Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School, 21 June’ 2011


"In the modern world of business, it is useless to be a creative original thinker unless you can also sell what you create. Management cannot be expected to recognize a good idea unless it is presented to them by a good salesman." - David Ogilvy. GLOSSARY OF SALES AND SELLING TERMS: accompaniment visit/accompaniment report - when a manager or supervisor or trainer accompanies a sales person while working on the sales territory, usually while meeting prospects or customers. Typically the manager would complete an accompaniment visit report on the performance of the sales person, which would be discussed, and suitable follow-up actions or training agreed. account - a customer, usually a business-to-business organization; a major account is a large organization; a national account is a customer with branches or sites that constitute a nationwide coverage, which typically requires special pricing and senior sales attention. active listening - term used to describe high level of listening capability and method, in which the sales person actively seeks to understand how the speaker feels, and what their issues are, in which the type of listening extends far beyond common inattentive listening. Related to empathy and Stephen Covey's principles of seeking to understand before attempting to be understood. added value - the element(s) of service or product that a sales person or selling organization provides, that a customer is prepared to pay for because of the benefit(s) obtained. Added values are real and perceived; tangible and intangible. A good, reliable, honest, expert, informed sales person becomes a very significant part of the selling organization's added value, as perceived by the customer, if not by the selling organization. advantage - the aspect of a product or service that makes it better than another, especially the one in-situ or that of a competitor. advertising/advertising and promotion/A&P - the methods used by a company to publicise and position its products and services to its chosen market sectors, including product launches, image and brand building, press and public relations activities, merchandising (supporting and promoting the product in retail and wholesale outlets), special offers, generating leads and enquiries, and incentivising distributors, and agents, and arguably sales people. A&P methods are sometimes described as above-the-line (media advertising such as radio, TV, cinema, newspapers, magazines) or below-the-line (non-'media' methods or materials such as brochures, directmail, exhibitions, telemarketing, and PR); advertising agencies generally receive a commission (discount 'kick-back') from above-the-line media services, but not from below the line services, in which case if asked to arrange any will seek to add a mark-up. See the marketing page. appointment - a personal sales visit to a prospect, usually arranged by phone. See the appointment-making process. benefit - the gain (usually a tangible cost, but can be intangible) that accrues to the customer from the product or service. buyer - most commonly means a professional purchasing person in a business; can also mean a private consumer. Buyers are not usually major decision-makers, that is to say, what they buy, when and how they buy it, and how much they pay are prescribed for them by the business they work for. If you are selling a routine repeating predictable product, especially a consumable, then you may well be able to restrict your dealings to buyers; if you

Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak, Director, Movewell Media Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad. (

Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School, 21 June’ 2011


are selling a new product or service of any significance, buyers will tend to act as influencers at most. See decisionmakers, and the buying techniques page. buying facilitation® - also known as facilitative buying, generally attributed (and registered) to sales guru Sharon Drew Morgen. Extremely advanced form of personal selling, in which the central ethos is one of 'helping organizations and buyers to buy', not selling to them. See collaboration and partnership selling at the end of the section. buying signal - a buying signal is a comment from a prospect which indicates that he is visualising to whatever extent buying your product or service. The most common buying signal is the question: "How much is it?" Others are questions or comments like: "What colours does it come in?", "What's the lead-time?", "Who else do you supply?", "Is delivery free?" "Do you use it yourself?", and surprisingly, "It's too expensive." buying warmth - behavioural, non-verbal and other signs that a prospect likes what he sees; very positive from the sales person's perspective, but not an invitation to jump straight to the close. call/calling - a personal face-to-face visit or telephone call by a sales person to a prospect or customer. Also referred to a sales call (for any sales visit or phone contact), or cold call (in the case of a first contact without introduction or notice in writing). call centre - also called a contact centre - a department for outgoing and/or incoming (outbound/inbound) telephone calls to/from customers, commonly now extending to email communications also if useful for customer service, but not extending to email marketing. Call centres can be primarily reactive (inbound) or proactive (outbound - covering telemarketing, telesales, and research), or both. Call centres can be in-house, part of the employed organization, or external, effectively a contractor or an agency. Most modern in-house or long-term outsourced call centres are effectively customer service centres or departments, containing staff dedicated to telesales and customer services activities. Other types of call centre activities and operations can be concerned more with short-term telesales, telemarketing or market research campaigns. Run well a call/contact centre is a wonderful function. Run poorly call centres are a nightmare for staff and customers alike. Since the 1990s when the call centre function became de-humanised and obsessively cost-driven by many large corporations the nightmare scenario largely applies. Some call/contact centres are now such vast business units that they warrant being 'off-shored' (outsourced to countries with lower costs), which generally equates to corporate own-footshooting on a truly huge scale. A call centre which is inherently liable to upset customers due to inadequate levels of customer empathy and service is quite obviously utterly self-defeating. Staff turnover is unsurprisingly a major challenge in call centres. canvass/canvassing - cold-calling personally at the prospect's office or more commonly now by telephone, in an attempt to arrange an appointment or present a product, or to gather information. close/closing - the penultimate step of the 'Seven Steps of the Sale' selling process, when essentially the salesperson encourages the prospect to say yes and sign the order. In days gone by a Sales person's expertise was measured almost exclusively by how many closes he knew. Thank God for evolution. See the many examples of closes and closing techniques in the Seven Steps section, but don't expect to kid any buyer worth his salt today, and using one might even get you thrown out of his office. Use with great care. closed question - a question which generally prompts a yes or no answer, or a different short answer of just two possible options, compared to open questions, which typically begin with who, what, where, when, etc., and which tend to invite much longer answers.

Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak, Director, Movewell Media Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad. (

consultative selling (consultation selling) . A logical extension to 'strategic' or 'open plan' selling. a microwave oven is a commoditised product. and more traditionally in the case of consumer door-to-door selling as 'door-knocking'. Same can be said for mobile phones. which means 'business-to-consumer'. prospecting. and simplified. low profit margin. in which seller truly collaborates with buyer and buying organization to help the buyer . widely available. produced and sold in vast scale. telephone canvassing. More unusually these days.developed by various sales gurus through the 1980s by David Sandler among others. which tend to require closer customer support and greater expertise and advice at the point of selling and installation. and which also has massive implications for the sales distribution model and methods for taking the product or service to market. that is given away or conceded by seller (more usually) or the buyer. Commoditised products sell by the millions. and possibly user-training. concession . Similarly. inexpensively. Ltd. easy to make. as distinct from a business or organizational. involving little or no uniqueness between variations of different suppliers. consumer . grain. (movewellmedia@gmail. Commoditised products are amenable to massmarket and large-scale sales distribution methods and models. home security systems. prices and profit margins.. the buyer in the selling process. 'off-the-shelf' at any supermarket (or via the internet). whereas an integrated commercial kitchen is a specialised system. and requires a significant degree of technical advice and support.very modern and sophisticated. etc). application. All consumer products and services become commoditised over time. Ahmedabad. when it refers to an aspect of the sale which has a real or perceived value. all of which is almost invariably associated with a reduction in costs. An electric battery torch is a commoditised product that is freely available.typically a term applied to describe products which are mature in development. low price. support and installation.Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School. whereas a holographic projector is only available via a specialised supplier. and involvement from. 21 June’ 2011 st cold calling . Movewell Media Pvt. at relatively high cost and profit margin. One of the fundamental principles of sales negotiating is never giving away a concession without getting something in return .in the context of selling a consumer typically refers to a private or personal customer or user. specialised products might only sell in hundreds or less. cold calling can also refer to calling face-to-face for the first time without an appointment at commercial promises or households. collaboration selling .. See collaboration and partnership selling at the end of the section. even motor cars are becoming genuinely commoditised. if appropriate. however in a more generic sales and selling sense the term 'commoditised' refers to a product (and arguably a service) which has become mass-produced. Virtually all B2B products and services become commoditised over time. and practiced widely today. See the cold calling page. de-mystified. as opposed to specialised or high-complexity products. which describes the type of business in which the transaction and relationship is Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak. off-the-self from a retail store (or via the internet).typically refers to the first telephone call made to a prospective customer. Cold calling is also known as canvassing. oil. telephone prospecting. In our lifetimes perhaps so too will houses and buildings. de-skilled ('ease of use' in consumption. Notably we see this term in the acronym B2C. Traditionally the 'commodities' term applies to the 'commodities markets' which trade and set prices for fundamental commodities such as coffee. Strongly based on questioning aimed at gaining useful information. or trade customer.used in the context of negotiating. consultative selling was a move towards more collaboration with. requiring a high level of sales and selling expertise. potentially without a similar competing product.also known as collaborative selling and facilitation selling . widely available. at competitively low price. and commissioning and application. See the negotiation section. etc. Colour TV's are cheaper than they were thirty years ago because they've become commoditised. Director. installation.even a small increase in commitment is better than nothing. commodities/commoditised (products and services) . high volume. computers.

Prior to the sale is usually referred to as a prospect. (movewellmedia@gmail. Well known examples of CRM computerised systems are Sage's ACT!. or at the supplier's premises. functional directors may well be decision-makers for significant sales that relate only to their own function's activities. are examples of B2C sales organizations. habits. and normally conducted at the prospect's premises.CRM is now a commonly used term to describe the process of managing the entire selling process within a department or organisation. but can be at another suitable venue.. or 'technical support disciplines'. Movewell Media Pvt. others or oneself. and will almost always need to refer major purchasing decisions to one or both of the above people. eg. population movements. For anything other than a routine repeating order. Generally free of charge to the prospect. In very large organizations.common business parlance for the sale or purchase (agreement or arrangement). history. It is rather a colloquial term so avoid using it in serious company as it can sound flippant and unprofessional. although a discipline can refer more generally to a capability or responsibility. demonstration/'demo'/'dem' . decision-maker . product. See influencer. since the term is used to describe the process and methodology as well as the system) are: • • • compilation and organisation of data (prospects. Ltd. scheduling and integrating customer development activities and communications analysis and reporting of all sales related activities and data Good CRM strategy and systems are generally considered necessary for modern organisations of any scale to enable effective planning and implementation of sales (and to an extent marketing) activities. Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak. people's lifestyles. in terms of the consuming and buying public. sales history and account development. employment. On of the most common mistakes by sales people is to attempt to sell to someone other than a genuine decision-maker. etc. or information about.. Ahmedabad. deliverable(s) . the only two people in any organization of any size that are real decision-makers for significant sales values are the CEO/Managing Director/President. social grade.the study of.. customer relationship management (CRM) . spending. A household insurer. Chief elements of a CRM system (or strategy. which claims (as at 2006) to be the world's most popular CRM system. and Front Range's Goldmine. demographics . customers.a person in the prospect organization who has the power and budgetary authority to agree to a sales proposal.usually meaning the purchaser. Director.which is trade and selling between businesses. age. 21 June’ 2011 st between a business and a private 'domestic' customer.within the context of an organization this is similar to function.. and the Finance Director. sales. Everyone else in the organization is generally working within stipulated budgets and supply contracts. A holiday company is a B2C . discipline . B2B describes 'business-to-business' . job role. etc) planning. for example 'financial disciplines'. i. deal . usually and preferably clearly measurable. customer .an aspect of a proposal that the provider commits to do or supply. Computerised CRM systems enable management of prospect and customer details. or an estate agent. contacts. organization. an exhibition. or consumer after the sale. Discipline can of course mean separately 'control'. anyone selling to the consumer sector will do better through understanding relevant demographic information. Retail is by its nature consumer business.the physical presentation by the sales person to the prospect of how a product works.Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School. or 'customer service disciplines'.

The ability to feel and show empathy is central to modern selling methods. The person said he was from 'central government'. In all respects today poor ethics guarantee personal and business failure. See also NLP (Neuro-Linguitsic Programming).features advantages benefits . Director.this would not have appeared in a selling glossary a few years ago. and any business organisation too. out-bound and in-bound). Understanding and establishing best sales distribution methods . and the need for manufacturers and sellers to anticipate changes is found in the switching of book sales and CD sales from retail store distribution to websites. Ltd. buttons and knobs. Honesty.Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School.are crucial aspects of running any sales organisation. etc) are generally distributed via mass-market consumer distribution methods. In business-tobusiness selling of a complex strategic nature looking at disciplines (capabilities and responsibilities) can help to explore the different ways that people are affected by a change or proposition. For example. Sales distribution models are many and various. and the gain derived by the customer from using it. telephone sales (call-centres. technical support. This is a fine example of unethical selling. and typically reflecting this back to the other person. ethics/ethical selling/ethical business . influenced also by technology and social trends. Authories and the courts are less tolerant and more senstitive to transgressions. feature . technology. the 'seller' eventually clarified that the purpose of the contact was to sell me some advertising in a directory. which generally accompanies the sale of a product or service. weight. environmental and legislative effects. distribution/sales distribution . In Spring 2008 someone left a message on my answerphone.routes to market . slowly business and selling is becoming more civilised. although gradually. the internet (online website businesses).com) . household electricals. and channel partners and partnering arrangements (prevalent in telecomms and IT sectors). delivery. (movewellmedia@gmail. direct sales forces (employed).the links between a product description. and for any sustainable business. plus other influences such as economical trends. since the seller was clearly following a company script and set of tactics designed to deceive. but not the reason for its inclusion in this glossary. empathy . See the Empathy page. and the end-user market. thus threatening those involved with or dependent upon physical shipping of products. because the line between right and wrong was a mile wide. but nowadays they carry far greater risks for those who behave badly. but also increasingly the internet. distributors (independent sellers who carry products and services of other manufactuerers and 'principals'). and the model will normally be defined by these factors. customer markets. direct sales forces (sales agents). To certain leaders and companies it still is. See ethical management and leadership.. and unethical business too. and are constantly changing and new ones developing. eg. Examples of B2B sales distribution models are franchising. type of technology. etc. notably supermarkets. Consumers are wiser and better informed. bells and whistles.the methods or routes by which products and services are taken to market. colour. FABs . Ahmedabad. Movewell Media Pvt. if now rather predictable. morality and social responsibility are now crucial elements in any effective selling method. I duly called back. techniques used in the presentation stage of the selling process. 21 June’ 2011 st which is certainly relevant to sales and selling.understanding how another person feels. B2B (business-to-business) sales distribution models have their own shape. and could I give him a call back. A lesson in changing sales distribution models. etc. Sales distribution should be appropriate to the product and service. again dependent on products and services. Unethical business and selling have always been wrong. speed. size.. Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak. gizmos and gadgets. commoditised mass-market consumer products (FMCG . with the resulting demise of many retailers in those sectors. After several sidesteps. supposedly endorsed or approved by a 'government department'. its advantage over others. working on a 'policy piece' about elearning. Future changes in sales distribution will see for example music transferring increasingly via online aspect of a product or consumer goods. One of the central.

sale gestation period typically refers to the the time from enquiry to sale. and large organizations will have definitely have several influencers. dating back to the 1980s and probably earlier. an aspect of the product or service offering that has a value but is difficult to see or quantify (for instance.old-style persuasive push/pressure technique for objection . 21 June’ 2011 st feel-felt-found . The value and potency of a personal introduction genrally reflects the importance of the introducing person and the strength Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak." The technique seeks first to empathise. and particularly the management style of the two main decision-makers. (movewellmedia@gmail. Ahmedabad. marketing. Ltd. To be field-based is to work on the sales territory.of the sales person to someone in the buying organisation by a mutual friend or contact. or the term means a personal introduction .a prediction of what sales will be achieved over a given period. field . etc. (see Sales Cycle)..a person in the prospect organization who has the power to influence and persuade a decision-maker. Selling to large organizations almost certainly demands that the sales person does this. where in the third stage the objection can be countered and the benefits reinforced with supposed large-scale evidence. gestation period . 'you must change your mind') confrontation. forecast/sales forecast . It is usually important to sell to influencers as well as decision-makers in the same organization.//Other customers have felt just the same/that. sales. they have found that. intangible . Due to the traditionally unreliable and optimistic nature of sales-department forecasts it is entirely normal for the sum of all individual sales persons' sales annual forecast to grossly exceed what the business genuinely plans to sell. Director.. Influencers will be generally be decision-makers for relatively low value sales. and critically their interests and needs. the Sales Cycle in other words. or is. See tangible. The method had limited effectiveness a generation or two ago but now the tactic mostly insults people and makes the sales-person look like an idiot.. delivery.. installation.//But (or 'And') when. forecasting and management.means anywhere out of the sales office.also called a referral . There is usually more than one influencer in any prospect organization relevant to a particular sale. based on the sales-person using a response built around the three 'feel felt found' elements: "I understand how you feel/why you feel that.. consistency).. Awareness and monitoring of Sale Gestation Period/Sales Cycle times are crucial in sales planning. See targets.. Sales managers require sales people to forecast. and other functions whose activities need to be planned to meet sales demand. persuading the buyer that he/she (if failing to buy) is isolated and deprived of the benefits others are enjoying. Movewell Media Pvt. in order to provide data to production. and since they are made by an existing contact they help greatly in establishing initial trust. for individuals sales teams and sales organizations. as opposed to being office-based.. Field sales people or managers are those who travel around meeting people personally in the course of managing a sales territory.. and creating an artificial sense of majority experience and opinion. Personal introductions of this sort tend to imply endorsement or recommendation of the seller. accounting. Understanding the functions of people within organizations. anything from a week to a year. reliability.. is very important if you are selling to businesses or other non-consumer organizations. peace-of-mind. See decision-makers. The role and power of influencers in any organization largely depends on the culture and politics of the organization. technical service. function . Sales forecasts are also an essential performance quantifier which feeds into the overall business plan for any organization. customer service. production. influencer . purchasing. introduction . then in stage two to move the objection into neutral area avoiding direct one-to-one (2nd the context of an organization. general management. a selling context this describes.the word introduction has two different main meanings in selling: Introduction refers either to first stage of the face-to-face or telephone sales call (see the Opening stage in the Seven Steps of the Sale).Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School. this means the job role or discipline.

marketing . often having several branches or sites. between supplier and customer.. Strictly speaking.the trading of concessions including price reductions. 21 June’ 2011 st of their relationship with the buying contact. It's the process by which a company decides what it will sell. Percentage margin is generally deemed to be the difference between cost and selling price. The method was for the sales person to question the prospect to identify.time between order and delivery. Note that LAMP® and Strategic Selling® methods and materials are subject to copyright and intellectual property control of Miller Heiman. margin/profit margin . to whom. and lower selling costs from economies of scale. See LAMP® and Strategic Selling® copyright details below. So a product costing £1 and selling for £2 has been given a mark-up of 100%. I'm bound to point out that this is no substitute for good research and proper targeting of prospects who have use of the products and services being sold.a large and complex prospect or customer. Stephen Heiman and Tad Tuleja in their 1991 book Successful Large Account Management (see the books at the foot of this page). Major accounts often enjoy better discounts and terms than other customers because of purchasing power leveraged by bigger volumes. LAMP® . not of the selling price. Inc. and generally requiring contacts and relationships between various functions in the supplier and customer . Networking is essentially based on using (sometimes several quite informal) introductions. especially for selling to large organisations.perceived by lots of business people to mean simply promotion and margin is after overheads are deducted). new business/product development. and to open initial dialogue. Ahmedabad. Ltd. Movewell Media Pvt. See the marketing section. Director. See the introductory letters structure and template examples. when and how. installation or commencement of a product or service.the difference between cost (including or excluding operating overheads) and selling price of a product or service. and arguably all of the sales functions as well.Large Account Management Process . in that without good listening skills the process of questioning is rendered totally pointless.a selling style popularised in the 1970s and 80s which asserted that sales people could create needs in a prospect for their products or services even if no needs were apparent. (at the same time it produces a margin of 50%). discover (and suggest) organizational problems or potential problems that would then create a need for the product. the term marketing actually covers everything from company culture and positioning. lead-time . obvious or even existed. negotiation/negotiating . to connect a seller with a buyer. which might be formed into a major accounts team.sales acronym and methodology for major accounts management developed by Robert Miller. PR (public/press relations). and then does it. through market research.a key selling skill. Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak. (movewellmedia@gmail. Also note that LAMP® and Strategic Selling® methods and materials are not to be used in the provision of training and development products and services without a licence.a very effective way to improve appointment-making success. listening . in an attempt to shape a supply contract (sale in other words) so that it is acceptable to both supplier and customer. See the Levels of Listening on the Empathy page.this is the money that a selling company adds to the cost of a product or service in order to produce a required level of profit. mark-up . introductory letter .Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School. advertising and promotion. needs-creation selling . Often major accounts are the responsibility of designated experienced and senior sales people. divided by the selling price ex tax (eg something that costs £1 and is sold for £2 plus tax produces a 50% margin gross margin that is . major account . percentage mark-up refers to the difference between cost and selling price as a factor of the cost.

Modern collaborative selling principles assume that objections do not arise if proper research. There is a strong reliance on seller having excellent strategic understanding of prospect organization and aims. See the business networking guide.")..the first stage of the actual sales call (typically after preparation in the Seven Steps of the Sale).. usually price ("It's too expensive. The proposition is therefore strongly linked to the achievement of strategic business aims typically improvements in costs. Movewell Media Pvt.B. or by other contact methods such as phone. email. In 'open plan selling' the seller identifies strategic business aims of the sales prospect or customer organization. notably honesty and the premise that persuasion and influence are unhelpful.intentionally or otherwise . Director. objection/overcoming objections . "Our customers in the clothing retail sector generally achieve 30-50% pilferage reduction when they install one of our Crooknabber security systems. social and business networking websites. as primarily featured in Buying Facilitation. revenues. overheads. expert consultancy).. See Open Plan Selling. margins. Modern selling methods tend to identify objections much earlier in the process. negotiation must only commence when the sale has been agreed in principle." . opening benefit statement/OBS . and develops a proposition that enables the aims to be realised. free. Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak. which generally extends the selling discussion far beyond the obvious product application.. although generally it's down to one or two meetings and one or two exchanges of correspondence. profit. NLP involves language. rules and techniques. Ideally. and in this respect the methodology relates somewhat to modern ideas of facilitating and helping. Also called the introduction. 21 June’ 2011 st Negotiations can last a few minutes or even a few years. eg. See the NLP page.of starting to negotiate before the selling process have even commenced. heavily dependent on the sales person understanding and interpreting the prospect's organizational and personal needs. Open Plan Selling is also underpinned by strong ethical objection is a point of resistance raised by a prospect. open/opening . Also the notion of using techniques or pressure to overcome what may be legitimate obstacles is contrary to principles of modern selling. but far less significant in modern selling.N. quality. However most sales people fall into the trap set by most buyers . it's rather like combining selling with genuinely beneficial. NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming) . based on referrals and introductions . constraints and strategic aims.the OBS generally encapsulates the likely strongest organizational benefit typically (or supposedly) derived by customers in the prospect's sector.a modern form of selling. The OBS is a relatively blunt instrument for modern selling . (movewellmedia@gmail.Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School. time-saving and competitive strengths areas.A very accessible branch of psychology developed by Bandler and Grinder in the 1960s.use it with extreme care for fear of looking like a total twerp. to agree collaboratively a strategy with the main contact at the prospective customer for dealing with objection(s) arising. efficiency. Ltd.. networking . thinking and . Ahmedabad. needs analysis. questioning and empathic discussion has taken place. Overcoming objections is a revered and much-trained skill in the traditional selling process. See the section on negotiation for negotiating theory. open plan selling . but can be anything at any stage of the selling process. processes. and conditionally upon satisfactory negotiation. or where objections arise from multiple decision influencers within the buyer organization. and is therefore immensely useful and often featuires in sales training. etc. market sector situation and increasingly popular method of developing sales opportunities and contacts. in writing.either face-to-face at meetings and gatherings. (in a way. issues. The term Open Plan Selling was coined (to the best of my knowledge) by British consultant and trainer Stanley Guffogg. from the seller's point of view.traditionally an initial impact statement for sales people to use at first contact with prospect. and either to filter out the prospect at that stage and abandon the approach. and access to strategic decision-makers and influencers. on the phone or face-to-face .

which typically manifests as sales people being unable to sell successfully. for example beginning with 'Is it. at the right time.with reference to customers.positioning refers to how a product/service/proposition is presented or described or marketed in relation to the market place . There might be little or nothing wrong with the sales people and their skills. prices. Positioning basically refers to whether a proposition is being sold appropriately . from a sales person or selling organization to a prospect.. why.usually a written offer with specification. although relevant to experienced and sophisticated sellers.. and warranty arrangements. commonly bullet-point text slides and images on a computer display or projected onto a screen. but more usually involve the use of visuals. Partnership selling . in the right place. Perceived . Movewell Media Pvt.. outline terms and conditions. in which case product is used to mean the whole package being supplied.?' etc. Can incorporate a video and/or physical demonstration of the product(s).how the product and/or service is positioned and presented to the prospect or market. Presentations can be verbal only. to avoid wasting a lot of time including in a full proposal lots of material that the customer really doesn't distinct from a closed a selling context this is another term for the product offer.very modern approach to organizational selling for business-to-business sales . Package . no call is adequately prepared for. ideally including the product's features. Ahmedabad. and related to targeting .' .the process by which a sales person explains the product or service to the prospect (to a single contact or a group).. usually beginning with who. which tend to glean only a yes or no answer.more a marketing than sales term. irrespective of what is believed or presented by the seller. Conversely. advantages and benefits. product offer . Effective selling is not only about quality and skills .see collaboration and partnership selling. or more subtly 'tell me about. how. Director. A potentially brilliant business can fail because its products are not positioned properly. upon given terms. well specified yet orientated to the customer's applications.generally a physical item being supplied. An outline proposal is often a useful interim step. but the venture fails because the positioning is wrong.. but can also mean or include services and intangibles. ie what it really means to the customer.Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School. Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak. persuasive yet objective. Presentation/sales presentation . usually by the prospect or customer. Ltd. and the product/service. quality. especially those which are relevant to the prospect. in that it must be concise yet complete. 21 June’ 2011 st Open question .. each for different market niches (segments or customer groupings). Almost entirely without exception in the global history of selling. what. when. proposal/sales proposal .?' or 'Do the context of the selling process this is the work done by the sales person to research and plan the sales approach and/or sales call to a particular prospect or customer. Positioning . to the right people. See the presentation training . competition. and sales that fail to happen are due to this failing. where. which would normally include features and/or advantages and also imply at least one benefit for the prospect (hence a single product can be represented by a number of different product offers. One of the great marketing challenges is always to define a product offer concisely and meaningfully. (movewellmedia@gmail. and at the right price. good positioning can rescue a less than brilliant product/ the right way. Product . etc.a question that gains information.. something is seen or regarded by someone.its about suitability of targeting. it's the whole product and service offering at a given price. Preparation . image. Generally an immensely challenging part of the process to get right.

These days the puppy dog approach would ideally extend to giving the prospective customer some education and support about looking after the puppy so that they understand and are prepared for the changes that come with a new puppy. PSS . and building rapport and empathy. Seeking referrals is a a widely trained selling technique. Often seen as a job for telemarketing personnel. ever since. rem . questioning . but also vital to modern selling methods too. See the questioning section.'Professional Selling Skills' . matching needs. referral .a recommendation or personal introduction or permission/suggestion made by someone. ie a prospective customer. left-over. for a limited period. overcoming objections and umpteen different closes. can mean sales proposal. but strip it away to the bare process and it's better than no process at all. The correct timing and use of the important different types of questions are central to the processes of gathering information. commonly but not necessarily a buyer.means simply keeping customers and not losing them to competitors. (movewellmedia@gmail. Largely now superseded by more modern 'Open Plan' twoway processes. (The hole in the bucket syndrome. and so put sufficient investment into looking after and growing existing accounts. particularly in old-fashioned paternalistic company cultures. or who might be able to make their own introductions/referrals. while they lose more business than they gain because of poor retention activity. Ltd. The regimented one-way manipulative style of PSS nowadays leaves most modern buyers completely cold. and rarely well demonstrated. And see empathy. especially where large prospects are concerned (which should really be the only type of prospects targeted by modern sales people.a customer (person. 21 June’ 2011 st Proposition . See Level 5: education/information-led selling in the development of selling overview.the act of gathering information about a market or customer. Director. which enables the seller to approach or begin dialogue with a new perspective buyer or decision-maker/influencer. given the need to recover very high costs of sales people). in which the seller asks the buyer (or other contact) at the end of a sales call for referrals. i. that will help progress or enable a sales approach.. The initial proposition means the basis of the first approach. ..common slang for remainder or remnant in any business which deals with end-of-line. Modern companies realise that it's far more expensive to find new customers than keep existing ones.a method of selling or closing a deal whereby you let the customer try the product or service for free without commitment. organization. or otherwise non-standard-stock items which typically are handled and disposed at attractive terms to minimise waste and write-offs.the second stage of the sales call.highly structured selling process pioneered by the US Xerox (and UK Rank Xerox) photocopier sales organization during the 1960s. Research/research call . interpretation and empathic capabilities.e. Less sensible companies find themselves spending a fortune winning new customers.Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School. This latter scenario effectively equates to networking. but actually more usefully carried out by sales people. normally as the 'Seven Steps of the Sale'. buyer) before the sale is made. Prospect . typically after the opening or introduction in the Seven Steps of the Sale. including the levels of listening. notably collaborative/facilitative selling. but PSS is still in use and being trained. Questioning also requires that the sales person has good listening. in the confidence that once they live with it they won't want to give it up .) Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak. details of other people who might be interested in the seller's proposition. Retention/customer retention . PSS places a huge reliance on presentation. puppy dog sale/puppy dog close . A crucial selling skill.usually means product offer. where it leaks out faster than it can be poured in. Movewell Media Pvt. and adopted by countless business-to-business sales organizations.just like giving someone have a puppy for a day.

production. quarterly and annually. A diagram of a typical basic Sales Funnel appears on the free resources section. sales funnel . and often includes the need to provide sales forecasts. 21 June’ 2011 st Sales cycle .describes the pattern. The length of the pipeline is the sales cycle time. necessary for their own organisation to plan and budget everything from stock levels. The Sales Cycle time is also referred to as the Sale Gestation Period (ie from conception to birth . Prospects need to be fed into the pipeline in order to drop out of the other end as sales. traditionally completed by a sales manager. The Sales Funnel is a very powerful sales planning and sales management tool.a linear equivalent of the Sales Funnel principle.. type of business (product/service). and converted sales drop out at the bottom. and the effectiveness of the sales process. pre-enquiry and then through the sales cycle. See the sample monthly sales report template (MSExcel format). . the effectiveness of the sales process. 4. categorised and then targeted according to its own criteria and characteristics. to advertising and promotion. Also referred to as the Sales Pipeline. Ahmedabad. sector/market sector .Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School. which has a funneling effect.also called sales projections. etc. trends. Movewell Media Pvt. monthly.enquiry to sale). The extent of conversion success (ie the tightness of each ratio) reflects the quality of prospects fed into the top. staffing levels. Director. market situation. A sales report can be required weekly. Sales Cycle times and processes vary enormously depending on the company. 7. (and actually prior to enquiry stage). activities. or 'horizontal'. (movewellmedia@gmail. Prospects are said to be fed into the top of the funnel. in the international aviation sector or civil construction market the Sales Cycle can be many months or even a few years. receive enquiry qualify details arrange appointment customer appointment arrange survey conduct survey presentation of proposal and close sale sales forecasts . sales report . financial performance and market strategies. sectors are often described as 'vertical'.the Sales Cycle term generally describes the time and/or process between first contact with the customer to when the sale is made.. which depends on business type. A typical Sales Cycle for a moderately complex product might be: 1. plan or actual achievement of conversion of prospects into sales. sales pipeline . 3.a part of the market that can be described. 6. 2. Ltd. The funnel diagram and sales development process on the free resources section show the sales cycle from a different perspective. Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak. So-called because it includes the conversion ratio at each stage of the sales cycle. or as a PDF version of the same report template. the market and the particular situation applying to the customer at the time of the enquiry. meaning an industry type. these are the predictions that sales people and sales managers are required to make about future business levels. and the sales skill at each conversion stage.a business report of sales results. but increasingly now the responsibility of sales people too. The Sales Cycle in a sweet shop is less than a minute.

a segment can be a horizontal sub-sector across one or more vertical sectors. and what immediately precedes and follows it. SPIN® and SPIN® Selling . basically a grouping that's more narrowly defined and smaller than a sector. or a grouping defined by age. dependent on identifying needs to which appropriate benefits are matched in a package or 'solution'. its markets. and again be warned that LAMP® and Strategic Selling® methods and materials are not to be used in the provision of training and development products and services without a licence. If in any doubt don't use the 'strategic selling' term in relation to providing sales training services . solutions selling .a common but loosely-used description for a more customer-orientated selling method than the Seven Steps. Strategic Selling® . Solutions selling remains relevant and its methods can usefully be included in the open plan selling style described later here. (movewellmedia@gmail. SPIN® and SPIN SELLING® methods and materials are not to be used in the provision of training and development products and services without a licence. supply . The term is based on the premise that customers don't buy products or features or benefits . Movewell Media Pvt. See the section on service contracts and trading agreements. Inc. See SPIN® copyright details. It's a similar approach to 'needs-creation' will also hear people (me included) referring to 'strategic selling' in a generic sense.a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by which the trading arrangement is agreed with the customer. steps of the sale . six.they buy solutions (to organizational problems). first published in 1985) the Strategic Selling® term is a registered and protected product name belonging to the American Miller Heiman training organisation . LAMP® and Strategic Selling® methods and materials are subject to copyright and intellectual property control of Miller Heiman. Director. etc. Note that SPIN® and SPIN SELLING® methods and materials are subject to copyright and intellectual property control of the Huthwaite organisations of the US and UK.a sub-sector or market niche.A popular selling method developed by Neil Rackham in the 1970-80s: SPIN® is an acronym derived from the basic selling process designed and defined by Rackham: Situation. segment/market segment . Strategic selling . although modern collaborative and facilitative methodologies are becoming vital prerequisites. etc). particularly the sales call. customers and strategic priorities. More detail about SPIN® and SPIN® Selling appears in the Consultative Selling and Needs Creation Selling methods section. eight or more. literally 'strategic' by its nature (the principles involve taking a strategic view of the prospective customer's organisation.when used in upper case and/or in the context of Miller Heiman's Strategic Selling® methodology (which features in their books of the same name. 21 June’ 2011 st meaning some other grouping that spans a number of vertical sectors. which first became popular in the 1970s-80s. When using the 'strategic selling' terminology in a training context you must be careful therefore to avoid confusion or misrepresentation of the Miller Heiman intellectual property. See LAMP® and Strategic Selling® copyright details below. but can be it something else to avoid any possible confusion with the Miller Heiman products. Implication. Ltd. Ahmedabad. In a generic 'lower case' sense. depending whose training manual you're reading. Also known as trading agreements. and other variations. (see the Miller Heiman Strategic Selling® copyright details below. Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak. a geographical grouping. service contract .. or size.. and not specifically referring to the Miller Heiman methods and materials. be warned. Problem. Need.describes the structure of the selling process. 'strategic selling' describes a broad methodology which began to be practised in the 1980s.. See the marketing page. or Need Payoff. Usually represented as the Seven Steps of the Sale. which is described below and referred to as 'open plan selling'.Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School.

territory . Now in this globalized age. a sales context this is the issued (or ideally agreed) level of sales performance for a sales person or team or department over a given a selling context this describes. utilising specially trained telesales personnel. target/sales target .for instance. telesales . delivery or installation. Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak. and a recognisable product or service allows the process to succeed.which refers to the customers at which the selling effort is aimed. as to aim their efforts at the sectors or customers which will produce the greatest results. contract terms.. telemarketing .com) . normally a sales function in its own right. hence targeting. field-based sales people's territories are much bigger. or is. targeting . can all be dependent on sales staff meeting sales targets. pay reviews. which explains why it's so difficult to prise the business away from them. Targets are established at the beginning of the trading year.and many sales people.the process of planning optimum and most cost-effective coverage (particularly for making appointments or personal calling) of a sales territory by the available sales resources. and can be entire countries or continental regions. appointment-making. a warranty agreement). life and death. usually by specially trained telemarketing personnel . territory planning .. Any business will naturally have more amenable sectors of potential customers than other parts of the market. product promotion.. job gradings. an aspect of the product or service offering that can readily be seen and measured in terms of cost and value (eg. and usually only suppliers experienced in winning and fulfilling this type of highly controlled supply ever win the business. Director. Targeting is the process by which the selling organization maximises its chances of engaging with the most responsive and profitable customers. especially self-employed providers and traders . research.a very structured formal proposal in response to the issue of an invitation to tender for the supply of a product or service to a large organization or government department. Targeting is a marketing term very relevant and important for sales people and sales managers too .selling by telephone contact alone. Targeting is represented by the question: Who will buy the product/service? Deciding targeting on a company scale is normally the responsibility of a marketing department or agency.Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School. so all in all sales targets are quite sensitive things. and then reinforced with a system of regular forecasting and reviews (sometimes referred to as 'a good bollocking') throughout the year. Movewell Media Pvt. but each sales person and sales team as huge potential to develop and refine their own local targeting . a regular service visit.this has a different meaning to the usual noun sense of target (above). or 'target sectors'. It is not unknown for very successful tendering companies to actually help the customer formulate the tender specification. tender .completely ignore the fact that sales generally come more easily from existing or previous customers than prospective new customers to whom the supplier is completely unknown. where so much selling is done online and remotely by telephone rather than by expensive face-to-face selling. spare parts. Tenders must adhere to strict submission deadlines. 21 June’ 2011 st tangible .the geographical area of responsibility of a sales person or a team or a sales organization. Tenders require certain qualifying criteria to be met first by the tendering organization. Similarly size of prospective customer is another largely overlooked aspect of targeting. any physical feature of the product. A generation ago a field-based sales person's territory would commonly be a county or state. used typically where low order values prevent the use of expensive field-based sales people. which in itself can constitute several weeks or months work by lots of different staff. This is the customer aspect within 'positioning' of a product or service or proposition. (movewellmedia@gmail. Bonus payments. See forecasting. In this respect the term relates to 'target markets'. specifications and even the presentation of the tender itself. given prospect numbers.any pre-sales activity conducted by telephone. For example . etc. See intangible.. Ahmedabad. sales commissions.

variable . 21 June’ 2011 st density. The UPB acronym and concept was developed by The Marketing Guild. which is a very different way of approaching selling than from the traditional angle of selleroriented USPs.. buying patterns. USP .unique perceived benefit . and often the perceived ones are the most significant in any negotiation. and effective sales and marketing. unique/uniqueness . Ahmedabad. routine maintenance. See the marketing section for more detail about developing unique selling propositions. based on detailed understanding of the prospect's personal and organizational needs. The vast majority of sales organizations focus their efforts on selling 'me too' products and services. Director. (movewellmedia@gmail. back-up and breakdown service. and before ask why the question is important. so as to avoid always missing prospects who might never be available on one particular day of the week. quantity. Variables may be real or perceived. eg: prospect says: "Do you have them in stock?".unique selling point or proposition . whereas the most enlightened and progressive sales organizations strive to develop unique qualities in the propositions. Ltd. Movewell Media aspect of the sale or deal that can be changed in order to better meet the needs of the seller and/or the buyer. which will be far more constructive. A UPB is your USP from the customer's perspective. trial close . payment terms. for one person this used to be called journey planning. which dramatically reduces competitive pressures. to which the sales person would traditionally reply: "Would you want one if they are?" Use with extreme care. and was often based on a four or six day cycle. technical factors. an extension and refinement of the product offer. Typical variables are price. even if one territory by one sales person. delivery. UPB . traditionally employed in response to a buying signal. who specialise in practical. See the section on negotiation. installation. If you see a buying signal there's no need to jump on it . warranty. generally the most valuable unique advantage of a product or service.a feature that is peculiar to a product or service or supplier . for the market or prospect in question.this is what makes the product offer competitively strong and without direct comparison. in other competitor can offer it.Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School. lead-time. spare parts. innovative. Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak.the technique by which a sales person tests the prospect's readiness to buy.just answer it one of the central strongest mechanisms in the modern selling process. etc. what your USP means to your customer.. where inevitably discussions tend to concentrate on price . Uniqueness is a much overlooked aspect of selling. now superseded by UPB. for fear of looking like a clumsy desperate fool. styling factors. It's essential to discuss your offering in these terms with your customer.

Values/expectations of the sales organization and the selling process Traditional selling Modern selling Typical 1960s-80s selling. tailored product and service sales function performed by a 'strategic business manager seller has strategic knowledge of customer's marketplace and knows all implications and opportunities resulting from product/service supply relating to customer's market-place strategic interpretation of the customer organisation's market opportunities. standard product sales function performed by a 'sales-person' seller has product knowledge delivery service and supporting information and training are typical added value aspects of supply good lead-time is a competitive advantage value is represented and judged according to selling price the benefits and competitive strengths of the products or service are almost entirely tangible. reflecting the development of an increasingly competitive market-place and a better-informed buying and purchasing . however. or for person-to-person sales scenarios. Director. The advent of the internet and globalization during the 1990s meant that old styles of selling. and assistance with strategic planning and market development value is assessed according to the cost to the customer. competitive advantages are: capability to anticipate unpredictable requirements. and still found today. Ltd. as are mutual planning and scheduling. customers. to relationship. plus non-financial implications with respect to CSR (corporate social responsibility). and customers have no access to cost and margin information seller knows the business customers' needs Essential to sustain successful business today. the principles in all other respects apply for business-to-consumer. and intangibles are rarely considered or emphasised benefits of supply extend to products and services only selling price is cost plus profit margin. The development of selling ideas and methods is progressive. and the onus is on the selling organization to quantify their value benefits of supply extend way beyond products and services. reputation and performance in all respects selling price is market driven (essentially supply and demand). Movewell Media Pvt.Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School. based on one-way persuasion and control theories were finally obsolete for all mainstream business activities. and assistance with project evaluation and decision-making are added value aspects of supply just-in-time (JIT) is taken for granted.SALES METHODS CONTINUALLY CHANGE: This simple chart illustrates the fundamental shift in selling theory which occurred particularly during the 1980s. customised. Ahmedabad. continuity. flexible. environment.. and corporate culture the benefits and competitive strengths of the product or service now include many significant intangibles. Please note that where reference is made to the customer 'organization' this reflects a business-to-business scenario. ethics. (movewellmedia@gmail. although certain customers may insist on access to cost and margin information seller knows the needs of the business customers' customers and partners and suppliers Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak. Selling inevitably reflects the changing world of business and communications. 21 June’ 2011 st THE CHANGING FACE OF SELLING . and any assistance that the selling organization can provide to the customer to enable an improvement for their staff.

(movewellmedia@gmail. approvals must be sought via management channels and levels for exceptions selling and buying organization are divided strictly according to function and department. acquiring new customers) buying and selling is a function. flexibility to negotiate is minimal. Director. to customers strategic emphasis is on new business growth (ie. all supply chain processes. and exceptions are dealt with quickly and directly by involving the relevant people irrespective of grade selling organization is structured in a matrix allowing for functional efficiency and also for inter-functional collaboration required for effective customer service. ie. and communications open communications to. Ltd. and make an appropriate decision whether to buy or not Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak.Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business . with people distinctly responsible for each discipline within selling and customer organizations hierarchical multi-level management structures exist in selling and customer organizations authority of sales person is minimal. and there will be no discussion with the seller about this issues the buyer will tell the seller what the buying or supplierselection process is sales people need to be able to sell internally to their own organization. negotiation flexibility exists. interdepartmental communications must go up and down the management structures supplier and customer organization functions tend to talk to their 'opposite numbers' in the other organization the customer specifies and identifies product and service requirements the customer's buyer function researches and justifies the customer organization's needs the customer's buyer probably does not appreciate his/her organization's wider strategic implications and opportunities in relation to the seller's product or service. Movewell Media Pvt. on behalf of the customer the seller will help the buyer to understand the wider strategic implications and opportunities in relation to the seller's product or service the seller will help the buyer to understand and align the many and various criteria within their own (customer) organization. in which many people with differing jobs are involved in both selling and customer organizations management structures are flat. Ahmedabad. with few management layers authority of sales person is high (subject to experience). so that the customer organization can assess the strategic implications of the supplier's products or services. pre-sale) whole organization sells (customers expect to be able to deal with anybody in supplier organization. 21 June’ 2011 st sales person sells (customers only deal with sales people. pre-sale) sales people only sell externally. in order to ensure customer needs are met strategic emphasis is on customer retention and increasing business to those customers (although new business is still sought) buying and selling is a process. from and across all functions between supplier and customer organization the selling organization must be capable of specifying and identifying product and service requirements on behalf of the customer the selling organization must be capable of researching and justifying customer organization's needs.

popularised by Dale Carnegie. and the increasingly fast pace of change. Pure transaction is effectively one step removed from stone-age barter. product development which improve the customer's own competitive strengths and operating efficiencies. and build loyalty to supplier. Continuity. are regarded as relevant benefits by the customer.Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School. Standard commoditized products. sales training and strategic application until the 1960s-1970s. global . A longerterm supply arrangement . the supplier is virtually part of the customer's organization and treated as such. Ahmedabad. Very different to merely buying and selling products and services. Partnership selling relationships generally need time to develop . professional buyers and organizations choosing their suppliers. mutual flexibility and adaptability. consistency. Pure transaction Since time began. seen as an advantage by seller and buyer. technology. The provision of management and information support by seller to buying organization. There is no relationship other than the transaction. Management and information Operated instinctively in isolated examples in business relationships for centuries. The activities of the buying and selling organization become almost seamless wherever they are connected. Partnership level selling is not a legal or contractual arrangement. matched styles of trading. training. among others. Partnership A sophisticated open approach to selling which mainly first developed in the 1980s. and some understanding of the customer's real issues are seen to have a value by both selling and buying organization. innovation and integrated support that is very difficult to un-pick. hand-to-mouth and unpredictable. 2. Intangibles such as continuity on communications and contacts. and the exchange and cooperation in these areas represent a significant increase in depth and effectiveness of selling relationships. Ltd. even if it were in the customer's interests to do so. 21 June’ 2011 st THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SELLING FUNCTION: Nowadays. which can justify a price premium. Organizations could be more effective and adaptable by devolving operating responsibilities to suppliers. (movewellmedia@gmail. technology.there is little to build on. and is likely to be more involved in some of the the customer's own internal systems.probably between 1-3 years depending on the size and complexity of the seller and buyer organizations. meetings. earlymid 1900s Basic selling. Movewell Media Pvt. Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak. The grid tracks the sales function from its beginnings to what sales means and entails in the modern age. etc. which involves a level anticipation. which operates virtually as a formal partnership would do. 4. price and reliability . Director. etc.. The analysis below refers both to the development in recent decades of what customers require from the selling function. and also to the progression of a relationship between supplier and customer.a requirement for and outcome of this level of selling . because it brings extra intangible benefits of cooperation and support other areas of the customer's business. more is demanded from the selling process by consumers. 3. it describes the relationship. This is different historical perspective of the way that selling methods and theory have changed.. but not generally seen in selling methodology. 'Out-sourcing' generally requires this degree of collaboration. and therefore offer protection against 'cheaper' competitors. probably in response to the increasing complexity of business relationships. planning. The supplier is seen as part of the team. 1. Relationship and trust Since the beginning of selling as a profession. business may be spasmodic. sustainability. There is typically an enormous depth of understanding and cooperation which is not written down or detailed in a contract.

enabler.especially in areas that the customers didn't even know they had a need or an opportunity . Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak. Ltd.. which at its best can actually give more than it takes. Sellers and selling organizations take the role of teacher. Ahmedabad. Director. Internet organizations such as Google are examples of this sort of selling. 21 June’ 2011 st 5. mentor. which are for example well represented by Sharon Drew Morgen's 'Buying Facilitation' methodology. (movewellmedia@gmail.will be the most successful. The educational and 'giving' activities of the selling organization extend the aspects of anticipation and information found in the partnership level. into previously unimagined strategic business development and considerable change. This is a hugely sophisticated level of selling which was difficult to see anywhere in the last century. guide. Movewell Media Pvt.Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School. The seller gives to the customer any and all help it can reasonably offer as might improve the customer's . The dimensions. which can influence and help customers far beyond commercial and financial outcomes. Also incorporated are aspects of facilitative and enabling support. Education and enablement 2000 and beyond. scope and impact of this new type of selling are not yet fully developed and defined. There are signs however that the sellers who can give most to their customers . interpretation and commercial development of issues relating to the supply area.

we begin to desire it. The model is said to have evolved from earlier work by American psychologists concerning assimilation and understanding of communications and information. or rare. when selling was first treated as a professional discipline. If the product or service then appears to closely match our needs and/or aspirations. Getting attention is more difficult than it used to . honest and professional. when we buy something we buy according to the AIDA process.. because your prospective customers . Often called the 'Hierarchy of Effects'. unique. A . Ltd. Ahmedabad. This implies a lot: The person you are approaching should have a potential need for your product or service or proposition (which implies that you or somebody else has established a target customer profile). If we are prompted or stimulated to overcome our natural caution we may then become motivated or susceptible to taking action to buy. have less free time. Something first gets our attention. If you're not in the mood to smile do some paperwork happy (but not annoyingly so) be natural. If you are calling on the phone or meeting face-to-face you have about five seconds to attract attention. particularly if it is special. Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak. from the late 1950s. Gimmicks. so smile . relax and enjoy it .but remember that every 'no' takes you closer to the next 'okay'. Attention • Getting the other person's attention sets the tone: first impressions count. and lots of competing distractions. 21 June’ 2011 st AIDA AIDA is the original sales training acronym. Simply. Something begins to look interesting if it is relevant and potentially advantageous. So when we sell something we must sell through the AIDA stages. the rest of us . including the way that successful selling happens and sales are made. AIDA describes the basic process by which people become motivated to act on external stimulus. because modern theories and distractions can often cause people to lose appreciation for the most basic and obvious features and requirements of a successful sales engagement. If you rarely smile then get out of selling. because people are less accessible. by which time the other person has formed their first impression of you.Interest D . Despite the time pressure. • • • • • Interest • • • You now have maybe 5-15 seconds in which to create some interest.expect mostly to be told 'no thanks' .are irritated by hundreds of them every day. Movewell Media Pvt.Attention I . tricks and crafty techniques don't work. and it provides a reliable template for the design of all sorts of marketing material. and resources. so think about when it's best to call.Action The AIDA process also applies to any advertising or communication that aims to generate a response.even on the phone because people can hear it in your voice .Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School. and sales training began. (movewellmedia@gmail.Desire A . AIDA is perhaps more relevant and useful today than when it was first devised. if it's relevant to us we are interested to learn or hear more about it.

Ltd. 21 June’ 2011 st • • You must approach the other person at a suitable time (ie it's convenient. but if it suits your sales training purposes then AIDCA is an acceptable interpretation. Desire • • • • • • • The sales person needs to be able to identify and agree the prospect's situation. explain and convey solutions with credibility and enthusiasm. As ever. features. You must obviously understand your product (specification. Action • • Simply the conversion of potential into actuality.. Commitment here means that a prospective customer is more likely to progress to the Action stage if their commitment to the proposition can first be established. needs. then the less emphasis is required for the action stage. Director. Movewell Media Pvt. Ahmedabad. 1980s-1990s) the AIDA acronym has been used in extended form as AIDCA. to achieve or move closer to whatever is the aim. reliably and sustainably 'match' the prospect's needs identified and agreed. trust and relationship (the 'you' factor) are increasingly significant. and particularly all relevance and implications for your prospect.Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School. as natural competitive development inexorably squeezes and reduces the opportunities for clear product advantage and uniqueness.e. (movewellmedia@gmail.. particularly by purchasers of all sorts. or encourage agreement to move to complete the sale or move to the next stage. and benefits). The better the preceding three stages have been conducted. You must be able to present. for which AIDA remains more helpful. your own organization and your product will suitably. You must build rapport and trust. In modern selling and business. and a preparedness in the prospect's mind to do business with you personally (thus dispelling the prospect's feelings of doubt or risk about your own integrity and ability). priorities and constraints on personal and organizational levels. discussions. options. which in this case makes AIDCA non-applicable to selling methods that do not involve a two-way communication. The key is being able to demonstrate how you. then AIDCA is fine. through empathic questioning and interpretation. so the sales person must suggest. adding detail make the thing less elegant and flexible. etc. and be able to express yourself in their terms (i. within all constraints. • AIDCA More recently (c. and that aspects of seasonality and other factors affecting timing have been taken into account) You must empathise with and understand the other person's situation and issues. For two-way sales communications. Creating desire is part skill and technique. for . Natural inertia and caution often dictate that clear opportunities are not acted upon. meaning the same as AIDA with the insertion of Commitment prior to the action stage. talk their language). presentations. advantages. Arguably Commitment is implicit within the Action stage. the structure of a sales letter or advert. You must understand your competitors' capabilities and your prospect's other options. and part behaviour and style. a sale is so well conducted that the prospect decides to take action without any encouragement at all. Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak. in fact on a few rare occasions in the history of the universe.

and assess what the present supplier's reaction is likely to be if their business is at threat understand what other competitors are able and likely to offer. advantages and benefits that will be relevant to the prospect you will be meeting ascertain as far as you can the main or unique perceived organizational benefit that your product or service would give to your prospect discover what current supply arrangements exist or are likely to exist for the product/service in question.especially features. Building on success to achieve your dreams is determined by how passionately committed you are to achieving the dreams of your customers. Success is the result of diligent effort applied to a structured system with commitment and passion. 3. including what immediately precedes and follows it. 5.Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School. etc/establish rapport and trust / Presentation/explanation/demonstration / Sell the company Overcoming objections/negotiating/fine-tuning/ Fill the need. The seven steps to successful sales are: 1. Ltd. 6. and which ones are being considered if any Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak. . 2. Close or closing/ agreement/act of commitment/confirmation After-sales follow-up/ fulfil/deliver/admin / cement the sale STEP 1: Planning and/or preparation Generally. 2. Movewell Media Pvt. 6. (movewellmedia@gmail. • • • • ensure know your own product/service extremely well . DESIRE FOR GAIN FEAR OF LOSS COMFORT AND CONVENIENCE SECURITY AND PROTECTION PRIDE OF OWNERSHIP SATISFACTION OF EMOTION SEVEN STEPS TO SUCCESSFUL SALES Being a successful salesperson does not happen by accident or blind luck. the more research you should do before any sales call at which you will be expected. to present you company's products or services. 21 June’ 2011 st ORDER OF THE FIVE BUYING DECISIONS 1.. 3. the larger the prospect organization. 5. Ahmedabad. 4. Planning and/or preparation/research Introduction /opening/approach/establish initial credibility Questioning / identify needs/ask how and what. ABOUT YOU. 7. 5. 4. The Seven Steps of the Sale is the most common traditional structure used for explaining the selling process for the sales call or meeting. or are likely. 4. 3. Director. THE SALES PERSON ABOUT YOUR COMPANY ABOUT YOUR PRODUCT / SERVICE ABOUT YOUR PRICE ABOUT THE TIME TO BUY SIX MOTIVES FOR BUYING ANY PRODUCT OR SERVICE 1.

to agree how we could move to the next stage. There is only one way to find out what the customer values.first and last name.. Movewell Media Pvt. or if you can't discover these premeeting. It is a courtship ritual to determine if the customer values the goods or services enough to invest in them by making a purchase. 21 June’ 2011 st • • • • • • • • identify as many of the prospect organization's decision-makers and influencers as you can. budgets.allow for more than the planned numbers as extra people often appear at the last minute . priorities and problems. it is about the customer. wants or needs and that is to listen intensely. MS Powerpoint slides for laptop or projected presentation) plus all materials.see the presentation section for more detailed guidance on designing formal sales presentations prepare a checklist of questions or headings that will ensure you gather all the information you need from the meeting think carefully about what you want to get from the meeting and organise your planning to achieve it STEP 2: Introduction / Opening / Approach/ establish initial credibility Introduce Yourself. develop a genuine interest in your prospect. eg "I'd like to learn about your situation and priorities in this area. and assess as much as far as you can what their needs.. use their name. samples. In this step. hand-outs. If you are thinking about the next thing that you are going to promote then you cannot concentrate on what the customer is telling you. what are they generally for the market sector in which the prospect operates? prepare your opening statements and practice your sales presentation prepare your presentation in the format in which you are to give it (eg. think about how you can repeat what the customer is saying in your own words and you will be forced to listen intently to what they tell you. Then if there looks as though there might be some common professional. Then Shut-Up and Listen The sales experience is not about the sales associate. brochures.. People buy because they like you so wear a sincere smile. your integrity. motives and relationships are try to get a feel for what the organizational politics are what are the prospect's organizational decision-making process and financial parameters (eg. . etc. etc/establish rapport and trust Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak. aims. and asking shows you realise this) ask if it's okay to start by asking a few questions or whether your prospect would prefer a quick overview of your own company first (this will depend on how strongly know and credible your own company is . Ahmedabad. (movewellmedia@gmail.your professionalism.also. and what the your company does (ensure this is orientated to appeal to the prospect's strategic issues) set the scene ..Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School. It will be easier to accomplish this if you can establish and maintain rapport with the prospect by continually selling yourself throughout the entire sales cycle. year-end date) what are your prospect's strategic issues. your good judgment and your trustworthiness. and then if appropriate. and always have spares . all business information is potentially sensitive. to explain how we (your own company) approach these issues." ask how much time your prospect has and agree a time to finish ask if it's okay to take notes (it's polite to ask . again orientate around your prospect not yourself. • • • smile . Rather. Director. and take confidence from the fact that you are well-prepared introduce yourself .explain the purpose of your visit. use positive language. compliment them. what your job is and the company you represent. A successful sales professional can reflect the emotion as well as the content of a customer conversation. you are selling yourself -.if only a little you should plan to give a quick credibility-building overview in your introduction) • • • STEP 3: Questioning / identify needs/ask how and what. listen to their needs and make them feel important.

or not obvious to either. "Do you mean that when this type of equipment goes down then all production ceases?". and as such will not bring out the true situation and feelings. The customer has a life with priorities. when. how long you have done it or what you have been told makes you unique. people and procedures involved. During this time you will determine if the prospect has a genuine need for your product or service.nobody wants to buy anything from a sales person who's only interested in their own product or company .it causes the other person to feel they have to defend or justify themselves.for example.a closed question is one that can be answered with a yes or no.. not just what is said. and if relevant the feelings behind it use closed questions to qualify and confirm your interpretation ... but be very careful and sparing in using 'why' because the word 'why?' is threatening to most people . Director." use "can you tell me about how. SHUT UP .? and 'how. particularly when you probe motives and personal aspects interpret and reflect back and confirm you have understood what is being explained. understand. deadlines and responsibilities of his or her own. may be one (usually) or two (occasionally) or three (rarely) key things. Their names are What and Why and When. which may be obvious to seller and buyer.. • • • • • • • • • • • • • the main purpose of questioning is to confirm or discover the strongest or unique perceived organizational benefit that would accrue to the prospect from the product/service .do not interrupt Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak. Why. And How and Where and Who. How when training or learning the skills of using open questions it helps to refer to the Rudyard Kipling rhyme: "I keep six honest serving men. and show that you understand especially understand what is meant and felt. Show the customer what aspects of your offer are important from the customer perspective and resist the urge to talk about any other things that are not relevant. "Questioning"..generally the more senior the contact. questions beginning with they decide.Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School. maintain good eye-contact. Where. You will qualify the person as a genuine prospect by asking open-ended questions to uncover their problems and needs. products or services that they represent it is a natural inclination to initiate conversations by spewing facts and features like a walking commercial. Of course. eg. What. They taught me all I knew. competitor pressures. you will work to maintain the positive rapport established in the introduction step as you shift your focus to the specific business reason for your sales call.. the bigger the open questions you can use it use open questions to gather information . 21 June’ 2011 st Why the Offer is Important to the Individual Customer During step three. or "Are you saying that if a new contract is not put in place by end-March then the existing one automatically renews for another year?" when you've asked a question. in which case questioning expertise is critical questioning must also discover how best to develop the sale with the organization .com) . When. good empathic questioning also builds relationships. (movewellmedia@gmail.?' are the best words to use in open questions because they provoke thinking and responses about facts and feelings in a non-threatening way use 'why?' to find out reasons and motives beneath the initial answers given. and the more the other person will be comfortable and able to give you the information you need in a big explanation 'what. you will only know this if you have listened to your customer. As new sales representatives learn about the company.. Ltd. especially in early discussions with people when trust and rapport is at a low level listen carefully and empathically.we all want to buy from somebody who gives the time and skill to interpreting and properly meeting our own personal needs you will have prepared a list of questions or headings . if they are the person with the buying authority and if there are adequate funds available for the purchase.. Movewell Media Pvt." if you are questioning a senior-level contact . This is your information gathering period.. etc. trust and rapport . Don't assume that the customer cares how you do something.

without linking the features clearly to organizational context and benefit for the prospect also avoid using any jargon which the prospect may not understand • • • • • Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak. • • the sales presentation should focus on a central proposition. this is why establishing the prospect's situation and priorities during the questioning phase is so vital the above point is especially important to consider when the sales person has to present on more than one occasion to different people or groups. who will each have different personal and organizational . from the product/service . then take a few moments to think about. if you are talking for a third or half of the time you are not asking the right sort of questions do not jump onto an opportunity and start explaining how you can solve the problem until you have asked all your questions and gathered all the information you need (in any event never be seen to 'jump' onto any issue) all the time try to find out the strategic issues affected or implicated by the product/service in question these are where the ultimate decision-making and buying motives lie. clear and concise. strategy. discuss and summarise the key issues/requirements/priorities from your prospect's organizational (and personal if applicable) perspective questioning is traditionally treated by conventional sales people and conventional sales training as a process to gather information to assist the sales person's process. (movewellmedia@gmail. its an essential part of a facilitative process whose purpose is to help the buyer decide STEP 4: Presentation/explanation/demonstration / Sell the company You will "sell the company" in step four. professionally delivered. whether impromptu (off the cuff) or the result of significant preparation. if during the questioning you think of a new important question to ask note it down or you'll forget it when you have all the information you need. or the prospect will not even consider buying or moving to the next stage. must be well structured. constraints and motives. structure. modern sales methodology treats questioning in a radically different way . which should be the unique perceived benefit that the prospect gains from the product/service during the questioning phase the sales person will have refined the understanding (and ideally gained agreement) as to what this is . Ltd. its customers and its reputation. etc) the sales presentation must demonstrate that the product/service meets the prospect's needs. acknowledge the fact and say thanks. 21 June’ 2011 st • • • • • • your prospect should be doing 80-99% of the talking during this stage of the sales call.the presentation must now focus on 'matching' the benefits of the product with the needs of the prospect so that the prospect is entirely satisfied that the proposition the sales person therefore needs an excellent understanding of the many different organizational benefits that accrue to customers. and will therefore respond to different benefits (even though the central proposition and main perceived benefit remains constant) all sales presentations. and have lots of integrity . priorities. market sector. however.the quality and integrity of the presentation is always regarded as a direct indication as to the quality and integrity of the product/service it follows then that the sales person must avoid simply talking about technical features from the seller's point of view.. culture. Director. general economic health. Movewell Media Pvt.these perceived benefits will vary according to the type of customer organization (size. and this is how it is typically positioned in the old-style 'Seven Steps of the Sale'. Your prospects' second buying decision is about your company. Ahmedabad. and why. Supply your prospects with the information necessary to make this decision positively. Does it operate with integrity? Does it have the competence and capability to perform as promised? Focus on the key points that distinguish your company from the competition.Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School. Familiarize your prospects with your firm.

etc. and make sure it all works properly during the presentation seek feedback. in which case the sales person must ensure that these people are properly briefed and prepared. technical people need technical evidence. Ask questions to uncover what fears. and the prospect notified of their attendance.a vague or poorly prepared sales presentation sticks out like a sore thumb.. concise benefits to costs. and this would tend to happen. image. it is important to show that all the other incidental requirements and constraints are met . which is another reason for proper preparation . Ltd.but do not over-emphasise or attempt to 'pile high' loads of incidental benefits as this simply detracts from the central proposition presentations should use the language and style of the audience . references from similar sectors and applications. sales and marketing people like to see flair and competitive advantage accruing for their own sales organization. but don't be put off if people stay quiet invite questions at the end. Movewell Media Pvt. facts and figures . because the selling process was more prescriptive. if you don't know the answer to a question don't waffle . customer and less empathic. no frills.let your personality and natural enthusiasm shine through . but plenty of relevant hard facts and evidence. uncertainties or doubts your prospects might have and prepare ahead of time to address each one as it comes up. relax and be friendly . security.people buy from people who love and have faith in their products and companies STEP 5: Overcoming objections/negotiating/fine-tuning/ Fill the need. and generally the more senior the contact. profits and operating efficiency. etc. In step five. or save them money or time. See the presentation section for more guidance on this. or a copy of your presentation use props and samples and demonstrations if relevant and helpful... eg.Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School. Should objections surface unexpectedly later in the sales cycle.don't even imply anything derogatory about the competition if appropriate issue notes. keep control of the presentation. and make sure you do. they also need to be certain that the new product/service will be sustainable and reliable. at the outset invite questions at any time . one-way. as well as the value they will receive for their investment.. therefore the presentation must be convincing in these areas private consumer buyers ultimately buy for similar reasons. Director. but for more personal ones as undermines your credibility and integrity . • decades ago it was assumed that at this stage lots of objections could . confirmation and agreement as to the relevance of what you are saying. (movewellmedia@gmail. but do so in a relaxed way. never knock the competition . which is necessary on occasions. eg. 21 June’ 2011 st • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • sales presentations must always meet the expectations of the listener in terms of the level of information and relevance to the prospect's own situation. It is crucial that you unearth all of the prospect's concerns prior to discussing price. from the appropriate functions. ego. which may need to feature in these type of presentations if they form part of the main perceived benefit while the presentation must always focus on the main perceived benefit. you will show your prospects how your product or service solves their problems or fills their needs precisely. Ahmedabad. if the sales person is required to present to a large group and in great depth. and if your are comfortable. so the influencers' needs in these areas are actually part of the organizational needs of the prospect company the presentation must include relevant evidence of success.. distribution. technical.say you don't know and promise to get back with an answer later. they could threaten your sale. and it will be disowned immediately when presenting to depends on how confident you feel in controlling things whether presenting one-to-one or to a stern group..all backing up the central proposition business decision-makers buy when they become satisfied that the decision will either make them money. managing directors and finance directors want clear. Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak. then it's extremely advisable to enlist the help of one or two suitably experienced colleagues. it is important to recognise that the sales person is effectively asking the influencers to personally endorse the proposition and the credibility of the selling organization and the sales person. the less time you will have to make your point . however.

Director. and in so doing.simply ask and probe instead. to establish the precise nature of the objection . (movewellmedia@gmail.some objections result from misunderstandings. and some are used to veil other misgivings which the sales person needs to expose lots of objections are simply a request for more information. and they can often be handled constructively. and then working with the prospect to shape the proposition so that it fits more acceptably with what is required. or analysing to death all the hidden costs of not going for the deal. so definitely avoid responding by trying to re-sell the benefit .. but you'd prefer the payments staged over three years rather than two? . but then the more modern approach is to work with the prospect in first understanding what lies beneath each objection. and then to close powerfully. and then by answering as helpfully as possible STEP 6: Close or closing/ agreement/act of commitment/confirmation Some sales associates are so passionate about the product that they keep promoting it long after the customer has made a decision to purchase and can actually lose a customer in the process. then to overcome the objection by drawing up a list of pro's and con's." try to avoid altogether the use of the word 'but' . or even talking in terms of your working together as supplier and . which is the key if objections arise. Stop pouring when the glass is full. for example: the prospect says he thinks it's too expensive. Movewell Media Pvt. 21 June’ 2011 st • • • • • • • • • • • successful modern selling now demands more initial understanding from the sales person. Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak. for large prospects and contracts this process can go on for weeks. but this widely perceived as clumsy and insulting nowadays. Instead respond to early buying signals (ie those received before you've completed the presentation to the prospect's satisfaction." another old-style technique used to be to isolate the objection (confirm that other than that sticking point everything else was fine). even to get as far as presenting. Ahmedabad. and answered all possible queries) by asking why the question is important. See the section on negotiating. this is sometimes called buying warmth. by asking why to a series of answers .it's inherently confrontational an old-style technique was to reflect back the objection as a re-phrased question. the sales person reflects back: "I think what you're really saying is that you have no problem with giving us the contract. the best standard response is something like "I understand why that could be an issue... which is why this is often more in the negotiating arena than objection handling you've handled all the objections when you've covered everything that you've noted down . provided the basic proposition is sound most objections are usually overcome by both the seller and the buyer adjusting their positions slightly. so the need to overcome objections is not such a prevalent feature of the selling process nevertheless objections do arise.well I think we could probably do something about's therefore important to keep notes and show that you're doing it by this stage you may have seen some signs that the prospect is clearly visualising or imagining the sale proceeding. Ltd. the sales person is effectively isolating them as the only reasons why the prospect should not proceed. can I ask you to tell me more about why it is and what's important for you here?. firstly the sales person should qualify each one by reflecting back to the person who raised it. sales people were taught to respond to early buying signals with a 'trial close'."why do you say that?" is usually a good start it may be necessary to probe deeper to get to the real issue. A successful sales professional will periodically pause to ask for the sale. avoid head-to-head arguments . but these days such a contrived approach to objection handling is likely to insult the prospect and blow the sales person's credibility it is important to flush out all of the objections. but in a form that the sales person is confident of being able to answer positively. In the old days. Certain questions and comments from prospects are described as buying signals because they indicate that the prospect may be visualising buying or having the product/service. or re-selling the benefits even harder.even if you win them you'll destroy the relationship you'll go no further instead the sales person must enable a constructive discussion so that he and the prospect are both working at the problem together.Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School..

respectful.. and no need for a close the best close these days is something like "Are you happy that we've covered everything and would you like to go ahead?"." (How could anyone live with themselves using that one?. Ahmedabad.. Don't assume that the customer is going to ask for the sale..) the puppy dog close/puppy dog sale: "Let me leave it with you and you see how you get on with it. 21 June’ 2011 st The only buying decision left is when to buy."Would you like it delivered next Tuesday or next Friday?".." the pro's and con's list: "I can appreciate this is a tough decision .." the negative close: "I'm sorry but due to the holidays we can't deliver in the three weeks after the 15th.what normally works is to write down a list of all the pro's and con's ..and I promise you we'd be able to sort out the extra features once I speak to our production people." the sympathy close: "I know you have some reservations that we can't overcome right now." the last ditch close: (sales person packs case and goes to out for the signs: no-nonsense high-achievers are likely to decide very quickly and may be a little irritated if you leave matters hanging after they've indicated they're happy.. Ask for the sale to determine if it is time to stop selling and time to start processing the purchase and assisting with the appropriate next steps to support the's civilised.. or "We can do the T50 model in silver.. quote the investment or price and ask for the order.the traditional golden rule was always to shut up after asking a closing question. and actually implies and requires a high level of sales professionalism the manner in which a sale is concluded depends on the style of the decision-maker .... but do stay in touch and make sure they have all the information they need.I don't know how you feel about it?. so don't push them.use them at your peril: the pen close: "Do you want to use your pen or mine?" (while producing the contract and pen) the alternative close: for example . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • in modern selling." or "Most business people in your position need to refer this kind of decision to their boss.. even using the traditional Seven Steps process." Resource Person: Mukesh . it is time to ask for the order.(a who-talks-first-loses kind of thing) . so we can only do it next week. Director. every sales person's aim should be to prepare and conduct the selling process so well that there are few if any you need to get your wife's permission on this?. During step six.." Then. or simply "Would you like to go ahead?" in many cases. If an objection arises. ask for the order.. very friendly types may actually say yes before they're see I just know this is right for you.. summarize the features and the benefits you agreed on.. re-establish areas of agreement by citing three features they liked and add an additional feature-benefit-reaction then. Ltd.two separate columns . is that okay?" the guilt close: "Over three years it might seem a lot of money. do you need to refer it?" the ego close: "We generally find that only the people who appreciate and are prepared to pay for the best quality go for this service . as if I've let you down. cautious technical people will want every detail covered and may need time to manager says he'll sack me if I don't get an order this week.. even if the silence became embarrassingly long . (movewellmedia@gmail. and you're my last chance . and we have a T52 in white . If the prospect is qualified.Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School. in which case you need to ensure that everything is suitably covered so nothing can rebound later for the record here are some closes from the bad old days . acknowledge it with a neutralizing statement such as.. and I feel almost guilty that I've not sold it to you properly./improve your. and this should be the another aim for the sales person .and then we can both see clearly if overall it's the right thing to do." or "I can appreciate that. "I see.I'd be ever so grateful if you'd go ahead . the "act of commitment"." "I understand. if the sales person conducts the sale properly. the prospect will close the deal himself. (whatever). Movewell Media Pvt.. but we find that most responsible people decide they simply have no choice but to go for it when it's less than a pound/dollar a day to protect your. but stops at the door) "Just one last thing would you tell me where I went wrong ./safeguard your... but I've got to admit that I'm pretty desperate for this sale ..which one would you prefer?" the challenge close: "I know most men wouldn't be able to buy something of this value without consulting their wives .

Director. even if a well-organised customer service exists for general after-sales care Customers rightly hold sales people responsible for what happens after the sale is made. but generally for every sale the sales person must carry out a number of important processes: all relevant paperwork must be completed and copies provided to the customer .paperwork is will cover the processing of the order.. • • after-sales follow-up depends on the type of product and service. confirm that the customer is happy with the way the order is being progressed. when a sales person makes a sale he is personally endorsing the product and the company. which are a big cause of customer dissatisfaction or order cancellation if left to fester unresolved Customer follow-up and problem resolution must always be the responsibility for the sales person. (movewellmedia@gmail.. Salespeople often mistakenly think their job ends when they close the sale. product type and . it's only the beginning. The sales person should also make follow-up contact with the customer . and good conscientious follow-up will usually be rewarded with referrals to other customers Follow-up is an important indicator of integrity. the confirmation of the order and its details to the customer. and often these are linked to sales commissions and bonuses. Develop a summary statement you can use to review the wise. generally on a pro-forma or computer screen. who should consider themselves the 'guardian' of that customer. etc. possibly the completion of installation and delivery specification and instructions Sales reporting by the sales person is also necessary. Movewell Media Pvt. and details about the customer such as industrial sector . Ltd. When he crosses the last one out he can claim that there really seems to be no reason for not going ahead. 21 June’ 2011 st • the elimination close: "I can see I've not explained this properly .the positives. Since people buy emotionally and then justify their buying decisions logically. crossing a line through each as he goes.either from referrals or repeat business.Workshop on Selling Skills at Shanti Business School.. this helps reduce possible confusion and misunderstood expectations.each sales organization stipulates the sales person's reporting requirements.) STEP 7: After-sales follow-up/ fulfil/deliver/admin / cement the sale Finally in step seven you will "cement the sale". so ensuring that value and satisfaction are fulfilled is an integral part of the modern sales function • • • • • Resource Person: Mukesh Nayak. it is important to take time with each of your customers to cement the often as necessary . Each sale you close represents an opportunity for new business -. sound and intelligent reasons for the purchase. typically detailing the order value.can we take a moment to go through all the benefits and see which one is holding us back from proceeding?" (At which the sales person lists all the benefits . Ahmedabad. and runs through each one to confirm it's not that one which is causing the problem.

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