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Sheikh Abdul-Azeez bin Baaz
First Edition. 1422 AH/2001 CE
© Copyright 2001 by Dar-ut-Tawheed Publications
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All praises are Ior Allah who. out oI His inIinite Mercy. has given
us countless opportunities to remit our pasts sins. draw near to
Him. and seek the reward that He has reserved Ior the believers.
And may His Peace and Blessings be on His Messenger. our
Imaam. who showed us every way possible to draw near to Allah
and al-Jannah without any shortcoming. and upon all his Iamily
and companions. and whoever treads their path until the Day oI
Indeed one oI the greatest opportunities Allah has given this
ummah is the month oI Ramadaan. in which He revealed His
Book as a Guidance and Criterion. and has attributed to this
month many merits not attributed to others.
And Irom these opportunities is also the Taraaweeh. oI which the
Prophet said. 'Whoever stands |in prayer| in Ramadaan with
Eeman and hoping to attain reward Irom Allah. then all his previ-
ous sins will be Iorgiven.¨
Truly in praying Taraaweeh. the servant Ieels khushoo` and reiu-
venates his Eeman. drawing him nearer and nearer to Allah. But
what is so unIortunate is that instead oI the prayer being utilized
in this Iashion. it sometimes is made a tedious chore where one
does not Ieel khushoo`. but rather looks Iorward to its conclusion.
Also. due to a lack oI understanding oI what is permissible in the
Taraaweeh and what is not. the prayer may even become a matter
oI tension; diIIerences become apparent and views are expressed.
Per sonal ideologies start to interIere with the general beneIit oI
the people. and thus. the whole purpose oI the prayer is destroyed.
So we deemed it to be in best interest to publish this small but ex-
tremely beneIicial treatise. a series oI Iataawah by our late be-
loved sheikh. Sheikh Abdul-Azeez bin Baaz. may Allah raise him
amongst the prophets and righteous. This treatise clearly demon-
strates his wisdom in dealing with aIIairs which may be points oI
dispute in the Taraaweeh. He sheds light upon many issues in re-
spect to their permissibility. and one may even Iind that some is-
sues have much more Ilexibility than is perceived.
We request all who read this book to study its meanings well and
put them into practice. leaving behind any misconceptions they
may have had about this blessed prayer in this blessed month.
hoping that we can gain the Iullest out oI it. and Ramadaan be
what it was intended to be. a month to remit our sins and achieve
the station oI Taqwa.
As Ior the translation. minor changes have been made to the text.
as in addition or omission oI words and changing sentence struc-
ture. in order to clariIy what was meant by the author. Arabic
words have also been retained and their meanings explained in
Iootnotes so that the reader may become accustomed to using
these words instead oI their English counterparts. May Allah re-
ward all those who assisted in the production oI this work and
help us to produce more oI its kind.
1. Number oI raka`aat in Taraaweeh. 7
2. Varying the number oI raka`aat. 13
3. Praying eleven rak`ah behind an Imaam who prays
4. Going to diIIerent masaaiid seeking a nice voice. 14
5. Traveling to diIIerent masaaiid everv night. 15
6. Completing the entire Qur`aan in Taraaweeh. 16
7. The Prophet revising the Qur`aan with Jibreel . 16
8. Reciting a Iixed amount oI Qur`aan in every rak`ah. 18
9. Paying consideration to the weak and the old. 18
10. General principle in deciding its length. 19
11. The Taraaweeh and the Qiyaam. and its lengthening in
the last ten days. 20
12. The Imaam holding a mushaI in the prayer. 21
13. The congregation carrying a mushaI. 22
14. Weeping in a loud voice. 23
15. Repeating verses dealing with mercy or punishment. 25
16. Repeating the verses describing Allah. 25
17. Weeping in supplication and not in the Qur`aan. 27
18. Forcing oneselI to cry in Taraaweeh. 29
19. Reciting the Qur`aan melodiously. 29
20. The shortest time allowed to complete the Qur`aan. 31
21. The Imaam charging a Iee. 32
22. Recitation in the last three rak`ah. 33
23. Supplicating aIter completing the Qur`aan. 34
24. When to supplicate upon completing the Qur`aan. 36
25. Particular supplication recited upon its completion. 37
26. Traveling to diIIerent masaaiid in its regard. 38
27. Traveling to Makkah or Madinah in its regard. 38
28. Supplication oI the Qunoot in witr and Fair. 39
29. Raising the hands in the Qunoot. 40
30. How to begin the Qunoot. 41
31. Supplicating with other than what was reported. 44
32. Supplicating in a rhyming way. and lengthening the
description oI al-Jannah or an-Naar. 45
33. Changing the wording oI the supplications. 45
34. PerIorming another rak`ah when the Imaam pronounces
tasleem in the witr. 46
35. The Imaam appointing another person to lead. 46
36. The Imaam pausing aIter Surah al-Faatihah. 47
37. Joining the Taraaweeh with the niyyah oI praying
38. Reciting the Qur`aan and praying superogatory
39. Reciting and listening to the Qur`aan. 50
1. What number oI raka`aat
does the Taraaweeh
prayer consist oI? Does it have a speciIic number? What
number oI raka`aat is best?
In the Name oI Allah. the Most BeneIicent. the Most MerciIul. All
Praise is due to Allah. and may the Peace and Blessings oI Allah
be upon Allah`s Messenger. and upon his Iamily. companions.
and whoever Iollows his guidance.
What has authentically been reported oI the Prophet suggests
that there is much Ilexibility with respect to the number oI
raka`aat in the salaat al-layl (the night prayer). and they are not
restricted to a certain number. However. it is the Sunnah
believer. male and Iemale. pray in pairs oI two. making tasleem
at the end oI every two |raka`aat|.
The word rak`ah
is a derivative oI the word rukoo`
. which literally means
to bend. as one bends or hunches as one ages. |Adapted Irom the books MuIradaat
AlIaadh il-Qur`aan` by ar-Raaghib al-AsIahaani. and Qaamoos al-Muheet` by al-
Fayruzabaadi| In Iiqh
. which is a branch oI knowledge that deals with the derivation
oI speciIic rulings in the religion Irom its evidences. rak`ah is a word that denotes the
cycle oI standing along with the recitiation oI Surah al-Faatihah. bowing. and two
prostrations. Each cycle denotes one rak`ah. so the Iair prayer has two raka`aat
its plural. or cycles oI standing. bowing. and prostrations. As Ior the word rukoo`. it is
the speciIic act oI bowing aIter the standing and beIore the prostrations.
is the plural oI the word tarweehah
. which means to give a
short period oI rest. It was so termed because when the Sahaabah would pray Qiyaam
ul-layl in congregation. they would rest between every Iour raka`aat. |Fath al-Baari`.
The word sunnah
literally means a path or way. and the sunnah oI the Prophet .
is that path which he sought and took.
The word tasleem
( ` `.`, )
linguistlically is the verbal noun oI the verb sallama
which means to say As-Salaamu alaykum`
( `··` `.´`,· )
. Its meaning in Iiqh is ending the
prayer with its pronouncement.
Amongst these ahaadeeth
is one which has been reported by al-
Bukhari and Muslim.
In this hadeeth oI ibn Umar . the Prophet
said. 'Salaat al-layl is in pairs oI two; whosoever amongst you
Iears the break oI dawn let him pray one rak`ah. Ior it will be a
Ior all the raka`aat he has previously oIIered.¨
His saying. 'Salaat al-layl is in pairs oI two.¨ is a declarative
statement but has the implication |in usool al-Iiqh
| oI a com-
mand; it is equivalent to his saying. 'Pray in the night in pairs
What is intended here by praying in pairs oI two is that the
is the plural oI the word hadeeth
. which linguistically means
speech. In religious terms it is a narration oI anything attributed to the Prophet
whether it be his actions. statements. aIIirmations. or attributes.
Bukhari and Muslim. the two most authentic books oI hadeeth. and the only two books
oI the six most common books oI hadeeth. al-Bukhari. Muslim. Abu Daawud. an-
Nasaa`i. ibn Maaiah. and at-Tirmidhi. in which the authors. Muhammad bin Isma`eel al-
Bukhari and Muslim bin Haiiaai an-Nisapuri. intended to include only the most
authentic oI ahaadeeth.
The word witr
. also pronounced watr. literally means an odd number. and in Iiqh
terminology. it is the prayer with an odd number oI raka`aat preIerredly oIIerred as the
last prayer oI the night.
( .`.`.' · ).
or principles oI iurisprudence. is the branch oI knowledge
which deals with the derivation oI general principles used to deduce speciIic rulings
Irom its evidences.
In the Qur`aan and the Sunnah. a command is not only implied in an imperative clause.
as in. 'Do this or that.¨ but can also be implied in a declarative clause. as Allah says
in the Qur`aan.
.«·=«|· ,- .·· ¸..«·|· ¸=·,·· . =·,,| -·
'And the divorced women shall wait Ior three menstrual periods.¨
This is a declarative statement. but has the implication oI a command.
tasleem is to be pronounced aIter every two raka`aat. Then. the
prayer is to be concluded by perIorming one rak`ah. which is
known as the witr prayer. This is how the Prophet used to per-
Iorm his prayer. He would pray in the night in pairs oI two. and
then pray one rak`ah oI witr. as was described in diIIerent narra-
tions by Aa`ishah. ibn Abbaas. as well as other Sahaabah.
Allah be pleased with them all. Aa`ishah said. 'The Messenger
oI Allah would perIorm ten raka`aat oI prayer. pronouncing the
tasleem aIter every two. He would then perIorm one rak`ah oI
And she also said. 'The Prophet would not increase the
number oI raka`aat in the night prayer more than eleven. neither in
nor in any other month. He would pray Iour raka`aat.
let alone their excellency and their length. then he would pray an-
other Iour. let alone their excellency and their length. and then he
would pray three...¨ |al-Bukhari and Muslim|
Some people have mistakenly presumed that these Iour raka`aat
are to be perIormed with one tasleem. but this is not correct. What
is meant here is that the Prophet would conclude the prayer by
pronouncing the tasleem aIter every two raka`aat. as is mentioned
in the previous hadeeth as well as in his saying. 'The night
prayer is in pairs oI two.¨ Another evidence is what has been au-
thentically reported by al-Bukhari on the authority oI ibn Abbaas.
that the Prophet used to pronounce the tasleem aIter every two
The word sahaabah
is the plural oI saahib
. and denotes those who saw
the Prophet whilst being Muslim. and also died upon Islam. Its singular Iorm is also
. and the sahaabiyyaat
are the women companions.
Also on the authority oI ibn Umar who said. 'The Prophet would pray in the
night in pairs oI two. and then oIIer witr with one rak`ah.¨ |al-Bukhari. Muslim|
Ramadaan is the month in which the Qur`aan was revealed. and in it is prescribed Ior
the believers to Iast.
In Aai`shah`s statement there is an evidence that it is preIerred
in the night prayer. whether it be in Ramadaan or in any other
month. that one perIorms eleven raka`aat. pronouncing the
tasleem aIter every two. and then concludes the prayer with one
rak`ah oI witr.
It has also been narrated by Aai`shah and other Sahaabah that the
Prophet would also at times pray thirteen rak`ah.
This shows that what is preIerred and what has been most
authentically reported oI the Prophet is that one perIorms
eleven or thirteen rak`ah during the Taraaweeh. And oI the two.
perIorming eleven raka`aat is better. but iI he was to perIorm
thirteen. including the witr. then this is also Irom the Sunnah and
is good. Praying this number is more gentle on the people. It is
more conducive to the Imaam`s khushoo`
and recitation. its
beauty. his reIlection upon its verses. as well as the rukoo` and
It also does not lead him to hasten his prayer.
And iI one were to pray twenty-three rak`ah. including the witr. as
did Umar and other Sahaabah in various nights oI Ramadaan.
then there is no harm in this. Ior there is much Ilexibility in this
matter. It has been reported in the hadeeth oI Aai`shah that
Umar and other Sahaabah prayed eleven rak`ah including the
witr. and in other reports that he prayed twenty-three. It has also
This is mentioned in the hadeeth oI ibn Abbaas related by al-Bukhari. in which he
said. 'The prayer oI the Prophet would consist oI thirteen raka`aat. i.e. the night
is the Ieeling oI humility and awe. and is an ibaadah. or act oI
worship. only due to Allah.
The word suiood
is the verbal noun oI the verb saiada
. It literally means
humility. and in the Qur`aan. it denotes humility to Allah and His worship. In Iiqh. it
means the speciIic prostration made to Allah. with the two hands. two knees. toes.
Iorehead and nose touching the ground. whether it be inside the prayer or outside.
|Adapted Irom the book MuIradaat AlIaadh il-Qur`aan` by ar-Raaghib al-AsIahaani.|
been reported that he ordered the Sahabi whom he appointed to
lead the night prayer to pray eleven rak`ah. as has been reported
that he ordered him to pray twenty-three. This conIirms the Iact
that there is much Ilexibility in this matter. as does his saying.
'The night prayer is in pairs oI two.¨
However. as we stated beIore. it is preIerred that one pray eleven
or thirteen rak`ah. as this is what the Prophet himselI did. And
as mentioned. praying eleven rak`ah is best. due to the statement
oI Aai`shah .
What is meant in this statement is that he would
not increase the number oI raka`aat most oI the time. and that is
due to the Iact that she and other Sahaabah also reported that he
perIormed thirteen rak`ah. This implies that he would sometimes
increase the prayer more than eleven rak`ah.
Aa`ishah had the most understanding in religious matters and
was the most knowledgeable oI the Sunnah oI the Messenger
Irom amongst the Sahaabiyaat. She would investigate and ques-
tion what the Prophet did when she was in his presence. and
would in turn inIorm other Sahaabah. She would ask the other
wives oI the Prophet and Sahaabah as well. Because oI her de-
votion to knowledge and her extensive memory. she preserved a
substantial amount oI knowledge and numerous ahaadeeth oI the
Messenger oI Allah .
ThereIore. iI the Prophet varied his prayer by perIorming eleven
rak`ah in some nights and thirteen in others. then there is no harm
in that. Ior it is all considered Sunnah. However. what is not per-
missible is that one pray Iour raka`aat uninterruptedly. Rather. it is
obligatory to pray in pairs oI two due to his saying. 'The night
prayer is in pairs oI two.¨ Ior this is a declarative statement which
|in usool al-Iiqh| has the implication oI a command.
Also. iI one were to pray the witr prayer by perIorming three or
Iive raka`aat uninterruptedly with one sitting. there is no harm in
that either. Ior the Prophet also prayed in this manner. How-
ever. one is not to pray Iour. six. or eight raka`aat uninterruptedly.
as this has not been reported oI the Prophet . It also contradicts
his command. 'The night prayer is in pairs oI two.¨ And iI one
were to uninterruptedly perIorm seven or nine raka`aat. then there
is no harm in that either.
But what is preIerred is that one sits Ior
the Iirst tashahhud
aIter the sixth or the eighth rak`ah and then
stands and completes the rest oI the prayer.
All oI this has been related oI the Prophet . and there is much
Ilexibility in this matter. But what is best is to pronounce the
tasleem aIter every two raka`aat. and then to oIIer one rak`ah oI
witr prayer. as previously quoted in the hadeeth oI ibn Umar.
This is what is preIerred and is easier Ior the people. as some peo-
ple might have other obligations to IulIill and might need to leave
aIter two. Iour. or six raka`aat. So what is best and more beIitting
is that the Imaam
pray in pairs oI two raka`aat. and not perIorm
Iive or seven continuously. However. iI he were to do that at times
to clariIy the Sunnah. there is no harm.
As Iar as the shaI`a
and witr are concerned. it is not beIitting that
they be prayed similar to the Maghrib prayer |by sitting aIter two
Masrooq said. 'I asked Aa`ishah about the prayer oI the Prophet in the night.
and she replied. Seven. nine. and eleven. not taking into account the two rak`ah Sunnah
oI Fair.`¨ |al-Bukhari|
is the part oI the prayer in which the person sits aIter perIorming
a number oI raka`aat and recites a series oI supplications. and then either stands Ior the
rest oI the prayer or perIorms tasleem. according to the prayer he is praying.
linguistically is anyone or anything Iollowed. In religious terms. it is the
person who is Iollowed in congregational prayer. Its plural is a`immah
literally is the opposite oI witr. and in Iiqh it is the prayer which has an
even number oI rak`ah which is prayed immediately beIore the witr.
raka`aat and standing Ior the third without pronouncing the
tasleem|. and is at the very least makrooh.
This is due to the pro-
hibition oI the Prophet in making it resemble the Maghrib
prayer. One is to uninterruptedly pray three raka`aat with one
tasleem and one sitting. and TawIeeq
is Irom Allah.
2. Is it better Ior the Imaam to vary the number oI
raka`aat he perIorms. or to limit it to eleven?
I do not know oI any harm in the Imaam varying the number oI
raka`aat. II he prays eleven rak`ah in some nights and twenty-
three in others. then there is nothing wrong in this. Even iI he
were to pray more than twenty-three. there is no harm in this. Ior
there is much Ilexibility in the matter regarding the number oI
raka`aat to be perIormed in Taraaweeh. However. iI he limits the
prayer to eleven rak`ah to aIIirm the Sunnah and to teach the peo-
ple. then there is no harm in this either.
3. There are some who pray eleven rak`ah while pray-
ing behind an Imaam who prays twenty-three. and in do-
ing so do not complete the prayer with him. Is this in ac-
cordance with the Sunnah?
The Sunnah is to complete the prayer with the Imaam even iI he
linguistically is something hated. and as established in usool al-Iiqh is
that thing which iI done is not punishible. but reIraining Irom it is rewarded.
The word tawIeeq
literally means to equate between two things. In the religious
sense it is to equate between a person`s actions and correctness. So TawIeeq Irom Allah
is that Allah grants the person the ability to accord his action or opinion to the correct
were to pray twenty-three rak`ah. Ior the Messenger oI Allah
said. 'Whosoever stands |in prayer| with the Imaam until he com-
pletes it. Allah writes Ior him |the reward| as iI he has prayed the
whole night.¨ It has been reported in another wording. '...the re-
main der oI the night.¨ Hence. it is better Ior the one praying to
perIorm the prayer with the Imaam until he completes it. whether
it consist oI eleven. twenty-three. or any other number oI raka`aat.
What is better then is that one Iollows the Imaam until he com-
pletes the prayer. As Ior the authenticity oI praying twenty-three
rak`ah. it was done by Umar and other Sahaabah. so there is
no Iault in it. In Iact. it is Irom the Sunnah. the Sunnah oI the
rightly guided successors.
The evidence Ior this is that in the
hadeeth oI ibn Umar previously mentioned. the Prophet did
not speciIy any particular number oI raka`aat. rather. he said.
'The night prayer is in pairs oI two.¨
4. Is there any harm in one`s going to diIIerent masaa-
iid. seeking an Imaam with a nice voice. that one may
Ieel khushoo` and presence in heart?
What is apparent. and Allah knows best. is that there is no harm in
that. iI what is sought is to have khushoo` in one`s prayer. pleas-
ure and peace oI heart. Ior all voices are not the same. Rather. he
will be rewarded Ior it. It may well be that one Ieels khushoo` be-
hind one Imaam and not another due the diIIerence between their
prayer. Hence. iI one were to go to a Iurther masiid
beneIit Irom a particular Imaam`s recitation. to have khushoo` in
Here the sheikh is alluding to the hadeeth in which the Prophet said. '.and hold
Iast to my Sunnah and the Sunnah oI the rightly guided successors. Bite on to it with
your molars.¨ |Abu Dawud. at-Tirmidhi|
( `· `- )
is a place designated speciIically Ior the establishment oI prayer. Its
plural is Masaaiid
one`s prayer and to gain knowledge. and not out oI sheer desire or
to merely loaI about. there is no harm in that. It has authentically
been reported in a hadeeth oI the Prophet that he said. 'The
greatest reward given to people by virtue oI their prayer is the Iur-
thest oI them in walking (i.e. distance Irom the masiid).¨ Hence.
even iI what was sought was to increase the number oI one`s Ioot-
steps. then this is a righteous goal.
5. Is there any harm in traveling to diIIerent masaaiid
every night seeking a pleasurable voice?
I do not know oI any harm in that. though I do tend towards the
opinion that one should adhere to the masiid in which one Iinds
khushoo` and peace oI heart. It may be that one shiIts to a masiid
in which one does not Iind this. Accordingly. what I hold to be
correct in light oI the general principles laid out in the religion is
that iI one Iinds an Imaam in whose prayer one Iinds khushoo`
and peace oI heart. then one should adhere to that masiid. or at the
least Irequent it. By the Grace oI Allah. there is much Ilexibility in
this matter rather than rigidity. So iI one did shiIt to another mas-
iid. we do not know oI any harm in it. as long as one`s intention
was good and not evil. like showing oII. But what is closer to the
truth in light oI the general principles laid out in the religion is
that one should adhere to the masiid in which one Ieels khushoo`
and peace oI heart. a pleasing recitation. and in one which there is
a large congregation. II one were to pray in a masiid in which
there is a large congregation. others can take example Irom him.
or it may be that he brings them some beneIit and reminds them at
times. He could also present them with a lecture. What I mean to
say is that they could derive beneIit Irom his presence. So iI this is
the case. that he brings beneIit to a particular masiid. or he Ieels
khushoo`. peace at heart. and enioyment in his prayer. then all this
is Irom those things sought Irom it.
6. Is it preIerred that the Imaam complete the entire
Qur`aan in Taraaweeh?
There is great Ilexibility in this matter. I do not know oI any evi-
dence that suggests that it is better. except that some scholars have
mentioned that it is mustahab
Ior the Imaam to recite the entire
Qur`aan Ior the congregation. in order that they receive the oppor-
tunity to listen to it in its entirety. However. this is not a clear evi-
dence. What is most important is that the Imaam have khushoo` in
his prayer. that he Ieel at ease. and that the people beneIit Irom
him. even iI he were not to complete except halI oI the Qur`aan. It
is not important that he completes it. but rather that the people
beneIit and Iind peace in his prayer. khushoo`. and his recitation.
However. iI he Iound it easy to complete. then all praise is Ior Al-
lah. but iI he did not. then what he did recite was suIIicient. Ior his
concern should be Ior the people and that they Ieel khushoo` in
their prayer. The beneIit oI the people is more important than the
mere completion oI the Qur`aan. but iI he were to Iinish the
Qur`aan without causing diIIiculty Ior the people. then this is well
7. Can one derive the ruling that it is better to recite
the entire Qur`aan in Ramadaan Irom the Iact that the
Prophet revised it in its entirety with Jibreel ?
What can be derived is that it is mustahab that a believer revise
the Qur`aan with one he can achieve beneIit. The Messenger
literally means something which is liked or loved. In Iiqh. it is that
action which is rewarded iI done but not punishable iI leIt.
revised the Qur`aan with Jibreel in order to derive beneIit
Ior Jibreel came Irom the presence oI Allah and is
His ambassador. Naturally. the Prophet derived beneIit Irom
what he brought Irom Allah by reaIIirming the recitation oI the
Qur`aan and its meanings. ThereIore. iI a person revised the
Qur`aan with one who helped him to understand it and correct its
recitation. then this is something desired. iust as the Prophet
revised the Qur`aan with Jibreel .
However. this does not mean that Jibreel is superior to the
Prophet . but rather that Jibreel is a messenger that comes
Irom the presence oI Allah. He inIormed the Messenger what
Allah ordered him in regards to the Qur`aan. its recitation. and its
meaning. In this way. the Messenger beneIited Irom Jibreel .
So Jibreel is not superior to the Prophet . rather he is the
best oI creation and is even superior to the angels. Much good re-
sulted in the Prophet`s revision oI the Qur`aan. Ior himselI as
well as Ior his Ummah. Ior he derived beneIit Irom what was
brought Irom Allah .
In addition to this. another beneIit can be derived. and it is that
revision during the night is superior to the day. Ior the Prophet
revised the Qur`aan with Jibreel during the night. And it is
known that one is more likely to beneIit during the night. as the
heart is more present and Iocused at that time.
What can also be derived is that revision is something which is
legislated in the religion. and that it is considered a righteous
deed. This is true outside Ramadaan as well. Ior there is great
beneIit derived in it by all. And iI there were more than two. then
there is no harm in that; all oI them will derive beneIit. encourage.
Al-Bukhari related that ibn Abbaas said: 'The Prophet was the most generous oI
people. but he would be his most generous during Ramadaan when he would meet with
|the angel| Jibreel . He would meet with him every night and recite the Qur`aan.
Whenever he met with Jibreel . he used to be more generous than a Iast wind.¨
and motivate each other in recitation. It may be that a person has
no motivation iI he were to revise by himselI; but iI one or more
oI his Iriends were to study with him. they would encourage him.
All would derive much beneIit by studying and researching that
which they do not easily understand. And in all that is much good.
And it may also be understood Irom this Iact that the recitation oI
the entire Qur`aan by the Imaam with the congregation in
Ramadaan is a type oI revision. and that the congregation can de-
rive much beneIit Irom listening to the Qur`aan in its entirety. For
this reason. Imaam Ahmad. may Allah have mercy on him. used
to love that those who led |the prayer| complete the Qur`aan Ior
the congregation. These were the types oI deeds done by our pious
predecessors out oI the love oI hearing the recitation oI the entire
Qur`aan. However. this is not something mandatory. Ior it may
well cause the Imaam to haste in his recitation. Hence. he will not
pay much attention to the aspect oI khushoo` and peace oI heart.
To consider these aspects is more deserving than merely seeking
to complete the Qur`aan.
8. What is your opinion about the speciIication oI a
Iixed amount oI Qur`aan to be recited in every rak`ah?
I do not see anything wrong in this. This depends upon the
Imaam. II he sees that it is in his and the congregation`s interest to
increase the amount oI recitation in a certain rak`ah because oI his
alertness. motivation. khushoo` and enioyment. and iI his voice is
pleasing. then I do not see any harm in this. This matter has much
Ilexibility. by the Grace oI Allah. the Most High.
9. Is the condition oI the weak. the old. and their likes
to be held in this regard?
This is sought in all prayers. the Iive daily prayers as well as the
Taraaweeh. Ior the Prophet said. 'Whosoever among you leads
the people in prayer. then he should make it light. Ior verily
among them are the weak. the young. and those who have needs
to attend.¨ |al-Bukhari| The Imaam should be considerate oI the
congregation and be easy on them. in the Taraaweeh as well as in
the last ten nights oI Ramadaan. Ior not all people are the same. It
is incumbent upon the Imaam that he be considerate to their con-
dition. and that he encourages the people to attend the prayer. Ior
whenever he lengthens his recitation. he causes them inconven-
ience and drives them away. He should do whatever encourages
the people to attend the prayer. even iI he were to shorten the it.
Ior the prayer in which people Ieel at peace. even iI it was short. is
better than one in which there is boredom. laziness. and a lack oI
10. What is the general principle that can be applied
to decide the length oI the prayer. Ior some people in the
congregation complain about it?
This decision should be based either upon the weak or upon the
opinion oI the maiority. II the maiority oI the congregation wishes
to prolong the prayer. and there is none amongst them that should
be taken into special consideration. no one weak. ill or elderly.
then there is no harm in that. And iI the weak. the ill or the elderly
are present. then it is incumbent on the Imaam to take their wel-
Iare into consideration. In this respect. it has been narrated by
Uthmaan bin Abi Aas that the Prophet said to him. 'Con-
sider the weakest among them.¨ and in another hadeeth. '...Ior
verily behind him are the weak and the elderly.¨ |Abu Dawud|
What is meant here by considering` is that the Imaam should
shorten the recitation. rukoo`. and suiood. II the individuals in the
congregation were similar in nature. then the decision should be
based upon the maiority.
11. Is there a diIIerence between the Taraaweeh and
the Qiyaam? And is there any evidence Ior lengthening
the standing. rukoo` and suiood in the last ten days oI
The prayer which is perIormed throughout the month oI
Ramadaan is |also| called the Qiyaam |as well as Taraaweeh. i.e.
they are synonymous|.
The Prophet said. 'Whoever stands
|in prayer| in Ramadaan with Eeman
and hoping to attain reward
Irom Allah. then all his previous sins will be Iorgiven.¨ |al-
Bukhari. Muslim| II one stands as much as is easy Ior him with
the Imaam. then this is called the Qiyaam. However. in the last ten
nights. it is deemed praiseworthy that one lengthen the prayer. Ior
it has been legislated that one give liIe to the last ten nights by
staying awake in prayer. recitation. and supplication. as did the
Messenger . In some nights. he would recite Surah al-Baqarah.
A common misconception amongst people is that the Taraaweeh is an additional
prayer other than the Qiyaam or Tahaiiud (see Iootnote #49) only perIormed in
Ramadaan. although this is not truly the case. The reality is that these three prayers are
one and the same. except that it in Ramadaan. there are speciIic rulings dealing with it.
i.e. praying it in congregation.
The arabic word Ior stands` is qaama
. and qiyaam
is a derivative oI it.
consists oI three parts:
(i) True belieI and conIirmation oI the heart.
(ii) Speech oI the tongue.
(iii) Action oI the limbs.
II any oI them is absent. then Eemaan itselI is not present.
an-Nisaa`. and Aali-`Imraan. all in one rak`ah!
emulate the Prophet by giving liIe to the last ten nights oI
Ramadaan. contrary to the Iirst twenty in which he would sleep
as well as stay awake and pray. as has been reported in numerous
ahaadeeth. As Ior the last ten nights. the Prophet would awaken
his Iamily. tighten his lower garment around his waist. and
give liIe to the whole night. because in it is Laylatul-Qadar.
12. Is it permissible Ior the Imaam to hold the mushaI
In a hadeeth narrated by Muslim. HudhaiIah he said. 'I prayed with the Messenger oI
Allah one night when he started Surah al-Baqarah. So I said |to myselI| He will make
rukoo` aIter one hundred aayah.` But he carried on. so I thought. He will Iinish it in two
raka`aat.` But he carried on. so I thought. He will make rukoo` when he has Iinished it.`
Then he started Surah an-Nisaa` and recited it all. and then Aali Imran and recited all.
He was reciting slowly; when he came upon an ayah in which there was gloriIication oI
Allah. he gloriIied Allah; at an aayah which had something to be asked Ior. he asked Ior
it; at the mention oI seeking reIuge. he sought reIuge. Then he made rukoo` and said:
Subhaana Rubbiy al-Adheem |trans.: Glory be to my Lord the Most MagniIicient|. His
bowing lasted about the same length oI time as his standing. |and then on returning to
the standing posture aIter rukoo`.| he said: Sami`Allahu liman hamidah |trans.: Allah
listens to him who praises Him|. and then stood about the same length oI time as he had
spent in bowing. He then prostrated himselI and said Subhaana Rubbiy al-A`laa |trans.:
Glory be to my Lord Most High|. and his prostration lasted nearly the same length oI
time as his standing.¨ In the hadeeth transmitted by Jareer. the words are: 'He (the
Prophet ) said: Sami`Allahu liman hamidah Rubbanaa lakal- hamd |trans.: Allah
listens to him who praises Him. our Lord. praise be to Thee|.¨
On the authority oI Aa`ishah . may Allah be pleased with her. she said. 'When the
Messenger oI Allah entered the last ten |nights| oI Ramadaan. he would give liIe to
the night. awaken his Iamily. expend energy in obedience. and tighten his lower garment
around his waist.¨ |al-Bukhari. Muslim| Here. the phrase tighten his lower garment` is
a metaphor which means prepare to do a hard task`. as is said to roll up one`s sleeves`
while leading the prayer?
The correct opinion is that there is no harm in this. Though there
is a diIIerence amongst the scholars. the correct opinion is that
there is no harm in that he recites Irom the mushaI. whether it be
that he has not memorized the Qur`aan. or iI his memorization is
weak. In this case. it is more beneIicial to his own selI as well as
the congregation. so there is no harm in it. Imaam al-Bukhari
mentioned in a mu`allaq
hadeeth on the authority oI Aa`ishah .
that her slave. Dhakwaan. would lead her in prayer in the night
while reciting Irom a mushaI. The general principle is that it is
allowed. and the hadeeth oI Aa`ishah supports this. However. iI
it is easy Ior the Imaam to recite Irom his memory. then this is
more beIitting. It is more Iocused and less distracting to the heart.
Ior carrying a mushaI entails picking it up. placing it down.
searching through its pages. and turning to it when needed. Hence.
iI one can do without it. then that is better.
13. Is it permissible Ior one or more Irom the congre-
gation to carry a mushaI during the Taraaweeh prayer?
I do not know oI any evidence to support this. It is apparent
is literally something used to gather a collection oI suhuI
plural oI saheeIah
. which is literally something Ilat used to write on. SpeciIically.
it is the book in which the Qur`aan is written. This book is not called the Qur`aan.
because the Qur`aan is something recited. and is the actual words. and not the book in
A type oI hadeeth in which one or more narrators are ommitted at the bottom oI the
chain. immediate to the one relating the hadeeth. This hadeeth is usually regarded as
weak. but in regards to al-Bukhaari. they are oI two types: those which are weak. and
those which are authentic. and they can be told apart by the wording al-Bukhaari used to
relate the hadeeth. Also it should be noted that he did not include them amongst his
collection. but rather used these ahaadeeth Ior chapter headings.
though. that one should have khushoo` and Ieel at peace in his
prayer and not carry a mushaI. One should put his right hand over
one`s leIt hand as is the sunnah. One should place one`s right hand
on one`s leIt hand. wrist. and Iorearm
and put them on one`s
This is what is preIerred and more correct. Carrying a
mushaI prevents one Irom doing these acts oI sunnah and prevents
one Irom concentrating on the Imaam and his recitation. Rather. it
keeps one`s heart and eyes busy in examining its pages and
verses. So what I believe is that leaving it is the Sunnah. One
should listen and concentrate on the recitation rather than use the
mushaI. And iI someone Irom the congregation comes to know
that the Imaam has made a mistake. then he should correct him.
and iI he does not. then someone else should correct him. How-
ever. iI the Imaam does happen to make a mistake in recitation
and he is not corrected. it does not inIluence the correctness oI the
prayer. A mistake only harms the prayer iI it is made in Surah al-
Faatihah. Ior it is a rukn
oI the prayer. However. iI one were to
carry a mushaI and correct the Imaam when it necessitates. then
there may be no harm in that. As Ior every person carrying a
mushaI. this is contrary to the Sunnah.
14. What is the ruling concerning weeping in a loud
'He would place the right arm on the back oI his leIt palm. wrist. and Iorearm.¨ |Abu
'He would place them on his chest.¨ |Abu Dawud|
A pillar. or rukn. in Iiqh is that which is part oI the act oI worship in its Ioundation. in
that it cannot be imagined that the act oI worship be present with the absence oI that
thing. For example. in trade. the person selling the product is one oI its pillars. Ior it
cannot be imagined that trade exist without a person selling the product. II a pillar is
void in an act oI worship. then the act oI worship is not valid until that pillar is compen-
sated Ior. either by repeating the whole act. or perIorming the pillar which was omitted.
as laid out by the religion.
voice that has become apparent in many masaaiid?
I have warned many who have inquired against this act. This is
not beIitting due the Iact that it distracts the Imaam as well as oth-
ers. So what is incumbent upon the believer is that he be cautious
in that he is not heard weeping. and that he be cautious that he
does not show oII. Ior the shaytaan might lead him to this. It is
incumbent that he does not disturb people by his weeping. It is
true that some do not weep oI their own choice. rather. it being
something which overwhelms them without intending it. This is
Iorgiven iI it occurs unintentionally. It has been authentically re-
ported that when the Prophet recited. a sound like the wheezing
oI a cauldron could be heard because oI his weeping.
And it has
also been reported that when Abu Bakr recited the Qur`aan.
people could not hear due to his weeping.
Also. it has been re-
ported oI Umar that his weeping could be heard Irom the last
rows oI the congregation. This does not mean. though. that they
would intentionally raise their voices in crying; rather. it was
something that overwhelmed them because oI the khashyah
Allah . ThereIore. iI one does become overwhelmed with weep-
ing without intending. there is no harm in that.
In a hadeeth related by Ahmad. at-Tirmidhi and an-Nasaa`i. Abdullah bin Shikheer
said. 'I came to Allah`s Messenger as he was engaged in prayer. and I heard a sound
within him like the gurgling oI a pot. meaning that he was weeping.¨ In another version
in Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi. he said. 'I saw Allah`s Messenger engaged in prayer
and (heard) a sound Irom his breast like the rumbling oI a mill. owing to his weeping.¨
Aa`ishah said. 'They used to wonder and look at him. Abu Bakr was a man
who used to weep much. and he could not help but weep upon reciting the Qur`aan.¨ |al-
is Iear bought about by awe. and is speciIic to the case in which that
which is Ieared is something known. rather than unknown.
15. What is the ruling concerning the Imaam repeat-
ing particular verses oI the Qur`aan which deal with Al-
lah`s mercy or His punishment?
I do not know any harm in that iI his intention was to encourage
the people to contemplate. beneIit. and to Ieel khushoo` in their
prayer. Ior it has been related oI the Prophet that he repeated
Allah`s saying. the Most High.
, =.·,- ..··· ..·=-· .·- .·| c··· ..| ,«-· .·
'II You do punish them. they are indeed your ser-
vants. and iI You do Iorgive them. You are indeed
the Exalted in power. the Wise.¨
He repeated this verse many times. So the Iact is that iI this was
done with a righteous intention and not to show oII. then there is
nothing to prohibit this. But iI this repetition was disturbing to the
people. or iI they were to become distracted by the weeping
brought about Irom it. reIraining Irom it is better. However. iI this
repetition did not result in any disturbance but in Iact resulted in
khushoo`. contemplation. and interest in prayer. then this is all
well and good.
16. What is the ruling concerning the Imaam repeat-
ing the verses that describe the characteristics oI Allah?
An-Nasaa`i. ibn Khuzaimah. Ahmad. ibn Nasr. and al-Haakim.
I do not know oI any narration in this regard. What has been re-
lated oI the Prophet does not make a distinction between the
verses describing the characteristics oI Allah and other verses. It
may well result in weeping and khushoo`. Ior these verses men-
tion the magniIicence oI Allah and His countless blessings. And
Irom these verses is His saying .
.«.|· _·- .=|· .´· .·- , -··| -·= J ¸v· , =
-,·=· ·.·|· ¸,|· ¸=-· ¸,-|· ¸·- .,·=· .
··,·- ... -· =
'Indeed your Lord is Allah. Who created the heav-
ens and the earth in six days. and then He rose over
the Throne. He brings the night as a cover over the
day. seeking it rapidly.¨
Indeed iI one contemplates this verse. one is caused to weep and
Ieel khushoo` Irom the khashyah oI Allah . Also Irom these is
.|· v .=|· =· ,·- .- ,· v· - ..=|· , .,-|· .· ·=
.«-,|· ,· .,-,|· ¸ . .|· v .=|· =· ,· ,· v· -
.·.|· ¸,= «|· c·«|· ¸-,«|· . ... =-·
'He is Allah Besides Whom there is none worthy
oI worship except Him. the all-Knower oI the Un-
seen and seen. He is the Most Gracious. Most Mer-
ciIul. He is Allah Besides Whom there is none
worthy oI worship except Him. the King. the Holy.
the One Iree Irom all deIects. The Giver oI Secu-
All oI these verses may well cause one to weep. Ior one recalls the
MagniIicence oI Allah and the perIection oI His Iavors upon His
servants. In addition. what is moving are the meanings oI Allah`s
characteristics. So contemplation oI the verses which mention the
Names oI Allah is very important. as well as the verses which de-
or those that mention the mercy oI
Allah and His punishment. HudhaiIah narrated that when the
Prophet came upon a verse concerning the greatness oI Allah.
he would exalt Him. and when he came upon a verse concerning
His punishment he would supplicate. To supplicate upon hearing
the verses oI hope. to seek reIuge upon hearing the verses oI Iear.
and to exalt Allah upon hearing the verses describing His attrib-
utes are all Irom the Prophet`s Sunnah.
17. What about those who weep in supplication and
not when they hear the Words oI Allah ?
This is may not necessarily be done by choice. but it may be that a
person`s soul is moved in supplication and not in recitation. It is
necessary. though. that he cures himselI oI this. It is more impor-
tant to Ieel khushoo` in the recitation than in supplication. How-
ever iI he were to Ieel khushoo` both in his recitation and his sup-
plication. then this is all well and good. because having khushoo`
is literally a derivation oI the verb ianna
. to conceal. and it is so
called because it is hidden Irom sight by trees. In the religious sense. it is the garden
which Allah has prepared Ior the believers. It might also be called so because its reality
is something which is hidden Irom us.
. is the hellIire prepared Ior those who do not subiect themselves to
in the supplication is a means Ior its acceptance. It is necessary.
though. that more importance is paid to the recitation because it is
the Speech oI Allah. and that it is a Guidance and a Light. The
Prophet and the Sahaabah would contemplate and compre-
hend the Qur`aan. and as a result they would weep. An example oI
this is the Prophet`s saying to Abdullah bin Mas`ood . 'Re-
cite to me the Qur`aan.¨ Abdullah replied. 'How should I recite
to you. when it was you to whom it was revealed?¨ The Prophet
then said. 'I love to hear its recitation Irom someone other than
myselI.¨ Thereupon ibn Mas`ood recited the Qur`aan Irom the
beginning oI Surah an-Nisaa` until he reached Allah`s saying.
- ···- ·.· .,´· ¸· ¸- --| ¸·- c· ···- , =,.=·
.· ·=,.= ·v, =
'How (will it be) then. when We bring Irom each
nation a witness. and We bring you (O Muhammad
) as a witness against these people?¨
.until the Prophet said. 'That is enough.¨ ibn Mas`ood said.
'So I turned my gaze towards him.¨ or he said. 'So I raised my
head towards him. and behold! His eyes were overIlowing with
What is apparent Irom this hadeeth is that the Prophet wept
without any sound issuing Iorth. and that ibn Mas`ood came to
know oI his weeping only by the presence oI his tears. It has also
been reported in the hadeeth oI Abdullah bin Shikhir. that he
heard wheezing like the wheezing oI a cauldron Irom the
Prophet`s chest because his weeping. This evidence shows that
his weeping could sometimes be heard. but without it being
18. What is the ruling about Iorcing oneselI to cry.
and what is the authenticity oI what has been reported in
It has been reported in some traditions. 'II you do not weep. then
Iorce yourselI to weep.¨ but I do not know its authenticity. It has
been related by Ahmad. however. I do not recall anything regard-
ing its authenticity except that it is commonly mentioned amongst
the scholars. But this needs more care and study. Ior I do not re-
call at this moment the condition oI its chain oI narration.
what is apparent is that one should not be burdened to Iorce one-
selI. but that iI one does weep. one should struggle with oneselI as
much as possible that it be soIt and not disturbing to others.
19. What is meant by reciting the Qur`aan melodi-
It has been encouraged to recite the Qur`aan melodiously in the
authentic Sunnah oI the Prophet . but what is meant by this is
'AIter speaking about the types oI weeping. ibn al-Qayyim discusses those who urge
themselves to weep; he says in Zaad al-Ma`aad`: This can be oI two types:
praiseworthy or blameworthy. As Ior the praiseworthy type oI weeping. then it is sought
aIter to soIten the heart and to increase one`s deep Iear oI Allaah. and it is not Ior the
sake oI being heard or seen by the people. As Ior the blameworthy type oI weeping. it is
sought aIter because oI the creation. The statement oI Umar is mentioned with
regards to the prisoners oI war Irom the battle oI Badr: .and iI I do not cry. I will
make myselI cry. because you are both |the Prophet and Abu Bakr| crying.` The
Prophet did not disapprove oI it. Some oI the salaI have said. Weep out oI the deep
Iear oI Allah and iI you cannot weep then make yourselI weep.` `¨ |p.49. Weeping Irom
the Fear oI Allaah`. Shaykh Husayn al-Awaayishah. Al-Hidaayah Publishing and
Distribution. 1419 AH/1998 CE|
thatone beautiIy one`s voice in recitation without it rese mbling
singing. It has been reported in an authentic tradition. 'Allah does
not listen to anything more than He listens to a prophet reciting
with an audible and beautiIul voice.¨ |al-Bukhari| And in another
tradition. 'He is not Irom us who does not recite the Qur`aan au-
dibly and melodiously.¨ |Abu Dawud. Haakim| What is meant
here is to beautiIy the voice in recitation. as explained earlier. As
Ior the previous hadeeth. Allah`s attribute oI listening cannot be
compared with the listening oI the creation. but rather it exists in a
way beIitting to Allah. And this is also the case with all other at-
tributes oI Allah; they exist in a way beIitting to Him. Exalted and
Most High. There is nothing like Him. Exalted and Most High. as
- ,,=,|· -,«.|· ,· , ·¸= -··«· ¸,| =
'.There is nothing like Him. and He is the all-
What is meant by reciting melodiously is that he recites with an
audible voice while beautiIying it and has khushoo` in it so as to
stir the hearts. because what is desired is that the hearts be aI-
Iected by the Qur`aan. He should Ieel khushoo`. Ieel at peace. and
beneIit Irom its recitation. In this regard. the Prophet once came
across Abu Musaa al-Ash`ari while he was reciting the Qur`aan
and stopped to listen to him. The Prophet said. 'Indeed he has
been given a Ilute Irom the Ilutes oI the Iamily oI Dawud.¨ When
Abu Musaa came to him. the Prophet inIormed him oI this. so
Abu Musaa replied. 'O Messenger oI Allah . iI I had known that
you were listening to me. I would have embellished it more.¨ |al-
Here. the Prophet did not obiect to what he said. so this gives
evidence that embellishing the voice. beautiIying it. and taking
care in its recitation is something desired in order that the one re-
citing it Ieel khushoo` and the one listening to it beneIit Irom it.
20. In what period oI time should one complete the
There is no prescribed period oI time. except that it is best that it
should not be completed in less than three days. as in the hadeeth
oI Abdullah bin Amr. 'He does not understand the Qur`aan who
recites it in less than three days.¨
So what is best is that one should seek to have khushoo`. contem-
plate. and beautiIy his recitation. Ior what is desired is that he
should beneIit and not that he should haste. It is important that one
increase in recitation oI the Qur`aan in Ramadaan. as our SalaI
did. may Allah be pleased with them. but it must by accompanied
by contemplation and comprehension. So iI one Iinished the
Qur`aan every three days. then that is well and good. Some oI our
pious predecessors made an exception to this principle in special
times and stated that there is no harm iI one Iinish the Qur`aan
every night or every day. This is attributed to Imaam ash-ShaIi`i
Yazid bin Abdullah said that Abdullah bin Amr asked the Prophet . 'In how
many days should I complete the recitation oI the Qur`aan. O Messenger oI Allah ?¨
He replied. 'In one month.¨ He said. 'I am more energetic to complete it in a period less
than this.¨ He kept on repeating these words and reducing the period until he said.
'Complete its recitation in seven days.¨ He again said. 'I am more energetic to complete
it in a period less than this.¨ The Prophet said. 'He who Iinishes the recitation oI the
Qur`aan in less than three days does not understand it.¨ |Abu Dawud|
The word salaI
literally means those who have preceded. Here. it is those who
have preceded us known Ior their righteousness and accordance with the Sunnah.
speciIically the Iirst three generations in Islam. as mentioned in an authentic hadeeth.
'The best oI people are my generation. then those who Iollow them. then those who
Iollow them.¨ |at-Tirmidhi. ibn Maaiah. Ahmad. al-Haakim|
and others Irom amongst our pious predecessors. However. it is
apparent Irom the Sunnah that there is no diIIerence between
Ramadaan and other times. Rather. it is incumbent not to haste.
but that one Iind peace oI heart in recitation and beautiIy it. as the
Prophet ordered Abdullah bin Amr in his saying. 'Recite it in
seven days.¨ This is the last oI what the Prophet ordered him
and said aIter that. 'He who recites the Qur`aan in less than three
days does not understand it.¨ |Ahmad| Here. the Prophet did
not make an exception Ior Ramadaan. So what some oI our pious
predecessors said about not applying this to Ramadaan has room
Ior diIIerence. And what is closer to the truth. and Allah knows
best. is that it is legislated Ior a believer that he pays great impor-
tance to the Qur`aan. that he strives to perIect its recitation. that he
contemplates its meanings. and that he does not haste in its com-
pletion. And what is best is that that he does not Iinish the
Qur`aan in less than three days. This is what is incumbent as Iar as
what is Iound in the Sunnah. even iI it were in Ramadaan.
21. What is the ruling regarding the Imaam charging
a Iee Ior leading the people in Taraaweeh. especially iI
he were to commute Irom a large distance?
It is not beIitting that the Imaam should charge a Iee. Many oI our
pious predecessors disliked this. Nevertheless. iI the congregation
were to help out oI their own accord rather than it being some-
thing stipulated. then there is no harm in that. As Ior the validity
oI his prayer. this has no inIluence on it. iI Allah wills. even iI a
Iee was set in order to help him. as necessity might dictate. It is
incumbent. though. that the Imaam does not ask Ior a Iee on his
part. because this then becomes a prerequisite. Rather it should be
something given by the congregation out oI their own Iree accord.
This is better and more cautious. as many oI our predecessors
have stated. may Allah have mercy on them. This is conIirmed by
the saying oI the Prophet in which he said to Uthmaan bin abi
Aas . 'Choose a mu`adhin
who does not take a Iee Ior his ad-
II this were the case Ior the mu`adhin. then it is more so
Ior the Imaam. It is not beIitting that a Iee be set as a prerequisite
Ior leading the people in prayer. but iI the congregation were to
help him in the cost oI transport out oI their own accord. then this
is well and good.
22. What is the ruling regarding the recitation oI
Surah al-A'laa. Surah al-KaaIiroon. and Surah al-Ikhlaas
in the last three rak`ah oI the Tahaiiud?
What has been
reported in regards to reciting the last three suwar
the Qur`aan in the last rak`ah oI the witr prayer?
This is what is preIerred. but iI the Imaam was to reIrain Irom
their recitation at times as a means to inIorm the people that it is
not obligatory. then this is well and good. And iI not. then it is
better that one should emulate the Prophet . Ior he would recite
Surah al-A'laa. Surah al-KaaIiroon. and Surah al-Ikhlaas in the
three raka`aat oI witr.
But iI a person was to leave their recitation
caller oI the Adhaan
. the call to prayer.
Abu Dawud related on the authority oI Uthman bin abi Aas. that he said. 'O
Messenger oI Allah . appoint me as the leader oI the tribe in prayer.¨ He said. 'You
are their leader. but Iollow the weakest oI them. and appoint a mu`adhin who does not
charge Ior the adhaan.¨
The word tahaiiud
is literally to Iorgo sleep. In the religious sense. it is
analogous to the Qiyaam and Taraaweeh (see Iootnote #28).
The plural oI surah.
'He used to recite GloriIy the name oI your Lord. the Most High` (Surah al-A`laa)
in the Iirst rak`ah. Say O you who disbelieve` (Surah al-KaaIiroon). in the second. and
Say He is Allah. the One` (Surah al-Ikhlaas) in the third.¨ |an-Nasaa`i. al-Haakim|
at times to teach the people that this is not mandatory. then it is
well and good. This is also what some oI our predecessors have
stated in regards to reIraining Irom the recitation oI Surah as-
Saidah and al-Insaan. The Sunnah is to recite these two suwar in
the Fair prayer every Friday.
But iI the Imaam were to leave it at
times to teach the people that it is not mandatory. then there is no
harm in this. One could also say the same Ior not reciting Surah
al-A'laa. Surah al-KaaIiroon. and Surah al-Ikhlaas in the last three
rak`ah oI the witr prayer. But it is better is that he increases in
their recitation and makes them the maiority oI what is recited. As
Ior what has been reported in reciting the last three suwar oI the
Qur`aan in the last rak`ah oI the witr prayer. it is a weak hadeeth.
What is authentic is that he only recites Surah al-Ikhlaas.
23. What is the ruling concerning supplicating aIter
the completion oI the Qur`aan?
Our pious predecessors did not leave the supplications recited
upon the completion oI the Qur`aan during the prayer oI
Ramadaan. and we do not know oI any diIIerence in this regard.
What is best is that the Imaam should supplicate. but not lengthen
the supplication. He should seek to recite those supplications that
are beneIicial and inclusive in meaning. as Aai`shah said. 'The
Prophet was Iond oI those supplications that were inclusive in
meaning and reIrained Irom other supplications.¨ So what is better
is that the Imaam should seek to supplicate with those which are
inclusive in meaning without lengthening them. He should recite
the supplication. 'O Allah guide me Irom those whom you have
In a hadeeth related by al-Bukhari. Abu Hurairah narrated that. 'The Prophet used
to recite the Iollowing in the Fair prayer oI Friday. AliI Laam Meem Tanzeel` (Surah
as-Saidah) and Has there come to man a time` (Surah ad-Dahr or al-Insaan).¨ |al-
guided.¨ in the Qunoot
as has been reported in a hasan
Along with this. he should recite other good and easy supplica-
tions. as in the addition oI Umar .
without lengthening them.
thus in Iact causing burden and inconvenience to the people. This
is how the supplication upon the completion the Qur`aan should
be; he should supplicate with what is easy Ior him. and that they
should be inclusive in meaning. He should start by praising Allah
and sending peace and prayers upon the Prophet . and then com-
plete the supplication with what is easy. whether it be in the night
prayer or in the witr. He should not lengthen it so as to cause dis-
tress or inconvenience.
This is what is known Irom our pious predecessors. and this ex-
ample was Iollowed by later generations. Our scholars and teach-
ers along with their dedication Ior the Sunnah Iollowed this as
well. the latter emulating the Iormer. This is considered to be an
obvious Iact by the A`immatud-Da`wah.
who are known to be
keen in the Sunnah. The Iact oI the matter remains that there is no
harm or blame in this. iI Allah wills. but rather that this is some-
thing that is deemed praiseworthy. because by doing this one
seeks response to one`s supplication aIter the completion oI the
Book oI Allah . When Anas would complete the Qur`aan. he
would gather his Iamily and supplicate outside oI the prayer. This
is iust as well whether it is within the prayer or outside it because
supplication has been legislated at both times. so there can be no
obiection in this.
literally means obedience coupled with humility. In Iiqh. it is a
particular supplication perIormed in the witr prayer. or other prayers due to a particular
A hasan` hadeeth is an authentic hadeeth that does not quite reach the highest level oI
authencity. or saheeh. in itselI.
Al-Bayhaqi in as-Sunan al-Kubraa. |See Hisnul-Muslim`. Chapter 32|
The term A`immatud-Da`wah`. or Leader oI the call. is used to denote the scholars oI
Saudia Arabia upon the da`wah oI Sheikh Muhammad bin Abdul-Wahhaab.
And it is well known that upon reciting a verse which describes
the punishment or the mercy oI Allah. one should supplicate as
the Prophet did in the night prayer. This is similar to the matter
at hand in that it is also legislated to supplicate aIter the comple-
tion oI the Qur`aan. The point oI contention is only whether one
should supplicate within the prayer. As Ior supplicating outside oI
it. then I do not know oI any diIIerence oI opinion other than that
it is deemed praiseworthy. but the diIIerence lies within the
prayer. I do not know anyone Irom our pious predecessors who
has obiected to supplicating within the prayer. and I do not know
anyone who has obiected to supplication outside it. So this is what
is used as a basis. that it was something known to our predeces-
sors. oI which the Iormer as well as the latter acted upon. Whoso-
ever says that this is wrong should come with some evidence. Ior
the burden oI prooI does not lie upon the one who acts according
to what our pious predecessors did. The evidence is to be estab-
lished by the one who says that it is wrong and that it is an innova-
tion. This is what our pious predecessors oI the Ummah chose and
tread upon. The latter generations took example Irom the Iormer.
and amongst them were the scholars. the virtuous. and the schol-
ars oI hadeeth. The recitation oI various supplications in the night
prayer is something known to be Irom the Sunnah oI the Prophet
. and what is recited upon the completion oI the Qur`aan is
within this class oI supplication.
24. Should the supplication recited upon the comple-
tion oI the Qur`aan be recited beIore the rukoo` or aIter?
It is better that it be recited aIter the recitation oI Surah an-Naas.
Whenever one completes the recitation oI the Qur`aan. he should
supplicate. whether it be in the Iirst. second. or last rak`ah. What I
mean to say is that aIter he completes the recitation oI the
Qur`aan. he is to start supplicating at any time oI the prayer.
whether it be in the Iirst. the middle. or the last rak`ah. There is no
harm in any oI this. What is important is that he makes supplica-
tion aIter he completes its recitation. And the Sunnah is that he
does not lengthen the supplication or the Qunoot. and that he lim-
its himselI to those supplications that are inclusive in meaning.
It has been reported that the Prophet recited the Qunoot beIore
the rukoo` as well as aIter it. but most oI the time he recited it aI-
ter. The supplication recited upon the completion oI the Qur`aan is
in the same class as the Qunoot in witr. This is because it is re-
cited due to the completion oI the Qur`aan. and it has been legis-
lated that supplications recited due to speciIic reasons are to be
recited in the Qunoot. This Qunoot is to be recited in the last
rak`ah aIter he raises his head Irom the rukoo` as the Prophet
did. This supplication is recited because the completion oI the
Qur`aan is an immense Iavor that Allah bestows upon His servant.
Ior he has completed the Book oI Allah . Due to this Iavor. he
should supplicate to Allah that He causes him to beneIit Irom the
guidance Iound in His Book. that He makes him Irom its people.
that He helps him to remember and thank Him. and that He makes
his heart and deeds righteous. He is to supplicate. as he usually
supplicates beIore pronouncing the tasleem aIter Allah has blessed
him the completion oI the prayer in the Iive daily prayers. This is
also the case in the witr prayer; he is to supplicate in the Qunoot
aIter the completion oI the Qur`aan.
25. Is there any particular supplication mentioned in
the Sunnah which can be recited aIter the completion oI
the Qur`aan? What is the authenticity oI the supplication
attributed to ibn Taymiyyah. may Allah have mercy on
From what we know. there is no particular supplication which has
been mentioned in the Qur`aan or the Sunnah. One may supplicate
with whatever one pleases; one may choose Irom any oI the bene-
Iicial supplications. like the seeking oI Iorgiveness Ior sins. suc-
cess in attaining al-Jannah. savior Irom an-Naar. seeking oI reIuge
Irom trials. seeking oI the blessing in memorizing the Noble
Qur`aan. understanding and acting upon it. and any other similar
supplications. It has been related oI Anas that he would gather
his Iamily and supplicate upon completing the recitation oI the
Qur`aan. As Ior the Prophet . Irom what I know. nothing has
been mentioned in this regard.
As Ior the supplication attributed to ibn Taymiyyah. may Allah
have mercy on Him. I do not know oI its authenticity. It is known
amongst our scholars. teachers and others. but I have not come
across it in any oI his works. and Allah knows best. |Taken Irom
Maiallah al-Buhooth al-Islaamiyyah. #20. p.186|
26. What is the ruling concerning traveling to diIIer-
ent masaaiid seeking to participate in the supplication
recited upon the completion oI the Qur`aan?
This may be done Ior a number oI reasons. II what was sought by
this was the acceptance oI his supplication. then there is no harm.
Ior indeed Allah may answer the supplication oI one person and
not another. II the intention oI the one traveling to diIIerent ma-
saaiid was good. like hoping to be Irom amongst those whose
supplication is answered. then there is no harm in this.
27. What is the ruling traveling to Makkah or
Madinah in order to participate in the supplication oI the
completion oI the Qur`aan?
Traveling to Makkah and Madinah Ior Umrah
or prayer in al-
or the Prophet`s Masiid. whether it be in
Ramadaan or in any other month. is considered an act oI obedi-
ence and is a means to draw close to Allah according to the
oI the Muslims.
There is no harm in this because partici-
pation in the supplication also entails participation in the prayer.
Along with this. One may also perIorm Umrah. thereby leading
to another righteous deed.
28. What is the ruling regarding the supplication oI
the Qunoot in the witr and Fair prayers?
The Sunnah oI the Prophet is to supplicate with the Qunoot in
the witr prayer. but iI one leaves it at times. then there is no
As Ior making the Qunoot in the Fair prayer consistently.
there is no legislation Ior this; rather. it is an innovation. It has
been reported by Ahmad. at-Tirmidhi. an-Nasaa`i. and ibn Maa-
iah. may Allah have mercy on them. on the authority oI Sa`d bin
Taariq bin Ashyam al-Ashia`i that he said. 'O Iather. verily you
The act oI worhsip in which one visits al-Masiid al-Haraam and perIorms TawaaI-
circumambulation. and Sa`i- walking to and Iro Irom the two mounts SaIaa` and
One oI the three holy masaaiid in Islam located in the city oI Makkah and is also the
Iirst place built Ior the worship oI Allah. It is called al-Masiid al-Haraam because Allah
has made prohibited in it much oI what is normally permissible in other places.
is a term used to denote the consensus oI the scholars in a particular era
over a speciIic issue.
On the authority oI Abu Hurairah . the Messenger oI Allah said. 'One prayer in
my masiid is better than a thousand prayers in any other masiid. except al-Masiid-al-
Darqutni reported that the Prophet . '.would perIorm Qunoot in the rak`ah oI the
have observed prayer behind the Messenger oI Allah . Abu
Bakr. Umar. Uthmaan. and Ali. may Allah be pleased with
them all. Did they recite the Qunoot in the Fair prayer?¨ He re-
plied. 'My son. this is an innovation.¨
In this hadeeth. Taariq clariIied that this act is an innovation.
However. it has been reported on the authority oI Anas. Abu
Hurairah and others that the Prophet would make Qunoot at
times oI misIortune in the Fair prayer as well as others. II a trial
has beIallen the Muslims Irom the enemy. a calamity occurs
amongst the believers. or a squadron oI believers is killed or its
likes. it has been legislated Ior the a'immah oI the masaaiid to
make Qunoot in the last rak`ah oI the Fair prayer aIter the rukoo`.
It is to be made Ior as long as the calamity lasts. whether it be a
day or a month. and then is to be discontinued. This the Sunnah.
that it should be done in times oI crisis or necessity without it be-
ing consistent. As Ior consistently reciting it. whether in the Fair
prayer or others |other than witr|. it is in opposition to the Sunnah.
As Ior the ahaadeeth which report that the recitation oI the Qunoot
should be consistent in the Fair prayer. they are all weak accord-
ing to the scholars oI hadeeth. and TawIeeq is Irom Allah.
29. What is the ruling concerning the raising oI the
hands in the Qunoot oI witr?
It has been legislated to raise the hands in the Qunoot oI the witr
prayer. The Qunoot oI witr is oI the same class oI supplications as
the Qunoot recited in times oI calamity. and it has been related by
al-Bayhaqi with an authentic chain oI narration that the Prophet
raised his hands when he supplicated with the Qunoot in times oI
30. Is it Irom the Sunnah that the Imaam begin the
Qunoot by praising Allah and sending prayers upon the
It has not reached my attention that the Prophet or the Sahaabah
would begin the Qunoot by praising Allah and sending prayers
upon the Prophet . But what has been reported in a hadeeth oI
al-Hasan bin Ali is that the Prophet taught him to say in the
Qunoot oI witr.
'O Allah. guide me among those You have
guided.¨ until the end oI the supplication. Here. the narrator did
not mention that the Prophet taught him to Iirst praise Allah and
send prayers upon the Prophet . and then to supplicate.
But it is a general principle that one begin supplication with this.
Ior it has been reported that the Prophet would begin supplicat-
ing by praising Allah and sending prayers upon the Prophet . as
Hasan bin Ali reported. 'The Messenger oI Allah taught me some words that I say
during the witr. |The version oI ibn Jawwaas is. 'I say them in the supplication oI the
witr.¨| They were:
` .·=· ¸«,· ··=·· ..·|· , .,··- ¸«,· ¸···- , , .,|,· ¸«,· ¸·|,· , , ,
.,=-| ·«,· ¸| =·· , .,=| ·- ,= ¸·| , , c,·- ¸=«· v , ¸=«· c··· ,
¸- .=· v -·· .,|·, , .·.·- ¸- ,-· v , , .,|·-· , ··· .··,· . '
O Allah. guide me among those You have guided. and pardon me
along with those You have pardoned. and be an ally to me along
those whome You are an ally to. bless me in what You have
bestowed. guard me Irom the evil oI what You have decreed. Ior
You decree and none can decree over You. Indeed he whom You
show allegience to is never abased. and he whom You take as an
enemy is never honored. Blessed and Exalted are You. our Lord.`¨
in the khutbatul-haaiah.
'Verily all praises are Ior Allah. we
praise Him. and ask Ior His assistance.¨ until the end oI the
And also in the hadeeth oI Fudaalah bin Ubaid. the Prophet
heard a man supplicating in his prayer without praising Allah or
sending prayers upon the Prophet . So the Prophet said. 'This
one has hastened.¨ Then he said. 'II anyone amongst you suppli-
cates. let him start by thanking his Lord and praising Him. then
send praises upon the Prophet . and then let him supplicate with
whatever he pleases.¨ |at-Tirmidhi|
This narration and others similar in meaning support the legisla-
tion oI beginning supplication by thanking and praising Allah and
sending prayers upon the Prophet . However. in opposition to
this is the Iact that ibaadah
in that nothing can
be legislated in it except what Allah and His Messenger have
legislated. So to say that it has been legislated that one start sup-
plicating in Qunoot by praising Allah and sending prayers upon
the Prophet necessitates a clear and precise evidence. Ior there
are many supplications with which the Prophet supplicated but
do not mention praise oI Allah nor the prayer upon the Prophet .
like the supplication in the suiood. It has not reached us that it has
been reported in any narration that the Prophet said to start by
praising Allah and sending prayers upon the Prophet . Rather.
the Prophet said. 'The closest a servant comes to His Lord is
when he is prostrating. so increase in supplication.¨ |Muslim| And
The supplication which the Prophet would say beIore commen-cing any sermon.
linguistically is the utmost extent oI humility. |al-MuIradaat` by ar-
Raaghib al-AsIahaani|. In the religious sense. it is a general term which consists all
things which Allah loves and is pleased with in speech and action. inner and outer. |al-
Ubudiyyah` by ibn Taymiyyah|
is the concept that nothing can be added to or changed in matters
the Prophet also said. 'As Ior the rukoo`. magniIy your Lord.
Mighty and Sublime. and as Ior the suiood. exert yourselves in
supplication. Ior it is more likely that you will be answered.¨
It was not mentioned in either hadeeth that one should praise Al-
lah or send prayers upon the Prophet in prostration. Also in its
like is the supplication recited between the two prostrations. 'O
Lord. Iorgive me.¨
It has been related oI the Prophet that he
supplicated by saying. 'O Allah. Iorgive me. have mercy on me.
guide me. strengthen me. sustain me. and pardon me.¨
it was not mentioned in this narration that he began the supplica-
tion by praising Allah and sending prayers upon the Prophet . It
is clear that it is praiseworthy to praise Allah and send prayers
upon the Prophet in the beginning oI supplication. but this a
general principle applied only to those supplications made out oI a
person`s own accord. As Ior legislated supplications which do not
begin by praising and thanking Allah. what is closer to the truth is
that they should be perIormed as they have been transmitted. One
should not start by thanking and praising Allah and sending
praises upon the Prophet . because there is no textual evidence
suggesting it. However. iI one were to do this. we do not know oI
any harm in that. because he is acting upon the general principle.
But I do not know oI anyone that has related this oI the Prophet
nor oI the Sahaabah in the supplication oI Qunoot. so what seems
best to me and closer to the evidences is that one should start by
supplicating. 'O Allah. guide me among those You have guided.¨
as has been related. And we have seen our scholars and teachers.
may Allah have mercy on them. begin the supplication oI Qunoot
with the same in Ramadaan. I do not know to this day oI anyone.
An-Nasaa`i and ibn Maaiah related a hadeeth in which HudhaiIah reported that
between the two prostrations. the Prophet would say. 'RubbighIirlee
¸` `· `¸
O Lord. Iorgive me.
Abu Dawud. at-Tirmidhi. ibn Maaiah. and al-Haakim.
whether amongst the people oI knowledge or the Sahaabah. who
are the best oI the creation aIter the prophets. who had begun the
Qunoot in the witr or in a time oI calamity by praising Allah and
sending prayers upon the Prophet . And whoever knows any-
thing giving credence to this. it is legislated Ior him to act upon it.
Ior whoever has knowledge has a prooI against the one who does
31. Is it one oI the conditions oI the supplication that
it must be reported to have been said by the Prophet ?
What iI one were to add to it?
A person may supplicate with whatever is easy Ior him. even iI it
were not reported to have been said by the Prophet . Ior this is
not considered a condition in supplication. In this regard. the
Prophet said when he was teaching ibn Mas`ood the supplica-
tion oI tashahhud. '...then let him choose a supplication which
pleases him and supplicate with it.¨
And in another wording. he
said. '...then let him choose Irom his requests what he pleases.¨
without any speciIication. And in an authentic tradition. the
Prophet said. 'There is no servant who supplicates. in which
there is nothing sinIul nor breaking oI kinship. except that Allah
gives him one oI three things: either he hastens Ior him his suppli-
cation in this world. they are gathered Ior him in the aIterliIe. or
Allah turns away Irom him an equivalent amount oI evil.¨ They
said. 'O Messenger oI Allah . then we shall do plenty oI it.¨ He
said. 'Allah is more |plentiIul in rewarding|.¨ |at-Tirmidhi|
Here the Prophet did not speciIy any particular supplication.
This conIirms that this situation has much Ilexibility. and that a
person may choose Irom those supplications he thinks are suitable
Reported in the end oI a hadeeth narrated by an-Nasaa`i Ahmad. and Tabaraani.
to his particular needs.
However. to recite those supplications narrated oI the Prophet
is better. but as Iar as other needs he is Iaced with. he should sup-
plicate with whatever is suitable.
32. What is the ruling concerning supplication in a
way which rhymes. or lengthening the description oI al-
Jannah or an-Naar in order to soIten the hearts?
I do not know any harm in this as long as it is not done intention-
ally. As Ior intentionally making it rhyme. then it is not beIitting.
In a hadeeth oI Haml bin Naabighah al-Hudhli. the Prophet dis-
praised those who made rhymes and said. 'This is a rhyme like
the rhyme oI the soothsayers.¨ And as Ior unintentional rhyme. it
was present in the speech oI the Prophet and other righteous
people. ThereIore. there is no harm in unintentional rhyme iI it
were in something permissible or perIormed to give victory to the
truth. As Ior repeating supplications that deal with al-Jannah or
an-Naar and thus moving the hearts. it is something desired in the
33. II a supplication oI the Prophet was reported to
have been said in the singular Iorm in the Iirst person.
should the Imaam supplicate what has been speciIically
reported. or can he supplicate in the plural Iorm oI the
'I¨ or 'me¨.
'We¨ or 'us¨.
He should supplicate in the plural Iorm. So he should say. 'O Al-
lah. guide us among those You have guided.¨ due to the Iact that
he is supplicating Ior himselI as well as the believers.
34. When the Imaam pronounces tasleem in the witr.
some people stand and perIorm another rak`ah in order
that they may pray it in the last part oI the night. What is
the ruling concerning this? Is this considered completing
the prayer with the Imaam?
We do not know oI any harm in this. as the scholars have men-
tioned. because a person does this in order that he pray the witr at
a latter time in the last part oI the night. It will be counted as iI he
stood with the Imaam until he completed the prayer. since in Iact
he did stand with the Imaam until he turned away. and merely
added another rak`ah. He did this in the interest oI the religion. in
order that the witr be perIormed in the last part oI the night. so
there is no harm in this.
He is not disqualiIied Irom gaining the
reward oI standing with the Imaam. Although he did not complete
it along with him. he did stand with the Imaam until the Imaam
completed his prayer; rather he merely delayed it shortly.
35. What is your opinion about the Imaam appoint-
ing another person to lead the prayer aIter the comple-
Jabir bin Abdullah reported that the Messenger oI Allah said. 'II anyone is aIraid
that he may not awaken in the latter part oI the night. he should observe witr in the Iirst
part; and iI anyone is eager to get up in the last part oI the night. he should observe witr
at the end oI it. Ior prayer at the end oI the night is witnessed (by the angels). and that is
In another hadeeth related by al-Bukhari. ibn Umar said that the Prophet said. 'Make
witr your last prayer at night.¨
tion oI the Qur`aan in the last part oI Ramadaan so that
he may perIorm Umrah?
What is apparent to me is that there is much Ilexibility in this mat-
ter rather than rigidity. especially iI it is made easy Ior him to Iind
a righteous Imaam to take his place who is comparable to him or
even better. This matter is quite Ilexible. What I mean is that there
is no harm iI he chooses Ior them a righteous Imaam with a nice
voice and recitation. However iI the Imaam were to hasten in his
recitation oI the Qur`aan or in its completion causing inconven-
ience to the congregation so that he may perIorm Umrah. then
this is not beIitting. What is incumbent is that he should pray a
calm prayer in which he Iinds khushoo`. peace at heart. and that
he should recite in a way that does not cause inconvenience to the
people. even iI he were not to perIorm Umrah nor complete the
Qur`aan. Ior this is what is in the general interest oI the congrega-
36. What is the ruling concerning the pausing oI the
Imaam aIter the recitation oI Surah al-Faatihah so that
the congregation may recite it as well? II the Imaam did
not leave a pause. then when should they recite it?
There is no explicit evidence that supports the legislation oI the
Imaam leaving a short pause aIter Surah al-Faatihah so that the
congregation may recite it as well in regard to those prayers re-
cited aloud. It is legislated Ior them to recite it in the diIIerent
pauses the Imaam makes iI he does that. And iI this is not easy.
they should recite it quietly. even iI it were to be when the Imaam
is reciting. AIter this. they should remain quiet and listen to the
Imaam. This is due to the general statement made by the Prophet
. 'There is no prayer Ior the one who does not recite al-
Faatihah.¨ |al-Bukhari. Muslim|. as well as his saying. 'Perhaps
you recite behind the Imaam.¨ They said. 'Yes.¨ He said. 'Do not
do that. except iI it were the Faatihah. Ior verily there is no prayer
Ior the one who does not recite it.¨ |Ahmad. Abu Dawud. and ibn
Hibbaan with a hasan chain oI narration.|
These two hadeeth speciIy Allah`s saying.
.´·-| -| ·,·=·|, -| ·,-«·=·· .¹,«|· a,| ·.· ,-
'So when the Qur`aan is recited. listen to it and be
silent that you may receive Mercy.¨
They also speciIy the saying oI the Prophet . 'The Imaam was
only appointed in order that he may be Iollowed. so do not diIIer
with him. So iI he says. Allahu Akbar`. then say Allahu Akbar.`
and iI he recites. then stay quite and listen...¨ |Saheeh Muslim|
II a person Iorgets to recite the Faatihah. or was ignorant oI its
obligation. its obligation does not stand. He is similar to the one
who ioins the congregation while the Imaam is in rukoo`. He is to
make rukoo` with the Imaam. and his rak`ah is valid. This is the
correct oI the two opinions held by the scholars. and it is the opin-
ion oI the maiority oI the scholars oI hadeeth. It has been narrated
by Abu Bakrah ath-ThaqaIi . that once he had entered the mas-
iid while the Prophet was in rukoo`. so he made rukoo` behind
the last row. then entered into it. The Prophet said to him aIter
he made tasleem. 'May Allah increase you in your desire. but do
not do it again.¨ Here. the Prophet did not order him to repeat
the rak`ah again. |Saheeh al- Bukhari|
As Ior the Imaam and the person praying alone. |reciting| al-
Faatihah is regarded a rukn according to the maiority oI scholars.
and its obligation does not Iall in any way iI he is able to recite it.
37. II a person came to a masiid and Iound the con-
gregation praying Taraaweeh. and he had not yet prayed
Ishaa. can he ioin them in prayer with the niyyah
There is no harm in that one prays with the niyyah oI Ishaa with
others who are praying Taraaweeh. This is the correct opinion oI
the two held by the scholars. And once the Imaam pronounces the
tasleem. he should stand and complete the remainder oI his
prayer. It has been reported in al-Bukhari and Muslim on the au-
thority oI Mu`aadh bin Jabal . that he used to pray the Ishaa
prayer with the Prophet . and then return to his people and lead
them in theirs. and the Prophet did not obiect to that.
proves the permissibility oI praying an obligatory prayer behind
one praying a superogatory one. It has been reported in Saheeh al-
Bukhari. that the Prophet in some types oI the prayer oI Iear
prayed two rak`ah leading one group. and then prayed another two
with the next. making tasleem at the end. So the Iirst two raka`aat
were considered obligatory Ior him. while the second was consid-
ered superogatory. but obligatory Ior the congregation.
The word niyyah
literally means the heart`s intent. In Iiqh. it is that intention
which is brought into the person`s heart with which one distinguishes between worship
and habit. or between diIIerent types oI worship.
Jabir said. 'Mu`aadh would pray Ishaa with the Prophet . and then proceed to
lead his people in prayer.¨ |Narrated by the six| In another hadeeth in al-Bukhari.
Mu`aadh said. 'I used to pray the Ishaa prayer with the Prophet and then proceed to
lead my people in the prayer.¨
In a hadeeth related by Ahmad. al-Bukhari. and Muslim. Jabir said: 'We were with
the Prophet during the campaign oI Dhat al-Riqa and the prayer was made. and he
prayed two rak`ah with one group and then they withdrew. and he led the other group
38. Is it better to recite the Qur`aan or pray superoga-
tory prayer in the daytime oI Ramadaan?
It is Irom the guidance oI the Prophet in Ramadaan that he
would increase in diIIerent types oI worship. Jibreel would
revise the Qur`aan with him in the night. and when Jibreel
would meet him. he would be more generous than a Iast wind.
He was the most generous oI people. but he would be his most
generous during Ramadaan. He would increase in prayer. spend-
ing Ior the sake oI Allah. recitation oI the Qur`aan. helping others.
This is the guidance oI the Prophet in this
blessed month. As Ior the comparison between recitation and
prayer. this diIIers in regards to the diIIerent conditions oI the
people. and its exact reward is with Allah . Ior he is All-
Encompassing in knowledge.
39. Is it better to recite the Qur`aan. or to listen to its
recitation by way oI prerecorded cassettes?
What is best is that one does what is more beneIicial to one`s heart
and what has more eIIect. because what is sought is that one
should contemplate. comprehend. and act according to the Book
oI Allah. as Allah says in the Qur`aan.
in two rak`ah. The Prophet prayed Iour raka`aat and the people prayed two raka`aat.¨
See Iootnote #27.
The word dhikr
literally means to mention. and in religious terms it is the
mentioning and remembering oI Allah through various legislated means.
The word i`tikaaI
in the religious sense is to devote oneselI to Allah by staying
inside a masiid as a means oI worship.
.··- c,|· ··|,·| `. .,- `=, ·,,·=,| .··· ,·=·,|, -·
.,|v· ·,|,| . =
'A Blessed Book which we have sent down to you
to ponder its verses and to remind those oI under-
And Allah. . said.
- .¹,«|· ·=· .· .=.· -,|| ¸· ¸··| =
'Verily this Qur`aan guides to what is most
best and right.¨
And He said. .
- =··«= , .=· ·,·-·· ¸·=·| ,· ¸|
'Say: It |the Qur`aan| is a Guidance and a Cure Ior
those who believe.¨