flgs Aoj:yfkgsf nflu cfjZos sfg"gL Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 . luhf{3/x?df r9fOPsf e]6L3f6Lx?sf] Aoj:yfkgnfO{ kf/bzL{ agfOg]5 ./ .fb e6[/fO{.xof]udf of] sfo{ . .s]sf 5f}+ .+l3otf sfo{qmdÆ cGtu{t b]zsf kfFr If]qx?df ./sf/sf] k|ltj4tf /x]sf]5 .f+:s[lts s]Gb| ejg tyf . ug]{ sfo{qmdx? . ug{sf nflu cfjZos ah]6 ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5' .befj lasf.~rfng ul/g]5 .+:s[ltsf] . cfˆgf] . u'Djf.+/If0f / ljsf.ldltx?sf] sfo{ . dft[efiff tyf .b'kof]u ub{} /fli6«o bfloTjx? lgjf{x ug{] . xfdLn] cd"t{ cGt/f{li6«o . k'iknfn >]i7. uf]df / kfl/hftsf] k"0f{sbsf] . ug{sf nflu æ. lul/hfk|.+rfng ug{ cg'bfg lbOg]5 . o:tf e]6L3f6LnfO{ log} wfld{s .flxTosf cToGt} nf]slk|o gf/L ./sf/.DalGw sfo{qmd .DkGg ul/g]5 . dw]z cfGbf]ngsf zlxb /d]z dxtf]sf] .+/If0f / ljsf.f] dxf.Dkbfsf] .+x.Dk"0f{ hLjg /fi6« / hgtfsf] . b]zsf sl/a ! s/f]8 cflbjf. kz'klt.+rfng ul/g]5 .fws qo k|]d/fh]Zj/L yfkf. /fli6«o JolQmTj . ls/ft wd{ / .+:s[lts kl/ifb\ :yfkgf ul/g]5 . dl:hb. .+emgfdf ljljw sfo{qmd ug{ cIfosf]ifsf] Joj:yf ul/g]5 . dgsfdgf.]jfsf] nflu .+:yfut Aoj:yfsf nflu cd"t{ . .otdf cGt/f{li6«o hutaf6 k|fKt x'g] cj. s[i0fk|. dgdf]xg clwsf/L.+:yf .DkGg ug{] .Lx?sf] klxrfg.+x.Ddfg sfo{qmd 327 328 cd/ zlxb bz/y rGb / eLdbQ kGtsf] :d[ltdf sfo{qmd .+/If0f / k|j4{gsf] lbuf] .f+:s[lts dxf. hgsk'/.320 321 322 323 324 325 326 g]kfnL efiff .+:s[ltsf] .Dkbf .befj .xof]u pknAw u/fOg]5 . hg.Ddfg k|bfg ug{ k'iknfn /fli6«o k'/:sf/ :yfkgf ul/g]5 .+:s[ltsf cg'.f+:s[lts . .+rfng ug{ cg'bfg lbOg]5 . ljleGg d7 dlGb/.flns :yfkgf ug{ .+/If0f / ljsf. nufotsf wfld{s . ul/g]5 . d'lQmgfy.lGwsf] kIf /fi6«sf] x}l.d'bfo / ljb]zL bft[ . :ju{åf/L.Ddfgdf k|lti7fg :yfkgf u/L sfo{qmd .f+:s[lts dxTjsf If]qx?sf] .

sfnflu ?= !# s/f]8 5'6\ofPsf] 5' . lk:s/.flxt ug{ ljz]if sfo{qmd .:g] / hnhnf h:tf u0ftGq :yfkgfsf nflu pRr of]ubfg k'¥ofpg] 7fpFx?sf] ljsf. of]hgf. cfufdL cfly{s jif{ s[lif u0fgf ul/g]5 .]g k|lti7fgsf] nflu ef}lts k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f ul/g]5 .flns lgdf{0f ul/g]5 .d'bfo:t/b]lv g} . ug{] clek|fon] ufpF ljsf.+rfng ul/g]5 . o'jfju{nfO{ nfu' cf}ifw / of}g ljs[lt lj?4 n8\g k|f]T.fdflhs cfly{s ?kfGt/0fsf] nflu /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]uaf6 @) jif{] bL3{sfnLg ljsf. emNsfpg].DkGg ug{ cfjZos ah]6 Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' . hgr]tgf clej[l4 / .Demgfdf jxfFsf] hGdynf]df . @)^* af6 k|fKt tYof+snfO{ oyfzL3| k|zf]wg u/L k|sfzgdf NofOg]5 . o'jf kl/rfng tyf v]ns'b ljsf. v]ns'bnfO{ ljBfno tyf . ljsf.+:yfut ul/g] 5 . ob's'jf.sf nflu ljz]if sfo{qmd . k|ultzLn sjL s[i0f.d[4 g]kfnsf] ?k/]vf b]lvg] u/L sf7df8f}+ pkTosfdf u0ftGq :df/s -df]g'd]G6_ lgdf{0f ul/g]5 .fF3'.ldltx?nfO{ hfg] cg'bfg dWo]af6 Go"gtd ?= bz xhf/ v]ns'b If]qdf vr{ ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 .~rfng ul/g]5 . /fdj[If ofbj. g]q cefuL / . 41 .Dd clj:d/0fLo agfpg ljutsf] Oltxf. lgdf{0f.fxg . xf]n]/L. jt{dfg /fhgLlts kl/jt{gsf] cg'e"lt lbnfpg] / efjL . l.flns lgdf{0f ul/g]5 .+rfng ug{ cg'bfg lbOg]5 . If]qLo / cGt/f{li6«o kbs ljh]tf v]nf8Lx?nfO{ oyfzSo k|f]T. ul/g]5 .dx]Gb| gf/fo0f lgwL. o.fem]bf/Ldf ax'p2]ZoLo v]ns'b sDKn]S. . 332 333 334 335 336 /fi6« lgdf{0fdf o'jfx?sf] Ifdtf / l. . /fdgfy bfxfn. afx«f}+ blIf0f PlzofnL v]ns'bsf] k"j{ tof/Lsf nflu cfjZos ah]6 ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5' . 329 330 331 c/lgsf] /fhdfu{sf] pko'Qm :yfgdf /fli6«o lje"lt c/lgsf]sf] k"0f{sbsf] . lghL If]qsf] . :yfgLo:t/b]lv g} v]ns'bsf] ljsf. cfufdL cfly{s jif{ wgu9Ldf a[xt /fli6«o v]ns'bsf] cfof]hgf ul/g]5 . 9'+u].'vfgL.'ljwf pknAw u/fOg]5 .fj{hlgs vr{ Aoj:yfkg 337 b]zsf] . lgdf{0fsf nflu k|of.h{gzLntfsf] pkof]u ug{ /fli6«o o'jf gLltsf] sfof{Gjog ul/g]5 . hLj/fh cf>Lt. l5Gtfª.'/]z jfUn]sf] :d[ltdf sfo{qmd .fdflhs s'l/tL lj?4sf] cleofgdf Aofks?kdf o'jf kl/rfng ul/g]5 .fy}. pBdzLntfsf] ljsf. g]kfndf u0ftGq :yfkgfsf] cfGbf]ngnfO{ rL/sfn. /fli6«o hgu0fgf. gf/bd'gL y'n'ªsf] . v]ns'b If]qsf] ef}lts k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0fsf nflu k|f/De ul/Psf lgdf{0f sfo{x?nfO{ oyfzL3| . /fli6«o o'jf kl/ifb\sf] u7g ul/g]5 . . /0fgLlts of]hgf tof/ ul/g]5 . ah]6 k|0ffnL tyf . Clif b]jsf]6f cfhfb.

~rflnt /fli6«o ljsf.f/ x'g .DaGwL Aoo cg'dfgsf] ljj/0f / cg'.DaGwL gLltx? cjnDag ug{ lgb{]lzsf th{'df u/L sfof{Gjog ul/g]5 . gofF k|0ffnL nfu' ePkl5 ljQLo tYofÍ .338 339 340 341 342 343 344 ljsf. ljB'tLo cg'udg k4ltsf] ljsf.fj{hlgs vr{ Joj:yfkgnfO{ r':t b'?:t agfOg]5 . . 42 .DaGwL .':tLsf] cGTo / tTsfn k|ltkmn lbg] u/L . u/L cg'udgnfO{ :jrflnt / k|efjsf/L agfpg] sfo{ cfufdL cfly{s jif{af6 z'? ul/g]5 . . gLlt.Dd aflif{s ljlgof]hgsf] $) k|ltzt / c.DaGwL Dofg'cn. cj:yfdf k"FhL lgdf{0f x'g] ljsf.+rfng tyf cg'bfg h:tf cg'Tkfbs rfn" vr{ tLa|?kdf j[l4 eO/x]sf]5 . l9nf. vr{sf] nflu .sf df]8nx?sf] .s]sf] 5}g .]jfnfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf . /fli6«o :jo+ .+rflnt nufot cGo ljsf.Lldt aGb} uPsf]5 . vr{. g]kfndf ljsl.'b"/ / dWo klZrd If]qdf ljlgof]hg ePsf] ah]6 cGo If]qdf /sdfGt/ ug{ lgif]w ul/Psf] Aoj:yf sfod /flvPsf]5 .xof]u k'Ug] ljZjf.]jfsf] k'g.|f]tsf] b'¿kof]u lgoGq0f."rgf . nufgL / /fh:j .fwg . o.f/ dlxgfdf aflif{s ljlgof]hgsf] @) k|ltzt eGbf a9L vr{ ug{ gkfpg] Aoj:yfnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbPsf]5' .]js . sfo{qmd / cfof]hgfsf] cg'udg / d"Nof+sg k|0ffnLnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg k|fyldstf k|fKt k|yd cfof]hgfx? / bft[ lgsfosf] . pkef]u./n.|f]t s]Gb|sf] :yfkgf ul/g]5 . .~rfng ug{ xfn .|f]tsf] pknAwtf .t ljsf. t'ngfof]Uo / kf/bzL{ x'g] / cfly{s cg'zf./L gofF k|0ffnLdf hfFbf tYofÍsf] k|:t'tLs/0fdf ePsf d'ne"t kl/jt{gx?nfO{ cGTodf pNn]v u/]sf] 5' .y{ cg'Tkfbs vr{nfO{ lg?T.f/ th{'df u/L k|:t't u/]sf] 5' .gLo.fj{hlgs lgdf{0fsf] u'0f:t/ sfod /fVg k|rlnt sfg"g / .+s]t tyf juL{s/0f cGt/f{li6«o dfgb08 cg'?ksf] agfpg] p2]Zon] . cfufdL cfly{s jif{ @)^*."rLx? gofF k|0ffnL cg'. Aojl:yt.fj{hlgs . @))! df cfwfl/t gofF .g sfod ug{ yk .^( sf] ah]6 . g]kfnsf] ah]6. ?= !% s/f]8 eGbf a9L /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf cfof]hgfx?sf] ef}lts tyf ljQLo k|ultsf] cfjlws cg'udg cy{ dGqLsf] g]t[Tjdf /x]sf] pRr:t/Lo . :jod .Demf}tfx?sf] s8fO{sf .ldltn] ug{] rfn' jif{sf] Aoj:yfnfO{ cfufdL jif{ klg lg/Gt/tf lbOg]5 .xfotfdf . /fh:j j[l4 nIo cg'.fy kfng u/fpg cg'udg Aoj:yfnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfOg]5 ./sf/L ljQLo tYofÍ .xfotfdf .+s]t tyf juL{s/0f cfufdL cfly{s jif{b]lv nfu' x'g]5 .|f] kIfaf6 k|efj d"Nof+sg ug{] Aoj:yf /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]un] ldnfpg]5 . t. .{+/rgf u/L :jb]zL tyf ljb]zL .]jsx? kl/rfng ul/g]5 . lnPsf] 5' .flxt ub}{ s"n ah]6df k'FhLut ah]6sf] c+z qmdzM a9fpFb} n}hfg rfn" vr{ lgoGq0fsf nflu ldtAooLtf .f/. o. ljZj. j}b]lzs .~rflnt sfo{qmd / cfof]hgfx?sf] glthfd'vL 9+un] cg'udg / d"Nof+sg ul/g]5 . cfof]hgfx?sf] t]. rfn' cfly{s jif{b]lv Aoj:yf ul/Psf] a}zfvb]lv c.

/sf/L .Fu cfj4 ul/g]5 .ldlt÷.f]xL gfddf g]kfnL u}/.fy}. . sfof{Gjogaf6 k|fKt glthf / . låkIfLo.fj{hlgs n]vfk/LIf0f ug{] Aoj:yfnfO{ clgjfo{ ul/g]5 . j}b]lzs .+:yf eP To.a} lhNnfx?df nfu' ul/g]5 .+nUg AolQmnfO{ hl/jfgf ug{] / lghsf] Aofj."rs .+:yfx?n] .dod} ljQLo tyf n]vfk/LIf0f k|ltj]bg . cGt/f{li6«o u}/.+:yfx? btf{ ug{] / bf]xf]/f] kl/rfng sfod u/L sfd ug{] k|rngnfO{ cGTo ul/g]5 . sf]if k|0ffnLsf] cfw'lgs 9fFrf cjnDag u/L rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] cGTo./sf/L .dGjotfTds.xfotfsf] pkof]u ug{] Ifdtf a9fpgsf cltl/Qm . cg'udg / d"Nof+sg ug{] .xsf/L dfk{mt sfof{Gjog ug]{ sfo{qmdsf] xsdf . pkef]Qmf . .xfotf 351 352 353 /fli6«o k|fyldstfsf If]q / sfo{qmddf dfq j}b]lzs ./f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ . sfo{ljlwx?. cGt/f{li6«o u}/./sf/L:t/df .Gbe{df ldnf]dtf] ug{] ljrf}lnof k|j[lQdf .fnfO{ cfof]hgfn] u/]sf] vr{. .lxtsf k|ltj]bgsf 9fFrfx? cfufdL cfly{s jif{sf] kf}if d.fy nfu' ul/g]5 . .xfotf kl/rfngnfO{ ./sf/L ./sf/n] ljut s]xL jif{b]lv r/0fj4 ?kdf sfof{Gjogdf NofPsf] ljB'tLo vl/b k|0ffnLnfO{ ?= b'O{ s/f]8 dflysf 7]Ssfsf nflu clgjfo{ ul/Psf] 5 . kf/bzL{ tyf hjfkmb]xLk"0f{ agfpg . l56f]5l/tf] / :jR5 t'Nofpg g]kfn .345 346 347 348 349 350 :yfgLo txdf sfof{Gjog x'g] 3f]lift sfo{qmdx¿ af/] .fj{hlgs vl/b sfo{nfO{ .xfotfsf] kl/rfng tyf pkof]u ul/g]5 . ax'kIfLo / cGt/ .Dkfbg u/] gu/]sf] kIf.fGt leq th{'df u/L sfof{Gjogdf NofOg]5 .+:yfut tyf gLltut Aoj:yf ul/g]5 .kmfl/znfO{ qmdzM sfof{Gjog ul/g]5 . j}b]lzs .fem]bf/sf ?kdf ./sf/L ."lrt ug]{ Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 .a} k|sf/sf j}b]lzs .fj{hlgs vl/b k|0ffnLnfO{ cem k|lt:kwL{./sf/L k|0ffnL leq Nofpg cfjZos . kf/bzL{.xfotfdf sfof{Gjog ul/g] cfof]hgfx?sf] ah]6 lgsf./n agfpg cfjZos lgb{]lzsfx?.+:yfx?nfO{ /fli6«o k|fyldstfsf If]qdf ljsf. u}/.DaGwL sfo{.xefuL agfpg cfjZos Aoj:yf ul/g] 5 .flos . .Ddsf] sfg"gL Aoj:yf th{'df u/L sfof{Gjogdf NofOg]5 .+:yfx?nfO{ cGt/f{li6«o . j}b]lzs .xfotfnfO{ /fli6«o ah]6 tyf cGo .Demf}tf eO{ g]kfnsf 43 . ./sf/L ah]6 Joj:yfkg tyf vr{ k|0ffnL k'g/fjnf]sg cfof]usf] l.fj{hlgs vl/bsf . af]nkqsf gd'gfx?.Dddf @@ lhNnfdf sfof{Gjogdf cfPsf] Psn vftf sf]if k|0ffnLnfO{ cfufdL b'O{ jif{leq .nfO{ vf/]h ug{].+:yfsf ?kdf dfq sfd ug{] Aoj:yfnfO{ s8fO{sf .

sfo{. .nflu 5'6\ofOPsf] cfly{s .+:yfgx? :yfkgfsf] p2]Zo cg'?k hgtfnfO{ .sfnflu cfjZos sfo{ljlw @)^* c.d:of cWoog ug{ ul7t sfo{bnn] k|:t't u/]sf] .DaGw sfod ug{ k|oTg ul/g]5 .gsf] k|Tofe"lt k|bfg ug{ . /fi6« . lzIfs nufotsf /fi6«.'/Iffsf] efjgf cg'?k d'n'sdf . lghfdtL sd{rf/L k|zf.f]h leq th{'df ul/g]5 . .Dkfbg . cfufdL cfly{s jif{b]lv k/LIf0fsf]?kdf sf7df8f}+sf dfnkf]t sfof{nox? / c~rn oftfoft Aoj:yf sfof{no afudtLaf6 sfof{Gjogdf NofOg]5 .lxtsf] gful/s .Fu sfo{."rgf k|ljlwsf] k|of]u / . e|i6frf/ lj?4 z"Go .'wf/ 355 356 357 clwsf+z .'emfjx?nfO{ qmdzM sfof{Gjog ub{} .]jfu|fxL d}qL agfpFb} nUg Ifltk"lt{ .Gbe{df k]zfut If]qsf .fj{hlgs ./sf/L ."rsfÍsf] cfwf/df x/]s jif{ lghx?sf] sfdsf] d"NofÍg u/L .fj{hlgs . o. 354 cGt/f{li6«o tyf /fli6«o u}/.a} . o. gLlt tyf sfo{qmd cjnDag ug{]5 .df hf]8 lbOg]5 .d]t b[li6ut u/L lghfdtL.]js sd{rf/L. .+:yfx? dfkm{t kl/rfng x'g] Aoj:yfsf] cGTo ul/g]5 .'zf.lrjsf] 44 . .+:s[ltsf] yfngL ub{} c.]jf k|jfxsf] Aoj:yf nfu' ul/g]5 .fj{hlgs .fj{hlgs If]qdf c.g .fj{hlgs k|zf.fwf/0fdf ljlgj]z ub{} hfg] gLltnfO{ sfof{Gjogdf NofOg]5 . h+uL. k|x/L.~rfng ul/g]5 . >lds Pj+ k]zfsdL{x?sf] dgf]an clej[l4 u/L pTkfbsTj clej[l4 ug{ .g / k|efjsf/L . .g k|j4{g k|zf.gnfO{ . z}lIfs of]Uotf / .gnfO{ :jR5 / of]Uotf k|0ffnLsf cfwf/df .n cf}Bf]lus .bfrf/ k|j4{g ug{ g]kfn . o.xfotf cGt/f{li6«o u}/.zQm agfpg pRr:t/Lo .dGjo / cg'udg ug{ ./sf/n] 7f].bfrf/sf] ljsf.'zf.fj{hlgs k|lti7fg Aoj:yfkg af]8{ u7g ul/g]5 .]jf lbg .Demf}tf ul/g]5 . xfnsf] dx+uLnfO{ . .~rfng / cg'udgnfO{ .+:yfx?sf] sfdnfO{ ./sf/L . kf/blz{tf.+:yfgx?df k|d'v sfo{sf/L clws[t jf dxfk|jGwssf] lgo'lQm Ifdtf. pQ/bfloTj. cg'ej.Dkfbg .+:yfgsf] .kmn t'Nofpg tyf .n sfo{ . e|i6frf/ lj?4sf] /0fgLltnfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf sfof{Gjog ul/g]5 . .~rfng ul/g]5 .fj{hlgs .xgzLntfsf] ljsf.]jf k|jfxnfO{ r':t / b'?:t t'NofOg]5 ./sf/sf] d'Vo ./n Pj+ pQ/bfoL k|zf.]js sd{rf/Lx?sf] dgf]jn pRr /fvL .j{.+:yfg . ug{ /fli6«o hfu/0f cleofg .'wf/ of]hgfsf] k|:tfjsf] cfwf/df v'nf k|ltof]lutfåf/f ul/g]5 .'wf/ 358 359 360 361 362 363 .fj{hlgs .dfh sNof0f kl/ifb\sf] e"ldsfnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfOg]5 .]jfsf] lg/Gt/tf lbg] glbg] af/]df lg0f{o ul/g]5 .+:yfgx?sf].+:yfgsf] z]o/ . ./L v'nf k|ltof]lutfsf] cfwf/df lgo'lQm x'g] kbflwsf/Lx?.fj{hlgs .

cfufdL cfly{s jif{b]lv r/0fj4 ?kdf pkTosf jflx/sf lhNnfk|zf. .Gwfg / z+sf:kb ck/flws lqmofsnfkx? pk/ lg/Gt/ lgu/fgL ug{ cfjZos oGqpks/0f / .DjGw / k|efjsf/L hg.'ne ?kdf Gofo kfPsf] cg'e"lt ug{ .kmfl/.efd'v dxf]bo.xfotfnfO{ k|efjsf/L u/fO{ ljs]lGb|t Goflos k|lqmofsf] sfof{Gjog ul/g]5 . ljb]z l:yt g]kfnL s"6gLlts lgof]ux?sf] nflu cfˆg} ejg lgdf{0f tyf vl/b ug{] sfo{ z'? ul/g]5 .+of]hsTjdf ul7t .af6 ck/fw lgoGq0f. cbfntsf] ef}lts k"jf{wf/ ljsf.g sfof{nox?sf] k"jf{wf/ Pj+ Ifdtf ljsf. l56f]5l/tf] t'Nofpg / ljsf.fy}.nf sfof{Gjogdf k|efjsf/Ltf Nofpg] . .ldltsf] l.dob]lv a9\b} cfPsf] c.'b[9 hg.g sfof{nox? dfkm{t /fxbfgL cfj]bg kmf/fd .Gwfg / cleof]hgdf .dGjo h'6fpg lhNnf k|zf.sfnflu g]kfn k|x/L.Dd a[l4 u/]sf] 5' .'wf/ cfO{ ck/fw Go"gLs/0fdf of]ubfg k'Ug]5 . cfjZos k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f u/L aGbLu[xnfO{ . o. 364 lghfdtL sd{rf/Lx?sf] :jf:Yo jLdf sfo{qmd cfufdL cfly{s jif{b]lv cf/De ul/g]5 .]jfx?nfO{ :jR5. .fwf/0fsf] Gofodf .zQm agfpg lhNnf k|zf.Gwfg ljefunfO{ yk .+sng / /fxbfgL ljt/0f ug{] sfo{ k|f/De ul/g]5 . . cg'. lqk'/]Zj/ 45 . 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 hg.z:q k|x/L an / /fli6«o cg'.xh kx'Frsf] clej[l4 u/L l56f].fy ah]6 ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5' . o.fj{hlgs . xfnsf] dx+uLeQfnfO{ tnadf uflePsf] 5 ./sf/n] pRr k|fyldstfdf /fv]sf] 5 . ljut nfdf] .'b[9 agfOg]5 . / km}.fwgn] .sf nflu ah]6 Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' . 5l/tf] / .DkGg agfOg]5 .jf/L. v'nf sf/fuf/sf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ qmdzM sfof{Gjogdf NofOg] 5 .DaGwL sfo{qmdx? .|f]t.d]tsf cfwf/df jt{dfg tnjdfgdf #)=#( k|ltzt b]lv $@=*^ k|ltzt. Goflos hgzlQmsf] Ifdtf ljsf. ..g sfof{nox?af6 lgjf{x x'g'kg{] e"ldsfnfO{ .'/lIft agfOg] 5 .'wf/ nufotsf pkfox?sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogdf hf]8 lbOg]5 .h{gf u/]sf] cl:y/tfsf] hudf a9]/ uPsf u}/sfg"gL / ck/flws lqmofsnfkx?nfO{ lgoGq0f ug{ u[x k|zf.fwg vl/b ug{ ah]6 Aoj:yf u/]sf] 5' .'wf/ u[xdf ?kfGt/0f ug{] p2]Zosf . :yfgLo:t/af6 k|jfx x'g] . uDeL/ k|s[ltsf kmf}hbf/L ck/fwx?sf] cg'.'/IffnfO{ jt{dfg .+rfng ul/g]5 .dfgtfn] l.Sg] kl/l:yltsf] lgdf{0fsf nflu ljkGg ju{nfO{ pknAw u/fOg] lgMz'Ns sfg"gL . Gofokflnsfsf] /0fgLlts of]hgfn] k|If]k0f u/]sf cbfnt Aoj:yfkg . ljb]zl:yt g]kfnL lgof]ux?af6 /fxbfgL cfj]bg kmf/fd ..+sng ug{] sfo{nfO{ l56f]5l/tf] / . lgdf{0fsf sfo{x?df kof{Kt .gnfO{ pRr dgf]jno'Qm / .

fljssf] Aoj:yf cg'.DefAotf cWoog ul/g]5 .|f]t Joj:yfsf] of]hgf k|:t't\ ug{ rfxG5' . 377 378 379 380 cfly{s jif{ @)^*.efd'v dxf]bo.fg{ .xfotf kl/rfng ubf{ klg ?= #& cj{ $! s/f]8 Go"g /xg hfg] 5 .fFjf e'QmfgL ?= @) cj{ #) s/f]8 cyf{t %=@& k|ltzt k|:tfj ul/Psf]5 .jf/L cfjfudg / 6«flkms . cfufdL cfly{s jif{sf nflu cg'dfg ul/Psf] vr{ Joxf]g]{ .f/ s"n ljlgof]hg dWo] rfn' vr{ ?= @^^ cj{ ^! s/f]8 cyf{t ^(=@& k|ltzt.+zf]lwt cg'dfgsf] t'ngfdf rfn' vr{ !(=*@ k|ltzt / k"FhLut vr{ #&=^@ k|ltztn] a9]sf]5 ."rgf .|f]tdWo] /fh:jaf6 ?= @$! cj{ && s/f]8.j} g]kfnL gful/snfO{ ljleGg .Dk|]if0fsf nflu dxfgu/Lo 6«flkms k|x/L Pkm Pd :6]zgsf] :yfkgf / .g tkm{ ?= !*@ cj{ #$ s/f]8 cyf{t $&=#* k|ltzt k|:tfj u/]sf] 5' . k"FhLut vr{ ?= &@ cj{ ^! s/f]8 cyf{t !*=*^ k|ltzt ljQLo Aoj:yf cGtu{t C0f tyf z]o/ nufgL ?= @% cj{ #* s/f]8 cyf{t ^=^) k|ltzt / .]gfnfO{ cfw'lglss/0f ub{} æa+s/af6 Aof/]sÆ sf] gLlt cg'?k Aof/]s lgdf{0f sfo{ cl3 a9fOg]5 .fFjf e'QmfgL %=@* k|ltzt x'g cfpF5 .~rfng ug{ cfjZos ah]6 5'6\ofPsf] 5' . of] /sd cfGtl/s C0faf6 k"lt{ ul/g]5 . k"FhLut vr{ #*=^$ k|ltzt / .^( sf] ah]6sf] gLlt tyf sfo{qmd sfof{Gjogsf nflu s"n ?= #*$ cj{ () s/f]8 ljlgof]hg k|:tfj u/]sf] 5' . /fh:j kl/rfng / j}b]lzs .efd'v dxf]bo. .'ljwfdf k|of]u ug{ . of] Go"g k"tL{nfO{ j}b]lzs C0faf6 ? @( cj{ ^% s/f]8 h'6fOg]5 .^( sf] /fh:j gLlt. sf7df8f}+ pkTosf leq . k|:tfljt vr{ cg'dfg rfn' jif{sf] ./sf/L ljQLo tYofÍsf] gofF juL{s/0f cg'. g]kfnL . .lsg] kmf]6f] .+zf]lwt cg'dfgsf] tn'gfdf @%=^& k|ltztn] a9L /x]sf]5 .fwf/0f k|zf. s]Gb|Lo sf/fuf/ tyf dlxnf aGbLu[xx?nfO{ pko'Qm :yfgdf . s"n ljlgof]hg dWo] ljsf. k|yd r/0fdf cfufdL cfly{s jif{leq $ nfv sf8{ ljt/0f ul/g]5 .l:yt eb|uf]n h]n. sfo{qmdsf nflu ?= @)@ cj{ %^ s/f]8 cyf{t.lxtsf] afof]d]l6«s :df6{ sf8{ tof/ ug{] sfo{sf] z'?jft ul/g]5 . . ca d cfly{s aif{ @)^*.]jf tyf . .+lIfKtdf k|:t't ub{5' .fjfF lkmtf{ k|fKtLaf6 ?= % cj{ (# s/f]8 / j}b]lzs cg'bfgaf6 ?= &) cj{ !# s/f]8 Aoxf]/L ?= ^& cj{ ^ s/f]8 Go"g ah]6 x'g]5 .f/ rfn' vr{ %^=)* k|ltzt. .sf cfwf/x? / /0fgLlt tyf sfo{qmdsf] af/]df . %@=^@ k|ltzt / . cj d dflysf] If]qut sfo{qmdsf] nflu ah]6sf] ljlgof]hg / . rfn' jif{sf] . 374 375 376 . 46 . o.

|f]tsf] ?kdf ljsf.Dj4{g ub}{ b]zsf] cy{tGqnfO{ cf}Bf]lus/0ftkm{ cufl8 a9fpg] .+/rgf / sfo{ k|0ffnLnfO{ . -u_ pTkfbgd'ns.+u7gfTds . k'/fgf aSof}tfsf] sfg"gL sf/jfxL Pj+ c./fh:j gLlt 381 cfGtl/s . ug]{ . 47 ."nLdf k|efjsfl/tf b]lvPsf] / /fh:j kl/rfngdf .fy} ljBdfg b/x?nfO{ . -ª_ u}/s/ /fh:jsf gof+ If]qx? klxrfg ug'{sf .dofg'.foLs / s/bftf d}qL /fh:j k|zf.L k|j4{g ug]{ pBf]ux?nfO{ . Joj. -3_ /fh:jsf] cfwf/ km/flsnf] t'Nofpg s/sf] bfo/fdf gcfPsf gofF If]qx?sf] klxrfg u/L s/sf] bfo/f lj:tf/ ug]{ .+/If0f / .gnfO{ . -s_ rfn" cfly{s jif{nfO{ æs/ sfof{Gjog cleofg jif{Æ sf] ?kdf sfof{Gjog ul/bf s/sf] bfo/fdf j[l4 ePsf].h{gf ub}{ hnljB't tyf k"jf{wf/ ljsf.gsf] Ifdtf clej[l4af6 /fh:j kl/rfng ug]{ . s/ sfg"gsf] kl/kfngfdf .dofg's"n kl/dfh{g u/L :jR5.gsf] jt{dfg . ljb]zL ljlgdo ckrng Pj+ .'wf/ / /fh:j k|zf. ug]{ .gsf] ljsf.]jf k|jfxsf] dfWodjf6 /fh:j k|zf. -5_ ljB'tLo . cfoft k|lt:yfkg / lgsf. kf/bzL{ tyf :jfanDjL cy{tGqsf] lgdf{0f ug{ . -r_ /fh:j r'xfj6. lghL If]q d}qL.f/ k'g/fjnf]sg u/L u}/s/ /fh:jnfO{ /fh:j .fwg / . -h_ /fh:j k|zf. kf/bzL{. -s_ /fh:jsf b/x?df j[l4 gu/L k|zf.sf/fTds k|efj k/]sf] x'+bf cfly{s jif{ @)^*÷^( nfO{ klg æs/ sfof{Gjog cleofg jif{Æ sf] ?kdf lg/Gt/tf lbOg]5 . ug]{ u/L lgDgfg'. /fh:jsf] bfo/f lj:tf/ ug]{ 382 /fh:jsf] bfo/f j[l4 ug{ lgDg /0fgLltx? cjnDjg ul/g]5g\ .x'lnot lbg] .sf If]qdf nufgL lj:tf/ ug{ s/ ."rgf k|0ffnL :yfkgf ug]{ .d]t .f/sf] /fh:j gLlt canDag u/]sf] 5' . -v_ :jb]zL tyf ljb]zL nufgLstf{x?nfO{ nufgL k|lt cfslif{t u/L nufgL d}qL jftfj/0f l. kf/bzL{ Pj+ bIf agfpg cy{ dGqfno / cGtu{tsf lgsfox?jLr s]Gb|Lo /fh:j . plNnlvt /fh:j gLltx? sfof{Gjog ug{ lgDg adf]lhdsf /0fgLlt tyf sfo{qmdx? canDag ul/g]5 .|f]tsf] clwstd kl/rfngjf6 lbuf]./n.+sngsf] dxTjk"0f{ .hutf cfPsf].DklQ z'l4s/0fsf If]qx?sf] klxrfg u/L r'xfj6 lgoGq0fdf k|efjsfl/tf Nofpg] .lgs .dtfd'ns s/ k|0ffnLsf] ljsf.

ljo/.jf/L .flxt ug{ k}7f/L x'g] dfnj:t'x?sf] eG.bfsf]nflu lg/fs/0f ug{ .'ljwfdf j[l4 383 s/ .Dk"0f{ rn crn . r'/f]6 tyf .+sngdf u}/ s/sf] of]ubfg a9fpg cGt/ lgsfo .]jfsf] nfut.'nL ug{ o:tf aSof}tf /sdnfO{ /sd / jif{sf] cfwf/df tflnsLs/0f u/L c.fdfu|Lx?df d"No clej[l4 s/ 5'6 lbg] k|:tfj u/]sf] 5' .DaGwL o:tf] hfgsf/L cToGt uf]Ko /flvg]5 . o.DkQLsf] :j3f]if0ffaf6 k|fKt /fh:jnfO{ d'n'ssf] pmhf{ . -ª_ 3/ hUufsf] lsga]rdf /lhi6«]zg lnvt kfl/t ug]{ .DklQ . :j3f]if0ffnfO{ s/sf] cfwf/sf] ?kdf lnOg]5 .dGjo u/L u}/ s/sf jt{dfg b/x?.s]sf] cj:yfdf of] .kmfl/.x'lnot tyf .&) b]lv nfu' x'g]u/L o.f/ ljGb'd} clwstd v'b|f d"No 3f]if0ff ug'{kg]{ u/L tf]Sg ./L .-v_ g]kfnLdf cfˆgf] .DklQsf] lglZrt k|ltzt s/ lt/L :j3f]if0ff ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 .'n b/ 36fPsf] 5' .DaGwL n]vfk9L ug{ kfpg] Joj:yf ul/g]5 .DaGwL sfo{ ug]{ JolQmx?sf] .fwg nufotsf .fk6L.x'[lnot tyf .}nfO{ lbPsf] .df eG. z]o/—l8j]Gr/df u/]sf] nufgL / .DklQ jf hfoh]yfsf] .+s6 . -s_ . -3_ :jf:Yosf nflu xflgsf/s dlb/f.'n 5'6 lbg] Joj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' . -u_ h'6 pBf]un] k}7f/L ug]{ :ko]o/ kf6{\.flos / dof{lbt agfpg :yfoL n]vf gDa/ lnPsf JolQmx?n] dfq /lhi6«]. u/uxgf./sf/ cfGtl/s /fh:j sfof{nox?df cfˆg} :jfldTjdf /x]sf] 3/hUuf. s/ .dfwfg ug{ hnljB't kl/of]hgfdf ljlgof]hg ug{] Aoj:yf ldnfOg]5 .dob]lv af+sL /x]sf aSof}tfnfO{ c. s/ k|of]hgsf] nflu afx]s .flxt ug{ cGtMz'Nssf] b/df s]xL j[l4 u/]sf] 5' .d]tsf cfwf/df k'g/fjnf]sg ul/g]5 .g/L Pj+ oGqpks/0fx?df s[lif tyf .f/ dx. a}+s—ljQLo .]jfnfO{ Joj. KnfHdf jf Pn=O{=8L= 6]lnlehgdf . s. -u_ eG. -v_ j}b]lzs /f]huf/af6 kms]{sf g]kfnL ofq'x?n] ljb]zaf6 cfpFbf Nofpg] Pn=. nufgL / c.xsf/L dGqfnosf] l. 48 ."nLsf] l.'ljwf j[l4sf] nflu lgDg /0fgLlt cjnDjg ul/g]5 .+:yfdf /x]sf] lgIf]k. e}g.+rflnt uf]ne]8faf6 s]rk pTkfbg ug]{ pBf]ux?n] cfoft ug]{ ldn d]l.'nLsf nflu ljz]if cleofg . -5_ /fh:j . kl/jf/ jf sDkgLn] g]kfn . gub. k|bfg u/Lg] . -r_ nfdf] . nufotsf .f/ d"NofÍgnfO{ oyfy{k/s agfpg / Go"g ljhsLs/0fnfO{ lg?T.'lt{hGo j:t'sf] pkef]unfO{ lg?T.DklQ s/ P]gsf] Aoj:yf u/L AolQm.Sg] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5' .xsf/Laf6 .L=8L=.|f]t / k|of]hgsf] clen]v /fVg] afgL ljsf.d:ofnfO{ .g .db/df nfUg] xfnsf] dx.4fGt .+rfng ul/g]5 .Gbe{df n]vfk9L . cfly{s jif{ @)^(.

Ddsf] nflu yk ug]{ u/L k|:tfj ul/Psf] 5 . -em_ xfn kltsf] gfddf sfod /x]sf] 3/hUufsf] :jfldTj kl/jt{g u/L kTgL .f] k|of]hgsf nflu 3/hUufsf] /lhi6«]zg kfl/t ubf{ lnvtdf nfUg] b:t'/ 5'6 lbPsf] 5' ."rLs/0f ePsf lgsfosf] z]o/ vl/b ljqmLdf s6[f ul/g] k"FhLut nfe s/ lgsfosf] xsdf kGw| k|ltztaf6 bzdf / JolQmsf] xsdf bz k|ltztaf6 kfFrdf emf/]sf] 5' . -v_ Pscfk.ldltx? / . . . . bf]nvf.kl5sf] kf+r jif{.f]wegf{ x'g] Joj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' .8s lgdf{0f tyf .ef. aemfË / bfr'{nf lhNnfsf .Dd k"/} cfos/ 5'6 kfpg]5 / To. -`_ :j/f]huf/ l.Ddsf :s'6/df .jf/L .f]nf/ Pj+ Jof6«Laf6 rNg] . k|ltzt cfos/ 5'6 kfpg] Joj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' .fy} lwtf]kq jf]8{df .h{gf ug{ d2t k'¥ofpg] n'uf l. x'Dnf. sflnsf]6.pg] sndf Ps k|ltzt dfq eG.'? u/]df klxnf] bz jif{. d'u'.fn r}q dlxgf. d':tfË.nfdf d[To' ePsf] cj:yfdf e'QmfgL x'g] jLdf /sddf nfUb} cfPsf] cfos/ j}b]lzs /f]huf/ k|j4{g jf]8{ dfk{mt .d]tsf] gfddf . -ª_ bdsn tyf zjjfxgdf .fwgdf nfUg] .o ?k}of dfq /lhi6«]zg b:t'/ nfUg] Joj:Yff u/]sf] 5' . -r_ j}b]lzs /f]huf/df uPsf sfdbf/x?sf] /f]huf/Lsf] l. h'Dnf.'n nfUg] u/L 5'6 lbg] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5' .+v'jf. dgfË. -h_ e"lddf dlxnfsf] :jfldTj j9fpg] p2]Zon] lxdfnL If]qsf tfKn]h'Ë.Gw'kfNrf]s / uf]/vfsf s]xL b'u{d uf=lj=.-3_ ckfËtf ePsf JolQmn] k|of]u ug{ ldNg] u/L agfOPsf !%) .flos nfut sd ug{ lgDg /0fgLltx? canDag ul/g]5 .}u/L ljB't. -5_ 3/ hUufsf] ljqmLaf6 x'g] cfDbfgLdf nfUb} cfPsf] k"FhLut nfes/ krf.Dat @)&! efb| & ut] leq lgdf{0f k|f/De ug]{ hnljB't cfof]hgfn] .Dd Jofkfl/s ?kdf hnljB'tsf] pTkfbg .fwg s/ / . k|ltzt 5'6 x'g] Joj:yf u/sf] 5' .L= .+o'Qm :jfldTjsf] ?kdf lnvt ug{ rfx]df Ps .f]n'v'Dj'.Dd krf. 49 .'jf. k|ltztn] 36fPsf] 5' .+:yfx?n] .df ufleg rfxg] a}+s tyf ljQLo .jf/L . wflbË. To.jf/L . l.b/d'sfd jfx]ssf ufpF ljsf. /.+ef/ b:t'/ gnfUg] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5' .Djt\ @)&% . 8f]Nkf.8s lgdf{0f tyf .L=.+:yfnfO{ cfzo kq j'emfpg] .fwg s/ gnfUg] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5' .f/ dx.flos nfut 36fpg] 384 /fli6«o cy{tGqnfO{ alnof] agfpg dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg /x]sf] lghL If]qnfO{ k|j4{g ug{ / Joj.do @)^( sflQ{s.nl. ufleg] ljQLo .+ef/ b:t'/df krf. . -s_ ljqmd .=x?df dlxnfsf] gfddf 3/ hUufsf] /lhi6«]zg kfl/t ubf{ lnvtdf nfUg] b:t'/df $) k|ltzt 5'6 lbg] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5' . lghL If]qsf] k|j4{g Pj+ Joj.

'/If0f ljlw cg'?k 5kfO{ ePsf u'0f:t/Lo .fy} gSsnL cGtMz'Ns :6Ls/sf] k|of]unfO{ lg?T. kl5sf] k/LIf0faf6 lgoGq0f ug]{ gLlt cjnDjg ul/g]5 .+rfng ug]{ a}+sx?sf] h'g.DkGg ul/g]5 . ljo/ / r'/f]6 pBf]u / ltgsf ljqm]tfx?n] s'g} klg k|sf/sf pkxf/ sfo{qmdx? .flxt ug{ tTsfn /fh:j c.'n x'g . .'s} zfvfx?df /fh:j hDdf ug{ kfpg] Joj:yf ul/g]5 .} cfly{s jif{b]lv ljo/.Gwfg / sf/jfxL ul/g]5 .sf] yfngL ul/g]5 .f/ sfof{nox?df lj:tf/ ub}{ hfFrkf. -ª_ cGtMz'Ns /fh:j r'xfj6nfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf lgoGq0f ug{ o. -ª_ eG. k|0ffnLdf nfu' ul/Psf] hf]lvd Joj:yfkgdf cfwfl/t 5gf}6 k|0ffnLnfO{ yk eG.f/ If]qsf] Jofkfl/s 5nnfO{ lg?T.Gwfg k|lqmofdf /x]sf afFsL s/bftfx?sf] cg'.'/If0fo'Qm :6Ls/x? k|of]udf NofOg]5 .+sng k4ltdf .d]t c6]/ ug]{nfO{ lg?T.+u w/f}6L dfu ug]{ / .f/ hfFrkf.3fpm k'¥ofpg] b'j} kIfnfO{ sf/jfxL ug]{ u/L ljBdfg sfg"gL Joj:yfdf kl/dfh{g u/]sf] 5' . kf/bzL{.f] ga'emfPdf y'gfdf /fVg .xeflutf hgfpg] jf s/ bfloTj kfngf gug]{ s/bftfdfly sfg"g adf]lhd .Gwfg zL3| . -u_ /fh:j .flxt u/fpg s8f sfg"gL Joj:yf ldnfPsf] 5' .+rfng ul/g]5 .foLsf] klxrfg u/L . -r_ dlb/f.dodf ga'emfpg] Pj+ ltg{ a'emfpg t/ tfs]tf ubf{ .+rfng ug{ gkfOg] / To:tf pBf]ux?n] d"No clej[l4 50 .+nUg x'g] / .lsg] Joj:yf k|:tfj ul/Psf] 5 .Sg] cj:yf g/xg] ePdf To:tf JolQm.bfrfl/tf / OdfGbfl/tfsf] sb/ ug]{ kl/kf6L z'? ug{ :jR5 Joj.DaGwL cg'. dlb/f / r'/f]6df gofF 9fFrfdf . Jofks bfo/f ePsf]. -v_ s/sf] bfo/fdf gcfpg] jf cfP/ klg Go"g .d'lrt cg'. -3_ eG.Ddfg ul/g] gLlt cjnDjg ul/g]5 .'n gu/] kl5 c.fodf . e'm7[f tyf gSsnL ljn ljhs .-u_ s/ . k|lqmofnfO{ l56f] 5l/tf] t'Nofpg] / hfFrkf.DaGwdf lgDg sfo{qmdx? . :jod\ s/ lgwf{/0f k|0ffnLdf cfwfl/t / nufgL d}qL ePtf klg em'7[f Pj+ gSsnL ljn ljhssf] k|of]u u/L s/ 5Ng] k|j[lQ a9\b} uPsf] kfOPsf]n] o:tf] sfo{df .flxt ug]{ / Jofkf/ Joj. -3_ d"No clej[l4 s/ ljj/0f ljB'tLo dfWodjf6 lnFbf Ps nfv ?k}ofF eGbf dflysf] :yfgLo vl/b / ljqmLsf] ljj/0f lng] u/L 7"nf s/bftf sfof{nojf6 o. -s_ d"No clej[l4 s/ k|0ffnL cfkm}Fdf j}1flgs.'wf/sf] nflu s/bftfx?n] ltg'{kg]{ s/ cfkm' glhs /x]sf] a}+s af6 ltg{kfpg] Joj:yf ug{ /fh:j vftf . /fh:j r'xfj6 Pj+ rf]/L k}7f/L lgoGq0f 385 /fh:j r'xfj6 tyf rf]/L k}7f/L lgoGq0fsf .

Go"g ljhsLs/0f ePsf .s/df btf{ ePsf jfx]s cGo laqm]tfnfO{ To:tf] pTkfbg laqmL ubf{ 5'6 .+rfngdf NofOg]5 .]jfnfO{ yk lj:tf/ u/L k|efjsf/L agfpg cfufdL aif{df sf7df8f}+ pkTosf jflx/ yk !# j6f s/bftf . -em_ dfnj:t'sf] cfGtl/s cf].~hfn :yfkgf u/L /fh:j r'xfj6 lgoGq0f ug]{ sfo{df /fh:j cg'.gdf ePsf dxTjk"0f{ . -v_ ljut rf/ jif{b]lv /fh:j k|zf.+:s[ltsf] ljsf.f/ . kf/bzL{ / s/bftfd}qL agfpg / /fh:j k|zf.fonfO{ k|f]T. -3_ s/bftf .gdf nfu' ul/Psf] sfo{ .d]tnfO{ Wofgdf /fvL b'?kof]u gx'g] u/L lglZrt dfkb08sf] cfwf/df dfq 5'6 lbg] u/L /fh:j 5'6 gLltdf . -h_ /fh:j r'xfj6 cg'.dob]lv /fh:j k|zf.f/k. ePsf] / .f/k.fwgsf] cfGtl/s cf].+oGq . /fh:j k|zf.} jif{ tof/ u/L sfof{Gjogdf NofOg]5 .fxg k'Ug] u/L ljB'tLo dfWodaf6 cg'udg x'g] u/L dfnaxfs .+rf/ k|ljlwsf] dfWodjf6 cGt/ljefuLo ./n."rgf tyf ./nLs/0f ul/g]5 .Gwfg / txlssft k|lqmofnfO{ a9L Jojl:yt / kf/bzL{ agfO{ /fh:j kl/rfngdf clej[l4 ug{ /fh:j r'xfj6 -cg'.'wf/ 386 ljut s]xL .flxt ug{ Go"g ljhsLs/0f eO cfpg] dfnj:t' vl/b ug{ kof{Kt ah]6 ljlgof]hg u/]sf] 5' . .a{.+sngdf j[l4 ePsf].Dkfbg:t/df u'0ffTdstf cfPsf]. sfo{ .d"xdf sfd ug]{ sfo{ .fdfg vl/b kZrft ljqmL ug]{ pko'Qm .'ljwf pknJw u/fpFbf To.]jf sfof{no :yfkgf u/L ."rsx?nfO{ yk a}1flgs t'Nofpg] u/L lg/Gt/tf lbPsf] 5' .d]t lbg gkfOg] Joj:yf k|:tfj u/sf] 5' . -`_ cj}w tyf ljrng x'g] Jofkf/nfO{ Go"gLs/0f ug{ cfufdL cfly{s jif{sf] d+l.dofg's"n kl/dfh{g ul/g]5 .gnfO{ :jfoQ / k|efjsf/L agfpg s]Gb|Lo /fh:j af]8{ u7g ul/g]5 .]jfu|fxL k|ltsf] bfloTj jf]w .DaGwL sfo{ljlw agfO{ sfof{Gjogdf NofOg]5 .f/df x'g] Go"g ljhsLs/0f sfo{nfO{ lg?T.gdf ul/g] .gsf] ljBdfg .f/ ug]{ k|0ffnL o.sf] pkof]u.'wf/ ul/g] k|:tfj u/]sf] 5' .f/ k|s[ofnfO{ yk j}1flgs agfO{ :jR5 Joj.+:yfut Joj:yf ldnfO{ k|lqmof . .fxg k|0ffnLjf6 /fh:j .gnfO{ cem a9L r':t.Gwfg ljefusf] Ifdtf clej[l4 ul/g]5 ./ leq cfoft kl/rokq .+/rgfnfO{ . -s_ /fh:j k|zf. . Pj+ cg'udgsf] . -ª_ .jf/L . -u_ /fh:j 5'6 .'wf/x?nfO{ Wofgdf /fVb} /fh:j k|zf.d]t a9\b} uPsf]n] o.} jif{ tof/ u/L sfof{Gjogdf NofO{g]5 .GWffg / lgoGq0f_ lgodfjnL o. k|0ffnLsf kl/.dofg's"n kl/jt{g ug{ lgDgfg'. -5_ eG. 51 .Dkfbgdf cfwfl/t k|f]T.fwf/0fdf kg]{ k|efj.

o./nLs/0f ub}{ n}hfgsf] nflu eG. -`_ eG.z:q k|x/L jnsf] . -8_ 5'6[} /fh:j k|x/Lsf] Joj:yf geP.Ldf . 52 .]jf sIfsf] Joj:yf ldnfOg] 5 . -7_ eG. .f/ ljefudf .sf] 5'6[} .'/Iff / rf]/L k}7f/L÷lgsf.fy} cGtMz'Ns tyf d"No clej[l4 s/ lgb]l{ zsf .f/ Ph]G6sf] .'jf eG. Sjf/]G6fO{g.f/ sfof{nosf] nflu .Gw'kfNrf]ssf] nfrf{df .DklQ z'l4s/0f ljefu u7g ul/Psf] 5 .f/ .s]sf]n] cfufdL lbgdf oL gfsfx?df eG.GwLsf] kIf /fi6« x'g] k|lqmofnfO{ cl3 j9fOg]5 . -0f_ .DklQ z'l4s/0f cg'. cWofudg. -h_ jL/u~hsf] cnf}df ldq/fi6« ef/t . ljefunfO{ cGt/f{li6«o dfkb08 cg'?k. ef}lts .f/ sfof{nox?sf] .+sngdf clej[l4 ug{ o.d]t tof/ u/L sfof{Gjogdf NofOg]5 .f/ k|lqmofnfO{ cem j9L kf/bzL{ / .dofg's"n kl/dfh{g ul/g'sf .DaGwL lj:t[t sfo{ljlw lgdf{0f u/L o.Gwfg tyf eG.Dd /fh:j cg'.§f eG.L lgoGq0f ug{ cfjlws ?kdf v6fOg] .'/Iff./sf/sf] .s]sf]5 .+/rgf dfkm{t k|zf. -9_ .Gwfg ljefusf] lgoGq0f / lgb]{zgdf /xg] u/L .]jfu|fxLsf] u'gf.+/rgf.f/ ljefu tyf /fh:j cg'.} cfly{s aif{leq sfof{Gjogdf NofO{g]5 . cfly{s aif{df 5'6[} cGtMz'Ns ljefu :yfkgf ul/g]5 .]jfu|fxL .Djf]wg ug{ / /fh:j r'xfj6 lgoGq0f ug{ eG.f/.f]xL :yfgdf hUuf vl/b u/L ejg lgdf{0f nufotsf ef}lts k"jf{wf/sf] lgdf{0f sfo{ yfngL ul/g]5 .+zf]lwt Sof]6f] cle.xof]udf PsLs[t hfFr rf}sL lgdf{0f sfo{ k|f/De eO{ . lj/f6gu/.z:q k|x/L an v6fO{g]5 . a}+s nufotsf .+u7gfTds .} cfly{s aif{df eG.d]t PsLs[t hfFr rf}sL lgdf{0f .Gwfg .+Vof j9fpg] Joj:yf ldnfOg] 5 . -em_ g]kfn / rLgsf] ltJjt jLr a9\bf] Jofkf/nfO{ Jojl:yt ug{ l.'VvfaGb/ufxsf] lgdf{0f sfo{ k|f/De ul/g]5 / /.f]nfO{ tTsfn .'wf/sf] cGt/f{li6«o dfkb08sf ?kdf /x]sf] . -5_ cGtMz'Ns /fh:jsf] of]ubfgnfO{ b[li6ut u/L o. k|ljlw tyf hgzlQmsf] Joj:yf ldnfOg]5 .DaGwL k|lqmof yfngL eO{ .f/ d"NofÍg .DjGwL sfo{nfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf cufl8 a9fpg] qmddf 5'6[} .'ljwfx? Ps} ynf]af6 pknJw u/fpg] Joj:yf ldnfO{g]5 . -6_ eG. e}/xjf / g]kfnu~hdf .f/ Ph]G6sf] ckof{KttfnfO{ kl/k"lt{ ug{ o.-r_ ljBdfg cfos/ lgb]{lzsfnfO{ .g u/L /fh:j .

}u/L.DaGwL af+sL /x]sf sfg"gx? cljnDj th'{df ug'{sf . k|:tfljt ah]6sf] sfof{Gjogsf] qmddf d"No l:ylt nufotsf .+u7gsf k|ltlglwx?. cfly{s jif{ @)^^. cy{zf:qL.DdfggLo k|wfgdGqLHo"k|lt ljz]if cfef/ JoQm ug{ rfxG5' .xfotf .a}nfO{ xflb{s wGojfb lbg rfxG5' .fy} o.|f]tnfO{ pTkfbgzLn If]q tkm{ pGd'v t'Nofpg .xof]u / .dod} ah]6 cfpg g./sf/nfO{ k|fKt x'g] k|fljlws . pkk|wfgdGqLHo"x?. . Joj.DklQ .:yf. gful/s . k|fWofks.xof]u k'¥ofpg] bft[ .^* . /fhgLlts bn. rfn" jif{sf] ah]6 sfof{Gjogaf6 xfl.+3÷. gful/s . To:t}.Gt'ng l:ylt .dfhsf k|ltlglw / .d'bfo / cGt/f{li6«o u}/.fj{hlgs ug{]5 . Aofkfl/s tyf j:t'ut . ljQLo k|0ffnLsf] t/ntfsf] cj:yf .^( sf] cg'dflgt cfo Joosf] ljj/0f cg'.-t_ . 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 k|:t't ah]6sf] sfof{Gjogaf6 .dfh."rLx?df k|:t't\ ul/Psf] 5 .+rf/sdL{ .+:yfx?af6 g]kfn . d'b|f:kmLlt b/ & k|ltztsf] xf/fxf/Ldf /xg] cg'dfg 5 ."rsx?df ck]lIft k|efj kfg{ / ljQLo . k|lqmofdf .+zf]lwt cg'dfg / cfly{s jif{ @)^*.'l4s/0f .nfdf cd"No lbzflgb]{z ug'{ x'g] .Sbf cy{tGqdf kg{] k|lts"n c. /fi6«.'lglZrttf / ljZjf. s/bftf.sf/fTds x'g].+:yfx?.bx?.foLs.ef. . 53 . e'QmfgL .]js sd{rf/L / cfd gful/sx?nfO{ xflb{s wGojfb 1fkg ub{5' . .nl.3fp k'¥ofpg] u/L g]kfn /fi6« a}+sn] df}lb|s gLlt l56[} .d'bfo k|lt klg xflb{s cfef/ JoQm ub{5' .fy} . Joj.^& sf] oyfy{.DjGwL cGt/f{li6«o dxf.DaGwL ljj/0f k'l:tsf 5'§} k]z ul/Psf]5 . o. bft[ ."rLdf pNn]v u/]sf] 5' . @)^&. .bx?. ut cfly{s jif{sf] ah]6 sfof{Gjogdf . .+3÷.DklQ z'l4s/0f tyf cft+sjfb lgoGq0f . cfly{s jif{sf] ah]6 sfof{Gjogdf klg cem a9L .n ug{'kg]{ pknlAwsf cg'udg .xh x'g]."rsx?nfO{ klg 5'§} cg'.du| cfly{s j[l4b/ % k|ltzt x'g] cg'dfg ul/Psf]5 .dli6ut cfly{s kl/.}u/L g]kfnsf] ljsf.dIf d xflb{s clkn ub{5' .flos ./x? bf]xl/g glbO{ cy{tGqdf .efd'v dxf]bo.DdfggLo .DjGwL kfFr aif]{ /0fgLlt tof/ u/L nfu' ul/g]5 .'wf/ x'g] ck]Iff ul/Psf]5 . s/bftf.b:ox? .t ug{ lglZrt\ ldltdf ah]6 k|:t't\ ug{] sfg"gL Joj:yf th{'df ug{ dfggLo . dGqLHo"x?. k]zfut ./sf/L .xof]u k'¥ofpg' x'g] .ef. ah]6 lgdf{0f ug]{ l.GwLx?sf] cg'df]bg Pj+ o. ljifolj1.sf] jftfj/0f ljsl.b\efj k|fKt x'g] ck]Iff u/]sf] 5' . wGojfb .+3. k"FhL ahf/n] ult lng] / nufgLsf] jftfj/0fdf pNn]Vo .a} dfggLo . /fhgLlts bnsf g]tfx?. o.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful