Core design

• • • • • • • • • • •

Vertical circulation Configuration Floor-plate design Function of Service Core Service core types & placement Service Core & Building Economy Elevator design & configuration Population density Traffic analysis Quality of ride Service-core layout & space requirements

Case studies

Vertical Circulation • Cores = service cores = risers • Contains:
– – – – – – Elevator shafts Elevator lobbies Main & escape stairways Riser-ducts Toilets Other service rooms

• Elevators = MAIN vertical circulation system

Core design
Case studies

Configuration At initial design stage, designer DETERMINES:
• • • • Buildable net rentable areas (NRA) Gross floor areas (GFA) Typical & atypical floor-plates Prepare a diagram + propose elevator configuration: • No. of banks • No. of stops • Transfer floor(s)

Core design
Case studies

274 2.585 10 000 AVE 78% 85% 78% 89% 85% 67% 85% 12.803 514.034 9.769 AVE 15.03 10.799 9.34 35 36 .218 438.27 3.21 15.799 7.544 1.Example of area tabulation & elevator configuration diagrams: FLOOR BASEMENT GROUND BANKING LEVEL B1 .585 1.148 548 249.858 4.365 2.769 AVE EFFICIENCY 55% 81% 81% 2.89 Core design .231 12.644 695 308.525 7.03 10 000 AVE PENTHOUSE PENTHOUSE TOTAL GROSS Case studies 51 52 51 12.231 12.105 9.50 BANKING CAR PARK (15 levels) LIFT FLOOR OFFICE (15 levels) LIFT FLOOR OFFICE (15 levels) NET SERVICE GROSS CAR-PARK CAR-PARK (NRA) (GFA) 0 1.231 2.754 823.18 19 20 .585 76.231 2.229 150 59.B3 1 2 3 4 .231 1.799 2.799 2.034 0 6.231 4.

of elevators: 3 carpark zone lifts 6 banking and lower offices zone lifts 6 upper offices zone lifts = Lift opening 15 10 5 2 levels banking 35 30 25 20 Interchange level 15 levels above ground car parking 45 40 15 levels tower offices 2 levels penthouse Interchange level Core design Case studies .Schematic diagram 50 No.

Designer’s consideration: • • • • • • • • Typical floor plate sizes Typical floor plate efficiency Staircase positions Tenancy options View outward M&E risers and routes Structural system options etc Core design Case studies .

Floor Plate Design • • • • Staircase usually grouped with elevators As means of escape & accessibility Same goes with M&E riser ducts Aspects that affect the floor-plate design: – Direction of best views out – Permissible ground floor plinth are – Car-parking grids in relation with floor-plate structural configuration Floor-plate efficiency should not be less than 75% Core design Case studies .

Function of Service Core Core design Case studies .

Core design Service core types & placement Case studies .

Service core types & placement Core design Case studies .

Service Core & Building Economy • Minimization of material costs • Optimization of core geometry • Minimization of core area • Minimization of construction time Core design Case studies .

Benefits of a peripheral core position: • • • • • • No fire-fighting pressurization duct is needed Good view out Natural ventilation Natural sunlight A safer building in the event of total power failure Solar-buffers & energy savings Core design Case studies .

13% 50 secs 11 .5 .65 secs 70 .60 secs 13% 12% 60 .12% .Core design Requirements for elevator selection service EXCELLENT GOOD SERVICE SERVICE COMMERCIAL BUILDING Up-peak interval 28 secs 5-minute up-peak handling capacity 14 .15% HOTEL BUILDING 2 way lobby traffic 35 .50 secs 55 .75 secs 6% 5% 40 secs 12. in seconds) •5-minute handling capacity (in %) 45 .40 secs 5-minute up-peak handling capacity 14% APARTMENT BUILDING 2 way lobby traffic 50 .5 .13.5% 35 secs 11 .55 secs 5-minute up-peak 7% CAR-PARK BUILDING 2 way lobby traffic 35 secs 5-minute up-peak 13.14% FAIR SERVICE 30 secs 13 .12% 2 common performance criteria: •Average waiting interval (AWI.

Suggested elevator capacity COMMERCIAL 884kg (13 persons) 952kg (14 persons) 1088kg (16 persons) 1360kg (20 persons) 1564kg (23 persons) 1768kg (26 persons) yes yes yes yes yes HOTEL yes yes yes APARTMENT yes yes yes yes CAR-PARK yes yes yes Core design Case studies .

Elevator Design & Configuration Elevator design should give optimum: • • • • Number of elevators Types of elevators Elevator capacities Arrangement o elevator Core design Case studies .

Examples of GOOD & BAD elevator arrangement TWO-CAR GROUPING • Side-by-side arrangement is best • Passenger face both cars & can react immediately • AVOID separation of elevators • EXCESSIVE separation destroy advantages of group operation THREE-CAR GROUPING • 3 cars in a row is PREFERRABLE • 2 cars opposite 1 is acceptable • PROBLEM: location of elevator call button Core design Case studies .

public buildings & hospitals • provide quantity & quality • 3-opposite-3 position is PREFERRED • dimension of the LOBBY must not be less than 3m or 3.6m if function as a passageway Case studies • the largest PRACTICAL group • 4-opposite-4 arrangement Core design . busier buildings • 2-opposite-2 arrangement is the most efficient EIGHT-CAR GROUPING SIX-CAR GROUPING • found in large office buildings.Examples of GOOD & BAD elevator arrangement FOUR-CAR GROUPING • commonly in large.

Population density The common performance criteria is based on 5 minute morning up-peak condition & measure: • Quantity • Quality • Travel Time Densities of 'sq m of NRA per person' for a diversified commercial office LOW SINGLE SEGMENT BUILDING MEDIUM HIGH SKY 11 N/A N/A N/A TWO-SEGMENT BUILDING THREE-SEGMENT BUILDING FOUR-SEGMENT BUILDING Case studies 11 N/A 12 N/A 11 12 13 N/A 11 12 13 14 Core design .

13.Population density LEVEL OF SERVICE EXCELLENT GOOD FAIR AWI (SECONDS) 28 30 35 (% OF POPULATION) 14 .15 13 .12 TRAVEL TIME (SECONDS) 100 120 <150 Core design Case studies .5 11 .

Traffic Analysis • • • • • General planning Multiple rises Multiple entry levels Car-parking floors Special purpose floors Core design Case studies .

4 m are required to provide a rigid running surface for the car guides. • Guide-rail alignment must allow for vertical movement • Car guides. Roller type car guides fitted with a tyre compound suited to local conditions & approx.Quality of ride • Elevator shaft area should be at least 20% greater than the car platform area • Guide rails with fixing point s at a maximum of 2. 30 cm dia. Necessary to achieve quality of ride • Pendulum car as means to reduce negative effects of poor guide rail alignment Core design Case studies .

common widths 1. • Elevator core & lobby planning .are according to car shapes & sizes.‘outward facing’ elevators VS ‘inward facing’ elevators.2m • Elevator shafts . and door sizes. Sufficient air around cars & counterweights should be provided to minimize buffeting & air-borne noise during operation. Core design Case studies .Service-core layout & space requirements • Elevator car sizes & shapes • Elevator door types & sizes .1 m or 1.

Service-core layout & space requirements Core design Case studies .

Service Cores – Detail in Building. 2000. The Skyscraper Bioclimatically Considered – A Design Primer. Core design Case studies . Malaysia. 1996.References • Ken Yeang. Academy Group. Italy. Wiley-Academy. • Ken Yeang.

commercebank frankfurt by foster & partners 2.1. petronas twin towers by cesar pelli & associates .

commercebank frankfurt by foster & partners .

1. 6. escape stair service lift lift lobby lavatories service rooms combi-offices team offices service core typical floor plan layout commercebank frankfurt by foster & partners . 4. 3. 2. 7. 5.

escape stair service lift lift lobby stair pressurization duct document hoist risers 4 6 5 6 blow-up plan of service core commercebank frankfurt by foster & partners . 6. 3. 2. 5. 4.1.

dry cooler wet cooler chiller plant room conference rooms director’s office garden terraces commercebank frankfurt by foster & partners east garden and interchange building management offices plant rooms secondary plant entrance lobby and plaza shops and plant rooms plant rooms and loading bay plant rooms .

commercebank frankfurt by foster & partners .

petronas twin towers by cesar pelli .

petronas twin towers by cesar pelli & associates .

petronas twin towers by cesar pelli & associates .

service core typical floor plan layout petronas twin towers by cesar pelli & associates .

5 3 escape stair service lift lift lobby lavatories risers office 1 6 1 2 4 4 5 6 level 43 plan petronas twin towers by cesar pelli & associates . 2. 6. 4. 3.6 1. 5.

4. 5. 6. 3.6 5 3 6 2 1 4 6 6 4 1 1. escape stair service lift lift lobby lavatories risers office level 76 plan petronas twin towers by cesar pelli & associates . 2.

petronas twin towers by cesar pelli & associates .

Innovations in core designs .

cctv china. beijing by OMA .

owings & merrill .burj dubai by skidmore.

dancing tower by zaha hadid .

dancing tower by zaha hadid .

dancing tower by zaha hadid .

The End .

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