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Irodov
,Basic laws
ofelectromagnetism
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Basic laws of electromagnetism
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I.E.IrodoY
Basic laws
ofelectromagnetism
Translated from Russian
by
Natasha Deineko and Ram Wadhwa
Mir Publishers IOSCOI'
CBS
CBS PUBLISHERS &DISTRIBUTORS
4596/1A, 11 Darya Ganj, New Delhi  110 002 (India)
,
1
First pUblbhed HI86
Hevisl.'d from the 1983 RUl'sian edition Preface
@> <d1hICIHaJI 111 KOJI3') , 1983
'ij; English translation. Mir Publishers. 19aiJ
ISBN: 8123903065
For sale in India only
Copyright © English Translation, Mir Publishers, 1986
Printed at:
Nazia Printers, Delhi  110 006
The main idea behind this book is to amalgamate the de
scription of the basic concepts of the theory and the practical
methods of solving problems in one book. Therefore, each
chapter contains first a description of the theory of the
subject being considered (illustrated by concrete examples)
and then a set of selected problems wi th solutions. The prob
lems are closely related to the text and often complement it.
Hence they should be analYfed together with the text. In
author's opinion, the selected problems should enable the
reader to a deeper understanding of many important
topics and /to' visualize (even without solving the problems
but just by going through them) the wide range of applica
tions of the ideas presented in this book.
In order to emphasize the most important laws of electro
magnetism, and especially to clarify the most difficult top
ics, the author has endeavoured to exclude the less impor
tant topics. In an attempt to describe the main ideas concise
Iy, clearly and at the same time correctly, the text has been
kept free from superfluolls mathematical formulas, and the
main stress has been laid on the physical aspects of the phe
nomena. With the same end in view, various model repre
sentations, simplifying factors, special cases, symmetry con
siderations, etc. have been employed wherever possible.
SI units of IDtaSUrements are used throughout the book.
However, considering that the Gaussian system of units is
still widely used, we have included in Appendices 3 and 4
the tables of conversion of the most important quantities
and formulas from SI to Gaussian units.
The most important statements and terms are giYen in
italics. More complicated material and problems involving
cumbersome mathematical calculations are set in brevier
type. This material can be omitted on fIrst reading without
any loss of continuity. The brevier type is also used fot'
problems and examples.
Irette'" aasie La,"
First Indian Edition: 1994
Reprint: 1996
Reprint: 1998
Reprint: 1999
Reprint: 200I
This edition has been published in IndIa by arrangement with
Mir Publishers, Moscow
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or trans
mitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, includ
ing photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval
system without permission, in writing, from the publisher.
Published by :
Satish Kumar Jain for CBS Publishers & Distributors.
4596/IA, II Darya Ganj, New Delhi  110 002 (India)
I. Irodov
The book is intended as a textb k f
dents specializing in physics f or undergraduate stu
on general physics) It' c I e bramework of the course
teachers. . . an a so e used by university
L
is grateful to Prof. A.A. Detlaf
. . \.aptsov who re' d I and Reader
numbet. of valuable VIewe t Ie manuscript and made a
comments and sllg'gestions.
t. Electrostatic Field in a Vaeuum
1.1. Electric Field • • • . . .
t,2. The Gauss Theorem .
1.3: Applications of the Gauss Theorem . .
t,4. Differential Form of the Gauss Theorem
1.5. Circulation of Vector E. Potential . . .
1.6. Relation Between Potential and Vector E
1.7. Electric Dipole . • • . . . •
Problems •..........
it
it
t6
19
23
25
30
34
39
5
to
Contems
.. . . .. ..
. . .. .. ..
Preface ••.••••
List of Notations • . .
Preface
fi
2. A Condudor in an Electl'08tatic Field 45
2.1. Field in a Substance . . . . . . . • 45
2.2. Fields Inside and Outside a Conductor . . • 47
2.3. Forces Acting on the Surface of a Conductor 49
2.4. Properties of a Closed Conducting Shell . 5t
2.5. General Problem of Electrostatics. Image Method 54
2.6. Capacitance. Capacitors 57
problems •....•. 60
3. Eledm Field in Dielectrics • 67
3.1. Polarization of Dielectrics 67
3.2. Polarization 70
3.3. Properties of the Field of P 72
3.4. Vector D . . . . . . . . 76
.3.5. Boundary Conditions . . . 80
3.6. Field in a HomogeneouS Dielectric 84
Problems •.•.• 86
4. EIlt'TgY of Electric Field • . . . • • • • 94
4.1. Electric Energy of a System of Charges . . . . ., 94
4.2. Energies of a Charged Conductor and a Charged·
Capacitor 99
Energy of Electric Fidd . . . . . tOO
4.4. A System of Two Charged Bodies t05
4.5. Forces Acting in a Diplectric t06
Problems •............ t to
8
......
Contents
"I,
5. Direct Current . . . • • . . . • • • . . . • .
5.1. Density. Continuity Equation ..
5.2. Ohm s Law for a Homogeneous Conductor
5.3. Generalized Ohm's Law . . • . . . . . .
5:4. Branched Circuits. Kirchhoff's Laws . . .
5.5. Joule'3 r qw .......•••....
5.6. Transient blCesses in a Capacitor Circuit
Problems •.......•..••••.•
6. Magnetic Field in a Vaeuum
6.1. Lorentz Force. Field B
6.2. The BiotSavart Law . . .. '.
6.3. Basic Laws of Magnetic Field . • • • • . • . . .
6.4. Applications of the Theorem on Circulation of Vec
tor B ...........•••..•...•
6.5. Forms of Basic Laws of Magnetic Field
6.6. Ampere s Force .
6.7. Torque Acting on a Current Loop •
6.8. Work Done upon Displacement of Current Loop
Problems .....
7. Magnetic Field in a Substance .•.•••
7.1. Magnetization of a Substance. Magnetization Vec
tor J ........•.•..•.......
7.2. Circulation of Vector J . . . • .
7.3. Vector H . . .
7.4. Boundary Conditions for Band H .
7.5. Field in a Homogeneous Magnetic
7.6. Ferromagnetism .......•
Problems
8. Relative Nature of Electric and Magnetic Fields
8.1. EIElctromagnetic Field. Charge Invariance
8.2. Laws of Transformation for Fields E and B
8.3. Corollaries of the Laws of Field
8.4. Electromagnetic Field Invariants
Problems '" . . . ••....
116
ft6
119
122
126
129
133
136
141
141
145
148
150
154
155
159
161
163
172
172
176
178
182
185
188
192
198
198
200
206
208
209
9.7. Energy and Forces in Magnetic Field
Problems .
to. Muwell's Equations. Energy of Electromagnetic Field
10.1. Displacement Current . . . . . . . .
10.2. Maxwell's Equations. .... . . . .
10.3. Properties of Maxwell's Equations . . . .
10.4. Energy and Energy Flux. Poynting's Vector
10.5. Electromagnetic Field l'\foml'ntum
Problems .....
11. Etedric Oscillations
11.1. Equation of an Oscillatory Circuit
11.2. Free Electric Oscillations .
11.3. Forced Electric Oscillations
11.4. Alternating Current
Problems "
Appendices it" •
1. Notations for Units of Measurement . . .
2. Decimal Prefixes foI'" Units of Measurement .....
3. Units of Measurement of Electric and Magnetic Quan
tities in SI and Gaussian Systems .
4. Basic Formulas of Electricity and Magnetism in SI
and Gaussian Systems . .
5. Some Physical Constants . .
3ubject Index . . . . . . . . . .
240
244
253
253
251
261
264
268
271
277
277
280
285
290
293
299
299
299
299
300
304
305
9. Electromagnetic Induction 217
9.1. Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic Induction. Lenz's
Law ...•.............•.•• 217
9.2. Origin of Electromagnetic Induction 220
9.3. Selfinduction 226
9.4. Mutual Induction . " ..••. 231
9.5. Magnetic Field Energy . . . . . • • . 234
9.6. Magnetic Energy of Two Current Loops 238
List of Notations
Vectors are denoted by the boldface upright letters
{e.g. r, E). The same letter in the standardtype print (r, E)
denotes the magnitude of the. vector.
Average quantities are denoted by angle brackets ( >,
e.g. (v), (P).
The symbols in front of the quantities denote:
A is the finite increment of the quantity, viz. the difference
between its final and initial values, e.g. AE = E
z
 E
I
,
Acp = CPt  <fl;
d is the differential "(infinitesimal increment), e.g. dE, dcp;
6 is the incremental value of a quantity, e.g. 6A is the ele
mentary work.
Unit 'vectors:
ex, ell' e z (or i, j, k) are the unit vectors of Cartesian coordi
nates x, y, z;
ep , eq., e z are the unit vectors of cylindrical coordinates
p, (f'. z;
n is the unit vector of the normal to a surface element;
't is the unit vector of the tangent to the contour or to an
interface.
Time derivative of an arbitrary function f is denoted by
.af/at or by the dot above the letter denoting the function, f.
Integrals of any multiplicity are denoted by a single sym
bol ) and differ only in the notation of the element of inte
gration: dll is the volume element, dS is the surface ele
ment al;d dt is the element of length. Symbol 1, denotes the
integration over a closed contour or a closed surface.
Vector operator V (nabla). The operations involving this
operator are denoted as follows: vcr is the gradient of
cp (grad cp), v· E is the divergence of E (div E), and V X E
is the curl of E (curl E).
Vector product is denoted la·: b], where a and bare
vectors.
Field in a Vacuum
1.1. Electric Field
Electric At present it is
nomena in nature are based on four
among elementary particles, viz. strong, electromag,!etIc,
weak, and gravitational interactions. type of
action is associated with a certain charactel'lstic of a particle.
For example, the gravitational interaction. depends o.n
mass of particles, while the electromagnetic lllteractlOn IS
determined by electric charges. .
The electric charge of a particle is one of its charac
teristics. It has the following fundamental properties: .
(1) electrlc charge exists in two forms, I.e. it can be pOSI
tive or negative; . .
(2) the algebraic sum of charges in any electl'lcally lllSU
lated system does not change (this statement expresses ·the
law of 'conservation of electric charge); .
(3) electric charge is a relativistic invariant: its maglll
tude does not depend on the reference system, in words,
it does not depend on whether the charge moves or IS fixed.
I t will be shown later that these fundamental properties
have farreaching consequences. '. ,
Electric Field. In accordance with modern theory, lllter
acti,on among charges is accomplished through a field .. Any
electric charge q alters in a certain way the .propertIes
the space surrounding it, I.e. creates an electnc fielri.. ThiS
means that another, "test" charge placed at some pomt of
the field experiences the action of a .
Experiments show that the force F actmg on a fixed test
point charge q' can always be represented in the form
F == q'E, (1.1)
where vector E is called the intensity of the electric iield at .
a given point. Equation (1.1) shows that vector .E can be
defined as the force acting on a positive fixed HIllt charge.
Here we assume that the test charge q' is sufficiently small so
12
1. Blectrodctic Fidd in JI FUllUm
1.1. Electric Field 13
(1.3)
where ri is the distance between the charge qi and the point
under consideration.
This statement is called the principle of superposition of
electric fields. It expresses one of the most remarkable prop
erties of fields and allows us to calculate fIeld intensity of
any system of charges by representing this system 8!' an ag
gregate of point charges whose individual contribut.ions are
given by formula (1.2).
Charge Distribution. In order to simplify mathematical
calculations, it is convenient to ignore the fact that
charges have a discr te structure (electrons, nudei) and
assume that they are" eared" in a certain way in space. In
other words, it is conv nient to replace the acturJl distribu
tion of discrete point Icharges by a fictitious continuous
distribution. This makes it possible to simplify calculations
considerably without introducing any significant erNr.
While going over to a continuous distribution, the concept
of charge dlWsity is introduced, viz. the volume density p,
surface density 0, and linear density A., By definition,
dq • dq dq
P=dV' o=dS' A.=df' (1.4)
where dq is the charg'e contained in the volume dV, on the
surface dS, and in the length dl respectively.
Taking these distributions into consideration we can repre
sent formula (1.3) in a different form. For example, if the
charge is distributed over the volume, we must replace qj
by dq == p dV and summation by integTation. This gives
E=....! r pedl' =_1_ \ prdV (1.5)
41t80 J r' 4nE
o
J r' ,
where the integration is performed over the entire space with
nonzero values of p.
Thus, knowing the distribution of charges, we can complete
ly solve the problem of fmding the electriy field intensity
by formula (1.3) if the distribution is discrete or by formu
la (1.5) or by a similar formula if it is continuous. In the
general case, the calculation involves certain difficulties
(although they are not of principle nature). Indeed, in order
to find vector E, we must first calculate its projections
Ell' and E z, which means that we must take three integrf!.ls
that it.s does not noticeably distort the field
under (as a result of possible redistribut' f
charges creatmg the field). Ion 0
. The Field of 8 Point Charge. It follows directly fromex er
i.ment law) that the intensity of the field :f
pomt charge q at a ,distance r from it ean be repre.sent
e 111 the form
E=_1 .!L e I
41t8
0
r
2
T' (1,2)
the electric constant and e
T
is the unit vector of
e l"ad, l,:; vector r drawn from the centre of the field h
charge q located, to the point we are interest:c't
ormula (1.2) IS written in SI. Here the eoefficient .
1/41t1,o "'= 9 X 10
9
m/F
,
r q is measured in coulombs (C) and the field inten
SIt) E In, volts metre (Vim). Vector E is directed alon r
or to it depending on the sign of the charueg
(1.2) expresses Coulomb's law in the "field" t q.
It .IS nnpol'tan: that the intensity E of the field created
d
lJ?Int charge is inversely proportional to the square of tYh
r All e . tIl e
. I'd .' . xperJmen a resu ts indicate that this law
IS HI 1 tor dIstances from 10
13
cm to several kilometres
thedre
f
are no .grounds to expect that this law will
VIOate or larger distances.
It should also be noted that the force actin on a te
in field created by a fixed point charie does
.on wether the test charge is at rest or moves. This
t.? a system of fixed charges as well.
(1 Prm.clplc of Superposition. Besides the law expressed b
th·
2
)fi : 81;0 follows from experiments that the intensity J
e . e1 0 a system of fixed point charges is equal to the
vectOf
d
sum of the intensities of the fields that would be
create by each ('harge separately:
!
I
1
,1
I, I
1. Electro.tcttc Fteld In • Vacuum
,
15 1.1. Electric Field
E':;" q/2l 2 I q
4.n:eox 4.n:e
o
x
In this case also E qI4n.8eX"s for x » 1 as the lield of a point charge.
problem: we must lind the.component dE
x
of the lield by the
1·lement dl of the filament, having the charge dq, and then llltel:l'rate
the result over all the elements or the tilament. In this
1 Adt
dEx=dE cos ':'=4 , cos ':t,
. ;leo r
where A = q/2t is the linear charf{e density. Let reduce this equation
to the form convenient for lIltpgratlOn, Figure 1.2 shows that
dl cos a = rda and r = x/cos a; consequently,
1 Ar Ib, A
dEx = ·2 ==4. cos ada.
4.n:eo r lleox
This ·expressio.l can be easily integrated:
ao A
E = _f.._ 2 i cos a da = 4·2 sin a
o
_
4.n:e
o
x J ;le
o
x
I)
where a
o
is the maximum value of the angle a, sin a
o
= 11}tr1
2
+ x
2
•
Thus,
E
z
t:..:;;!loo
E
of the t.vpe (1.5). A8 a the problem becomes much
simpler in cases when a system of charges has a certain sym
metry, Let us consider two examples.
Example 1. The field on the axis of atbin uDiformly charged ring.
A charge q > 0 is uniformly distributed over a thin ring of radius a.
Find the electric field intensity E on tbe axis 'Of tbe ring as a function
of the distance z from itseentre.
It ean be easily shown that vector E in this case must be directed
along the axis of the ring (Fig. 1. t). Let us isolate element dl on the
r
r
l
'
I,
'1
ring in the vicinity of pOInt A. We write the expression for the comp
onent dEL of the field created by this element at a point C:
t Adl .
dEL = z· 1 cos a,
..n.lle r
where A. = q/2rr.a. The values of r and a will be the same for all the
elements of the ring, 'Ind hence the integration of this equation is sim
ply reduced t{) the replacement of Adl by q. As a result, we obtain
E=q I
4n.eo (a
l
+zl)'fl
It can be seen that for a the field E qf4rr.e
o
z2, i.e. at large dis
tances the system behaves as a point charge. '
Example 2. The field of a ..niformlyeharged straight filaDlellt. A
thin straight filament of length 2l is Uniformly charged by a charge q.
Find intensity E at a point separated by a distance x froIl1
the mIdpomt of the filament and located symmetrically with respect
to its ends.
It is clear from symmetry considerations that vector E must be
directed as shown in Fig. 1.2. This shows the way of solving this
Fig. 1.1
l"ig. 1.2
Geometrical Description of Electric Field. If we know
vector E at each point, the electric field can be visually re
presented with the help of field lines, or lines of E. Such a
line is drawn so that a tangent to it at each point coincides
with the direction of vector E. The density of the lines,
Le. the number of lines per unit area normal to the lines is
proportional to the magnitude of vector E, Besides, the lines
are directed like vector E'. This pattern gives the idea about
the configuration of a given electric field, Le. about the di
rection and magnitude of vector E at each point of the field.
On the General Properties of Field E. The field E defined
above has two very important properties. The knowledge of
these properties helped to deeper understand the very con
cept of the field and formulate its laws, and also made it pos
sible to solve a number of problems in a simple and elegant
way. These properties, viz. the Gauss theorem and the theo
rem on circulation of vector E. are associated with two most
important mathematical characteristics of all vector fields:
the flux and the circulation. It will be shown below that in
 '\
17
Fig. 1.5
1.2. The Gauss Theorem
~        
Fig. 1.'(
E through a closed surface is equal to the algebraic sum of the
charges enclosed by this surface, divided by eo.
Proof. Let us fIrst consider the field of a single point charge
q. We enclose this charge by an arbitrary closed surface S
(Fig. 1:4) and find the flux of E through the area element dS:
dlP = ~ s ex = 4.
1
..J." dS cos ex = 4q dQ, (1.8)
 ~ __~ ne
o
r· neo
where dQ is the solid angle resting on the area element dS
and having the vertex at the point where the charge q is lo
cated. The integration of this expression over the entire
surface S is equivalent to the integration over the entire
solid angle, Le. to the replacement of dQ by 4n. Thus we
obtain <lJ = qleo, as is defined by formula (1.7).
It should be noted that for a more complicated shape of a
closed surface, the angles a may be greater thnn n12, and
hence cos a hnd dQ in (1.8) generally assume eitlICr positive
or negative vlJlues. Tlius, dQ is an algehraic quantity: if
dn rests Oft the inner l'idp of the surface S, dQ > 0, while if
it rests on the outer side, dQ < O.
The Gauss Theorem. The flux of E through an arbitrary
closed surfaco S has a remarkable property: it depends only
on the algebraic sum of the charges embraced by this sur
face, i.e.
I "_ 1
I A'EdS·Qln, (1.7)
I j eo
where the circle on the integral symbol indicates that the
integration is performed over a closed surface.
This expression is essentially the Gauss theurem: the flux of
(1.6)
E
Fig. 1.3
Flux of E. For the sake of clarity, we shall use the geomet··
rica1 description of electric field (with the help of lines
of E). Moreover, to simplify the
analysis, we shall assume that the
density of lines of field E is equal
to the magnitude of vector E. Then
the number of lines piercing the
area element dS, the normal n to
which forms angle ex with vector E,
is determined as E ·dS cos a. (see
Fig. 1.3). This quantity is just the
flux d<1l of. E through the area element dS. In a more compaet
form, this can be written as
1.2. The Gauss Theorem
terms of these two concepts not only all the laws of electri
city but also all the laws of magnetism can be describefJ,. Let
us go over to a systematic description of these properties.
16
(!J= I E as.
s
This is an algebraic quantity. since it depends not only on
the configuration of the field E but also on the choice of the
normal. If a surface is closed it is customary to direct the
normal n outside the region enveloped by this surface, i.e.
to choose the outward normal. Henceforth we shall always
assume that this is the case. .
Although we considered here the flux of E, the concept of
flux is applicable to any \'Setor field as well.
d<1l = En dS = E.dS,
where En is the projection of vector E onto the normal n to
the area element dS, and dS is the vector whose magnitude
is equal to dS and the direction coincides with the direction
of the normal. It should be noted that the choice of the di
rection of n (and hence of dS) is arbitrary. This vector could
be directed oppositely.
If we have an arbitrary surface S, the flux of E through
it can be expressed as
.,
I
II
2181
19
1.3. Applications of the Gauss Theorem
1. Electrostatic Field in a Vacuum 18
I
Ii
In particular, this leads to the following conclusion' if
the charge q is located outside a closed surface S the flux
of .E t.hr?ugh surface is equal to zero. In order'to prove
tills, It IS suffiCient to draw through the charge q a conical
surface tangent to the closed surface S. Then the integration
o! Eq. (1.8) the surface S is equivalent to tho integra
tIon over Q (FIg. 1.5): the outer side of the surface S will be
seen from the point q at an angle Q > O. while the inner side
an Q (the two angles being equal in magnitude):
IS equal to zero, and <1> =c; 0, which" also agrees
wltn (1./). In terms of fIeld lines or lines of E, this means
that the of lines entering the volume enclosed by
surface S IS equal to the number of lines emerging from
thIS surface.
Let us now consider the case when the electric field is
by a system of point charges ql' Q2' ...• In this
case, III accordance with the principle of superposition E =
= E1 + E
2
+ ..., where E
1
is the field created by the
charge qil etc. Then the flux of E can be written fh the form
E2 + ... )ciS
= .k. EidS +A; £2 dS '. ... =ClJ
i
I (}J2 _!
J J I I I •.••
If what was above, each integral on the
rIghthand SIde IS equal to qi/eo if the charge qi is inside
the closed surface S and is equal to zero if it is outside the
surf.ace S. Thus, the righthand side will contain the alge
braIC sum of only those charges that lie inside the surface S.
To c?mplete the proof of the theorem, it remains for us
to consIder the case when the charges are distributed contin
with the volume density depending on coordinates.
In thIS case, we may assume that each volume element dV
contains a "point" charge p dV. Then on the righthand side
of (1. 7) we have
qln = PdV, (1. 9)
where the integration is performed only over the volume
contained within the closed surface S.
We must pay attention to the following important circum
stance: while the licld E itself depolld:; Oil the mutual con
figuration of all the charges, the [lux of E through an arbi
trary closed surface S is determined by the algebraic sum
of the charges inside the surface S. This means that if we
displace the charges, the fwld E willlJC changed everywhere,
and in particular on the surface S. Generally, the flux of E
through the surface S will also change. However, if the
displacement of charges did not involve their crossing of
the surface S, the flux of E through this surface would re
main lJ,nchanged, although, we stress again, the field E itself
may change considerably. What a remarkable property of
electric fieldI
1.3. Applications of the Gauss Theorem
Since the p,eld E depends on the configuration of all charges,
the Gauss t'heorem generally does not allow us to deter
mine this field. However, in certain cases the Gauss theorem
proves to be a very effective analytical instrument since it
gives answers to certain principle questions without solving
the problem and allows us to determine the field E in a very
simple way. Let us consider some examples and then formu
late several general conclusions pbout the cases when appli
cation of the Gauss theorem is the most expedient.
Example 1. On the impossibility 01 stable eqUilibrium 01 a charge
in an electric field. Suppose that we have in vacuum a system of fixed
point charges in equilibrium. Let us consider one of these charges,
e.g. a charge q. Can be stable?
In order to answer this question, let us envelop the charge q by a
small closed surface S (Fig. 1.6). For the sake of defmiteness, we as
sume that q > O. For the equilibrium of this charge to be stable, it is
necessary that the field E creatl'd by all the remaining charges of the
system at all the points of the surface S he directed towards the charge
q. Only in this case any small displacement of the charge q from the
eqUilibrium position will gi ve rise to a restoring force, and the equilib
rium state will actually he stable. But such a configuration of the
field E around the charge q is in contradiction to the Gauss theorem:
the flux of E through the surface S is nl'gative, while in accordance
with the Gauss theorem it must he l'qual to zero since it is created by
charges lying outside the surface S. On tile other hand, the fact that
E is equal to zero indicates that at S()Illl' p()ints of thl' surface S vl'clor
E is directed inside it and at some other lliJints it is llirect.ed outside.
1. iUectroltatlc Field In a VaclJlJm
1.3. Applications 01 the Gauss Theorem 21
Hence it follows that in any charge cannot be in
stable equilibrium.
Example 2. The field of a unHormly charged plane. Suppose that
the surface charge density is o. It is clear from the symmetry of the
problem that vector E can only be normal to the charged plane. More
over, at points symmetric with respect pl.ane, vectors E ohvi
ously have the same magnitude but OPPOSite directiOns. Such a configu
ration of the field indicates that a right cylinder should be chosen for
the closed surface as shown in Fig. 1.7, where we assume that {1 > O.
to the field from the positively charged plane, while the lower arrows,
to that from the negatively charged plane. In the space between the
planes the intensities of the fields bdng added have tlw same (Hrec
tion, hence the result (1.10) will be doubled, and the resultant field
intensity \\ill be
E=oho' (1.11)
where !J sLands for the magnitude of the surface charge density. It can
be easily seen that outside this space the field is equal to zero. Thus,
(1.12
,..  _A_ (r> a).
'r  21teoT
£=0
 


Fig. 1.8 Fig. 1.9
in the given case the field is located between the planes and is uni
form.
This result is approximately valid for the plates of finite dimen
sions as well, if only the separation between the plates is considerably
smaller than their linear dimensions (parallelplate capacitor). In this
case, noticeable deviations of the field from uniformity are observed.
only near the edges of the plates (these distortions are often ignored in
calculations).
F..xample 4. The field vf an infinite circular cylinder uniformly
charged ov('r surface 1,0 that the charge A corresponds to its unit
In this case, as follows from symmetry considerations, the field
is of a radial nature, i.e. vector E at eaen pomt isperpendicular to
the cylinder axis, and its magnitude depends only on the distance r
from the cylinder axis to the point. This indicates that a closed sur
face here should be taken in the form of a coaxial right cylinder
(Fig. 1.9). Then the flux of E through the enrlfaces of the cylinder
equal to zero, while the flux through the lateral surface is E
T
2 mh
where E
r
is the projection of vPetor E onto the rad ius vector r coincid
ing with the normal n to the lateral surface of the cylinder of radim
r and height h. According to the Gauss theorem, 1'7 r'21trh =0 Altho fOJ
> a, whence
+ o
Fig. 1.7 Fig. 1.6
The flux through the lateral surface of this cylinder is equal to
zero, and hence the total flux through the entire cylindrical surface
is 2E l!.S, where l!.S is the area of each endface. A charge (J AS is
enclosed within the cylinder. According to the Gauss theorem, 2E AS =
= (J tJ.S/e
o
, whence E = 0/2e
o
' In a more exact forni, this expression
must be written as
En = 0/2eo' (1.10)
where En is the projection of vector E onto the normal n to the charged
plane the normal n being directed away from this plane. If (J > 0
then En > 0, and hence vector E is directed away from the charged
plane, as shown in Fig. 1.7. On the other hand, if {1 < 0 then En <
and vector E is directed towards the charged plane. The fact thiit E IS
the same at any distance from the plane indicates thatJ the corre
sponding electric field is uniform (both on the right and on the left of .
the plane).
The obtained result is valid only for an infinite plane surface,
since only in this case we can use the symmetry considerations dis
cussed above. However, this result is approximately valid for the region
near the middle of a finite uniformly charged plane surface far from
its ends.
Example 3. The field of two parallel planes charged uniformly with
densities (J and (J by unlike charges.
This fIeld can be easily found as superposition of the f,elds created
by each plane separately (Fig. 1.8). Here the upper arrows correspond
22 1. Electrostatic Fteld tn a Vacuum
r
i.e. inside a uniformly charged sphere the field intensity grows linear
ly with the distance r from its centre. The curve representing the de
pendence of E on r is shown in Fig. 1. to.
General ConcllJsions. The results obtained in the above
where E
r
is the projection of vector E onto the radius vector r coinciding
with the normal n to the surface at each of its points. The sign of the
charge q determines the sign of the projection E
r
in this case !is well.
Hence it determines the direction of vector E itself: either away from
the sphere (for q > 0) or towards it (for q < 0).
If r < a, the closed surface does not contain any charge and hence
within this region E = 0 everywhere. In other words, inside a uni
formly charged spherical surface the electric field is absent. Outside
this surface the field decreases with the distance r in accordance with
the same law as for a point charge. .
Example 6. The field of a uniformly charged sphere. Suppose that
a charge g is uniformly distributed over a sphere of radius a. Obvious
ly, the field of such a system is centrally symmetric, and hence for de
termining the field we must take a concentric sphere as a closed sur
face. It can be easily seen that for the field outside the sphere we obtain
the same result as in the previous example [see (1.13)1. However,
inside the sphere the expression for the field will be different. The
sphere of radius r < a encloses the charge q' = q (rla.)S since in our
case the ratio of charges is equal to the ratio of volumes and is pro
portional to the radii to the third power. Hence, in accordance with
the Gauss theorem we have
1 (r}S
E
r
·4nr
i
= q  •
llo a
1.4. Differential Form of the Gauss Theorem
A remarkable of
theorem suggests thdat an for analysis
which would broa en I s POSSI 1
wticg is
the differential formlo t e
h
p' and the changes in the field
tion between the vo ume c ar e. .,
intensity E in the vicinity of a gIven pOInt m space.
(1.14)
1 . q
Er =4 .... r (r<a),
nll
o
a
whence
25
(1.20)
(1.21
1.5. Circulation of Vector E. Potential
1.5. Circulation of Vector E. Potential
Theorem on Circulation of Vector E. It is known from
mechanics that any stationary field of central forces is con
servative, Le. the work done by the forces of this field is
independent of the path and depends only on the position
of the initial and final points. This property is inherent in
the electrostatic field, viz. the field created by a system oj
fixed charges. If we take a unit positive charge for the test
charge and carry it from point 1 of a given field E to point 2.
the elementary work of t he forces of the field done over thE
distance dl is equal to E· dl, and the total work of the fiek
forces over the distance between points 1 and 2 is defined a1
2
E dI.
t
The Gauss theorem in the differential form is a local theorem:
the divergence of the field E at a given point depends only on the
electric charge density p at this point. This is one of the remarkable
properties of electric field. For example, the field E of a point charge
is different at different points. Generally, this refers to the spatial
derivatives oE:dox, oEy/By, and oEz/o% as well. However. the Gauss
theorem states that the sum of these derivatives, which determines the
divergence of Ef"turns out to be equal to zero at all points of the field
(outside the charge itself).
At the points of the field where the divergence of E is positive, we
have the sources of the fieIa (positive charges), while at the points
where it is negative, we have Binks (negative charges). The field lines
emerge from the field sources and terminate at the sinks.
only in combination with a scalar or vector function by which it is
symbolically multiplied. For example, if we forin the scalar product
of vector V and vector E, we obtain
° ° a
V·E=VxEx+VyEy..LVzEz= Ex + Ey + Ez•
I ax oy 0%
It follows from (1. i 7) that this is just the divergence of E.
Thus, the divergence of the field E can be written as div E or V·E
(in both cases it is read as "the divergence of E"). We shall be using
the latter, more convenient notation. Then, for example, the Gauss
theorem (1.18) will have the form
1. Electrostatic Field i a Tr
•• F aCllllm
For this purpose we first rep t h
enveloped by a surface S i':r: : e charge q in the volume V
is charge ?ensity, averaged '1Vr = I(p) V, Where {p)
t.hlS expressIOn into Eq. (1 7) and d' e;;o bumeh r Then We
, w IC gives . IVI e ot Its sides by
E dS=(p)/Bo• (1.15)
We now make the volume Y Je d .
point we are interested in. In this to zero. by c0';1tracting it to the
of P at the given point of the S:' wJltohvlOusly tend to the
t d side of Eq. (1.15) will tend toe I' an ence the ratio on the
P Bo•
The quantity which is the limit of the ratio of t. E dS to
Is called the divergence of the fi ld Ed' 'j' Vas V+O
hy defuIition. e an IS denoted by div E. Thus,
div E= lim ..!. k. E dS
v... o V 'j'. (1.16)
The dive!'lfence of any other v to fi .
furi
wa
y
• It· follows from definitioneC(1 16)el
t
d
h
ls in a similar
ctlon of coordinates. . at divergence is a scalar
In order to obtain the ex ressi .
we in accordance with fkr the. divergence of the field E
determine the flux of E h 't a e an Infinitely small volume Y'
and find the ratio of tfis closed surface enveloping
ohtaIned for the divergence will d :I the volume. The expression
dffl
te
sys)tem (in different systems th:e of the coordi
erent. For example, in Cartesian tU!D8 out to be
. s 1 IS given by
div E= oE
y
_L oE%
0:& oy I 0;. (i.17)
Thus. we have found that as Y +' '.
::nd,j. to plea, while the lefthand side Its nght.hand side
e Ivergence of the field E' 1 d s IV E. Consequently
lame point through the re ate to the charge density at
f divE=pleo' I (1.18)
This equation expre th
The form of man e sses .e Gauss theorem in the differential f
simplified il can be
n artesian coordinates, the operator V ;:;:tIal operator V.
V=i.!+ 3. a
ox j oy +k 8i" ' (1.19)
where I, J, and k are the unit vecto f th
operator V itself does not have any X[i r. and Zaxes. The
. ecomes J
I
I
26
1. Electrostatic Field tn a Vacuum 1.5. Ctrculation of Vector E. PotenUal
27
Q.E.D.
A field haVing property (1 22) . I
Hence, any electrostatic field . IS ca led .the potential field.
The theorem on' . lS a potentzal fleld.
to draw a of vector E it possible
sorting to calculations without 1'e
 . e us conSIder two examples.'
Example f TI r Id I
closed. • Ie Ie ines of an electrostatic field E cannot be
This integral is taken alon '.
therefore called the line certam hne (path) and is
We shall now show that f' h .
integral (1.21) of the path hrot
m
t e mdependence of line
that when taken along an b\ween two points it follows
gral is equal to zero. Integr:I closed path, this iute
. . over a closed contour is
called the cIrculation of vector Ed' d. t..
. an IS enoted by 'V'
Thus we state that cireul t' f ..
static field is equal to ze a 0 vector E in anv electro
ro, I.e. "
(1.23)
where <p 1 and <P2 are the values of the function <P at the
points 1 and 2. The quantity <P (r) defined in this way is
Indeed, if the oppollite were true and some lines of field E?lerJ!
closed, then taking the circulation of vector E along this line we would
immediately come to contradiction with theorem (1.22). This means
that actually there are no closed lines of E in an electrostatic field:
the lines emerge from positive charges
and terminate on negative ones (or go F!;::::j
to infinity). I • 'I
Example 2. Is the configuration of an I I
electrostatic field shown in Fig. 1.12 4 I
possible? . lr
No, itisnot. This immediately becomes t
clear if we apply the theorem on circula I lr I
tion of vector E to the closed contour L .J
shown in the figure by the dashed line. 
The arrows on the contour indicate the •
direction of circumvention. With such a
special choice of the contour, the contri Fig 1t2
bution to the circulation from its ver . .
tical parts is equal to zero, since in
this case E .L dl and E ·dl = O. It remains for us to consider the
two horizontal segments of equal length:,. The figure shows that the
contributions to t.lte circulation from these regions are opposite in
sign, and unequal in magnitude (the contribution from the upper seg
ment is larger since the field lines are denser, and hence the value of
E is larger). Therefore, the ci'rculation of E differs from zero, which
contradicts to (1.22).
Potential. Till now we considered the description of elec
tric field with the help of vector E. However, there exists
another adequate way of describing it by using potential cp
(it should be noted at the very outset that there is a oneto
one correspondence between the two methods). It will be
shown that the second method has a number of significant
advantages.
The fact that line integral (1.21) representing the work'of
the field forces done in the displacement of a unit positive
charge from point 1 to point 2 does not depend on the path
allows us to!state that for electric neld there exists a certain
scalar function <p (r) of coordinates such that its decrease is
given by
(1.22)
1248
This statement is' called th h
vector E. e t eorem on circulation of
In order to prove this th
. . eorem.. we break an arbitrary closed
pa.th Into two parts la2 and 2bl
2 (FIg. 1.11). Since line integral (1.21)
c:?
(we denote it by i ) does not
1 depend on the path 'points 1
(a) (b)
b and 2, we have f = i '. On the.
otb h d 12 • 12
er an, it is clear that
Fig. 1.11 T (b) (b)
• 1
12
  \ ,where \ is the
Integral over the same segment b b ,21 • ., 21
direction. Therefore ut taken In the opposite
(n) (b) (a) (b)
12 I L1 = 11  L2 = 0,
I
28 1. Electrostattc Field in tJ Vacuum 2U
called the field potential. A comparison of (1.23) with the
expression for the work done by the forces of the potential
field (the work being equal to the decrease in the potential
energy of a particle in the field) leads to the conclusion
that the potential is the quantity numerically equal to the po
tential energy of a unit positive charge at a given point of the
field.
We can conditionally ascribe to an arbitrary point 0 of the
field any value CPo of the potential. Then the potentials of
all other points of the field will be unambiguously deter
mined by formula (1.23). If we change CPo by a certain value
Acp, the potentials of all other points of the field will change
by the same value.
Thus, potential cp is determined to within an arbitrary
additive constant. The value of this constant does not play
any role, since all electric phenomena depend only on the
eleetric field strength. It is determined, as .will be"'shown
later, not by the potentia] at a given point but by the·poten
tial difference between neighbouring points of the field.
The unit of potential is the volt (V).
Potential of the Field of a Point Charge. Formula (1.23)
contains, in addition to the definition of potential cp, the
method of finding this function. For this purpose, it is suf
ficient to evaluate the integral E dl over any path be
tween two points and than represent the obtained result as
a decrease in a certain function which is just <p (r). We can
make it even simpler. Let us use the fact that' formula
(1.23) is valid not only for finite displacements butffor ele
mentary displacements dl as well. Then, in with
this formula, the elementary decrease in the potential over
this displacement is
dcp =0 E·dl. (1.24)
In other words, if we know the field E (r), then to find cp
we must represent E·dl (With the help of appropriate trans
formations) as a decrease in a certain function. This function
willbo the potential cpo
Let us apply this method for finding the potential of the
field of a lixed point charge: •
1 q IJ Ii r
E.dt    (' ·die
 /trrf,o ,.2 r ,l.'l:'o r:!.
= d (_1_ _.'L _iconst)
4Jlco r I ,
where we took into account that c
r
dt == 1· (dl}r= dr, sillee
the projection of dl onto en hence ?ll 1', is to
increment of the magnitude of vector r, Le. dr. 'I he quantlty
appearing in the parentheses under the is exact
ly i:p (1'). Since the additive constant contamed III
mula does not play any physical role, it is usually omitted ill
order to simplify the expression for (p. Thus, the potential
of the field of a point charge is given by
I
= __ 1 }L II (1.2:»
__
The absence'6f an additive constant in this expression
indicates· that we conventionally assume that the potential
is equal to zero at infinity (for r + 00).
Potential of the Field ola System of Charges. Let a system
consist of fixed point charges ql' q2' .... In accordance
with the principle of superposition, the field intensity at any
point of the field is given by E = E
I
+ E2 + ... ,
E
l
is the field intensity from the charge ql' etc. By llsmg
formula (1.24)1 we can then write
E·dl = (E
l
+ E
2
+ ...)dl = EI·dl + E 2 ·dl + ...
= dcpl  dCP2  ... = dcpl
where cp = 2jcpf, Le. the principle of superposition out
to be valid for potential as well. Thus, the potential of a
system of fixed point charges is given by
I
. _1_ '" !!i I (1.26)
cp  4nco L..J r i 'I
1. _
where ri is the distance froID the point charge qj 10 the point
under consideration. Here we also omitted an arbitrary con
stant. This is in complete agreement witll the faet that any
real system of charges is Lounded in space, and honce its
potential can bo taken equal to zero at inflIlity.
(1.28)
3t
(1.31)
(1.30)
1.6. Relation Between Potential and Vector I!:
pression with formula (1.24) gives
Ex =  orp/vx, (1.29)
the symbol of partial.derivative emphasizes that the
functIOn rp y, z) must he differentiated only with respect
to x, assummg that y and z are constant in this case.
. In a similar w.e can obtain the corresponding expres
810.ns for the prOJectIOns E
y
and E z. Having determined
E", Ell' and E z, we can easily fmd vector E itself:
E= _ ( ocp i + j + k)
ox iJy oz .
quantity in the is the gradient of the po
tentzaZ cp (grad cp or Vcp). We shall be using the latter more
convenient notation and will formally consider VCP 'as the
product of a symbolic vector V and the scalar cpo Then
Eq. (1.30) can be represented in the form
Let derive one more useful formula. We write the right
hand of (1.24) in the form E·dl c=o R I dZ, where dl =
. I
d1
l IS an elementary displacement and E I is the projec
tIOn of vector E onto the displacement dl. Hence
I El = ocpI8Z, I (1.32)
Le. the projection of vector E onto the direction of the dis
the field E'is equal to the potential gradient
With the miflUS SIgn. This is exactly the formula that can
be used for reconstructing the field E if we know the
function <p (r).
f Find the field intensity. E if the field potential has the
orm. (x, y) = axy, where. a IS a (2) cp (r) = a'r,
a Is.a constant vector and r IS the radlUs vector of a poiut under
conslderahon.
(1) By using formula (1.30), we obtain E = a (yi 1 xj).
_ (2) Let us first represent the function ip tls cp == ax.x . llll!! __
izz, where ax, ay and a
z
are cl)nstants. Then with the help of for
mthil! a (1.30) we find E = axi + ayj + a k = a. It can be seen that in
.. 8 case the field E is uniform. Z
( 1.27)
1.6. Relation Between Potential and Vector E
It is known that electric fwld is completely described by
vector function E (r). Knowing this function, we can find
the force acting on a charge under investigation at any point
of the neld, calculate the work of fwld forces for any displace
ment of the charge, and so on. And what do we get by
introducing potential? First of all, it turns out that if we
know the potential cp (r) of a given electric fIeld, we can re
construct the fwld E (r) quite easily. Let us consider this
question in greater detail.
The relation between rp and E can be established with tho
help of Eq. (1.24). Let the displacement dl be parallel to
the Xaxis; then dl = i dx, where i is the unit vector along
the Xaxis and dx is the increment of the coordinate x. In
this case
where (J is the surface charge density and dS is the element
of the surface S. A similar expression corresponds to the
case when the charges have a linear distribution.
Thus, if we know the charge distribution (discrete or con
tinuous), we can, in principle, fmd the potential of any
system.
E·dl = E·i dx = Ex dx,
where Ex is the projectioll of vector E onto the ullit vector i
(and not on the displacement dll). A comparison of this ex
where the integration is performed either over the entire
space or over its part containing the charges. If the charges
are located only on the surface S, we can write
1 adS
<p = 4neo r'
30 1. Electrostatic Field in a Vacuum
_._
If the charges forming the system are distributed cUlItin
uously, then, as hefore, we assume that each volume ele
ment dV contains 3 "point" charge p dV, where p is the charge
. density in the volume dV. Taking this into consideration,
we call write formula (1.26) in a different form:
33
1.6. llelation Between Potential and Vector E

On the Advantages Potential. 1l was noted earlier that
. electrostatic field is completely cltaracterizeu by vector
function E (r). Thea what is the use of introducing potential?
There are several sound reasons for doing that. The concept
of potential is indeed very useful, and it is not by chance
that this concept is widely used not only in physics but in
engineering as well..
it. If we know the potential <P (r), we can easily calculate
the work of field forces done in the displacement of a point
charge q' from point 1 to point 2:
A
l2
q' «PI  <pz), (1.33)
where <PI and..<vz are the potentials at points 1 anu 2. This
means that the required work is equal to the decrease in the
potential energy of the charge q' upon its displacement from
point 1 to 2. Calculation of the work of the lield forces with
the help of formula (1.33) is not just very simple, but is
in some cases the only possible resort.
Example. A q is distributed over a thin ring of radius a.
Find the work of the lield forces dune in the displacement of a point
charge q' from the centre of tpe ring to i:llinity. .
Since the distributiun o[ the charge q over the ring is unknown, we
cannot say anythiug detinite about the intensity E of the field created
by this charge. This means that we cannot calculate the work by eval
uating the integral q'E dl in this case. This problem can be easily
solved with the help of potential. Indeed, since all elements of the
ring are at the same distance a from the centre of the ring, the poten
tial of this point is Ipo q/4Jv
o
u. And we know that cp = 0 at intinity.
Consequently, the work A = q'cpo = q'q/4nlOoa.
2. It turns out in many cases that in order to find electric
field intensity E, it is easier lirst to calculate the potential
" lp and then take its gradient than to calculate the value of E
directly. This is a considerable advantage of potential. In
deed, for calculating <p, we must evaluate only one integral,
while for calculating E we must take three integrals (since
it is a vector). Moreover, the integrals for calculating <P are
usually simpler than those for Ex, By, and E z·
Let us note here that this does not apply to a comparative
ly small number of problems with high symmetry, in
which the calculation of the lielu E directly or with the help
of the Gauss theorem turns out to be much simpler.
30181
1. Electrostatic Feeld in a Vacuum
Fig. 1.13
g2
placement dl is equal to the d' •. .
p.otential (this is emphasized telflvfative .of the
rivative). sym 0 0 partial de
Equipotential Surfaces Let . d
equipotential surface, viz. 'the of
potentiallp has the same value. We shall 0 whIch
each point o.f the surface is directed along thea
e eqUipotentIal surface and. towards the decrease in the
potential. Indeed, it follows
from formula (1.32) that the
projection of vector E onto
any direction tangent to the
surface at a given
pomt 18 equal to zero. This
means that vector E is norm
al to the given surface. Fur
ther, let us take a displaC&
ment dl along the normal to the
surface, towards decreasing
p. Then Olp < 0, and accord
mg to (1 32) E > 0 .
v,ector E is. directed towards decreasing the d;;;'
tIon ?pposite. to of the vector Vlp.
It IS expedIent,.to draw equipotential surfaces in such a
way that the potential difference between two neighbourin
surfaces same. Then the density of e ui otentiJ
WI.ll vIsually indicate the magnitudes offieYd inten
sttIes dIfferent points. Field intensity. will be higher .
t e equipotential surfaces are denser
rehef IS steeper"). \
Smce vector E normal to an equipotential surface eve 
where, the field hnes are orthogonal to these surfaces. ry
Th d
f
l 3 shows a twodimensional of an electric field
lin:s :: h liDes to rlUrfaces, while the MUd
I. t. e mes of E. Such a representatIOn ean be easil v· tiled
hhows d
the
hdirec.t!o.n of vector E, the regiorrs wi::e field
g er an were 10 13 lower as we'l's tIl . "\h
steepness of the putential relief. a ;ai'tern to
d. t' answers to a number of ,.stiOJl8 as ';In'wha.t
lrec ,IOn WI "charge placed at a certain point Whe I> •
iliagiutude o! the potential gradient At which .;t.e1
e orce actmg on the charge be et.c. A
(1.36)
1.7. Electric Dipole
from the negative to the positive charge:
p = ql, (1.35)
where q > 0 and I is the vector directed as p.
It can be seen from formula (1.34) that the dipole field
depends on its electric p.. It will be shown below
that the behaviour of the dIpole III an external field
depends on p. Consequently, p is an important characterIstIc
of the dipole. ' .
It should also be noted that the potential of the field
decreases with the distance r than the
z
of the
field of a point charge (in proportIOn to 1fr Illstead of 1fr).
!In order to find the dipole field, we shall use formula (1.32)
calculate the projections of vector E onto two mutually
perpendicular directions along the unit vectors e
r
and
(Fig. 1.14b):
E aq> 1
"",' r =  ar = 4nll
o
,.,
E aq> 1 p sin
t) =  = 4neo ,.
Hence, the modulus of vector E will be
J.: ?V1+3cosztt. (1.37)
'tJ,80 r
In particular, for tt = 0 and tt = n/2 we obtain the ex
pressions for the field intensity on the dipole axis (E u) and
on the normal to it (E.d:
Ell = EJ. = (1.38)
Le. for the same r the intensity E u is twice as high as EJ.'
The Force Acting on a Dipole. Let us place a dipole into
a nonuniform electric field. Suppose that E+ and E_ are
the intensities of the external field at the points where the
positive and negative dipole charges are located. Then the
resultant force F acting on the dipole is (Fig. 1.i5a):
F = qE+ qE_ = q (E+  E_).
The difference E+  E_ is the increment LiE of vector E
on the segment equal to the dipole length 1 in the direction
(1.34)
p
(b)
e
b
+q
/
q P
Fig. 1.14
34
1. Electrostatic Field in a Vacuum
1.1. Electric Dipole
The Field of a Dipole. The electric dipole is a system of two
equal in magnitude unlike charges +g and  g, separated
by a certain distance l. When the dipole field is considered
. ,
There are some other advantages in using potential which
will be discussed later.
it is assumed that the dipole itself is pointlike, i.e. the dis
tance r from the dipole to the points under consideration is
assumed to be much greater than l.
The dipole field is axisymmetric. Therefore, in any plane
passing through the dipole axis the pattern of the field is
the same, vector E lying in this plane.
us first find the potential of the dipole field and then
its illtensity. According to (1.25), the potential of the dipole
field at the point P (Fig. 1.14a) is defined as
1 (lJ '1) 1 q(r_r.)
<.p , 4itl::
o
7..  ,:: = 4ne
o
r.r_ •
Since r» l, it call 1e seen fro.:n Fig. 1.14a that r__ r + =
= 1cos \} and r +r_ = r
2
, where r is the distance from the
point P to the dipole (it is pointlikel). Taking this into
accoulJt, we get
where p = ql is the electric moment oj the dipole. This quan
tity corresponds to a vector directed along the dipole axis
r
I
3*
J
1. Electro$tatlc Field In a Vacuum
Fig. 1.15
aE
l = az l.
37
Fig. 1.16
q...tp
FI
1.7. Electric Dipole
• We take the moment with respect to the centre of mass in order
to eliminate the moment of inertial forces.
where fJE is the derivative of the corresponding projec
tion of vector E again onto the direction of vector I or p.
Let a dipole with moment p be oriented along the symme
try axis of a certain nonuniform field E. We take the positive
direction of the Xaxis, for example, F
as shown in Fig. 1.17. Since the incre qe <= p.
ment of the projection E in the direc
tion of vector p will be negative, F:r < O.
and hence vector F is directed to the
left, i.e. towards increasing field in
tensity. If we rotate vector p shown in
the figure through 90° so that the dipole
centre coincides with the symmetry
axis of the field, it can be easily seen
that in this position F:II: = O.
The Moment of Forces Acting on 8
Dipole. Let<4Is consider behaviour of a dipole in an exter
nal electric field in its centreofmass system and find out
whether the dipole will rotate or not. For this purpose, we
must find the moment. of external forces with respect to the
dipole centre of mass*.
definition, the moment of forces F + = qE+ and F_ =
= qE_ with respect to the centre of mass C (Fig. 1.18) is
equal to
M = [r+ X F+I + [r_ X FJ=[r+ X qE+l [r_ X qEJ,
where r + and r _ are the radius vectors of the charges + q
and  q relative to the point C. For a sufficiently small di
pole length, E+ E_ and M = [(r+  r_) X qEl. It re
mains for us to take into account that r +  r _ = I and
qI = p, which gives
IM= [p X EJ.! (1.41)
This moment of force tends to rotate the dipole so that
its electric moment p is oriented along the external field E.
Such a position of the dipole is stable.
Thus, in a nonuniform electric field a dipole behaves as
f
...
<bJ z:s.
JL
of vector I. Since the length of this segment is small, we can
write
Substituting this expression into the formula for F, we
find that the force acting on the d'ipole is equal to
I F=p"*, (1.39)
where p = ql is the dipole electric moment. The derivative
appearing in this expression is called the directional deriva
tive of the vector. The symbol of
partial derivative indicates that it
is taken with respect to a certain
direction, viz. the direction coincid
ing with vector I or p.
Unfortunately, the simplicity of
formula (1.39) is delusive: taking
the derivative fJE/fJl is a rather com
plicated mathematical operation.
We shall not discuss this question
in detail here but pay attention to
the of the obtained result.
First of all, note that in a uniform
field aEliJl = 0 and F = O. This
means that generally the force acts
on a dipole only in a nonuniform field. Next, i::l the gener
al case the direction of F coincides neither with vector E
nor with vector p. Vector F coincides in direction only
with the elementary increment of vector E, taken along the
direction of I or p (Fig. 1.15b).
Figure 1.16 shows the directions of the force F acting on a dipole
in the field of a point charge q for three different dipole orientations.
We suggest that the reader prove independently that it is really so.
lf we are interested in the projection of force F onto a
certain direction Xi, it is sufficient to write equation (1.39)
in terms of the projections onto this direction, and we get
Fx = P a:z
x
, (1.40)
I'
follo,,":s: under the action of the moment of force (1.41),
the. dIpole tends to. get oriented along the field (p tt E),
whIle under the action of the resultant force (1.39) it is
position, the moment of external forces will return the di
pole to the equilibrium position..
38
1. Electroltattc Field in a Vacuum
Problem' 39
£.
Fig. 1.20 Fig. Lt9
1
dEz = 4 (J dO.
JtEo
1 lJdS
dEz =4 I cos 'It. (1'
JtEo r
In our case (dS cos 'It)/r
z
= dO is the solid angle at which the area
element dS is seen from the point A, and expression (1) can be writ
ten as
E
Hence, the required quantity is
1
E=4 aQ.
Jtto
It should he noted that at large distances from the disc, Q = SIrS,
where S is the area of the disc and E = ql4nE
o
r
s
just as the field of the
point charge q = lJS. In the immediate vicinity of the point O,the
solid angle g = 2a and E = a/2e
o
'
Solu.io1l. It is clear from symmetry considerations th.at o ~ the disc
axis vector E must coincide with the direction of this aXIS (FIg. 1.19).
Hence, it is safWentto find the component d!£z from the charg; of
the area e1emeBt tiS at the point A and t h ~ n mtegrate the o.btamed
expression over the entire surface of lthe dISC. It can be easIly seen
that'
Problems
• t.t. A very thin disc is uniformly charged with sut'fa?e c h a r ~
density lJ > O. Find the electric field intensity E on the axiS of thIS
disc at the point from which the disc is seen at an angle .Q.
+q
q
Fig. 1.17 Fig. 1.18
displaced towards the region where the field E has larger
magnitude. Both these motions are simultaneous.
The Energy of a Dipole in an External Field. We know
that the energy of a point charge q in an external field is
W. qcp, where cp is the fIeld potential at the point of lo
catIOn of the charge q. A dipole is the system of two charges
and hence its energy in an external field is '
W = q+cp+ +q_cp_ = q (cp+ _ cp_),
where CP+ and cp_ are the potentials of the external field at
the points of location of the charges +q and q. To within
a quantity of the second order of smallness, we can write
alp
cp+cp= az 1,
,,:here acp/Ol is the derivative of the potential in the direc
tIOn of the vector l. According to (1.32), acp/al = EIt
and henen '"+  '"_ ~ L
E
,I  Ell. from which we Il"l
IW = p.E. (1.42)
It follows from this formula that the dipole has the mini
mUt;D. energy (Wmin = pE) in the position p tt E (the
positIOn of stable equilibrium). If it is displaced from this
40 1. Electrostatic Field in a Vacuum
Problems
• f .2. A thin nonconducting ring of radius R is charged with a
linear density A= A
o
cos cp, where '0 is a positive eoDStant and cp
is the azimuth angle. Find the electric field intensity E at the centre
of the ring.
Solution. The given charge distribution is shown in Fig. t,20.
The symmetry of this distribution implies that vector E at the point 0
is directed to the right, and its magnitude is equal to the sum of the
projections onto the direction of E of vectors dE from elementary
charges dq. The projection of vector dE onto vector B Is
1 dq
dE cos cp = 4 R' cos cp, (1)
ne
o
where dq = AR dlp = AoR cos cp dcp. IntegTating (1) over cp between 0
and 2n, we find the magnitude of the vector E:
2n
E "0 r t d "0
. = 4ne
o
R J cos cp cp = 4e
o
R •
o
It should be noted that this Integral is evaluated in the most simple
way if we take into account that (cost cp) = 1/2. Then
2n
~ cos' cp dcp=(cos' cp) 2n=n.
o
• 1.3. A semiinfinite straight uniformly charged filament has a
charge'" per unit length. Find the magnitude and the direction of the
field Intensity at the point separated from the filament by a distanC't! y
andlying on the normal to the filament, passing through its end.
Solution. The prohlem is reduced to finding Ex and E., viz. the
projections of vector E (Fig. L21, where it is assumed fliat '" > 0).
Let us start with Ex. The contribution to Ex from thecharge element
of the segment dz Is .
1 Adx.
dEx =4 tsma. (1)
neo r j
Let us reduce this expression to the form convenient for integration.
In our case, dx = r dalcos a, T = ylcos a. Then "
dEx = 4 A sin ex da.
neoy
Integrating this expression over a between 0 and n/2, we find
Ex = "'/4neoy·
In order to find the projectiou E
y
, it is sufficient to recall that
dEli diffeq from d E ~ in that sin a"ln (1) is simply replaced by C08 lx.
This gives
dEy = (A cos a da)/4ne
o
y and Ey = A/4.tte
o
y·
We have obtained an interesting result: Ex = Ey independently of y,
a
Fig. 1.21
i.e. vector E is oriented at the angle of 45° to the filament. The modu
lus of vector E is
E=VE ~ + E ~ = j , . Y2i
4rt8
oY •
• 1.4. The Gauss theorem. The intensity of an electric field de
pends only on the coordinates x and y as follows:
E = a (xi +yj)/(x
2
+ y2),
where a is a constant, and i and j are the unit vectors of the Xand
Y;axes. Find the charge within a sphere of radius' R with the centre
at the origin.
Solution. In accordance with the Gauss theorem, the required
charge is equal to the flux of E through this sphere, divided by &0'
In our case, we can determine the flux as follows. Since the field E is
axisymmetric (as the field of a uniformly charged filament), we arrive
at the conclusion that the flux through the sphere of radim(R is equal
to the flux through the lateral surface of a cylinder having the same
radius and the height 2R. and arranged as shown in Fig. 1.22. Then
q=80 ~ E dS=8oErS,
where E
r
= aIR and S = 2nR·2R = 4nR2. Finally, we get
q = 4n8
o
aR.
• 1.5. A system consists of a uniformly charged sphere of radius
R and a surrounding medium filled by a charge with the volume den
sity p = aIr, where a is a positive constant and r is the distance from
43
Fig. 1.25
Problem.
Fig. 1.24
the surface density CT = CT
o
cos {Jo, where 0"0 is a constant and {Jo is
the polar angle...'
Solution. Let us consider two spheres of the same radius, having
uniformly distributed volume charges with the densities p and po
Suppose that the centres of the spheres are sep
arated by the distance 1 (Fig. 1.26). Then, in
accordance with the solution of the previous tz
problem, the field in the region of intersection
of these spheres will be uniform:
E = (p/38
0
) 1. (1)
In our case, the volume charge differs from zero
only in the surface layer. For a very small l,
we shall arrive at the concept of the surface
charge density on the sphere. The thickness of
the charged layer at the points determined by
angle & (Fig. 1.26) is equal to 1cos {Jo. Hence,
in this region the charge per unit area is
(J = pl cos {Jo = 0"0 cos a, where °
0
= pl, and
expression (1) can be represented in the form Fig. 1.26
E = (0"0/380) k,
where k is the unit vector of the Zaxis from which the angle it ii'J
measured.
• 1.8. Potential. Tho potential of a certain electric field has the
form Ip = ex (xy  z2). Find the projection of vector E onto thp. di
rection of the vector a = i + 3k at the point M (2, 1, 3).
Solution. Let us first find vector E:
E = Vip = a (yl + xj  2zk).
of the spheres and of the distance between their centres. In particular,
it is valid when one sphere is completely within the other or, in other
words, when there is a spherical cavity in a sphere (Fig. 1.25).
• 1.7. Using the solution of the previous problem, find the field
intensity E inside the sphere over which a charge is distributed with
1. Electroirtattc Field in a Vacuum
42
the centre of the sphere F' d th h
electric field intensity E; arghe of. dsphere for which the
the value of E. e sp ere IS In ependent of r. Find
Solution. Let the sought charge of the sphere be q. Then, Using the
Fig. 1.22 Fig. 1.23
Gauss theorem we can writ th f II .
of r (outside :he a spherical
r
E·4n 2  q t 1 \ a
r _.  . 4nr2dr.
8 0 £0. r
R
After integration, we transform this equation to
E ·4nr
2
= (q 2naR2)le
o
+ 4nar2/28
0
• •
The intensity E does t d d
theses is equal to on r when the expression in the paren
q = 2naR2 and E = a/28
0
'
f .6. Find the electric fi ld . t· .
sectIon of two spheres unifo I In enslty .Ii: In the region of inter
volume densities p and _p Wth by unlike charges with the
spheres is determined by the centres of the
Solution. Using the Gauss th
electric field intensity Within lwe can easilY.lshow that the
a UD! orm Ycharged spflere is
E = (p/38
0
) r,
where r is the radius vector r I t' .
can consider the field in the r e.a Ive .to the of the sphere. We
sUperposition of the fields of of.;n\ersecthlOn of the spheres as the
an arbitrary point A (Fig 1 24)0 my.c arged spheres. Then at
" 0 IS regIOn we have
E = E+ + JL = P (r+  r_V3e
n
= pI/3e
n
.
Thus, in the region of intersectio f th h
form. This conclusion is valid retpardle
o
f etse
h
sp the field is uni
" ss 0 e ratio etween the radii
I I·
, I
1 lie
I Iii
Iii
I
2.1. Field in a Substance 45
1. Electrodatlc Field In a Vacuam
which gives :1 after substituting the limits of integration. As a re
sult, we obtam
lp = oRfne
o
'
• 1.10. T.he potential of the field inside a charged sphere depends
?nly on the dI.stance r from its. Cl'ntre to the point under consideration
the 'Yay: lp = ar' + b, where a and b are constants.
Fmd the dIstrIbution of the volume charge p (r) within the 'sphere.
Solution. Let us first find the field intensity. According to (1.32)
we have •
Er = oq>/ar = 2ar. (1)
we US? Gauss theorem: 4nr'E
r
= q/e
o
• The differential of
thiS expressIOn IS
1 i
4n d(rIEr) = dq = p·4nr' dr,
6
6
eJ
2.1. Field in a Substance
Micro and Macroscopic Fields. The real electric field in
any substance (which is called the microscopic field) varies
abruptly both in space and in time. It is different at differ
ent points of atoms and in the interstices. In order to find
the intensity E of a real field at a certain point at a given
instant, we should sum up the intensities of the fields of all
individual charged particles of the substance, viz. electrons
and nuclei. The solution of this problem is obviously not
feasible. In any case, the result would be so complicated
E=_1_ 2P2
...' 4nEo za
Taking the derivative of this expression with respect to I and sub
stituting it into the formull\. for fl, we obtain
F __1_ 6PIP2
 41tEo l4'
It should be noted that the dipoles will be attracted when PI t t P2 and
repulsed when PI H P2'
2. A Conductor in an Electrostatic Field
where dq is the charge contained between the spheres of radii rand
r + dr. Hence
. 1,d aEr +2.
E
'
r
__ ...£...
r:dE
r
+2rE
r
dr=pr r, _
Eo ar r eo
Substituting (1) into the last equation, we obtain
p =" flEoa,
i.e. the charge is distributed uniformly within the sphere.
• 10ft. Dipole. Find the force of interaction between two point
dipoles with moments PI and P2, if the vectors PI anti P2 are directed
along the straight line connecting the dipoles and the distance be
tween the dipoles is l.
Solution. According to (1.39), we have
F = PI I aElal I•
where E is the field intensity from the dipole P2' determined by the
first of formulas (1.38):
o
lp= oR J
neo
n/2
We integrate by parts, denoting = •
and sin t} dt} = dv:
) 'It sin t} dt} =  '6 cos '6
+ \ cos'6dtJo='6cos{}+sinil'.
01
Fig. 1.27
The sought projection is
E
a
=E. ..!..= 0: (ylzj 2lk)(i+3k). 0: (y61)
. a }f1+3
1
JfiO
At the point M we have
E. 0:.
• f.9. Find the potential lp at the edge of a thin df!e of l'Jdius R
with a charge uniformly distributed over olle of its sides with the ....
face density o.
. definition, the potential in the case of a surface charge
IS defined by integral (1.28). In order to simplify in
. tegratlOD, we shall choose the area element dS in the fonn of a part
of the ring of radius rand width!,dr (Fig. 1.27). Then dS = 2'&r dr,
r = 2R cos '6, and dr = 2R sin '6 t:H}. After substituting these ex
pressions into integral (1.28), we obtain the expression for cp at &be
point 0:
I I
Ii
that would to use it. Moreover, the knowledge
of tillS field IS not reqUIred for the solution of macroscop
ic problems. In many cases it is sufficient to have a simpler
and rougher description which we shall be using henceforth.
Under the electric field E in a substance (which is called
the rruu:roscopic field) we shall understand the microscopic
field averaged over space (in this case time averaging is
superfluous). This averaging is performed over what is called
a physically infinitesimal volume, viz. the volume contain
ing a large number of atoms and having the dimensions
that are many times smaller than the dli!tances over which
the macroscopic field noticeably changes. The averaging over
such all i.rregular and rapidly varying
fluctuatlOns of the mIcroscopIC field over the distances of
the order of atomic ones, but retains smooth variations of
the macroscopic field over macroscopic distances.
Thus, the field in the substance is
E=Emacro=(Emlcro). (2.f)
The Inftuence of a Substance on a Field. If any suhstance is
introduced into an electric field, the positive and negative
charges (nuclei and electrons) are displaced, which in turn
leads to a parti.al separation· of these charges. In certain
regions of the suhstance, uncompensated charges of different
signs appear. This phenomenon is called the electrostatic
. / induction, while the charges appearing as a result of sepa
ration are called induced charges.
Induced charges create an additional electric field which
in combination with the initial (external) field forms the
resultant field. Knowing the external field and the distribu
tion of induced charges, we can forget about the presence of
the substance itself while calculating the reSultant iield
since the role of the substance has already been taken
account with the help of induced dlarges
Thus, the resultant field in the presence of a substance is
determined simply as the superposition of the external Bald
and the field of .wauced charges. However, in many cases
the situation is complicated by the fact that we do not kaow
beforehand how all these charges are distributed in space,
and the problem turns out to be not as simple as it eooJd
seem at first sight. It will be shown later that the distri
46 2. A an Electrodatic Pield
2.2. Fields Inside and Outside a Conductor 41
bution of induced charges is mainly determined by the prop
erties of the substance, i.e. its physical nature and the
shape of the bodies. We shall have to consider these ques
tions in greater detail.
2.2. Fields Inside and Outside a Conductor
Inside a Conductor E = O. Let us place a metallic conduc
tor into an external electrostatic field or impart a certain
charge to it. In both cases, the electric field will act on all
the ch2.l.'ges of the conductor, and as a result all the negative
charges (electrons) will be displaced in the direction against
the field. This displacement (current) will continue until
(this practically takes a small fraction of a second) a cer
tain charge distribution sets in, at which the electric fi.eld
at the points inside the conductor vanishes. Thus, in the
statIC case the electric field inside a conductor is absent
(E = 0).
Fu.rther, siw;e E = 0 everyWhere in the conductor, the
densIty of excess (uncompensated) charges inside the conduc
tor is· also equal to zero at all points (p = 0). This can be
easily explained with the help of the Gauss theorem. Indeed
since inside the conductor E = 0, the flux of E through an;
closed surface inside the conductor is also equal to zero.
And this means that there are no excess charges inside the
conductor.
Excess charges appear only on the conductor surface with
a certain density (J which is generally different for different
points of the surface. It should he noted that the excess
charge is located in a very thin surface layer (whose
thIckness amounts to one or two interatomic distances).
The absence of a field inside a conductor indicates in
accordance with (1.31), that potential cp in the
has the same value for all its points, i.e. any conductor in
an electrostatic field is an equipotential region, its surface
being an equipotential surface.
The fact that the surface of a conductor is equipotential
implies that in the immediate vicinity of this surface the
field E at each point is directed along the normal to the sur
face. If the opposite were true, the tangential component of
E would make the charges move over the surface of the
2. A Condllctor in an Electrostatic Field

conductor, Le. charge equilibrium would be impossible.
2.3. Forces Acting on the Surface of a Conductor
49
n
4'
Fig. 2.2 Fig. 2.3
= 0/18/80' where En' is ..the projection of (vector E onto
the outward normal n (with respect to the conductor), /18
is"9the crosssectional area of the cylinder and 0 is the local
charge density of the conductor. Cancelling both
sides of this expression by /18. we get
I En = a/so· I (2.2)
If 0 > 0, then En > 0, Le. vector E is directed from the
conductor surface (coincides in direction with the normal n).
If 0 < 0, then En < 0, and vector E is directed towards the
conductor surface.
Relation (2.2) may lead to the erroneous conclusion that
the field E in the vicinity of a conductor depends only on
the local charge density 0'. This is not so. The intensity E
is determined by all the charges of the system under con
sideration as well as the value of a itself.
2.3. Forces Acting on the Surface of a Conductor
Let us consider the case when a charged region of the sur
face of a conductor borders on a vacuum. The force acting
on a small area· of the conductor surface is
= at.S .E
o
, (2.3)
shall take a small cylinder and arrange it as is shown in
Fig. 2.3. Then the flux of E through this surface will be
equal only to the flux through the "outer" endface of the
cylinder (the fluxes through the lateral and the
inner endface are equal to zero). Thus we obtam En /18 =
Fig. 2.1
r
Example. Find the potential of an undlarged condudiug sphere
provided that a point charge q is located at a distance r from its centre
(Fig. 2.1).
PotentialljJ is the same fur all points
of the sphere. Thus we can calculate
its value at the centre 0 of the sphere,
because only for this point it can
be calculated in the most simple way:
1 q., (1)
Ip= 4nco'
where the tJrst term is the potential of
the charge q, while the second is the
potential of the charges induced on
the surface of the sphere.Dut since aU induced charges are at the same
distance a from the point 0 and the total induced charge is equal to
zero, q;'=O as well. Thus, in this case the putential \if the sphere will
be determined only by the Erst term ill (1).
l"igure 2.2 shows the field and the charge distributions for
a system consisting of two conducting spheres one of which
(left) is charged. As a result of electric induction, the ch?rges
of the opposite sign appear on the surface of the right
uncharged sphere. The field _of these.eharges will in turn
cause a redistribution of charges on the surface of the left
sphere, and their surface distribution will become nonuni
form. The solid lines in the figure are the lines of E, while
the dashed lines show the intersection of tlquipotential sur
with the plane of the figure. As we move away from
this...system, the equipotential. surfaces become closer_and
closer to spherical, and the field lines become closer to ra
dial. The field itself in this case resembles more and more the
field of a point charge q, viz. the total charge of the given
system.
The Field Near aConductor Surface. We shall show that
the electric fwld intensity in the immediate vicinity of the
surface of a conductor is connected with the local charge
density at the conductor surface through a simple relation.
This relation can be established with the help of the Gauss
theorem.
. Suppose that the region of the conductor surface we are
interested in borders on a vacuum. The field lines are nor
mal to the conductor surface. Hence for a closed surface we
\
2.4,., Properties of a Closed Conducting Shell 5i
where we took into account that 0 = eoEn\ and E; = E
2
•
The quantity F
u
is called the surface density of force. Equa
tion (2.7) shows that regardless of the sign of 0, and hence
of the direction of E, the force Fu is always directed outside
the conductor, tending to stretch it:
Example. Find the expression for the electric force acting in a
vacuum on a conductor as a whole, assuming that the field intensities
E are known at all points in the vicinity of the conductor surface.
Multiplying (2.7) by dS, we obtain the expression for the force dF
acting on the surface element dS:
dF=+ eo£2 dS,
where dS = n dS. The resultant force acting on the entire conductor
can be found by integrating this equation over the entire conductor
lIUliace:
2.4. Properties of a Closed Conduding Shell
It was sho.wn that in equilibrium there.are no excess charges
inside a conductor, viz. the material inside the conduc
tor is electrically neutral. Consequently if the substance is
removed from a certain volume inside a conductor (a closed
cavity is created), this does not change the field anywhere,
Le. does not affect the equilibrium distribution of charges.
This means that the excess charge is distributed on a
conductor with a cavity in the same way as on a uniform
conductor, viz. on its outer surface.
Thus, in the absence of electric charges within the cavity
the electric field is equal to zero in it. External charges,
including the charges on the outer surface of the conductor, do
not create any electric field in the cavity inside the conductor.
This forms the basis of electrostatic shielding, Le. the screening
of bodies, e.g. measuring instruments, from the influence
of external electrostatic fields. In practice, a solid conduct
ing shell can be replaced by a sufficiently dense metallic
grating.
That there is no electric field inside an empty cavity can
be proved in a different way. Let us take a closed surface S
enveloping the cavity and lying completely in the material
(2.7)
AS
2. A Conductor in an Electrostatic Field
Fig. 2.4 :
50
where 0 f!S ;is the charge of this element and Eo is the field
created by all the other charges of the system"in the region
where the charge 0 f!S is located. It should noted at the
very outset that Eo is not equal to the field intensity E in
the vicinity of the given surface element of the cojductor,
although there exists certain relation between Let
us find this relation, Le. express Eo through Be'
Let Ea be the intensity of the field created by the charge
on. the area element f!S at the points that are very close to
thIS element. In this region, it behaves as an infinite uni
formly charged plane. Then, in accordance with (1.10), E
a
=
= 0/280'
The resultant field both inside and outside the conductor
(near the area element f!S) is the superposition of the fields
Eo and Eo. On both sides of the area element f!S the field E
is same, while the field Eo has opposite
ractIOns (see FIg. 2.4 where (for the sake of definiteness it is
assumed that C1 > 0). From 'the condition E = 0 inside the
conductor, it follows that Eo = Eo, and then outside the
conductor, near its surface, E = Eo +Eo = 2E
o
. Thus,
Eo = E/2, (2.4)
and Eq. (2.3) becomes
1
AF=T aAS·E. (2.5)
Dividing both sides of this
equation by f!S, we obtain the
expression for the force acting
on unit surface of a conductor:
1
FuT.aE. (2.6)
We can write this expression
in a different form since the
quantities a and E appearing in it are interconnected. Indeed,
in accordance with (2.2), En = a/eo, or E = (a/eo) n, where
n is the outward normal to the surface element at a given
point of the conductor. Hence
4*
52
2. A Conductor in an Electrostatic Field
2.4. Properties Df a Closed Conducting Shell 53
of the conductor. Since the field E is equal to zero inside the
conductor, the flux of E through the turface S is also equal
to zero. Hence, in accordance with the Gauss theorem, the
total charge inside S is equal to zero as well. This does not
exclude the situation depicted in Fig 2.5, when the surf/tge
1 q
qJ = 4n:
e
o ,:.
An infinite conducting plane is a special case of a closed
conducting shell. The space on one side of this plane is
.electrically independent of the space on its other side.
We shall repeatedly use this property of a closed con
ducting shell.
space outside the cavity, the field created by the charges
located inside the cavity.
Since the conducting medium is electrically neutral every
where it does not influence the electric field in any way.
Therefore, if we remove the medium, leavi.ng only a conduc
ting shell around the cavity, the field WIll not be
anywhere and will remain equal to zero beyond thIS shell.
Thus the field of the charges surrounded by a conducting
shell of the charges induced on the surface of the cavity
(on the inner surface of the shell) is equal to zero in the en
tire outer space.
We arrive at the following important conclusion: a closed
conducting shell divides the entire space into the inner .and
outer parts which are completely independent oj one another
in respect of electric fields. This must be as follows:
any arbitrary displacement of charges InSIde the shell does
not introduce any change in the field of the outer space,
and hence the ch.arge distribution on the outer surface of the
shell remains unchanged. The same refers to the field inside
the cavity (if it contains cbarges) and to the ?f
charges induced on the cavity walls. They WIll also remam
unchanged upon the displacement of charges outside the
shell. Naturally, the above arguments are applicable only
in the framework of electrostatics.
Example. A point charge q is within an electrically neutral
whose outer surface has spherical shape (Fig. 2.6). Find the potential
cp at the point P lying outside the shell at a distance r from the
centre 0 of the outer surface.
The field at the point P is determined only by charges induced on
. the outer spherical surface since, was shown ab«;lve, the field of the
point charge q and of the charges mdu.ced on the. mner ?f the
sphere is equal to zero everywhere outsIde the caVIty. Next, III VIew of
symmetry, the charge on the outer surface of the shell is distributed
uniformly, and hence
p
r
Fig. 2.6
Fig. 2.5
of the cavity itself contains equal quantities of positive
and negative charges. However, this assumption is prohibit
ed by another theorem, viz. the theorem on circulation· of
vector E. Indeed, let the contour r cross the cavity along
one of the lines of E and be closed in the conductor material.
It is clear that the line integral of vector E along this contour
differs from zero, which is in contradiction with the theorem
on circulation.
Let us now consider the case when the cavity is not empty
but contains a certain electric charge g (or several charges).
Suppose also that the entire external space is filled by a
conducting medium. In equilibrium, the field in this medium
is equal to zero, which means that the medium is electrical
ly neutral and contains no excess charges.
Since E = 0 inside the conductor, the field flux through a
closed surface surrounding the cavity is also equal to zero.
According to the Gauss theorem, this means that the alge
braic sum of the charges within this closed surface is equal to
zero as well. Thus, the algebraic sum of the charges induced
on the cavity surface is equal in magnitude and opposite in
sign to the algebraic sum of the charges inside the cavity.
In equilibrium the charges induced on the surface of the
cavity are\arranged so as to compensate compleLely, in the
2. A Conductor in an Field
2.5. General Problem of Electrostatilcs
55
static case the charge is distributed over thlle surface of a
conductor in a unique way as well. Indeed, th'Iere is a oneto
one correspondence (2.2) between the charges; on the conduc
tor and the electric field in the vicinity of itts surface: (J =
Fig. 2.7
= EllEn. Hence it immediately follows that the uniqueness
of the field E determines the uniqueness of the charge
distribution over the conductor surface.
The solution of Eqs. (2.8) aM (2.9) in the generail case is a compli
cated and laborious ·problem. The analytic solutions i of these equations
were obtained only for a few particular cases. As ffor the uniqueness
theorem, it simplifies the solution of a number of «electrostatic prob
lems. If a solution of the problem satisfies the Lalplace (or Poisson)
equation and the boundary conditions, we can stat6e that it is correct
and unique regardless of the methods by which itt was obtained (if
only by guess).
Example. Prove that in an empty cavity of a cconductor the field
is absent.
The potential <P must satisfy the Laplace equatiwn (2.9) inside the
cavity and acquire a certain value <Po at the'cavity's ,walls. The solution
of the Laplace equation satisfying this condition immediately be
founrl. It is <p = <Po' In accordance with the uniquemess theorem, there
can be no other solutions. Hence, E = V<P = 10.
Method. This is an artificial metho,>d that makes it
possible to calculate in a simple way the ,electric field in
some (unfortunately few) cases. Let us consiider this method
by using a simple example of a point charge near an infinite
conducting plane (Fig. 2.7a).
, The idea of this method lies in that we mmst find another
problem which can be easily solved and whwse solution or a
part of it can be used in our problem. In ourr case such a sim
ple problem is the problem about two changes: q and g.
2.5. General Problem of Electrostatics.
Image Method
d. we must solve problems in which the charge
IS
d
. unknown but the potentials of conductors
Jr s ape an relative arrangement are given We must
find
d
cp (r) at any point of the field between the
uc ors. t should be recalled that if we know the poten
d th (r),. the field E (r) itself can be easily reconstructed
an f en Its value in the immediate vicinity of the
s'!r .can be used for determining the surface ch
dlstrlbutlOll for the conductors. arge
The Poisson and I aplac t· L .
equation for the functi e equa .lOns. et derIve the differential
into the lefthand For p¥rpose: we substitute
i.e. E = v<p. As a result . b .e expressIon E In .terms of 'P,
for potential which is cali ':,(}tOh tapIn.the general dIfferentIal equation
, ell e Olsson equation:
. IV2<p= P/eo,/ (2.8)
operator (Laplacian). In Cartesian coordinates
a
2
ax
2
+ ay2 +az' '
i.e. 1:\ the scalar product v·v [see (1.19)).
is beltween th!! cond.uctors (p = 0), Eq. (2.8)
o a SImp er equatIOn, VIZ. the Laplace equation:
IV'<P= O. I (2.9)
qUIres t e given values <Ph 'P2' ... on the surfaces of the
It can prove? theoretically that this problem has a uni
que solutIOn. ThiS statement is called the uniqueness theo
rerr;. the physical point of view, this conclusion is
q'!Ite obvIOUS: If there are more than one solution there
wIll be .several potential "reliefs", and hence the field E at
each generally has not a single value. Thus we arrive
at a phYSically absurd conclusion.
the uniqueness theorem, we can state that in a
(a) (b) (e) l

56
2. A Conductor in an Electrostatic Field 2.6. C.pacUance. Capacitors 57
qblf<> q
2.6. CapaCitance. Capacitors
Capacitance of an Isolated Conductor. Let a
solitarv conductor, i.e. the conductor .remove( 0 101'
. 1 d' . and charge" Expenments show that the
conductors, )0 Ies" ,,,. . . 1 't
cl·r.r e of this conductor is directly to I S
<p (we assumed that at infin.ity IS eJual
zero): cp oc q. Consequently, the g!cp y
on the charge q and has a certain value or eac so I r
conductor. The quantity
q
(2.10)
Fig. 2.8
c g!cp
is called the electrostatic capacitance of an isolated conductor
(Qr simply capacitance). It is numerically.equal to charge
that must be supplied to the conductor III order to
its potential by unity. The capacitance depends on the SIze
and shape of the conductor.
Example. Find the capacit:mce of an isolated conductor which has
the shape of a sphere of radIUS R.
It can he seen from formula (2.10) that for this jlurpose. we must
mentally chargre the conductor by a charge q and calculate Its potell
charges whose action on the charge q,is to the action of all
for which the eqnipoten
tial with cp = 0 (a)
coinCide With the
halfplanes. One or two f
charges are insuflicient III tillS I
case' there should be three of q I
(Fig. 2.8b). Only with such a
configuration of the of I
charges we can realize the ft .l
quired "trimming"', i.e. ensure 7, j
that the potential on the con I
dueling" equal to
zero. These three hctl tlOllS cl.Jar
ges create just the same held
within the "right angle" as the
field of the charges induced on
the plah.es. n alion of point chal'gl's {anolher
HavIll\r.found I IS con 19l1b f tlH'r questions, for example, lmd
ili'e point within the "right angle"
or determine the fwce acting Oil the charge q.
The field of this system is well known (its equipotential
surfaces and field lines are shown in Fig. 2.7b).
Let us make the conducting plane coincide with the mid
dle equipotential surface (its potential qJ = 0) and remove
the charge g. According to the uniqueness theorem, the
field in the upper halfspace will remain unchanged. Indeed,
qJ = 0 on the conducting plane and everywhere at infinity.
The point charge g can be considered to be the limiting case
of a small spherical conductor whose radius tends to zero
and potential to infinity. Thus, the boundary conditions for
the potential in the upper halfspace remain the same, and
hence the field in this region is also the same (Fig. 2.7c).
It should he noted that we can arrive at this conclusion
proceeding from the properties of a closed conducting shell
[see Sec.2.1J. since hoth halfspaces separated by the con
ducting plane are electrically independent of one another,
and the removal of the charge g will not affect the field
in the upper halfspace.
Thus, in the case under consideration the field differs from
zero only in the upper halfspace. In order to calculate this
field, it is sufficient to introduce a fictitious image charge
g' = g, opposite in sign to the charge q, by placing it on
the other side of the conducting plane at the same distance
as the distance from g to the plane. The fictitious charge g'
creates in the upper halfspace the same field as that of tlie
charges induced on the plane. This is precisely what is
meant when we say that the fictitious charge produces the same
"effect" as all the induced charges. We must only bear in
mind that the "effect" of the fictitious charge extends only to
the halfspace where the real charge q is located,. In another
halfspace the field is absent.
Summing up, we can say that the image method is essen
tially based on driving the potential to the boundary con
ditions, I.e. we strive to find another problem (eonfignra
tion of charges) in which the field configuration in the region
of space we are interested in is the same. The image method
proves to be very effective if this·can be done with the help
of sufficiently simple configurations. Let liS consider one
more example.
Example. A point charge q is placed between two mutually perpen
dicular halfplanes (Fig. 2.8a). Find the location of fictitious point
58
2. A Conductor in an Electro8tattc Field
2.6. Capacitance. Capacitors
59
tial <po In accordance with (1.23), the potential of a sphere is
00 00
J
' 1 f q 1 q
<p= Erdr= 2 dr = .
4nfo . r 4n8
o
R
R R
Substituting this result into (2.10), we find
C = 4moR. (2.U)
The unit 'ofcapacitance is the capacitance of a conductor
whose potential changes by 1 V when a charge of 1 C is
supplied to it. This unit of capacitance is called the fa
rad (F).
The farad is a very large quantity. It corresponds to the
capacitance of an isolated sphere 9 X 10
6
km in radius,
which is 1500 times the radius of the Earth (the capacitance
of the Earth is 0.7 mF). In actual practice, we encounter
capacitances between 1 and 1 pF.
Capacitors. If a conductor is not isolated, its capacitance
will considerably increase as other bodies approach it. This
is due to the fact Jhat the field of the given conductor causes
a redistribution of charges on the surrounding bodies, Le.
induces charges on them. Let the charge of the conductor
be g > O. Then negative induced charges will be nearer to
the conductor than the positive charges. For this reason, the
potential of the conductor, which is the algebraic sum of the
potentials of its own charge and of the charges induced on
other bodies will decrease when other uncharged bodies
approach it. This means that its capacitance increases.
This circumstance made it possible to create the system
of conductors, which has a considerably higher capacitance
than that of an isolated conductor. Moreover, the capacitance
of this system does not depend on surrounding bodies.
Such a system is called a capacitor. The simplest capacitor
consists' of two eonductors (plates) separated by a small
distance.
In order to exclude the effect of external bodies on the
capacitance of a eapacitor, its plates are arranged with re
speet to one another in such a way that the field created by
the charges accumulated on them is concentrated almost
completely inside the capaeHor. This means that the lines
of E emerging on one plate must terminate on the other,
. the charges on the plates must be equal in magnitude
I.e. ( d )
and opposite in sign :.n f! is its capacitance.
The basic charactens lC 0 . I d onductor the capaci
Unlike the capacitance of an Isolate
l
c t' f i'ts charge to
f
'tor is denned as t le ra 10 0 •
tance 0 a. b t n the plates (lhis difference 18
the potentIal difference e wee
called the voltage):
\ \
(2.12)
C=qlU.
The charge g ofa capacitor is the charge of its positively
charged' plate. ., f a capacitor is also measured
Naturally, the capaCitance 0 ,
in farads. "t depends on its O'eometry
The capacitance of a capaCl or a between plates,
(size and shape. of Let us derive
and the t capacitances of some capacitors
the expreSSIOns or. cuum between their plates.
assuming that there is a rr I I te Capacitor. This capacitor
Capacitance of a Para e p a d b a ap of width h.
consists of two parallel to (1.11),
If the charge of the capaCi or IS g, . '1 . E _ ale
. h fi Id between Its pates IS  0'
the intensity of t e .e h f each plate. Consequent
where a = glS and S IS t e area 0 .
ly, the voltage between the plates IS
U = Eh = ghlfoS.
Substituting this expression into (2.12), we obtain
Ih
(2.13)
C = foS .
d 'thout taking into account
This calculation was rna e WI lates (edge effects).
field the
l
is determined
The capaCItance 0 a rea p tely the smaller the gap h III
this formula the more. accura. nsions of the plates.
with th; Let the radii of thE
CapaCItance of a p. enca es be a and b respectively. II
inner and outer capaclt?r pl.at field intensity between thE
the charge of the capaCItor. IS g, .
plates is determined by the Gauss theorem.
1 q
E
r
= into rt·
where the first integral is taken over all the charges induced on the
inner surface of the layer, while the second integral, over all the
It can be easily seen that the capacitance of a spherical
capacitor is given by
\'
(1) dF=taEdS.
. '"
Problems
It follows from symmetry considerations that resultant force f
is directed along the Zaxis (Fig. 2.11), and henc0 it can be represented
charges on the outer surface. It follows from this expression that
__q_ (..i.. __
1
+..!..).
cP  4n80 r a b
It should be noted that the potential. can. be found in such a
form only at the 0 all the. like mduced charges are a e
same distance from this pomt and theIr
distribution (which is unknown to us)
does .not play any role.
• 2.2. A system consists of two
concentric spheres, the inner sphere of
radius R
l
having a charge ql' What cha
rge q must be placed onto the outer
of radius R
2
to make the poten
tial of the inner sphere equal to zero?
What will be the dependence of poten
tial cP on the distance r from the cen
tre of the system? Plot
the graph of this dependence, assummg
that ql < o. 4.' 'Fig. 2.9
Solution. We write the expressions. . h
for potentials outside the slstem (CPn) and In the regIOn between t e
spheres (CPI):
1 ql +q2 1 ql +
CPn= , CPI=4  CPo,
4n80 r n80 r
where CPo is a constant. Its can be easily found from the
boundary conditIOn: for r = R
2
, CPn  CPl, Hence
lfu = q2/4ncoR2'
From the condition <PI (R
J
) = 0 we find that q2 = q
l
R
2
IR
l
•
The <P (r) dependence (Fig. 2.10) will have the form:
_ ql 1R2/RJ =.3..L (_1
<P II  4n80 r ,CPr 4n80 r R1
• 2.3. The force acting on a surface charge. An. uncharged me
tallic sphere of radius R is placed into an external umform. field'Js a
result of which an induced charge appears on the sphere su ice
density °= 00 cos 'ft, where 00 is a positive consta.nt IS po ar
angle. Find the magnitude of the resultant electnc force actmg on
like charges.
Solution. According to (2.5), the force acting on the area element
dS is
(2.14)
C=4Jt£
o ba .
"
u = r E dr = _q_ ( ..!.. __1 ).
J r 4n80 a b
a
2. A Conductor in an Electrostatic Field
The voltage of the capacitor is
60
It is interesting that when the gap between the plates is
small, Le. when b  a «a (or b), this expression is re
duced to (2.13), viz. the expression for the capacitance of a
parallelplate capacitor.
Capacitance of a Cylindrical Capacitor. By using the same
line of reasoning as in the case of a spherical capacitor, we
obtain
 1 (q t 0_ dS , 10+ dS )
qJ  \ T' )
4rtEo r • a :. b '
c· 2n8
o
l (2.15)
 In (b/a) ,
where l is the capacitor's length, a and b are the radii of the
inner and outer cylindrical plates. Like in the previous
case, the obtained expression is reduced to (2.13) when the
gap between the plates is small.
The influence of the medium on the capacitance of a ca
pacitor will be discussed in Sec. 3.7.
Problems
• 2.1. On the determination or potential. A point charge q is at
a distance r from the centre 0 of an uncharged spherical conducting
layer, whose inner and outer radii are equal to a and b respectively.
Find the potential at the point 0 if r < a.
Solution. As a result of electrostatic induction, say, negative charges
will be induced on the inner surface of the layer and positive char
ges on its surface (Fig. 2.9). According to the principle of super
position, the sought potential at the point 0 can be represented in
the form
x
dx x
F q
Fig. 2.13
q
E
q
Fig. 2.12
o
I
Solution. By definition, the work of this force done upon an ele
mentary displacement dx (F;.ig. 2.13) is given by
ql
6A = F% dx =  4neo (2%)1 dx,
where the expression for the force is obtained with the help of the
image method. Integrating this equation over x between land 00, we
find
1
Problem.
00
ql r dx ql
A=  16neo J 7= 16ne
o
l •
I
Remark. An attempt to solve this problem in a different way (through
potential) leads to an erroneous result differs from
was obtained by us by a factor of two. ThIS IS because the re.latIOn
A = q (IJ>l  <PI) is valid only for potential fields. However, In the
reference system fixed to the conducting plane, the electric field of
induced charges is not a potential field: a displacem.ent o.f the charge
q leads to a redistribution of the induced charges, and theIr field turns
out to be timedependent.
• 2.6. A thin conducting ring of radius R, having a charge q, is
arranged 80 that it is parallel to an infinite conducting plane at a
tance I, from it. Find (1) the surface charge density at a point of the
plane, which is symmetric with respect to the ring and (2) the electric
field potential at the centre of the ring. .
Solutton. It can be easily seen that in accordance with the image
method, a fictitious charge q must be located on a similar ring but
where the minus sign indicates that the induced charge is opposite
to sign to the point charge q.
• 2.5. A point charge q is at a distance 1 from an infinite conduc
ting plane. Find the work of the electric force acting on the charge q
done upon its slow removal to a very large distance from the plane.
f
(2)
dS =
Fig. 2.11
,
Fig. 2.10
o
as the sum (integral) of the projections of elementary forces (1) onto
the Zaxis:
dF
z
= dF cos {}.
It is expedient to take for the area element dS a spherical zone
Accord.ing to (2.2), the :surface charge:density on a conduc
tor IS connected .wIth the electric field near its surface (in vacuum)
through the relatIOn a = eoEn' Consequently, the problem is reduced
to determining the field E in the vicinity of the conducting plane.
Using the image method, we find that the field at the point P
(Fig. 2.12) which is at a distance r from the point 0 is
q 1
E=2Eqcosa=2 
4neox2 x'
Hence
2. A Conductor in an Electrostatic field
= 2nR sin t}·R dt}. Considering that E = a/eo, we transform (2) as
follows:
clF
z
= (na
I
R2/eo) sin t} cos {} d{} =  cos
3
{} d (cos t}).
Integrating this expression over the halfsphere (i.e. with respect to
cos if between 1 and 0), we obtain
F = na8R2/4e
o
'
• 2.4. Image method. A point charge q is at a distance 1from an
infinite conducting plane. Find the density of surface charges induced
on the plane as a function of the distance r from the base of the per
pendicular dropped from the charge q onto the plane.
2. A Conductor in an Electrostatic Field
Problems
65
on the other side of the conducting plane (Fig. 2.14). Indeed, only in
this case the potential of the midplane between these rings is equal to
zero, Le. it coincides with the potential of the conducting plane. Let
us now use the formulas we already know.
(1) In order to find {J at the point 0, we must, according to (2.2),
find the field E at this point (Fig. 2.14). The expression for E on the
R
the required force (see Fig. 2.15b)
2 V2 1 q2
F =c F
2
 F1='7
4
 2a2 ,
neo
and answer the second question.
• 2.8. Capacitance of parallel :rwo long straight wires
with the same cross section are arranged In aIr parallel to one another.
B
1 2
Fig. 2.17
A
Fig. 2.16
(b)
Fig. 2.15
(8)
Fig. 2.14
1 I
I
........ _
(3)
where a is the radius of the wires' cross section and b is the separation
between the axes of the wires.
50181
The distance between the wires is 11 times larger the of the
wires' cross section. Find the capacitance of the WIres per umt length
provided that 11:;;}> 1.
Solution. Let us mentally charge the two wires by of the
same magnitude and opposite signs so that charge per um.t length
is equal to "'. Then, by defmition, the reqUIred capaCitance is
C
u
= ",IU, (1)
and it remains for us to find the potential difference between the
It follows from Fig. 2.16 showing the dependences of the
lp + and Ip_ on the distance between the plates that the sought potential
difference is
u= ILlcp+1 +ILlCPl =2jLl(jl+I· (2)
The intensity of the electric field created by one of the wires at a dis
tance x from its axis can be easily found wi th ,the help of the Gauss
theorem: E = "'/2ne
o
x. Then
ba
\ '" ba
I 8(jl+ I = J E dx = 2neo In a ,
a
{J= 21t (RI+12)'/1
(2) The potential at the centre of the ring is equal to the algebraic
sum of the potentials at this point created by the charges q and q:
1 (q q)
ljl= 41t8o if yR2+411 •
• 2.7. Three unlike point charges are arranged as shown in
Fig. 2.15a, where AOB is the right angle formed by two conducting
halfplanes. The magnitude of each of the charges is I q I· and the dis
tances between them are shown in the figure. Find (1) the total charge
induced on the conducting halfplanes and (2) the force acting on the
charge q.
Solution. The halfplaneD forming the angle AGE go to infinity,
and hence their potential q; = O. It can be easily seen that a
haVing equipotential surfaces with ljl = 0 coinciding with the conduc
ting halfplanes has the form sho1inl in Fig. 2.15b. Hence the action
of the charges induced on the conducting haliplanes Is equivalent to
the action of the fictitious charge q placed in the lower left comer of
the dashed sauare.
Thus we have already answered the first question: qe
By reducing the syst0m to iour point ch:trges, we can easily find
axis of a ring was obtained in Example 1 (see p. 14). In our case, this
expression must he doubled. As a result, we obtain
ql
tili
67
x


r
r
r
=
01" _02

r
r a
;r 1
B
3.1. Polarization 0/ Dielectrics
(a) (b)
Fig. 2.1st= Fig. 2.19
A
3. Electric Field in Dielectrics
of the image method, since it would require an infmite series of fIcti
tious charges arranged on both sides of the charge q, and to find the
field of such a system is a complicated problem.
3.1. Polarization of Dielectrics
Dielectrics. Dielectrics (or insulators) are substances that
practically do not conduct electric current.. This that
in contrast, for example, to conductors dielectriCS do not
contain charcrcs that can move over considerable distances
t>
and create elcctric current.
difference between them is equal to zero. Consequently,
E
1X
l
1
+ E
2x
(l  11) = 0,
where E
1x
and E x are the projections of ve.ctor E onto the Xaxis to
the left and to tte right of the plane P (Fig. 2.19b).
On the other hand, it is clear that
a = (a1 + a.),
where, in accordance with (2.2), a
1
= eOE
1n1
= eOE1X and a2 =
= e E
2
= e
O
E
2X
(the minus sign indicates that the normal U2
o n, . f h X .)
is directed oppositely to the umt vector 0 t. e ,axIs. .
Eliminating E!X and E
2x
from these equatIOns, we obtam
a1 = a (I  1
1
)/1, a2 = al1/l·
The formulas for charges q1 and q2 in terms q have a form.
It would be difficult, however, to solve thiS problem WIth the help
p
2. AConductur in an Electroltatlc Field

It follows from (1), (2) and (3) .nat
C
u
= neo/ln 1').
where we took into account that b :it> a.
• 2.9. Four identical metallic plates are arranged in air at the
same distance h from each other. The outer plates are connected by a
conductor. The area of each plate is equal to S. Find the capacitance
of this system (between points 1 and 2, Fig. 2.17).
Solution. Let us charge the plates 1 and 2 by charges qo and qo.
Under the action of the dissipation field appearing between these
plates (edge effect), a charge will move in the connecting wire, after
which the plate A will be charged negatively while the plate B will
acquire a positive charge. An electric field appears in the gaps be
tween the plates, accompanied by the corresponding distribution of
potential cp (Fig. 2.18). It should be noted that as follows from the
symmetry of the system, the potentials at the Imiddle of the system as
well as on its outer plates are equal to zero.
By defini tion, the capacitance of the system in this case is
C = qo/V . (1)
where U is the required potential difference between the points 1
and 2. Figure 2.18 shows that the putential difference V between the
inner plates is twice as large as the potential difference between the
outside pair of plates (both on the right and on the left). This also
refers to the field intensity:
E = 2E'. (2)
And since E ex a, we can state that according to (2) the charge qo on
plate 1 is divided into two parts: qo/3 on the left side of the plate 1
and 2qo/3 on its right side. Hence
V = Eh = ahlE
o
= 2q
o
h/3e
o
S,
and the capacitance of the system (between points 1 and 2) is
C= 3eoS
2h •
• 2.10. Distribution 01 an induced charge. A point charge q is
placed between two large parallel conducting plates 1 and 2 sepa
rated by a distance 1. Find the tutal charges q1 and q2 induced on each
plate, if the plates are connected by a wire and the charge q is located
at a distance 11 from the left plate 1 (Fig. 2.19a).
Solution. Let us use the superposition principle. We mentally
place somewhere on a plane P the same charge q. Clearly, this will
double the surface charge on plate. If we now distribute uniformly
on the surface P a certain cnarge with surface density a, the electric
field can be easily calculated (Fig. 2.19b).
The plates are connected by the wire, and hence the potential
.,
!i
'I'
'I'
1,1., .
'I'
I ! i
!
* There exist ionic crystals polarized even in the absence of an
external field. This property is inherent in dielectrics which are
called electrets (they resemble permanent magnets).
When even a neutral dielectric is introduced into an exter
nal electric field, appreciable changes are observed in the
field and in the dielectric itself. This is because the dielec
is acted up?n. by a force, the capacitance of a capacitor
Increases when It IS filled by a dielectric, and so on.
In order to understand the nature of these phenomena we
must take into consideration that dielectrics consist either
of neutral molecules or of charged ions located at the sites
. of a crystal lattice (ionic crystals, for example, of the NaCI
type). The molecules can be either polar or nonpolar. In a
polar molecule, the centre of "mass" of the negative charge
is displaced relative to the centre of "mass" of the positive
charge. As a result, the molecule acquires an intrinsic dipole
moment p. Nonpolar molecules do not have intrinsic dipole
since the "centres of mass" of the positive and ne
gatIve charges in them coincide.
Polarization. Under the action of an external electric
field, dielectric is polarized. This phenomenon consists in
the following. If a dielectric is made up by nonpolar molecu
les, the positive in each molecule is shifted along the
field and the negatIve, In the opposite direction. If a dielec
tric consists of polar molecules, then in the absence of the
field their moments are oriented at random (due to
thermal motIOn). L nder the action of an external field the
dipole moments acquire predominant orientation in' the
direction of the external field. Finally, in dielectric crystals
?f the NaCI an external field displaces all the positive
IOns along the field and the negative ions, against the field. *
Thus, the of polarization depends on the struc
ture of a dielectric. For further discussion it is only impor
tant that regardless of the polarization mechanism all the
positive this process are displaced aiong the
field, whIle the negatIve charges, against the field. It should
be noted that under normal conditions the displacements of
charges are very small even in comparison with the dimen
sions of the molecules. This is due to the fact that the inten
sity of the external field acting on the dielectric is consider
69
3.1. Polarization of Dielectrics
£=0
.!.
It
I
, I
p,+
I I I
I
I I:
I
I I.
I
I I.
X X
X
(a)
(b) (c)
Fig. 3.1
of emergence of these charges (and especially bulk charges),
let us consider the following model: Suppose that we have a
plate made of a neutral inhomogeneous dielectric (Fig.
whose density increases with the coordinate x accordIng
to a certain law. We denote by and the magnitudes of
the volume densities of the positive and negative charges in
the material (these charges are associated with:nuclei and
electrons).
In the absence of an external field, = at each point
of the dielectric, since the dielectric is electrically neutral.
However, as well as increase with x due to
neity of the dielectric (Fig. 3.1b). This figure shows that III
, the absence of external field, these two distributions ex
actly coincide (the distribution of is shown by the
solid line, while that of (x), by the dashed line).
Switching on of the external field leads to a displacement
of the positive charges along the field and of the negative
charges against the field, and the two distributions will be
shifted relative to one another (Fig. 3.1c). As a result, un
compensated charges will appear on the dielectric surface as
well as in the bulk (in Fig. 3.1 an uncompensated negative
charge appears in the bulk). It should be noted that the re
ably lower than the intensities of internal electric fields in
the molecules.
Bulk and Surface Bound Charges. As a result of polariza
tion, uncompensated charges appear on the dielectric surf!"ce
as well as in its bulk. To understand better the mechamsm
3. Electric Field in Dielectrics 68
• are frequently called free charges, but this
term IS not convement In some cases since extraneous charges may be
not free.
3.2. Polarization
Definition. It is natural to describe polarization of a dielec
tric with the help of the dipole moment of a unit volume.
If an field or a dielectric (or both) are nonuniform,
polarl.zatlOn. turns out to be different at different points of
In order to characterize the polarization at a
given POIllt, we must mentally isolate an infinitesimal volume
!'1 V containing this point and then find the vector sum of the
7f
(3.2)
3.2. Polarization
Vector P defined in this way is called the polarization of a
dielectric. This vector is numerically equal to the dipole mo
ment of a unit volume of the substance.
There are two more useful representations of vector P.
Let a volume !'1V contain !'1N dipoles. We multiply and di
vide the righthand side of (3.2) by !'1N. Then we can write
P = n (p), (3.3)
where n = !'1NI!'1V is the concentration of molecules (their
number in a unit volume) and (p) = ('T.PI)!!'1N is the mean
dipole moment of a molecule.
Another expression for P corresponds to the model of
a dielectric as a mixture of positive and negative "fluids".
Let us isolate a very small volume !'1V inside the dielectric.
Upon polarization, the positive charge p+!'1V
in this volume will he displaced relative to the negative
charge by a distance I, and these charges will acquire the
dipole moment !'1p = !'1V·1. Dividing both sides of this
formula by !'1V, we obtain the expression for the dipole mo
ment of a unit volume, i.e. vector P:
P = pi.!. (3.4)
The unit of polarization P is the coulomb per square meter
(elm').
Relation Between P and E. Experiments show that for
a large number of dielectrics and a broad class of phenomena,
'Polarization P linearly depends on the field E in a dielectric.
For an isotropic dielectric and for not very large E, there
exists a relation
P = 'X8
o
E
J
(3.5)
where 'X is a dimensionless quantity called the dielectric
susceptibility of a substance. This quantity is independent
of E and characterizes the properties of the dielectric itself.
'X is alwavs greater than zero.
if the opposite is not stipulated, we shall
dipole moments of the molecules in this volume and write
the ratio
3. Electric Field in Dielectric, 70
version of the field direction changes the sign of all these
charges. It can be easily seen that in the case of a plate made
of a homogeneous dielectric, the distributions p' (x) and
(x) would be ITshaped, and only uncompensated surface
charges would appear upon their relative displacement in
the field E.
Uncompensated charges appearing as a result of polariza
tion of a dielectric are called polarization, or bound, charges.
The latter term emphasizes that the displacements of these
charges are limited. They can move only within electrically
m?lecules. We shall denote bound charges by a prime
(q , p , (J).
Thus, in the general case the polarization of a dielectric
to the appearance of surface and bulk bound charges
III It.
We shall call the charges that do not constitute dielectric
molecules the extraneous charges. * These charges may be
located both inside and outside the dielectric.
The Field in a Dielectric. The field E in a dielectric is the
term applied to the superposition of the field E of extra
neous charges and the field E' of bound charges: 0
E = Eo + E', (3.1)
where Eo and E' are macroscopic fields, Le. the microscopic
fields of extraneous and bound charges, averaged over a
physically infinitesimal volume. Clearly, the field E in the
dielectric defined in this way is also a macroscopic field.
, I
1,1
'1
'1'
iii!
','II
72 3. Electric Field in Dielectrics
3.3. Properties 0/ the Field 0/ P
73
3.3. Properties of the Field of P
The Gauss Theorem for th£' Field of P. We shall show
that the field of P has the following remarkable and impor
tant property. It turns out that the flux of P through an
Fig. 3.2
closed S is equal to the excess bound charge
(wIth the reverse sIgn) of the dielectric in the volume en
. closed by the surface S, i.e.
consider only isotropic dielectrics for which relation (3.5)
is valid.
there exist dielectrics for which (3.5) is not
applIcable. These are some ionic crystals (see footnote on
page oR) and ferroeZectrics. The relation between P and E
for .is nonlinear and depends on the history
of the dIeI?ctnc, l.e. on the previous values of E; (this'phe
nomenon IS called hysteresIs). 
(3.9)
IV·P=p',
(3.7)
where l = l+ "+ L is the relative displacement of positive
and negative bound chaJ;ges in the dielectric during polari
zation.
Next, according to (3.4), p:l = P and dq' = P dS cos at
or
dq' = P
n
dS = P·dS. (3.8)
Integrating this expression over the entire closed surface
S, we find the total charge that left the volume enclosed
by the surface S upon polarization. This charge is equal to
P.dS. As a result, a certain excess bound charge ?' will
be left inside the surface S. Clearly, the charge leavlllg the
volume must be equal to the excess bound charge remaining
within the surface S, taken with the opposite sign. Thus, we
arrive at (3.6).
Differential form of Eq. (3.6). Equation (3.6), viz. the Gauss
theorem for the field of vector P, can be written in the differential form
as follows:
of the positive and negative bound charges as a result of
polarization. Then it is clear that the positive charge
p:Z+dS cos a inclosed in the "inner"part of the oblique
cylinder will pass through the area element dS from the
surface S outwards (Fig. 3.2b). Besides, the negative charge
p:tdS cos a enclosed in the "outer" part of the oblique cyl
inder will enter the surface S through the area element dS.
But be know that the transport of a negative charge in a
certain direction is equivalent to the transport of the posi
tive charge in the opposite direction. Taking this into account,
we can write the expression for the total bound charge pass
ing through the. area element dS of the S in the out
ward direction:
dq' = p:Z+ dS cos a + Ip:IL dS cos a.
Since I r: I = we have
dq' = P+ (l+ + L) dS cos a = p+l dS cos a,
(3.6)
p
( b)
PdS= qint.
(a)
This equation expresses the Gauss theorem for vector P.
Proof of the theorem. Let an arbitrary closed surface S
envelope a part of a dielectric (Fig. 3.2a, the dielectric is
hatched). When an external electric field is switched on
the is polarizedits positive charges are displaced
relative to the negative charges. Let us find the charge which
passes through an element dS of the closed surface S in the
outward direction (Fig. 3.2b).
Let 1+ and C be vectors characterizing the displacement
c:
i.e. the divergence of the field of vector P is equal to the volume density
of the excess bound charge at the same point, but taken with the oppO
site sign. This equation can be obtained from (3.6) in the same manner
as the similar expression for vector E was obtained (see p. 24). For
this purpose, it is sufficient to replace E by P and p by p' ..
When Is p' Equal to Zero in a Dielectric? We shall show
that the volume density of excess bound charges in a dielec
tric is equal to zero if two conditions are simultaneously
satisfied: (1) the dielectric is homogeneous and (2) there
are no extraneous charges within it (p = 0).
Indeed, it follows from the main property (3.6) of the
field of vector P that in the case of a homogeneous dielectric,
we can substitute xeoE for P in accordance with (3.5), take
x out of the integral, and write
x &eoE·dS .. q'.
oJ
75
(3.13)
3.3. Properties of the Field of P
where P
n
is the projection of vector onto outward nor
mal to the surface of a given dielectrIC. The SIgn of the pro
such a dielectric there is no excess bound bulk1
only a surface bound charge appears as a resu t 0 po arl
us find the relation between polarizatio? P a
f
nd
f d
'ty a' of the bound charge at the lOter ace e
sur ace ensl . 1 t s use property
tween the dielectrics. For this purpose, e u '
(3.6) of the field of We
choose the closed surface lO the D
form of a flat cylinder whose end
faces are on different sides of the 1
interface (Fig. 3.3). We shall as I
sume that the height of the cyl • n'
inder is negligibly small and the F' 3 3
area !1S of each endface is so small Ig. .
that vector P is the same at all . d'
. ts of each endface (thiS also refers to the surface
the bound charge). Let 11 be the common normal to t e
interface at jl. given point. We shall always draw vector n
froDm. the lateral surface
Isregar Illg d 'th (3 6)'
of the cylinder, we ca'h write, in accor ance WI .,
P
2n
!1S + Pin' t1S =  a' t1S,
h P and P , are the projections of vector P in dielec
w. er; on
2
to the n and in dielectric 1 onto the normal
3 3) Considering that the projection of. vector Ponto
n
h
Ig. . 1 is equal to the projection of thIS vector
. t e norma. ( m n) normal n taken with the opposIte
we can the previous equation
sIgn, l.e. tn'   In' 11' t1S)'
in the following form (after cance mg .
P2n  Pin =  a'. (3.12)
This means that at the interface the
normal component of vector P a dlsc.ofntIDdu!ty,
. d d d a' In partIcular, I me mID IS a
magmtu e epen s on . d d't' (3 12) acquires a
vacuum, then P
2n
= 0, an con I Ion .
simpler form:
3. Electric Field in Dielectrics
The remaining integral is just the algebraic sum of all the
chargesextraneous and boundinside the closed surface
S under consideration, Le. it is equal to q + q'. Hence,
x (q + q') =  q', from which we obtain
q' =  q. (3.10)
This relation between the excess bound charge q' and
the extraneous charge q is valid for any volume inside the
dielectric, in particular, for a physically infinitesimal vol
ume, when q' __ dq' = p'dV and q + dq = pl1V. Then, after
cancelling out dV, Eq. (3.10) becomes
, x •
p =  1+x p. (J.H)
Hence it follows that in a homogeneous dielectric p' = 0
when p = O.
Thus, if we place a homogeneous isotropic dielectric of
any shape into an arbitrary electric field, we can be sure
that its polarization will give rise only to the surface bound
charge, while the bulk excess bound charge will be zero at
all points of such a dielectric,
Boundary Conditions for Vector P. Let us consider the
behaviour of vector P at the interface between two homo
geneous isotropic dielectrics.. We have just shown that in
74
jection Pn determines the sign of the surface bound charge
a' at a given point. Formula (3.13) can be written in a diHer
ent form. In accordance with (3.5), we can write
('
77
(3.19)
(3.17)
(3.18)
a.4. Vector D
. '. ftPJ] called dielectric displacement! or electro
* The ql;'antity i b this term, however, III order to
static inductton. We s a no e . D
emphasize the auxiliary nature of .
DdS = qlnt.\
. This statement is called the thearer for
I t should ..note? D
d
it is
ly different quantities. eo have an' deep
an of the leld of
physICal meamng. Howe 't. (3 18) justifies the intro
Do'f it simpli
uc IOn . d' It' *
fies the a:: any dielectric,
RelatIOns . an '. ,
both isotr?pic the dimensions o.f
D as those of vector P. The 2quantlty D IS
measured in coulombs per square metre (elm ).
Differential form of Eq. (3.18) is
I V·D=p, I
. f th field D is equal to the volume densi ty of an
Le. the divergence 0 e oint
.at the (3.18) in the same way as it
This equatiOn can e, 24\ It suffices to replace E by D and
was done for the field E \see p. "
take into account only extraneous charges.
(3.15) Can he transformed as follows:, expression
(eoE +P) dS = qlnt. (3.1.6)
The quantity in the parentheses in integrand denoted
by D. Thus, we have defined an auxIlIary vector
ID=eoE+P, I
h fl through an arbitrary dosed surface is equal.to the
w ose ux 1 closed hy this sur
'algebraic sum of extraneous c larges en
face:
(3.14)
3. Electric Field in Dielectrics
76
where En is the projection of vector E (inside the dielectric
and in the vicinity of its surface) onto the outward normal.
Here, too, the sign of En determines the sign of a'.
A Remark about th(' Field of Vector P. Relations (3.6)
and (3.13) may lead to the erroneous conclusion that the
field of vector P depends only on the hound charge. Actually.
this is not true. The field of vector P, as well as the field of E,
depends on all the charges, both and extraneous.
This can he proved if only by the fact that vectors P and
E are connected through the relation P = xeoE. The hound
charge determines the flux of vector P through a closed sur
face S rather than the field of P. Moreover, this flux is de
termined not hy the whole hound charge hut by its part
enclosed hy the surface S.
3.4. Vedor D
The Gauss Theorem for Field D. Since the sources of an
electric field E are all the electric chargesextraneous and
hound, we can write the Gauss theorem for the field E in
the following form:
eoE dS = (q +q')lnt, (3.15)
where q and q' are the extraneous and hound charges en
closed by the surface S. The appearance of the hound charge
q' complicates the analysis, and formula (3.15) turns out
to be of little use for finding the field E in a dielectric even
in the case of a "sufficiently good" symmetry. Indeed, this
formula expresses the properties of unknown field E in terms
of the bound charge q' which in turn is determined hy un
known field E.
This difficulty, however, can he overcome hy expressing
the charge q' in terms of the flux of P hy formula (3.6). Then
78 3. Electric field in Dielectrics
3.4. Vector lJ
79
At the points where the divergence of vector D is positive we have
the sources of the field D (p > 0), while at the points where the diver
gence is negative, the sinks of the lield D (p < 0).
Relation Between Vectors D and .E. In the case of isotrop
ic dielectrics, polarization P = xeoE. Substituting this
expression into (3.17), we obtain D = 8
0
(1 + x) E, or
Fig. ;LS
r
Fig.
constant e. Find"'ihe projectiun 1,', of Iield intensity E as a functiun of
the distance r frolll the centre of this sphere.
The syIllllletry uf the system allows us to use the Gauss
for vector D for sol ving the 'problem (we cannut usc here the srn.l1lar
theorem for vector E, since the bound is unlwo.wn to us). l' or a
sphere of radius r with the centre at the POlllt of locatIOn of the charge
q we can write the following relation: 4;r.r"lJ
r
. = q. Hence we can lind
lj, and then, usillg formula (3.20), the required quantity t r :
1 '/ E ) 1 q
E
r
(r < a) = 4ne"; <:/:2' r (r > a =="4
ne
o
Figure 3.4 shows the curves lJ (r) and E (r).
Example 2. Suppose that a system consists of apoint q >.0
and an arbitrary sample 01 a IsotropIc dielectrrc
(Fig. 3.5), where S isa certain closed surface. ?ut what Will hap
pen to the ileIds of vectors E and D (and to theIr fluxes through the
surface .) if the dielectric is removed.
The field E at any point of space is determined by the charge q
and by bound charges of the polarized Since in o.ur case
D = e eE this refers to the lield D as well: It IS also determIned by
the charge q and by the bound of the dielectric.
The removal of the dielectric will change the held E, and hence the
lield D. The flux' of vector E through the surface S will also
since negative bound charges will vanish from inside. this
However the flux of vector D through the surface SWill remalll the
same in ;pite of the change in the lield D. . .
. Example 3. Let us consider a system C?ntallllllg no extraneo.us
charges and having only bound charges. a can, for
example, be a sphere made 01 an electret (see p. 6b). 1, 3.?a shows
the field E of this sy::;tem. What can we say about the fIeld Dt
Let us illustrate what was said above by several examples.
Example t. An extrallPUUS charge '1. is at
of a sphere of radius a, made 01 an IsotropIC dIelectrrc WIth a dlelectrrc
(3.21)
(3.20)
where e is the dielectric constant of a substance:
8=1+x.
ID=eoeE, I
The dielectric constant e (as well as x) is the basic electric
characteristic of a dielectric. For materials 8> 1, while
for vacuum 8 = 1. The value of 8 depends on the nature of
the dielectric and varies between the values slightly differ
ing from unity (for gases) and several thousands (for some
ceramics). The value of e for water is rather high (8 = 81).
Formula (3.20) shows that in isotropic dielectrics vector
D is collinear to vector E. For anisotropic dielectrics, these
vectors are generally noncollinear.
The field D can be graphically represented by the lines
of vector D, whose direction and density are determined in
the same way as for vector E. The lines of E may emerge and
terminate on extraneous as well as bound charges. We say
that any charges may be the sources and sinks of vector E.
The sIJurces and sinks of field D, however, are only extraneous
charges, since only on these charges the lines of D emerge and
terminate. The lines of D pass without discontinuities
through the regions of the field containing bound charges.
A Remark about the Field of Vector D. The field of vector
D generally depends on extraneous as well as bound charges
(just as the field of vector E). This follows if only from the
relation D = 8
o
eE. .However, in certain cases the field of
vector D is determined only by extraneous charges. It is
just the cases for which vector D is especially useful. At
the same time, this may lead to the erroneous conclusion
that vector D always depends only on extraneous charges
and to au incorrect interpretation of the laws (3.18) and
(a.1!J). These laws express only a certain property of field
D but do not determine this field proper.
81
(3.22)
3.5. Boundary Conditions
.. I '
! :
I c
2 [ J
'"'r' •
n
n
I.e. the tangential component of vector E turns out to be
the same on both sides of the interface (it does no.t have a
discontinuity). .
Boundary Condition for Vector D. us a cylInder
of a very small height and arrange it at the be
tween two dielectrics (Fig. 3.8). The cross sectIOn of the
cylinder must be such that vector D is the same within each
of its endfaces. Then, in accordance'with the Gauss theorem
for vector D, we have
D
2n
.!1S + DIn' ·!1S = (JAS,
where (J is the surface density of the extraneous charge at
the interface. Taking both projections of vector D onto the
common normal n (which is directed from dielectric 1 to
dielectric 2), we obtain Din' =  DIn' and the previous
equation can be reduced to the form
\ D
2n
 Din = a. (3.23)
It follows from this relation that the normal component
of vector D generally has a discontinuity when passing
60181
Fig. 3.7 Fig. 3.8
projection of vector E not onto the unit vector 't' onto
the common unit vector 't, then En' =  EH , and It fol
lows from the above equation that
Ii:
where the projections of vector E are taken on the direction
of the circumvention of the contour, shown by arrows in
the figure. If in the lower region of the contour we take the
Cb)
Lines of D Lines ofE
(a)
Fig, 3.G
3, Electric Field in Dielectrics
3.5. Boundary Conditions
Let first consider the behaviour of vectors E and D
at. the mterface between two homogeneous isotropic dielec
trics. Suppose that, for greater generality, an extraneous
su:face charge exists at tl16 interface between these dielec
trICS. The required conditions cari be easily obtained with
the help of two theorems: the theorem on circulation of
vector E and the Gauss theorem for vector D:
dI = 0 and ndS == glnt
. Boundary Condition for Veclor E. Let the field near the
lDterface be E
1
in dielectric 1 and E
2
in dielectric 2. We
choose rectangular contour and orient it as
In Fig, .L'. The sides of the contour parallel to the
must have slIch a length that the fwld E over this
!,eng.th ,,1Tl each dielectric can be assumed constant. The
height of contour must be negligibly small. Then, in
accordance With the tllf'orem on circulation of vector E
we IJave '
First of all, of extraneous charges means that the field
J) has the Imes of D d.o IIOt emerge or terminate anywhE're.
lJowever, the J) PXISts 'md IS sllown I'n I"I'g 3 "b 'fl}' l' L' _ (.. . .u. Ie Illes 0 L
and outsi?e the sphere, but inside the sphere they have
01.PdPoslte dlfectlOns, smce here the relation D = 2 eE is no longer va
l and D = FoE + P. 0'
RO
83
(3.26)
FieldD
Fig. 3.1U
FieldE
9.5. Boundary Conditions
Fig 3.9
We see that in the case under consideration, the lines of E are
refracted and undergo discontinuities (due to the presence of bound
charges), whileihe lines of D are only refracted, WI t thscon ttnu
ities (since there are no extraneous charges at the Illterlace).
Boundary Condition 'on the ConductorDielectric Inter
face. If medium 1 is a conductor and medium 2 is a dielectric
(see Fig. 3.8), it follows from formula (3.23) that
pouents o[ vectors D are equal leads to the conclusion that LJ
2
> LJ
1
in magnitude, Le. the lines of D must be denser in dielectric 2.
EH /E2n
E
u
/E
l1l
•
tan Cl2
tan Cll
3. Electric Field in Dielectrics
throngh tllO inlt'l'[a(;('. If, however, tltel'O aro /10 extraneous
charges at the interface (u = 0), wo ohtain
I Din I
In this case the normal components of vector l) do not have
a discontinuity and tUI'll out to he tlte same on different
sides of the interfaGo.
Thus, in the absence of extraneous charges at the inter
face hetween two homogeneous isotropic dielectrics, the
components E, anfl J)n vary continuollsly dnring a transi
tion through this interface, while the components En and
D, have discontinuities.
Hdl'action o[ E and D Lines. The boundary conditions
which we obtained for the components of vectors E and D
at the interface between two dielectrics indicate (as will
be shown later) that these vectors have a break at this in
terface, Le. are refracted (Fig. 3.9). Let us flIld the relation
between the angles a
l
and a
2
•
In the absence of extraneous charges at the interface,
we have, in accordancp with (3.22) and (3.24), E
2
, = E
l
,
and 8
2
E
2n
= 8
r
E
ln
• Figure 3.9 shows that
82
Taking into aceount the above conditions, we obtain the
law of refraction of lines E, and hence of lines D: .
This means that lines of D and E will form a larger angle
with the normal to the interface in the dielectric with a
larger value of 8 (in Fig. ;3.9, 8
2
> 8
1
),
0*
where n is the conductor's outward normal (we omitted the
subscript 2 :;ince it is inessential in the given case). Let us
verify formula In equilibriulll, the electric fteld
inside a conductor is E =,c 0, and hence the polarization
P = O. This means, according to (;3.17), that vector D 0
inside the conductor, Le. in the notations of formula
D
1
= 0 and DIn = O. IIenceD
2n
= a.
Bound Charge at the Conductor Surface. If a homogeneous
dielectric adjoins a charged region of the surface of a COIl
ductor, bound charges of a certain r1en:;ity a' appeal' at the
conductordielectric interface (recall that the volume den
sity of bound charges p' = 0 for a homogeneous dielectric).
Let us now apply the Gauss theorem to vector E in the same
way as it was done while deriving formula (2.2). Consider
ing that there are both bound and extraneous charges (a
(;3.2!'i)
tan Cl2 E2
tan (;(, E
t
Example. Let us represent graphically the fields E and D at the
i II ["ri'ace hetween two homogeneous dielectrics 1 and 2, assuming that
:.'2> 1'1 awl is 110 extraneous charge on this surface.
Since 1'2 > ;'n in accordance with (3.25) Cl
2
> at (Fig. 3.10).
Considering that the tangential component of vector E remains un
changed anrl using Fig. ;·1.9, We can easily show that F
2
< H
l
in
magnitude, i.e. the lines of E ill dielectric 1 must be denser than in
dielectric 2, as is shown in Fig. 3.10. The fact the normal corn
I t can be seen that the surface density G' of the bound
charge in the dielectric is unambiguously connected with
the surface density G of the extraneous charge on the con
ductor, the signs of these charges being opposite.
and G') at the conductordielectric interface we arrive at
the following expression: E" = (G + a')le
o
' On the other
hantl, according to (3.2G) E" = Dn/ee,o = alee
o
' Combin
ing these two equations, we obtain Gle = G + a', whence
85
(3.29)
3.6. Field in /l Homogeneous Dielectric
Multiplying both sides of this equation by eeo, we obtain
• D = Do, (3.30)
Le. the field of vector D does not change in this case.
It turns out that formulas (3.29) and (3.30) are also valid
in a more general case when a homogeneous dielectric fills
the volume enclosed between the equipotential sur1aces
of the field Eo of extraneous charges (or of an external field).
In this caBe also E = Eo/e and D = Do inside the dielectric.
In the eases indicated above, the intensity E of the field
of bound charges is connected by a simple relation with
the polarization P of the dielectric, namely,
E' = Ple{}. (3.3t)
This relation can be easily obtained from the formula E =
= Eo + E' ifl we take into account diat Eo = eE and
P = xeoE. .
As was mentioned above, in other cases the situation
is much more complicated, and (3.29)(3.3t) are
inapplicable.
CornU.Fie. Thus, if a homogeneous dielectric fills the
entire space oeeupied by a field, the intensity E of the field
a' are unambiguously connected with the extraneous charges
a on the surface of the conductor.
As before, the,re will be no field inside the conductor (E =
= 0). This means that the distribution of surface charges
(extraneous charges a and bound charges a') at the conductor
dielectric interface will be similar to the previous distri
bution of extraneous charges (G), and the configuration of
the resultant field E in the dielectric will remain the same
as in the absence of the dielectric. Only the magnitude of
the field at each point will be different.
In accordance with the Gauss theorem, a + G' = eDEn,
where En = Dnlee
o
= a/eeo' and hence
G + a' = Gle. (3.28)
But if the charges creating the field have decreased by a factor
of e everywhere at the interface, the field E itself hasbecome
less than the field Eo by the same factor:
E = Eo/e.
(3.27)
I
' 81 I 0=80 .
3. Electric Field in Dielectrics 84
3.6. Field in a Homogeneous Dielectric
It was noted in Sec. 2.1 that the determination of the
resultant field E in a substance is associated with consider
able difficulties, since the distribution of induced charges in
the substance is not known beforehand. It is only clear
that the distribution of these charges depends on tho nature
and shape of the substance as well as on the configuration
of the external field Eo.
Consequently, in the general case, while solving the prob
lem about the resultant field E in a dielectric, we encounter
serious difficulties: determination of the macroscopic field
E' of bound charges in each specific case is generally a com
plicated independent problem, since unfortunately there
is no universal formula for finding E'.
An exception is the case when the entire space where there
is a field Eo is filled by a homogeneous isotropic dielectric.
Let us consider this case in greater detail. Suppose that we
have a charged conductor (or several conductors) in a va
cuum. Normally, extraneous charges are located on conduc
tors. As we already know, in equilibrium the field E inside
the conductor is zero, which corresponds to a certain
unique distribution of the surface charge G. Let the fIeld
created in the space surrounding the conductor be Eo.
Let us now fill the entire space of the field with a homo
geneous dielectric. As a result of polarization, only surface
bound charges G will appear in this dielectric at the inter
face with the conductor. According to (3.27) the charges
II
III
I
II'
:1
1
I'
Problems
87
(2)
E = pl/ee:o (1 a),
E = paleo (l a).
, 2 d
r2 dP
r
+2rP
r
dr=pr r,
DS = pSI, D = pi,
DS = pSa, D = pu,
which is just the required result.
f vector D An infmitely large
• 3.2. The Gauss with dielectric constant e IS
made of a hBtnogeneous Ie ee 1
uniformly charged by an. extraneous
charge with volume P > O. Ex I{J
The thickness of the platt! IS 2a. (ll
Find the magnitude of vector E an. l;; E?,
the potential cp as functions of the
l
dI
stance 1from the of. the p
(assume that the IS h
n
the middle of the plate), ChOOSlll
y
\ I'
Xaxis perpendicular to the pal'.
Plot schematic curves for the pro
. . n E (x) of vector E and the po
(2) Find the surface and
volume densities of the bound charge. /
Solution. (1) From symmetry .
siderations it is clear that FIg. 3.11
the middle of the plate, w 1 I' a d'
other points vectors Ef pef
P
:: In order to determine E, w,e
icular to the surface 0 I' P a . D (since we know the dIstrr u
'use the Gauss theorem for vector W take for the closed a
tion of only charges)! hose endfaces WIth the
right cylinder of helghthl, one 0 area of this cylInder be S.
midplane (x = 0). Let t I' crosssec 1
Then
In the case under consideration we have
el 81 q
Pr=xeoEr = e D
r
=; 4n:r
2
. (2) will have the form
and after certain transformation expressIOn
1 q
?"
whence
. h' I er between the spheres with
Here dq' is the bound ill th \ a;: p'4Jtr2 dr, we transform (1)
radii rand r +dr. Considermg a q
as follows:
Problems
. .3.1. Polarization of a dielectric and the bound charge. An extra
neous point charge q is at the centre of a spherical layer of a heteroge
neous isotropic dielectric whose dielectric constant varies only in the
radial direction as 8 = air, where a is a constant and r is the distance
from the centre of the system. Find the volume density p' of a bound
charge as a fuuction of r within the layer.
Solution. We shall use Eq. (3.6), taking a sphere of radius r as
the closed surface, the centre of the sphere coinciding with the centre
of the system. Then
4Jtr
2
• P
r
= q' (r),
where q' (r) is the bound charge inside the sphere. Let us take the
differential of this expression:
4Jt d(rl·p
r
) =  dq'. (1)
will be lower than the intensity Eo of the field of the same
extraneous charges, but in the absence of dielectric, by a
factor of e. Hence it follows that potential cp at all points
will also decrease by a factor of e:
cp = cpo/e, (3.32)
where CPo is the field potential in the ahrnce 01. the dielectric.
The same applies to the potential difference:
U = Uoh, (3.33)
where U0 is the potential difference in a vacuum, in the
absence of dielectric.
In the simplest case, when a homogeneous dielectric
fills the entire space between the plates of a capacitor, the
potential difference U between its plates will he by a factor
of e less than that in the absence of dielectric (naturally,
at the same magnitude of the charge q on the plates). And
since it is so, the capacitance e = ql U of the capacitor
filled by dielectric will increase e times
e' = ee, (3.34)
where e is the capacitance of the capacitor in. the absence
of dielectric. It should be noted that this formula is valid
when the entire space between the plates is filled and edge
effects are ignored.
9. Electric Field in Dtl!lectrics
The graphs of the funtions Ex (x) and <p (x) are shown in Fig. 3.11.
It is useful to verify that the graph of Ex (x) corresponds to the de
rivative alp/ax.
(2) In accordance with (3.13), the surface density of the bound
charge is
, e1
fJ =Pn="X8
0
E
n
=(e1)pa/e=. pa>O.
e
89
(b)
Problems
(a)
Fig. 3.12
0 a
o a b
. ·f I d· tributed with the volumc
.3.4. Extraneous of a homogeneous dielec
deMity p > 0 over sp 0 (1) the magnitude of vector E as a
tric .with the pet:nntttvI y 8. he centre of the sphere and plot the
function of the t
m
(r). (2) the surface and volume den
curves of the functions raT '
sitie5 of bound charge.
d . E we shall use the Gauss thea
Solution. (1) In .order to of only extraneous
rem for vector D smce we now
D p
4 , D P r E== r,
r<a, 4nr3IJ=Tnr p, =7' 8100
388
0
2 4, D_
Pa3
r;;:' a, 4nr D=3 na p,  3r' ' eo 3eo r
The curves for the functions E (r) and are in Fig. 3.13.
(2) The surface density of the boun c arge IS
e1 pa
fJ'=Pn=e T·
d ·t of bound charge it is sufficient to
In order to find the volume enSI y f I (3 11) we get
repeat the reasoning that led us to ormu a . ,
81 (1)
p' =c  ;; fl·
'rh••• __It can be obtaincd ill a different way, viZ·
I
. b
Y
t
n:;:KU E d x not depend on coor( rna es m
Eq. (3.9). Since P = "XfO an
where P is the volume density of the extraneous charge. Hence
IJ p r
3
a'
E = ,
 eEo 38
0
8 r
The corresponding curves for E (r) and cp (r) are shown in Fig.· 3.12b.
3. Electric Field in Dielectrics 88
This result is valid for Il0th sides of the plate. Thus, if the extraneous
charge p > 0, the bound charges appearing on both surfaces of the
plate are also positive.
In order to find the volume density of the bound charge, we use
Eq. (3.9) which in our case will have a simpler form:
p'=_ ap
x
=_.!. ( e1 px)= e1 p.
ax ax e e
It can be seen that the hound charge is uniformly distributed over
the bulk and has the sign opposite to that of the extraneous charge.
• 3.3. A homogeneous dielectric has the shape of a spherical
layer whose inner and outer radii are a and b. Plot schematically the
curves of intensity E and potential <p of the electric field as functions
of the distance r from the centre of the system, if the dielectric is
charged by a positive extraneous charge distributed uniformly (1)
over the inner surface of the layer, (2) over the layer's hulk.
Solution. (1) We use the Gauss theorem for vector D, taking
for the closed surface a sphere of radius r:
4nr'D = q,
where q is the extraneous charge within this sphere. Hence it follows
that
D (r < a) = 0, D (r > a) = q/4nr
2
•
The required intensity is
E (r < a) = 0, E (r > a) = D/eeo.
The curve for E (r) is shown in Fig. 3.12a. The curve for <p (r) is also
llhown in this figure. The curve <p (r) must have such a shape that the
derivative 8<plar taken with the opposite sign to the curve
of the function E (r). Besides, we must take into account the normali
zation condition: <p + 0 as r + 00.
It should be noted that the curve corresponding to the function
cp (r) is continuous. At the points where the function E (r) has finite
discontinuities, the function <p (r) is only broken. .
(2) In this case, in accordance with the Gauss theorem, we have
4
4nr2IJ=Tlt (r
3
a') p,
91
Fig. 3.16
Problems
Fig. 3.15
after an external electric field is switched off. If the sphere is. polar
ized uniformly, the field intensity inside it is E' =  P/SEo, where P
is the polarization. (1) Derive this formula assuming that the sphere is
polarized as a result of a small displacement of all positive charges of
the dielectric with respect to all its negative charges. (2) Using this
formula, find the intensity Eo of the field in the spherical cavity inside
an infinite homogeneous dielectric with the permittivity f if the field
intensity in the dielectric away from the cavity is E.
Solution. (1) Let us represent this sphere as a combination of two
spheres of the same radii, bearing uniformly distributed charges with
volume densities p and po Suppose that as a result of a small shift,
the centres of the spheres are displaced relative to one another by a
distance I (Fig. 3.15). Then at an arbitrary point A inside the sphere
we have
E' (r+r_)= __ .J:!.,
eo 3eo
where we used the fact that field intensity inside a uniformly charged
sphere is E = pr/3E
o
, which directly follows from the Gauss theorem.
It remains for us to take into account that in accordance with (3.4),
pI P. ,
(2) The creation of a spherical cavity in a dielectric is equivalent
to the removal from a sphere of a ball made of a polarized material.
where we assume that the charge of the inner plate is q > O. Let us
find E with the help of the Gauss theorem for vector D:
D 1 q 1 q
. 4nr
2
D = q; E = EEo = 4nEo 4'1Eo r;;:.
Substituting the latter expression into (1) and integrating, we find
q b 4ne
o
a
U= 4neoa In a' C= In (bla) •
• 3.7. The Ga_ theorem and the principle of SU,ertlOSitiOD.
Suppose that we have a dielectric sphere which retains polarization
(1)
r
3. Electric Field in Dielectrics
a
·Fig. 3.13
90
Fig. 3.14
Ileous diplectric and hav· tI
stant f. Plot radius b and the dielectric con
tan
l
ce from the centre of the sphere <fJh(r), r is the dis
VI' y. ,I e sp ere IS charged positi
Solution. Dy definition th .
potential <fJ of the conducior C Let us find ,the
, menta y a charge q to ·t.
00 b  1 .
"1 00
<fJ= \ Er dr= _ r .!L dr' _1 \ q
. 4n£o \ £r 2 T 4   dr.
a n8.0 ., r
2
I h
ntcgrating this expression, we obtain
q (_1_ 4nE
o
Ea
nEoE a b ,L = 1
p HE1) a!b
Ill' curves for E (r) and ()
<fJ r are shown in Fig. 3.14.
h • 3.6. Capacitance of a ca ac·t
t e radii of the plates a and b or:
A
.capacitor with
heterogeneous dielectric who' _ . a. ; b, IS filled wIth an isotropic
from the centre of the depends on the distance r
the capacitance of the capacitor.
f
 air, where a is a constant. Find
So/ution. In accordance w'th th d ..
capacltor(C= !U) th I efillltlOnofthecapacitanceof
potential 'u IS jreduced to determination of th:
a gIven c large q:
b
u= JEdr,
a
side the sphere), we obtain
p' = V'p = XEllV.E
where EoV'E = P + p' H' '
mula (1). . ence p = x (p + p'), which gives for
• 3.5. Capacitance of a cond t .
spherical conductor of radius a, the capacitance of a
y a layer of a homoge
.. ;;''' .. .•'.
i' ,
, "
Consequently, in a('cordance with the principle of superposition, the
field E inside the dielectric can he represented as the sum E = E' +
+ Eo· Hence
93 Problems
n
We immediately und that = no bound surface charge (with the
Thus, in the 'ontact with the extraneous point
exception licld iu the surrounding
charge q). 'I hiS a , and b' depends only on the dls
is the field of the, pomt ( q' is unknown, and hence
tance r from thiS u m for vector D. Taking the
we must use the t the centre at the point of locatIOn o.
surface a sphere of ra 1U,S r \\1
the charge q, we can write
2:rtr
2
D
o
+ 2rr.r
2
J) = q,
I II ""uit'ltll'S of H'l'tor D at the disLa,nce r
where Do and J) are t lC lu
o
. 'I I'll tJ'e ";I'eleclric reS}lech"eiy,
h . th V"CUUIn all( ,. • to
from the C arge qlHI e
t
· <. 'tv of lhe tanrrential component of vee r
Besides, from t Ie con WUI J 5
E it follows that J) = d'o.
Combining these two conditions, we find
q eq
Do 2lt (1+e) r2 ' j)oc= 2lt <1+1;) r 2 •
0'/2eo = e (0'/2eo).
h t cos t}  lIr As 1 + 0 the quantity
Here we took into account. t ,a t t there is no surface
a' + 0, i.e. if the charge q IS JUS a ,
charge on the plane. 'fa I' a thin rinO' with the centre at
(2) Let us imagine at the t
C
the inner a;' outer radii of this
the point 0 (Fig. 3.17). Suppose ,a are r' and r' + dr'. The surface
rmg . . th' . g is
bound charge WI thm ,IS rID
dq'=o' • 2:rtr' dr'. It can be
from the figure that r
2
= 1
2
+ r •
whence r dr = r' dr', the
sion for dq' combined WIth (1)
e1 dr
d
q
'=e'+1 qlrz·
Integrating this over r be
tween land 00, we obtam
e1
Fig. 3.17 q'=  e+1 q.
, , n the plane separating a
• p(),lIlt charge q with the
from an mtimte I D and E in the entIre space.
F' d the magmtudes 0 vectors
ty e. m . II from the continuity of the normal
Solution. In this case, It fa eE ,Only the surface .a'
component of vector D thatf2
n
of veo;Lor E in the vlclmty
will contribute to the n?rm
d
a the above equality can be
of the point under consl era 10 •
written in the form
(1)
V

R=
3. Electric Field in Dielectrics
92
UsilJJ{ conditions (3.22) and (3.21) at the interface between dielectrics,
we fmd
Er; = Eo sin ao, En = IJnlce
o
= Eonle = Eo cos aole,
when> Eon is the normal component of the vector Eo in a vacuum.
Substituting these expressions into (1), we obtain
i.e. E < Eo.
• 3.9. A point charge q is in a vacuum at a distanc\: 1 from the
plane surface of a homogeneous dielectric filling the halfspace below
the plane. The dielectric's permittivity is e. Find (1) the surface den
sity of the bound charge as a function of the distance r from the point
charge '1 and analyse the obtained result; (2) the total hound charge on
the surface of the dielectric.
Solutioll. Let liS Use the continuity of the normal component 0'
vector D at the dielectricvacuum interface (Fig. 3.17):
D2n = DIn' E
2n
= eE
1n
Eo = E  E' = E + P/3E
O
'
Considering that P = (e: 1) EoE, we obtain
Eo = (2 + e) E/3.
• 3.8. Boundary conditions. In the vicinity of point A (Fig. 3.16)
belonging to a dielectricvacuum interface, the electric field intensity
in vacuum is equal to Eo, and the vector Eo forms the angle ao with
the normal to the interface at the given point. The dielectric
ity is e. Find the ratio E/Eo, where E is the intensity of the field
side the dielectric in the Vicinity of point A.
Solution. The field intensity inside the dielectric is
or
1 q (J' ( 1 q (J' )
  cos t}+=e _cos \'t._ ,
4n:f
o
r
2
2eo 4:rte
o
r2 , 2e
o
where the u'rm a' /2£0 is the component of the electric field created
Dear the region of the plane under consideration, where the surface
charge density is a'. From the last equality it follows that
0,=_e1 (1)
e+1 2ltr
3
'
m
l
,.
II
II
',I
'.1.[
II
1.
1
'/
Ii
1'1
'II
4. Energy of Electric Field
should be noled that the field n in this case is not determined by the
extranC?us charge alone (otherwise it would have the form of the field
of a pOlllt charge).
95 4.1. Electric Energy 0/ a System of Charges
de. Then the corresponding work of these forces is
6/1 1• z = FI·rll l +F2 ·dlz·
Considering that F
2
=  1'\ (according to the N.ewton
third law), we can write this expression in the form
61'11.2= F
I
(dlldl
l
)·
The quantity in the parentheses is the .of
charge 1 relative to charge 2. In other words, It IS ,the
placement of charge 1 in the system of. referen.ce 1! ' whIch
is rigidly lixell to charge 2 and accomplishes wIth It a trallS
lational motion relative to the initial reference system K.
Indeed the displacement dl
l
of charge 1 in system K can
be rep;esented as the displacement dl
2
of .system K' plus
the displacement dli of charge 1 relatIve to system
K': dl
l
= dl
z
+dlj. Hence, dl
l
 dl
z
= dli, and
I{
Thus, it turns out that, the sum of the elementary works
done by two charges in an arbitrary system of reference K
is always equal to the elementary work done by
acting on one charge in another reference system (/\ ) III
which the other charge is at rest. In other words, the work
6A does not depend on the choice of the initial system of
l.Z
reference.
The force F acting on charge 1 from charge 2 is conserva
tive (as a force). Consequently, the work of the given
force in the displacement dli can be represented as the de
crease in the potential energy of interaction between the
pair of charges under consideration:
6.111. 2  dW
l2
,
where W
l2
is the quantity depending only on the distance
between these charges.
2. Let us now go over to a system of three point charges
(the result obtained for this case can be easily
for a system of an arbitrary nllmber oE charges). fhe war\..
performed by all forces oE interaction during elementary
displacements of all the charges can be represented as the
sum of the works of three pairs of interactions, i.e. 6.1
= l'lA1.
2
+ 6A1.3 + 6.1
2
,3' But as it has just been shown,
FieldD
Fig. 3.18
4. Energy 01 Electric Field
. Field E
94
4.1. Electric Energy of a System of Charges
.Approach to Interaction. The energy approach
to lllteractlOn between electric charges is, as will be shown
rather fruitful in respect of its applications. Besides,
approach makes it possible to consider the electric field
from a different point of view.
First of all, let us find out how we can arrive at the con
cept of the energy of interaction in a system of charges.
1. Let us first consider a system of two point charges 1
and 2. We shall [lOd the algebraic sum of the elementary
works of the forces F
I
and F
2
of interaction between the
charges. Suppose" that ill a certain system of reference K
the charges were displaced by dl
l
and dl
2
during the time
and the ele&tric field intensity in the entire space is
E = .!.!J!. = 'I
80 2n (t +e) for
2
It ean seen that for 8 = 1 these formulas are reduced to the al
ready famlhar expressions for D and E of the point charge in a vac
uum.
The obtained results are represented graphically in Fig. 3.18. It
t4.2)
(4.3)
q
Fig. 4.1
II
!    g.(D·
  2 I riO
70181
Total Energy of Interaction. If the charges are arranged
continuously, then, representing the system of charges. as
a combination of elementary charges dq = p dV and gOlQg
over in (4.:1) from summation to integration, we obtain
w· plpdV, I
4J. Electric Energy of a System of Charges 97
Example. Four similar point q at th:
of a tet.rdbedron w.ith an edge a (I'lg. 4.1). I·tnd the energ) of tnter
ac:tinll of charges in this syst.em.
The energy of interaction fn.. each pair of charges of t.his system
t.he same and equal to 1V
I
= q
2
/4m
o
a. It. can be seen from the figure
that. the total number of interacting pairs is six, hence the energy
of interaction of all point charges of the system IS
W = 6 WI = 6q2/4ne
o
a. q
Another approach to the solution of this
problem is based on formula. (4.3). The p,0t.e
ntial q> at the point of 10catlOII of one of the
charges. created by the Held of all the other
charges. is q> = 3q/4ne
o
a. lienee q q
Considering that WI =c= qi(Pio where qi is the ith cha:ge of
tho system and (ei is the potential the pomt of
location of the ith charge by all the we
obtain the final expression for the energy of mteractlOn of
the system of point charges:
obviously docs 1I0t depend on the number charg?s con
stituting the system. Thus, the energy of mteractlOn for
a system of point charges is
4. Energy of Electric Field
W = W
12
+ W
13
+ W23•
Each term of this sum depends on the distance betwoon
corresponding charges, and hence the energy W of the given
system of charges is a function of its configuration.
Similar arguments are obviously valid for a system of
any number of charges. Consequently, we can state that to
each configuration of an arbitrary system of charges, there
corresponds a certain value of energy W, and the work of
all the forces of interaction upon a change in this configu
ration is equal to the decrease in the energy W
6A =  dW. (4.1)
Energy of Interaction. Let us find the expression for the
energy W. We again first consider a system of three point
charges, for which we have found that W = W
12
+ W
llI
+
+ W
23
• This sum can be transformed as follows. We
represent each term W
ik
in a symmetric form: Wilt =
= (Wlk + Wkl ), since W
ik
= Wk !. Then
W = ; (Wt2 +W21 +W13 +W31 +W23 +W32).
Let us group the terms with similar first indices:
W=+[(W12 + W(3) +(TV21 +W23) +(W:11 +W32)].
Each sum in the parentheses is the energy WI of interaction
between the ith charge with all the remaining charges.
Hence the latter expression can be written in the form
3
W = ; (Wt +W2 +Ws) =+ Wj'
i=l
This expression can be generalized to a system of an ubi
trary number of charges, since the above line of reasoning
for each pair of interactions 6A i, k =  dW
ik
, and hence
6A =  d (W
12
+ W
13
+ W
23
) =  dW,
where W is the energy of interaction for the given system of
charges:
96
where (jJ is the potential created by all the charges of the
system in the volume element dV. A similar expression can
be written, for example, for a surface distribution of charges.
For this pmpose, we must replace in (4.4) p by 0' and dV hy
dS.
Expression (4.4) can be erroneously interpreted (and
this often leads to misunderstanding) as a modification of
expression (4.3), corresponding to the replacement of the
concept of point charges by that of a continuously distrib
uted charge. Actually, this is not so since the two expres
sions differ essentially. The origin of this difference is in
different meanings of the potential (jJ appearing in these ex
pressions. Let us explain this difference with the help of
the following example.j
Suppose a system consists of two small balls having
charges qi and q2' Thedistance between the balls is consi
derably larger than their dimensions, hence qi and t}z can he
assumed to be point charges. Let us find the energy W of
the given system by using both formulas.
According to (4.3), we have
1
W ="'2 (qt(jJt + q2(jJ2) = qt(jJl = q2(jJ2,
where <PI {(jJ2) is the potential created by charge q2 (ql) at
the point where charge ql (q2) is located.
On. the other hand, according to formula (4.4) we must
.split the charge of each ball into infinitely small elements
p dV and multiply each of them by the potential <P created
by not only the charge elements of another ball hut by the
charge elements of this ball as well. Clearly, the result will
be completely different:
W = WI + W
2
+ W
12
, (4.5)
where WI is the energy of interaction of the charge elements
of the first ball with each other, W
2
the same but for the
second ball, and W
12
the energy of interaction between the
cjJ.arge elements of the first ball and the charge elements of
the second ball. The energies WI and W
2
are called the
intrinsic energies of charges ql and q2' while W
12
is the energy
of interaction between charge ql and charge q2'
Thus, we see that the energy W calculated by formula (4.3)
!lO
4.2, Charged Conductor and Capacitor Energies
7*
4.2. Energies of a Charged Conductor and
a Charged Capacitor
Energy of an Isolated Conduetor. Let a conductor. have
a charge q and a potential (jJ. Si?ce the value of (jJ IS the
same at all points where charge IS located,w,e .can. take (jJ
in formula {4.4),:outof the integral. The remallllllg !ntegral
is just the charge q on the conductor, and we oLtam
. W .. *= 0f = f. \ (1t.G)
These three expressions are written assuming that C = q/(jJ.
Energy of a Capacitor. Let q and (jJ + be the charge. and
potential of the positively charged plate. a capaCitor,.
According to (4.4), the integral can be splIt lllto two parts
(for the two plates). Then
W = +(q+(jJ+ +q(jJ).
Since q_ =  q+, we have
1 1
W =2 q+ «(jJ+ <p) =2 qU,
where q = q+ is the charge of the capacitor .U is the
potential difference across its plates. Consldermg that
C = q/ U, we obtain the following expression for the energy
of the capacitor:
\
I f,. (4.7)
corresponds only to the energy WI2,
formula (4.4) gives the total energy o( lllteractwn: III
tion to W
12
, it gives intrinsic energies WI and W2• DIsre
gard of this circumstance is frequently a cause of gross
errors.
We shall return to this question in Sec. 4.4. Now, we
shall use formula (itA) for obtaining several important re
sults.
4. Energy of Electric Field 98
I
II
'I
Iii
I!
!
100
4. Energy oj Electric Field
4.3. Energy of Electric Field iOt
bLl == l./' dq' = (q'IC) dq',
the potential tltfference between the plates at
whelJ the next portion of charge dq' is being
4.3. Energy of Electric Field
On Loc?lizatioll of Energy. Formula (4.4) defines electric
energy n' of any system in terms of charge and potential.
It turns out, however, t?at energy W can also be expressed
another quantity characterizing the field itself
field intensity E. Let us at first
thIS .by the simple example of a parallelplate capaci
tor, Igno.
nn
g field distortions near the edges of the plates
(edge effect). Substituting into the formula W = CU
2
/2
(4.10)
W= dV= j E;D dV.
footE' E·D
W=2=2
It should be noted that this formula is valid only in the
case of isotropic dielectrics for which the relation P = x€oE
holds. l'
For anisotropic dielectrics the situation is more comp lcat
ed.
4/
The integrand in this equation has the meaning of the ?nergy
contained in the volume dV. This leads us to a very Impor
tant and fruitful physic'al idea about localization ot energy
in the field. This assumption was confirmed in experiments
with fields varying in time. It is the domain where we en
counter phenomena that can be explained with the help. of
the notion of energy localization in the field. These
fields mav exist independently of electric charges WhICh
have generated them and may in space in the
form of electromagnetic waves. Expenments show that
electromagnetic waves carry energy. This circumstance con
firms the idea that the field itself is a carrier of energy.
The last two formulas show that the electric energy is
distributed in space with the volume density
the expression C = eeoS/h, we obtain
W
 cUt ' tlloSU' _ £Ilo (Y )2 Sh
2 2 2 h •
And since U1h = E and Sh = V (the volume between the
capacitor plates), we get
W =+eoeE2V. (4.8)
This formula is valid for the uniform field which fills the
volume V.
In the general theory, it is that the ':v
can be expressed in terms of E (m the case of an
dielectric) through the formula
between 0 and q, we
where l./' i::>
the moment
transferred.
Integruting this expression over q'
obtain
JI :,;hulIJd Le, thai these formulas determine the
lutal cllergy 01 lIltel'aCllOn, viz. not only the energy of in
teractIOII Lot \\ een the charges of one plate and those of the
plate, but also the energy of interaction of charges
wlthlll each plate.
And if We Have a Dielectric? We shall show that
formula,s (4. fJ) and (4.7) are valid in the presence of a dielectric.
For t!llS purpose, we consider the process of charging a
capacitor a" a transport of small portions of charge (d ')
from one plate to the other. q
. .\I'ork performed against the forces of the
f1eld 111 thIS case IS
A = q
2
/2C,
which with the expression for the total energy of
a capacitor. the work done against the forces
of the eleclnc lleld IS completely spent for accumulating
W of the charged capacitor. Moreover, the expres
sion for the work A is also valid in the case when
there IS a dIelectric between the plates of a capacitor. Thus,
w.e proved the validity of (4.7) in the presence of a
dlOlectl'lc.
Obviously, all this applies to (4.6) as well.
f
103
(4.11)
4.3. Energy of Electric Field
The Work of the Field During Polarization 01 a Dielectric.
An analysis of formula (,'1.10) for the volume energy density
reveals that for the same value of E, the quantity w is E
times greater in the presence of a dielectric than when it is
absent. At first glance this may seem strange: field intensity
in both cases is maintained the same. As a matter of fact.
when a field is induced i'l a dielectric, it does an additional
work associated with polarizatioll. Therefore, under the
energy of the field in the dielectric we must understand the
sum of the electric energy proper and an additional work
which is accomplished during polarization of the dielectric.
In order to prove this, let lIS substitute into (4.10) the
quantity EoE + P for D, which gives
l'oE2+ E . P
w= 
2 2'
q2 (1' 1)
W= 8nE
o
B a T .
. Example 2. Find the work that must be done against the electric
forces in order to remove a dielectric plate from a parallelplate char
capacitor. I t is assumed that the charge q of the capacitor remains
unchanged and that the dielectric fills the entire space between the
capacitor plates. The capacitance of the capacitor in the abseace of
the dielectric is C.
The work against the electric forces in this system.is equal to the
increment of the electric energy of the system:
A = 6.W = W
2
 WlJ
where WI is the energy of the field between the capacitor plates in
the presence of thi!'Qielectric and W
2
is the same quantity in the absence
of the dielectric. Bearing in mind that the magnitude of vector D
will not change as a result of the removal of the plate, 1.1'. that D
2
=
= D
1
= (J, we can write •
A=W
2
W
I
= __ V =
2B
o
. 2B
o
B 2C B
where V = Sh and C= BoS/h, S being the area of each plate and h
the distance bl'tween them.
BOllEI 4 2d
dW=Z itl" r,
where E = q2/4nB
o
Br
2
, Integrating this expression over r between a
and b, we obtain
layer is given by
4. Energy 01 Electric Field
102
W= i DdS,
the integration is performed ov
h
lth
one of the equipotential surf fr a closed surlace coinciding
t eorem, this integral is equal to h
n
accordance with the Gauss
we finally get I' c arge q of the conductor, and
W = qrp/2,
Q.E.D.
Fig. 4.2 D dS
dW=2 \
•. 2 cp,
A
wh ere A is a point at the b . . '.
It remains for us to make of Imagmary tube.
fix£ression over all the tubes and
e
th
tep
, I.e. integrate the obtained
hd. Considering that n. the energy localized in the entire
t tubes (since they originate 0: esrme at the endfaces of all
write I' sur ace of the conductor), we
substantiation for fo
of an charged It is known that the
energ;r{:;ufhe Ifield
rrect
, proceeding from thaft
L' Iza IOn 0
et us consider an arbitrar ..
denbtallly isolate a tube of .PosItIvely charged conductor. We
I' y mes of E (Fig. 4.2), and section, which is bound
=dS dt ellementary volume dV=
. IS vo ume contains the energy
dt ED DdS .
"2 dSdt Edt.
Let us now find th
in the entire
IS purpose, .we !ntegrate the I'
pressIOn, conSldermg that th d x
D dS is the sa . I I' pro uct
of the tube andeh
m
a 1. cross sections
out of the It can be taken
Let us consider two exam l'Il .
we get by using the of 1 the. advantages
gy oca lZatlOn In the field.
Example 1. A point char I' .
!"'lade of a homogeneous diel:ctr1 IS the ce?tre of a spherical layer
and outer radii of the la eCr the dielectric constant E. The
Fmd the electric energy contaiKed in
e
thlJuadl. tlo a b respectively.
IS Ie ectrIC layer.
We mentally isolate in the d' 1 .
ical layer of radius from r to Ie thin concentric spher
r r. I' energy localized in this
dJ  J I dl
 ..... 1=0 + +
.. : 

11. L
Fig. 4.3
(4.14) lV
 r FoFt Il" ) dl
'
I J E E il'
 1 ., (r 2 ., eo j' c. . ,
. 
4.4. A System of Two Charged Bodies
Suppose that we have a system of two clwrged bodies in a
vacuum. Let one body create in the surrounding space the
field E
I
, while the other body, the field E
2
• The resultant
field is E = E) I E
2
, and the square of this quantity is
+ 2Ej ·E
2
•
Therefore, according ,to (4.9), the total energy W of the
given system is equal to the sum of three integrals:
4.4. ..1 S,/stem of Tu'o Charged Bod/.s 10;:;
_...::...... ._
which coincides with formula (4.5) and reveals the field
meaning of the terms appearing in this sum. The first two
integrals in (4.14) are the intrinsic energies of the first and
second chaJitred bodies (WI and W
2
), while the last integral
is the energy of their interaction (W
I2
).
The following impprtant circumstances should be men
tioned in connection with formula (4.14).
1. The intrinsic energy of each charged body is an essen
tially positive quantity. The total energy (1.9) is also always
positive. This can be readily seen from the fact that the in
tegrand contains essentially positive quantities. However,
the energy of interaction can be either positive or
2. The intrinsic energy of hod ies remains constant upon
all possible displacements that do not. change the configu
ration of charges on each body, and consequently this energy
can be assumed to he an additive constant in the expression
for the total energy W. In such cases, the changes in Ware
completely determined only by the changes in the interac
tion energy W)2' In particular, this is just the mode of be
haviour of the energy of a system consisting of two point
charges upon a change in the distance between them.
3. Unlike vector E, the energy of the electric field is
not an additive quantity, Le. the energy of a field E which
is the sum of fields E) and E
2
is generally not equal to the
sum of the energies of these fields in view of the presence of
the interaction energy lV
12
. In particular, if E increases n
times everywhere, the energy of the field increases n
2
times.
4. Energy of Electric Field
104
The first term on the ri htha d' '.
energy density of the E . n side comcldes with the
us to verify that the "addit'o a vacuufI.l. It remains for
with polarization I na energy E·P/2 is associated
us calculate' the work done b .
polarIzation of a unit volume of th YI .field for
e ( Ie ectnc, I.e. for the
disRlacements of char es' , .
agamst the field upon g p+ and I'espectIvely along and
E to E + dE. m the field intensity from
g e secondorder terms we write
'
where dJ + and dl are add' . . 
increase in the fi""eld b dIEtlO(nFa.1 dIsplacements due to an
P
" Y Ig 4 3) C 'd'
 =  P+, we obtain . . . onSI ermg that
6..1 = p: (dl+  dL). E dl. E,
where dl = dl +  dl is h . .
positive charges relative\ e displacement of
mg to (3.4) p' dl _ dP doe negatIve charges. Aceord
, +  an we get
6A = E.dP.
Since P E (4.12)
= xeo , we have
oA =E'xeodE= d = d
Hence, the total work f
unit volume of a dielectric or the polarization of a
. . A = E·P/2, (413)
wlndl coincides w'th th .
Thus, the enee:econd in formula (4.11).
the energy e
o
E2/2 of the lY densIty w = E· D/2 includes
associated with the 'p I . eld. proper and the energy E.P/2
o aflzatlOn of the substance.
I;:
106
4. Energy oj Electric Field
4.5, Forces A cUng in a Dielectric 107
4.5. Forces in a Dielectric
show that a dielectric in
an electnc field expenences the action of forces (sometimes
these forces are called ponderomotive). These forces appear
when the diel.ectric is neutral as a whole. Ponderomotive
forces appa.ar In the lo.ng run due to the action of a nonuni
fo:m field on dIpole molecules of the polarized dielec
tnc IS known that a dipole in a nonuniform electric
field IS upon by a force direcled towards the increasing
field). In thIS case, the forces Ilre cansed by the nonuniformi
of not only fIeld hut the microscopic
e d as well, whIch IS created mainly by the nearest mole
cules of the polarized dielectric.
. action of these electric forces, the polarized
IS deformed. This phenomenon is called electro
stnctwn: As a of electrostriction, mechanical stresses
appear In the dIelectric.
(
0,wing to electrostriction, not only the electric force
depe;'1ds on the charges) acts on a conductor in a
polanzed dIelectric, but also an additional mechanical
c.aused .by the dielectric. In the general case, the effect
o a dIelectrIc on. the resultant force acting on a conductor
cannot be taken Into account by any simple relations and
t he of calcul.ating the forces with
of th,e mechamsm of their appearance is, as a rule,
rather complIcated. However, in many cases these forces
can .be clllcnlat:ed in a sufficienLly simple way without a
:malysls of their origin by using the law of conser
vatIOn of energy.
Energy Method for Calculating Forces. This method is
most general. It allows us to take into account automat
all force interactions (both electric and mechanical)
IgiorIng origin, and hence leads to a correct result.
I us consIder the essence of the energy method for cal
atmg forces. The simplest case corresponds to a situa
tion when charged conductors are disconnected from the
supply. In this case, the charges on the conductors
rem?lll unchanged, and we may state that the work A of
all mternnl forces of tII:e upon slow displacements
of the conductors and dIelectncs is done completely at the
.
. •.'
... :..L ...
.' .;'
expense of a decrease in the electric energy W of the system
(or its field). Here we assume that these displacements do
not cause the transformation of electric energy into other
kinds of energy. To be mOre precise, it is assumed that such
transformations are negligibly small. Thus, for infinitesimal
displacements we can w.rite
dW\q, (4.15)
where the symbol q emphasizes that the decrease in the
energy of the system must be calculated ,when charges. on
the conductors are constant.
Equation (4.15) is the initial equation for determining
the forces acting on conductors and dielectrics in the electric
field. This can be done as follows. Suppose that we are in
terested in the force acting on a given body (a conductor or
a dielectric). Let us displace this body by an infinitesimal
distance dx in the direction X we are interested in. Then
the work of the required force F over the distance dx is
= Fxdx, Where Fx is the projection of the force F onto
the positive direction of the Xaxis, Substituting this ex
pression for into (4. t'5) and dividing both parts of (4.15)
by dx, we obtain
(4.16)
We must pay attention to the following circumstance.
It is well known that the force depends only on the position
of bodies and on the distribution of charges at a given in
stant. It cannot depend on how the energy process will deve
lope if the system starts to move under the action of forces.
And this means that in order to calculate Fx by formula
(4.16), we do not have to select conditions which all
the charges of the conductor are necessarIly constant
(q = const). We must simply find the increment dW under
the condition that q = const, which is a purely mathemati
cal operation.
It should be noted that if a displacement is performed at
constant potential on the conductors, the corresponding
calculation leads to another:expression for the force: Fx =
= + aw/ax 11jO' However (and it is important!) the result
of the. calculation of F:c with the help of this formula or
(4.16) IS the same, as should be expected. Therefore, hence
forth we shall confine ourselves to the application of only
formula (4.16) and will use it for any conditions, including
those where q =1= const upon small displacements. We must
not be confus.ed: the derivative aw/ox will be cakulated
at q = const 10 such cases as well.
F,,= oW I (1)
ax q 2ee
o
S •
The minus sign i!I this formula indicates that vector F is directed
the values on the Xaxis, Le. the force is attractive
y nature. Consldenng that q = as = Ds = ee ES and E = Ulh
we transform (1) to 0,
F" = GUt/2h.
Forces in a Liquid Dieleetric. Formula (1) of the last
example shows that the force of interaction between the
plates of a parallelplate capacitor in a liquid dielectric
IS smaller the corresponding force in a vacuum by a
factor of e (Ill vacuum e = 1). Experiment shows that this
can be if the entire space occupied by a
IS ?lled by a lIqUId or gaseous dielectric, the forces of
mteractlOn between charged conductors (at constant charaes
'"
109 4.5. Forces Acting in a Dielectric
on them) decrease by a factor of e:
F = Fo/e. (4.17)
Hence it follows that two point charges ql and q2 separat
ed by a distance r and placed into an infinite liquid or gas
eous dielectric interact with the force
F  _1 (4.18)
 4ne
o
er 2
which is smaller than the force in a vacuum by a factor of
e. This formula expresses the Coulomb law for point charges
in an infinite dielectric.
We must pay a special attention to the fact that point
charges in this law are extraneous charges concentrated on
macroscopic bodies whose dimensions are small in comparison
with the distance between them. Th'.1s, the law (4.18) has,
unlike the Coulomb law in vacuum, a very narrow field
of applicationi!<the dielectric must be homogeneous, infinite,
liquid or gaseous, while the interacting bodies must be
pointlike in the sense.
I t is interesting to note that the electric field intensity
E as well as the· forceF acting on a point charge q in a
liquid or gaseous dielectric filling the entire
space of the field, are by a factor of e smaller than the values
of Eo and F0 in the absence of dielectric. This means that
the force F acting on the point charge q in this case is de
termined by the same formula as in vacuum:
F = qE, (4.19)
where E is the field intensity in the dielectric at the point
where the extraneous charge q is placed. Only in this case
formula (4.19) makes it possible to determine the field E
in the dielectric from the known force F. It should be noted
that Gnother field differing from the field in the dielectric
will be acting on the extraneous charge itself (which is
located on some small body). Nevertheless, formula (4.19)
gives the correct result, strange as it may seem..
Surface Density of a Force. We shall be speakmg of the
force acting on a unit surface area of a charged conductor
in a liquid or gaseous dielectric. For this. pu.rpos?, let .us
consider a parallelplate capacitor in a hqUld dielectnc.
4. Energy of Electric Field
x'+dx
i08
Example: Fin? the !orce acting on one of the plates of a II 1
plate III a .hquid dielectric, jf the distance the
:te
h
, tr
e
of !he capacitor under given conditions is
an vo tage U IS malOtamed across its plates.
II? this case, if we mentally move the plates ap1l.rl the volta e U
X u;nder t.he assumption that q =
 const, I.e. WIth the help of formula
(1..
16
). Here the mo.st convenient expres
q  Sion for the energy of the capacitor is
x
c F _
+q<J__ W  n CC= __:r
Q "toG 2ee
o
S'
Fig. 4.4 is the permittivity of the dielec
triC, IS the area of each plate, and :r is
.dlsta;llce them (x = h).
. let us the posItIve dIrection of the Xaxis as is sho\vn
In
f
Fthlg. 4.4. to (4.16), the force acting on the upper plate
o e capaci tor IS
1 q2
W=__
4..1:80 'U'
• 4.2. Intrinsic, mutual, and total energies. A system consists
of two concentric metallic shells of radii R
I
and R
2
with charges ql
and q2 respectively. Find intrinsic energies WI and It'2 of each shell,
the energy W
l2
of interaction between the shells, and the total elec
tric energy 0 the system W, if R
2
> R
I
•
We have obtained an interesting and important result
of a general nature (for a liquid or gaseous dielectric). It
turns out that the surface density of the force acting on a
conductor is equal to the volume density of the electric
energy near the surface. This force is directed always out
ward along the normal to the surface of the conductor (tend
ing to stretch it) regardless of the sign of the surface charge.
111 Problems
S l t' In accordance with (4.6), the intrinsic energy of each
h It u to qm/2 where <F is the potential of a shell created o!lly
s e hiS h 'r 't' I' e (p  q/4Jt£ R where f{ is the shell
by t e c arge q on I, ..  • '0 '.
Thus, the intrinsic energy of each shell IS
1 q:. 2
W
12
=; 4..1:£0 2R
I
:;'
The energy of interaction between the charged shells is equhl tt: the
char e of one shell multiplied by the po.tential <F created t e c_arge
of Zther shell in the point of locatIOn of the charge q. W
I2
. q(p.
In our case (R
2
> R), we have
1 q2 1 qI q2
W12 qt 4n£0 R
z
== 4)1£0
The total electric energy of the system is
1 (qI ' : qlqz)
W=WI+WzjIt'IZ= 4ne
o
2H
t
t· 28
2
' R
z
•
• 4 3 Two small metallic balls of radii R
I
and H
2
are in vacuum
at a cl'1hsiderably exceeding their dimensions and ha;e I a
certain total charge. Find the ratio q
l
/q2. the o. t
balls at which the energy of.the sys.tem mlmmaI. What IS the po
tential difference between the balls III thiS case?
Solutiun. The elecLric energy of this system is
1 (qI iL1_qlqZ)
W=WIIWz!W
IZ
= 4ne
o
2R
I
+ 2H
2
' l '
where Wand Ware the intrinsic electric energies of the
W is energ) of their interaction (ql<F2 or qz<FI),. anhd l IU h11;
between the balls. Since q2 =, q  ql' where q IS t e to a c arge
of the system, we have
W __1_ [..1L + (q_q,)2 + ql (qLqtl J.
_. 4neo 2RI 2H
2
l
The energy W is minimal when aWlaql ,= O. IIence
R
I
R
z
q
and qz""'q RI.J.R
z
'
Rt+R
z
I
where we took into account that R
I
and R
2
are consideraIlly smaller
than land
q\lq2 = HI/Hzo
The potential of each hall (lIwy can he. considered isob ted) ,is (p q!,R:
Hence it follows (rolll tlip ahove I'dallOll that '.I' . : qe, I.e, lhe I'0ll n
tial difference is ('qllal to zp['o lor SIlI·,II a d,sll'lh"llOlI. ,
(4.20)
4. Energy of Electric Field
110
Suppose that the capacitor is charged and then disconnected
from the power supply to maintain the charge and the field
E of the capacitor constant when the plates are moved apart.
Let us consider once again Fig. 4.4. The energy of the
capacitor is the energy of the field within it. In accordance
with (4.9), this energy is W = (1/2) EDSx, where S is the
surface area of each plate and x is the distance between them
(Sx is the volume occupied by the field). By formula (4.16),
the force acting on the upper plate is
1
Fx=c 8W/8x l q = "2 EDS,
whence the surface density of the force is
Problems
• 4.1. Energy of interaction. A point charge q is at a distance l
from an infinite conducting plane. Find the energy W of interaction
between this charge and the charges induced on the plane.
Solution. Let us mentally "freeze" the charge distributed over the
plane and displace under these conditions the point charge q to in
finity. In this case the charge q will move in the potential field which
is 'equivalent to the field of a fixed fictitious point charge __q, located
at a fixed distance l on the other side of the plane. We can write
straightaway
I',
'"
112 4. Energy of Electric Field Problems
113
• 4.4. Energy localization in the field. A charge q is uniformly
distrtbuCed inside a sphere of radius R. Assuming that the dielectric
constant is equal to unity everywhere, find the intrinsic electric energy
of the sphere and the ratio of the energy W
t
localized inside the sphere
to the energy W
z
in the surrounding space.
Solution. Let us first find the fields inside and outside the sphere
with the help of the Gauss theorem:
As a result of integration, we obtain
..1 q(qo+q/2) (_1 1_)
 4JH'o R
I
R
z
.•
Remark. If we try to calculate the work in terms o[ the potential
as A = q (<PI  <P2), where <p is the potential createll by the ch.argo q(l
at the point of location of the charge q, the answer would be (II [ferent
Fig. 4.6
Fig. 4.5
qZ ab
,1= <n.
. 8neo IIlJ
80181
and incorrect. is due to the fact that this does not take
into account the additional work pNformerl by electnc forces upon
the change in the configuratiOI) of the charge q located on the l'Xpand
ing shell.
• A point charge q is at the of a sphlfical
conducting layer whose inner .and radl.l are a and b respectl .
Find the work done by electnc forces III thiS system upon the remo\
al of the charge q from its original position through a small hole
(Fig. 4.6) to a very large distance from the spherical layer.
Solution. We shall proceed from the fact that the work of electric
forces is equal to the decrease in. the .electric ene.rgy of the system. As
is well known, the latter is locahzed III the field.ltself. ',fhus, the prob
lem is reduced to determination of the change III the lleld as a result
of this process. . .
It can be easily seen that the field around the charge q wtll change
only within the spherical layer with the inner radius a and the outer
radius b. Indeed, in the initial positiono.f .the there no
field in this region, while in the fmal. POSI twn there IS a certalll field
(since the conducting spherical layer IS far from the charge q). Conse
quently, the required work is
b
\' EoEz V
A=OWl=  J 2 d .
a
Considering that R = q/4nE
o
r
2
and dV = 4m
2
dr, and integrating,
we obtain
. q 1
Ez=4
Z
(r;?R).
neo r
Et = 4 q 3 r (r R),
neoR
r
Z
eo
Wt  Wz= J T (Ei En 4m
z
dr,
at
where E
t
and E
z
are the field intensities (in the hatched region at a
distance r from the centre of the system) before and after the expan
sion of the shell. By using the Gauss theorem, we find
E =_1_ q+qo __1_ k
I 4ne
o
rZ 2  4neo r
2
'
It is interesting to note that the ratio W/W
z
does not depend on
the radios of the sphere.
• 4.5. A spherical shell is uniformly charged by a charge q.
A point charge qp is at its centre. Find the work of electric forces upon
the expansion of the shell from radius R
t
to R
z
•
Solution. The work of electric forces ia equal to the decrease in
the electric energy of the system:
A = W
t
 W
2
•
1 3qz
W=
4neo 5R '
In order to find the difference WI  Wz, we note that upon the expan
sion of the shell (Fig. 4.5), the electric field, and hence the energy
localized in it, changed only in the hatched spherical layer. Conse
quently,
We can now calculate the intrinsic electric energy of the sphere:
a 00
W=Wt+Wz=) 4nrz dr +) 4nr
3
dr= (}+1).
o a
Hence, it follows that
8*
(1 )
H5 Problems
1=/o/',
voltage U. F.inu the force /' acting on a unit surface of the
plate from the dielectrIC.
The resultant force / acting per unit area of each plate
can be represented as
where /0 is the electric force acting per,unit area of a plate from the
other plate (it is just the force per umt area when the dielectric is
absent). In our case, we have
I = lole, 10 = uE = f.12/2eo, (2)
where E is the field intensity in the region one plate, creat
ed by the charges of the other plate. ConsJderwg that a c= D =
= eeoUlh and substituting (2) into (1), we obtain
/' = 10 (1  lie) = 10 (10  1) f.oU2/2h
2
•
For example, for U = 500 V, h = 1.0 mm and 10 = 81 (water), we get
l' = 7 kPa (0.07 atm).
• 4.9. The force on a A of a
homogeneous WIth the dielectrIC c IS wtro,duced
into a cylindridH capaCItor so that the layer the gap of WIdth d
between the plates. The mean radius of the plates IS Il sHch that R cl.
The capacitor is tp of a perman.ent voltage U. Fwu
the force pulling the dlelectl'lc wSlde the capaCItor.
Solution. Using the formula W = q2!2C for thf) energy of a capac
itor, we fmd that, in accordance with (4.10), the required force is
Fx =  a;: Iq = . (1)
Since d ,,<:: R the capacitance of the given capacitor can
by the formula for a paraIJelplate capacitor.. Therefore, .If the diele
ctric is introducer! to a depth x ann the capacitor length IS l, we have
Cc= + Eo (l;>.2nR (exjlx), (2)
Substituting (2) into (1), we obtain
F
x
= eo (e  1) nRU2!d.
• 4.10. A capacitor consists of two fixed plates in the form of a
semicirck of radius R and a movable plate of thiekness h made of a
dielectric with the dielectric constant 10, placed between them. The
latter plate can freely rotate about. th(' axis 0 (Fig. 4.7) and
ly fills the entire gap between the l1xed A constant voltage f! IS
maintained between the plates. Find the moment M about the aXIs 0
of forces ading 011 the movable pIa te wllPn it is placed as shown in the
figure.
SolutitJrt. The work performed by the moment of forces M upon
IiA'= qE1.dx=
2 x
2
'
It should be noted that AW = A',
by movi,ng the plates apart, we perform a positive work
the e!eetI'lc forces), The energy of the rapacitor deaeases in
tillS case. III ordrl' to understand this, we musl ronsider a SOJ'rce main
!?i!ling the potentwl diff?rence of the capacitor at a constant value.
J hiS source also accomplIshes the work A S' According to the law of
conserva,tion ,')f energy, A + A' = AlV, whence As = AW _ A' =
= 2.'1 __ 0,
(It !j .8. conductors in a dieledric. A paral
IS Im!!H'rsed, 111 the horizontal position, into a liq
Uid !helectr1c WJth the flIelectric constant 8, filling the gap of width h
between the plates. Then thf' capacitor is f'onnected to a SOur('(' of
whpl'l', A\ is intensity of the l1eld createJ by one plate (E = u/2£.0).
,It !S In tillS, fJeld that the charge located on the other plate moves.
fillS work IS completely spent for increasing the f'lectric energy'
AW A', .
(2) III this case, the force acting on each capacitor will de
(lpnd on the, between the plat!'s. Let us write the elementary
work 01 the force actlllg on a during its displacement over a dis
tane(' d.1' relative to the other plate:
where we took into account that q = eu, £1 = U!2;r, and C c= eoS/x.
Aft,,!, integration, we obtain
The ill('J'eIlH'lIt of thp el"('lrie energy of the capacitor is
• 4.7. The work done upon moving capacitor plates apart
A parallelplate air capacitor has the plates of area S eacb. Find
work A' against the electric forces, done to increase the di8tance bc
the plates from x1.to if (1) the charge q of the capacitor and
(2) voltage U ,fire mallltallled constant. Find the increml'nt.."l of thl;
elpclnc energy or the capacitor in ,he two cases.
Snlution. (1) The required work is
H4 . 4_,_Energy 01 Electric Field
5. Direct Current
5.1. Current Density. ContinUity Equation
Electric Current. In this chapter we co
selves to l' f .,. nlme our
d' . an 0 conduct JOn CUl'l'ent in a conducting
me HIm, espeCIally m metals. I t is well known that ele t .
iSh the of charge through a certain
say, t e sectJOn of a conductor).
In a. conductmg medium, current can be c . d b
trons/Ulhmetals), ions (in electrolytes), or
\ of electric field, current carriers perform
f' 0. JOn all( on average the some number of carriers
eIther sign passes tllrough each side of any imaginal'
face S. Thus, the current passing through S in this
(5.1) i = P+U+ + p_u_,
is zero. However, when an electric field is applied, an orde
red motion with a certain average veloeity u is imposed on
the chaotic motion of the carriers. and a current flows
through the surface S. Thus, an electric current is essentially
an ordered transfer of electric charges.
The quantitative measure of electric current is intensity
I, defined as the charge transferred across the surface S in
a unit time:
1= dQ/dt.
5.1. Current Density. Continuity Equation 1t 7
The unit of current is the ampere (A).
Current Density. Electric. current may be distributed non
uniformly over the surface through which it passes. Hence,
in order to characterize the current in greater detail, current
density 'vector j is introduced. The magnitude of this vector
is equal to the ratio of the current dI through a surface
element perpen,dicular to the direction of motion of charge
carriers to th€" area dSJ of this element: j =ceo dI/dS J. For
the direction of vector j we take the direction of velocity
vector u of the ordered'motion of positive carriers (or the
direction opposite to that of the velocity vector of the or
dered motion of negative carriers). If the current consists of
positive and negative charges, its density is derIDed by the
formula
where p+ and p_ are the volume densities of positive and
negative charge carriers respectively, and u + and u_ are the
velocities of their ordered motion. In conductors,where the
charge is carried only by electrons (p_ < 0 and" u+ = 0),
the current density is given by
j = p_u_. (5.2)
The field of vector i can be graphically represented wnh
the help of lines of current (lines of vector j), which are
drawn in the same way as for vector E.
Knowing the current density vector at each point of the
surface S under consideration, we can also fLlld the C'Irrent
passing through th is fiurfflce f1S the f1nx of vector j:
I = Jj·dS, (d)
5. Direct Current
Fig. 4.7
116
thc rotation of thc platc through an ". I ., I .'
tit'crcnsc in the electric cnergy of the ..gtc"e ctlllcnt da IS equal to thc
. sys em a q = const [see (4.16»):
_'\;/ z da= dWl
q
,
where W = q
2
/2C. Hence
Mz = oW /.
iJa q 2 C2 • (1)
In the case under consideration, C = C + C h
of the parts ?f the tf:
. e area 0 a sector an angle a is determined as S =
= aR2'12, and hence
C EoaR2/2h + EEo (n  a) R2/2h.
Differentiating with respect to a we find
ac,liJa = (EoR2/2h) (1E). SUbstitutin
into formula (1) and
sIderlllg that C = qlU, we obtain
U2 eoRI
MZ =2 2h(1e)
= (81) 8oR2U2 < 0
'4h .
The ncgative sign of M indicat th h
acting clockwise (oppositelyZ to the eps t de. mOI?ent of the force is
see Fig 4 7) Th' , OSI Ive IrectlOn of the angle a'
pacitor: " IS moment tends to pull the dielectric inside the
AJz a.. However,
IS due to the fact that for smail vaIu oment MZ o..ThIS dIscrepancy
as was done in the solut:on of tb' es of
b
a
l
we cannot Ignore edge eflects
,'ISpro em.
(5.6)
(5.7)
(5.8)
JI=UiR, l
where Jl is the electric resistance of the conductor.
The unit of resistance is the ohm (Q).
Resistance R depends on the shape and size of the conduct
or, on its material and temperature, and above all on the
confIguration (distribution) of the current through the con
ductor. The meaning of resistance is quite clear when we
are dealing with a wire. In a more general case of the volume
distribution of current, it is meaningless to speak of re
sistance until we know either the position of the leads at
tached to the eonductor or the current configuration.
In the simplest case of a homogeneous eylindrical eOll
ductor, resistance is given by
l
R= Ps' (:i.!l)
where l is the length of the conductor, S is its crosssectional
area, and p is the resistivity, which depends on the material
of the conductor and its temperature. Resistivity is measured
in ohmmetres (Q·m).
Resistivity of the best conductors like copper and alumi
nium is oC_the order of 10
8
Q·m at room temperature.
5.2. Ohm's Law for a Homogeneous Condnctor 1t!J
5.2. Ohm's Law for a Homogeneous Conductor
Obm's law, which was discovered experimentally, states:
the current passing through a lwmogeneous conductor is pro
portional to the potential ditJerence across its terminals (0['
to the l.101taf'!.' r
T
,.
l) .ftf
in the same way as for the flux of vector E in Sec. 1.4, we
lind that the divergence of vector j at a certain point is equal to the
decrease in the charge density per unit time at the same point:
IV·j=o.j
This Illeam; that Ior dircct current the field of vector j does not have
sources.
rV·j= ap/at. I
This lcatls to thc steadystate condition (when iJp/DI = 0):
(.5.4)
(5.5)
5. Direct Current
118
I *.)
Tllis relation is called the '.
pression for the law of . . equation. I t is an ex
In the case of a t of charge.
d
· t 'b s ea vstate (du'CCt)
IS n lItion in Sp'lce . 't ." current, the charge
W I' I 'C remalll unch I I
. Of( S, 011 t IS righthand side of E allge(. II other
sequently, for direct C\lr' t I q. (5.4) dq/dt = O. COIl
, " Tell we lave.
. Current I is a scalar al ebra" 
from formula (5.a) that o{luanttt
y
. It can be seen
the current is determined b th 1 factors, the sign of,
the normal at each point 0 Y
tJ
e cflolce of the direction of
of tl e d" n lie Sur ace S i e b tl h'
I ll"eetlOn of vectors dS If h .": Y Ie c Olce
vectors dS are reversed th . t e dIrectIOns of all the
Continuitv Equation' L e
t
I changes sign.
. .J' • e us Imagine a I rl
III ? conllucting medium throu ,h wI . c.o
se
. sUl'face S
It IS customary to choose the nch a. IS passing.
normal to closed surfaces I h ward dIrectIOn for vectors
, aD( ence for ve t dS .
sequently, the integralh . d .,' COl'S. Con
the volume V (' I J'] S gl\ es the charge leaving
A enve oped by the su f S)
. ccording to the law of 'conse t' I' ace per unit time.
IS to the decrease in tlrva of .ch?rge, this integral
unIt tIme: 18 c alge IllSHle volume V per
j dS= O.
This means that in this .
start or terminate any' I case, the lInes of vector j tlo not
to have no sources in tl:'" The. fteld of vector j is said
,e case of dIrect current.
5 ' Differential form or the conti . t
( JI) and (5.5) in the diITt'n'ntial y Let us write
ch
. j' . or t liS purpose, we express the
Ulo'e q u.s p d V J I '
... . aUf tit' right··hand of Eq (5 4)" d J .
__ JiJ ' . as at P dl
  P d I' J
. 1ii'. "lere, we have taken the partial time derivative of
SineI' r can dpPl'llll 011 lim. , . P.
C .IS wl'I1 as on coordinatp< TI
c '0 HIS,
(r, j ciS  _ I' .± (,Iii
;Y J at .
120 5. Direct Current
5.2. Ohm's Law for a Homogeneous Conductor
121
(5.10)
Differential Form of Ohl:!. 's Law. Let us establish a re
lation between the current density j and the field E at a
point of a conducting medium. We shall confine ourselves
to an isotropic conductor in which the directions of vectors
j and E coincide.
us iso!ate. around a certain point in a con
ductIng medIUm a cylIndrICal volume element with .genera
trices parallel to vector j, and hence to vector E. If the cylind
er has a cr?sssectional area dS and length dl, we can write
on the basIs of (5.8) and (5.9) the following expression for
such cylindrical element:
'dS E dl
] = pdlldS •
After cancelling out common terms we obtain the following
equation in vector form:
I I
wh?re a = 1/p is the conductivity of the medium. The unit
to an ohm is called a mho (Siemens). Consequently,
the UOlt .for the measurement of a is mho per metre.
EquatIOn (5.10) is the differential form' of Ohm's law
It does not any (derivatives), but
called the dIfferentIal form SInce it establishes a relation
between quantities corresponding to the same point in a
conductor. In other words, Eq. (5.10) is an expression for
Ohm's law at a point.
Methods for Calculating Resistance (R). There are several
methods for measuring resistance and all of them are ulti
mately on the application of relations (5.8)(5.10).
The expedIence of using a particular method is determined
by the formulation of the problem and by its symmetry.
The practical applications of these methods are described in
Problems 5.15.3 and 5.6.
. Charge in a Currentcarrying Conductor. If the current is
dlrect (constant) the excess charge inside a homogeneous
is to zero everywhere. Indeed, Eq. (5.5)
IS valId for dIrect current. Taking into account Ohm's law
in the form (5.10) we can rewrite (5.5) as follows:
aEdS=O,
u
where the integration is performed over any closed surface
S inside the conductor. For a homogeneous conductor, the
quantity a can be taken out of the integral:
EdS=O. '
According to the Gauss theorem, the remaining i?te.gral is
proportional to the algebraic sum of the charges mSlde the
closed surface S, Le. proportional to
the excess charge in this surface. How En
ever it can be directly seen from the
last' equation that this integral is
equal to zero (since a =1= 0). This means
that the excejEl charge is also equal to
. zero. Since the surface S is chosen ar
bitrarily, the excess char,ge 'under
conditions is always equal to zero m
side a conductor. ,
The excess charge can appear only 5.1
at the surface of a homogeneous con
ductor at places where it comes in C,I}lildlL with other
conductors, as well as in the regions wher8 the conductor
has inhomogeneities.
Electric Field of a CurrentcarryillgConductor. Thus,
when current flows, an excess charge appears on the
of a conductor (inhomogeneity region). In accordance WIth
(2.2), this means that the normal component of vector E
appears at the outer surface of the conductor .. Further, from
the continuity of the tangential component ?f vector E,
we conclude that a tangential component of thIS vector also.
exists near the surface of the conductor. Thus, near the. sur
face of the conductor, vector E forms (in the ofthe
current) a nonzero angle (J. with the vertical (FIg. 5.1). When
the current is absent a = O. . . .
If the current flows in a steady state, the dlstl'lbutlOn
of electric eharges in the conducting medium (generally
speaking, inhomogeneous) does not change in time, although
122 5. Direct Current 5.3. Generalized

the charges are in motion: at each point, new charges con
tinuously replace the departing ones. These moving charges
create a Coulomb field which is identieal to tbe one created
by stationary charges of the same configuration. This means
that the electric fIeld of stationary currents is a potential
field.
At the same time, electric fIeld in the case of stationary
currents differs signineantly from electrostatic, or Coulomb,
field of fixed charges. If charges are in equilibrium, the
electrostatic fwld inside a conductor is always equal to zero.
The electric field of stationary currents is also an electro
static (Coulomb) field, although the charges inducing this
field are in motion. Hence, the field E of steadystate currents
exists also inside a currentcarrying conductor.
5.3. Generalized Ohm's Law
Exlrant'ous Forces. If all the forces acting all charge
curriers wcre reduced to electrostatic forces, the positive
carriers would move under the action of these forces from
regions with a higher potential to those with a lower poten
tial, while the negative carriers would move in the opposite
direction. TIds would lead to the equalization of potentials,
and the potentials of all mutually connected conductors
would become the same, thus terminating the current. In
other words, lmder the action of Coulomb forces alone, a
stationary licld must be a static field.
In order to prevent this, a direct CUl'l'cut circuit must
contain, besides the subcircuits in whieh positive carriers
move in the direction of deereasing potential q;, subcircuits
ill whieh positive carriers move ill the direction of increas
ing If' or against the electric field forces. In these subcircuits,
the transfer of carriers is possible only through forces that
are not electrostatic. vVe shall call such forces extraneous.
Thus, a direct current can be sustained only witlt the
help of extraneous forces whicu are applied either to cer
tain parts of the cirellit, or to the entire eircuit. The
physieal naturo of oxl I'illH'OliS forcos may be ql1ite diverse.
Snell fOl'ecs may bo ('!"pated by physieal or chemical inho
ill a ('olldllclor, rot· O\,llllplc, roreps l'esllltin,g
from a cO/llact ol" rondllctors or different types (galvanic
cells, accumulators) or eondllctors at different temperatures
(thermocouples). .
G I
· d Ohm's Law In order to deSCrIbe extraneous
Ienera lze· f e fJ el d
forces quantitatively, the concepts of extrane?us orc. I .
and its strength E* are introduced. The IS
equal to the extraneous foree acting on a umt posltl\:e
Let us now turn to current density. If an e it
generates in a conductor a current of d.enslty l  oE, E
is obvious that under the combined actlOn of the, field '11
and the extraneous force field E*, the current denSIty WI
be given by
tj=o(E+E*). \ (;).11)
This equation generalizes the law to, the
inhomogeneolls regions of a conductlllg and
called the generalized Ohm's law in the
Ohm's La,,' for a Nonun iform Subcll'cml.. Nonumform
subcil'cuits are characterized by the presence of extraneOIlS
forces in them,' ,., t t
Let us consider a special, but practICally qUIte.lmpor an
case when a current flows along a thin wire. In thIS
d'il'ec.tion of the current will coincide with the aXIs of t 10
wire and the current density j can be to be
at all points on the cross section of the WIre, Suppose th..
crosssectional area of the wire is equal 8 (8 need not
be the same over the entire length of the WIre): _1 .
Dividing both sides of Eq. by formIIlg a SC,l HI '.
prodnc.t of the resulting expresSIOn ":Ith the element. dl
of the wire along its axis from erosS to sect I?"
2 (this direction is taken as the P?SItlve dIrectIOn) and
tegrating over the length of the WIre between the two c c'
sections, we obtain
2 2 2
(;).12)
j 1 1
Let lIS transform the integrand in the, fl.rst integr,al: .we
re
.p]oc(' (J hv iff) and J. ill by jidl, where JI IS the pl'OJectIOll.
.. . .' " . . II F·t! we IIOt('
of veetor j onto the (hrcdlOII of vecLor {, III \Cr, .' .
that jt is an algebraic quantity and depends OIl the Ollenta
124
5. Direct Current
5.3. Generalized Ohm's Law 125
(5.13)
Ra TI
Ri+R
a
= 1+TI •
tion of vector j relative to dl: if j tt dl then j 1 > 0; if j #dI,
then j 1 < O. Finally, we replace j 1 by liS, where I the
current, is also an algebraic quantity (like j I)' Since' I is
the same in all sections of the circuit when we are dealing
with direct current, this quantity can be taken out of the
integral. Cosequently, we get
2 2
fjdl=If
J (J .IPs·
1 1
The expression P dllS defines the resistance of the sub
circuit of length dl, while the integral of this expression is
the total resistance R of the circuit between cross sections
1 and 2.
Let us now consider the righthand side of (5.12). Here,
'0 R the first integral is the poteo
. tial difference 'PI  'Pz, while
1 2 the second integral is the elec
tromotive force (e.mJ.) act
"'2 iog in the given subcircuit:
2
= ) E*dl. (5.14)
121
Fig. 5.2 Like the current I, the electro
. . . .. motive force is an algebraic
quantity: If e.m.f. facIlItates the motion of positive carriers
in a certain direction, then ifIll> 0; if, the e.m.f. hinders
this motion t"12 < O.
As a result of all the transformations described above
(5.12) assumes the follOWing form: '
I , (5.15)
This equation is the integral form of Ohm's law for a n01t
uniform subcircuit [ef. Eq. (5.11) which describes the same
law in the differential formJ. .
. Example. the subcircuit shown in Fig. 5.2. The resistance
IS nonz?ro. only. III the .segment H. The lower part of the tigure shows
the variatIOn of potential !P over this region. Let us analyse the course
of events in this circuit. .
Since the potential decreases over the segment R fr0l!! .left t?
I > O. This means that the current flows in the posItIve dIrectIOn
(from 1 to 2). In the present case! Ipl <.lp2' but .f1ows
point 1 to point 2, Le. towards ThIs IS
only becausp.an e.mJ. ,g is actIng Ifi this CIrcUIt from 1 to 2, I.e. m
the' positive direction.
Let us consider Eq. (5.15). It follows from
that points 1 and 2 are identic.al for a . closed . cIrcUIt, I.e:
«PI = «PI' In this case, the equatwn acqUIres a sImpler form.
RI = (5.16)
where R is the total resistance of the closed and
is the algebraic sum of all the .e.m:f. 's in circuit. .
Next we consider the subClrcUIt contallllllg the source
of the between terminals 1 and 2. Then, R in (5.15)
will be the internal resistance of the e.m.f. source in t.he
subcircuit under consideration, while 'PI  'P2 the potential
difference its terminals. If the source is disconnected,
I '= 0 and l= 'P2  'Pl' In other words, the e.m,f. of
the source can be defmec! as the potential difference across
its terminals in the open circuit.
The potential difference across the terminals of an e.m.f.
source connected to an external resistance is always less
than its e.m.f. and depends on the load.
Example. The external resistance of circuit is TJ times higher th,an
the internal resistance of the source. Fmd the ratIO of the potential
dillerence across the terminals of the source to its e.m.f.
Let R be the internal resistance of the source and R
a
the external
resistance' of the circuit. According to (5, i5), '!P2  !PI = ,g  R,!I
while according to (5.16), (R
j
+ R
a
) ! =,g. From these two equa
tions, we get
1p2Ip, = 1 Ri! = 1 Rj
If r!J RdRa
It follows from here that the higher the value of TI, the closer the
tential difl'crence across the current terminals to its e,m.f., and VIce
versa.
Concludina this section, let us consider a picture illus
trating the 'how of direct current in a closed circuit. Fig
ure 5.:3 shows the distribution of potential along a closed
126 5. Direct Current
Fig. 5.;> Fig. 5.4
as shown ill lhe figure. Applying Ohm's Jaw (;j.1S) 10 cach
of the three suhcircuits. we obtain
11RI = qJ2 cps +'f
l
,
1
2
H
z
= cps  CfJI t 'f
2
,
I sRI. = qJl  IP2 +'(s·
III order to pl'OVl' law. il to eOllsidl'" the
C,lse when lhe circuil cOllsists of three su!lcireuils (Fig. :i.:l)_
LeI liS assunH' Ihe dirl'dioll of cil'CllmVl'lIlioll to he clockwise,
Adding these equations and cancelling all potentials, we
arrive at formula (5.18), i.e. Kirchhoff's second law.
Thus, Eq. (5.18) is a consequence of Ohm's law for 1l011
lIniforIll subcireuils.
Setting up of a System of Equations. In each specifIC case,
1\ irchhoff's laws lead 10 a complete syslem of algcbrait:
equaliollswhich call he used, say, for l'ilHlilig all the llll
known currents in the circllit.
The number of equations of the form (:'>.17) and (5.18)
Illust he equal to the Ilumber of unknown quan! ilies. Care
should be taken to ensure that Ilone of the equiltions is iI
corollary of allY olher equalioll ill lhe system:
(1) if a branchell circuit has N jllnctiolls, illdejwllt!I'nt
equations of lype (5.17) can he set up only for N 1 JUIII'
lions, and the equation for lhe last jUliet ion will he iI r'ornl
lary of tile preceding equations;
(:2) if a D!'i111clied cirelli! containC' seve!'al ell'S!"! Inops.
tlw indepc'nl[pill eqllil1ions o[ C,.iS) Coli! 1)(' up only
fol' loops which eal!lIo( Ill' "htainpd hy !'u!lL'rilililosillg"
the 100Jls con:,idl'l'ed heron'_ 1"01' p\amplp, "111'11 rljll,l
I iO/lS will Lt, independl'lil for loops 7.'24 and 234 oj' the
(5.18)
circuit containing the e.m.f. source on segment AB. For
the sake of clarity of representation, potential <p is plotted
'P along the generatrices of a cylindri
A cal surface resting on the current con
tour. Points A and B correspond to
the positive and negative terminals
of the SOUice. It can be seen from the
figure that the flow of current can be
described as follows: the positive
charge carriers "slide" along the in
F
· 5 3 dined "chute" from point lOA to point
19. . 't'
<P B along the external suhcircuit
while inside the source, carriers "rise" from point qJ B to qJ ,
with the help of extraneous force shown by an arrow. A
5.4. Branched Circuits. Kirchhotrs Laws
Calculations of branched circuits, for example, determina
tion of current in individual branches, can be considerably
simplified by using the following two Kirchhoff's laws.
Kirchhoff's Fircit Law pertains to the junctions, Le.
branch points in a circuit, and states that the algebraic
sum of the currents meeting at a junction is equal to zero:
= O. (5.17)
currents converging at a junction and diverging from
It are supposed to have opposite signs; for example, we can
the t? and .the latter. to be negative
(or VIce versa, tillS IS ImmaterIal): When applIed to Fig. 5.4,
Eq. (5.17) assumes the form II _. 1
2
+ 1
3
0== O.
Equation (5.17) is a consequence of the steadystate con
dition (5.7); otherwise, the charge at ajunction would cllilnge
and the currents would not be in a steady state.
Kirchhoff's Second Law. This law is applicahle to any
closed contour in a brandied eirenit dnd states that the
algebraic sum of the products of cwnfit and resistance in each
part of a network is equal tv the algebraic sum of e.m.f. 's in
the circuit: '
129
5.5. loule'lJ Law
5.5. Joule's Law
The passage of current through a conductor having a
resistance is invariably accompanied by liberation of heat
(heating of conductors). Our task is to find the
of heat liberated per unit time in a certain part of the mr
\IOIM I
direction of circumvention, the:corresponding Iterm IR .in
(5.t8) should be taken with the positive sign; in the
case, the minus sign should be used. The pr?cedure
applicable to lJ: if an e.m.f. increases po.tentIaI 1Il
rection of circumvention, it should be assIgned the pOSItive
sign; the negative sign should be used in the opposite case.
Example. Find the and of the passing
through resistor R in the CIrCUIt shown m Fig. 5.8. All reSIstances and
e.m.f.'s are assumed to be known. R
There are three subcircuits, and hence,
three unknown currents I, I).. and 12 in
this circuit. We mark (arbitrarily) the sup
posed directions of these currents by ar
rows (at the right jU!lction). . . I
The circuit contams N = 2 JunctIOns.
This means that there is only one inde 12
pendent equation of type (5.17):
I + II + 12 = O.
Let us now ,Met up equations of type lS2
(5.18). According to the number of sub
circuits there should be two of them. Let F' 58
us con;ider the loop co.taining Rand Ig. .
R
I
and the loop R R2 • Taki.ng
the clockwise directIOn for clrcumventmg each of these loops, we
can write
IR + I
1
R
1
= 1!!1> IR + I 2R2 = 1!!2'
We can verify that the corresponding equation fo.r the with
Rand R can be obtained from these two equatIOns. Solvmg the
I 2 • bt .
system of three equatIOns, we 0 am
1 RI I!!2+
R
21!!1
 R
I
R
2
+RR
I
+RR
2
'
If we fmd that as a result of substitution of numerical into
this equation I > 0 the current actually flows as shown III Fig. 5.8.
If I < 0, the flows in the opposite direction.
3
1
Fig. 5.7
5. Direct Current
Fig. 5.6
128
circuit shown in Fig. j,G. Equation fot' tho loop 1234
will follow from the two preceding olles. It is possible to
set up autonomous equations for two other loops, say,
124 and 1234. Theil the equation for contour 284 will be a
consequence of these two equations. The number of auto
nomous eql..\ations of type (5.18) will be equal to the smallest
number of discontinuities which must be created in a cir
cuit . in order to break all the loops. This number is
equal to the number of subcircuits bounded by conductors
if the circuit can be drawn in a plane without intersections.
I:or example, it is necessary to set up three equations of
type (5.17) and three of type (5.18) for a circuit (Fig. 5.7)
containing four junctions. This is so because the number of
discontinuities (marked by crosses in the circuit) breaking
all the loops is three (the number of subcircuits 'is also
equal to three in this case). If we assume the currents to
be unknown the number of discontinuities will be six in
accordance with the number of subcircuits between junctions,
which corresponds to the number of independent equations.
The following procedure should be adopted while set
ting up equations of type (5.17) and (5.18).
1. The directions of currents are marked hypothetically
by arrows, without 'caring for the direction of these arrows.
. If a certain current turns out to be positive as a result of
calculations, this means that the direction chosen for it is
correct. If, however, the current is found to be negative, its
actual direction will be opposite to the one pointed by the
arrow.
2. Having selected an arbitrary dosed loop, we cir
cumvent its sections in one direction, sayl clockwise. If
the assumed direction for any current coincides with the
Iii
iii
'Ii
131
(5.20)
(5.19)
This formula expresses Joule's law in the differential form:
the thermal power density of current at any point is
tional to the square of the current density and to the res£stw£ty
of the medium at that point. .
Equation (5.20) is the most. general. form, of l.oule's law,
applicable to all conductors IrrespectIve of or
homogeneity, as well as the nature of .forces mduce
the electric current. If the charge earners are subJected to
electric forces only, we can write, on the basis of Ohm's law
(5.10),
Qd=j.E=aE2. (5.21)
This equation is of a less general than
Nonuniform Subcircuit. If a subClrcUIt contams a source
This is the expression for the wellknown Joule's law.
We shall now derive an expression for the differential
form of this law, eharacterizing the liberation of heat at
different parts of a conducting medium. For this purpose,
we isolate a volume element of this medium in the form of
a cylinder with its generatrices parallel to vector j, viz.
the current density at the given point. Let dS and.dllbe the
crosssectional area and length of the small cylmder re
spectively. The amount liberatedin .this
the time dt will be given, m accordance WIth Joule s law, by
fJQ =;,RI2 dt = (j dS)2 dt = pj2 dV dt,
where dV = dS dl is the volume of the small cylinder. Di
viding the last equation' by dV dt, ':Ie .obta.in a fo
7
mula for
the amonnt of heat liberated per umt tIme m a umt volume
of the conducting medium, or the thermal power density of
the currtmt:
Since in accordanee with Ohm's law CPI  lJl2 = RI,
we get
5.5. Joule's Law
_.
5. Direct Current 130
._=:.:..=..::..:..::.:...::..::::..:.;:.:::..
cuit. We shall consider two cases which are possible, viz.
uniform and nonuniform subcircuits. The problem is consid
ered on the basis of the law of conservation of energy and
Ohm's law.
Uniform Subcircuit, Suppose that we are interested in
the region between cross sections 1 and 2 of a conductor
(Fig. 5.9). Let us find the work
2 done, by the field during a time
interval dt in the region 12.
If the cuuent through the con
ductor is equal to I, a charge
dq = I dt will pass through each
. cross 'section of the conductor
. FIg, 5.9 during the time dt. In particular,
this charge dq will enter cross
1 and the tsame charge will leave cross section 2.
distribution in the conductor remains unchanged
case (the current is the whole process
IS eqUIvalent to a transfer of charge dq from section 1 to
section 2 with potentials CPI and CPI respectively.
Hence the work done by the field in such a charge trans
fer is
6A =dq (CPI  CPI) = I (CPI  CPa) dt.
According to the law of cons9l'vation of energy, an equiv
alent amount of energy must be liberated in another form.
If the conductor is stationary and no chemical transforma
tions take place in it, this energy must be liberated in the
form of internal (thermal) energy.. Consequently, the con
ductor gets heated. The mechanism of this transformation
is quite as a result of the work done by the field,
charge . . electrons in metals) acquire
an energy which is then spent on exciting
lattIce VIbratIOns due to collisions of the carriers with the
lattice sites' atoms.
Thus, in accordance with the law of conservation of ener
gy, the elementary work 6A = 'Q dt, where Qis the heat
liberated per unit time (thermal power). A comparison of
this equation with the preceding one gives
In other words, the total] oule heat liberated per unit time
in the entire circuit is equal to the power developed by
extraneous forces only. This means that heat is generated
only by extraneous forces. The role of the electric field
is reduced to redistribution of this heat over different parts
of the circuit.
We shall now derive Eq. (5.22) in the differential form.
For this purpose, we multiply both sides of Eq. (5.11) by
(5.24)
.5,6. Transient Processes in a Capacitor Circllit

5.6. Transient Processes in a Capacitor Circuit
Transient Processes. These are processes i?vol.ving
a transition from one stationary regIme of the CircUlt to
another. An example of such a process I
is the charging and of.a 0
capacitor, which will be conSIdered III
detail in this section. . C q± R
So far, we have considered only (h
rect current#It turns out, that , K
most of the laws obtained lfl thIS case
are also to Fig. 5.10
rents. This applIes to aU cases lD Wlll.ch
the variation ofeurrent is not too rapId. . )I
The 'instantaneous value of current will then practlca y
be the same at all cross sections of the eircuit.
I
e ld . ted' W'\·tli them are called quaslstatzonary
aIll l1e s aSSOCIa ' . . d
(a more exact eriterion for currents an
fields is given in Sec. 11.1). . I • I ws
Quasistationary currents can be deSCribed. by t 10 a ,
obtained 'for constant currents by applying these laws to
instantaneous values of . . r f a
Let us now caIlsidet' the dlschargmg and ChalgIIlg 0
. h' t in these processes
capacitor, assumwg that t e curren s '
are quasistationan. I I
Discharging of Capacitor. If the plates of a c
c,apacitor wilh eapacitance C are connected a
tor R a current will flow through the resistOl'. et ,q
and Ube the instantaneous values current,
of the positive plate, ana the potential lhfference bet.ween
the plates (voltage). .' .\ '
Assuming that the CIIlTent I is It df;)s
from the positive plate to the negatIve plate (F Ig. . ,
d
. I tl t ,." 1/p 311d pJ'2 Q"d (see (5.20».
. an COIlSH or 13 lJ c.c= ••
thermal power density of curront 1Il an mllOffiogeneous
medium can then he written in the form
(5.23) Q='f:l.
5. Direct C', rent 132
of c.m.f., the charge carriers will be subjected not only to
electric forces, but to extraneous forces as wel1. In accordance
with the law of cOllservatioD of energy, the amount of heat
liberated in this case will be equal to the algebraic sum of
the works done by the electric and extraneous forces. The
same applies to the corresponding powers: the thermal power
must be equal to the algebraic sum of the powers due to
electric and extraneous forces. This can be easily verified
by multiplying (5.15) by /:
R/2 = (<pt  'P2) / + W,/. (5.22)
The lefthand side of this expression is the t,hermal power
Q liberated in the subcircuit. In the presence of extraneous
forces, the value of Qis determined by the same formula
(5.19) which is applied to a uniform subcircuit. The last
term on the righthand side is th..! power generated by ex
traneous forces in the subcircuit uNIHf consideration. It
should also be noted that the last H'1'ill (ll) is an algebraic
quantity and, unlike R/2, it its sign wh!m the di
rection of the current / is revt)f<;ed. .
Thus, (5.22) indicates that tho heat liberated in the re
gion between points 1 and 2 is equnl, to the algebraic sum of
the electric and extraneous powers. The sum of these powers,
Le. the righthand side of this equation, is called the electric
power developed in the subcircuit. It can then be stated
that for a stationary subcircuit, the thermal power evolved
is equal to the electric power developed in the subcircuit
by the current.
Applying (5.22) to the entire unbranched circuit ('PI =
= <P2), we get •
_:i"._
,,'o',;,
,
5.13.
(5.30)
o
Fig. 5.13
Fig. 5.12
U .ccco qlC, we can rewrite
1= = loe
tlt
,
where 10 = 'f,1ll. f d I on t are shown in Fig.
The depemlences 0 q an
Integrating this equation under __ 0 we obtain
d
't' q  0 at t  ,
the initial COli 1 1011 
RG In( 1  ;c )=  t,
whence _ (1 _et1t). . (5.29)
q qm ··t 'rh'\rge
_ ",C is the limitillg value of the or ' (
Hero qm _RC .
(for t + 00), HIIlI = 'tl' time according to the followlIlg
The current vallCS WI 1.
law:
o
•
dq 8q/C
dt"= R .
Separating the variables, we get
Rdq =dt.
8Q/C
Fig. 5.11
that I = dq/j.t and 'P2  qJI =
the last equ:ation in the form
C ·t· Circuit 135
5.6. Transient Processes i.n a apacl or
t tl e
loop 1'f,R2, we get
'. 0 1
RI = qJI  qJ2 + .
. . of the circuit, includlllg
where R is the total reslstalnce f source. Considering
the internal resistance of t le e.m..
'i·
._' ,;i_
';'i
,
,
(5.27)
(5.25)
T = RG.
5. Direct Current

dq If
dt + RC O.
After separating the variables in this differential equation
and integrating, we get
q =., qoe Itt, (5.26)
where 1
0
= qo/T is the current at the instant t = O.
Figure 5.11 shows the dependence of the capacitor charge
q on time t. The / vs. t dependence also has the same form.
Charging of a Capacitor. Consider a circuit in which
a capacitor G, a resistor R and a source of e.m.f. '0 are
connected in series (Fig. 5.12). To begin with, the capacitor
is not charged (key K is open). At the instant t == 0 the
key is closed, and a current starts to flow through the circuit,
thus charging the capacitor. The increasing charge on the
capacitor plates will obstruct the passage of the cunent
and gradually decrease it.
The ClllTent in the circllit will now be assllmed positive
if it flows toward the positive plate of the cnpacitor: I
= dqldt. Applying Ohm's law for a non\luifonll sHbcircuit
we can write I =  dqldt. According to Ohm's law, we
obtain the following expression for the external subcircuit
having resistance R: .
RI = U.
where go is the initial charge on the capacitor and T is a
constant having dimensions of time:
COJisidering that I =  dqldt and U = giG, we can
transform the above equation as follows:
134
This constant is called relaxation time. It can be seen from
(5.26) that T is the time during which the capacitor charge
decreases to 1Ie of its initial value.
Differentiating (5.26) with respect to time, we obtain
the law of variation of current:
dq
1= (it=/oe
tlt
, (5.28)
Problems
.• Resistance of a conducting medium. A metallic s here of
a IS surrounded by a concentric thin metallic shell of l d' b
fhe space bet,,:een two is filled with a homoa
poorly conductIng medIUm of reSIstIVity p. Find the resistanc: of th
gap between the two electrodes. e
d Let us isolate a thin spherical layer between
ra 11. rand r t dr. Lmes of current at all points of this layer are r
to It, and therefore such a layer can be treated as a cy\'fn
drIca! conductor of length dr and a crosssectional area 4 . Z U'
formula (5.9), we can write nr. SIng
dr
dR=p 4
nr
Z
137
u
'
eeo E" dS
U
u
Problem'
q
C=(f
conductors and C is the mutual capacitance of the conductors in the
presence of the medium.
Solution. Let us mentally supply the charges +q and q to the
conductors. Since the medium between them is poorly conduc.ting.
the surfaces of the conductors are equipotential, and the neld configu
ration is the same as in the absence of the medium.
Let us surround, for example, the positively charged conductol' by
a closed surface S directly adjoining the conductor and calc:ulat.e R
and C separately:
U
R=T
where the integrals are taken over the given surface S. While calcu.
luting R, we used Ohm's law in the form j = (JE, and C was calcula
ted with the help of the Gauss theorem.
Multiplying these expressions, we obtain
",' RC = eoe/a = eoEp.
• 5.4. Conditions on the of a conductor. A conductor
with resistivity p borders OJ! a dielectric whose dielectric coustant is
e. The electric induction at a certain point A at the surface of the con
ductor is equal to D, vectorD being directed away from the conductor
and forming angle a with the normal to the surface. Find the surface
charge density on th.e conductor and the current density near the
point A.
Solution. The surface charge density on the conductor is given by
(J = D
n
= D cos a.
The current density can be found with the help of Ohm's law: j =
= E/p. It follows from the continuity equation (5.5) that the normal
components of vector j are equal, and since in the dielectric ill = 0
(there is no current), in the conductor we also have in = O. HeDt:e,
vector j in the conductor is tangent to its surface. The same applies
to vector E inside the conductor.
On the other hand, it follows from the theorem on circulation
of vector E that its tangential components on. difIerent sides of tb;e
interface are equal, and hence E = E
t
= J) SIn alee., where E", 15
the tangential component of vector E in the dielectric. Taking tJieBe
arguments into account, we obtain
E Dsina
j =p eoep
• 5.5. The gap between the plates of a parallelplate capacitor is
filled consecutively by two dielectric layers 1 and 2 with thicknesses
11 and 1
2
, dielectric constants CI and E2' PI and f,,'
The capacitor is under a permanent voltage (;, the electrIC field bemg
5. Direct Current
136
Integrating this expression with respect to r between a and b, we get
R =..i!.. (1.._1.)
4n: a b •
• 5.2. Two identical metallic balls of radius a are placed in a
hOI.nogeneous boorly conducting medium with resistiVity p F'nd th
of b
t
e medium the balls under tbe
e IS "nce etween them IS much larger than their size.
. Solution. Let us mentally impart charges +q and _ to th b II
Smce ba}ls are at a large distance from one anothe/ fletd
nhar t e
f
sh" ace of each ball is practically determined only by the
c 0 t sphere, and its charge can be considered to be
uIlIformly dIstrIbuted over the surface. Surrounding the ositiv I
by a concentric sphere adjoining directly the
face, we WrIte the expression for the current through this sphere;
1= 4lta
2
j,
where j is the current density. Using Ohm's law (/' = Elp) and the
formula E = q/4neoa2, we obtain
1= qleop.
Let us now flIld the potential difference between the balls:
U = lp +  lp_ 2ql4nEoa.
The sought resistance is given by
R = UII = p/2na.
:thiStreSfUtlht is regardless of the magnitude of the dielectric con
"an 0 erne mm.
. . ., 5.3. Two of arbitrary shape are placed into an in
slIghtly cond.ucting medium with the resistivity p
t.hi' w e. FJ!Id the value of the product RC for
Ii system. \It here R lli the rClillitunce of the medium between the
(1)
139
Fig. 5.14
Problem.
Am + As =
where Am is the mechanical work accomplished by extraneous forces
against electric forces, A s is the work of the voltage source in this
process, and W is the corresponding increment in the energy of the
capacitor (we assume that contributions of other forms of energy to
the change in the energy of the system is negligibly small).
Let us find Wand A s. It follows from the formula W = CU2/2 =
= qU!2 for the energy of a capacitor that for U = const
= U2/2 = t!.q U/2. (2)
Since the capacitance of the capacitor decreases upon the removal of
the plate < 0), the charge of the capacitor also (t'..q <
< 0). This means that the charge has passed through the source against
the direction of the 1i.ction of extraneous forces, and the source has
done negative work
taining resistors Rand Ro, we can write
(R + R
o
) I = It 
where the positive direction is chosen clockwise. On the other hand, for
the nonuniform subcircuit aRb of the circuit we have
As = !'"q'U,
The charge on plate 1 is determined by the formula ql = C (CPI  CPI)'
Therefore, the final result is
RC
...' ql= R+R
o
It can be seen that ql > 0 It > Ito and vice versa.
• 5.8. The work of an e.mJ. source. A glass plate completely
fills the gap between the plates of a parallelplate capacitor whose
capacitance is equal to C. when the plate is absent. The capacitor is
connected to a source of permanent voltage U. Find the mechanical
work which must be done against electric forces for extracting the
plate out of the capacitor.
Solution. According to the law of conservation of 'energy, we can
write
RI = CPa  CPb + It,
while lor the suhcircuit aCb we have
+ CPI  CPI = CPb  CPa·
The joint solution of these equations
gives
5. Direct Current
t38
directed from layer 1 to 2 F' d h
charges at the interface tth
e
sd'!rlfacte. delnsit
y
of extraneous
S I
. . e Ie ec ric ayers.
o utJon. The required f h
sur ace c arge density is given by
a = Ds  D  8 8 E E
n , In 02 2e0
8 1 l' (1)
In order to determine E and E h I
since h = ii' it follows lhat E 7' sEall make use .of two conditions:
= U. Solving the two ea' I PI  2 P2' and besides EII
I
+ E 1 _
values into (t), we tIOns, we find Eland E2 • SUbstituting
a= B2P2
e
IPI U
PIll +P212 eo •
Hence it follows that a = Of,or _
, 8l PI  e2P2'
• 5.6. Nonhomogeneous c d t I
cular cross section of area S . on DC or. A ong conductor of a cir
dc
he
pe
!1ds only on the distance a dterial resistivity
w re a is a constant Th d e cpn uctor aXIS as p = a/r2
intensity E in the uctor current I. Find (1) field
of the conductor. and (2) the resistance of the unit length
Solution. (1) In accordance w'th Oh ' '.
related to current density i wh·l
l
.. m
l
s d
law
, field lDtensity E is
can write· ,Ie I IS re ate to current I. Hence we
1= Jj21tr dr= J(Elp) 2nr dr.
The field intensity E is the sam II'
th!! given conductor, Le. is ind
e
at d pOI ts of the cross section of
:::.: :, O{h:'
and then applying to this con\th, exahmple, the conductor's axis
vector E. our e t eorem on circulation of
Thus, E can be taken out f th .
gration we obtain 0 e lDtegral, and as a result of inte
E = 2naI182.
(2) The resistance of a u 't I h
wHhthe help of the R of can be found
equation by length lof the sectio;;oF/{ DlvdldlD
g
both sides of this
R and voltage U, We find e con uctor, haVing resistance
R u = Ell = 2na182.
• 5.7. Ohm's law for no 'f
shown in Fig. 5.14 the emf' nunl d
rm
suhcircuit. In the circuit
Raland .R" and the Iffo?{ sourckes, the resistances
n resistances of sources are ne l"blcapaci or are nown. The inter
plate 1 of the capacitor: g 19l Y small. Find the charge on
Solution. In accordance ali 'I f
m s aw or,a closed circuit con
141
(2)
respect to
dE dt
T' RC'
6.1. Lorentz Force. Field B
1
dt C'
Integrating the last equation, we obtain
l
It IIRC Fig. 5.16
n
1
= RC' 1=100 , (3)
o
where I. is deterqrincd by condition (2) for q = qo, Le. 10 = qolRC.
Substituting (3) into (1) and intewating over time, we get
2
Q=...!!!... (1_0
21
/
RC
).
2C
6. Magnetic Field in a Vacuum
RI = q/C.
Let. us differentiate (2) with
t.ime:
6. t. Lorentz Force. Field B
Lorentz Force. Experiments show that the forc.e F acting
on a point charge q generally depends not only on the posi
tion of this charge but also on its velocity v. Accordingly,
the force F is decomposed into two components, viz. the
electric component Fe (which does not depend on the motion
of the charge) and the magnetic component Fm (which
depends on the charge veloc.ity). The direction and magn i
tude of the magnetic force at any point of space depend
on the velocity v of the charge, this force being always
perpendicular to vector v. Besides, at any point, the magne
tic force is perpend icnlar to the direction specifiCd at this
point. Finally, the magnitude of this force is proportional
to the velocity component which is perpendicular to
direction.
or
SoluUlIn. The required amount of heat is given by
I
Q= JllP dt, (1)
" U
Irom which it follows that first of all we must find the time dPpendence
I (t). For this purpose, we shall use Ohm's law for the part JR2 of .
t.
he
circuit (Fig. 5.16):
RI = fill  lJl2 = 1I,
:S. Direct Current
140
Comparing formulas (3) and (2), we obtain
As = 2.1 W.
of this expression into (1) gives
Am = .1W A 1
or III = 2" (e  1) Co1I
2
•
f Thus, extracting the plate out of th .
do a positivework(a<Ja't 1•.e capaCitor, we (extraneous
thIs case accomplishes a e ('k
Lrlc
fdrces) .. The e.mJ. source in
tor decreases: wor , an the energy of the capaci
Am > 0, As < 0, .1 W < O.
• 5.9. Transient proccSse A . .
of e.m.f. tE, and a CircUIt co,!sists of a permanent
nes. The internal resistance 'of th R and. connected in se
m?ment t = 0, the capacitance' e source Is.negliglbly small. At the
WIse) decreased by a factor of 11 rhPacltor abruptly (jump
t·t e current III the circuit as a
1 Ime.
1
... . Solution. We write Ohm's law
1 mhomogeneous part ltER2 f th
& .!.l2 (Fig. 5.15); 0 e CircUit
RI = <PI  <P2  {! = 1I  €].
R
Considering that U = qlC' where C' _
= Cit], we obtain '
Fig. 5.15
RI = t]q/C _ Ji'
. . '" . (1)
dd'Ierentillte this equation with r .
III our case (q decreases) dq/dt = _l;es
p
ect to tune, considering that
R dE TJ dl
([t=C
I
, r=T= dt.
Integration of this equation gives
I 1 Tjl/RC
1
0
RC ' =. oe ,
where J0 is determined by condition (1) I d d
• 11 ee , we can wri te
RIo = TJqo/C  e,
where go = ,ffC is the char e f h .
has changed. Therefore, got e capacitor hefore its capacitance
10 = (11  1)
.5.10. A charge qo was su lied t . ,.' .
C, which at the moment t = lP h
O
a cal,antor with capacitance
the amount of heat liberated in J:eas s .unted hy resistor R. Hnd
resIstor as a function ot time I.
II1I
1'['
1
1
.
1
II
'I;
1
1'1
I'
III
II
143
(6.3)
B
Fig. 6.1
6.1. Lorentz Force. F£eld B
• Formula (6.3) is also valid in the case when the charge moves
with an acceleration, hut only at suffIciently small distances r from
the charge (so small that the velocity v of the charge does not noti
ceably change during the time ric).
\
B=.fQ.. q[vx
r
] \
411: r
3
,
If.:
wltere is the magnetic constant, the coefficient
= '10
7
HIm,
and r is the radius vector from the point charge q to the
point of observation. The tail of the radius vector r is
fixed in a given frame of refe
rence, while its tip moves with
velocity v (Fig. 6.1). Conse
quently, vector B in the given
reference frame depends not
only on the position of the
point of observation but on
time as well.
In accordance with formu
la (6.3), vector B is directed
normally to the plane containing vectors v and r, the rota
tion around vector v in the direction of vector B forming
of the (inertial) reference system. On the other hand, the
magnetic component of the Lorontz force varies upon a tran
sition from one frame of reference to another (because of v).
Therefore, the electric component qE must also change.
Hence it follows that the decomposition of the total force F
(the Lorentz force) into the electric and magnetic compo
nents depends on the choice of the reference system. Without
specifying the reference system, such a decomposition is
meaningless.
Magnetic Field of a Uniformly Moving Charge. Experi
ments shoW that magnetic field .is generated by moving
C1harges (currents). As a result of the generalization of expe
rimental results, the elementary law defining the field B
of a point charge q moving at a constant nonrelativistic
velocity v was obtained. This law is written in the form*
(6.1) BI. F
m
= q [v )(
6. Magnetic Field in a Vacuum 142
All tltc!o'(' propcrtic' f .
by introdll;;ill r the magnetIc can be described
this field by B °II fteld.
at each pomt of sp'lce W(e the specIfic direction
magnetic force ,in 'tl:e can WrIte the expression for
Tl.wn the. total electromagnetic force
wIll be gIven by . acting on charge q
• Several methods of measurin fi ld B h
the fmal analysis, thev all a b g Ie ave been worked out. In
describeu by Eq. (G.2). • re ased on the phenomena that can be
I F=qE+q Iv x RI· I (6.2)
It is called the Lorentz for E· .' . .
it is valid for constant as IS un.iversaI:
magnctic fIelds for any velo 't as or
f
vlarYIn
g
electric and
Th
. . CI Y V 0 t lC charge
e actIOn of the Lorentz fo .
ciple be used for determinin on a. charge can in prin
of vectors E and B. Hence gth magmt.udes and directions
force can be considered e for the Lorentz
magnetic fields (as was do t.he of electric and
It should be field). *
on an electric charge at rest I } . oes not act
essentially differs from 1 field
only on moving charges. c e. agnetIc fIeld acts
Vector B character'· tl f .
fIeld on a movin lC oree actlllg due to magnetic
an analog of and in this respect it is
to electric field. aracteflZIng the force acting due
A distinctive feature of m t' f .
perpendicular to the ore; If that it is always
fore, no work is done over the c or 0 t. Ie charge. There
energy of a charged particle ch:zrge: TIllS means that the
tic field alwa ,. . movmg In a permanent magne
motion of the unchanged h'respective of the
In the no 1 l' . .
(6.2), like
145
(6.6)
6.2. The BiotSavart Law
The BiotSavart Law. Let us consider the problem
of determining the magnetic field created by a direct electric
current. We shall solve this problem on the basis of law (6.3)
determining the induction B of the fwld of it uniformly
moving point charge. We substitute into the charge
pdF for q (where dV is the volume element and p is the
volume charge density) and take into account that ill accord
100181
6.2. The BiotSavart Law
The Principle of Superposition. Experiments show that
magnetic fields, as well as eleetric fields, obey the principle
of superposition: the magnetic field created by several
moving charges or currents is equal to the vector sum of the
magnetic fields created by each charge or current separately:
First, we have to deal with beams of particles moving
at velocities close to the velocity of light, for which this
"correction" and the electric force become comparable (it
should be noted that relation (6.5) is also valid for relati
vistic velocities).
Second, during the motion, say, of electrons, along wires,
their directional velocity amounts to several tens of a mil
limeter per second at normal densities, while the ratio
(v/C)2 10
24
• It is indeed a negligible correction to the
electric force! But as a matter of fact, in this case the magne
tie force is practieally the only force since electric forces
disappeared as a result of an almost ideal balance (much
more perfect than 10
24
) of negative and positive charges
in the wires. The participation of a vast number of charges
in creating current compensates for the smallness of this
term.
In other words, the excess charges on the wires are negli
gibly small in"comparison with the total charge of carriers.
For this reason, magnetic forces in this ease eonsiderably
exceed the electric forcgs acting on excess charges of the
wires.
,
f.
(6.5)
(6.4) B =, Eo!to [v >< E]c= [v X Ellc\
the righthallrlcll SystClll with vector v (Fig. li.1). It should
be nQtHd that vector B is Hxial (pseutlovector).
The quantity B is called maKfictic induction.
Mag:nctic induction is measmetl in teslas (1').
The electric field of a point charge q moving at a non
relativistic is described by the same law (1.2).
Hence expression cnn be written in the form
Even at sufficiently high velocities, e.g. u = 300 km/s, this ratio
is equal to 10
a
, Le. the magnetic component of the force is a milli
onth fraction of the electric component and constitutes a negligible
correction to the electric force.
This example may give rise to the following question:
Are snch forces wOI,th investigating? It turns ont that they
are, and theI'e are two sound reasons hehin(l this.
6. Magnetic Field in a VOC1l1Jm
where c is t.he electrollynamic constant (c 1/Veo!to), equal
L1,
1 Z
Fig. 6.2
to the velocity of light in vacuum (this coincidence is not
accidental).
EKample. Comparison of forces of magnetic and electric interaction
between moving Let two point charges q of a sufftciently large
mass move in parallel to onc another with thc same nonrelativistic
velocity v as is shown in Fig. 6.2. Find the ratio betwecn the magnetic
F
m
and electric Fe forces acting, for example, from charge 1 Oil
cli8rge 2.
According to (6.2), F
m
= quB and Fe = qE where v is the velocity
of charge 2 and Band E are the induction of the magnetic and the
intensity of the electric fielns created by charge 1 at the point of loca
tion of charge 2.
The ratio Fm/Fe = vB/E. According to (6.4), in our case B =
= IJEIc'l.. and hence
147
6.2. The BiotSavart Law
B
dBz

dB
dl A
I;t!
r
z
I
R
dB,B
b
A
0
I
Fig. 6.3
Fig. 6.4
right. All deIlll'nts will form thl' cone of vectors dB, and it can
be easily seen that the resultant \"I'dol' ,B at point A will be directed
upwards along the Zaxis. This II1l'allS lhat in order to fmd magni
tude of vcdOl" H, it is sul'ricil'lIl 10 SUIH up the compollPnts 01 vectors
dH along lhe Zaxis. Each such pl'ojl'c.liol1 has the form
flo I dl
dR. = dB cos fl , 2 cos
4 '1:1 r
where we took into account that the between the element dl
and the radius ve/'lor I' is equal to n12, and hrllce the sine is equal to
IInity. lnterrrat ing this px pression over dl (whkh gives 2rrR) and taking
into' that {'os nl,. and r : R2)1/2, we get
Ilo 2nR21
B=.Im (Z2, R2)8;2 • (ti.12)
Hence it follows that the rnagnitudp or v('etor B at the centre of HIP
enrrpnt ring (z = 0) and at a distance z » R is given by
..l':!'... 2JlI B (' 13)
Bz 1
m
R z?/H 4n z3 0 .•
'It is clear from the ligure that dl cos a = r da and r = b/cos a. Hence
I clIsada
/  I.n b
Integrating this expression over all current which equiva
lent to the integration over a between n/2 and n/2, we lind 
(IU1)
4n b
Example 2. Magnetic field at the axis of circular current. Figu
re 6.4 shows vector dB Ihlln the current element I dl located to the
(6.8) j dV = I dt.
6, Magnetic Field in a Vacuum 146
anre with (5.2) pv = j. Then formula (6.3) becomes
IdB {;; Ii X,:I'1' .1 (6.7)
If the current I flows along a thin wire with the cross
sectional area t!S, we have
j dV = j t!S dl = I dl,
where dl is an element of the length of the wire. Intl'O
ducing vedor dt ill the direction of the current I, we can
write this expression as follows:
, Vectors j dV and I dt are called volume and linear current
elemen is resj)ecti vely. Replacing in formula (6.7) the vol
ume current element by the linear one, we obtain
I dB= * xrl. I (6.9)
Formulas (6.7) and (6.9) express the BiotSauart law.
In accordance with the principle of superposition the
total field B is found as a result of integration of Eq. (6.7)
or (6.9) over all current elements:
Bc=_,fA:.lL \' [jXrldV I[dlxr] (6.10)
4n. r
8
' 411: 'j' r
3
•
Generally, 'calculation of the ;.nagnetic induction of
a current of ,111 arbitrary configuration by these formulas
is complicated. However, the calculations can be consider
ably simplifIed if CllI'l'ent distribution has a certain sym
metry. Let us consider several simple examples of drtel'
mini Ilg' the ind uctio11 of CllI'rent. '
EXaJpple f. Magnetic field or the line current. i.e. the c\Il"rent
flowing along a thin straight wire of infinite length (Fig. 6.3).
In accordance with (u.9), vectors dB from all current rlements have
at a .poillt A the ,same direction, :,iz. are directed behind the plane of
the hgure. There!orp, lhe summatlOlI of vectors dB can hp r(!placed by
the summation of their magnitudes dB, where
dB=c I dl cos a
4n r
2
10*
(f).Hi)
(6.15)
/2" 0
Fig. 6.5
I = \ j dS.
6.3. Basic Laws 0/ Magnetic Field
where I and I,. are algebraic The CUI'
rent is assumed positive if its direction is eOllllecled with
the direction of the circumven
tion of the contoui· through the
righthand serew rille. The cur
rent having the opposite direc
tiOIl is considerc9 to be negat ive.
This rule is illustrated. in Fig.
6.5: here currents I] and {a are
positive sinctl their directions are
'connected with the direction of /1> 0
cont.Olir circumvention through
the righthand screw rule, while .
current I
2
is negative.
The theorem on circulation (f).i5) can he proved Oil the
basis of the BiotSavart Jaw. In the general case of arbitra
ry currents, the proof is rather cumbersome and not
be considered here. We shall treat statement (h.i5) as
a postulate verified experimentally. .' _ .
Let us make one more remark. If CIlrrent I 1I1 (b.L)) IS
distl'ibllted over the volume where contour r is located,
it can l,e represented in the form
In this expression, the integral is taken over an arbitrary
surface S stretched on contour r. Current density j in
the integrand corresponds to the point where the area
element. dS is located, vector dS forming the righthanded
system with the direetion of the contour circumventioll.
Thus, in the general case Eq. (6.15) can be written
terminate. In other words, magnetic field has no sources.
in contrast to electric fwld. .
Theorem Oft Circulation of Vector B (for till' magnellc
field of a direct. current in a vacllum). Circulation oj uector H
around an arbitrary contour r is equal to the product oj
by the algehraic sum oj the currel/ts enl'eZoped by the contour 1 :
(6.14)
6. Magnetic Field in a· Vacuum 148
This theorem is essentially a generalization of experience.
It expresses in the form of a postulate the experimental
result that the lines of vector B have neither beginning
nor end.. Therefore, the number of lines of vector B, emerg
ing from any volume bounded by a closed surface S, is
always equal to the number of lines entering this volume.
Hence follows an important corollary which will be repeat
edly used below: the flux of B through a closed surface S
bounded by a certain contour does not depend on the shape
oj the surface S. This can be easily grasped with the help
of the concept of the lines of vector B. Since· these lines
are not discontinued anywhere, their number through the
surface S bounded by a given contour (i.e. the flux of B)
indeed must be independent of the shape of the surface S.
Law (6.14) also expresses the fact that there are no magne
tic charges in nature, on which the lines of vector B begin
6.3. Basic Laws of Magnetic Field
Like electric field, magnetic field has two very important
properties. These properties, which are also related to the
flux and circulation of a vector field, express the basic laws
of magnetic field.
Before analysing these laws, we should consider tIle
graphic representation of field B. Just as any vector field
fi.eld B can be visually represented with the help of
of vector B. They are drawn in a conventional way,
VIZ. so that the tangent to these lines at any Doint coincides
with the direction of vector B, and the of the
lin.es is proportional to the magnitude of vector B at' a given
pOlDt.
The geometrical pattern obtaiped in this way makes it
to easily judge about the configuration ofa given
magnetic field and considerably simplifies the analysis of
some situations.
. Let us now consider the basic laws of magnetic field,
I.e. the Gauss theorem and the theorem on circulation.
The Gauss Theorem for Field B. The flux of B through
any closed surface is equal to zero: .
Iii,
Iii,'
(6.19)
151
r
a
Fig. 6.7
B
6.4. Theorem on Circulation of,Vector B
.......
/' "
1/ r
{
f,\
\
" /
........ ......_/
.fit
Fig. 6.6
. d !Sf vector B must be the same at all points
wire axis. The e" f the wire Therefore in accordance with
at a distance r from.t e ax!s 0 . 'B for a contour r l
the theorem on of it follows that outside the
(Fig. 6.6), we have . nr  flO ,
wire (6.18)
B = (flo/2n) Ilr (r> a).
It should be noted that a direct solution of this (d'ith the help
of the BiotSavart law) turns out th;t inside the
From· the same symmetry cons". era I d' to the theorem' on
\,:ire the. lines of (see Fig.
circulatIOn of vcchto I = l ( la)2 is the current enveloped by the gl
B '2nr = flo l , were r r "d th .'
ven contour. r Whence we I'mrl that illSI e e wIre
B lr/a
2
(r <. a)
d
B ( is shown in Fig. 6.7. "d 't'
The ence r f tube the induction B outSI e I
If the wire has the s ape 0 a. .' 'de the tube magnetic field IS
determined by formula mS\h the help of the theorem on
absent. This can also be easl y s own WI
circulation of vector f' Id of a solenoid. Let current I flow al?n
a
a
Example 2: Magne Ie Ie h surface of a cylinder, Such cyhn
conductor hehcally wound tell d a solenoid Suppose that a umt
streamlined by the !S ca e f h If the pitch
length of the solenOid contams n turns 0 f'the solenoid can be approx
of the helix is sufficientl
l
y
smdall, also assume that the con
imately replaced by a c ose oop. ,
. 1 t'on of vector B and then whcthc!' t II is
rem Oil Circu a I
method is universal.
. fi Id' f·a current. Direct current 1
• Example t •. Ie 0; ht wi th a circular cross sedion
flows along mftmtely long. 'nduction B outside and inside the
of radius a. Fmd the magnetIc lie ( I
wire. I h I' f
t of the t lat t e Illes 0
It follows the s
y
m
h
ll1e
f
r
y
f 'ircles with the centre at the
vector B in thiS case have t e orm 0 c
6. Magnetic Field in a Vacuum
6.4. Applications of the Theorem
on Circulation of Vector B
Let us consider several practically examples
illustrating' the effectiveness of the applIcatIOn of the theQ
150
f jdS=f.to.\ indS. (6.17)
TIIC fact that cil'c,dati ;,1 of vector B gene.r'llly differs
from zero illdicates thalii! contr<lst to electrostatic field,
field B is not a potential field. SUcll fields are called
vortex. 01' solenoidal fiel!!",;,
, Since circulation of vector B is proportional to the cur
rent 1 enveloped by the contom, in general we cannot
ascribe to magnetic field a scalar potential wllich would be
related to vector B through an expression similar to E =
= Vip. This potential would not be singlevalued: upon
each circumvention of the current and return to the initial
point, this potential would acquire an incl'ement equal to
""0/. However, magnetic potential lflm can be introduced and
effectively used in the region of space whel'e the currents
are absent. .
The Role of the Theorem on Circulation of Vector B.
This theorem p.Jays aJinost the same role as the Gauss
theorem for vectol's E and D. It is well known that field B
is detel'milled by all CUlTellts, while circulation of vector B,
only by the currents enveloped by the given contour. In
spite of this, in certain cases (in the presence of a special
symmetry) the theorem on circulation proves to be quite
effective since it allows us to determine B in a very simple
way. K
This can be done in the cases when the calculation of
circulatiou of ve('{or B call be reduced, by an appropriate
choice of the contour, to the product of B (or B I) by the
leugth of the contoul' 01' its part. Othel'\vise, field B mw;t
be calculated hy some other methods, for example. with
the help or the DiotSavar! law or by solving the cor
respondiug differeutial equations, and the caJculatiu/I be
('.omes much mOl"e diffienlt.
follows:
153
(6.22)
Fig. 6.10
B
6.4. Theorem on Circulation of Vector B
to infmity (nt a constant toroid cross section), we obtain in the limit
the expression ((i.20) for the magnetic field of an infmitely long so
lenoid. .
If the chosen circular contour passes outside the toroid, it does
not envelop any currents, and hence B ·2J1r = 0 for such a contonr.
This means that outside the toroid magnetic field is absent.
In the above cOJl!'ic1erations it was assumed that the lines of cur
rent lie iUlIleridional plaues, i.l'. the planes passing "through the ·,axis
00' of the toroid. In'real toroids, the lines of cur
rent (turns) rlo not. lie' strictly in these planes, and
hence therl' is a current component arounrl
the 00' axis. This component creates an addi
tional field similar to the field of a circular cur
rent.
Example 4. Magnetie field of a currentcar·
plane. Let us consider an infmite conduct
ing plane with unc1irectional current uniformly
distribute!1 over its surface. Figure 6.10 shows
t.he cross section of such a plane when the cur
rent flows behind the plane of the figure (this
is marked BV crosses). Let us introduce the con
cept of clI!tTent density i directed along the
lines of current. The malPlitude of this vector
is the current per unit length which plays the
role of the "cTosssectional <1l'ea". •
l\lentally dividing the currentcarrying plane into. thin
tilament::;, we can easily see that the resnltant field B wlll be thrected
parallel to the plane, downwards to the right of the plan.e and
to the left of it (Fif.{, 6.10) .. These directions can be easily estabhshed
with the help of thl' righthand screw rule.
In orc1l'r to determine induetinn B of the field, we shall use the
theorem on circulation of vector n. Knowing the arrangement of the
lines of vector B, we shall choose the contour in the form o! rectaJ;gle
1234 (Fig. 6.10). Then, in accordance with the theor.em on CIrculatIon,
2Bl !Joil, where I is the lenl!th of the contour SIde parallel to the
conducting plane. This gives
B
1 .
This formula shows that the magnetic field is uniform on both sides
of the plane. This result is also valid for a bounded currentcarrying
plane, but only for the points lying uear the plane and from its
ends.
General Consideralicms. The results obtained in the above
examples could be found 'directly with the help of the
BiotSavart law. However, the theorem on circulation
makes it possible to obtain "these results much more simply
and quickly.
However, the simplicity with which the field was cal
culated in these examples must not produce an erroneous
Fig. tUJ
6. Magnetic Field in a Vacuum
Fig. G.S
: ....lL
w
•
..........................
152
B = (6.20)
i.e. the. Iield a long is uniform (With the exception of
regIOns. ildJOIll!lIg the solenoid s endfaces, which is often ignored
III 11le product liT is called the Ilumber 0/ ampereturns.
For !/ 20()(I turns/m and 1 = 2 A, the magnetic field inside the so
lenOId IS equal to 5 mT.
Exnmple 3. field of a torOid. A toroid is a wire wound
arollnd a torus (hg. 6.9). .
. It can he easily see,n from symmetry considerations that the Jines
of v?ctor B be CIrcles whose centres lie on the axis 00' of the
t?rold. Hence It IS c1t'ar that for the contour we must take one of SUcll
CIrcles.
.If a contour !iI'S toroid, it envelops the ('urrent N1 wher!'
!V IS number of turns in tIle toroidal coil and 1 is the
III wIre: Let the contour radius be r; then, according to the theorem
on clrculatlOn B '2:rrr 1'01\'1, whence it follow!' that inside the toroid
B = (/to/2n) N /h.. (6.21)
II compa.rison. ofyi.21) alltl (6.1H) shows that the lIIaglll'tie licit! illsidp
til(' torOJ.d cOJflCldes with the magnetic lield fIT J of tl](' straight i'lll'
rent flowmg along the 00' axis. Tellding N and radius H uf the toroid
ductor crosssectiollal "rea is so small that the CUITent in tIll' solenoid
can be considered flowing over its surface.
h 1xperiments and (,;lleulations show that the longer thl' solenoid
t ess the n!aWll'tic induction outside it. For an inlinitelv long
nOId, field ontside it is absent at all. . . *
: .It IS clear from symmetry considerations that the lines of Vl'ctor B
the solenoid are. directed along its axis, vector B forming the
1'Jghthanded system \nth the direction of the cnrrent in the soleIloid.
'. Even the consideratioIls abollt the magnetic fwld configura
tIOn of the. sole,nOld indicate that we must choose a rectangular contour
as shown In FIg. (i.H. Circulation of vector n around this contour is
equal to BI, and the l'l!ntour envelops the current nlI. According
the theorem clrculatlOlI, BI "'" whence it foHows that inside
a long solenuld
I
,.....,
.......•.......... .
:! I:
: L 4_ :oJ
6.5. Differential Forms of Basic laws
of Magnetic Field
Divergence of field B. The differential form of the Gauss theorem
(6.14) for field B can be written as
155
6.6. Ampere"s Force
\ 'V X E=O. \
. I t zero everywhere is a potentIal
A vector field whose curl IS equa?d l field Consequently, eleetro
Iield. Otherwise it is field is a solenoidal
static field is a potential field, II: I .
or (V X Bl" = l.l.oill' Hence
. \
. . of the theorem on
t
or J' viz. the current ensl y .
vec. 1 t Ii j E . al to zero
of V X B is equa ? rfio id circulation of vector IS equ •
In an electrostatIc e ,
and hence
6.6. Force
, h 1 I' e carrier experiences the
Ampere's Law.. Eac gaction of this force is
action of a magnetIc h which charges are lIlovmg.
[nitted to a conductor t roug
where Oil the righthand side we have the projection of curl H onto
normal n. . . f Id B can be characterized by curl B
lIence, POlllt of vedor I' determined by the propertie.s of
whose directlOll and. C. I'rection of curl B is detl'rllllllClI
the field !tself at a given 1}010 t' tl:
l
. element S, for whi?h t.he
by thee J;laguitude of curl H, attainS Its
quail I) . ,
maximum value: .1 B obtained in coordinate
In mathematiCs, cur k therfact is more importallt: It
tion. However" for our considered as the cross pl'Oduct
turns out that formally curl BB' 'tV X B. Wc shall he using the
of the operator 'tV r 'n it allows us to represcllt the
latter, morc help of the determinant:
cross product . X 'tV\: B = \ a a iJ \ ' (Ii .25)
B
x
By Bz .
• r' the unit vectors of Cartesian coordinates. ThiS
where ell' th curl of not only field B, but of ,IllY other
expressIOn va I 01'.1' f f 11 E
vector field a./rIso, of vector B. Accorlt
Let us now CoUSH 1'1 e I' tl f I
: . (u 24) I.'q (6 17) call bc representee ill Ie orn
illg to . ,c. .
, j Hdt .
lim c; = f!oJr\'
su .
(6.Y.)
(6.23)
6. Magnetic Field in II Vacuum 154
Le. the divergence of field B is equal to zero everywhere. As was men
tioned above, this means that magnetic field has no sources (magnetic
charges). Magnetic field is generated by electric currents and not by
magnetic charges which do not exist in nature.
Law (6.23) is of fundamental nature: it is valid not only for con
stant but for varying fields as well.
Curl of field B. The important property of magnetic field expressed
br the theorem on circulation of vector B motivates the representation
o this theorem in the differential form which broadens its potential
ities as a tool for investigations and calculations.
For this purpose, we consider the ratio of circulation of vector B
to the area S bounded by a contour. It turns out that this ratio tends
to a certain limit as S .. O. This limit depends on the contour orienta
tion at a given point of space. The contour orientation is specified by
vector n (the normal to the plane of the contour around which the
circulation is calculated) the direction of n being connected with tlte
direction of contour circumvention through the righthand screw rule.
The limit obtained as a result of this operation is a scalar quantity
which behaves as the projection of a certain vector onto the direction
of the normal n to the planp, of the contour around which the circula
tion is taken. This vector is caller! the curl of field B and is denoted as
curl B. Thus, we can write
. I Bdl
IHn''=(curl H)n,
80 S
impression about the potentialities of the method based
on the application of the theorem on circulation. Just as
in the case of the Gauss theorem for electric field, the num
ber of problems that can be easily solved by using the theo
rem on circulation of vector B is quite limited. It is suffi
cient to say that even for such a symmetric current configu
ration as the current ring, the theorem on circulation be
comes helpless. D88pitean apparently high symmetry, the
magnetic field configuration does not allow us, however,
to find a simple contour required for calculations, and the
problem has to be solved by other, much more cumber
some, methods. .
2/112
4rt b (6.30)
Naturally, the same expression . b. b' .
per unit leDgth of the d e 0 tallied lor the force actin/.(
con uctor With current fl'
: magnetic field acts with a certain force on a cur
carryIng conductor. Let us find this force
the volume density of charges are
to .)'( W (e.g. electrons in a metal) is equal
m1tenta t
Y
' Isolate a volume element dV in the
, . . con aInS the charcre ( t .
to pdF. The tl P. f .. >' «,., curren car:ner) equal
f 'h ,n ,L orce actlllg on the volume element dV
o t. e conductor can be' written by formula (6.1) as follows:
dF = p [u X Bl dV.
Since i = pu, we have
IdF = [j X B) dv·1 (6.28)
If. the current flows along a thin
cordmg to (6.8), j dV = I dl, and conductor, then, ac
IdF = I fdl XBI, I (6.29)
where dJ is. the vector coinciding in direction with the
cUITdent and characterizing an element of length of the thO
con uctor. ,'In
,. (6.28) (6.29) express Ampere's law. 1nte
th)ese expreSSIOns over the curren. t elements (vol ume
meal', we can find the rna t' f
tain vo] ume d gne I.C acting on a cer
Th fa. can uctor or on Its lmear part.
called
e
on currents in a magnetic field are
npel e s orces.
Example. The force of 'nt t· b ".
Find the Arrwere's force with wh.ah parallel currents.
?urrents /1 and I. interact in IC LW? long wires with
IS b. Calculate the force per rtheh distance between them
eng 0 t e system.
. Each current element of I is in th . ..
I.e. aeeording to (6.19), the 2field B e field of current 1I,
t.ween the element of current / . d I  2f1/b. fhe angle be
from fonnula (6.29) that the B
1
IS 1(/2. Hence, it follows
ductor with current I I'S F _ laB> mg per unIt length of the con
2 u  2 It or
157 6.6. Force
Finally, it can he easily seen that currents of the same
direction are attracted, while the opposite currents repell
each other. Here we speak only about a magnetic force.
It should be recalled, however, that besides magnetic forces
there are electric forces, i.e. the forces due to excess charges
on the surface of conductors. Consequently, if we speak
the total force of interaction between the wires, it can either
be attractive or repulsive, depending on the ratio between
the magnetic and electric components of the total force
(see Problem 6.7). .
The Force Acting on a Current Loop. The resultant Ampe
re's force acting on a current loop in a magnetic field is
dermed, in accordance with (6.29), by
F = I rdl X B], (H.31)
where the integration is performed along the given loop
with current [.
If the field is uniform, vector Bean be taken
out of the integral, and the problem is reduced to the calcu
lation of the integral dl. This integral is a dosed chain
of elementary vectorsdl and hence is equal to zero. Conse
quently, F = 0, i.e. the resultant Ampere's force in a uni
form magnetic fIeld is equal to zero.
If, however, the magnetic lield is nonuniform, the resul
tant force (6.31) generally differs from zero and ill each
concrete case is determined with the help of (6.31). The
most interesting case for further analysis is that of a plane
current loop of sufficiently small size. Such a current loop
is called elementary.
The behaviour of an elementary current loop can be
conveniently described with the help of magnetic llwrnent Pin'
By delin ition, magnetic moment Pm is given by
Pm = ISn, (6.:32)
where [ is tJw cUlTent, S is the areil hounded hy lhe loop
and n is the normal to the loop whose direction is eonnected
with the direction of the current in .tho !f;op through the
riglithand screw rule (Fig. 1).11). In terms of magnetic lipid,
the clemenU;' \' loop is eompletely by its
magnl.'lic moment Pm'
6. Magnetic Field in a Vacuum
156
1\n calculation with the help of formula (6.31),
taklIlg 1I1to accoullt the smaJl size of the loop, y ields
foHowing expression for the force acting Oil all elementary
cnrrent loop in a nOlluniform magnetic field: '
IF= Pm"* ' (6.33)
where Pm is the magnitude of the magnetic moment of the
loop, and oBion is the derivative of vector B along the
10 0
direction of normal n or along the direction of vector p .
This formula is similar to expression (1.39) for the
acting on an electric dipole in an electric field.
It follows from forml.da (6.33) that, like in the case of
electric dipole,
(1) in a uniform: magnetic field F = 0 since oBian = 0;
(2) the direction of vector F generally does not coincide
with vector B or with vector Pm; vector F.coincides in
direction only with the elementary increment of vector B
taken in the direction of vector Pm at the locus of the loop.
This is illustrated by Fig. 6.12, where three arrangements
of the loop in the magnetic field of straight current To
are shown. The vector of the resultant force F actillg on the
loop in each case is abo shown in the flgllre (it is useflll
to verify independently that it is really so).
If we are interested in the projection of force .. onto
a certain dit'ectioll X, it is sufficient to write expression
159
(6.34)
Fig. 6.13
iJBx
Fx=Pm an
6.7. Torque Acting on a Current Loop
6.7. Torque Acting on a Current Loop
Let us consider a plane loop with a current I in a uniform
magnetic field B. It was shown above (see p. 157) th?t
the resultant force (5.31) acting on the current loop In
a uniform magnetic field is equal to zero. It is known from
mechanics that if the resultant of the forces acting on any
system is equal to zero, the resultant moment of these for?es
does not depend on the position of point 0 to wInch
the tot'ques are determined. Therefore, we can speak about
the resultant moment of Ampere's forces in our case.
ny deflllitinll, the resultant moment of Ampere's forces
is by
M = !r:< dFl, (6.35)
where dF is defined by formula (5.29). If we perform cal
culation by formula (6.35) (it is cumbersome and hardly
interesting, hence we omit it here), it turns out that the
where iJlJxiiJn is the derivative of 'the corresponding pro
jection of vector B again with re
spect to normal n (or with respect
to Pm) to the loop.
Example. An elementary current loop
having a magnetic moment Pm is ar
ranged perpendicularly to the symmetry
.axis of a nonuniform magnetic field, vec
tor Pm being directed along vector B. Let
us choose the positive direction of the
Xaxis as is shown in Fig. 6.13. Since
the increment of projection B
x
will be
negative in the direction of vector Pm.
F < O. Hence .yector F is directed to
tlfe left, i.e. to .fli.e side where B is greater. If we rotate the cur
rent loop (and vector Pm) through 90° so that the loop centre coin
cides with the symmetry axil\ of field B, in this position Fx = 0, aIlji
vector F is directed perpendicularly to the Xaxis and to the same
'side as vector Pm·
(0.3:1) in terms of the projections onto this direction. This
gives
10 €lfolo' Pill
F=O
Fig. 6.12
10 Pm
6. Magnetic Field in a Vacuum
Fig. 6.11
b
1
iSS
161
F
@
B,n
I
Fig. 6.15
(6,37) 6A = Id<1J,
6.8. Work Done upon Displacement of Current Loop
where d<D is the increment of the
magnetic flux through the loop
upon the given displacement.
We shall prove this formula
in three stages.
1. Let us first consider a particular case: a circuit (Fig. 6.15)
with a movable jumper of length l is in a uniform magnetic
field perpendicular to the circuit plane and directed behind
the plane of the figure. In accordance with (6.29), the jumper
is acted upon by Ampere's force F c;= IlB. Displacing the
jumper to the right by dx, this force accomplishes positive
6.8. Work Done upon'Displacement of Current Loop
When a current ioop is in an external magnetic field (we
shall assume that this field is constant), certain elements
of the loop are acted upon by Ampere's forces which hence
will do work during the displacement of the loop. We shall
show here that the work done by Ampere's forces upon an
elementary displacement of the
loop with current I is given by
110181
Considering that ab is the area bounded by the loop and Iba = Pm'
we obtain
M = PmB sin a,
which in the vector form is written as (6.36).
Concluding this section, we note that expression (6.36)
is valid for nonuniform magnetic fields as well. The only
requirement is that the size of the current loop must be
.sufftciently small. Then the effect of nonuniformity on the
rotational moment (torque) M can be ignored. This pre
cisely applies to the elementary current loop.
An elementary current loop behaves in a nonuniform
field in the same way as an electric in
an external nonuniform electric field: it will be rotated
towards the position of stable equilibrium (for which
Pm tt B) and, besides, under the action of the resultant
force F it will be pulled into the region where B
is larger. {t'
(6.36) IM = {Pm >: B], I
6. Magnetic Field in a Vacuum
16,)
where Pm is the magnetic moment of the current loop (Pm =
B = ISn for a phme loop). *
It is clear from ((j.36) that the IlWln
F. ent M of Ampere's forces acting on
a current loop in 11 uniform magne
tic field is perpendicular both to vec
tor Pm and to vector B. The mag
nitude of vector 1\1 is M' = PmB sin ct,
where ct is the angle between vec
F tors Pm and B. When Pm tt B, M 0
and it is not difficult to see that the
Fig. 6.14 position of the loop is stable. When
Pm H B, 1\'1 also eq uals zel'O but such
a position of the loop is unstable: t he slightest deviation
from it leads to the appearance of the moment of force that
tends to deviate the loop from the ill itial po,'.:ition still
further.
moment of fOl'ces for an arbitrary shape of the loop can
be represented in the form '
M = lbBa 8i:' Ct.
forces tend to rota te the' loop so tl,a t vedol' Pm becomes (hreeted
lr ke veetor B: Hence, the loop is acted npon by II couple of forces
whose torque t'9'ual to the p;'oduct of the arm Ii sin 1'1, of the couplr
by the force P, I e.
.Example. Let liS verify the validity of formula (6.36) by using
a Simple example of a rectangular current loop (Fig. 6.14).
. It ca.n be seen from the figure that the <Jcting on sides a are
perpendicular to them and to vector B. Hence these forces <JfP directed
along the hOrIzontal (they are not in, the figure) and only strive
to stretch (or compress) the loop. S,'1es 0 are perpendicular to H
and hence each of them is acted upon by the force '
F c= !hB.
* If till' l00p .is ::ot plane, its ma:'ne,j,: rnO'lwnt i ... II = l' ';'d<:
u fil .....
where the integnt! is LuLen OVer the slHIael' S s\.rr'tehed over th,; cur
rent loop. This intf'g'l'dl does nM depend 011 the choice' of til(> surfacl: S
and depends only on the loop over which it is stretched.
162 6. Magnettc Field In II Vacuum
Problem,
ft..
1;
"".: .,..•.,.....•. '...••.
",
,
Y;;
Problems
• 6.1. Direct calculation of induction B. Current I flows along
a thfn conductor bent as is shown in Fig. 6.16. Find the magnetic
induction B at point O. The required data are presented in the figure.
Solution. The required quantity B = B _ + where B  is the
where <1>1 and <1>2 are magnetic fluxes through the contour
in the initial and final positions. Thus, the work of Ampere's
forces in this c;ase is equal to the product of the current
by the incremei1t of the magnetic flux through the circuit.
Expression (6.40) gives not only the magnitude but also
the sign of the work.
Example. A plane loop with current I is rotated in magnetic
field B from the position in which n H B to the position in which
n tt B, 0 being the normal to the loop (it spould be recalled that the
direction of the normal is connected with the direction of the current
through the righthand screw rule). The area bounded by the loop is S.
Find the work of Ampere's forces upon such a displacement, assuming
that the current I is maintained constant.
In accordance with (6.40), we have
A = I [BS  (BS)) = 2IBS.
In the given casa, the work A > 0, while upon the reverse rotation
A <0.
It should be noted that work (6.40) is accomplished not at the
expense of the energy of the external magnetic field (which does not
change) but at the expense of the e.m.f. source maintaining the
in the loop. (This question will be considered in greater detaIl III
Chap. 9.)
(6.37), where d<l> is the increment of the magnetic flux
, through the entire circuit.
In order to find the work done by Ampere's forces upon
the total displacement of the current loop from the initial
position 1 to the final position 2, it is sufficient to integrate
expression (6.37):
2
A = ) 1 d<l>. (6.39)
1
! If the current 1 is maintained constant during this dis
", placement we obtain
': A = 1(<1>2  <1>1)' (6.40)
work
6A = F dx = IBZ dx = IB dS, (6.38)
where dS is the increment of the area bounded by the con
tour.
In order to determine the sign of magnetic flux <I>, we
shall agree to take normal n to the surface bounded by
always In such a way that it forms with the
of the in the circuit a righthanded system
6.15): In thIS case, the current I will always be a posi
On .the other hand, the flux <I> may be either
posItIve or negatIve. In our case, however, both <I> and
dCf> = B dS are positive quantities (if the field B were
dIrected towards us or the jumper were displaced to the
left, d<I> < 0). In any of these cases expression (6.38) can
be represented in the form (6.37).
2. The obtained result is valid for an arbitrary direction
of the fi.eld B as well. To prove this, let us decompose vec
tor B Into components: B B
n
+ B
z
+ B
x
. The
.B
z
dIrected along, the jumper is parallel to the
In It and does not produce any force acting on the
Jumper.. The component B
x
(along the displacement) is
for the force perpendicular to the displacement,
whIch does not accomplish any work. The only remaining
comJilonent is B
n
which is normal to the plane in which
the Jumper moves. Hence, in formula (6.38) instead of B
we. must take only B
n
• But B
n
dS = d<l>, and we again
al'nve at (6.37).
3.. Let. us now any current loop which is arbi
trarIly dIsplaced I? a constant non uniform magnetic field
contour of tIus loop may be arbitrarily deformed in
thIS process). We mentally divide the given loop into infinite
small current elements and consider their infinitesimal
Under these conditions, the magnetic field
10 whICh .each element of current is displaced can be as
sumed uOIform. For such a displacement, we can apply to
each element of current the expression dA = I d'(p for the
work, where .d'<I> expresses the contribution (If
a gIven element of current to the increment of the flux
through the contour. Summing up elementary. works for
all the elements of the loop, we again obtain expression
I)
'I,
I
164
8. Magnetic Pield in a Vacuum
•
Problems
165
ma(l'netic created by the rectilin
by Its curvilinear part. According t th B
a
.
r
of the loop and B ,
on p. 146), we have 0 e IOt avart law (see Examplef
I (2n 2ao) a _ !tol
4n a2  2na (nao).
As a result, we obtain
B = (n  ao + tg ao) !toI /2na.
It is interesting to show that f
eXI,ression (6.13). or ao  0, we arrive at the familiar
!tol cos a da
4na cos a
o
!tol
2rui"' tg a"
Substituting (1) and (3) into (2) and integrating the result over r
between a and b, we obtain
B= !to
IN
In.!:
2 (ba) a
(2) The magnetic moment of a turn of radius r is Pml = Irrr
2
•
and of all the turns, Pm = Pml dN, here dN is defined by formula
(3). The integration gives
__ nIN b
S
 as _ nUl ( 2 + b+b2)
Pm  b _ a 3 3 a a .
• 6.3. Current I flows in a long straight conductor having
shape of a groove with a cross section in the form of a thin halfring
(2)
Fig. 6.19 Fig. 6.18
where dI ","C (IIn) dq; (see Fig. 6.19). Substituting (2) into (1), we get
of radius R (Fig. 6.18). The current is directed from the reader behind
the plane of the drawing. Find the magnetic induction B on the axis O.
Solution. First of all, let us determine the direction of vector B
at point O. For this purpose, we mentally' divide the entire conductor
into elementary filaments with currents dI. Then it is clear that the
sum of any two symmetric filaments gives vector dB directeli to the
. right (Fig. 6.19). Consequently, vector B will also be directed to the
right.
Therefore, for calculating the field B at point 0 it is suffIcient to
find the sum of the projections of elementary vectors dB from each
current filament onto the direction of vector B:
B=.\dBsincp (1)
In accordance with (6.11), we have
dB = /lo III /2rrR,
(1)
(2)
B=JBldN,
number of turns in the interval (r, r+ drl,
hn
Fig. 6.16
Fig. 6.17
• 6.2. A thin isolated wire fo I .
a large number N of closely packed \[ ane spIral consisting of
rent I is flowing. The radii of th . urns I rough which a direct cur
and b (Fig. 6.17). Find (1) the r::.aIn er.na. and loops are a
of the spiral (point 0) and (2) th gnebc .InductIOn B at the centre
the given current.' e magnetIc moment of the spiral for
Solution. (1) According to (6 13) h
radius r to the magnetic I'nduct: t e colntribution of one turn of
IOn IS equa to
and of all the turns, B
1
= f.to
Il
2r,
where dN is the
(b)
Fig. 6.23
(a)
Fig. 6.22
Problems
solenoid, the flux through the contacting endfaees will be lI> + lI> =
= lI>0. where is the flux through the solenoid's cross section far
from its cndface. Then we have
11> $0/2 = lLon!S/2.
By the way, we must pay attention to the following propertie
of the field B at the endfacc of a long solenoid.
1. The lines of B are arranged as shown in Fig. 6.22. This can be
easily shown with the help of superposition principle: if we place on
the right one more solenoid, field B outside the thus formed solenoid
must vanish, which is pcssible only with the field configuration shown
in the figure.
2. From the principle of superposition, it follows that the normal
component B
n
will he the same over the area of the endface, since when
we form a composite solenoid, B
n
+ B
n
= Bo, where HI, is the field
inside the solenoid away from its endfaces. At the centre of the elldface
B = B
n
, and we obtain B = Bo/2.
• 6.6. The field Gf 8 solenoid. The winding of a long solenoid of
radius a is 11 thin conducting band of width h, wound in one layer prac
tically without gaps. Direct current I flows along the band. Find
magnetic field 8 inside and outside the solenoid as a funetion of dis
tance r from its axis.
Solution. The vector of linear current density i can be represented
as the sum of two components:
i=i
1
+ill"
The meaning of vectors i.
L
and ill is clear from Fig. 6.23b. In our
case, the magnitudes of these vectors can be found with the help of
• 6.5. Principle of superposition. Current I flows through a long
solenoid whose crosssectional area is S and the number of turns n.
Find magnetic flux through the endface of this solenoid.
Solution. Let the nux of 8 through the solenoid endface be <1>. If
we place another similar solenoid in contact with the endface of our
(1 )
6. Magnetic Field in a Vacuum
Fig. 6.20
166
..• 6.4. Theorem on circulati
lIOn.. ' nsid.e a homogeneous Ion ,on .of 8 pr.!ncipl(. of sUpt"rposi_
jhere IS a .clrcular cylindrical c; wlre?f cross section
uctor aXIs displaced i b
se
IS parallel to the
of deusl ty j flows along th 0.1 Y.a dIstance I. A direct cur
tnsldp the cavity. I.' wire. Ftnd magnetic induction B
S.olution. In accordance with h' . .
required quantity can be t e prmclple of superposition the
represented as follows: '
B = 80  B'
where 8
0
is the magnetic induction of conductor
without cavity,
Fig. 6.21
while B' is the magnetic induction f h .
be
to
the current flOWing through th 0 ttl' at the same point due
. cn removed in order to create th par ?f. t e conductor which has
. Thus, the problem im lie fi e cavity.
8 inside the 0/ all the of magnetic
the theorem on circulation or at distance r from its axis.
Fi; 'can
1
B="2f!o[jxr).
Using now this formula for B
o
and B' w fi d' h' .
, e n t elf dJilerence (1):
8_
lLO
[' ] lLo· 1L
2 J X r 2[J X r']= 2
0
(j X (rr')).
Figure 6.21 shoWs that r = I +' h
r , w ence r  r' = I, and
B
1 .
="2 flo [J :< I) .
Thus, in Our case the magnetic field B . .
If the current is flOWing towards us . In the cavity is uniform and
plane of the lIgure and is dl'r t d (Fig. 6.21), the Held B lies the
ec e upwards.
Fig. 6.23a by the formulas
Fe=AE=A E:._ 2"2
4m,0 l   4m l '
where I is the distance betwe h 0
force acting per unit length of tbhe wires. The magnetic
WIre can e found with the help
169 Problems
of the theorem on cirulation of vector
F
m
= (f!0/4n) 212ll,
where I is the current in the wire. .
It should be noted that the two forces, electric and magnetic, are
directed oppositely. The electric force is resp'onsible for the. attraction
between the wires, while the magnetic force causes their repulsion.
Let us find the ratio of these forces:
FmlFe = eOf!0/2/A
2
. (1)
There is a certain relation between the quantities / and t.. (see
Problem 2.8):
'),.=C1U= Ine
o
U, (2)
nl]
where U = RI. Hence it follows from relation (2) that
/1'),. = In TJineoR. (3)
Substituting (3) into (1), we obtain
Fm f!o In
2
l]
 (4)
,,' Fe 80 n
2
R2'
The resultant force of interaction vanishes when this ratio is equal
to unity. This is possible R = Ro, where
Ro= .. /f!o Inl] =360Q.
V eo n
If R < RTJ then F
m
> Fe, and the wires repel each other. If, on
the contrary, R > Ro, F
m
< Fe, and the wires attract each other.
This can be observed experimentally.
Thus, the statement that currentcarrying wires attract each other
is true only in the case when the electric component of the interac
tion can be neglected, Le. for a sufficiently small resistance R in the
circuit shown in Fig. 6.24.
Besides, by measuring the force of interaction between the wires
(which is always resultant), we generally cannot determine current I.
This should be borne in mind to avoid confusion.
• 6.8. The moment of Ampere's forces. A loop with current /
i8 in the field of a long straight wire with current 1
0
(Fig. 6.25). The
plane of the loop is perpendicular to the straight wire. Find the moment
of Ampere's forces acting on this loop. The required dimensions of the
system are given in the figure.
Solution. Ampere's forces acting on curvilinear pllrts of the loop
are equal to zero. On the other hand, the forces acting on the rectilinear
parts form a couple of forces. We must calculate the torque of this
couple. ,
Let us isolate two small elements of the loop (Fig. 6.26). It can be
seen from the figure that the torque of the couple of forces correspond
6. Magnetic Field in a Vacuum
168
:
i.l =/Cosa=1 V1sin
2
a=(I/h) V1(h/2na)2.
i
lt
= i sin a = Il2na.
The magnetic induction B' .d h
accordance with (6.20) by th mSI.e t .1.' is determined in
by I,,: ,I.' quantIty l.L' whIle outside the
B
i
= f!o/.l = (f!oI/h) Vi  (h/2na)2 (r < a),
Ba = f!oilla/r = f!0I/2nr (r > a),
Where we used the theore . I . '
side the solenoid' 2nrB atlOn while calculating B out
Th . a  f!b ltal
W
a
.. us, represented the current' h .
poslt!,on of transverse" and "Ion 't d' t I.' solenoId as the super
the conclusion that onl th I gl. U I.na components, we arrive at
inside such a e component of the field B
SIde It (as in the case of a y I.' transverse component out
Beside 'f' d current).
d . S, I we ecrease the and 'dth . "
eDSlty unchanged, 1+0 as h 0 hI Imamtammg the current
field inside the I.h =thconstl' In. this case,
I I.' ,I.e. I.' so enold becomes
..6.7. Interaction of parallel
neghgtble resistance are shunted at Tbwo wires with
eIr en s y reSIstor R and at
the other 'Cnds are connected to a
of constant voltage. The
of the cross section of each
WIre IS smaller than the
axes by a factor of
TJ.  20. Fmd the value of the re
SIstance !i at which the resultant
fo:ce of between the
Fig. WIres vamshes.
. ' Solution. There are excess sur
tIVe of whether or not the . face .charges on each wire (irrespec
in.addition to the If flowkng through them) (Fig. 6.24).
t I.' e.leetrlC force Fe. Suppose that orce m, we must take into account
a unIt length of the Th an charge A corresponds to
G
length of the wire by the' other en. the elebctrlc force exerted per unit
auss theorem: WIre can I.' found with the help of the
(2)
171 Problems
dF = Ii X D'] dS,
,,'
'b./
./
08
Dr B'
dS
l/ Bi
Fig. 6.28 Fig. 6.29
of substitution (1):
j dV = j6h·6b dl = i as.
The meaning of the lJuantities appearing in this relation is clarified
in Fig. 6.28. In the vector form, we can write
jdV=idS. (1)
The Ampere's force acting on the surface current element" in thiS
case is determined by the formula obtained from (6.28) with the help
lind the relation between the surface and volume elements of the cur
rent:
where B' is the magnetic induction of the field at the point of lo<:ation
of the given current element, but created by all other current elements
excluding the given one. In order to find B', we proceed as for cal
electric force (Sec. 2.3). Let B, be the magnetic induction
Since aB/az < 0, the projection of the force F
z
< 0, Le. vector F
is directed towards the loop with current /. The obtained result can
be represented in the vector form as follows:
It should be noted that if Pm (and hence
Zaxis as well) were directed oppositely, then
B
z
= Band oBz/oz > O,and hence Fz>O
and vector Fwould be directed to the right, Fig. 6.27
Le. again oppositely to the direction of Pm.
HeBee, the obtained direction for F is valid for both orientations of Pm
• 6.10. Current I flows in a long thinwalled circular cylinder
of radius R. Find the pressure exerted on the cylinder walls.
Solution. Let us consider a surface current element idS, where
i is the linear current density and dS is the surface element. We shall
(t)
(2)
 X
B on the distance r
I!'ig. 6.26
6. Magnetic Field in a Vacuum
170
dM = 2z tan cp dF,
where the elementary Ampere's force is given by
dF = I diB.
The dependence of the magnetic induction
iug' to these elements is
from the \ . b f
circulation: vlre can I' ound with the help of the theorem on
B = !Lo[/2nr. (3)
Let us now (3) . t (2) h
ing that· it = dr ;'1d x r 0 .' t en (2) into (1) and, consicle
over r between a and b. This the obtained expression
M = (fto/n) II 0 (b  a) sin lp,
vector M being directed to the left (I!'ig. 6.26).
6.9. A small coil with current h . C1 •
Pm, IS placed on the axis of a circul 'I avm"'f the magnetic moment
current I is flowing. Find th f ar 0 radius R, which
from the centre of the loop f t
ce
d
F
actlllg on the coil if its' distance
in Fig. 6.27. s an vector Pm is oriented as is shown
Salution According t (6 33) h
. 0 . ,t e required force is defined as
F= Pm aB/an
where B is the magnetic indo ' . (t)
at the Iscus of the coil. Let Us ,o!. field by the loop
tor Pm' Then the projection of (1) t Zt III t,he d.lrechon of the vec
on 0 118. aXIs wIll be
Fz = Pm aB/az = Pm ilB/az,
took into account that B = .
!II the loop. The magnet· .Z d B. for given direction of
(h.12), whenn' . IC III IIctlOn B defmcd by formula
aB __ 3 f.LoRz/1
az Z(lZ+RZ)6/Z.
r
I, j
II
I
ii
I!
I
III
" 'I
. . B' = B/2. (4
SubstItutIng this result into (2) b' )
for the required pressure: ' we 0 tam the following expression
dF 2B' B2
p = = iB' =  B' 
dS  .
Taking into account (3), we finally get 0
p =
It is clear from formula (2) th t h l'
pression. ate cy mder experiences lateral com
of the field created by the surface 1 '
to its surface (see Fig 6 29 wh e Itself at a point very close
flowing from to th?t the current is
Further, USIng the theorem . i.
l
2)
considerations we can easH OUCIrcu atwn of vector B and symmetry
field outside the cYlinder that
f
the .magnetic induction of the
I s sur ace IS equal to
. . . B = (3)
whIle InsIde the cylinder the field' b
The latter fact indicates that th fis ld
rent elements at points 1 and 2 e e B from the remaining cur
Fig. must be the same and }O11
he
s!lrfac.e (see
and outsIde the cylinder surface: e 0 OWIng condItIOns mside
B' = Bt and B = B' + B
t
= 2B'.
Hence it follows that
(7.2)
I
7.1. MagneUzation of a Substance. Vector J 173
The field B', like the field Eo of conduction currents,
has no sources (magnetic charges). Ilence, for the resultant
field B in the presence of a magnetic, the theorem
is applicable:
This means that the field lines of B remain continuous
everywhere in the presence of 11 substance.
Mechanism of Magnetization. At present, it is estab
. lished that molecules of many substances have intrinsic
magnetic moments due to the motion of intrinsic charges
in them. Each magnetic moment corresponds to a circular
current creating a magnetic field in the surrounding space.
In the absence of external magnetic field, the magnetic
moments of molecules are oriented at random, and hence
the resultant' magnetic field. due to these moments is equal
to zero, as well as the total magnetic moment of the snb
stance. This also appHes to the substances that have no
magnetic moments in· the absence of an external field.
If a substance is placed into an external magnetic field,
under the action of this field the magnetic moments of the
molecules acquire a predominant orientation, and the sub
stance is magnetized, viz. its resultant magnetic moment
becomes other than zero. In this case, the magnetic mo
ments of individual molecules no longer c.ompensate each
other, and as a result the field B' appears.
Magnetization of a substance' whose molecules have no
magnetic moments in the absence of external fIeld proceeds
differently. When such materials are introduced into an
external field elementary circular currents are induced
in the molecules, and the entire substanc.e acquires a mag
netic moment, which also results in the generation of the
field B'.
Most of materials are weakly magnetized when introduced
inlo a' magnetic. field. Only ferromagnetic materials such
as iron, nickel, cobalt and their many alloys have clearly
pronounced magnetic. properties.
Magnetization. The degree of magnetization of a magnet
ic is characterized by the magnetic moment of a unit
(7.1)
7. Magnetic Field in a Substance
172
7. Magnetic Field in a Substance
7.1. Magnetization of a Substance
Magnetization Vector J •
Field in Magnetics If at'
into a magnetic field is introduced
the field will change. This is I y. m conductors,
substance is a magnetic . y theJact that each
a magnetic moment) I, IS. magnetIzed (acquires
A magnetized substance creat e .;ctlOn of field.
which forms, together with I s .own magnetIc field B',
by conduction currents, the B
o
created
B = B
o
+ B'.
B stand for the fields
physIcal mfimtely small volume. averaged over a
volume. This quantity is called magnetization and denoted
by J. By .
115
x
Fig. 7.2
Y4 I'
'I ___ .. l'

1.1. M41,.etnatlon 01 4 Sub,tance. Vector J
Fit. 7.1
rent]' induces the same mac
surface of the cyl.inderlhe of all molecular currents
roscopic magnetic fiel as
taken together.. er case' a magnetized magnetic
Let us now conSider t . tile molecular currents
Let for msance, .' k
is nonhomogeneous. : F' 2 where the Ime thiC 'ness
be arranged as Ill. clll'rents. It follows
corresponds to the mtenslty J' directed behind the plane
from the figure th.at vector. nitude with the coordi
of the figure and t Irhe ;olecular cnrrents are not
nate x. It can be seen t a h eneous magnetic, aIllI as
compensated inside a I?0n omog rna current l'
a result, macrosc.OPIC d1rection of the
appears, which flows III Pb t the linear l' and surface
Accordingly, we can spea a ou I I'n Aim and j' in
., ., being measurec h t
current denSItIeS, t. • M netic. It can be stated t
Calculation of Field B 10 a f a magnetized magnetIC
the contribution to field. B would be created by the
is equal to the contribution a vacuum. In other
same distribution d' of magnetization
words, having established t e the help of the Biot
currents 1', we can find, WI I'ng to them and thell
h field B' corresponc I '
Savart law, t e fi Id B by formula (7.1).
caIc.ulate the resultant e
 . . he oint: of their contact have op
adjacent at t p tachothel'. The Oil Iy uncom
. posite directiOns and etriOSe emerging 011 the lateral
pensated molecular curren;1ale currents form macroscopic
surface of the. cyl.inrler. ItesJ' circulating over the lateral
IUTjace magnetization curren.
(7.3)
7. Magnetic Field in a $ubdance
where L\ V is a physical infmitely small volume surround
ing a given point and Pm is the magnetic moment of an
individual molecule. The summation is performed over
all molecules in volume L\ V.
By anillogy with what was done for polarization P
(see (3.3)1, magnetization can be represented in the form
J = n (Pm), (7.4)
where n is molecular concentration and (Pm) is the average
mllgnetic moment of a molecule. This formula shows that
vector J is collinear precisely to the average vector (Pm)'
Hence for further analysis it is sufficient to know the behav
iour of vector (Pm) and assume that all the molecules
within the volume L\ V have the same magnetic moment
(Pm)' This will considerably simplify the understanding of
questions associated with the phenomenon of magnetiza
tion. For example, an increase in magnetization J of a mate
rial implies the corresponding increase in vector (Pm): if
J = 0, (Pal) = 0 as well.
If vector J is the same at each point of a substance, it is
said that the substance is uniformly magnetized.
Magnetization Currents 1'. As was mentioned above, mag
netization of a substance is caused by the preferential orienta
tion of magnetic moments of individual molecules in one
cl irection. The same can be said about the elementary circular
cmrents associated with each molecule and called "molecular
currents. It will he shown that such a behaviour of molecular
cllrrents leads to the appearance of macroscopic currents J'
called magnetization currents. Ordinary currents flowing in
the conductors are associated with the motion of charge
carriers in a substance and are called conduction currents (I).
In order to understand how magnetization currents appear,
let us first imagine II cylinder made of a homogeneous mag
net ic whose magnetizatiou J is uniform and directed along
the axis. Molecular cuneuts in the magnetized magnetic
lIre oriented as shown in Fig. 7.1. Molecular CIIITcnts of
114
t77
(7.6)
IvxJ=r, I
7.2. Circulation of Vector J
Le. the curl of magnetization J is equal to the magnetization current
density at the same point of space.
A Remark about the Field of J. The properties of the
field of vector J, expressed by Eqs. (7.5) and (7.6), do not
imply at all that the field J itself is determined only by the
cmrents I'. The field of J (which is hounded only by the
t 20181
the contour r intersect the sUl'face S only once. Such molec
ular currents create a macroscopic magnetization current ]'
piercing the surface S.
Let each molecular current be equal to 1
m
and the area
embraced by it be Sm' Then, as is shown in Fig. 7.4, the
element dt of the contour r is wound by those molecular
currents whose centres get into the oblique cylinder with
the volume dll c= Sill cos a dl, where a is the angle between
the contour element dl and the direction of vector J at the
point under consideration. All these molecular currents
intersect the surface S once, and their contribution to the
magnetization current is dI' = I mn dV, where n is the molec
ular concentration. Substituting into this formula the
expression for dV, we obtain
dI' = l
rn
S
m
n cos a dl = J cos a dl = J dl,
where we took into account that I mS111 = Pm is the magnetic
moment of 1m individual molecular current, and I mSmn
is the magnetic moment of a unit volume of the material.
Integrating this expression over the entire contour r,
we obtain (7.5). The theorem is proved.
It remains for us to note that if a magnetic is nonhomo
geneous, magnetization current I' generally pierces the
entire surface (see Fig. 7.3) and not only the region near its
boundary, adjoining the coutour 1'. This is why we can use
the expression I' c= Ij' as, where integration is performed
over the entire surface S, bounded by the contour r. In
the above proof, we managed as if to "drive" the entire
cmrent I' to the boundary of the surface S. The only goal
of this method is to simplify the calculation of the current I'.
Differential form of Eq.(7.5):
r
I
(7.5)
7. Magnettc Fteld in a Subl1tance
t76
I
where l'  r j' dS d'
. .  J an mtegration is performed Ov
arhltrary surface stretched on th er an
In order to prove this theo e contour r.
algebraic sum of molecular cu ,rem, we shall calculate the
Let us stretch an arbl"raI'y nenfts enSvelo
ped
by contour r.
(
F' 7' '. t sur ace 0 tl
Ig. .3). It can be seen from tJ f . n Ie contour r
currents intersect the surface S Ie /gure that, some molecular
and for the second time in 'the ,ce .In direction
such currents make no crnt 'b .pposlte directIOn). Hence
I t' . ) rI lItlOn to the reo It
Ie IzatlOn current throllgl 1I ,::;nant mag
Howe. th . . d Ie surface S
\er, e molecular currents that are',
wound around
Fig. 7.3 F' _
19. i.4
to the algebraic sum of . '.
by the contour r: magnetIzatIOn currents I' enveloped
UIifortunately, . the distribut' 0
not only on the confi uratio 1 n of currents /' depends
netic but on the field Jas lY properties of a mag
case the problem of or t IS in the general
directly. I t remains for us to a magnetic cannot be solved
the solution of this problem i and find approach
IS the establ ishment of .' he first step III Hus direction
..' an Important reI at . b
n etIzatlOH current /' a I . IOn etween mag
viz. its circulation. nt a certam property of vector J,
7.2. Circulation of Vector J
It tUl'1lS out that for a statio .
magnetization J around bJl?IY case the circulation of
. an ar Itrary contour r is equal
&6W
dl
I I
I
r
I I r
I
Ii
u 7._ Magnetic Field in a Substance
179
(7.12)
(7.9)
7.8. Vector H
(:u J) dl=I. (7.10)
Let us denote the integrand of this expression by H.
Thus, we have found an auxiliary vector H,
(7.11)
whose circulation around an arbitrary contour r is equal
, to the algebraiO'tsum of the eonduction currents I embraced
by this contour:
.
lated to the circulation of the magnetization:
J dl =1'.
Assuming that the cirenlation of vectors Band J is taken
vel' the same contour r, we express l' in Eq. (7.8) throngh
ormula (7.9). Then
(7.7) if = J.
.Example. Fi.nd the surface magnetization
c"!ll"ent per umt length of a cylinder made
?f magnetic, if its magnet
IzatIOn IS J, vector J being directed every
where along the cylinder axis.
h
Let us .apply Eq. (7.5) to the contour
c D.sen as I,S shown in Fig. 7.5. It can be
eaSIly see? that the circulation of vector J
Fig', 7.5 around thl.S contour is equal to the product
(l. In thIS case, the magnetization current
" ' _, ., IS the surface If we denote its linear
J.rnslty ly ! ,the,contour under consideration embraces the ma ne
tlzatlOll current i l. It follows from the equality It = i'l that g
S}?ltial region filled by magnet,'c) depends on all
,." l'jl th .. currents,
',Z,]l.' 1 on ,0 currents l' and the conduc
tl?ll currents I. However, ill some cases
wIth a definite symmetry the situation
is such as if the field of vector J were
determined only by currents 1'.
It should be noted, by the way that vectors i' 8:111 J are mutually
perpend iClllar: i' 1. J. '
7.3. Vector H
on Circulation of Vector H (for magnetic fields
of currents). In magnetics placed into an external
magnetization currents are induced. Hence
.0;' vector B will now be de.termined not only
b) conductIOn currents but by magnetIzation currents as
well:
(7.8)
where I and l' are the conduction .and magnetization CUI'
embraced by a given contour r.
. SInce the .determination of currents l' in the general case
IS. a c0m.phcated. problem, formula (7.8) becomes inap
plIcable In practlcal respect. It turns out, however that
can find a. certain auxiliary vector whose circuiation
wIll be determIned only by the conduction currents embracfJd
by the contour r. Indeed, as we know, the current l' 'is
This formula expresses the theor{!m on circulation of vec
tor H: the circulation of vector H around an arbitrary closed
contour is equal to the algebraic sum of the conduction c'urrcnts
embraced by this contour.
The sign rule for is the same as ill the case of
drculation of yector B (see p. 149).
It should be noted that vector H is a combination of two
quite different quantities, B//l
o
and J. Hence, vector H
is indeed an auxiliary vector which does not haye any deep
physical meaning. * However, the important property of
vector H expressed in the theorem on its circulation justifIOs
the introduction of this vector: in many cases, it consider
ably simplifies the inyestigation of the field in magnetics.
Relations (7.11) and (7.12) are val id for any magnetics,
induding anisotropic ones.
* The quantity II is often called magnetic field intensity, hut we
shall not be using tlJis term to emphasize again its auxiliary nature.
12*
('
18t
Fig. 7.6
7.3. Vector B
When r = 0 Inside a Magnetic? We shall show now that
magonetization ellrren'ls inside a magnetic are absent if (1)
tlte magnetic is homogeneolls nnd (2) there nrc no condllction
ClllTellt.S in it (j  0). I II this case. fot' any shape of a 1l111g
netic mill allY conliglll'ation of the magnetic Held, we call be
For paramagneties > 1, while for diamagnetics fL < 1.
It should be noted that in both cases fL differs from unity
only slightly, Le. the magnetic properties of these magnetics
are manifested very weakly.
A Remark about the Field of H. Let us consider a question
which often involves misunderstanding: which currents
determine the fIeld of veetor H? Generally, the fwld of H
(just as the field of B) depends on all currents, both con
duction and magnetization. This can be seen even from
(7.i5). However, in some cases the field H is determined
only by conduction enrrents. Vector H is very helpful for
these cases in particular. At the same time, this makes
grounds for the erroneous conclusion that the field of H
always lkpends on conduction currents and for incorrect
interpretations of the theorem on circulation of vector H
and Eq. (7.13). This theorem expresses only a certain prop
erty of tite lIeltl,of H without deHning the itself.
<It
Example. A system consists of a long straight wire with current I
and an arbitrary piece of a papmagnetic (Fig. 7.6). Let us lind the
changes in the lieilis of Vl'ctors B and If
ami in the circulation of vector II arour.d
a certain fixed contour r upon the
removal of the magnetic.
The field B at each point of space is
determined by the conduction current I
as well as by the magnetization currents
in the paramagnetic. Since in our case,
in accordance with (7.15), If = B/l!l!o'
this also applies to the Held of vector
II, i.e. it also depends on the conduction
current I and the magnetization cur
rents.
The removal of t.he piece of paramagnetic will lead to a change
in the lield B, ami hence in the lield ll. The circulation of vector B
around the contour r will also change, since the surface st.retched on
the contour r will no longer be pierced by the magnetization currents.
Only the conduction current will remain. However, the circulation
of v(!ctor II around the contour r will remain unchanged in spite of
the variation of the tield II itself.
(7.13)
(7.1:) )
(7.1lj)
U·l1),
7. Magnetic Field in a Sllhstaw'(,
180
It follows from formula (7 12) I .
vector H has the cli' . . I, wI, lhe IIl:\<rnitude of
.. menslOUS of tI, "'
Hence, H is measured ill' Ie CUlrent pCl' !wIt ll'fI!!'tll.
, amperes per metre (Aim).
Differential rorm or the tlIeO ' ,
rem on cIrculatwn or \'eCtor H:
IVx H=j, I
i.e. the curl of vector H . I ,
current at the same pointlsofeqtuha tO
b
tt
he
density of the conduction
e su s ance.
Relation Between Vectors J d
that magnetization J d d an H. It was shown above
t
· epen s on the lllag I' . d
a a gIven point of the ' b ne IC 111' uction B
vect J' su stance Howev"
or IS related not with B . , C!, customarily
ourselves to the analvsi" of flit WIth H. \\e slwll coniine
the depeudence J . on
d
magnetics fOl' which
cl1l IS hllecu', viz.
J = XH
where . h .' (7.14)
. XIS t e magnetic susce tibil't I ',,' .
quantIty typical of eacl p. l y. t IS a dllnenSlOnless
f
· 'I I magnetIc (tl t . J'
01 ows from the fact tl 't. .' Ia X IS hlmension1ess
S
· . f H la , accol'lllllg' to (7 11) I f'
IOns 0 and J aI'e tl e ) . " t LC ( 1men
U 1
· , S<:.me
n electric sllsceptibilit' " .
magnetIc susceptibility X hx Illch IS always positive
Accordingly the mag _e positive hI' negative'
d
"d . ., ne ICS ,.,atlsf\"l f 1, . •
IVI ed mtD paramagnetics ( fig . orIllU ,1 (i .14) are
In paramagnetics, J tt H X .0) a.JlII (z < 0).
It should be noted' that' I.n (hamp'{!If'hl: J HH.
there exist for' 'I to tll(',' !!lagnetics,
a rather complicated' ,w
i
t le J (H)
It has a J' n J d d' s not 1111ear, and besides
. " ,". epen son t It I . ,
netIc. (Ferromarrnetic" will b I .. e pre IIstory of it mag
in Sec. 7.6.) ,., e (eSenbell in greatel' dptail
Relation Between Band H F
expression (7 11) .• or magnetics olw,Xilw
H
. acqllJres the forlll (1 I.,) II h
ence , Z
B =
where is lhe !Jermeahilt·t.t/ ()f I
. lie medilllll.
= 1 .: Z.
I'
I
(7.21)
(7.20)
2
1
+ = iNl,
where iN is the projection of vector i onto the normal N
to the ('oQutOllI' (vector N forms a righthanded systom with
the direction of eontour circumvention). Taking the two
projections of vector H onto the comm'on unit vec.tor of tlte
tangent. T (in IUf\l\illlU 2), we obtain TT
lt
, ,== C·an
celling l Ollt of tlwpreviolls eqllation, we get
7,4. Boundary Conditions for 8 and B
,
,,'t n'
Fig. 7.7 Fig. '7.8
,
same on both sides of the interface. This quantity does not
have a discontinuity.
Condition for Vector H. We shall assume, for higher
generality that a surface conduction current with linear
dens'iy i flows over the interfaeial surface of the magnetics.
Let us apply the theorem on circulation of vector H to
a very small rectangular contour whose height is negligibly
small in comparison with its length l (the arrangement of
the contour is shown in Fig. 7.8). Neglecting the contribu
tions from smaller sides of the contoUl' to the circulation,
we can write for the entire contour
i.e. the normal component of vector B turns out to he the
in Fig. 7.7. Then the flux of B in the outward direction (we
ignore the flux through the lateral surface) can be written
in the form
B
2n
/).8 + BIn' /).8 = O.
Taking the two projections of vector P onto the normal
n to the interface, we obtain BIn' = 13]11' and after can
celling /).8, the previous equation becomes
7. Magnetic Field in a Substance
l' Hdl.
In accordance with (7.12.) h' .. .
to the algebraic SUIll of mtegral is equal
by the contour r. Hence f . n currents I embraced
have 01 a lOmogeneous magnetic, we
7.4. Boundarv Conditions for Band H
We slwll analyse tli> C d"
the interface between \ onhltlOns for vectors nand H at
conditions will be obtai .omoge!IOOIlS magnetics. These
with tlte Iw.lp of the C' 'I
llist
as III the case of uielectrics
cnlatio/l Wo' l'ol'"lll 11 "ltllf!:iS t leOl'ern ctlt.d the theorem on
. ,.lil or vocto .. B I H
have llw form .' I:> alit these theorems
1,BdS'O, (7.19)
Condition for V('dol' B I· t " ..
located dt tlte il t >'f" I ,f'. liS I III [I g'1ne [I very low cylinder
J et ,ICC Jt'tw('nll (wl)"lllaglletics as is shown
l' = 'X/
'1'1 " ,1" . (7.17)
. us Ie atlOllslup lJetweell tl ,. ' '
any contour inside the I. and I is valid for
when l' :+ dI' III p.artlcular, for a. very
Ih01l l' d8 . dS' ln d8 and I +dI  ] d8
", r: ,, Xln ,and aftet' cancellinO' dS n ..
__ XllI.IJus eqnation holds f). t::' .we ohtam
small contour, Le. for an' d" (.t any orwntatIOn of the
lIcllce the vectors i" au/' of the normal n to it.
tile same equation: J temse \ es are related through
j' = xi. . (7.18)
'I'll liS it [olio ws that' I
if J' 0 P E III a lOtllogcucous maguetie J" ce_' 0
, (. '.D.
sure that volume magnetizat'
and only surface currents are e9
ual
to zero,
In order to prove this we . currents remam.
c,II1atioll of vector J d shall use the theorem on cir
pletely lying inside the contour r com
geneous magnetic we can : the case of a homo
ill Eq. (7.5) out the .X
H
for J, take 'X
anu WrIte .
182
t85
(7.23)
tana2 
tan a
l
III
7,/;, Firld in (7 Magnetic
7.5. Field ill a Homogeneous
It was mentioned in Sec. 7.1 thllt determination of the
resultant magnetic field in the pl'esence of arhitral'y mag
netics is generally a complicated problem. Indeed, for this
purpose, in Ilccordance with (7.1), the fIeld B
o
of conduction
currents mnst be supplemented by the macroscopic fwld B'
createfl by magnetization c,ul'rents. The prohlem is that we
do not know beforehllnrl the configuration of magnetization
currents. We can only state that the distribution of these
cnrrents depends on 'the nat1ll'e and configllration of the
magnetic IlS well as on the configuration of the externlll
lield B
o
, viz. the field of conduction C1ll'rents. And since we
do not know the distribution of magnetization currents, we
callnot calculate the fIeld B'.
The only exception is the case when the entire space
occnpiell by the fwld B is fdled by a homogeneolls isotropic
dielectric. Let liS (",ollsider this ease in dptail. Bllt
first of all, we shall lIlIalyse the phenomenll obsPI'vpd whell
COlHlllclion Cllrrent llows along a hOlllogenpolls conduetol'
Fignre 7.10 depicts the fields of vector's B HIIII H near the
illterface between two mllgnctics (in the absellce of con
dut:tion currents). Here > A compllrison of the den
sities of the lines shows that lJ
2
>R
1
• while H
2
< HI'
The lines of B do not hllve a upon U transition
through the interface, while the H lines do (due to the sur
fare magnetizlltion clIrrents).
The refraction of magnetic field lines is used in magnetic protection,
If, for example, a closed iron shell (layer) is introduced into an exter
nal tield. the lield lim's will be concentrated (condensed)
mainly on shell itself. Inside th(' shell (in the cavity) the
field turns out to!d>e considerably weakened in comparison wi th the
lield. In other words, the iron shell ael;; like a screen. This
is used in order to protect sensitive devices from ('xtt'rnal magnetic
fields. ,
:Taking these reilltio/ls into Ilecount. we obtllin the lllw of
of the lines of vector B (Ilnd hence of vector H
". weB) similllr to (2.25):
(7.22)
at the intcrfare
components B
n
7. Magnetic Field in a SUbstance'
184
Thus, if there is no d .
between two homo COli lICt,lOn Cllnent
geneons magnetics, the
B2T
r
f
I a2
2
1
i.e. the tangential co 
a discontinuity u on ?f vector H general1
which is due to thPe prea tIansltlOn through the l'nteYI'f has
If } sence of cd' . Ilee,
, IOwever, there are no uctlOn Cllfl'ents.
between magnetics (i uctthlo
n
currents Ilt the inter
o vector H turns 0 t.  , e tangentilll co
interface' u to be the same on botl 'd mponeJlt
. I Sl es of the
BIT
Fig. 7.9 FieJdB FieJdH
Fig. 7.10
Ilnd H Vll .
T ry contlJl lIOllSI ( . I .
1hrough this interface. 6n Il Jump) upon tl tl'ullsition
T
I
t
n
h
d
, H
n
in this case have d' er '. the components
. s ould be noted that IsContlnlllttes.
D, while vect::ci!r
b
at the interface
e raellon of Lines of B T . e laves lIke E.
at the interface between 'twhe lInes of. B undergo refraction
the case of dielectrics W h fl mllgnetlCs (Fig. 7 9) A. .
of angles (Xl and (X2=' e s Il find the ratio of
tan a B IB
.!.  2T 2n
tana
l
•
W I I IT In
e la I confine ourselves to
. cllrre!!t at the there is no con
• ,lJI thiS Cllse we lillve . CCOr IJIg to (7.22) and
B
2T
/1l2 = BfT/1l1 and B B
2n= In'
I I
1,1
I tically coincide (the wires
of the conduction current h . d tion B' of .the
.) . d I '''ce at all pomts t e In HC
are thm ,an le...... ".1s differs from the indue
ld f tl e magnetIzatIOll CII 1 " •
BOfl ·tl field of the conuuction currents only In mag
tIOn 0 ° 10 1 d' the same way as the
·t· de the<:e vectors being 1'0 ate In nl u., . .. .
corresponding currents, VIZ. (7.24)
B' =0 XBo.
187
(i.25)
B
o
i' B' =
7.5. Field in a Homogeneous Magnetic
n fJB
o
.
I ti 'e space is filled with a homo
This means that. when. t Ie en SI . times. In other words, the
geneous magnotlc, B Increase .tJ the magnetic iielrl B upon
't lows the increase In ..
quantI y ft S. I. . d 1y the f18ld with a magnetlc.
fIlling the entll'o spaI· ce (7 )25) by tJf.\. we obtain
If we divide bot 1 par so. 0' f. ')'
H
 H \7.",6)
"l  0
. . f ld II tUfllS out to be
(in the case :lllder 50nsHleratlOn, Ie . •
the same as 1II a vacllum). I valid when a homogeneous
Form. \lIas lare abso d d by thp formed
t' fill' the entlre /..'0 ume oun e v. . ') I
magne lC. l S . (I field of the conduction current. .n
by the lmes of B
o
t le .. . d tio·n B inside the magnetic
this case too the magnetic 1Il uc
. t' larger than Bo· . 1 . 13'
IS tJ IIDes. . I 1. hove the maanetie IIll uctlOn
In the cases .a
t
· I '\s connected with
of the of
J
through the simple relation
magnetlzatlOlI 0 ., (7.27)
B = 1l0J.
. b en<:ilv obtained from the formula
This c:xpresslOll can 0 J l' t H'  X
B
and
 B' if we take into account t Ja _ 0
B 0; ., _._ J/.
B tJtJo
H
, where H  . I . > in other cases the
As has forrilult;s (7.24)
situatioll IS lilliC I mouo com, .
(7.27) become II" ro))';ider two c;imple exam
Concluding iilO :'('('.11011, ec , . .
ple,.
. I 'd A solenoid having nl amp,'re
Example 1: Field H In a so ; ho'lllogene(Jus magnetic of the
per unl t length is HIler! "
. ()f t.lle resultant field B
Theu the inductlOll .
=(1 + X) Bo 01'
I··
I
l' = i' dl = .r dl = XIf II dl.
186
in a vacuum. Since each conductor is a magnetic, magneti
zation currents also flow through it, viz. volume currents
given by (7.18) and surface currents. Let us take a contour
embracing our currentcarrying conductor. In accordance
with the theorem on circulation of vector J (7.5), the alge
braic sum of magnetization (volume and surface) currents is
equal to zero everywhere since J = 0 at all points of the
contour, i.e. l' = + = O. Hence = i.e. the
volume and surface magnetization currents are equal in
magnitude and opposite in direction.
Thus, it can be stated that in an ordinary case, when cur
rents flow along sufficiently thin wires, the magnetic field
in the surrounding space (in a vacuum) is determined only
by conductioH currents, since magnetization currents c.om
pensate each other (except fbI', perhaps, the points lying
very close to the wire).
Let us now fill the space surrounding the conductor by
a homogeneous nonconducting magnetic (for the sake of
definiteness, we assume that it is a paramagnetic, X > 0).
At the interface between this magnetic and the wire, surface
magnetization current l' will appear. It can be easily seen
that this CUlTent has the same direction as the eonduction
CUlTent I (when X >0).
As a result, we shall have the conduction current 1, the
surface and volume magnetization currents in the conductor
(tho' magnetic fIelds of these currents compensate one another
alld hence can be disregarded), and the surfac.e magnetiza
tioll current l' on the nonconducting magnetic. For sufficient
ly thin wires, the magnetic field B in the magnetic will be
determined as the field of the eUI'l'ont I + I'.
Thus, the problem is reduced to finding the current 1'.
For this pnrpose, we surround tho conductor by a contour
arranged in the surface layer of the nonconducting magnetic.
Let tlte plane of tho contour he perpendicular to the wire
ax i.e. to tlte magnetization currents. ThOll, taking (7.7)
ant! (7.11) into consideration, we can write
Acc(mlillg" 10 (7.12), it follows that r = If.
TrIO of 1111' mag·llotizatioll current l' 'llld
Fig. 7.13
B
H
,,'Fig. 7.12
J
7.6. Frf' ,
in the absence of eKtemal magnetic field. Typical ferro
magnetics are iron, eobalt, allil many of their alloys. .
Basic Magnetization Curve. A typical featlll'e of felTo
magnetics is the complex nonlinear dependence J (H) or
B (H). Figure 7.12 shows the magnetization curve for a
ferromagnetic whose magnetization for H 0 is also zero.
This curve is called the Imsic maKnetization curve. Even at
comparatively small values of H, magnetization .I attains
saturation (.I"). Magnetic induction B = [lo (ll + I) also
increases with H. After attaining saturation, lJ continues
to grow with II accorcing to the linear law B= ilo
ll
+
+const, where canst = [loIs. Figure 7.13 represents the basic
magnetization cllrve on the lJH diagram.
In view of the nonlinear dependence B (II), the permeabil
ity [.t for ferromagnetics cannot be denned as a constant
clwracterizing tlw magnetic properties of J specific felTo
magnetic. However, as before, ills aswmed that j.l= BllloH,
bllt here is a function of II (Fig. 7.14), The value i1m:.x
of permeability for ferromagnetics may lIe very large. For
example, for pure iron pmax 5,000. wilde for sHpennalloy
[.tmax = bOO/lOO.
it should lIoted that the concept of pCl"Iueability is
magnetics) and strongly Illilgnetic (fel'l'olllagnetics). It is
well known that in the absence of magnetic lield, para
and diamagnetics are not magnetized and are characterized
by a olletoone cOITespol\(lence between magnetization J
and vector H.
Ferrumagl/etics are the subst;lllces (solids) that Illay possess
spontaneous magnetization, Le. which arc Illagnetizell even
r a
Fig. 7.11
7. Magnetic Field in a Subs/ane,· 188
7.6. Ferromagnetism
beFerromagneties. In, Il.wgnetic ,respecl, all call
divided into weakly magnetic (para magnetics and dia
permeability J..l > 1 F' d th . .
the magTletic. . In e magnetic mduction P ot' tJ\,' field in
. According to (6.20), in the b .
mduction B
o
in the solenoid is a of mag'netJc the magnetic
entIre space where t.he fi ld 0lonI. Since th.e magnetic fills
effects>, th!! magnet.ic ers trob
ffi
zero. (we Ignore the edge
mus e /.L tImes larger:
. B = flPonI. (7.28)
In thIs cast', t.he field of v 1. II .', .
of the magnetic, i.e. H = or remallls the S,;:!)n as III the absence
The change in field B is caused b th .
over the surface of the e appearance of magnetization
IU the same direction as the
currents in the solenoid
/.L > 1. If, however, P< 1
the of these currents will
opposIte.
h The obtained results are also valid
w en the magnetic has the form of a
ve!y long rod arranged inside the sole
,so it is parallel to the sole
nOId saxIs.
Exa"!ple 2. The field of straight.
CUneDt III the presenee of a magnetic
that a magnetic fills a long
of radius a along whose axis
a.g.lven current I flows. The permea
blhty of the magnetic 11 > 1 Find th
magnet' 'd t' .... e
der In uc IOn B as a function of the distance r from the cylin
directly the theorem on circulation of vector B
is very ar? thlis situation, vector II
rents, For a circle of radiusIOn IS he errn
2
me
H
, on y byhconduction cur
r, we ave nr = I, w ence
B = llP
o
H = IJ.lloIl2rrr.
Upon a t T
magnetic IOn the magneticvacuum interface, the
(Fig, 7,11). c Jon ,un Jke H. undergoes a discontinuity
An increase in B insid th . . .
tion currents Th . e e by surJace magnetiza
in the wire h. ese. cOIUClde ,,, d:rect.ion with the current I
On the other sYhtem a.nll hence "amplify" this current.
current is liirectl'd' oppos\t:lyt e
b
the surface magnetization
on field B in th ' .' '. 11 I oes not produce ally effect
of both current: cmomagpneent!Ct' OutSIde thhe magnetic, the magnetic fields
. " sa e one anot er.
I
..
I
I
191
(7.29)
7.6. Ferromagnettsm
These peculiarities of magnetization curves are u.sed in a conven!ent
practical method for demagnetizing fei:romagnetlcs. magnetlze.d
sample is placed into a coil through whIch an alternatIng IS
passed, its amplitude being gradually to zero. In thIS
the ferromagnetic is subjected to multIple cyclIc reverse J.llagnehza
tions in which hysteresis loops gradually decrease, contractIng to the
point where is zero. .
Experiments show that a ferromagnetic upon
reverse magnetization. It can be shown that til thiS case the
amount of heat Qu liberated per unit volume of the ferro mal?
netic is numerically equal to the "area" Sn of the hysteresIs
loop: ",'
The val lies of lJr and IIc for II ifferent fl'lTomagnetics var.y
over oroad ranges. Fot' transformel' steel, the hysteresis
loop is narrow (He is small), while for fe.rro.magl.tetics use.d
for manufacturing permanent magnets it IS Wide (He IS
large). For eXilmple, for alnico alloy, He = ;')0,000 Aim
and B
T
= 0.9 T.
Curie Point. As the temperature increases, the ability ?f
ferromagnetics to get magnetized becomes weaker, and 111
particular, saturation magnetization becomes lower. At.1l
certain temperature called the Curie point, ferromagnetIc
properties of the material disappear.
At temperatures above the Curie point, a ferromagnetic
. becomes a paramagnetic. .
On the Theory of Ferromagnetism. The phYSical
of ferromagnetism could be explained only with the help of
quantum mechanics. The socalled exchange forces may
appear in crystals under certain These forces
orient parallel to each bther the magnetic moments of elec
trons. As a result, regions (110 !lm in size) of spontaneolls
magnetization, which are called domains, appear il.l
Within the limits of each domain, a ferromagnetIc IS mag
netized to saturation and has a certain magnetic lllomcn t.
The directions of these moments are different for rlifferent
domains. Hence, in the absence of external fIeld, the resultant
magnetic moment of the sample is equal to zero,. and the
s<'lmple as a whole is macroscopically TlonmagnetlZed.
When an external magnetic field is switche(l on, tllO
Fig. 7.15
__? Magnetic Field in a Substance
Fig. 7,14
too
applieahlt) only tu till' basic lllili[lIetizatioll curve since, as
will ()I) SI'OWII, Lite n (ll) depcndcncc is nOlltllliq Ill'.
Magnetic Hysteresis. Besides the lIonlinear
B (Il) or.J ([j), also exhibit magnetic hystere
sis: tltr rrlal iOIl hd,\Vef>11 f] and II or J and II turns out to
be ambiguous and is determined by the history of the ferro
magnetic's. magnetization. If we magnetize an initially
nomnaglletlZed ferromagnetic by increasing II from zero
to tho valuo at which saturation sets in (point 1 in Fig. 7.15),
and then reduce H from +H
1
to HI' the ma<rnetization
will not follow path ]0, hut will take pdth 1 234.
If we th?!! c!wnge II from HI to +H
1
the magnetization
clIrve wil] he below, and take path 4561.
., The ohtained closed. curve is calletl the hysteresis loop.
I hc ma:nmllm hysteresIs loop is ohtained whe!' ,;atlll'atioll
is attaincd ilt points] awl 4. If, however, there is no satu
l:atioJl at extreme points, the hysteresis loops have similar
form bnt smaller size, as if inscribed into tbe maximum
It yster'esis loop.
Figlin' 7.15 shows that for H =, 0 magnetization does not
Yilllisit (poiut.2) and is characterized by the quantity lJ
r
(',,/It'd the reSidual induction. It corresponds to the residual
II/I/;;mtizatio,., Jr· .The existence of permanent magnets is
il.''so.claled wl.th thiS residual magnetization. The quantity B
YillllShes (polllt .'1) only under the action of the field H
",hiell has the dil'Pction opposite to that of the field causing
I Ill' lllagiletization. The qnantity Tl
e
is called the coercive
Jorce.
1,
1
,'I
(2)
Fig. 7.i9 Fig, 7.18
Problems
1301RI
on the conductor axis: 2nrH = I (it is clear from symmetry consider
ations that the' lines of II lIlust be circles lying in the planes per
pendicular to the conductor with the current l). ThiR gives
t ' = i) J/2nr•
• 7.3. Circulation of vector H, A long thin conductor with cur
rent I lies in the plane separating the space fIlled with a nonconduct
ing magnetic of permeability from a vacuum. Find the magnetic
induction B in the entire space as a function of the distance r from
the conductor. Bear in mind that the lines of B are circles with centres
on the conductor axis.
Solution. The lines of H are clearly also circles. Unlike vector B,
vector H undergoes a discontinuity at the vacuummagnetic interface.
We denote by Hand H
o
magnetic fIelds in the magnetic and vacuum
respectively. Then, in accordance with the theorem on circultaion
of vector H around the contour in the form of a circle of radius r with
the centre on the conductor axis, we have
nrH + nrHo = I. (1)
Besides, B = B
o
at the interface, or
= lIo,
Solving Eqs. (1) and (2) together, we obtain
II = I H= I t 1I =
(ijft)nr' Ifo (i+t.t)nr·
radial direction, We shall use the theorem on circulation of
ation vector J, taking as a ,con,tonr a smal.l rec.tangl? plane IS
perpendicular to the magnetIzatIOn current III thiS regIOn. Ihe
ment of this contour is shown in Fig. 7. i8, where the crosses
the direction of the surface magnetization current. From the equalIty
Jl = i'l we get i' = J. ,
Then we can write J = XH, where H can be rletermmed from the
circulation of vector II around the circle of radius r with the centre
j'
J
..:!tlh .
"
.. }:
"', .
,
,.
I
Fig'. 7.17
7, Magnetic Field in a Suhstance
J>roblcllls
Contlitions at the interface I
on a III (' • II the Vicinity of point A
i1gone Icvacuum inferfilcl', thl' magnl'tic inductjon
Fig. 7.16
If12
• 7.1.
(Fig. 7,10)
dO/llailiS ol'ipliled a/olll{ II . f' f I
I
,'. Ie Ie t I{I'OW al tit
t O/lldIlIS. ')/'I('lllpd £lgaillsl Ihe fipld (' f!f
g'l'Owlh IS ,·p\'P!'sih/(. 1,1 'I': 111 weak i1e]tls, thIs
. s rOllger' the/ds tI ' 1
l'l'ol'iPlilalioll or III 'lg'lIl'l,'(' I" , Ie SI/IIII lalleOIlS
I
'lIlOJlIPII S wilhill II I' I
la,ps plaep This pl' '. . IC I'll 1['(' f omaill
I
'. oepss IS IITp veJ'si hie I ' I 1
Ij',slel'esis alld I'('sidll't1 'll't" I' . . ., W lie I {'xp aills
, , ',.,lIl· lzallOlI.
in the vacuum is B vector B f .
to the ,interfan'. Th'e angle w,ith the normal
magnetIc illrfuction B ill tI " . ,Il nla/:rJletlc IS /I' Find Ull'
. If' m"g'nl'tlc lJl till' vidnity or '
Sullittun. The requirerl quantity , flomt A.
11= +/Jl
" 1; , (t)
Considerin/:r conditions (7.20) and (7.22) ,'tt.
the inll'rfacf', we lind
Bn = B
o
cos ao,
'til ' B .
. • 0' t 0"  II 0 sIn a
o
,
H 0, IS the tangential component o'
Substituting" these . t (1) j Uo in the vacuum.
lJl 0 ,We obtam
l·/c 2 '.
 oOS a o T ft" sin2 a
o
,
. • 7.2. Surfacemagnelizationf'urrenl " ,
JIlg conductor with current 1 " '. A lOng' thIn currenlcarr.·_
vacu ' " perpI'n I' I 'j J
. UJnIIl,lgn('tH' mtprfare IF'" ., 1 1'1 I .1 JCU 111 .\ to a plaoe
netIc IS II. Find the lllleal' eu'r J,.,./ 'f' 11. \I' jlr'rnleabiUI" 01 the malY
t
' , . n'll (ellIf\, i' ()' th f' "
lOll current 011 thiE in(.prJ'ac' 's . ,,' ,', c. .' (' sur ace magtl:ctiza
rOllduetor. l' <I. a Hll.ctlUlI vi the Ihstallce r fruJIl Hie
,";olt:tiu/I Let n" Hrst ('()/ISIIII'I' the COl j'" . ,.
netlZatwlI current It j. 'j ,_ . f .. I o[ the HlCig
, ' .. (Colt rOIll 1 19, 7,!, lIwt t1li:s current has tltt'
II
Jl  (J + dJ) I = j;'l dr,
(1)
Fig. 7.21
",.
..,::::J

..,
I
dr
r
Problems
195
Fig. 7.20
• h. ds j' is directed toward" us
cumvenLion of the In u're, i.e. volumr JIlagnetiza
in the region of the the le!hhand system.
tion currents lorm Wit vec or J
h th hape of a ring with a narrow
i' 7.6. A (Jermanent dl:
s
of the ring is d. The ,!?ap
gap between the poles. . f the field in the gap is n. F111<1
width is b, the magnetic wHuctHin/inside the magnet, ignoring the
th magnitude" of vectors an< h
of 'the field at the edges of t e gap.
. ; ." on circulation of vector II around
Solutwn. the 7 22) and considering that there IS
dashed eirele of dwmeter 19':t
no conduction current, we can Wfl e
(nd  b) l/r; + bB//!o = 0,
., ,II onto the direclion of cont?ur
where 1Ir; is the ko
f
it coincides with the (liredlOn
circumvention (which IS ta en so •
of vector n in the gap). Hence
bB bB
Ilr;=  tJo(rtdb) ;:::::  tJond .
. .' h h direction of vector II inside the
The minus sign mdlcates at t .h
e
\. 't'on of vector B at the same
. t·. I' OpPOSI te to t e ( I rcc I 11
magnetic ma erld IS bOll __ 0 as we .
point. It should be noted J 7:10 'be found by formula (7.11),
The magnitude of magnetJzalon
 . I tI d ·t· width. Hence
where I is the contour hClg It an r I S
dJ '2lLHo
r.
• .' . ,clor 'f is direeted t!le norm.
a1
The minus sIgn wdlcates 'h. d J tern with the (IIrecllOn of Clf
vector n which forms the flght an sys
7. Magnetic Field in a Substance 194
The configurations of ttl(: lields n anti II in this case are shown in
l·'ig. 7.1!J. We advise the reader to convince himself that for = 1,
we arrive aL the wellknown formulas for B and II in a vacuum.
• 7.4. Circulation of vectors Hand J. L\ 'direct current I flows
along a long homogeneous cylindrical wire with a circular cross section
of radius R. The wire is made of a paramagnetic with the susceptibil
ity X. Find (1) fIeld B as a function of the distance r from the axis
of the wire and (2) magnetization current density j' inside the wire.
Solution. (1) From circulation of vector H around the circle of
radius r with the centre at the wire axis, it follows that
r < R, 211rH = I (rIR)2 (H ex: r),
r> R, 2nrH = I (H ex: l/r).
Figure 7.20 shows the plots of the dependences H (r) and B (r).
(2) Let us use the theorem on circulation of magnetization J
arouh'l the circle of radius r (see Fig. 7.20): 211rJ = r, where I' is
the magnetization current embraced by this contour. We find the
differential of this expression (going over from r to r + dr):
2n d (rJ) = dI'.
Since dI' j'2nr dr, the above equation can bl' transforml'd as
follows:
j' = .!... +!:!... .
r dr
Let us now consider that J = XH = (XI12nR2) r. This gives
j' = xI/nR2.
It can be easily seen that this current has the same direction as the
conduction current (unlike the surface magnetization current which
has the opposite direction).
• 7.5. A long solenoid is filled wi th a nonhomogeneous isotropic
paramagnetic whose susceptibility depends only on the distance r
from the s()lenoid axis as X= ar
2
, where a is a constant. The magnetic
induction on the solenoid axis is B
o
• Find (1) magnetization J and (2)
magnetization current density j' as functions of r.
Solution. (1) J = XH. In our case, H is independent of r (this di
rectly follows from circulation of vector II around the contour shown
in the left part of Fig. 7.21). Hence H = Ho on the solenoid's axis,
and we obtain
J = ar
2
Ho = ar
2
B o//!o.
(2) From the theorem on circulation of magnetization J aroun d
an inflllitc1y narrow contour shown in Fig. 7.21 on the right, it follows
that
I'
I
II
I
I'
13*
Hili 1f' . .
_. ,_.._'_'2.:' lidIe FlCld ill II SII!Jsfanrr
Problems 197
taliiug into account (1):
x dx
Solulion. (1) Let, for the sake of defmiteriess, vector B on the axis
be oirecteo upwards and coincide with the Xaxis. Then, in accordance
with (6.34), F
x
0= I'm aB/ax, where we took into account that the
IDagnetic mompnt Pm is directed as vector B (for paramagnetics) ant!
h('nc(' replaced an by ax.
Next, since I'm 0= IV =XllV and
eIB/ax = _2aBoxe
ax
', we have
Fx =  Axe
2ax2
, (1)
where A = 2aB:! XV/'IllO
Having cal;ulated the derivative
dF,,/dx and equating it to zero, we ob
tain the following equation for deter
mining x
m
: 1  4ax
2
= 0, whence
X
m
= 1/2 (2)
(2) Substituting (2) into (1), we
find
___ ,toF
III
.. /,c Fig. 7.24
X BltI V a'
where we took into account that f1 1 for paramagnetics.
• 7.9. A long thin cylim{rical rod made of a paramagnetic with
the magnetic susceptibility X and crosssectional area S is arranged
Fig. 7.25
B/IJo
J
Fig. 7.22
II/I'll II
'1'':"'1', /"nd ,III
. .The relationship. IlI'tween Vt'r1ors B/IlO, II and J at
Inside the magnet IS shown in Fig. 7.23.' any point
Fig. 7.23
. • 7.7. i\ Winding contailliw' "or tu' ',. I .
In the form of a torlls with the 'II, r
flls
It "dOUI\( on an 11'011 core
slot of wid Ih b (Firr 7 2?) I' .. t . (t
e
, (lallle er : A narrow transversI'
I
.... . w S CII 11\ Ie core \Vh'l t I . .
Ilrough Ihe winding, Ihl' magnptic illdu.t: ,I' .. IS pas...o;ed
the permeability of iroll under the ( IOJI 111 e sol IS B. Find
siJ)ation of tIl!' field at the edrres ol'setI neglecting the dis
b ICso·.
Sululio/!. In accordance with tI 't1 .
arollnd the circle of diaml'ter I (It CIrculation of v('Ctor n
. (see 'Ig. 7.22), we have
(rrd  !J) NI,
whl're JI and /10 are the magnitud f II' . .
spectivPly. Blsides, the nbsence of I r .. In and In the slot n.',
that I I Isst!'n 1011 at the edges lll('ans
B 0 B
o
•
lJsillg th",.:" two I'qll<ItiOiIS ,md tal;i",'
Illloll alld ,,«: d, we ohl:1I11 ... illto accollnt that B =
It Jl dB
J!oNlbB
,. • 7.k. The foree adin« on a g t· TI .
I· Ig. 7.24 is used for (w' I 'j3 t
c
Ie" It' deVice shown in
which a small I t I{ 1C1p 01 a a force with
pole of magnet .1/. The n r. OJ I1me IS attracted to the
I I
' e Ie IllI uctlOn on the axis of the rv I
Sloe (l'pends 011 Ihe height as B B . ,., 1',1 e
stants. Find (1) tlip h,.j ht whue En aud a arc con
so tha I thp allr;lcliVt' fcrrce l:" at ,,:llJch the sphere TIlust be placed
eeptibijily of lhe !"ll'alll,w;".t7c a.nd (2) the SIlS
IS F
m
, ,.,.Ie lIlaXllIllI1ll forcC' ot atlr:lctioll
along the axis of a cllI'!'l'ntearrying coil. One end of the rod is at the
cenlre of the (,oil, whl'!'l' IhI' luagnetic fIeld is B, while the end
lies in the regioll when' IhI' lIlagnetic fwld is practically absent. Fint!
the force with which the coil acts 011 the rod.
Solutiol/. Let us IIll'ntally isolate all element of the rod of length d;T
(Fi£:,_ 7.25). The force acting o!,! this elemellt is given by
aB
x
. ',. Pm an .
that vector B on the axis of the roil is directed to the right
(see the figure), toward::; positive valu!'s of x. Then B
x
= B, an = ax,
8. Relative Nature of Electric
and Magnetic Fields
8. f. Electromagnetic Field Ch .
So far . arge JAvallance
se ' we have considered ele .
parately, without establishi . ctnc and magnetic
ng any clear reIat· 1
IOn >etween
I ....
them. 'I'll is could be done only because the two fields were
static. In other cases, however, it is
It will be shown that electric and magnetic fields must
nlways be considered together as a single total electromagnetic
flCld. In othel' words, it turns out that electric and magnetie
fields are in a certain sense the components of a single physi
cal object which we call the electromagnetic field.
The division of the electromagnetic field into electric
and magnetic fields is of relative nature since it depends to
a very large extent on the reference system in which the
phenomena are considered. The field wldch is constant ill
one reference frame in the general case is found to vary in
another reference frame.
Let us consider some examples.
A charge moves in an inertial system K at a constant velocity v.
In this system, we shall observe both the electric and magnetic fields
of this ch.u·ge, the two flelds varying with time. If, however, we go
over to an system K' moving together with the charge, the
charge will be'1it rest in this' system, and we shall observe only the
electric field.
. Suppose two identical chatges move in the system K towards each
other at the same velocity'v. In this system, we shall observe both
electric and magnetic fields, both these fwlds varying. In this case it
is im:rossible to find such a system K' where only one of the lields
woul be observed.
In the system K, there exists a permanent nonuniform magnetic
field (e.g., the field of a fixed permanent magnet). Then in the system
K' moving relative to the system K we a varying mag
netic field and, as will be shown below, an ele<;tric fleld as well.
8.1. Electromagnetic Field. Charge Invariance 19!1
Thus, it is clear that in different reference frames different
relations are observed between electric and magnetic fields.
Before considering the main points of this chapter, viz.
the laws of transformation of fields upon a transition from
one reference system to another, we must answer the
question which is important for further discussion: how do
an electric charge q itself and the Gauss theorem for vector E
behave upon such transitions?
Charge Invariance. At present, there is exhaustive evi
dence that the total charge of an isolated system does not
change with the change in the motion of c.harge carriers.
This maybe proved by the neutrality of a gas consisting
of hydrogen molecules. Electrons in these molecules move
at much higher velocities than protons. Therefore, if the
8. Relative Natllre of El t.
ec riC and Magnetic Fields
198
and since dpm = J S dx _
 XHS dx, we get
XS B
ax dB.
Having integrated h
t is equation, we obtain
()
XS \'
Fx =  B dH XSB2
/l/lo C'   2/l,J'
Th . B 0
e !llmus sign indicates th
rod IS attracted to the is to the left, i. th
arrymg coIl ,.c. e
• 7.10. A small s h .
magnetic susceptihT P ere of volume V, made of
carrying coil from th
ity
was displaced along th with
region wher th e pomt where the m '. e aXIS of a C1lITent
against the field is dis B to the
S I . orees accomplished in th' . In the work
o utlOn. Let us d' h IS case.
the elementar k Irect t eXaxis alon th .
placement of donbe agaiI!st the the coil. Then
ere y dx IS equal to orces Upon the dis
6A= F dx. iJB
x
x Pmdx
Where F . h an ' (1)
Th . x IS! e projection of the .
tll
e
Xaxis
:a ues of x. Then B = Bon d
t
e axis is directed tow IS
d
orce...
vn = ax' h x . an an = a (th' ar s posItIve
X ,we rewrIte Eq. (1)
6A= d _ XV
I. a x    H dB
ntegratmg this equation bet x /l/lo .
. ween Band 0 we hI .
(J ,0 ,am
j' B2V
rr BdB=J
B 2/l/l
o
.
(8,2)
(8.1)
201
t  xvo/c
2
V 1(00/C)2
8.2. Laws of Transformation for Fields E and B
h X
d X'axes of coordinates are directed
where it is assumed that t e  all
. ,;t blished in the special theory
of this transformatIon are e,. a}' ted way For this reason,
of relativity in a rather comp IC:
es
derivations and
we shall not present h,ere of these laws, the
will pay mam 0 th m and the application of
corollaries rom e : problems,
these laws for §uppose we have two inertial
Formulation of the ro em., K nd the system K' moving .
systems of reference: the system a 1 't v We know the
. th fi st system at a ve OCI Y 0'
relatIve to e r, ld E d B at a certain point in space
of fie s K are the magnitudes of the
and tIme m systfm ' o'nt in space and time in the
.fields E' and B at t Ie same P oint in space and time
system K'? (Recall s d trme in the two reference
is a point whose COOl' lila es ::e Lorentz
systems arc related through to this question is
As was mentioned above,. answer} . 1 't follows that
. h th O'y of relatIvItv from w llC I I I
given III tee I . f fi'elds are expressed by tIe
the laws of transformatwn 0
formulas __"'".:;::;;;:;:;:\
I
Ell =Ell, BII  BI" \
B  [voxEl/c
z
E
' E.L+[voXBl B'
.L = V
1
pz' .L = .
I i I "k the IOn'fitudinal and trans
Here the II J com of the elec.tric
verse (relative to the vectol/ v d I?s t,lle velocity of light
t
· c. I \s R  V ,c an C I
and magne IC ne ( , p  0' '
in a vacuum (c
2
= 1/eof!o)'
" th formulas have the form
Written in terms of prOJectIOns, ese •
\
" E'I voEz 1'>' ,
E'l"" .1 J ' \
' y 1(IZ •
llz v
O
Ey/c
2
7' .," EZ ',ll1olJ
y
B'
EI.c. z =
8. Relative Nature of Electric and Magnetic Fields 200
charge depended on the velocity, the charges of the elec
trons and protons would not compensate each other and the
gas would be charged. However, no charge (to 20 decimal
places!) has been observed in hydrogen gas.
Another proof can be obtained while observing the heat
ing of a piece of a substance. Since the electron mass is
considembly smaller than the mass of nuclei, the velocity
of electrons upon heating must increase more than that of
nuclei. And if the charge depended on the velocity, the sub
stance would become charged upon heating, Nothing ·of
this kind '.vas ever observed.
'Further, if the electron charge depended on its velocity,
then the total charge of a substance would change as a result
of chemical reactions, since the average velocities of electrons
in a substance depend on its chemical composition. Cal
culations show that even a weak dependance of the charge
on the velocity would result in extremely strong electric
fields even in the simplest chemical reactions, But nothing
of this kind was observed in this case either.
Finally, the design and operation of all modem particle
accelerators are based on the assumption that a particle's
charge is invariable when its velocity is changed.
Thus, we arrive at the conclusion that the charge of any
particle is a relativistic invariant quantity and does not
depend on the"particle's velocity or on the choice of the
reference system.
Invariance of the Gauss Theorem for Field E. It tlll'llS
out, as follows from the generalization of experimental
results, that the Gauss theorem E dS = qle
o
is valid
not only for fIXed charges but for moving charges also. I Tl
the latter case, the s1ll'face integral must be taken for a def
inite instant of tirnl' in a given reference system.
Besides, since different inerti,ll reference systems ilre
physically eq uivalent (ill accordaJICo with 1110' relati vi ty
principle), we can state that the (;aIl8s theorelll is valid
for all inertial of reference.
8.2. Laws of Transformation for Fields E a'nd B
\Vltile going over from olle referellce system to anotller,
fields E and B are transformed in a certain .way. The laws
along the vector va, the Y'axis is parallel to th y_,' I h "
to the Zaxis. . e aXIS aUt t e ZaxIs
E' It from Eqs. (8.1) alld (8.2) that each of the vectors
. (I Il I. IS expressed both ill terms of E alld 8. This
dll eVIdence of Il common nature of "],, t " 1 .
r I I 'I' I· " <cc llC 1l1l1 magnetIc
Ie I s. a (On separately each of tll"8e fiellls I b I
. . ' . ".. taS 110 a so lite
rnealllllg: speaking of eloctl'ic (lUll m'IO'II"tl'C !' I I .
. 1'1 (,.., \.' W I S we JIlust
HI( t Ie system of reference in which these '6 Jd'
conSIdered. Ie s are
It sh?llld be emphasized that the properties of electro
magnetic fwld expressed by the laws of its trllllsformation
values of E' ,alld 8' at a certain point ill
:t
d
tire HI i
he
system K are uniqnely determined only by
. Ietlva IICS 0 E and 8 at the same point in space and time
III Ie system K.
The following features of the laws of field t.. 'f' .
al'e also . IclllS OJlllatlOn
. very Important.
1. Unlike the transverse components of E· I 8 I' I
ch'lJlge 0 . t " , .tli( ,w IIC I
( a hom Olle referollce system to Rn
°t]thor, theu. longtludmal components do not change and l'emaill
Ie same HI all systems.
.2. Vectors E and B in different systems are COJiliccted
WIth each other through highly symmetric relations TI'.
can be. seen most clearly ill the form of the Jaws of
formatlOll tlte of the fields (see (8.2)1.
3. In o. I del' to obtalll the ()f tll(" , t
t
' . . " , Inv er<;c 1"1JI s
ormatIOn (from K' to K), it is sufficient to ill
/Ill/las (8.1). and (8.2) all pl'imed quantities by llnprimod
ones (and VIce versa) as well as t.he sian of "
S . I C b "0'
peCta ase of Field Transformation (u If tl _
system K' moves relative to tl10 svst"ln K
O
a"t' . 1 't
IC
, '. " C J' " ( , a ve OCI y
L
o
«c, the rad lCals III tire denominators of fonn uhs (8 1')
call be replaced by IInity, alld we obtain (, .
203
Fig. 8.1
Bt
\'
8.2. Laws of Transformation for Fields E and n
It should be noted that while solving this problem, we coulll follow
another line of reasoning, viz. from Ihe point of vil'W of the reference
frame in whieh the plate J1loves at the velocity v. III this system there
will be an electric jidd inside the plnte. It appears as a result of the
action of the magnetic cOlllponent of the Lorentz force causing the
will be observed. It is :directl'd towards
liS. Under the action of this external
field, the charges will be displaced so
that positive charges will appear on
the front surface of the plate and negative charges, on the lJinrl sur
face.
The surface density a of these charges will be such that the Held
created by these charges inside the plate completely
external field E', since in equilibrium the resultant electrIc held IIIslde
the plate must be equal to zeru. Taking into acconnt relation (1.11),
we ubtain '
a = foE' = fovR.
It should be noted that the first formula in (8.1) can he
directly obtained in a very simple wa.y. Let a charge q
in the system K have a velocity v
o
at a certain instant t.
The Lorentz force on this charge is F = qE I
+ q [v
o
X 81. We go over to the inertial system K', movilll{
relative to the system K at the salUe velocity as the charge q
at the instant t, viz. the velocity v
o
' At this instant, the
charge q is at rest in the system K', and the force
on the immobile ehurge is purely electric: F' ..co gE'. If
V
o
«c (as in the case under eonsiderlltioll), this {orec is
illvariant (F' = F), whellce we ol)taill the Ihst fOl'lIlula ill
(8.4). .
However, the transformation fOl'llIulas fol' magnetic Held
canbe obtained only with the help of the theory of relativity
as a result of rather cllmbersome calculations.
Let us consider a simple example of the application of
formulas (8,1).
Example. A.Jal'ge metallic plate moVl'S at a constant nonrelativistic
velocity v in a'unifol'In magnetic Held 1J (Fig. 8.1). Fillll tlIP surface
density of charges iIHluced on the surfaces of the plate as a resultof
its motion. •
Let us go over to the reference sys
tem fixed to the plate. In accordance
with the first of formulas (8.4), in this,
system of reference a constant uni
form electric field
E' = Iv X Bl
(8.4)
Bir = 8",
(8.3)
B' = B [v
o
X E}/c
2
• I
J
R. Relative Nature of EI('ctric and Magnetic Ficlds
202
Eir=E",
= E.l +(v
o
X B},
Hence it follows that
IE' E+ (va X Bl,
205
Fig. 8.2
8.2. Laws of Transformation for Fields E and n
. the fields E aud B lUust he
to an.other refcrence, '11 the eoneept of the
!
. tl 'u .. J:< 01' Iustance, eve .
treaLe( Wi i C ie. . " char re IJy a muving magnetIC
force exerted. Ull a mov lU", . The force is deter
field tioes not have any preCise and B at the point
mined by the of the of motion of the
wllere the charge at this point change,
sources of nellis a, well Otherwise the motion of the
the force Will ch,mge as e of the lorce. .
,;\' . sources does not th ob"'lem about the force actlllg
Thus, while solvmg the E
Pr
1 B at the point of location
,;,,:, I e must know an( 't'
,\> on a c large, w . 1 . 't v All these quantI les
i'· of the charge as ;eference frame we are
..j.•..:.,._::,: re a lve 0 K'I
'. The expression "nlOY  K B I
ing field" (if it is lised) ... t vo..........
should be .as "
a convenient way of the • q I
,I • t'OIl of .\
verlJal ucscnp I . L _
varying neh! unllor C('l
tain conditions, anll noth
ing more. .
The following silllple tthat upon a transition
example will illllstraf.t.c the
to
the nel(l must be
from one refcrcnc,c [ame
t1'oatell with care.
.. t between the poles of a mag
Example A charge(l partlde IS at res to the system K' that moves
net lixed in 'the system K. Let us velocity Yo relative to the
to the right (Fig. 8.2) at a particle moves the
system K. (t) Can we the force acting on thiS partlc e
netic tielll in the system .
. the system K'. . elic field. It should be notell ,
m (t) Yes, the particle In the and not relative to
however, that it moves m. the magne • tlwt a particle moves relatIve
magnetic field. It is meaIllngful to objects. cannot
to the reference system, a to the magnetic held. lhe
state that a particle I.novles :: I All this refrrs not 'lIlly to magnl' IC
statement has no physlca ml'unmg.
but to electric tields as we}l. must take into aceount that
(2) In order to lind the °lrc
l
! we
ted
towards us (Fig. 8.2), WI
electric lield E' = l vD.'>; B the charge will move to t
in the svst"1ll I\. . III thIS sy . ' 'n occur in crossL',ld<'CtrH'
appear I '. , lI,l this mottOll WI' th·.t the
left at the ve '\' I of llefmiteness, we suppose •
and magnetic ileitis. l' 01 t Ie sa <e
\
204 fi. Rell/tive Nature of Electric and Magnetic Fields
Relativistic Nature of Magnetism. Formulas (8.1) and
(8.2) for the transformation of fields lead to a remarkable
conclusion: "the appearance of the magnetic field is a purely
relativistic effect following from the existence in nature
of the limiting velocity c equal to the velocity of light in
a vacuum.
If this velocity (and hence the velocity of propagation of
interactions) were infinite, no' magnetism would exist at all.
Indeed, let us consider a free electric charge. Only electric
field exists in the system K where this charge is at rest. Con
sequently, according to (8.1), no magnetic field would
appear in any other system K' if c tended to infinity. This
field appears only due to the fact that c is finite, i.e. in the
long run due to the relativistic effect.
The relativistic nature of magnetism is a universal physical
fact, and its origin is associated with the absence of mag
netic charges.
Unlike most of relativistic effects, magnetism can be
easily observed in many cases, for example, the magnetic
field of a currentcarrying conductor. The reason behind
such favourable circumstances is that the magnetic field
may be created by a very large number of moving electric
charges under the conditions of the almost complete vanish
ing of the electric field due to practically ideal balance of
the numbers of electrons and protons in condHctors. I TJ
this case the magnetic interaction is predominant.
The almost complete compensation of electric charges
made it possible for physicists to study relativistic effects
(Le. magnetism) and discover correct laws. For this reaSOJl,
the laws' of electromagnetism, unlike Newton's laws, have
not<been refined after the creation of the theory of relntivity.
Field Varies Rather than Moves. Since the relations he
twoon electric and magnetir. aelds vary upon a transition
displacement of all the electrons in the plate behind the plane of
Fi;t. 8.1. As a result, the front surface of the plate will be
positively and the hind surface, negatively, and the electric field
appearing in the plate will be such that the electric force qE compen
sates the magnetic component of the Lorentz force, q [v X Bl, whence
E = [y X BI. This field is connected with the surface charge density
through the same formula lJ = BovB.
, Both approaches to the· solution of the given problem are equally
justified. .
v
207
(8.7)
(8.8)
Fig. 8.3
8.9. Field Transformation Laws. Corollaries
tions can be easily applied to the fields varying in space and
time. An illustrative example is the field of a uniformly
moving point charge.
Field of Freely Moving Relativistic Charge. The formulas
for field transformation are interesting above all by that
they express remarkable properties of electromagnetic field.
Besides, they are important from a
purely practical point of view since
they allow us to solve some problems
in a simpler way.
For example, the problem of deter
mining the field of a uniformly mov
ing point charge can be solved. ,as a
result of transformation of a purely
COUlomb field which is observed in the
reference system fixed to the charge.
Calculations sh9w (see Problem 8.10)
that the lines 61 the field E created by
a freely moving charge q have the form
shown in Fig. 8.3, where'v is the ve
locity of the charge. This pattern cor
responds to the instant "picture" of the electric field config
uration. At an arbitrary point P of the reference system, vec
tor E is directed along the radius vector r drawn from the
point of location of the charge q to point P.
The magnitude of vector E is determined by the formula
1 q
E "''' 4:rteo r2 n{j";;;)3'";;;/2'
where = vIc, it is the angle between the radius vector r
and the vector v corresponding to the velocity of the charge.
The electric field is "flattened" in the direction of motion
of the charge (see Fig. 8.3), the degree of flattening being
the larger the closer the velocity vof the diarge to the veloc
ity c of light. It should be also borne in mind that the field
shoWJl in the figure "moves" together with the charge. That
is why the field E in the reference frame relative to which
the charge moves varies with time.
Knowing the field E, we can find the field B in the same
reference system:
1, 110 q[vxr]
B= [v< El = 4it ,.a (1 sin2 {j)3/2 •
8. Relative Nature of Electric and lUagnetic Fields
206
8.3. Corollaries of the Laws of Field Transformation
. Some Simple Corollaries. Several simple and useful rela
tIOns follow in some cases from transformation formulas
(8.1).
'. If the field E alone is present in the system K
(the magnetIc field B = 0), the following relation exists
hetween the fields E' and B' in the system K':
B' = [Yo X E'lIc
2
• (8.5)
Indeed, if B = 0, then El.lV1  and B' = °
c=. [Yo X El/c
2
V1  c= [v
o
X 'E'1/c
2
, wh;re
mto account that in the cross product we can write
E .01' El. (the ,same applies to the primed quantities).
Consldermg that B = Bj, + = we arrive at for
mula (8.5).
2•. If the magnetic fwld B alone is present in the system K
(wIllIe tIte electric field E = 0), then for the system K'
we have
F' =qE' +q [vo X B]=q [v
o
X B]q[v
o
X B]=O
which, fo,nows from the invariance of the force upon
nonrelatr ,Jst1C transformatIOns from one reference frame to the other.
of the particle is q > O. Then the Lorentz force in the system K'
IS
E' = [Yo X B'l, (8.6)
In ieed, if E = 0, then = Bl.IV1 and Ell = 0
Ef. = [Yo, x. BlIV1  V Suhstituting Bl. for B and
BJ. m the last cross product, we arJ'ive at formula
(8.5) and (8.6) lead to the following important
conclusIOn: If only one at the fields (E or B) is present in the
system K, the electric and magnetic fields in the system K'
are mutually p,erpendicular (E' L B'). It should be noted
the statement is true only under certain ad
dItiOnal lImitations imposed on the magnitudes of the vec
tors E and B.
Finally, since Eqs. (8.5) and (8.6) contain only the quan
tities referring to the same system of reference, these equa
I I
Problems
209
. . 'f E  0 l' B = 0 in some reference system,
opposite IS true. I
ther
(This conclusion has alreadY heen
then E'..l III any 0 .
more remark: it should be borne in.mind
h
II fi
nilis E and B depend both on coordlllates
t at genera Y ". c
I
. .... t f (8 \J) refers
d on time COllsequently, eac l lIlvallHl 0 . d'
an . '. 'n s ace and time of the field, the COOl' 1
in different systems of .reference
being connected through the Lorentz transformations.
Problems
. Iff Id transformation. A nonrelativistic
• 8.1. Specla case 0 n velocity v. Using the transforma
point charge q mo;e
l.
at a co t field B of this charge at a point whose
. tion formulas,. fin t e
h
rc. defined hy the radius vector r.
position relatIve to tee arge IS
t the s stem of reference K' fixed to the
us go ov
1
r coJlomh fIeld with the intensity
charge. In t IS system, on Y
1 q
E'=, r,
41tEo r
is resent where we took into account that the radius
in K' (nonrelativistic case). ntowth:\ystem K' at
K
' t th stem K that moves re a Ive 0 h
system 0 e sy. we shall use the formula for t I'
by unprimed quantIties an vice '. d' v and hence
b Vo (Fig. 8.4). In the case under conSI vo 'K' B' = 0
l = B' + [v X E'l/c2. Considering that III the system
and that c
2
= 1/Eoflo, we fInd
110 q [v X rJ
B = 4Jt r3 •
We have obtained formula (6.3) which was earlier postulated as
1
· t' of experimental data.
a result of the genera lza JOn
140181
v
8.5
B
.f(11c"
1
 I
vo I
1

q
Fig. 8.01
K'I
I r
I

q
K
8.4. ElectYomagnetic Field Invariants
Since vectors E and B characterizing electromagnetic field
depend on the system' of reference (at the same point in
space and time), a natural arises concerning the
invariants of electromagnetic field, i.e. the quantitative
characteristics independent of the reference system.
It can be shown that there exist two such invariants which
are the combinations of vectors E and B, viz.
jE.B=inv. and E2c2B2=inv.1 (8.9)
The invariance of these quantities (relative to the Lorentz
transformations) is a consequence of field transformation
formulas (8.1) or (8.2). This question is considered in greater
detail in Problem 8.9.
The application of these invariants allows us in some
cases to find the solution quickly and simply and make the
corresponding conclusions and predictions. We shall list
the most important· conclusions.
L The invariance of E'B immediately implies that if E ..1 B
in some reference system, Le. E· B = 0, in all other inertial systems
E' ..1 B' as well.
2. It follows from the invariance of E2  c
2
B2 that if E = cB
(Le. E2  c
2
B2 = 0), in any other inertial system E' = cB' as well.
3. If in a certain reference system the angle betwl'cn vectors E
and B is acute (ohtuse) (this means that E· B is greater (Ies:;) than zero),
in any other reference system the angIe between vectors E' and H'
will he acute (ohtus(') as well.
4. If in a certain reference system F > cB (or E < cB). (which
means that, E2  r
2
B2 is greater (or l!!ss) than zero), in any other
reference system E' > cB' (or E' <; clJ 0) as well.
5. If hoth invariants are equal to zero, then E 1. R ana E = cB
in all rf'ference systems. It will he shown later that this is precisely
ohserved in electromagnetic waves.
6. If the invariant I>B alorw is equ..1 to zero, we can fmd a refer
ence system in which either E' = 0 or B' = O. The sign vI ihe other
invariant determines which of these vectors is equal to zero. The
This formula is a corollary of relation (8.5) iu which we have
replaced the primed quantities by unprimed ones and v
by v.
When v c «1), expressions (8.7) and (8.8) are trans
formed to (1.2) and (6.3) respectively.
208 8. Relative Nature of Electric and Magnetic Fields
= 1'0!toII2nr (1)
where r is the distance from the wire axis.
The expression for B in this formula was obtained with the help
of the theorem on circulation.
On the other hand, according to the Gauss theorem (in the moving
system) we have
C'
2ft Problem•
H' = BIv X EI/e
2
•
l"
The arrangement of vectors is shown in l<'ig. 8.6, from which it follows
that l v X EJ tt B. Consequently, considering that according to (1)
14*
induction B' of the llIagnetic lield at the same distance frolll the beam
in the system K' that moves relative to the system K at the velocity Vo
in the direction of the proton beam.
Solution. This problem can be solved in the most simple way with
the help of formulas (8.1). But first we must find the induction B in
the syst.em K at the same distance from the beam where the intensity E
is given.
Using the theorem on circulation of vector B and the Gauss theo
rem for vector E, we find
R = !JIlI/2rrr, F A/2rtfor,
where r is the distance from the beam, I = A.V is the current, alI,1 'A
is the charge per unit length of the heam. It follows from these formulas
that
BIA' = fO!tOJ/I.. = v/c
2
,
where c
2
= lleo!to. Substituting the expression for B fmlll this for
mula into the last of transformation formulas (8.1), we obtain
B' =
.. ,,' c
2
V1(v
o
/C)2
If in this case Vo < u, the Jines of B' form the righthanded system
with the vector vo. If va > v, they form the lefthanded system (since
the current ]' in the system K' in this case will flow in the opposite
direction).
• 8.5. A relativistic charged particle moves in the space occupied
by. uniform mutually perpendicular electric and magnetic Helds E
and B. The particle moves rectilinearly in the direction perpendicular
to the vectors E and B. Find E' and B' in the reference system moving
translationally with the particle.
Solution. It follows from the description of motion of the particle
that its velocity must satisfy the condition
vB = E. (1)
In accordance with the transformation formulas (B.l), we have
E'= E+[vxBI =0
'
since in the case under consideration the Lorentz force (and hence
the quantHy E +[v X B) is equal to zero.
According to the same transformation formulas, the magnetic
field is given hy
8. Relative Nature 0/ Electric and Magnetic Fields
210
.= [v X B).
The polarization of the diP!ectrie is gin'lI by
, e1
P= xeoE =. eo [v X HI
e '
where we into account that according to (3.29), E' = Eolt:. The
surface denSIty of hound charges is .
, e1
Icr I =P=lI
o
vB.
e
At the front surface of the plate (Fig. 8.5) cr' > 0 while on the opposit
face cr' < o. " e
• 8.3. we have an uncharged long straight wire with
a current I. Illd the per uni length of this wire in the reference
system moving translatlOnally WIth a nonrelativistic velocity v
along the conductor in the direction of the current I. 0
Soluti?n. . In aC,cordance with the transformation formulas (B.4),
the electnc held E = [va X B) will appear in the moving reference
system, or
•. 8.. 2.. A large plate made of homogeneous dielectric with the
permlttlvltY.F 1I.lOves at a cOllstant nonrelativistic velocity v in a uni
form held H as shown in Fig. 8.5. Find the polarization P
of the 'dlelectnc and the surface density cr' of hound charges.
SolUtion,. In the refereIl;ce system to the plate, in addition to
the field, there .wIlI he an elec,trlc field which we shall denote
h
bY
Eo· In ,lccord:lllce with formulas (8.4) of field transformation we
ave '
E; = 'A'/2m:
o
r, (2)
where 1..' is charge per ulli t length of the wire.
A companson of (1) and (2) gives
'A' = v
O
Ilc
2
,
,where c
2
= Ih0!:l0' The o,rigin of this charge is associated with the
contractIOn expeflenced by the "chains" of positive and nega
tive charges (they have different velocities!).
. • Th?re is a narrow beam of protons mOVing with a relativis
tiC velOCity v II.! the of reference K. At a certain distance from
the beam, the IlltenSlty of the electric field is equal to E. Find the
213
Problems
This equation is written for the instant t = 0, when the particle
moved in the system K' as is shown in Fig. 8.8. Since the Lorentz
force F is always perpendicular to thE: velocity of the particle, vo =
= const, and it follows from (1) that in the system K' the particle
will move in a circle of radius
R = mvo/qB.
, Thus, the particle moves uniformly with the velocity vo in a circle
in the system K' which, in turn, moves uniformly to the right with
the same velocity vo = EIB. This motion can be compared with the
motion of the point q at the rim of a wheel (Fig. 8.9) rolling with the
angular velocity w = voiR = qBlm.
Figure 8.9 readily shows that the coordinates of the particle q
at the instant t are given by
x=votR sinwI=a (wIsin WI),
y=RRcoswt=a (1cos wt),
where a = mElqB2 and w = qBlm.
• 8.7. There is only a uniform electric field E in an inertial sys
tern K. Find the magnitudes and directions of vectors E' and B' in
the system K' II14Yving relative to the system K at a constant relativistic
velocity vo at an angle a to vector E.
Solution. According to transformation formulas (8.1) and taking
into account that B = 0 in the system K, we obtain
E'n=Ecosa, Ii=vol
c
.
Hence the magnitude of vector E' is given by
IEiEl/(1Bt cos' a)/(11i')
and the angle a' between vectors E' and vo can be determined from
the formula
tan a' = Ell = tan al Vi lit.
The magnitude and direction of vector B' can be found in 11 similar
way: 
B"=O,
This means that B' .l vo, and
B' = voE sin al(c' ViIi')·
, • 8.8. Uniform electric and magnetic fields E and B of the same
direction exist in a system of 'reference K. Find the magnitudes of
vectors E' and B' and the angle between these vectors in the system K'
moving at a constant relativistic velocity Vo in the direction perpen
dicular to vectors E and B.
Solution. In accordance with formulas (8.1), in the syste
lll
Fe
(1)
x
E
y
B q
Z
Fig. 8.6
8, Relative Nature 0/ Electric and Magnetic Fields 212
or in the vector form
B' = BE'IBe'
Y11i'
v = EIB, we can write
B'=BV1(ElcB)'.
We advise the reader to ver'f th t th b .
both field invariants. I y a e 0 tamed expressions satisfy
The lIIotion of a charge ill crossed field ].' d
relatIvIstIc particle with a specific charge qlrn movessI'n' an Anlon
a regIOn w Iere
Fig. 8.7
mutually perpendicular fields E. and B have been created
(FIg..8.7). At the moment t = 0 the partlcle was at point 0 d 't
velocIty was equal to zero. Find the law of motion of the pant' II s
x (t) and y (t). ,arIC e,
Solutton. The particle under the action of the Lorentz f
can b.e easily seen tha.t the particle always remains in the plane
tS
I
motIOn can most easily in a certain system K' h .
on y the magnetIc field IS present. Let us find this refe n ,were
It follows from transformations (84) that E' _ 0 .re ce sfystem.
t th t
. h .'  mare erence
sys em  a WIt a velocIty Vo satisfying the reI t' E 
= !vo XB!. It .IS more convenient to choose the s stem
a
h 
Vo. IS towards the positive value/on the
(FIg. 8.7), smce m such a system the particle will move perpendicula 1s
to vector B' and its motion will be the simplest r y
v K' that moves to the. right at the velocity
with (8
e
4)e
a
d F= 0 8
an
7
d
onlyhthe field B' IS observed. In accord
. n Ig. ., we ave 
B' = B  [yO X E]/c
2
= B (1  v3Ic2).
Since for a vo c, we can assume that B' = B
, In K , the partlcle will move only in the rna net' fi I .
Its perpendicular to this field. The of : d,
for thIS partIcle m the system K' will have the form 0 IOn
= qvoB.
215
Fig. 8.11
Problem.
Fig. 8.10
Find the intensity E of the fle'ld created by this charge at a point whose
radius vector relative to the charge is equal to r and forms an angle
with the vector v.
Solution. Suppose that the charge moves in the positive direction
of the Xaxis in the system of reference K. Let us go over to the sys
tem K' at whose origin this charge is at rest (the axes X' and X of
these systems coincide while the 'Y' and Yaxes are parallel). In 'the
system K' the field E' of the charge has a simpler form:
E
' 1 q ,
= 4n8o ,:;r r ,
and in the X'Y' plane we have
= ;'3 x', ='= :' y'. (1)
Let us now perform the reverse transition to the initial system K,
which moves relative to the system K' with the velocity v. At the
m<tment when the charge passes through the origin. of the sys.tem K,
the projections x and y of vector r are connected With the proJections
;1;' and y' of vector r' through the following relations:
x=r cos 1'l'=x'Y1W
a
y=r sin {}=y' (2)
where f\ = vic. Here we took into account that the longitudin.al diIJ?en
sions undergo the Lorentz contraction, while the transverse.
do not change. Besides, in accordance with the transformatiOns lDvetse·
Q.E.D.
• 8.tO. Field E of a uniformly moving charge. A point charge q
moves uniformly and rectilinearly with a relativistic veloaity v.
where we used the fact that [YO X BJ.Hvo X E.L] = E.L X
X cos a = v3B.L ·E.L (Fig. 8.11). The remaining two scalar products
in (2) are equal to zero since the vectors are mutually perpendicular.
1'hus, the righthand side of (1) becomes
Erl·B{, +EJ. .BJ. =EII·B" +EJ. .B.L =E·B
Fil{. 8.!!
B' = .. ; BI+(voElcl)S
V 1(v
o
lc)'
and B' can be found from its tan
8. Relative Nature 0/ Electric and Magnetic Fields
Fig. X.X
+y'
_I,
" / I i)D
lli_
Vo 0 X'
opposite is also tru!': if we know E and 8 in one reference system, and
the angle between these vectors is less than 90°, there exist reference
systems where the two vectors E' and B' are parallel to one anotheL
. • tl:9. E: B.. Using transformation formulas (8.1)
show thaI the quantIty E· n IS all invariant.
Solution. In the system K', this product will be
E' B' (E' tE' , , " , ,
. = II .lHBII+BJ.)=EII·BII+EJ..BJ.' (1)
Let us write the last term with the help of formulas (8.1):
EJ. . BJ. = (EJ. +[Yo X BJ. I)· (BJ.  [Yo X EJ. I/e
l
)
(2)
Considerf'hg that the vectors EJ. and BJ. are perpendicular to the
vector Yo, we transform the numerator of (2) to the form
E.l.B.l(vo!e)
2E
.l.Bl. =E.l·B.l (3)
the tWo vectors E' and D' will be also perpendicular to the vector v 0
(Fig. 8.10). The magnitudes of the vectors E' and B' can be found by
the form1l\as .
E' =" ; EI +(VOB)I
V i(volc)I'
The angle between the vectors E'
gent through the formula
Ian a' = tan (as+a
B
)= (tan as Han aB)/(1 tan ai: tan ail).
Since tan ai: = voBIE and tan aB = voElelB (Fig. 8.10), we obtain
tan '"= Vo (BI + Ellc
l
)
a EB
This formula shows that as vo + e + 1), the angle a' + n12. The
 "'ll
217
Induction
9.1. Faraday's Law. Lenz's Law
9. Electromagnetic
d ' Law of Electromagnetic Induction.
9.1. Fara ay S Lenz's Law .
"t R8 established that the relation
In the previous w
f
. 'electromagnetic field, viz.
between the "components 0
I t
· and tu af7 netic fielrls, IS
e ec nc ...• '": bv the C
mainly determmed .
choice of the reference In
I
. ds the two components
ot leI' wor ., I in .
of electromRgnetic fie dare 
t late
d. We shall show here
erre". '11 ]osel'
that there eXIsts a stl r, I
. . hetween the E alH
conneetlon ., I'
Bfields which is exhlllltC( I.n
, f I ctromaf7 netlc
henomena 0 e e ,..,
induction.. I 1831 Fig. 9.1
Faraday's DIscovery. n
I onc of the most . tl c pheno
FRraday mal e. . ,,' ,. '11 I,. h t
,1Iscov( IICSt, I . duction. It eonsists m t a
menon of electromaKne lC induced current) 1I1
an electric Cl.lrrent (cRlled t hange in the maKnetlc flux
d t
' l op 11pon a c .
a closed conl.lc tnR 0 ,tJ· loop
(Le. the nux of B) ;y indicates that the
Tile appearance of the ml U . . tile loop as a result
' . f r· appears mit
induced electromotwe orce. 'n It is important here t
of a change of the ('lInnge in the
'{
. rloes not at Rl! rleprnd . . I ()lllv by the rate o!
i' . I l' dctel'llll1l(,(. .
Oil " {f. was realIzc( alH IS n'rl '1 CII'III
f7
e ill the SigH
, I'.... d<J>/dt. ueSl es" . < "
its vanatlOll, I.e. by ,
11
It should be noted that the ratio
=vElc
2
, e
2
= follo· I 2
F IF. = Follov
l
= (v e) ,
. . e (6 5) It can be seen that as v + C,
h relatiVIstIc case .. I F'
just as in tenon f h force F ten( s to e' b
the magnetic componentfo. eaction force) is given y
The resultant force 0 III er
. _ _ 1_!fl_ yl_1\2.
l=Fe·Fn1  4ne
o
12 .
(i)
(2)
... v
II
q ••...
L _
K
E:x:=
Substituting into these expressions (1) where x' and y' are replaced
by the corresponding expressions from formulas (2), we get
E%=_l_ L x E __l q_ II
4neo r'a 1/ 4neo ria J/I1\2'
It should be noted that E:x:IEII= xly, Le. vector E is directed
radially along the vector r. The situation is such as if the effect of lag
were absent altogether. But this is true only when v = const. If,
however, the moves with an acceleration, the field E is no longer
radial.
I t remains for us to find the magni
tude of vector E:
  _1_...!L / zS+yl
E Ex, E
y
 4 'S J 1 pl.
neo r _
Since x
2
+y2 = r2 and
to (8.2), we obtain
Fig. 8.12
216 8. Relative Nature of Electric and Magnetic Field.
= a ( 1 sin
2
{t ) 3/2
r 1 ,
in accordance with (2), the electric field intensity will be given by
R _1_..!L.
•  4np.
o
r
2
(11\2 sin2 ,'})3/2
• 8.11. Interaction between two moving charges. The relativistic
particles having the same charge q raove parallel to each other at the
same velocity v as is shown in Fig. 8.12. The separation between the
particles is [. Using expression (8.7), find the force of interaction be
tween the particles.
Solution: In this case, the angle between the vector v of one of the
particles and the direction towarrls the other particle is {t = 900.
Hence, in accordance with formula (8.7), the electric component of
the Lorentz force is given by
1 q2
Fe=qE=== 4nE
o
II ViI\I
while the magnetic component of the Lorentz force is
It q
l
v
2
Fm=qvB= _0_ ,
4n [I
where we took into account that in the case under consideration B
is related to E through formula (8.5) from which it follows that B =
219
(n.2)
(9.3)
'L'. = _ )\T d<Di
C, l' dt .
9,1. Faraday', lAw. Len.', Law
'" If these two directions were connected through the lefthand
screw rule, Eq. (9.1) would not contain the minus
This quantity is called the total magnetic flux, or the
magneticflux linkage. In this case, the e.m.f. induced in
the loop is defined, in accordance with (9.1), by the formula
regardless of the cause of the variation of the magnetic flux
embraced by the closed conducting loop. The minus sign
in this equation is connected with a certain sign rule. The
sign of the magnetic flux <J.> is determined by the choice of
the normal to the surface S bounded by the loop under
consideration, while the sign of depends on the choice
of the positive direction of circumvention of the loop.
As before we assume that the direction of the normal n
to the Sand the positive direction of the loop cir,
cumvention are connected through the righthand screw rule·
(Fig. 9.2). Consequently, when we choose eb
. (arbitrarily) the direction of the normal,
we denne the sign of the flux <J.> as well as
the sign (and hence the "direction") of the
induced e.mJ. ll' +
With such a choice of positive directions
(in accordance with the righthand screw Fig. 9.2
rule), the qua9tities and d<J.>ldt have
opposite signs..
The unit of the magnetic flux is the weber (Wb). If the
rate of variation of the magnetic flux is 1 Wh/s, the e. m.f.
induced in the loop is equal to 1 V [see (9.1)1.
Total Magnetic Flux (Magneticflux Linkage). If a closed
loop in which an c.m.f. is illlillced contains not one but N
turns (like H coil), 'ii will be eqnal to the sum of the e.m.f.s
induced in each turn. And if the magnetic flux embraced by
each tUl'll is the same and equal to <Pi' the total flux <J.> through
the surface stretched over such a complex loop can be
represented as
(!).1)
9. Electromagnetic Induction
218
of the del'ivative d<J.>/dt I d
"direction" of f
i
. ea s to a change in the sign or
Faraday found out that th . d
ated in two different wa s e In. current may be gener
which shows the coil C ThIs IS Illustrated in Fig. 9.1,
magnetic field) and the loa clrrent I (the coil creates the
meter G which indicates th: indcon3ected to the galvano
The first way consists in th current.
(or its separate parts) in the of loop L
In the second case the I . the fixed call C.
field varies either due to the 0 IS ¥xed b?t the magnetic
of a change in the current I . 0 the coIl C or as a result
In all these cases the gal In I , or due to both reasons
ence of induced current in :hanolmetelr G indicates the
Len' L . e oop J.
z saw. The direction of th .
hence the sign of the induce i f Induced. current (and
law: the induced current is .. IS determIned by Lenz's
cause generating it. In that i.t counteracts the
creates a magnetic flux h' t r s, the Induced current
magnetic flux 1 the variation of the
If, for example the 100 e
L
Ill(
coil C, the magne'tic flux & FIg. 9.1) is.drawn to the
induced in the loop the Illcreases. The
directIOn (if we look at th 1 'f .case IS In the clockwise
creates til(' magnetic the right). This current
vents an increa!';e in It Irec e. the left, which pre
induced current'. . Ie magnetIc flux, which causes the
The same situation takes I· 'f .
in the coil C, keeping fixed ihace \ we Increase the current
other hand, if we the e COl the loop L. On the
rent induced in the loop L Ill. the .coil C, the cur
now be directed I
lts
(it wi11
Lenz's law expresses an im or we from the right).
tendency of a system to tant phYSIcal fact, viz. the
(electromagnetic inertia) Coun eract the change in its state
Faraday's Law of .
to this law, the c.m.f i d According
formula . n uce III a loop IS defined by the
= vBl, . (9.4)
where the minus sign is tak .
sign rule: the normal n tf: accordance with the adopted
loop was chosen so that ·t· surface stretched over the
Fig. 9.3 (towards the fi:ldISB) behind the plane of
the righthand screw rule he!lce, according to
vention is the clockwise l the dlrecf.ion of circum
In this case, the in figure.
IS . Irected agaIllst thf
9.2. Origin 01 Elet..romagnetic Induction 221
positive direction of loop circumvention, and hence
is a negative quantity.
The product vl in (9.4) is the increment of the area bounded
by the loop per unit time (dS/dt). Hence vBl = B dS/dt =
= det>/dt, where d<1> is the increment of the magnetic flux
through the area of the loop (in our case, d<1> > 0). Thus,
= d<1>/dt. (9.5)
It can be proved in the general form that law (9.1) is
valid for any loop moving arbitrarily in a permanent non
uniform magnetic field (see Problem 9.2).
Thus, the excitation of induced e.m.f. during the motion
of a loop in a permanent magnetic field is explained by the
action of the magnetic force proportional to [v X BI,
which appears during the motion of the conductor.
It should be noted by the way that the idea of the circuit
shown in Fig. 9.3 forms the basis of all induction generators
in which a rofOr with a winding rotates in an external mag
netic field.
. A Loop Is at Rest in a Varying Magnetic Field. In this
case also, the induced current is an evidence of the fact that
the magnetic field varying with time creates extraneous
forces in the loop. But what are these forces? What is their
origin? Clearly, they cannot be magnetic forces proportional
to [v X HI, since these forces cannot set in motion the
charges that have been at rest (v = 0). But there are no
other forces besides qE and q [v X Bl! This leaves the only
conclusion that the induced current is due to the appearance
of an electric field E in the wire. It is this field which is
responsible for the induced e.m.f. in a fixed loop placed
into a magnetic field varying with time..
Maxwell assumed that a magnetic field varying with time
leads to the appearance in space of an electric field regardless
of the presence of a conducting loop. The latter just allows
us to reveal the existence of this electric field due to the
current induced in the loop.
Thus, according to Maxwell, a magnetic field varying
with time generates an electric field. Circulation of vect9r E
of this field around any fixed loop is defined as
E dl =  . (9.6)
9. Electromagnetic Induction
220
9.2. Origin of Electromagnetic Induction
Let us now consider the h . I
appearance of induced e f p rICa behind· the
induction (9.1) from d
try
to derIve the law of
two cases. . rea y know. Let us consider
A Loop Moves in a Per t M . .
first take a l' man.
en
agnetIc Field. Let us
oop wIth a movable l?ngth 1(Fig. 9.3)
.. that It IS III a uniform mag
E=[V"B] netIc field perpendicular to the plane
r€I__ of the loop and directed behind
(
:\ the plane of the figure. We start
: ) movmg the jumper to the right with
v velo.city v. The charge carriers in
tfe Jumper, viz. the electrons, will
Fig. 9.3 a so to move with the same
. As a result, each electron
force F = e [v X BJ be acted upon by a magnetic
electrons will start mov·dlrected along the jumper. The
which is equivalent to d?wnwards the jumper,
This is just the ind d ctrlC current dIrected upwards.
over the surfaces The redistributed
field which will ind con wIll create an electric
the loop. uce a current III the remaining parts of
The magnetic force F I h
The field corresponding
P
.e of an extraneous force.
It should be noted that h' 1 IS . = F/(e) = [v X Bl.
with the help of field t t .IS
f
can also be Obtained
Circulation of vector ormatIOn formulas (8.4).
by definition, the a. cldosed contour gives,
case under consideratI'on h e III uced e.m.f. In the
,we ave
(9.9)
223
Bj dl.
.. all) t'
<\l E dl =, \. (\) [v
u at . J
9.2. Origin 0/ Electromagnetic Inductton
The expression on the righthand side of this equation is
the total deri vati ve deDI dt. Here the first term is dUl' to
the time variation of the magnetic field, while the second
radius (see Problem 9.5). Since the electriC field is a vortexlfieldi
the direction of the force acting on the electrons always coincides witli
the direction of motion; and the electrons
continuously increase their energy. During the
time when the magnetic field increases ( 1
ros), the electrons manage to make about a
million turns and acquire an energy up to 400
MeV (at such energies, the electrons' veloc
ity is almost equal to the velocity of light
c in vacuum).
Thp inductioll arcelerat.or (bptatron) re
sembles a transformer in which the role of
the secondary winding consisting of a single Fig. \J.4
turn is played by an electron beam.
Conclusion. Thus, the Jaw of electromagnetic induction
(9.1) is valid when the magnetic flux through a loop varies
either due to the motion of the loop or lIw tillle v,ll'iatioll
of the maglletic ticl!l (01' due [0 both reasons). Uowever,
we had to fcsprt to two quite different phenOi
nena
for ex
plaining the f<I\V in these two cases: fol' t!le moving loop we
usatl the action of tlw maglletic force proportional to (v Y. Bl
while for the field varying with time, aB/at,
the concept of vortex electric field E was employed.
Since there is nO unique and profound principle which
would combine these phenomena, we must interpret the law
of electromagnetic induction as the combined effect of two
entirely different phenomena. These phenomena are gen
erally independent and nevertheless (which is astonishing)
the e.m.f. induced in a loop is always equal to the rate of va
riation of the magnetic flux through this loop.
In other words, when the field B varies with time as well
as the ConfIguration or arrangement of the loop in the field,
the induced e.m.f. should be calculated by formula (9.1)
containing on its righthand side the total time derivative
detl/dt that automatically takes into consideration the two
factors. In this connection, law (9.1) can be represented
in the form
9. Electromagnetic induction 222
Here the symbol of parti I d' .
(a/at) emphasizes the fa:t with respect to time
theoop and the surface
retc ed on it are fixed. Since the flux tIl = B dS
Integration is performed aro . . (the
ed over the loop we are t
an
d
a
!b)ltrar
y
sur ace stretch
s e In, we have
air aB
at J BdS= J at
dS
,
In this equalitv, we exchan d I
respect to'time and int:; t': Ie or(\er' of differentiation
IS possible since the loop anJ
a
the slll'face, which
Eq. (9.6) can be represented in ace are fixed. Then
,{"Edl= _ r
• ';Y J at dS. (9.7)
This equation has the same stru t
j being played by the thl:' role of the
e written in the differential form th t. on.sequently, it can
e same as Eq. (6.26), i.e.
V X E = aB/at.
Th' . .
IS equatIOn expresses a local relat' h
fields: the time variation ot ma neUe IOn etween and magnetic
the 0/ vector E at the same r hgwen point determines
zero IS an evidence of the presence the aC
I
t V X E differs from
e e ectnc field itself. .
The fact that the circulation of th I .
by a varying magnetic field d'ff e e ectflc field ind uced
electric field is not a that
It IS a vortex field. Thus, electric fiel e . 1 e. magnetic field,
field (in electrostatics) or a eIther a potential
In the general case electric field E .
electrostatic field the fi ld . d be the sum of the
field varying in time Since the e. In :lCed by a magnetic
field is equal to ze;o, Eqs.· of t?e
for the general case as well when the' Ii cut to ne vahd
of these two ftehls.' e IS the vector sum
. Betatron. The vortex electric field' I'
1D induction electron a aPillication
CODSlSts of a toroidal evacuated " .z. B.atron. TblS aecelerato"
0lf an (Fig 94) ThamDer. at:rang"d between the
e ectromagnet wmding ; e .varlstlon of the current in ihn
a vortex electric field. latt':rv8:
y
\n
g
,magnetic field which iIlduce;
taneously retains them on an eq .. 1.e3. the eillctmna and aimuI
UJ .. rlUm cIrcular Drbit of a certain
225
(9.10) .. ' . 6A A = 1 d<D
9.2. Origin of Electromagnetic Induction
while the induceo\,:m.f. accomplishes during the same time
the work
a permanent magnetic fIeld B is localized (it is directed perpendicularly
to the plane of the figure). This region is encircled by a fixed metallic
ring R. By moving the sliding contacts to the other side of the ring
(see Fig. 9.6), we introduce the magnetic flux l1> into the closed con
tour containing a galvanometer G (iinitial position, 2final posi
tion). Will the galvanometer show a current pulse?
Applying formally the law (9.1), we should conclude that there
will be an induced current. But it is not so. There is no current since
in this case both oB/iJt and the Lorentz force are equal to zero: the
magnetic field B is constant and the closed loop moves in the region
where there is no magnetic field. Thus, we have none of the physical
reasons underlying the law of electromagnetic induction.
On an Apparent Paradox. We know that the force acting
on an electric charge in a magnetic field is perpendicular
to its velocity and hence accomplishes no work. Meanwhile,
during the motion of a currentcarrying conductor (moving
charges!) Ampere's forces undoubtedly accomplish some
work (electric motor!). What is the matter?
This seeming contradiction disappears if we t,ake into
account that the*,IDotion of the currentcarrying conductor
in the magnetic neld is inevitably accompanied by electro
magnetic induction. And since the e.m.f. induced in the
conductor performs work ort the charges, the total work of
the forces of the magnetic field (the work done by Ampere's
forces and by the induced e.m.f.) is equal to zero. Indeed,
upon an elementary displacement of a current loop in the
magnetic field, Ampere's forces perform the work (see
Sec. 6.8)
6A; = 'tJ dt = 1 d<1> (9.11)
where we took into account that c; = d<1>ldt. It follows
. from these two formulas that the total work is
6A
A
+ 6A; = O. (9.12)
Thus, the work of the forces of the magnetic field includes
not only the meehanical work (due to Ampere's forces)
but also the work done by the e.m.f. indueed during the
motion of the loop. These works are equal in magnitude and
opposite in sign, and hence their sum is equal to zero.
150181
L!
Fig. 9.5
Fig. 9.6
In such cases it is necessar
the Lorentz force qE + fv resort to the Lasic laws, viz.
= aBI8t. These 1 q X BI and the law  v E _
1 aws express tl J' v /,
aw of electromagnetic ind 1 P lyslcal meaning of the
Let us consider two . utc In all cases.
. Ins ructlve examples.
1. A conduct' t.. .
a regIOn in which a m Illg rIp IS dIsplaced at a velocit '
At first sight th .
is difficult the questIOn seems not so sim I . .
he "closed" ? cthoos
e
contour itself: it is n e'l smce In th!s case it
d' III e strIp and how tho . 0 c ear where It should
f urmg. the motion of the stri I IS part of the contour will hehave
tthJe Lorentz
. h ace upwards h' h . S III Ie movin
In 1\ an electric curren1
s III t e case of the conducting r the situation is the same
Exam Ie 2 ., S J'Ip.
P . lhe dotted circle in F'
Ig. 9.6. shows the region in Which
224 9 "
,, '. Induction
is due. to tile mution of the 100 T1 "
term IS explained in "Teater 0pl'lglll of the seconu
Possible Difficulties'''' s< . al III roblern 9.2.
< t' J • ometllnes we cc
a IOn w wn tile law of ('Iectro . . Ime across a situ
(9.1) Ollt to In' if!' IIldllction in the form
associated' (mainly Lecallse of the
I Ie, c JOIce of the contoul' itself).
'I
'I
d' If the loop is rigid and there are no
the inductance is a constant quantlty
independent of the current /. . h
The unit of inductance is henry (H). In
(9 14) the inductance of 1 H corresponds to t e oop e
flux through which is equal to 1 Wb at the current
of 1 A which means that 1 H = 1 Wb/A.
E 'I Find the inductance of a solenoid, neglecting edge
xamp e. f th olenoid be V, the number of turns um
Let the voluIDde h
O
e s t"c permeability of it substance inside the
length n, an t e magne I "
solenoid fJ.. 0 •
d' t (9 t4) L = $/1. Consequently, the problem IS .re
Accor lllg 0 '.'. f th t tal magnetic flux $ assummg
duced to the or thee I the magnetic held in the
that I IS flux through a turn of,
solen?ld IS B  . IS whole the total magnetic flux piercIng II
noid IS $1 = BS  11I1oll , I
turns is N'"  l B(' = IlIlon2Vl
<P = 'Vi  It·" rr '
where V = Sl. JIence the inductance of the solenoid is
L = l1!1onIV. "(9.t5)
On Certain Difficultiel!l. should be noted that the
mination of inductance wlth the help of formula L : wi/
is fraught with certain difficulties. how the
. . b its crosssectional area IS fU11te, and we
wue ma
k
y
e.'h to draw in the body of the conductor a geo
do not nOw ow I I t' <D The result
metrical contour required for ca eu a .mg. '. .
 b' For a sufficiently thm Wlre thlS amblgu
owever for thick wires the situation is
Ity IS Imm .. ., I f I I t' f L
t' ly different: in this case, the resu. toea c.u a 0
en lre t'n a gross error due to the mdetermlllacy m the
a:
he
geometrical contour. This should be always
'nd We shall later shOW (see Sec. 9.5) that
method of determining L, which is not subJect
to the indicated drawbacks. . .
E.M.F. of Selfinduction: According to (9.1), a
of the current in the circUlt leads to the appearance
e.m.f. of selfinduction
'€ _" _ d$ = _ ldd (10/). (9.16)
ea  dt t
. t' of
If the inductance L up.on a vana lon
the current (the configuration of the ClrcUlt does not change
9. Electromagnetic induction
The work of Ampere's forces is done not at the expense
of the energy of the external magnetic field but at the expense
of the power supply which maintains the current in the loop.
In this case, the source performs additional work against
the induced e.m.f., equal" to 6Aad 0= 'til dt = I dW,
which turns out to be the same as the work 6A A of Ampere's
forces.
The work 6A which is done during the displacement of
the loop against the impeding Ampere's forces (which
appear due to the current induced in accordance with Lenz's
law) is transformed into the work of the induced e.m.f.:
6A = 6A A = 6.,1 i. (9.13)
From the point of view of energy, this is the essence of the
operation' of all induction generators.
9.3. Selfindudion
. Electromagnetic induction appears in all cases when the
magnetic flux through a loop changes. It is not important
at all what causes the variation of this flux. If in a certain
loop there is a timevarying current the magnetic field of
this current will also change. And this leads to the variation
of the magnetic flux through the contour, and hence to the
appearance of induced e.m.f.
Thus, the variation of current in a circuit leads to the
appearance of an induced e.m.f; in This phe
nOmenon is called selfinduction. ' "
Inductance. If there are no ferromagneiics in the space
where a loop with current I is located, field B and hence
total magnetic flux W through the contour are proportional
to the current I, and we can write
W= LI (9.14)
where L is the coefficient called the inductance of the circuit.
In accordance with the adopted sign rule for the quantities
Wand I, it turns out that <1> and I always have the same
signs. This means that the inductance L is essentially a
positive quantity.
The inductance L depends on shape and size oftfle
loop as well as on t he magnetic properties of tlw surrounding
9.3. Selfinduction
227
15*
(9.20)
(9.19)
(9.18)
229
Fig. 9.8
o
9.3. Selfinduction
(b)
L
(a)
h
. hI we obtain
Separating t e varIa es,
dl R
T=T
dt
.
I a
nd I) and over t
. rover 1 (between 0
Integration of thIS {on(111'o) = RLlt, or
(between 0 and t) gl ves n
I=Ioet/l:
where 'r is a constant having the dimension "Of time:
or = LIR.
(
the relaxatol! time). This quantity
It is called the time constant O\n the current: it follows fro,!, «(J.t.9)
characterizes the rate .of current decreases to (tIe) tIlI!es
that or is the time durIllg w IC . f 'r the slower the decrease 1':1 e
initial value. The larger th
h
value ° f 'the dependence I(t) descrlbIllg
CUff('nt. Figure 9.8 shows e ° ve 1)
the decrease of current wIth tIme (cur . I f a circuit
.. t· r current upon c osure 0 • k
Example 2. Stablhza Ion 0 . 1\ . turn the switch S countercloc 
At the instant t = 0, we rapH Ysition (Fig. 9.7b). We thus co.n
wise from the upper to the .lo;er po coil L. The current in. the
nected the source to III e.mJ., coun,teractlllg
cuit starts to grow, an a with Ohm slaw, RI 
increase, will &iain appear.
Fig. 9.7
. , law counteracts the decrea:re in
which, in wIth s current in the circuit WIll be
the current. At"each or
determined by Ohm 5 law  s
.. dl
RI=L
dt
·
. for a very short time and then dis
the key shortcircUIts s?urc\hout breaking the latter.
connects it from
h
the coil L starts to decreasei.
The current t roug f e.mJ. = 
leads to the appearance 0
(9.17)
Example 1. Current collapse upon the disconnection of a circuit.
Suppose that a circuit consists of a coil of constant inductance L,
a resistor R, an ammeter A, an e.mJ. and a special key K
(Fig. 9.7a). Initially, the key K is in the lower position (Fig. 9.7b)
and a current 10 = flows in the circuit (we assume that the re
sistance of the source of e.m.f. is negligibly small).
At the instant t = 0, we rapidly turn key K clockwise from the
lower to the upper position (Fig. 9.7a). This leads to the following:
and there are no ferromagnetic:'», then
'f = L (L=const).
B dt
The minus sign here indic.ates that 'f
s
is always direeted
so that it prevents a change in the current (in accordance
with the Lenz's law). This e.mJ. tends to keep the current
constant: it eounteracts the current when it increases and
sustains it when it decreases. In selfinduction phenomena,
the current has "inertia". Therefore, the induction effects
strive to retain the magnetic flux constant just in the same
way as mechanical inertia strives to preserve the velocity
of a body.
Examples of Selfinduction Effects. Typical manifesta
tions of selfinduction are observed at the moments of c.on
nection or disconnection of an electric circuit. Tho illcrease
in the current before it reaches the stead vstate value after
closing the circuit and the dOGl'oase in "the current when
the circuit is disconnected Dceur grJdually and not insti!nt
aneously. These effects of lag are the morc pronounced the
larger the inductance of the eircuit.
Any large electromagnet has a largo inductance. If its
winding is the source, tlw current rapidly
diminishes to zerO and creates during this process a huge
e.mJ. This often leads to the appearance of a Voltaic arc
between the contacts of the switch which is not only very
dangerous for the eftlctromagnet winding but may even prove
fatal. For this reason, a bulb with the l'{)sistance of the
same order of magnitude as that of the wire is normally
connected in parallel to the electromagnet winding. In this
case, the current in the winding decreases slowly and is not
a hazard.
Let us now consider in greater detail the mode of vanishing
and establishment of the current in a circuit.
'228 9. Electromagnetic Induction
(9.25)
231
9.9
(9.24)
9.4. Mutual Induction
The proportionality factors L12
and L
21
are called mutual indue .
tances of the loops. Clearly, mutual' inductance IS nu
merically equal to the magnetic flux through one of the
loops created by a unit current in the other loop. The coef
ficients L
21
and L
12
depend on the shape, size, mutual
arrangement of the loops, as well as on the magnetic perme
ability of the medium surrounding. the loops: These coef
ficients are measured in the same umts as the lllducta?ce L.
Reciprocity Theorem. Calculations show expenments
confrrm) that in the absence of fel'romagnetlcs, the coef
ficients L
12
and L
21
are equal:
This remarkable property of mutual inductance is usually
called the reciprocity theorem. Owing to this theorem\ we
9.4. Mutual Induction
Mutual Inductance. Let us consider two fixed loops 1
and 2 (Fig. 9.9) arranged sufficiently close to each other.
If current I flows in loop 1, it creates through loop 2
the total flux $2 proportional (in the absence of
ferromagnetics) to the current II:
$2 = .{i21Il' (9.23)
Similarly, if current 1
2
flows in
loop 2, it creates through the
contour 1 the total magnetic
flux
of the field of the induced current and of the. current
the ring are equal in magnitude and opposite m SIgn. Hence LI 
= na'B, whence
1= na
2
B/L.
This current in accordance with (6.13), creates a field BI =
at the cent;e of the ring. The resultant magnetic induction at this
point is given by
B = B B
I
= B (1  1tl1oa/2L).
res
(9.21 )
dl
dt
9. Electromagnettc Induction 230
= + or
We transp?se to the lefthand side of this equation and introduce
a new varIable u = RI du = R dl. After that we transform
the equation thus obtained to '
du/u = dtIT,
where 't = L/R is the time constant.
Integration over u {between  'jg and RI  and over t (be
tween 0 and t) gives n [(RI  = tIT, or
1=1
0
(1_e
t
/'f), (9.22)
where J0 = 'jg/R is the value. of the steadystate current (for t > 00).
EquatIOn (9.22) shows that the rate of stabilization of the currentis
?etermin.ed by the same constant T. The curve I(t) characterizing the
IDcrease m the current with time is shown in Fig. 9.8 (curve 2).
On the Conservation of Magnetic Flux. Let a current
loop move and be deformed in an arbitrary external mag
netIC field (permanent or varying). The current induced in
the loop in this case is given by
1= = __1 d$
R R dt'
If the resistance of the circuit R = 0, d$/dt must also be
equal to zero, since the current I cannot be infinitely large.
Hence it follows that cI> = const.
Thus, when a superconducting loop moves in a magnetic
field, the magnetic flux through its contour remains constant.
This conservation of the flux is ensured by induced currents
which, according to Lenz's law, prevent any change in the
magnetic flux through the contour.
The tendency to conserve the magnetic flux through
11 coutour' always exists but is exhibited in the clearest form
in the of supercoilductors.
. .Examp.le. A superconducting ring of radius a and inductance L'
IS m .a magnetic field B. In the initial position, the plane of
the rmg IS parallel to vector B, and the current in the ring is equal
zero. The ring is turned to the position perpendicular to vector B.
Fmd the current in the ring in the final position and the magnetic
induction at its centre.
. The flux through the ring does not change upon its rota
tIOn and remams equal to zero. This means that the magnetic fluxes
II
I.
....,...
233
ell t (\:I. 2tl)
't
z
= at =.  L2 \ dt'
th
at the contOtlfS are fIxed
t' 1 Here we assume I'
respec Ive y. . ' , a netics in the SUf!'OlllJ( lUgS. .
and there are no fenom 11 . d tiOil the current appeal'1ng,
Taking into account se lIl He'n c'urrents of hoth eircuits
sav, in contour 1 upon a ,1 hw thrOllft!i the formlll:J
is'determinod according to 1m S , eo
dl( dI2•
F
L12
dt '
9,4. Mutual Induction
, . theorem becomes inapplicable.
situation, and I I of the following concrete
Let us verify thiS Wltl1 t. Ie 1e p
.
. l' uder of volume V has two
Example. A long ferromagnetic ?Yl contains nl turns per umt
jngs (one over the other). w:n their mutual inductance
length while the other contams n2 ur .
the edge effects,
__ cD.)I This means that we must create
Accordinjt t? (9:23), L2a the total magnetic flux
current II in 1 a; If winding 2 contains N
2
turns, we obtam
all the turns of Will lllg ,
$2 = N
2
B1S,
f th c linder Considering that
where S is the B
1
where
N2 = n2l , where is the t
e
; for cll'rrent II' we <1>2
is the magnetic permea I I Y
f!1 VI where)1 = lS. Hence
= /l1f!onln2 l'
L
21
= f!1f!onln2 V,
SimilarlY, we"lcan fwd L12:
L
12
= f!2f!onln2 V.
• " he last two expressions are generally
Since the values of f!1 and fl2 II. \ I and I in ferromagnetics), the
different (they depend on curren ld 2
. f L nd l do not comCI e. 'l'ng
values 0 21 a .'12 The presence of a magnetIC 1•
Mutual InductIOn. "f t d 'n that any varIat10n of
. 't '. mam es elf
between clrcUlS IS . . 't leads to the appearance 0
current in one of t,he s , circuit. This phenomenon
an ind uced e.m.L 1I1 t 0 leI
is called mutual inJuctzon. 1 f 's appearing in
According to Faraday:s law, t 1e e,m..
contours 1 and 2 are given by
d$ d/2
ce 1 = L
1
,) dt '
CI dt 
Example f. Two circular loops 1
and 2 whose centres coincide lie in a
plane (Fig. 9.10). The radii of the loops
are 4
1
and a,. Current I flows in
loop 1. Find tile magnetic flux 4>2 em
braced by loop 2, if 41 <: 41'
The direct calculation of the flux 4>1
is clearly a rather complicated problem
since the configuration of the field
itself is complicated. However, the
application of the reciprocity theorem
greatly simplifies the solution of the
problem. Indeed, let us pass the same
current 1 through loop 2. Then the
magnetic flux $1 created by this cur
rent through loop 1 can be easily
found, provided that al «4
2
: it is suf
ficient to multiply the magnetic induc
tion B at the centre of the loop (B =
=/loI12a2) by the area 1ta¥ of the circle
11>2 = $1 in accordance with the reci
9. Electromagnetic Induction
Fig. 9.10
Fig. 9.1
232
do not have to distinguish between L
12
and L.J.l and can
simply speak of the mutual inductance ·of two circuits.
The meaning of equality (9.25) is that in any case the
magnetic flux <1>1 through loop 1, created by current I
in loop 2, is equal to the magnetic flux <1>2 through loop 2,
created by the same current lin loop 1. This circumstance
often alIows us to considerably simplify the calculation,
for example, of magnetic fluxes. Here are two examples.
and take into account that
procity theorem.
Example 2. A loop with current 1 has the shape of a rectangle.
Find the magnetic flux $ through the hatched halfplane (Fig. 9.ft)
whose boundary is at a given distance from the contour. Assume that
this halfplane and the loop are in the same plane.
In this case too, the magnetic field of current I has a complex con
figuration, and hence it is very diffIcult to directly calculate the flux lD
in which we are interested. However, the solution can be considerably
simplified by using the reciprocity theorem.
Suppose that current I flows not around the rectangular contour
but along the boundary of the halfplane, enveloping it at infinity.
The magnetic field created by this current in the region of the rectan
gular loop hall a simple configurationthis is the field of a straight
current. Hence we can easily lind the magnetic flux $' through the
re.ctanguJar contour (with the help of simple integration). In accordance
With the reciprocity theorem, the reqUired flux $ = <1>' and the
problem is thus solved.
, However! the presence of ferromagnetics changes the
I'
235 9.5. Magilettc Field Erler",
e.m.f. As we already know, the current in the circuit
will start increasing. This leads to the appearance of a self·
induced e.m.f. In accordance with Ohm's law, RI =
= + whence
lo = RI  •.
Let us find the elementary work done by extraneous forces
(Le. the source of during time dt. For this purpose, we
multiply the above equality by I dt:
dt = RI2 dt  dt.
Taking into account the meaning of each term and the rela
tion == dcD/dt, we can write
6A
ntr
= flQ +I d(]).
It can be seen that in the process of current stabilization,
when the flux (]) varies so that dcD > 0 (if I > 0), the work
done by the s(Jurce of turns out to be greater than the
Joule heat liberated in. the circuit. A part of this work
(additional work) is performed against the selfinduced
e.m.f. It should be noted that after the current has been
stabilized, d(]) = 0, and the entire work of the source of
will be spent for the liberation of the Joule heat.
Thus, the additional work accomplished by extraneous
forces against the selfinduced e.m.f. in the process of current
. stabilization is given by
IflA
add
= I d<l>·1 (9.27)
This relation is of a general nature. It is valid in the
presence of ferromagnetics as well, since while deriving it
110 assumptions have been made concerning the magnetic
properties of the surroundings.
Here (and below) we shall assume that there are no ferro·
magnetics. Then dcD = L dI, and
fJAadd cc= LI dI. (9.28)
Having integrated this equation, we obtain Aadd =
= L[2/2. According to the law of conservation of energy,
any work is equal to the increment of any kind of energy.
It is clear that a part of the work done by extraneous forces
9. Electromagnetic Induction
(b)
(a}
234
where is the extraneous e f'
induced e.m.f.s) and L is th
m
: 'd In contour 1 (besides
A similar equation can I
be
In ufctance of contour 1.
contour 2. WrI en Or the current 1
2
in
It should be noted that tr f
for transforming currents a dans devices intended
principle of induction. n vo tages, are based On the
On the Sign of L U l'k .' d
• 12· n 1 e In uctance L h' h
mentIOned earlier is essentiall . . w IC , as was
inductance L an l b ! a POsItIve quantity, mutual
12 a ge rate quantity (which may in
00
00
particular, be equal to zero). This is
due to the fact that, for instance in
the quantities cD
2
and II
;alldtfferent contours. It immediately
o ows from Fig. 9.9 that the si n
the. magnetic flux cD
2
for a giv:n
dIrectIOn of current I will d d
the h' f 1 epen on
c OICe 0 the normal to the Sur
Fig. 9.12 boufnhded by contour 2 (or On the
. c OICe 0 . t e positive direction of
The positive of this contour).
contours can alwa 'S be I' curre!1
ts
(and e.m.f.s) in both
direction of (and the positive
the righthand screw IS (through
normal n to the surface bo d e
b
to t e dIrectIOn of the
long run with the sign of y contour, i.e. in the
these directions are s e . magnetIc flux). As SOOn as
assumed to he Positi':e the quantity !12 should be
the contours a:e induction
I.e. when they coincide in sign witl : If?Sltive. currents,
In other word:,;, L > 0 'f f. InductIOn fluxes.
tours "magnetize" otl I 0 pOs.Itlve currents the con
cases, the positive L12 :< O. In special
t?UI'S can be established b f . CircumventIOn of the con
SIgH of the quantity L ,e so that the req uired
. 12 can e obtaJlIed (Fig. U. U).
9.S. Magnetic Field Energy
Magnetic Energy of C t L '
containing induction us. connect a fixed circuit
.J resistor R to a source of
236 9. Electromagnetic Induetlon
9.5. Magnetic Field Energy
237
(t 0) is spent on increasing the internal energy of conductors
(it is associated with the liberation of the Joule heat); while
another part (during current stabilization) is spent on some
thing else. This "something" is just the magnetic field, since
its appearance is associated with the appearance of the
current.
Thus, we arrive at the conclusion that in the absence of
ferromagnetics, the contour with the induction coil £
and current [ has the energy
Iw= +Lf2 = i [<I> = ;. .1 (9.29)
This energy is called the magnetic, or intrinsic, energy of
current. It can be completely converted into the internal
energy of conductors if we disconnect the source of to
from the circuit as shown in Fig. 9.7, Le. if we rapidly turn
the key K from position b to position a.
Magnetic Field Energy. Formula (9.29) expresses the
magnetic energy of current in terms of inductance and cur
rent (in the absence of ferromagnetics). In this case, however,
the energy like the electric energy of charged bodies, can be
directly expressed in terms of magnetic induction B. Let
us show this first for a simple case of a long solenoid, ignoring
field distortions at its ends (edge effects). Substituting the
expression L = flflon2V into (9.29) we obtain
W = (112)£[2 = (1/2)flflon2[2V.
And since nI = H = B1flflo,. we have
BI B.H
W=V=V. (9.30)
211110 2
This formula is valid for a uniform field filling the volume V
(as in the case of the solenoid under consideration).
The general theory shows that the energy W can be ex
pressed in terms of Band H in any case (but in the absence
of ferromagnetics) through the formula
= JB;JI dV.! (9.31)
The integrand in this equation has the meaning of the
energy contained in the volume element dV.
..
Thus, as in the case of the electric field we
at the conclusion that the magnetic energy IS also localIzed
in the space occupied by a magnetic field.
It follows from formulas (a.30) and (9.31) that the
netie energy is distributed in space with the volume density
\ (9.32)
It should be noted that tltis call be applie.d
only to the media for whieh till' B VE'. II dependence is
lin;ar, i.e. p in the relation B,= ItltoH is inrlependent.of H.
In other words, expressions (tl.31) (lnr! (fl.32) are applicable.
only to para magnetics and diamagnetics. III t.he ease 01
fefi:olllagneties, these expression::, ,Il'l' illill'plieable*
I l sho'tdd also be Hoted that
the llwglletic elll'rgy is an essen
tially positive ".quantity. This
can be easily seen from the last
two form ulas.
Another Approach to the Sub
stantiation of Formula (9.32). Let
us prove the validity of this formula
by proceeding "the way Fig. 9.13
Le. let us show that If formula (9.32)
is valid, the magnetic energy of the
current loop is W = LJ2/2. . . .
For this purpose, we conSider the magnetIc field of an. arbltrar,Y
loop with current I (Fig. !U3). Let us imagine that the entire fiel? IS
divided into elementary tubes whose generatrices are the fIeld
of B. We isolate in one such tube a volume element dV = dt as.
According to formula (9.32), the energy BH dt dS is localized in
this volume. .
Let us now find the energy dW in the volume of the entire
ry tube. For this purpose, we integrate the latter expressIOn .alon,g
the tube axis. The flux dcD == B dS through the tuue crosssectlOIl IS
* This is due to the fact that in the long run expressions (9.31)
and (9.32) are the consequences of the formula 6A add =, J d(fJ and of
the fact that, in the absence of hysteresis, the work 6A add spent only
on increasing the magnetic energy dW. For a ferromagnetic medIUm,
the situation is different: the work 6A add is also spent on increasing
the internal energy of the medium, i.e. on }:eating.
"!'
t ·:1t
238
9. Electromagnetic Induction 9.6. Magnetic Energy of Two Current 239
Let us find this work over the time dt:
c5Aadd = (tal + til) II dt  (£82 + ei2) /2 dt = dW.
Considering that t
SI
= LldIlldt, til = L
12
dI
2
ldt,
etc., we transform this formula as follows:
dW = L
1
/
1
d/
1
+ L
12
[1 d/
2
1 L
2
/
2
d/
2
1 L
21
/
2
(1I
1
•
Taking into account the fact that L
12
= L
21
, we represent
this expression in the form
dll' = d + d (L
2
/;t'2)
+ d (L
12
/
1
/
2
),
wlleflce
IW=¥ +¥ I LIZ/liz· \ (!I.:H) Fig. 9.14
The first two terms in this expression are called the intrinsic
energies of CUl1'ents II and /2' while the last term, the mutual
energy of the currents. Unlike the intrinsic energies of cur
rents, the mutual energ¥ is an algebraic quantity. A change
in the direction of one of the currents leads to the reversal
of the sign of the last term in (9.34), viz. the mutual energy.
Example. Suppose that we have two concentric loops with currents
I and I whose directions are shown in Fig. 9.14. The mutual energy
ot these (W
12
= 1. 21112) on
whose signs are determineJ by chOIce of dIrectIOns of CIr
cumvention of the two loops. It IS useful to verIfy, however, that .the
sign of W (in this case W
12
> 0) depends only on the mutual ?flen
tation of lhe currents themselves anft is independent of the chOice of
the positive of circumventi?n of loops. We recall that
the sign of the quantity La was conSidered m Sec. 9.4.
Field Treatment of Energy (9.34). There are some more
important problems that can be solved by calculating the
magnetic energy of two loops in a different way, viz. from
the point of view of localization of energy in the field.
Let B
1
be the magnetic field of current. /1' and the
field of current /2' Then, in accordance WIth the pnnciple
of superposition, the field at each point is B
1
t B
2
,
and according to (9.31), the field energy of this system of
currents is W = dV. Substituting into this
formula .13
2
nO + B; + 2B
1
B
2
, we obtain
9.6. Magnetic Energy of Two Current Loops
Intrinsic and Mutual Energies. Let us consider two fixed
10J}ps 1 and 2, arranged near one another at a sufficiently
small distance (so that there is a magnetic coupling between
them). We assume that each loop includes its own source
of constant e.m.f. Let us close each loop at the instant
t = O. In each loop, its Own current will start being tlsLab
lished, and hence selfinduced c.m.f. t 8 and the c.m.£. Ci
of mutual induction will appear. The additional work done
in this case by the sources of eonstant e.m.£. against
and t i is spent, as was shown above, for cTcating the mag
netic energy.
constant along the tube, and hence d<1J can be taken out of the integral:
dW= dq,{ II dl = I d<1J
2 ';Y 2 •
Here we used the theorem on circulation of vector H (in our case, pro
jection HI = H).
Finally, we sum up the energy of all elementary tubes:
W= iI .\ d¢J=I¢J/2=Lf2/2,
'"
where ¢J ,= LI is the total magnetic flux enveloped by the current
loop, Q.E.D.
Determination of Inductance from the Expression for
Energy. We have intlfoduced the inductance L as the pro
portionality factor between the total magnetic flux (J) and
ellrJ'Cllt l There is, however, another possibility of ealculat
in/.{ 1.1 froUl the exprcssioJl for energy. Indeed, COlli paring
formulas (9.31) and (9.29), we see that iIl' the absence of
ferromagnetics,
l' BI
L=Ji" \ dV. (9.33)
• IJlJo
The value of L found in this way is free of indeterminacy
associated with the calculation of the magnetic flux <1>
in formula (9.14) (see p. 227). The discrepancy appearing
sometimes in determining L through formula (9.33) and
from the expression (9.14) for the flux is illustrated in
PrOblem 9.9 about a coaxial cable.
(9.37)
(9.41)
<1>} = L}1} + L
12
1
2
, <1>2 = L
2
1
2
+ L
21
1}. (9.38)
According to the law of conservation of energy, the work
bA* done by the sources of e.m.f. included into circuits 1
and 2 is converted into the heat /jQ and is spent to increase
the magnetic energy of the system by dW (due to the motion
of the loops or the variation of currents in them as well as
to accomplish the mechanical work bAm (as a result of a
displacement or deformation of the loops):
bA * = bQ + dW + bAm. (9.39)
This formula forms the basis for calcula.ting the mechanical
work bAm and then the forces acting in a mllgnetic fwld.
Formula (9.41) can be used for obtaining simpler expres
sions for /jAm by assuming that either all the magnetic fluxes
through the loops, Or currents flowing in them remain un
changed during a displacement. Let us consider this in
greater detail.
1. If the fluxes are constant (<t>" = const), it immediately
160181
9.7. Energy! and Forces in Magnetic Field 241
into account that
We assumed that the capacitance of the loops is negligibly
small and hence the electric energy can he ignored.
Henceforth, we shall be interested not in the entire work
6A* of the source of e.m.f. hut only in its part wllich is done
against the induced and selfinduced e.m.f.s (in each loop).
This work (wlW;h was called the additiOl:aJ w",l\ is equal
to bAadd = + I} dt  .t (s ,) I dt.
•
Considering that i + = d<t>/dt fOJ C';I, loop, we
can write the expression for the. additional wllrk ;t lhe form
6Aadd = I} d<1>} + 1
2
d(l>"o (9.40)
It is just this part of the work of the e.l' I 'iomces (the
work against the induced and selfinduc,"! c.nd.f') that
is associated with the variation of the nuxes (1\ and <1>2
and spent for increasing the magnetic energy of tile system
as well as for accomplishing the mechanicnl work:
(9.36)
IW= dV+ r 2LdV+ I' !Jl·B
2
dV I (9.35)
• 1__ J 2l.lf
t
o J l.ll.lo • I
1( he correspondence between individual terms in formulas
9.35) and (9.34) is beyolHl doubt.
Formulas (9.:3'1) and (9.35) lead to the following important
sequences.
1. The. magnetic energy of a system of two (or more)
CUl'wnts IS an essentially quantity (W > 0). This
from tile fact that tv ex: \ Jr2 dF, wllOre the integrand
contall1S positive quantities. •
2. The of currents is a nonadditive quantity (due
to, tll,n, ex of m1I1llal energy). .
.3. I he last lJItogTHI .in is proportional to the pro
l!t,Ct 11/ 2 of Cllrrent,<; since H ex: 1 'IJIII I? ex: I 'I'] .
t' I . . 1 1 ( ., .,. lC pI 0
POl' IOJ,Ja Ily (i.e. tile rpmaining ilJtogral) turns out
to he I'ymmetnc WIlli rospeet to indices 1 and 2 and hence
he denoted by L I2 01' L
21
ill accordance with formula
v.34). Thus, L
I2
== L
21
indeed.
. 4. Expression (9.35) leads to another defuiition of mutual
L12 . Indeed, a comparison of (9.3.')) and (934)
gives .
L
12
= _1_
1
 r ]l1 ·B2 av.
II 2 J l.lfto
. =.9,._ Electromagnetic Induction
9.7. Energy and Forces in Magnetic Field
. The most general method for determining the forces acting
I? a magnetic fwld is. the energy method, in which the expres
slOn
T
for the magnetic fwld energy is used.
confine our.selves to the ease when the system
conSIsts of two loops With CULTPnts 1 1 'rl t'
. . • 1 (A 2' Ie magne IC
enel gy of such a system can be represented in the form
U? 1
rr '"  (1 (Il + 1 (I) )
2
111
22'
where tVJ and (1)2 are the total magnetic fluxes piercing
all,d respectivelr,. This expression can be easily
from (\:1.01) by representing the last term
IIllt as the sum (1i2) L
12
IJ2 + (1/2) L
2
/
2
/
1
and then taking
Indeed, for 1k const, it follows from formula (9.37) that
dWlr = (11 d<t\ +1
2
d<tl
2
),
where the subscript <D indicates that the increment of t.he
magnetic energy of the system must be calculated at constant
fluxes through the loops. The obtained formula is similar
to the corresponding formula (4.15) for the work in an elec
tric field. .
2. If the currents are constant (Ik = const), we have
243
Fig. lUG
o x X
9.7. Energy and Forces in Magnetic Field
X
_1__
B
.:
F
x
= _ a
o
: 1;= = I; '
I.e. the calculations carried out with the help of the two formulas
give in accordance with (9.44), the same result.
2. Interaction between two currentcarrying Two
coils 1 and 2 with currents 11 and 1
2
are mounted on a core
(Fig. 9.16). Suppose that the mutual inductance of the depends
on their separation x according. to a known law £12 (x). lllld the force
of interaction between the coils.
The magnetic energy of the of two .coils is given by
(9.34). For determining the force of lllteractlOn.. we shall use expres
. (9 43) Let us displace coil 2 through a distance d:1: at consta!?t
510n t' [' and 1 The correspondin<r increment of the magnetic.
curren s 1 < 2' "
energy of the system is
dW 11 = 1
1
1
2
dLI2 (x).
1
Inecllanl
'cal work 6A
m
= dr, according to
Since the e ementary
(9.43) we obtai n
or
OL
I2
(x)
F2x =1112 ax .
Let currents 11 and 1
2
magnetize each other. Then L12 > 0, t:
n
1for
dr > 0 the increment dD
12
< U, i.e. F
2x
< U. Consequently,. t
exerted on coil 2 by coil' is the attractive force: vect.or 1"2 IS dlrecte(
to the left ill the ligure.
16*
Fig. \J.15
In the case under consideration, en.ergy the system
can be represented, in accordance With (\1.29), as follows.
W = L12/2 = (P2/2L,
where <D = Ll. Let us displace the jumper, for example, to the right
by dr. Since 6A
m
= F", dx, we have
OW I 1
2
OJ,
F ' =,
,,' ax I 2 ax
I
, t I' e L (x) is known. Find the Ampere's force acting on the
( Ina e x, . . d f' ,h t
jumper, in two ways: for 1 = const an or .... = cons.
(9.42)
(9.43)
16Am=dWlr./
9. Electromagnetic Induction
follows hom (9.11) that
1=6A
n
. =
i.e. in this case, in accordance with (9.40), the increment
of the magnetic energy of the system is equal to half of the
additional work done by the sources of e.m.f. Another half
of this work is spent for doing mechanical work. In other
words, when the currents are constant, dWlr = 6A
m
,
Q.E.D.
It should ·be emphasized that the two expressions (9.42)
and (9.43) obtained by us define the mechanical work of
the same force, Le. we can write
F·dl = dWI<1> = dWlr. (9.44)
In order to calculate the force with the lielp of these
formulas, there is no need, of course, to choose a regime in
which either magnetic fluxes or currents would necessarily
remain constant. We must simply find the increment dW
of magnetic energy of the system provided that either <Ilk =
= const or 1k = const, which is a purely mathematical
operation.
The value of the obtained expressions (9.42) and (9.43)
lies in the.ir generality: they are applicable to systems con
sisting of any number of contoursone, two, or more.
Let us consider several examples illustrating the applica
tion of these formulas.
Example 1. Force in the case of one current loop. Suppose that
we have a current loop, where AB is a movable jumper (Fig. 9.15).
The inductance of this depends in a certain way on the coor
I'
II
I
y
ds = [ dr" dI J
Fig. 9.18
f,
x
Fig. 9.17
Problema 245
_=....:....::..:..:..::.:::.:=_._
Solution.. Let consider an element dt of loop length, which at
a given instant moves at a velocity v in the magnetic field B. In
aeoordance with formulas (8.4) of field transformation, in the reference
system fixed to the given elemQllt the electric field E = [v X B] will
be observed. It should be noted that this expression can be also ob
tained with the help of the Lorentz force, as it was done at the beginn
ing of Sec. 9.2.
Circulation of vector E around the entire contour is, by definition,
the induced e.mJ.:
Iv X BI dt. (1)
Let us now fllld the corresponding increment of the magnetic flux
through the loop. For this purpose, we tum to Fig. 9.18. Suppose that
the loop was displaced from position r
1
to r
s
during time dt. If in
the first position the magnetic flux through the surface S1 stretched
over the loop was <1>11 the corresponding magnetic flux in the second
,position can be represented as (1)1 + dl1l, Le. as the flux through the
surface S + dS. Here d<D is the required increment of the magnetic
nux throngh the narrow strip dS between contours r
l
and r 2•
Using Fig. 9.18, we can write
d<1>,= B.dS=.\ (2)
Here (1) the direction of normal n is matched with the direction of
circumvention of tile contour, viz. with vector dl (righthanded sys
tem); (2) the direction of vector cL'!, viz. the area element of the strip,
is matched with the choice of normals n, and (3) the following cyclic
transposition is \lSi'll in the scalar triple product:
a·lb X e] = b·le X a) = e·[a X b) = Ib X a)·e.
This formula shows that 'jgi ex: y. The minus sign indicates that
in the figure acts counterclockwise
• 9.2. Aloop moves arbitrarily. A closed conducting loop is moved
arbitrarily (even with a deformation) in a constant nonuniform mag·
netic field. Show that Faraday's law (9.1) will be fulfIlled in this case.
PMlems
• !.l.f. Jnduced emf A w· . th h
is in a uniform fiel:ran e s ape of a parabola y = kz2
A)umper translates without initial to the plane XY.
atlOn a from the apex f th b CI yan at a constant aceeler
induced in the formed lFi
g
. f
9
.
1
h
7
). the e.m.f.
• . DC IOn 0 t e coordmate y.
Solutlon. By definition' rS  dll>ld .
to the plane of the contour'in / Hfvlll
g
chosen the normal n
= B dS wh dS _ .ec IOn 0 vector B, we write dl1l =
obtain' ere  2x dy. ConSidering now that x = Vul
k
, we
B·2 ¥ylk dYldt.
During the motion w'th
= '/2' d I I a constant acceleration, the velocity dyldt =
rag, an lence
244
 Induction
Example 3. Magnetic pressure t·
Let us mentally increase the r (/" ac leg on SOk:n
oid
willding.
by dr:, retaining t.be current I cross section
AIII perl' S accomplish the ';ork 6A\\ constant. Then
uuder consideratIOn, we have m  dW fl' In the case
t'>A
m
= pS dr
where p is the required P d
solenoid, and· ressure an S IS the lateral surface of the
dW 11 d ( BS v) ccc S'd
2140 :!11o < r.
ITpre we took into account the f t h
as well. Equating these two ex"'::
o
' t at when I. = COllst, B = canst
... we obtam
p = BS/2p.o.
Magnetic Pressure The .
in Example 3 can be pressure obtained
netic field is different (B and B ) or d .effcase when the mag
face with current (cond 1 t' 2 on I erent sides of a sur
uc IOn current Or mag t' t'
rent). In this case the mag t' . ne Iza IOn cur
, ne IC pressure IS given by
p=/. HI·H
I
. Bs·H. I
2 2' (9,45)
The situation is such as if the re io' .
energy density were the region a hIgher magnetic
Helation (9.45) is one of the ba .Ig Ielr p.ressure.
hydrody . I . h SIC re atlOns in magneto
ing .beha."iour of electroconduct=
gllleel'lng and astrophysics).
[I
24fl .'J. Eleclromfl!:netic Inrlnclion
Problems
247
(5)
(1)
a
b
o
+,
I
2 I
I
L.__ __l
O'
Fig. 9.21
1
0
a
dp .. ' dBo
(it =: ei o rit .
Fig. ..(l.20
l,2
mccevBo·
r
o
The last equation can be written, after cancelling V, in the form
[J = eroBo,
. ''I resllecL to time, considering
We differentiate this equatIOn WI. I
that ro,= const:
E :t (B). (3)
. k' 'nto account (2) and (3), in terms
Let us now wnte Eq'I(1), ta IlIf I d the normal to the trajectury:
of the projections on to t Ie tangen an
dpeE.e!'!! (4)
7 , 2 dt
. hIt' momentlllli as P c.= p'f and lind its time derivative
we wrl te tee ec ron ..
d d [,2
dp _ft'f+p!=.L'f!mn, (2)
dt" dt dt dt '0
. t that p  nlV In being the relativistic
h
t k into accoun , F' 9 20)
were we 00
1
t __ (vlro)n (this can be easily seen Ig. ' •
mass, and d'f d  __ ( dtl )n and the rest is ObVIOUS,
Indeed, d'f = dcp'd
n
,  tV Fro aday's law 2rrr
o
E Id<I)/dt I, where
Besides, accor mg 0 ar '
etJ = nrfi (B). Hence
dp/dt = eE + e Iv X Do),
. . Id 't of the projections onto
where E is the vortex electnc he 's: t ry 'For this purpose,
the tangent 't and the normal n to e raJec 0 .
Let us wrl
·te the relativistic eqnation for motion of an
Solution.
electron,
(3)
Fig. 9.19
Dividing expression (2) by rll, we find
df!>/dt =  Iv X DI dl,
e;(r)dN.
Having integrated this expression, we obtain the following for the
maximum value of the induced e.m.f.:
= (1/3)rraWBow.
• 9.4. A coil of N turns wi th the crosssectional area S is placed
inside a long ;;olenoid. The coil is rotated at a constant angular velocity
w around the axis coinciding with its diameter and perpendicular
to the axis of the solenoid. The magnetic fIeld in the solenoid varies
according to the law B =, Bo sin wt. Find the e.m.L induced in the
coil, if at the instant t = 0 the coil axis coincided with the axis of
the solenoid. .
Sdlution. At the instant t, the total magnetic flux through the
coil is
etJ = NBS cos wt = NBoS sin wt·cos wt = (1/2)NBoS sin 2wt.
In accordance wi th Faraday' slaw, we have
0j = detJ/dt = (1/2)NBoS·2w cos 2wt = NBoSw eos 2wt.
• 9.5. The betatron condition. Show that electrons in a betatron
will move in an orbit of a constant radius ro prOVided that the magnetic
field Bo on the orbit is equal to half of the value (B> of the magnetic
fIeld averaged over the area inside the orbit, i.e. Eo = <:> .
where v = dr/dt. It remains for us to compare (3) with (1), which
gives ej = detJ/dt.
. .• 9.3 .. A flat coil ,,:,ith a large number N of tightly wound turns
IS In a umform magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the coil
(Fig. 9.19). The external radius of the coil is equal to a. The magnetic
field varies in time according to the law B = B 0 sin wt.' Find the
maximum [value of the e.m.f. induced in the coil.
Solution. Since each turn of the coil
practically does not differ from a circle. the
e.m. f. induced in it is given by
I'j =  df!>/dt = rrr
2
Bow cos wt,
where r is the radius of the turn under COll
sideration. The number of turns corresponding
to the interval dr of the values of the radius
is dN = (N/a) dr. The turns are connected in
series, hence the total e.m.f. induced in the
coil is
248
9. mectromagnclic Induclion
Problems
249
A comparison of Eqs. (5) and (4) gives
IJ _ 1 d
dt 0 "2 dt (8).
In particular, the last condition will be satislied when
1
lJo""" 2 ((I).
Practically, it is altai/It'd b Ill' f.. .
form (in the form of 'I hluntYI <tn,lI aclllrJIlg pole pieces in a speciul
. ,lusel cones).
• !1.6. Induced CUrrent A . .
a long straight conductl)I' w·I't'h wire frallle with side a and
(F' 9 2 a I Ireet eurr' t/ I' '
, Ig. . 1). The inductance of the f' . . en 0 "! 1/1 the same plane
fhe frame has been rUlated l' "rame loS" and Its resistance is R.
then stopped. Find the arnoun\ ,I aroulHI Ihe axis or)' and
frame. The distancl' b bet ' l/}at has 111lssell throlll{h
IS assumed to be known. ween e aXIS 00 and the straight wire
Sulutiun. According to Ohm's la\ I
frullle duril1" its rutali . I .v, t Ie current / appearirl" in the
,., . un IS eetermllled by the formula ,.,
'R1= _ dl1> _ L
dt dt •
Hence the required
arnollnt of electricity (charge) is
_ r 1 •
q I I dt=  \ (dIll I I dl) 1
• R.' =7f(M>[!.M).
the frame has been sto I, f . .
valllshes, and hence A/ 0 a
Ppel
,! tcr rotatIOn, the current in it
of the flux Art> through 'tlll: to find the increment
et us choose the normal n to th I 2  11>1)'
rl
that
in the lin.al Positior; n is frame, for instance;'
ah?t
g
.
B
). Then It can be easily seen that' the ihelPlane of the figure
II' I e III the initial <1>' ,JII e ma position 11>2 > 0
and A$ turns out to be' I I < 0 (the normal is opposite to B)'
boumled by the the flux through the
I Ia 'pOSI tlOns of the frame: ,.
b+a
All> = $2 +1$11= \ Ba dr,
b:a
Where B is a fllnction I I
help. of the cau be easily found with the
FJIlall . t . a lOll.
, y, oml trng the minus sl'gn bt .
, , we 0 aln
q=' I b+a
n n ,;::::a .
Il can be seen that the obtai:1ed quantity is independent of the induct·
ance of the circuit (the situation would be oifferent if the circuit were
supereonri ueting).
• 9.7. A jumper 12 of muss m slides without friction along two long
condncting rails separated by a distance l (Fig. 9.22), The is
in a uniform magnetic fIeld perpendicular to the plane of the CIrCUIt,
L1
1
1
L2
y
®B
.. •
X
0"': 2
Fig. \).22 Fig. \.l.2:i
Tile Idl the rails are shunted through resistor ll. At the instant
t ''= 0, the jllinper received the initial velocity Vo directed to the right.
Pintl the velocity of the jumper as a function of time, ignoring the
resistances of the jumper and of the rails as well as selfinductance of
the circuit.
• Solution. Let us choose the positive direction of the normal n
to the plane of the circuit away from us. This means that the positive
direction of circumvention of the circuit (for induced e.m.r. and cur
rent) is chosen clockwise, in accordance with the righthand screw
mle. It follows from Ohm's law that
dtlJ dS
Rl = F== II d't= Hlv, (1)
where we took into account that when the jumper moves to the right,
d«1> > O. According to Lenz'" law, the induced eurrent I causes the
Ampere force counteracting the motion, directed to the left.
Having chosen the Xaxis to the right, we write the equation of
motion of the jumper
m dvldt = /lB, (2)
where the righthand side is the projection of the Ampere force onto
the Xaxis (this quantity is negative, but we omit the minus sign
sina, as can be seen from (1), current I < 0).
Elinlinating' I from l':qs. (1) allli (2), we obtain
dvlv = a dt. a = IJ2/2/mR.
The integration of this expression, taking into account the initial
condition, gives
In (171170) = at, v = vee
t
251
Problems
.• 9.8. The role of t .
Fig. 9.23 the f ranslent processes In th . .
L e.:.. I!f of the source, its iniernal e .clrcUlt shown in
currents establish:d I;z coils :::Iktance R the
S w e cOlIs after key K h b nown. Fwd the
and Let us use Kirchhoff's laws closed.
. ec rIC circuits
Fig. U.25
U.24
where B
l
is determined with the help of the theorem on circulation
of vecto'r n. Taking' the time derivative of <I)] and multiplying the
obtained resnlt by N, we fllld the following expression for the amplitude
valm' of induced e.m.£.:
'0int In!!....
2il a
• 9.11. Calculation of mutual inductance. Two solenoids of the
same length and of practically the same cross section arc completely
inserted one into the other. The inductances of solenoids are L] and L
z
·
Neglecting ellge cUeds, fmd their mutual inductance (modulo).
Solution. By definition, the mutual inductance is
LIZ = <lIP?; (1)
where <!ll is the total magnetic nux through all the turns of solenoid 1
provitlell tbat current I"z flows in solenoid 2. The flux <D
I
= NI!J2
S
,
where Nl i8 the number of turns in 1. 5 is \ he erosssedlOnul
B
diownsio
lls
,Ire given in Fig. H.25. The number of tllrns on the coil
is N, allti the permeability of tbe surrounding medium is unity. Find
the amplitude of tlte e.Ill.£' induced in this coil if the current I =
= 1
m
cos wt flows along the straight wire.
Solution. The required e.mJ. 8; = _det>ldt, where et> = Net>l
and <1)1 is the magnetic flux through the cross section o[ the coil:
Ii
\
' '\' flo !.lohI 1 b
(1
1
1
0
Bn d::> 0_ ') Ih dr = .0...
2
. n ,
• • n a
n
(erroneous) result, namely, insteal\ of 1J1i, 1/2 is obtained in the paren
theses. The thinner the central wire, "i.e. the larger the ratio bla,
the smaller the relative diflerence in the results of calculation by these
two methods, viz. through the energy and through the flux.
• 9.10. Mutual indudion. A long straight wire is arranged along
the symmetry axis of a toroidal coil of rectangular crosS section, whose
(1 )
(1)
(2)
while
9. Electromagnetic
B !.loI
r<a  z r, B , ltoI 1
"a a<r<b ' 2  B  ()
Th f n r' r>b  . (2)
e orm of these de
(2), integral (1) is is shown in F'
obtain sp It mto two parts'\ 19. 9.24. On account of
.. s a result of integration, we
Lu = .&.. (..!: + In )
2n 4 a'
It should he noted that
terms of magnetic flux by this quantity in
• II  ¢\/J leads to a different
F
J10 + 120 = 10 = IR
rom these eq t' . ua IOns, we find
'fi, L
1
10
= Z 6 L
R L +L ' J20 =  1
1 2 R L LL .
. • 9.9. Calculati f'. I', 2
mternal solid conduc on 0 A coaxial· .
tube. of radius b. l! a and extemal thi C?nSlsts. of
consIdering that th t e lllductance of a unit I n ili
aU
canductmg
internal conductor distribution over the eng. of cable,
everywhere IS umform. The permeabTt sectIOn of the
. I I Y IS equal to unity
Solution. In the C
not thin and h ase under considerati tl'
should iS
r
1 ,we can write e magnetIc nux. In acco d ms.o
r ance WIth
b
1 r BZ
Lu = J2 .\ ;; 2rtr dr
ii"'
o
'
where r is the dist
integral, we mu fince from the cable axis In d
circulation, we hstavend the dependence B(·r). or er to evaluate this Using the theorem on
RI ='f,L dl
l
RI d/
1 dt' = 'fb  L __z
A
2 dt
comparison of the .
for stabilized expresshlOns shows that L d1 = L s we ave t 1 zdJ
z
,
Besides, L
t
/
10
= LzJzO'
250
where lD is the magnetic flux through the coil at the beginning ot the
process (we omitted the minus sign since it is immaterial).
Thus, the problem is reduced to the calculation of the flux $ through
the coil. This quantity cannot be determined directly. This difficulty,
however, can be overcome by using the reciprocity theorem. We men
tally replace the magnet by a small current loop creating in the sur
rounding space the same magnetic field as the magnet. If the area of
the loop is 8 and the current is /, their product will give the magnetic
moment I'm of the magnet: Pm
e
18. According to the reciprocity
theorem, f'l?/= LnT and the problem is reduced 1.0 determining the'
magnetic nux through the area 8 of the loop, which creates the same
current /. but flowing in the coil. ARsnming the field to be uniform
within the loop, we obtain
<JI = BS = ItoN/ S/2a. (2)
(10.1)
S' S'
,,
 (+ \ S (\.
I
Il!:J'\. \_./ r
(a) (b)
Fig. 10.1
Hdl= ) jdS.
10. Maxwell's Equations.
Energy of Field
10.1 Displacement Current
Let us apply this theorem to the case when a preliminarily
charged parallel plate capacitor is being discharged through
a certain external resistance (Fig. 1O.1a). For the contour r
we take a curve embracing the wire. We can stretch various
surfaces on this contour, for example, S and Sf. ,These two
surfaces have "equal rights". However, current I flows through
:mrface S, while through surfaco S' there is nO current!
It turns out Lhat the circulation of vector ijdepends on
the surface stretched over a given contour (?!), which i.s
.O'i....e.enf Current
Maxwell's Discovery. The theory of electromagnetic field
founded by Faraday was mathematically completed by
Maxwell. One of the
most important new
ideas put forward by
Maxwell was the idea
of symmet,fy in the
mutual dependence
of electric and mag
netic fields. Name'
ly, since a timevar
ying magnetic field
(aR/at) creates an electric field, it should be expected that
a timevarying electric field (aE/at) creates a magnetic field.
This idea necessitating the existence of a new in principle
phenomenon of inductioD. can be approached, for example,
by the following line of reasoning. We know that according
to the theorem on circulation of vector H,
It remains for us to substitute (2) into (1) and recal! that /8 = Pm'
Then q = floNPm/2aR, and
pm = 2aRq/lloN.
(1)
fJ. EleclrtJlnll!:netic Induction

Fig. 9.26
area of the solenoid, and B2 = ftJ.1onS/2' Hence formula (1) can be
written (after cancelling /2) as follows:
I L I2 1=ftfton2NtS=llllonln2V, (2)
where we took into account that N
1
= ntl, where l is the solenoid
length :md lS ,= V its volume. Expression (2) can be represented
ill terms of L
1
and ['2 as follows:
I L12 1= r'" ftflon(V YflflonW= yrL1L2 •
It shonld be noted that this definC's the limiting (maximum)
value of I L
12
I· In general,! L
12
1< YL
1
L
2
•
• 9.12. Reciprocity them·em. A small cylindrical magnet M is
placed at the centre of a thin coil of rarlius a, containing N tnrns
(Fig. 9.26). The coil is connect.ed to a ballistic galvanometer. The
resistalKeof the circuit is R. After the magnet had been rapidly re
moved from the coil, a chaq;e q passed through the galvanometer.
Find the magnetic moment of the magnet.
Solution. In the process of removal of the magnet, the total mag
netic flux through the coil was changing, which resulted in the emerg
ence of induced current defined by the following equation:
R / = __ d(D _ L d/
dt dt .
We multiply both sides of this
equation by dt and take into
acconnt that / dt = dq. This
gives
R dq = d<D  L d/.
Having integrated this expression, we obtain Rq = t.<D  L t./.
Considering now that !1/ = 0 (the current was equal to zero at the
beginning as well as at the end of the process), we obtain
q= !1<D/R = $/R,
252
'[I
254 10. Ma.xweU's Equations. Electromagnetic Field EnerlfY
10.1. Displacement CUr/ent 255
On the other hand, according to the continuity equation
(5.4), we have
(10.7)
(10.8)
it is sufficient to introduce on the side of Eq.
(10.1) the total current instead of conduction current, viz.
the quantity
Indeed, the righthand side of (10.7) is the sum of conduc
tion current I and displacement current I d :1t = I + I d'
Let us show that the total current It will be the same for
surfaces 8 and 8' stretched over the same contour r. For
this purpose, we apply formula (10.4) to the closed surface
composed of surfaces 8 and 8' (Fig. to.1b). Taking into ac
count the fact that for a closed surface the normal n is di
rected outwards, we write
It (8') + It (8) = O.
Now, if we direct the normal 0' fo:, surface 8' to the same
side .as for surface 8, the first term in this expression will
change the and we obtain
It (8') = It (8),
Q.E.D.
Thus, the theorem on circulation of vector H, which was
established for direct currents, can be generalized for an ar
bitrary case in the following form:
I J(j+{¥)dS.
In this form, the theorem on circulation of vector H is al
ways valid, which is confirmed by the agreement of this
equation with the results of experiments in all cases without
any exception.
(10.2)
(10.6)
(10.4)
(10.3)
sides of Eqs. (10.2)
r\' dS = !.!L
'j' fJt at .
,h .. dS = _.!!!L,
'j' J at .
Summing up the left and righthand
and (10.3) separately, we obtain
(j+ dS=O.
This equation is similar to the continuity equation for
direct current. It can be seen that in addition to the density j
of the conduction current, there is one mOre term aD/at
whose dimensions are the same as for current density. Max
well termed this addend the density of displacement current:
jd = aD/at. (10.5)
obviously ruled out (and never happened in the case of
direct currents).
Is it possible to change somehow the righthand side of
(10.1) to avoid this inconvenience? Fortunately, th is can
be done in the following way.
First, we note that surface 8' "cuts" only the electrit
field. In accordance with the Gauss theorem, the flux of
vector D through a closed surface is D dS = qj whence
The sum of the conduction and displacement currents is
called the total current. Its density is given by
. .+ aD
Jt=] 7ft.
Several Remarks about Displacement Current. It should
where the curl of vector II is determined by the density j of conduction
current and an/at of displacement current at the same point.
According to· (10.4), the lines of the total current are con
tinuous in contrast to the lines of conduction current. If
conduction currents are not closed, displacement currents
close them.
We shall show now that the introduction of the concept of
total current eliminates the difficulty associated with the
dependence of circulation of vector H on the choice of the
surface stretched over contour r. It turns out that for this
Ditlerential form of Eg. (10.8):
VXJI=j+ ,
(10.9)
256 In. Maxwell's Electromagnetic Field Energy
10.2. Maxwell's Equations
257
(Fig. 10.2) would differ from zero, which is in cuntradi,',tiun with
Eq. (7.2). Consequently, vector B Olust be perpendicular to the radial
direction at the point P. But this is also impossibh>, sincl' all directions
perpendicular to the radial dirrclion arc absolutely I'quivull'nt. It
remains for us to conclude that magnetic flCld is equal to zero every
where.
The absence of magnetic field in the presence of electric current
of density j indicates that in addition to conduction current j, displace
ment current jd is also present in the system. This current is such that
the total current is equal to zero eYcrywhere, Le. jd =  j at each
point. This means that
. . I q iJD
Jd = J= 4nrz c= 4nrz = 7ft '
where we took into account that J) = q/4nr
z
in accordance with the
Gauss theorem.
10.1. Maxwell's Equations
Maxwell's Equations in the Integral Form. The introduction
of displacemtilUt current brilliantly completed the macro
scopic theory of electromagnetic field. The discovery of dis
placement current (aD/at) allowed Maxwell to create a
unified theory of electric and magnetic. phenomena. Maxwell's
theory not only explained all individual phenomena of elec
tricity and magnetism from a single point of view, but also
predicted a number of new phenomena whose existence was
subsequently confmned. . ,
Hitherto, we considered separate parts of this theory.
Now we can represent the entire theory in the form of a sys
tem of fundamental equations in electrodynamic.s, called
l'vfaxwell's equations for stationary media. In all, theN are
four Maxwell's equations (we are already acquainted with
each of these equations separately from previous sections;
here we simply gather them together). In the integral form,
the system of Maxwell's equations is written as follows:
(10.10)
(10.11)
and j
DdS= pdV,
t BdS=O,
"
r ) dS,
I dl = (j + ) dS,
1 _
where p is the volume density of extraneous charges
is the density of conduction ClllTent.
be kept.in mind that displacement current is equivalent to
current only from the point of view of its ability
of creating a magnetic field.
currents exist only when an electric field
varIes with time. In dielectrics, displacement cnrrent con
sists of two essentially different
components. Since vector D =
= BoE+ P, it follows that the den
sity iJD/iJt of displacement CUf
rent is t.he sum of the densities
of the "true" displacement current,
BoiJE/iJt, and of the polariztllion
current ap/iJt. The latter quantity
appears due to the motion of
bound charges. There is nothing un
Fig. 10.2 expected in the fact that polari
. zation currents excite a magnetic
SlIlce these currents do not differ in nature from con
ductIOn currents. A new in principle statement consists in
that the other component of the displacement current
which is not connected with any motion of ch.
and. IS only due to the variation of the electric field also
eXCites a magnetic Even. in vacuum, any tem'poral
change of .an electnc field eXCites In the surrounding space
a magnetiC field.
The of this phenomenon was the most essential
and decIsIve s.tep made by Maxwell while constructing the
electrom.agnetIc field theory. This discovery was as valuable
as dlscov.ery of induction, according to
whICh a varymg magnetic field excites a vortex electric field.
It should also be noted that the discovery of displ.arement
b.y Maxwell was a purely theoretical discovery of
prImary Importance.
Let liS consider an example in which displaooment cur
rents are manifested.
Example. A metallic positively charged sphere i8 in aniBUaite
medium (Fig. to.2). Electric currents flowing
11'! 11IrectIOns should excIte II magnetic field. Let us find the
directIOn of vector B at an arbitrary point P. •
First of it is clear that vector B cannot have a radial compo
nent. OtherwISC, the flux or B through the surface S of the "'re
170181
•
258 _.!(): J1!a.r'Nll's EleclromaKnclic Field Enerr:y
In this case, the electric and magnetic fIelds are indepen
dent of one another, which allowed us to study first a con
stant electric fwld and then, independently, eonstant mag
netic fIeld.
It should be emphasize!! that the line of reasoning which
has led us to Maxwell's equations can by no means be con
sidered their proof. These equations C:l nnot be "deri ved" since
they are the fundamental axioms, or postulates of electro
dynamics, ohtained willi t.he help of generalization of expeJ'
These et)uations express in .. concise f01'l1l all our know
lOlL:,,> <l bout electrom:lgnl'tic fIeld. The content of these equa
I ;OIIS ('onsis[s in the following".
1. Circulation of vector E al'ound any closetl contonr is
equal, wit h tlteminussign, to the time derivative of the magnet
ic llux through an arbitrary surface bounded by the given
contour, lIere E is not only vortex electric Jield but also elec
trostatie lipid (whose circulation is known to be equal to
zero).
2. The fj ux of D through any closed surface is equal to
the algebraic sum of extraneous charges embraced by this
surface,
3. Circulation of vector H around an arbitrary closed Con
tour is equal to the total current (conduction current plus
dbplacement current) through an arbitrary surface bounded
by this contonr.
4•. The flux of B through flU arbitrary closed surface is
always equal to zero.
It follows from Max\vell's eq uations for circulations of vec
tors E and H that l'lectric and magnetic fields cannot be
treated as ipdependent: a change ill time in One of these fields
leads to theilmergence of the other. Hence it is only a combi
nation of these fields, describing a unique electromagnetic
field, that has a sense.
If the fields are stationary (E = constand B ,= const),
Maxwell's equations split into two groups of independent
equations
(10.13)
(10.11)
v E =  V· D= p,
II
. aD ..,. B 0
V>< =J+aT' y' = .
t 1 Its 'fllese postulates play in electrodynamics
imen a l'esu , . I 'h' the
the same role as Newt.on's laws in classlca mel, alliCs or
laws ther.mlodYFnamicosr· Maxwell's Equations. Equatiol1s
Dillerenba OJ'lU 1. .,If,
(to 10) and (11.11) can be represented oll.n,
Le.·in the form of a system of differential equatIOns, VIZ.
__ ..::E:,2q..:.:.u_a__ ti_on_s ._._.__25_9
E nations (10.13) show that there may two causes for
f t ic field First, its sources are electl'lc charges, b?th
bound (which follows
V . D ,= p if we take into account that = eo  .
 , V·E ex: p +p'). Second, the field
V·p p, n . 'I. . . t'me (willch ex
emerges when a magnetic he d vanes . I ')
F d 's law of electroffingnetlc mductlOn .
Eqs, (10.14) indicate the magnet
. fin I :e; can be by moving electrrc charges (elec
IC 10 ( , ". I . j' Ids or by both factors
t.ric cUl'rents), by varYlllg e ectl'le 10 , " V., H _'"
simultaneously (this from the
l
A J and
= .1 DD/ilt, if we take mto t .. . flo. iJE/Dt
V J ..c j'; then V X B ex: J +J + iJt I eo . . :
} ., i the magnetization current denSIty and iJP/dt IS
current density. The
associated \V.ith moti?n from the
is due to a timevarylIlg I " . fi Id in na
tion V· B = 0, there are no sources. of magnetIc Ie Id be
tlll'e (cnlled, by analogy, magnetic charges) til at wou
similar .1.0 electric equations in differential
The Importance 0 n I. b . I s
. t 1 'n that they express tie aSlc aw,
form consists no on Y I I fi 1 Is E and B
of electromagnetic freid, but abo in that tie. re)l I '
themselves can be found by solving (integratlllg t lCseeqll<1
with the equation of mot,ion of charged particles
nder the action of the Lorentz fOlce,
u . )
dp/dt = qE +q [v X Bl, (10,1;)
(10.12)
DdS=q,
B dS=O.
Edl =0,
17*
..
Maxwell's equations for,m a fundamental system of equa
tions. In principle, this system is sufficient for describing all
electromagnetic phenomena in which quantum effects are
not exhibitecl. '
Boundary Conditions. Maxwell's equations in integral
form are of a more general nature than their differentia)
counterpart, since they remain valid in the presence of a
surjace oj discontinuity, viz. the surface on which the proper
ties of the medium or fields change abruptly. On the other
hand, Maxwell's equations in the differential form presume
that quantities vary continuously in space and time.
However, the differential form of Maxwell's equations
can be imparted the same generality by supplementing them
with the boundary conditions which must be observed for an
electromagnetic field at the interface between two media.
These conditions are contained in the integral form of
Maxwell's equations and are already familiar to us:
DIn = D2n , E
h
= E2'f' BIn = B2n , Hl'f = H2'f
(iO.i6)
(here the fIrst and last conditions refer to the cases when there
are neither extraneous charges nor conduction currents on the
interface). It should also he noted that these boundary con
ditions are valid both for constant and for varying fields.
Material Equations. Maxwell's fundamental equations
still do not form a complete system of equations for the elec
tromagnetic field. These equations are insufficient for de
termining the fields from given distributions of charges and
currents.
Maxwell's equations should be supplemented with rela
tions which would contain the quantities characterizing in
dividual properties of a medium. These relations are CAlled
material equations. Generally, these equations are rather com
plicated and are not as general and fundamental as Max
well's equations.
Material equations have the simplest form for sufficiently
weak electric fields which vary in time and space at a com'
paratively low rate. In this case, for isotropic media
containing no ferroelectrics and ferromagnetics, the material
equations have the following (already familiar to us) form:
D = EEoE, B = /l/loH, j = a (E + E*), (iO.f7
J
10.3. Properties of Maxwell's Equations
. Tl contain only tlIe first
Maxwell's Equations Are ::: ect to time and spa
derivatives of 1ields E and B WI P f densities P and j
tial coordinates, and the first powers 0
261
t
ebcb
E H
,
/" ,
s, \
I
( I
\ )
"'..... _"",
(j + ) dS = O.
Hence it follows that
iJ t iJq
jdS= .7ft'Y at' .
. . (4) This equatIOn
which is just the V t.hrough a
st.aWS the current flOWIng rom
Fig. 10.4
Fig. 10.3
ts
'1'11e linearity of Maxwell's
. 1 es and curren . .. f
of clectl'lC c . t i .' th the princIple 0 super
equations is dIrectly cOrnnledc et aWtiisfy Maxwell's equations,
. . 'f any two 10 SSt'
pOSItIOn: 1 Id'n also satisfy these equa IOns.
the sum these !Ie W{ude the Continuity Equation. This
Maxwell s EquatIons nc ation of electric charge. In
expresses the law off us take an infinitely small
order to make sure 0 n arbitrary finite surface S
contour r, stredtclhl over ltracat this contour to a point, so
(F
. 10 3) an t en COIl
19. .<, . 'fi 'te In the limit, k.H dlvanishes,
that surface S remams III . '.)
surface S becomes closed, and the first of Eqs. (10.11) be
comes
10.3. Properties 0/ Mazwell'. Equations
I the wellknown constants characteriz:
where e, alH a are . erties of the medium
ing the electric and and
(permittivity, permeabIlity, force field due to chemi
E* is the strength of the extraneous
calor thermal processes
10. Mazwelf. Equation•. Electromagnetic "eld Ener" 260
I
, I
I,
dosed surface S is equal to the decrease in charge in this
volume per unit time.
The same law (viz. the continuity equation) can also be
obtained from Maxwell's differential equations. For this
purpose, it is sufficient to take the divergence of both sides
of the first of Eqs. (10.14) and make use of the second of Eqs.
(10.13). This gives V·j =  ap/iJt.
Maxwel's Equations Are Satisfied in All Inertial Systems of
Reference. They are relativistic invariants. This is a conse
quence of the relativity principle, according to which all
inertial systems of reference are equivalent from the physi
cal point of view. The invariance of Maxwell's equations
(with respect to Lorentz' transformations) is confirmed by
numerous experimental data. The form of Maxwell's equa
tions remains unchanged upon a transition from one inertial
reference system to another, but the quantities contained in
them are transformed in accordance with certain rules. The
transformation of vectors E and B was considered in Sec. 8.
Thus, unlike, for example, Newton's equations in mechan
ics, Maxwell's equations are correct relativistic equations.
On the Symmetry of Maxwell's Equations. Maxwell's
equations are not symmetric relative to electric and magnet
ic fields. This is again due to the fact that there are electric
charges in nature, but as far as it is known at present, mag
netic charges do not.exist. However, for aneutralhomogen
eous nonconducting medium, where p = 0 and j  0,
Maxwell's equations acquire a symmetric form, since E
is related to aB/at in the same way as B to aE/at:
V X E =  aB/at, V . D = 0,
V X H = iJD/at, V • B = O. (10.18)
The symmetry of equations relative to electric and magnet
ic fields does not involve only the sign of the derivatives
aB/at and aD/at. The difference in signs of these derivatives
indicates that the lines of the vortex electric field induced
by a variation of field B form a lefthand screw system with
vector iJB/at, while the lines of the magnetic field induced
by a variation of D form a righthand screw system with
vector aD/at (Fig. 10.4). .
Oil Electromagnetic Waves. Maxwell's equations lead to
the following important conclusion about the existence of a
. . 'pIe physical phenomenon: electro. magnetic field
new ill pnnci 1 . h 1 cur
may exist independently, e ectnc c all( 
rents 'A change in its state ill thiS case has a
wave' nature. Such fields are called electromagnetIc
In a vacuum, these waves always propagate at a velOCity
equal to the velocity of light c. ( D/;::> )
It also turned out that displacement a vt
plays in this phenomenon a primary role. It IS Its presence,
E U
263
B
Fig. 10.6
o
103. Properties of Maxwell's Equations
El _
kr:
n
0<\'
Fig. 10.5
along with the quantity iJB/rJt, that mak.es the
of electromagnetic waves possible. Any () a
magnetic field induces an electric fwld, wIllIe a.
an electric field, in its turn, induces a. magnetic held., 1IllS
or interactIOn of the, fwlds
serves them, and an electromagnetic perturbatIOn propa
gates in space. . f I
Maxwell's theory not only predicted the e.Hstence 0 e
tromagnetic waves, but also made it
all their basic properties. Any electromagnetic. \\ ave, d
less of its specific form (it can be a wave 01, an
electromagnetic of any form) IS charactenzed
by the following properties: . . .
(1) the velocity of its m a noneonductmg
neuttal nonferromagnetic medIUm IS equal to .
v=c/Ve!Jo, where c=1/Ve
o
!Joo; (10.19)
(2) vectors E, B, and v (wave velocity) are per
pendicular and form a righthand s#stem (F Ig. 10.5)
This riahthanded relation is an intrtnSlC property of
wave, independcnt of the choicc of COfll'( 1
nate system;
10. Maxwell's Equations. Electromagnetic Field Energy
262
(10.23)
IS= [E X H]·I
10.4. Energy and linergy Flux. Poynting's Vector 265
This equation expresses Poynting's theorem: a decrease
in energy per unit time in a given volume is equal to the energy
flux through the surface bounding this volume plus the work
per unit time (Le. power P) which is accomplished by the field
over the charges of the substance inside the given volume.
In Eq. (10.21), W = ) w dV, where w is the field
energy density, and P= Jj.E dV, where j is the current
density and E is the electric field strength. The above ex
pression for P can be obtained as follows. During the time
dt, field E will do the work = qE.u dtoverapointcharge
q, where u is the charge velocity. Hence the power of force
qE is P = qu·E. Going over to the volume distribution of
charges, we replace q by P dV, where p is the volume charge
density. Then dP = pu· E dV = j. E dV. It remains for Us
to integrate dP over the volume under consideration.
It should noted that power P in (10.21) can be elther
positive or negative. The latter takes place when positive
charges of the substance move against field E, or negative
charges move in the opposite direction. For example, such
a situation is observed at the points of a medium where in
addition to an electric field E, the field E* of extraneous
forces is also acting. At such points, j = (j (E + E*),
and if E* tt E, and E* > E in magnitude, the product
j. E in the expression for P turns out to be negative.
Poynting obtained the expressions for the energy density
wand vector S by using Maxwell's equations (we shall not
present this derivation here). If a medium contains no
electrics and ferromagnetics (Le. in the absence of hysteresis),
the energy density of an electromagnetic field is given by
I
E·D B·B
w=Z\2' (10.22)
It should be noted that individual terms of this expres
sion have been obtained by us !'larHer [see (4.10) and (9.32)1.
The uensity of the electromagnetic energy flux, which is
called Poynting vector, is defined as
(10.21)
264
10. Maxwell's E t·
 qlla IOns. Electromagnetic F' ld E
Ie nergy
. (3) vectors E and B in an electr' 
cIlIate in phase (see F' 10 6 wave always os
wave), the a "photograph" of
lllg connected t1uough the reI es EE and B at any point be
a IOn = vB or
. VeE
o
E=Vf.1f.1oH.' (10.20)
ThIs means that E and H ( B) .
maximum values vanish or
t
sImultaneously attain theil'
MIl' b' , e c.
axwe s rilliant succes . tl d
tromagnetic theory of'light s m d Ie eve.lopment of the elec
the ,possibility of existence to hIS of
10wlllg from differential waves, fol
,Energy and Energy Flux. Poynting's Vector
s Theorem. Proceedin f '
l?cahzation in the field itseif an g rom the of energy
clple of energy conservation d On the basIs of the prill
energy decreases in a certai ' :v
e
. conclude that if
due to its "flowing out" tllrou t 11S only OCCur
under consideration (tl e l .boundal'les of the region
tionary), I me !lun IS assumed to be sta
In this respect thCle is a f
of conservation of charge . . ormall with "the law
ing f tl ' 'I ex pI eSEe( by Eq (" 4) 'I'h
o 11S aw consists in tl t d . J. . e mean
time in a given volume" 'I{J a ecrease in charge pel' uni.t
th . IS equa to the flux f •
e surface enclosing this ' I 0 vector l through
I "I . \0 ume.
. n.a SimI ar manner, for the law f .
\\e should assume that in Id't' 0 conservatIOn of energy
in" a( . I IOn to the en d'
. a gIven regIOn, there exists,' ergy enslty w
zlllg the energy {lux density a eel tam vector S characteri
. If we speak only of the en .
total energy in a given ver
gy
of electromagnetic field,
lllg out of this volume as change due to its flow
field transfers its ener t as ue to the fact that the
i.e. accomplishes (charged particles),
form, this statement can bel' . ?tt
SU
stance. In macroscopic
wrl en as follows:
,yS ,fA+p. i
til\. is Jl surface element.
Fig. 10.9
267
Fig. 10.7
__a.._ f{J,
I
I
,;,._r_ 'P2
10.4. Energy and Energy Flux. Poynting's Vector
. 'd the wire normally to its lateral sur
Poynting vector is directed the electromagnetic energy flows into
face (Fig: 10.7) COllseque? y, 1 But does it agree with the amount
I
the wire of lpngtll l.
EH.2nal = 2naH·El = I'U = Rl2,
where
U is the potential acr?st
s
. r d R is Its reslS 
the ends of thIS se? lO:
t
conclusion that
ance. Thus, we arr.lve into the
eon
WIre from outsl eat gree
verted into Joule's heat. We mus a lu
that this is a rather unexpected cone
sionit should be
source, lr the source
I, anpd hent?nge10 is directed outside:
the oyn 1 . gy flows
. th's region ener d
!n \ urrdunding space. In other wor s,
!nto t eSt th t the energy from source Fig. 10.8
It turns ou a 1 the WIres but
is transmitted not a ong ! ductor
through the space surroundlllg a con t·c energy viz. the flux of vec
in the form of the flux of electromagne 1 ,
tor S. l' of a balanced (twin) line.
Example 3. Figure 10.8.sho
ws
known as well as the fact
The directions of curre.nts III the ::'Ires Can
that the wires' are <PI h rit) the E
we find where (to the or to tee
P
ower source (generator) IS? . b ob
Th nswer to this questiOIl can e
tainedewith the help of. the
In the case under conSIderatiOn, bet
d
h'l
. E '. directed downwar S W 1 e
wIres, . d behind the flane of the
vector H IS dlrec e IE X II is direc1
n
d
figure Hence, wctor S  . th
to the' right, i.e. the power IS on e
left and a consumer is on the rIght.
. L t take a parallehplate
Example 4. Charging of a i edge effects (field
capacitor with circular plates of fiux 1hrcugh the lateral
dissipation), fwd the. thO region the Poynting vector
"surface" of the capaCitor, Sl?Ce on.y 9)s
is directed inside the capaCItor (FIg. ., d t"c
. . electric fIeld E au a magne 1
On this surface, there v.ar
Y
l'1 rding to the theorem on cir
field H generated by it.s vrarlllaLJOnih< tCZnaH = na2 DD/8t. where the
culation or vector H, It 0 OWS li
I
dW=E
o
E2c dt = VE
o
/Ilo E2 dt.
Let us now see what we shall obtain with the help of Poynting
vector. The same quantity dW can be represented in terms of the mag
nitude of vector S as follows:
dW = S dt= Ell dt= lfeo/
Ilo
E2 dt.
Thus, both expressions (for wand for S) lead to the same result
(the last two formulas).
Example 2. Evolution of heat in a coDductor. Let a current I now
through a straight circular wire of radius a (Fig. 10.7). Since the wire
has a re!listance, a certain electric field E is acting along it. The same
value of E will be at the wire surface in a vacuum. Besides, the pres
ence of current generates a magnetic field. According to the theorem
on circulation of vector H, near the surIace of the wire we have
2naH = I, H = 112n4. Vectors E andll are manged so that the
Then
dW = we dt,
where w is the energy density, w = eo£2/2 + ,""oH2/2. In accordance
with (10.20), for an electromagnetic wave we have
t oE2 = llo
H2
.
This means that the electric energy density in the electromagnetic
wave at any instant is equal to the magnetic energy density at the
same point, so we can write for the energy density
w = eo£2.
266 10. Maxwell's Equations. Electromagnetic Field Energy
Strictly speaking, Maxwell's equations cannot give un
ambiguous ex'pressions for the two quantities wand S.
The expressions presented above are the simplest from an in
finite number of possible equations. Therefore, we should
treat these expressions as postulates whose validity should
be confirmed by the agreement with experiments of their
corollaries.
Several following examples will demonstrate that although
the results obtained with the help of formulas (10.22)
and (10.23) may sometimes seem strange, we will not be
able to find in them anything incredible, any disagreement
with experiment. And this is just the evidence that these
expressions are correct.
Example 1. EDergy flux in an electromagnetic wavc (in vacuum),
Let us calculate energy dW passing during time dt through a unit area
perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave.
If we know the values of E and B in the region of location of the
unit area, then
E
c
(10.25)
(10.24)
Fig. 10.11
Po
po;
IG=wle. \
and momentum is inhe
The same. relation relativity) in particles
(as IS lU
Th
.
s
is quite natural since, according to
With zero rest mass. 1
'\ G=S/c
2
, \
_ [E X HI is Poynting's vector..Just vector
density G is generally a functIOn of time and
coordinates. 'tl (10 20) for an electromagnetic wave
In accordance WI I . , d
I . _ V H Hence the energy en
in a vacuum we have.v s f vector are re
sity wand the magllltu e 0
spectively equal to
f.T2/2 E2 S= EH = lr80/
11
'0 E2.
=Bo • Y r
lr Ad'  ile
It follows that S = wi Y Bollo·. n slUce
S
_ wOe °T;king'
I' f l' ht lU vacuum  .
e is th
t
e(1
v
O
c
that for electromagnetic
lUto accoun . ,
wave in a vacuum
10.5. Electromagnetic Field Momentum
B
Fig. to.l0
t f momentum density G of
Let us introduce the concep o. . 11 equal to
electromagnetic
here show that the momentum denSIty
is given by
t m
of such a system can be conserved only
The momen u . ld ( ) I esses
vided that the eleetromagnetlc fie wave a so poss .
pro t. the substance acquires the momentum due
to it by the electromagnetic fIeld.
\ .
righthand side contains the displacement current through the contour
shown in Fig. 10.9 by the dashed line. Hence H = (1/2) a aD/at. If
the distance between the plates is h, the /lux of vector S through the
lateral surface is
a aD aD ,
EH2nah= E 2: at 2nah=E at l, (1)
where V = na
2
h is the volume of the capacitor. We shall assume that
this /lux is completely spent for increasing the capacitor's energy.
Then, multiplying Eq. (1) by dt, we obtain the increment of the capa
citor's energy during the time dt:
dW=EdD.V=d( V)=d( E: V)
Having integrated this equation, we find the formula for the energy W
of a charged capacitor. Thus, everything is all right in this case too.
10.5. Electromagnetic Field Momentum
Pressure of Electromagnetic Wave. Maxwell showed theo
retically that electromagnetic waves, being reflected or ah
sorbed by bodies on which they are incident, exert pressure
on these bodies. This pressure appears as a result of the action
of the magnetic field of· a . wave on the electric currents
induced by the electric field of the same wave.
Suppose an electromagnetic wave propagates in a homo
geneous medium capable of absorption. The presence of ab
sorption means that Joule's heat with the volume density
aE2 will be liherated in the medium. Hence a =1= 0, Le.
the absorbing medium is conductive.
The electric field of tIle wave excites in this medium an elec
tric current with a density j = aE. As a result, Ampere's
force F
u
= !j X B) == a [E X B] will act on a unit volume
of the medium. This force is directed towards the propaga
tion of the wave (Fig. 10.10) and causes the pressure of the
e,leetromagnetic wave.
In the absence of absorption, the conductivity a = 0
and F
u
== 0, i.e. in this case the electromagnetic wave does
not exert any pressure on the medium.
Electromagnetic Field Momentum. Since an electromag
netic wave exerts a pressure on a substance, the latter ac
quires a certain momentum. However, if in a closed system
consisting of a substance and an electromagnetic wave only
the substance possessed a momenLum, the Jaw of conservu
tion of momep.t'llm would be yjolated.
268 10. Maxwell's Equations. Electromagnetic Field Energy
.'
r
271
Fig. 10.13
o
Problems
D dO P,
10.12
v
dD
. t 'current density jd = DD/at. Hence,
Solution. The reducPlI to determining vector D at
the solution of the problem 1;;. . time deriv'ltive. In both cases,
the indicated points toI fmdI,n
t
g
of r Let find the derivative
D
 e where e IS t Ie lITH vee or . n q r ••. , r
iJD/Dt . P (I" to '2 where it is assumerl that q > 0), we
(1) At pomt I 'lg. .1,
have
If q > 0, id tI v, and vice '. ht solenoid with the
• 10.2. A current III a long field inside the
radius R of cross varIed B = where
solenoid (Iensity as a function of
is a constant. 'Illl ..
the distance r from the solenoId aXIS.
aD 2q or _ 2qv
=43;;t er 4nr3 ,
at nr u
h f oint P the derivative arMt = v.
where we took into the direction of its motioiJ
If point PI were not m. ron Old b directed in the same way and wou
but behind it, vector wou e .
have the same magmtude.. . and vice versa.
Thus, for. q > 0, ttl I/D = v dt/r, and hence we can
(2) At POint P
2
(FIg. •. ,
write / _ "
aD/at = qv 4nr.
Problems
A int charge q moves uniformly
• 10 1. Displacement currenlt·
t
· po
t
·
c
velocity v Find the vector
" 1 'th a nonre a IVIS 1 . . d' 'I
along n Inl' WI . at a oint P lymg at a ,ance
of the curren.t (1) with its traJectory,
from the charge on a. t ry and passing through the charge.
(2) perpendicular ItS traJec 0
(10.20)
P = (1 +p) (w).
Here the quantity P is just the pressure of the electromagnet
ic wave on the body. In the case of total reflection, r ._=
= 1 and pressure p = 2 (w) while for total absorption,
p = 0 and p = (w).
It should be added that the pressure of f'lectromagnetic
radiation is usually very low (the exception is the pressure
of highpower laser radiation beams, especially after beam
focusing, and the pressure of radiation inside hot stars).
For example, the pressure of solar radiation on the Earth
amounts to about 10
6
Pa, which is smaller than the atmo
spheric pressure by a factor of 10
10
. In spite of insignifIcant
values of these quantities, experimental proof of the
existence of electromagnetic waves, viz. the pressure of
light, was obtained by Lebedev. The results of these experi
ments were in agreement with the electromagneticJheoryof
light.
quantummechanical notions, an electromagnetic wave is
equivalent to the flow of photons, viz. the particles with zero
rest mass.
Some More Remarks on the Pressure of EJcctl'Omagnelie
Waves. Let us calculate, llsing forll1111a (10.2;"»), tlte pres
sure exerted by an electromagnetic wave on a body when the
wave is incident normal to its surface and is partially reflect
ed in the opposite direction. In accordance with the law of
conservation of momentum, Po = + p, where Po, are
the momenta of the incideilt and reflected waves, wltile p
is the momentum transferred to the hody (Fig. 10.11). Hav
ing projected this equality onto the direction of the inci
dent wave and referring all the quantities to unit time and
unit crosssectional area, we obtain
210 10. Maxwell's Equations. Field __
P = Po + P; = (G) c + (G') c,
where (G) and (G') are the average values of the moment lim
density for the incident and r.eflected waves. It remains for
us to take into account relation (10.25) between (G) and
(w) as well as the fact that (w') = P (TV), where {> is the
ref!ectioncoefficienl. As a resu)t, the previous expression be
comes
Solution. In order to find the displacement current density, we
must, in accordance with (to.5), first find the electric fiehl strength
(here it will be a vortex field). Using Maxwell's equation for circula
tion of vector' E, we write
2nrE = nr
2
aBlat, E = (r < R);
2nrE = nR2 aBlat, E = (r> R).
Now, using the formula id = eo iJElat, we can find the displacement
current density:
id = (r < R); id = (r > R).
The plot of the dependence ; d (r) is shown in Fig. to.13•
• to.3. A parallelplate capacitor is formed by two discs the space
between which is filled with a homogeneous, poorly conducting medium.
The capacitor was charged and then disconnected from a power source.
Ignoring edge effects, show that the magnetic fIeld inside the capacitor
is absent.
Solution. Magnetic field will be absent since the total current (con
duction current plus displacement current) is equal to zero. Let us
prove this. We consider the current density. Suppose that at a certain
instant the density of conduction current is j. Obviously,j ex D and
D = an, where a is the surface charge density on the positively charged
plate and n is the normal (Fig. 10.14).
The presence of conduction current leads to a decrease in the surface
charge density a, and hence in D as well. This means that conduction
current will be accompanied by the displacement current whose den
sity is
jd = aD/at = (aalat) n = jn = j.
Hence it follows that, indeed
it = j + jd = O.
• 10.4. The space between the plates of a parallelplate cafacitor
in the form of circular discs is filled with a homogeneous poor y con
ducting medium with a conductivity a and permittivity e. Ignoring
edge effects, find the maci'litude of vector H between the plates at
a distance r from their axeb, if the electric field strength between the
plates varies with time in accordance with the law E =
= Em cos wt.
Solution. From Maxwell's equation for circulation of vector H.
it follows that
2nrH=(in +eeo 8it) nr
l
.
Taking into account Ohm's law jn = aE
n
(t). we obtain
H
r (E eeo aEn ) rEnt .
="2 n+oiJ't =r(acoswteeows!nwt).
(3}
(1)
273
Fig. 10.15
Problem'
8\ q. cia.
8t J D dS = 2: SlD a dt .
ot !
o
Fig. 10.14
• . o'f t H obtain the expression 'for H
equati0!l for thhe the charge is characterized by
at a pOlUt P w ose POSI I
radius vector r (Fig. 10.15).
Solution. It
tour arohund 0 (its trace is'shown in Fig. 10.16
must c oose a clr
by the dashed line). Then
2nRH=..! r Dn dS,
at J
through a surface by this
reus n f' 1"t e shall take a spherIcal surface
circle. For safke 0 St
lmp
IC(£.lg' fO 16) Then the flux of D through
with the radIUS 0 curva ure r • • • .
an elementary ring of this spherical surface IS
q ., :1_' q. , da.'
D ds=2nr SlD a ·r ..... ='2
SlUa
,
4nr
ll
while the total flux through the selected surface is
(icos a). (2)
Now, in accordance with (1), we differentiate (2) with respect to
time:
Let us transform the expression in the parentheses to cosine. For
bJi/ :: 6
2
,
=sin 6. This gives
H = rEm va
2
+(eeoco)2 cos (cot+6).
A point charge q moves in a vacuum l;lniformly
with a nonrelalivistic velocity v. Usmg Maxwe 8
10. Maxwell', Equation,. Electromagnetic Field Ener,,, 272
180181
274
10. MGZlIIelt, Equation•. Electromagnetic Field Energy
Problem. 275
'k
\ S
H I \
\ /
\J
l"ig. 10.19 Fig. 10.18
18*
solenoid is being increased. Show that the rate of increase in the energy
of the magnetic field in the solenoid is equal to the flux of Poynting's
vector through its lateral surface.
Solution. As the current increases, the magnetic field in the !'olenoid
also increases, and hence a vortex electric field appears, Suppose that
the radius of the solenoid cross section is equal to a. Then the strength
of the vortex electric field near the lateral surface of the solenoid
can be determined with the help of Maxwell's equation that expresses
the law of electromagnetic induction:
aB a aB
2rtaE = rta
8
at ' E =2" at·
The energy flux through the lateral surface of the solenoid can be re
presented as follows:
a ( B8 )
cD=EH·2nal=rta
2
/ at 2f.1o '
where I is the solenoid length and rta
2
l is its volume.
Thus. we see that the energy flux through the lateral surface of the
solenoid (the flux of vector S) is equal to the rate of variation of the
magnetic energy inside the solenoid:
cD = S ·2rtal = ow/at.
SolutiorL l"igure 10.19 shows that S tt v. Let us find the mag
nitude of S: S = EH, where E and H depend on r. According to the
GaUS8 theonm, we have
2rtrE = 'AJeo,
where Ais the charge per unit length of the beam. Besides, it follows
from the theorem on circulation of vector H that
2rtrH = f.
Having deWnnined E and H from the last two equations and taking
into aee:oant. that f = 1.1.1, we obtain
S = EH = f
8
/4n
8
eol.lr2.
e 10.8. A current flowing through the winding of a long straight
dB
p
o 1 2
Fig. 10,17 Fig. 10.16
angular velocity roo Find V X E in this region as a function of vectors
fI} and B.
Solution. It follows from the equation V X E =  aB/at that
vector V X E is directed oppositely to vector dB. The magnitude of
this vector can be calculated with the help of Fig. 10.18:
I dB I = Bro dt, I dB/dt I = Bro.
For the displacement of the charge from point 1 to point 2 (Fig. 10.17)
over the distanee v dt, we have 1.1 dt ·sin a. = r da., whence
da. 1.1 sin a.
Cit r (4)
SubstitutiDg(4) into (3) and then (3) into (1), we obtain
H = qvr sin a./4m,a, (5)
where we took into account that R = r sin a.. Relation (5) in vector
form can be written as follows:
H=_LJvXr)
4n r3
Thus we see that expression (6.3) Which we have postulated earlier
is a corollary of Maxwell's equations.
el0.6.CuriofE.Acertain :re2ion ofan inertial system of reference
contains a magnetic field of m'1g11itude B = const, rotating at an
l'
Henee
V X E = fro X .BI.
e 10.7. Poynting's vector. Protons haVing the same velocity v
form a beam of a circular cross section with current f. Find the direc
tion and magnitude of Poynting's vector S outside the beam at a
distanee r from its axia.
11.1. Equation of an Olctllatory Circuit 277
216 10. Mazwtll's Equations. Eltctromagnttic Fldtl Elltr"
(3)
1 rCllU
m
•
B=2'llolto
h
\ SlDCIlt I·
H.t. Equation of an Oscillatory Circuit
Quasisteady Conditions. When electric oscillations occur,
the current in a circuit varieswith time and, generally speak
ing, turns out to be different at each instant of time in diff
erent sections of the circuit (due to the fact that electromag
netic perturbations propagate although at a very high but
still finite velocity). There are, however, many cases when
instantaneous values of current prove to be practically the
same in all sections of the circuit (such a current is called
quasistationary). In this case, all time variations should occur
SO slowly that the propagation of electromagnetic pefturba
II. Electric Oscillations
plates be h. Then the electric energy of the capacitor is equal to
II EI II 'la
l
UfucoslCllt. (1)
The maguetic energy can be determined through the formula
W
m
= \ :1 dV. (2)
• 110
The quantity B required for this integral can be found
from the theorem on the circulation of vector H: 2'lrH = 'lr
2
aDlat.
Hence, considering that H = BII10 and aDlat = 'eo (Umlh) CIl sin CIlt,
we obtain
It remains for us to substitute (3) into (2), where for dV we must
take an elemeutary volume in the form of a ring for which dV =
=2nr dr·". All a result of integration, we obtain
W
'l J.LollifalSa6Ufu '1 (4)
m=16 h sIn CIlt.
The ratio of th.e maximum values of magnetic energy (4) and elec
tric energy (f) is given by
WmU:ax 1 1 1
W
emax
8 l1011oiJ cIl •
,For example, for a = 6 cm and cIl = toDD SI, this ratio is equal to
5 X toD.
(4)
(5)
Fig. to.20
where S=EH is the nux density,
. 2'lr dr is the elementary ring of
width dr within which the value of S is constant, and a and b are the
radii of the internal wire and of the outer shell of the cable (Fig. 10.20).
In order to evaluate this integral, we must know the dependence
S (r), or E (r) and H (r).
Using the Gauss theorem, we obtain
2'lrE = '}Jllo, (2)
where Ais the charge per unit length of the wire. Further, by the theo
rem on the circulation' we have
2'lrH = f. (3)
After substituting E and H from formulas (2) and (3) into expression
(1) and integrating, we get ,
AI b
<I>=ln 
2'lll
o
a
The values of A, a, and b are not given in the problem. Instead,
we know U. Let us find the relation between these quantities:
b
)
A b
U= E dr=ln.
2'lllo a
a
• 10.9. The energy from a source of constant voltage U is trans
mitted to a consumer via a long coaxial cable with a negligibly small
resistance. The in the c!lble is f. Find the energy nux through
the cable cross sectIOn, assumIng that the outer conducting shell of
the cable has thin walls.
Et Solution. The required ener
gy llux is defined by the formula
dfr:=H= S eo <I>:=:; j S·2nr dr, (1)
a
A comparison of (4) and (5) gives
III = Uf.
This coincides with the value of power liberated in the load.
• 10.tO. A parallelplate air capacitor whose plates are made
in the form of disks of radius a are connected to a source of varying
harmonic voltage of frequency CIl. Find the ratio of the maximum values
of magnetic and electric energy inside the capacitor.
Solution. Let the voltage across the capacitor vary in accordance
with the law U = Urn cos rot and the distance between the capacitor
278 11. Electric Oscillations
11.1. Equation of an Oscillatory Circuit
279
R
't =
where T is the period of variations.
For e:ample, for a circuit of length 1 = 3 m, the time
't = 10 8 s, and the current can be assumed to be quasista
(11.2)
(11.1)
I = dqldt.
RI = CPl  CP2 + + 'IS,
where 'fe
s
is the selfinduced e.m.f. In the case under con
sideration,
Consequently, if I > 0, then dq > 0 as well, and vice versa
(the sign of I coincides with that of dq).
In accordance with Ohm's law for section lRL2 of the
circuit, we have
t
s
=  L dIldt and CP2  CPl.= giG
in the circuit attains its maximum value (Fig. 11.1b).
Starting from this moment, the current begins to decrease,
retaining its direction. It will not, however, cease immediate
ly since it will he sustained by selfinduced e.m.f. The cur
rent recharges the capacitor, and the appearing electric field
will tend to reduce the current. Finally, the current ceases,
while the charge on the capacitor attains its maximum value.
From this moment, the capacitor starts to discharge again,
the current flows in the opposite direction, and the process
. is repeated.
If the conductors constituting the oscillatory circuit have
no resistance, strictly periodic oscillations will be observed
in the circuit. In the course of the process, the charge on the
capacitor plates, the voltage across the capacitor and the
current in the induction coil vary periodically. The oscil
lations are accompanied by mutual conversion of the energy
of electric and magnetic fields.
If, however.... the resistance of conductors R =1= 0, then, in
addition to the process described above, electromagnetic
energy will be into Joule's heat.
Equation of an Oscillatory Let us derive theequa
tion describing oscillations in a circuit containing series
connected capacitor G, induction coil L, resistor R, and
varying external e.m.f. liJ (Fig. 11.2).
First, we choose the positive direction of circumvention,
e.g. clockwise. We denote by q the charge on the capacitor
plate the from which to the other plate coincides
with the chosen direction of circumvention. Then current in
the circuit is defined as
L
(a) (b) 6
Fig. 11.1 Fig. 11.2
tionary down to frequencies of 10
6
Hz (which corresponds to
T = 10
6
s).
In this chapter, we shall assume everywhere that in the
cases under consideration quasisteady conditions are ob
served and currents are quasistationary. This will allow us to
use formulas obtained for static fields. In particular we shall
b.e using the fact that instantaneous values of 'quasista
tIOnary currents obey Ohm's law.
Oscillatory Circuit. In a circuit including a coil of indu
L and a capacitor of capacitance G, electric oscilla
tIOns may appear. For this reason, such a circuit is called an
oscillatory circuit. Let us find out how electric oscillations
emerge and are sustained in an oscillatory circuit.
. Suppose .initially, the upper plate of the capacitor
IS charged and lower plate, negatively (Fig.
11:1a). In tIus case, the entIre energy of the oscillatory cir
CUlt IS in the capacitor. Let us close key K.
capacItor star!s to discharge, and a current flows through
cOlI L. The electrIc energy of the capacitor is converted in
to the magnetic energy of the,coil. This process terminates
when the capacitor is discharged completely, while current
be instantaneous. If 1 is the length of
a the time reqUlred for an electromagnetic pertur
batIOn to cover the distance 1 is of the order of 1: = lie.
a periodically varying current, quasisteady condition
WIll be observed if
1
:
........ "
11.2. Free Electric Oscillations
Free Undamped Oscill t· If . .
IIal e.m.f. and if 't
a
a CIrCUit contains no exter
. I S resistance R . 0 the '11 t'
111 such a circuit will be free d d, OSCI a Ions
describin th '11" an un amped. The equation
I
<£' g Oese OSCI atlOns IS a particular case of Eq (11 5)
w len e; = and R = 0: . .
281
(11.10)
.. .
q+ 2pq +ro:q = O.
11.2. Free Electric OscUlatlo,..

The solution of this equation is the function
q = qm cos (root +a), (11.8)
where qm is the maximum value of the charge on capacitor
plates, (J)o is the natural frequency of the oscillatory cir
cuit, anda is the initial phase. The value of roo is determined
only by the properties of the circuit itself, while the values
of qm and a depend on the initial conditions. For these con
ditions we can take, for example, the value of charge q
and current I = qat the moment t = O.
According to (11.6), roo = lIYLC; hence the period of
free undamped oscillations is given by
LC (H.9)
(Thomson's formula).
Having found current I [by differentiating (11.8) with
respect to time] and bearing in mind that the voltage across
the plates is in phase with charge q, Vie can easily
see that in 1ree undamped oscillations current I leads in
phase the voltage across the capacitor plates by n/2.
While solving certam problems, energy approach can al
so be used.
In an oscillatory circuit, free' undamped oscillations
occur with energy W. The capacitor plates are slowly moved apart
so that the frequency of oscillations decreases by a factor of 'I. Which
work against electric forces is done in this case?
The required work can be represented as an increment of the energy
of the circuit:
A=W'  W= 9;  )=W ( g, 1) .
On the other hand, 000 ex: HVC, and hence 'I = CilMCilI = VC/C',
and consequeutly
A = W ('II  1).
Free Damped Oscillations. Every real oscillatory circuit
has a resistance, and the energy stored in the circuit is grad
ually spent. on heating. Free oscillations will be damped.
We can obtain the equation for a given oscillatory circuit
by putting = 0 in (H.5). This gives
(11.5)
(11.7)
11. Electric Oscillations
280
(the sign of q must coincide with th .
difference (JJ2  (JJ since G >0) He sIgnE,of the potential
written in the . ence q. (H.2) can be
L dI q
(H.3)
or, taking into account (H.t),
L aSq dq 1 I
(iii"+R
7t
+
c
(11.4)
This is the equation of an 'llat . .
near secondorder nonho OSCl o,:y clrcU.lt, which is a H
constant coefficients equation with
(
t) . IS equatIOn or calculat'
q ,we can easily obtain the voltage across th .mg
as Uc = (JJ2  (JJI = qlG and current I b e capaCitor
of an oscillatory circuit ca:
where the following notation is introduced:
. 2p = RIL, ro: = lILG. (11.6)
TIle quantity ro' II d h
and pis the dar:;, e t e natural f!equency of the circuit
will be The meanmg of these quantities
If _ . ow:
tions are usually called free oscilla
R' WI e un mped for R = 0 and dam ed fI
=F O. Let us consider consecutively all these casts. or
283
(11.19)
(11.18)
a (t)
A. = In a (t+Tl =
11.2. Free Electric Oscillations
las
where a is the amplitude oi the corresponding quantity
(q, U, or I). In a different form, we can write
 = cos l'l, ro!Ul
o
= sin 15. (1.1.15)
After this, the for I takes the following form:
I = Ulqmeflt cos (Ult + a + 15). (1.1.16)
It follows from (11.15) that angle 15 lies in the second quad
rant (n/2 < l) < n). This means that in the case of a non
zero resistance, the current in the circuit leads voltage inphase
(1.1.14) across the capacitor by more than n/2. It should
be noted that for R = 0 this advance is l) = n/2.
The plots of the dependences Uc (t) and I (t) have the form
similar to that shown in Fig. 11.3 for q (t).
Example. An oscillatory circuit contains a capacitor of c:apIICi&ance
C and a coil with resistance R and inductance L. Find the ratio be
tween the energies of the magnetic and electric fields in the circuit at
the moment wh:Jl the current is at a maximum.
According to equation (11.3) for an oscillatory circuit,
L +RI+ =0.
When the current is at a maximum, dIldt = 0, and RI = q/C.
Hence the required ratio is
Wm/We = L/CR2.
Quantities Characterizing Damping.
1. Damping factor and relaxation time "t, viz. the time
during which the amplitude of oscillations decreases by a
factor of e. It can be easily seen from formula (11.11) that
"t = (11.17)
2. Logarithmic decrement A. of damping. It is defined as the
Naperian logarithm of two successive values of amplitudes
measured in a period T of oscillations:
where
t
11. Electric Oscillations
282
I t can be shown (we shall not d· .
ested in another as ct of 0 It here SlDce we are inter
the solution of this the that for < (J)I,
omogeneous dIfferential equation ha"s
the form
f
.../' q= qme
flt
cos (oot+a),
(H.H)
Fig. 11.3 /1 (R)2
= l LC  27' (11.12)
qr and. are arbitrary constants determined from th
c
1
0
1
nd
3
1tlOns. The plot of the function (11.11) is sho e
III :. It can be seen that this is not . ,,:n
SInce it determines damped oscillations
a
periodiC
. "'devjedrtheless, quantity T = 2n/oo is the _
no 0 amped oscLllations: pe
T 2ft To
 V&>BW' (H.13)
r0 is the of free undamped oscillations.
d e act?r q"!e flt III (11.11) is called the amplitude 0
1
a1m3Pebd Its ?ependence on time is shown in Fig
1
. y t e dashed hne. .
C
. V a Capacitor and Current in an Oscillatory
IrCUI. nOWIllg q (t) we fi d tl I
p·t d ,can III Ie vo tage across a ca
in a circuit. The voltage across a
U
c
= = elltcos(rol+a). (1.1.14)
The current in a circuit is
1= !:!L. q eIlt [ Il (t +
. dt  m  .... cos 00 a)rosin(oot+a)j.
transform the expression in the brackets to cosine For
we multiply. and. divide this by
1 " Wo and then mtroduce angle 0 by the formu
i I
11. Electric Oscillations
where W is the energy stored in the circuit and II W is the de
crease in this energy during the period T of oscillations. In
deed, the energy W is proportional to the square of the am
plitude value of the capacitor charge, i.e. W ex:. e
2
pt.
Hence the relative decrease in the energy over the period is
6WIW = = 21... It remains for us to take into account
the fact that according to (11.21), A. = n/Q.
the section, it should be noted that when
Ill> an aperiodic discharge of the capacitor will occur
instead of oscillations. The resistance of the circuit for which
the aperiodic process'sets in is called the critical resistance:
R
cr
=2YL/C. (11.24)
Let us consider two examples.
Example t. An oscillatory circuit has a capacitance C
l
inductance L,
and resistance R. Find the number of oscillations a ter which the
amplitude of cunent decreases to fie of its initial value.
The eunent amplitude (/m ex: e Pt) decreases to fie of its initial
(11.27)
or
11.3. Forced electric Oscillations
. . Let us return to equations (11.3)
Steadystate . 't and consider the case
d (1
1 4) for an OSCillatory t al emf whose
an . .' 1 d a varymg ex ern .,.
when the circUlt ,mc es reased by the harmonic law:
dependence on tlUle IS dec. (11.25)
= Om cos (Ot.
t' of
. .al lace owing to the proper les
This law a If lo retain a harmonic form of os
the oscillatory CIrCUlt of external harmonic c.m.!.
dIlations under the aCt' lon
for
oscillatory circuit IS
In this case, the equa Ion
written in the form (11 26)
L .
dt C
11.8. Forced Electric O,cUlations
D
' g tbl'S time Ne oscillations will
,  urm 'h
value during the time : d f damped oscillations, t en
If T is the perlo 0
occur. 1 V(W )2
't =_ _0 1.
Nc== 2n
T 2n/V ro6P
2 = 1./ LC and l> = R {2L, we obtain
Considering tllat roo c._
_1._ / .!£1.
N
e
= 2n VCR'
. . hi Ii tbe amylitude of current
Example 2. ti?1
e
Qfactor wH. to
illations in a CllCUlt WIth a g of damped OSCIllatIOns IS equ
osc. . 't'a1 value if the frequency
of 1ts lUl 1 , • • h
to roo . . . ex: e IlI , the time to durmg wl1!c
Since the current ;m
r
of Tj is determined by the equatIOn
the amplitude decreases by a ac 0
1\ = ept •• Hence Ill.
to = (In 1'\) p. ,
bftDd the Qfactor is also related to
On the other 'Q= Ttl;, = =
• • A f m the laa\ two equations, we obtain
Elimmatmg I' ro
2Q
to =c;) In Tj.
(11.23)
W
6W'
where N
e
is the number of oscillations during the time 't,
i.e. the time required for the amplitude of oscillations to
decrease to 1/e of its initial value. This expression can be
easily obtained from formulas (11.17) and (11.18).
If damping is small (/32 then (0 (00 = vyLC
and, in accordance with (11.18), we have
A. 2n/Ul
o
= nRYC/ L. (11.20)
3. Q/actor of an oscillatory circuit. By definition,
Q = nlA. = nNe' (B.21)
where ). is the logarithmic decrement. The smaller the damp
ing, the higher the Qfactor. For a weak damping (/32
(0:), in accordance with (11.20), we have
Q V . (11.22)
Here is one more useful formula for the Qfactor in the case of
a weak damping:
11. ItZectrlc OBctli4ttoIU
(11.36)
(11.34)
(11.32)
Fig. 11.5
o
Fig. H.4
leads I by n/2. candbe. w;jh
help of a vector dtagram, epIC m
tages
U
 Rf U
em
= 1
m
/roC, ULm = roLl rn
am  m,
and their vector sum which, according to (11.31), is equal
to vector (Fig. 11 .4). . d' can
Considering the right triangle of. thIS Iagram,;,e
easily obtain the following expressIons for I m and cpo
(11.35)
1
m
= l!R'+«(a}L1/wC)Z'
wL1/(a}(:
tancp= R
11.3. Forced Itkctrlc O.ctUatio..
Th the problem is solved. . d b
It be noted that the vector diagramobtame a ove
UR = RI = RIm cos (rot  cp),
U
q .J!!!. cos (rot _ '\jJ) = I Tn cos (rot  cp  ) , (11.33)
e=c c we
UL = L =  roLl rn sin (rot  cp)
• 11: )
= ro LImcos trot  cp +T .
V tor Diagnun The last three formulas show that UR
is i:;hase with I, Ue lags behind I by n/2, and Ul.
I m
·1· f '£! Taking into account relation (11.30),
totheexterna e.m.. ",.
we write
(11.30) I rn = roqrn, cp = 'Ii'  n/2.
U
L
+ Un + U
e
= cos rot, (11.31)
where the lefthand side is the sum of voltages across induc
tion coil L, capacitor C and resistor R. Thus, we see that
at each instant of time, the sum of these voltages is equal
As is known from mathematics, the solution of this equa
tion is the sum of the general solution of the homogeneous
equation (wiih the zero righthand side) and a particular
solution of the nonhomogeneous equation.
We shall be interested only in steadystate oscillations,
i.e. in the particular solution of this equation (the general
solution of the homogeneous equation exponentially attenu
ates and after the elapse of a certain time it virtually van
ishes). It can be easily seen that this solution has the form
q = qrn cos (rot (11.28)
where qrn is the amplitude of charge on the capacitor and 'Ii'
is the phase shift between oscillations of the charge and of
the external e.m.f. (11.25).• It will be shown that qrn
and", depend only on the properties of the circuit itself and
the driving e.m.f. It turns out that 'Ii' > 0, and hence q
always lags behind in phase.
In order to determine the constants qrn and 'Ii', we must sub
stitme (11.28) into the initial equation (11.27) and trans
form the result. However, for the sake of simplicity, we shall
in a different way: first find current I and then sub
stitute its expression into (11.26). By the way, we shall sol
ve the problem of determining the constants qrn and 'Ii'.
Differentiation of (11.28) with respect to time t gives
1=  roqrn sin (rot '\jJ) = roqrn cos (rot '\jJ + n/2).
Let us write this expression as follows:
I = I rn cos (rot  cp), (11.29)
where I rn is the current amplitude and cp is the phase shift
between the current and external e.m.f.
We aim at finding I rn and cpo For this purpose, we proceed as
follows. Let us represent the initial equation (11.26) in the
fonn
289
(11.40)
11.3. Forced Electric Oscillattons
where CU
o
is the resonance frequency and fJw is the width of
the resonance curve at a "height" equal to 0.7 of the peak
height, I.e. at resonance.
Resonance. Resonance in the case under consideration is
1{2 190181
(J}e res = W
o
Y1 2
(J}L res = W
o
Y12
The smaller the value of the closer are the resonance fre
quencies for all quantities to the value Woo
Res6n3nce UII'Ves and Qfactor. The shape of resonance
curves is connected in a certain way with the Qfactor of an
oscillatory circuit. This has the simplest form
for the case of weak damping, I.e. for In this case,
Ueres/cem = Q (11.41)
(Fig. 11.7). Indeed, for the quantity w
res
W
o
and, according to (11.33) and (11.35), Uem res = I m/cuoC =
= tm/woCR, Or Uemres!'tm = YLCICR = (1IR) YLIC
which is, in accordance with formula (11.22), just the Q
factor.
Thus, the Qfactor of a circuit (for shows how
many times the maximum value of the voltage amplitude
across the capacitor (and induction coil) exceeds the ampli
tude of the external e.m.f.
The Qfactor of a circuit is also connected with another
important characteristic of the resonance curve, viz. its
width. It turns out that for
Q= cuolfJw, (11.42)
The maximum of this function or, which is the same, the
minimum of the radicand can be found by equating to zerO
the derivative of the radicand with respect to cu. This gives
the resonance frequency (11.38).
Let us now see how the amplitudes of voltages U R' Ue,
and UL are redistributed depending on the frequency W
of the external e.m.f. This pattern is depicted in Fig. 11.7.
The resonance frequencies for UR' Ue and UL are deter
mined by the following formulas:
11. Electric Oscillations
''
288
proves to be vel'y con . f
problems. It permits a 01' solving .many specific
various situations. ' easy, and rapId analysis of
.Resonance Curves. This is the .
dependences of the folloWing q gIven to the plots of
of external e.m.f. current I uahn lIes on the (J)
, c arge q on a capaCitor, and
c6
Fig. 11.6
Fig. H.7
voltages U
R
U
e
and U d fi .
(11.34). " L e ned by formulas (11.32)
Resonance curves for current I ( ) '.
U.5. Expression (11.35) shows th m cu are shown m Fig.
has the maximum value for cuL _ the amplitude
the resonance frequency for current lcur: : O. C?nsequentlys
tural frequency of the oscl'll t with the na
a ory CIrCUIt:
. WI reB = Wo= lIVLC. (11.37)
The maXImum at resonance i th h'
the smaller the damping facto: A. and the sharper
Resonance curves for the cha p L.
.shown in Fig. 11.6 (resonance rge qm (cu) On a capacitor are
across the capacitor have the curves for voltage Uem
charge amptitude is slhlape). The maximum of
. t e resonance frequency
. (11.38)
which comes closer and closer to .
In order to obtain (11 38) Wo WIth decreasing p.
ance with (11.30), the represent qm, in accord
defined by (11.35). Then m qm = I mlw where 1
m
is
qm =  _
(11.39)
1111
III!
11:1
I!II
I  U
m
roL1/roc
mR2+(roL_1/roC)2' tancp= R (11.45)
The problem is reduced to determining the current ampli
tude and the phase shift of the current relative to U.
The obtained for the current amplitude 1
m
(ro)
can be formally Interpreted as Ohm's law for the amplitude
values of current and voltage. The quantity in the denomi
natOr of this expression, which has the dimension of resist
ance, is denoted by Z and is called the total resistance Or
,
291
(11.50)
(11.48)
11.4, Alternating Current
impedance:
Z =V' R2 +(roL 1/coC)2. (11.46)
It can be seen that for ro = roo = 1/V' LC, the impedance
has the minimum value and is equal to the resistance R.
The quantity appearing in the parentheses in formula
(11.46) is denoted by X and is called the reactance:
X = ro[,  1/roC. (11.47)
Here the quantity roL is called the inductive reactance,
while the quantity VroC is called the capacitive reactance.
They are denoted XL and Xc respectively. Thus,
XL=roL, X
c
=1/roC, X=XLX
c
,
z=V
It should be noted that the inductive reactance grows with
the frequency",w, while decreases
with increasing ro, When It IS saId that a CircUlt .has no ca
pacitance, this must be t;nderstood so that there IS no
itive reactance which is equal to 1/roC and hence valllsh.es
if C lo 00, (when a capacitor is replaced by a shortCIr
cuited section), . ,
Finally, although the is same
units as the resistance, they dIffer 1Il prmclple. ThIS difference
consists in that only the resistance determines
processes in a circuit such as, for example, the converSIon
of electromagnetic energy into Joule's heat,
Power Liberated in an A.C. Circuit. The instantaneous
value of power is equal to the product of instantaneous
values of voltage and current:
P {t) = VI =c= Vml
m
cos rot cos (rot  cp). (11.49)
Using the formula cos (rot  (f') = cos rot cos cp +
+ sin rot sin if, we transform (11.49) as follows:
P (t) = Umlm (C08
2
wt cos cp +sin rot cos rot sin cp),
Of praeticnl importance is the value of power averaged
over a period of oscillation. ConsJdering that (cos
2
cut) =
== 1/2 and (sin wt cos wt) = 0, we obtain
U I
(P) = m
2
m cos cpo
11. Electric Oscillations
290
11.4. Alternating Current
Hesistance (Impedance). Steadystate forced electric
oscillatIOns can he treated as an altel'llatinrr current now
ing in having a capacitance, and resist
ance. Lnder the action of external voltage (which plays
the role of external e.m. f.)
U =" Um cos tl)t, (11.43)
the current in the circuit varies according to the law
I = 1m cos (cut ' cp), (11.44)
the excitation of strong oscillations at the frequency of ex
ternal e.m.f. Or voltage. This frequency is equal to the na
of an oscillatory circuit. Resonance is used
for slughng out a required component from a composite volt
age. The entire radio reception technique is based on reso
In order to receive with a given radio receiver the
station we are interested in, the receiver must be tuned. In
other words, by varying C and L of the oscillatory circuit
we must attain the between its natural {requeuc;
and. the frequency of radIo wayes emitted bv the radio
statlop. .
:r
he
phenomenon of resonance is also associated with a cer
tam danger: the external e.m.f. Or voltage may be small but
of the circuit'(the
capaCItor or lllductlOn coIl} may attalll the values utlnaerous
for people. This should always be remembered. "
where
Iii
II
I
II
19*
292
11. Electric Oscillations
Problems 293
expl'ession can be written' l"ff .
take lIlto account that 'IS foIl It a {I erent form If we
(see Fig. 11.'1) U 0" _ nOI
ws
ram the vector diagram
, m C S lp  m' Hence,
{P)2
1
RI:".
(11.51)
T
TI,lis equal to that of the direct current I' _
, ' Ie quantities  I m/V2".
I = I m
l
V2, V = VmlV2 (11.52)
are called effective (rootmea '
voltaO'e All a t IHsquare) values of current alld
'"' . mme ers 'md It t
r.m.s. values of curl"ellt' . d
VO
m
l
eel'S are graduated for
'('1 an vo tage
.... Ie expression for the 'Ivera .
r.m.s. \'alues of CUlTent a<nd gle
t
pow
1
er (11.50) in tenns of
vo age las the form
. . (P) = VI cos £P, (11.53)
whele the factor cos ( is u II
Thus, the power developed y called. power factor.
only on the voltage and C'lrrent an a.c. Circuit depends not
between them. . but also on the phase angle
When <r n/2, the value (P)  0
nes of V and I In th'  regardless of the val
quarter of a per:iod case, the energy transmitted over a
is exactly equal to the generator. to an external circuit
circuit to the generatol' from the external
so that the entire energy "os""11 e
t
quarter of the period
generator and the external es uselessly between the
The dependence of the pOwer 0 .
account while desianing t C?S 'P should be taken into
current. If loads b;ing lines for alternating
may be considerably less than a li
gh
reactance X, cos £P
to transmit the required 0 one. n snch cases, in order
voltage of the O'enel'ator) to a COnsumer (for a given
I, which leads to an to increase current
ing wires. Hence loads ." useless energy losses in feed
be always and capacitances should
. s as ° make cos en a I
as possible. For this purpose it· ffi' 'Y sease to One
X ilS small as possible i 't IS su IClent to make reactance
ductivc and capaciti:vc' equality of in
When the conductors fanning an a.c. in motion
,
the concept of electric resistance becomes wider since in ad
dition to the conversion of electric. energy into Joule's
heat, other types of energy transformations are also possi
ble. For example, a part of electric energy can be converted
into mechanical work (electric motors).
Problems
• 11.1. Free undamped oscillations. Free undamped oscillations
occur in an oscillatory circuit consisting of a capacitor with capacitance
C and an induction coil with inductance L. The voltage amplitude
on the capacitor is Urn Find the e.m.f. of selfinduction in the coil at
the moments when its magnetic energy is equal to the electric energy
of the capacitor•
Solution. According to Ohm's law,
RI = U +
where U is the voltage across the capacitor (U = CPl CP2)' In our
case, R = 0 and ,hence = U.
It remains forUs to find voltage U at the moments when the electric
energy of the capacitor is equal to the magnetic energy of the coil.
Under this condition, we Clln write
CU2 C[]2. L12 CU2
2'
whence I U 1= Um/Vi:"
As a result, we have I I = U
m
/ ,(2."
8 11.2. An oscillatory circuit consists of an induction coil with
inductance L and an uncharged capacitor of capacitance C. The resist
ance of the circuit R = 0. The coil is in 11 permanent magnetic field.
The total magnetic nux piercing all the turns of the coil is <1>. At the
moment t = 0, the magnetic field was abruptly switched off. Find
the current in the circuit as a function of time t.
Solution. Upon an abrupt switching off of the external magnetic
field at the moment t = 0, all' induced current appears, but the capac
itor still remains uncharged. In accordance with Ohm's law, we have
drD dI
RI=dt
L
dt
In the given case R = 0, and hence <1> + LI = 0. This gives <1> = LIo,
where lois the initial current (immediately after switching off \he
field).
After the external fleld has been switched off, the process is de
scribed by the following equation:
q dl
O=L (1)
C dt
u
(1\
295
Fig. 11.9
Problems
o
Fig. lUi
. h' 'h the current varies with
tance L damped oscil!ations (T:: ;CeIlt sin oot, Find the volt
time in accordance With the aw ,t f 1
age across the capacitor as a function 0 Ime.. h 'f
h I kw'se directIOn as t e POSI Ive
Solution. Let us ch?ose (}. e c
1
IAccording to Ohm's law for
direction of Ig. I . . RI = cp _ qJ + 0S' In our·
ction lRL2 of the CirCUit, we lave 1 2
se • _ Ie = Uc where q is the charge on
= "LI and !P2  !PI  q . '.
calset' 2' Hence Ohm's law can he written as
p a e . •
Uc=RILI,
Having substituted i,:to this formula the expression for J (t) and
its derivative, we obtam
U
. RImeill (_R sin ootoo cos uH).
c f'
. . tl parentheses to sine. For
Let us transform the expreSSIOn III lC
d 1
'd 't b 1f w
2
= Wo and in
this purpose, we multiply an (iVI elY
troduce angle II through the formulas. .
= cos 0, c,)/c,)o = Sill 6.
, d quate the obtained expres
dirIerentiate (1) with respect to t,lIne e _ 00 sin a =, 0 whence
sion to zero at t = O. We obt:un, r cos a '
tan a = IVoo. The required ratIO IS
U (O) _ cos a = 1 , 1. " (2)
u;;;  11; tan
2
a 1
.. U d (. (0) are shown in Fig, 11.8.
The hm an.,.!. 2 _ P.2 we transform (2) as follows:
Considerlllg t at w Wo p ,
U(O}/U
m
= jllH
2
CI4.L,
h
A  RI2l and w
2
= lILC.
where we took into account t at p J 0
't C and induc
• 11 .5. In an oscillatory circui t wi th a capacl ance
11. ElectrIc O,Ciliatton,
I = 1
m
cos (OOot +a).
The constants 1
m
and a can be found from the initial conditions
1(0).==/
0
, j (0)=0
(the ·second condition follows from Eq. (1), since at the initial moment
t = 0 the capacitor was uncharged). From these conditions we find
a = 0 and 1m = 10. As a result, we obtain
I = locos OOot = (11)IL) cos OOot,
.where 000 = 1/YLC.
• 11 .3. QIactor 01 a circuit. An oscillatory circuit with a low
damping has a capacitance C and inductance L. In order to sustain
in it un(lamped harmonic oscillations with the voltage amplitude U
m
aeroSll the capacitor, it is necessary to supply the average power (P).
Find the Qfactor of the circuit.
Solution. Since damping is low, we can make use of formula (11.23):
Q= 2nW16W, (1)
where W = CUfn/2 and 6W = (P) T, T being the period of damped
oscillations. In our case, T To = 2n l" LC. HaVing substituted
these expreSllions into (1), we obtain
Ufn .. /0
Q= 2{P) V y.
• 11.4. Damped oscillations. Ali oscillatory circuit includes a
capacitor of capacitance C, an induction coil of inductance L, a resistor
01 resistance R, and a key. The capacitor was charged with the key
oren. When the key was closed, a current began to flow. Find the ratio
o the voltage across the capacitor at time t to the voltage at the initial
moment (immediately after closing the key).
SolutIon. The voltage across the capacitor depends on time in the
same way as the charge does. Hence we can write
U=Umef\t cos (oot+a). (1)
t" ..,.
M tbe ltdtial Diomt'nt t= 0, f/(O) here
U". ia tI» .. thi8 moment. We must find U (O)/Um• i.e.
.. t.hia rapose, we use initial conditioll: at the
mo_' t = 0, current I = fJ = O. Since q = CU, it is sufficient to
Pifferentiation of this equation with respect to time gives
•• 1
1+ LC 1=0.
This is ihe equation of harmonic oscillations. We seek its solution
in the form
U
c
= Rlmwo 131 .
211 I' I'Jn(WiO)=1 VLiCl3t .
, m e sm(wt15),
\\here angle 15 is, in accordanc " h .
assumes the values :r/2 15 I' "It (1), In the second u d '
lags behind the <h n. Thus, the voltage acrossqth
a
rant, .1.1'.
m p ase. I' capacItor
• 11.6. Steadystate os "II· t·' .
L and resistance R. . CJ a IOns. An mduction '1 f'
external voltage U ll.!. the moment t =coJ mductance
a function of time m cos Wi. Fmd the current in th a of
. e ClfCUl t as
Solution. In our case, RI = .
ULJ or
. ,
I =c U
m
cos wt
The s?IUtion of this equation' th. .
equatIOn plus the particular genefral solution of the homog
IOn 0 the nonhom eneous
I (i) = Ac(R/L)I _ Urn ogeneous equation:
}/R2i w2L2 cos (wt<r),
where A is an arbitrar .
(11.36): tan fJJ = wLii constant and angle fJJ is defined b' d"
The constant A . 'f con ItlOn
H IS ount! from th "'a1
ence A = (U
m
/yrR2 '. w2L2 I' Inlh condition 1(0) = 0
C' ) cos fJJ· This gives .
I (t) == 'm
V
r
R2 ; w2L2 [cos (Wi  ff) _e(R/L)t cos fJJJ.
For a sufficiently lar e I
an! becomes
. u Ion I (t) ex:
•. 11.7. Forced oscillation'" A .
of
Ffn'd'
Solution In th
. I' case under consideration
U = Urn cos wt, I = 1
m
cos _
Where fJJ is defined b f 'P),
The unknown (11.36):. tan fJJ = t/WCR
. f aCI ance C b f, •
SlOn or the current amplitude' I _ ound from the expres
• m  {;ml J' R2 + (1/wC)! h
, w enee
. C=1/
w
V(L' m1lm)2_R2.
Havmg substituted this expression' t f
In 0 ormula tan ff, we obtain
tan cp= I'I"Wm/Rl
m
)2_1.
200181
297
Fig. 11.12
Problems
Fig. 11.11
1
m
Um
we
wLlm
Fig. 11.10
RI",
11'<0.1
we U I
'" I

In our case cp < 0, which means that the: .current leads the external
voltage (Fig. 11.10).
• t t .8. An a.c. circuit, containing a seriesconnected capacitor
and induction coil with a certain resistance, is connected to the source
Wo= Y
W
I
W
2'
• t t .9. Vector diagram. A circuit consisting of a seriesconnected
capacitor of capacitance C and induction coil with resistance Rand
inductance L is connected to an external voltage with the amplitude
U
m
and frequency w. Assuming that current in the circuit leads in
phase the external voltage, construct the vector diagram and use it
for determining the amplitude of voltage across the coil.
Solution. The vector diagram for the case under consideration is
shown in Fig. 11.11. It is readily seen from this diagram that the
I
WtL_1_1,=1 w2L  _1_1. (1)
WtG w,C
The maximum of the resonance curve for current corresponds to the
frequency equal to the natural frequency Wo = 1/yLC. Further•
let Wt < Wo < Wt (the opposite inequality is also possible, it will
not affect the final result). Equality (1) can then be written in a more
general form: wG/w
t
 WI = Wt  or
w
2
Wt =w5 (..!._..!) .
WI w
2
Cancelling out (1)2  WI on both sides of this equality, we obtain
1= W5/WIW2' whence
of external alterpating \o"oltage whoSl'> frequency can be altered without
changing its arffplitude. At frequencies Wt and W
t
the current ampli
tudes in the circuit proved to be the same. Find the resonance frequency
of the current.
Solution. According to (11.35), the amplitudes are equal under the
condition
11. Electric Oscillations
296
Then
1'1
I
298
11. Electric Oscillations
Appendkes

10'
10
11
n, nano,
p, pico,
minute
maxwell
newton
oersted
ohm
radian
second
siemens
tesla
volt
watt
weber
min
Mx
N
Oe
Q
rad
s
S
T
V
W
Wb
3. Units of Measurement
Q titles in 81 an a J
t. Notations tor Units of Measurement
2. Decimal Prefixes for Units of Measurement
ampere
coulomb
electronvolt
farad
gauss
gram
henry
hour
hertz
joule
kelvin It
meter
therli, 10
11
d, deci, 10
1
T,
10
8
e, centi, 10
1
G, giga,
10
e
m, milli, 10
3
M, mega,
micro, 10' &. kilo, 102
f.L'
h. hecto, 10
1
de. deC8, t01
I
A
C
eV
F
G
L
hr
Hz
J
K
m
nan
Unit or mea
SI unit Nota 6urement
Ratio
CGS
unit
Quantity
tton
I
CGS SI
I .
10e F N dyne
1Q7
Foree
A,W J
3 X lQt
Work. energy
q C C SE unit

Charge
amplitude of voltage across the coil is
ULRm=Im YRI+COILI,
where 1
m
= Um/Y RZ + (coL  1/COC)I. In the presence of resistance
the voltage across the coil leads the current by less than 1(/2.
• f f .10. Power in an a.c. circuit. A circuit consisting of a series.
connected resistor R with no inductance and an induction coil with
a certain resistance is connected to the main system with the r.m.s.
voltage U. Find the thermal power developed in the coil if the r.m.s.
values of voltage across the resistor R and the coil are equal to U
I
and Uz respectively.
Solution. Let us use the vector diagram shown in Fig. 11.12. In
accordance with the law of cosines we obtain from this diagram
cos CPL' (f)
The power developed in the coil is
P
z
= IUz cos CPL, (2)
Where I = UI/R.
Combining Egs. (1) and (2), we obtain
Pz = (Uz_ Ui
eS
c= 4nh
D=8E
DdS=4nq
o'=pn=')(,En
D=E+4T£P
e=1.+4T£')(,
C=q/U
Table 4. ConI.
Gaussian system
p=ql
81
a'=Pn=uoEn
D=eoE+P
s=1.+k
D=880E
8E "'{pXEl W=p·E
F=PBr,lU •
p=KE
Appendicll8
Relation
Cireulation of vector
E in an eleetros
\8de tield
Electric ,moment of a
dipole' .
Electric dipole p 1D
field E
Relation between pG:
ladsation and field
strength
Relation between cr',
pOOE
Definition of vector D
Relation between e
and "
Relat.ion between D
and E
GaUll8 t.heorem for
vectorD
capacit.anC8 of a ca
pacitor
Capacitanee of a par
allelplate capaci
t.or
Energy of system of
charges
To\81 energy of in
teract.ion
Energy 01 capacitor
Elect.ric tield energy
densit.y
Continuity equation
Ohln's law
JouleLens law
LoleDU
II
lp=..!L
r
2
E=  V.cp, CPllp,= ) E dl
1
81
E=_G_
80B
1 q
cp
 4neo r
t q
E=
4neo r
2
Te6le 3. COllI.
4. Basic Formulas of Electricity and Magnetism
in 81 and Gaussian Systems
Field E of a point
charge
Field E in a parallel
plate capacitor and
at the surface of a
conductor
Potential of the field
of a point charge
Relation
Relation between E
and rp
300
Unit of _
Quantity
Nota nnllDellt
tton
I
COS ..,
81 eGS
Electric field strength E VIm CGSE unit tJ(3X{O')
Potential, voltage cp,U V CGSE unit tPJX)
Electric p C·m CGSE unit 3X IOU
Polarization P ClIO' CGSE unit 3XI06
Vector D D ClIO' CGSE unit 12n xtOi
Capacitance C F cm 9xtOU
Current I A CG8E unit 3 X tQll
Current density j Aim' CGSE unit 3xtOl
Resistance R Q CG8E unit t/(9XIOU)
Resistivity
Q·m CGSE unit t/(9X {O')
Conductance 8 CGSE unit 9X1OU
Conductivity cr 81m CG8E unit 9xtOt
Magnetic induction B T G 101
Magnetic flux, magnetic
nux linkage <D,W Wb Mx 1(18
Magnetic moment
Pm A·m' CG8E unit UP
Magnetization J A/m CG8E unit 10"4
Vector H H A/m Oe 4axtoa
Inductance L H cm tOt
Appendices
303
302 Appendices Table 4. Cont.
Table 4. Cont.
Relation
81
Gaussian system
EL_B2= inv
1 dl.1l
't5i=7Cft
L=cl.1ljI
L=4nltn2V
1 dI
'6>8= (2" L dt
1 LP
W=cr
B·B
w=gn
i aD
id= 4it at
1 .
Edl= 7 BdS
Das=4n pdV
Hdl=
=4:
ndS=O
1 •
X
E
=7
B
V· D =4np
VXH = ( j +
\ 'V.B=O _
o
BdS=O
vxE=B
V·D=P
vxH=j+D
E2_c2B2= inv
dl.1l
L=l.1ljI
L=jJ.jJ.
o
n
2
V
dI
L
at
L[2
B·H
aD
jd=' at
 BdS
D dS= pdV
Hdl= (i+D)dS
c
E·B=inv
Maxwell's \
in differential form \
\
Electromagnetic field
invariants
Induced e.m.f.
Inductance
Inductanee of a so
lenoid
E.m.f. of seHinduc
tion
Energy of the'!' mag
netic field of a cur
rent
Magnetic field energy
density
Displacement current
density
Maxwell's equations
in integral forlD
Laws of transforma
tionof fields E and B
for Vo « c
1f1=1+
4n
X
B=[tH
1
A =  I (11)2<1'1)
c .
JJ l'
II = B411J
II dl = 4n I
'j
B=_1_ q[vXr)
c r
3
dB=_1 [j Xr) dV
c r
ll
l[dlXr)
c r
3
Gaussian system
F
u
= 211[2
b
1
Pm=lS
c
c b
2Jtl
c Ii
4Jt
B=nl
c
![dl X B)
c •
1
dF= [j X B) dV
c
I
J =;<:11
,
Pm =IS
aB
dl=I'
H = B/[loJ
II dl=I
oJ
81
B=flo
nI
B=J:L E.
4n b
2n1
4n R
dF=I [dJ X B]
dF=[j X B] dV
F
ll
= 21
1
1
2
'in b
B=A q[vXr]
4n r
3
[j XrjdV
4n r
3
dB= flo 1 [dJ >< r]
4n r
3
Relation
Ampere's law
Force of interaction
between parallel
currents
Magnetic moment of
a current loop
Magnetic dipole Poi
in field B
Work done in displace
ment of a current
loop
Circulation of ma
g
\
netization
Definition of II
Circulation of vector II
II in a stationary
field
Relations between' I
J and H I
fJ. and Xi ,
Band H ,
Field B
(a) of straight
current
(b) at the centre of
a loop
(c) in solenoid
Field B of a moving
charge
BiotSavart law
Appendices
5. Some Physical Constants
Magnetic constant
Damping factor, 280, 283
diamagnetism, 180
dielcctric(s).
anisotropic, 101
isotropic, 101
liquid, W8f
polarization of, 67
electrodynamic, 144
magnetic, 143
coulomb, 12
current, I
alternating, 290ff
conduction, 174
direct, 178
displacement, 253f, 271
induced, 248
magnetization, 174
surface, 175, 178, 192
volume, 175
molecular, 174, 177
polarization, 256
density of, 259
quasistationary, 278
straight, 188
254
current element(s),
linear, 146
volume, 146
curve,
magnetization, 189
resonance. 288f
Subject Index
Capacitance, 57ff, 86, 90
of cylindrical capacitor, 60
of isolated conductor, 57
of parallelp\pte capacitor, 59
of parallel wires, 65
of spherical capacitor,. 59
unit of, 58
capacitor, 57ft, 86, 90
charging, 134
discharging, 133
energy of. 110
parallelplate, 103, 108f. 1.1.4f,
137
charge invariance, 198£
circulation,
. of vector B, 166
of vector E, 245
of vector H, 179, 193
of vector J, 176ff, 193
condition, betatron, 246, 260
quasisteady, 277
conductor in electrostatic field. 45
homogeneous, 120
nonhomogeneous, 138
constant,
dielectric (electric), 12, 78£. 86,
102
Betatron, 222
boundary conditions, 80, 92, 192
for Band H. 182ff
Ampere, 117
)
I
Gaussian system
Tabl. 4. Cont.
c
S="41tIEXHj
1
G=4 IEXn
nc
c=2.998 X10
8
m/s
G= { 6.67 X10
11
m
3
/(kg·s
2
)
6.67 X10
8
cm
S
/(g.s2)
g=9.807 m/s
2
NA = 6.022 X 10
23
mole
l
{
1.602 X 10
19
C
e = 4.80 X10
10
CGSE units
m
e
=0.9H X 10
30
kg
e { 1.76 X 10
11
C/kg
;n; = 5.27 X10
17
CGSE units/g
mp= 1.672 X10
27
kg
80=0.885 X10
11
F/m
1/4n80= 9 X10
9
m/F
Ito = 1..257 X10
8
H/m
llo/4n= 10
7
H/m
81
S";"[EXHJ
G=_1 [E XII)'
c
2
E
Relation between E
and H in electro
magnetic wave
Poynting's vector
Density of electro
magnetic field mo
mentum
Relation
Velocity of light in vacuum
Gravitational constantl
Acceleration of free fall
Avogadro constant
Charge of electron or proton
Rest mass of electron
Specific charge of electron
Rest mass of proton
Electric constant
Relation between velocity
of light and 80 and Ito
aq
Subject Inckz
Generator, MHD, 22!t
Henry, 227
hysteresis, 72, 180
magnetic, 190
moment of, 160, lG9
work of, 161
coerei ve, 1gO
coulomb, 122
in dielectric, 106H
electric, 157
extraneous, 122f, 235
induced electromotive, 217
force(s) ,
of interaction,
electric, 144£
magnetic, 144£
Lorentz, 141H, 212f
Il1agn('tic, 157
i n 19G
surface density of, 109£
nux,
magnetic,
conservation of, 230
total, 212
of vector D, 273
formula, Thomson, 281
frequency,
natural, 280
rl'Sonance, 289
potential, 2G, 28, 155
sinks of, 25
solenoidal, 155
soul'ces of, 25
vector,
circulation of, 15, 25
divergence of, 24
flux of, 15
force(s),
Ampere, 155,157,159,169,171,
Farad, 58f
ferroelectric(s), 72
ferromagnetic(s), 180, 188f, 232
ferromagnetism, 188,I!H
theory of, 191
field,
coulomb, 122
electric, 11, 198, 206
in chargecarrying conductor,
121
in dielectrics, 61
intensity (strength) of, lfff,
28
macroscopic, 45ff
microscopic, 45
of point charge, 12
eleclromagn,etic, 198f
momentSm of, 268
deIlsi ty of, 269
electrostatic, 155
in vacuum, 11
of freely moving relativistic
charge, 207
in homogeneouS magnetic, 185
magnetic, 142, 1115, 155, 198,
206
on the axis of circular cur
rent, 147
of currentcarrying plane, 153
energy of, 2/iO
forces in, 240
in magnetic, 175
permanent, 220
of solenoid, 151, 167,181
of straight current, 151
in substance, 172ff
of toroid, 152
of uniformly moving eharge,
143
in vacuum, 141ff
varying, 221
vortex, 222, 275
Subject Ind,:::e.:::..c 
307
_._'
electrostatic shielding, 51
e.m.f.,
induced, 244
of selfinduction, 227
energy,
of charged capacitor, 99f, 139
of charged conductor, 99f
of current,
intrinsic, 238
magnetic, 236
mutual, 238
of electric field, 94, 100, 103,
105, 107, 237, 276
of electromagnetic field, 253
localization, iOOff, 112
magnetic, 243
of two current loops, 238
of interaction, 96ff
for system of point charges,
97, 105, 110f
total, 97, 99f, 110
intrinsic, 98, 105, 110f
of magnetic field, 234 236f
275f "
of current, 234
energy flux, 266
density of, 264
equation(s),
continuity, 116, 118, 261
in differential form, 118
Laplace, 54f
material, 260
Maxwell, 253ff, 257f, 272, 274
in differential form, 259
in integral form, 257
properties of, 261f
symmetry of, 262
of oscillatory circuit, 277, 279f
Poisson, 5H
equipotential surfaces 32, 47.
57 '
Edge effects, 59, 66, 8G, 100
electret(s), 68, 79
electric charge(s), 11, 83, 88f, 92
bound (polarization), 69f, 73f
bulk, 69f
at conductor surface, 83
surface, 69£
in currentcalTying conductor
120 '
extraneous, 78, 88f, 109, 138
fictitious, 63
induced, 46, 66
surface, density of, 63
electric circuit,
a.c., 291, 297
branched, 126££
oscillatory, 293
electri'c current, 116, 119
density of, 117
direct, 116, 120
linear, density of, 153
quasista ti 0 nary, 133
steadystate, 118
electric oscillations, 277££
electric resistance, 119
methods of calcnlation 120
electromagnetic 217ff
225 "
electromagnetic wave(s), 101, 262f
pressure of, 268, 270
in vacuum, 269
dielectric susceptibility, 71
dipole,
electric, 34, 44
energy of, 38
moment of, 34ff
dipole moment, 71
intrinsic, G8
domain(s), 191
306
II
Ii
Subject Index
Subject Index
308
Image charge, 56
impedance, 290f
inductance, 226, 238
calculation of, 250f
mutual, 231, 240, 251
induction,
electrostatic, 46
magnetic, 143ff
direct calculation of, 163
mutual, 233, 251
residual, 190
interaction(s), 11
electromagnetic, 11,
gravitational, 11
of parallel currents, 168
strong, 11
weak, 11
invariants of electromagnetic
field, 208, 214
Joule heat, 235
Law(s),
Ampere, 155ff
BiotSavart, 145ff, 149f, 153,
164
of conservation,
of electric charge, 11, 118
of energy, 106, 114, 130, 139
235, 241 '
Coulomb, 109'
in field form, 12
louie, 129ff
in differential form, 131
Kirchhoff, 126, 256
first, 126
second, 126f
Lenz, 217ff, 243
of magnetio field, in differen
tial form, 194
Newton's third, 95
Ohm, 119, 127, 131, 134, 136ff,
140f, 233, 249, 293, 295
In differential form, 120
generalized, 123
in integral form, 124
for nonuniform 8ubclreult
123, 138 '
of transformation for fields E
and B, 200ft, 206, 213
logarithmic decrement of
damping, 283
Magnet, permanent, 68, 195
magnetlc(s), 172, f 74, 181
homogeneous, 174
nonhomogeneous, 175, 177
magnetic constant, 143
magnetic field intensity, 179
magnetic flux, 167
linkage of, 219
magnetic induction, 143f, 146,
163, 166, 168, 187
magnetic 185
magnetism, relative nature of, 204
magnetization, 172ft, 195
mechanism of, 177
residual, 190
magnetohydrodynamics, 244
method,
energy, 106, 240
image, 54ft, 62f, 67
molecule(s),
nonpolar, 68
polar, 68
moment, magnetic, 157ft
Ohm, 119
oscillation(s),
damped, 281f, 294
oscillation(s) ,
forced,294
free, 280
steadystate, 285, 296
undamped, 280
Paramagnetic(s), 180, 194, 197
permeability, 180, 189
point, Curie, 191
polarization of dielectric, 68, 73,
86, 103
polarization, 70fI
unit of, 71
potential, 25, 27, 30, 33, 43f,
47f, 53f, 57, 61, 64, 66,
86f, 8&r 97f, 102, 124
of point charge, 28
of sphere, 58 •
of system of charges, 29
potential difference, 86, 90, 99
power liberated in a.c. circuit,
291f, 298
power factor, 292
pressure, magnetic, 244
principle of superposition, 12f,
18, 29, 60, 66, 146, 166f
process, transient, 133, 140
Qfactor, 284, 289, 294
Reflection coefficient, 270
refraction of Blines, 184
relaxation time, 134, 283
resistance of conducting medium,
136
resistivity, 119
resonance, 289f
Selfinduction, 226
solenoid, 151
superconductor(s), 230
susceptibility, magnetic, 180
Tesla, 144
theorem,
on circulation of field vectors,
15, 25, 52, 80f, 137f, 148f,
151ft, 155, 166, 178f, 193f,
195f, 211, 248, 255
Gauss, 15ft, 19, 21ft, 25, 33,
41, 44, 47f, 59, 65, 72,
76f, 79ft, 83, 85, 871f, 9f,
93, 102, 112, 121, 137,
148, 150, 157, 168, 173,
200, 211
application of, 19
in dHIerential form, 23ff, 73
Poynting's 264
of reciprocity, 231, 252
uniqueness, 54ff
theory of relativity, 269
thermal power, 132
transformation(s), Lorentz, 20f
Vector,
D, 76ft
B, 178
Poynting's, 265, 269, '274f
• vector diagram, 287, 297
volt, 28
voltage, 59
Work,
of displacement of current
loop, 161ft
of electric field, 103f
of e.m.f. source, 139
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Basic laws of electromagnetism
r
T
If. E. HPOJJ,OB
OCHOBHhIE 3AKOHbI 3JlEKTPOMAl'HETH3:\IA
1f3~aTeJlhCTBO «BhlCillaH illKOJIa)
MOCHBa
I.E.IrodoY
Basic laws ofelectromagnetism
Translated from Russian by Natasha Deineko and Ram Wadhwa
,
I !
I
f
Mir Publishers IOSCOI'
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4596/1A, 11 Darya Ganj, New Delhi  110 002 (India)
the author has endeavoured to exclude the less important topics. have been employed wherever possible. each chapter contains first a description of the theory of the subject being considered (illustrated by concrete examples) and then a set of selected problems wi th solutions. With the same end in view. in writing. from the publisher. various model representations. special cases.lbClIlC' <d1hICIHaJI 111 KOJI3') . and the main stress has been laid on the physical aspects of the phenomena.110 002 (India) For sale in India only Printed at: Nazia Printers. .'d from the 1983 RUl'sian edition @> II3~aTe.~ Preface 1983 'ij. In author's opinion. This material can be omitted on fIrst reading without any loss of continuity. and especially to clarify the most difficult topics. The problems are closely related to the text and often complement it. . 19aiJ First Indian Edition: 1994 Reprint: 1996 Reprint: 1998 Reprint: 1999 Reprint: 200I Irette'" aasie La. or any information storage and retrieval system without permission. Published by : Satish Kumar Jain for CBS Publishers & Distributors. However. II Darya Ganj. etc. simplifying factors. recording. The most important statements and terms are giYen in italics. Delhi . the selected problems should enable the reader to att~jn a deeper understanding of many important topics and /to' visualize (even without solving the problems but just by going through them) the wide range of applications of the ideas presented in this book. New Delhi . More complicated material and problems involving cumbersome mathematical calculations are set in brevier type. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. the text has been kept free from superfluolls mathematical formulas. considering that the Gaussian system of units is still widely used." This edition has been published in IndIa by arrangement with Mir Publishers. symmetry considerations. clearly and at the same time correctly.1 First pUblbhed HI86 Hevisl. we have included in Appendices 3 and 4 the tables of conversion of the most important quantities and formulas from SI to Gaussian units. Therefore. The brevier type is also used fot' problems and examples. English translation. Mir Publishers. Mir Publishers. SI units of IDtaSUrements are used throughout the book. In order to emphasize the most important laws of electromagnetism. Hence they should be analYfed together with the text. electronic or mechanical. In an attempt to describe the main ideas conciseIy. 1986 All rights reserved. including photocopying.110 006 ISBN: 8123903065 The main idea behind this book is to amalgamate the description of the basic concepts of the theory and the practical methods of solving problems in one book. Moscow Copyright © English Translation. 4596/IA.
2. Irodov t.. . A. .. • • • • 4. . .. an a so e used by university TNhel~uthor is grateful to Prof. . Boundary Conditions ...3.. Forces Acting in a Diplectric •.. Properties of a Closed Conducting Shell . .1. Field in a Substance . Electrostatic Field in a Vaeuum 1.. t.7.. Fields Inside and Outside a Conductor .1. . . 1. 2. .2.1. .. . Problems t6 19 23 25 30 34 39 45 45 47 49 5t 54 57 60 67 67 70 72 76 80 84 86 94 94 99 tOO t05 t06 2. 1. . .6. Vector D . Forces Acting on the Surface of a Conductor 2. Eledm Field in Dielectrics • 3.•••• List of Notations • . Circulation of Vector E. 3. The Gauss Theorem . . 5 to it it I. . • • . Relation Between Potential and Vector E 1.. ..A. General Problem of Electrostatics.. . EIlt'TgY of Electric Field • .3~ Energy of Electric Fidd .aptsov who re' numbet.4.6. .. . Problems t to . .4. Electric Field • • • . 4. \..•. .5. Detlaf d I and Reader L . Properties of the Field of P 3.5. 4.•. . Capacitors problems •.. Electric Energy of a System of Charges .5.2.3. . 3. Differential Form of the Gauss Theorem 1. .. .1.3: Applications of the Gauss Theorem . A System of Two Charged Bodies 4. . .fi Preface Contems The book is intended as a textb k f dents specializing in physics (i~ t~O f or undergraduate stuon general physics) It' c I e bramework of the course teachers. . Polarization of Dielectrics 3.... . .4..2. Capacitance. Potential .• Problems 4. A Condudor in an Electl'08tatic Field 2.. • 2. Image Method 2.. Energies of a Charged Conductor and a Charged· Capacitor 4. . .3. Preface ••. . . Electric Dipole . . . ... . . . • 2. .. Field in a HomogeneouS Dielectric •. t. • •. . of valuable VIewe t Ie manuscript and made a comments and sllg'gestions.6. . .5. . .4. Polarization 3. . .
. Field in a Homogeneous Magnetic . . .2. 6.. . . . Lenz's Law . .... . . • • • . . Magnetic Field in a Vaeuum 6. • . . . . . . . 10. . 5. 4. • .2. 6. . Laws of Transformation for Fields E and B 8.3. . . Maxwell's Equations..1.4. Continuity Equation . 244 253 253 ft6 119 126 129 122 to. Vector H .5. Muwell's Equations... .• 7. . Diffe!e~tia! Forms of Basic Laws of Magnetic Field 6.•. .4.6. .1. . ... .5. .4.. . . 9.1. .2. 299 299 299 300 304 305 8. .. . .6.. . Curr~nt Density.•. Torque Acting on a Current Loop • 6.. . Boundary Conditions for Band H . . • .. Joule'3 r qw . Magnetic Field in a Substance . Work Done upon Displacement of Current Loop . Energy and Energy Flux.1. Electromagnetic Field l'\foml'ntum Problems .. 3ubject Index . Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic Induction.. . . 11. . Magnetization Vector J . 7.. 7. Lorentz Force.. Branched Circuits. . . • 6. Forced Electric Oscillations 11. Energy and Forces in Magnetic Field Problems .1. 5. . . Direct Current . The BiotSavart Law ... . Circulation of Vector J . .••. . 5. • . . Some Physical Constants . .. . . _~ 8 5.. Equation of an Oscillatory Circuit 11.. Transient blCesses in a Capacitor Circuit Problems •. 11. ...3. Kirchhoff's Laws .m~tio~ 8. . .1. 5. .•. EIElctromagnetic Field. ..5. . Decimal Prefixes foI'" Units of Measurement . • • . . Etedric Oscillations 11.•• 9. . .1. ... • • . Problems 7. Magnetic Energy of Two Current Loops 217 220 226 231 234 238 . 9.5. Energy of Electromagnetic Field 133 136 141 141 10. . ••. Origin of Electromagnetic Induction 9. Properties of Maxwell's Equations . .7.. .. . . • • • . 7. .5. .2. Basic Laws of Magnetic Field .. . 6.7.4. • . . . • • • • . • .. . Generalized Ohm's Law . . . Mutual Induction . . Contents 240 116 9. . . . . 9. 10.2. .. . .3. " 9. . Ampere s Force . 2.6. Corollaries of the Laws of Field Transfo. .• 6. • .••••.4.3. 7. . Ohm s Law for a Homogeneous Conductor 5. Poynting's Vector 10.2. Notations for Units of Measurement .. Field B '.. .. Selfinduction . Alternating Current Problems " 261 251 264 268 271 277 277 280 145 148 150 154 155 159 161 285 290 293 299 163 172 172 176 178 Appendices it" • 185 192 198 198 200 206 188 182 1. 3. Units of Measurement of Electric and Magnetic Quantities in SI and Gaussian Systems .3. Applications of the Theorem on Circulation of Vector B .. . . Electromagnetic Field Invariants Problems '" . .3.2. Displacement Current . .4.. . Magnetization of a Substance. Magnetic Field Energy . 5:4. . . . Free Electric Oscillations .6. . • • • 7. .. • . 10. .. Charge Invariance 8. Ferromagnetism Problems 8... 6. 5. • • • . . Basic Formulas of Electricity and Magnetism in SI and Gaussian Systems .8. Relative Nature of Electric and Magnetic Fields "I. Electromagnetic Induction 208 209 217 9. • .3. . . ... .
n t~e mass of particles.g.propertIes ~f the space surrounding it. weak. I. ep . The symbols in front of the quantities denote: A is the finite increment of the quantity. y. Any electric charge q alters in a certain way the . n is the unit vector of the normal to a surface element. v· E is the divergence of E (div E). e.. ell' e z (or i.af/at or by the dot above the letter denoting the function.1) shows that vector . . it does not depend on whether the charge moves or IS fixed. (f'. . The electric charge of a particle is one of its basl~ characteristics.E I . Average quantities are denoted by angle brackets ( >. (1) electrlc charge exists in two forms. z. Here we assume that the test charge q' is sufficiently small so 1. (3) electric charge is a relativistic invariant: its magllltude does not depend on the reference system. '. 't is the unit vector of the tangent to the contour or to an interface. Electric Field Vectors are denoted by the boldface upright letters {e. E) denotes the magnitude of the.on among charges is accomplished through a field . Equation (1. (v). The same letter in the standardtype print (r. . 6 is the incremental value of a quantity.g. Experiments show that the force F actmg on a fixed test point charge q' can always be represented in the form F == q'E. and V X E is the curl of E (curl E). Symbol denotes the integration over a closed contour or a closed surface. (2) the algebraic sum of charges in any electl'lcally lllSUlated system does not change (this statement expresses ·the law of 'conservation of electric charge).g. It has the following fundamental properties: .e. depends o. e.e. while the electromagnetic lllteractlOn IS determined by electric charges. . j. E). the gravitational interaction. Electric Charg~. Integrals of any multiplicity are denoted by a single symbol ) and differ only in the notation of the element of integration: dll is the volume element. z. At present it is knowntl~at ~iverse ~he nomena in nature are based on four fundamentallllteractl~ns among elementary particles. d is the differential "(infinitesimal increment). strong. I t will be shown later that these fundamental properties have farreaching consequences. dS is the surface element al.g. Vector product is denoted la·: b]. a given point.g. AE = E z . Electric Field. dcp. creates an electnc fielri. eq. "test" charge placed at some pomt of the field experiences the action of a for~e.. For example. f. the difference between its final and initial values.d dt is the element of length. (P).1.List of Notations (~rostatic Field in a Vacuum 1.E can be defined as the force acting on a positive fixed HIllt charge. .<fl. I.!etIc. type of I~ter action is associated with a certain charactel'lstic of a particle. 6A is the elementary work. and gravitational interactions. e z are the unit vectors of cylindrical coordinates p. e. dE. ThiS means that another. Acp = CPt .1) where vector E is called the intensity of the electric iield at . in othe~ words. (1. Time derivative of an arbitrary function f is denoted by . The operations involving this operator are denoted as follows: vcr is the gradient of cp (grad cp). it can be pOSItive or negative. Unit 'vectors: ex. . Vector operator V (nabla). Ea~h. In accordance with modern theory. k) are the unit vectors of Cartesian coordinates x. where a and bare vectors. vector. e. r. lllteracti.. viz. electromag. . viz.
Electric Field 13 that it. t~le r d~a.. I'd . in order to find vector E.3) where the integration is performed over the entire space with nonzero values of p. Ion 0 .12 1.? a system of fixed charges as well.sente 111 the form :f E=_1 . I t P=dV' dq • o=dS' dq A.. Vector E is directed alon r or ~pposItely to it depending on the sign of the charueg ~o~mula (1. For example. where dq is the charg'e contained in the volume dV. Indeed.clplc of Superposition. we must first calculate its projections E~... surface density 0.ment (~Qulomb's law) that the intensity of the field ~ 1Jdxe~ pomt charge q at a . (1.o "'= 9 X 109 m/F . This reLer~ t.!L eT' 41t8 r 2 0 I T (1. Ell' and E z. Blectrodctic Fidd in JI FUllUm 1. :~)er~l:~o. The Field of 8 Point Charge. and in the length dl respectively.grounds to expect that this law will ~ f or larger distances. This makes it possible to simplify calculations considerably without introducing any significant erNr. e1 0 a system of fixed point charges is equal to the vectOf sum of the intensities of the fields that would be create d by each ('harge separately: where ri is the distance between the charge qi and the point under consideration. (1 Prm.ls 1 I.1.ions are given by formula (1. knowing the distribution of charges. While going over to a continuous distribution.5) or by a similar formula if it is continuous. viz.3) in a different form. on the surface dS. volts pe~ metre (Vim).2).ete~ on wether the test charge is at rest or moves. It follows directly from ex er i. Taking these distributions into consideration we can represent formula (1. Thus. it is conv nient to replace the acturJl distribution of discrete point charges by a fictitious continuous distribution. to the point we are interest:c't ~~e ormula (1. nudei) and assume that they are" eared" in a certain way in space. E=. VIO ate It should also be noted that the force actin on a te ~harg~ in th~ field created by a fixed point charie does n~: . Charge Distribution.2) expresses Coulomb's law in the "field" q.5) J I E=~ .rge q is measured in coulombs (C) and the field in tenSIt) E In. In other words. which means that we must take three integrf!. the volume density p.3) if the distribution is discrete or by formula (1. In order to simplify mathematical calculations.0 follows from experiments that the intensity e . Here the eoefficient .!41t80 J r pedl' =_1_ J\ r' 4nE o prdV r' . e ~: xperJmen t I l ts indicate that this law a resu 13 cm to several kilometres IS HI 1 tor dIstances from 10a~dl thedre are no . l"ad.4) .IS nnpol'tan: that the intensity E of the field created ~rm~ lJ?Int charge is inversely proportional to the square of tYh d l~tRn("e r All e . It expresses one of the most remarkable properties of fields and allows us to calculate fIeld intensity of any system of charges by representing this system 8!' an aggregate of point charges whose individual contribut. By definition.2) IS written in SI. Besides the law expressed b 2 th· )fi : ~ 81. the concept of charge dlWsity is introduced. we can completely solve the problem of fmding the electri y field intensity by formula (1. l. the calculation involves certain difficulties (although they are not of principle nature). I .=df' dq (1.' .1 ! (1. if the charge is distributed over the volume. ~s the electric constant and e is the unit vector of e 1/41t1.2) vector r drawn from the centre of the field h i~Je charge q i~ located.:. It . In the general case. This statement is called the principle of superposition of electric fields. it is of~n convenient to ignore the fact that charges have a discr te structure (electrons. and linear density A.s intr?du~tion does not noticeably distort the field under mveStl~atlOn (as a result of possible redistribut' f charges creatmg the field). we must replace qj by dq == p dV and summation by integTation.distance r from it ean be repre. This gives .
5).1. These properties." q/2l 2 I 4. the electric field can be visually represented with the help of field lines.!loo In this case also E ~ qI4n.. . Let us consider two examples. ' Example 2. Le. . The field E defined above has two very important properties. dEL = . A dE x = . If we know vector E at each point. Let ~IS reduce this equation to the form convenient for lIltpgratlOn. The knowledge of these properties helped to deeper understand the very concept of the field and formulate its laws. 8eX"s for x l"ig.n. In this ca~e 1 A dt dEx=dE cos ':'=4. sin a o= 11}tr12 Thus.cos ':t. 1. having the charge dq. . Fig.==4. Electric Field 15 of the t.a..n:e ox Vl~Jx2 q 4. 'Ind hence the integration of this equation is simply reduced t{) the replacement of Adl by q.. '1 . Example 1.tcttc Fteld In • Vacuum 1. A charge q > 0 is uniformly distributed over a thin ring of radius a.eo (a l +zl)'fl I It can be seen that for z~ a the field E ~ qf4rr. This pattern gives the idea about the configuration of a given electric field.. The values of r and a will be the same for all the elements of the ring.e. niformlyeharged straight filaDlellt. and also made it possible to solve a number of problems in a simple and elegant way.z . = q/2rr. Let us isolate element dl on the problem: we must lind the. Figure 1. and then llltel:l'rate the result over all the elements or the tilament..leo rwhere A = q/2t is the linear charf{e density.· . the number of lines per unit area normal to the lines is proportional to the magnitude of vector E.lle r where A.· . or lines of E. Electro.. Besides. The field on the axis of atbin uDiformly charged ring. On the General Properties of Field E.1 . the Gauss theorem and the theorem on circulation of vector E. the lines are directed like vector E'. It ean be easily shown that vector E in this case must be directed along the axis of the ring (Fig. we obtain E=q4n. 4. about the direction and magnitude of vector E at each point of the field.le x o A E r z where a o is the maximum value of the angle a.2 » 1 as the lield of a point charge.. i.2 shows that dl cos a = rda and r = x/cos a. The density of the lines. It will be shown below that in . Such a line is drawn so that a tangent to it at each point coincides with the direction of vector E.n:e ox i J cos a I) da = 4·.l can be easily integrated: E ao E = _f. 1. consequently.2. t).:.. 1.component dEx of the lield create~1 by the 1·lement dl of the filament. I t is clear from symmetry considerations that vector E must be directed as shown in Fig. E':.2 . are associated with two most important mathematical characteristics of all vector fields: the flux and the circulation.n:eo r lleox This ·expressio. A8 a rul~.n:e ox Jf~+X2 +x 2• t:.1 ring in the vicinity of pOInt A. at large distances the system behaves as a point charge. 1.. The field of a . the problem becomes much simpler in cases when a system of charges has a certain symmetry.cos a.eoz2 ._ 2 4.2 sin a o_ . As a result. 1 Ar Ib. This shows the way of solving this Geometrical Description of Electric Field.vpe (1. 1.r l' I. viz. Le. . cos ada. Find ~he ~eld intensity E at a point separated by a distance x froIl1 the mIdpomt of the filament and located symmetrically with respect to its ends.. A thin straight filament of length 2l is Uniformly charged by a charge q. We write the expression for the component dEL of the field created by this element at a point C: t Adl . Find the electric field intensity E on tbe axis 'Of tbe ring as a function of the distance z from itseentre.
3). Moreover. and hence cos a hnd dQ in (1. This expression is essentially the Gauss theurem: the flux of = E.to which forms angle ex with vector E. Tlius. . The flux of E through an arbitrary closed surfaco S has a remarkable property: it depends only on the algebraic sum of the charges embraced by this surface. E through the area element dS. 2181 1 I s E as.2. since it depends not only on the configuration of the field E but also on the choice of the normal. 1:4) and find the flux of E through the area element dS: dlP = ~s ex~ . Then E the number of lines piercing the area element dS.. i.6) II This is an algebraic quantity.. Henceforth we shall always assume that this is the case. . to choose the outward normal. If we have an arbitrary surface S.ne . we shall use the geomet·· rica1 description of electric field (with the help of lines of E). (see Fig. to the replacement of dQ by 4n. Proof. divided by eo.8) = 4 4 q ~ __ o r· where dQ is the solid angle resting on the area element dS and having the vertex at the point where the charge q is located. the flux of E through it can be expressed as (!J= E through a closed surface is equal to the algebraic sum of the charges enclosed by this surface. This vector could be directed oppositely. we shall assume that the density of lines of field E is equal to the magnitude of vector E. dQ is an algehraic quantity: if dn rests Oft the inner l'idp of the surface S.3 is determined as E ·dS cos a. to simplify the analysis. 1. 1.5 where En is the projection of vector E onto the normal n to the area element dS.J. dQ < O. If a surface is closed it is customary to direct the normal n outside the region enveloped by this surface. (1. 1. It should be noted that for a more complicated shape of a closed surface. Let us go over to a systematic description of these properties.8) generally assume eitlICr positive or negative vlJlues." dS cos ex = neo dQ. The Gauss Theorem  '\ terms of these two concepts not only all the laws of electricity but also all the laws of magnetism can be describefJ. Fig.. Le. this can be written as d<1l = En dS ~ 17 The Gauss Theorem.'( Fig.7) where the circle on the integral symbol indicates that the integration is performed over a closed surface. the normal n.e. .e. Although we considered here the flux of E. the angles a may be greater thnn n12. "_ 1 I I j eo (1. The Gauss Theorem Flux of E. The integration of this expression over the entire surface S is equivalent to the integration over the entire solid angle.dS. It should be noted that the choice of the direction of n (and hence of dS) is arbitrary. while if it rests on the outer side. the concept of flux is applicable to any \'Setor field as well. I A'EdS·Qln. (1.. In a more compaet form.7). as is defined by formula (1. Thus we obtain <lJ = qleo. Fig. 1.2. For the sake of clarity. Let us fIrst consider the field of a single point charge q. i. We enclose this charge by an arbitrary closed surface S (Fig. This quantity is just the flux d<1l of. and dS is the vector whose magnitude is equal to dS and the direction coincides with the direction of the normal. dQ > 0. 1. I 16 1.
. each integral on the rIghthand SIde IS equal to qi/eo if the charge qi is inside the closed surface S and is equal to zero if it is outside the surf. But such a configuration of the field E around the charge q is in contradiction to the Gauss theorem: the flux of E through the surface S is nl'gative. Ii ~ P dV. Applications of the Gauss Theorem ~:. This means that if we displace the charges.accordanc~ wi~h what was sa~d above.:.3.E t.:. let us envelop the charge q by a small closed surface S (Fig.ace S. (1. and in particular on the surface S. . Then the flux of E can be written fh the form =c. In terms of fIeld lines or lines of E. 1.nchanged. Thus. 7) we have qln = Since the p. In order'to prove tills... the fwld E willlJC changed everywhere. Then on the righthand side of (1.ed outside. we may assume that each volume element dV contains a "point" charge p dV. EidS + A.•• . .g. £2 dS '.8) o~er the surface S is equivalent to tho integratIon over Q (FIg. ~EdS=~(EI' = I E2 + . =ClJ i I. Generally. this leads to the following conclusion' if the charge q is located outside a closed surface S the flux of . (1. Oil the mutual configuration of all the charges. • In this case. the flux of E through the surface S will also change. 9) where the integration is performed only over the volume contained within the closed surface S. and the equilibrium state will actually he stable. For the equilibrium of this charge to be stable. For the sake of defmiteness.. while in accordance with the Gauss theorem it must he l'qual to zero since it is created by charges lying outside the surface S. it remains for us to consIder the case when the charges are distributed continuousl~ with the volume density depending on coordinates. Let us consider one of these charges... the field E itself may change considerably.5): the outer side of the surface S will be seen from the point q at an angle Q > O. if the displacement of charges did not involve their crossing of the surface S. the fact that E is equal to zero indicates that at S()Illl' p()ints of thl' surface S vl'clor E is directed inside it and at some other lliJints it is llirect.. On the impossibility 01 stable eqUilibrium 01 a charge in an electric field.3.eld E depends on the configuration of all charges.18 1. we stress again. this means that the num~er of lines entering the volume enclosed by th~ surface S IS equal to the number of lines emerging from thIS surface..k. It IS suffiCient to draw through the charge q a conical surface tangent to the closed surface S./). III accordance with the principle of superposition E = = E1 E 2 where E 1 is the field created by the charge qil etc..:. 1.. However. In thIS case. Example 1.. the [lux of E through an arbitrary closed surface S is determined by the algebraic sum of the charges inside the surface S. Can i~ be stable? In order to answer this question.. Let us now consider the case when the electric field is create~ by a system of point charges ql' Q2' . We must pay attention to the following important circum . stance: while the licld E itself depolld:.~_:. a charge q. What a remarkable property of electric field I In particular... On tile other hand. the Gauss t'heorem generally does not allow us to determine this field.6). Let us consider some examples and then formulate several general conclusions pbout the cases when application of the Gauss theorem is the most expedient. we assume that q > O.. However. Then the integration o! Eq. Electrostatic Field in a Vacuum 19 1. in certain cases the Gauss theorem proves to be a very effective analytical instrument since it gives answers to certain principle questions without solving the problem and allows us to determine the field E in a very simple way.. 1. Suppose that we have in vacuum a system of fixed point charges in equilibrium.. although. the righthand side will contain the algebraIC sum of only those charges that lie inside the surface S. e.hr?ugh th~s surface is equal to zero. Applications of the Gauss Theorem + + . )ciS I I •.. which" also agrees wltn (1.(}J2 _!J J I If. To c?mplete the proof of the theorem. it is necessary that the field E creatl'd by all the remaining charges of the system at all the points of the surface S he directed towards the charge q. while the inner side ~t an angl~ Q (the two angles being equal in magnitude): r~~ su~ IS equal to zero.. and <1> 0.::.:'. Only in this case any small displacement of the charge q from the eqUilibrium position will gi ve rise to a restoring force. the flux of E through this surface would remain lJ.
10) where En is the projection of vector E onto the normal n to the charged plane the normal n being directed away from this plane. 1. iUectroltatlc Field In a VaclJlJm Hence it follows that in any electrostatic~lield_. hence the result (1. while the flux through the lateral surface is E T 2 mh where E r is the projection of vPetor E onto the rad ius vector r coincid ing with the normal n to the lateral surface of the cylinder of radim r and height h.0 that the charge A corresponds to its unit In this case.7. Moreover. 1.Fig. The field of a unHormly charged plane. this result is approximately valid for the region near the middle of a finite uniformly charged plane surface far from its ends. Suppose that the surface charge density is o. whence . 1.elds created by each plane separately (Fig. According to the Gauss theorem. 1. On the other hand.e.7 Fig. In the space between the planes the intensities of the fields bdng added have tlw same (Hrection.ane.S/e o. It is clear from the symmetry of the problem that vector E can only be normal to the charged plane.9 The flux through the lateral surface of this cylinder is equal to zero. (1. while the lower arrows. A charge (J AS is enclosed within the cylinder. Example 2. According to the Gauss theorem. Example 3. this expression must be written as En = 0/2eo' (1. Thus. and its magnitude depends only on the distance r from the cylinder axis to the point. since only in this case we can use the symmetry considerations discussed above. where we assume that {1 > O. whence E = 0/2e o' In a more exact forni. i. 1. Then the flux of E through the enrlfaces of the cylinder i~ equal to zero. The field vf an infinite circular cylinder uniformly charged ov('r th~ surface 1.7.3. and hence the total flux through the entire cylindrical surface is 2E l!. at points symmetric with respect ~o t~is pl. .. to that from the negatively charged plane. only near the edges of the plates (these distortions are often ignored in calculations). 1.S. vector E at eaen pomt isperpendicular to the cylinder axis.acharge cannot be in stable equilibrium..6 Fig. noticeable deviations of the field from uniformity are observed. In this case. Such a configuration of the field indicates that a right cylinder should be chosen for the closed surface as shown in Fig. F.( J by unlike charges.S is the area of each endface.1. if {1 < 0 then En < ~._A_ (r> a).. This result is approximately valid for the plates of finite dimensions as well. If (J > 0 > 0. Applications 01 the Gauss Theorem 21 to the field from the positively charged plane.xample 4.10) will be doubled. and the resultant field intensity \\ill be E=oh o' (1. as shown in Fig. This fIeld can be easily found as superposition of the f. in the given case the field is located between the planes and is uniform. as follows from symmetry considerations. The field of two parallel planes charged uniformly with densities (J and . It can be easily seen that outside this space the field is equal to zero. 1. 1. The fact thiit E IS the same at any distance from the plane indicates thatJ the corresponding electric field is uniform (both on the right and on the left of . The obtained result is valid only for an infinite plane surface. the plane). and hence vector E is directed away from the charged then plane. This indicates that a closed surface here should be taken in the form of a coaxial right cylinder (Fig.12 'r  21teoT . Here the upper arrows correspond En ]en~th. where l!. 2E AS = = (J tJ.11) where !J sLands for the magnitude of the surface charge density.9). . vectors E ohviously have the same magnitude but OPPOSite directiOns. the field is of a radial nature.8). 1'7 r'21trh =0 Altho fOJ > a. However. if only the separation between the plates is considerably smaller than their linear dimensions (parallelplate capacitor).8 + £=0 Fig. o 1. and vector E is directed towards the charged plane.
the closed surface does not contain any charge and hence within this region E = 0 everywhere. The sphere of radius r < a encloses the charge q' = q (rla.. The field of a uniformly charged sphere.4. 1. In other words.7~ wticg is c~~:~r:: ~hi~h~:f:bii~~:~h~l ::l~~ General ConcllJsions. to. the field of such a system is centrally symmetric. andI~~~~~. r nll o 1 . Example 6. (1. It can be easily seen that for the field outside the sphere we obtain the same result as in the previous example [see (1. . Obviously.14) 1. intensity E in the vicinity of a gIven pOInt m space.e. q a r~e~~s::fedsf~da ~rff:~:n?f~~: a~ an i~strument for analysis i. inside the sphere the expression for the field will be different. inside a uniformly charged spherical surface the electric field is absent. If r < a.. Outside this surface the field decreases with the distance r in accordance with the same law as for a point charge.22 1. and hence for determining the field we must take a concentric sphere as a closed surface.13)1. However. inside a uniformly charged sphere the field intensity grows linearly with the distance r from its centre. The sign of the charge q determines the sign of the projection E r in this case !is well. Electrostatic Fteld tn a Vacuum r where E r is the projection of vector E onto the radius vector r coinciding with the normal n to the surface at each of its points. Suppose that a charge g is uniformly distributed over a sphere of radius a. Differential Form of the Gauss Theorem A remarkable proper~y of electri~ theorem suggests thdat ~htls the~rb~ml'lt~s which would broa en I s POSSI 1 whence E r =4.)S since in our case the ratio of charges is equal to the ratio of volumes and is proportional to the radii to the third power. in accordance with the Gauss theorem we have E r ·4nri = 1 q llo (r}S • a (r<a). The results obtained in the above the differential formlo t e h agU~ensity p' and the changes in the field tion between the vo ume c ar e .. . Hence...~~~10 (1. Hence it determines the direction of vector E itself: either away from the sphere (for q > 0) or towards it (for q < 0). . The curve representing the dependence of E on r is shown in Fig.
1. However. t 2 (1. Circulation of Vector E. .. E dS to 'j' Vas V+O Is called the divergence of the fi ld E d ' hy defuIition. (1 7) and d' e. e an IS denoted by div E. the divergence of the field E can be written as div E or V·E (in both cases it is read as "the divergence of E").:.o bumeh Then We . Thus. w IC gives . and the total work of the fiek forces over the distance between points 1 and 2 is defined a1 ~ E dI. +k 8i" ' a oy r. point we are interested in.Ez• 0% We now make the volume Y Je d . (1.can be co~:r:t n artesian coordinates.o V ' j ' . in accordance with f116.E x ax I ~.LVzEz=. The field lines emerge from the field sources and terminate at the sinks.1tracting it to the ~iluhane P at the given point of the I~P) wJltohvlOusly tend to the of td side of Eq.:tIal operator V.5. the field E of a point charge is different at different points. At the points of the field where the divergence of E is positive. the Gauss theorem (1. (1. i 7) that this is just the divergence of E. Electrostatic Field i. Potential 25 For this purpose we first rep t h e charge q in the volume V enveloped by a clo~d surface S is ~h~ volum~ charge ?ensity. div E= lim P Bo• It follows from (1. divergence of the field E determine the flux of E thrO~ h 't a e an Infinitely small volume Y' volu~e. wa y• It· follows from definitioneC(1 16)eltd ls de~rmined in a similar hat divergence is a scalar furi ctlon of coordinates. (i.. E dS v.18) This equation expre thThe form of man e sses .hand side e Ivergence of the field E' 1 d s IV E.e Gauss theorem in the differential f ira~IY simplified w~P[:::.. Consequently lame point through the equati~~ re ate to the charge density at th~ dffl :I The Gauss theorem in the differential form is a local theorem: the divergence of the field E at a given point depends only on the electric charge density p at this point.17) Thus.a •• Tr F aCllllm 1. if we forin the scalar product of vector V and vector E.. The . we have the sources of the fieIa (positive charges). and k are the unit vecto f th operator V itself does not have any ~~anin~ X[i and Zaxes. For example. in Cartesian coordi~~:e S'tl~ tU!D8 out to be . Then.15) ° +oy Ey a +.19) Theorem on Circulation of Vector E.16) I I The dive!'lfence of any other v to fi .~d::~i:~ir:. we have Binks (negative charges). Circulation of Vector E. This is one of the remarkable properties of electric field.. In this c~ to zero. We shall be using the latter.P~i~fftions. we have found that as Y +' '. averaged ~~ = I(p) V. we obtain V·E=VxEx+VyEy. this refers to the spatial derivatives oE:dox.5.hlS expressIOn into Eq. s 1 IS given by y _L oE% div E = ~+ oE 0:& oy I 0. ~ E dS=(p)/Bo• ° (1. while at the points where it is negative. This property is inherent in the electrostatic field. oEy/By. the work done by the forces of this field is independent of the path and depends only on the position of the initial and final points.k. viz. more convenient notation. The expression te sys)tem (in different systems ~~o~~. I il V=i. For example. the Gauss theorem states that the sum of these derivatives. the operator Vehasrth~ . If we take a unit positive charge for the test charge and carry it from point 1 of a given field E to point 2. J.!.. It is known from mechanics that any stationary field of central forces is conservative.. ecomes meaniD~fu J 3. In order to obtain the ex ressi . Generally.18) will have the form (1. to plea.15) will tend toe I' an ence the ratio on the S:' The quantity which is the limit of the ratio of t. the elementary work of t he forces of the field done over thE distance dl is equal to E· dl. we m~t. Le. For example. for example. the field created by a system oj fixed charges.o~ fkr the. (1. and find the ratio of tfis f1~~ closed surface enveloping thi~ ohtaIned for the divergence will d the volume. while the lefthand side O~~i1~5)d" Its nght. by c0'. th:e c~oice of the coordierent. 1. which determines the divergence of Ef"turns out to be equal to zero at all points of the field (outside the charge itself). Thus. IVI e ot Its sides by i':r: : '1Vr r only in combination with a scalar or vector function by which it is symbolically multiplied. and oEz/o% as well. Where {p) ~ sthl~uhte t.!+ ox j where I. Potential f divE=ple o' (1.21 .j.20) . ::nd.
26
1. Electrostatic Field tn a Vacuum
1.5. Ctrculation of Vector E. PotenUal
27
This integral is taken alon '. therefore called the line inte:ra~ certam hne (path) and is ' We shall now show that fm h . integral (1.21) of the path hrot t e mdependence of line that when taken along an b\ween two points it follows gral is equal to zero. Integr:I (~r;f)Y closed path, this iute. . over a closed contour is t.. called the cIrculation of vector E d ' d. . an IS enoted by 'V' Thus we state that cireul t' f .. static field is equal to ze ro, I.e. 0 vector E in anv electroa ~on "
1248
~Edl=O.
(1.22)
This statement is' called th h vector E. e t eorem on circulation of In order to prove this th eorem.. we break an arbitrary closed . . pa.th Into two parts la2 and 2bl 2 (FIg. 1.11). Since line integral (1.21) (we denote it by does not 1 depend on the path be~~een 'points 1
c:?
b
i )
(b)
Indeed, if the oppollite were true and some lines of field E?lerJ! closed, then taking the circulation of vector E along this line we would immediately come to contradiction with theorem (1.22). This means that actually there are no closed lines of E in an electrostatic field: the lines emerge from positive charges F!;::::j and terminate on negative ones (or go to infinity). I • Example 2. Is the configuration of an I I electrostatic field shown in Fig. 1.12 I possible? . lr No, itisnot. This immediately becomes t clear if we apply the theorem on circulaI lr I tion of vector E to the closed contour L .J shown in the figure by the dashed line. The arrows on the contour indicate the • direction of circumvention. With such a special choice of the contour, the contriFig 1t2 bution to the circulation from its ver. . tical parts is equal to zero, since in this case E .L dl and E ·dl = O. It remains for us to consider the two horizontal segments of equal length:,. The figure shows that the contributions to t.lte circulation from these regions are opposite in sign, and unequal in magnitude (the contribution from the upper segment is larger since the field lines are denser, and hence the value of E is larger). Therefore, the ci'rculation of E differs from zero, which contradicts to (1.22).
4
'I
(a)
Fig. 1.11
T
(n)
and 2, we have = otb er h an, it is d 12
(b)
f
i '. On
(b)
• 12
the. clear that
• 112  \ ,where \ is the Integral over the same segment b b ,21 • ., 21 direction. Therefore ut taken In the opposite
I= 11 = 0, Q.E.D. A field haVing property (1 22) . I Hence, any electrostatic field . IS ca led .the potential field. The theorem on' . lS a potentzal fleld. to draw a numbe~I~Ctl?tIon of vector E ~akes it possible sorting to calculations ~mfortant ~oncluslOns without 1'e. e us conSIder two examples.' Example f • TI Ie rIe Id I ines of an electrostatic field E cannot be closed.
~ 12 L1
(b)
(a)
~
(b)
L2
Potential. Till now we considered the description of electric field with the help of vector E. However, there exists another adequate way of describing it by using potential cp (it should be noted at the very outset that there is a onetoone correspondence between the two methods). It will be shown that the second method has a number of significant advantages. The fact that line integral (1.21) representing the work'of the field forces done in the displacement of a unit positive charge from point 1 to point 2 does not depend on the path allows us to!state that for electric neld there exists a certain scalar function <p (r) of coordinates such that its decrease is given by
(1.23)
where <p 1 and <P2 are the values of the function <P at the points 1 and 2. The quantity <P (r) defined in this way is
I
~
28
1. Electrostattc Field in
tJ
Vacuum
2U
called the field potential. A comparison of (1.23) with the expression for the work done by the forces of the potential field (the work being equal to the decrease in the potential energy of a particle in the field) leads to the conclusion that the potential is the quantity numerically equal to the potential energy of a unit positive charge at a given point of the field. We can conditionally ascribe to an arbitrary point 0 of the field any value CPo of the potential. Then the potentials of all other points of the field will be unambiguously determined by formula (1.23). If we change CPo by a certain value Acp, the potentials of all other points of the field will change by the same value. Thus, potential cp is determined to within an arbitrary additive constant. The value of this constant does not play any role, since all electric phenomena depend only on the eleetric field strength. It is determined, as .will be"'shown later, not by the potentia] at a given point but by the·potential difference between neighbouring points of the field. The unit of potential is the volt (V). Potential of the Field of a Point Charge. Formula (1.23) contains, in addition to the definition of potential cp, the method of finding this function. For this purpose, it is sufficient to evaluate the integral ~ E dl over any path between two points and than represent the obtained result as a decrease in a certain function which is just <p (r). We can make it even simpler. Let us use the fact that' formula (1.23) is valid not only for finite displacements butffor elementary displacements dl as well. Then, in accorda~ce with this formula, the elementary decrease in the potential over this displacement is dcp =0 E·dl. (1.24) In other words, if we know the field E (r), then to find cp we must represent E·dl (With the help of appropriate transformations) as a decrease in a certain function. This function willbo the potential cpo Let us apply this method for finding the potential of the
field of a lixed point charge: •
E.dt     ,.2 (' r ·die /trrf,o
1
q
IJ ,l.'l:'o
Ii r
r:!.
= d
(_1_ _ _iconst) .'L 4Jlco r
I
,
where we took into account that cr dt == 1· (dl}r= dr, sillee the projection of dl onto en ~nd hence ?ll 1', is ~qual to ~he increment of the magnitude of vector r, Le. dr. 'I he quantlty appearing in the parentheses under the diffe~enti~l is exactly i:p (1'). Since the additive constant contamed III ~he fo~' mula does not play any physical role, it is usually omitted ill order to simplify the expression for (p. Thus, the potential of the field of a point charge is given by
I~
= __ }L II 1 _ _ 4n~_'_
(1.2:»
The absence'6f an additive constant in this expression indicates· that we conventionally assume that the potential is equal to zero at infinity (for r + 00). Potential of the Field ola System of Charges. Let a system consist of fixed point charges ql' q2' .... In accordance with the principle of superposition, the field intensity at any point of the field is given by E = E I + E 2 + ..., wh~re E l is the field intensity from the charge ql' etc. By llsmg formula (1.24)1 we can then write E·dl = (E l + E 2 + ...) dl = EI·dl + E 2 ·dl + ... = dcpl  dCP2  ... = dcpl where cp = 2jcpf, Le. the principle of superposition t~rns out to be valid for potential as well. Thus, the potential of a system of fixed point charges is given by
. _1_ '" !!i I I cp  4nco L..J r 'I
1. _i
(1.26)
where ri is the distance froID the point charge qj 10 the point under consideration. Here we also omitted an arbitrary constant. This is in complete agreement witll the faet that any real system of charges is Lounded in space, and honce its potential can bo taken equal to zero at inflIlity.
30          _ . _     Field in a Vacuum 1. Electrostatic .'''=";~If the charges forming the system are distributed cUlItinuously, then, as hefore, we assume that each volume element dV contains 3 "point" charge p dV, where p is the charge . density in the volume dV. Taking this into consideration, we call write formula (1.26) in a different form:
( 1.27)
1.6. Relation Between Potential and Vector I!:
3t
(1.29)
pression with formula (1.24) gives
Ex
=  orp/vx,
wher~ the symbol of partial.derivative emphasizes that the functIOn rp ~x, y, z) must he differentiated only with respect to x, assummg that y and z are constant in this case. . In a similar wa~, w.e can obtain the corresponding expres810.ns for the prOJectIOns E y and E z. Having determined E", Ell' and E z, we can easily fmd vector E itself:
where the integration is performed either over the entire space or over its part containing the charges. If the charges are located only on the surface S, we can write
<p
E=
_ ( ocp ox
i
+ ~ j + ~ k) . iJy oz
(1.30)
=
1 ~ adS 4neo r'
(1.28)
where (J is the surface charge density and dS is the element of the surface S. A similar expression corresponds to the case when the charges have a linear distribution. Thus, if we know the charge distribution (discrete or continuous), we can, in principle, fmd the potential of any system.
1.6. Relation Between Potential and Vector E
T~e quantity in the par~Iltheses is the gradient of the potentzaZ cp (grad cp or Vcp). We shall be using the latter more convenient notation and will formally consider VCP 'as the product of a symbolic vector V and the scalar cpo Then Eq. (1.30) can be represented in the form
(1.31)
L~. the field inte~sity E'is equal to the potential gradient With the miflUS SIgn. This is exactly the formula that can be used for reconstructing the field E if we know the function <p (r).
E~ample. Find the field intensity. E if the field potential has the orm. (1~ ~ (x, y) = axy, where. a IS a c~nstant; (2) cp (r) = a'r, whe~ a Is.a constant vector and r IS the radlUs vector of a poiut under conslderahon. (1) By using formula (1.30), we obtain E = a (yi 1 xj). _ (2) Let us first represent the function ip tls cp == ax.x . llll!! __ izz, where ax, a y and az are cl)nstants. Then with the help of formthil! a (1.30) we find E = axi + ayj a k = a. It can be seen that in ..8 case the field E is uniform. Z
It is known that electric fwld is completely described by vector function E (r). Knowing this function, we can find the force acting on a charge under investigation at any point of the neld, calculate the work of fwld forces for any displacement of the charge, and so on. And what do we get by introducing potential? First of all, it turns out that if we know the potential cp (r) of a given electric fIeld, we can reconstruct the fwld E (r) quite easily. Let us consider this question in greater detail. The relation between rp and E can be established with tho help of Eq. (1.24). Let the displacement dl be parallel to the Xaxis; then dl = i dx, where i is the unit vector along the Xaxis and dx is the increment of the coordinate x. In this case E·dl = E·i dx = Ex dx, where Ex is the projectioll of vector E onto the ullit vector i (and not on the displacement dll). A comparison of this ex
f
+
Let ~s derive one more useful formula. We write the righthand sl~e of (1.24) in the form E·dl c=o R I dZ, where dl = . Id1 l IS an elementary displacement and E I is the projectIOn of vector E onto the displacement dl. Hence
IE
l
= ocpI8Z,
I
(1.32)
Le. the projection of vector E onto the direction of the dis
1. it is easier lirst to calculate the potential lp and then take its gradient than to calculate the value of E directly..6.32) that the projection of vector E onto any direction tangent to the eq. the potential of this point is Ipo ~= q/4Jv ou. This is a considerable advantage of potential.f the surface is directed along thea e eqUipotentIal surface and.h as '. Th F~guhe df 3 shows a twodimensional patt~rn of an electric field lin:s :: liDes eorres~o~d to equipoten~ial rlUrfaces. llelation Between Potential and Vector E  33 g2 1. ~ 1. we cannot say anythiug detinite about the intensity E of the field created by this charge. Since the distributiun o[ the charge q over the ring is unknown. viz. If we know the potential <P (r).~lU. .. ~r i~ the tIon ?pposite. Example.t.13 p.stiOJl8 sU~. we must evaluate only one integral. Field intensity.. the work A = q'cpo = q'q/4nlO oa. :~ n::::. it. . Such a representatIOn ean be easil v· tiled the hhows d hdirec. and it is not by chance that this concept is widely used not only in physics but in engineering as well. for calculating <p. towards the decrease in the potential. "\h ~~~~r steepness of the putential relief. This means that we cannot calculate the work by evaluating the integral ~ q'E dl in this case. Moreover. And we know that cp = 0 at intinity..ll vIsually indicate the magnitudes fieYd intensttIes a~ dIfferent points. It IS expedIent. SU(~ri a . the regiorrs field ~ g er an were 10 13 lower as we'l's tIl . it follows from formula (1. t. and accordmg to (1 32) E > 0 . while for calculating E we must take three integrals (since it is a vector). t e re~lOns ~h~re equipotential surfaces are denser '"th~ pot~ntial rehef IS steeper"). in which the calculation of the lielu E directly or with the help of the Gauss theorem turns out to be much simpler. the field hnes are orthogonal to these surfaces.33) is not just very simple. It turns out in many cases that in order to find electric field intensity E. e mes of E. sym 0 0 partial deEquipotential Surfaces Let .!ipo~entialsurface at a given pomt 18 equal to zero. The concept of potential is indeed very useful. d equipotential surface. Consequently.<pz). 1l was noted earlier that . but is in some cases the only possible resort. Then Olp < 0. since all elements of the ring are at the same distance a from the centre of the ring. This means that vector E is normal to the given surface. A df~rgc q is distributed over a thin ring of radius a.of the rivative). the integrals for calculating <P are usually simpler than those for Ex.r~~~onal telflvfative . we can easily calculate the work of field forces done in the displacement of a point charge q' from point 1 to point 2: A l2 ~ q' «PI . p. d.otential (this is emphasized b.<vz are the potentials at points 1 anu 2..ector E is. v.to draw equipotential surfaces in such a way that the potential difference between two neighbourin surfaces b~ t~e same. By. Indeed. and E z· Let us note here that this does not apply to a comparatively small number of problems with high symmetry.a~~t:~ :l~e t~etco~cept. t' qilal~~i~lve answers to a number of . . let us take a displaC&ment dl along the normal to the surface. \ Smce vector E ~s normal to an equipotential surface eve ry where. towards decreasing Fig. electrostatic field is completely cltaracterizeu by vector function E (r). Thea what is the use of introducing potential? There are several sound reasons for doing that.33) where <PI and. Then the density of e ui otentiJ s~aces WI.. of potentiallp has the same value. Electrostatic Feeld in a Vacuum placement dl is equal to the d' • .ai'tern ~~?':sed'to d. Indeed.' of " iliagiutude the potential gradient At which e orce actmg on the charge be greater~" et. 30181 . This problem can be easily solved with the help of potential. Find the work of the lield forces dune in the displacement of a point charge q' from the centre of tpe ring to i:llinity.IOn WI "charge placed at a certain point m~veP Whe I> • i~~~:t:yd\:tiY o! h l wi::e A hi~her? U:in~. (1.t lrec . This means that the required work is equal to the decrease in the potential energy of the charge q' upon its displacement from point 1 to 2.. We shall sho~o~~ ~ 0 whIch each point o.t!o. 'the s:.e1 2. while the MUd I.n of vector E. will be higher . Further. directed towards decreasing ~. Calculation of the work of the lield forces with the help of formula (1.~r~ On the Advantages o~ Potential.c. Indeed.In'wha.~_. to ~hat of the vector Vlp.
J.38) Since r» l. the potential of the dipole field at the point P (Fig. E t) = 1 p sin ~ 4neo .: r (1.:. Electric Dipole There are some other advantages in using potential which will be discussed later.35) The Field of a Dipole.::::= 34 1. 1. Suppose that E+ and E_ are the intensities of the external field at the points where the positive and negative dipole charges are located. we get (1.14 where q > 0 and I is the vector directed as p. The difference E+ .25)..:n Fig.E_).g.14a that r__ r + = = 1 cos \} and r +r_ = r 2 .. According to (1.e.1..32) a~d calculate the projections of vector E onto two mutually perpendicular directions along the unit vectors er and ~ (Fig..14a) is defined as <...d: Ell 1 4itl:: o (lJ '1) 7. .. where r is the distance from the point P to the dipole (it is pointlikel)..=::. it call 1e seen fro.:::. Electrostatic Field in a Vacuum I 1. . (1.. Consequently. L~t us first find the potential of the dipole field and then its illtensity.E_ is the increment LiE of vector E on the segment equal to the dipole length 1 in the direction 3* J .7. Let us place a dipole into a nonuniform electric field.::.. we shall use formula (1.34) that the dipole field depends on its electric mom~nt p.. It should also be noted that the potential of the dI~)Qle field decreases with the distance r faste~ than the ~otentlal of the field of a point charge (in proportIOn to 1frz Illstead of 1fr).:: = 1 4ne o q(r_r. for tt = 0 and tt = n/2 we obtain the expressions for the field intensity on the dipole axis (E u) and on the normal to it (E. p is an important characterIstIc ' ..:. 1.'.. EJ. Therefore.. of the dipole. vector E lying in this plane. = 4~80 ~..r '''.:.) r.::. The electric dipole is a system of two g and .37) In particular. Electric Dipole from the negative to the positive charge: p = ql. 14b): "". This quantity corresponds to a vector directed along the dipole axis Le.' r E = . separated equal in magnitude unlike charges by a certain distance l. 1... + p (b) eb +q / q P Fig. it is assumed that the dipole itself is pointlike.al~o depends on p.:=:. in any plane passing through the dipole axis the pattern of the field is the same. Then the resultant force F acting on the dipole is (Fig. the distance r from the dipole to the points under consideration is assumed to be much greater than l.::. i.. 1.' The Force Acting on a Dipole.34) where p = ql is the electric moment oj the dipole. the modulus of vector E will be z E=VE~+E6= 'tJ..80 ?V1+3costt. When the dipole field is considered .p . It will be shown below that the behaviour of the dIpole III an external field .... !In order to find the dipole field.~. It can be seen from formula (1. The dipole field is axisymmetric... 1. Taking this into accoulJt.::.... (1.. 1.36) Hence.  (1..r_ • = ~80 2~. for the same r the intensity E u is twice as high as EJ.i5a): F = qE+ qE_ = q (E+ ..ar = = aq> r'~ aq> 4nll 1 2pcos~ o .
1. This means that generally the force acts on a dipole only in a nonuniform field. Electro$tatlc Field In a Vacuum f I' of vector I. Substituting this expression into the formula for F. Since the increqe <= p.15b). viz.16 shows the directions of the force F acting on a dipole in the field of a point charge q for three different dipole orientations. we find that the force acting on the d'ipole is equal to I (.. it is sufficient to write equation (1. The derivative appearing in this expression is called the directional derivative of the vector. The symbol of partial derivative indicates that it is taken with respect to a certain direction. Such a position of the dipole is stable.7.~ F=p"*. Electric Dipole 37 = aE az l.39) where p = ql is the dipole electric moment. the simplicity of formula (1.18) is equal to M = [r+ X F+I [r_ X FJ=[r+ X qE+l [r_ X qEJ.16 that in this position F:II: = O. ~By definition..39) is delusive: taking the derivative fJE/fJl is a rather com~q~plicated mathematical operation.r _ = I and qI = p.1. We shall not discuss this question <bJ in detail here but pay attention to JL the esse\"~e of the obtained result. note that in a uniform Fig. in a nonuniform electric field a dipole behaves as . Vector F coincides in direction only with the elementary increment of vector E. 1. it can be easily seen Fig. which gives + Figure 1. the direction coinciding with vector I or p. .40) to eliminate the moment of inertial forces. F as shown in Fig. Let<4Is consider behaviour of a dipole in an external electric field in its centreofmass system and find out whether the dipole will rotate or not.15 field aEliJl = 0 and F = O. Since the length of this segment is small. we can write ~E=E+E_=. • We take the moment with respect to the centre of mass in order . Thus. and hence vector F is directed to the left. taken along the direction of I or p (Fig. l ~E 1. IM= [p X EJ. If we rotate vector p shown in FI the figure through 90° so that the dipole q~ centre coincides with the symmetry axis of the field. ment of the projection E ~ in the direc~F tion of vector p will be negative. We take the positive direction of the Xaxis. towards increasing field intensity. Let a dipole with moment p be oriented along the symmetry axis of a certain nonuniform field E. of external forces with respect to the dipole centre of mass*. and we get Fx = P a:zx This moment of force tends to rotate the dipole so that its electric moment p is oriented along the external field E. (1. 1. (1. F:r < O. We suggest that the reader prove independently that it is really so. the moment of forces F + = qE+ and F _ = = qE_ with respect to the centre of mass C (Fig.e. q .. for example.17. ~:q~ z:s. where fJE ~/az is the derivative of the corresponding projection of vector E again onto the direction of vector I or p. First of all.41) lf we are interested in the projection of force F onto a certain direction Xi. we must find the moment. 1. 1. E+ ~ E_ and M = [(r+ .q relative to the point C. It remains for us to take into account that r + .. The Moment of Forces Acting on 8 Dipole. Unfortunately.tp + where r + and r _ are the radius vectors of the charges q and .! (1. i::l the general case the direction of F coincides neither with vector E nor with vector p. i. For this purpose. Next.r_) X qEl.39) in terms of the projections onto this direction. For a sufficiently small dipole length.
it is safWentto find the component d!£z from the charg.(J dO. To within a quantity of the second order of smallness. Find the electric field intensity E on the axiS of thIS disc at the point from which the disc is seen at an angle .. acp/al = E It and henen '" + . Hence. According to (1. where S is the area of the disc and E = ql4nEors just as the field of the point charge q = lJS. we can write cp+cp= az 1. The Energy of a Dipole in an External Field.39) it is position. the moment of external forces will return the dipole to the equilibrium position.D. E q Fig. JtEo IW = p.btamed expression over the entire surface of lthe dISC. Lt9 Fig.38 1. of the area e1emeBt tiS at the point A and th~n mtegrate the o. Q = SIrS.t. energy (Wmin = pE) in the position p tt E (the positIOn of stable equilibrium). and expression (1) can be written as 1 dE z = 4. 1.I cos 'It. If it is displaced from this It should he noted that at large distances from the disc.. A dipole is the system of two charges and hence its energy in an external field is ' W = q+cp+ + q_cp_ = q (cp+ _ cp_). . the.I from which we Il"l alp Fig.17 Fig. whIle under the action of the resultant force (1. 1. dIpole tends to. In the immediate vicinity of the point O.18 £. We know that the energy of a point charge q in an external field is W.. Electroltattc Field in a Vacuum Problem' 39 follo.19). qcp. A very thin disc is uniformly charged with sut'fa?e char~ density lJ > O. the required quantity is (1. Both these motions are simultaneous. 1.41).32). It is clear from symmetry considerations th.at o~ the disc axis vector E must coincide with the direction of this aXIS (FIg.:here acp/Ol is the derivative of the potential in the directIOn of the vector l. (1' JtEo r Ell. get oriented along the field (p tt E).the solid angle g = 2a and E = a/2eo' .Q. Hence. Jtto 1 It follows from this formula that the dipole has the minimUt.":s: under the action of the moment of force (1. It can be easIly seen that' 1 lJdS dE z =4. where CP+ and cp_ are the potentials of the external field at the points of location of the charges +q and q.aQ. where cp is the fIeld potential at the point of locatIOn of the charge q.E.'"_ ~ L E . displaced towards the region where the field E has larger magnitude.io1l. Problems +q • t.. In our case (dS cos 'It)/rz = dO is the solid angle at which the area element dS is seen from the point A.20 Solu. 1.42) E=4.
the required charge is equal to the flux of E through this sphere. we find Ex where Er = aIR and S = 2nR·2R = 4nR2. dx = r dalcos a. we can determine the flux as follows. divided by &0' In our case. Y2i4rt8 oY • o • 1. Find the charge within a sphere of radius' R with the centre at the origin. t. Let us start with Ex. A thin nonconducting ring of radius R is charged with a linear density A = Ao cos cp. In our case. it is sufficient to recall that dEli diffeq from dE~ in that sin a"ln (1) is simply replaced by C08 lx. The intensity of an electric field depends only on the coordinates x and y as follows: E = a (xi yj)/(x 2 y2). V E~+E~=j. L21. The symmetry of this distribution implies that vector E at the point 0 is directed to the right. The projection of vector dE onto vector B Is This gives dEy = (A cos a da)/4ne oy and E y = A/4.3. Find the electric field intensity E at the centre of the ring. ne o (1) where dq = AR dlp = AoR cos cp dcp. Then 2n ~ cos' cp dcp=(cos' cp) 2n=n. Then " dE x = .R' cos cp. viz.. (1) neo r j Let us reduce this expression to the form convenient for integration. the projections of vector E (Fig. Solution.2. In accordance with the Gauss theorem.40 1. + + where a is a constant. and its magnitude is equal to the sum of the projections onto the direction of E of vectors dE from elementary charges dq. passing through its end. dE x =4. Find the magnitude and the direction of the field Intensity at the point separated from the filament by a distanC't! y and lying on the normal to the filament.21 i. we arrive at the conclusion that the flux through the sphere of radim(R is equal to the flux through the lateral surface of a cylinder having the same radius and the height 2R. A system consists of a uniformly charged sphere of radius R and a surrounding medium filled by a charge with the volume density p = aIr. IntegTating (1) over cp between 0 and 2n. vector E is oriented at the angle of 45° to the filament. Since the field E is axisymmetric (as the field of a uniformly charged filament).= "0 4ne oR 2n a r J cost o cp cp = d 4e R • o "0 Fig.5. and i and j are the unit vectors of the Xand Y. neoy Integrating this expression over a between 0 and n/2.axes. 1. 1. .e.22. Then q=80 ~ E dS=8 oE rS. Solution. 1 dq dE cos cp = 4. where '0 is a positive eoDStant and cp is the azimuth angle. where a is a positive constant and r is the distance from In order to find the projectiou E y . 1 Adx. = "'/4neoy· • 1. Solution. Electrostatic Field in a Vacuum Problems • f . we get q = 4n8 oaR.20.4. and arranged as shown in Fig. The given charge distribution is shown in Fig. The modulus of vector E is E= It should be noted that this Integral is evaluated in the most simple way if we take into account that (cost cp) = 1/2. 4 • 1. we find the magnitude of the vector E: E . where it is assumed fliat '" > 0).tsma..tteoy· We have obtained an interesting result: Ex = E y independently of y. The contribution to Ex from thecharge element of the segment dz Is . T = ylcos a. The prohlem is reduced to finding Ex and E. Finally. The Gauss theorem.A sin ex da. A semiinfinite straight uniformly charged filament has a charge'" per unit length.
r:3)~etween the centres of the Solution.26) is equal to 1 cos {Jo.1 \. it is valid when one sphere is completely within the other or. direction of the vector a = i 3k at the point M (2. find the field intensity E inside the sphere over which a charge is distributed with I I· . 1. can consider the field in the r e. Then. In particular. 1. in accordance with the solution of the previous problem. in the region of intersectio f th h form.n\ersecthlOn of the spheres as the an arbitrary point A (Fig 1 24)0 \lfntlh~r my. Let us first find vector E: E = Vip = a (yl xj . 1.Ii: In the region of intervolume densities p and _p th c3~rged by unlike charges with the spheres is determined by v~ctor le(F::~af. sectIon of two spheres unifo In enslty .25). t · .a Ive . we shall arrive at the concept of the surface charge density on the sphere. the field in the region of intersection of these spheres will be uniform: E = (p/380 ) 1. we transform this equation to 2 E ·4nr = (q ~ 2naR2)leo 4nar 2/28 0 • • The intensity E does t d d theses is equal to ze~~. surf~ of radi~s r (outside :he :ph~r~~i~t ~h~r~h~ir~~ ~r a spherical r Fig.24 Fig. where r is the radius vector r I t' . in other words. We sUperposition of the fields of et~on of.7. I 1 lie I Iii Iii I Fig. Let the sought charge of the sphere be q. R r After integration. Fig.23 Gauss theorem we can writ th f II .2zk). Tho potential of a certain electric field has the form Ip = ex (xy . Find Solution. 43 the centre of the sphere F' d th h electric field intensity E.26). Electroirtattc Field in a Vacuum Problem. This conclusion is valid retpardle o f etse sp ~rebs the field is uni" ss 0 he ratio etween the radii where k is the unit vector of the Zaxis from which the angle it ii'J measured. n Thus. th~ dsphere for which the the value of E.to the c~ntre of the sphere. having uniformly distributed volume charges with the densities p and po Suppose that the centres of the spheres are separated by the distance 1 (Fig. lwe can easilY.' Solution. Then. • 1. 1. Hence. (1) tz 2naR2 and E = a/280 ' ~ f .25 E ·4n r 2 . Using the of the spheres and of the distance between their centres..z2)._ .22 Fig. J!rt~~ on r when the expression in the paren + the surface density CT = CTo cos {Jo. + + . where 0"0 is a constant and {Jo is the polar angle. Potential.8. Find the projection of vector E onto thp. Let us consider two spheres of the same radius.42 1. 4nr2dr.26 E = E+ + JL = P (r+  r_V3e n = pI/3e .lshow that the a UD! orm Y charged spflere is E = (p/38 0 ) r. 1. 1. Find the electric fi ld . The thickness of the charged layer at the points determined by angle & (Fig.c arged spheres. 1. e sp ere IS In ependent of r. • 1. Using the Gauss th electric field intensity Within eo~efm. For a very small l. in this region the charge per unit area is (J = pl cos {Jo = 0"0 cos a.. q a ~ 80 £0. 3). and 0 expression (1) can be represented in the form E = (0"0/380) k. Then at " 0 IS regIOn we have q = I W In our case. the volume charge differs from zero only in the surface layer. Solution. when there is a spherical cavity in a sphere (Fig.t.. 1.6. where ° = pl. Using the solution of the previous problem. o~~ide ~hc arghe of. 1.
the potential in the case of a surface charge dl8trl~ution IS defined by integral (1. .. denoting and sin t}. we obtain the expression for cp at &be point 0: lp=.. if the vectors PI anti P2 are directed along the straight line connecting the dipoles and the distance between the dipoles is l. for fl. Eo The sought projection is E a =E . we have F = PI I aElal I• where E is the field intensity from the dipole P2' determined by the first of formulas (1.9. Find the potential lp at the edge of a thin df!e of l'Jdius R with a charge uniformly distributed over olle of its sides with the . the charge is distributed uniformly within the sphere.2lk)(i+3k).stance r from its. E_r ' r __ . • 10ft. tegratlOD. E. Dipole.cos '6Fig. the result would be so complicated • 1.41tEo l4' It should be noted that the dipoles will be attracted when PI t t P2 and repulsed when PI H P2' neo o J ~sin'6'd{. we shall choose the area element dS in the fonn of a part of the ring of radius rand width!. we obtain p =" flEoa.dt}. In any case.= 0: (ylzj. According to (1.. It is different at different points of atoms and in the interstices. we should sum up the intensities of the fields of all individual charged particles of the substance.£... • f.dq = . and dr = 2R sin '6. n/2 ~ We integrate by parts. r:dE r +2rE. Cl'ntre to the point under consideration I~ the foll?wI~g 'Yay: lp = ar' + b.10. Hence 1.dr (Fig.'6.2.and Macroscopic Fields. a }f1+31 At the point M we have aE r 0: (y61) ar +2. T.= . 66 eJ .39). In order to simplify in. face density o..28). After substituting these expressions into integral (1.= dv: =• ) 'It sin t}.28). Let us first find the field intensity. According to (1.1. 1. . eo JfiO Substituting (1) into the last equation. we obtain 1 F _ __ 6PIP2 .1. S~lut~on. we obtam ~/ lp = oRfneo' 2. Then dS = 2'&r dr.p·4nr' dr.he potential of the field inside a charged sphere depends ?nly on the dI. 1..38): E=_1_ 2P2 .. ~y definition. Solution. Electrodatlc Field In a Vacuam where dq is the charge contained between the spheres of radii rand r + dr.r dr=pr d r.27 + \ cos'6dtJo='6cos{}+sinil'.e.!. viz.t:H}.. 0:~1t18) J~o 0:. Field in a Substance 45 1. As a result. r = 2R cos '6. Solution. 01 which gives :1 after substituting the limits of integration. The solution of this problem is obviously not feasible. ..' 4nEo za Taking the derivative of this expression with respect to I and substituting it into the formull\. In order to find the intensity E of a real field at a certain point at a given instant. Find the force of interaction between two point dipoles with moments PI and P2.oR i... electrons and nuclei. where a and b are constants.dt}.32) we have • E r = oq>/ar = 2ar.27). Fmd the dIstrIbution of the volume charge p (r) within the 'sphere. Field in a Substance Micro. A Conductor in an Electrostatic Field 2. The real electric field in any substance (which is called the microscopic field) varies abruptly both in space and in time. (1) I I Ii T~en we US? th~ Gauss theorem: 4nr'Er = q/eo • The differential of thiS expressIOn IS 1 i 4n d(rIE r) = .
i. i. that potential cp in the cond~r has the same value for all its points. its surface being an equipotential surface. the electric field will act on all the ch2. but retains smooth variations of the macroscopic field over macroscopic distances. uncompensated charges of different signs appear. In certain regions of the suhstance. The absence of a field inside a conductor indicates in accordance with (1. The fact that the surface of a conductor is equipotential implies that in the immediate vicinity of this surface the field E at each point is directed along the normal to the surface. Thus.rther.e. which in turn leads to a parti.a~ctor·tn an Electrodatic Pield that i~ would ~e impossibl~ to use it.'ges of the conductor.2. 2. This phenomenon is called the electrostatic . siw.. This can be easily explained with the help of the Gauss theorem. the knowledge of tillS field IS not reqUIred for the solution of macroscopic problems. And this means that there are no excess charges inside the conductor. It should he noted that the excess s~face charge is located in a very thin surface layer (whose thIckness amounts to one or two interatomic distances). / induction. It will be shown later that the distri bution of induced charges is mainly determined by the properties of the substance. In many cases it is sufficient to have a simpler and rougher description which we shall be using henceforth.wauced charges. Fields Inside and Outside a Conductor 41 46 2.31).2. We shall have to consider these questions in greater detail.al separation· of these charges. Excess charges appear only on the conductor surface with a certain density (J which is generally different for different points of the surface.e E = 0 everyWhere in the conductor. This averaging is performed over what is called a physically infinitesimal volume. A Co. Knowing the external field and the distribution of induced charges. Induced charges create an additional electric field which in combination with the initial (external) field forms the resultant field. (2.rregular and rapidly varying fluctuatlOns of the mIcroscopIC field over the distances of the order of atomic ones. while the charges appearing as a result of separation are called induced charges. the field in the substance is E=Emacro=(Emlcro). Fu. viz. If the opposite were true. If any suhstance is introduced into an electric field. the volume containing a large number of atoms and having the dimensions that are many times smaller than the dli!tances over which the macroscopic field noticeably changes. in many cases the situation is complicated by the fact that we do not kaow beforehand how all these charges are distributed in space. Thus. at which the electric fi. its physical nature and the shape of the bodies. Under the electric field E in a substance (which is called the rruu:roscopic field) we shall understand the microscopic field averaged over space (in this case time averaging is superfluous). The averaging over such vo~umes smooth~ns all i. and as a result all the negative charges (electrons) will be displaced in the direction against the field. Let us place a metallic conductor into an external electrostatic field or impart a certain charge to it. and the problem turns out to be not as simple as it eooJd seem at first sight. any conductor in an electrostatic field is an equipotential region. However. This displacement (current) will continue until (this practically takes a small fraction of a second) a certain charge distribution sets in. the densIty of excess (uncompensated) charges inside the conductor is· also equal to zero at all points (p = 0). Fields Inside and Outside a Conductor Inside a Conductor E = O. the tangential component of E would make the charges move over the surface of the . closed surface inside the conductor is also equal to zero.l. in the statIC case the electric field inside a conductor is absent (E = 0). In both cases. Indeed since inside the conductor E = 0. the positive and negative charges (nuclei and electrons) are displaced.eld at a~l the points inside the conductor vanishes. Moreover. the resultant field in the presence of a substance is determined simply as the superposition of the external Bald and the field of .2. we can forget about the presence of the substance itself while calculating the reSultant iield since the role of the substance has already been taken int~ account with the help of induced dlarges Thus.f) The Inftuence of a Substance on a Field. the flux of E through an.e.
Example. PotentialljJ is the same fur all points of the sphere. The field itself in this case resembles more and more the field of a point charge q. 2. We shall show that the electric fwld intensity in the immediate vicinity of the surface of a conductor is connected with the local charge density at the conductor surface through a simple relation. we get 4' I En = a/so· I (2. and their surface distribution will become nonuniform. the total charge of the given system. The field _of these. the ch?rges of the opposite sign appear on the surface of the right uncharged sphere.3. in this case the putential \if the sphere will be determined only by the Erst term ill (1). Hence for a closed surface we Fig. while the dashed lines show the intersection of tlquipotential surfa~s with the plane of the figure.3. The intensity E is determined by all the charges of the system under consideration as well as the value of a itself. If 0 < 0.2 shows the field and the charge distributions for a system consisting of two conducting spheres one of which (left) is charged.Dut since aU induced charges are at the same distance a from the point 0 and the total induced charge is equal to zero.the projection of (vector E onto the outward normal n (with respect to the conductor). r because only for this point it can be calculated in the most simple way: Ip= 49 shall take a small cylinder and arrange it as is shown in Fig. Thus we can calculate its value at the centre 0 of the sphere. 2. Find the potential of an undlarged condudiug sphere provided that a point charge q is located at a distance r from its centre (Fig.2 Fig. Forces Acting on the Surface of a Conductor conductor. the equipotential. The field lines are normal to the conductor surface. (2. while the second is the potential of the charges induced on the surface of the sphere. Relation (2.2) If 0 > 0. Le. Then the flux of E through this surface will be equal only to the flux through the "outer" endface of the cylinder. (1) where the tJrst term is the potential of the charge q. Forces Acting on the Surface of a Conductor Let us consider the case when a charged region of the surface of a conductor borders on a vacuum. q.E o. Cancelling both sides of this expression by /18. Thus we obtam En /18 = 4nco' r~tfjl· 1 q. A Condllctor in an Electrostatic Field 2.2) may lead to the erroneous conclusion that the field E in the vicinity of a conductor depends only on the local charge density 0'. Thus.3.(the fluxes through the lateral surf~ce and the inner endface are equal to zero). The Field Near aConductor Surface. and vector E is directed towards the conductor surface.. 2. vector E is directed from the conductor surface (coincides in direction with the normal n). This is not so... 2.1).2.1 n l"igure 2. . As we move away from this. Le.eharges will in turn cause a redistribution of charges on the surface of the left sphere. The solid lines in the figure are the lines of E.system.S . then En < 0.3 = 0/18/80' where En' is .3) .'=O as well. 2. surfaces become closer_and closer to spherical. Fig. /18 is"9the crosssectional area of the cylinder and 0 is the local s~face charge density of the conductor. This relation can be established with the help of the Gauss theorem . Suppose that the region of the conductor surface we are interested in borders on a vacuum. 2. then En > 0. and the field lines become closer to radial. charge equilibrium would be impossible. The force acting on a small area· ~S of the conductor surface is ~F = at.. As a result of electric induction. viz.
viz. on its outer surface.4) and Eq. Multiplying (2. measuring instruments. the area element f!S at the points that are very close to thIS element. do not create any electric field in the cavity inside the conductor.wn that in equilibrium there. A Conductor in an Electrostatic Field 2. 2.. Le. express Eo through Be' Let E a be the intensity of the field created by the charge on.\ 50 2. it follows that Eo = Eo.7) This forms the basis of electrostatic shielding.10). in accordance with (2.4. from the influence of external electrostatic fields. including the charges on the outer surface of the conductor. It should b~ noted at the very outset that Eo is not equal to the field intensity E in the vicinity of the given surface element of the cojductor. viz. Find the expression for the electric force acting in a vacuum on a conductor as a whole. near its surface. (2. (2. or E = (a/eo) n. where n is the outward normal to the surface element at a given point of the conductor. in accordance with (1. the material inside the conductor is electrically neutral. we obtain the expression for the force dF acting on the surface element dS: dF=+ eo£2 dS.5) Dividing both sides of this equation by f!S. Thus. this does not change the field anywhere. In practice. 2.aE.4 : (2. does not affect the equilibrium distribution of charges. In this region.7) by dS. E a = = 0/ 28 0' The resultant field both inside and outside the conductor (near the area element f!S) is the superposition of the fields Eo and Eo. in the absence of electric charges within the cavity the electric field is equal to zero in it. and then outside the conductor. while the field Eo has opposite di~ ractIOns (see FIg. Let us take a closed surface S enveloping the cavity and lying completely in the material 4* .2). Consequently ~ if the substance is removed from a certain volume inside a conductor (a closed cavity is created). That there is no electric field inside an empty cavity can be proved in a different way.is the charge of this element and Eo is the field created by all the other charges of the system "in the region where the charge 0 f!S is located.g. Equation (2. En = a/eo. Hence Fig. a solid conducting shell can be replaced by a sufficiently dense metallic grating. and hence of the direction of E. E = Eo Eo = 2Eo.are no excess charges inside a conductor. where dS = n dS. assuming that the field intensities E are known at all points in the vicinity of the conductor surface. Indeed. e. the force Fu is always directed outside the conductor. = E • The quantity F u is called the surface density of force. We can write this expression in a different form since the quantities a and E appearing in it are interconnected. we obtain the expression for the force acting on unit surface of a conductor: 1 FuT. it behaves as an infinite uniformly charged plane. This means that the excess charge is distributed on a conductor with a cavity in the same way as on a uniform conductor. AS (2. Eo = E/2. Le. Let us find this relation. The resultant force acting on the entire conductor can be found by integrating this equation over the entire conductor lIUliace: + 1 2. the screening of bodies.4 where (for the sake of definiteness it is assumed that C1 > 0). although there exists ~a certain relation between th~m. On both sides of the area element f!S the field E is p~actically ~he same. tending to stretch it: Example. External charges. Properties of a Closed Conduding Shell AF=T aAS·E. Then.3) becomes where we took into account that 0 = eoEn \ and E.. Le. (2. Properties of a Closed Conducting Shell 5i 2 where 0 f!S .7) shows that regardless of the sign of 0. From 'the condition E = 0 inside the conductor.6) It was sho. Thus.4.
the theorem on circulation· of vector E. In equilibrium. We arrive at the following important conclusion: a closed conducting shell divides the entire space into the inner . the outer spherical surface since. Since E = 0 inside the conductor. Naturally. and hence 1 q qJ = 4n: eo . the algebraic sum of the charges induced on the cavity surface is equal in magnitude and opposite in sign to the algebraic sum of the charges inside the cavity. The space on one side of this plane is .:. the field created by the charges located inside the cavity. We shall repeatedly use this property of a closed conducting shell. mner surf~ee ?f the sphere is equal to zero everywhere outsIde the caVIty. in the space outside the cavity. In equilibrium the charges induced on the surface of the cavity are\arranged so as to compensate compleLely.5. and hence the ch. which means that the medium is electrically neutral and contains no excess charges. let the contour r cross the cavity along one of the lines of E and be closed in the conductor material. An infinite conducting plane is a special case of a closed conducting shell. A point charge q is within an electrically neutral sh~ll whose outer surface has spherical shape (Fig. This must be i~te:preted as follows: any arbitrary displacement of charges InSIde the shell does not introduce any change in the field of the outer space. the total charge inside S is equal to zero as well.5 Fig. viz.lve. if we remove the medium. Next. III VIew of symmetry. The field at the point P is determined only by charges induced on . Indeed. Hence. They WIll also remam unchanged upon the displacement of charges outside the shell. 2. the above arguments are applicable only in the framework of electrostatics. Example. the field of the point charge q and of the charges mdu. the charge on the outer surface of the shell is distributed uniformly.and outer parts which are completely independent oj one another in respect of electric fields. Thus. Let us now consider the case when the cavity is not empty but contains a certain electric charge g (or several charges). leavi. 2. the field in this medium is equal to zero. the field flux through a closed surface surrounding the cavity is also equal to zero. Thus the field of the charges surrounded by a conducting shell a~d of the charges induced on the surface of the cavity (on the inner surface of the shell) is equal to zero in the entire outer space. A Conductor in an Electrostatic Field 2.4. a~ was shown ab«. the field WIll not be ~hanged anywhere and will remain equal to zero beyond thIS shell. Therefore.52 2. This does not exclude the situation depicted in Fig 2. According to the Gauss theorem.electrically independent of the space on its other side.arge distribution on the outer surface of the shell remains unchanged.ng only a conducting shell around the cavity. .6). the flux of E through the turface S is also equal to zero. Since the conducting medium is electrically neutral everywhere it does not influence the electric field in any way. in accordance with the Gauss theorem.6 of the cavity itself contains equal quantities of positive and negative charges. Suppose also that the entire external space is filled by a conducting medium. this means that the algebraic sum of the charges within this closed surface is equal to zero as well. Since the field E is equal to zero inside the conductor. Find the potential cp at the point P lying outside the shell at a distance r from the centre 0 of the outer surface.ced on the. which is in contradiction with the theorem on circulation. 2. The same refers to the field inside the cavity (if it contains cbarges) and to the ~istribution ?f charges induced on the cavity walls. However. Properties Df a Closed Conducting Shell 53 of the conductor. It is clear that the line integral of vector E along this contour differs from zero. when the surf/tge p r Fig. this assumption is prohibited by another theorem.
2) between the charges. b .>d that makes it possible to calculate in a simple way the . this conclusion is q'!Ite obvIOUS: If there are more than one solution there wIll be . In ourr case such a simple problem is the problem about two changes: q and g. arge The Poisson and I aplac t· L . et ~s derIve the differential into the lefthand sid~~( /r~t)n~hal).5. ~r~~ue~tlY~ we must solve problems in which the charge t~:. the scalar product v·v [see (1.9) inside the cavity and acquire a certain value <Po at the'cavity's . 2. (2./ (2. Prove that in an empty cavity of a cconductor the field is absent. equation for the functi e equa .19)).7a).lOns. Hence it immediately follows that the uniqueness of the field E determines the uniqueness of the charge distribution over the conductor surface.7 = EllEn. I ell e Olsson equation: V2<p= P/eo.2. E = V<P = 10. it simplifies the solution of a number of «electrostatic problems. This is an artificial metho.several potential "reliefs". The analytic solutions i of these equations were obtained only for a few particular cases.can be used for determining the surface ch dlstrlbutlOll for the conductors.electric field in some (unfortunately few) cases.terms of 'P. Thus we arrive at a phYSically absurd conclusion. Example..8) aM (2. The potential <P must satisfy the Laplace equatiwn (2.rl ~tJon IS . we can stat6e that it is correct and unique regardless of the methods by which itt was obtained (if only by guess). Indeed. is tran~f~:ma:d ~~tcharg~s beltween th!! cond. Hence. E = v<p. for potential which is cali ':.e. A Conductor in an El~ctrostatic Field 2. VIZ. .the general dIfferentIal equation static case the charge is distributed over thlle surface of a conductor in a unique way as well.. The solution of the Laplace equation satisfying this condition c~an immediately be founrl.9) qUIres t e given values <Ph 'P2' . If a solution of the problem satisfies the Lalplace (or Poisson) equation and the boundary conditions. It can ~e prove? theoretically that this problem has a unique solutIOn. we can state that in a . t should be recalled that if we know the potend th (r).8) 7thh:~ r~eifo~ Lapl~ce operator (Laplacian). on the conductor and the electric field in the vicinity of itts surface: (J = (a) (b) (e) l Fig.8) o a SImp er equatIOn.walls. Eq..:s~a~~t ~:t~:e~u~h~i~~n~~~ :~~sfies The solution of Eqs. It is <p = <Po' In accordance with the uniquemess theorem. Fro~ the physical point of view.5. Image Method d . Ima~e Method. (2.(}tOh tapIn. For t~IS p¥rpose: we substitute i. I (2.S:(2~h8)t~~(4~~ f~\h~t~~ii.e. unknown but the potentials of conductors Jr s ape an d relative arrangement are given We must find th~ pot~ntial cp (r) at any point of the field between the ~~a~d uc ors. 2. on the surfaces of the conducto~~ Eq. the Laplace equation: I V'<P = O. . there can be no other solutions.. ThiS statement is called the uniqueness theorerr. 1:\ . Usm~ the uniqueness theorem. the field E (r) itself can be easily reconstructed an f en Its value in the immediate vicinity of the condu~tor s'!r a~es . General Problem of Electrostatilcs 55 2.9) in the generail case is a complicated and laborious ·problem.. and hence the field E at each pom~ generally has not a single value. General Problem of Electrostatics. As ffor the uniqueness theorem. As a result .e expressIon o~ E In .uctors (p = 0). Let us consiider this method by using a simple example of a point charge ~q near an infinite conducting plane (Fig. In Cartesian coordinates V2=~ 2 ax a + ~ + az' ay 2 2 ' i. The idea of this method lies in that we mmst find another problem which can be easily solved and whwse solution or a part of it can be used in our problem. th'Iere is a onetoone correspondence (2.
HavIll\r. and the removal of the charge g will not affect the field in the upper halfspace.found I IS con 19l1b f tlH'r questions. 2. . These three hctl tlOllS cl. It can he seen from formula (2.q zero. 2. A Conductor in an Electrostatic Field 2. we can say that the image method is essentially based on driving the potential to the boundary conditions. It should he noted that we can arrive at this conclusion proceeding from the properties of a closed conducting shell [see Sec. since hoth halfspaces separated by the conducting plane are electrically independent of one another. qJ = 0 on the conducting plane and everywhere at infinity.. I. In another halfspace the field is absent.lquired "trimming"'. we must mentally chargre the conductor by a charge q and calculate Its potell .2. 2.6.equal to th~ charge that must be supplied to the conductor III order to lIlcre~se its potential by unity. The capacitance depends on the SIze and shape of the conductor. 2. j that the potential on the conI dueling" halfplane~ ~e equal to q blf<>.aI IS eJual t~ zero): cp oc q.1J. ~n ~ny point within the "right angle" or determine the fwce acting Oil the charge q.8 field of the charges induced on the cha~~\\~~deu~~dii~3:~~~etc~. It is numerically.l~l~~r::'chargesfor which the eqnipoten con~ucting plah. We must only bear in mind that the "effect" of the fictitious charge extends only to the halfspace where the real charge q is located. i.la to I S p~~e~tia\ <p (we assumed that at infin.6. Only with such a configuration of the ~:ystem of fOl~r I charges we can realize the ft.is eq~ivalent to the action of all tial ~ul'face~ with cp = 0 wo~J!d (a) (~) coinCide With the cond~c!Illg halfplanes. the conductor .56 2. 1 d'Ies" and charge" Expenments show that the )0 . Summing up. The point charge g can be considered to be the limiting case of a small spherical conductor whose radius tends to zero and potential to infinity. According to the uniqueness theorem. Capacitors Capacitance of an Isolated Conductor. Find the capacit:mce of an isolated conductor which has the shape of a sphere of radIUS R. Example. Let I~S fconSid~r a solitarv conductor. for example. n alion of point chal'gl's {anolher proble~n).Jarges create just the same held within the "right angle" as the Fig. . CapaCitance. ensure 7. the r~tlO g!cp ~oe. Let liS consider one more example. This is precisely what is meant when we say that the fictitious charge produces the same "effect" as all the induced charges. One or two fI~tltIO~StL'q f charges are insuflicient III tillS I case' there should be three of q I q the~ (Fig. Capacitors 57 The field of this system is well known (its equipotential surfaces and field lines are shown in Fig. and hence the field in this region is also the same (Fig. it is sufficient to introduce a fictitious image charge g' = g. The image method proves to be very effective if this·can be done with the help of sufficiently simple configurations.e.ity potent~. opposite in sign to the charge q. . Thus.e.es. Thus. by placing it on the other side of the conducting plane at the same distance as the distance from g to the plane.. 1 't cl·r.r e of this conductor is directly propor~lOJ. Example..10) c ~'" g!cp is called the electrostatic capacitance of an isolated conductor (Qr simply capacitance).. the field in the upper halfspace will remain unchanged. Let us make the conducting plane coincide with the middle equipotential surface (its potential qJ = 0) and remove the charge g. Find the location of fictitious point charges whose action on the charge q. In order to calculate this field. Indeed..e. n~t ~~~n y on the charge q and has a certain value or eac so I r conductor. The fictitious charge g' creates in the upper halfspace the same field as that of tlie charges induced on the plane. A point charge q is placed between two mutually perpendicular halfplanes (Fig.remove( r~m 0 101' .8a). in the case under consideration the field differs from zero only in the upper halfspace. The quantity (2.10) that for this jlurpose. C.. 2.pacUance. Consequently. the boundary conditions for the potential in the upper halfspace remain the same.8b). i. 2. we strive to find another problem (eonfignration of charges) in which the field configuration in the region of space we are interested in is the same.7b). lmd ili'e ~~~e~t~~{a~ldsfi~f/i~~~~~i~.7c). conductors.
we obtain (2. In actual practice. Then negative induced charges will be nearer to the conductor than the positive charges. which has a considerably higher capacitance than that of an isolated conductor. induces charges on them.12) C=qlU. the capaCitance 0 . h fi Id between Its pates IS 0' the intensity of t e . If a conductor is not isolated. . E _ ale . the charges on the plates must be equal in magnitude I. which is the algebraic sum of the potentials of its own charge and of the charges induced on other bodies will decrease when other uncharged bodies approach it.7 mF). the voltage between the plates IS rr U = Eh = ghlfoS. (2.at field intensity between thE the charge of the capaCItor. If the charge of the capaCi or IS g. This capacitor Capacitance of a Para e p a d b a ap of width h.e. nsions of the plates. plates is determined by the Gauss theorem. its capacitance will considerably increase as other bodies approach it. . accura.58 2. we find C = 4m oR.11). Le. This is due to the fact Jhat the field of the given conductor causes a redistribution of charges on the surrounding bodies. its plates are arranged with respeet to one another in such a way that the field created by the charges accumulated on them is concentrated almost completely inside the capaeHor. Capacitance. 4nfo .. compari~on with th. Let the radii of thE CapaCItance of a p. consists of two parallel pl~ttes ~epar~~:n :cco~ding to (1.n ~apacitor is its capacitance.e h f each plate. l~ne~r t~~acitor. It corresponds to the capacitance of an isolated sphere 9 X 106 km in radius. cuum between their plates.. A Conductor in an Electro8tattc Field 2. (2. Let the charge of the conductor be g > O. Moreover. Substituting this expression into (2.. (size and shape. assuming that there is a I I te Capacitor. 1 Er = into rt· q . " t depends on its O'eometry The capacitance of a capaCl or a between th~ plates.6. Capacitors 59 tial <po In accordance with (1. Such a system is called a capacitor.. \ \ The charge g ofa capacitor is the charge of its positively charged' plate. ly.23).p~citor.U) . This unit of capacitance is called the farad (F). '1 .10). in farads. . field disto~tions n~ar thel e~~~e °1a~~~lor is determined ~Y The capaCItance 0 a rea p tely the smaller the gap h III this formula the more. r 4n8 o R R R J' 00 00 f Substituting this result into (2. Consequentwhere a = glS and S IS t e area 0 . f a capacitor is also measured Naturally. In order to exclude the effect of external bodies on the capacitance of a eapacitor. the capacitance of this system does not depend on surrounding bodies. For this reason. of i~S pl~\~s)th~leC. This means that the lines of E emerging on one plate must terminate on the other. Let us derive and the m~teqalf t ~~e capacitances of some capacitors the expreSSIOns or. II inner and outer capaclt?r pl. we encounter capacitances between 1 ~F and 1 pF. The simplest capacitor consists' of two eonductors (plates) separated by a small distance.12). IS g. cap~cl b t n the plates (lhis difference 18 the potentIal difference e wee called the voltage): f! I The unit 'ofcapacitance is the capacitance of a conductor whose potential changes by 1 V when a charge of 1 C is supplied to it. ( d ) and opposite in sign ~ :. d 'thout taking into account This calculation was rna e WI lates (edge effects). The basic charactens lC 0 . This means that its capacitance increases. which is 1500 times the radius of the Earth (the capacitance of the Earth is 0. Capacitors. the potential of the conductor. This circumstance made it possible to create the system of conductors. the potential of a sphere is <p= 1 q 1 q Erdr=.13) C = foS Ih . The farad is a very large quantity. enca es be a and b respectively.2 dr = . d onductor the capaciUnlike the capacitance of an Isolate c t' f i'ts charge to 'tor is denned as t lle ra 10 0 • tance 0 f a.
Problems • 2. . According to the principle of superposition.nt an~ ~ IS ~ po ar angle. the inner sphere of radius R l having a charge ql' What charge q must be placed onto the outer spher~ of radius R 2 to make the potential of the inner sphere equal to zero? What will be the dependence of potential cP on the distance r from the centre of the system? Plot schematica~ly the graph of this dependence. 4n80 r n80 r + where CPo is a c~r~ain constant.13).2..a «a (or b). An.CPo.15) where l is the capacitor's length.1. Solution.. 2. a and b are the radii of the inner and outer cylindrical plates. On the determination or potential. b ' dF=taEdS..\' 60 2. A Conductor in an Electrostatic Field Problems The voltage of the capacitor is " u = J E r dr = _q_ ( . 2.9 Solution.!.!.). Like in the previous case. over all the '" (1) It follows from symmetry considerations that t~e resultant force f is directed along the Zaxis (Fig.4n80 1R 2/R J r .9). Hence lfu = q2/4ncoR2' From the condition <PI (R J ) = 0 we find that q2 The <P (r) dependence (Fig. Solution. assummg that ql < o.10) will have the form: _ ql = ql R 2 IR l • <P II .\. CPI=4.i. be found in such ~f~e form only at the poin~ 0 s~nce all the. 3... CPn . .. like mduced charges are a e same distance from this pomt and theIr distribution (which is unknown to us) does ..13) when the gap between the plates is small.' 'Fig. the obtained expression is reduced to (2.CPl... It should be noted that the potential. we obtain c· In2n8 ol (b/a) .. Find the potential at the point 0 if r < a.CPr =.. Capacitance of a Cylindrical Capacitor. and henc0 it can be represented .1 J 4rtE o • 2.not play any role. the expression for the capacitance of a parallelplate capacitor.7.. As a result of electrostatic induction. when b . It follows from this expression that 1 __ q_ cP . Find the magnitude of the resultant electnc force actmg on like charges. while the second integral. ba (2.14) charges on the outer surface.) dS T ) 0_ 0+ • 2. __ +. 2.3. the force acting on the area element dS is ° r • a :. whose inner and outer radii are equal to a and b respectively. Its val~ can be easily found from the boundary conditIOn: for r = R 2 . uncharged metallic sphere of radius R is placed into an external umform. A system consists of two concentric spheres.3. r 1 4n80 a b a It can be easily seen that the capacitance of a spherical capacitor is given by C=4Jt£o ~ .can.. __ ).4n80 r a b (.11). By using the same line of reasoning as in the case of a spherical capacitor. where 00 is a positive consta. (2. the sought potential at the point 0 can be represented in the form q.. this expression is reduced to (2. (q. A point charge q is at a distance r from the centre 0 of an uncharged spherical conducting layer. We write the expressions. where the first integral is taken over all the charges induced on the inner surface of the layer. viz. say.~' .t. According to (2. 2. 4.L 4n80 (_1r R1 ~).5). Le. a It is interesting that when the gap between the plates is small. The force acting on a surface charge. The influence of the medium on the capacitance of a capacitor will be discussed in Sec. h for potentials outside the slstem (CPn) and In the regIOn between t e spheres (CPI): 1 ql +q2 1 ql CPn=. negative charges will be induced on the inner surface of the layer and positive charges on its out{~r surface (Fig.. field'Js a result of which an induced charge appears on the sphere Wit~ su ice density = 00 cos 'ft.dS . '1 ..
which is symmetric with respect to the ring and (2) the electric field potential at the centre of the ring. we find 00 ql A= . = 2nR sin t}·R dt}. the problem is reduced to determining the field E in the vicinity of the conducting plane. A thin conducting ring of radius R.ig. In the reference system fixed to the conducting plane.2). Integrating this equation over x between land 00.12 Fig.ent o. Find the density of surface charges induced on the plane as a function of the distance r from the base of the perpendicular dropped from the charge q onto the plane.. Fig. Accord. having a charge q. An attempt to solve this problem in a different way (through potential) leads to an erroneous result ~h!ch differs from w~at was obtained by us by a factor of two. 2.13) is given by ql 6A = F % dx = .f the charge q leads to a redistribution of the induced charges. (2) It is expedient to take for the area element dS a spherical zone dS = Problem. 2..4. Find (1) the surface charge density at a point of the plane.12) which is at a distance r from the point 0 is where the expression for the force is obtained with the help of the image method.(na~R2/po) cos3 {} d (cos t}).11 Fig.4neo (2%)1 dx.5. 2.13 Solution. It can be easily seen that in accordance with the image method. where the minus sign indicates that the induced charge is opposite to sign to the point charge q. f 1 o q F x q dx I Eq x o Fig. Image method.16neo J 7= I r dx ql 16ne ol • Remark. By definition. A point charge q is at a distance 1 from an infinite conducting plane. A point charge q is at a distance 1 from an infinite conducting plane. Using the image method.latIOn A = q (IJ>l .wIth the electric field near its surface (in vacuum) through the relatIOn a = eoEn' Consequently. with respect to cos if between 1 and 0). and theIr field turns out to be timedependent.2.6. Integrating this expression over the halfsphere (i. Find the work of the electric force acting on the charge q done upon its slow removal to a very large distance from the plane. from it.10 . . the electric field of induced charges is not a potential field: a displacem. ~olutton. is arranged 80 that it is parallel to an infinite conducting plane at a ~is tance I. we obtain F = na8R2/4eo' • 2.<PI) is valid only for potential fields. a fictitious charge q must be located on a similar ring but . the :surface charge:density on a conductor IS connected .4neox2 x ' Hence • 2. Considering that E = a/eo. we transform (2) as follows: clFz = (na I R2/ eo ) sin t} cos {} d{} = .. Solutton. the work of this force done upon an elementary displacement dx (F. we find that the field at the point P (Fig. 2. However. 2.. • 2. q 1 E=2Eqcosa=2 . 2. A Conductor in an Electrostatic field as the sum (integral) of the projections of elementary forces (1) onto the Zaxis: dF z = dF cos {}.ing to (2.e. ThIS IS because the re.
8. we can easily find and it remains for us to find the potential difference between the wi~es.the help of the Gauss theorem: E = "'/2ne ox. 2.2. • 2. _Fig. Capacitance of parallel wir~s.7.. Find (1) the total charge induced on the conducting halfplanes and (2) the force acting on the charge q. Solution.15b. In our case.. 2.16 Fig. where AOB is the right angle formed by two conducting halfplanes.15b) F =c F 2 . Indeed. :rwo long straight wires with the same cross section are arranged In aIr parallel to one another. Hence the action of the charges induced on the conducting haliplanes Is equivalent to the action of the fictitious charge q placed in the lower left comer of the dashed sauare. and answer the second question...15a. and hence their potential q.17 The distance between the wires is 11 times larger th~n the radi~s of the wires' cross section.~ . by defmition. 14).t length is equal to "'. 50181 . The halfplaneD forming the angle AGE go to infinity. Let us now use the formulas we already know.. it coincides with the potential of the conducting plane.IU. A Conductor in an Electrostatic Field Problems 65 on the other side of the conducting plane (Fig. As a result. Let us mentally charge the two wires by charg~s of the same magnitude and opposite signs so that t~e charge per um. 2. Thus we have already answered the first question: qe By reducing the syst0m to iour point ch:trges. only in this case the potential of the midplane between these rings is equal to zero.14). 1 2 1I I (8) qCl.14). we must.. 2. 2.2a 2 4neo 2 V 2 1 q2 . 2. Three unlike point charges are arranged as shown in Fig.14 A B (b) Fig.. we obtain ql {J= 21t (RI+12)'/1 sum of the potentials at this point created by the charges q and q: ljl= (2) The potential at the centre of the ring is equal to the algebraic 1 41t8o (qf i q) yR2+411 • = ". 2.. (1) • 2.16 showing the dependences of the potentl~ls lp + and Ip_ on the distance between the plates that the sought potential difference is u= ILlcp+1 + ILlCPl =2jLl(jl+I· ba (2) The intensity of the electric field created by one of the wires at a distance x from its axis can be easily found wi th . Le. find the field E at this point (Fig. (3 ) where a is the radius of the wires' cross section and b is the separation between the axes of the wires. It can be easily seen that a ·~Ylltem haVing equipotential surfaces with ljl = 0 coinciding with the conducting halfplanes has the form sho1inl in Fig. 2. Then.2).F 1= '7. according to (2. 2. The expression for E on the R the required force (see Fig. Find the capacitance of the WIres per umt length provided that 11:. Then I 8(jl+ I = \ J a '" ba E dx = 2neo In a. = O. It follows from Fig.}> 1. this expression must he doubled.. Solution.15 Fig. (1) In order to find {J at the point 0.. the reqUIred capaCitance is Cu axis of a ring was obtained in Example 1 (see p. 2. The magnitude of each of the charges is I q I· and the distances between them are shown in the figure.
2. 2. Solution.19b). it is clear that a = (a1 + a. . Dielectrics (or insulators) are substances that practically do not conduct electric current.r r1 r(a) a And since E ex a.10. Solution._02 01" ~ x . if the plates are connected by a wire and the charge q is located at a distance 11 from the left plate 1 (Fig.18). a 1 = eO 1n1 = eO 1X and a2 E E = e E 2 = eOE 2X (the minus sign indicates that the normal o n.2). It should be noted that as follows from the symmetry of the system. An electric field appears in the gaps between the plates.!i 'I' . 2. = U2 where.ctor E onto the Xaxis to the left and to tte right of the plane P (Fig.1. (2) =..nat difference between them is equal to zero. a2 = al 1/l· The formulas for charges q1 and q2 in terms ~f q have a si~ilar form.19a). A point charge q is placed between two large parallel conducting plates 1 and 2 separated by a distance 1. Electric Field in Dielectrics 3. This ~neans that in contrast.) is directed oppositely to the umt vector 0 f t.17). 2. . It follows from (1). On the other hand. Find the tutal charges q1 and q2 induced on each plate.19 Fig. we obtam a1 = a (I  11)/1. We mentally place somewhere on a plane P the same charge q. 2. and the capacitance of the system (between points 1 and 2) is C= 3eoS 2h • (b) Fig. since it would require an infmite series of fIctitious charges arranged on both sides of the charge q.9. Polarization of Dielectrics Dielectrics. If we now distribute uniformly on the surface P a certain cnarge with surface density a. after which the plate A will be charged negatively while the plate B will acquire a positive charge. Consequently.1. the potentials at the Imiddle of the system as well as on its outer plates are equal to zero. E 1X l 1 + E 2x (l  11) = 0. for example. e X. we can state that according to (2) the charge qo on plate 1 is divided into two parts: qo/3 on the left side of the plate 1 and 2qo/3 on its right side. (2) and (3) . ! where we took into account that b :it> a.). this will double the surface charge on ~ach plate. to conductors dielectriCS do not contain charcrcs that can move over considerable distances t> and create elcctric current. Fig. The area of each plate is equal to S. . A Conductur tili 2. 2.1. to solve thiS problem WIth the help A B p . Figure 2. • 2. and to find the field of such a system is a complicated problem. accompanied by the corresponding distribution of potential cp (Fig. (1) rr r where U is the required potential difference between the points 1 and 2. Hence V = Eh = ahlE o = 2qoh/3e oS. The outer plates are connected by a conductor. .. It would be difficult.19b).18 shows that the putential difference V between the inner plates is twice as large as the potential difference between the outside pair of plates (both on the right and on the left). By defini tion.axIs. in accordance with (2.1st= of the image method. • 2. This also refers to the field intensity: E = 2E'. Let us use the superposition principle. Eliminating E!X and E 2x from these equatIOns. 'I' i I ! Cu = neo/ln 1'). Let us charge the plates 1 and 2 by charges qo and qo. the capacitance of the system in this case is C = qo/V where E 1x and E x are the projections of ve. Polarization 0/ Dielectrics 67 'I' 1. 2. h . Clearly. Distribution 01 an induced charge. however. and hence the potential 3. in an Electroltatlc Field 3. the electric field can be easily calculated (Fig. The plates are connected by the wire. a charge will move in the connecting wire.. Under the action of the dissipation field appearing between these plates (edge effect). Find the capacitance of this system (between points 1 and 2. Four identical metallic plates are arranged in air at the same distance h from each other.
If a dielectric consists of polar molecules. In the absence of an external field. in each molecule is shifted along the field and the negatIve. In a polar molecule. the capacitance of a capacitor Increases when It IS filled by a dielectric. It I p. L nder the action of an external field the dipole moments acquire predominant orientation in' the direction of the external field.1. against the field. As a result. of a crystal lattice (ionic crystals. an external field displaces all the positive IOns along the field and the negative ions. while that of p~ (x).~a) whose density increases with the coordinate x accordIng to a certain law. in dielectric crystals ?f the NaCI ty~e.1 of emergence of these charges (and especially bulk charges). then in the absence of the field their d~pole moments are oriented at random (due to thermal motIOn).p~ p~ 7~ I I I I I I I . uncompensated charges will appear on the dielectric surface as well as in the bulk (in Fig. Nonpolar molecules do not have intrinsic dipole mo~ents. As a result of polarization. appreciable changes are observed in the field and in the dielectric itself.+ I I I: X I I.!. 3. the positive cll~rge. In order to understand the nature of these phenomena we must take into consideration that dielectrics consist either of neutral molecules or of charged ions located at the sites .1b). the molecule acquires an intrinsic dipole moment p. the centre of "mass" of the negative charge is displaced relative to the centre of "mass" of the positive charge. these two distributions exactly coincide (the distribution of p~(x) is shown by the solid line. I. p~ = p~ at each point of the dielectric. The molecules can be either polar or nonpolar. Polarization of Dielectrics 69 When even a neutral dielectric is introduced into an external electric field. 3. whIle the negatIve charges. dielectric is polarized. and so on. by the dashed line). * Thus. and the two distributions will be shifted relative to one another (Fig. For further discussion it is only important that regardless of the polarization mechanism all the positive ~harges duri~g this process are displaced aiong the field. This figure shows that III . uncompensated charges appear on the dielectric surf!"ce as well as in its bulk. for example. This property is inherent in dielectrics which are called electrets (they resemble permanent magnets). It should be noted that the re . This phenomenon consists in the following.1c). As a result. 3. against the field. X X (a) A. let us consider the following model: Suppose that we have a plate made of a neutral inhomogeneous dielectric (Fig. ably lower than the intensities of internal electric fields in the molecules. We denote by p~ and p~ the magnitudes of the volume densities of the positive and negative charges in the material (these charges are associated with:nuclei and electrons). since the "centres of mass" of the positive and negatIve charges in them coincide. Finally. Electric Field in Dielectrics . This is due to the fact that the intensity of the external field acting on the dielectric is consider* There exist ionic crystals polarized even in the absence of an external field. This is because the dielec~ric is acted up?n. Polarization. It should be noted that under normal conditions the displacements of charges are very small even in comparison with the dimensions of the molecules. p~ as well as p~ increase with x due to inhomog~ neity of the dielectric (Fig.~ 68 3. Switching on of the external field leads to a displacement of the positive charges along the field and of the negative charges against the field."~i) ' 3.~ (b) (c) Fig. Bulk and Surface Bound Charges. the m~chanism of polarization depends on the structure of a dielectric. by a force. the absence of external field. of the NaCI type). since the dielectric is electrically neutral. However. If a dielectric is made up by nonpolar molecules. 3. Under the action of an external electric field.1 an uncompensated negative charge appears in the bulk). To understand better the mechamsm £=0 p~ ~I . In the opposite direction. 3.
It is natural to describe polarization of a dielectric with the help of the dipole moment of a unit volume. * These charges may be located both inside and outside the dielectric. We multiply and divide the righthand side of (3. . I '1 1. Uncompensated charges appearing as a result of polarization of a dielectric are called polarization. the distributions p' (x) and p~ (x) would be ITshaped.'II .e. 'X is alwavs greater than zero. Polarization Definition. averaged over a physically infinitesimal volume.2. and only uncompensated surface charges would appear upon their relative displacement in the field E. we obtain the expression for the dipole moment of a unit volume.!.PI)!!'1N is the mean dipole moment of a molecule.1) where Eo and E' are macroscopic fields. 3. This quantity is independent of E and characterizes the properties of the dielectric itself. the positive charge p+!'1 V contai~ed in this volume will he displaced relative to the negative charge by a distance I. the field E in the dielectric defined in this way is also a macroscopic field. Clearly. There are two more useful representations of vector P.2. and these charges will acquire the dipole moment !'1p = p~ !'1 V·1. charges. They can move only within electrically n~utr~l m?lecules.4) The unit of polarization P is the coulomb per square meter (elm').ext~rnal field or a dielectric (or both) are nonuniform.3) where n = !'1NI!'1V is the concentration of molecules (their number in a unit volume) and (p) = ('T.2) by !'1N. if the opposite is not stipulated.zatlOn. Electric Field in Dielectric. It can be easily seen that in the case of a plate made of a homogeneous dielectric. p . Hencef~rth. the microscopic fields of extraneous and bound charges. but this term IS not convement In some cases since extraneous charges may be not free. Upon polarization. polarl. In order to characterize the polarization at a given POIllt. Thus. 'Polarization P linearly depends on the field E in a dielectric. Dividing both sides of this formula by !'1 V. For an isotropic dielectric and for not very large E. We shall denote bound charges by a prime (q . The field E in a dielectric is the term applied to the superposition of the field E of extraneous charges and the field E' of bound charges: 0 E = Eo + E'.3.1 i i! '1' '. Relation Between P and E. version of the field direction changes the sign of all these charges. Another expression for P corresponds to the model of a dielectric as a mixture of positive and negative "fluids". turns out to be different at different points of t~e dlel~ctrlc. i. dipole moments of the molecules in this volume and write the ratio (3. Le. there exists a relation P = 'X8 oE J (3. in the general case the polarization of a dielectric !ea~s to the appearance of surface and bulk bound charges III It. (J). (3. (3. we shall We shall call the charges that do not constitute dielectric molecules the extraneous charges. Experiments show that for a large number of dielectrics and a broad class of phenomena. vector P: P = pi.2) Vector P defined in this way is called the polarization of a dielectric. Polarization 70 7f 3. Then we can write P = n (p). Let us isolate a very small volume !'1 V inside the dielectric. or bound. If an . Let a volume !'1 V contain !'1N dipoles. The Field in a Dielectric. The latter term emphasizes that the displacements of these charges are limited. we must mentally isolate an infinitesimal volume !'1 V containing this point and then find the vector sum of the • ~xtraneous c~arg~s are frequently called free charges. (3. This vector is numerically equal to the dipole moment of a unit volume of the substance.5) where 'X is a dimensionless quantity called the dielectric susceptibility of a substance.
5) is valid.8) (wIth the reverse sIgn) of the dielectric in the volume en. When an external electric field is switched on the ~ielectric is polarizedits positive charges are displaced relative to the negative charges. we can write the expression for the total bound charge passing through the. the charge leavlllg the volume must be equal to the excess bound charge remaining within the surface S.2a.2b).3.2b). But be know that the transport of a negative charge in a certain direction is equivalent to the transport of the positive charge in the opposite direction. Taking this into account. We shall show that the field of P has the following remarkable and important property. This charge is equal to ~ PdS= qint. Let 1+ and C be vectors characterizing the displacement will be left inside the surface S.3. 3. taken with the opposite sign. It turns out that the flux of P through an p of the positive and negative bound charges as a result of polarization. Then it is clear that the positive charge p:Z+dS cos a inclosed in the "inner"part of the oblique cylinder will pass through the area element dS from the surface S outwards (Fig. area element dS of the surfa~e S in the outward direction: dq' = p:Z+ dS cos a + Ip:IL dS cos a. 3. Proof of the theorem. (3. 3. i.is nonlinear and depends on the history of the dIeI?ctnc. These are some ionic crystals (see footnote on page oR) and ferroeZectrics. The relation between P and E for ferr~electr~cs . 3. we arrive at (3. Properties 0/ the Field 0/ P 73 consider only isotropic dielectrics for which relation (3. 3. we find the total charge that left the volume enclosed by the surface S upon polarization.2 (3.6). Equation (3.6). viz. on the previous values of (this'phenomenon IS called hysteresIs). Electric Field in Dielectrics 3. Differential form of Eq.dS. can be written in the differential form as follows: ?' I V·P=p'. "+ ar~itrary closed sur~ace S is equal to the excess bound charge dq' = P n dS = P·dS.9) . the Gauss theorem for the field of vector P.7) where l = l+ L is the relative displacement of positive and negative bound chaJ. Clearly. As a result. (3. l. (3. Let an arbitrary closed surface S envelope a part of a dielectric (Fig.6). the dielectric is hatched). Properties of the Field of P The Gauss Theorem for th£' Field of P.5) is not applIcable.ges in the dielectric during polarization. H~wever. p:l = P and dq' = P dS cos at or = P+ (l+ + L) dS cos a = p+l dS cos a. according to (3. Integrating this expression over the entire closed surface S. (3.e. Next. Let us find the charge which passes through an element dS of the closed surface S in the outward direction (Fig. the negative charge p:tdS cos a enclosed in the "outer" part of the oblique cylinder will enter the surface S through the area element dS. Besides. a certain excess bound charge This equation expresses the Gauss theorem for vector P. Thus.72 3. closed by the surface S. E. there exist dielectrics for which (3.6) ~ P. Since I r: I = p~ we have dq' (a) ( b) Fig.e.4).
c: 74 3. We shall asI sume that the height of the cyl• n' inder is negligibly small and the F' 3 3 area !1S of each endface is so small Ig. if we place a homogeneous isotropic dielectric of any shape into an arbitrary electric field. 1 s use property tween the dielectrics. for a physically infinitesimal volume.e. we can substitute xeoE for P in accordance with (3. Then.ofntIDdu!ty.. d' . t h e norma. Properties of the Field of P 3. We D choose the closed surface lO the form of a flat cylinder whose end2~J~~~tfaces are on different sides of the 1 interface (Fig. while the bulk excess bound charge will be zero at all points of such a dielectric. For this purpose. (3. it is equal to q + q'. We have just shown that in . tn' . e u ' (3. I me mID IS a magmtu e epen s on . but taken with the oppOsite sign.6) in the same manner as the similar expression for vector E was obtained (see p. an con I Ion ..3). • (J. oJ The remaining integral is just the algebraic sum of all the chargesextraneous and boundinside the closed surface S under consideration. we can be sure that its polarization will give rise only to the surface bound charge. from which we obtain q' = find the relation between polarizatio? P a nd ~he f 'ty d ensl a' of the bound charge at t the lOter ace esurf ace . in accor ance WI P !1S + Pin' t1S = . it follows from the main property (3. Hence. and write x &eoE·dS . 2n h P and P . ( m n) normal n taken with the opposIte t~e o~pos~te ~m ~ we can ~ite the previous equation sIgn.6) of the field of vector P that in the case of a homogeneous dielectric. Let 11 be the common normal to t e interface at jl. d d't' (3 12) acquires a vacuum. er. ts of each endface (thiS also refers to the surface ensl~Y ~?I~f the bound charge). in particular. This equation can be obtained from (3.1~X q.dq = pl1V.a' t1S. after cancelling out dV. that vector P is the same at all . d d d a' In partIcular. are the projections of vector P in d ielecw.3. . Electric Field in Dielectrics 75 i..In' 11' t1S)' in the following form (after cance mg . then P 2n = 0. dielecd~riC ~h~o g~~e~}ri~ ~hrOugh the lateral surface d 'th (3 6)' Isregar Illg . we ca'h write.6) of the field of vector~. p =  x 1+x p. Eq. when q' __ dq' = p'dV and q +. Thus. .H) Hence it follows that in a homogeneous dielectric p' = 0 when p = O. We shall always draw vector n froDm.. 3. Indeed.Pin = . the divergence of the field of vector P is equal to the volume density of the excess bound charge at the same point. of the cylinder. take x out of the integral.10) This relation between the excess bound charge q' and the extraneous charge q is valid for any volume inside the dielectric. Boundary Conditions for Vector P.13) where P n is the projection of vector ~ onto th~ outward normal to the surface of a given dielectrIC. it is sufficient to replace E by P and p by p' .e. 1 ~. l. P2n .q'. Le. such a dielectric there is no excess bound bulk1ch~rge tn~ only a surface bound charge appears as a resu t 0 po arl zat~~·us When Is p' Equal to Zero in a Dielectric? We shall show that the volume density of excess bound charges in a dielectric is equal to zero if two conditions are simultaneously satisfied: (1) the dielectric is homogeneous and (2) there are no extraneous charges within it (p = 0). is equal to the projection of thIS vector o~to . simpler form: (3. For this purpose.5).10) becomes . given point. (3. 24). (3. q'. . Let us consider the behaviour of vector P at the interface between two homogeneous isotropic dielectrics.a'.~ose . The SIgn of the pro . on2to the n~~al n and in dielectric 1 onto the normal t~I(p' 3 3) Considering that the projection of. x (q + q') = . vector Ponto n Ig.12) This means that at the interface bet~een ~iel~ctrics the normal component of vector P ha~ a dlsc.
n ote? ~h~t ve~or D ISpth~~~~~ist~Za~~~P it is d ly different quantities. the sign of En determines the sign of a'. ~ (eoE + P) dS = qlnt. depends on all the charges. A Remark about th(' Field of Vector P. Relations (3.17) ID=eoE+P. however.15) C an he transformed as follows:. Actually. Le. The field of vector P.f vect~r D as those of vector P. a.to the h fl w ose ux larges enclosed hy this sur'algebraic sum of extraneous c1 face: qlnt.6) and (3.13) may lead to the erroneous conclusion that the field of vector P depends only on the hound charge. this flux is determined not hy the whole hound charge hut by its part enclosed hy the surface S. done for the can \see p.6) denoted (3. as well as the field of E.4. Vedor D The Gauss Theorem for Field D. The hound charge determines the flux of vector P through a closed surface S rather than the field of P. and formula (3. emphasize the auxiliary nature of \~etor . d' I t ' * fies the ~naly(s3iS107f) thedfle(idH~n) a:: ~can~sfor any dielectric. RelatIOns . Moreover. '.14) where En is the projection of vector E (inside the dielectric and in the vicinity of its surface) onto the outward normal. . this formula expresses the properties of unknown field E in terms of the bound charge q' which in turn is determined hy unknown field E.(' 76 3. Since the sources of an electric field E are all the electric chargesextraneous and hound. Thus. 24\ It suffices to replace E by D and " take into account only extraneous charges. ftPJ] called dielectric displacement! or electro* inductton. Vector D 77 expression (3.4.at the obat~i~fJ fro~ (3. .18) in the same way as it wasThis equatiOn field Ee.15) turns out to be of little use for finding the field E in a dielectric even in the case of a "sufficiently good" symmetry. we can write the Gauss theorem for the field E in the following form: . Here. Electric Field in Dielectrics jection P n determines the sign of the surface bound charge a' at a given point. I (3.This statement is called the ~auss thearer.. In accordance with (3.6). (3. can he overcome hy expressing the charge q' in terms of the flux of P hy formula (3.13) can be written in a diHerent form. This can he proved if only by the fact that vectors P and E are connected through the relation P = xeoE. however.::~e~t~ of the leld of physICal meamng.18) 3. the divergence 0 f th e field D is equal to the volume densi ty of an oint extran~ous ch~rge .5). we can write (3. both hou~d and extraneous. Howe 't. too. this is not true.1.for fiel~e~ I t should h~.19) . This difficulty. I I~ DdS = through an arbitrary dosed surface is equal.~~t the dimensions o. eo a~. ~~~r~:~lOs~me' Differential form of Eq.\ (3. (3 18) justifies the introvdectt~r Do'f etxhf:~:~~or~~ne~ua~~o~ase~ it ~onsiderably simpliuc IOn . The 2quantlty D IS measured in coulombs per square metre (elm ). an ~ eoE dS = (q + q')lnt. The appearance of the hound charge q' complicates the analysis.18) is where q and q' are the extraneous and hound charges enclosed by the surface S. have an' deep inde~d an aux~liary veft~~rW~~: . '. III order to static The ql. we have defined an auxIlIary vector ~ (3. Indeed.'antity Dh~~llono i b e u~ing this D ~ .15) both isotr?pic (~nf7)anS\~~~~P. Formula (3. Then I V·D=p. (3. . We s a term. The quantity in the parentheses in t~~ integrand by D.
Formula (3.us charges and having only bound charges. and then. Example t. However the flux of vector D through the surface SWill remalll the same in . we obtain D = 8 0 (1 x) E. The field D can be graphically represented by the lines of vector D.18) and (a. An extrallPUUS 'poil~t charge '1.However. whose direction and density are determined in the same way as for vector E.20) shows that in isotropic dielectrics vector D is collinear to vector E. The removal of the dielectric will change the held E. Substituting this expression into (3.21) r The dielectric constant e (as well as x) is the basic electric characteristic of a dielectric. 3.78 3. or + I D=eoeE. 1. Since in o. and hence the lield D. since negative bound charges will vanish from inside. Hence we can lind lj. :::. made 01 an IsotropIC dIelectrrc WIth a dlelectrrc Relation Between Vectors D and . The lines of D pass without discontinuities through the regions of the field containing bound charges.4 shows the curves lJ (r) and E (r).) if the dielectric is removed.5).0 and an arbitrary sample 01 a homogelleou~.'. . l' or a sphere of radius r with the centre at the POlllt of locatIOn of the charge q we can write the following relation: 4. The value of e for water is rather high (8 = 81). in certain cases the field of vector D is determined only by extraneous charges. . for example. Example 3. I (3. be a sphere made 01 an electret (see p. Vector lJ 79 At the points where the divergence of vector D is positive we have the sources of the field D (p > 0). 1 '/ <:/:2' E r (r > a ) =="4ne o ~. 1 q Figure 3.ic. In the case of isotropic dielectrics. are only extraneous charges.E. 6b).4.LS constant e. For anisotropic dielectrics.l1lar theorem for vector E.20). Let us illustrate what was said above by several examples. IsotropIc dielectrrc (Fig. while at the points where the divergence is negative. is loc. The lines of E may emerge and terminate on extraneous as well as bound charges.e q >.20) where e is the dielectric constant of a substance: 8=1+x. This follows if only from the relation D = 8 oeE. We say that any charges may be the sources and sinks of vector E. The flux' of vector E through the surface S will also cha~ge. . while for vacuum 8 = 1.uc~ a ~ystem can. Fig. . the required quantity t r : E r (r < a) = 4ne". the sinks of the lield D (p < 0).wn to us).1!J). I~ure 3. The field E at any point of space is determined by the charge q and by bound charges of the polarized diele~tr. Example 2. Let us consider a system C?ntallllllg no extraneo. Electric field in Dielectrics 3. (3. Find"'ihe projectiun 1. At the same time. The value of 8 depends on the nature of the dielectric and varies between the values slightly differing from unity (for gases) and several thousands (for some ceramics). A Remark about the Field of Vector D.r"lJ r .ur case D = e eE this refers to the lield D as well: It IS also determIned by the exrra~eous charge q and by the bound char~es of the dielectric. h~d ?ut what Will happen to the ileIds of vectors E and D (and to theIr fluxes through the surface .tem.17).pite of the change in the lield D. of Iield intensity E as a functiun of the distance r frolll the centre of this sphere. . polarization P = xeoE. For materials 8> 1. where S isa certain closed surface.?a shows the field E of this sy::. These laws express only a certain property of field D but do not determine this field proper. since only on these charges the lines of D emerge and terminate. this s~rface. Suppose that a system consists of apoint ~harg. The field of vector D generally depends on extraneous as well as bound charges (just as the field of vector E). these vectors are generally noncollinear. What can we say about the fIeld Dt . usillg formula (3. this may lead to the erroneous conclusion that vector D always depends only on extraneous charges and to au incorrect interpretation of the laws (3. The syIllllletry uf the system allows us to use the Gauss th~orem for vector D for sol ving the 'problem (we cannut usc here the srn. ~L4 Fig. since the bound char~e is unlwo. however.r. It is just the cases for which vector D is especially useful. = q. The sIJurces and sinks of field D.atc(~ at th~ cenl~e of a sphere of radius a.
RO 3. (3.G 2 [ ~ ~ '"'r' I c J I~ • Fig.7 Fig. I !. 3 . Taking both projections of vector D onto the common normal n (which is directed from dielectric 1 to dielectric 2). smce here the relation D = 2 eE is no longer val and D = FoE P.PdPoslte dlfectlOns. The required conditions cari be easily obtained with the help of two theorems: the theorem on circulation of vector E and the Gauss theorem for vector D: ~E dI = 0 and ~ n dS == glnt I. Suppose that. 0 ' + projection of vector E not onto the unit vector 't' bu~ onto the common unit vector 't.1Tl each dielectric can be assumed constant.DIn' and the previous equation can be reduced to the form \ D 2n .!1S DIn' ·!1S = (JAS. . we obtain Din' = . + .u.t have a discontinuity).o IIOt emerge or terminate anywhE're.5. the 11I~ld J) PXISts ( .th . The cross sectIOn of the cylinder must be such that vector D is the same within each of its endfaces. t~e abs~nee of extraneous charges means that the field has ~o sou:(.eng. Boundary Condition for Veclor E. Boundary Conditions Let ~s first consider the behaviour of vectors E and D at.. If in the lower region of the contour we take the n n . . the tangential component of vector E turns out to be the same on both sides of the interface (it does no. Then. but inside the sphere they have 01. 3. in accordance'with the Gauss theorem for vector D.E H . Boundary Condition for Vector D. The sides of the contour parallel to the lllterfac~ must have slIch a length that the fwld E over this !. and It follows from the above equation that Ii: (3. We choose ~ sm~ll ?l(~_ngateu rectangular contour and orient it as ~hown In Fig.Din = a.e. 3. in accordance With the tllf'orem on circulation of vector E we IJave ' where (J is the surface density of the extraneous charge at the interface.L'. then En' = . for greater generality.~s. we have D 2n .:' Lines ofE Lines of D Cb) (a) Fig. 3. Electric Field in Dielectrics 3.5. The height of th~ contour must be negligibly small. Then. the mterface between two homogeneous isotropic dielectrics. ~et us ta~e a cylInder of a very small height and arrange it at the lll~erface between two dielectrics (Fig.8).. lJowever.8 and ~ coi~cid~ outsi?e the sphere. an extraneous su:face charge exists at tl16 interface between these dielectrICS.23) It follows from this relation that the normal component of vector D generally has a discontinuity when passing 60181 . 'md IS sllown I'n I"I'g . Let the field near the lDterface be E 1 in dielectric 1 and E 2 in dielectric 2. the Imes of D d. Boundary Conditions 81 First of all. 'fl}'Illes 0 l' L "b L' _ Ie J) where the projections of vector E are taken on the direction of the circumvention of the contour.22) 3. shown by arrows in the figure. . 3.
5. we obtain the law of refraction of lines E. 8 2 > 8 1). the electric fteld inside a conductor is E =. ~ tan Cl2 tan (.2). If a homogeneous dielectric adjoins a charged region of the surface of a COIlductor.82 3. wo ohtain extraneous pouents o[ vectors D are equal leads to the conclusion that LJ 2 in magnitude.with (3.26) E H /E 2n E u /E l1l • Taking into aceount the above conditions.9. Example.24).e. In equilibriulll.(.ity a' appeal' at the conductordielectric interface (recall that the volume density of bound charges p' = 0 for a homogeneous dielectric).26).9). are refracted (Fig. E 2 . while the components En and D. have discontinuities.8). 3. and 8 2 E 2n = 8 r E ln • Figure 3.9 FieldD Fig. as is shown in Fig.('. and hence the polarization P = O. the lines of D must be denser in dielectric 2.'n in accordance with (3.·1. Le. and hence of lines D: . the lines of E are charges). If.c 0. If medium 1 is a conductor and medium 2 is a dielectric (see Fig. This means. Considering that the tangential component of vector E remains unchanged anrl using Fig. IIenceD 2n = a. in accordancp. anfl J)n vary continuollsly dnring a transition through this interface.1U We see that in the case under consideration. Le. The boundary conditions which we obtained for the components of vectors E and D at the interface between two dielectrics indicate (as will be shown later) that these vectors have a break at this interface. E2 Et (. refracted and undergo discontinuities (due to the presence of bound Boundary Condition 'on the ConductorDielectric Interface. Le. Boundary Conditions 83 throngh tllO inlt'l'[a(.10. tltel'O aro charges at the interface (u = 0). however. in the notations of formula (:L~3) D1 = 0 and DIn = O. . = E l . assuming that awl llli~re is 110 extraneous charge on this surface. > LJ 1 I Din fl~1l" I In this case the normal components of vector l) do not have a discontinuity and tUI'll out to he tlte same on different sides of the interfaGo.10). i.17).23) that (3. in the absence of extraneous charges at the interface hetween two homogeneous isotropic dielectrics.9. .9 shows that tan Cl2 tan Cll FieldE Fig 3.2!'i) This means that lines of D and E will form a larger angle with the normal to the interface in the dielectric with a larger value of 8 (in Fig.25) Cl 2 > at (Fig. The fact t~at. Considering that there are both bound and extraneous charges (a 0* . the lines of E ill dielectric 1 must be denser than in dielectric 2. bound charges of a certain r1en:. Let us now apply the Gauss theorem to vector E in the same way as it was done while deriving formula (2. Thus. whileihe lines of D are only refracted.3. the normal corn:. Let us represent graphically the fields E and D at the i II ["ri'ace hetween two homogeneous dielectrics 1 and 2. that vector D =~ 0 inside the conductor.ince it is inessential in the given case). Electric Field in Dielectrics /10 9.22) and (3. Let us flIld the relation between the angles a l and a 2 • In the absence of extraneous charges at the interface. Let us verify formula (~). the components E.3.'2> 1'1 where n is the conductor's outward normal (we omitted the subscript 2 :. 3. 3. Hdl'action o[ E and D Lines. 3. we have. 3. We can easily show that F 2 < Hl in magnitude. WI ~hou t thscon ttnuities (since there are no extraneous charges at the Illterlace). according to (.3. Bound Charge at the Conductor Surface. it follows from formula (3. Since 1'2 > .
Only the magnitude of the field at each point will be different. we encounter serious difficulties: determination of the macroscopic field E' of bound charges in each specific case is generally a complicated independent problem. the signs of these charges being opposite. according to (3. a + G' = eDEn. (3. whence ' I 81 0=8. in other cases the situation is much more complicated.1 that the determination of the resultant field E in a substance is associated with considerable difficulties. As a result of polarization.0 . and the configuration of the resultant field E in the dielectric will remain the same as in the absence of the dielectric. E' III II II' I :1 1 I' It was noted in Sec.3t) This relation can be easily obtained from the formula E = = Eo + E' ifl we take into account diat Eo = eE and P = xeoE. Thus.2G) E" = Dn/ee. extraneous charges are located on conductors.6. where En = Dnlee o = a/eeo' and hence G + a' = Gle. This means that the distribution of surface charges (extraneous charges a and bound charges a') at the conductordielectric interface will be similar to the previous distribution of extraneous charges (G). while solving the problem about the resultant field E in a dielectric.3. Let us now fill the entire space of the field with a homogeneous dielectric.29)(3. the. since the distribution of induced charges in the substance is not known beforehand. (3. CornU. the intensity E of the field . In the eases indicated above. According to (3. we obtain • D = Do. namely.Fie.29) E = Eo/e. I (3. 3. we obtain Gle = G + a'.27) the charges = Ple{}. in the general case. Field in 84 /l Homogeneous Dielectric 85 3.6. In this caBe also E = Eo/e and D = Do inside the dielectric. if a homogeneous dielectric fills the entire space oeeupied by a field.27) I t can be seen that the surface density G' of the bound charge in the dielectric is unambiguously connected with the surface density G of the extraneous charge on the conductor. . Field in a Homogeneous Dielectric a on the surface of the conductor. and forml1las~ (3. Normally. in equilibrium the field E inside the conductor is zero. Electric Field in Dielectrics a' are unambiguously connected with the extraneous charges and G') at the conductordielectric interface we arrive at the following expression: E" = (G + a')le o' On the other hantl. An exception is the case when the entire space where there is a field Eo is filled by a homogeneous isotropic dielectric. the field E itself has become less than the field Eo by the same factor: (3. It turns out that formulas (3. Let us consider this case in greater detail.28) But if the charges creating the field have decreased by a factor of e everywhere at the interface. Let the fIeld created in the space surrounding the conductor be Eo.3t) are inapplicable. As we already know.re will be no field inside the conductor (E = = 0). only surface bound charges G will appear in this dielectric at the interface with the conductor.o = alee o' Combining these two equations.30) Le.30) are also valid in a more general case when a homogeneous dielectric fills the volume enclosed between the equipotential sur1aces of the field Eo of extraneous charges (or of an external field). Consequently. the intensity E of the field of bound charges is connected by a simple relation with the polarization P of the dielectric. As before. the field of vector D does not change in this case. In accordance with the Gauss theorem. (3. As was mentioned above. which corresponds to a certain unique distribution of the surface charge G. Suppose that we have a charged conductor (or several conductors) in a vacuum. since unfortunately there is no universal formula for finding E'. 2. Multiplying both sides of this equation by eeo. It is only clear that the distribution of these charges depends on tho nature and shape of the substance as well as on the configuration of the external field Eo.29) and (3.
n E (x) of vector E and the po~~~t:fal ~(x). E = paleo (l ~ a). And since it is so. Electric Field in Dtl!lectrics 87 between the spheres with a. The thickness of the platt! IS 2a. D (since we know the dIstrr u'use the Gauss theorem for vector W take for the closed su~face a tion of only extran~ous charges)! hose endfaces coincid~s WIth the right cylinder of helghthl. An extraneous point charge q is at the centre of a spherical layer of a heterogeneous isotropic dielectric whose dielectric constant varies only in the radial direction as 8 = air. Plot schematic curves for the pro. (1) . h' I Here dq' is the bound c~arg~ ill th \ ~n. (3. (3. The Gauss thedo~i t~~c with th~ dielectric constant e IS made of a hBtnogeneous Ie ee 1 uniformly charged by an. Hence it follows that potential cp at all points will also decrease by a factor of e: cp = cpo/e.33) where U0 is the potential difference in a vacuum. Problems . (1) From symmetry co~.11 the middle of the plate. where a is a constant and r is the distance from the centre of the system. the centre of the sphere coinciding with the centre of the system. f vector D An infmitely large pla~e • 3. but in the absence of dielectric. 3. when a homogeneous dielectric fills the entire space between the plates of a capacitor. 1~h1liil~ Find the magnitude of vector E an. In the simplest case.:erp'4Jtr2 dr. Polarization of a dielectric and the bound charge. (2) will have the form and after certain transformation expressIOn 1 q ?" which is just the required result. the capacitance e = ql U of the capacitor filled by dielectric will increase e times e' = ee. extraneous Ex I{J charge with volume densIt~ P > O. . It should be noted that this formula is valid when the entire space between the plates is filled and edge effects are ignored.. Solution.e s~bIl :: icular to the surface 0 I' P a . we transform (1) .ii FIg. Find the volume density p' of a bound charge as a fuuction of r within the layer. (2) Find the surface and volume densities of the bound charge. 2 will be lower than the intensity Eo of the field of the same extraneous charges. / Solution. radii rand r dr. ChOOSlll I' Xaxis perpendicular to the pal'. pSa.Problems 9. one 0 ~'onal area of this cylInder be S. (3. (2) whence In the case under consideration we have el 81 Pr=xeoE r = e D r =.32) where CPo is the field potential in the ahrnce 01. siderations it is clear that ~'I= ~. pu. w. Let t I' crosssec 1 Then (ll y\ h DS = pSI. dq'.6). the pl a~e (assume that the poten~Ial IS ~ero n the middle of the plate). . E = pl/ee:o (1 ~ a).1. at the same magnitude of the charge q on the plates). .p'=~ q 4n:r 2 . Let us take the differential of this expression: 4Jt d(rl·p r) =  DS = D = = pi. by a factor of e. Considermg a q as follows: + r 2 dP r +2rP r dr=pr d r. w 1 I' a d' other points vectors E f a~h pef P In order to determine E. midplane (x = 0). the potential cp as functions of the dIstance 1 from the middl~ of. D where q' (r) is the bound charge inside the sphere. the potential difference U between its plates will he by a factor of e less than that in the absence of dielectric (naturally. the absence of dielectric. the dielectric.2. l.34) where e is the capacitance of the capacitor in. The same applies to the potential difference: U = Uoh. We shall use Eq. in the absence of dielectric. Then 4Jtr2 • P r = q' (r). E?. (3.3. taking a sphere of radius r as the closed surface.
llg n:. ·f I d· tributed with the volumc . (3.3r' ' E=!!=pa3~. b Y 1I~(i. E we shall use the Gauss theaSolution. e1 fJ'=Pn=e T· are ~hown in Fig. if the extraneous charge p > 0. where q is the extraneous charge within this sphere. D_ Pa3 . It is useful to verify that the graph of Ex (x) corresponds to the derivative alp/ax. In order to find the volume density of the bound charge.3. The curve for <p (r) is also llhown in this figure.. r. we must take into account the normalization condition: <p + 0 as r + 00. Plot schematically the curves of intensity E and potential <p of the electric field as functions of the distance r from the centre of the system.:' a. 3.12a. we have 4 4nr2IJ=Tlt (r 3 a') p. .=. p' =c 81 . we use Eq.88 3.e1 p. The curves for the functions E (r) and (2) The surface density of the boun ~ (r~ The curve for E (r) is shown in Fig.3.· 3. a b (a) 0 a (b) It can be seen that the hound charge is uniformly distributed over the bulk and has the sign opposite to that of the extraneous charge. c arge IS pa d ·t of bound charge it is sufficient to In order to find the volume enSI y f I (3 11) ~nd we get repeat the reasoning that led us to ormu a . D =7' P r E = . (2) In this case.. The curve <p (r) must have such a shape that the derivative 8<plar taken with the opposite sign ~orresponds to the curve of the function E (r). Hence IJ p r3 a' E.. 3.r.eEo 38 08 r The corresponding curves for E (r) and cp (r) are shown in Fig.12 • 3. . (2) In accordance with (3. (1) We use the Gauss theorem for vector D. Besides. 4nr D =3 na p.= . the bound charges appearing on both surfaces of the plate are also positive. D (r > a) = q/4nr 2 • . At the points where the function E (r) has finite discontinuities.13). 388 8100 0 D p The required intensity is E (r < a) = 0. (1) In . eo 3eo r E (r > a) = D/eeo. the function <p (r) is only broken. 2 4. e e o\'!~.. viZ· .:KU E d x doc~ not depend on coor(I rna t es mEq. 3. e This result is valid for Il0th sides of the plate.order to ketcr~h~e di~tribution of only extraneous rem for vector D smce we now c~: a r<a. Fig. Hence it follows that D (r < a) = 0.. 4nr3IJ=Tnr p. Extraneous ~argerUd·lu~r:\:ad~of a homogeneous dielecdeMity p > 0 over ~ sp ~:e 0 ~~nd (1) the magnitude of vector E as tric . Thus. (2) over the layer's hulk.( ax e1 px)=. . with the pet:nntttvI y 8.12b. pa>O.13. he centre of the sphere and plot the function of the dl!~tanceEr(f)ro~d tm (r). the surface density of the bound charge is fJ where P is the volume density of the extraneous charge. (2) the surface and volume dencurves of the functions raT ' sitie5 of bound charge. (3.!.9) which in our case will have a simpler form: p'=_ ap x ax =_. in accordance with the Gauss theorem. 3. if the dielectric is charged by a positive extraneous charge distributed uniformly (1) over the inner surface of the layer. e1 =Pn="X8 0 E n =(e1)pa/e=. Since P = "XfO an . It should be noted that the curve corresponding to the function cp (r) is continuous. 4 . Solution. A homogeneous dielectric has the shape of a spherical layer whose inner and outer radii are a and b. taking for the closed surface a sphere of radius r: 4nr'D = q.11. d . Electric Field in Dielectrics Problems 89 The graphs of the funtions Ex (x) and <p (x) are shown in Fig.9).4. fl· (1) 'rh••• __It can be obtaincd ill a different way.
3. 4nr D = q. Fig. . potential <fJ of the conducior eS~.dr.16 r 0 I ntcgrating this expression.J:!. ~ i' . (2) Using this formula. where P is the polarization.. IS filled wIth an isotropic from the centre of the svste~ea. q b . Suppose that we have a dielectric sphere which retains polarization a ·Fig..L. we find q b 4ne oa U = 4neoa In a' C = In (bla) • • 3. (1) Derive this formula assuming that the sphere is polarized as a result of a small displacement of all positive charges of the dielectric with respect to all its negative charges. .15). pI ~ P. If the sphere is.15 Fig. Let us find E with the help of the Gauss theorem for vector D: D 1 q 1 q 2 E = EEo = 4nEo ~ ~ 4'1Eo r. 4n£o ~. the field intensity inside it is E' = .capacitor with heterogeneous dielectric who' _ .~I~~~agnce C =11~!<fJ· Let us find . Solution. ...air.E H' ' .• " . Substituting the latter expression into (1) and integrating. It remains for us to take into account that in accordance with (3. Capacitance of a ca ac·t t e radii of the plates a and b \\~er~ or:A ~pherical . find the intensity Eo of the field in the spherical cavity inside an infinite homogeneous dielectric with the permittivity f if the field intensity in the dielectric away from the cavity is E. Electric Field in Dielectrics Problems 91 side the sphere). where a is a constant. su~~o~~de~lIbd the capacitance of a y a layer of a homoge where we assume that the charge of the inner plate is q > O. . ence p = x (p p').~"'..90 3. f .. .''. spherical conductor of radius a. + p' p' = V'p = XEllV. bearing uniformly distributed charges with volume densities p and po Suppose that as a result of a small shift.b. (1) Let us represent this sphere as a combination of two spheres of the same radii. 3. a n8. Dy definition th . Plot approximat~r:fur~:s f~~Pf radius b and the dielectric contan ce from the centre of the sphere Y)t~nd <fJh(r).13 r Fig. a.4). polarized uniformly.ertlOSitiOD. Find p nEoE a <fJ=~4 (_1_ j~).:.5.7.I e sp ere IS charged positiSolution._ HE1) a!b Ill' curves for E (r) and () <fJ r are shown in Fig.. 2 \ £r .. The Ga_ theorem and the principle of SU. which gives for + • 3. . which directly follows from the Gauss theorem. .er~ttl\'!ty depends on the distance r the capacitance of the capacitor. Capacitance of a cond t .the . 3.= after an external electric field is switched off.!L dr' _1 \ q T 4 . b menta y a charge q to 1 . !U) th I ~ efillltlOnofthecapacitanceof djffere~ce 'u f~lrob~em jreduced to determination of th: a gIven c large q: IS u= J a b Edr.. ·t. eo 3eo capacltor(C= potential So/ution. In accordance w'th th d . the centres of the spheres are displaced relative to one another by a distance I (Fig.P/SEo. 3.14. Then at an arbitrary point A inside the sphere we have E' =E~+E~=3P(r+r_)= __ . 00 "1 00 <fJ= \ E r dr= _ . . we obtain where EoV'E = P mula (1). 3. (1) where we used the fact that field intensity inside a uniformly charged sphere is E = pr/3E o. (2) The creation of a spherical cavity in a dielectric is equivalent to the removal from a sphere of a ball made of a polarized material.6. r2 . ~here r is the disVI' l y.14 Ileous diplectric and hav· tI stant f. we obtain h 4nE oEa 1c.''. h • 3. . 3.
IS dq'=o' • 2:rtr' dr'.8. 3. It fa o~ eE . II from the continuity of the normal Solution. Solutioll. when> Eon is the normal component of the vector Eo in a vacuum.21) at the interface between dielectrics.1 there theno surface is = + e) E/3. The dielectric's permittivity is e. (2) the total hound charge on the surface of the dielectric. Boundary conditions.=_e1 1 q2 (J' .. 4:rte o r 2 .. we can write 2:rtr 2 D o or D 2n = DIn' ( E 2n = eE1n o where the u'rm a' /2£0 is the component of the electric field created Dear the region of the plane under consideration..e..s t r \\1 the centre at the point of locatIOn o.Lor E in the vlclmty will contribute to consl d era 10 • of the point underthe n?rm a t"c~P~ence the above equality can be written in the form 0'/2eo = e (0'/2eo).a' component of vector D thatf2 n n~. e1 e+1 q. Solution.. i.inte~face ._ ) . • 3. n the plane separating a va. we fmd Er. . The dielectric permittiv~ ity is e.17): 0' . dq'=e'+1 qlrz· q'=  (1) UsilJJ{ conditions (3. J Besides. In this case. 3. . 3. t from the C arge qlHI cone WUI'tv of lhe tanrrential component of vee r · <.1) EoE.0.re~~ sion for dq' combined WIth (1) glV~S e1 dr + R= V E~IE~. in a('cordance with the principle of superposition. E < Eo.lIr As +.a are r' and r' + dr'. and hence tance r from thiS cha~ge'l u m for vector D.a a' +. In the vicinity of point A (Fig. all( I'll tJ'e ". (2) Let us imagine at the lllt~h t the inner a. Find (1) the surface density of the bound charge as a function of the distance r from the point charge '1 and analyse the obtained result. It can be ~: n from the figure that r 2 = 12 r • whence r dr = r' dr'. 'I hiS mea~s a . if the charge q ISt JUS t a t h t cos t} . Taking fo~ the ~lose~ we must use theofG~uds. and b' depends only on the dlsis the field of the. pomt char~e ( ~eq ~harge q' is unknown.S lCo:'~h the charge q. no bound surface charge (with the Thus. in the giv~n ca~e I~re:s 'ontact with the extraneous point exception o~ ~hc pomt~hl~ ~lh~e~le~tric licld iu the surrounding spa~e charge q)._ cos \'t. The surface rmg . the electric field intensity in vacuum is equal to Eo.~O: ~ p(). A point charge q is in a vacuum at a distanc\: 1 from the plane surface of a homogeneous dielectric filling the halfspace below the plane.16) belonging to a dielectricvacuum interface.' 1. we obtain i. where the surface charge density is a'. Find the ratio E/Eo.' outer radii of this the point 0 (Fig. . the field E inside the dielectric can he represented as the sum E = E' + + Eo· Hence Eo Problems 93 1'1 'II Considering that P = = E  E' (2 = E + P/3E (e:. from t Ie t 5 E it follows that J) = d'o. The field intensity inside the dielectric is ' f a CI' a thin rinO' with the centre at charge on the plane. and the vector Eo forms the angle ao with the normal to the interface at the given point. m . • 3.I II.0 quantity th. Integrating this equatio~ over r between land 00. = ~. an~ the exp. Suppose .17). En = IJnlce o = Eonle = Eo cos aole. . • to .cos t}+=e 4n:f o r 2e o 1 q (J' ..:t of veo. bound charge WI thm th' rIDg is . Let liS Use the continuity of the normal component vector D at the dielectricvacuum interface (Fig. From the last equality it follows that 0. we find Do ~ 2lt (1+e) r 2 q ' (1) eq j)oc= 2lt <1+1.r~e . Electric Field in Dielectrics 1 Ii 1. where E is the intensity of the field in~ side the dielectric in the Vicinity of point A.[ m .22) and (3.r 2 J) = q. we obtain Eo ' O Here we took into account.lIlt charge q dl'~I~ctric with the dil~lectric p~rmlttlvlfrom an mtimte magmtudes 0 I F' d the fiomo~eneousf vectors D and E in the entIre space. ty e. 3.IIl II '. e+ 1 2ltr 3 ~ ' I II ""uit'ltll'S of H'l'tor D at the disLa. Substituting these expressions into (1).cu~I!1 • 3.9. 2e + 2rr.) r 2 • .e. lu 'I .I'eleclric reS}lech"eiy.nce r o where Do h and J) are th lC V"CUUIn . we obtam Fig. 92 3. We immediately und that ~.17 = Eo sin a o. '/ Consequently. Combining these two conditions. surface a sphere ra 1U.Only the surface cha.
2= F I (dlldl l )· The obtained results are represented graphically in Fig.1 = l'lA1. Energy of Electric Field 4. and 1! ' I{ 6At.. 6.111. The force F acting on charge 1 from charge 2 is conservative (as a cellt~al force). = 80 de. Consequently. the work of the given force in the displacement dli can be represented as the decrease in the potential energy of interaction between the pair of charges under consideration: 6. It IS .3' But as it has just been shown. performed by all forces oE interaction during elementary displacements of all the charges can be represented as the sum of the works of three pairs of interactions. 3. the sum of the elementary works done by two charges in an arbitrary system of reference K is always equal to the elementary work done by the~or~e acting on one charge in another reference system (/\ ) III which the other charge is at rest. In other words. Field E Fig.1. the work 6A l. 2 + 6A1. 3. 2 . First of all. Electric Energy 0/ a System of Charges 95 and the ele&tric field intensity in the entire space is E = . should be noled that the field n in this case is not determined by the extranC?us charge alone (otherwise it would have the form of the field of a pOlllt charge).dW l2 .18. where W l2 is the quantity depending only on the distance between these charges.1'\ (according to the N.3 + 6. i.dl~.1 2 .2==Ft.of charge 1 relative to charge 2. Hence. Suppose" that ill a certain system of reference K the charges were displaced by dl l and dl 2 during the time Thus. famlhar expressions for D and E of the point charge in a vac 6/1 1• z = FI·rll l + F 2 ·dl z· Considering that F 2 = .Z does not depend on the choice of the initial system of reference. 2.18 FieldD The quantity in the parentheses is the dis~la~ement .ewton third law). Besides.dl z = dli. dl l . It .!.!J!.the ~IS placement of charge 1 in the system of. 1. we can write this expression in the form 61'11.94 4. Then the corresponding work of these forces is 2n (t +e) 'I for 2 It ean ~ seen that for 8 = 1 these formulas are reduced to the already uum. The energy approach to lllteractlOn between electric charges is. We shall [lOd the algebraic sum of the elementary works of the forces F I and F 2 of interaction between the charges. 4. it turns out that. let us find out how we can arrive at the concept of the energy of interaction in a system of charges.1.e. Let us first consider a system of two point charges 1 and 2. Let us now go over to a system of three point charges (the result obtained for this case can be easily g~neralizerl for a system of an arbitrary nllmber oE charges). Indeed the displacement dl l of charge 1 in system K can be rep. fhe war\.Approach to Interaction. referen.ce whIch is rigidly lixell to charge 2 and accomplishes wIth It a trallSlational motion relative to the initial reference system K. thi~ approach makes it possible to consider the electric field from a different point of view. In other words.esented as the displacement dl 2 of . Energy 01 Electric Field 4. . as will be shown rather fruitful in respect of its applications. Electric Energy of a System of Charges ~nergy .system K' plus the displacement dli of charge 1 relatIve to system K': dl l = dl z +dlj.
each pair of charges of t. there corresponds a certain value of energy W. 4. It.2 . can be seen from the figure that. we can state that to each configuration of an arbitrary system of charges. Energy of Electric Field k for each pair of interactions 6A i. The p. we obtain the final expression for the energy of mteractlOn of the system of point charges: II! .0t..1~ g. Four similar point ch. Thus.1).~ plpdV. We again first consider a system of three point charges. We represent each term W ik in a symmetric form: Wilt = + = ~ (W lk + W kl ). lienee q q =+ q [(W 12 + W (3) + (TV21 + W23 ) + (W:11 + W32 )].4J.em. The energy of interaction fn.ential q> at the point of 10catlOII of one of the charges.1) Example. (4. since the above line of reasoning . and the work of all the forces of interaction upon a change in this configuration is equal to the decrease in the energy W 6A (4. is q> = 3q/4ne oa. created by the Held of all the other charges. (4. Let us group the terms with similar first indices: W Another approach to the solution of this problem is based on formula. Consequently.. for which we have found that W = W 12 + WllI + W 23 • This sum can be transformed as follows. and hence  + W13 + W 23 ) dW.his system i~ t. 6A = d (W12 = = dW ik . Let us find the expression for the energy W. I·tnd the energ) of tnter ac:tinll of charges in this syst. q Energy of Interaction.he same and equal to 1V I = q2 /4m oa. and hence the energy W of the given system of charges is a function of its configuration. then.3) =  dW.3).2) Considering that WI =c= qi(Pio where qi is the ith cha:ge of tho system and (ei is the potential create~ ~t the pomt of location of the ith charge by all the remaunn~ charg~s. (W t + W 2 + W s) =+ ~ 3 Total Energy of Interaction. representing the system of charges. If the charges are arranged continuously. 4.(D· I riO = W 12 + W13 + W 23 • Each term of this sum depends on the distance betwoon corresponding charges. Hence the latter expression can be written in the form W = . Then W = .ith an edge a (I'lg.:1) from summation to integration. since W ik = W k !. we obtain Wj' i=l 70181 w· ~. Electric Energy of a System of Charges 97 96 4. Fig. obviously docs 1I0t depend on the number ~f charg?s constituting the system. the total number of interacting pairs is six. Similar arguments are obviously valid for a system of any number of charges.rdbedron w.. as a combination of elementary charges dq = p dV and gOlQg over in (4.1 Each sum in the parentheses is the energy WI of interaction between the ith charge with all the remaining charges. the energy of mteractlOn for a system of point charges is where W is the energy of interaction for the given system of charges: W t4. (W t2 + W21 + W 13 + W31 + W 23 + W 32 ). a~d hence the energy of interaction of all point charges of the system IS W = 6 WI = 6 q2/4ne oa. I This expression can be generalized to a system of an ubitrary number of charges.~rges q ar~local('d at th: ve:tice~ of a tet.
Energy of a Capacitor. we have 1 =2 q+ «(jJ+ <p) =2 qU.tion b~ formula (4. (4. We shall return to this question in Sec.split the charge of each ball into infinitely small elements p dV and multiply each of them by the potential <P created by not only the charge elements of another ball hut by the charge elements of this ball as well.. According to (4. we obtain the following expression for the energy of the capacitor: I w~5'{~!f7* \ f.4) p by 0' and dV hy dS.. and W 12 the energy of interaction between the cjJ. The remallllllg !ntegral is just the charge q on the conductor.98 4. this is not so since the two expressions differ essentially. we shall use formula (itA) for obtaining several important results. Let us find the energy W of the given system by using both formulas.G) where <PI {(jJ2) is the potential created by charge q2 (ql) at the point where charge ql (q2) is located. we must replace in (4. Charged Conductor and Capacitor Energies !lO where (jJ is the potential created by all the charges of the system in the volume element dV. it gives intrinsic energies WI and W 2 • DIsregard of this circumstance is frequently a cause of gross errors. according to formula (4. W . + q2(jJ2) = qt(jJl = q2(jJ2. Energy of Electric Field 4. we see that the energy W calculated by formula (4. we have W ="'2 (qt(jJt 1 corresponds only to the energy W I2 .3).w. take (jJ in formula {4.arge elements of the first ball and the charge elements of the second ball. Let us explain this difference with the help of the following example. the result will be completely different: W I These three expressions are written assuming that C = q/(jJ. Energies of a Charged Conductor and a Charged Capacitor Energy of an Isolated Conduetor.j Suppose a system consists of two small balls having charges qi and q2' Thedistance between the balls is considerably larger than their dimensions.. have a charge q and a potential (jJ. Let a conductor. (4. Expression (4.4. o~ a capaCitor. The origin of this difference is in different meanings of the potential (jJ appearing in these expressions. Si?ce the value of (jJ IS the same at all points where charge IS located. for example. Now.4) gives the total energy o( lllteractwn: III a~dl tion to W 12 . The energies WI and W 2 are called the intrinsic energies of charges ql and q2' while W 12 is the energy of interaction between charge ql and charge q2' Thus. 1 = WI + W 2 + W 12 . Clearly. A similar expression can be written. the integral can be splIt lllto two parts (for the two plates). corresponding to the replacement of the concept of point charges by that of a continuously distributed charge.2.3). On. for a surface distribution of charges.:outof the integral.2.4). W 2 the same but for the second ball. ~ * = 0f f. Actually.e .5) W q+. the other hand. For this pmpose. According to (4.4). \ = (1t.4) we must . and potential of the positively charged plate.U is the potential difference across its plates. Let q and (jJ + be the charge. and we oLtam .3) where q = q+ is the charge of the capacitor ~nd . 4. II 'I Iii I!! where WI is the energy of interaction of the charge elements of the first ball with each other. hence qi and t}z can he assumed to be point charges. Then W Since q_ = = + (q+(jJ+ + q(jJ).4) can be erroneously interpreted (and this often leads to misunderstanding) as a modification of expression (4.7) . ~hile c~lcllla. 4. Consldermg that C = q/ U.can.
The last two formulas show that the electric energy is distributed in space with the volume density W=2=2 On Loc?lizatioll of Energy. Th~ elen~entary . throu~h field intensity E./' dq' = (q'IC) dq'. however. Integruting this expression over q' between 0 and q. w.tlloSU' _ £Ilo W 22 2 h = (Y )2 Sh • (4.s (4. Formula (4. we consider the process of charging a capacitor a" a transport of small portions of charge (d ') from one plate to the other. we obtain A This formula is valid for the uniform field which fills the volume V. Expenments show that electromagnetic waves carry energy. ~onsequel~tly. This circumstance confirms the idea that the field itself is a carrier of energy.100 4. Energy of Electric Field The integrand in this equation has the meaning of the ?nergy contained in the volume dV.3. the work done against the forces of the eleclnc lleld IS completely spent for accumulating t~Je en~rg~ W of the charged capacitor. Energy oj Electric Field 4. l' For anisotropic dielectrics the situation is more comp lcated. but also the energy of interaction of charges wlthlll each plate. t?at energy W can also be expressed t}~rough another quantity characterizing the field itself Vl~..by u~lDg the simple example of a parallelplate capacitor. I~uled he~e thai these formulas determine the lutal cllergy 01 lIltel'aCllOn. Let us at first demonstrat~ thIS .hulIJd Le. Substituting into the formula W = CU 2/2 footE' E·D (4. Moreover.\I'ork performed against the forces of the f1eld 111 th IS case IS bLl == l. we get V (the volume between the W =+eoeE2V. 4.10) It should be noted that this formula is valid only in the case of isotropic dielectrics for which the relation P = x€oE holds. all this applies to (4. Igno. where l. of the notion of energy localization in the field.6) as well. Obviously. For t!llS purpose. And Wh~t if We Have a Dielectric? We shall show that formula. which ~oilJcides with the expression for the total energy of a capacitor.e hav~ proved the validity of (4.D dV.7) in the presence of a dlOlectl'lc. q . viz. (4~9) = q2/2C. These vary~ng fields mav exist independently of electric charges WhICh have generated them and may propaga~e in space in the form of electromagnetic waves. the expression C = eeoS/h. In the general theory.cUt '. fJ) and (4./' i::> the potential tltfference between the plates at the moment whelJ the next portion of charge dq' is being transferred. This assumption was confirmed in experiments with fields varying in time.he~ plate.8) And since U1h = E and Sh capacitor plates).3. it is p~oved that the en~rgy can be expressed in terms of E (m the case of an £SOtrop~c dielectric) through the formula ':v W= ~ llo~E' dV= 4/ j E. It is the domain where we encounter phenomena that can be explained with the help.nn g field distortions near the edges of the plates (edge effect). f . the expression o. we obtain .7) are valid in the presence of a dielectric. This leads us to a very Important and fruitful physic'al idea about localization ot energy in the field. Thus. It turns out. Energy of Electric Field iOt J I :.DtalD~d for the work A is also valid in the case when there IS a dIelectric between the plates of a capacitor. not only the energy of interactIOII Lot \\ een the charges of one plate and those of the ut.4) defines electric energy n' of any system in terms of charge and potential.
where E = q2/4nB oBr 2. we get by using the ide~ of ~n~r 1 ulstral~Ing. 1. Considering that pote~tial n. Let us consider two exam l ' I l . 2 WlJ wh ere A is a point at the b . which is bound=dS dt T~·an ellementary volume dV= . and W where V = Sh and C= BoS/h. Bearing in mind that the magnitude of vector D will not change as a result of the removal of the plate. it does an additional work associated with polarizatioll. S being the area of each plate and h the distance bl'tween them. I. .\ •..D. frn accordance with coinciding the equipotential a closed surlace to h the Gauss t eorem. The work against the electric forces in this system. advantages gy oca lZatlOn In the field.10) the quantity EoE + P for D. the energy localized in the entire t ~ tubes (since they originate ~h esrme at the end faces of all write I' sur ace of the conductor). !"'lade of a homogeneous diel:ctr1 IS ~t the ce?tre of a spherical layer lI~ner and outer radii of the la eCr ~~th the dielectric constant E.T . 2C B W= i~ I' DdS. P 2 2' (4. The capacitance of the capacitor in the abseace of the dielectric is C. I' energy localized in this The Work of the Field During Polarization 01 a Dielectric. IS vo ume contains the energy dt ED DdS . e tep . we obtain W= 8nE oB q2 (1'. that D 2 = = D1 = (J.2 4. Integrating this expression over r between a and b.4itl" 2d r. and tak::'i~.we !ntegrate the l~st I' o~ pressIOn. pro uct m a I1. Therefore. Find the work that must be done against the electric forces in order to remove a dielectric plate from a parallelplate char~d capacitor.PosItIvely charged conductor.11) . we can write • A=W2 W I = \/~. let lIS substitute into (4. a 1) D dS ~ dW=2.10) for the volume energy density reveals that for the same value of E. = qrp/2. the quantity w is E times greater in the presence of a dielectric than when it is absent. we h 0: where WI is the energy of the field between the capacitor plates in the presence of thi!'Qielectric and W 2 is the same quantity in the absence of the dielectric. Example 2.102 4. In order to prove this.e. tlo a ~nd b respectively. which gives w=l'oE2+ E . when a field is induced i'l a dielectric.is equal to the increment of the electric energy of the system: A = 6. we finally get w~ere the is performed ov hlth one ofintegration is equalsurf ~chs.E. __ ~) 2B 2B B o o V = ~ (1~).1'. 4. proceeding from th. The e Fmd the electric energy contaiKed in thlJuadl. IS Ie ectrIC layer. .J~~2~fel·otcuaSI~hOt~ thaft L ' Iza IOn 0 et us consider an arbitrar . I t is assumed that the charge q of the capacitor remains unchanged and that the dielectric fills the entire space between the capacitor plates. Example 1. A . Q.'1. "2 dSdt =~ Edt.ufhe Ifield rrect . integrate the obtained fix£ression over all the tubes and Ja~t th d. A point char I' .W = W2  Edt=~ cp. 4.2).r{:. crossI' sections of the tube andeh out of the i~tegral~nce It can be taken Fig. An analysis of formula (.cross section.3. Let us now find th th~d in the entire isol:te~n~~?elo~al IS purpose. under the energy of the field in the dielectric we must understand the sum of the electric energy proper and an additional work which is accomplished during polarization of the dielectric. the. Energy of Electric Field 103 layer is given by BOllEI dW=Z. denbtallly isolate a tube of infinit~ . It remains for us to make ~1lllDlng of t~e Imagmary tube. We mentally isolate in the d' 1 . '. We I' y mes of E (Fig. this integral c arge q of the conductor. conSldermg that th d x D dS is the sa . Energy 01 Electric Field A~other substantiation for fo ~hr:gl of an i~olated charged cond~:~~~s(~9~ It is known that the energ. At first glance this may seem strange: field intensity in both cases is maintained the same. ical layer of radius from r to Ie +ect~lc ~hvery thin concentric spherr r. As a matter of fact.
. 4 . E.11). I. Hence.P/2 o aflzatlOn of the substance. eld. change the configuration of charges on each body..4.to (4.4) p' dl _ dP d o e negatIve charges. ~he positive charges relative\ e t~ddItlon~1 displacement of mg to (3./stem _. Unlike vector E.dJ ' where dJ + and dl are add' . 4. The intrinsic energy of hod ies remains constant upon all possible displacements that do not. Thus.. il' (4. Le. The first two integrals in (4.( r FoFt r Il" ) 2. the volu~e enee:econd t~rm in formula (4. proper and the energy E.4. we obtain Y  1 . the total energy W of the given system is equal to the sum of three integrals: lV  Fig. (4.3 disRlacements of char es' ..... while the last integral is the energy of their interaction (W I2 ). agamst the field upon g p+ and ~.... Aceord. Let one body create in the surrounding space the field E I . Neglect~~ I~~rease m the field intensity from g e secondorder terms we write 6A=p~E. However... the changes in Ware completely determined only by the changes in the interaction energy W)2' In particular.dl is h . (413) lY which coincides with formula (4. . the total work f unit volume of a dielectric ~~ent or the polarization of a . A wlndl coincides w'th th . A System of Two Charged Bodies Suppose that we have a system of two clwrged bodies in a vacuum..1 S.. . . where dl = dl + . In such cases. the energy eoE 2 /2 of the densIty w = E· D/2 includes associated with the 'p I .1 dIsplacements due to an Ig . + an we get 6A Since P E = xe o . the energy of the field increases n2 times.dl++r'E.104 4.e..14) + 6. It remains for with polarization I na energy E·P/2 is associated Le~ us calculate' the work done b . .12) oA =E'xe o dE= d ()(e~E2) = d (E~P). The following impprtant circumstances should be mentioned in connection with formula (4.1 = p: (dl+ . this is just the mode of behaviour of the energy of a system consisting of two point charges upon a change in the distance between them. we have = E.dP. 3. 3) .::. the field E 2 • The resultant field is E = E) I. energy density of the fiel~ E . n side comcldes with the us to verify that the "addit'o I~" a vacuufI. .dL).dl . polarIzation of a unit volume of th YI ~hle el~tr~e . 4.field for e ( Ie ectnc.. The intrinsic energy of each charged body is an essentially positive quantity.9)..l. increase in the fi""eld b dIEtlO(nFa. according . In particular.+E~ dJ  ...:. for the  . the energy of interaction can be either positive or ne~ative. = E·P/2.E 2 . while the other body.5) and reveals the field meaning of the terms appearing in this sum.9) is also always positive. E ~= p~ dl. the energy of a field E which is the sum of fields E) and E 2 is generally not equal to the sum of the energies of these fields in view of the presence of the interaction energy lV12 .14) are the intrinsic energies of the first and second chaJitred bodies (WI and W 2 ). 2. This can be readily seen from the fact that the integrand contains essentially positive quantities. . The total energy (1.of Tu'o Charged Bod/..P+. 1. and the square of this quantity is E2=E.s The first term on the ri htha d ' '. the energy of the electric field is not an additive quantity..14). if E increases n times everywhere. and consequently this energy can be assumed to he an additive constant in the expression for the total energy W. ConSI d ' ' ermg that P" = . . Energy of Electric Field 4._ 10. :  dl + 2E j ·E2 • + Therefore.I'espectIvely along and E to E dE.1 = 0  : ===~==: 11.. .L J I + . . Eof~ I ' JeoE j' E ~ c.
Equation (4.16). Substituting this expression for ~A into (4.rite ~A= dW\q. the forces Ilre cansed by the nonuniformi~YI of not only ~he ~acroscopic fIeld hut the microscopic e d as well. .tnc field on dIpole molecules of the polarized dielectnc ~It IS known that a dipole in a nonuniform electric field IS acte~l upon by a force direcled towards the increasing field). whIch IS created mainly by the nearest molecules of the polarized dielectric. The simplest case corresponds to a situation when charged conductors are disconnected from the powe~ supply. which is a purely mathematical operation.he most general. we obtain (4. the polarized dI~le~tnc IS deformed. This can be done as follows. Energy oj Electric Field 4. In thIS case.16) We must pay attention to the following circumstance. ( 0.~ ".be clllcnlat:ed in a sufficienLly simple way without a ~et~I1ed :malysls of their origin by using the law of conservatIOn of energy. Ponderomotive forces appa. We must simply find the increment dW under the condition that q = const.ating the forces with simulta~eous aJlaJ~~Is of th. It allows us to take into account automat~cally' all force interactions (both electric and mechanical) IgiorIng thei~ origin.by the dielectric. (4.5.wing to electrostriction. mechanical stresses appear In the dIelectric. and we may state that the work A of all mternnl forces of tII:e syst~m upon slow displacements of the conductors and dIelectncs is done completely at the expense of a decrease in the electric energy W of the system (or its field). It is well known that the force depends only on the position of bodies and on the distribution of charges at a given instant. !. . .ar In the lo.. •. but also an additional mechanical f~rce c. Forces A cUng in a Dielectric 107 4. These forces appear when the diel.L . rather complIcated.when charges. :. I e~ us consIder the essence of the energy method for calc~ atmg forces. To be mOre precise. as a rule.. Where F x is the projection of the force F onto the positive direction of the Xaxis. not only the electric force WhlC~l depe. the corresponding calculation leads to another:expression for the force: Fx = = aw/ax 11jO' However (and it is important!) the result + ~ .ectric is neutral as a whole.. In the general case.5.' .15) where the symbol q emphasizes that the decrease in the energy of the system must be calculated .15) is the initial equation for determining the forces acting on conductors and dielectrics in the electric field. This method is ~.. Unde~ t~e action of these electric forces.ng run due to the action of a nonunifo:m ~lec.'1ds on the charges) acts on a conductor in a polanzed dIelectric. It should be noted that if a displacement is performed at constant potential on the conductors. and hence leads to a correct result. we do not have to select conditions un~er which all the charges of the conductor are necessarIly constant (q = const)..' .e mechamsm of their appearance is. Then the work of the required force F over the distance dx is ~A = F xdx. it is assumed that such transformations are negligibly small. E~periments show that a dielectric in an electnc field expenences the action of forces (sometimes these forces are called ponderomotive). the resultant force acting on a conductor cannot be taken Into account by any simple relations and the ~I:oblem of calcul. for infinitesimal displacements we can w.' .' .aused . on the conductors are constant. However.: ~ 106 4.. Energy Method for Calculating Forces. the charges on the conductors rem?lll unchanged. t'5) and dividing both parts of (4. Suppose that we are interested in the force acting on a given body (a conductor or a dielectric). Let us displace this body by an infinitesimal distance dx in the direction X we are interested in..15) by dx. In this case. It cannot depend on how the energy process will develope if the system starts to move under the action of forces. Here we assume that these displacements do not cause the transformation of electric energy into other kinds of energy. the effect o a dIelectrIc on.' ".I. And this means that in order to calculate F x by formula (4. in many cases these forces can . This phenomenon is called electrostnctwn: As a r~sult of electrostriction. Thus. Forces ~cting in a Dielectric Electr~striction.
(4.4 w~ere ~ is the permittivity of the dielectriC. as should be expected. if we mentally move the plates ap1l.j:~ X ~ 2ee oS ' Fig.this case..5. let us cho~se the posItIve dIrection of the X axis as is sho\vn In Fthlg. calculation of F:c with the help of this formula or (4.dlsta. are by a factor of e smaller than the values of Eo and F 0 in the absence of dielectric.16). Th'. For this.rpos?. It should be noted that Gnother field differing from the field in the dielectric will be acting on the extraneous charge itself (which is located on some small body). We shall be speakmg of the force acting on a unit surface area of a charged conductor in a liquid or gaseous dielectric.us consider a parallelplate capacitor in a hqUld dielectnc.st convenient expresSion for the energy of the capacitor is W ~e ~orce u. . Example: Fin? the !orce acting on one of the plates of a II 1plate ~apaCltor III a .i08 4.19) where E is the field intensity in the dielectric at the point where the extraneous charge q is placed.1s. Nevertheless. II?. Formula (1) of the last example shows that the force of interaction between the plates of a parallelplate capacitor in a liquid dielectric IS smaller t~an the corresponding force in a vacuum by a factor of e (Ill vacuum e = 1). Here the mo. the forces of mteractlOn between charged conductors (at constant charaes '" .19) gives the correct result. strange as it may seem. Experiment shows that this resul~ can be gener~liz~d: if the entire space occupied by a ~eld IS ?lled by a lIqUId or gaseous dielectric. jf the distance het~a the ~lateJ h . Energy of Electric Field 4. including those where q =1= const upon small displacements. the force is attractive The minus sign i!I this formula indicates that vector F is directed which is smaller than the force in a vacuum by a factor of e.x c x'+dx const. Forces in a Liquid Dieleetric. We must pay a special attention to the fact that point charges in this law are extraneous charges concentrated on macroscopic bodies whose dimensions are small in comparison with the distance between them.oW ax y nature.nder t.he assumption that  q = F _ ~ Q n "toG CC= _ _ :r F. unlike the Coulomb law in vacuum. .hquid dielectric. Le. This formula expresses the Coulomb law for point charges in an infinite dielectric. I t is interesting to note that the electric field intensity E as well as the· forceF acting on a point charge q in a h~mogeneous liquid or gaseous dielectric filling the entire space of the field.e.~f~I~ ~. the law (4.16) and will use it for any conditions.rl the volta e U on them) decrease by a factor of e: F = Fo/e. the force acting on the upper plate of e capaci tor IS +q<J__ q. Therefore._1~. This means that the force F acting on the point charge q in this case is determined by the same formula as in vacuum: F = qE. infinite. and :r is th~ . formula (4. :'CCO~dlllg to (4. a very narrow field of applicationi!<the dielectric must be homogeneous.4. Consldenng that q = we transform (1) to I=~ q 2ee oS • (1) ~owards the neg~tIv~ values on the Xaxis. tre capac~tance. Forces Acting in a Dielectric 109 of the. WIth the help of formula (1.17) Hence it follows that two point charges ql and q2 separated by a distance r and placed into an infinite liquid or gaseous dielectric interact with the force F . F" = GUt/2h. We must not be confus.16).. liquid or gaseous. I. while the interacting bodies must be pointlike in the macros~opic sense.llce ~etween them (x = h).4ne 2 o er (4. Only in this case formula (4.16) IS the same.=. ~ext.ed: the derivative aw/ox will be cakulated at q = const 10 such cases as well.i::~/tli:~i~~sh:iin::. (4.18) has. let . Surface Density of a Force.19) makes it possible to determine the field E in the dielectric from the known force F. of !he capacitor under given conditions is an vo tage U IS malOtamed across its plates.. 4. ~ IS the area of each plate. as = Ds = ee ES and E = Ulh 0 .18) :te full:~~f:::h~~el~~~: ~h~c. pu. 4. henceforth we shall confine ourselves to the application of only formula (4.
1L +.. bet:v~en the chafl~es o.1:80 • 4 3 Two small metallic balls of radii R I and H 2 are in vacuum at a di~t~nce cl'1hsiderably exceeding their dimensions and ha.. Find the ratio ql /q2. Find the energy W of interaction between this charge and the charges induced on the plane. We can write straightaway 1 q2 W = . . Solution. The elecLric energy of this system is 1 W=WIIWz!W IZ = 4ne o (qI +.e I a certain total charge. q:. Energy of Electric Field Problems 111 Suppose that the capacitor is charged and then disconnected from the power supply to maintain the charge and the field E of the capacitor constant when the plates are moved apart.e. located at a fixed distance l on the other side of the plane. the energy W of interaction between the shells. Energy of interaction. ' The energy of interaction between the charged shells is equhl tt: the char e of one shell multiplied by the po.1:£0 2R I.1. if R 2 > R I • = HI/Hzo l2 The potential of each hall (lIwy can he. In accordance with (4. I'.20) q2 R z == 1 4)1£0 ~.2. q I q2 The total electric energy of the system is W=WI+WzjIt'IZ= 4ne 1 o (qI t· ' 2H t '1~ 28 : qlqz) ' 2 R z • We have obtained an interesting and important result of a general nature (for a liquid or gaseous dielectric). the intrinsic energy of each h It u e/qo:~l to qm/2 where <F is the potential of a shell created o!lly s e t hiS c harge q on I .q(p.sll'lh"llOlI. mlmmaI.4.. mutual. : qe. Intrinsic.6). A system consists of two concentric metallic shells of radii R I and R 2 with charges ql and q2 respectively. where S is the surface area of each plate and x is the distance between them (Sx is the volume occupied by the field).R I z ' 'U' where we took into account that R I and R 2 are consideraIlly smaller than land q\lq2 • 4.= O. I.16). and total energies. Let us consider once again Fig. we have IU h W __ 1_ _. I' .iL1_qlqZ) ' 2R 2H ' l 2 I where Wand Ware the intrinsic electric energies of the b~IIs ~qljJ~~~. the force acting on the upper plate is 1 Fx=c 8W/8x l q = "2 EDS.tem ~s.is (p ~ q!.R: Hence it follows (rolll tlip ahove I'dallOll that '. In our case (R 2 > R). t l~ balls at which the energy of. 4neo [. .: . Problems • 4. The energy W is minimal when aWlaql . The energy of the capacitor is the energy of the field within it. W is th~ energ) of their interaction (ql<F2 or qz<FI).ta~~e between the balls. (p .I' .tential <F created b~ t e c_arge of th~ Zther shell in the point of locatIOn of the charge q. and the total electric energy 0 the system W..(q_q.J.II a d. we have W 12 ~~ qt 1 4n£0 whence the surface density of the force is (4. A point charge q is at a distance l from an infinite conducting plane. S l t' In accordance with (4. the intrinsic energy of each shell IS 1 W 12 =. It turns out that the surface density of the force acting on a conductor is equal to the volume density of the electric energy near the surface. 2 4.e._ _ 4.q/4Jt£'0 R ' . anhd l 11. this energy is W = (1/2) EDSx.where f{ is the shell rad1U~.)2 +2R 2H I ql (qLqtl 2 l J. Let us mentally "freeze" the charge distributed over the plane and displace under these conditions the point charge q to infinity.110 4. lhe I'0ll n tial difference is ('qllal to zp['o lor SIlI·. 4. By formula (4. What IS the po tential difference between the balls III thiS case? Solutiun. .ql' where q IS t e to a c arge of the system. W I2 . IIence I q ~q I~ Rt+R z R Rz and qz""'q RI. considered isob ted) .9). 'r 't' by e • Thus. This force is directed always outward along the normal to the surface of the conductor (tending to stretch it) regardless of the sign of the surface charge. In this case the charge q will move in the potential field which is 'equivalent to the field of a fixed fictitious point charge __q.the sys. Since q2 =. Find intrinsic energies WI and It' 2 of each shell. q .
electric ene..<n.5 Fig. Assuming that the dielectric constant is equal to unity everywhere. T~ is due to the fact that this approac~ does not take into account the additional work pNformerl by electnc forces upon the change in the configuratiOI) of the charge q located on the l'Xpanding shell. and hence the energy localized in it. . neo r Z We can now calculate the intrinsic electric energy of the sphere: a W=Wt+Wz=) 00 e~Ef 4nrz dr +) e~E~ 4nr 3 dr= 8n~:R (}+1). we obtain . A spherical shell is uniformly charged by a charge q.fhus.<P2). in the initial positiono. It is interesting to note that the ratio W/W z does not depend on • 4. 4. 8neo IIlJ 80181 .1. Find the work of electric forces upon the expansion of the shell from radius R t to R z• Solution.5). 1 = .the charg~. Let us first find the fields inside and outside the sphere with the help of the Gauss theorem: As a result of integration.. a Fig.En 4m z dr. Find the work done by electnc forces III thiS system upon the remo\al of the charge q from its original position through a small hole (Fig.6.(r. changed only in the hatched spherical layer.W z= rT J Z eo (Ei. the latter is locahzed III the field.and oute~ radl. and incorrect. POSI twn there IS a certalll field (since the conducting spherical layer IS far from the charge q). .f . .6) to a very large distance from the spherical layer. we note that upon the expansion of the shell (Fig. Consequently. It can be easily seen that the field around the charge q wtll change only within the spherical layer with the inner radius a and the outer radius b. By using the Gauss theorem. '.Wz. while in the fmal. 4.• 1_) Remark. • ~. we obtain qZ ab . Solution. the .. We shall proceed from the fact that the work of electric forces is equal to the decrease in. it follows that 1 3q z W=4neo 5R ' the radios of the sphere. As is well known.2 .5. W t . of a sphlfical unch~rged conducting layer whose inner . A point charge q is at the centr~.?R). the answer would be (II [ferent Et = 4 q neoR 3 r (r ~ R). The work of electric forces ia equal to the decrease in the electric energy of the system: A = Wt  W2• In order to find the difference WI . If we try to calculate the work in terms o[ the potential as A = q (<PI .4. a ~ __ 1_ k 2 4neo r2 ' Considering that R = q/4nEor2 and dV = 4m 2 dr.argo q(l at the point of location of the charge q. we find E =_1_ q+qo I 4ne o rZ A=OWl=  \' EoEz J . Solution.112 4. the electric field. 4. A point charge qp is at its centre. 4. where <p is the potential createll by the ch.q(qo+q/2)  4JH'o (_1 RI R z .dV . A charge q is uniformly distrtbuCed inside a sphere of radius R.6 o Hence. q 1 E z =4. Indeed. the required work is b at where E t and E z are the field intensities (in the hatched region at a distance r from the centre of the system) before and after the expansion of the shell. Energy localization in the field.l are a and b respectl vcl~ .rgy of the system. Energy of Electric Field Problems 113 • 4.ltself.. Consequently. there ~as no field in this region. and integrating. the problem is reduced to determination of the change III the lleld as a result of this process. find the intrinsic electric energy of the sphere and the ratio of the energy Wt localized inside the sphere to the energy W z in the surrounding space. .
created by the charges of the other plate.ng the plates apart.7. • 4. Solution. oistanc~ between the plat!'s. integration.layer of a homogeneous di~lectrlc. fillS work IS completely spent for increasing the f'lectric energy' = lole. . into a liq • 4.<:: R the capacitance of the given capacitor can b~ calcul~ted by the formula for a paraIJelplate capacitor. + Uid !helectr1c WJth the flIelectric constant 8._Energy 01 Electric Field Problems H5 elpclnc energy or the capacitor in ."l of thl.>.10).'1 ~__ 0. Substituting (2) into (1). Then thf' capacitor is f'onnected to a SOur('(' of l~lpl~te capacJ~or IS Im!!H'rsed. the required force is Fx =  a. ConsJderwg that a c= D = = eeoUlh and substituting (2) into (1). The latter plate can freely rotate about. by movi.H4 .8. the force acting on each capacitor pJat~ will de /' = 10 (1  lie) = 10 (10  1) f. (2) (a~amst the e!eetI'lc forces). Snlution. we obtain = eo (e  1) nRU2!d.oU2/2h 2• l' ' where we took into account that q = eu. whence As = A W _ A' = = 2. Find the increml'nt.inu the force /' acting on a unit surface of the plate from the dielectrIC. we get = 7 kPa (0.to ~2' if (1) the charge q of the capacitor and (2) It~ voltage U .1' relative to the other plate: IiA'= qE1. we musl ronsider a SOJ'rce main!?i!ling the potentwl diff?rence of the capacitor at a constant value. (It !j . 10 = uE = f.duced into a cylindridH capaCItor so that the layer hll~ the gap of WIdth d between the plates.by one plate.07 atm).It !S In tillS. (2) III this case.0 mm and 10 = 81 (water). 4. we have I whpl'l'. (2) where E is the field intensity in the region occu~ied. Let us write the elementary work 01 the force actlllg on a pla1.7) and practica~ ly fills the entire gap between the l1xed plat!~s.ent voltage U. (1 ) where /0 is the electric force acting per. Therefore. III ordrl' to understand this. In our case.')f energy. A paral111 the horizontal position.: Iq = ~ + Fx Eo O~2()X =~~ ~~ .12/2eo. Sol~tion.l~ during its displacement over a distane(' d.A'. A cylindri~.. (1) The ill('J'eIlH'lIt of thp el"('lrie energy of the capacitor is Since d . For example. SolutitJrt. . The force ~cti~g on a dielect~ic. A capacitor consists of two fixed plates in the form of a semicirck of radius R and a movable plate of thiekness h made of a dielectric with the dielectric constant 10. The energy of the rapacitor deaeases in tillS case..9. £1 = U!2. J hiS source also accomplIshes the work A S' According to the law of conserva. fJeld that the charge located on the other plate moves. ro~ccs ~ct~!I~ betwee~ conductors in a dieledric.. we obtain AW.r. we have Cc= f.f. . Fwu the force pulling the dlelectl'lc wSlde the capaCItor. we obtain (lpnd on the.al.If the dielectric is introducer! to a depth x ann the capacitor length IS l. A A' = AlV. F. filling the gap of width h between the plates. A constant voltage f! IS maintained between the plates. The mean radius of the plates IS Il sHch that R ~ cl. The capacitor is connect~d tp ~ s~ur~e of a perman. we perform a positive work It should be noted that AW = A'. placed between them.2nR eo.fire mallltallled constant.unit area of a plate from the other plate (it is just the force per umt area when the dielectric is absent). in accordance with (4.ox~2nR (l. for U = 500 V. and C c= eoS/x. Find th~ work A' against the electric forces.0).we~n the plates from x 1. • 4_. we fmd that.tion . ~hus.~nR (exjlx). 4. The work done upon moving capacitor plates apart pl~l'manent voltage U. h = 1.10. The work performed by the moment of forces M upon 8* . The resultant force / acting per unit area of each plate can be represented as 1=/o/'. WIth the dielectrIC c~nstant c IS wtro. A\ is th~ intensity of the l1eld createJ by one plate (E = u/2£. done to increase the di8tance bct.dx= eoSU~~ 2 x2 Aft.!.. (1) The required work is A parallelplate air capacitor has the plates of area S eacb.he two cases. Find the moment M about the aXIs 0 of forces ading 011 the movable pIa te wllPn it is placed as shown in the figure. Using the formula W = q2!2C for thf) energy of a capacitor. th(' axis 0 (Fig.
2) The field of vector i can be graphically represented wnh the help of lines of current (lines of vector j).16»): _'\. current density 'vector j is introduced. where W = q2 /2C. its density is derIDed by the formula (5. Current Density.1.. Current Density. Electric. t e cro~s sectJOn of a conductor).1) i = P+U+ p_u_. we obtain U2 eoRI M Z =2 is zero.dicular to the direction of motion of charge carriers to th€" area dS J of this element: j =ceo dI/dS J. the current passing through S in this 'cas~ where p+ and p_ are the volume densities of positive and negative charge carriers respectively. JOn all( on average the some number of carriers ~ur eIther sign passes tllrough each side of any imaginal' face S.. OSI Ive IrectlOn of the angle a' pacitor: " IS moment tends to pull the dielectric inside the ca~ AJz a . Direct Current 5. Continuity Equation 1t7 thc rotation of thc platc through an ". ions (in electrolytes).liJa = (EoR2/2h) (1E). For the direction of vector j we take the direction of velocity vector u of the ordered'motion of positive carriers (or the direction opposite to that of the velocity vector of the ordered motion of negative carriers). an electric current is essentially an ordered transfer of electric charges.ThIS dIscrepancy a we cannot Ignore edge eflects as was done in the solut:on of tb' es of . or sOr:. curren t carriers perform f' 0. (5. an ordered motion with a certain average veloeity u is imposed on the chaotic motion of the carriers.h an angle a is determined as S = = aR2'12. sys em a q = const [see (4. In a.o. e area 0 a sector wl~. an a~a YSI~ 0 conduct JOn CUl'l'ent in a conducting me HIm. 4. ~ur(rent iSh the transfe~ of charge through a certain sU~f:~~ say. Current Density. However. I t is well known that ele t . Hence M z = . and a current flows through the surface S. mOI?ent of the force is see Fig 4 7) Th' . espeCIally m metals. and hence C =~ EoaR2/2h + EEo (n .116 5.. The quantitative measure of electric current is intensity I. current can be c . However. in order to characterize the current in greater detail. =L~ iJa q 2 C2 • (1) In the case under consideration. The unit of current is the ampere (A). 5. Differentiating with respect to a we find ac. d b trons/Ulhmetals)./ z da= dWl q . nlme ourd' . ' I S pro b l em.\h~~~ tf: . when an electric field is applied. (d) . I .where the charge is carried only by electrons (p_ < 0 and" u+ = 0). defined as the charge transferred across the surface S in a unit time: 1= dQ/dt.a) R2/2h.' tit'crcnsc in the electric cnergy of the . the current density is given by j = p_u_. Thus. In this chapter we sb~ll co ~ selves to l' f . conductmg medium. C = C + C h dr:l~~frfcap~~tances of the parts ?f the cap~citor ~ith a~d . The ncgative sign of M indicat th h acting clockwise (oppositelyZ to the eps 't~t t de. ContinUity Equation ~n :~.i~~~ ~~:~ ~I~ fh:n~ependent of~he angl~ + Electric Current. If the current consists of positive and negative charges. Hence.i~fb. IS due to the fact that for smail vaIu oment M Z .~fl:the/p:~~~= ~l~as~ti~ ~ \ ~bsenc~ of electric field. which are drawn in the same way as for vector E. Direct Current 5. Knowing the current density vector at each point of the surface S under consideration. current may be distributed nonuniformly over the surface through which it passes.1. we can also fLlld the C'Irrent passing through th is fiurfflce f1S the f1nx of vector j: I = J j·dS. Thus. The magnitude of this vector is equal to the ratio of the current dI through a surface element perpen... 2h (1e) '4h Fig. I .. In conductors.gtc"e ctlllcnt da IS equal to thc .oW /. and u + and u_ are the velocities of their ordered motion.. SUbstitutin t~IS ~xpression into formula (1) and con~ sIderlllg that C = qlU.7 = (81) 8oR2U2 < 0 .
IS wl'I1 as on coordinatp< TI c HIS. It can be seen the current is determined b th 1 I~r factors. (5. Resistance R depends on the shape and size of the conductor. The unit of resistance is the ohm (Q). " e b Y tl Ie ch' lie i: If ace Olce vectors dS are reversed th .e case of dIrect current. the lInes of vector j tlo not to have no sources in tl:'" ~ere.5) This means that in this .h wI . ccording to the law of 'conse t' I' ace per unit time. COIl.P d I' J . on its material and temperature. start or terminate any' I case. P. l (5. at where l is the length of the conductor.co{luanttty . . II other sequently. .8) ~j dS= O. I t is an exIn the case of a t dcollservatI~n of charge.contl~ulty equation.4) dq/dt = O.J' • e t us Imagine a I se rl III ? conllucting medium throu . I This lcatls to thc steadystate condition (when iJp/DI (5. the normal at each point 0 Y e cflolce of the direction of tJ of tlI e d"ll"eetlOn of vectorsn dS Sur h S. as at P dl ~. Ohm's Law for a Homogeneous Condnctor 1 t!J . (:i. JI=UiR. s ea vstate (du'CCt) · d IS t n'b lItion in Sp'lce .± (. t ( JI) and (5. j' .4) Obm's law. . sUl'face S It IS customary to choose the ~ut nch a. . and above all on the confIguration (distribution) of the current through the conductor. the sign of.6) = 0): I V·j=o. this integral unIt tIme: 18 c alge IllSHle volume V per in the same way as for the flux of vector E in Sec. sequently. cUl~ent IS passing. "lere. (5. Resistivity of the best conductors like copper and aluminium is oC_the order of 108 Q·m at room temperature.' . Ohm's Law for a Homogeneous Conductor I~idL *. Direct Current 5.j sources. aUf tit' right··hand ~ide of Eq (5 4)" d __ JiJ ' . S is its crosssectional area. it is meaningless to speak of resistance until we know either the position of the leads attached to the eonductor or the current configuration.Y _ I' J . 1.4. Conthe volume V (' I J'] S gl\ es the charge leaving A enve oped by the su f S) . we express the ch Ulo'e q u.a) that b~side.118 5. 011 t IS righthand side of E allge(.. aD( ence for ve t dS . The. t e dIrectIOns of all the Continuitv Equation' L e curr~nt I changes sign.!l) '0 (r. l) Tllis relation is called the '.7) This Illeam.101taf'!.ch?rge.. I h ward dIrectIOn for vectors normal to closed surfaces . c. In the simplest case of a homogeneous eylindrical eOllductor. states: the current passing through a lwmogeneous conductor is proportional to the potential ditJerence across its terminals (0[' to the l.5) in the diITt'n'ntial forn~ul~ y ell~~ation.) 'C (. .' COl'S. Let us write Eq~. IS ?qu~l to the decrease in tl rva ~o~ of . . 1ii'. Current I is a scalar al ebra" from formula (5..s p d V J I ' . fteld of vector j is said . . d . Of( S.2. 5 ' Differential form or the conti . C ." current. j ciS .. The meaning of resistance is quite clear when we are dealing with a wire. . where Jl is the electric resistance of the conductor. resistance is given by R = Ps' l J .Iii . (5. which depends on the material of the conductor and its temperature.5. pression for the law of . the charge W I' I mu~ remalll unch I I .o . . we have taken the partial time derivative of SineI' r can dpPl'llll 011 lim. Resistivity is measured in ohmmetres (Q·m). for direct C\lr' t I q. or t liS purpose. the integralh . which was discovered experimentally. 't . " Tell we lave. and p is the resistivity.ftfr T . we lind that the divergence of vector j at a certain point is equal to the decrease in the charge density per unit time at the same point: Procl'edin~ r V·j= ap/at. In a more general case of the volume distribution of current.2. that Ior dircct current the field of vector j does not have 5.
proportional to the excess charge in this surface.10) we can rewrite (5.8) and (5. the dlstl'lbutlOn of electric eharges in the conducting medium (generally speaking. ' According to the Gauss theorem. .gral is proportional to the algebraic sum of the charges mSlde the closed surface S. Methods for Calculating Resistance (R). Thus. 5. In accordance WIth (2.3 and 5. If the cylinder has a cr?sssectional area dS and length dl.120 5. Indeed.5) as follows: l~ aEdS=O. Eq. u where the integration is performed over any closed surface S inside the conductor. If the current flows in a steady state. from the continuity of the tangential component ?f vector E. we can write on the basIs of (5. Further.