Universidade do Minho
Departamento de Fsica
Aplication of Weibull
Statistics to the Failure
of Coatings
J.B. Almeida
Weibull Statistics 2
Universidade do Minho  Departamento de Fsica
Outline of the
presentation
q Discuss the failure of brittle
materials.
q Show the existence of an
asymptotic distribution.
q Exemplify with a fictitious
distribution.
q Deduce the Weibull
distribution.
q Discuss aplication to thin film
coatings.
Weibull Statistics 3
Universidade do Minho  Departamento de Fsica
The failure of brittle
materials
q Probability that volume V
0
survives stress .
q For a different volume V,
q Probability of failure under
stress .
S
V
( ) =
]
]
S
V
0
( )
V/V
0
S
V
0
( ) = 1
m
x
x
s
V
0
( ) d
x
d
y
d
z
s
V
( ) = 
V
V
0
]
]
S
V
0
( )
V
V
0
1
s
V
0
( )
Weibull Statistics 4
Universidade do Minho  Departamento de Fsica
Asymptotic distribution
q Consider volume V + V
1
:
S
V+V
1
( ) = S
V
( ) S
V
1
( )
d
]
]
S
V+V
1
( )
dV
= S
V
1
( )
d
[ ]
S
V
( )
dV
d
'
'
ln
]
]
S
V+V
1
( )
d V
=
d
'
'
ln
[ ]
S
V
( )
d V
=  f( )
Strength of V
1
is independent from V.
Divide one by the other.
S
V
( ) = exp
]
]
]
 f( )
V
V
0
s
V
( ) =
d f( )
d
V
V
0
exp
]
]
]
 f( )
V
V
0
Weibull Statistics 5
Universidade do Minho  Departamento de Fsica
Demo distribution
2 4 6 8 10
Stress 0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Prob. density
Strength
S
V
0
( ) =
e
4
( ) + 1
2
e

s
V
0
( ) =
e
4
( )
2
 1 e

Weibull Statistics 6
Universidade do Minho  Departamento de Fsica
Volume dependence
1
2
3
4
5
6
Stress
5
10
15
20
V/Vo
0
0.5
1
1.5
1
2
3
4
5
6
Stress
Weibull Statistics 7
Universidade do Minho  Departamento de Fsica
Asymptotic distribution
q Must follow general rule,
q Is the limit of real distribution,
q Or then:
V
( ) =
]
]
V
0
( )
V/V
0
V
( ) = 
d
V
( )
d
lim
V
V
( ) = S
V
( )
lim
m
]
]
]
V
0
( )
s
V
0
( )
= 1
Weibull Statistics 8
Universidade do Minho  Departamento de Fsica
Asymptotic distribution
q Rewrite probability density:
q Write asymptotic distribution:
q And asymptotic strength:
( )
V
m m
0
0
1
0

.
`
,

.
`
,
]
]
]
]
exp
( ) ( ) ( )
s g
V m
0
1
( )
V
m
0
0

.
`
,
]
]
]
]
exp
Weibull Statistics 9
Universidade do Minho  Departamento de Fsica
Modulus dependence
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Stress
5
10
15
Modulus
0
2
4
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Stress
Weibull Statistics 10
Universidade do Minho  Departamento de Fsica
Compare with demo
distribution
q Rewrite demo:
q Plot difference:
( ) ( ) ( )
[ ]
s
V
0
1 1
1
+
e
m
1 1 2
0
, ,
1
2
3
4
5
6
Stress
5
10
15
20
V/Vo
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Stress
Weibull Statistics 11
Universidade do Minho  Departamento de Fsica
Probability of failure
q Remember asymptotic
strength:
q Write probability of failure:
( )
F
V
m

.
`
,
]
]
]
]
1
0
exp
This is Weibull!
( )
V
m
V

.
`
,
]
]
]
]
exp
Weibull Statistics 12
Universidade do Minho  Departamento de Fsica
Weibull for coatings
q Allow nonuniform stress:
q Apply to 2dimensions:
Surface S
0
can be replaced by
the unit surface.
( ) ( )
F
V
dV
V m
V
]
]
]
]
1
1
0 0
exp
( ) ( )
F
S
dS
S m
V
]
]
]
]
1
1
0 0
exp
Weibull Statistics 13
Universidade do Minho  Departamento de Fsica
Conclusion
q The probability of failure of
any brittle material will always
follow Weibull.
q Two dimensional coatings
can usually be treated as
brittle materials.
q Please read the much more
detailed explanation in the
published text.