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Principles of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV)

An Introduction to CCTV:
Course Objectives- Focusing on the key elements of CCTV; from components to application - Identifying opportunities to sell CCTV - Analysing a customer¶s requirements and specifying a basic system - Understand the features/functions/benefits of a CCTV system and its components >

An Introduction to CCTV: Training Programme Outline: 1. Considerations of product specification 4. CCTV Application ‡ Benefits to the customer ‡ Benefits to the installation company ‡ Qualification of the customer > . What is a CCTV System? 2. CCTV Principles ‡ Basic System Components ‡ Cameras ‡ Lenses ‡ Other related equipment ‡ Digital Video Recorders (DVRs) 3.

1. What is a CCTV system? A Closed Circuit Television (or CCTV) system is used for visual (and frequently audio) monitoring and recording events in a defined area > .

What is a CCTV system? Generally categorised for the following requirements: Deter criminal activity Assist in the detection of crime To instil confidence in staff/visitors/customers that they are in a safe and secure area Provide management intelligence for health & safety or commercial use > .1.

1. Retail) ‡ Crowd monitoring ‡ General surveillance ‡ Manufacture process monitoring ‡ Till monitoring ‡ Fraud counter-measures > . What is a CCTV system? CCTV Systems can be used in a wide variety of ways such as: ‡ Intruder verification ‡ Incident recording ‡ Response management (eg.

There are more than 26 million CCTV cameras installed world wide .Did you know? .More than 4 million installed in the UK > .

2. CCTV Principles Basic Components of a CCTV System (Analogue) Old style system with analogue video recording from a multiplexer. Usually a maximum of 16 cameras per system .

2. . CCTV Principles Basic Components of a CCTV System (Analogue) Old style system with analogue video recording through a quad. A maximum of 4 cameras per system.

amongst others. No multiplexer or quad is required as the DVR performs these functions. . usually up to 16 cameras. CCTV Principles Basic Components of a System (Digital) New style system using a DVR to digitally record and playback.2.

CCTV Principles The Camera Typical front view Lens Mount (C or CS type) Focal Length Adjustment Ring CCD Chip .2.

2. CCTV Principles The Camera Typical side view Iris Level Direct Drive Lens connection Phase Adjustment Control / Special Feature Settings .

2. CCTV Principles The Camera Typical rear view Video out (Uses BNC connection) Audio Out Low voltage power connection .

which are then processed by the camera¶s electronics > 1/3 inch CCD .2. CCTV Principles The Camera .CDD Image Sensor (Charged-Coupled Device) ‡ A group of optical detector integrated circuits ‡ Light is µsensed¶ by individual photo-diodes (rows & columns of which = µpixelsµ) ‡ Pixels develop a charge proportional to the light level.

Camera Types Indoor Outdoor Static Dome Speed Domes & PTZs Colour Monochrome Day / Night .

Light Levels A camera¶s µsensitivity¶ is the minimum amount of light required for the camera to function effectively . a standard monochrome camera would have a sensitivity of around 0.Sensitivity is usually measured in µLUX¶ Typically.1 LUX and a colour camera a sensitivity of 1 LUX > .

Light Levels
Light level can vary enormously throughout the day and, therefore, the correct choice of camera sensitivity for any given time usage is essential«

Sunset ± LUX =100~10

Crescent Moon ± LUX = 0.1~0.01

Full Moon ± LUX = 1~0.1

Overcast ± LUX =10000~1000

End of Twilight ± LUX = 1~ 0.1

Sunny Day ± LUX = 1~ 0.1

Starry Night ± LUX = 1~ 0.1

Street Light ± LUX = 5~3

Twilight ± LUX = 5~1

Resolution
- TVL stands for television lines - The measure of resolution of either a camera output or a monitor display - The greater number of vertical TVL, the better the picture resolution

Colour 480~540 TVL = 320~450 TVL = <320 = High Medium Low

Monochrome 480~540TVL = 320~450 TVL = <320 = High Medium Low >

Resolution
Original Optical Zoom Digital Zoom

Optical Zoom= Much better quality (No loss of resolution)

Digital Zoom= Decreases quality and clarity

Backlight Compensation (BLC) ‡ Camera function which compensates for excessive light directed at the camera causing video to µbloom¶ or image in front of light to be unusable .

Highlights) above a set threshold. to black or a shade of grey. ‡ Therefore. the image becomes more usable when bright light is shining into the camera > .Peak White Inversion ‡ Camera function changing white parts of images (eg.

for example.Fixed Focal Length (The focal length of the lens cannot be altered) .Motorised Zoom (Focal length can be automatically adjusted using.Varifocal Length (manual zoom length) .Lenses There are 3 main types of CCTV camera lens: . a keyboard controller or DVR) > .

therefore the image viewed will be larger > .Lenses Angle of View The greater the focal length. the smaller the angle of view.

Lenses Angle of View For example. but the focal length of the lens was different for each picture 80° ½´ 3-5mm 30° ½´ 12-15mm 15° ½´ 22-25mm 4° ½´ 85-95mm . the following pictures were all taken by the same camera.

No electronic control over the iris > .Lenses Iris Control Methods ‡ Auto Iris .Features integral circuitry which will vary the size of lens aperture according to changes in light ‡ Direct Drive .Lens control circuitry is within the camera. rather than the lens (Direct Drive specific lenses and cameras required) ‡ Fixed/Manual Iris .

19 & 20´ ‡ Single input ± VGA ± Video Graphic Array ‡ Multiple input ± VGA & S-Video or RGB ‡ The standard input from the DVR to the monitor is BNC > .17.Monitor Monitors to view the pictures from the camera come in a number of types and sizes« Monochrome CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) Monitor ‡ Choice of screen size 9.12 &17 & bigger ‡ 1000 TVL ‡ Metal Cased Colour CRT Monitor ‡ Choice of screen size 10.14 &17 & 21 ‡ From 300 to 750 TVL Flat TFT Screens ‡ Choice of screen size 15.

etc« Types of Housings ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ µIP rated¶ Weather Proof Vandal Resistant With or without brackets With or without internal heaters Wash & Wipe > . dust. vandalism. damage.Camera Housing Camera housings are designed to protect the camera from weather.

rain!) A product considered to be µweatherproof¶ would have a rating of IP65 and above ‡ -µIP¶ stands for Ingress Protection .The second number (in this case 5) is the protection against liquid (0~8. 8 being protected against constant submersion )> .Camera Housing ‡ µIP ratings¶ are a measure of resistance to the penetration of solid objects (e.g. 6 being dustproof) .The first number (in this case 6) is the protection against solids (0~6.g. dust) and liquids (e.

‡ 24v AV 500MA up to 4A 12v DC 750MA up to 4A > .Camera/Housing Power Supplies ‡ Cameras and housings with heaters will require power. mains or low voltage depending upon the product you have chosen. ‡ Where low voltage PSUs are required there are various choices.

the housing if it does not come with one. This also means that if the camera is not being installed in a housing then it will need a bracket. > . will need a bracket.Camera Brackets As mentioned in the housing section. A full range can be found in the catalogue.

which may or may not be required: ‡ ‡ Lighting Control Equipment > .Other Peripheral Equipment Other equipment which needs to be considered as part of a CCTV system.

Digital Video Recording .

are upgrading their recording system from analogue VCR to DVR > .Digital Video Recording ‡ Early CCTV systems used analogue time-lapse VCRs ‡ CCTV systems now use DVRs (Digital Video Recorders) with a huge range of benefits over old analogue technology ‡ Many existing installations. therefore.

Traditional Analogue VCR System This is an example of a 4 camera VCR system using a quad switcher > .

5TB storage ‡ Easily providing in excess of 31 days storage ‡ Less mechanical components to service > . easy image search & retrieval ‡ Remote viewing & control capabilities ‡ Never stops recording ‡ Up to 400 images per second (IPS) record rate ‡ Up to 1.Digital Video Recording The benefits of DVRs: ‡ Digital image quality ‡ No need for tapes (changing / storage of) ‡ Fast.

Digital Video Recording A typical DVR system featuring 4 cameras and remote viewing > .

Digital Video Recording Main factors for consideration in choosing the correct DVR: ‡ Number of cameras ‡ Record rate (images per second) ‡ HDD size (amount of data storage) ‡ Remote viewing / control ‡ Fixed / Mobile ‡ Data transfer / storage media formats > .

400) ‡ The IPS rate is normally divided by the number of channels ie. 16 channel recorder would record @ 25 IPS per camera ‡ High quality DVRs allow control of IPS rate per camera channel > . 400 IPS.Digital Video Recording Choosing recording frame rate: ‡ Each DVR has a maximum IPS rate (100. 200.

each camera in a system may require a differing IPS rate. such as vehicles. may need higher rates to ensure capture of number plates.Digital Video Recording Using higher IPS rate Using lower IPS rate The selection of record rate for a camera should be based upon the viewed application. Views where fast moving objects are required to be captured. > .

Digital Video Recording How long does the customer require to retain the images/video on the DVR? ‡ Record duration is the µdata lifetime¶ of the recorded images / video on the DVR ‡ Data lifetime will be determined by customer¶s specific requirements and rules of the Data Protection Act ‡ Longer data lifetimes require larger HDD space > .

Digital Video Recording Estimating record duration. the following all need to be considered: ‡ Number of camera channels ‡ Hard Drive size ‡ IPS rate ‡ Compression type «(Use Recording Capacities Calculators in the EverFocus catalogue/website) > .

the monitor will only display live images or recorded images. Triplex: The ability to record and playback simultaneously. For live view it is only possible to see a single camera on the monitor. multiple camera view is possible during playback. Multiple live screen is possible and unlike Duplex operation the monitor will display both live images and recorded images simultaneously. However. > ‡ ‡ . Multiple live screen is possible. Duplex: The ability to record and playback simultaneously.Digital Video Recording Multiplex (Simultaneous functionality) ‡ Simplex: The ability to record or playback but not at the same time.

Camera View Considerations ‡ Angle of view ‡ Internal or external ‡ Static or PTZ ‡ Colour or Monochrome ‡ High or Low resolution ‡ Available / Changing light levels ‡ Site orientation ‡ Power availability ‡ Data Protection Act > .

Which camera option best meets the customer¶s needs? Colour: Provides greater number of identification features Requires more light Does not work with infrared lights Lower resolution More prestigious (though slightly higher cost) Monochrome: Good for monitoring and detection Requires less light Sensitive to infrared lights Higher resolution Seen as old technology (though lower cost) > .

but is a less flexible solution Day/Night: Works 24 hours a day. works with infrared Does not work at low light levels as a dedicated Mono camera > .Which camera option best meets the customer¶s needs? Dedicated Colour or Mono: Where colour cameras are used. it does not need as much light. the scene would need to be lit at night Where mono cameras are used.

where it isn¶t) A number of static cameras can be installed for the same price as 1 moving camera Speed Dome or PTZ: Flexibility of seeing all or part of a chosen scene Having the ability to zoom into and/or follow a subject With a dome camera.Which camera option best meets the customer¶s needs? Static Camera: A static camera cannot be accidentally moved from its set viewing position The focal length of the lens can only be manually adjusted It is clear to everyone exactly where a static camera is set up to view (and. it is normally very difficult to see where it is directed PTZs and Speed Domes require an operator > .

Other Considerations for Camera Choice ‡ Low voltage or mains power (are heaters being used with external housings?) ‡ Level of camera resolution ‡ Available light level? > .

Moving Cameras ± PTZ / Speed Dome ‡ PTZ stands for ± Pan/Tilt/Zoom Viewing monitor Video Signals PTZ Speed Domes Telemetry Receiver Telemetry Signals Telemetry Transmitter DVR .

etc« Alarm Inputs triggered via: ‡ External detection devices ‡ PIRs ‡ Panic Button ‡ Access Control Equipment > .Alarm Inputs Alarm Inputs send telemetry signals via the DVR to automatically control / preset camera position. image resolution. record rate.

Infrared Lamps ‡ Lamps are usually Tungsten ‡ Heat generated by the bulb¶s wasted energy ‡ Aluminium-plated reflector ‡ Short life ‡ High power consumption / High cost of ownership ‡ Range = various angles ± Wide / Medium / Narrow > .

Infrared LED ‡ Use solid state technology ‡ Long life ‡ Better performance & efficiency ‡ Gold-plated reflector ‡ Low power consumption ‡ Need IR sensitive cameras ‡ Range = 10° ~ 60° / 20m ~ 175m > .

Target Viewing Size A CCTV system is generally used for one of the following reasons: ‡ Monitoring & Control ‡ Detection ‡ Recognition ‡ Identification Not less than 5% of screen height Not less than 20% of screen height Not less than 50% of screen height Not less than 120% of screen height > .

What are the benefits to the sales person promoting CCTV? ‡ Additional sales applications ‡ Customer loyalty ‡ Link sales ‡ 1 stop shop ‡ Referrals > .

> .Important System Design Questions There are two very important questions to ask the customer who has requested a CCTV system: ‡ What do you want to see? ‡ Why do you want to see it? The response to these questions defines the customer¶s need and will give you the foundation to further qualify the customer in order to propose a system that will meet their needs.

.Developing professional CCTV solutions.. .

Data Protection Act (DPA) .

we need to consider how we design.Data Protection Act ± (DPA) Data Protection Act ‡ Under the DPA. install and operate CCTV systems ‡ There are 8 core principles covering personal data ‡ There are 5 areas directly affected by these principles > .

Not transferred to countries outside of the European Economic Area. Secure 8. Fairly & lawfully processed 2. Processed in accordance with the data subjects rights ± DPA 1998 7. Accurate 5. Not kept for longer than is necessary Data Protection Act 6. without adequate protection > . relevant and not excessive 4. Adequate. Processed for limited purpose 3.The 8 Core Principles These require that personal data shall be: 1.

System Design 4. Signage 3. installation and operation that are directly affected by the need to uphold these principles: 1. Security > . Registration 2.The 5 Areas Data Protection Act The 5 areas of CCTV design. Recording 5.

registration means adding an entry to an already existing registration. to cover the CCTV system and providing a document that clearly states the following: ‡ The subject of the surveillance (what the camera is looking at) ‡ Its purpose (such as crime reduction or monitoring of staff) ‡ The person(s) responsible for processing data ‡ All persons with access to the system ‡ Registration fee of £35.Registration Data Protection Act For most organisations.00 per year > .

The identity of the person or organisation responsible for the scheme 2. The Act also requires that signage should clearly state 3 things: 1. that will be seen by people entering the surveillance area. The purpose(s) of the scheme 3.Signage It is a requirement that appropriately sized and positioned notices are erected. Details of who to contact regarding the scheme > Data Protection Act .

The number of cameras and camera angles should be adequate for the purpose. The positioning of the cameras should respect personal privacy in adjoining buildings. 2. > . relevant and not excessive. A key requirement of the Human Rights Act is the protection of personal privacy. The following should be considered: 1.Design Data Protection Act A key data protection principle is that the use of data should be adequate. The quality of images captured must be sufficiently clear to achieve the purpose of the scheme. through the appropriate use of physical screens and privacy zones. but not excessive. 3.

Privacy ‡ All images must be fully traceable. Traceability 2. recording device & medium and the person responsible ‡ Recordings used for evidence must be documented in a suitable log ± Why. with the date & time of recording. Access 4. by whom and where they are being moved to > . Retention 3.Recording Data Protection Act There are four Data Protection issues to be taken into account regarding the recorded CCTV images: 1.

00 per application to undertake a search of their recorded images.Recording cont¶d Data Protection Act ‡ Currently 31 days is seen as good practice for keeping images ‡ An organisation may only charge a maximum of £10. (The cost of providing the means to view it maybe much more) ‡ Images being disclosed to a third party (the media) must have identities disguised or blurred > .

‡ Where tapes are used. Is the equipment secure with restricted access? This covers the physical security and the electronic security of the system. they should be stored in lockable cabinets with access restricted by means of a written log ‡ Where digital images are retained on the hard drive of the operating system.Security Data Protection Act Data security is a key data protection principal. access to the system should be restricted > .

Penalties ‡ Up to £5000 fine in Magistrates Court ‡ Unlimited fine in the Crown Court Data Protection Act ‡ Unlimited claim for compensation in a civil action if an individual suffers damage as a result of DPA by the Data Controller ‡ Evidential video data may be weakened in court if recorded on an unregistered CCTV system > .

crimereduction.gov.dataprotection.uk Data Protection Act ‡ http://www.uk .Links There are websites providing further information regarding the DPA listed below: ‡ http://www.gov.

Any Questions? .

.. THANK YOU .Developing professional CCTV solutions.

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