Plutarch PARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS

Plutarch PARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS

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PARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS

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Plutarch PARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: Index.

Plutarch PARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS

General Index
THESEUS ROMULUS COMPARISON OF ROMULUS WITH THESEUS LYCURGUS NUMA POMPILIUS COMPARISON OF NUMA WITH LYCURGUS SOLON POPLICOLA COMPARISON OF POPLICOLA WITH SOLON THEMISTOCLES CAMILLUS PERICLES FABIUS COMPARISON OF PERICLES WITH FABIUS ALCIBIADES

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Plutarch PARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: Index.

CORIOLANUS COMPARISON OF ALCIBIADES WITH CORIOLANUS TIMOLEON AEMILIUS PAULUS COMPARISON OF TIMOLEON WITH AEMILIUS PAULUS PELOPIDAS MARCELLUS COMPARISION OF PELOPIDAS WITH MARCELLUS ARISTIDES MARCUS CATO COMPARISON OF ARISTIDES WITH MARCUS CATO PHILOPOEMEN FLAMININUS COMPARISON OF PHILOPOEMEN WITH FLAMININUS PYRRHUS CAIUS MARIUS LYSANDER SYLLA COMPARISON OF LYSANDER WITH SYLLA

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Plutarch PARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: Index.

CIMON LUCULLUS COMPARISON OF LUCULLUS WITH CIMON NICIAS CRASSUS COMPARISON OF CRASSUS WITH NICIAS SERTORIUS EUMENES COMPARISON OF SERTORIUS WITH EUMENES AGESILAUS POMPEY COMPARISON OF POMPEY AND AGESILAUS ALEXANDER CAESAR PHOCION CATO THE YOUNGER AGIS CLEOMENES TIBERIUS GRACCHUS

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Plutarch PARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: Index.

CAIUS GRACCHUS COMPARISON OF TIBERIUS AND CAIUS GRACCHUS WITH AGIS AND CLEOMENES DEMOSTHENES CICERO COMPARISON OF DEMOSTHENES AND CICERO DEMETRIUS ANTONY COMPARISON OF DEMETRIUS AND ANTONY DION MARCUS BRUTUS COMPARISON OF DION AND BRUTUS ARATUS ARTAXERXES GALBA OTHO

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PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.1.

Plutarch PARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS

THESEUS As geographers, Sosius, crowd into the edges of their maps parts of the world which they do not know about, adding notes in the margin to the effect, that beyond this lies nothing but sandy deserts full of wild beasts, unapproachable bogs, Scythian ice, or a frozen sea, so, in this work of mine, in which I have compared the lives of the greatest men with one another, after passing through those periods which probable reasoning can reach to and real history find a footing in, I might very well say of those that are farther off, Beyond this there is nothing but prodigies and fictions, the only inhabitants are the poets and inventors of fables; there is no credit, or certainty any farther. Yet, after publishing an account of Lycurgus the lawgiver and Numa the king, I thought I might, not without reason, ascend as high as to Romulus, being brought by my history so near to his time. Considering therefore with myself Whom shall I set so great a man to face? Or whom oppose? who's equal to the place?

(as Aeschylus expresses it), I found none so fit as him that peopled the beautiful and far-famed city of Athens, to be set in opposition
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with the father of the invincible and renowned city of Rome. Let us hope that Fable may, in what shall follow, so submit to the purifying processes of Reason as to take the character of exact history. In any case, however, where it shall be found contumaciously slighting credibility, and refusing to be reduced to anything like probable fact, we shall beg that we may meet with candid readers, and such as will receive with indulgence the stories of antiquity. Theseus seemed to me to resemble Romulus in many particulars. Both of them, born out of wedlock and of uncertain parentage, had the repute of being sprung from the gods. Both warriors; that by all the world's allowed. Both of them united with strength of body an equal vigor mind; and of the two most famous cities of the world the one built Rome, and the other made Athens be inhabited. Both stand charged with the rape of women; neither of them could avoid domestic misfortunes nor jealousy at home; but towards the close of their lives are both of them said to have incurred great odium with their countrymen, if, that is, we may take the stories least like poetry as our guide to the truth. The lineage of Theseus, by his father's side, ascends as high as to Erechtheus and the first inhabitants of Attica. By his mother's side he was descended of Pelops. For Pelops was the most powerful of all the kings of Peloponnesus, not so much by the greatness of his riches as the multitude of his children, having married many daughters to chief men, and put many sons in places of command in the towns round about him. One of whom named Pittheus, grandfather to Theseus, was governor of the small city of the Troezenians, and had the repute of a man of the greatest knowledge and wisdom of his time; which then, it seems, consisted chiefly in grave maxims, such as the poet Hesiod got his great fame by, in his book of Works and Days. And, indeed, among these is one that they ascribe to Pittheus,

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Unto a friend suffice A stipulated price;

which, also, Aristotle mentions. And Euripides, by calling Hippolytus " scholar of the holy Pittheus," shows the opinion that the world had of him. Aegeus, being desirous of children, and consulting the oracle of Delphi, received the celebrated answer which forbade him the company of any woman before his return to Athens. But the oracle being so obscure as not to satisfy him that he was clearly forbid this, he went to Troezen, and communicated to Pittheus the voice of the god, which was in this manner, Loose not the wineskin foot, thou chief of men, Until to Athens thou art come again.

Pittheus, therefore, taking advantage from the obscurity of the oracle, prevailed upon him, it is uncertain whether by persuasion or deceit, to lie with his daughter Aethra. Aegeus afterwards, knowing her whom he had lain with to be Pittheus's daughter, and suspecting
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her to be with child by him, left a sword and a pair of shoes, hiding them under a great stone that had a hollow in it exactly fitting them; and went away making her only privy to it, and commanding her, if she brought forth a son who, when he came to man's estate, should be able to lift up the stone and take away what he had left there, she should send him away to him with those things with all secrecy, and with injunctions to him as much as possible to conceal his journey from every one; for he greatly feared the Pallantidae, who were continually mutinying against him, and despised him for his want of children, they themselves being fifty brothers, all sons of Pallas. When Aethra was delivered of a son, some say that he was immediately named Theseus, from the tokens which his father had put under the stone; others that he received his name afterwards at Athens, when Aegeus acknowledged him for his son. He was brought up under his grandfather Pittheus, and had a tutor and attendant set over him named Connidas, to whom the Athenians, even to this time, the day before the feast that is dedicated to Theseus, sacrifice a ram, giving this honor to his memory upon much juster grounds than to Silanio and Parrhasius, for making pictures and statues of Theseus. There being then a custom for the Grecian youth, upon their first coming to man's estate, to go to Delphi and offer first-fruits of their hair to the god, Theseus also went thither, and a place there to this day is yet named Thesea, as it is said, from him. He clipped only the fore part of his head, as Homer says the Abantes did. And this sort of tonsure was from him named Theseis. The Abantes first used it, not in imitation of the Arabians, as some imagine, nor of the Mysians, but because they were a warlike people, and used to close fighting, and above all other nations accustomed to engage hand to hand; as Archilochus testifies in these verses:

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Slings shall not whirl, nor many arrows fly, When on the plain the battle joins; but swords, Man against man, the deadly conflict try, As is the practice of Euboea's lords Skilled with the spear.

Therefore that they might not give their enemies a hold by their hair, they cut it in this manner. They write also that this was the reason why Alexander gave command to his captains that all the beards of the Macedonians should be shaved, as being the readiest hold for an enemy. Aethra for some time concealed the true parentage of Theseus, and a report was given out by Pittheus that he was begotten by Neptune; for the Troezenians pay Neptune the highest veneration. He is their tutelar god, to him they offer all their first-fruits, and in his honor stamp their money with a trident.

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Theseus displaying not only great strength of body, but equal bravery, and a quickness alike and force of understanding, his mother Aethra, conducting him to the stone, and informing him who was his true father, commanded him to take from thence the tokens that Aegeus had left, and to sail to Athens. He without any difficulty set himself to the stone and lifted it up; but refused to take his journey by sea, though it was much the safer way, and though his mother and grandfather begged him to do so. For it was at that time very dangerous to go by land on the road to Athens, no part of it being free from robbers and murderers. That age produced a sort of men, in force of hand, and swiftness of foot, and strength of body, excelling the ordinary rate, and wholly incapable of fatigue; making use, however, of these gifts of nature to no good or profitable purpose for mankind, but rejoicing and priding themselves in insolence, and taking the benefit of their superior strength in the exercise of inhumanity and cruelty, and in seizing, forcing, and committing all manner of outrages upon every thing that fell into their hands; all respect for others, all justice, they thought, all equity and humanity, though naturally lauded by common people, either out of want of courage to commit injuries or fear to receive them, yet no way concerned those who were strong enough to win for themselves. Some of these, Hercules destroyed and cut off in his passage through these countries, but some, escaping his notice while he was passing by, fled and hid themselves, or else were spared by him in contempt of their abject submission; and after that Hercules fell into misfortune, and, having slain Iphitus, retired to Lydia, and for a long time was there slave to Omphale, a punishment which he had imposed upon himself for the murder, then, indeed, Lydia enjoyed high peace and security, but in Greece and the countries about it the like villanies again revived and broke out, there being none to repress or chastise them. It was therefore a very hazardous journey to travel by land from Athens to Peloponnesus; and Pittheus, giving him an exact account of each of these robbers and villains, their strength, and the cruelty they used to all strangers, tried to persuade Theseus to go by sea. But he, it seems, had long since been secretly fired by the glory of Hercules, held him in the highest estimation, and was never more satisfied than in listening to any that gave an account of him; especially those that had seen him, or had been present at any action or saying of his. So that he was altogether in the same state of feeling as, in after ages, Themistocles was, when he said that he could not sleep for the trophy of Miltiades; entertaining such admiration for the virtue of Hercules, that in the night his dreams were all of that hero's actions. and in the day a
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continual emulation stirred him up to perform the like. Besides, they were related, being born of cousins-german. For Aethra was daughter of Pittheus, and Alcmena of Lysidice; and Lysidice and Pittheus were brother and sister, children of Hippodamia and Pelops. He thought it therefore a dishonorable thing, and not to be endured, that Hercules should go out everywhere, and purge both land and sea from wicked men, and he himself should fly from the like adventures that actually came in his way; disgracing his reputed father by a mean flight by sea, and not showing his true one as good evidence of the greatness of his birth by noble and worthy actions, as by the tokens that he brought with him, the shoes and the sword. With this mind and these thoughts, he set forward with a design to do injury to nobody, but to repel and revenge himself of all those that should offer any. And first of all, in a set combat, he slew Periphetes, in the neighborhood of Epidaurus, who used a club for his arms, and from thence had the name of Corynetes, or the clubbearer; who seized upon him, and forbade him to go forward in his journey. Being pleased with the club, he took it, and made it his weapon, continuing to use it as Hercules did the lion's skin, on whose shoulders that served to prove how huge a beast he had killed; and to the same end Theseus carried about him this club; overcome indeed by him, but now, in his hands, invincible. Passing on further towards the Isthmus of Peloponnesus, he slew Sinnis, often surnamed the Bender of Pines, after the same manner in which he himself had destroyed many others before. And this he did without having either practiced or ever learnt the art of bending these trees, to show that natural strength is above all art. This Sinnis had a daughter of remarkable beauty and stature, called Perigune, who, when her father was killed, fled, and was sought after everywhere by Theseus; and coming into a place overgrown with brushwood shrubs, and asparagus- thorn, there, in a childlike, innocent manner, prayed and begged them, as if they understood her, to give her shelter, with vows that if she escaped she would never cut them down nor burn them. But Theseus calling upon her, and giving her his promise that he would use her with respect, and offer her no injury, she came forth, and in due time bore him a son, named Melanippus; but afterwards was married to Deioneus, the son of Eurytus, the Oechalian, Theseus himself giving her to him. Ioxus, the son of this Melanippus who was born to Theseus, accompanied Ornytus in the colony that he carried with him into Caria, whence it is a family usage amongst the people called Ioxids, both male and
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female, never to burn either shrubs or asparagus-thorn, but to respect and honor them. The Crommyonian sow, which they called Phaea, was a savage and formidable wild beast, by no means an enemy to be despised. Theseus killed her, going out of his way on purpose to meet and engage her, so that he might not seem to perform all his great exploits out of mere necessity ; being also of opinion that it was the part of a brave man to chastise villainous and wicked men when attacked by them, but to seek out and overcome the more noble wild beasts. Others relate that Phaea was a woman, a robber full of cruelty and lust, that lived in Crommyon, and had the name of Sow given her from the foulness of her life and manners, and afterwards was killed by Theseus. He slew also Sciron, upon the borders of Megara, casting him down from the rocks, being, as most report, a notorious robber of all passengers, and, as others add, accustomed, out of insolence and wantonness, to stretch forth his feet to strangers, commanding them to wash them, and then while they did it, with a kick to send them down the rock into the sea. The writers of Megara, however, in contradiction to the received report, and, as Simonides expresses it, "fighting with all antiquity," contend that Sciron was neither a robber nor doer of violence, but a punisher of all such, and the relative and friend of good and just men; for Aeacus, they say, was ever esteemed a man of the greatest sanctity of all the Greeks; and Cychreus, the Salaminian, was honored at Athens with divine worship; and the virtues of Peleus and Telamon were not unknown to any one. Now Sciron was son-in-law to Cychreus, father-in-law to Aeacus, and grandfather to Peleus and Telamon, who were both of them sons of Endeis, the daughter of Sciron and Chariclo; it was not probable, therefore, that the best of men should make these alliances with one who was worst, giving and receiving mutually what was of greatest value and most dear to them. Theseus, by their account, did not slay Sciron in his first journey to Athens, but afterwards, when he took Eleusis, a city of the Megarians, having circumvented Diocles, the governor. Such are the contradictions in this story. In Eleusis he killed Cercyon, the Arcadian, in a wrestling match. And going on a little farther, in Erineus, he slew Damastes, otherwise called Procrustes, forcing his body to the size of his own bed, as he himself was used to do with all strangers; this he did in imitation of Hercules, who always returned upon his assailants the same sort of violence that they offered to him; sacrificed Busiris, killed Antaeus in wrestling, and Cycnus in single combat, and Termerus by breaking his skull in pieces
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(whence, they say, comes the proverb of "a Termerian mischief"), for it seems Termerus killed passengers that he met, by running with his head against them. And so also Theseus proceeded in the punishment of evil men, who underwent the same violence from him which they had inflicted upon others, justly suffering after the manner of their own injustice. As he went forward on his journey, and was come as far as the river Cephisus, some of the race of the Phytalidae met him and saluted him, and, upon his desire to use the purifications, then in custom, they performed them with all the usual ceremonies, and, having offered propitiatory sacrifices to the gods, invited him and entertained him at their house, a kindness which, in all his journey hitherto, he had not met. On the eighth day of Cronius, now called Hecatombaeon, he arrived at Athens, where he found the public affairs full of all confusion, and divided into parties and factions, Aegeus also, and his whole private family, laboring under the same distemper; for Medea, having fled from Corinth, and promised Aegeus to make him, by her art, capable of having children, was living with him. She first was aware of Theseus, whom as yet Aegeus did not know, and he being in years, full of jealousies and suspicions, and fearing every thing by reason of the faction that was then in the city, she easily persuaded him to kill him by poison at a banquet, to which he was to be invited as a stranger. He, coming to the entertainment, thought it not fit to discover himself at once, but, willing to give his father the occasion of first finding him out, the meat being on the table, he drew his sword as if he designed to cut with it; Aegeus, at once recognizing the token, threw down the cup of poison, and, questioning his son, embraced him, and, having gathered together all his citizens, owned him publicly before them, who, on their part, received him gladly for the fame of his greatness and bravery; and it is said, that when the cup fell, the poison was spilt there where now is the enclosed space in the Delphinium; for in that place stood Aegeus's house, and the figure of Mercury on the east side of the temple is called the Mercury of Aegeus's gate. The sons of Pallas, who before were quiet, upon expectation of recovering the kingdom after Aegeus's death, who was without issue, as soon as Theseus appeared and was acknowledged the successor, highly resenting that Aegeus first, an adopted son only of Pandion, and not at all related to the family of Erechtheus, should be
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holding the kingdom, and that after him, Theseus, a visitor and stranger, should be destined to succeed to it, broke out into open war. And, dividing themselves into two companies, one part of them marched openly from Sphettus, with their father, against the city, the other, hiding themselves in the village of Gargettus, lay in ambush, with a design to set upon the enemy on both sides. They had with them a crier of the township of Agnus, named Leos, who discovered to Theseus all the designs of the Pallantidae He immediately fell upon those that lay in ambuscade, and cut them all off; upon tidings of which Pallas and his company fled and were dispersed. From hence they say is derived the custom among the people of the township of Pallene to have no marriages or any alliance with the people of Agnus, nor to suffer the criers to pronounce in their proclamations the words used in all other parts of the country, Acouete Leoi (Hear ye people), hating the very sound of Leo, because of the treason of Leos. Theseus, longing to be in action, and desirous also to make himself popular, left Athens to fight with the bull of Marathon, which did no small mischief to the inhabitants of Tetrapolis. And having overcome it, he brought it alive in triumph through the city, and afterwards sacrificed it to the Delphinian Apollo. The story of Hecale, also, of her receiving and entertaining Theseus in this expedition, seems to be not altogether void of truth; for the townships round about, meeting upon a certain day, used to offer a sacrifice, which they called Hecalesia, to Jupiter Hecaleius, and to pay honor to Hecale, whom, by a diminutive name, they called Hecalene, because she, while entertaining Theseus, who was quite a youth, addressed him, as old people do, with similar endearing diminutives; and having made a vow to Jupiter for him as he was going to the fight, that, if he returned in safety, she would offer sacrifices in thanks of it, and dying before he came back, she had these honors given her by way of return for her hospitality, by the command of Theseus, as Philochorus tells us. Not long after arrived the third time from Crete the collectors of the tribute which the Athenians paid them upon the following occasion. Androgeus having been treacherously murdered in the confines of Attica, not only Minos, his father, put the Athenians to extreme distress by a perpetual war, but the gods also laid waste their country both famine and pestilence lay heavy upon them, and even their rivers were dried up. Being told by the oracle that, if they
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appeased and reconciled Minos, the anger of the gods would cease and they should enjoy rest from the miseries they labored under, they sent heralds, and with much supplication were at last reconciled, entering into an agreement to send to Crete every nine years a tribute of seven young men and as many virgins, as most writers agree in stating; and the most poetical story adds, that the Minotaur destroyed them, or that, wandering in the labyrinth, and finding no possible means of getting out, they miserably ended their lives there; and that this Minotaur was (as Euripides hath it) A mingled form, where two strange shapes combined, And different natures, bull and man, were joined.

But Philochorus says that the Cretans will by no means allow the truth of this, but say that the labyrinth was only an ordinary prison, having no other bad quality but that it secured the prisoners from escaping, and that Minos, having instituted games in honor of Androgeus, gave, as a reward to the victors, these youths, who in the mean time were kept in the labyrinth; and that the first that overcame in those games was one of the greatest power and command among them, named Taurus, a man of no merciful or gentle disposition, who treated the Athenians that were made his prize in a proud and cruel manner. Also Aristotle himself, in the account that he gives of the form of government of the Bottiaeans, is manifestly of opinion that the youths were not slain by Minos, but spent the remainder of their days in slavery in Crete; that the Cretans, in former times, to acquit themselves of an ancient vow which they had made, were used to send an offering of the first-fruits

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of their men to Delphi, and that some descendants of these Athenian slaves were mingled with them and sent amongst them, and, unable to get their living there, removed from thence, first into Italy, and settled about Japygia; from thence again, that they removed to Thrace, and were named Bottiaeans and that this is the reason why, in a certain sacrifice, the Bottiaean girls sing a hymn beginning Let us go to Athens. This may show us how dangerous a thing it is to incur the hostility of a city that is mistress of eloquence and song. For Minos was always ill spoken of, and represented ever as a very wicked man, in the Athenian theaters; neither did Hesiod avail him by calling him "the most royal Minos," nor Homer, who styles him "Jupiter's familiar friend;" the tragedians got the better, and from the vantage ground of the stage showered down obloquy upon him, as a man of cruelty and violence; whereas, in fact, he appears to have been a king and a lawgiver, and Rhadamanthus a judge under him, administering the statutes that he ordained. Now when the time of the third tribute was come, and the fathers who had any young men for their sons were to proceed by lot to the choice of those that were to be sent, there arose fresh discontents and accusations against Aegeus among the people, who were full of grief and indignation that he, who was the cause of all their miseries, was the only person exempt from the punishment; adopting and settling his kingdom upon a bastard and foreign son, he took no thought, they said, of their destitution and loss, not of bastards, but lawful children. These things sensibly affected Theseus, who, thinking it but just not to disregard, but rather partake of, the sufferings of his fellow citizens, offered himself for one without any lot. All else were struck with admiration for the nobleness and with love for the goodness of the act; and Aegeus, after prayers and entreaties, finding him inflexible and not to be persuaded, proceeded to the choosing of the rest by lot. Hellanicus, however, tells us that the Athenians did not send the young men and virgins by lot, but that Minos himself used to come and make his own choice, and pitched upon Theseus before all others; according to the conditions agreed upon between them, namely, that the Athenians should furnish them with a ship, and that the young men that were to sail with him should carry no weapon of war; but that if the Minotaur was destroyed, the tribute should cease. On the two former occasions of the payment of the tribute, entertaining no hopes of safety or return, they sent out the ship with a black sail, as to unavoidable destruction; but now, Theseus
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encouraging his father and speaking greatly of himself, as confident that he should kill the Minotaur, he gave the pilot another sail, which was white, commanding him, as he returned, if Theseus were safe, to make use of that; but if not, to sail with the black one, and to hang out that sign of his misfortune. Simonides says that the sail which Aegeus delivered to the pilot was not white, but Scarlet, in the juicy bloom Of the living oaktree steeped,

and that this was to be the sign of their escape. Phereclus, son of Amarsyas, according to Simonides, was pilot of the ship. But Philochorus says Theseus had sent him by Scirus, from Salamis, Nausithous to be his steersman, and Phaeax his look-out-man in the prow, the Athenians having as yet not applied themselves to navigation; and that Scirus did this because one of the young men, Menesthes, was his daughter's son; and this the chapels of Nausithous and Phaeax, built by Theseus near the temple of Scirus, confirm. He adds, also, that the feast named Cybernesia was in honor of them. The lot being cast, and Theseus having received out of the Prytaneum those upon whom it fell, he went to the Delphinium, and made an offering for them to Apollo of his suppliant's badge, which was a bough of a consecrated olive tree, with white wool tied about it. Having thus performed his devotion, he went to sea, the sixth day of Munychion, on which day even to this time the Athenians send their virgins to the same temple to make supplication to the gods. It is farther reported that he was commanded by the oracle at Delphi to make Venus his guide, and to invoke her as the companion and conductress of his voyage, and that, as he was sacrificing a she goat to her by the seaside, it was suddenly changed into a he, and for this cause that goddess had the name of Epitrapia.

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When he arrived at Crete, as most of the ancient historians as well as poets tell us, having a clue of thread given him by Ariadne, who had fallen in love with him, and being instructed by her how to use it so as to conduct him through the windings of the labyrinth, he escaped out of it and slew the Minotaur, and sailed back, taking along with him Ariadne and the young Athenian captives. Pherecydes adds that he bored holes in the bottoms of the Cretan ships to hinder their pursuit. Demon writes that Taurus, the chief captain of Minos, was slain by Theseus at the mouth of the port, in a naval combat, as he was sailing out for Athens. But Philochorus gives us the story thus: That at the setting forth of the yearly games by king Minos, Taurus was expected to carry away the prize, as he had done before; and was much grudged the honor. His character and manners made his power hateful, and he was accused moreover of too near familiarity with Pasiphae, for which reason, when Theseus desired the combat, Minos readily complied. And as it was a custom in Crete that the women also should be admitted to the sight of these games, Ariadne, being present, was struck with admiration of the manly beauty of Theseus, and the vigor and address which he showed in the combat, overcoming all that encountered with him. Minos, too, being extremely pleased with him, especially because he had overthrown and disgraced Taurus, voluntarily gave up the young captives to Theseus, and remitted the tribute to the Athenians. Clidemus gives an account peculiar to himself, very ambitiously, and beginning a great way back: That it was a decree consented to by all Greece, that no vessel from any place, containing above five persons, should be permitted to sail, Jason only excepted, who was made captain of the great ship Argo, to sail about and scour the sea of pirates. But Daedalus having escaped from Crete, and flying by sea to Athens, Minos, contrary to this decree, pursued him with his ships of war, was forced by a storm upon Sicily, and there ended his life. After his decease, Deucalion, his son, desiring a quarrel with the Athenians, sent to them, demanding that they should deliver up Daedalus to him, threatening, upon their refusal, to put to death all the young Athenians whom his father had received as hostages from the city. To this angry message Theseus returned a very gentle answer, excusing himself that he could not deliver up Daedalus, who was nearly related to him, being his cousin-german, his mother being Merope, the daughter of Erechtheus. In the meanwhile he secretly prepared a navy, part of it at home near the village of the Thymoetadae, a place of no resort, and far from any common roads, the other part by his grandfather Pittheus's means at Troezen, that so his design might be carried on with the greatest secrecy. As soon
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as ever his fleet was in readiness, he set sail, having with him Daedalus and other exiles from Crete for his guides; and none of the Cretans having any knowledge of his coming, but imagining, when they saw his fleet, that they were friends and vessels of their own, he soon made himself master of the port, and, immediately making a descent, reached Gnossus before any notice of his coming, and, in a battle before the gates of the labyrinth, put Deucalion and all his guards to the sword. The government by this means falling to Ariadne, he made a league with her, and received the captives of her, and ratified a perpetual friendship between the Athenians and the Cretans, whom he engaged under an oath never again to commence any war with Athens. There are yet many other traditions about these things, and as many concerning Ariadne, all inconsistent with each other. Some relate that she hung herself, being deserted by Theseus. Others that she was carried away by his sailors to the isle of Naxos, and married to Oenarus, priest of Bacchus; and that Theseus left her because he fell in love with another, For Aegle's love was burning in his breast;

a verse which Hereas, the Megarian, says, was formerly in the poet Hesiod's works, but put out by Pisistratus, in like manner as he added in Homer's Raising of the Dead, to gratify the Athenians, the line Theseus, Pirithous, mighty sons of gods.

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Others say Ariadne had sons also by Theseus, Oenopion and Staphylus; and among these is the poet Ion of Chios, who writes of his own native city Which once Oenopion, son of Theseus, built.

But the more famous of the legendary stories everybody (as I may say) has in his mouth. In Paeon, however, the Amathusian, there is a story given, differing from the rest. For he writes that Theseus, being driven by a storm upon the isle of Cyprus, and having aboard with him Ariadne, big with child, and extremely discomposed with the rolling of the sea, set her on shore, and left her there alone, to return himself and help the ship, when, on a sudden, a violent wind carried him again out to sea. That the women of the island received Ariadne very kindly, and did all they could to console and alleviate her distress at being left behind. That they counterfeited kind letters, and delivered them to her, as sent from Theseus, and, when she fell in labor, were diligent in performing to her every needful service; but that she died before she could be delivered, and was honorably interred. That soon after Theseus returned, and was greatly afflicted for her loss, and at his departure left a sum of money among the people of the island, ordering them to do sacrifice to Ariadne; and caused two little images to be made and dedicated to her, one of silver and the other of brass. Moreover, that on the second day of Gorpiaeus, which is sacred to Ariadne, they have this ceremony among their sacrifices, to have a youth lie down and with his voice and gesture represent the pains of a woman in travail; and that the Amathusians call the grove in which they show her tomb, the grove of Venus Ariadne. Differing yet from this account, some of the Naxians write that there were two Minoses and two Ariadnes, one of whom, they say, was married to Bacchus, in the isle of Naxos, and bore the children Staphylus and his brother; but that the other, of a later age, was carried off by Theseus, and, being afterwards deserted by him, retired to Naxos with her nurse Corcyna, whose grave they yet show.
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That this Ariadne also died there, and was worshiped by the island, but in a different manner from the former; for her day is celebrated with general joy and revelling, but all the sacrifices performed to the latter are attended with mourning and gloom. Now Theseus, in his return from Crete, put in at Delos, and, having sacrificed to the god of the island, dedicated to the temple the image of Venus which Ariadne had given him, and danced with the young Athenians a dance that, in memory of him, they say is still preserved among the inhabitants of Delos, consisting in certain measured turnings and returnings, imitative of the windings and twistings of the labyrinth. And this dance, as Dicaearchus writes, is called among the Delians, the Crane. This he danced round the Ceratonian Altar, so called from its consisting of horns taken from the left side of the head. They say also that he instituted games in Delos where he was the first that began the custom of giving a palm to the victors. When they were come near the coast of Attica, so great was the joy for the happy success of their voyage, that neither Theseus himself nor the pilot remembered to hang out the sail which should have been the token of their safety to Aegeus, who, in despair at the sight, threw himself headlong from a rock, and perished in the sea. But Theseus, being arrived at the port of Phalerum, paid there the sacrifices which he had vowed to the gods at his setting out to sea, and sent a herald to the city to carry the news of his safe return. At his entrance, the herald found the people for the most part full of grief for the loss of their king, others, as may well be believed, as full of joy for the tidings that he brought, and eager to welcome him and crown him with garlands for his good news, which he indeed accepted of, but hung them upon his herald's staff; and thus returning to the seaside before Theseus had finished his libation to the gods, he stayed apart for fear of disturbing the holy rites, but, as soon as the libation was ended, went up and related the king's death, upon the hearing of which, with great lamentations and a confused tumult of grief, they ran with all haste to the city. And from hence, they say, it comes that at this day, in the feast of Oschophoria, the herald is not crowned, but his staff, and all who are present at the libation cry out eleleu iou iou, the first of which confused sounds is commonly used by men in haste, or at a triumph, the other is proper to people in consternation or disorder of mind. Theseus, after the funeral of his father, paid his vows to Apollo the seventh day of Pyanepsion; for on that day the youth that returned
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with him safe from Crete made their entry into the city. They say, also, that the custom of boiling pulse at this feast is derived from hence; because the young men that escaped put all that was left of their provision together, and, boiling it in one common pot, feasted themselves with it, and ate it all up together. Hence, also, they carry in procession an olive branch bound about with wool (such as they then made use of in their supplications), which they call Eiresione, crowned with all sorts of fruits, to signify that scarcity and barrenness was ceased, singing in their procession this song: Eiresione bring figs, and Eiresione bring loaves; Bring us honey in pints, and oil to rub on our bodies, And a strong flagon of wine, for all to go mellow to bed on.

Although some hold opinion that this ceremony is retained in memory of the Heraclidae, who were thus entertained and brought up by the Athenians. But most are of the opinion which we have given above. The ship wherein Theseus and the youth of Athens returned had thirty oars, and was preserved by the Athenians down even to the time of Demetrius Phalereus, for they took away the old planks as they decayed, putting in new and stronger timber in their place,
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insomuch that this ship became a standing example among the philosophers, for the logical question as to things that grow; one side holding that the ship remained the same, and the other contending that it was not the same. The feast called Oschophoria, or the feast of boughs, which to this day the Athenians celebrate, was then first instituted by Theseus. For he took not with him the full number of virgins which by lot were to be carried away, but selected two youths of his acquaintance, of fair and womanish faces, but of a manly and forward spirit, and having, by frequent baths, and avoiding the heat and scorching of the sun, with a constant use of all the ointments and washes and dresses that serve to the adorning of the head or smoothing the skin or improving the complexion, in a manner changed them from what they were before, and having taught them farther to counterfeit the very voice and carriage and gait of virgins, so that there could not be the least difference perceived; he, undiscovered by any, put them into the number of the Athenian maids designed for Crete. At his return, he and these two youths led up a solemn procession, in the same habit that is now worn by those who carry the vine-branches. These branches they carry in honor of Bacchus and Ariadne, for the sake of their story before related; or rather because they happened to return in autumn, the time of gathering the grapes. The women whom they call Deipnopherae, or supper-carriers, are taken into these ceremonies, and assist at the sacrifice, in remembrance and imitation of the mothers of the young men and virgins upon whom the lot fell, for thus they ran about bringing bread and meat to their children; and because the women then told their sons and daughters many tales and stories, to comfort and encourage them under the danger they were going upon, it has still continued a custom that at this feast old fables and tales should be told. For these particularities we are indebted to the history of Demon. There was then a place chosen out, and a temple erected in it to Theseus, and those families out of whom the tribute of the youth was gathered were appointed to pay a tax to the temple for sacrifices to him. And the house of the Phytalidae had the overseeing of these sacrifices, Theseus doing them that honor in recompense of their former hospitality. Now, after the death of his father Aegeus, forming in his mind a great and wonderful design, he gathered together all the inhabitants of Attica into one town, and made them one people of one city, whereas before they lived dispersed, and were not easy to assemble upon
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any affair for the common interest. Nay, differences and even wars often occurred between them, which he by his persuasions appeased, going from township to township, and from tribe to tribe. And those of a more private and mean condition readily embracing such good advice, to those of greater power he promised a commonwealth without monarchy, a democracy, or people's government in which he should only be continued as their commander in war and the protector of their laws, all things else being equally distributed among them; and by this means brought a part of them over to his proposal. The rest, fearing his power, which was already grown very formidable, and knowing his courage and resolution, chose rather to be persuaded than forced into a compliance. He then dissolved all the distinct state-houses, council halls, and magistracies, and built one common state-house and council hall on the site of the present upper town, and gave the name of Athens to the whole state, ordaining a common feast and sacrifice, which he called Panathenaea, or the sacrifice of all the united Athenians. He instituted also another sacrifice, called Metoecia, or Feast of Migration, which is yet celebrated on the sixteenth day of Hecatombaeon. Then, as he had promised, he laid down his regal power and proceeded to order a commonwealth, entering upon this great work not without advice from the gods. For having sent to consult the oracle of Delphi concerning the fortune of his new government and city, he received this answer: Son of the Pitthean maid, To your town the terms and fates, My father gives of many states. Be not anxious nor
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afraid; The bladder will not fail so swim On the waves that compass him.

Which oracle, they say, one of the sibyls long after did in a manner repeat to the Athenians, in this verse, The bladder may be dipt, but not be drowned.

Farther yet designing to enlarge his city, he invited all strangers to come and enjoy equal privileges with the natives, and it is said that the common form, Come hither all ye people, was the words that Theseus proclaimed when he thus set up a commonwealth, in a manner, for all nations. Yet he did not suffer his state, by the promiscuous multitude that flowed in, to be turned into confusion and be left without any order or degree, but was the first that divided the Commonwealth into three distinct ranks, the noblemen, the husbandmen, and artificers. To the nobility he committed the care of religion, the choice of magistrates, the teaching and dispensing of the laws, and interpretation and direction in all sacred matters; the whole city being, as it were, reduced to an exact equality, the nobles excelling the rest in honor, the husbandmen in profit, and the artificers in number. And that Theseus was the first, who, as Aristotle says, out of an inclination to popular government, parted with the regal power, Homer also seems to testify, in his catalogue of the ships, where he gives the name of People to the Athenians only.

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He also coined money, and stamped it with the image of an ox, either in memory of the Marathonian bull, or of Taurus, whom he vanquished, or else to put his people in mind to follow husbandry; and from this coin came the expression so frequent among the Greeks, of a thing being worth ten or a hundred oxen. After this he joined Megara to Attica, and erected that famous pillar on the Isthmus, which bears an inscription of two lines, showing the bounds of the two countries that meet there. On the east side the inscription is, Peloponnesus there, Ionia here,

and on the west side, Peloponnesus here, Ionia there.

He also instituted the games, in emulation of Hercules, being ambitious that as the Greeks, by that hero's appointment, celebrated the Olympian games to the honor of Jupiter, so, by his institution, they should celebrate the Isthmian to the honor of Neptune. For those that were there before observed, dedicated to Melicerta, were performed privately in the night, and had the form rather of a religious rite than of an open spectacle or public feast. There are some who say that the Isthmian games were first instituted in memory of Sciron, Theseus thus making expiation for his death, upon account of the nearness of kindred between them, Sciron being the son of Canethus and Heniocha, the daughter of Pittheus; though others write that Sinnis, not Sciron, was their son, and that to his honor, and not to the other's, these games were ordained by Theseus. At the same time he made an agreement with the Corinthians, that they should allow those that came from Athens to the celebration of the Isthmian games as much space of honor before the rest to behold the spectacle in, as the sail of the ship that brought them thither, stretched to its full extent, could cover; so Hellanicus and Andro of Halicarnassus have established.

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Concerning his voyage into the Euxine Sea, Philochorus and some others write that he made it with Hercules, offering him his service in the war against the Amazons, and had Antiope given him for the reward of his valor; but the greater number, of whom are Pherecydes, Hellanicus, and Herodorus, write that he made this voyage many years after Hercules, with a navy under his own command, and took the Amazon prisoner, the more probable story, for we do not read that any other, of all those that accompanied him in this action, took any Amazon prisoner. Bion adds, that, to take her, he had to use deceit and fly away; for the Amazons, he says, being naturally lovers of men, were so far from avoiding Theseus when he touched upon their coasts, that they sent him presents to his ship; but he, having invited Antiope, who brought them, to come aboard, immediately set sail and carried her away. An author named Menecrates, that wrote the History of Nicaea in Bithynia, adds, that Theseus, having Antiope aboard his vessel, cruised for some time about those coasts, and that there were in the same ship three young men of Athens, that accompanied him in this voyage, all brothers, whose names were Euneos, Thoas, and Soloon. The last of these fell desperately in love with Antiope; and, escaping the notice of the rest, revealed the secret only to one of his most intimate acquaintance, and employed him to disclose his passion to Antiope, she rejected his pretenses with a very positive denial, yet treated the matter with much gentleness and discretion, and made no complaint to Theseus of any thing that had happened; but Soloon, the thing being desperate, leaped into a river near the seaside and drowned himself. As soon as Theseus was acquainted with his death, and his unhappy love that was the cause of it, he was extremely distressed, and, in the height of his grief, an oracle which he had formerly received at Delphi came into his mind, for he had been commanded by the priestess of Apollo Pythius, that, wherever in a strange land he was most sorrowful and under the greatest affliction, he should build a city there, and leave some of his followers to be governors of the place. For this cause he there founded a city, which he called, from the name of Apollo, Pythopolis, and, in honor of the unfortunate youth, he named the river that runs by it Soloon, and left the two surviving brothers entrusted with the care of the government and laws, joining with them Hermus, one of the nobility of Athens, from whom a place in the city is called the House of Hermus; though by an error in the accent it has been taken for the House of Hermes, or Mercury, and the honor that was designed to the hero transferred to the god.

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This was the origin and cause of the Amazonian invasion of Attica, which would seem to have been no slight or womanish enterprise. For it is impossible that they should have placed their camp in the very city, and joined battle close by the Pnyx and the hill called Museum, unless, having first conquered the country round about, they had thus with impunity advanced to the city. That they made so long a journey by land, and passed the Cimmerian Bosphorus when frozen, as Hellanicus writes, is difficult to be believed. That they encamped all but in the city is certain, and may be sufficiently confirmed by the names that the places thereabout yet retain, and the graves and monuments of those that fell in the battle. Both armies being in sight, there was a long pause and doubt on each side which should give the first onset; at last Theseus, having sacrificed to Fear, in obedience to the command of an oracle he had received, gave them battle; and this happened in the month of Boedromion, in which to this very day the Athenians celebrate the Feast Boedromia. Clidemus, desirous to be very circumstantial, writes that the left wing of the Amazons moved towards the place which is yet called Amazonium and the right towards the Pnyx, near Chrysa, that with this wing the Athenians, issuing from behind the Museum, engaged, and that the graves of those that were slain are to be seen in the street that leads to the gate called the Piraic, by the chapel of the hero Chalcodon; and that here the Athenians were routed, and gave way before the women, as far as to the temple of the Furies, but, fresh supplies coming in from the Palladium, Ardettus, and the Lyceum, they charged their right wing, and beat them back into their tents, in which action a great number of the Amazons were slain. At length, after four months, a peace was concluded between them by the mediation of Hippolyta (for so this historian calls the Amazon whom Theseus married, and not Antiope), though others write that she was slain with a dart by Molpadia, while fighting by Theseus's side, and that the pillar which stands by the temple of Olympian Earth was erected to her honor. Nor is it to be wondered at, that in events of such antiquity, history should be in disorder. For indeed we are also told that those of the Amazons that were wounded were privately sent away by Antiope to Chalcis, where many by her care recovered, but some that died were buried there in the place that is to this time called Amazonium. That this war, however, was ended by a treaty is evident, both from the name of the place adjoining to the temple of Theseus, called, from the solemn oath there taken, Horcomosium; and also from the ancient sacrifice which used to be celebrated to the Amazons the day before the Feast of Theseus. The Megarians also show a spot in their city where some
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Amazons were buried, on the way from the market to a place called Rhus, where the building in the shape of a lozenge stands. It is said, likewise, that others of them were slain near Chaeronea, and buried near the little rivulet, formerly called Thermodon, but now Haemon, of which an account is given in the life of Demosthenes. It appears further that the passage of the Amazons through Thessaly was not without opposition, for there are yet shown many tombs of them near Scotussa and Cynoscephalae. This is as much as is worth telling concerning the Amazons. For the account which the author of the poem called the Theseid gives of this rising of the Amazons, how Antiope, to revenge herself upon Theseus for refusing her and marrying Phaedra, came down upon the city with her train of Amazons, whom Hercules slew, is manifestly nothing else but fable and invention. It is true, indeed, that Theseus married Phaedra, but that was after the death of Antiope, by whom he had a son called Hippolytus, or, as Pindar writes, Demophon. The calamities which befell Phaedra and this son, since none of the historians have contradicted the tragic poets that have written of them, we must suppose happened as represented uniformly by them. There are also other traditions of the marriages of Theseus, neither honorable in their occasions nor fortunate in their events, which yet were never represented in the Greek plays. For he is said to have carried off Anaxo, a Troezenian, and, having slain Sinnis and Cercyon, to have ravished their daughters; to have married Periboea, the mother of Ajax, and then Phereboea, and then Iope, the daughter of Iphicles. And further, he is accused of deserting Ariadne (as is before related), being in love with Aegle the daughter of Panopeus, neither justly nor honorably; and lastly, of the rape of Helen, which filled all Attica with war and blood, and was in the end the occasion of his banishment and death, as will presently be related. Herodorus is of opinion, that though there were many famous expeditions undertaken by the bravest men of his time, yet Theseus never joined in any of them, once only excepted, with the Lapithae, in their war against the Centaurs; but others say that he accompanied Jason to Colchis and Meleager to the slaying of the Calydonian boar, and that hence it came to be a proverb, Not without Theseus; that he himself, however, without aid of any one, performed many glorious exploits, and that from him began the saying, He is a second Hercules. He also joined Adrastus in
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recovering the bodies of those that were slain before Thebes, but not as Euripides in his tragedy says, by force of arms, but by persuasion and mutual agreement and composition, for so the greater part of the historians write; Philochorus adds further that this was the first treaty that ever was made for the recovering the bodies of the dead, but in the history of Hercules it is shown that it was he who first gave leave to his enemies to carry off their slain. The burying-places of the most part are yet to be seen in the village called Eleutherae; those of the commanders, at Eleusis, where Theseus allotted them a place, to oblige Adrastus. The story of Euripides in his Suppliants is disproved by Aeschylus in his Eleusinians, where Theseus himself relates the facts as here told. The celebrated friendship between Theseus and Pirithous is said to have been thus begun: the fame of the strength and valor of Theseus being spread through Greece, Pirithous was desirous to make a trial and proof. of it himself, and to this end seized a herd of oxen which belonged to Theseus, and was driving them away from Marathon, and, when news was brought that Theseus pursued him in arms, he did not fly, but turned back and went to meet him. But as soon as they had viewed one another, each so admired the gracefulness and beauty, and was seized with such a respect for the courage, of the other, that they forgot all thoughts of fighting; and Pirithous, first stretching out his hand to Theseus, bade him be judge in this case himself, and promised to submit willingly to any penalty he should impose. But Theseus not only forgave him all, but entreated him to be his friend and brother in arms; and they ratified their friendship by oaths. After this Pirithous married Deidamia, and invited Theseus to the wedding, entreating him to come and see his country, and make acquaintance with the Lapithae; he had at the same time invited the Centaurs to the feast, who growing hot with wine and beginning to be insolent and wild, and offering violence to the women, the Lapithae took immediate revenge upon them, slaying many of them upon the place, and afterwards, having overcome them in battle, drove the whole race of them out of their country, Theseus all along taking their part and fighting on their side. But Herodorus gives a different relation of these things: that Theseus came not to the assistance of the Lapithae till the war was already begun; and that it was in this journey that he had the first sight of Hercules, having made it his business to find him out at Trachis, where he had chosen to rest himself after all his wanderings and his labors; and that this interview was honorably performed on each part, with extreme respect, good-will, and admiration of each other.
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Yet it is more credible, as others write, that there were, before, frequent interviews between them, and that it was by the means of Theseus that Hercules was initiated at Eleusis, and purified before initiation, upon account of several rash actions of his former life. Theseus was now fifty years old, as Hellanicus states, when he carried off Helen, who was yet too young to be married. Some writers, to take away this accusation of one of the greatest crimes laid to his charge, say, that he did not steal away Helen himself, but that Idas and Lynceus were the ravishers, who brought her to him, and committed her to his charge, and that, therefore, he refused to restore her at the demand of Castor and Pollux; or, indeed, they say her own father, Tyndarus, had sent her to be kept by him, for fear of Enarophorus, the son of Hippocoon, who would have carried her away by force when she was yet a child. But the most probable account, and that which has most witnesses on its side, is this: Theseus and Pirithous went both together to Sparta, and, having seized the young lady as she was dancing in the temple of Diana Orthia, fled away with her. There were presently men in arms sent to pursue, but they followed no further than to Tegea; and Theseus and Pirithous, being now out of danger, having passed through Peloponnesus, made an agreement between themselves, that he to whom the lot should fall should have Helen to his wife, but should be obliged to assist in procuring another for his friend. The lot fell upon Theseus, who conveyed her to Aphidnae, not being yet marriageable, and delivered her to one of his allies, called Aphidnus, and, having sent his mother Aethra after to take care of her, desired him to keep them so secretly, that none might know where they were; which done, to return the same service to his friend Pirithous, he accompanied him in his journey to Epirus, in order to steal away the king of the Molossians' daughter. The king, his own name being Aidoneus, or Pluto, called his wife Proserpina, and his daughter Cora, and a great dog which he kept Cerberus, with whom he ordered all that came as suitors to his daughter to fight, and promised her to him that should overcome the beast. But having been informed that the design of Pirithous and his companion was not to court his daughter, but to force her away, he caused them both to be seized, and threw Pirithous to be torn in pieces by his dog, and put Theseus into prison, and kept him. About this time, Menestheus, the son of Peteus, grandson of Orneus, and great-grandson to Erechtheus, the first man that is recorded to have affected popularity and ingratiated himself with the multitude,
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stirred up and exasperated the most eminent men of the city, who had long borne a secret grudge to Theseus, conceiving that he had robbed them of their several little kingdoms and lordships, and, having pent them all up in one city, was using them as his subjects and slaves. He put also the meaner people into commotion, telling them, that, deluded with a mere dream of liberty, though indeed they were deprived both of that and of their proper homes and religious usages, instead of many good and gracious kings of their own, they had given themselves up to be lorded over by a new-comer and a stranger. Whilst he was thus busied in infecting the minds of the citizens, the war that Castor and Pollux brought against Athens came very opportunely to further the sedition he had been promoting, and some say that he by his persuasions was wholly the cause of their invading the city. At their first approach, they committed no acts of hostility, but peaceably demanded their sister Helen; but the Athenians returning answer that they neither had her there nor knew where she was disposed of, they prepared to assault the city, when Academus, having, by whatever means, found it out, disclosed to them that she was secretly kept at Aphidnae. For which reason he was both highly honored during his life by Castor and Pollux, and the Lacedaemonians, when often in aftertimes they made incursions into Attica, and destroyed all the country round about, spared the Academy for the sake of Academus. But Dicaearchus writes that there were two Arcadians in the army of Castor and Pollux, the one called Echedemus and the other Marathus; from the first that which is now called Academia was then named Echedemia, and the village Marathon had its name from the other, who, to fulfill some oracle, voluntarily offered himself to be made a sacrifice before battle. As soon as they were arrived at Aphidnae, they overcame their enemies in a set battle, and then assaulted and took the town. And here, they say, Alycus, the son of Sciron, was slain, of the party of the Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux), from whom a place in Megara, where he was buried, is called Alycus to this day. And Hereas writes that it was Theseus himself that killed him, in witness of which he cites these verses concerning Alycus

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And Alycus, upon Aphidna's plain By Theseus in the cause of Helen slain.

Though it is not at all probable that Theseus himself was there when both the city and his mother were taken. Aphidnae being won by Castor and Pollux, and the city of Athens being in consternation, Menestheus persuaded the people to open their gates, and receive them with all manner of friendship, for they were, he told them, at enmity with none but Theseus, who had first injured them, and were benefactors and saviors to all mankind beside. And their behavior gave credit to those promises; for, having made themselves absolute masters of the place, they demanded no more than to be initiated, since they were as nearly related to the city as Hercules was, who had received the same honor. This their desire they easily obtained, and were adopted by Aphidnus, as Hercules had been by Pylius. They were honored also like gods, and were called by a new name, Anaces, either from the cessation (Anokhe) of the war, or from the care they took that none should suffer any injury, though there was so great an army within the walls; for the phrase anakos ekhein is used of those who look to or care for any thing; kings for this reason, perhaps, are called anactes. Others say, that from the appearance of their star in the heavens, they were thus called, for in the Attic dialect this name comes very near the words that signify above. Some say that Aethra, Theseus's mother, was here taken prisoner, and carried to Lacedaemon, and from thence went away with Helen to Troy, alleging this verse of Homer, to prove that she waited upon Helen,

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and made Aethra prisoner there.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. Hercules was much grieved for the inglorious death of the one and the miserable condition of the other. he thought it useless to complain. near the river Sperchius. who. was entertained in his way by Aidoneus the king. they expected to be flattered into their duty. and largeeyed Clymene. But Ister.. but begged to have Theseus released for his sake. accidentally spoke of the journey of Theseus and Pirithous into his country. Theseus. and brought up by Aethra at Troy. commending them to the care of Elephenor. But this seems a groundless tale. and dedicated to Hercules all the sacred places which the city had set apart for himself. as they do likewise the whole fable of Munychus. and manage the state as before.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-1. despairing of any good success of his affairs in Athens.1. in the thirteenth book of his Attic History. he soon found himself involved in factions and troubles. Now Hercules. that. He had some thoughts to have reduced them by force. And wishing immediately to resume the first place in the commonwealth. of what they had designed to do. gives us an account of Aethra. Aethra of Pittheus born. born secretly. and obtained that favor from the king. having solemnly cursed the people of file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. who. and what they were forced to suffer. four only excepted. returned to Athens. but that Hector took and plundered the city of the Troezenians. as Philochorus writes. changing their names from Thesea to Heraclea. And at last. and he himself.. instead of obeying commands with silence. and the minds of the people were so generally corrupted. As for Pirithous. the son of Chalcodon.htm (30 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:23 . passing by the Molossians. those who long had hated him had now added to their hatred contempt. different yet from all the rest: that Achilles and Patroclus overcame Paris in Thessaly. Others reject this verse as none of Homer's. but was overpowered by demagogues and factions. in conversation. being thus set at liberty. where his friends were not yet wholly suppressed. was the son of Demophon and Laodice. the story says. he sent away his children privately to Euboea.

nor were any concerned for his death. after supper. or the place of cursing.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-1. having led him up to the highest cliff of the island. and desired to have his lands put into his possession. keep them as sacred in the city. as designing to settle and to dwell there. as it were by some divine inspiration. His sons were brought up in a private condition. many of the soldiers believed they saw an apparition of Theseus in arms. as if it were Theseus himself returning alive to the city. on account of the inhospitable and savage temper of the barbarous people that inhabited the island.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. returned to Athens. either jealous of the glory of so great a man. but Menestheus quietly possessed the kingdom of Athens. the Athenians.. according to his custom. or so much as to find out the place where they lay. laying them in some honorable place. But Lycomedes. with those of the island. His tomb is a sanctuary and refuge for slaves. he. There were found in that place a coffin of a man of more than ordinary size. near the present gymnasium. and accompanied Elephenor to the Trojan war. on pretense of showing him from thence the lands that he desired. spied an eagle upon a rising ground pecking with her beak and tearing up the earth with her talons. where he had lands left him by his father. Lycomedes was then king of Scyros. consulting the oracle at Delphi. after the decease of Menestheus in that expedition. when on the sudden it came into his mind. He lies interred in the middle of the city. all which he took aboard his galley and brought with him to Athens. beside several other circumstances that moved the Athenians to honor Theseus as a demigod. and a brazen spear-head. Phaedo being archon of Athens. greatly delighted. in the battle which was fought at Marathon against the Medes. threw him headlong down from the rock. But it was very difficult to recover these relics. Others say he fell down of himself by a slip of his foot. But in succeeding ages. sailed to Scyros. and recovered the government. and. and had a great ambition to find out the place where Theseus was buried. and search for the bones of Theseus. to dig there. and all those of mean condition that file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. At that time there was no notice taken. Upon which the Athenians. were commanded to gather together the bones of Theseus. though others say that he came to beg his assistance against the Athenians. Theseus. addressed himself to him. Athens in the village of Gargettus. as he was walking there. Nevertheless. in which there yet remains the place called Araterion.. as he thought. therefore.1. rushing on at the head of them against the barbarians. by chance. and a sword lying by it. but. afterwards.htm (31 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:23 . when Cimon took the island (as is related in his life). And after the Median war. and killed him. went out to meet and receive the relics with splendid processions and with sacrifices. or to gratify Menestheus. and friendship.

The number eight being the first cube of an even number. as Diodorus the geographer writes. or else thinking that number to be proper to him. fly from the persecution of men in power. and never refused the petitions of the afflicted that fled to him. in memory that Theseus while he lived was an assister and protector of the distressed. on which he returned with the Athenian young men from Crete. they sacrifice to him on the eighth day of every month.. who from thence has the names of Asphalius and Gaeiochus. that is. because he was reputed to be born of Neptune. the establisher and stayer of the earth. either because he returned from Troezen the eighth day of Hecatombaeon.htm (32 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:23 .0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-1.1.. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. seemed to be an emblem of the steadfast and immovable power of this god. because they sacrifice to Neptune on the eighth day of every month. Besides which. and the double of the first square. The chief and most solemn sacrifice which they celebrate to him is kept on the eighth day of Pyanepsion.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.

and. Aeneas's son. all the vessels were cast away except only that where the young children were.2. ROMULUS From whom. after they had burnt the ships. Diomede having sent him from Troy. which being gently landed on a level bank of the river. For some say. put to sea. or. by another account. they say. and from file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. Hercules's son. driven by winds. whose name was Roma. burnt the ships. was so first called.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and the people courteous. of Telephus. seating themselves near Palatium. and subduing numerous nations. were carried upon the coasts of Tuscany. where their women. Some again say that Roma. but afterwards. after driving out the Tyrrhenians. and that she was married to Aeneas. from whom this city was so called.. made use of such endearments when entreating and pacifying their husbands. and was. Those very authors.htm (1 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . Some tell us that Romanus. in that they found the country very good. he was son to Aeneas and Dexithea. and from thence into Italy. carried into Italy. they not only did the lady Roma other honors. fixed themselves here. built it. in their infancy. from their own great strength in war. too. of necessity. according to others again. wandering over the greater part of the habitable world. where things in a short while succeeded far better than they could hope. or. and came to anchor off the mouth of the river Tiber. From this. some. who had come from Thessaly into Lydia. Some are of opinion that the Pelasgians. With which act the men at first were angry. of calling after her name the city which she had been the occasion of their founding. who. authors do not agree. because these women. king of the Latins. has come down that custom at Rome for women to salute their kinsmen and husbands with kisses. was daughter of Italus and Leucaria. and for what reason.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2.. yet differ concerning his birth and family. Romus the son of Emathion. and famous in the mouths of all men. and. a name so great in glory. and others. Others. make Romulus give the name to the city. to Ascanius. the city of Rome. and being on the river when the waters came down in a flood. Romus. daughter of Phorbas. they were both unexpectedly saved. in accordance with the safest account. on its being proposed by one of the highest birth and best understanding amongst them. out of heart and weary with the sea. but added also this. called the city Rome. with his brother Remus. that at the taking of Troy. some few that escaped and met with shipping. the son of Ulysses and Circe.

which she avoiding as an indignity. and being able to do more with that than Numitor. This lady some file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. they should be suffered to marry. took his kingdom from him with great ease. which when they finished. Tarchetius told the prophecy to one of his own daughters.. who compiled a history of Italy. good fortune. bound in that condition forever to live a single and maiden life. Tarchetius commanded others to unravel in the night. but in general outline it runs thus: the kings of Alba reigned in lineal descent from Aeneas and the succession devolved at length upon two brothers. there appeared in his own house a strange vision. which they put into their mouths. a male figure that rose out of a hearth. having the money. For to Tarchetius. whom Tarchetius gave into the hands of one Teratius. he. fearing lest his daughter might have children. sent her handmaid. was married to Latinus. But the story which is most believed and has the greatest number of vouchers was first published. however. but. with command to destroy them. Roma. daughter of Aeneas and Lavinia. Tarchetius. Numitor chose the kingdom. purposing to put them to death.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. whom Fabius Pictor also follows in most points.htm (2 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . made her a Vestal. the waiting-woman was delivered of two boys. and. set upon Tarchetius and overcame him. venturing to draw nearer.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. king of Alba. carried and laid them by the river side. but whatever they worked by day. till a cowherd. was first strangely surprised.2. hearing this. and others give you mere fables of his origin. and. and that a son should be born of her. others. enjoined them for their punishment the working a web of cloth. In the meantime. took the children up in his arms. in their chains as they were. eminent for valor. highly renowned. Telemachus's son. and strength of body. in its chief particulars. Amulius proposed to divide things into two equal shares. Some say. spying them. and received an answer that a virgin should give herself to the apparition. they say. Numitor and Amulius. where a wolf came and continued to suckle them.. but Amulius. Thus they were saved. and became mother to Romulus. in great anger imprisoned them both. and stayed there for many days. that Aemilia. and set as equivalent to the kingdom the treasure and gold that were brought from Troy. while birds of various sorts brought little morsels of food. them the place was called Rome. had him by the god Mars. This one Promathion says. and commanded her to do this thing. There was an oracle of Tethys in Tuscany which Tarchetius consulted. Here again there are variations. who was a most wicked and cruel man. amongst the Greeks by Diocles of Peparethus. daughter of the Trojan lady above mentioned. but being deterred from murder by the goddess Vesta in a dream. when they grew up.

it is called the Larentian Feast. Which things. others say Faustulus was the man who brought them up. in sacrificing to whom they use no wine. They honor also another Larentia. and. He put the children. Near this place grew a wild fig-tree. dropping the children near the bank. contrary to the established laws of the Vestals. and should have suffered the most cruel punishment. While the infants lay here. history tells us. she was. becoming yet more alarmed. proposed to his deity a game at dice. not long after.2. which signifies brothers. because cattle did usually in the heat of the day seek cover under it. the woodpecker the Latins still especially worship and honor. that their father was the god Mars: though some say that it was a mistake put upon her by Amulius.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.htm (3 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . these creatures are esteemed holy to the god Mars. Others think that the first rise of this fable came from the children's nurse. others Rhea. who nurtured these children. it seems. To her the Romans offer sacrifices. and such an one was the wife of Faustulus. the king's daughter. from the suckling of these children there. commanded a servant to take and cast away. and in the month of April the priest of Mars makes libations there.. and debarred all company. landed them on a smooth piece of ground. whom Amulius. however. for the ancients called the dug or teat of any creature ruma. seeing the waters much swollen and coming violently down. or. which they now call Cermanes. In time she brought forth two boys. and others Silvia. or from ruminating. but. formerly Germanus. and there is a tutelar goddess of the rearing of children whom they still call Rumilia. of more than human size and beauty. and a woodpecker constantly fed and watched them. this man some call Faustulus. was afraid to go nearer. who himself had come to her dressed up in armor. that she might not be delivered without the king's knowledge.. call Ilia. Acca Larentia by name. laying down file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. mediated with her father for her.wolf nursed them. gave credit to what the mother of the children said. and there chew the cud. had not Antho. she was confined. little else to do. better. the flood at last bore up the trough. but make libations of milk. gently wafting it. went away.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. nevertheless. The river overflowing. and went towards the river with a design to cast them in. through the ambiguity of her name. perhaps from Germani. a she. and. for the following reason: the keeper of Hercules's temple having. which they called Ruminalis. either from Romulus (as it is vulgarly thought). discovered to be with child. but also women of loose life. for the Latins not only called wolves lupae. as much as any. however. in a small trough.

Meantime Faustulus. if he himself won. then in her beauty. gave her a feast in the temple. He received Larentia. and holding himself bound by what he had said. he found himself beaten. and had always lived a single life. attempting all enterprises that seemed hazardous. To their comrades and inferiors they were therefore dear. to salute him. with the knowledge and secret assistance of Numitor. and showing in them a courage altogether undaunted. Amulius's swineherd. and commanded her in the morning to walk to the market-place. and.) as we had before. it is said. and loved her well. he would have something valuable of the god. And they were called Romulus and Remus. the river frequently overflowing. but if he were beaten. and at his death left her sole heir of all his large and fair possessions. bequeathed to the people. Wishing to pay his stakes honorably.htm (4 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . beginning at this spot. In their very infancy. And indeed. that. and other accomplishments befitting their birth. his bailiffs and file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. (from ruma.. where he had also laid a bed. who was a man advanced in years. a sail. whether relating to feeding of flocks or to hunting. Others derive the name from velum. brought up the children without any man's knowledge. he both provided the deity a good supper. and to show the sagacity of a statesman. though not publicly known.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. the deity did truly visit her. She met one named Tarrutius. the size and beauty of their bodies intimated their natural superiority. being now celebrated and esteemed the mistress of a god. and when they grew up. or. and after supper locked her in.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. in her last will and testament. they went to school at Gabii. the dug. Upon these terms. whatever man see met first. because the exhibitors of public shows used to hang the road that leads from the forum to the Circus Maximus with sails. the spot is at this day called Velabrum. they both proved brave and manly.2. he would spread him a noble table. It was reported of her.. and procure him a fair lady's company. for it is said. but the king's servants. that she suddenly disappeared near the place where the first Larentia lay buried. because they were found sucking the wolf. they went over in ferry-boats somewhere hereabouts to the forum. as those say who wish to keep closer to probabilities. Upon these accounts the second Larentia is honored at Rome. and were well instructed in letters. because. and. most of which she. giving money to Larentia. and make him her friend. gave the idea of being born rather to rule than to obey. fairly rich without children. throwing first for the god and then for himself. the Latin word for ferrying being velatura. But Romulus seemed rather to act by counsel. as if the god were really to come to her. and in all his dealings with their neighbors.

but since we have been accused and aspersed with calumnies. as it seemed. he put his hand upon the fact. Formerly. being fond of sacred rites and divination. and desired justice. Amulius was induced to deliver Remus up into Numitor's hands. to use him as he thought fit. and brought in peril of our lives here before you. but rather such exercises as hunting and running. taking heart. carried him before Numitor. and. He. and perceiving in his very countenance the courage and force of his mind. Numitor would not punish him himself. they despised and slighted. that when Romulus was attending a sacrifice. out of the mere thought of his mind. being struck with admiration of the youth's person. fell upon them and put them to flight. and there accused him. fell upon him. in gentle terms and with a kind aspect.htm (5 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . but went to Amulius. the king's servants. spoke thus: " I will hide nothing from you. a divine influence aiding and directing the first steps that were to lead to great results. after some fighting. in stature and strength of body exceeding all men. as he was Amulius's brother and was affronted by Amulius's servants. and casually. and. but chiefly. which stood unsubdued and unmoved by his present circumstances. For doing such things they became famous. It so happened. for you seem to be of a more princely temper than Amulius.--acts which looked like the first stages of rebellion. in that you give a hearing and examine before you punish. and thinking he had been dishonorably used.. He therefore took and carried him home. but collected and took into their company a number of needy men and runaway slaves. At which Numitor being highly incensed. not enduring the driving away of their cattle by the others. to inspire him with confidence and hope.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. Numitor's herdsmen. the latter. overseers. and delivering the wronged and oppressed from injury. as it were. The men of Alba likewise resenting the thing. They used honest pastimes and liberal studies. nor were the least concerned at their commands and menaces. and. and hearing further that all the enterprises and actions of his life were answerable to what he saw of him. and rescued the greatest part of the prey.2. repelling robbers. the truth of which my file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and whence he was derived. taking of thieves. we hear great things of ourselves.. they little regarded it. not esteeming sloth and idleness honest and liberal. A quarrel occurring between Numitor's and Amulius's cowherds. fearing his brother's anger. then. took him prisoner. we (for we are twins) thought ourselves the sons of Faustulus and Larentia. asked him who he was.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. meeting with Remus on a journey with few companions. while he condemns before the cause is heard. as being in nothing better men than themselves.

but giving a suspicion to some of the king's sentry at his gate. did not show himself altogether proof against terror. had they wished it. himself too joining and assisting them. otherwise honest.htm (6 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 .. he himself. and the morsels of a woodpecker. Our birth is said to have been secret. and told as much as an attentive man might make no small conclusions from. to proceed to action. it so fell out Amulius now did. out of fear and hatred of Amulius. seeing the trough and knowing it by its make and inscription. and advised them.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C." Numitor. slighted not the hope that flattered him. besides. called on Romulus to assist in his rescue. and indeed. upon these words. both gave him surer confidence in his hope. coming and seeing how little Remus wanted of being received into the arms and embraces of Numitor. a great way from Alba. He. with commands to learn from Numitor whether any tidings were come to him of the children's being alive. Faustulus. Faustulus. but considered how to come at his daughter privately (for she was still kept under restraint). telling the king of it. we were fed. with brass plates round it. for he sent in haste as a messenger. The trough is still in being. to talk with her concerning these matters. he. who had often greatly desired to see and handle it. brought in the man to be examined. and. without further delay.2. guessed at the business. a man. and friendly to Numitor. took the trough. with all expedition. our fostering and nurture in our infancy still more strange. but lived. confessed indeed the children were alive. present danger is likely to bring to the test. the time would not have let them demur. As men generally do who are troubled in mind and act either in fear or passion. he himself was going to carry the trough to Ilia. hard beset. he brought great file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. informing him then plainly of the particulars of his birth. hearing Remus was taken and delivered up. as shepherds. not but he had before given hints of it. and was one employed in the office. for a confirmation of her hopes of her children. and computing the dates by the young man's looks. full of concern and fear of not coming in time. By chance there was one among them who was at the exposing of the children.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. and being gazed upon by them and perplexed with their questions. For Romulus was now come very near. nor yet was he wholly forced out of all. to whom we were cast out. and ran instantly to Numitor. were running out to join him. which may prove hereafter unavailing tokens to our parents when we are dead and gone. he said. and many of the citizens. by the milk of a wolf. by birds and beasts.. as we lay in a little trough by the side of the river. and an inscription in letters almost effaced. he let it be seen that he was hiding the trough under his cloak. and is preserved.

every captain carrying a small bundle of grass and shrubs tied to a pole. each of an hundred men. forces with him. for. This narrative. For that the inhabitants of Alba did not think fugitives worthy of being received and incorporated as citizens among them plainly appears from the matter of the women.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. in this perplexity and confusion was taken and put to death. either to come to nothing by dispersing them. neither the servant to his master. nor take the government into their own hands during the life of their grandfather. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. attended with great and extraordinary circumstances. or what expedient to think of for his security. if men would remember what a poet fortune sometimes shows herself. insomuch that the city grew presently very populous. they opened a sanctuary of refuge for all fugitives.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. an attempt made not wantonly but of necessity... and build a city in the same place where they were in their infancy brought up. the two brothers would neither dwell in Alba without governing there. Not long after the first foundation of the city. and they could so maintain it by an order of the holy oracle. saying it was a privileged place. because they could not get wives by goodwill. though perhaps it was necessary. the debtor to his creditor. where they received and protected all. who seem to be the earliest historians of the foundation of Rome. and Romulus making attacks from without. and paid their mother befitting honor. divided into companies.htm (7 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . it consisted at first of no more than a thousand houses. Having therefore delivered the dominion up into his hands. for the most part given by Fabius and Diocles of Peparethus. or if not so. not knowing either what to do. is suspected by some. because of its dramatic and fictitious appearance. but it would not wholly be disbelieved. delivering none back. For they certainly paid unusual respect and honor to those whom they thus forcibly seized. having such a body of slaves and fugitives collected about them. then to live with them elsewhere. Remus rousing the citizens within to revolt. nor the murderer into the hands of the magistrate. and consider that the Roman power would hardly have reached so high a pitch without a divinely ordered origin. The Latins call such bundles manipuli and from hence it is that in their armies still they call their captains manipulares. This seems the most honorable reason for their departure. Amulius now being dead and matters quietly disposed. they say.2. But of that hereafter. the tyrant. which they called the temple of the god Asylaeus. they resolved to live by themselves.

and hawks mangle and kill their own fellow-creatures. as soothsayers ascribe a divine origination to all things not produced either of nature or of themselves. their rarity and infrequency has raised a strange opinion in some. he turned some pieces of the work to ridicule. and placing themselves apart at some distance. but a vulture is a very rare sight. Concluding at last to decide the contest by a divination from a flight of birds.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. but. as Aeschylus says. he was much displeased. yet. Hence it is that the Romans. and file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. chiefly regard the vulture. there arose presently a difference about the place where. or the Square Rome. Remus laid out a piece of ground on the Aventine Mount. Their minds being fully bent upon building. they let themselves be seen of us continually.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and as Romulus was casting up a ditch. when Remus came to him. Remus. see twelve. whereas eagles. they say. and Romulus double the number. which was from him called Remonium. where he designed the foundation of the citywall. saw six vultures.. and as for birds. and that Romulus feigned his. never out of our eyes. fruit-tree. nor cattle. pernicious neither to corn. owls. but now Rignarium. that then he did. Romulus chose what was called Roma Quadrata. well fortified by nature. and would have the city there. When Remus knew the cheat. though Herodorus Ponticus relates that Hercules was always very joyful when a vulture appeared to him upon any action. so to say. What bird is clean that preys on fellow bird? Besides all other birds are. and you can seldom meet with a man that has seen their young. though they are dead. in their divinations from birds. others say Remus did truly see his number. it touches not them. For it is a creature the least hurtful of any.2. that they come to us from some other world. and never kills or hurts any living thing.. indeed.htm (8 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . as being of its own species. it preys only upon carrion.

set to building his city. drove himself a deep line or furrow round the bounds. making which their center. they all threw them in promiscuously together. some of which are in themselves unclean. they gave him the name of Celer. after or beside the wall. helped to bring up Romulus. With this line they described the wall. except where the gates are. one of his companions. at his father's funeral. At first. and in the scuffle Faustulus also was slain. and sent for men out of Tuscany. as he was in contempt leaping over it. The Roman and Greek months have now little or no agreement. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. for which reason they consider the whole wall as holy. on the mount Remonia. by a contraction. and. that is. others Celer. and where they designed to make a gate. without offense to religion. there was a feast of herdsmen and shepherds kept on this day.. and left a space. for had they adjudged them also sacred. who. obstructed others: at last. and not to let any clod lie outside. some say Romulus himself struck him. who directed him by sacred usages and written rules in all the ceremonies to be observed. they say.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. as in a religious rite. which went by the name of Palilia. in a few days' time gave the people a show of gladiators. This trench they call. there they took out the share. Celer upon this fled instantly into Tuscany. they say. and because Quintus Metellus. Pomoerium. and into it solemnly threw the firstfruits of all things either good by custom or necessary by nature. they sacrificed no living creature on this day. having buried his brother Remus. lastly. and called it. have given free ingress and egress for the necessaries of human life. they dug a round trench about that which is now the Comitium.htm (9 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . and Plistinus. thinking it fit to preserve the feast of their country's birthday pure and without stain of blood. being Faustulus's brother. every man taking a small piece of earth of the country from whence he came. they could not. calling it their country's birthday. story tells us. it is universally agreed to have been the twenty-first of April.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. they described the city in a circle round it. Yet before ever the city was built. together with his two foster.fathers. he fell. however. carried the plow over. Then the founder fitted to a plow a brazen plowshare. while the business of those that followed after was to see that whatever earth was thrown up should be turned all inwards towards the city. and that day the Romans annually keep holy. or Court of Assembly. Romulus. post murum. admiring his expedition in getting it ready. Mundus. as they do the heavens. yoking together a bull and a cow. First.. As for the day they began to build the city.2. and from him the Romans call all men that are swift of foot Celeres.

. at which time there was a total eclipse of the sun. to him Varro propounded to cast Romulus's nativity. for it belonged. But these and the like relations may perhaps not so much take and delight the reader with their novelty and curiosity. their word for protection of file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. lived one Tarrutius. some say. Romulus enlisted all that were of age to bear arms into military companies. that he was born the twentyfirst day of the month Thoth. a man deeply read in Roman history. and the third hour after sunset. at which time there was an eclipse of the sun which they conceive to be that seen by Antimachus. In the times of Varro the philosopher. were so called because they were the fathers of lawful children. they think. the twenty-third day of the month the Egyptians call Choeac. others. however. one hundred of the most eminent he chose for counselors.2. he very confidently and positively pronounced that Romulus was conceived in his mother's womb the first year of the second Olympiad. which not every one of the rabble that poured into the city at first could do. each company consisting of three thousand footmen and three hundred horse. he said. The rest of the multitude he called the people. these he styled patricians. which signifies a council of elders.. and their assembly the senate. and also to find out his birth by the knowledge of his life.htm (10 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . For the fortunes of cities as well as of men.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. from patronage. and was thought to be a proficient in the art. The city now being built. The patricians. the day on which Romulus began to build was quite certainly the thirtieth of the month.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. a good philosopher and mathematician. between the second and third hour. his familiar acquaintance. and first looking into the actions and casualties of the man. even to the first day and hour. This task Tarrutius undertook. as offend him by their extravagance. too. others. because they were the choicest and most select of the people for fighting men. and then comparing all these remarks together. the Teian poet. that out of curiosity had studied the way of drawing schemes and tables. exactly as in working back a geometrical problem. and that the first stone of Rome was laid by him the ninth day of the month Pharmuthi. have their certain periods of time prefixed. and one. These companies were called legions. which may be collected and foreknown from the position of the stars at their first foundation. together with the time of his life and manner of his death. in the third year of the sixth Olympiad. because they could give a good account who their own fathers were. about sun-rising. making his deductions from the several events of the man's life which he should be informed of. to the same science both to foretell a man's life by knowing the time of his birth.

and these their clients. By this more imposing title he distinguished the senate from the populace. and hoping farther. call them Patres Conscripti. or a client against his patron. In after times all other duties subsisting still between them. and also encouraging the commonalty not to dread or be aggrieved at the honors of their superiors. few of whom had wives.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. who was a great protector and defender of the weak and needy. And so much of these matters. that Romulus. with a fatherly care and concern to look after the meaner. it was thought mean and dishonorable for the better sort to take money from their inferiors. the origin of which they attribute to Patron. it would seem rather that. and in other ways also separated the nobles and the commons. and that the multitude in general.--by which means he created wonderful love and amity between them. esteeming it the duty of the chiefest and wealthiest men. and predisposed too. For at this very time all foreigners give senators the style of lords. at first indeed simply Patres. These again faithfully served their patrons. after the city was built.. but afterwards. but the Romans. in fine their advisers and supporters in all affairs whatever. to believe the fates had ordained the future growth and greatness of Rome should depend upon the benefit of war.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and for a patron to witness against his client. making use of a more honorable and less invidious name. In the fourth month.. For they were always their clients' counselors in law cases. to make this injury in some measure an occasion of confederacy and mutual commerce with the Sabines. being naturally a martial man. productive of great justice in their dealings. consisting of a mixture of mean and obscure men. one of those that came over with Evander. was what no law nor magistrate could enforce. helping them to portion their daughters and pay off their debts. Patres Conscripti.--calling them patrons. the adventure of stealing the women was attempted. and seemed to be of no long continuance together. by certain oracles. as Fabius writes. fell under contempt. upon these accounts first offered violence to the Sabines. But this is not very probable. he took in hand this exploit after file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. not only paying them all respect and deference. since he took away only thirty virgins.2. after the women were appeased. inferiors. in case of poverty. perhaps. might from hence give them the name of patricians. more to give an occasion of war than out of any want of women. more being added. but also. observing his city to be filled by a confluence of foreigners. and to think and call them their fathers. their advocates in courts of justice. But perhaps the most probable judgment might be. but to love and respect them.htm (11 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . and some say Romulus himself.

or else the equestrian Neptune. a daughter. and her too unknowingly. from the great concourse of citizens to him at that time. because. they say. Hence the Romans to this very time. who were carrying off a damsel. a most eminent man among the Romans. First. but brave and worthy. and also some.. but Valerius Antias says five hundred and twenty-seven. Romulus. namely.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. namely. and that she bore two children to him.will and pleasure. either the god of counsel (for they still call a consultation consilium and their chief magistrates consules. Upon discovery of this altar. six hundred and eighty-three virgins. they cried out they were carrying her to Talasius. his men stood all ready armed. a young man. Romulus himself. Hersilia by name. some of the meaner sort of men. and for public games and shows. and only at horse-races is exposed to public view. which was indeed the greatest excuse Romulus could allege. others merely say that this god had his altar hid under ground because counsel ought to be secret and concealed. and from them the Curiae or Fraternities were named. indeed. and one only son. they ravished away the daughters of the Sabines. as it so then happened. in giving this account. is contradicted by many. by proclamation. sing Talasius for their nuptial word. he called Aollius. amidst his nobles. this manner. and he himself sat in front. save one only. with their eyes intent upon him. Among those who committed this rape upon the virgins. Now the signal for their falling on was to be whenever he rose and gathered up his robe and threw it over his body.2. they commended and applauded them loudly. turning back. as the Greeks do Hymenaeus. at their weddings. by reason of primogeniture called Prima. and when the sign was given. for the altar is kept covered in the circus maximus at all other times. hearing that. there were. he gave it out as if he had found an altar of a certain god hid under ground.. many flocked thither. excelling all in beauty and comeliness of stature. that they had taken no married woman. But Zenodotus the Troezenian. This Hersilia some say Hostilius married.htm (12 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . Talasius was very happy file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. drawing their swords and falling on with a great shout. Juba. whom when some of superior rank that met them attempted to take away. whom. but with a design purely of forming alliance with their neighbors by the greatest and surest bonds. shouting out the name of Talasius. which showed they did not commit this rape wantonly. they say. clad in purple. but after ages Abillius. they themselves flying without any let or hindrance. accompanied them with good. counselors). They say there were but thirty taken. the god they called Consus. to entertain all sorts of people. others. appointed a day for a splendid sacrifice.

. that he would return their young women and recall that act of violence. But if this be the case. Greek words at that time not being as yet overpowered by Italian. ever after. as it befitted. it was customary. yet proposed to the Sabines to enter into an alliance with them. of which I have spoken more fully in my book of Questions. king of the Ceninenses. and if the Romans did at that time use the word talasia as we do. Talasius. who made prize of a maiden. that they should be obliged to do no other servile offices to their husbands but what concerned spinning.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. Romulus would not part with the young women. too. It continues also a custom at this very day for the bride not of herself to pass her husband's threshold. as we say in Greek. and considering particularly from this exploit upon the women that file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. therefore. by persuasion and lawful means. The Sabines were a numerous and martial people. and being solicitous for their daughters. for those that gave the bride or escorted her or otherwise were present. a man wanting neither learning nor ingenuity. For when the Sabines. conditions were made concerning their women. unfortified villages. seeing themselves bound by such hostages to their good behavior. the custom of parting the bride's hair with the head of a spear was in token their marriages began at first by war and acts of hostility. sportingly to say Talasius. now called August. a man might fancy a more probable reason of the custom. a man of high spirit and a good warrior. nevertheless. and did not go in of their own will. and for that reason the custom continues so now at marriages. upon which point some consulted and demurred long. but to be lifted over. at weddings. But most are of opinion (of whom Juba particularly is one) that this word was used to new-married women by way of incitement to good housewifery and talasia (spinning). but Acron. Some say. a colony of the Lacedaemonians to be bold and fearless.htm (13 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . were reconciled. on which the solemnities of the Consualia are kept. but lived in small. seek friendly correspondence between both nations. they sent ambassadors to Romulus with fair and equitable requests. told me Romulus gave this word as a sign when to begin the onset.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. cried out. and afterwards. who had all along a jealousy of Romulus's bold attempts. therefore.. in memory that the Sabine virgins were carried in by violence. But Sextius Sylla the Carthaginian.2. intimating that she was henceforth to serve in spinning and no more. after the war against the Romans. This rape was committed on the eighteenth day of the month Sextilis. everybody. they thought. in his marriage.

but did those he found in it no injury. Dionysius is wrong in asserting. and with a powerful army advanced against him. and his whole army following after. cut down a tall oak which he saw growing in the camp. others. singing songs of triumph. himself. which he trimmed to the shape of a trophy. girding his clothes about him. to carry. he was growing formidable to all people. for it is only to the general of an army who with his own hand kills his enemies' general that this honor is granted of offering the opima spolia. only commanded them to demolish the place and attend him to Rome. Claudius Marcellus. bearing their trophies themselves. that Publicola was the first that rode in triumph. This trophy was styled an offering to Jupiter Feretrius. or royal spoils. for Romulus prayed he might smite and overthrow his enemy. from their richness. and lastly. the citizens all receiving him with acclamations of joy and wonder.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.htm (14 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . and fastened on it Acron's whole suit of armor disposed in proper form.. Romulus likewise prepared to receive him. says Varro. but when they came within sight and viewed each other. there to be admitted to all the privileges of citizens. made their entries in triumphant chariots. Romulus. next. and then took his city. Cornelius Cossus. Damaratus's son. Tarquinius. the armies standing by under arms. making a vow to Jupiter. Cossus and Marcellus. a battle ensuing. and dedicate his adversary's armor to his honor. if he should conquer. which in Latin is to smite. which the word opes signifies. without participation. his hair gracefully flowing. The statues of Romulus in triumph are.. then he himself. though one would more probably conjecture from opus. that he might perform his vow in the most acceptable manner to Jupiter. routed his army also. The procession of this day was the origin and model of all after triumphs. upon killing Acron the Ceninensian. all on foot.2. as may be seen in Rome. for slaying Tolumnius the Tuscan. they made a challenge to fight a single duel. And Romulus. first rose up in arms. and indeed insufferable. and the spoils were called opima. And three only of the Roman captains have had it conferred on them: first. Romulus. carried the trophy resting erect upon his right shoulder. an act. were he not chastised. and crowning his head with a laurel-garland. overcame him in combat. but that Romulus made use of a chariot. than that she did always unite and incorporate those whom she conquered into herself. was the first that brought triumphs to this great pomp and grandeur.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. The two latter. and withal make the pomp of it delightful to the eye of the city. and so marched on. And indeed there was nothing did more advance the greatness of Rome. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and. History says. king of the Gauls. upon his conquering Viridomarus. from ferire.

the things they wore on their left arms. The city was almost inaccessible. choosing Tatius their captain. except only what the parents of the stolen virgins had. not Tarpeia the virgin. coveting the golden bracelets she saw them wear. and Antemna. these he suffered to possess their own. was found guilty of treason. daughter to the captain. speak very absurdly. in reward of her treachery. nor Caesar. it would seem. being borne down and quite buried with the multitude of gold and their shields. and Tarpeius their captain. And Simylus. in regard to their contract.. they in like manner were defeated in battle.. and threw that. who told Rhymitalces the Thracian. and asked.htm (15 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . he distributed among the citizens. she. After the overthrow of the Ceninensians. as Juba says Sulpicius Galba relates. as that she was the daughter of Tatius. but it is the general feeling of all who have occasion for wicked men's service. together with his buckler. having fallen in love with their king. But Tarpeia. being forcibly detained by Romulus. not to the Sabines. not to refuse her the least part of what they wore on their left arms. of whom Antigonus is one. died under the weight and pressure of them. as some say who would make Romulus a fool.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. marched straight against Rome. The rest of the Sabines. the people of Fidenae. that he loved the treason. the other Sabines still protracting the time in preparations. being prosecuted by Romulus. they are glad of them while they are of use. their lands and territories to be divided. Crustumerium. and all the rest following. talks mere folly. as people have for the poison of venomous beasts. was not solitary in saying. at her. where a strong guard was placed. but hated the traitor. And so then did Tatius behave towards Tarpeia. and he himself first took his bracelet of his arm.2. having for its fortress that which is now the Capitol. saying thus: file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. enraged hereat. All the lands which Romulus acquired. Those who write otherwise concerning Tarpeia. betrayed the fort into the Sabines' hands. acted and suffered thus by her father's contrivance. and. for he commanded the Sabines. And truly Antigonus. and abhor their baseness when it is over. the poet. but hated those who had betrayed.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. and themselves to be transplanted to Rome. the Sabine captain. he loved betrayers. who thinks Tarpeia betrayed the Capitol. but the Gauls. joined their forces against the Romans. and received the Sabines in. and surrendered up to Romulus their cities to be seized. in the night she opened one of the gates. Tarpeius also himself. Tatius conditioning thus with her.

2. speaking of her death: The numerous nations of the Celtic foe Bore her not living to the banks of Po. Tarpeia 'twas. Laid open Rome unto the enemy. dwelling close thereby. the Capitol. She.htm (16 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . Their heavy shields upon the maid they threw. for the love of the besieging Gaul. Betrayed the city's strength..0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. And a little after.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.. who.

perceiving. was galloping on before the rest.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. in which Romulus having received a wound on his head by a stone. The level in the middle. the place from him to this very time is called the Curtian Lake. was husband to Hersilia. It happened. at bottom was deceitful and dangerous. amongst whom was Hostilius.2. having avoided this danger. they say. where now the forum stands. if they were overpowered. being mounted on horseback. that they had behind them a secure retreat. the river having overflowed not many days before. eager of honor. endeavoring for awhile by whip and spur and voice to disentangle him. began the fight very smartly. turned about to renew file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. by reason of the difficulties of the place. and. where they were to join battle. but finding it impossible. by this time recovering from his wound a little. and being almost felled to the ground by it. but the most memorable was the last. and so it lost her name. though it did not appear much to the eye. from which they used to cast down malefactors. a deep blind mud and slime. and disabled. who. Romulus. Romulus.. The Sabines being possessed of the hill. until the reign of king Tarquin. Tarpeia afterwards was buried there. The Sabines. and grandfather to that Hostilius who reigned after Numa. which. and was not easily avoided. in great fury. And with their splendid gifts entombed at once and slew. though many were slain. fled towards the Palatium. for Curtius. who dedicated the place to Jupiter. upon which the Sabines being unwarily about to enter. there was left behind in the plain.htm (17 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . being driven out of the level ground. bade them battle. quitted him and saved himself. the Romans gave way. at which time her bones were removed. and of aspiring thoughts. and Tatius was confident to accept it. met with a piece of good fortune. the fortune of the day being very dubious. and mired his horse here. being surrounded with many little hills. There were many other brief conflicts. a gallant man. and the hill from her was called Tarpeius. seemed to enforce both parties to a sharp and desperate conflict.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. we may suppose. except only that part of the Capitol which they still call the Tarpeian Rock.. which had but a few outlets. and. inconvenient either for refuge or pursuit. too.

and defying description. like creatures possessed. than shame and respect for their king checked many. and with us your sons-in-law and grandchildren. but do come now to force away wives from their husbands and mothers from their children. and fell back. but still more their words. strange to behold.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. and not to neglect but maintain the Roman cause. If it be for our own cause. now upon the Sabines. with miserable cries and lamentations. You did not come to vindicate our honor. The prayer was no sooner made. But being overborne with numbers. in great confusion. and repulsed the Sabines to the place called now Regia. our brothers. and countrymen. For the daughters of the Sabines." say they. some on that. Hereupon both melted into compassion. and nobody daring to face about. where both parties. in the most tender and endearing words. and among the dead bodies. now in extreme danger. and to the temple of Vesta. to make room for them between the armies. their love-making or your compassion? If you were making war upon any other occasion. "Wherein.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and. Which shall we call the worst. The sight of the women carried sorrow and commiseration upon both sides into the hearts of all. that time. facing the fliers. the fears of the fugitives changed suddenly into confidence. there they rallied again into ranks. came running. preparing to begin a second battle. the battle. that being done. Restore to us our parents and kindred. but do not rob us of our file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. a succor more grievous to its wretched objects than the former betrayal and neglect of them.. some on this side. against our assailants. and ended with entreaty and supplication. we were so long neglected by our fathers. "have we injured or offended you. with a loud voice encouraged them to stand and fight.2. in the midst of the army. then take us. which began with expostulation and upbraiding. now upon the Romans. were prevented by a spectacle. The place they first stood at was where now is the temple of Jupiter Stator (which may be translated the Stayer). some with their young babes in their arms. stretching out his hands to heaven. for our sakes you ought to withhold your hands from those to whom we have made you fathers-in-law and grandsires. to come at their husbands and their fathers. but all calling. others their hair loose about their ears. who had been carried off. while we were virgins.htm (18 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . as to deserve such sufferings. he prayed to Jupiter to stop the army.. past and present? We were ravished away unjustly and violently by those whose now we are. having now by the strictest bonds united us to those we once mortally hated. has made it impossible for us not to tremble at the danger and weep at the death of the very men who once used violence to us.

meat and drink. Luceres. and carried the wounded home to be cured. but at first each met with his own hundred.2. And that they were just three. near the descent from the Mount Palatine to the Circus Maximus. from the country of Tatius. the second. the women. Upon this. Though it is true. or brotherhoods. we entreat you. each tribe contained ten curiae. to speak no ill word in their presence. and the others earnestly praying. that the Romans and Sabines should inhabit the city together. in the mean time.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. Make us not.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2.. and showed also how much they governed within doors. and the praetexta." Hersilia having spoken many such words as these.. as to give them the way wherever they met them. they say. one hundred of the Sabines were elected senators. that the city should be called Rome. and how indulgent their husbands were to them. the first. named Ramnenses. but that seems to be false. that Romulus once. but the Romans. Tatienses. which struck so deep into the file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. the third. in demeaning themselves towards them with all kindness and respect imaginable. Tatius dwelt where now the temple of Moneta stands. The princes did not immediately join in council together. The place of the ratification is still called Comitium. from all drudgery and labor but spinning. The city being thus doubled in number. that what women pleased might stay where they were. they then constituted many things in honor to the women. from Tatius. a truce was made. gave those that wanted. the very name of tribe and tribune seems to show. then they divided the people into three tribes. children and husbands. as they call them. grew the holy cornel tree. and the legions were increased to six thousand foot and six hundred horse. of the Fair Shore. Quirites. some say. to meet. and the chief officers came to a parley. There. took their names from the Sabine women. and Romulus. from Romulus. whither many fled for sanctuary. or else be liable to prosecution before the judges of homicide. to try his strength. from Romulus. of which they report. or grove. from the lucus. not to appear naked before them. conditions were agreed upon. and were received into the city. from coire. twice captives. a gown edged with purple. that their children should wear an ornament about their necks called the bulla (because it was like a bubble).htm (19 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . threw a dart from the Aventine Mount. the staff of which was made of cornel. which. because many had their names from various places. brought and presented their husbands and children to their fathers and brothers. exempt. afterwards all assembled together. and that they both should govern and command in common. as aforesaid. where the Asylum stood. close by the steps.

Romulus. but inclining to pine and wither. and the tree withered. the priests. others presently to wipe it off with wool dipped in milk. being a prophetess. that no one of many that tried could pluck it up. of which one was the Matronalia. like people hearing of a house on fire.. or insane. begin their course from the place where they say Romulus was exposed. for there are goats killed. may seem to be a feast of purification. who before wore round targets of the Argive pattern. a verse.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. on the other hand. he immediately made outcry to all he met.. The Lupercalia.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. and brought in by the Arcadians who came with Evander. likewise the Carmentalia. for their extinction of the war.htm (20 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . Yet this is but dubious. gave nourishment to the wood. for it is solemnized on the dies nefasti. This did posterity preserve and worship as one of the most sacred things. and from carmen. The Sabines adopted the Roman months.2. which sent forth branches. and the very day of the feast was anciently called Februata. and produced a cornel-stock of considerable bigness. and run from all parts with buckets full to the place. her proper name being Nicostrata. some of the laborers digging too close. or non-court days. Others more probably derive Carmenta from carens mente. Feasts and sacrifices they partook of in common. not abolishing any which either nation observed before. being fertile. and. some are to stain their foreheads with the bloody knife. with one accord would cry for water. But the ceremonies performed in it render the origin of the thing more difficult to be guessed at. they run about naked. and it seems thus to be of great antiquity. of the month February. walled it about. for it may come as well from the wolf that nursed Romulus. instituted in honor of the women. Of the Feast of Palilia we have spoken before. therefore. which name signifies purification. two young noblemen's sons being brought. the Arcadian. and the soil. they say. for which reason she is much honored by mothers. the roots were destroyed. was called Carmenta. Others say she was the wife of Evander. then the young boys must laugh after their foreheads are wiped. and if to any one it appeared not green nor flourishing. But when Caius Caesar. and they. of which whatever is remarkable is mentioned in the Life of Numa. adopted their long shields. then. and wont to deliver her oracles in verse. was repairing the steps about it. ground. by the time of its celebration. and changed his own armor and that of all the Romans. having cut the goats' skins into thongs. in allusion to her prophetic frenzies. and instituting several new ones. and we see the Luperci. but its name is equivalent to the Greek Lycaea. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. This Carmenta some think a deity presiding over human birth. that done.

says. and that the bloody knife applied to their foreheads was a sign of the danger and bloodshed of that day. before the city was built. If the sacrifice be by way of purification. carry out young dogs. Caius Acilius writes. Another thing peculiar to this feast is for the Luperci to sacrifice a dog. after all. and the young wives do not avoid their strokes. wishing not to be troubled with sweat. and two young noblemen ran Striking at all.htm (21 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . this feast was held. a remembrance of their food and nourishment. that Romulus and Remus. as being an enemy to wolves. the cleansing of them in milk. the creature is punished for hindering the Luperci in their running.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. there is good reason in killing a dog. With sword in hand. and that this is why the Luperci run naked. ran out to seek them naked. a certain poet who wrote fabulous explanations of Roman customs in elegiac verses. the twins came hurrying down. in their lustrations. that. for the Greeks. after the conquest of Amulius. they. and frequently use this ceremony of periscylacismus as they call it. and that in imitation of that. But as. Or if again it is a sacrifice of gratitude to the wolf that nourished and preserved Romulus. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. fancying they will help conception and child-birth. Unless indeed. a dog might very well be sacrificed. ran joyfully to the place where the wolf gave them suck.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.. only with something about their middle.2. lashing all they meet. as when from Alba town. the cattle of Romulus and Remus one day going astray. praying to the god Faunus..

untouched by the fire. He instituted also certain laws. all things about it being consumed and burnt. after the wars of Hanibal.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. which suffers not a wife to leave her husband. thinking the one an accursed thing. one of which is somewhat severe.. fell upon him as he was sacrificing with Romulus at Lavinium. but Romulus dismissed them. attempted on the road to take away their money by force. and afterwards. that Romulus was otherwise eminently religious. Romulus thought the malefactors ought at once to be punished. his judgment seemed to have been right. but grants a husband power to turn off his wife. but if the husband upon any other occasion put her away. The relations of the slain. too. and Lucius Hostius. and instituted holy virgins to keep it. the other to fall to the goddess Ceres.htm (22 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . that he appointed no punishment for real parricide. he ordered one moiety of his estate to be given to the wife. or for adultery. So great a villainy having been committed. In the fifth year of the reign of Tatius. killed them. and whoever cast off his wife. either upon poisoning her children. is recorded to have been the first parricide. and for that reason carried the lituus. to make an atonement by sacrifice to the gods of the dead. commending and extolling him for a just prince. in all other respects they were very careful of their conduct. and. but altogether neglected revenging his murder. for in almost six hundred years together. agreeing. Romulus was the first that consecrated holy fire. but escorted Romulus home. This of his. Let thus much suffice concerning these matters. was found in the ruins.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. too.. They say. nobody committed the like in Rome. but Tatius shuffled off and deferred the execution of it. was lost when the city was taken by the Gauls. or counterfeiting his keys. delivered up the murderers of Tatius. is observable as a singular thing in Romulus. and buried it very splendidly in the Aventine Mount. and. and slew him. called vestals. the city of Laurentum. near the place called Armilustrium. Some authors write. fearing the consequence. a crooked rod with which soothsayers describe the quarters of the heavens. however. but the other a thing impossible. but called all murder so. when they sit to observe the flights of birds. that barbarous people being driven out. and administered affairs together with great unanimity. under a great heap of ashes. upon their resistance. Romulus took the body of Tatius.2. others ascribe it to Numa Pompilius. and skilled in divination. and this one thing was the beginning of open quarrel between them. being debarred of lawful satisfaction by reason of Tatius. This. meeting ambassadors coming from Laurentum to Rome. for a long time. some of his friends and kinsmen. being kept in the Palatium.

in the city. it infected also the corn with unfruitfulness. a neighboring city to Rome. Others say. others out of fear of his power. But the murderers on both sides being delivered up and punished. and Romulus purified the cities with lustrations. did not raze or demolish it. which. Romulus lay in ambush for them. Soon after a plague broke out. one murder was requited with another. himself afterwards unexpectedly coming up. two thousand five hundred inhabitants. setting on it his own statue. thinking them. on the Ides of April. there rained blood. and entered into league and confederacy with him. which he placed in the temple of Vulcan. but the stronger. So many citizens had he to spare. the Camertines invaded the Romans and overran the country. for the neglect of executing justice upon the murder of Tatius and the ambassadors. the pestilence visibly abated. he took a brazen four-horse chariot from Camerium. in sixteen years' time from his first founding Rome. out of fear or envy. some again reverencing him as a god. as some say. The Roman cause thus daily gathering strength.2. saying. thought they ought not to give way file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.. took the city. This gave occasion of talk and jealousy. unable to resist. Fidenae he took.htm (23 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . too. fear of the wrath of the gods was added. they all continued living peacefully in admiration and awe of him. and gained the victory. with the slaughter of six thousand men. having killed many of their men. This was done the first of August. as if he were well pleased at the removal of his copartner in the government.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. raised any sort of feud or disturbance among the Sabines. they having first made the invasion. then took their city.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. many foreign nations. Among other spoils. so that. showed respect to Romulus. by a party of horse. too. But when the same mischiefs fell upon Laurentum. nevertheless. by reason of the distemper. causing sudden death without any previous sickness. and. sending from Rome to Camerium double the number he left there.. and were thankful to be left untouched. But before the plague ceased. however. but Romulus at once made head against them. they say. but made it a Roman colony. even now are performed at the wood called Ferentina. plundering and ravaging the country and suburbs. but some out of love to him. and sent thither. whom he sent before with commands to cut down the hinges of the gates. and brought half of those he found there to Rome. then everybody judged it was divine vengeance that fell upon both cities. the Ancient Latins sent. and cattle with barrenness. Nothing of these things. to their actual sufferings. with a figure of Victory crowning him. but. their weaker neighbors shrunk away.

but who had not. to whom in particular the state file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. with a bulla. and fifty noblemen for hostages. the other marched against Romulus. that they. Sardians to be sold. verges too near to fable. a people of Tuscany. acted with the prudence of age. and slew two thousand Romans. among the rest of his many captives. who showed the highest skill as well as courage. and the Veientes are a city of Tuscany. But what some write. as also their salt-works upon the river. The first were the Veientes. but to curb and put a stop to his growing greatness. so. and the crier cries. a thing not only very unreasonable. that is. suffering those that were left to make their escape. with one they attacked the garrison of Fidenae. do. Lacedaemonians. by claiming Fidenae as belonging to them. it seemed. and seemed to manifest a strength and swiftness more than human. afterwards he. they took occasion to commence a war.2. This was the last battle Romulus ever fought. and growing of an haughtier mind. he forsook his popular behavior for kingly arrogance. leading. nay all men. But being scornfully retorted upon by Romulus in his answers. but very ridiculous. but permitted them to be slain. having suffered such great losses.. since even the Messenians are thought to go too far in saying that Aristomenes three times offered sacrifice for the death of a hundred enemies. did not venture to oppose. should challenge their lands and houses when in the hands of others. who did not assist them in the greatest extremities. who are raised by great and miraculous good-haps of fortune to power and greatness. and dwelt in a spacious city. He made his triumph for this on the Ides of October. very few excepted. simply incredible. the seven parts. they. as most. Romulus.. appareled in purple. made a league and friendship for an hundred years. did he. the general of the Veientes.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. surrendering also a large district of land called Septempagium.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. with the loss of eight thousand men. above half were slain by Romulus's own hand. I say. humbly suing to him. that. or child's toy.htm (24 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . to Romulus. that which went against Fidenae got the victory. and is. A fresh battle was fought near Fidenae. in sacrifices for victories. they divided themselves into two bodies. they lead an old man through the market place to the Capitol. an elderly man. of fourteen thousand that fell that day. for the Tuscans are said to be a colony of the Sardians. who had large possessions. odious to the people. led his forces against the city. indeed. relying upon his own great actions. slain by himself. whence even now. The army being thus routed. tied to it. but. the other was worsted by Romulus. and here all men acknowledge the day's success to have been chiefly the work of Romulus himself.

he. wherein all might in turn be subjects and rulers. For he dressed in scarlet. as just mentioned.htm (25 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . after the death of his grandfather Numitor in Alba. and any one. there went before him others with staves. others. the senate fell under suspicion and calumny. to court the people. leaving nothing of certainty to be related of his death. then.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. to make room. where they heard in silence the king's commands. afterwards. So that some fancied. which he assumed was hateful. or staves. to bind on the moment whomever he commanded. on his sudden and strange disappearance a short while after. to bind. convening in council rather for fashion's sake than advice.. liturgi. by putting in a c. and so departed.2. Yet Scipio's dead body lay open to be seen of all. that he poisoned himself. and appointed an annual magistrate over the Albans. for these officers. being of a sickly habit. has been found capable neither of proof or disproof. For neither were the patricians any longer admitted to state affairs. whereas Romulus. this taught the great men of Rome to seek after a free and anti. seeing the manner of the death of Scipio Africanus. they were first called litores. lictores. left neither the least part of his body. breaking in upon him in the night. who died at his own home after supper. the throne devolving upon Romulus. stifled him. for leitos is still Greek for the commons. however. only had the name and title left them. only the time. that his enemies. But when. These and the like were matters of small moment. Neither is this uncertainty to be thought strange. for some say he died a natural death. as they now call the month which was then Quintilis. nor any remnant of his clothes to be seen. put the government into their own hands. It is probable.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and bacula. for their rods. in Greek. when he vanished. he seemed to put a great affront upon them. but when he of his own accord parted among his soldiers what lands were acquired by war. from his own observation. from their swiftness in doing commissions.. might form his suspicions and conjectures. because staves were then used. or people's officers. whence the name lictors. or. exceeding the commonalty only in hearing first what was done. and laos for the people in general. for on that day many ceremonies are still performed in representation of what happened. having always about him some young men called Celeres. the senate neither consenting nor approving of it. with the purple-bordered robe over it. the file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. others again. indeed. so that.monarchical state. and restored the Veientes their hostages. with leather thongs tied on their bodies. He disappeared on the Nones of July. The Latins formerly used ligare in the same sense as now alligare. he gave audience on a couch of state.

PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. having fallen upon him ill the temple of Vulcan. "Why. that. near a place called the Goat's Marsh. but with terrible thunderings. of the patricians. presented himself in the forum. said.2. Julius Proculus by name. senators. and about to be to them. laying aside all jealousies and detractions. too. now a propitious god. as he was haranguing the people without the city. The multitude. it came to pass that. and. dressed in shining and faming armor.htm (26 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . and the whole city to bereavement and endless sorrow?" and that he made answer. when the people gathered again. too. and took each a part away in his bosom. looking taller and comelier than ever. one. that we. they shall attain the height of human power. they missed and inquired for their king. no quiet. and a faithful and familiar friend of Romulus himself. and the day turned into night. Things being in this disorder. they say. we will be to you the propitious god Quirinus. but there were some. they prayed to Quirinus and saluted him file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. nor with the senators only by. when they themselves were the murderers of the king. peaceable night. hearing this. But farewell. or for what purpose have you abandoned us to unjust and wicked surmises. he had seen Romulus coming to meet him. but that. but the senators kept close together. that. should remain so long a time amongst men as we did. "It pleased the gods. and tell the Romans. should again return to heaven. The tempest being over and the light breaking out. during which the common people dispersed and fled. and indeed. others think his disappearance was neither in the temple of Vulcan. the senators suffered them not to search. protested before them all.. as he was traveling on the road. but. O king. of noble family and approved good character. and. or busy themselves about the matter. who came from them. having built a city to be the greatest in the world for empire and glory. some preternatural influence similar to possession by a divinity. there mingled with it a certain divine passion. accused and aspersed the patricians.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. upon the honesty and oath of the relater. and that. but commanded them to honor and worship Romulus as one taken up to the gods. in the place of a good prince. being affrighted at the apparition.. as men that persuaded the people to believe ridiculous tales. nobody contradicted it. taking a most sacred oath. having come with him from Alba. and he. cut his body into pieces. and boisterous winds from all quarters. O Proculus. who." This seemed credible to the Romans. canvassing the matter in a hostile temper. went away believing and rejoicing in hopes of good things from him. the face of the sun was darkened. by the exercise of temperance and fortitude. on a sudden strange and unaccountable disorders and alterations took place in the air.

but also wild and mad. so that the house fell and destroyed the children in it. and Cleomedes the Astypalaean. could not force it open. and a stone was found lying on the bier. the body of Alcmena.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. striking a pillar that sustained the roof with his fist. held it so fast. committed many desperate freaks. for though altogether to disown a divine nature in human virtue were impious and base.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. to whom the prophetess made this answer. breaking the chest to pieces. as they were carrying her to her grave. and. they sent to consult the oracle at Delphi. that many men. that file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. he fled into a great chest. so again to mix heaven with earth is ridiculous. And that Cleomedes. They say. found his body vanished. This is like some of the Greek fables of Aristeas the Proconnesian. with their united strength. too.2.htm (27 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . for they say Aristeas died in a fuller's work-shop. in astonishment at which. they found no man in it alive or dead. And many such improbabilities do your fabulous writers relate. Let us believe with Pindar. being an extraordinarily strong and gigantic man. said they met him traveling towards Croton. Of all the heroes. as a god.. deifying creatures naturally mortal. coming to look for him. Cleomede is last. and that some presently after. and his friends. in a schoolhouse. coming from abroad. afterwards. broke it in the middle.. and being pursued. shutting to the lid. vanished. and at last.

because the ancients called a dart or spear Quiris. but really and according to right reason. some say. The day he vanished on is called the Flight of the People.htm (28 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . and thither returns. their virtue and their souls are translated out of men into heroes. too. are thus. that he was so called because the citizens were called Quirites. therefore. out of demi-gods. others.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. according to their divine nature and law. out of heroes into demi-gods. slow to kindle and ascend. The soul survives to all eternity. that. and the Nones of the Goats. after passing. being a martial god. through a final cleansing and sanctification. Romulus's surname Quirinus. is a dry light. and when most entirely pure and clean and free from the flesh.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. send the bodies. and the dart in the Regia is addressed as Mars. Romulus. the statue of Juno resting on a spear is called Quiritis. or a god of darts. For that alone is derived from the gods. of good men to heaven. says Heraclitus. contrary to nature. as in the rite of initiation. and file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. because they go then out of the city. and those that were distinguished in war were usually presented with a dart. which flies out of the body as lightning breaks from a cloud. but when most disengaged and separated from it. All human bodies yield to Death's decree. We must not. thus.. for the most perfect soul. but we must really believe that. was called Quirinus.2. is equivalent to Mars. others. thence comes. not with the body.. but that which is clogged and surfeited with body is like gross and humid incense. and so freeing themselves from all that pertains to mortality and sense. A temple is certainly built to his honor on the mount called from him Quirinalis. not by human decree. elevated into gods. therefore. admitted thus to the greatest and most blessed perfection.

. when they saw it. indeed. The Latins were thus deceived. The stratagem was this. they defeated them. say. Some. as some say. Being in this doubt. they should have peace and friendship. imitating the way in which they then fled and called upon one another in that fright and hurry. Lucius. and she should in the night light up a fire-signal. they would send forth a good number of their virgins and widows. this was not in imitation of a flight. sacrifice at the Goat's Marsh. Caius. they tell us.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. The Romans. with other well-looking servant-maids. They. as Marcus. therefore. advised them to do neither. we shall say that both the actions might have happened on the same day in different years. referring it to the following occasion: after the Gauls who had taken Rome were driven out by Camillus. and so. screening it behind with curtains and coverlets from the sight of the enemy. left the world.. at which the Romans should come armed and surprise them asleep. and the city was scarcely as yet recovering her strength. by a stratagem. For the calling upon one another's names by day and the going out to the Goat's Marsh to do sacrifice seem to agree more with the former story. such as the Sabines had formerly had on the like conditions. a servant-maid called Philotis (or. unless.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2.2. calling in their haste to each other as they went out. eagerly ran out of the gates. while visible to the Romans. if. and accordingly Philotis set up a torch in a wild fig-tree. to the enemy. called the Nones of the Goats. they shout out some of the Roman names. Postumius. falling in unexpectedly upon the enemy. or the goat-fig. but of a quick and hasty onset. It was in the fifty-fourth year of his age and the thirty-eighth of his reign that Romulus. many of the Latins. and throw stones one at another. in the dress of free-born virgins. called by the Romans Caprificus. took this time to march against her.htm (29 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . in memory that they then aided and assisted the Roman men in fight. yet thought a surrender of their women little better than mere captivity. but. however. and upon that made a feast of triumph. as they go. dreaded a war. This only a few authors admit for true. and. afterwards they fight in sport. They feast the women without the city in arbors made of figtree boughs and the maid-servants gather together and run about playing. because of the wild fig-tree. avoid both fighting and the giving up of such pledges. halting not far from Rome. signifying that the Latins were desirous to renew their former alliance and affinity (that was now almost decayed) by contracting new marriages between both nations. hearing this. that they should send herself. sent a herald. under the command of Livius Postumius. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. Tutola).

PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.2.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-2. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro..htm (30 of 30)2006-05-31 20:37:25 ..

. indeed. to have killed king Acron. Procrustes. it is not to be expressed what an act of courage. his greatest action was only the killing of one king of Alba. or justice to the public. COMPARISON OF ROMULUS WITH THESEUS This is what I have learnt of Romulus and Theseus. truly I dare pronounce her worthy of the love of a god. for the love of Ariadne. and if she alone were so.htm (1 of 4)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . and dreading the extremest inflictions. attempted great enterprises out of mere necessity. considering he himself never was in the least injured by those robbers.3. but Romulus and Remus. fell upon these villains. Again. that was. Add to this the fact that Theseus. and Corynetes. or of love for honor and bravery. and to have conquered many enemies. as long as they themselves suffered no ill by the tyrant. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Prov. and the bravest man. and. So that methinks the philosophers did not ill define love to be the provision of the gods for the care and preservation of the young. to escape present servitude and a punishment that threatened him. seems to have been the proper work and design of some god in order to preserve Theseus. (according to Plato's phrase) grew valiant purely out of fear. he might without any trouble as well have gone to Athens by sea. we ought not to blame her for loving him. by reducing and killing of whom. magnanimity. the other can name Sciron. permitted him to oppress all others. whereas the other. according to the mildest form of the story. that Theseus. he rid Greece of terrible oppressors. as mere by-adventures and preludes. to live vilely and dishonorably in slavery to insulting and cruel men. above all. when he might have reigned in security at Troezen in the enjoyment of no inglorious empire. And if it be a great thing to have been wounded in battle by the Sabines.20Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-3. first of all.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. but for the sake of others. or. in offering himself voluntarily with young boys and virgins. as part of the tribute unto Crete. while. of his own motion affected great actions. but rather wonder all men and women were not alike affected towards him. who was herself so great a lover of virtue and goodness. worthy of memory. out of his own free-will. Sinnis.. But what Theseus adventured. either to be a prey to a monster or a victim upon the tomb of Androgeus. for no wrong done to himself. we may oppose to these actions the battle with the Centaurs and the feats done against the Amazons. before any of them that were relieved knew who did it. It seems. where as Romulus could not but be in trouble whilst Amulius lived. without any compulsion. moreover.

and so becomes either odious or contemptible to his subjects. Romulus. the other into tyranny. And. but refer themselves to differences of character.htm (2 of 4)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . Though certainly the one seems to be the fault of easiness and good-nature. children. the rest of the youth's disasters seem to have proceeded from fortune. who raised and compiled only one house out of many. Romulus. Robbers and file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Prov. but fell off. and ran. And what is more. one would think could not on a sudden have been put into so great a passion. he killed or destroyed nobody. but benefited those that wanted houses and homes and were willing to be of a society and become citizens. committed an action of unfortunate consequence. and an old man's curse. seduced Theseus to commit that outrage upon his son. preservers of their friends and kindred. some evil speaking. before becoming freemen themselves. which few men can avoid being moved by. that his performances proceeded from very small beginnings. are not to be wholly imputed to fortune. but by foundation of a new one.20Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-3. he obtained himself lands. the one into popularity. For a ruler's first end is to maintain his office. but either a demagogue or a despot. and relations.3. Whoever is either too remiss or too strict is no more a king or a governor. provoked. obtaining at once all the most honorable titles. we more easily excuse the anger which a stronger cause. so far.. but at first. in his anger. like a severer blow. Romulus. so that. the other of pride and severity. as destroyers of their country's enemies. one great plea. If men's calamities. forcing his enemies to deface and ruin their own dwellings. who will acquit either Theseus of rash and unreasonable anger against his son. but love and jealousy and the complaints of his wife. for both the brothers being thought servants and the sons of swineherds.. or increase of an existing city. first of all. which is done no less by avoiding what is unfit than by observing what is suitable. gave liberty to almost all the Latins. did the same afterwards. not removers. founders of cities. yet neither lived up to the true character of a king. wives. indeed. again. princes of the people. a man would give his vote on Theseus's part.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. like Theseus. having disagreed with his brother advisedly and deliberately on public matters. or Romulus against his brother? Looking at motives. in so doing. But Romulus has. but that of Theseus ended only in words. and to sojourn with their conquerors. a kingdom. a country. Both Theseus and Romulus were by nature meant for governors. demolishing many cities bearing the names of ancient kings and heroes. not by removal. falling both into the same fault out of different passions.

and made it the fountain of after friendship and public stability. for upon those marriages the two princes shared in the dominion. but it is to be suspected these things were done out of wantonness and lust. and placed his grandfather who was brought under base and dishonorable vassalage. indeed.20Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-3. for in two hundred and thirty years. and Amazonian virgins. but enmities and file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Prov. because of the often repetition of the crime. But Theseus. and both nations fell under the same government. for the Troezenian. the rest he divided among the chief of the city. the faults committed in the rapes of women admit of no plausible excuse in Theseus. running hastily to the Acropolis to see what news. when he was an old man. Romulus. as the curious among the Greeks can name the first case of parricide or matricide. Anaxo the Troezenian. avoid the imputation of parricide. in his forgetfulness and neglect of the command concerning the flag.. methinks. at the approach of the ship. derived from Erechtheus and Cecrops. but he subdued nations. And to the reverence and love and constancy he established in matrimony. by any excuses. malefactors he slew not. were not worthier to raise children by than the Athenian women.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. it is generally imputed to others. when he had taken near eight hundred women.htm (3 of 4)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . But from the marriages of Theseus proceeded nothing of friendship or correspondence for the advantage of commerce. neither any husband deserted his wife. And. Then. for he stole Ariadne. beside that they were not betrothed to him. indeed. chose not all. perceiving it to be very hard to make an excuse for this.. and he at an age past even lawful wedlock. nor any wife her husband. he made it clear that this violence and injury was a commendable and politic exploit to establish a society. or before the most indulgent judges. on the ancient throne of Aeneas. by the respect and tenderness and justice shown towards them. First. And. as if he had no servants. at last Helen. can scarcely. slipped and fell down. accusing her of barrenness. or none would attend him on his way to the shore. one of the Attic writers. and she not marriageable. by which he intermixed and united both nations. but. Lacedaemonian. for himself. so the Romans all well know that Spurius Carvilius was the first who put away his wife. it is doubtful by whose hand he fell. on account of the cause. to whom he did voluntarily many good offices. but never did him harm even inadvertently. feigns that Aegeus. Antiope. she a child. time can witness. and afterwards. As to Remus. The immediate results were similar. His mother he clearly retrieved from death. but only Hersilia. he triumphed over kings and commanders.3. as they say. he overthrew cities.

but the oracle given to Aegeus. are also in contrast.3. Theseus's mother. they escaped suffering what Troy did by Paris. seems to demonstrate that the birth of Theseus was not agreeable to the will of the gods. wars and the slaughter of citizens. commanding him to abstain. as I could wish both that and other things were. however.htm (4 of 4)2006-05-31 20:37:25 . whom they entreated and caressed like gods. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Prov. said to have preceded or accompanied their births.. and. for Romulus was preserved by the special favor of the gods. the loss of the city Aphidnae. but suffered actually what Hecuba did. was not only in danger. at last. unless her captivity be not a fiction. when only out of the compassion of the enemy.20Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-3.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. deserted and neglected by her son. The circumstances of the divine intervention..

The poet Simonides will have it that Lycurgus was the son of Prytanis. be brought to an agreement as to the very age in which he lived. for all the rest deduce the genealogy of them both as follows: Aristodemus Patrocles Sous Eurypon file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. By descent.. and in diverse times. and depending upon those authors who are most worthy of credit. the place and manner of his death. Their sentiments are quite different as to the family he came of.4. and not of Eunomus. by any means. and that they two jointly contrived the ordinance for the cessation of arms during the solemnity of the Olympic games. But notwithstanding this confusion and obscurity. They cannot. But that he was of great antiquity may be gathered from a passage in Xenophon. was not long after Homer.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. for some of them say that he flourished in the time of Iphitus. where he makes him contemporary with the Heraclidae. But Eratosthenes and Apollodorus and other chronologers. LYCURGUS There is so much uncertainty in the accounts which historians have left us of Lycurgus. but most of all when they speak of the laws he made and the commonwealth which he founded.htm (1 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . but that the one of them being much more famous than the other. the very last kings of Sparta were Heraclidae too. we shall endeavor to compose the history of his life. pretend to demonstrate that he was much more ancient than the institution of the Olympic games.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. the lawgiver of Sparta. indeed. computing the time by the successions of the Spartan kings. according to him. the elder of the two. he alleges an inscription upon one of the copper quoits used in those sports.. adhering to those statements which are least contradicted. Timaeus conjectures that there were two of this name. that scarcely anything is asserted by one of them which is not called into question or contradicted by the rest. and some are so particular as to say that he had seen him. but he seems in that place to speak of the first and more immediate successors of Hercules. but in this opinion he is singular. men gave to him the glory of the exploits of both. Of this opinion was Aristotle. upon which the name of Lycurgus continued uneffaced to his time. and for confirmation of it. the voyages he undertook.

PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. upon which he immediately declared that the kingdom belonged to her issue. and anarchy and confusion long prevailed in Sparta.htm (2 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 .0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. and added to their dominions. his kingdom for a reward. because himself and all his men had not. his sister-in-law. a good part of Arcadia. and offered to him that would forbear drinking. gave way. the death of the father of Lycurgus. moreover. an overture was made to him by the queen. was with child. He. provided it were male. under whose conduct the Spartans made slaves of the Helots. yet his family was not surnamed from him. Eunomus -----------------------------------------Polydectes by his first wife -----------------------------------------Lycurgus by Dionassa his second. in short. after this first step. provided that himself and all his men should drink of the nearest spring. but from his son Eurypon (of whom they were called Eurypontids).. when they had all drunk their fill. according to the articles. and left the title of king to his eldest son Polydectes. at last comes king Sous himself to the spring. the reason of which was that Eurypon relaxed the rigor of the monarchy. he called his soldiers together. refusing to yield up his conquests. After the usual oaths and ratifications. marches off in the face of his enemies. that he would restore to them all his conquests. and reign he did. or.4. until it was found that the queen. and when not a man of them was able to forbear.. Be this as it will. There goes a story of this king Sous. by conquest. drunk of their water. seeking favor and popularity with the many. being besieged by the Clitorians in a dry and stony place so that he could come at no water. Soon after. grew bolder. he was stabbed with a butcher's knife. dying soon after. for popularity's sake and through weakness. Although he was justly had in admiration on this account. that. and the succeeding kings partly incurred hatred with their people by trying to use force. Sous certainly was the most renowned of all his ancestors. without swallowing one drop. the right of succession (as every one thought) rested in Lycurgus. too. and. Dieuchidas says he was the sixth from Patrocles and the eleventh from Hercules. he was at last constrained to agree with them upon these terms. and that he himself exercised the regal jurisdiction only as his guardian. having sprinkled his face only. They. causing. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. For as he was endeavoring to quell a riot. the Spartan name for which office is prodicus.

It so fell out that when he was at supper with the principal magistrates the queen was brought to bed of a boy. upon condition that he would marry her when he came to the crown. he first arrived at Crete. because that all were transported with joy and with wonder at his noble and just spirit. in a warm debate which fell out betwixt him and Lycurgus. but dissuaded her earnestly from procuring herself to miscarry. "Men of Sparta. with orders that if it were a girl they should deliver it to the women. that is. and resolved to make use of them in file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. with this resolution. and there were more who obeyed him because of his eminent virtues. would see to it. he nevertheless did not reject her proposal. taking him into his arms. than because he was regent to the king and had the royal power in his hands. setting sail. suggesting suspicions and preparing the way for an accusation of him. should bring it to him wheresoever he were. His reign had lasted only eight months. By such artifices having drawn on the woman to the time of her lying-in. who was soon after presented to him as he was at the table. and named him Charilaus. by having a son. Some. he thought it his wisest course to avoid their envy by a voluntary exile. should be taken out of the way. he laid him down in the king's place. if not endanger her life. he himself.. and." this said. Her brother Leonidas. that the child. therefore.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. Abhorring the woman's wickedness. had secured the succession. said to those about him. having considered their several forms of government. and to travel from place to place until his nephew came to marriageable years. he. some of their laws he very much approved of. he sent persons to be by and observe all that passed. as soon as born.htm (3 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . if the child should chance to fail though by a natural death.4. dispatched the messenger with thanks and expressions of joy. and got an acquaintance with the principal men amongst them. which would impair her health. here is a king born unto us. envied and sought to impede his growing influence while he was still young. but. went so far as to tell him to his face that he was well assured that ere long he should see him king. but if a boy.. as soon as he heard that she was in labor. and not knowing what it might come to.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. however. making show of closing with her. he said. chiefly the kindred and friends of the queen mother. the joy of the people. and whatsoever doing. but he was honored on other accounts by the citizens. as though he had made away with his nephew. where. Words of the like import were designedly cast abroad by the queen-mother and her adherents. that she would herself in some way destroy the infant. Troubled at this. who pretended to have been dealt with injuriously.

persuaded to go over to Lacedaemon.. Some Greek writers also record this.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. by importunities and assurances of friendship. The Egyptians say that he took a voyage into Egypt. with design. being much taken with their way of separating the soldiery from the rest of the nation. and. of the posterity of Creophylus. in reality he performed the part of one of the ablest lawgivers in the world. already obtained some slight repute amongst the Greeks. a people of sumptuous and delicate habits. were in the hands of individuals. though by his outward appearance and his own profession he seemed to be no other than a lyric poet. But as for his voyages into Spain. but Lycurgus first made them really known. had so great an influence on the minds of the listeners. Here he had the first sight of Homer's works. So that it may truly be said that Thales prepared the way for the discipline introduced by Lycurgus. and so to form a judgment. insomuch that they renounced their private feuds and animosities. the son of Hipparchus. and were reunited in a common admiration of virtue. and those of the Ionians. as is said. "for kings file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and that. in the hands. They had. which were very sober and temperate. as thinking they would be of good use in his own country. he transferred it from them to Sparta. a good part he rejected as useless. The very songs which he composed were exhortations to obedience and concord. just as physicians do by comparing healthy and diseased bodies. and the Indies. and scattered portions. Amongst the persons there the most renowned for their learning all their wisdom in state matters was one Thales.. rests on the single credit of the Spartan Aristocrates. where. indeed. and his conferences there with the Gymnosophists. and the very measure and cadence of the verse. his own country. he set himself eagerly to transcribe and digest them into order. From Crete he sailed to Asia. to examine the difference betwixt the manners and rules of life of the Cretans. Africa. as far as I can find. that they were insensibly softened and civilized. whom Lycurgus. we may suppose.htm (4 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . as chance conveyed them. having observed that the few loose expressions and actions of ill example which are to be found in his poems were much outweighed by serious lessons of state and rules of morality. the whole relation. conveying impressions of order and tranquility. and often sent for. a removal from contact with those employed in low and mechanical occupations giving high refinement and beauty to the state.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.4. Lycurgus was much missed at Sparta.

Hermippus hath set down the names of twenty of the most eminent of them. to the end that he might strike a terror into the opposite party. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. away he goes to Delphi to consult Apollo there. for they looked upon his presence as a bulwark against the insolencies of the people. he quitted his refuge. "Who can say he is anything but good? he is so even to the bad. and the commonwealth which observed them the most famous in the world. Nor were the kings themselves averse to see him back. but the name of him whom Lycurgus most confided in. was Arthmiadas. to a thorough reformation and resolved to change the whole face of the commonwealth.. hearing him extolled for his goodness.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. a nature made to rule. by force of medicines reduce and exhaust him. which having done. change his whole temperament. he broke it first to his particular friends. apprehending that it was a conspiracy against his person." they said." adding. and rather God than man. he applied himself. without loss of time. took sanctuary in the temple of Minerva of the Brazen House. Having thus projected things. that his laws should be the best. of so gentle and flexible a disposition he was. and offered his sacrifice. that his prayers were heard. Things growing to a tumult. exhorting them to give him a helping hand in his great undertaking. he set himself to bring over to his side the leading men of Sparta.htm (5 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . he said. and a genius to gain obedience. "who wear the marks and assume the titles of royalty. and who was of most use to him. Encouraged by these things.4. and himself also entered into the confederacy with them. when. and having taken an oath of them that they had no designs against him. indeed we have. he returned with that renowned oracle. both in making his laws and putting them in execution.. but as for the qualities of their minds. and then set him upon a totally new regimen of diet. but. alluded. they have nothing by which they are to be distinguished from their subjects. When things were ripe for action. in the case of one who labors under a complication of diseases. his brother-king. and then by degrees gained others. for what could a few particular laws and a partial alteration avail? He must act as wise physicians do. king Charilaus. being soon after undeceived. and animated them all to put his design in execution. he gave order to thirty of the principal men of Sparta to be ready armed at the market-place by break of day. Things being in this posture at his return. to which Archelaus. in which he is called beloved of God. that in him alone was the true foundation of sovereignty to be seen." Amongst the many changes and alterations which Lycurgus made.

equal to all its parts. allaying and qualifying the fiery genius of the royal office. which always kept things in a just equilibrium. apellazein. signifies to assemble. The commons have the final voice and decision. and. and is the first of perfect numbers after six. Betwixt this Babyca and Cnacion. perhaps there is some mystery in the number. and obe'd them into obes. the usual embellishments of such places amongst the other Greeks.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. the first and of greatest importance was the establishment of the senate. Aristotle states. there propound and put to the vote. which consists of seven multiplied by four. The people then being thus assembled in the open air. and roofs curiously fretted. being. and Babyca a bridge. the two kings. gave steadiness and safety to the commonwealth. I believe Lycurgus fixed upon the number of twenty-eight. apellazein the people betwixt Babyca and Cnacion. which runs thus: "After that you have built a temple to Jupiter Hellanius. which. their assemblies were held. As for the determinate number of twenty-eight. fell off from the enterprise. when the kings had the upper hand. the Rhetra. as that is. to meet in. by diverting their attention from the business before them to statues and pictures. and another while towards a pure democracy. " By phyles and obes are meant the divisions of the people.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. the leaders included. on the other hand. having a power equal to the kings' in matters of great consequence. supporting the people against the establishment of absolute monarchy. that. For the state. For my part. but Sphaerus assures us that there were but twenty-eight of the confederates at first.. and after that you have phyle'd the people phyles. that he took the trouble to obtain an oracle about it from Delphi. Lycurgus was of opinion that ornaments were so far from advantaging them in their counsels. referring to the Pythian Apollo. it was not allowed to any one of their order to give his advice.htm (6 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . which before had no firm basis to stand upon. you shall establish a council of thirty elders. the twenty-eight always adhering to the kings so far as to resist democracy. for they had no council-house or building. but leaned one while towards an absolute monarchy. when the people had the better. and. from time to time. and to Minerva Hellania. they might be thirty in all. that they were rather an hindrance. that it so fell out because two of the original associates. the two kings being reckoned amongst them. Babyca and Cnacion they now call Oenus.4. but only either to ratify or reject what should be propounded to them by the king or senate. for want of courage.. and shall. found in this establishment of the senate a central weight. So eagerly set was he upon this establishment. Aristotle says Cnacion is a river. by file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. But because it fell out afterwards that the people. by the leaders. like ballast in a ship. as Plato expresses it.

PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. distorted and perverted the sense of propositions. The elders next to them.. refuse ratification. it should be lawful for the elders and leaders to dissolve.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. kings Polydorus and Theopompus inserted into the Rhetra." that is to say. the commons last. Let a straight Rhetra file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. or grand covenant. And brought from Pytho home the perfect word: The heavenappointed kings. These oracles they from Apollo heard..4. by their management. as being equally authentic with the rest of the Rhetra. adding or omitting words. and dismiss the people as depravers and perverters of their counsel. Shall foremost in the nation's council stand. It passed among the people.htm (7 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . who love the land. the following clause: "That if the people decide crookedly. as appears by these verses of Tyrtaeus.

and. But of this I shall say more in its due place. by maintaining their prerogative too strictly. as clearly to show how truly divine a blessing the Spartans had had in that wise lawgiver who gave their government its happy balance and temper. For there was an extreme inequality amongst them.htm (8 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . indeed. whosoever shall look at the sedition and misgovernment which befell these bordering nations to whom they were as near related in blood as situation. said. partly the tyrannical temper of their kings and partly the ungovernableness of the people quickly bringing upon them such disorders. "No. put. in the reign of king Theopompus..0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. when his queen upbraided him one day that he would leave the regal power to his children less than he had received it from his ancestors.4. or. as Plato says. yet those who succeeded him found the oligarchical element still too strong and dominant. who. the Spartan kings were at once freed from all further jealousies and consequent danger. who. greater. lost it all. in this manner. were thought to have been luckier than the Spartans. to check its high temper and its violence. and never experienced the calamities of their neighbors at Messene and Argos. for it will last longer. used all the qualifications possible in the constitution of his commonwealth. which was the power of the ephori. a bit in its mouth. in their first rise. and so complete an overthrow of all existing institutions. After the creation of the thirty senators." For. in answer. indeed. was the making a new division of their lands. yet was their happiness but of small continuance. they lay on the side of the Messenians and Argives. and their state was overloaded with a multitude of indigent and file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. were equal. who. the most hazardous he ever undertook. will find in them the best reason to admire the wisdom and foresight of Lycurgus. established one hundred and thirty years after the death of Lycurgus. his next task. their prerogative being thus reduced within reasonable bounds.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. in the first allotment. For these three states. Although Lycurgus had. Indeed. among all be passed. if there were any odds. and.. Elatus and his colleagues were the first who had this dignity conferred upon them. for want of yielding a little to the populace.

and the part attached to the city of Sparta into nine thousand. these he distributed among the Spartans. nothing less than a yoke of oxen. luxury and crime. as he returned from a journey shortly after the division of the lands. And this he thought sufficient to keep their bodies in good health and strength. and the disgrace of evil. and by that means spoilt it. and twelve for his wife. proceeding at once to put them into execution. for who would rob another of such a coin? Who would unjustly detain or take by force. the ground being newly reaped. that he might expel from the state arrogance and envy. while its whole wealth had centered upon a very few. he divided the country of Laconia in general into thirty thousand equal shares. Others say that Polydorus doubled the number Lycurgus had made. "Methinks all Laconia looks like one family estate just divided among a number of brothers. and those yet more inveterate diseases of want and superfluity. nor a credit to have.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. which. according to them. one year with another. a great weight and quantity of which was but very little worth. With the diffusion of this money. he smiled. and to consent to a new division of the land. but finding that it would be very dangerous to go about it openly. and defeated their avarice by the following stratagem: he commanded that all gold and silver coin should be called in.htm (9 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . he obtained of them to renounce their properties. and that king Polydorus added three thousand more. so that to lay up twenty or thirty pounds there was required a pretty large closet. and that they should live all together on an equal footing. he resolved to make a division of their movables too. and credit of worthy acts. and file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and said to those about him. to remove it. seeing the stacks all standing equal and alike.4. therefore. or accept as a bribe..PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. nor indeed of any use to cut in pieces? For when it was just red hot. merit to be their only road to eminence. was but four thousand five hundred. at once a number of vices were banished from Lacedaemon. that. necessitous persons.. and." Not contented with this. their one measure of difference between man and man. A lot was so much as to yield. about seventy bushels of grain for the master of the family. they quenched it in vinegar. and that only a sort of money made of iron should be current. with a suitable proportion of oil and wine. he took another course. To the end. that there might be no odious distinction or inequality left amongst them. It is reported. in harvest time. Upon their consent to these proposals. as he did the others to the country citizens. superfluities they were better without. Some authors say that he made but six thousand lots for the citizens of Sparta. a thing which it was not easy to hide.

So there was now no more means of purchasing foreign goods and small wares. drunk upon necessity and disagreeable to look at. of the same bread and same meat. It was certainly an extraordinary thing to have brought about such a result as this. was very much in fashion. no itinerant fortune-teller. And in this way they became excellent artists in common. being of iron. and. were admirably well made there. but were shut up at home doing nothing. but a greater yet to have taken away from wealth. delivering themselves up into the hands of their tradesmen and cooks. they had to thank their lawgiver. as Critias reports. necessary things. and to ruin not their minds only but their very bodies. but here he might almost have spared his proclamation. or jeweler. and of kinds that were specified. and died away of itself. chairs. for they of themselves would have gone after the gold and silver. so that luxury. enfeebled by indulgence and excess. For the rich had no advantage here over the poor. and should not spend their lives at home. set them to show their skill in giving beauty to those of daily and indispensable use. particularly..htm (10 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . as their wealth and abundance had no road to come abroad by. In the next place. For this. also. was the ordinance he made. freedom from work. and tables. bedsteads. no harlot-monger or gold or silversmith. neither.. engraver. no rhetoric-master. if they should take the pains to export it. for its color was such as to prevent water. like greedy brutes. of as much care and attendance as if they were continually sick. which. to fatten them in corners. made it almost incapable of being worked. wasted to nothing. as Theophrastus observes. set foot in a country which had no money. deprived little by little of that which fed and fomented it. who. it was scarcely portable. by which he struck a yet more effectual blow against luxury and the desire of riches. in a word. laid on costly couches at splendid tables. and eagerly bought up by soldiers. by relieving the artisans of the trouble of making useless things. The third and most masterly stroke of this great lawgiver. merchants sent no shiploads into Laconian ports. and such like staple utensils in a family. that they should all eat in common. from being noticed. warm bathing.4. for. he declared an outlawry of all needless and superfluous arts. but its very file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. so that only the purer part came to the drinker's mouth. would stand in need of long sleep. would it pass amongst the other Greeks. the money which remained being not so proper payment for curious work. who ridiculed it. and the shape of it was such that the mud stuck to the sides.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. not merely the property of being coveted. their cup.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4.

nor so much as please their vanity by looking at or displaying it. so that at length he was forced to run out of the marketplace. nature of being wealth. And thus did Lycurgus. without murmuring did as he was commanded. Lycurgus. So that the common proverb. optilus being the Doric of these parts for ophthalmus. could not make use of or enjoy their abundance. Lycurgus. was nowhere in all the world literally verified but in Sparta. delivered Alcander into his hands to be punished. There. being thus admitted to live with Lycurgus.. dismayed and ashamed at the sight. Some authors. Nor were they allowed to take food at home first. who came up so close to him. with expressions of great concern for his ill usage. for every one had an eye upon those who did not eat and drink like the rest. make of a wild and passionate young man one of the discreetest citizens of Sparta. but the one mild and gentle character of the world. but like a picture. by good-hap he outran all excepting one Alcander. but. say file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. became one of his most zealous admirers. This last ordinance in particular exasperated the wealthier men. and so. dismissing those whose place it was bade Alcander to wait upon him at table. and then attend the public tables. taking him with him into his house. and. of whom Dioscorides is one (who wrote a treatise on the commonwealth of Sparta). but hasty and violent.4. being obliged to go to the same table with the poor. the eye. surnamed Optiletis. and escorted him home.htm (11 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . is blind. he had an opportunity to observe in him. besides his gentleness and calmness of temper. indeed. they. For the rich. The young man who was of an ingenuous temper. that.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and. They collected in a body against Lycurgus.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. he struck him upon the face with his stick. a young man otherwise not ill accomplished. an extraordinary sobriety and an indefatigable industry. stopped short. for chastisement of his fault. In memory of this accident. neither did nor said anything severely to him. and put out one of his eyes. that Plutus. without either life or motion. however. and from ill words came to throwing stones. and showed his disfigured face and eye beat out to his countrymen. from an enemy. so far from being daunted and discouraged by this accident.. excepting only Alcander. and make to sanctuary to save his life. the god of riches. he was not only blind. and reproached them with being dainty and effeminate. when he turned to see who was near him. having thanked them for their care of his person. dismissed them all. Lycurgus built a temple to Minerva. and told his friends and relations that Lycurgus was not that morose and ill-natured man they had formerly taken him for.

They used to send their children to these tables as to schools of temperance. love feasts. eating. because they were so many schools of sobriety. from edode. more or less. here they were instructed in state affairs by listening to experienced statesmen. they had opportunity of making friends. They met by companies of fifteen. when any of them had been a hunting. the Lacedaemonians excelled particularly. Be this as it will.. to make jests without scurrility. which a waiter carried round upon his head. by eating and drinking together. he was to go through the following probation. as they came in. and the word at first was editia. But to return to their public repasts. the Lacedaemonians made it a rule never to carry so much as a staff into their public assemblies. Or perhaps from phido. "Through this" (pointing to the door). "no words go out.htm (12 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . that he was wounded indeed. It was customary also for the eldest man in the company to say to each of them. when any of them made sacrifice to the gods. five pounds of cheese.4. for these two occasions were the only excuses allowed for supping at home. by changing l into d. and some very small sum of money to buy flesh or fish with. which they were to throw into a deep basin. upon the least hint given there was no more to be said to him. the Cretans called them andria. parsimony. that is. sending for his commons at his return home." When any one had a desire to be admitted into any of these little societies. and. the same as philitia. here they learnt to converse with pleasantry. The custom of eating together was observed strictly for a great while afterwards. In this point of good breeding. because that. which refusal when he resented so much as to omit next day the sacrifice due for a war happily ended. The Lacedaemonians called them phiditia..--these had several names in Greek. he sent thither a part of the venison he had killed.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. but did not lose his eye with the blow. certain it is. and each of them stood bound to bring in monthly a bushel of meal. because the men only came to them. and take them without ill humor. each man in the company took a little ball of soft bread. eight gallons of wine. because he desired to eat privately with his queen. after having vanquished the Athenians. was refused them by the polemarchs. that. likewise. they made him pay a fine. after this misadventure. insomuch that king Agis himself. two pounds and a half of figs. or perhaps the first letter is an addition. those that file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and that he built the temple in gratitude for the cure.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. Besides this. they always sent a dole to the common hall. but if any man were uneasy under it.

.htm (13 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . Their most famous dish was the black broth. that file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. to make this broth relish. as pecuniary contracts. told him. and this signified as much as a negative voice.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. to the end that they might accustom themselves to march boldly in the dark. and those who disliked him pressed it between their fingers. would be sure to remain. leaving what flesh there was to the younger. forbid. every man went to his home without lights. Such was the common fashion of their meals. there is a Rhetra expressly to forbid it. being imprinted on the hearts of their youth by a good discipline. he thought it the best way to prescribe no positive rule or inviolable usage in such cases. another is particularly leveled against luxury and expensiveness. than any compulsion would be. of the Rhetras was. and made it flat. For he thought that the most material points. liked the person to be chosen dropped their ball into the basin without altering its figure. and such as most directly tended to the public welfare. "Sir. the forms of which have to be changed as occasion requires." After drinking moderately. for by it it was ordained that the ceilings of their houses should only be wrought by the axe. Lycurgus would never reduce his laws into writing. having heard much of this black broth of theirs.. And as for things of lesser importance. and the rejected candidate had a name thence derived.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and their gates and doors smoothed only by the saw. you should have bathed yourself first in the river Eurotas. willing that their manner and form should be altered according to the circumstances of time. for the use of them was. on all occasions. but had no sooner tasted it than he found it extremely bad. Epaminondas's famous dictum about his own table. education. and would find a stronger security.4. One. nay. and such like. Every end and object of law and enactment it was his design education should effect. which the cook observing. then. The basin was called caddichus. the suitor was rejected. which was so much valued that the elderly men fed only upon that. so desirous were they that all the members of the company should be agreeable to each other. in the principles of action formed in them by their best lawgiver. that their laws should not be written. and determinations of men of sound judgment. They say that a certain king of Pontus. And if there were but one of these pieces in the basin. sent for a Lacedaemonian cook on purpose to make him some.

These laws were called the Rhetras. whether they would or no. and asked his host whether the trees grew so in his country. that. the first of that name. and the rest of their goods and furniture to these. to the end that the fruit they conceived might. For Aristotle is wrong in saying.. might be the more able to undergo the pains of child. took great liberties and assumed the superiority. by his continual incursions into Boeotia." may be said to have been anticipated by Lycurgus. lest that they should train and instruct them in war. was so little used to the sight of any other kind of work. It is reported that king Leotychides. that. A third ordinance or Rhetra was. Luxury and a house of this kind could not well be companions. that they should not make war often. and were treated with overmuch respect and called by the title of lady or queen. and casting the dart. also. Doubtless he had good reason to think that they would proportion their beds to their houses.bearing. who spent the best part of their lives in the wars. it being thought. said to him.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. by regulating their marriages. he thought the most important and noblest work of a lawgiver). and withal that they. running. throwing the quoit.. seeing him wounded one day. he was much surprised to see the timber and ceiling so finely carved and paneled. a long time after.4. that. take firmer root and find better growth. all the care that was possible. and therefore Antalcidas. as I said before. The truth is. being entertained at Corinth in a stately room. that he was very well paid for taking such pains to make the Thebans good soldiers. And to the end he might take away their over-great tenderness and fear of file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. In order to the good education of their youth (which. or long. For a man must have a less than ordinary share of sense that would furnish such plain and common rooms with silver-footed couches and purple coverlets and gold and silver plate. to intimate that they were divine sanctions and revelations. whom they were obliged to leave absolute mistresses at home. "Treason and a dinner like this do not keep company together. with this greater vigor. And this is what Agesilaus was much blamed for. after he had tried all ways to reduce the women to more modesty and sobriety. he was at last forced to leave them as they were. with the same enemy.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. in strong and healthy bodies. he went so far back as to take into consideration their very conception and birth. in the absence of their husbands. and their coverlets to their beds. because that. their wives. he made the Thebans a match for the Lacedaemonians. he took in their case. he ordered the maidens to exercise themselves with wrestling. by habituating them to defend themselves.htm (14 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 .

" These public processions of the maidens. the wife of Leonidas. and. he ordered that the young women should go naked in the processions. to promote it yet more effectually. admitted as they thus were to the field of noble action and glory. operating upon the young with the rigor and certainty. "for we are the only women who bring forth men. for they were excluded from the sight of those public processions in which the young men and maidens danced naked. for example. as well as the young men. and no man. and by these means inspired the younger sort with an emulation of their glory. and their appearing naked in their exercises and dancings. is said to have done. seeing and hearing them. if not of mathematics. that they justly suffered this punishment for disobeying the laws. Moreover. those who continued bachelors were in a degree disfranchised by law. saw and heard all that passed. It taught them simplicity and a care for good health.4. the husband carried off his bride by a sort of file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. Those that were thus commended went away proud. singing as they went a certain song to their own disgrace. Hence it was natural for them to think and speak as Gorgo. modesty attended them. at certain solemn feasts. they now and then made. in that condition. "With good reason. by jests. and gratified with their honor among the maidens. and all wantonness was excluded. singing certain songs. and dance. in wintertime. a befitting reflection upon those who had misbehaved themselves in the wars. a young man. as it would seem. found fault with what was said to Dercyllidas.. whilst the young men stood around. when some foreign lady.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. But besides all this." she said. for example. told her that the women of Lacedaemon were the only women of the world who could rule men. and again sang encomiums upon those who had done any gallant action. though so eminent a commander.. and those who were rallied were as sensibly touched with it as if they had been formally reprimanded. Nor was there any thing shameful in this nakedness of the young women. "No child of yours will make room for me. On these occasions.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. and so much the more. and all acquired womanishness. the officers compelled them to march naked themselves round the market-place. as well as the rest of the city. " In their marriages. elated. instead of rising. because the kings and the elders. too.htm (15 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . exposure to the air. as Plato says. and gave them some taste of higher feelings. of love. upon whose approach one day. retained his seat. they were denied that respect and observance which the younger men paid their elders. remarking. were incitements to marriage.

htm (16 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . force. spending his days. being thus difficult and rare. in his every-day clothes. indeed.. and takes her to himself. she. where people would be file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. therefore. After guarding marriage with this modesty and reserve.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. the laws of other nations seemed to him very absurd and inconsistent. and. and. After this. visiting his bride in fear and shame. sober and composed. from this plot of good ground. Their interviews. his nights with them. who might inherit the good qualities of the father. as having supped at the common table. For this object. that he might raise. also. but by the best men that could be found. afterwards comes the bridegroom. without formality. she who superintended the wedding comes and clips the hair of the bride close round her head. on her part. and. nor were their brides ever small and of tender years. entering privately into the room where the bride lies. but brought them together with their bodies healthy and vigorous. when company was out of the way. he was equally careful to banish empty and womanish jealousy. worthy and well-allied children for himself. Lycurgus allowed a man who was advanced in years and had a young wife to recommend some virtuous and approved young man. he returns composedly to his own apartment. might. excluding all licentious disorders. beg her company of her husband. that so they might have children by them. Lycurgus was of a persuasion that children were not so much the property of their parents as of the whole commonwealth. and. when he thought he should not be observed. while their partings were always early enough to leave behind unextinguished in each of them some remainder fire of longing and mutual delight. but in their full bloom and ripeness.. would not have his citizens begot by the first comers. unties her virgin zone. he made it. that she might have a child by him. And so he continues to do. honorable for men to give the use of their wives to those whom they should think fit. unsated and undulled by easy access and long continuance with each other. and be a son to himself. and with circumspection. On the other side. nevertheless. and leaves her upon a mattress in the dark. indeed. And. as it were.4. dresses her up in man's clothes. an honest man who had love for a married woman upon account of her modesty and the wellfavoredness of her children. after staying some time together. to sleep as usual with the other young men. served not only for continual exercise of their selfcontrol. using her wit to help and find favorable opportunities for their meeting.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. In this manner they lived a long time. and their affections fresh and lively. ridiculing those in whose opinion such favors are so unfit for participation as to fight and shed blood and go to war about it. insomuch that they sometimes had children by their wives before ever they saw their faces by daylight.

"There are no adulterers in our country. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. from a notion they had that epileptic and weakly children faint and waste away upon their being thus bathed. or hired by people of other countries. who might be foolish.shaped. 'tis impossible to find such a bull. from the very outset. a very ancient. the children grew up free and unconstrained in limb and form. Upon this account. but. their good qualities. "'Tis as possible as to find an adulterer in Sparta." "But. appear made to be healthy and vigorous.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. Nor was it in the power of the father to dispose of the child as he thought fit. like steel. Upon the same account. but with wine. they gave order for its rearing." Geradas smilingly replied. used by the nurses. while. if they found it stout and well made. not afraid in the dark. and allotted to it one of the nine thousand shares of land above mentioned for its maintenance. and well-born children. and not dainty and fanciful about their food. the women did not bathe the newborn children with water.. infirm. as is the custom in all other countries. and. as if it were not apparent that children of a bad breed would prove their bad qualities first upon those who kept and were rearing them. surprised at this. nor for the public interest. It is told. as thinking it neither for the good of the child itself. that it should be brought up. to prove the temper and complexion of their bodies." answered he. on the contrary." The man. to be made mothers only by themselves. said. "suppose there were ?" "Then. being asked by a stranger what punishment their law had appointed for adulterers.4.. were certainly so far from that scandalous liberty which was afterwards charged upon their women. so solicitous for their dogs and horses as to exert interest and pay money to procure fine breeding." replied the stranger. too. Spartan. he was obliged to carry it before certain triers at a place called Lesche. if they found it puny and ill. founded on natural and social grounds.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. ordered it to be taken to what was called the Apothetae. or of being left alone. and yet kept their wives shut up. in like manner. There was much care and art. "Why. Spartan nurses were often bought up." So much I had to say of their marriages. that they knew not what adultery meant. These regulations. for instance. these were some of the elders of the tribe to which the child belonged. a sort of chasm under Taygetus. their business it was carefully to view the infant. of Geradas. without any peevishness or ill humor or crying.htm (17 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . or diseased. that. those of a strong and vigorous habit acquire firmness and get a temper by it. they had no swaddling bands. "the offender would have to give the plaintiff a bull with a neck so long as that he might drink from the top of Taygetus of the Eurotas river below it. he answered. if it did not.

and it is recorded that she who suckled Alcibiades was a Spartan. their heads were close-clipped. too. their discipline was proportionably increased. Of these. which it was thought had the property of giving warmth. chose a servant for that office called Zopyrus. nor such as should sell their pains. Pericles. to have a good opportunity of finding out their different characters. so that the whole course of their education was one continued exercise of a ready and perfect obedience. Reading and writing they gave them. he who showed the most conduct and courage was made captain. which they were to break off with their hands without a knife. and this as seriously and with as much concern as if they were their fathers. they had their eyes always upon him. no better than any common slave. To this end. had an eye upon them.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. They lodged together in little bands upon beds made of the rushes which grew by the banks of the river Eurotas. just enough to serve their turn. so that there scarcely was any time or place without someone present to put them in mind of file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. he would not have masters bought out of the market for his young Spartans. they were no longer allowed to wear any under-garment. their chief care was to make them good subjects. if fortunate in his nurse. their bodies were hard and dry. and to teach them to endure pain and conquer in battle. these human indulgences they were allowed only on some few particular days in the year. as they grew in years. Lycurgus was of another mind. they had one coat to serve them a year.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. or their magistrates.htm (18 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . were spectators of their performances. and often raised quarrels and disputes among them. By the time they were come to this age. as Plato tells us. with but little acquaintance of baths and unguents. too. when they should come to more dangerous encounters. if it were winter. was not so in his preceptor. and of seeing which would be valiant.4. which a coward.. and underwent patiently whatsoever punishment he inflicted. their tutors. doing their exercises and taking their play together.. and for the most part to play naked. After they were twelve years old. indeed. where they all lived under the same order and discipline. The old men. there was not any of the more hopeful boys who had not a lover to bear him company. nor was it lawful. but as soon as they were seven years old they were to be enrolled in certain companies and classes. they were accustomed to go bare-foot. for the father himself to breed up the children after his own fancy. his guardian. coming often to the grounds to hear and see them contend either in wit or strength with one another. The old men. they mingled some thistle-down with their rushes. obeyed his orders. who. however.

was their captain when they fought. sending the oldest of them to fetch wood. there was always one of the best and honestest men in the city appointed to undertake the charge and governance of them. I leave others to determine. for the vital spirits. who were usually twenty years old. the material they come of having been more pliable and easily molded. however. and the eldest of the boys. and punish them if they had neglected it. therefore. using them for the offices of his house. They stole. and the body.. by their natural lightness. were Mell-Irens. suffered it to tear out his very bowels with its teeth and claws. also. if they were taken in the fact. The reason. rather than let it be seen. and set over each of them for their captain the most temperate and boldest of those they called Irens. two years out of the boys. all other meat they could lay their hands on.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. grows in height. which the gross and over-fed are too heavy to submit to properly. not being overburdened and oppressed by too great a quantity of nourishment. or conveying themselves cunningly and closely into the eating-houses.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. too.4. to gather salads and herbs. This young man. to conduce to beauty of shape. they were whipped without mercy. and be forced to exercise their energy and address. which was but very slender. and died upon the place. as much as to say. and the weaker and less able. but hunger. This was the principal design of their hard fare. having stolen a young fox and hid it under his coat. So seriously did the Lacedaemonian children go about their stealing. and their master at home. when people were asleep or more careless than usual. What is practiced to this very day in Lacedaemon is enough to gain credit to this story. To return from whence we have digressed.. that a youth. giving and yielding because it is pliant. and so contrived on purpose. which necessarily discharges itself into thickness and breadth. that they might set about to help themselves. too. bear leaner and smaller but better-shaped and prettier children. he again arranged them into their several bands. The same thing seems. do. for I myself have file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. a dry and lean habit is a better subject for nature's configuration. rise. who would shortly be men. which they did by creeping into the gardens.htm (19 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . for thieving so ill and awkwardly. looking out and watching all opportunities. there was another not inconsiderable. and these they must either go without or steal. their duty. again. Just as we find that women who take physic whilst they are with child. they were not only punished with whipping. Besides all this. being reduced to their ordinary allowance. If they were caught. that they might grow taller.

seen several of the youths endure whipping to death at the foot of the altar of Diana surnamed Orthia. also. for.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. who ordered. when they were gone. that a great piece of money should be but of an inconsiderable value. if he had run far into either of the extremes of indulgence or severity. Their lovers and favorers. whilst they all jointly conspired to render the object of their affection as accomplished as possible. children in Sparta. that they might see whether he punished them justly and in due measure or not. when some Athenian laughed at their file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and to comprehend much matter of thought in few words. and in as few words and as comprehensive as might be. and one of them he bade to sing a song. had a share in the young boy's honor or disgrace. used to stay a little with them after supper. for example. so loose and incontinent talkers seldom originate many sensible words. The Iren. had his thumb bit by his master. they were looked upon as of a dull and careless disposition. And though this sort of love was so approved among them.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. They taught them. by a habit of long silence. King Agis. or under-master. and to inform themselves of the abilities or defects of their countrymen. to speak with a natural and graceful raillery. and if several men's fancies met in one person. but. and when he did amiss. too. indeed.4. Sometimes the Iren did this in the presence of the old men and magistrates. and there goes a story that one of them was fined by the magistrates. they would not reprove him before the boys... to another he put a question which required an advised and deliberate answer. besides this. For Lycurgus. they were to give a good reason for what they said.htm (20 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . came to give just and sententious answers. If they had not an answer ready to the question Who was a good or who an ill-reputed citizen. on the contrary would allow no discourse to be current which did not contain in few words a great deal of useful and curious sense. and to have little or no sense of virtue and honor. he was called to an account and underwent correction. because the lad whom he loved cried out effeminately as he was fighting. he that failed of this. as loose and incontinent livers are seldom fathers of many children. or answered not to the purpose. that the most virtuous matrons would make professions of it to young girls. as we saw. Who was the best man in the city? What he thought of such an action of such a man? They used them thus early to pass a right judgment upon persons and things. yet rivalry did not exist. it was rather the beginning of an intimate friendship.

"Begin.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. "Men of few words require but few laws." Some. He replied. the following apothegms are evidence. it seems to me. addressed to his countrymen by letter... short swords. the nephew of Lycurgus. as. he sent them word. but not in due time and place." said he. he answered." Theopompus answered a stranger who talked much of his affection to the Lacedaemonians." Similar answers. that is the least like you. friend. They reach the point and arrest the attention of the hearers better than any. Of their dislike to talkativeness. answered him. so. if we may trust the anecdotes of him. "We find them long enough to reach our enemies with. and said that his countrymen called him Philolacon (a lover of the Lacedaemonians)." When one blamed Hecataeus the sophist because that. and said that the jugglers on the stage swallowed them with ease. "The city is well fortified which hath a wall of men instead of brick. "and set it up in your family." and as their swords were short and sharp.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. Sir. he had not spoken one word all supper-time. being asked why his uncle had made so few laws. Demaratus. and not coveting each man to be greater than his fellow. in company where Agis was. "Much to the purpose. that it had been more for his honor if they had file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. much extolled the Eleans for their just and honorable management of the Olympic tames. elsewhere." Being consulted again whether it were requisite to enclose the city with a wall. Who was the best man in Lacedaemon? answered at last. "By continuing poor. he returned this answer. "He. " The sharp and yet not ungraceful retorts which I mentioned may be instanced as follows. "He who knows how to speak. except that in which you stretch out your hands.htm (21 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . as appears by his answer to one who by all means would set up democracy in Lacedaemon. King Leonidas said to one who held him in discourse upon some useful matter.4." Being asked what sort of martial exercises or combats he approved of." But whether these letters are counterfeit or not is not easy to determine. answered. being consulted how they might best oppose an invasion of their enemies. "All sorts. "Indeed. knows also when. being asked in a troublesome manner by an importunate fellow." Another asked him why he allowed of such mean and trivial sacrifices to the gods." King Charilaus." said Agis. "they are highly to be commended if they can do justice one day in five years. being invited to the public table. were their sayings. "That we may always have something to offer to them. are ascribed to him. Archidamidas answered in his vindication. Lycurgus himself seems to have been short and sententious. Sir.

called him Philopolites (a lover of his own countrymen). did in battle die. he answered. answered. Nor was their instruction in music and verse less carefully attended to than their habits of grace and good breeding in conversation. seeing people easing themselves on seats. For instance. to keep out wicked men.htm (22 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . that one said well that intellectual much more truly than athletic exercise was the Spartan characteristic.4. one. "God forbid I should sit where I could not get up to salute my elders. "Enough. but for such that would live and kill others. And their very songs had a life and spirit in them that inflamed and possessed men's minds with an enthusiasm and ardor for action. Seeking to quench a cruel tyranny. but the very wit of them was grounded upon something or other worth thinking about. A lad.." One asked Archidamidas what number there might. the style of them was plain and without affectation. Another. we alone of all the Greeks have learned none of your bad qualities. I have heard the nightingale itself. They. in their very jests. "Sir. being offered some gamecocks that would die upon the spot. said..0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. the son of Pausanias. And Plistoanax. be of the Spartans." Another. Sir. their answers were so sententious and pertinent. For they did not throw them out at random. being asked to go hear a man who exactly counterfeited the voice of a nightingale. too. when an orator of Athens said the Lacedaemonians had no learning." We may see their character. told him. at Selinus. for instead of trying to quench the tyranny they should have let it burn out. said. it served them right. having read the following inscription upon a tomb." In short. said that he cared not for cocks that would die. Sir.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. the subject always file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. "You say true.

. and boasts of what they had done. some of which were still extant in our days.htm (23 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 .PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. if we will take the pains to consider their compositions. and the airs on the flute to which they marched when going to battle. it was in praise of such men as had died in defense of their country. Indeed. And we're so now.4. the former they declared happy and glorified. the children came last and said. the old men began thus: We once were young. There were also vaunts of what they would do.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. serious and moral. most usually. the life of the latter they described as most miserable and abject. the second of the young men.. or in derision of those that had been cowards. and the last of the children. and brave and strong. the first of the old men. But we'll be strongest by and by. as. singing. we shall find that file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. they had three choirs in their solemn festivals. come on and try. for example. varying with the various ages. the young men answered them.

And the young men's conquering spear.. And dance.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. in the words of one of their own poets file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and Pindar Councils of wise elders here..4. Terpander and Pindar had reason to say that music and valor were allied.htm (24 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . and joy appear.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. and song. both describing the Spartans as no less musical than warlike. The first says of Lacedaemon The spear and song in her do meet. And Justice walks about her street.

PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. At such times. and thereby to animate them to the performance of exploits that should deserve a record. commanded the soldiers to set their garlands upon their heads. the king first did sacrifice to the Muses. in all likelihood to put them in mind of the manner of their education. their exercises were generally more moderate. and terror to an ugly one. When they were in the field. For. that a large head of hair added beauty to a good face. indeed.htm (25 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 .. Men. nor so strict a hand held over them by their officers. and the pipers to play the tune of the hymn to Castor. and himself began the paean of advance. as soon as they came to be well-grown. calmly and cheerfully moving with the music to the deadly fight. It was at once a magnificent and a terrible sight to see them march on to the tune of their flutes. When their army was drawn up in battle array and the enemy near. too.. and of the judgment that would be passed upon their actions. without any disorder in their ranks. so that they were the only people in the world to whom war gave repose. suffering them to curl and adorn their hair. before they engaged in battle. in this temper. but with the deliberate valor of hope and assurance. any discomposure in their minds or change in their countenance.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. were not likely to be possessed with fear or any transport of fury. to have it parted and trimmed. With the iron stern and sharp Comes the playing on the harp. pursuant to a saying recorded of their lawgiver. as if some divinity were attending and file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and fine clothes. neighing and pressing to the course. the Lacedaemonians abated a little the severity of their manners in favor of their young men. their fare not so hard. the king sacrificed a goat. especially against a day of battle. and were well pleased to see them.4. they took a great deal of care of their hair. and to have costly arms. And therefore. like proud horses.

PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. "I shall fight next the king. and gave quarter to the rest. and assisted him in ordering the ceremonies of that feast. were better established. "And now. The king had always about his person some one who had been crowned in the Olympic games. And. which was offered to him upon condition that he would not come into the lists. Being there. but Demetrius the Phalerian says quite the contrary. but was politic too. that was procured by his means and management. Hippias the sophist says that Lycurgus himself was a great soldier and an experienced commander. by his means. conducting them. concluded that it was a voice from heaven. Hermippus tells us that he had no hand in the ordinance. Philostephanus attributes to him the first division of the cavalry into troops of fifties in a square body. turning about and seeing no man. and. what are you the better for your victory?" he answered smiling. Their discipline continued still after they were full-grown men. but the city was a sort of camp." After they had routed an enemy. Notwithstanding all this. Sir Lacedaemonian. or cessation of arms. for. he heard as it were a man's voice behind him. and looked upon himself not so much born to serve his own ends as the interest of his country. indeed. and that by mere accident too. blaming and wondering at him that he did not encourage his countrymen to resort to the assembly. and upon this account a Lacedaemonian is said to have refused a considerable present. and then they sounded a retreat. This manner of dealing with their enemies did not only show magnanimity. who had given up and abandoned all resistance. knowing that they killed only those who made resistance. that Iphitus made it. which. Therefore. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. To return to the Lacedaemonians.4.. men generally thought it their best way to consult their safety by flight. they pursued him till they were well assured of the victory. or to learn it themselves of those who knew better. and that he made all his laws in a continued peace. and upon this immediately went to Iphitus. and Lycurgus came only as a spectator. they went to see the boys perform their exercises.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. and with more repute than before.htm (26 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 .. in which every man had his share of provisions and business set out. if they were commanded nothing else. to teach them something useful. and when he had with much to-do thrown his antagonist. No one was allowed to live after his own fancy. and one that loved quietness and peace. inclines me to think him a kind-natured man. thinking it base and unworthy of a Grecian people to cut men in pieces. some of the spectators saying to him. the Olympic holy truce.

except when they were in the field. where every one's wants were supplied. was told of a citizen that had been fined for living an idle life. not on money-making and market-prices. be by their zeal and public spirit carried all but out of themselves. Of the money-making that depends on troublesome going about and seeing people and doing business.4. and that in a light and sportive manner. was taken up by the choral dances and the festivals. but for the most part in passing judgment on some action worth considering. that. happening to be at Athens when the courts were sitting. the Lacedaemonian was much surprised at it. says Sosibius. they had no need at all in a state where wealth obtained no honor or respect. And. lessons of advice and improvement. all lawsuits immediately ceased. indeed. and was being escorted home in much distress of mind by his condoling friends. Mirth. To conclude. but equality. and file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. clustering like bees around their commander. it was esteemed more suitable for them to frequent the exercise-grounds and places of conversation. because those wants were so small. and paid them yearly in kind the appointed quantity. one of the greatest and highest blessings Lycurgus procured his people was the abundance of leisure. It need not be said. but had the necessaries of their family supplied by the care of their relations and lovers.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. in hunting. All their time. conveying. extolling the good. where they spent their leisure rationally in conversation. upon the prohibition of gold and silver. and.. Nor was Lycurgus himself unduly austere. and in attendance on the exercise-grounds and the places of public conversation. without too much gravity. The Helots tilled their ground for them.. they were to make themselves one with the public good. and desired his friend to show him the man who was condemned for living like a freeman. So much beneath them did they esteem the frivolous devotion of time and attention to the mechanical arts and to money-making. and censuring those who were otherwise. the little statue of Laughter.htm (27 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . and independence. it was he who dedicated. To this purpose there goes a story of a Lacedaemonian who. which proceeded from his forbidding to them the exercise of any mean and mechanical trade.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. was to serve as a sort of sweetmeat to accompany their strict and hard life. introduced seasonably at their suppers and places of common entertainment. he bred up his citizens in such a way that they neither would nor could live by themselves. for there was now neither avarice nor poverty amongst them. Those who were under thirty years of age were not allowed to go into the marketplace. without any trouble of theirs. nor was it for the credit of elderly men to be seen too often in the marketplace.

Upon this he had a garland set upon his head. third. and passed in order through the assembly without speaking a word. What their sentiments were will better appear by a few of their sayings. The vacancies he ordered to be supplied out of the best and most deserving men past sixty years old. as I said before. and with power over the lives. "In a public. Brasidas was a good and brave man." The senate. "Do not say so. in a private character. As he went round file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. some selected persons were locked up in a room near the place of election.. devoted wholly to their country. being sent with some others ambassador to the lieutenants of the king of Persia. second. if we succeed. by the shouts of the people. so contrived that they could neither see nor be seen. being asked by them whether they came in a private or in a public character. without knowing in favor of which candidate each of them was made. answered. as the reward of his merits. And Polycratidas. and we need not wonder if there was much striving for it.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. for what more glorious competition could there be amongst men. with the supreme authority of the commonwealth.. but one after another by lot. asking some who came from Amphipolis if her son Brasidas died courageously and as became a Spartan. but merely that they came first.htm (28 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . for they decided this. and highest interests of all his countrymen? The manner of their election was as follows: the people being called together. He who was found to have the most and loudest acclamations was declared senator duly elected. if not. and saying there was not such another left in Sparta. and women. as most other affairs of moment. returned home with a joyful face. This done.4. franchises. consisted of those who were Lycurgus's chief aiders and assistants in his plans. and so forth. Those who were locked up had writingtables with them." Argileonis. but who of many wise and good was wisest and best. than one in which it was not contested who was swiftest among the swift or strongest of the strong. and fittest to be entrusted for ever after. and went in procession to all the temples to give thanks to the gods. in which they recorded and marked each shout by its loudness. Paedaretus. the competitors were not brought in and presented all together. not being admitted into the list of the three hundred.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. answered. well pleased to find that there were in Sparta three hundred better men than himself. but could only hear the noise of the assembly without. singing verses in his honor. but there are in Sparta many better than he. and extolling the virtue and happiness of his life. on their beginning to praise him to a high degree. also. a great number of young men followed him with applauses.

Lycurgus made very wise regulations. and different views of government. a few olive leaves. that it had been a mark of esteem to him. upon which she was triumphantly waited upon home by the women. but rather lest they should introduce something contrary to good manners. if they pleased. He filled Lacedaemon all through with proofs and examples of good conduct.. presented to her the portion he had saved. so that we may see.. and he. "The city honors you with this banquet. He was as careful to save his city from the infection of foreign bad habits. for. and even round about their temples. passed round to the common table where he formerly used to eat. or learn any thing to their good. with the constant sight of which from their youth up." but he. the habits of ill-educated people. which he took and put by. and go about acquainting themselves with foreign rules of morality.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. In the next place. except. and on these follow views and feelings whose discordant character destroys the harmony of the state. not because he was afraid lest they should inform themselves of and imitate his manner of government (as Thucydides says).htm (29 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . or imagine that to touch a corpse or to tread upon a grave would defile a man. and the scarlet cloth that they were wrapped in. saying. they were to do sacrifice to Ceres. that as he cut off all superfluity. he commanded them to put nothing into the ground with them.4. to the end that their youth might be accustomed to such spectacles. first of all. and was served as before. except only of men who fell in the wars. The time. was very short. appointed for mourning. the women who were of kin to him had come about the door. Withal he banished from Lacedaemon all strangers who could not give a very good reason for their coming thither. the people would hardly fail to be gradually formed and advanced in virtue. saying. and not be afraid to see a dead body. he allowed them to bury their dead within the city. eleven days.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. instead of accepting. on the twelfth. or women who died in a sacred office. too. and leave it off. strange words must be admitted. By the time supper was ended. Touching burials. as men usually are to prevent the file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. each of his relations and friends set a table before him. so in things necessary there was nothing so small and trivial which did not express some homage of virtue or scorn of vice. the city in this manner. and was so now to her. And this was the reason why he forbade them to travel abroad. beckoning to her whom he most esteemed. to cut of all superstition. With strange people. He would not suffer the names to be inscribed. these novelties produce novelties in thought. excepting that now he had a second allowance.

For my part. and murdered them.. as enfranchised persons. garlanded. though some who admit them to be well contrived to make good soldiers. see no sign of injustice or want of equity in the laws of Lycurgus. Gave both him and Plato.4. as they were at work in the fields. that the ephori. that in Sparta he who was free was most so." So that it was truly observed by one. joining with the Messenians. accordingly. from time to time. tells us.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. And Aristotle. and to lead them in that condition into their public halls. "For. and no man either then or since could give an account how they came by their deaths. introduction of a pestilence. in particular. that the children might see what a sight a drunken man is. For I cannot persuade myself to ascribe to Lycurgus so wicked and barbarous a course. they could by no means persuade them to sing the verses of Terpander. forbidding them expressly to meddle with any of a better kind. and. for it was a common thing to force them to drink to excess. sometimes they set upon them by day. and taking a little necessary provision with them. especially after the great earthquake. so soon as they were entered into their office. I am of opinion that these outrages and cruelties began to be exercised in Sparta at a later time. As. also. issued out into the highways. and sing ridiculous songs.. and he that was a slave there. being about the number of two thousand. By this ordinance. "the masters do not like it. in the night. after being singled out for their bravery by the Spartans. in his history of the Peloponnesian war. and brought the greatest danger upon the city. Alcman. on all hands. this opinion alike of the lawgiver and his government. they hid themselves in out-of-the-way places. It is confessed. The Cryptia. used to declare war against them. and led about to all the temples in token of honors. when the Thebans made their invasion into Laconia. Hitherto I. as Aristotle says it was). And. adds. Thucydides. armed only with their daggers.htm (30 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . or Spendon.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. pronounce them defective in point of justice." said they. perhaps (if it were one of Lycurgus's ordinances. the magistrates dispatched privately some of the ablest of the young men into the country. laid the country waste. too. when the Helots made a general insurrection. and killed all the Helots they could light upon. and took a great number of the Helots. the greatest slave in the world. that the Spartans dealt with them very hardly. shortly after disappeared all of a sudden. in the daytime. and there lay close. that they might be massacred without a breach of religion. they made them to dance low dances. judging of him from the gentleness of his disposition and justice upon all other file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. but. for my part. that a good number of them.

. while it observed them. an act of service to the state. and that he would. to abide by and maintain the established form of polity until Lycurgus should be come back. but. if possible. He was now about that age in which life was still tolerable. in the meantime. now fairly at work and in motion. The oracle answered that the laws were excellent. on the other. he administered an oath to the two kings. and. and sent it over to Sparta. and yet might be quitted without regret. to which the oracle also testified. but that there was one thing still behind. before he departed. made an end of himself by a total abstinence from food.4. should live in the height of renown. he resolved that the Spartans should not be released from the oath they had taken. moreover. close his life where he was.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. and bade him hasten his journey. felt joy. Lycurgus took the oracle in writing. and sufficient for a people's happiness and virtue.htm (31 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . viewing with joy and satisfaction the greatness and beauty of his political structure. and the whole commons. Every thing. They all consented readily. Plato somewhere tells us. then. and. that his commonwealth was now grown up and able to go alone. This done. as. even so Lycurgus. when first he saw it existing and beginning its motion. and taken leave of his friends and his son. on the one hand. When he perceived that his more important institutions had taken root in the minds of his countrymen. and told them that he now thought every thing reasonably well established. both for the happiness and the virtue of the state. He. he set out for Delphi. asked him whether the laws he had established were good. having sacrificed to Apollo. crown and consummate his own happiness by a death suitable to so honorable a life. having sacrificed the second time to Apollo. and.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. would secure to his countrymen the enjoyment of the advantages he had spent his life in obtaining for them. his desire was that they would observe the laws without any the least alteration until his return. and then he would do as the god should direct him. conceived the thought to make it immortal too. He would. and that the people. which he thought not fit to impart until he had consulted the oracle. of the greatest importance. as far as human forecast could reach. thinking it a statesman's duty to make his very death. He called an extraordinary assembly of all the people. since they had solemnly sworn the maintenance of his institutions until his file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. occasions. the Maker of the world. the senate. and even in the end of his life to give some example of virtue and effect some useful purpose. to deliver it down unchangeable to posterity.. of his own act. about him was in a sufficiently prosperous condition. that custom had rendered them familiar and easy. therefore. and.

when one said that Sparta held up so long because their kings could command so well.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and. unless rulers know how to command.4. the aristocratical character of the government. and for proof of it allege a saying of king Theopompus. return. so may it be said of the Lacedaemonians. with a common staff and a coarse coat. for. the aspect presented by Sparta was rather that of a rule of life followed by one wise and temperate man. Nor was he deceived in his expectations. to whose direction all at once submitted. he yet by this means filled his country with avarice and luxury. replied. in strict observance of Lycurgus's laws.. that it very much heightened. he went over the world. And therefore I cannot but wonder at those who say that the Spartans were good subjects. obedience is a lesson taught by commanders." For people do not obey. enough and to spare for others. with his lion's skin and his club. and this often without so much as taking down one buckler. to be their subjects. for the city of Lacedaemon continued the chief city of all Greece for the space of five hundred years. but with an absolute desire.. in all which time there was no manner of alteration made. gold and silver first flowed into Sparta. or a supply of armed men. Lysander promoted this disorder. the son of Archidamus.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. and subverted the laws and ordinances of Lycurgus. than of the political government of a nation. but bad governors. used him file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. who. they gained the willing and joyful obedience of Greece. but only for a Spartan commander. and composed civil dissensions. For the new creation of the ephori. The Lacedaemonians inspired men not with a mere willingness. having obtained one. to inspire men with a willingness to obey. For they did not send petitions to them for ships or money. down to the time of Agis. though thought to be in favor of the people. during the reign of fourteen kings.htm (32 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . like bees swarming and taking their places around their prince. punishing lawless and cruel tyrants. by bringing in rich spoils from the wars. although himself incorrupt. that. In the time of Agis. that. arbitrated in war. through whose whole extent they suppressed unjust usurpations and despotisms. existed in their state. so long as which were in force. rather because the people know so well how to obey. but barely by sending some one single deputy. so is it of the science of government. "Nay. as it is the last attainment in the art of riding to make a horse gentle and tractable. was so far from diminishing. A true leader himself creates the obedience of his own followers. and with them all those mischiefs which attend the immoderate desire of riches. Such a fund of order and equity. And as the poets feign of Hercules.

as of a private man. however. his aim. he. if either did amiss. so the Sicilians behaved to Gylippus. and all the Greeks in Asia to Lysander. near the strangers' road. Antiorus. and Zeno. The rest seemed as scholars. an accident which befell no eminent person but himself.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. as Plato. However. selfdependent. that they looked like schoolboys who had beaten their master. leaving behind them. with honor and reverence. his family became extinct. by the example of a complete philosophic state. in earnest. raised himself high above all other lawgivers of Greece. who was buried at Arethusa in Macedonia. and Euripides. have taken Lycurgus for their model. that he ended his life in Crete. and temperate. in all his arrangements. on whose death without issue. and Agesilaus.. as the perfect model of good manners and wise government. And therefore all those who have written well on politics.. after he had come to Elis. consisted chiefly in the exercise of virtue. and they offer sacrifices yearly to him as to a god. one of the scholars of Socrates. when in jest he pretended to make a law that the Athenians should conduct religious processions and the mysteries. and had their eyes always fixed upon the city of Sparta itself. And so Aristotle says they did him less honor at Lacedaemon after his death than he deserved. said. the Lacedaemonians be beaten. was to make and keep them free-minded. Apollothemis says. whereas Lycurgus was the author. Callicratidas. Antisthenes. He left an only son. therefore. not in writing but in reality. when they were elated by their victory at Leuctra. It is reported that when his bones were brought home to Sparta his tomb was struck with lightning. too. of a government which none else could so much as copy. they styled them the composers and chasteners of each people or prince they were sent to. Diogenes. they the masters of Greece. the Chalcidians to Brasidas. and. mere projects and words. Some say Lycurgus died in Cirrha. the Eleans should preside at the Olympic games.4. But his relations and file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and while men in general have treated the individual philosophic character as unattainable. Aristoxenus adds that his tomb is shown by the Cretans in the district of Pergamus. although he has a temple there. of the Thebans. and in the concord of the inhabitants. and it may serve that poet's admirers as a testimony in his favor. it was not the design of Lycurgus that his city should govern a great many others. he thought rather that the happiness of a state. and to this Stratonicus pleasantly alluded. that he had in this the same fate with that holy man and favorite of the gods. Timaeus and Aristoxenus.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.htm (33 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 .

Thus much may suffice for the life and actions of Lycurgus. the son of Hipparchus. when they had burned his body.4.. and make innovations in the government. scattered the ashes into the sea.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-4. for fear lest. and the days of the meeting were called Lycurgides. in accordance with his own request. and that his Cretan friends. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro..htm (34 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:28 . friends kept up an annual commemoration of him down to a long time after. Aristocrates. the people might pretend to be released from their oaths. if his relics should be transported to Lacedaemon.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. says that he died in Crete.

and that he was a person of that natural talent and ability as of himself to attain to virtue. offer a public sacrifice at the Goat's Marsh. a native of Sparta. though in reality with no claim to it. a certain writer called Clodius. who declare themselves to be a colony of the Lacedaemonians. have gained acquaintance with Numa. yet there is great diversity amongst historians concerning the time in which he reigned. we will proceed to give the most noticeable events that are recorded of the life of Numa. in his travel through Italy. Some affirm. won a prize at the Olympic race. did. and rest on no positive authority. is uncertain. and that those which are now extant were counterfeited. a thick cloud of storm and rain settled on the earth. It was the thirty-seventh year. in general. and that some other Pythagoras. Yet. on the fifth day of the month of July. or else that he found some barbarian instructor superior to Pythagoras. which were published at a late period by Hippias the Elean. avers that the ancient registers of Rome were lost when the city was sacked by the Gauls. Suddenly the sky was darkened. who. especially when fixed by the lists of victors in the Olympic games. in the third year of which Numa became king. however.. counted from the foundation of Rome. his body being never found either living or dead. yet it is again contradicted by others. NUMA POMPILIUS Though the pedigrees of noble families of Rome go back in exact form as far as Numa Pompilius. And chronology. might. also. A foul suspicion presently attached to the patricians. but lived at least five generations after him. to flatter and serve the humor of some men who wished to have themselves derived from some ancient and noble lineage.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-5. in presence of the senate and people of Rome. in a book of his entitled Strictures on Chronology. who affirm. at a convenient point. called the Caprotine Nones. that he was acquainted with neither the Greek language nor learning. and assisted him in the constitution of his kingdom. the common people fled in affright. whence it comes that many Laconian laws and customs appear amongst the Roman institutions. And though it be commonly reported that Numa was a scholar and a familiar acquaintance of Pythagoras.. and were dispersed.5.htm (1 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:29 . and in this whirlwind Romulus disappeared. in the sixteenth Olympiad. in any case. and rumors were current among the people as if that they. then reigning. when Romulus. that Pythagoras was not contemporary with Numa. Commencing. Numa was descended of the Sabines. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.

but lest meanwhile discord. should offer the solemn sacrifices and dispatch public business for the space of six hours by day and six by night. which vicissitude and equal distribution of power would preclude all rivalry amongst the senators and envy from the people. interregnum. by the Romans. Thus did both parties argue and dispute their cause. nor to have contributed less than they to the increase of Rome. and had already yielded a share of their lands and dwellings to the Sabines. and jealousies and emulations amongst the senators. nor did they esteem themselves to have combined with the Romans as inferiors. should occasion general confusion. with the ensigns of royalty. weary of kingly government. which. On the other side.. by this plausible and modest way of rule. leveled within the space of a day to the condition of a private citizen. that.. the Sabines could plausibly allege. had plotted against his life and made him away.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-5. and exasperated of late by the imperious deportment of Romulus towards them. Nor yet could they. And Proculus. at their king Tatius's decease. about the election of a new king: for the minds of the original Romans and the new inhabitants were not as yet grown into that perfect unity of temper. yet what person or of which nation. cry out that they should hereafter style him by the name of Quirinus. without their numbers and association. and each in succession. it was agreed that the hundred and fifty senators should interchangeably execute the office of supreme magistrate. but that there were diversities of factions amongst the commonalty. elevated to the degree of a king. This trouble.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. as to one not dead but translated to a higher condition. as he ascended. so now their turn was come to have a king chosen out of their own nation. in the absence of all command. took oath that he saw Romulus caught up into heaven in his arms and vestments. they had peaceably submitted to the sole command of Romulus. as though they were changing the form of government to an oligarchy. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. a man of note. were indignant at any pretension on their part to rule over their benefactors. This form of government is termed. was matter of dispute. when they should behold one. was followed by another. for though all agreed that it was necessary to have a king. could scarcely have merited the name of a city. that so they might assume the authority and government into their own hands. and heard him. This suspicion they sought to turn aside by decreeing divine honors to Romulus.htm (2 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:29 .5. being appeased. escape suspicion and clamor of the vulgar. For those who had been builders of the city with Romulus.

though he were not actually residing at Rome. however. was his father. means which had not only succeeded in expelling the baser passions.. which. without ever proceeding to choose a king. He banished all luxury and softness from his own home. and they. he rather chose to inhabit with his Sabines. yet he was no sooner nominated than accepted by the Sabines. preferred the private condition of her file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. true bravery. of the Sabine race. this was esteemed the best expedient to put an end to all party spirit. in his judgment. and Tatia. and the study of philosophy. and he the youngest of his four sons. in private he devoted himself not to amusement or lucre.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-5. with acclamation almost greater than that of the electors themselves. being (as it had been divinely ordered) born on the twenty-first day of April. that Tatius. and cherish his own father in his old age. principal men of both parties were appointed to visit and entreat him. whence the Romans and Sabines gave themselves the joint name of Quirites. The Sabines remitted the choice to the original Romans. Numa resided at a famous city of the Sabines called Cures. a person of that high reputation for excellence. but to the worship of the immortal gods. but also the violent and rapacious temper which barbarians are apt to think highly of. too. and gave him his only daughter. which he had yet more subdued by discipline. while citizens alike and strangers found in him an incorruptible judge and counselor.htm (3 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:29 . and. chose him for his son-in-law.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and designing to keep the supreme power in a sort of wardship under themselves. He was endued with a soul rarely tempered by nature. So famous was he. Pomponius. and disposed to virtue. were more inclinable to receive a Sabine king elected by themselves than to see a Roman exalted by the Sabines. the Romans make choice of a Sabine. that. and the rational contemplation of their divine power and nature. on their part. The choice being declared and made known to the people..5. the day of the foundation of Rome. the colleague of Romulus. Consultations being accordingly held. also. did not stimulate his vanity to desire to dwell with his father-in-law at Rome. Both parties came at length to the conclusion that the one should choose a king out of the body of the other. that he would accept the administration of the government. was regarded as consisting in the subjugation of our passions by reason. an illustrious person. a severe life. they named Numa Pompilius. or the Sabines name a Roman. and the prince who should be chosen would have an equal affection to the one party as his electors and to the other as his kinsmen.

betook himself to a country life. the Arcadians of Endymion. as to imbreed in her the first beginnings of generation.. and then Numa.5. the Pythian prophetess uttered this heroic verse. husband before the honors and splendor she might have enjoyed with her father. and love. indeed. expressive of the god's attention and joy: file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. is reciprocal. that it may be possible for a divine spirit so to apply itself to the nature of a woman. by force of terms. the wise Egyptians do not unplausibly make the distinction. intermixture. but men. and in a solitary manner frequented the groves and fields consecrated to the gods. though it be altogether hard. in the sense of affection. and to a divine wisdom. not of horses or birds. passing his life in desert places. that. and Admetus were beloved by Apollo. that Phorbas. admitted to celestial wedlock in the love and converse of the goddess Egeria. And. not to mention several others who were thought blessed and beloved of the gods. that any god or daemon is capable of a sensual or bodily love and passion for any human form or beauty. The story evidently resembles those very ancient fables which the Phrygians have received and still recount of Attis. that Numa did not retire from human society out of any melancholy or disorder of mind. while on the other side they conclude it impossible for the male kind to have any intercourse or mixture by the body with any divinity. that what takes place on the one side.htm (4 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:29 . however. it was no error of those who feigned.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-5. the Bithynians of Herodotus. and in the form of care and solicitude for their virtue and their good dispositions.. namely. to believe. but because he had tasted the joys of more elevated intercourse. leaving the conversation of the town. She is said to have died after she had been married thirteen years. and. Hyacinthus. not considering. must also take place on the other. or that Hippolytus the Sicyonian was so much in his favor. should not disdain to dwell with the virtuous and converse with the wise and temperate soul. And this in particular gave occasion to the story about the goddess. Not that it is otherwise than befitting to suppose that the gods feel towards men affection.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. indeed. as often as he sailed from Sicyon to Cirrha. Though. nor does it seem strange if God. had attained to blessedness. a lover. therefore.

one or other of whom it had been thought the people would elect as their new king.htm (5 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:29 . with a serious purpose. the controllers of kingdoms. why should we judge it incongruous. if not true. that Aesculapius sojourned with Sophocles in his lifetime. another deity took care for his funeral rites. when they came to tender a kingdom. Minos. Lycurgus. if at all. and visit poets and musicians. to inspire and direct them. in their more sportive moods. Zoroaster. the speakers were Proculus and Velesus.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C." For there is no absurdity in the account also given.5. Their speech was very short.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-5. supposing that. "the road is broad. in a manner. also. and the Sabines for Velesus. the original Romans being for Proculus. and other famous lawgivers. And venture his dear life upon the main. that Lycurgus and Numa. to accept the government of a city whose foundation and increase had been made. in file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. as Bacchylides said. that Pan became enamored of Pindar for his verses. and Numa. there needed little to persuade to an acceptance. for difference of opinion here. and the divine power rendered honor to Hesiod and Archilochus after their death for the sake of the Muses. also. of which many proofs still exist. and that. contrary to their expectation. which. having the task of subduing perverse and refractory multitudes. and of introducing great innovations. It is reported. assist at the councils and serious debates of such men. that lived in peace and quietness. assuredly was expedient for the interests of those it imposed upon. there is a statement. Numa was about forty years of age when the ambassadors came to make him offers of the kingdom. it may be reasonable to believe. but. Now doth Hippolytus return again. they found that they had to use many reasons and entreaties to induce one. that the gods. And so if any credit may be given to these instances. themselves made this pretension to divine authority. that a like spirit of the gods should visit Zaleucus. and the legislators for commonwealths? Nay... when he was dead. but.

Cease. and.5. is a field for great and honorable actions. the difficulties of this government cannot even be called unknown. while I should go about to inculcate the worship of the gods.. Though. at length. perceiving by these words that he was declining to accept the kingdom. into their former sedition and civil discord. to avoid and turn your back upon an office which.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. he returned answer that "Every alteration of a man's life is dangerous to him. to a wise man. as they must. therefore. but madness only could induce one who needs nothing and is satisfied with everything to quit a life he is accustomed to.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-5. Romulus. and suffer them to relapse. which. "Though. for unwarlike occupations. which authority alone can effect amongst a people. and who knows but that this people. for the magnificent worship of the gods. "you neither desire riches. and for the society of men whose meetings are but those of worship and of kindly intercourse. who now calls out into action your qualities of justice and wisdom. his father and Marcius. a passion that has become inveterate in me for peace. may be satiated with war. being content with what you have. yet you will consider that government itself is a service of God. though a foreigner. war. And. were the more instant and urgent with him that he would not forsake and desert them in this condition.htm (6 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:29 . which were not meant to be left useless and unemployed.. whatever else it is deficient in. The very points of my character that are most commended mark me as unfit to reign. and tendered to him rather from heaven than from men. nor court the fame of authority. a laughing-stock. My birth was mortal. and the memory of Romulus has received divine honors." The Romans." said they. and for the introduction of habits of piety. as having already the more valuable fame of virtue. persuaded him to accept a gift so noble in itself. and give lessons in the love of justice and the abhorrence of violence and war. did not escape the suspicion of having plotted against the life of his colleague Tatius. to a city whose needs are rather for a captain than for a king. Tatius. was beloved. In presence of his father and his kinsman Marcius. taking him aside. indeed. whose lives in general are spent upon their farms and their pastures. Yet Romulus had the advantage to be thought divinely born and miraculously preserved and nurtured. methinks.--love of retirement and of studies inconsistent with business. who first held it. nor the senate the like accusation. being victorious. at any rate has the advantage of certainty over one wholly doubtful and unknown. content with the trophies file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. of having treasonably murdered Romulus. I was reared and instructed by men that are known to you. I should but be. there being no person on whom both parties could accord but on himself.

and all declared him king. and. not a new king. of his fellow-citizens. and so universal was the joy. the women. that he would not distrust those who put confidence in him. and that your native city and the whole Sabine nation should possess in you a bond of good-will and friendship with this young and growing power?" With these reasons and persuasions several auspicious omens are said to have concurred. The first thing he did at his entrance into government was to dismiss the band of three hundred men which had been Romulus's lifeguard. and the zeal.. were it not better. Numa.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-5.htm (7 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:29 . and beloved of all the gods. appareling himself in his royal robes. as a holy king. he ascended the Capitol. descended from the hill to the people. It was wonderful. and to accept the kingdom as a means to unanimity and concord between the nations. meantime. and turned his face towards the south. also. Then the regalities and robes of authority were brought to him. which at that time the Romans called the Tarpeian Hill. above all things. with an impatient desire. their desires are uncontrollably and madly set on war. standing behind him. indeed. so. till auspicious birds appeared and passed on the right. to have the reins held by such a moderating hand as is able to divert the fury another way. having first performed divine sacrifice. on understanding what message the Roman ambassadors had brought him. nor rule over a people that file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. also.. came forth to receive him. proceeded to Rome. put it to the vote. laid his right hand on his head. who. being met in his way by the senate and people. that they seemed to be receiving. called by him Celeres. desirous to have a pacific and justice-loving prince. Then the chief of the augurs covered Numa's head. where Spurius Vettius. who. In this manner he descended into the forum. and sacrifices were offered for him in all the temples. with what silence and devotion the multitude stood assembled in the forum in similar expectation and suspense. but he refused to be invested with them until he had first consulted and been confirmed by the gods. whose turn it was to be interrex at that hour. entreated him to accompany them. welcomed him with joyful acclamations. yielding to these inducements. Then Numa. and prayed. by whom he was received and congratulated with shouts and acclamations of welcome. in expectation of some auspicious signal from the gods. saying.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. to lead them to good order and quiet? But if. may be. and spoils they have acquired. then. being accompanied by the priests and augurs. but a new kingdom.5. turning his eyes every way.

for in the philosophy of the one.htm (8 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:29 .5. When Numa had.. began to operate upon them with the sanctions of religion. thus subduing and humbling their minds by a sense of supernatural fears. was taken from the name given by some Greeks to Mercury. and used processions and religious dances. The Romans anciently called their priests Flamines. in which most commonly he officiated in person. by corruption of the word Pilamines. is the same as the Greek Chlaena. he filled their imaginations with religious terrors. given to the boy with both his parents living. and that the name of Camillus. The next thing he did was to add to the two priests of Jupiter and Mars a third in honor of Romulus. For it is said of Pythagoras. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. on which Timon the Phliasian wrote the distich. and dreadful voices heard.. Juba says. by such combinations of solemnity with refined and humanizing pleasures. Plato's expression of a city in high fever was never more applicable than to Rome at that time. like piles. whom he called the Flamen Quirinalis. and that. as he passed among the people assembled at the Olympic games. also. Greek words were more mixed with the Latin than at present. without delay. he showed them his golden thigh. judging it no slight undertaking to mollify and bend to peace the presumptuous and stubborn spirits of this people. that he had taught an eagle to come at his call. thus also the royal robe. also. that the solemnity of his exterior garb and gestures was adopted by him from the same feeling with Pythagoras. he set himself. and stoop down to him in its flight. In those times.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. in its origin formed by daring and warlike spirits. called Pileus. Wherefore Numa. professing that strange apparitions had been seen. man's relations to the deity occupy a great place. who serves in the temple of Jupiter. it had found in perpetual wars and incursions on its neighbors its after sustenance and means of growth and in conflict with danger the source of new strength. This method which Numa used made it believed that he had been much conversant with Pythagoras. which the blows of the rammer serve to fix into the ground. won the favor and affection of the people. distrusted him. besides many other strange and miraculous seeming practices.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-5. At times. It is said. seeking to win over and mitigate their fiery and warlike tempers. by such measures. to the task of bringing the hard and iron Roman temper to somewhat more of gentleness and equity. which is called Laena. He sacrificed often. whom bold and desperate adventure brought thither from every quarter. denoting his office of attendance on the gods. from a certain cap which they wore. as in the policy of the other.

In like manner Numa spoke of a certain goddess or mountain nymph that was in love with him. which was the name of one of the sons of Pythagoras. and amongst them. whom he named Tacita. wine. and professed that he entertained familiar conversation with the Muses. the Silent. except by the pure act of the intellect. to such baser objects they deemed it impious to liken the highest. invisible and incorrupt. as before related. and of the school of Pythagoras. Numa gave to one of his four sons the name of Mamercus. of the glory of a juggler proud. With solemn talk imposed upon the crowd. for they were not celebrated with effusion of blood. who conceived of the first principle of being as transcending sense and passion. as they say sprang that ancient patrician family of the Aemilii. and met him in secret.. The comic writer Epicharmus. Other external proofs. also. but consisted of flour. above all. and only to be apprehended by abstract intelligence. So Numa forbade the Romans to represent God in the form of man or beast. records that Pythagoras was made a freeman of Rome. had great similitude to the ceremonial of Pythagoras. in a book of his dedicated to Antenor.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-5. also. an ancient author. to whose teaching he ascribed the greatest part of his revelations. and the least costly offerings. His opinion. of images is very agreeable to the doctrine of Pythagoras. are urged to show the connection Numa had with Pythagoras. Who. which he did perhaps in imitation and honor of the Pythagorean silence. Again. His sacrifices. nor was there any painted or graven image of a deity admitted amongst them for the space of the first hundred and seventy years.5.. he recommended to the veneration of the Romans one in particular. for file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. all which time their temples and chapels were kept free and pure from images. from whence.htm (9 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:29 . too. and all access to God impossible.

one to the wisest. and assigns the priests the title of bridge-makers. because they attend the service of the gods. not to virgins. I heard many say. they erected two of brass. rather. who was the grandson of Numa by his daughter. the exception was not to be cavilled at. which moreover is said. who. to preside over sacred rites. if any thing lay beyond their power. and he himself was. perhaps fancied the charge of pure and uncorrupted flames would be fitly entrusted to chaste and unpolluted persons. but a positive sacrilege. but was finished by Ancus Marcius. when Aemilius was quaestor. wherever a perpetual holy fire is kept. powerful. the charge of it is committed. I remember. In Greece. the original constitution of the priests. bears all analogy to the virgin estate. but regulated the sacrifices of private persons. and that they have the name of Pontifices from potens. when he was king. which derives this word from pons. he not only prescribed rules for public ceremony. when the oracle directed two statues to be raised. was attributed to Numa. without nails or cramps of iron. to the priesthood. but produces nothing. that when I was at Rome. and of their perpetual fire. like any other public sacred office. He was also guardian of the vestal virgins. but widows past the time of file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. as at Delphi and Athens. which are full of uncertainty. The stone bridge was built a very long time after. The most common opinion is the most absurd. and they do. was to declare and interpret the divine law. But to pass by these matters. which consumes. one representing Alcibiades.. The office of Pontifex Maximus. and giving information to every one of what was requisite for purposes of worship or supplication. and the keeping and repairing of the bridge attached. to pull down the wooden bridge.htm (10 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:29 . Others make the word refer to exceptions of impossible cases. it is said. to have been built entirely of timber and fastened with wooden pins. not suffering them to vary from established custom. or.5. the priests were to perform all the duties possible to them. that. and not so important as to be worth our time to insist on them. in obedience to an oracle. too. It was accounted not simply unlawful. is ascribed unto Numa. for his engaging and graceful manner in speaking. called Pontifices. who have power and command over all.. and the other Pythagoras. the first of them. say also that the wooden bridge was not so old as Numa's time. or chief priest. or that fire. and another to the most valiant man of Greece.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. indeed. the institution of whom.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-5. The sacrifices performed on the bridge were amongst the most sacred and ancient. that the king gave him in sport the surname of Aemilius.

of which we have told all that may lawfully be asked or told. in the life of Camillus. but accompanied ever after with regret and melancholy. concealed from all but themselves. as also in the time of the Mithridatic and Roman civil war. which here acquire the substance and active force of fire. it was lawful for them to marry. so that the greater number. by holding it in the light of the sun they can collect and concentrate all its rays at this one point of convergence. and in cases where they did so. in kindling this fire again. as that they had power to make a will in the lifetime of their father. Servius afterwards added two. the first ten of which they were to spend in learning their duties. and if in their walks they chance to file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. that they had a free administration of their own affairs without guardian or tutor. were the names of the first two virgins consecrated and ordained by Numa. but others conceive that they were keepers of other divine secrets. which they usually effect by concave mirrors. when that temple was burnt by the Medes. dry. they have the fasces carried before them. of a figure formed by the revolution of an isoceles rectangular triangle. made use of.. as the holy lamp was at Athens under the tyranny of Aristion. forbore. it was esteemed an impiety to light it from common sparks or flame. where the air will now become rarefied. and at Delphi. and the number of four has continued to the present time. and. when not only the fire was extinguished.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-5. Gegania and Verenia. afterwards. And in case by any accident it should happen that this fire became extinct. leaving the sacred order. then. and continued to old age and death in the strict observance of a single life. it was observed that their change was not a happy one. as they say. the second ten in performing them. all the lines from the circumference of which meeting in a center. under the effect of the rays. The statutes prescribed by Numa for the vestals were these: that they should take a vow of virginity for the space of thirty years. Canuleia and Tarpeia succeeded. and the remaining ten in teaching and instructing others.. but this permission few. which was the privilege of women who were the mothers of three children. Some are of opinion that these vestals had no other business than the preservation of this fire.5. but the altar demolished. combustible matter will kindle as soon as applied. marriage.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.htm (11 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:29 . and any light. For this condition he compensated by great privileges and prerogatives. to choose any condition of life that pleased them. from religious fears and scruples. Thus the whole term being completed. or from any thing but the pure and unpolluted rays of the sun. it is recorded. when they go abroad.

in the center of which the Pythagoreans place the element of fire. and placing her upon the steps that lead down to the cell. being still covered. which was intended for a repository of the holy fire. who scourges the offender. it saves his life. which they cover over. turns away his face with the rest of the priests. that Numa built the temple of Vesta. reaching some little distance. all people silently go out of the way as she passes. meet a criminal on his way to execution. with a curtain drawn between. The culprit herself is put in a litter. a pail of milk. to which a descent is made by stairs. water.priest only. and that the central and sovereign space was reserved for some nobler body. and light a lamp. here they prepare a bed. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. pronounces certain prayers to himself before the act. and is not in the number of the primary elements. such as bread. sometimes with her clothes off. This is the punishment of those who break their vow of virginity. who. and give it the name of Vesta and the unit. It is said. upon oath made that the meeting was an accidental one. so as to prevent it from being distinguished from the rest of the mound. and leave a small quantity of victuals.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. the officers loose the cords. also. there is not any spectacle more appalling. not to represent the figure of the earth. the stairs are drawn up after she has gone down. in his later life. called in Latin agger. but she that has broken her vow is buried alive near the gate called Collina. and tie her down with cords on it. and such as follow accompany the bier with solemn and speechless sorrow. and some oil. as if that were the same as Vesta. They then take her to the forum. lifting his hands to heaven.htm (12 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:29 . where a little mound of earth stands. and then the high.. in this agreeing with the opinion of Plato. but that it keeps a circular motion about the seat of fire.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-5. conceived that the earth held a lateral position. but that of the general universe. under it a narrow room is constructed. and a quantity of earth is heaped up over the entrance to the cell. and not concerted or of set purpose. indeed. of a circular form. they are punishable by the high. so that nothing she utters may be heard. and do not hold that the earth is immovable.5. nor any day observed by the city with greater appearance of gloom and sadness. Any one who presses upon the chair on which they are carried. is put to death. they say. that so that body which had been consecrated and devoted to the most sacred service of religion might not be said to perish by such a death as famine. and. inside the city. or that it is situated in the center of the globe. If these vestals commit any minor fault. When they come to the place of execution.priest.. in a dark place. then he brings out the prisoner.

and. on their returning a rude refusal. the war was begun with them. Venus. also. Fabius imagined that his office of ambassador was at an end. whether they meant hereby Proserpina. with imprecations upon themselves and their country should they be acting unjustly.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and that was to give people directions in the national usages at funeral rites. we call it peace when disputes are settled by words. in case they refused. rashly engaging on the side of the Clusinians. which was the time appointed for women that lost their husbands to continue in widowhood. for it was not allowable to take up arms until they had declared all hopes of accommodation to be at an end.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-5. for in Greek. As. one older. Numa also prescribed rules for regulating the days of mourning. to those who had offered them injury. was founder of several other orders of priests. as the most learned of the Romans conceive. The Romans commonly dispatched the Fecials. who presided over all the ceremonies performed at burials. It was the fortune of Fabius to kill his adversary. There was yet a farther use of the priests. so declared war. If any married again before that time. and the longest time of mourning for any person whatsoever was not to exceed the term of ten months. Numa taught them to regard these offices. especially they were to worship the goddess Libitina. Fabius Ambustus was dispatched to their camp to negotiate peace for the besieged. Numa. challenged the bravest of the enemy to a single combat.. requesting satisfaction. or without their consent. which are among the clearest proofs of the devoutness and sanctity of his character. into whose hands the better part of us is transmitted. for as many months as it was years old. and. they then called the gods to witness. and not by force. or guardians of peace. and file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and. by the laws of Numa she was to sacrifice a cow big with calf. not as a pollution. for that when these barbarians besieged the Clusinians. It is believed that the slaughter and destruction which the Gauls made of the Romans was a judgment on the city for neglect of this religious proceeding. the Salii and the Feciales. it was lawful neither for soldier nor king to take up arms. then his business was to deliberate of the manner and ways to carry it on. two of which I shall mention. but as a duty paid to the gods below. when they had first handed it over to the commander as a just quarrel. seem to have had their name from their office. too.5. and. up to ten years. These Fecials. and. according to certain times and ages. or heralds.. a child of three years was not to be mourned for at all.htm (13 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:29 . against their will. for example. not inaptly attributing the beginning and end of man's life to the agency of one and the same deity. or. which was to put a stop to disputes by conference and speech.

performing. a brazen target. he had. at which procession they are habited in short frocks of purple. an excellent workman. made a breach of the peace. since. The origin of the Salii is this. from Salius. they sacked the city.. and that the spring which watered the field should be hallowed for the use of the vestal virgins. But the chief thing is the dance itself. against the law of nations. who did not receive their name. to keep it secure. the Fecials were of opinion that Fabius ought to be consigned into the hands of the Gauls. and made all so exactly the same that Numa himself was at a loss. The matter being debated in the senate. a dancingmaster born in Samothrace. when in the month of March they carry the sacred targets through the city. On this. but when the Gauls discovered it. that he was commanded to consecrate to the Muses the place. The particulars of all which are fully given in the history of Caminus. happily hit upon it. on their heads they wear a brass helmet. girt with a broad belt studded with brass. In the eighth year of the reign of Numa. until at length one Mamurius Veturius. and the fields about it. before war was declared. The truth of all which was speedily verified by the cessation of the pestilence. or at Mantinea.5. where they had been chiefly wont to meet with him. various intricate figures.htm (14 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:29 . being forewarned of their judgment. The keeping of these targets was committed to the charge of certain priests. they say. where. with a great display of strength and agility. ravaged likewise the city of Rome. who were to wash and cleanse the penetralia of their sanctuary with those holy waters. they sent a herald to Rome to complain against him..0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-5. They move with much grace. The targets were file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. he was ordered by them to make eleven others. fled to the people. all despaired. fell from heaven into the hands of Numa who gave them this marvelous account of it: that Egeria and the Muses had assured him it was sent from heaven for the cure and safety of the city. but he. to take his spoils. which they clash every now and then against the targets. a terrible pestilence. having taken the Capitol. and could not distinguish. but more truly from that jumping dance which the Salii themselves use. so like in dimension and form to the original that no thief should be able to distinguish the true from the counterfeit. and that. as some tell the story. He farther declared. by whose protection and favor he escaped the sentence. who taught the way of dancing in arms.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. the Gauls marched with their army to Rome. which traversed all Italy. called Salii. in quick time and close order. and the citizens being in distress and despondent. and carry in their hands short daggers. Numa displayed the target to the artificers and bade them show their skill in making others like it.

5. wished that his citizens should neither see nor hear any religious service in a perfunctory and inattentive manner. Hoc age. When thou sacrificest to the celestial gods. or from its akesis. Thus Juba writes. but. and when to the terrestrial.htm (15 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:29 . from its having come down anecathen. for that matter. whereby the auditors then present are admonished to compose and recollect themselves. though some will have it that they do not say Veturium Mamurium.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-5. for they are not made round. but are cut out into a wavy line. near the temple of Vesta.. on which they are carried. for example. what is called to this day Regia. from above. look not behind thee.. because it put an end to a drought. in like manner. or from its anaschesis. In all public processions and solemn prayers. The reward which Mamurius received for his art was to be mentioned and commemorated in the verses which the Salii sang. Some traces of this custom remain at Rome to this day. criers were sent before to give notice to the people that they should forbear their work. nor like proper targets. should apply their minds to religion as to a most serious business.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. in Greek. or. he erected. the ends of which are rounded off and turned in at the thickest part towards each other. the site of which they show to this day. They say that the Pythagoreans did not allow people to worship and pray to their gods by the way. reduce it to Greek. or conversing with them on sacred subjects. as they danced in their arms through the city. given to Castor and Pollux. who is eager to make it Greek. but Veterem Memoriam. let it be with an odd number. they call out to the people. When thou goest out upon a journey. when the consul begins to take auspices or do sacrifice. that is. if we must. After Numa had in this manner instituted these several orders of priests. and so Numa. called Ancilia from their form. performing divine service. He had another house upon the Mount Quirinalis. and clear for the sacred solemnity. and rest. instructing the priests. with even. "Thou shalt not make a peck-measure thy seat to sit on. Attend to this. and that the streets should be free from all noises and cries that accompany manual labor. ancylon. Many other of his precepts resemble those of the Pythagoreans. ancient remembrance. or king's house. But it might be. for. or auchmon Iysis. Thou shalt not stir the fire with a sword. laying aside all other occupations. the elbow. but would have them go out from their houses direct. with their minds set upon the duty. of a complete circumference. so that their shape is curvilinear. The Pythagoreans said." The significance of file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. or relief from calamities. where he spent the most part of his time. or the name may come from ancon. or cure of diseases. which is the origin of the Athenian name Anaces.

that they received. and a most sumptuous entertainment. at which the dishes in which the meat was served were very homely and plain.5. that the sitting after worship was to be by way of omen of their petitions being granted. frequented the Springs and thick file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.. and the repast itself poor and ordinary fare. faces round to the east. and as it were. Picus and Faunus. it is said to represent the rotatory motion of the world. But the dialogue which is reported to have passed between him and Jupiter surpasses all the fabulous legends that were ever invented. as different courses of actions are divided by intervals of rest. with an undoubted assurance. the lawgiver wants to habituate us to make our petitions to the deity not by the way. in whatever way God changes and turns our lot and condition. he began to tell them that the goddess that consulted with him was then at that time come to him.htm (16 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:29 . they might seat themselves after the completion of what they had done. "Thou shalt not make libation to the gods of wine from an unpruned vine.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and stood in such awe and reverence of the virtue of Numa. in my opinion. to seek favor of the gods for beginning something else. There goes a story that he once invited a great number of citizens to an entertainment." The first two directions seem to denote the cultivation and subduing of the earth as a part of religion. the city passed insensibly into such a submissiveness of temper. in a hurry. each of which precepts they would not commonly disclose. the meaning rather is. like the Egyptian wheels. but with time and leisure to attend to it. and so turns back to the god of the temple. indeed. and accept it as right and fitting. two demi-gods. and signify to us the instability of human fortune. and thought nothing incredible or impossible from him. and the blessing they asked assured to them. since the temples front the east. and the tables loaded with rich meats. there. we should rest contented. by this circular movement referring the fulfillment of his prayer to both divinities. the guests seated. But. when we have other things to do.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-5. No sacrifices shall be performed without meal. And this would very well suit with what we had before. that the worshiper. By such discipline and schooling in religion. They say that before Mount Aventine was inhabited or enclosed within the walls of the city. also. and that. Unless.. enters with his back to the rising sun. though never so fabulous. whatever he delivered. Turn round to pay adoration to the gods. They say. and as to the turning which the worshipers are to use in divine adoration. sit after you have worshipped. this change of posture may have a mystical meaning. So some of Numa's traditions have no obvious meaning. when on a sudden the room was furnished with all sorts of costly drinkingvessels. Again.

or Pans. saying. "Your meaning is. Some say they did not tell him the charm.5. On finding themselves ensnared. though anciently those sacrifices were solemnized without blood. and particularly a charm for thunder and lightning. when a message was brought to him that "Enemies are approaching. and that he then. and testified to fair dealing. that. but by their magic brought down Jupiter out of heaven. show us the feelings which people then. in an angry manner answering the inquiries. living victims now. also. And Numa's own thoughts are said to have been fixed to that degree on divine objects. and to the god Terminus. It is very clear that it was this king who first prescribed bounds to the territory of Rome." said Numa. by mixing wine and honey in the waters of the spring of which they usually drank. for Numa reasoned that the god of boundaries. entertained towards the deity. from this Greek word. willing to elude the cruelty of this receipt. dropping their own form and assuming every kind of unusual and hideous appearance. They still use it. laughable as they are. in remembrance of him. "with the heads of onions?" "No. performed with onions and hair and pilchards.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-5. if he would charm the thunder and lightning. or Boundary." But Numa. for Romulus would but have openly betrayed how much he had encroached on his neighbors' lands. interrupting him. should have no concern with blood. Numa contrived one day to surprise these demi-gods. called Ilicium. but when they saw they were safely entrapped.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. still in use. "How. "with living"--"pilchards. except that they went about Italy playing the same sorts of tricks. told Numa. they offer to this day both public and private sacrifices. which might be two satyrs." replied Jupiter. indeed.htm (17 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:29 . These answers he had learnt from Egeria. that built the temples of Faith and Terminus and taught the Romans that the name of Faith was the most solemn oath that they could swear. turned it another way. as are ascribed by the Greeks to the Dactyli of Mount Ida. had he ever set limits to his own.. by force of habit. that he once. These stories. "of men.marks of their land." said Numa. a defense to those who choose to file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. shades of that place. and in no possibility of getting free.. they revealed to him many secrets and future events." answered with a smile. pacified and ilcos. or propitious. by skill in drugs and magic. "And I am sacrificing. for boundaries are. they changed themselves into various shapes. The place was. the hairs of men's heads. who watched over peace." "No. and the spell in this manner effected." replied Jupiter. upon the borders and stone. Jupiter returned again to heaven." It was he. he must do it with heads.

until Romulus enlarged them by war. all whose acquisitions Numa now divided amongst the indigent commonalty. In this manner all factious distinctions began.. in that minute form be combined. and. while it destroys the license that breaks out into acts of injustice and rapacity. taking a delight sometimes to inspect his colonies in person. divided all the lands into several parcels. to obliterate the original and great distinction. the portion of lands which the Romans possessed at the beginning was very narrow. but are only a testimony against the dishonesty of those who break through them. He is also much to be commended for the repeal. as well as their lands. he preferred those to honors and employments who had done well. by introducing other distinctions. which would be lost among the smaller. he resolved to divide the whole population into a number of small divisions. reflecting how hard substances that do not readily mix when in the lump may. therefore. For there is no employment that gives so keen and quick a relish for peace as husbandry and a country life. he formed the companies of musicians. and potters. by being beaten into powder. to bring them. but was divided into. goldsmiths. a Romulian or a Tatian. and the new division became a source of general harmony and intermixture. to pass out of use. or parish. carpenters. wishing to do away with that extreme want which is a compulsion to dishonesty. councils. of which being witness himself.htm (18 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:29 . or rather did not consist of. he formed his judgment of every man's habits by the results. for the first time. for as the city consisted.. shoemakers.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-5. the diversity between which could not be effaced and in the mean time prevented all unity and caused perpetual tumult and ill-blood. to which he gave the name of pagus. appointing every one their proper courts. and viewing it rather as a means to moral than to economical profit. But of all his measures the most commended was his distribution of the people by their trades into companies or guilds. dyers. The truth is. and religious observances. So.5. hoping agriculture would be a sort of charm to captivate the affections of his people to peace. skinners. into better order. and. observe them. and over every one of them he ordained chief overseers. or rather file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and thus hoped. distinguishing the whole people by the several arts and trades. and all other handicraftsmen he composed and reduced into a single company. and by rebukes and reproaches incited the indolent and careless to improvement. Numa. by turning the people to husbandry. no person any longer being either thought of or spoken of under the notion of a Sabine or a Roman. two different tribes.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. braziers. which leave in men all that kind of courage that makes them ready to fight in defense of their own.

came to need other amendments. to follow February. as there are barbarians who count only three. to remedy this incongruity doubled the eleven days.five. for it seemed a hard thing that a woman who had given herself in marriage to a man whom she judged free should afterwards find herself living with a slave. he made the first. they had no sort of knowledge of the inequality in the motions of the sun and moon. in their genealogies. in course of time. was of one month. his second month. they say. however. afterwards. consisting of twenty-two days. for March. that is. they have the credit of being a more ancient nation than any. and reckon. others more. in it they sacrifice to Venus. he exempted such as were married. in this account. amendment. though they live in the newest of all countries. The Egyptian year at first. preceded March. meaning the tenth month. comprehended the whole year within ten. for in the beginning they had had a year of ten months. some of them contained twenty days. not with absolute exactness. counting months. and February. This amendment. the formation of a calendar. which was reckoned the first. Many will have it. others thirty-five. of that law which gives power to fathers to sell their children. six. the Acarnanians. December. a prodigious number of years. whereas. they only kept to the one rule that the whole course of the year contained three hundred and sixty days. and every other year added an intercalary month. also. the second. During the reign of Romulus. if January and February had. It was also natural. the Arcadians. itself. named from Venus. and the women bathe on the calends. that it was Numa. and the sixth Sextilis. and that March was the first is likewise evident. or first file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. as years. conditionally that it had been with the liking and consent of their parents. and the sun in three hundred and sixty. or Aphrodite.htm (19 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:30 . and so.5.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. for that the moon completed her anniversary course in three hundred and fifty-four days. dedicated to Mars. and called by the Romans the month Mercedinus. He also altered the order of the months. and not twelve months. that March. who added the two months of January and February. of four. they had let their months run on without any certain or equal term. at first.. in Greece. for the fifth month after it was called Quintilis.. yet not without some scientific knowledge. Quintilis would have been fifth in name and seventh in reckoning. Numa.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-5. plainly appears by the name of the last. had but four. He attempted. calculating the difference between the lunar and the solar' year at eleven days. which was the eleventh. which was the twelfth and last. That the Romans. he put into the third place. also. and January. should be Romulus's first. and April. and so the rest.

the mother of Mercury. September. such an entire and universal file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. wars breaking out. and celebrate the Lupercalia. of Germanicus and Domitianus. but continued constantly shut for a space of forty-three years together. which was dedicated to the god Mars. The two last are the only ones that have kept their names throughout without any alteration. derive them from the two ages. and December. but. February comes from februa. but then it was not long before. of which latter there was very seldom an example. because. His temple at Rome has two gates. because of its being p and not ph. in most points. those gates were never seen open a single day. to represent the two states and conditions out of the one of which he brought mankind. will not allow of the derivation of this word from Aphrodite. so called from Juno. The next is called May. in imitation. for. from Caesar who defeated Pompey. and the rest. gave the two other following months his own names. which they call the gates of war. Afterwards Quintilis received the name of Julius. for which reason they figure him with two faces.. on his being slain. Only in the time of Augustus Caesar. Sextilis the sixth. Latin for to open. and one who reclaimed men from brutal and savage living. however. which. Of the months which were added or transposed in their order by Numa. as I conceive. then June follows. but say it is called April from aperio.htm (20 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:30 . and juniores for younger men. from Maia. whether in remote antiquity he were a demi-god or a king.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. it was so encompassed with barbarous nations and enemies to be resisted. and precedence given to it by Numa before March. that it was seldom or never at peace. the gates were again opened. and opens and discloses the buds and flowers. day of it. as also Sextilis that of Augustus. during the reign of Numa. old and young. in it they make offerings to the dead. so the fifth was called Quintilis. because that this month is high spring. But. to lead them into the other. resembles a purification. this temple was shut. majores being their name for older. they recovered their ancient denominations of September and October. was certainly a great lover of civil and social unity. with myrtle garlands on their heads. January was so called from Janus. October.5. as the Roman empire was enlarged and extended. also. to whom it is sacred. November.. To the other months they gave denominations according to their order. who had that title. as likewise once before. he wished to take every opportunity of intimating that the arts and studies of peace are to be preferred before those of war. and is as much as Purification month. because they stand open in the time of war. some.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-5. and shut in the times of peace. when Marcus Atilius and Titus Manlius were consuls. For this Janus. But others. from the second Caesar. Domitian. after he had overcome Antony.

The love of virtue and justice flowed from Numa's wisdom as from a fountain. on all sides. Festival days and sports. and the serenity of his spirit diffused itself. For not only had the people of Rome itself been softened and charmed into a peaceful temper by the just and mild rule of a pacific prince. so that the hyperboles of poets were flat and tame to express what then existed. or that Rust eats the pointed spear and doubleedged sword.. and for life employed in the quiet tillage of soil.htm (21 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:30 .. and partook in the general longing for the sweets of peace and order.5. and the secure and peaceful interchange of friendly visits and hospitalities prevailed all through the whole of Italy. and worship of the gods. began to experience a change of feeling. No more is heard the trumpet's brazen roar. cessation of war existed. bringing up of children.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. but even the neighboring cities.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-5. as if some salubrious and gentle air had blown from Rome upon them. like a calm. as that Over the iron shield the spiders hang their threads. Sweet file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.

Either fear of the gods that were thought to watch over him. The wise man is blessed in himself. But there is a third set of writers who say that these pedigrees are but a piece of flattery used by writers. and that Pompilia was not the daughter of Tatia. nor sedition. made his reign. Pompo. every one of whom had issue. long afterwards. and Mamerci. nor more children than one daughter called Pompilia. which should unite in a single person the power of a king and the wisdom of a philosopher. or King. sleep is banished from our eyes no more. which for this reason took also the surname of Rex. nor any envy or ill-will to his person. and from them descended the noble and illustrious families of Pomponii. and perhaps. ventured to pronounce. For. Calpus. during the whole reign of Numa. there is a diversity of reports by several authors. and he is the truest ruler who can best introduce it into the hearts and practice of his subjects.. there was neither war. and to a conformity with that blameless and blessed life of good will and mutual concord.htm (22 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:30 . another wife whom he married after he came to file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. that the sole and only hope of respite or remedy for human evils was in some happy conjunction of events. nor plot or conspiracy from views of ambition. for the mere sight itself of a shining and conspicuous example of virtue in the life of their prince will bring them spontaneously to virtue.5.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-5. to gain favor with these great families. and Mamercus. or reverence for his virtue. who. which is the highest benefit that human means can confer. As to his children and wives. or a divine felicity of fortune that in his days preserved human innocence. and blessed also are the auditors who can hear and receive those words which flow from his mouth. but Lucretia.. Pinus. Pinarii. too. by whatever means. Calpurnii. so as to elevate virtue to control and mastery over vice. others will have it that he left also four sons. It is the praise of Numa that no one seems ever to have discerned this so clearly as he. supported by temperance and justice. nor innovation in the state. there is no need of compulsion or menaces to affect the multitude. made them fictitious genealogies from the lineage of Numa. namely. some will have it that he never had any other wife than Tatia. a living example and verification of that saying which Plato.

and. standing in competition with Tullus Hostilius for the kingdom. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. they say. and he. who had married Pompilia. after the death of Numa. in which women and children took part. followed with such cries and weeping as if they had bewailed the death and loss of some most dear relation taken away in the flower of age.htm (23 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:30 . his son Marcius. into the minds and hearts of the priests. For this very reason. as though such holy precepts could not without irreverence be left to circulate in mere lifeless writings. and the priests followed and accompanied the solemn procession. in one of which his body was laid. we may easily pardon those who seek to establish the fact of a real acquaintance between them. and when some of their out-of-the-way and abstruse geometrical processes had been divulged to an unworthy person. but died of old age and by a gradual and gentle decline. in discontent killed himself. he was chosen into the senate. was not burnt. he had written out for himself. and buried both under the hill Janiculum. while a general crowd. therefore. which. all of them agree in opinion that she was married to the son of that Marcius who persuaded him to accept the government. At his funeral all the glories of his life were consummated. but that they made.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C... but rather preserved in the living memories of those who were worthy to receive them. and being disappointed of the election. With these several instances. but had so long inculcated the contents of them. was not taken out of the world by a sudden or acute disease. and accompanied him to Rome where. bade that they should be buried with his body. they said the gods threatened to punish this wickedness and profanity by a signal and wide-spreading calamity. the Pythagoreans bade that their precepts should not be committed to paper. by his particular command. however. It is said that his body.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-5. that their understandings became fully possessed with the whole spirit and purpose of them. two stone coffins. as the Greek legislators their tables. in conformity with his order. however. continuing at Rome. the senators carried the bier on which his corpse was laid. as Piso writes. who succeeded Tullus Hostilius in the kingdom. whilst he lived. and was but five years of age when Numa died.5. concurring to show a similarity in the lives of Numa and Pythagoras. his kingdom. was the father of Ancus Marcius. Numa lived something above eighty years. as a mark of honor. and not of an old and worn-out king. when all the neighboring states in alliance and amity with Rome met to honor and grace the rites of his interment with garlands and public presents. and in the other his sacred books. and then.

of the other four. three were assassinated and murdered by treason.spirited occupation. also.. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. that immediately succeeded Numa. and there burnt. derided his virtues. but was checked in these youthful insolences. it was not fit for their contents to be made public to the people. their covers falling off. the other.5. Valerius Antias writes that the books which were buried in the aforesaid chest or coffin of stone were twelve volumes of holy writ and twelve others of Greek philosophy. Baebius were consuls. Cornelius and M.. It is the fortune of all good men that their virtue rises in glory after their deaths. and diverted the minds of the people to war. some have the happiness even to see it die before them.htm (24 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:30 . and left others also to participate in these terrors when he died by the stroke of a thunderbolt. but in Numa's case. in his opinion. whereupon the volumes were all carried to the Comitium. and especially his devotion to religious worship. when P. For after him there were five kings. being deposed from his crown. the fortunes of the succeeding kings served as foils to set off the brightness of his reputation. who was Tullus Hostilius.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-5. which the praetor Petilius having read and perused. and was himself driven by an acute and tormenting disease into superstitions wholly different from Numa's piety. in a time of heavy rains. and that about four hundred years afterwards. as a cowardly and mean. made oath in the senate. in the other were the books before mentioned. and dislodged the chests of stone. a violent torrent washed away the earth. without the least relic of any human body. one of them was found wholly empty. and. and that the envy which evil men conceive against them never outlives them long. the last of whom ended his old age in banishment. that.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.

It was glorious to acquire a throne by justice. their capacity of government and discipline. they should observe the festivals. their religion. Numa received without desiring it. too. laying aside their arms. For this custom. is ascribed to Numa. the other. Lastly. that. the other from the condition of a prince voluntarily descended to the state of privacy.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. giving up feasting and drinking. and sacrifice to the gods. yet more glorious to prefer justice before a throne. they should employ their time in laborious and martial exercises. first. Yet in their common glories there are circumstances of diversity. when they were sunken low by dissoluteness and riot. granting even to actual slaves a license to sit at meat with their masters at the feast of Saturn. a most cruel and iniquitous proceeding. that they.6. fitting him well to turn and soothe his people into peace and justice out of their violent and fiery tempers. their both deriving their laws and constitutions from the gods. when there was no distinction between master and slave. with danger and hazard of his person. to give a place in the enjoyment of the yearly fruits of the soil to those who had helped to produce them. nor was it necessary to preach to them. that. they conceive. Their points of likeness are obvious. but rather. for. Lycurgus had it and gave it up.20Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-6. whose wish was. so that while the one effected all by persuasions and his people's love for him. so the one let down the high-flown spirits of the people at Rome to a lower key. as the other screwed them up at Sparta to a higher note. COMPARISON OF NUMA WITH LYCURGUS Having thus finished the lives of Lycurgus and Numa.. Others will have it to be in remembrance of the age of Saturn. whereas. might have some taste and relish of the sweets of liberty. and abandon costly furniture and rich tables. for it was not so much his business to persuade his citizens to put off their armor or ungird their swords. if we must admit the treatment of the Helots to be a part of Lycurgus's legislations. we shall now. put together their points of difference as they lie here before our view. scarcely in the end succeeded. as to cast away their gold or silver.htm (1 of 7)2006-05-31 20:37:30 . The harder task was that of Lycurgus. though the work be difficult.. Numa's muse was a gentle and loving inspiration. as musicians tune their harps. but all lived as brothers and file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Prov. the one from a private person and a stranger was raised by others to be their king. we must own that Numa was by a great deal the more humane and Greek-like legislator. Numa accepted and Lycurgus resigned a kingdom. their moderation. also. the same virtue which made the one appear worthy of regal power exalted the other to the disregard of it.

to obviate. and paid no attention to the gradual and continual augmentation and influx of poverty. manycolored commonalty. this equality was the basis and foundation of the one commonwealth. In bringing the habits they formed in their people to a just and happy mean. and victory over their enemies. and no other knowledge or study but that of obedience to their commanding officers. but. the trade of war only. Lycurgus was rigid and aristocratical. and take measures of precaution against the mischiefs of avarice. he only suppressed military rapacity. both were compelled to make great innovations. and whilst people still lived much in one manner.6. mitigating them where they exceeded. which was to bring their people to moderation and frugality. as equals in a condition of equality.20Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-6. but permitted riches to be amassed to any extent. it seems that both aimed at the same design and intent. but the real seed and first beginning of all the great and extensive evils of after times. and allowing the true citizens no implements but the spear and shield. unless we will attribute their different ways to the different habits and temperaments which they had to work upon by their enactments. goldsmiths and fluteplayers and shoemakers constituting his promiscuous. Every sort of money-making was forbid them as freemen. which it was his business at the outset. of other virtues. The frame of government which Numa formed was democratic and popular to the last extreme. nor Numa for omitting. allowing free scope to every other means of obtaining wealth. and strengthening them where they were deficient.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. there was nothing to urge any re-division or any disturbance file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Prov. to be blamed for making. to slaves and helots. but that they might protect themselves by it. But Numa made none of these distinctions. but at Rome.. the one set his affection most on fortitude. and the other on justice. banishing all the base and mechanic arts to the company of servants and strangers. and the service of Mars. and to make them thoroughly so and to keep them so through their whole lives. The re-division of estates. nor did Lycurgus promote a spirit of war in his people that they might do injustice to others. nor did he endeavor to do away with inequality in this respect. In general. every conceivable concern with money was handed over. whilst there was as yet no great disparity in the estates of men. with the cooking and the waiting at table. as Lycurgus did. but because he would not be guilty of injustice. mischiefs not of small importance.. it seems to me.htm (2 of 7)2006-05-31 20:37:30 . for Numa did not out of cowardice or fear affect peace. where the lands had been lately divided. Lycurgus is not.

6. too. were different. What is the difference. With thighs that show.thighed. to prevent all jealousy. of the first arrangement. he had a lawful power to give her up to him who desired her. as we have said. These with the young men from the house go out. for example) Phaenomerides. and robes file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Prov. and that community which both. draws the veil of a new contract over the change. and concedes the general insupportableness of mere community? Numa's directions. or for good. Nay.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. would invite men whom they thought like]y to procure them fine and good-looking children into their houses. which was probably still in existence. Lycurgus's are altogether unreserved and unfeminine.htm (3 of 7)2006-05-31 20:37:30 . who call them (Ibycus. either for a certain time. With respect to wives and children. however.. the original marriage obligation still subsisting as at first.20Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-6. bare. their methods. then. many husbands. and give them the character (as does Euripides) of being wild after husbands. in case his neighbor who had none should come and request his wife of him. for the care of young women are better adapted to the female sex and to propriety. For when a Roman thought himself to have a sufficient number of children. with a sound policy. The Lacedaemonian husband on the other hand. might allow the use of his wife to any other that desired to have children by her.. and would cause most people endless disquiet and annoyance with pangs and jealousies? The Roman course wears an air of a more delicate acquiescence. and yet still keep her in his house. appointed. between the two customs? Shall we say that the Lacedaemonian system is one of an extreme and entire unconcern about their wives. and have given a great handle to the poets.

Folding back. She. sent to inquire of the oracle what the prodigy did portend. also. And so their women. Hermione. giving their opinions about public matters freely. indeed. and silence made habitual. even on the most ordinary subjects. under the government of Numa. their general good behavior and submissiveness is justly proved by the record of those file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Prov. all busy intermeddling forbidden. but used to fly back and show the whole thigh bare as they walked. nor to speak. except in their husband's company. So that once when a woman had the confidence to plead her own cause in a court of judicature. the young maid.htm (4 of 7)2006-05-31 20:37:30 . great modesty was enjoined upon them. overbearing to their husbands in the first place. sobriety insisted on.. that fly about. and.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. were bold and masculine. and speaking openly even on the most important subjects. it is said. still indeed received from their husbands all that high respect and honor which had been paid them under Romulus as a sort of atonement for the violence done to them. nevertheless. Wine they were not to touch at all.20Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-6. no robe yet o'er it laid. leaves her bare thigh free. Whose frock. it is said. absolute mistresses in their houses. But the matrons. the senate. The thing is most distinctly given by Sophocles.. For in fact the skirts of the frock worn by unmarried girls were not sewn together at the lower part.6.

love and tenderness. and their bodies. argue Numa no more than an ordinary lawgiver. make his son a husbandman or carpenter. the rules which Lycurgus drew up for superintendence of children. to blame common legislators. as also his exact regulations for their meals. without anything.6. that were otherwise. But when a wise man like Numa file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Prov. gave their daughters in marriage as early as twelve years old. uniting to act for the common good only in time of danger upon occasion of their private fears. would produce. Numa left the whole matter simply to be decided by the parent's wishes or necessities. The Romans. that Spurius Carvilius divorced his wife. instead of the dislike and fear attending an unnatural compulsion. or were parricides. either himation or peplus. being a case that never before happened. in his judgment the one end of marriage. and that one Thalaea. he thought. their discipline and association. who may be deficient in power or knowledge. would be better able to bear the trials of breeding and of bearing children. so successful was the legislator in securing order and good conduct in the marriage relation. the other. their collection into companies. brought thither each for his own ends and by his own choice. Astolos chiton. also. Lycurgus made them brides when they were of full age and inclination for it. in the space of two hundred and thirty years from the foundation of the city. Gegania. coppersmith or musician. he might. thus they thought their bodies alike and minds would be delivered to the future husband pure and undefiled. for as the Greek historians record in their annals the names of those who first unsheathed the sword of civil war. on the other hand.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. We may forbear. over it.20Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-6. exercises. or even under. and sports. The way of Lycurgus seems the more natural with a view to the birth of children. or as though it would do for them to be like passengers on shipboard. Intercourse. However.. in general looking simply to their own interest. Their respective regulations for marrying the young women are in accordance with those for their education. or tunic. is more moral. frock.. indeed. the under garment. in the reign of Tarquinius Superbus. the wife of Pinarius. where nature was thus consulted. if he pleased. or killed their mothers. looking to a life to be spent together. as if it were of no importance for them to be directed and trained up from the beginning to one and the same common end.htm (5 of 7)2006-05-31 20:37:30 . so the Roman writers report it as the first example. or murdered their brothers. had a quarrel (the first instance of the kind) with her mother-in-law.

the frame of which though he entirely altered. and. supporting himself by the aid of the nobler citizens against the commonalty). However.20Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-6. retaining their hold upon the nation. but to the unity of the common model of virtue. established union and harmony amongst all.. then. some may say. their empire grew and their power increased so much. by discipline and education.htm (6 of 7)2006-05-31 20:37:30 . and dominion. not to contrariety and discordance of character. rather than in security. gentleness. been kept and caged up within those walls. was peculiarly signal and almost divine in the circumstances of Numa. and that independence which is accompanied by justice. What. that. if he had not. but.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. But Numa's whole design and aim. Thus much. because it wanted that cement which should have kept all together. it rushed forth to fill all Italy with blood and slaughter. and. as if war had. that he was an alien. and imbued their whole early life with a love of his government. no sooner did he expire his last breath than the gates of Janus's temple flew wide open. education. yet he performed it by mere persuasion. if it is to be one to satisfy men who take the better to consist in riches. and yet courted to come and accept a kingdom. The obligation of oaths to preserve them would have availed but little. without recurring to arms or any violence (such as Lycurgus used. they sank from the highest to the lowest state. infused them into the children's characters. after the Romans deserted the doctrine and discipline of Numa. to which from their cradle they should have been formed and molded? One benefit among many that Lycurgus obtained by his course was the permanence which it secured to his laws. and the training up of the young. The result was that the main points and fundamentals of his legislation continued for above five hundred years. and thus that best and justest fabric of things was of no long continuance. had received the sovereignty over a new and docile people. and ruled a city that as yet had scarce become one city. whereas so soon as the Lacedaemonians fell from the institutions of Lycurgus. was there any thing that would better deserve his attention than the education of children. by mere force of wisdom and justice.. were themselves in danger of absolute extirpation.6. like some deep and thoroughly ingrained tincture. on his death vanished with him. after forfeiting their supremacy over the rest of Greece. the continuance of peace and good-will. it makes much for Lycurgus. luxury. meantime. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Prov. has not Rome been advanced and bettered by her wars? A question that will need a long answer. indeed.

6..htm (7 of 7)2006-05-31 20:37:30 .. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Prov.20Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-6.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.

0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. they remembered their old kindnesses. nor of courage to stand up to passion and meet it.htm (1 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . I suppose. For that Solon was not proof against beauty. for they generally agree that he was the son of Execestides.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and partly because of Pisistratus's noble qualities and beauty. that when afterwards they differed about the government. his mother. contrary to the opinion of all others who have written concerning him. partly because they were akin. and one of his laws. was cousin to Pisistratus's mother. who states that Solon's father's name was Euphorion. Hand to hand as in the ring we may conjecture by his poems. but of a most noble stock. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. as Heraclides Ponticus affirms.. mentions a passage of one Philocles. therefore. SOLON Didymus. in his answer to Asclepiades concerning Solon's Tables of Law. which he would appear. being descended from Codrus. the grammarian. their enmity never produced any hot and violent passion.7. in which there are practices forbidden to slaves. and retained Still in its embers living the strong fire of their love and dear affection. And they say Solon loved him. a man of moderate wealth and power in the city.. and that is the reason. and the two at first were great friends.

And file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.. for when he was old he would say. and learnt something new. to recommend to freemen. and acres of wheatland. since he was descended from a family who were accustomed to do kindnesses rather than receive them. Pisistratus.htm (2 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . Horses and mules. he it was who dedicated the figure of Love in the Academy. It is certain that he was a lover of knowledge. when his father had ruined his estate in doing benefits and kindnesses to other men. Solon.7.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7.. though he had friends enough that were willing to contribute to his relief.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. it is stated. as Hermippus writes. where the runners in the sacred torch-race light their torches. and yet no admirer of riches. yet was ashamed to be beholden to others. and therefore applied himself to merchandise in his youth. though others assure us that he traveled rather to get learning and experience than to make money. that he Each day grew older. esteeming as equally wealthy the man. was similarly attached to one Charmus. Who hath both gold and silver in his hand.

Clothes to his back and shoes upon his feet. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro..7. and in another place. And a young wife and child. And no more years than will with that agree. since so 'twill be..htm (3 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 .PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. him whose all is decent food to eat.

And it is perfectly possible for a good man and a statesman. In his time. "Work was a shame to none. without being solicitous for superfluities. his popular rather than philosophical tone about pleasure in his poems.7. to whom the Gauls near the Rhine were much attached. the founder of Massilia. and a great source of experience. which brought home the good things which the barbarous nations enjoyed. Solon's softness and profuseness." nor was any distinction made with respect to trade. is sure. Wealth I would have. it was natural they should be recompensed with some gratifications and enjoyments. e'en if slow. but that he accounted himself rather poor than rich is evident from the lines.. for. having suffered a thousand dangers.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7.. justice. Some report also that Thales and Hippocrates the mathematician traded. have been ascribed to his trading life. as Protis.htm (4 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . and that Plato defrayed the charges of his travels by selling oil in Egypt. but merchandise was a noble calling. to show some concern for competent necessaries. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. Some merchants have built great cities. was the occasion of friendship with their kings. as Hesiod says. but wealth by wrong procure I would not.

which he did. not for any serious purpose. not to record them merely as an historian... some good are poor. but afterwards he introduced moral sentences and state matters.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. chastise. and stir up the Athenians to noble performances.7.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. and sometimes to correct. Some report that he designed to put his laws into heroic verse. and that they began thus. but to justify his own actions. Some wicked men are rich. Virtue's a thing that none call take away. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. We will not change our virtue for their store. but simply to pass away his idle hours. But money changes owners all the day. At first he used his poetry only in trifles.htm (5 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 .

he was very plain and antiquated. and applause..htm (6 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . And thunder comes from lightning without fail. in physics. he chiefly esteemed the political part of morals.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. But it file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. as most of the wise men then. We humbly beg a blessing on our laws From mighty Jove. The sea is stormy when the winds have blown..7. It is the clouds that make the snow and hail. and honor. In philosophy.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. as appears by this.

they say.7. and so through all it returned to Bias. and the rest of the wise men were so called from prudence in political concerns. that they had an interview at Delphi. only some. and was afterwards sent to Delphi. It is said. but. who made a meeting for them. This is the general report. it was sent to him." Solon. instead of a tripod. from him to another. say this present was a cup sent by Croesus. and Solon and Thales. and Solon replying. received him kindly. as the story goes. which when Anacharsis understood. he laughed at him for imagining the dishonesty and file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and some have delivered parts of their discourse. bought the draught at a venture. it is probable that at that time Thales alone had raised philosophy above mere practice into speculation. they say. and contract a friendship with him. by the procurement of Periander. Apollo decided the controversy by commanding to present it to the wisest man.. and next to Thales at Miletus. Helen. a piece of plate that one Bathycles had left. "Then you that are at home make friendship with me. others. the strangers at first contesting with the fishers about the tripod. and complaisant yielding to one another. at her return from Troy. which. and told him. and a supper." Anacharsis replied. going round them all. Anacharsis. and another at Corinth. for. It is stated. Theophrastus writes that it was first presented to Bias at Priene. Now. and. the net brought up a golden tripod. the Coans freely presenting him with that for which they fought against the whole body of the Milesians. were familiarly acquainted.htm (7 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . threw in there. And. being already engaged in public business and the compilation of his laws. that he. and first it was sent to Miletus to Thales. that Anacharsis and Solon. and the cities espousing the quarrel so far as to engage themselves in a war. some strangers. and kept him some time with him. was come to be his guest.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. upon the remembrance of an old prophecy. Thales declaring Bias the wiser person..PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. at last. knocked at Solon's door. coming to Athens. For. indeed. by their modest refusal. being a stranger. and so. somewhat surprised at the readiness of the repartee. was there dedicated to Apollo Ismenius. Milesians. being carried from Miletus to Thebes. deals fairly when 'tis left alone. it came to Thales a second time. But their reputation was chiefly raised by sending the tripod to them all. "It is better to make friends at home. some of the Coans fishing with a net.

who was not then at home. and being born to love. "What a miserable man is he! But what was his name?" "I have heard it. Anacharsis. the most virtuous of the citizens. covetousness of his countrymen could be restrained by written laws. be not concerned at the report. and his fears heightened. "None but a young man's funeral. they say. keep me from marriage and rearing children. but easily be broken by the mighty and rich. or his country. his sister's son. To this Solon rejoined that men keep their promises when neither side can get anything by the breaking of them. which are too great for even your constancy to support. for it is a fiction.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. glory.htm (8 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . for he was the son. they said. than which there is no greater nor more desirable possession. and he would so fit his laws to the citizens. that all should understand it was more eligible to be just than to break the laws. even virtue itself. However. having a principle of kindness in itself. but had been traveling a long time. according to his instructions. said. to Thales at Miletus. being once at the assembly. of an honorable man. "but have now forgotten it. yet we are told he adopted Cybisthus. procured a stranger to pretend that he had left Athens ten days ago. and to do and say all that is usual with men in transports of grief." says the man.. and wondered that Thales took no care to get him a wife and children. till at last. and the stranger assenting. though unmarried. But the event rather agreed with the conjecture of Anacharsis than Solon's hope. however. Thales made no answer for the present. from Pataecus. and asked the stranger if that young man was called Solon's son. which were like spiders' webs." Solon replied. only there was great talk of his wisdom and his justice. but. Solon. his kinsmen. since we may fear to be deprived of all these. expressed his wonder at the fact that in Greece wise men spoke and fools decided. for upon the same account we should not allow ourselves to like wealth. could not be free from solicitude. a few days after. and." Thus Solon was drawn on by every answer. and would catch. To this. he mentioned his own name. it is irrational and poor-spirited not to seek conveniences for fear of losing them. which the whole city attended. replied. with a smile..7. as well as perceive. For the soul. or remember. Solon went. think. the weak and poor. nay. But Thales took his hand. being extremely concerned. is often suspended by sickness or drugs. Now Thales. and Solon inquiring what news there." This Hermippus relates. inclines file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. he began to beat his head.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. it is true. "These things. the man. or wisdom. who boasted that he had Aesop's soul. unless he likewise felt no care for his friends.

to assert that the city ought to endeavor to recover it. and distresses. counterfeited a distraction. when a man has none of his own to embrace. and sang that elegy which begins thus: file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. almost killed with grief. it is weakness. vexed at the disgrace. or of children by having none. and made a law that it should be death for any man. and. and they indeed have not even the present enjoyment of what they dote upon. or of friends by refusing all acquaintance. Solon. but did not dare to stir first for fear of the law. when the Athenians were tired with a tedious and difficult war that they conducted against the Megarians for the island Salamis. into these endless pains and terrors.7. when some servant's or concubine's child is sick or dies. and with affection come anxiety and care. and abjectly lamenting. We must not provide against the loss of wealth by poverty. got upon the herald's stand. and getting them by heart. But of this too much. that brings men. insomuch that you may see men that use the strongest language against the marriage-bed and the fruit of it. tremors.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and by his own family it was spread about the city that he was mad.htm (9 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . the possibility of the future loss causing them continual pangs. others have borne the deaths of virtuous children without any extravagant or unbecoming grief. as into some estate that lacks lawful heirs. by writing or speaking. Some have given way to shameful and desperate sorrow at the loss of a dog or horse. and according to the principles of reason. ran out into the place with a cap upon his head.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7.. the people gathering about him. and fixes upon some stranger.. that it might seem extempore. And alien or illegitimate objects insinuate themselves into his affections. and perceiving thousands of the youth wished for somebody to begin. unarmed against fortune by reason. It is not affection. Now. He then secretly composed some elegiac verses. have passed the rest of their lives like men. but by morality and reason.

My news from thence my verses shall declare. sacrificing to Ceres. dressed in their clothes. eager who should first seize a prize. if they desired to seize the chief Athenian women. and.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. and caps.. Others say that it was not taken this way. and the Athenians set sail for the island and took it. seeing it put off from the island. so that not one of them escaped. when it had been sung. The poem is called Salamis.7. and privately armed with daggers. his friends commended it. insomuch that they recalled the law. and some beardless youths. and Solon. according to the custom of the country there. finding the women. coming to the shore. and advise them. that with Pisistratus he sailed to Colias. it contains one hundred verses.. the Megarians presently sent of men in the vessel with him. their shoes. the Megarians were allured with the appearance. who should pretend himself a renegade. but that he first received this oracle from Delphi: file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. commanded the women to be gone. and. jumped out. and especially Pisistratus exhorted the citizens to obey his directions. The popular tale is. and renewed the war under Solon's conduct.htm (10 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . to dance and play near the shore till the enemies had landed and the vessel was in their power. I am a herald come from Salamis the fair. Things being thus ordered.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. to come with him at once to Colias. he sent a trusty friend to Salamis. very elegantly written.

marched against the Megarians by land. and gave them orders to sail to the island with as much privacy as possible. and that Solon. And this narrative is confirmed by the following solemnity. All buried with their faces to the west. hearing only an uncertain report. anchored in a bay of Salamis that looks towards Nisaea. with a number of fisher-boats and one thirty-oared ship. with the other soldiers.. sacrificed to the heroes Periphemus and Cychreus. manned it with Athenians.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and the Megarians that were then in the island. then. The Megarians. sailing by night to the island. And just by there stands a temple which Solon dedicated to Mars. securing the Megarians. and then. and as many as were not killed in the battle he sent away upon conditions. still contending. For he beat the Megarians. Those heroes that in fair Asopia rest. and sent a ship to reconnoiter the enemies. one leapt out armed. that was afterwards observed: an Athenian ship used to sail silently at first to the island. Go and appease with offerings of the best. This ship Solon took.7. and. and both sides having file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. meantime he. those from the ship took the city. however. taking five hundred Athenian volunteers (a law having passed that those that took the island should be highest in the government). and whilst they were fighting. and with a loud cry ran to the promontory Sciradium to meet those that approached upon the land. hurried to their arms.htm (11 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 .0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7.. with noise and a great shout.

the other at Melite. and affirms that they likewise turn the body to the west.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. Critolaidas. received considerable losses.. they chose the Spartans for arbitrators. For this. Anaxilas. were not buried after their fashion but according to the Athenian. deriving its name from this Philaeus. that Solon made it appear to the judges. Now. and report. introducing a line into the Catalog of Ships. he said. some of Apollo's oracles. to which Pisistratus belonged. being made citizens of Athens. for the Megarians turn the corpse to the east. Solon grew famed and powerful. and also that the Athenians have a separate tomb for every body. And ranked his men where the Athenians fought. but to maintain the honor of the god.. when the matter was to be determined. and Cleomenes. gave them the island. This matter was determined by five Spartans. and they have a township of Philaidae. he read the passage as follows: Twelve ships from Salamis stout Ajax brought. call this but an idle story. but his advice in favor of defending the oracle at Delphi. to give aid. however. Hypsechidas.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. But Hereas the Megarian denies this. However. made much for Solon. got file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.htm (12 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . where he calls Salamis Ionian. many affirm that Homer's authority did Solon a considerable kindness. that Philaeus and Eurysaces. The Athenians. Amompharetus. and that one of them dwelt at Brauron in Attica. which. but the Megarians put two or three into one. and not to suffer the Cirrhaeans to profane it. Solon took a farther argument against the Megarians from the dead bodies. the sons of Ajax. the Athenians to the west. and that.7.

amongst others. as many as were without the temples were stoned. in his enumeration of the victors at the Pythian games. and as many as were then alive were banished. and. however. possessed of knowledge in all the supernatural and ritual parts of religion. they lost Nisaea and Salamis again. upon which. as if the goddess had refused them protection.htm (13 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . and regarded with hatred. and had continual quarrels with the family of Megacles. the men of his age called him a new Cures. in the Delphian register. besides. The remainder of the faction of Cylon grew strong again. And Myron of Phlya being their accuser. the thread broke of its own accord. and prepared the way for his legislation.7. they were found guilty. they were seized by Megacles and the other magistrates. He made them moderate in their forms of worship.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. being in reputation. and son of a nymph named Balte. as Hermippus states.. as. and now the quarrel being at its height. him most repute among the Greeks: for upon his persuasion the Amphictyons undertook the war. and only those escaped who made supplication to the wives of the magistrates. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. Solon. interposed with the chiefest of the Athenians. tying a thread to the image. where he makes Solon the author of this counsel. and by entreaty and admonition persuaded the polluted to submit to a trial and the decision of three hundred noble citizens. is named as commander of the Athenians. and. ever since the time when Megacles the archon persuaded the conspirators with Cylon that took sanctuary in Minerva's temple to come down and stand to a fair trial. and scattered beyond the confines of the country. Aristotle affirms. for Aeschines the orator says no such thing. Solon. they sent for Epimenides the Phaestian from Crete. those that fled for sanctuary were butchered at the altar. In the midst of these distractions. the Megarians falling upon them. and the people divided. and the bodies of the dead were dug up. who is counted the seventh wise man by those that will not admit Periander into the number. But they from that time were considered under pollution. and grew acquainted with Solon. went down to the tribunal. He seems to have been thought a favorite of heaven. was not general in that expedition. Now the Cylonian pollution had a long while disturbed the commonwealth. And they. but when they came to the temple of the Furies. and holding one end of it. the city was disturbed with superstitious fears and strange appearances. he served him in many instances. When he came to Athens. Upon this. Alcmaeon. therefore. not Solon.. out of Evanthes the Samian. and the priests declared that the sacrifices intimated some villanies and pollutions that were to be expiated.

or fly their country to avoid the cruelty of their creditors. that he had not joined in the exactions of the rich. and was not involved in the necessities of the poor. Epimenides. It is reported that. The Athenians. "How blind is man in future things! for did the Athenians foresee what mischief this would do their city. And the disparity of fortune between the rich and the poor. and foundation of sacred buildings. and more inclined to harmony. oligarchy. and so hindered either of the other parties from prevailing. and considering a long while. they would even eat it with their own teeth to be rid of it.. The Hill quarter favored democracy. or else they engaged their body for the debt.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. by that means making them more submissive to justice. at that time. requested but one branch of the sacred olive. pressed him to succor the commonwealth and compose file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro." A similar anticipation is ascribed to Thales. therefore. and receiving from the city rich offers of large gifts and privileges. All the people were indebted to the rich. and those that lived by the Sea-side stood for a mixed sort of government. being much honored. divide the land.. saying that it should some day be the marketplace of the Milesians. and. they say he commanded his friends to bury him in an obscure and contemned quarter of the territory of Miletus. also reached its height.7. Then the wisest of the Athenians. paying them a sixth part of the increase.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7.htm (14 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . so that the city seemed to be in a truly dangerous condition. the Plain. and were. now the Cylonian sedition was over and the polluted gone into banishment. but the most part and the bravest of them began to combine together and encourage one another to stand to it. by certain propitiatory and expiatory lustrations. called Hectemorii and Thetes. and taking off those severe and barbarous ceremonies which the women usually practiced. and abated their mourning by ordering some sacrifices presently after the funeral. and no other means for freeing it from disturbances and settling it. to choose a leader. some (for no law forbade it) were forced to sell their children. on that being granted. fell into their old quarrels about the government. but the greatest benefit was his purifying and sanctifying the city. to liberate the condemned debtors. and change the government. and might be seized. or sold to strangers. he said to those that stood by. looking upon Munychia. and either sent into slavery at home. and either they tilled their land for their creditors. returned. perceiving Solon was of all men the only one not implicated in the troubles. to be possible but a despotic power. there being as many different parties as there were diversities in the country.

There was a saying of his current before the election. the differences. as if the virtue of the ruler could not make it a lawful form. after Philombrotus. when all have their fair proportion.. Though Phanias the Lesbian affirms. put a trick upon both parties. Solon. which had made Pittacus its prince. when all are absolutely equal. the one conceiving him to mean. security for their debts. but. and some say that Solon had this oracle from Apollo Take the midseat.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. however. when he was once settled. and Mitylene. the chief men pressed Solon to take the government into his own hands. being afraid of the pride of one party and the greediness of the other. himself.htm (15 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . as they say. Many in Athens are upon your side. were willing to have one wise and just man set over the affairs.. says that it was reluctantly at first that he engaged in state affairs. however. and this pleased both parties. the wealthy and the poor.7. and empowered to be an arbitrator and lawgiver. perceiving it would be a difficult change to be effected by law and reason. and many of the commons. manage the business freely and according to his pleasure. to save his country. that Solon. and privately promised the poor a division of the lands. the rich consenting because he was wealthy. and be the vessel's guide. yet this could not shake Solon's resolution. Euboea had made this experiment when it chose Tynnondas. there being great hopes on both sides. he was chosen archon. But chiefly his familiar friends chid him for disaffecting monarchy only because of the name. that when things are even there never can be war. Thus. he replied file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and the rich.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and. the poor because he was honest. the others.

The several mocks that were put upon him for refusing the power. he records in these words. And forbore to fix a stain and a disgrace on my good name. that it was true a tyranny was a very fair spot. And withheld from usurpation and from violence my hand.. I believe that it will be my chiefest fame.htm (16 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . but it had no way down from it.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. I regret not.. and in a copy of verses to Phocus he writes that I spared my land. From which it is manifest that he was a man of great reputation before he gave his laws. to his friends.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7.7. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.

file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. When the gods would give him fortune. through want of heart and want of wit. He declined to haul it up. Had but I that chance of riches and of kingship.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. overheavy thinking it.7.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. Solon surely was a dreamer. When the net was full of fishes..htm (17 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . he of his own will declined. and a man of simple mind..

and by force upon the stubborn. this he did. he did not show himself mean and submissive to the powerful. And. but what he thought he could effect by persuasion upon the pliable. Thus he makes the many and the low people speak of him. he applied no remedy. For where it was well before.. nor altered anything.7.. he was not too mild in the affair. for fear lest. though he refused the government. nor make his laws to pleasure those that chose him. when he was afterwards asked if he had left the Athenians the best laws that could be given. for one day. Yet. With force and justice working both one.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. I would give my skin for flaying. "The best file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and my house to die away. Overthrowing altogether and disordering the state. he replied. therefore.htm (18 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 .0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. as he himself says. he should be too weak to new-model and recompose it to a tolerable condition.

a relief. for the future. tributes customs. though the number of pieces in the payment was equal.. together with the enlarging their measures. Though some.7. where file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. which before passed for seventy-three drachmas. where he takes honor to himself.. the land that was a slave is free.htm (19 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . that The mortgagestones that covered her. by ingeniously giving it some pretty and innocent appellation. as Androtion. but the interest only lessened. should engage the body of his debtor for security. seems originally to have been Solon's contrivance. and no loss to the creditors. go for a hundred." The way which. mistresses. which is confirmed by some places in his poem. or disencumbrance. which sufficiently pleased the people. the value was less. and no man. calling harlots. the Athenians have of softening the badness of a thing. and raising the value of their money.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. the moderns say. that what debts remained should be forgiven. affirm that the debts were not canceled. by me Removed. which proved a considerable benefit to those that were to discharge great debts. But most agree that it was the taking off the debts that was called Seisacthea.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and the jail the chamber. that some who had been seized for their debts he had brought back from other countries. they could receive. a garrison a guard. for he made a pound. so that they named this benefit the Seisacthea. For the first thing which he settled was. for example. who called canceling debts Seisacthea. so that.

repudiators. it is true. made haste and borrowed some considerable sums of money.7. using their advantage.htm (20 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 .0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. that he would not meddle with the lands. so far their lot to roam. and. others. and purchased some large farms. Conon. and having reigned many file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. Who here in shameful servitude were held.. say fifteen. however. as if he himself had not been abused. a most vexatious thing happened. but was concerned in the contrivance. upon which. and the poor that the land was not divided. as Lycurgus ordered in his commonwealth. being the eleventh from Hercules. and Hipponicus. and would not return the money. and was considering the proper form and fit beginning for it. as Polyzelus the Rhodian. according to the law. for the rich were angry for their money. all men reduced to equality. by releasing his debtors of five talents (for he had lent so much). they kept the possessions. and when the law was enacted. for when he had resolved to take off the debts. his friends. he told some of his friends. they. in whom he had a great deal of confidence. and some he had set at liberty. which brought Solon into great suspicion and dislike. Clinias. But he presently stopped this suspicion.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. He. were ever afterward called Chreocopidae. While he was designing this. In this he pleased neither party.. but only free the people from their debts. They had forgot the language of their home.

Solon could not rise to that in his polity. having nothing but the good-will and good opinion of his citizens to rely on.7. he declares in the words.. years in Lacedaemon. applying force more than persuasion. but enemies. which he could use in modeling his state. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.htm (21 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . had got a great reputation and friends and power.. and that he offended the most part. and. received the same power. he says. was able to employ the most effectual means for the safety and harmony of a state. yet he acted fully up to the height of his power.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. by not permitting any to be poor or rich in his commonwealth. friends no more.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. with averted eyes Now they look askance upon me. who looked for another result. And yet had any other man. insomuch that he lost his eye in the scuffle. Formerly they boasted of me vainly. being but a citizen of the middle classes.

and those that stole a cabbage or an apple to suffer even as villains that committed sacrilege or murder. but blood. and he himself. courts. their magistracies. were named file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. So that Demades. Soon. or were worth three hundred measures. their assemblies. nor let alone. calling it Seisacthea. that Draco's laws were written not with ink. replied.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. then. and I have no higher for the greater crimes. he repealed all Draco's laws. and the punishments too great." Next. and what estate they must have that could be capable of these. and chose Solon to new-model and make laws for the commonwealth.. Solon. they laid by their grudges. in after time. he placed in the first rank. First. dry and liquid. times of meeting. however. because they were too severe. and dissolve or continue any of the present constitutions. took an account of the citizens' estates. and yet receive the people into the other part of the government.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. for death was appointed for almost all offenses. He would not have forborne. except those concerning homicide. being once asked why he made death the punishment of most offenses. insomuch that those that were convicted of idleness were to die.. But made the fattest of the milk his own. "Small ones deserve that. according to his pleasure. that he should appoint the number. those that could keep an horse. and those that were worth five hundred measures of fruits. calling them Pentacosiomedimni. made a public sacrifice.7. being willing to continue the magistracies in the hands of the rich men. becoming sensible of the good that was done. was thought to have said very happily. and councils.htm (22 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . giving him the entire power over everything.

which at first seemed nothing.. but could come to the assembly. it is said that he was obscure and ambiguous in the wording of his laws. were in the third. but afterwards was found an enormous privilege. and made the second class. as almost every matter of dispute came before them in this latter capacity. My counsel likewise kept from all disgrace. Hippada Teluntes. they would have to bring all their causes to the judges. Even in the cases which he assigned to the archons' cognizance. for since their differences could not be adjusted by the letter. Besides. and all the others were called Thetes.htm (23 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . Abridged not what they had.. Those that were great in wealth and high in place.7. and act as jurors. he allowed an appeal to the courts. now lavished new. that had two hundred measures. the Zeugitae.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. Before them file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. on purpose to increase the honor of his courts. Of this equalization he himself makes mention in this manner: Such power I gave the people as might do. who thus were in a manner masters of the laws.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. who were not admitted to any office.

he made inspectors and keepers of the laws. but in all causes of blood refers to the Ephetae.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. were in banishment when this law was made. if any one was beaten.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. were unsettled and imperious. which was to inspect all matters before they were propounded to the people. maimed." When he had constituted the Areopagus of those who had been yearly archons. to resent and be sensible of one another's injuries. or in the Prytaneum by the kings." said he.7. and to take care that nothing but what had been first examined should be brought before the general assembly. like anchors. he formed another council of four hundred. intending by this to accustom the citizens. And for the greater security of the weak commons. Ephetae. and the people be more at quiet. both I held my shield of might. any man that would and was able. or designs against the government. observing that the people. yet Solon's thirteenth table contains the eighth law set down in these very words: "Whoever before Solon's archonship were disfranchised." and these words file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. he gave general liberty of indicting for an act of injury. now free from their debts. conceiving that the commonwealth. or suffered any violence. The upper council. that Solon instituted the Areopagus. which seems to be confirmed. like members of the same body. let them be restored. for homicide. of which he himself was a member therefore. except those that. would be less liable to be tossed by tumults. And let not either touch the other's right. or Areopagus. murder... held by these two councils. "where those that are not injured try and punish the unjust as much as those that are. being condemned by the Areopagus. because Draco makes no mention of the Areopagites. a hundred out of each of the four tribes. for. being asked what city was best modeled. might prosecute the wrongdoer. Such is the general statement. "That.htm (24 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . And there is a saying of his agreeable to this law.

. who. conscious of their own unfitness. to take his nearest kinsman. of this the reader must judge. for who could be condemned by that council before his time. which disfranchises all who stand neuter in a sedition. securing his private affairs.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. whilst others are restored. Amongst his other laws. rather than keep out of harm's way and watch who would get the better. or continue them with disgrace. for now. for the sake of the portion." shall remain still in disgrace. yet some say this law was well contrived against those. since she can quit him for whom she pleases. and it should run thus. yet. and make use of law to put a violence upon nature. but at once join with the good party and those that have the right upon their side. "Those that are convicted of such offenses as belong to the cognizance of the Areopagites. which is probable. there is some ellipsis. one is very peculiar and surprising. and.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. Ephetae.7. for it seems he would not have any one remain insensible and regardless of the public good. It seems an absurd and foolish law which permits an heiress. in the language. would match with heiresses. and suffer for their covetousness and designed file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. seem to show that the Areopagus existed before Solon's laws. if he was the first that instituted the court? unless. when this law was made. or the Prytanes. or want of precision.htm (25 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . if her lawful husband fail her. glory that he has no feeling of the distempers of his country. they would either abstain from such marriages. assist and venture with them..

like the partridges. "by my tyranny I have broken my country's laws. for he would not have marriages contracted for gain or an estate. and birth of children. or at the games. to confine her to her husband's nearest kinsman. but cannot put a violence upon those of nature by an unseasonable marriage. which attain no due end or fruit. a little inconsiderable household stuff. Agreeable to this is the law that the bride and bridegroom shall be shut into a chamber. to prevent the perpetuity of discord. and that the husband of an heiress shall consort with her thrice a month. it is well done. the wife was to have three suits of clothes.htm (26 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . for it is pious to think the deceased sacred. and just. but for pure love. any provident governor or lawgiver might say to an old man that takes a young wife what is said to Philoctetes in the tragedy. it takes off all petty differences. nor such unseasonable and unloving and unperforming marriages. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. And of this enough." Such disorder is never to be suffered in a commonwealth. In all other marriages he forbade dowries to be given.7. in a fit state thou to marry! and if he finds a young man. and politic. chaste wife. He likewise forbade them to speak evil of the living in the temples. with a rich and elderly wife. and that was all. not to meddle with those that are gone. for though there be no children. growing fat in his place. "Indeed. the courts of justice. kind affection. yet it is an honor and due affection which an husband ought to pay to a virtuous. When the mother of Dionysius desired him to marry her to one of his citizens. Another commendable law of Solon's is that which forbids men to speak evil of the dead. affront. moreover. or else to pay three drachmas to the person." said he.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7.. that the children may be of the same family. and will not permit their little quarrels to proceed to a rupture. and eat a quince together. the public offices.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.. Truly. remove him to a young woman of proper age.

. and no basket above a cubit high. he turned his citizens to trade. Yet he allowed not all sorts of legacies. according to Euripides. since both may equally suspend the exercise of reason.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. or the persuasions of a wife. It is true. unless at the very funeral.htm (27 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . and two to the public. and that most of the country was barren and unfruitful. if the maker designs to punish few in order to their amendment. And laws must look to possibilities. if they had no children. and not many to no purpose. force. imprisonment. He is likewise much commended for his law concerning wills. having a city free from all strangers. and mourning of the women. and set wailings. and always to moderate it is very hard. Lycurgus. most of which are likewise forbidden by our laws.. are to be punished as soft and effeminate by the censors of women. there was little difference. and made every man's estate truly his own. and took away everything that was either unbecoming or immodest.7. feasts. but all the wealth and estate of the deceased belonged to his family. an obol's worth of meat and drink. and made a law that no son should be obliged to relieve a father who had not bred him up to any calling. He regulated the walks. for before him none could be made. that those that are convicted of extravagance in their mournings. but this is further added in ours. and that traders at sea import nothing to those that could give them nothing in exchange. and affection than necessity. charms. For never to be able to control passion shows a weak nature and ill-breeding. and at night they were not to go about unless in a chariot with a torch before them. and to some impossible. nor to bury above three pieces of dress with the body. and that between deceit and necessity. Mourners tearing themselves to raise pity. Observing the city to be filled with persons that flocked from all parts into Attica for security of living. To offer an ox at the grave was not permitted. or visit the tombs of any besides their own family. he forbade. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and land. with good reason thinking that being seduced into wrong was as bad as being forced. flattery and compulsion. when they walked abroad. showed that he esteemed friendship a stronger tie than kindred. and at one man's funeral to lament for another. no more than three articles of dress were allowed them. by permitting them.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. to bestow it on whom they pleased. but those only which were not extorted by the frenzy of a disease. but he.

for twice their number much. and has taken away from himself every title to upbraid his children. But that law was yet more rigid which. In the valuation for sacrifices. Now it is irrational to punish the same crime sometimes very severely and without remorse. for he permitted any one to kill an adulterer that found him in the act. and altogether incapable of feeding an unoccupied and leisurely multitude. and. Solon's laws in general about women are his strangest. unless. but be kept down with continual toil and work. who go openly to those that hire them. twenty. did well to take off his citizens from laborious and mechanical occupations. the victor in the Isthmian games was to have for reward a hundred drachmas. with a trivial fine. but if any one forced a free woman. brought trades into credit. as it were. the conqueror in the Olympian.. being yet unmarried. scarcity made those mulcts the more grievous punishment. and not making things to suit his laws. an abundance of laborers about Sparta. and teach them only the art of war. above all. and chastise the idle. she was found wanton. and keep them to their arms. who should not be left idle. declared the sons of unmarried mothers not obliged to relieve their fathers. in sport. five drachmas.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. fitting his laws to the state of things. a sheep and a bushel were both estimated at a drachma. But Solon.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7.7. harlots. to whom he has made their very birth a scandal and reproach. there being little money then in Athens. he that brought a wolf. if he enticed her. a hundred drachmas was the fine. He made it unlawful to sell a daughter or a sister. for he that avoids the honorable form of union shows that he does not take a woman for children. Large for large hosts.. but for pleasure. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and. and sometimes very lightly. that is. unless. and thus gets his just reward. except those that sell themselves openly. five hundred. and ordered the Areopagites to examine how every man got his living. as Heraclides Ponticus delivers. and finding the ground scarce rich enough to maintain the husbandmen.htm (28 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 .

were naturally far greater. He that would dig a pit or a ditch was to dig it at the distance of its own depth from his neighbor's ground. great enemies to wolves. for a whelp. but if a fig or an olive. and the informer against the delinquents called a sycophant. and. therefore. one. and this law was written in his first table. from the beginning.htm (29 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . as some affirm. sets on choice victims.. was the value of an ox. this he did. but. are very low in comparison of the present. for their roots spread farther. there was a law made. The prices which Solon. not within nine. in his sixteenth table. when it was farther off.. four and a half feet long. the soldiers were called Hoplitae. let none think it incredible. not to discourage strangers. for they draw away the nourishment.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7.7. yet they. he permitted only those to be made free of Athens who were in perpetual exile from their own country. their fields being better for pasture than corn. He showed skill in his orders about planting. The Athenians were. for he thought it prudent to make provision against want. and many used wells which they had dug. He made a law.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. as Demetrius the Phalerian asserts. all should draw at that. that is. of a sheep. nor can they be planted near all sorts of trees without damage. if they had dug ten fathom deep and could find no water. lakes. the craftsmen Ergades. in which he commands the master of any dog that bit a man to deliver him up with a log about his neck. The law concerning naturalizing strangers is of doubtful character. the latter. the archon was solemnly to curse. and the shepherds and graziers Aegicores. four furlongs. too. or large springs. and. or came with their whole family to trade there. and in some cases are noxious by their effluvia. the former sum. that. they should try and procure a well of their own. Since the country has but few rivers. of the remaining two. and. the farmers Gedeontes. but file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. but not to supply laziness. a happy device for men's security. or else pay an hundred drachmas himself. and he that would raise stocks of bees was not to place them within three hundred feet of those which another had already raised. but from the different sorts of occupation that they followed. concerning hurts and injuries from beasts. for any one that would plant another tree was not to set it within five feet of his neighbor's field. that the exportation of figs was once unlawful. also. and those that exported any other fruit. where there was a public well within a hippicon. they had liberty to fetch a pitcherful of four gallons and a half in a day from their neighbors'. Some affirm their tribes did not take their names from the sons of Ion. He permitted only oil to be exported.

The council all jointly swore to confirm the laws. peculiarly Solon's. that. or if he that was invited refused.7. and wrote them on wooden tables or rollers.. By Solon.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.. But some say those are properly cyrbes. rather to invite them to a permanent participation in the privileges of the government. named axones. and every one of the Thesmothetae vowed for himself at the stone in the marketplace. the other a contemner of the state. which contain laws concerning sacrifices and the rites of religion. for if any man came often. at Athens. All his laws he established for an hundred years. or voluntarily forsook it. as Aristotle states.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. for he concluded that one was greedy. they were punished. he thought those would prove the more faithful citizens who had been forced from their own country. Observing the irregularity of the months. some of their relics were in my time still to be seen in the Prytaneum. as big as himself. besides. were called cyrbes. and that the moon does not always rise and set with the sun. and there is a passage of Cratinus the comedian. The law of public entertainment (parasitein is his name for it) is. at Delphi. if he broke any of the statutes. These. or common hall. if you please. and. and all the others axones. but often in the same day overtakes file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and by Draco. he would dedicate a golden statue. which might be turned round in oblong cases. Whose Cyrbes make the fires that parch our peas.htm (30 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . also.

as he himself says. he. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.. but. The end and the beginning of the month. and. by subtraction. departed. and desirous to bring himself out of all straits. Now when these laws were enacted. In great affairs to satisfy all sides. His first voyage was for Egypt.7. that understood that verse of Homer. as he himself says. he ordered the day should be named the Old and New. and the rest to the new. After the twentieth he did not count by addition. attributing that part of it which was before the conjunction to the old moon. like the moon itself in its wane. and gets before him. it being a hard thing. and desired him to explain. having obtained leave for ten years' absence. to commend or dispraise them. and to escape all displeasure and exceptions. and not to do it would get him illwill. and many criticized. if possible. he being the first. hoping that by that time his laws would have become familiar. to leave out. knowing that to do it was useless.. it seems. and the following day he called the new moon. as an excuse for traveling. or put in something.htm (31 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . bought a trading vessel. and he lived. and to advise. and some came to Solon every day. and tell the meaning of such and such a passage. thus up to the thirtieth.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7.

addressing Philocyprus. and fill the Solian throne. Succeeded still by children of your own. and the other kings imitated the design. Near Nilus' mouth. where he was made much of by Philocyprus. to remove. he called the city Soli. who had a small city built by Demophon. to honor Solon. Theseus's son.. and. from whom.htm (32 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . and spent some time in study with Psenophis of Heliopolis. one of the kings there.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. Let file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. And he stayed himself.. by fair Canopus' shore. the most learned of all the priests. therefore. From thence he sailed to Cyprus.7. near the river Clarius. as Plato says. since there lay a fair plain below. Solon persuaded him. and build there a pleasanter and more spacious city.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. insomuch that many flocked to Philocyprus. And Solon himself. and assisted in gathering inhabitants. And from your happy island while I sail. mentions this foundation in these words Long may you live. getting knowledge of the Atlantic story. he put it into a poem. which was formerly named Aepea. and in fitting it both for defense and convenience of living. and proposed to bring it to the knowledge of the Greeks. and Sonchis the Saite. in his Elegies. in a strong situation. but incommodious and uneasy of access.

forsooth. so Solon. in ornaments of jewels. which thousands have endeavored to regulate. and send me safe to land. was in the same condition as an inland man when first he goes to see the sea. that could make a grand and gorgeous spectacle of him. what is more.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. because. and carry him to see his sumptuous furniture and luxuries though he did not wish it. and gold. thought every one had been the king. purple. and told him that this Tellus had been an honest file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and proudly attended with a multitude of guards and footboys. and. some think not agreeable with chronology. and so worthy his wisdom and greatness of mind.7. Croesus asked him if ever he had known a happier man than he.. till he was brought to Croesus. therefore. and saw a great many nobles richly dressed. when he returned from viewing all. but showed himself to all discerning eyes to be a man that despised the gaudiness and petty ostentation of it. so agreeable to Solon's temper.. Cyprus send for me a favoring gale. nor gave Croesus those compliments he expected. Now when Solon came before him. and yet. They say. as he passed through the court. a fellowcitizen of his own. and seemed not at all surprised. who was decked with every possible rarity and curiosity. May she advance. Solon could judge of him well enough by the first sight of him. Prosper your town. he commanded them to open all his treasure houses. but I cannot reject so famous and well-attested a narrative.htm (33 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . that Solon. it does not agree with some chronological canons. coming to Croesus at his request. And when Solon answered that he had known one Tellus. for as he fancies every river he meets with to be the ocean. could never bring their differing opinions to any agreement. and bless your new command. to this day. That Solon should discourse with Croesus.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and.

the loss of which was. "The gods. had had good children. Yes. not to be instructed. unwilling either to flatter or exasperate him more. but no instruction. to salute as happy one that is still in the midst of life and hazard. with every possible variety of fortune. after sacrificing and feasting. O king. in course of time.received. let your converse with kings be either short or seasonable. they went to rest. for not measuring happiness by the abundance of gold and silver. "He was one of the wise men of Greece." So at this time Croesus despised Solon." replied Solon. when the oxen delayed her. forbids us to grow insolent upon our present enjoyments. and preferring the life and death of a private and mean man before so much power and empire." said Croesus. to be a greater evil than the enjoyment was a file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. rather. not a noble and kingly wisdom. Cleobis and Biton. but when he was overcome by Cyrus. have given the Greeks all other gifts in moderate degree. suffer change. and very much esteemed. and him only to whom the divinity has continued happiness unto the end. and. but that he should see and be a witness of my happiness.htm (34 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . or to admire any man's happiness that may yet. who were loving brothers. he cried out as loud as possibly he could three times. and so our wisdom. "O Solon!" and Cyrus being surprised. was taken alive." "Nay. and gave him this advice: "Solon. he was dismissed. it seems. having given Croesus some pain. replied. and never rose again. For the uncertain future has yet to come. being then at Sardis upon Croesus's invitation. and she herself rejoicing. a competent estate. besides Tellus. Aesop. And Solon replying. who wrote the fables. whom alone he invoked in this extremity. then.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. He asked him.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. too. had lost his city.7. saying. if. her neighbors all calling her happy. observing the numerous misfortunes that attend all conditions." After this. "What. he knew any other man more happy. whom I sent for. and died bravely in battle for his country. is a cheerful and a homely. angrily. and sending some to inquire what man or god this Solon was. Croesus told him the whole story.. and drew her to Juno's temple. or to learn any thing that I wanted. and this. Croesus took him for an ill-bred fellow and a fool. we call happy. and extremely dutiful sons to their mother. "and dost not thou reckon us amongst the happy men at all?" Solon. and laid bound upon the pile before all the Persians and Cyrus himself. "either short or reasonable.. but died in the midst of their honor a painless and tranquil death. we think as little safe and conclusive as to crown and proclaim as victorious the wrestler that is yet in the ring. condemned to be burnt. however. again. man. harnessed themselves to the wagon. was concerned that Solon was so ill.

in which were the poorest people. and after the play was done. conjecturing from what then was. at this time. And he. and Pisistratus the Hill-party. yet all looked for and desired a change of government. a great friend to the poor. and was reverenced by all. because it was new. and often told him and others. but now the loss of them has brought upon me intolerable and real evils. he not only freed Croesus from punishment. and honored. Thus he deceived the majority of people. and Solon had the glory. being by nature fond of hearing and learning something new. for when I had them they were goods only in opinion. he had the skill to imitate. that if any one could banish the passion for preeminence from his mind. as the ancient custom was. the citizens began to quarrel.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. bade me look to the end of my life. Pisistratus appearing the most tractable. When Solon was gone. good. yet. and Thespis replying that it was no harm to say or do so in play. and not rely and grow proud upon uncertainties. but Solon quickly discovered his character. but endeavored to humble him.. and saw in the present example Solon's maxim confirmed. and put them above the contrary faction. and cure him of his desire of absolute power. indeed. to save one king and instruct another. and bring him off from his ambition. and now. one that loved equality. Megacles. and asked him if he was not ashamed to tell so many lies before such a number of people. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. though the city still used the new laws. Solon returned. being accounted a prudent and orderly man. this that now is. with music and with wine. Lycurgus headed the Plain. but his old age would not permit him to be as active. he endeavored to compose the differences. and would be an enemy to any that moved against the present settlement.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. in his old age. though it was not yet made a matter of competition. Affairs standing thus. Thespis. so that he was trusted more than the others. taking very much with the multitude. and the thing. and to speak in public. insomuch that. by the same saying. the son of Alcmaeon. the Thetes. who was a wiser man than Croesus.htm (35 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . for he was extremely smooth and engaging in his language. and enjoying himself. act.7. living idly. as formerly. but honored him as long as he lived." When this was told Cyrus. by privately conferring with the heads of the factions. and found out his design before any one else. and moderate in his resentments. beginning to act tragedies. yet did not hate him upon this. and greatest enemies to the rich. hoping severally that the change would be better for them. none would make a more virtuous man or a more excellent citizen. Solon.. those to the Seaside. he addressed him. and what nature had not given him. went to see Thespis himself.

But all together make one empty fool." After this. Solon. you do. and said. where one Ariston making a motion that they should allow Pisistratus fifty clubmen for a guard to his person. Solon opposed it. "This. much to the same purport as what he has left us in his poems. You dote upon his words and taking phrase. and again. and met in an assembly. what he did to deceive his enemies. and a great many were enraged and cried out. as if he had been thus treated by his opponents because of his political conduct. was brought into the marketplace in a chariot.7.. the people were eager to protect Pisistratus.htm (36 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . we shall find it some day in our business.. you are singly each a crafty soul." said he. is a bad copy of Homer's Ulysses." Now when Pisistratus. to trick your countrymen. coming close to him.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. "if we honor and commend such play as this. Solon vehemently struck his staff against the ground: "Ay. and stirred up the people.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. having wounded himself. said. O son of Hippocrates. True.

were afraid to oppose the tyranny. though they understood it. Now. and. having passed the law. Megacles. and likewise then spoke that memorable saying. with all his family. though he enlisted and kept as many as he would. All the strongholds you put into his hands.. the people. And now his slaves must do what he commands. he brought them out and laid them in the porch before his door. If now you suffer. taking his arms.. and in part urging and exhorting them not thus tamely to lose their liberty. he departed. with these words: "I have done my part to maintain my country and my laws. and had none to back him. he returned home. and had gathered strength. stouter than those that. and the rich fearful and getting out of harm's way. His friends advising him to fly. For they are good. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro." and then he busied himself no more. but took no notice of it. it was an easier task to stop the rising tyranny. until he seized the Acropolis.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. wiser than those that did not understand the design.7. and all the fault was ours. but wrote poems. but Solon. he refused. but now the greater and more glorious action to destroy it. When that was done. But observing the poor men bent to gratify Pisistratus. and the city in an uproar. and thus reproached the Athenians in them. saying he was wiser than some and stouter than others. and tumultuous. though he was now very old.htm (37 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . were not nice with Pisistratus about the number of his clubmen.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. before. partly blaming their inadvertency and meanness of spirit. do not blame the Powers. that. at once fled. yet came into the marketplace and made a speech to the citizens. But all being afraid to side with him. when it was begun already.

file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. who had decreed it in the case of one Thersippus. and learn something new and again. observed them himself. but his accuser did not appear. And he added other laws. such verses testify. and Theophrastus asserts that it was Pisistratus.. And many telling him that the tyrant would take his life for this. so extremely courted Solon." But Pisistratus.. that was maimed. And he himself. one of which is that the maimed in the wars should be maintained at the public charge. being accused of murder before the Areopagus. having got the command. as Each day grow older. and being discouraged at the greatness of the task. the history or fable of the Atlantic Island. not Solon. he replied. and approved many of his actions. having begun the great work in verse. as Plato says. which he had learned from the wise men in Sais.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. that made that law against laziness. and thought convenient for the Athenians to know. that Solon gave him his advice. not. abandoned it. and that Pisistratus followed Solon's example in this.htm (38 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . Now Solon. that he ventured to speak so boldly.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. which was the reason that the country was more productive. and compelled his friends to obey. and asking what he trusted to. for he retained most of Solon's laws. and the city tranquiller. but because of his age.7. and sent to see him. for that he had leisure enough. though already absolute ruler. by reason of want of time. this Heraclides Ponticus records. so honored him. "To my old age. came quietly to clear himself. obliged him.

Solon lived after Pisistratus seized the government. beginning it late. large courts. willing to improve the story of the Atlantic Island. amongst all his excellent works. as if it were a fair estate that wanted an heir and came with some title to him. or be thought anything but a mere fable. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. noble enclosures.. so Plato.htm (39 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:32 . by Aristotle.. are also mine. and the reader's regret for the unfinished part is the greater. The story that his ashes were scattered about the island Salamis is too strange to be easily believed. For as the city of Athens left only the temple of Jupiter Olympius unfinished. or poetic fiction. but. the philosopher. and Phanias says Solon died under Hegestratus. ended his life before his work. fable. indeed. Song.7. Which are most men's delights. Plato. as Heraclides Ponticus asserts. amongst other good authors. stately entrances. such as never yet introduced any story. but Phanias the Eresian says not two full years. who succeeded Comias.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. left this only piece about the Atlantic Island imperfect. formed. for Pisistratus began his tyranny when Comias was archon. as the satisfaction he takes in that which is complete is extraordinary. But now the Powers of Beauty.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-7. and Wine. and yet it is given. a long time.

and a divided power appeared more grateful in the prospect. instead of kingly rule. POPLICOLA Such was Solon. But Brutus file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. that his desire to serve his country should be doubted. and. and Lucius Brutus. a man amongst the early citizens. thereby giving assurance. Tarquinius Collatinus was chosen. Publius Valerius. was disappointed. as it is said. as the author of the democracy. with his zealous assistance. came to Valerius before all others. lest his anger should reconcile him to the king's side. engaging in the change. that. as a noble accession to his former name. And whilst the people inclined towards the electing one leader instead of their king.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. with his making it. that to rule was rather Brutus's due. a man noways his superior in merit. But when the name of monarchy was odious to the people. the husband of Lucretia. the other with integrity and freedom in the service of justice. tottering as yet under the uncertainties of a change. Valerius acquiesced. for. he would become a chief man in the community. To him we compare Poplicola. deposed the kings.htm (1 of 17)2006-05-31 20:37:34 . instead of Valerius..8. Thus descended. who still used all endeavors abroad and solicitations at home. upon the death of Lucretia (she killing herself after violence had been done to her). should the government fall into a republic. who received this later title from the Roman people for his merit. because he had sustained no private injury from the insolence of the tyrants. too. having inspired the people with a hatred to his reign. Publius Valerius. Valerius. He descended from Valerius. charitably employing the one in liberal aid to the poor. were resolved upon a chieftain of an intense hatred to them. reputed the principal reconciler of the differences betwixt the Romans and Sabines. But the nobles. and noways likely to yield. quitting all public concerns. and two were chosen to hold it. entertaining hopes that he might be elected consul with Brutus. dreading the return of their kings. The illegal and wicked accession of Tarquinius Superbus to the crown. they took an occasion of revolt. obtained as great a name from his eloquence as from his riches. and fear. which gave an occasion of discourse. Now Valerius was troubled. and he should prove the ruin of the state.. He withdrew from the senate and practice of the bar. whilst Rome remained under its kingly government. notwithstanding the endeavors of Brutus. and one that was most instrumental in persuading their kings to assent to peace and union. the instrument of insolence and tyranny.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-8.

delaying their return.8.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. their near relations and daily companions. to ally themselves to the great house and royal hopes of the Tarquins. who declared their king would recede from his crown. his friends. which gave great satisfaction to the senate and assurance to the consuls. and Collatinus in particular favoring it. and was the first man that took the oath. which had three. and made moderation the only measure of his desires. The Romans. should have any occasion offered them. in granting subsidies to tyranny. a private man. which had two senators. to be used against themselves. rather than to remit it to the tyrants. with popular and specious proposals. rushed into the forum. amongst whom the first that spake was Caius Minucius.consul to be a traitor. and urged the Romans to keep the property. his actions soon after showing the sincerity of his oath. and allies. in fine. of his property. the demand sounded the feelings of the people. These all were. several inclining to the request. and would not permit that the poorer people. the Aquillian. only capitulating for a restitution to himself. To this embassy the consuls thought fit to give public audience. till. and supplies for a war to those to whom it was monstrous to allow so much as subsistence in exile. whereby they thought to seduce the people.. or any temptations to new designs. who entertained more fear of war than of tyranny. they should not sacrifice peace for the sake of money. This question. besides which Brutus had a special alliance to the Vitellii from his marriage with their sister. the Vitellii seduced to join in the plot. however. and lay down his arms. and employ it against the tyrants. by the mother's side. and determining to give the test to the senate upon the altars. a man of vehement and unbending nature. in no way to submit or yield to Tarquin's propositions. and the Vitellian. upon the day appointed Valerius came with cheerfulness into the forum. For ambassadors came from Tarquin. and gain emancipation from the violence and imbecility united of their file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. as though the king had cast off all insolence. decided that whilst they enjoyed the liberty they had fought for. but rigorously to maintain liberty. nephews to Collatinus. who advised Brutus. was the least part of Tarquin's design. of their own age.htm (2 of 17)2006-05-31 20:37:34 . they corrupted two of the most eminent families in Rome. but Valerius opposed it. Now. of their moneys and estates to support them in their banishment. under pretense of selling some of the goods and reserving others to be sent away. however. but send out the tyrants' property after them.. two of whom. Brutus. This caused an assembly of the citizens. by whom he had several children. being doubtful of some others. and was preparatory to a conspiracy which the ambassadors endeavored to excite. there proclaiming his fellow.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-8. Afterwards other ambassadors arrived.

forcing an entrance through the gates. to protect himself from the tyrants. all thought it convenient to bind themselves in a solemn and dreadful oath. and they wrote letters to Tarquin to this effect. Valerius was struck with amazement.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. seeing with how much haste and concern they came in. if possible. and placed his wife as a guard to the door. however. he went and addressed himself to Valerius. was.8. as it chanced. dark and unfrequented. whilst he. absent from home. and so. as was natural. not out of design or any intelligence of the affair. and placed himself behind a chest. the writings there. with his constant attendance of clients and friends. Their resolutions were to kill the consuls. while the imbecility which he had long feigned. and were present at the consultation. and secure the domestics. as it chanced. For which design they met at the house of the Aquillii. and by no means would dismiss the discoverer. coming to blows about the gate. at last. his brother Marcus and his own wife being present. after much struggling on both sides..0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-8. accidentally being within. seemed equally (as indeed it was) shocking. for to arraign the sons before the father Brutus. in name at least. he was afraid to be discovered. and a slave named Vindicius had. Unable. whose known freedom and kindness of temper were an inducement. who were. yet he knew no private Roman to whom he could entrust secrets of such importance. The other party made a resistance. to keep silence. and touching his entrails. but was at a loss what to do in the matter. But when Vindicius came and made a complete discovery to him. but confined him to the room. they lit upon the letters then lying in the lodgings of the ambassadors. father. endeavored a recovery of the letters. it appears. where he was able to observe their actions and overhear their debates. repaired to the house of the Aquillii. and a great retinue of attendants. and who never shut his gates against the petitions or indigences of humble people. throwing their gowns round their opponents' necks. and seize. and burdened with his knowledge. who were lodging upon the spot with the Aquillii. but. still. made their way with their prisoners through the streets into file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. whose austerity to offenders they termed violence. Upon their departure. and. as he was a person to whom the needy had easy access.. and. When upon these inducements the youths came to confer with the Aquillii. ascribed to him. concealed himself there. The building chosen for the transaction was. Vindicius secretly quitted the house. or the nephews before the uncle Collatinus.htm (3 of 17)2006-05-31 20:37:34 . Meantime the Aquillii returned in all haste. by tasting the blood of a murdered man. and gave them to the ambassadors. sending his brother in the interim to beset the king's palace.

Upon Brutus's departure out of the forum. and the accusation stated. and was proceeding to dissolve the assembly.htm (4 of 17)2006-05-31 20:37:34 . The like engagement happened about the king's palace." said he. mentioning banishment. and scourged their bodies with their rods. attended with Valerius's silence. and no reply made.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-8. and no longer harbored amongst their accusers. Brutus. But Brutus. An action truly open alike to the highest commendation and the strongest censure. but sternly watched his children suffer. nor allowed the least glance of pity to soften and smooth his aspect of rigor and austerity. or the extravagance of his misery took away all sense of it. committing the rest to the judgment of his colleague. The consul seemed inclined to their proposal. but either divine or brutish. laying hands on such of the king's people as he could find.. calling his two sons by their names. Tiberius. the tears of Collatinus. where Marcus seized some other letters which it was designed should be conveyed away in the goods. extending them on the ground. "O Titus. however. and silence for some time possessed all that reflected on what was done. too tragical a scene for others to look at. the forum. their servant.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. the easiness and tardiness. or the result of humanity. dragged them also into the forum. but Valerius would not suffer Vindicius. gave confidence to the Aquillii to request some time to answer their charge. and. bound their hands behind them. he turned himself to the lictors. Brutus did a greater work in the establishment of the government than Romulus in the foundation of the city. "What remains is your duty. cut off their heads with an axe. or thou. consternation. but neither seemed common. and the letters were opened. out of kindness to Brutus. in the Romans' opinion. however. and. horror. Most of the people standing mute and sorrowful. should be remitted into their hands. even till the lictors. gave some hopes of mercy. and cried.. Yet it is more reasonable that our judgment should yield to his reputation. to which the traitors could make no plea. nor the meeting to withdraw without punishing the traitors. make any defense against the indictment?" The question being thrice proposed. and that Vindicius. for either the greatness of his virtue raised him above the impressions of sorrow." They immediately seized the youths. and at length laid violent hands upon the Aquillii. some only. then departed. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. than that his merit should suffer detraction by the weakness of our judgment. is said not to have turned aside his face. stripping them of their clothes. Vindicius was brought out by the orders of Valerius. and. to be surrendered. of Collatinus. who was surrounded by his people.8. When the consuls had quieted the tumult. calling Brutus to his assistance. "Canst not thou.

and the people cried out for Brutus.. of which he thought Vindicius deserved a share. exclaimed against the unreasonable course of Collatinus. and trees withal that were cut down. a citizen of Rome. they cast all into the water. with high honor. the stream working the mass into a firmness. to impose upon his colleague the necessity of taking away the lives of his own sons. settling there. as a just reward of his zeal.. who thus courted popularity. was devoted to the service of that god. told them he had been competent to pass sentence by himself upon his own sons. or unsanctify them with any use.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. free from all occupation. dedicating the soil. the remainder. indeed. insomuch file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. they were returned condemned by all the suffrages. the goods of the kings were exposed to plunder.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-8. other freedmen received the right of suffrage a long time after from Appius. and commanding Vindicius to be taken away. finding no farther conveyance. and struck all who endeavored a rescue. but after this had happened. and. and were accordingly beheaded. were stopped and interwoven one with another. who. the consulship. perceiving himself an offense to every one." But there was no need of oratory. they thought it not proper to commit them to the flail. and gave him the privilege of voting in what tribe soever he was pleased to be enrolled. a perfect manumission is called to this day vindicta. The pleasantest part of the field of Mars. had made him obnoxious to the people. it being referred to the vote. Valerius's friends headed the resistance. displeased at this. to the rubbish. Collatinus. Valerius obtained. and the sheaves yet being on the ground. and persuade whom he can. and yet have thoughts of gratifying some women with the lives of traitors and public enemies. it happening to be harvest season. these thrown in. and his second name. and the palace to ruin. on silence being made. the stream did not bear them far. became an accession of matter. but left the rest to the suffrages of the free citizens: "Let every man speak that wishes. Collatinus's relationship to the kings had. This done. as well as cement. This. first of all freedmen. returning.8. already rendered him suspicious. too. which Tarquin had owned. whom he made. and closing together. one upon another. who were loath to hear the very sound of Tarquin. to the deity. but where the first were carried down and came to a bottom. and from this Vindicius. therefore. he relinquished his charge and departed from the city. Now. and washing down fresh mud. the lictors made their way through the crowd and seized their man. At the new elections in his room. carrying them to the river side. for.htm (5 of 17)2006-05-31 20:37:34 .

through fear and amazement. Valerius was much concerned. and walks. the other his banishment. but refused it.. when Tarquinia. thus some tell the story. disregarding their own security. they found on the Tuscans' side eleven thousand and three hundred. and obtained great honors in consequence. they say that the grove shook. amounting to nearly five thousand. with a great army. than they could feel of victory from conjecture about those of their adversaries. gave an adjacent field to the public. she had also the liberty to marry. the other the Aesuvian meadow. The night being come (and such as one may presume must follow such a battle). set spurs to their horses. but in after. the one called the Arsian grove. The consuls headed the Romans against them. which gave it extension enough to stop on its way most of what the stream brought down. when they numbered the dead. despairing of a return to his kingdom by the conspiracy. fell together in the combat. engaging with more fury than forethought. Though some say this did not happen at the dedication of Tarquin's field. saying that the Tuscans had lost one man more than the Romans. and Valerius triumphed in honor of it. however.. who. and were for the most part dispersed. amongst the rest. The Romans. When they came into action. but forced and compressed it all together.htm (6 of 17)2006-05-31 20:37:34 . and plundered the camp.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. lying by the city. and. Aruns. that of all women her testimony alone should be received. and Brutus.8. and the Romans at once received it with shouts and expressions of joy. not accidentally encountering each other. Each party. and the armies laid to rest. that the violence of the waters could not remove it. and seeing his men as well dismayed at the sight of their own dead. Tarquin. and made their rendezvous in certain holy places. were separated by a storm. found a kind reception amongst the Tuscans. not knowing what the result of the day was. the one to avenge tyranny and enmity to his country. clearly a divine announcement. adorned with temples of the gods. being the first file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. so apparently equal in the number was the slaughter on either side. This is now a sacred island. the son of Tarquin. as. This fight happened upon the last day of February. took them prisoners. as rejoiced at the loss of the enemy. Thus its bulk and solidity gained it new subsidies. deserted their tents. felt surer of defeat from the actual sight of their own dead.times. and is called in the Latin tongue inter duos pontes. a vestal priestess. proceeded to restore him. exceeding their own loss but by one man. This dreadful onset hardly was followed by a more favorable end. falling upon the remainder. both armies.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-8. doing and receiving equal damage. whilst the Tuscans. but out of hatred and rage. and uttered a voice. the Roman consul.

for the large and beautiful house which was thus lost to them by an unfounded jealousy. the access to it was hard. and found so good a reception. his dwelling house on the Velia was somewhat imposing in appearance. we make Solon the first author. as it is called. The people applauded likewise the honors he did to his colleague. centering all authority in himself. for upon his friends telling him that he displeased the people. where now stands the temple. Yet some part of Valerius's behavior did give offense and disgust to the people. a stately and royal spectacle. had to beg a lodging with his friends. expressed their wonder and their respect for his magnanimity. unless. which was so much liked by the Romans. of Vica Pota. though less stately than his own. seemed not in any sense a successor to Brutus in the consulship. pulled down his house and leveled it with the ground. proceeding down from a house than which the king's house that he had demolished had not been statelier. with the orator Anaximenes. whom they esteemed the father of their liberty. He resolved to render the government. that it became customary for the best men to celebrate the funerals of great citizens with speeches in their commendation. so that in the morning the people. those actions showed him an imitator of Tarquin. but united one and then another to him in his commission. without a roof of his own. instead of file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. as well as himself. they said. But Valerius showed how well it were for men in power and great offices to have ears that give admittance to truth before flattery. when he was attended with all the rods and axes. because Brutus. he contended not. he might make verbal harangues to Brutus's memory. as though it had been a human being. till a place the people gave him was furnished with a house. and overlooking all transactions there. indeed. sending for a number of workpeople. while its owner. but to Tarquin in the tyranny. and was received with an admiration free from envy or offense (as some suggest) on the part of the spectators. hanging over the forum. neither resented it. consul that drove in with a four-horse chariot. in adding to his obsequies a funeral oration.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. their consul. had not presumed to rule without a colleague. it would not otherwise have been continued with so much eagerness and emulation through all the after ages. but while it was still night.. For. For his friends received him. and their antiquity in Rome is affirmed to be greater than in Greece. while Valerius.8.. which sight both appeared magnificent. and to see him far of coming down.htm (7 of 17)2006-05-31 20:37:34 . and their sorrow. seeing and flocking together. yet.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-8.

or people-lover. for the relief of poor citizens. He gave free leave to any to sue for the consulship.8. or the war lately cut off. from pecus. from caprae. a hundred. the people still submitting with satisfaction. a sheep. in the strongest way. Bubulci. in particular one granting offenders the liberty of appealing to the people from the judgment of the consuls. and. or a hog. goats. Amidst this mildness and moderation. First.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. cattle. not. to show. and surnamed their sons Suillii. familiar and pleasant to the people. terrible. of an ox. for it imposed upon disobedience the penalty of ten oxen and two sheep. they write. which they expressed by calling him Poplicola. yet because it was possible he might. even now pieces of property are called peculia. but their wealth in cattle great. but merely to abate their envy by this moderation. afterwards he made several laws which added much to the people's liberty. which the usurpation itself would then preclude. a third. upon his entrance into the assembly. which. the republican foundation of the government. which was no less popular than the rest. But the humility of the man was but a means.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-8. and parted the axes from the rods. that made it death to usurp any magistracy without the people's consent. whose designs were so great. although observed. For the use of money was then infrequent amongst the Romans.htm (8 of 17)2006-05-31 20:37:34 . of lessening himself. amounted to a hundred and sixty-four. lest emulation or ignorance should cross his designs. for one excessive fault he instituted one excessive punishment. against disobedience to the consuls. for though it was not probable for a man. those that he enrolled. for he made it lawful without trial to take away any man's life that aspired to a tyranny.. if he produced evidence of the crime. another. encouraged their labors. taking off their taxes. lowered these also to the people. by his sole authority enacted his best and most important measures. a second. he supplied the vacancies of the senators. but before the admittance of a colleague. he gave a license to any to anticipate the file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. whom either Tarquin long before had put to death. and this the consuls observe to this day. and always. and rather to the benefit of the commonalty than to the advantage of the nobles. which name had the preeminence of the rest. and they had stamped upon their most ancient money an ox. and porci. hogs. in the sequel of this narrative we shall use no other. by force anticipate judgment. mistrusting the chances. therefore. for whatever he detracted from his authority he added to his real power.. and Porcii. the price of a sheep being ten obols. Caprarii. to escape all notice. and acquitted the slayer. as they thought.

and gave him the precedence in the government. He was honored likewise for the law touching the treasury. This occurrence raised wonder and fear in the Veientines.htm (9 of 17)2006-05-31 20:37:34 . designing. and he was unwilling himself to be concerned in the care of it. to subside and be condensed upon the evaporation of the moisture.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. or to permit his friends. nor his voice. as his colleague. either by divine instigation or by accident. The first were Publius Veturius and Marcus Minucius. the Tuscans set in a furnace. upon no apparent occasion. by resigning the fasces to him. with his garland on his head. taking fright. neither did his holding them in prevail. he allotted the temple of Saturn for the treasury. whilst Tarquin was making preparations in Tuscany for a second war against the Romans. but rose and swelled out to that bulk. who demanded it. or treasurers. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. whether from oracular advice or his own pleasure.. but soon after lost his kingdom. and the Tuscans resolved not to deliver it to the Romans. and in a new election Marcus Horatius succeeded in that honor.8. which privilege of seniority continued to our time. A few days after. for because it was necessary for the citizens to contribute out of their estates to the maintenance of wars. they had a horse-race there. it is said a great portent occurred. but he was forced along with violence till. excusing orphans and widows from the payment. he entrusted the workmanship to Tuscans of the city Veii. for they assessed one hundred and thirty thousand. was quietly driving the victorious chariot out of the ring.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-8. he was thrown out by the gate called Ratumena. The soothsayers looked upon this as a divine prognostic of success and power to those that should possess it. the horses. But within a few days Lucretius died. usurper. notwithstanding the removal of the roof and opening the walls of the furnace. Now. and a large sum was collected. and granted the people the liberty of choosing two young men as quaestors. coming to the Capitol.. it could not be taken out without much difficulty. hurried away their driver at full speed to Rome. when solid and firm. to erect an earthen chariot upon the top. with the usual shows and solemnities. After these dispositions. and continued consul for the remainder of the year. as due to his years. and had all but completed the buildings of the Capitol. or indeed to let the public money pass into any private house. he admitted Lucretius. The work thus modeled. in which to this day they deposit the tribute-money. and as the charioteer. but answered that it rather belonged to Tarquin than to those who had sent him into exile. When Tarquin was king. that. but the clay showed not those passive qualities which usually attend its nature. the father of Lucretia. who now permitted the delivery of the chariot.

" which made a great impression upon all others who heard it. indeed. as Sylla was the reverse in dying before the dedication of his. but Marcus thought the lie might avert him from his performance. were Poplicola present. observing his opportunity. it was burnt down in the civil wars. the people having assembled at the Capitol and silence being enjoined. believing it as true. at any rate. I am not a mourner. and what happened in the performance seems to intimate some ground for this conjecture. Horatius. who had got a place on purpose beforehand near the door. left that honor to Catulus.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-8. whether he at once saw through the cheat. The second. also. And now that it was completed with all its ornaments. they urged Horatius to sue for the dedication and. the addition of this. when warring with the Sabines. with the same success that attended him in other things. which happens about the full moon of the month Metagitnion. began a third. but the nobility envied him that honor. whilst Poplicola was engaged in some military expedition. which now exists. in some degree. who returned merely the reply. "O consul. his son or grandson. Poplicola was ambitious to dedicate it. Sylla built. some write. holding the doors." and so completed the dedication. the son of Demaratus. built.8. The fourth. as has been said. voted it to Horatius.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. Tarquinius Superbus. but was as fortunate in dying before its destruction. those his prudence in making laws and conduct in wars entitled him to. was both built and dedicated by file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and lived to see it finished. the brother of Poplicola. and conducted him to the Capitol. when Marcus. Poplicola was by lot destined against his will to the expedition. was built by Tarquin and dedicated by Horatius. showed no discomposure. for. they could not have carried it. and. "Cast the dead out whither you please. after the performance of other ceremonies. was proceeding to pronounce the words of dedication. but could not dedicate it. the first.htm (10 of 17)2006-05-31 20:37:34 . dying before the dedication. as it presently was. The news was not true. The building of the temple of the Capitoline Jupiter had been vowed by Tarquin. according to custom. but did not live to see it again destroyed. because he lost his kindom before it was quite finished. The same fortune attended the dedication of the second temple. Grudging him. and when this was demolished in the Vitellian sedition. thy son lies dead in the camp.. yet in nowise discomposed Horatius. upon the Ides of September.. as. cried. For immediately after Vespasian's death it was consumed by fire. as though. or. Vespasian. but it argues him a man of wonderful self-possession. the other to the dedication. Yet.

htm (11 of 17)2006-05-31 20:37:34 . file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. in his absence. of a length most happily proportioned to their thickness. and sought aid from Lars Porsenna. but when they were cut anew at Rome and polished. and a desire. there placed a colony of seven hundred men. Should any one who wonders at the costliness of the Capitol visit any one gallery in Domitian's palace. like Midas. It is neither piety. a mere disease of building. that 'Tis not beneficence. but. it amounting to above twelve thousand talents. A mere disease of giving things away.8. and. fled to Clusium. nor magnificence. and a man of worth and generosity. as being little concerned at the war. but. immediately sending his commands to Rome that they should receive Tarquin as their king..PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. would be in his mouth in application to Domitian. Epicharmus's remark upon the prodigal. being rendered too taper and slender. to show a spirit yet loftier than Porsenna's. as they lost in symmetry. the pillars were cut out of Pentelican marble. he would say. Poplicola was. or bath. of converting every thing into gold or stone. and Titus Lucretius his colleague. truth to say. and. these we saw at Athens. chosen consul a second time. having signified the time and place where he intended his attack. they did not gain so much in embellishment. indeed. It is said Tarquin expended forty thousand pounds of silver in the very foundations. built the city Sigliuria when Porsenna was already in the neighborhood. Domitian. then one of the most powerful princes of Italy. approached with a great army. returning to Rome. Nevertheless. walling it at great expense. after the great battle wherein he lost his son in combat with Brutus. but the whole wealth of the richest private man in Rome would not discharge the cost of the gilding of this temple in our days. and. And thus much for this matter. proclaimed war. upon the Romans' refusal. or the apartments of his concubines. or hall.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-8.. who assured him of assistance. and. Tarquin.

The story of Mucius is variously given. designed to make. and a famine raging amongst the Romans. resolving to kill Porsenna. Mucius was taken in the act. and swam to the hither side. but not certainly knowing the king. so that the Romans. proposed at once that the Romans should every one make him a present of a day's provisions. and then with his armor dropped into the river. a third time chosen consul. put them to flight. admiring his courage. and. and held back the enemy. but most eminent in war. and besides erected a brazen statue to his honor in the temple of Vulcan. who had almost in their entrance admitted the enemy into the city with them. but at last. The same fortune fell upon Lucretius.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-8. with a wound in his hip from a Tuscan spear. being dismayed. using the Tuscan language. but. that pressed on with their multitude. sinking under desperate wounds. and afterwards gave him as much land as he could plow round in one day. made head against them. making a sharp assault. must follow the commonly received statement. was carried out of the fight. Poplicola. drew out his sword. made both eyes appear but as one. by a mispronunciation they called him Cocles. and fearful to inquire. came to the camp. who intended to sacrifice. Porsenna. without sallying out. Herminius and Lartius. opposed the enemy. or. we. He was a man endowed with every virtue. joining battle by Tiber side. and stabbed one who he thought had most the appearance of king. and whilst it burnt stood looking at Porsenna with a steadfast and undaunted countenance. seconded by two of the first men in Rome. from the depressure of his nose. and whilst he was under examination. and approaching the seat where the king sat amongst his nobles. intending to say Cyclops. as a requital for the lameness caused by his wound. and hence. But Porsenna laying close siege to the city. leaving nothing in the middle to separate them. and Rome was in great hazard of being taken. retreated into the city for their security. only Poplicola by sallying out at the gate prevented them. the enemy forcing their way on to the wooden bridge. and slew five thousand. a pan of fire was brought to the king. This Cocles kept the bridge. where Horatius Cocles. Poplicola. Porsenna at last in admiration dismissed file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. his defense against Porsenna..8. and. attired himself in the Tuscan habit. like others. also a new army of the Tuscans making incursions into the country.. till his own party broke it down behind. Mucius thrust his right hand into the flame. obliged the defendants to retire to Rome.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. privately stealing forth against the new army of the Tuscans. as others write. and. which. Horatius obtained this name from the loss of one of his eyes in the wars.htm (12 of 17)2006-05-31 20:37:34 .

reaching it from his seat. so that. and several times undertook to prove Tarquin the worst of men. and thereupon expressed an inclination to a truce.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. only waiting for an opportunity.htm (13 of 17)2006-05-31 20:37:34 . and restore all prisoners and receive back their deserters. him. presenting themselves to Poplicola. because so brave and good a man deserved rather to be a friend to the Romans than an enemy.8. I presume. and returned his sword.. but. moved also by the solicitations of his son Aruns. yet am vanquished by his generosity. by lot appointed to the enterprise. and. at that part where the winding of the bank formed a bay and made the waters stiller and quieter. All other writers call this man Mucius Scaevola. nor any one coming or going over. apprehending them. much less Porsenna. yet Athenodorus. But file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. upon their safe arrival. as in admiration of the Roman courage. so much out of fear of the three hundred Romans. resenting this answer. by name Cloelia. not. seeing no guard. lurked about his camp. that they should resign the land they had taken from the Tuscans. that had fallen away from his engagements. he sent them back to Porsenna. and said. passing over on horseback. Poplicola. the Romans gave as hostages ten sons of patrician parents. Mucius received it in his left hand.. son of Sandon. and Porsenna. But Tarquin proudly replied he would admit no judge.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-8. all of the same resolution. that three hundred Romans. and mistrusting the equity of his cause. Upon these assurances. was not sorry that he had miscarried in it. and gratitude obliges me to disclose what no punishment could extort. which occasioned the name of Scaevola. made a peace on these conditions. and the young girls went down to the river to bathe. amongst whom was Valeria. To confirm the peace. and this boldness in the maidens should argue treachery in the Romans. and justly deprived of his kingdom. avers he was also called Postumus. persuaded the rest to swim after. left-handed. in a book addressed to Octavia. Some affirm that one of them. Caesar's sister. Porsenna ceased from all acts of hostility. who was earnest for the Roman interest. notwithstanding the depth and violence of the stream. but was concerned lest he should appear less faithful than Porsenna. was induced to refer the controversy with Tarquin to his arbitration. they were encouraged to swim over. he. not so much esteeming Porsenna's enmity dangerous to Rome as his friendship and alliance serviceable. and as many daughters. "I have overcome the terrors of Porsenna. To this Porsenna gave credit. he neither praised nor approved their return. the daughter of Poplicola." and assured him then.

a figure. even down to our time. they cry Porsenna's first. that the opening the door into the street might occasion no surprisal. to give notice to those that pass by or stand near the door. leaving their tents. delivered the Romans.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. commanding one of his horses to be brought. with an house built in the Palatium at the public charge.. There stood. demanding who was the author and adviser of the act. Afterwards. he looked on her with a cheerful and benignant countenance. Valeria. the Sabines making incursions upon the Romans.. on horseback stands in the Via Sacra. and with him Postumius Tubertus. as all accession to his triumph.8. Marcus Valerius. Hence. full of corn and other stores. and whereas the doors of other houses opened inward into the house. where those that are going out make a noise at the door within. by the senatehouse. as a gift to the Romans. the daughter of Poplicola. and commanded his soldiers to quit the camp merely with their arms. those who deny it call it only the honor the Tuscan did to her courage. as you go to the Palatium. a brazen statue of him.htm (14 of 17)2006-05-31 20:37:34 . when a file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. The same fashion in their doors the Greeks. obtained two great victories. in the latter of which he slew thirteen thousand Sabines without the loss of one Roman. laid a strong ambuscade on the other side for those that conducted them. gave them a fresh instance of his generosity. Marcus. brother to Poplicola. to intimate their perpetual public recognition of his merit by thus continually making way for him. when there is a public sale of goods. however. rushed through the enemy and fled. Porsenna. and was honored. made her a present of it. Tarquin's men. hastened to their rescue. others of Valeria. was made consul. but Aruns. and while these were skirmishing together. they say. sumptuously adorned. horseback. by way of perpetual commemoration of his kindness. which some say is the statue of Cloelia. The year after. upon tidings of it. putting the enemy to flight. When Porsenna saw the maidens returned. and. and understanding Cloelia to be the person. thus reconciled to the Romans. and. and with the assistance of three of her attendants made good her escape. whilst the rest were dangerously hedged in by the soldiers.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-8. through the management of affairs by the conduct and direct assistance of Poplicola. had of old universally. which appears from their comedies. of plain and antique workmanship. Porsenna's son. having intelligence of this. This is produced as evidence by those who affirm that only Cloelia passed the river or. they made this to open outward into the street. Poplicola was made consul the fourth time. also.

he came to Rome. and advising with his friends. Appius. and gave him a place in the senate. however injured. not only to understand the grounds of the sedition. that he rose to the highest reputation. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and how offensive to the army and the abettors of the war. both in public and private. allotting to every one two acres of land by the river Anio.8. and thought it indeed unworthy in any man.htm (15 of 17)2006-05-31 20:37:34 . a man of a great wealth and strength of body. Amongst the Sabines there was one Appius Clausus. yet if he pleased. to obtaining absolute power in his own country for himself. Poplicola. Poplicola. and of a formidable confederacy. for his own security. and they inviting again others in the same manner. but to promote and increase it. and seeming to promote the Roman interest.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. with their wives and children. but most eminent for his high character and for his eloquence. he was afraid to stand a trial. and admitted them at once to the franchise. to seek revenge upon his fellow-citizens. upon consultation of the Sibylline books. There were appearances of treat preparation. yet. informed of their approach. to leave his enemies and come to Rome. and he dispatched emissaries with instructions to Clausus. came to the conclusion that it was the best resource which necessity left him. and then prepared against the menaces of men. Neither was Poplicola wanting. which delayed the war. having a considerable body of friends and allies to assist him. restored the city to more cheerful assurance in the gods. a superstitious fear also overran the city on the occasion of general miscarriages of their women.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-8. yet the chief of the community would not suffer them to settle into peace. confederacy of the Sabines and Latins threatened a war. that Poplicola was assured of his goodness and justice. he could not escape the envy of others. raised a tumult amongst the Sabines. and left the Claudian house behind him. with the honor his merit deserved. by turning deserter. The departure of these men rendered things quiet amongst the Sabines. which was much occasioned by his dissuading the war. Knowing how welcome these reports would be to the multitude. with a view. but to Clausus twenty-five acres. people of the quietest and steadiest temper of all the Sabines. no single birth coming to its due time.. seriously weighing the matter. a commencement of political power which he used so wisely. sacrificing to Pluto. as is usually the fate of great men. but resented that Clausus now.. he should be received. bringing five thousand families. and renewing certain games commanded by Apollo. it was thought. and their own glory required. but. inferior to none in Rome. received them with all the kind offices of a friend. was very influential.

so far as human life may be. presuming that the other was safe. should disappoint that revenge upon the Romans. commanding them upon their approach to the town so to retreat as to draw the enemy into the ambush. fugitives thus met fugitives. soon advertised of these designs by deserters..0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-8. Poplicola. however. that Poplicola had delivered their enemies lame and blind. and it was observed to be heard amongst the soldiers. Postumius Balbus. This victory. and without any resistance the Romans killed them in their flight. but still were in his debt. Lucretius. their very hopes leading them to their death. of the city Fidenae was the preservation of the Sabines. every one contributing his quadrans towards the charge. there to observe their motions. and placed an ambuscade of two thousand men near Rome. and bequeathed the city to the care of the succeeding consuls. under which the ambush lay. Poplicola. having completed his triumph. by private consent. while at home. with shouts from the hills. with the rest of the army. whilst he. Coming with a great army. or were taken prisoners. though usually ascribing such success to some god.htm (16 of 17)2006-05-31 20:37:34 . his colleague. especially those that fled from the camp. was appointed to meet the Sabine horse. the women. From the spoil and prisoners great wealth accrued to the people. they sat down before Fidenae. The nearness. disposed his forces to their respective charges. by the people's file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. which. and the ambuscade flying. and only not in chains. thus closing a life which.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.8. as though they had not duly rewarded his deserts when alive. gave up all thought of fighting or keeping their ground. Lucretius charged the light-horse. should go out and ravage the country. those that could not gain the city either perished in the field. with a design that some few horsemen. as soon as it was day. early in the morning. decreed him a public interment. however. attributed to the conduct of one captain. and found those from whom they expected succor as much in need of succor from themselves. assailed the ambuscade. The people. encompassed the enemy. he had unsuccessfully opposed. to be dispatched by their swords. so that on all sides defeat and ruin came upon the Sabines. besides. mourned a whole year. his son-in-law. was ordered to take the hills. and Poplicola besieged the camp. the Romans. to the camp. going out with three thousand men in the evening. Postumius. had been full of all that is good and honorable. attended with a body of the lightest and boldest men. He was buried. died. And a thick mist rising accidentally. and these quitting the camp to retire to the ambuscade. in wooded and hollow spots. a signal mark of honor to his memory. for each division..

but the body is carried thither and set down.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-8..8.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. none of the family are interred there. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and someone places a burning torch under it.. and his receding from his honor. and immediately takes it away. where his posterity had likewise privilege of burial. however. after which the body is removed. now. desire. in the part called Velia.htm (17 of 17)2006-05-31 20:37:34 . within the city. as an attestation of the deceased's privilege.

he himself made. is evidence to Poplicola's happiness. it seems more applicable to Poplicola.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. was yet slain by his enemies. Tellus. in his verses against Mimnermus about the continuance of man's life. and also since his death many amongst the distinguished families. after a lapse of six hundred years.. which has not occurred in any other of the lives. whose virtuous life and dying well had gained him the name of the happiest man.20Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-9. COMPARISON OF POPLICOLA WITH SOLON There is something singular in the present parallel. slew his. but Poplicola. the women deplored his loss as that of a son. "but wealth by wrong procure file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Prov. "Wealth I would have. and Valerii. yet was never celebrated in Solon's poems for a good man. the ejaculation which. his death did not only draw tears from his friends and acquaintance. nor have his children or any magistracy of his deserved a memorial. and the other his best evidence. Besides. Messalae. Upon the survey of Solon's sentence to Croesus in favor of Tellus's happiness. but was the object of universal regret and sorrow through the whole city. to a happy end.9. acknowledge him as the fountain of their honor. or common father. and may I. brother." said Solon. Occasion sighs and sorrows to my friends. and saw his country victorious under his command. the better fortune. Mourned let me die. for Tellus. when life ends. the Poplicolae. And his honors and triumphs brought him. though keeping his post and fighting like a valiant soldier. even in our days. which was Solon's ambition. that the one should be the imitator of the other.. but Poplicola's life was the most eminent amongst the Romans. as well for the greatness of his virtue as his power.htm (1 of 4)2006-05-31 20:37:34 .

We must allow. receiving a despotic command. if of good character. the excessive powers and assumption of the consulship. but augmented the old to almost double its number. indeed. the quaestors. create a new senate. he yet declined it. The aversion to tyranny was stronger in Poplicola. The appointment of treasurers again. indeed. Several of his laws. have the greater temptation to injustice. as Solon did.htm (2 of 4)2006-05-31 20:37:34 . in reducing. And though Solon justly gloried. it was his great means file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Prov. and allowing offenders the liberty of appealing to the people. by his choice of him as his model in the formation of republican institutions. only be punished upon conviction.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C." because punishment would follow. as his empowering the people to elect their officers. indeed. He did not. by Solon's law.20Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-9. that. but he spent them nobly in doing good to the distressed. with the intent that the chief magistrate should not. or. and when his countrymen would have willingly seen him accept it. converted it to a popular office.9. as Solon did to the jurors. has a like origin. so did also Poplicola to his. And as Solon may thus be said to have contributed to Poplicola's glory. be withdrawn from greater matters.. for example. by holding both the government and treasury in his hands. still Poplicola merited no less. who. this Poplicola had. when arbitrary power was absolutely offered to him by circumstances. any one who attempted usurpation could. but Poplicola made it death before a trial. So that if Solon was reputed the wisest man. would not. But Poplicola's riches were not only justly his. we must allow Poplicola to be the happiest. and did not employ the whole legal power which he held. for what Solon wished for as the greatest and most perfect good. The remission of debts was peculiar to Solon. that Solon was before Poplicola in observing that A people always minds its rulers best When it is neither humored nor oppressed.. he actually transferred to Rome. if bad. and used and enjoyed to his death.

induced the enterprise against Salamis. departed from Athens. he was yet more to be commended. also. be more than anywhere at the beck and bidding of the rich.20Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-9. in the very seats and sanctuaries of equality. Solon. In domestic politics. and concession were requisite. without the aid of any ally. Daimachus of Plataea will not even allow Solon the conduct of the war against the Megarians. and the public discussions. engraven in wood. a terrible and invincible enemy. Porsenna. for a mere law to give all men equal rights is but useless. A yet more extraordinary success was. yet the close of Poplicola's life was more happy and desirable. And as. he behaved with courage and resolution. uniting thus to virtues equal to those. as it were. achieved his most important measures by his own conduct. persuasion. though he actually knew of Pisistratus's ambition. as soon as he had made them. and by counterfeiting madness. whilst Poplicola. but Poplicola was victorious in the most important conflicts. whereas Poplicola. upon this one occasion this dangerous but powerful remedy actually put an end to civil violence already existing. both as a private soldier and commander. yet was not able to suppress it. in play. both in and out of office. and. as was before intimated. so. if the poor must sacrifice those rights to their debts.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. for Solon saw the dissolution of his own commonwealth. but had to yield to usurpation in its infancy.htm (3 of 4)2006-05-31 20:37:34 . for he was entirely original. although usually civil violence is caused by any remission of debts.. The beginning of his government was more glorious. Some may. and purposes identical with those of Solon.repute and discredit of the change. but destitute of a defender. took arms against Tarquin. detected the conspiracy. not only expelled the tyrants from the city. that. exposed himself to the greatest risk. remaining. Solon's own private worth and reputation overbalancing all the ordinary ill. strongly settled by long continuance. but extirpated their very hopes. in cases calling for contest and resistance and manful opposition. whereas Poplicola utterly subverted and dissolved a potent monarchy. in instances where peaceable language. and followed no man's example. labored to establish the government Solon. Poplicola's maintained the state in good order down to the civil wars. being principally concerned both in preventing the escape of and afterwards punishing the traitors. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Prov.. in the very beginning. the good fortune and the power that alone could make them effective. for confirming the citizens' liberty.9. leaving his laws. and. Solon. the courts of justice. and. and succeeded in gaining happily to reconciliation and friendship. the offices of state. In military exploits.

saved their undoubted patrimony. perhaps. for the Athenians. and by yielding in a small matter secures a greater. object.20Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-9. but judgment is to be made of actions according to the times in which they were performed.9. moreover. he not only got the victory.. often by foregoing a part he saves the whole. whereas Poplicola receded from part of what the Romans were at that time possessed of. and procured. which they had lost. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Prov. but likewise what he himself would willingly have given to purchase the victory. and leaving them all the provision of his camp.. The conduct of a wise politician is ever suited to the present posture of affairs.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. Permitting the decision of the controversy to his adversary.htm (4 of 4)2006-05-31 20:37:34 . that Solon recovered Salamis. the stores of the enemy for those who were only too thankful to secure their city. from the sense of the virtue and gallant disposition of the Romans which their consul had impressed upon him. by restoring what the Romans had lately usurped. and so Poplicola. Porsenna putting an end to the war.

but Euterpe. having had a mortal woman for his mother). dedicated to Hercules. as it is reported. and by his mother's side. His father. and between those of the whole and those of the half blood of Athens. if they please. and of the tribe Leontis. and born in Thrace. Let the Greek women scorn me. and beautified it with pictures and other ornaments. after it had been burnt by the Persians. I was the mother of Themistocles. that he rebuilt the chapel of Phlya. and Neanthes adds farther that she was of Halicarnassus in Caria. It is confessed by all that from his youth he was of a vehement and file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.htm (1 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . including those that were of the half-blood or had but one parent an Athenian. I am not of the noble Grecian race. was not of the distinguished people of Athens.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. Neocles.. Themistocles persuaded several of the young men of high birth to accompany him to anoint and exercise themselves together at Cynosarges. I'm poor Abrotonon. as illegitimate children. who was also of half-blood amongst the gods. and that her name was not Abrotonon. he was base-born.. Yet Phanias writes that the mother of Themistocles was not of Thrace. had to attend at the Cynosarges (a wrestling-place outside the gates. However.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. an ingenious device for destroying the distinction between the noble and the base-born. belonging to that family. for Simonides records. but of the township of Phrearrhi.10. THEMISTOCLES The birth of Themistocles was somewhat too obscure to do him honor. And. but of Caria. it is certain that he was related to the house of the Lycomedae.

make it great and glorious. might rather be credited. that Themistocles was an admirer of Mnesiphilus the Phrearrhian. or to teach him any pleasing or graceful accomplishment. upon either side. into sudden and violent courses. and that he studied natural philosophy under Melissus. he allowed himself to follow mere natural character. impetuous nature. were generally called sophists. who report. Anaxagoras was intimate. and very often to break away and determine upon the worst. as other children.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10." He received reluctantly and carelessly instructions given him to improve his manners and behavior.10. In the first essays of his youth he was not regular nor happily balanced. and with Pericles. and transformed the practical part of it into a mere art of speaking and an exercise of words. Stesimbrotus says that Themistocles was a hearer of Anaxagoras. is apt to hurry. if they only get properly trained and broken in. almost like a sect of philosophy. will be nothing small.. when in company where people engaged themselves in what are commonly thought the liberal and elegant amusements. who was much Themistocles's junior. that the wildest colts make the best horses. or in management of affairs. Notwithstanding this. who was neither rhetorician nor natural philosopher. and a strong and aspiring bent for action and great affairs. of a quick apprehension.htm (2 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . by the somewhat arrogant retort. consisting in a sort of political shrewdness and practical sagacity. but those who came afterwards. Themistocles resorted to Mnesiphilus when he had already embarked in politics. but would be always inventing or arranging some oration or declamation to himself. which. But those who upon this file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. so that his master would often say to him. he would give attention to. therefore. as he afterwards owned himself. They. but whatever was said to improve him in sagacity. also. without the control of reason and instruction. were a small and obscure city put into his hands. from confidence in his natural capacities for such things. which had begun and continued. that he certainly could not make use of any stringed instrument.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. beyond one of his years. and mixed it with pleadings and legal artifices. could only. contrary to chronology. but great one way or other. for Melissus commanded the Samians in their siege by Pericles. And thus afterwards. from Solon. the subject of which was generally the excusing or accusing his companions. he was obliged to defend himself against the observations of those who considered themselves highly accomplished. but a professor of that which was then called wisdom. The holidays and intervals in his studies he did not spend in play or idleness. my boy. "You.. for good or else for bad. saying.

and reserved. fasten stories of their own invention. and for these. and so inflamed with the passion for great actions. upon the skillful conduct of the general. he was observed to be thoughtful. both being attached to the beautiful Stesilaus of Ceos. he unhesitatingly accepted the hatred of the most powerful and influential leaders in the city.htm (3 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . and of a nobler sort of character. Miltiades. on the contrary. in public matters. though he was still young when the battle of Marathon was fought against the Persians. and that his mother died for grief of her son's ill fame. Eager from the first to obtain the highest place. certainly calumniate him. it appears. his father showed him the old galleys as they lay forsaken and cast about upon the sea-shore. and his city also in proper training. Yet it is evident that his mind was early imbued with the keenest interest in public affairs. being everywhere talked about. and. that.. seeing him stirring up the people to all kinds of enterprises. who always opposed him. and avoided all his usual places of recreation. and to those who wondered at the change. that "the trophy of Miltiades would not let him sleep. for Aristides was of a mild nature. but more especially of Aristides. as of his being disowned by his father.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and inquired the reason of it. acting always with a view. and interfere against the increase of his influence. Themistocles thought that it was but the beginning of far greater conflicts. and were rivals in politics. he passed the nights without sleep.10. and to let him see how the vulgar behave themselves towards their leaders when they have at last no farther use of them.. And yet all this great enmity between them arose. the son of Lysimachus. foreseeing from far before what would happen. they took opposite sides." And when others were of opinion that the battle of Marathon would be an end to the war. how that to deter him from public business. he gave the answer. and there are others who relate. And. alone by him self. ever after which. he kept himself in continual readiness. as Ariston the philosopher tells us. first of all. he was often forced to oppose Themistocles. For it is said that Themistocles was so transported with the thoughts of glory.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. the Athenians being accustomed to divide amongst themselves the revenue proceeding from the silver mines at file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. from a very boyish occasion. and the most passionate ambition for distinction. not to glory or popularity. Not but that the incompatibility of their lives and manners may seem to have increased the difference. to the benefit of all Greece. but to the best interests of the state consistently with safety and honesty. and introducing various innovations.

and that with the money ships should be built to make war against the Aeginetans. with their ships they might be able to repel the Persians and command Greece. but that the deliverance of Greece came at that time from the sea. Xerxes himself would be sufficient evidence. who was a breeder of horses. and at that time not much to be feared. whereas by land they were not a fit match for their next neighbors. thus. by a seasonable employment of the emulation and anger felt by the Athenians against the Aeginetans. were others wanting. as Plato says. and that these galleys restored Athens again after it was destroyed. he was the only man that dared propose to the people that this distribution should cease. turning and drawing the city down towards the sea. in the belief. though his land-forces were still entire. So that with this money a hundred ships were built. intimating that he would stir up dispute and litigation between him and some of his relations. These measures he carried in the assembly. and by the number of their ships held the sovereignty of the sea. who. according to some. and thought himself no longer able to encounter the Greeks. avoiding all mention of danger from Darius or the Persians. fled away. He went beyond all men in the passion for distinction. that he might be the more liberal. When he was file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. from steady soldiers he turned them into mariners and seamen tossed about the sea. who were at a great distance. he induced them to preparation. of Miltiades. and their coming very uncertain. and when he refused it. henceforward. and. he required a plentiful revenue. and gave occasion for the reproach against him. but. who were the most flourishing people in all Greece.10. against the opposition. And. to give him a colt. Laurium. after his defeat at sea. and whether or no he hereby injured the purity and true balance of government. and bound them to the bench and the oar. little by little. He desired Diphilides. that. Themistocles is said to have been eager in the acquisition of riches.. as Stesimbrotus relates. may be a question for philosophers.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. left Mardonius behind him. yet he is accused by others of having been parsimonious and sordid to that degree that he would sell provisions which were sent to him as a present.. not out of any hopes he could have to bring them into subjection. with which they afterwards fought against Xerxes.htm (4 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . that he took away from the Athenians the spear and the shield. as it seems to me. for loving to sacrifice often. but to hinder them from pursuing him. and Themistocles thus was more easily able to persuade them. threatened that in a short time he would turn his house into a wooden horse. and to be splendid in his entertainment of strangers.

Adimantus was archon. Themistocles." And at another time. still young and unknown in the world. when he was commander of the army. and a slave to riches. but of a faint heart.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.htm (5 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 .. he entreated Epicles of Hermione. and procured his banishment by ostracism. you would be no good poet if you wrote false measure. laughing at Simonides. as an acknowledgment of subjection. having so ill-looking a face. he put up a tablet in record of it. would salute every particular citizen by his own name. When the king of Persia was now advancing against Greece. the poet of Ceos. he said to Simonides. bought off Epicydes and his pretensions. with the inscription. who had a good hand at the lute and was much sought after by the Athenians.10. for a sum of money. to demand earth and water. Phrynichus made it. in his rich tents and furniture. a popular speaker. that was not reasonable. he displeased the Greeks. a man of an eloquent tongue. and many withdrew themselves of their own accord. the play he paid for won the prize. When he came to the Olympic games. being ambitious of having people inquire after his house and frequent his company. who desired something of him." He was well liked by the common people. he at last gained the day with his faction over that of Aristides. with an interpreter. that he strove to outdo Cimon. there was one Epicydes.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. who were inhabitants of a great city. Gradually growing to be great. "Simonides. When the king of Persia sent messengers into Greece. who was desirous of the command. and without title or means for making any such display. to come and practice at home with him. and the Athenians were in consultation who should be general. being terrified with the greatness of the danger. it is said. "Themistocles of Phrearrhi was at the charge of it. fearing that. he said. nor should I be a good magistrate if for favor I made false law. son to Euphemides. seized upon file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. if the command should fall into such hands. and was so splendid in his equipage and entertainments. and winning the favor of the people. but Themistocles. who thought that such magnificence might be allowed in one who was a young man and of a great family but was a great piece of insolence in one as yet undistinguished. and to have his own picture drawn so often. and was looked upon to be in a fair way to carry it by the number of votes. and always show himself a just judge in questions of business between private men. that he was a man of little judgment to speak against the Corinthians. all would be lost. which was then a matter that excited much emulation. In a dramatic contest. by the consent of the people..

and their confederates in wisdom. that if in this war they behaved themselves like men. that in this pass they might maintain the safety of Thessaly. composed their differences. but the Athenians. Having taken upon himself the command of the Athenian forces. but many being against this. he would answer for it after that. the interpreter. as also for what he did to Arthmius of Zelea. by an order from Themistocles. but that which most of all redounded to his credit was.10. yielded his own command to Eurybiades. it is said. which had not as yet declared for the king. and was. together with the Lacedaemonians. then the Athenians more willingly hearkened to the advice of Themistocles to fight by sea. where their file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. but when they returned without performing anything. degraded and disfranchised.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. into Tempe. and Eurybiades to be their admiral. and gained the Athenians the glory of alike surpassing their enemies in valor. and in this great work. and persuaded them to lay aside all enmity during the war with the Persians. till Themistocles. of great assistance to him. extenuating the loss by persuading them. who brought gold from the king of Persia to corrupt the Greeks. and meet with the Persians at a great distance from Greece. would not submit to come after any other. and got the Athenians to submit. and to sail back into some part of Peloponnesus. he immediately determined to retire farther into Greece. And by this moderation of his.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.htm (6 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . for presuming to publish the barbarian orders and decrees in the Greek language. he immediately endeavored to persuade the citizens to leave the city. and it was known that not only the Thessalians. Chileus the Arcadian was. this is one of the actions he is commended for. perceiving the danger of this contest. Eurybiades was astonished to see such a vast number of vessels before him. As soon as the Persian armada arrived at Aphetae. the Greeks would have the Lacedaemonians to command. who surpassed all the rest together in number of vessels. it is evident that he was the chief means of the deliverance of Greece. he led a large force. and. When the contingents met here.. was going over to Xerxes. would submit to their command. of their own will. being informed that two hundred more were sailing round behind the island of Sciathus.. that the Greeks. but all as far as Boeotia. and sent him with a fleet to guard the straits of Artemisium. and put him to death. he and his children and his posterity. and to embark upon their galleys. that he put an end to all the civil wars of Greece.

that they set upon him and left him not so much as his supper.. who. by actual trial and in real danger. and at the bottom of it a talent of silver. land army and their fleet might join. and took it very ill. This. and leave them to the mercy of the enemy. he accepted and gave to Eurybiades. and says justly enough of the fight at Artemisium. for thus. captain of the sacred galley.10. and were resolved to come hand to hand with their enemies. Pindar appears to have seen. nor boasting shouts. and to come up close and grapple with their foes. nor barbarous songs of victory. But the Euboeans. they found out that neither number of ships. sent Pelagon to confer privately with Themistocles..htm (7 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . Though the fights between the Greeks and Persians in the straits of Euboea were not so important as to make any final decision of the war. desiring him to sup tonight. was eager to go home. having no money to supply his seamen. So Phanias the Lesbian tells the story. he would report it amongst the Athenians that he had received money from the enemy. but Themistocles immediately sent him in a chest a service of provisions. at which Architeles was much surprised. as Herodotus reports. fearing that the Greeks would forsake them. nor riches and ornaments. and tomorrow provide for his seamen. which. yet the experience which the Greeks obtained in them was of great advantage.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. taking with him a good sum of money.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. for he looked upon the Persian forces to be altogether unassailable by sea. if not. that There the sons of Athens set The stone that freedom stands on yet. were any way terrible to men that knew how to fight. but Themistocles so incensed the Athenians against him. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. these things they were to despise. In this affair none of his own countrymen opposed him so much as Architeles.

.10. and if you rub them with your hand. they send forth both the smell and color of saffron. Erecting. the shipwrecks and bodies of the dead were burnt. in the middle of a great heap of sand. there is a small temple there. But when news came from Thermopylae to Artemisium. they take out from the bottom a dark powder like ashes. With numerous tribes from Asia's regions brought The sons of Athens on these waters. or something that has passed the fire. informing them that king Leonidas was slain.htm (8 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . where. To Artemis this record of the deed. dedicated to Diana. most nearly opposite to it stands Olizon. There is a place still to be seen upon this shore. and here. Artemisium is in Euboea. surnamed of the Dawn. For the first step towards victory undoubtedly is to gain courage. fought. beyond the city of Histiaea. they returned back to the file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. a sea-beach open to the north. and that Xerxes had made himself master of all the passages by land. around which again stand pillars of white marble. On one of the pillars these verses are engraved. in the country which formerly was under Philoctetes.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. after they had quelled the Mede.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and trees about it.. it is supposed.

and. For to fight alone against such a numerous army was to no purpose. before they could come into Attica. Now.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and not able to draw the people over to his opinion by any human reason. by the suggestion of Themistocles.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. Themistocles. who were their proper founders and fathers. or raise some trouble by making their fidelity doubtful to the Persians. disappeared. and resolved to gather all their forces together within the Isthmus. and were now hazarding all for their liberties. he took notice of the harbors and fit places for the enemies' ships to come to land at. and was burning and destroying the cities of the Phocians. and employed prodigies and oracles. or where they were to water. though Xerxes had already passed through Doris and invaded the country of Phocis. and to build a wall from sea to sea in that narrow neck of land. being wholly intent upon Peloponnesus. in which inscriptions he called upon the Ionians to forsake the Medes. and come over to the Greeks. interior of Greece. and engraved large letters in such stones as he found there by chance. as they themselves had come forward by sea at Artemisium. the place of honor and danger. that the goddess had left the city. but. if it were possible. as also in others which he set up on purpose near to the landingplaces. so that the Athenians were enraged to see themselves betrayed. He hoped that these writings would prevail with the Ionians to revolt. at any rate to impede and disturb the Persians in all engagements. set his machines to work. and declared. The serpent of Minerva. if this could not be done..htm (9 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . and not understanding how there could be deliverance any longer after they had once forsaken the temples of their gods and exposed the tombs and monuments of their ancestors to the fury of their enemies. imagining that it would signify little now to gain a victory. yet the Greeks sent them no relief.. and the only expedient now left them was to leave their city and cling to their ships. as in a theater. they gave no ear to their request.10. the priests gave it out to the people that the offerings which were set for it were found untouched. and much elated by what had been done. and at the same time afflicted and dejected at their own destitution. kept in the inner part of her temple. being at a loss. though the Athenians earnestly desired them to meet the Persians in Boeotia. the Athenians having the command of the rear. As Themistocles sailed along the coast. which the people were very unwilling to submit to. and taken her flight before them file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.

This vote was proposed by Nicagoras. eight drachmas. not miserable or unhappy. When the whole city of Athens were going on board." that they who were of age to bear arms should embark. ransacked all places. and schoolmasters paid to instruct them. by a daily payment of two obols to every one. and found among their goods considerable sums of money concealed. and leave be given to the children to gather fruit where they pleased. But that which stirred compassion most of all was. pass over into the island.10. wives. showing them that walls of wood could signify nothing else but ships. and swam along by the galley's side till he came to the island of Salamis. the father of Pericles. running about the town and howling. which was a great help to the manning of the fleet. and with this the soldiers and seamen were well provided for their voyage. where they were received with eager good-will by the Troezenians. "queen of Athens. who passed a vote that they should be maintained at the public charge. and. and that spot in the island. towards the sea. unmoved with their cries and tears. is said to be his.htm (10 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . and even the tame domestic animals could not be seen without some pity. to see them thus send away their fathers and children before them. but had the epithet of divine.. for that it should one day be associated with a great good fortune of the Greeks. it afforded a spectacle worthy of pity alike and admiration. and he obtained a decree that the city should be committed to the protection of Minerva. most of the Athenians removed their parents. by reason of their great age. and that each should see to sending away his children. women. but leaped into the sea. but the council of Areopagus. were left behind. and that the island of Salamis was termed in it. and slaves where he could. that many old men.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and children to Troezen. under the pretext of searching for it. as Aristotle says. There was no public treasure at that time in Athens.. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. had a dog that would not endure to stay behind. which he applied to the public use. among which it is reported that Xanthippus. and he. When the Athenians were on their way down to the haven of Piraeus. where he fainted away and died. the shield with the head of Medusa was missing. which is still called the Dog's Grave. as desirous to be carried along with their masters that had kept them. At length his opinion prevailed.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. distributed to every one that served. This decree being confirmed. And he often urged them with the oracle which bade them trust to walls of wood. but Clidemus ascribes this also to the art of Themistocles.

" Eurybiades. when the enemy's fleet was arrived at the haven of Phalerum. an owl was seen flying to the right hand of the fleet." replied Themistocles. And when one who stood by him told him that it did not become those who had neither city nor house to lose. and this happy omen so far disposed the Greeks to follow his advice. which Themistocles resisted. and when they saw the king himself in person come down with his land army to the file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. perceiving that the people regretted his absence. that they presently prepared to fight. when Eurybiades. as you did once before. and were fearful that he might go over to the Persians to revenge himself." These expressions of Themistocles made Eurybiades suspect that if he retreated the Athenians would fall off from him. but no heart.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. he said.htm (11 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . wondering much at his moderation. When one of Eretria began to oppose him. to persuade others to relinquish their habitations and forsake their countries. but yet was faint-hearted in time of danger. and thereby ruin the affairs of Greece. near which the land army lay encamped. if you please. Themistocles gave this reply: "We have indeed left our houses and our walls. "that are left behind are not crowned. Eurybiades." Again. Themistocles said. and Themistocles now brought him to a better understanding. consisting of two hundred galleys. and yet our city is the greatest of all Greece. which are here to defend you. "Have you anything to say of war. desired him to speak. not thinking it fit to become slaves for the sake of things that have no life nor soul. base fellow. and with the number of their ships concealed all the shore. which came and sat upon the top of the mast. the recall of Aristides was not the least. but now..Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10.. and as large and free a city. but if you run away and betray us.10. by reason of the greatness of Sparta. to give assistance by word and deed to the cause of Greece with the rest of their fellow-citizens. as that they have lost. he had been ostracized by the party which Themistocles headed. was admiral of the Greek fleet. but hear. and was in banishment. Yet." Some say that while Themistocles was thus speaking things upon the deck. and willing to weigh anchor and set sail for the isthmus of Corinth. Themistocles proposed a decree that those who were banished for a time might return again. "Strike if you will. told him that at the Olympic games they that start up before the rest are lashed. to check his impatience. for. "And they. and this was the occasion of the well-known words. upon the coast of Attica. that are like an ink-fish? you have a sword. Among the great actions of Themistocles at this crisis. Eurybiades lifting up his staff as if he were going to strike. the Greeks shall soon hear news of the Athenians possessing as fair a country. before the war.

This being done. commanding him to tell the king. while they were still doubting. was the first man that perceived it. Aristides. and the attendant of his children. and the Peloponnesians cast their eyes again towards the isthmus.. and. as he would be more readily believed among the Greeks. the pilots had order what course to steer. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. that. which deserted from the Persians.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. and went to the other commanders and captains of the galleys. that Themistocles. knowing the generosity of Aristides. and contrived that stratagem that was carried out by Sicinnus. and received it as from one who wished him all that was good. and much struck by his visit at that time. as well as their necessity. not out of any friendship. for he had been formerly banished by his means. and went to the tent of Themistocles. provoked them all to fight. with all his forces united. loligo. and slip home every one to his own city. This Sicinnus was a Persian captive.10. Themistocles.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. The Teuthis. he would make use of his credit to help to induce them to stay and fight their enemies in the narrow seas. the son of Lysimachus. but to inform him how they were encompassed by their enemies. as has been related. of which Panaetius was commander. and enclose all the straits and passages. imparted to him all that he had transacted by Sicinnus. till a galley of Tenos. or cuttlefish. to set upon them while they were in this confusion and at a distance from their land army. resolving to depart that night. but a great lover of Themistocles. considered with himself. that they should instantly Yet out with two hundred galleys to encompass all the islands. in great distress that the Greeks should retire. and then their rage and fury. yet they did not perfectly assent to him. came in. and that he counseled him to hinder their flight. the admiral of the Athenians. and hereby destroy all their forces by sea. he sent him privately to Xerxes. Themistocles. is said to have a bone or cartilage shaped like a sword. and entreated him. Aristides applauded Themistocles. Xerxes was very joyful at this message. wished to be the first to inform him that the Greeks were ready to make their escape. having espoused his interest. Upon this occasion. and encouraged them to engage. and lose the advantage of the narrow seas and strait passage.htm (12 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . and took it very ill if any one spoke against their returning home. and confirmed the news that all the straits and passages were beset. then the good counsel of Themistocles was soon forgotten. and that they should afterwards follow with the rest of their fleet at leisure.. and was conceived to have no heart. and immediately issued instructions to the commanders of his ships. that none of the Greeks might escape. seaside.

upon those hills which are called the Horns. and richly dressed in ornamented clothing and gold.. to view his fleet.10. fine looking men. who. and offer them up with prayers for victory to Bacchus the Devourer: so should the Greeks not only save themselves. close to the admiral's galley. there were three prisoners brought to him. a philosopher well read in history.htm (13 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . he sat upon a promontory above the temple of Hercules. Xerxes placed himself high up. As soon as it was day. where the coast of Attica is separated from the island by a narrow channel. where he sat in a chair of gold. he took Themistocles by the hand.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and observed that at the same time the fire blazed out from the offerings with a more than ordinary flame. which was an intimation of a fortunate event. led the captives to the altar. as on his certain knowledge. in the following words file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. that it was in the confines of Megara. and how it was set in order. and compelled the execution of the sacrifice as the prophet had commanded. Themistocles was much disturbed at this strange and terrible prophecy. but also obtain victory. Phanodemus says. ever look for relief rather to strange and extravagant than to reasonable means. sister to Xerxes.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. and that a man sneezed on the right. The number of the enemy's ships the poet Aeschylus gives in his tragedy called the Persians. but the common people. and bade him consecrate the three young men for sacrifice. This is reported by Phanias the Lesbian. calling upon Bacchus with one voice. As soon as the prophet Euphrantides saw them. When Themistocles was about to sacrifice.. but Acestodorus writes. with many secretaries about him to write down all that was done in the fight. said to be the children of Artayctes and Sandauce. in any difficult crisis and great exigency.

and thrust him file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and were heavy and cumbrous in their movements. Xerxes. and brings in with it a strong swell into the channel. So is it agreed. who sailed in the same vessel. a brave man. which had high sterns and lofty decks. so that they were fastened together.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10.. and by far the best and worthiest of the king's brothers. as it presented them broadside to the quick charges of the Greeks. Aminias the Decelean and Sosicles the Pedian. I know. The Athenians had a hundred and eighty. upon the ships meeting stem to stem. and more particularly because. and little above the water. admiral to Xerxes.. As Themistocles had fixed upon the most advantageous place. nor begin the fight till the time of day was come. as their best example. he chose the best time of fighting. but did much hurt to the Persians. when there regularly blows in a fresh breeze from the open sea. which was no inconvenience to the Greek ships. so.htm (14 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 .PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. was seen throwing darts and shooting arrows from his huge galley. when Ariamenes attempted to board theirs. in every ship eighteen men fought upon the deck. as from the walls of a castle. Ariamenes.arms. for he would not run the prows of his galleys against the Persians. and transfixing each the other with their brazen prows. who kept their eyes upon the motions of Themistocles. did into battle lead One thousand ships. four of whom were archers and the rest menat. opposed to his ship.10. of more than usual speed Seven and two hundred. which were low. ran at him with their pikes.built. with no less sagacity.

sounding like a number of men accompanying and escorting the mystic Iacchus. It is reported. fell upon the galleys. and will be better advised in all things. indeed. by the joint valor. and fell foul of one another. captain of a galley. it is noways our interest. so as to shut up. as says Simonides. the Greeks thus equaled them in strength. reaching out their hands from the island of Aegina before the Grecian galleys. upon which he might lead his landforces over into the island of Salamis. whom they had invoked to their aid before the battle. as it floated amongst other shipwrecks. being desirous to try the opinion of Aristides. he will soon correct his errors. into the sea. as far as the sea. and appear himself in person upon all occasions. to break the bridge of ships. and dedicated it to Apollo the Laurel-crowned. he that is master of such great forces will no longer sit quietly with an umbrella of gold over his head. that noble and famous victory. if it file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. looking upon the fight for his pleasure. and zeal of all who fought.. but in such a strait will attempt all things. and that sounds and voices were heard through all the Thriasian plain. was known to Artemisia. and that a mist seemed to form and rise from the place from whence the sounds came. Others believed that they saw apparitions. a great flame rose into the air above the city of Eleusis.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. by casting great heaps of earth and stones into the sea. After this sea-fight. "to take away the bridge that is already made. and obtained. attempted. but Aristides. disliking the design. Xerxes. and could bring but part of their fleet to fight. Themistocles. told him that he proposed to set sail for the Hellespont. Therefore. in the shape of armed men. and carried to Xerxes. he will be resolute. said. forced them back. and. in the middle of the fight. Asia a prisoner within Europe. and supply what he has formerly omitted through remissness. "We have hitherto fought with an enemy who has regarded little else but his pleasure and luxury. that.10. but if we shut him up within Greece. but rather to build another. Themistocles. he said.htm (15 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 .." he said. who cut down its ensign. The first man that took a ship was Lycomedes the Athenian. passing forward. to stop up the channel and to make a dam. and drive him to necessity.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. than which neither amongst the Greeks nor barbarians was ever known more glorious exploit on the seas. and supposed they were the Aeacidae. and fought with them till the evening. enraged at his ill-fortune. And as the Persians fought in a narrow arm of the sea. his body. but by the wisdom and sagacity of Themistocles.

and applauding him by clapping their hands. a great lover of honor. that. and sent three hundred young men to accompany him to the confines of their country." To which Themistocles answered. He was. unwillingly. that he might make his retreat with the more expedition. where Mardonius. where.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. but deferred all till the day they were to set sail. where the several commanders delivered their suffrages at the altar. admiring him. the spectators took no farther notice of those who were contesting the prizes. he would not quite conclude any single matter of business. by nature. but spent the whole day in looking upon him. and hinder the confederates from pursuing him. that. they crowned him with olive. though. and other expressions of joy. presented him with the best chariot in the city. and industry. giving the rewards of valor to Eurybiades. he might make file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. every one gave the first vote for himself and the second for Themistocles. showing him to the strangers. Aegina was held to have performed the best service in the war. either public or private.. being very much terrified. "If this be requisite.. as is evident from the anecdotes recorded of him. and in the mean time would cause delays. to rid ourselves of him as soon as may be. of all the cities of Greece. with a very small fraction of the forces of Xerxes. but that Themistocles." and to this purpose he found out among the captives one of the king Of Persia's eunuchs. named Arnaces. by dispatching a great quantity of business all at once. where the boats were fastened together. while all single men yielded to Themistocles.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. being concerned for the king. were possible. out of envy.htm (16 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . much gratified. but. whom he sent to the king. and when they returned to the entrance of Peloponnesus. art. and of wisdom and conduct to Themistocles. he proceeded to retreat out of Greece with all speed. and destroy the bridge. to inform him that the Greeks. when Themistocles entered the course. The prudence of Themistocles and Aristides in this was afterwards more fully understood at the battle of Plataea. Herodotus writes. that he might hasten towards the Asiatic seas.10. being now victorious by sea. and pass over into his own dominions. to determine who was most worthy. so that he himself. Xerxes no sooner heard this. we must immediately use all diligence. had decreed to sail to the Hellespont. And at the next Olympic games. confessed to his friends that he then reaped the fruit of all his labors for the Greeks. indeed. When chosen admiral by the Athenians. The Lacedaemonians carried him with them to Sparta. revealed this to him. and having to meet a great variety of people. put the Greeks in danger of losing all.

saying. who thought he had performed considerable service for the Athenians. Viewing the dead bodies cast up by the sea. he perceived bracelets and necklaces of gold about them. he told him that he had the most power of any one in Greece: "For the Athenians command the rest of Greece. sheltered themselves under him in bad weather. I should never have been famous if I had been of Seriphus. his father also.. young man." He said that the Athenians did not honor him or admire him. For. When the Seriphian told him that he had not obtained this honor by himself. he told him that once upon a time the Day after the Festival found fault with the Festival: "On you there is nothing but hurry and trouble and preparation. the Lacedaemonian ephors not to be against it. and you command your mother. when I come. as soon as it was fine. yet passed on.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. where had you been now?" Laughing at his own son.. everybody sits down quietly and enjoys himself. by which delay he got time for the building of the wall. "You speak truth. and. and.htm (17 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 ." "Even so. rather than riches without a man. for you are not Themistocles. bidding them to send people to Athens to see whether it were so or no. to indulge him. who got his mother. "Take you these things. a sort of plane-tree of him. as Theopompus reports. and so. After these things. he denied the fact. he went to Sparta. when he had land to sell. plucked his leaves and cut his branches. upon the Lacedaemonians charging him with rebuilding the walls. you would not have come at all. under pretest of an embassy. but made. has taught us both a lesson." which the Festival admitted was true. when the Lacedaemonians file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. your mother commands me." he said. he preferred the man of worth to the one who was rich." Loving to be singular in all things. he ordered the crier to give notice that there were good neighbors near it. but. as most relate it. only showing them to a friend that followed him. Such was the character of his sayings.10. but. bribing. and Poliarchus coming on purpose from Aegina to denounce it. had you been of Athens. overreaching and deceiving them. he replied. but "if I had not come first. as it were. saying he desired a man without riches. Of two who made love to his daughter. boastingly compared his actions with those of Themistocles. "if Themistocles had not come before. he began to rebuild and fortify the city of Athens." When another of the generals. but now in his glory courted him. "Time. nor you. a handsome young man. I command the Athenians." He said to Antiphates. where. and also placed these ambassadors in the hands of his countrymen as hostages for him. who had formerly avoided. but by the greatness of his city. by his mother's means. an appearance of greatness and power.

And when Themistocles had discovered to him that his design was to burn the Grecian fleet in the haven of Pagasae. knew the truth. observing the great natural advantages of the locality and desirous to unite the whole city with the sea. or more dishonorable. the authority coming into the hands of sailors and boatswains and pilots. formed yet higher designs with a view to naval supremacy. and the land of the sea. should be excluded. and to reverse. should be turned round towards the land. the file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. Themistocles. they did him no hurt. Themistocles... but was of such a nature. the port and the city into one. that no proposal could be more politic. implying their opinion that the empire by sea had been the origin of the democracy. which increased the power and confidence of the people against the nobility. fearing that the Thessalians. which had faced towards the sea. told them that he had a design to perform something that would tend greatly to their interests and safety. where they wintered. in which Minerva. sent him away. spread the story of the dispute between Minerva and Neptune for the sovereignty of Athens.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. in a public oration to the people of Athens. suppressing all display of their anger for the present. but made the city absolutely the dependent and the adjunct of the port. if he approved of it. at the general council of the Amphictyonians. coming out to the people. after the departure of Xerxes. that it could not be made generally public.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. not by sailing about. in a manner. Next he proceeded to establish the harbor of Piraeus. as Aristophanes says. The Athenians ordered him to impart it to Aristides only. when the Grecian fleet was arrived at Pagasae. gave this report of the stratagem contrived by Themistocles. that the hustings in the assembly. the policy of ancient Athenian kings. to put it in practice. with those of Thebes. For. When the Lacedaemonians proposed. was declared to have won.htm (18 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . and others. but by planting and tilling the earth. whereas Themistocles did not only knead up. on which the Athenians commanded Themistocles to think no farther of it. and to accustom them to live. that the representatives of those cities which were not in the league. being thrown out of the council. and. endeavoring to withdraw their subjects from the sea. Themistocles. Aristides. by producing to the judges an olive tree. Thus it was one of the orders of the thirty tyrants. however. but. Argos. and that the farming population were not so much opposed to oligarchy. who. nor had fought against the Persians.10.

and that most of these. also.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. By this. were very small. I proclaim. Poverty and Impossibility. Persuasion and Force. a third. and they answered him that they had also two great goddesses. how intolerable would it be. he told them that he had brought with him two goddesses. Timocreon. showing them that there were but one and thirty cities which had partaken in the war. he incurred the displeasure of the Lacedaemonians. while abandoning himself. for Themistocles Latona doth abhor file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. chiefly. if the rest of Greece should be excluded. reprehends him somewhat bitterly for being wrought upon by money to let some who were banished return. and prevailed with the members then sitting to alter their opinion in this point. and the general council should come to be ruled by two or three great cities.10. requiring money of those of the island of Andros. Herodotus says. Lacedaemonians would become wholly masters of the votes. The verses are these: Pausanias you may praise. with a view to making him the opponent of the state policy of Themistocles. the Rhodian poet. supported the deputies of the cities.htm (19 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . For Leutychidas. The one true man of all.. who was his guest and friend. sailing about the islands and collecting money from them. From the sacred Athens came.. which prohibited them from giving him any money. Aristides. whose honors and favors were now shown to Cimon. and Xanthippus he be for. and do what they pleased. that. He was also burdensome to the confederates.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.

and killing here. Three silver talents took.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. Filling evermore his purse: and at the Isthmus gave a treat. of cold meat.. his friend. and departed (curses with him) on his way. to gain his filthy pay.10. Restoring people here. expelling there..htm (20 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . To be laughed at. The liar. Which they ate. neglected to restore To his native Rhodian shore. Timocreon. traitor. cheat. who. and prayed the gods some one else might give the feast another file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.

The story is. Timocreon made these lines upon him: So now Timocreon. So when Themistocles was accused of intriguing with the Medes. and tell these verses there.htm (21 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . nor is it only mine file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. Timocreon reviles him yet more immoderately and wildly in a poem which begins thus: Unto all the Greeks repair O Muse.10. is not the sole friend of the Mede. But after the sentence and banishment of Themistocles.. year. that it was put to the question whether Timocreon should be banished for siding with the Persians.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. indeed.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.. and Themistocles gave his vote against him. As is fitting and is fair. There are some knaves besides.

or. and throw the halters and clothes of those that are strangled or otherwise put to death. he was forced. son of Alcmaeon. so rendering himself more odious. He built this temple near his own house. in the district called Melite. as a villainous. that fails. that Leobotes of Agraule. but also of a most heroic aspect. and who.htm (22 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . might vent some part of their rancor.. as they ordinarily did with all whom they thought too powerful. not so much to punish the offender. For the ostracism was instituted. And he yet more provoked the people by building a temple to Diana with the epithet of Aristobule. showing him the king of Persia's letters. which gave such advantage to his enemies. by fixing this disgrace upon them. he concealed it at first from Themistocles. where now the public officers carry out the bodies of such as are executed. and exasperating him against the Greeks. making use of the ostracism to humble his eminence and authority..10. Themistocles being banished from Athens. the Spartans supporting him in the accusation. by their greatness. and desired his assistance. At length the Athenians banished him. and ask those who were offended with him whether they were weary with receiving benefits often from the same person. There is to this day a small figure of Themistocles in the temple of Diana of Best Counsel. as to mitigate and pacify the violence of the envious. which represents him to be a person. But other foxes have lost tails.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. not only of a noble mind. indicted him of treason. not only to the Athenians. but to all Greece. but when he saw him expelled out of the commonwealth. who delighted to humble eminent men. to put them in mind of the great services he had performed. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. disproportionable to the equality thought requisite in a popular government. When the citizens of Athens began to listen willingly to those who traduced and reproached him. or Diana of Best Counsel. When Pausanias went about this treasonable design. though he were his intimate friend. intimating thereby. while he stayed at Argos the detection of Pausanias happened. that he had given the best counsel.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. he ventured to communicate it to him. and how impatiently he took his banishment. with somewhat obnoxious frequency.

or expecting that so inconsiderate an attempt after such chimerical objects would be discovered by other means. though he never revealed his communications. where the state was under obligations to him. he would take his revenge. the Athenians and Lacedaemonians still pursuing him. being persuaded by his accusers. which rendered Themistocles suspected. when Themistocles was in the height of his authority. different from the custom of other countries.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10.10. this being the most sacred and only manner of supplication. From thence he fled into Epirus. In answer to the malicious detractions of his enemies. For taking the king's son. in his arms. and his enemies among the Athenians accused him. would never sell himself and his country into slavery to a barbarous and hostile nation. he passed over into the island of Corcyra. he made his defense by letters. and placed her young son with file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.. intimated to Themistocles this way of petitioning. and became a humble suppliant to Admetus. he merely wrote to the citizens. after a peculiar manner. he threw himself upon chances of safety that seemed all but desperate. he laid himself down at his hearth. for being chosen as arbitrator in a difference between them and the Corinthians. king of the Molossians. Phthia. who was then a child. that could he lay hold of him. Themistocles. ungrateful people. and not of a character or a disposition to serve. which was not to be refused. and had been disdainfully used and insulted by him. he decided the controversy by ordering the Corinthians to pay down twenty talents. And some say that his wife. when. sent officers to take him and bring him away to be tried before a council of the Greeks. Notwithstanding this. the people. especially against the points that had been previously alleged against him. the Lacedaemonians were clamorous against him. Yet in this misfortune. and wholly refused to be a party in the enterprise.. Themistocles immediately rejected the proposals of Pausanias. and. but. fearing the recent hatred of his neighbors and fellow-citizens more than the old displeasure of the king. and had let it appear plain enough.htm (23 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . and declaring the town and island of Leucas a joint colony from both cities. having timely notice of it. among the Molossians.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. being absent from Athens. who had formerly made some request to the Athenians. either hoping that Pausanias would desist from his intentions. urging that he who was always ambitious to govern. letters and writings being found concerning this matter. For he fled for refuge to Admetus. put himself at his mercy. After that Pausanias was put to death. However. nor disclosed the conspiracy to any man.

and particularly Ergoteles and Pythodorus (for the game was worth the hunting for such as were thankful to make money by any means. he fled to Aegae.. and not to suffer his horses to run. which was then besieged by the Athenians. Epicrates of Acharnae privately conveyed his wife and children out of Athens. or making Themistocles to be little mindful of it. inciting them to pull down the tyrant's tent. he took ship at Pydna in the bay of Therme. he made himself known to the master and pilot. partly threatening that if they went on shore he would accuse them. that. though Themistocles was never worth three talents before he was concerned in public affairs. the king of Persia having offered by public proclamation two hundred talents to him that should take him). and sent after him by sea into Asia. a small city of the Aeolians. Theopompus says a hundred. and make the Athenians to believe that they did not take him in out of ignorance. For Theophrastus writes. A great part of his estate was privately conveyed away by his friends. and erected a pavilion sumptuously furnished. but this is not probable. not being known to any one in the ship. him before the hearth. in his work on Monarchy. he compelled them to bear off and stand out to sea. till. but that he had corrupted them with money from the beginning. being terrified to see the vessel driven by the winds near to Naxos. for which afterwards Cimon condemned him and put him to death. and. Thucydides says. that king Admetus. When he arrived at Cyme. and understood that all along the coast there were many laid wait for him. and desired in marriage the daughter of Hiero. departed thence into Asia. that he might be under a religious obligation not to deliver him up to his pursuers. partly entreating them. passing over land to the Aegaean Sea. where no one knew him but only his host Nicogenes. promising to bring the Greeks under his power. tyrant of Syracuse. and sail forward towards the coast of Asia. others.. either forgetting this himself. and yet somehow.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. on Hiero refusing him. prepared and enacted with him a sort of stage-play to this effect. and. as Theophrastus writes. At this time. and well known to the great men of Inner Asia. besides which there was discovered and confiscated to the value of fourscore talents. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. as Stesimbrotus reports. and sent them hither. Themistocles made an oration to the Greeks.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. who was the richest man in Aeolia.10. that when Hiero sent race-horses to the Olympian games.htm (24 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . says presently that he sailed into Sicily.

Themistocles. then. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. While Themistocles lay hid for some days in his house. curtained in on all sides.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. after infinite terror and disturbance. the barbarous nations. After this. are extremely jealous. and amongst them the Persians especially. and. as soon as it touched his face. are carried in close tents.10. and carried him on his journeys and told those whom they met or spoke with upon the road that they were conveying a young Greek woman out of Ionia to a nobleman at court. and so creep to his neck. not only their wives. Olbius. and took him up and flew away with him a great distance. they spend their lives shut up within doors.htm (25 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . By the voice of night conduct thee. His departure was effected by Nicogenes by the following artifice. then there appeared a herald's golden wand. dreamed that he saw a snake coil itself up upon his belly. Thucydides and Charon of Lampsacus say that Xerxes was dead.. it turned into an eagle. one night. when they take a journey. they hid him in it. going to bed. but also their bought slaves and concubines.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. fell into a sort of frenzy and fit of inspiration. but Ephorus. and night instruct thee. and set upon a wagon. and cried out in verse. after a sacrifice and supper ensuing. and suspicious about their women. whom they keep so strictly that no one ever sees them abroad. which spread its wings over him. and upon this at last it set him down securely. and that Themistocles had an interview with his son. Night shall speak. Such a traveling carriage being prepared for Themistocles.. severe. the attendant upon Nicogenes's children.

but it is honorable for all to honor and observe their own laws. and to worship him. and many others. "O stranger. you shall consent to our laws. It is the habit of the Greeks. but will also cause many more to be worshippers and adorers of the king. Let not this. The chronological tables better agree with the account of Thucydides.10. I come with a mind suited to my present calamities. but my benefits to them yet greater. but amongst our many excellent laws. to honor the king. commander of a thousand men. till the king commanding the interpreter to ask him who he was. that he obtained this audience and interview with him. I am Themistocles the Athenian. Heraclides. I that come hither to increase the power and glory of the king. prepared alike for file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. "No man. who was kept by Artabanus. "Artabanus..htm (26 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 .Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. "Who must we tell him that you are? for your words signify you to be no ordinary person. so soon as the deliverance of my own country allowed me to show kindness also to you. to honor. and yet neither can their statements be said to be quite set at rest. Dinon. therefore. since so it hath pleased the god who exalteth the Persian empire to this greatness. "O king." Thus Phanias relates. in withholding the Greeks from pursuit. hearing this. When Themistocles was come to the critical point. driven into banishment by the Greeks." Themistocles answered. liberty and equality. we account this the most excellent. write that he came to Xerxes. above all things. that it was by the means of a woman of Eretria. and one thing is honorable to one man. and had paid his reverence to him. and fall down before the king and worship him. O Artabanus. The evils that I have done to the Persians are numerous. but if your mind be otherwise. Artabanus answered him. you may both see him and speak to him. for it is not the national custom here for the king to give audience to anyone that doth not fall down before him. be an impediment why I should not communicate to the king what I have to impart. the laws of men are different. you must make use of others to intercede for you. replied. he stood silent. telling him that he was a Greek. he applied himself first to Artabanus." Themistocles.. adds. we are told.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and desired to speak with the king about important affairs concerning which the king was extremely solicitous. in his treatise on Riches. Clitarchus." Artabanus asking him. as the image of the great preserver of the universe. if. When he was introduced to the king. and to others another. he replied. then. must be informed of this before the king himself. will not only submit myself to his laws. to which Eratosthenes.

"You subtle Greek serpent. The king heard him attentively. he cried out for joy three times. the rest keeping silence. he heard him. the king's good genius hath brought thee hither. Then he sacrificed to the gods. therefore. he commanded him to speak freely what he would concerning the affairs of Greece. and was so well pleased. say. to welcome your gracious reconciliation. you will save your suppliant. when he was with his intimate friends.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. such as the vision which he saw at Nicogenes's house. to abuse and expel the bravest men amongst them. they are obscured and lost. As he came forward towards the king. if otherwise. learnt the Persian file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. though he admired his temper and courage. the king saluted him.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. favors and for anger. rejoiced in his great good fortune. and make use of this occasion to show the world your virtue. will destroy an enemy of the Greeks.. and prayed to his god Arimanius. a commander of a thousand men. where Jupiter commanded him to go to him that had a name like his.. the beautiful figures and patterns of which can only be shown by spreading and extending it out. and to deprecate your wrath." In the morning. "I have Themistocles the Athenian. Take my own countrymen for witnesses of the services I have done for Persia. and. Themistocles replied. and had the name of kings. calling together the chief of his court. passing by Roxanes. and encouraging him. and presently fell to drinking. he had Themistocles brought before him. when he saw. having. rather than to satisfy your indignation. and bidding him take what time he would." He talked also of divine admonitions. but. If you save me. seeing that they both were great. the guards fiercely set against him as soon as they learnt his name.htm (27 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . telling him he was now indebted to him two hundred talents. that in the night. and. gave him no answer at that time. by which he understood that he was sent from Jupiter to him. and promising much more. and spoke to him kindly. in which time. and again fell down. for it was just and reasonable that he should receive the reward which was proposed to whosoever should bring Themistocles." Yet. in the middle of his sleep. he desired a year. who expected no good of it. when it is contracted and folded up. when he came into the presence. that all his enemies might be ever of the same mind with the Greeks. and esteemed himself very happy in this. The king being pleased with the comparison. that a man's discourse was like to a rich Persian carpet. with a slight groan. and the direction given him by the oracle of Dodona. who was seated. without stirring out of his place. for example.10. he desired time. and giving him ill language.

They relate. being ordered by the king to ask whatsoever he pleased. in whose reigns there was a greater communication between the Greeks and Persians." Most writers say that he had three cities given him. but to be inexorable to all supplications on his behalf. add two more. and Phanias. carrying him with him a-hunting. it being supposed that he discoursed only about the affairs of Greece. and Percote. Myus. he would not any the more be Jupiter for that. and converse frequently with her. when they invited any considerable Greek into their service. to maintain him in bread. who were to set upon him file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. language sufficiently. a Persian whose name was Epixyes. that the succeeding kings. would write. with bedding and furniture for his house. and courted by many.. we had been undone if we had not been undone. Magnesia. Neanthes of Cyzicus. the king invited him to partake of his own pastimes and recreations both at home and abroad. and wine. As he was going down towards the sea-coast to take measures against Greece. Mithropaustes. but there happening. and prevailed with him to forgive him. "Children. and it should immediately be granted him. to encourage him. and removals of the king's favorites. and promise him that he should be as great with them as Themistocles had been. governor of the upper Phrygia.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and made him his intimate so far that he permitted him to see the queen-mother..10. By the king's command. When Demaratus the Lacedaemonian. and told him that he had no brains for the royal tiara to cover. to provide him with clothes. when he was in great prosperity. And it is reported. meat. seeing himself splendidly served at his table turned to his children and said. the city of Palaescepsis. great alterations at court. who imagined that he had taken the boldness to speak concerning them. having for that purpose provided a long time before a number of Pisidians. he drew upon himself the envy of the great people. laid wait to kill him. how Themistocles. For the favors shown to other strangers were nothing in comparison with the honors conferred on him. at the same time. he spoke with the king by himself without the help of an interpreter. with the tiara set in the royal manner upon his head. desired that he might make his public entrance. the king also repulsed him with anger resolving never to be reconciled to him. he also was made acquainted with the Magian learning. cousin to the king.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. touched him on the head. also. Yet Themistocles pacified him. and be carried in state through the city of Sardis.htm (28 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . and if Jupiter should give him his lightning and thunder. and Lampsacus.

having escaped this great danger. Themistocles had caused this to be made and set up when he was surveyor of waters at Athens. Themistocles. out of the fines of those whom he detected in drawing off and diverting the public water by pipes for their private use. which he dedicated to Dindymene. but lived quietly in his own house in Magnesia. sleeping in the middle of the day. and. being affrighted hereat. he entered into a treaty with the governor of Lydia to persuade him to send this statue back to Athens. by presents of money to whom.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. he visited the temples of the gods. left the broad road. for fear you fall into the lion's jaws. not discerning exactly by the moon what it was that was stretched out thought it to be the tent of Themistocles. having fallen that day into the river. in which he consecrated and devoted his daughter Mnesiptolema to her service. When he came to Sardis. in admiration of the goodness of the goddess that appeared to him. in the mean time the Pisidians made towards them with their swords drawn. got access to his wives and concubines. in memory of it. and. when he had made his vows to the goddess. which was wet. and the number of their offerings." Themistocles was much astonished. which carried the furniture for his tent. two cubits high. and at night took up his rest in the fields. when he should stop to rest at a city that is called Lion's-head. which so enraged the Persian officer. being courted by all. But Themistocles. at his leisure. their buildings. and hung it up to dry. and that they should find him resting himself within it. and observing. the statue of a virgin in brass. and did not.. for this advice I expect that your daughter Mnesiptolema should be my servant.. and enjoying rich presents. making a circuit. saw the Mother of the gods appear to him in a dream and say unto him. his servants spread out the tapestry. and honored file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. where for a long time he passed his days in great security. keep back from the Lion's-head.10. changing his intended station to avoid that place. and lifted up the hangings. those who watched there fell upon them and took them. and. he appeased the fury of the governor. that he told him he would write the king word of it. But one of the sumpter-horses. went another way. as Theopompus writes. and afterwards behaved with more reserve and circumspection. built. he saw in the temple of the Mother of the gods. fearing the envy of the Persians. "Themistocles. but when they came near. called the water-bringer.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. and whether he had some regret to see this image in captivity. ornaments. a temple in the city of Magnesia. or was desirous to let the Athenians see in what great credit and authority he was with the king. continue to travel about Asia. Themistocles. Mother of the gods.htm (29 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 .

10. having entertained them and shaken hands with them. and. of the island of Chios. Yet this did not increase his hatred nor exasperate him against the Athenians. He sacrificed to the gods. as others state. having lived sixty-five years. agreeable to its previous course. daughter to Lysander of Alopece. but judging. and of his many victories and trophies. He had many daughters. But when Egypt revolted. and to dispatch messengers to Themistocles at Magnesia. of whom Mnesiptolema. Italia was married to Panthoides. drank bull's blood.Archeptolis. After the death of Themistocles. and Cleophantus. Sybaris to Nicomedes the Athenian. with her brothers' consent. in government and command. Themistocles left three sons by Archippe. Plato the philosopher mentions the last as a most excellent horseman. the king. to put him in mind of his promise. Neocles died when he was young by the bite of a horse. the youngest of all the children. admired him more than ever. her brother by another mother. and married. Nicomache. as is the usual story. neither was he any way elevated with the thoughts of the honor and powerful command he was to have in this war. the Greeks having at that time. Polyeuctus. perhaps. at that time. and Cimon had made himself master of the seas. being ashamed to sully the glory of his former great actions. another daughter. who was gaining wonderful military successes. and. beside other great commanders. his nephew. -. began to raise forces. not minding his concerns with Greece. and to check the growth of their power against him. a poison producing instant death. was wife to Archeptolis. went to Magnesia.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and Diocles was adopted by his grandfather. and send out commanders.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. bending his mind chiefly to resist the Greeks. Cimon. most of which he had spent in politics and in the wars. being taken up with the affairs of Inner Asia. and ended his days in the city of Magnesia. and the Greek galleys roved about as far as Cyprus and Cilicia. The king. in particular. of two sons yet older than these.. and to summon him to act against the Greeks. being informed of the cause and manner of his death. he determined to put a conclusion to his life. Phrasicles. Lysander. equally with the greatest persons in the Persian empire. Neocles and Diocles. being assisted by the Athenians. the king turned his thoughts thither. and took charge of her sister Asia.. whom he had by a second marriage. that the object would not be attained. but chiefly. but otherwise insignificant person. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and continued to show kindness to his friends and relations.htm (30 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . and invited his friends.

for he feigns this. The Magnesians possess a splendid sepulchre of Themistocles. to incite or move compassion.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. Where merchants still shall greet it with the land. he believes. to exasperate the oligarchical faction against the people. how the Athenians robbed his tomb. It is not worthwhile taking notice of what Andocides states in his Address to his Friends concerning his remains. and brings in Neocles and Demopolis as the sons of Themistocles. as if he were writing a tragedy. there is a large piece of masonry. Thy tomb is fairly placed upon the strand. Diodorus the cosmographer says. when you have doubled the cape and passed inward where the sea is always calm.htm (31 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . in his work on Tombs.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10. and upon this the tomb of Themistocles. where the land runs out like an elbow from the promontory of Alcimus.10. placed in the middle of their market-place... file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. that near to the haven of Piraeus. where he all but uses an actual stage machine. and there is no man living but knows that Phylarchus simply invents in his history. in these verses. in the shape of an altar. and threw his ashes into the air. but by conjecture rather than of certain knowledge. And watch the galleys as they race below. Still in and out 'twill see them come and go. and Plato the comedian confirms this.

Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-10.10.. Various honors also and privileges were granted to the kindred of Themistocles at Magnesia. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro..PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. with whom I had an intimate acquaintance and friendship in the house of Ammonius the philosopher.htm (32 of 32)2006-05-31 20:37:36 . which were observed down to our times. and were enjoyed by another Themistocles of Athens.

the file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. which were many and various. called military tribunes. but the honor of all actions redounded entirely to himself. serving under Postumius Tubertus. but were thought to exercise a less obnoxious amount of authority.htm (1 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . but in their stead elected other magistrates. when alone in authority. whereas the wars had made many widows. others by threatening to set fines on their heads. for which action. for to have the management of affairs entrusted in the hands of six persons rather than two was some satisfaction to the opponents of oligarchy. who before were exempted from taxes. being at dissension with the senate.. yet he could never persuade himself to be consul against the inclination of the people. yet never was so much as once consul. This was the condition of the times when Camillus was in the height of his actions and glory. triumphed four times. in causing orphans to be rated.. who continually was in the highest commands. In all his other administrations. refused to return consuls. that. he was created censor. some by fair persuasion. although the government in the meantime had often proceeded to consular elections. even when in joint commission with others. he obliged such as had no wives. because it was divided among a larger number.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. to take them in marriage. and in the charge receiving a wound in his thigh. who acted. During his censorship one very good act of his is recorded. of the latter. by his own acts. the reason of the former was his moderation in command. The reason of which was the state and temper of the commonwealth at that time. that.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. he so behaved himself. in the great battle against the Aequians and Volscians. and was styled a second founder of Rome. dictator. CAMILLUS Among the many remarkable things that are related of Furius Camillus. For riding out from the rest of the army. that he. he exercised his power as in common. at that time of any considerable distinction. first raised himself to honor. another necessary one. was five times chosen dictator. and obtained the greatest successes. indeed. he. and. but. The house of the Furii was not. among other rewards bestowed on him. an office in those days of great repute and authority. for the people. his great judgment and wisdom. it seems singular and strange above all. letting the dart drag in the wound. with full consular power.11. put them to flight. he for all that did not quit the fight. and engaging with the bravest of the enemy. which gave him without controversy the first place.

which. which. It was the beginning of autumn. a strange phenomenon in the Alban lake. though tedious to them. and the summer now ending had. as likewise with corn and all manner of provisions.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. But at present he had no hand in the siege.. raising strong works about their camp. and all this file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. This was the head city of Tuscany. however. and of the many lakes. ran in a very low and hollow channel. insomuch that they were discharged and others chosen for the war. unless it were divine. presuming on her wealth and luxury. so that.. given them much annoyance. But the Alban lake. who. was no less troublesome and distressing to the besiegers. increasing to the feet of the mountains. either in number of arms or multitude of soldiers. all the rivers. but were now reduced by Camillus. What. and with great loss shut up within their walls. as is usual in summer. the commanders began to be suspected as too slow and remiss in driving on the siege. that is fed by no other waters but its own. and is on all sides encircled with fruitful mountains. through all the Tuscan war. in the absence of any known cause and explanation by natural reasons. others drew very little water with them. For the Romans. she engaged in many honorable contests with the Romans for glory and empire.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. And now. and constantly to winter at home. frequent wars requiring more than ordinary expenses to maintain them. to join winter and summer together. pressed them most was the siege of Veii. and furnished the city with all sorts of weapons offensive and defensive. insomuch that. and springs of all sorts with which Italy abounds.htm (2 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . Some call this people Veientani. the duties that fell by lot to him being to make war upon the Faliscans and Capenates.11. and. except in summer. then second time tribune. and priding herself upon her refinement and sumptuousness. not inferior to Rome. having fortified themselves with high and strong walls. began visibly to rise and swell. and. among whom was Camillus. were then first compelled by the tribunes to build forts in the enemy's country. But now they had abandoned their former ambitious hopes. and for no great length of time. seemed as great a prodigy as the most incredible that are reported. the seventh year of the war drawing to an end. and by degrees reaching the level of the very tops of them. having been weakened by great defeats. occasioned great alarm. in the very heat of the war. some were wholly dried up. been neither rainy nor much troubled with southern winds. had carried ravages into their country. having never been accustomed to stay away from home. brooks. taking advantage of the Romans being occupied on all hands. without any cause. And now. to all observation. they cheerfully endured a siege.

being stronger than he. it not only struck terror into the Romans. The man greedily embraced the proposal. also. but when the earth. decreed to send to Delphi. and sensible now that destiny was not to be avoided. so that in the town itself. particularly that there had been a neglect of some of their national rites relating to the Latin feasts. without any waves or agitation. then they should carry it off by ditches and trenches into the lower grounds. which he was willing to communicate to him. and of repute for more than ordinary skill in divination. that it was not possible the city should be taken. others more wonderful yet than this had befallen them. and the people went file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. held up the lake from falling into the lower grounds. and. and shut it up in its ancient bounds. which message being delivered. As in long sieges it commonly happens that parties on both sides meet often and converse with one another. The senate. having heard and satisfied themselves about the matter. a man versed in ancient prophecies. he snatched him up by the middle. the occurrence became known. told him that this was not the only prodigy that of late had happened to the Romans. the priests performed what related to the sacrifices. if it were possible. Valerius Potitus. and so dry it up. The man. until the Alban lake. but if that was not to be done. and so diverted that it could not mingle with the sea. Licinius Cossus. having made their voyage by sea and consulted the god. returned with other answers. that he might the better provide for his private interests in these public distempers. and in a violent stream it ran through the plowed fields and plantations to discharge itself in the sea. expecting to hear some wonderful secrets. but when. seized and delivered him to the commanders.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. who. by the assistance of others that came running from the camp. but was thought by all the inhabitants of Italy to portend some extraordinary event. At first it was the wonder of shepherds and herdsmen.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. and to mock at the siege.htm (3 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 .. like a great dam.. by little and little. which now broke forth and had found out new passages. reduced to this necessity. to ask counsel of the god. was drawn back from that course. discovered to them the secret oracles of Veii. so it chanced that a Roman had gained much confidence and familiarity with one of the besieged. which. but the Alban water the oracle commanded. The messengers were persons of the highest repute. and insensibly drawn him a good way from the gates of the city. The Roman. observing him to be overjoyed at the story of the lake.11. and Fabius Ambustus. he had led him on in conversation. they should keep from the sea. But the greatest talk of it was in the camp that besieged Veii. through the quantity and weight of water was broken down.

if they would grant a happy conclusion of the war. and the calamities occasioned by her husband's concubine. that. And now the senate. there be any calamity due. who chose Cornelius Scipio for his general of horse. and. ascending with noise and clashing of weapons. proceeded to cut mines under ground. and dedicate a temple to the goddess whom the Romans call Matuta the Mother.11. without being perceived. though. he lifted up his hands to heaven. the ceremonies of the sacrifice remind one of the nursing of Bacchus by Ino..Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. and broke out into this prayer: "O most mighty Jupiter. he openly gave assaults to the enemy. the earth about the city being easy to break up. cried out with a loud voice that the gods would give the victory to those that should complete those offerings. at first wept for pity. close to the temple of Juno. to work and turned the water. and in a great battle overthrew them and the Capenates. The city. in the tenth year of the war. Camillus. to counterbalance file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. we have been forced to revenge ourselves on the city of our unrighteous and wicked enemies. from the high tower. one would think she was Leucothea. after he had looked into the entrails of the beast. hearing the words. afterwards he turned to the siege of Veii. but constrained by necessity. which was the greatest and most honored in all the city. created Camillus dictator. and allowing such depth for the works as would prevent their being discovered by the enemy. and that the priest. frightened away the enemy. For they take a servant-maid into the secret part of the temple. And in the first place he made vows unto the gods.. This design going on in a hopeful way. and that the Romans who were in the mines. to keep them to the walls. But if. and drive her out again. and ye gods that are judges of good and evil actions. and. having made these vows. in the vicissitude of things. being taken by storm. carried them to Camillus. arrived within the citadel. and there cuff her. taking away all other commands. from the ceremonies which are used. finding that to take it by assault would prove a difficult and hazardous attempt. and. marched into the country of the Faliscans. whilst they that worked underground in the mines were. and the soldiers busied in pillaging and gathering an infinite quantity of riches and spoil. immediately pulled down the floor. ye know that not without just cause. viewing what was done. It is said that the prince of the Tuscans was at that very time at sacrifice.htm (4 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . and they embrace their brothers' children in place of their own. in general. But this may look like a fable. their confederates. and when they that were by congratulated his good success. Camillus. snatching up the entrails. he would celebrate to their honor the great games. however.

drops of sweat seen to stand on statues. in praying. he resolved. he stumbled and fell. to carry Juno's image to Rome. which. whether puffed up with the greatness of his achievement in conquering a city that was the rival of Rome. the workmen being ready for that purpose. and that some of the standers-by cried out that she was willing and would come. to the astonishment of all that were present. at other times to the contempt and neglect of all that is supernatural. among other things.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. and graciously vouchsafe to accept of a place among the gods that presided at Rome. groans heard from them.. are recorded by many ancient historians. and the statue. and had held out a ten years' siege. for the Romans consider such a mode of conveyance to be file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. driving through Rome in a chariot drawn with four white horses. is equally dangerous." Having said these words. or exalted with the felicitations of those that were about him. They who stand up for the miracle and endeavor to maintain it have one great advocate on their side in the wonderful fortune of the city. and invited her. assumed to himself more than became a civil and legal magistrate.11. and just turning about (as the custom of the Romans is to turn to the right after adoration or prayer).htm (5 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . according as he had vowed. in compensation for the greatest good fortune. I beg that it may be diverted from the city and army of the Romans. Having sacked the city. he told them that he had received what he had prayed for. the figures seen to turn round and to close their eyes. recovering himself presently from the fall. upon my own head. or exercising command over itself. but to give too easy credit to such things. and we ourselves could relate divers wonderful things. and to avoid all extremes. in the pride and haughtiness of his triumph. and. Other wonders of the like nature. that are not lightly to be rejected. Livy writes. so incapable is human infirmity of keeping any bounds. which no general either before or since ever did. however. Camillus touched the goddess. which we have been told by men of our own time.. Camillus. But. with as little hurt as may be. that. from a small and contemptible beginning. could never have attained to that greatness and power without many signal manifestations of the divine presence and cooperation. answered in a low voice that she was ready and willing to go. he sacrificed to the goddess.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and made his supplications that she would be pleased to accept of their devotion toward her. and fall. a small mischance. or wholly to disbelieve them. this great felicity. But moderation is best. they say. running off sometimes to superstition and dotage.

requiring propitiations and offerings. went to Camillus for assistance. By which means they should not only have much more room. out of the sacrifices. greatly averse to it. they ordained that every one upon oath should bring into the public the tenth part of his gains. yet a plausible case against him. being assaulted by their clamor and tumults. and had endured much in the war. to bring in so great a proportion. Camillus. sacred. whether he was loath to trouble the soldiers at that time. the multitude having here. judging the proceedings of the tribunes to tend rather to a destruction than a division of Rome. But seeing it was difficult for every one to produce the very same things they had taken. Some time afterwards. remove to the new-taken city. and now were forced. But the senate and the noblest citizens. or that through the multitude of business he had forgotten his vow. out of what they had gained and spent.. The senate decreed the obligation to be in force. and specially set apart to the king and father of the gods. as the lot should decide. when his authority was laid down. reported. For it seems. contrived to occupy the people with other business. he brought the matter before the senate. This alienated the hearts of his fellow-citizens. and crowded continually to the forum. he suffered them to enjoy that part of the spoils also. one of which should remain at home. and so staved it off. greedily embraced it. to be divided anew.. But the greatest and most apparent cause of their dislike against him arose from the tenths of the spoil.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. The second pique they had against him was his opposing the law by which the city was to be divided. but by the advantage of two great and magnificent cities.11. at the same time. if not a just. who were numerous and indigent. they in turn complained that he had vowed the tenth of the enemy's goods. for the tribunes of the people brought forward a motion that the people and senate should be divided into two parts. with tumultuous demands to have it put to the vote. be better able to maintain their territories and their fortunes in general. and file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and the priests. who were poor men. fearing the result if it came to a direct contest. that there were intimations of divine anger. The people. for want of a better excuse.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. as he went to the siege of Veii. who. therefore. He thus became unpopular.htm (6 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . The city being taken and sacked. This occasioned many annoyances and hardships to the soldiers. the other. betook himself to the poorest of defenses. who were not accustomed to such pomp and display. confessing he had forgotten his vow. he had vowed to Apollo that if he took the city he would dedicate to him the tenth of the spoil.

PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. at last. Storm and calm at sea may both. and scarcely.. the war against the Faliscans luckily broke out. dismissed. every one having brought in his due proportion. Choosing out. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. galleys of the Lipareans came upon them..Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. however. to follow the tribunes in factions and seditions. the ill humors of their commonwealth.htm (7 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . and.11. which in weight came to eight talents of gold. indeed. and carried her into the harbor. Nevertheless. it was decreed that out of it a bowl of massy gold should be made. and used his utmost persuasion. The Falerians. by the virtue and interest of one man. it having never before been a custom that any woman after death should receive any public eulogy. And when the people had ratified the election. as well as experience. they were. meeting together and consulting among themselves. forbore indeed from violence. a well-fortified city. a very common remedy. as they at this time experienced. and sent to Delphi. they sent them in a vessel of war. escaping. giving liberty to the chief citizens to choose what magistrates they pleased. affairs then requiring a commander of authority and reputation. and to appoint Camillus military tribune. and laid seige to Falerii. with much ado. The senate. to give them the honor they had deserved. with five colleagues. therefore. when they held up their hands as suppliants. who thus carried off. For near the isles of Solus the wind slacking. He. Timesitheus by name. And now the tribunes of the people again resuming their motion for the division of the city. as he had deserved. with the Romans. out of the golden ornaments they wore contributed as much as went to the making the offering. but took their ship in tow. being brought almost to the very brink of destruction. the Roman ladies. and no little time would be required for it. they being pirates. yet he was willing to exercise the citizens and keep them abroad. to accompany them in their voyage and assist them at the dedication. ordained that funeral orations should be used at the obsequies of women as well as men. and. for which he received honors at Rome. now levied it out of the tenths of the citizens. well manned and sumptuously adorned. they say. himself sent out some of his own vessels with them. taking them for pirates. alike be dangerous. and plentifully stored with all necessaries of war. that they might have no leisure. and the magistrates were considering where to get it. who was in office as general. And when there was great scarcity of gold in the city. idling at home. he marched with his forces into the territories of the Faliscans. And although he perceived it would be no small work to take it. three of the noblest citizens as a deputation. where they exposed to sale their goods and persons as lawful prize. beyond all expectation. like good physicians.

htm (8 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . that. having got them all together. trusting in the strength of their city. had taught them rather to embrace submission than liberty. he was come to deliver up his charge to him. and. and not on other men's vices. walked about the streets in their common dress. made so little account of the siege. the boys came whipping their master on. to punish the traitor and drive him back to the city. when. he said that he was the master and teacher of these children. when they had exercised. for the Falerians. and give the boys rods and scourges. at first but a little way.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. he commanded the officers to tear off the man's clothes. This schoolmaster. is of necessity attended with much injustice and violence! Certain laws. and at last. as if no danger was about them. nor is victory so great an object as to induce us to incur for its sake obligations for base and impious acts. and. men and women of worth running in distraction about the walls and gates. and. as was likely. Camillus sent them to Rome. they sent ambassadors to him.. being brought into the senate. and the city. demanding to be led to Camillus. they spoke to this purpose: that the Romans. turning to the standers-by. calling Camillus their preserver and god and father. he brought them to the outposts of the Romans. they did not so much confess themselves to be inferior in file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and were led by their master to play and exercise about the town walls. till by practice he had made them bold and fearless. with the exception of those that guarded the walls. was full of lamentations and cries for their calamity. and bind his hands behind him.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. Insomuch that it struck not only into the parents. A great general should rely on his own virtue. that "war. immediately meeting in assembly. such admiration and love of Camillus's justice. preferring justice before victory. however. and standing in the middle. but the rest of the citizens that saw what was done. brought them home again. that all. which was well fortified on all sides. all good men observe even in war itself. indeed. observed. he was astounded at the treachery of the act. When Camillus had heard him out. where. the whole city. naked and bound. the boys went to school. but. behold. wishing their children to live and be brought up from the beginning in each other's company. like the Greeks." Which said. and delivered them up. led them out every day under the town wall. Where being come. designing to betray the Falerians by their children. By this time the Falerians had discovered the treachery of the schoolmaster. used to have a single teacher for many pupils. Afterwards by degrees he drew them farther and farther.11.. as in times of peace. preferring his favor before all other obligations. in that. to resign whatever they had to his disposal.

who. appropriation of the Tuscan spoils. kept his house. having taken leave of his wife and his son. But the soldiers. The people were exasperated against him. and it was plain they would take hold of any occasion to condemn him. being a man naturally of a mild and tender disposition. certain brass gates. who had expected to have the pillage of the city. as they must acknowledge them to be superior in virtue. and such as had borne command with him. were said to be in his possession. and.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. And. when the tribunes of the people again brought their motion for dividing the city to the vote. stretched out his hands to the Capitol. and so. without any fault of his own. he besought them that they would not suffer him to be unjustly overborne by shameful accusations.. a considerable number in all. together his friends and fellow-soldiers. and. he took this loss with immoderate sorrow. and that all mankind might witness their need for the assistance. strength. and. he resolved in his anger to leave the city and go into exile. but yet hated Camillus. and desire for the return of file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. railed against Camillus among their fellow-citizens. The senate remitted the whole matter to Camillus. making a peace with the whole nation of the Faliscans. and mourned amongst the women of his family. to judge and order as he thought fit. he went silently to the gate of the city.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. having advised and consulted among themselves. made answer. part of those spoils. that if. and one that grudged all advantage to the poor. when the accusation was preferred against him. and prayed to the gods. commiseration for this could not in the least make them abate of their malice. contrary to their inclinations. returned home.. the charge. indeed. that. Camillus appeared openly against it. shrinking from no unpopularity. Gathering. and so urging and constraining the multitude. His accuser was Lucius Apuleius. but merely through the malice and violence of the people. as to the sentence. therefore. Not able to endure so great an indignity. they rejected the proposal. taking a sum of money of the Falerians.htm (9 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . but that they would contribute to whatsoever fine should be set upon him. when they came to Rome empty-handed. His friends. the Romans might quickly repent of it. though a great misfortune befell him in his family (one of his two sons dying of a disease). they did not see how they could help him.11. as a hater of the people. and left the mock and scorn of his enemies. he was driven out into banishment. Afterwards. Insomuch that. that. and inveighing boldly against the promoters of it. there stopping and turning round.

and that he received a revenge for the injustice done unto him. ten of such copper pieces making the denarius. near to the Senones and Celtorii. he turned about.11. which was insufficient to sustain them all. reported to the military tribunes a thing worthy their consideration: that. and early in the morning tell the military tribunes that they are shortly to expect the Gauls. and possessed themselves of the farthest parts of Europe.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. young men and able to bear arms. and a little after came Camillus's banishment. and are reported to have been compelled by their numbers to leave their country. a person of no great distinction.. "Go. Camillus. or piece of ten. many thousands of them. makes one thousand five hundred drachmas. for the as was the money of the time. having left his imprecations on the citizens. afterwards tasting wine which was then first brought them out of Italy.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. And being. but esteemed a good and respectable man. Marcus Caedicius. neither appearing nor making defense. but could see no one.. just before Camillus went into exile. fell upon the Northern Ocean. Thus. And there is not a Roman but believes that immediately upon the prayers of Camillus a sudden judgment followed. lived there a considerable time. and carrying with them a still greater number of women and young children. but heard a voice greater than human. others. for the Romans have a religious reverence for the office of a censor. passing the Riphaean mountains. some of them. nor of the rank of senator. like Achilles. which. they were all so much taken file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. he was condemned in the sum of fifteen thousand asses. such a punishment visited the city of Rome. yet was very remarkable. which said these words. and being called by somebody in a loud voice. and noised over the whole world. going along the night before in the street called the New Way. an era of such loss and danger and disgrace so quickly succeeded. he went into banishment. Marcus Caedicius." But the tribunes made a mock and sport with the story. The second was that. or it be the office of some god not to see injured virtue go unavenged. reduced to silver.htm (10 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . The first token that seemed to threaten some mischief to ensue was the death of the censor Julius. seating themselves between the Pyrenean mountains and the Alps. and esteem it sacred. whether it thus fell out by fortune. but rather grievous and bitter to him. and to have gone in search of other homes. which though we cannot think was pleasant. but. The Gauls are of the Celtic race. so that.

came to conference with them. From his childhood he had been bred up with Aruns in his family and when now grown up did not leave his house. He that first brought wine among them and was the chief instigator of their coming into Italy is said to have been one Aruns.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. the young man seized the woman and openly sought to carry her away. He was guardian to an orphan. The Gauls cast out the Tuscans. hearing of the state of the Gauls. but involved in the following misfortune. professing to wish for the enjoyment of his society. being able only to till a small parcel of ground. And thus for a great while he secretly enjoyed Aruns's wife. Brennus.htm (11 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . and seated themselves in them. king of the Gauls. and not of bad natural character. when the ambassadors asking what injury they had received of the Clusinians that they thus invaded their city. snatching up their arms and taking their families along with them. and much admired for his beauty. The Gauls received them courteously. and transported with the hitherto unknown delight. in that. and finding himself overpowered by the interest and money of his opponent. persons of high rank and distinction in the city. and is well watered with rivers. to find out the country which yielded such fruit. for the North or Adriatic Sea is named from the Tuscan city Adria. well provided with all the means for industry and wealth. and. and.11. a Tuscan city. one of the richest of the country. and himself corrupted by her.. going to law. left his country. that.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. But when they were both so far gone in their passion that they could neither refrain their lust nor conceal it. went to them and was the conductor of their expedition into Italy. as the names themselves testify. pronouncing all others barren and useless. But this was long before. The husband. from respect to the name of Rome. a Tuscan. they marched directly to the Alps. laughed and made answer. and all the enjoyments and pleasures of life. The Gauls at this time were besieging Clusium. with the liquor. The Clusinians sent to the Romans for succor desiring them to interpose with the barbarians by letters and ambassadors. whose name was Lucumo. corrupting her. The whole country is rich in fruit trees. It had eighteen large and beautiful cities. At their first coming they at once possessed themselves of all that country which anciently the Tuscans inhabited. There were sent three of the family of the Fabii. they must needs possess a great file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and that to the south the Tuscan Sea simply. "The Clusinians do us injury. a man of noble extraction. has excellent pasture.. reaching from the Alps to both the seas. giving over the assault which was then making upon the walls.

being well mounted. Quintus Ambustus. a man of huge bulk and stature. he drew off his men. The senate being met at Rome. led his army directly to Rome. These fecials Numa Pompilius.htm (12 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . upon whom ye make war if they do not yield you part of what they possess. on the religious ground. urged the senate that they should lay the whole guilt and penalty of the fact upon him that committed it. which begins with God and ends in the beasts. that in scorn file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.11. as well as in the senate. and encouraged and stirred up the inhabitants to make a sally with them upon the barbarians. The sally being made. did you injury. among many others that spoke against the Fabii. and in the meantime marched leisurely on. and the priests there. At the first he was not recognized. however. The senate referring the whole matter to the people. waste and spoil their country.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. Brennus knew him. went into Clusium. In the same nature. the stronger to have advantage over the weaker. and ruin their cities. and many of the Faliscans and Volscians. one of the Fabii. which gives the possessions of the feeble to the strong. which is holily observed by all mankind. which they did either to try their strength or to show their own. and the fight growing hot about the walls. pleading against Fabius. formerly the Albans. bidding Clusium farewell. and setting spurs to his horse. the priests called fecials were the most decided. Fidenates. but when he had overthrown the Gaul. and were ready to embrace any occasion of quarrel. invoking the gods to be witnesses. that precluded any view of him. and now lately the Veientines and Capenates. lest ye teach the Gauls to be kind and compassionate to those that are oppressed by you. seek. who. through the quickness of the conflict and the glittering of his armor. and Ardeates. neither in so doing are cruel or unjust. O Romans. Cease. contrary to the known and common law of nations. many in number. and so exonerate the rest. by nature. and. he sent a herald to demand the man in punishment. the mildest and justest of kings. territory. the multitude. that. constituted guardians of peace. and poor. perceiving that Brennus was not to be treated with. to pity the Clusinians whom we besiege. he who had come as an ambassador had now engaged in hostility against him. made full against a Gaul.. and. since all these. But not wishing that it should look as if they took advantage of that injury. so little regarded their authority.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C." By this answer the Romans. make slaves of them. therefore. and was going to gather the spoils. and will not yield any part to us who are strangers. but follow that most ancient of all laws. whom he saw riding out at a distance from the rest. and the judges and determiners of all causes by which war may justifiably be made..

stole by night to Veii.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. the military tribunes brought the Romans into the field to be ready to engage them. with the title of dictator. to expectation. the enemy being weary of the slaughter. Besides. frequently before. as many as escaped. and from the low grounds getting to the tops of the hills. No less did the multitude of commanders distract and confound their proceedings. that the Romans only were their enemies. after a disgraceful resistance. however. and there destroyed.11. being not inferior to the Gauls in number (for they were no less than forty thousand foot). and encamped by the river Allia. being sensible of what great importance it is in critical times to have the soldiers united under one general with the entire and absolute control placed in his hands. they had wholly neglected all religious usages. about ten miles from Rome. from whence most of them afterwards dropped into the city. The places through which they marched. began to give up their territories as already lost. nor made inquiries of the prophets.. the remembrance of Camillus's treatment. and such as had never handled a weapon before. in great rage threw aside every delay. the right had less damage by declining the shock. they had chosen a single leader. and that they took all others for their friends. and in alarm at their violence and fierceness. Add to all.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. nor took anything from the fields. giving up Rome and all that was in it for lost. devoid of order and discipline. The Gauls.. natural in danger and before battle. In this condition they left the city. and still retains it. and. had not obtained favorable sacrifices. as they went by any city. Whilst the barbarians were thus hastening with all speed. but most of them raw soldiers. from the river Allia. and.htm (13 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . the moon being at full. upon less occasions. The left wing was immediately driven into the river. cried out that they were going to Rome. This battle was fought about the summer solstice. and not far from the place where it falls into the Tiber. The file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and hastened on with all the speed they could make. But from this second loss and defeat the day got the name of Alliensis. the very same day in which the sad disaster of the Fabii had happened. with little doubt but their cities would quickly follow. contrary. and contempt of it they chose Fabius and the rest of his brothers military tribunes. on hearing this. the rest. when three hundred of that name were at one time cut off by the Tuscans. they did no injury as they passed. they were miserably defeated. which made it now seem a dangerous thing for officers to command without humoring their soldiers. terrified with their numbers and the splendor of their preparations for war. and here the Gauls came upon them.

the other at Ceressus. when they overcame Lattamyas and the Thessalians. the Boeotians gained two signal victories. was not very lucky to the Greeks. and on the very same day. and same year. that. Thebes was destroyed the second time by Alexander. I am not ignorant. On the fifth of their month Hippodromius. and the Carthaginians. on which same day and month Troy seems to have been taken. I have examined in another place. which in Boeotia is called Panemus.htm (14 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . On the selfsame day the Romans lost their army under Caepio by the Cimbrians. The Carthaginians also observe the twenty-first of the same month. for in it Alexander overcame Darius's generals on the Granicus. as also at Mycale. Callisthenes. about the full moon in Boedromion. but upon occasion of the present subject. were beaten by Timoleon in Sicily. and after that. under the conduct of Lucullus. on the third. on the twentieth. same month. the Athenians received a garrison of the Macedonians.. the one at Leuctra. at Chaeronea. those that went with Archidamus into Italy were there cut off by the barbarians. This day. and utterly ruined. whether we should consider any to be so.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. I think it will not be amiss to annex a few examples relating to this matter. The Athenians.11. and whether Heraclitus did well in upbraiding Hesiod for distinguishing them into fortunate and unfortunate. question of unlucky days. on the sixth of Boedromion. as the custom of it is. Thargelion was a very unfortunate month to the barbarians. gained their seavictory at Naxos under the conduct of Chabrias. is one of the unfortunate ones to the Romans. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. On the other hand. as Ephorus. more and more prevailing. and in a subsequent year. at the battle in Cranon. and for its sake two others in every month. both which asserted the liberty of Greece. and Phylarchus state. as ignorant that the nature of every day is the same. But I have discussed this more accurately in my Roman Questions. the month Metagitnion. on which day they lead forth the mystic Iacchus. at Arbela. the Persians were worsted by the Greeks at Marathon. at Salamis. on the twenty-fifth. overcame the Armenians and Tigranes. were defeated by Philip. and before. as bringing with it the largest number and the severest of their losses. for on its seventh day they were defeated by Antipater. which corresponds to the Athenian Hecatombaeon.. meantime. Again. upon the very twentieth of Boedromion. fear and superstition. as we have shown in our treatise on Days. about three hundred years before. on the twenty. Damastes. about the Feast of Mysteries. at Plataea. King Attalus and Pompey died both on their birthdays.fourth.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. One could reckon up several that have had variety of fortune on the same day.

all the other parts of matter. except those virgins whom they call vestals. and all production is either motion. But they who profess to know more of the matter affirm that there are two barrels. celebrated those rites.htm (15 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . had the Gauls immediately pursued those that fled. and overtaken with the present joy. Some write that they have nothing in their charge but the ever-living fire which Numa had ordained to be worshipped as the principle of all things. as an image of that eternal power which orders and actuates all things. and upon that accession. Others say that this fire was kept burning in front of the holy things. others say that the Samothracian images lay there. telling a story how that Dardanus carried them to Troy. and ordained it to be kept ever burning. as likewise their other sacred things. brought into Italy by Aeneas. Others think that they who say this are misled by the fact that the virgins put most of their holy things into two barrels at this time of the Gaulish invasion. for fire is the most active thing in nature. that after Troy was taken. that the image of Pallas. was laid up there. and dedicated those images there. the other full and sealed up.11. abandoning the rest of the city. when he had built the city. and hid them underground in the file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. to anticipate and prepare for their coming. betook themselves to the Capitol. and require the accession of a sort of soul or vitality in the principle of heat. and with such distraction and confusion were themselves in turn infected. and to those that remained. And now. not imagining their victory to be so considerable. and whose wisdom made it thought that he conversed with the Muses. Aeneas stole them away. a man curious in such things. lie sluggish and dead. The most common opinion was. One of their principal cares was of their holy things. so long as they are without warmth.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and kept them till his coming into Italy. one of which stands open and has nothing in it. or attended with motion. after the battle. which were kept from the view of all. not of any great size. most of which they conveyed into the Capitol. for purification. consecrated fire. but that neither of them may be seen but by the most holy virgins. and. by which means they gave leisure to those who were for leaving the city to make their escape. in whatever way. But the Gauls.. But the consecrated fire the vestal virgins took. which they fortified with the help of missiles and new works. there had been no remedy but Rome must have wholly been ruined. fell to feasting and dividing the spoil. immediately receive a capacity either of acting or being acted upon. as in Greece. and fled with it. and that there were other things hid in the most secret part of the temple.. and all those who remained in it utterly destroyed. such was the terror that those who escaped the battle brought with them into the city. For they who resolved to stay at Rome. And thus Numa.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11.

But when he found it to be so indeed. and of the fact of the capture. it can be supposed probable that an exact chronological statement has been preserved of events which were themselves the cause of chronological difficulties about things of later date.11. having his wife. they fled away with them. indeed. This devout act of Albinius.. putting on their sacred and splendid robes. proceeding from the Hyperboreans. first began to suspect it was some design or stratagem. overtook them. But I do not wonder that so fabulous and high-flown an author as Heraclides should embellish the truth of the story with expressions about Hyperboreans and the great sea. seeing the virgins dragging along in their arms the holy things of the gods.htm (16 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . however. where Lucius Albinius. and that from hence that place to this day bears the name of Barrels. and goods in a cart. if.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. men who had been consuls and had enjoyed triumphs. But this is a matter of file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. Fabius the high-priest performing the office. a simple citizen of Rome. Aristotle the philosopher appears to have heard a correct statement of the taking of the city by the Gauls. and. but. and. sat themselves down in their ivory chairs in the forum. some faint rumors seem to have passed at the time into Greece. but he calls its deliverer Lucius.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. he caused his wife and children to get down. whereas Camillus's surname was not Lucius. seated somewhere upon the great sea. who lived not long after these times. and took Rome. taking out his goods. after it was built. and. put the virgins in the cart. as it were. of the calamity itself. that they might make their escape to some of the Greek cities. but Marcus. and. deserved not to be passed over in silence. devoting themselves. that an army. relates that a certain report came from the west. in his book upon the Soul. Heraclides Ponticus. Brennus appeared with his army at the city. taking the most precious and important things they had. On the third day after the battle. shaping their course along the river side. for their country. in the three hundred and sixtieth year. and the respect he showed thus signally to the gods at a time of such extremity. could not endure to leave the city. temple of Quirinus. But the priests that belonged to other gods. or a little more. finding the gates wide open and no guards upon the walls. in a helpless and weary condition. never dreaming that the Romans were in so desperate a condition.. who among others was making his escape. However it be. he entered at the Colline gate. children. they made their prayers to the gods. had taken a Greek city called Rome. and the most elderly of the senators. and in that posture expected the event.

. but not all together in a body. from their defenses. putting forth his hand. This provoked them to ruin the whole city.. set upon them all and killed them. for a great while. and so went on to the sacking and pillaging the houses. because they would not yield to summons. And now. but in different squadrons and parties.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. but to find out an opportunity to be revenged upon them. but. But when one. on the contrary. women. the siege of the Capitol having lasted a good while. and children. to the effect that they ought not to ascribe the misfortune of the Romans to the courage of their enemy. men. but now he began to rouse up himself. And perceiving that the Ardeatians wanted not men. and consider not how to avoid or escape the enemy. which they continued for many days ensuing. being incensed at those who kept the Capitol. and sitting quietly. going himself down into the forum. leaning upon their staves. bolder than the rest. for the rest. conjecture. when assailed. the rest went to forage the country. was there struck with amazement at the sight of so many men sitting in that order and silence. with some loss. but rather enterprise. Papirius with his staff struck him a severe blow on the head. Brennus. they burnt them down to the ground and demolished them. set a strong guard about the Capitol. The Gauls. having taken possession of Rome. that they carelessly rambled about without the least fear or apprehension of danger. looking at each other. he began to speak with the young men. had repelled them. and. drew near to Marcus Papirius. having. part of them stayed with their king at the siege. upon which the barbarian drew his sword and slew him. and taken to a private life.11. gently touched his chin and stroked his long beard. This was the introduction to the slaughter. taking them for an assembly of superior beings. nor so much as changed color or countenance. and dispatched all others that came in their way. observing that they neither rose at his coming. young and old. but remained without fear or concern. ravaging the towns and villages where they came. and. Afterwards.htm (17 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . first.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. the Gauls began to be in want of provision. stood wondering at the strangeness of the sight not daring to approach or touch them. and dividing their forces. through the inexperience and timidity of their officers. and to put to the sword all that came to their hands. sequestered himself from all business. ever since his leaving Rome. and to such a confidence had success raised them. where Camillus then sojourned. following his example. But the greatest and best ordered body of their forces went to the city of Ardea. nor file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.

. The fame of this action soon flew through the neighboring cities. who. who was near. lay encamped in the plains in a careless and negligent posture. and were picked up by the horse that pursued them. were surprised without their arms. is lost and gone. and sent to Camillus to desire him to take the command. and were now at Veii. to lay waste and destroy. the event had been only an evidence of the power of fortune.. and in the dead of the night. getting into some order. When he found the young men embraced the thing. but he answered. "O heavens. having no country but what is in the possession of the enemy. or else. But the greatest part of them. destitute of a leader and shut up within strange walls. attribute the losses they sustained by rash counsel to the conduct of men who had no title to victory.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. with weapons in our hands. But none were so much concerned as those Romans who escaped in the battle of Allia.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. he went to the magistrates and council of the city. nor we citizens. that they might not be perceived by the enemy. that it was a brave thing even with danger to repel a foreign and barbarous invader. for awhile resisted. he mustered all that could bear arms. whose end in conquering was like fire. and dispatched. sit idle. he was ready to put an opportunity into their hands to gain a victory without hazard at all. that he would not. having scoured the country. until they that were in the Capitol should legally appoint him. and we. and so died with their weapons in their hands. A few.htm (18 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . silence prevailed through all the camp. for he file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. When Camillus learned this from his scouts. and as many of them as by the advantage of the night got out of the camp were the next day found scattered abroad and wandering in the fields. Come. he drew out the Ardeatians. he struck terror into them from all quarters. thus lamenting with themselves. what a commander has Providence bereaved Rome of. commanding his trumpets to sound and his men to shout and halloo. and drew them up within the walls. buried in wine and sleep. to honor Ardea with his actions! And that city. and see Italy ruined before our eyes. having persuaded them also. and. came up to their works. passing in silence over the ground that lay between." To this they all agreed. for he is no longer a banished man. which brought forth and nursed so great a man.11. let us send to the Ardeatians to have back our general. with the night ensuing upon debauch and drunkenness. while drunkenness impeded and sleep retarded their movements. so that. and stirred up the young men from various quarters to come and join themselves with him. and. let us go thither to him. and now returned heavy-laden with booty. but if they would be courageous and resolute. whom fear had sobered.

who joyfully received it. When this answer was returned. But among the young men there was one Pontius Cominius. as on him alone all their fellowcountrymen outside the city would rely. the bridge he could not pass. and presented himself to the guards. though with much difficulty. he related to them in order the victory of Camillus. as it was guarded by the barbarians.11. he laid his body upon the corks. it seemed altogether impossible for any one to get to the citadel whilst the enemy was in full possession of the city. and binding them about his head. he was taken in.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. spied in several places marks of feet and hands. so that taking his clothes. indeed. But at Rome some of the barbarians. and where the hill of the Capitol is steepest. or rather. the senate declared Camillus dictator. and rises with craggy and broken rock. and. And avoiding those quarters where he perceived the enemy was awake. that if they should command him. saluting them. on his arrival. he went to the Carmental gate. esteemed them. which they had not heard of before. passing by chance near the place at which Pontius by night had got into the Capitol. and carried to the commanders. who. and went accordingly and reported it to the king. lest. got over to the city. Having heard and consulted of the matter. to be his country. and delivered to the Romans outside the decision of the senate. as long as they were in being. which he guessed at by the lights and noise. by the hollow of the cliff. for file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. And a senate being immediately called. but they could not tell how to find a messenger to carry the intelligence to the Capitol. swimming with them. and took no letters with him to those in the Capitol. Camillus. where there was greatest silence. he prepared to set upon the enemy. he boldly traveled the greatest part of the way by day. with which forces. where he had laid hold and clambered.htm (19 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . found twenty thousand of them ready in arms. and came to the city when it was dark. but against their consent he would intermeddle with nothing. which were neither many nor heavy. if he were intercepted. putting on a poor dress and carrying corks under it.. but. and places where the plants that grew to the rock had been rubbed off. he would readily obey. urging them to confirm Camillus in the command. and viewing it. and sent back Pontius the same way that he came.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. By this way he got up. coming in person. and telling them his name. got through the enemy without being discovered. of ordinary birth. who. with the same success as before. they admired the modesty and temper of Camillus. the enemy might learn the intentions of Camillus. and those confederates he brought along with him. who proffered himself to run the hazard. but ambitious of honor. and the proceedings of the soldiers.. and the earth had slipped.

having begun well. for where it was easy for one man to get up. when the enemy himself lets us see the way by which it may be taken. Rewards and honors shall be bestowed on every man as he shall acquit himself. who were fast asleep. with great silence. But there were sacred geese kept near the temple of Juno. when many shall undertake it. it will not be hard for many. and by living in the mountains were accustomed to climb. they will be aid and strength to each other. and in the dead of night a good party of them together. and. was the first that made head against them. and to give up a place as impregnable. every one in haste snatching up the next weapon that came to hand. tumbled him headlong down the steep rock. and. then mounting the rampart. one after another.11. were but in a poor condition. for neither man nor dog perceived their coming. who. being moreover watchful through hunger. with his sword cut off the right arm of one just as he was lifting up his blade to strike. having thus escaped this danger. and proved less difficult than they had expected. perceiving themselves discovered.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. engaging with two of the enemy at once. by reason that corn and all other provisions were grown scarce for all. picking out such of the Gauls as were nimblest of body. immediately discovered the coming of the Gauls. running up and down with their noise and cackling. which at other times were plentifully fed. a man of consular dignity. The Romans. they all but surprised the outworks. and apprehensive of the least noise. drove down the rest of them. had not been many. he said to them. So that the foremost of them having gained the top of all.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. but with shouting and violence advanced to the assault. no longer endeavored to conceal their attempt. and. to fail in the end.htm (20 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 ." When the king had thus spoken. to begin. of strong body and great spirit. and there standing with others that came running to his assistance. and mastered the watch. the Gauls cheerfully undertook to perform it. Manlius. so that these. nay. but now. which we knew not of before. did what they could on the sudden occasion. running his target full in the face of the other. clinging to the precipitous and difficult ascent. "The enemy themselves have shown us a way how to come at them. while the barbarians on the other side. indeed. began to climb the rock. which yet upon trial offered a way to them. The creature is by nature of quick sense. the present said nothing. and restless.. and have taught us that it is not so difficult and impossible but that men may overcome it. and put themselves into order. The Romans. they raised the whole camp.. early in the morning took the captain of the watch and flung file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. It would be a great shame. but in the evening. and did nothing worthy of so bold an attempt.

and the number of the dead grew so great. in which it was agreed. the city was so guarded by the barbarians.11. and to Manlius for his victory voted a reward. occasioned by the number of carcasses that lay in heaps unburied. Things being in this sad condition on both sides. and sickness also was amongst them. each man of them. him down the rock upon the heads of their enemies. There was. the ashes. but afterwards openly pulled back and disturbed the balance. and the gold brought forth. as much as he received for his daily allowance. the inhalation of which was destructive to their health. blown about with the winds and combining with the sultry heats.. Neither. as they had now sat seven months before the Capitol. at which the Romans indignantly complaining. the affairs of the Gauls were daily in a worse and worse condition. Being lodged among the ruins.htm (21 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . very unhealthy ground. and threw them both into the scales. so to say. "but woe to the conquered?" which afterwards became a proverbial saying. a great destruction among them. added to which was the length and tediousness of the siege. for famine increased upon them. As for the Romans. and. "What should it mean. the Gauls used false dealing in the weights. Henceforward. tribune of the Romans. which being embraced by the leading men. which was half a pound of bread. therefore. which were very deep. intended more for honor than advantage. they wanted provisions. some were so incensed that they were for taking their gold back again. and one eighth of a pint of wine. The agreement being confirmed by oath on both sides. But the chief cause was the change from their natural climate. the Gauls upon the receipt of it should immediately quit the city and territories. were things on that account any better with the besieged.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. a motion of treaty was made at first by some of the outposts. a dry and searching air. breathed up. in the autumn season.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. that the living gave up burying them. since the paying anything file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and despondency with not hearing any thing of Camillus. Brennus in a scoffing and insulting manner pulled off his sword and belt. Others were for passing by and dissembling a petty injury. abounding in means of shelter from the heat. it being impossible to send any one to him. bringing him. indeed. and not to account that the indignity of the thing lay in paying more than was due. coming as they did out of shady and hilly countries. secretly at first. that the Romans laying down a thousand weight of gold. Sulpicius. and returning to endure the siege.. to lodge in low. being withheld from foraging through fear of Camillus. as they happened to speak with one another." says he. came to a parley with Brennus. and when Sulpicius asked what that meant.

and. the engagement had been made with men who had no power to enter into it. and. commanded the main body of his forces to follow slowly after him in good order. Camillus answered that it was never legally made. Camillus triumphed. and commanded the Gauls to take their weights and scales and depart. and were driven out about the Ides of February following. Camillus came up with him. Whilst this difference remained still unsettled. went at once to the Romans. brought them to their camp. and there engaging with him in a sharp conflict. both sides drew their swords and attacked. where all giving way to him. overthrew his army with great slaughter. and his soldiers full of courage and confidence. called off his men.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. for he was come with full power by law to grant pardon to such as should ask it. having learned what was going on. as he deserved. with profound silence and order. And when Brennus began to rage.. others. at all was itself a dishonor only submitted to as a necessity of the times. both amongst themselves and with the Gauls. having saved his country that was lost. not with gold. and delivered it to his officers. Thus Rome was strangely taken. advancing about eight miles. and brought file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. splendidly armed himself. if they did not repent. and himself with the choicest of his men hastening on. with the loss of a few only. and these were the greatest number. But Brennus.11. but in confusion. dispersed hither and thither. for that himself being declared dictator. which lasted a long while. or inflict punishment on the guilty. and more strangely recovered. having been seven whole months in the possession of the barbarians who entered her a little after the Ides of July. encamped upon the way to Gabii. and receiving him as their sole magistrate. left the city. Camillus was at the gates with his army. Of those that fled. and the agreement of no force or obligation.. saying that it was customary with the Romans to deliver their country with iron. he took the gold out of the scales. as could not otherwise be amongst houses. and say that he was unjustly dealt with in such a breach of contract. and. and were dispatched by the people that came sallying out from the neighboring towns and villages. and took their camp. and ill narrow lanes and places where it was impossible to form in any order. and. some were presently cut off by the pursuers. As soon as day appeared. At this. rising in the night with all his forces. and there being no other magistrate by law. but now they might say anything they had to urge. presently recollecting himself.htm (22 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . Brennus broke into violent anger. and an immediate quarrel ensued.

PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. through the excess of the present pleasure. despondency seized the multitude. and a backwardness to engage in a work for which they had no materials. together with their wives and children.htm (23 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . at a time. to discover and redetermine the consecrated places. to encourage and to appease the people. calling to their remembrance the sacred spots and holy places which Romulus and Numa or any other of their kings had consecrated and file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. when they rather needed relief and repose from their past labors.. he withheld them from a city fit to receive them. foretelling the coming of the barbarian army. embracing each other as they met. and to reerect a pile of burnt rubbish. scarce believing in its truth.11. therefore. its founder. They themselves. and were reduced almost to the point of perishing with hunger. a city ready-built and well-provided. and purified the city according to the direction of those properly instructed. too. and weeping for joy and. And when the priests and ministers of the gods appeared. but. he restored the existing temples. accompanied him as he rode in. by kind persuasions and familiar addresses. though desirous. and those who had been shut up in the Capitol. and the incessant labor of the priests. so to say. and a hard task. which in their flight they had either hid on the spot. but by the zeal of Camillus. also. forcing them to live in the midst of ruins. For those that had fled abroad. and gave an opening to the arts of flatterers eager to gratify their desires. The senate. Thus insensibly they turned their thoughts again towards Veii. that he might be esteemed not the chief magistrate only and general of Rome.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. and now openly showed in safety. to the exclusion of Romulus. went out to meet him. and erected a new one to Rumour. though no other dictator had ever held it above six months. After Camillus had sacrificed to the gods. as that.. to lay down his authority within the year. would not suffer Camillus. But when it came also to rebuilding the city. informing himself of the spot in which that voice from heaven came by night to Marcus Caedicius. it was at last accomplished. than any new demands upon their exhausted strength and impaired fortunes. out of ambition and self-glory. fearing a sedition. the citizens who saw the blessed sight felt as if with these the gods themselves were again returned unto Rome. amidst so much rubbish. the city. which was wholly demolished. bearing the sacred things. and lent their ears to seditious language flung out against Camillus. showing them the shrines and tombs of their ancestors. or Voice. used their best endeavors. meantime. It was a matter of difficulty. or conveyed away with them. back again to itself.

At last. proceeding in it. they constructed their city in narrow and ill-designed lanes. called out with a loud voice to the ensignbearer to halt and fix his standard. whose place it was to speak first. and Lucretius just about to begin. and the holy fire which had just been rekindled again. entreaties. like everything else. gave sentence in concurrence with the gods.htm (24 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . reunited as they just were. to the chapel of Mars. in order. however.. or left a wild pasture for cattle to graze on?" Such reasons as these. assuming an attitude of devotion. left to their keeping. or best pleased his fancy. sometimes in private upon individuals. as he said. and the rest as they followed. since the end of the war. to be either inhabited by strangers and new-comers. was taken as a direction what was to be done. coming. as likewise did all that followed. calling to Lucius Lucretius. urged the head. appointed by Camillus to resume and mark out. and among the strongest religious arguments. passing by outside with his company of the day-guard. when they had another at hand ready-built and prepared. however. by the file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. "What a disgrace would it be to them to lose and extinguish this.11. newly separated from the body. leaving the city it belonged to. were met. both in its public walls and private buildings.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. but every one pitching upon that plot of ground which came next to hand. by chance a centurion. in this general confusion. they would not constrain them to patch up the pieces of a ruined and shattered city. This voice. after a sort of shipwreck. and sometimes in their public assemblies. and himself spoke largely and earnestly in behalf of his country. naked and destitute. Even among the common people it created a wonderful change of feeling. by laments and protestations of distress and helplessness. all consecrated places. urged with complaint and expostulation. that. in their way round the Palatium. The persons. by the vestal virgins. for this was the best place to stay in. as also many others. by which haste and hurry in building. and with houses huddled together one upon another. on the other hand. and set himself to the work.. marking it as a place destined by fate to be the head of all Italy.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. every one now cheered and encouraged his neighbor. which was found in laying the foundation of the Capitol. he commanded him to give his sentence. not by any regular lines or divisions. and at that crisis of uncertainty and anxiety for the future. for it is said that within the compass of the year the whole city was raised up anew. coming in that moment of time. found the chapel itself indeed destroyed and burnt to the ground. Camillus thought good to refer it to general deliberation. Silence being made. so that Lucretius.

Philotis. and the Aequians. I shall begin with the more fabulous. that at night the rest stole away the enemy's swords. that the magistrates consenting. Romulus.11. without the knowledge. and. lit upon Romulus's augural staff. barbarians. and they calling file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. Of this war two different accounts are given. and spreading out a thick woolen cloth behind her. where Camillus was a third time chosen dictator. But when he disappeared from the earth. in plain terms. and when they now found that. which was the signal concerted between her and the commanders. who were encamped not far from the city. whereas all other things were consumed. though covered over with the specious name of intermarriage and alliance). from the touch of man.htm (25 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . and to augur from this token its future everlasting safety. The military tribunes who commanded the army. and leave the rest to her care and management. and were encamped about the hill Maecius. a certain handmaid. and on the other side suspected that this asking of wives was. however. as some call her. This sort of staff is crooked at one end. who was himself a great diviner. getting to the top of a wild fig-tree. when a new war came upon them. and is called lituus. or. and the Tuscans besieged Sutrium. and Latins all at once invaded their territories. nothing else but a demand for hostages.born maidens in marriage. delivered them to the Latins.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. Volscians. but whilst they were clearing the place. made use of it. And now they had scarcely got a breathing time from their trouble. having scarcely yet settled and recovered themselves. by name Tutula. as other holy things. of any other of the citizens. adorning them with gold and rich clothes. which was the reason that their issuing out from the city was tumultuous. in the bridal dress of noble virgins. buried under a great heap of ashes. and the camp in danger to be lost.. this staff had altogether escaped the flames. chose out as many as she thought necessary for her purpose. or a real design to revive the ancient relationship of the two nations) sent to desire of the Romans some free. persuaded the magistrates to send with her some of the most youthful and best looking maid-servants. that when the Romans were at a loss how to determine (for on one hand they dreaded a war.. held out a torch towards Rome. but Tutula or Philotis. and carrying away the rubbish. the officers pushing their men on. the priests took his staff and kept it. they began to conceive happier hopes of Rome. They say that the Latins (whether out of pretense. being closely besieged by the Latins.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. they make use of it in quartering out the regions of the heavens when engaged in divination from the flight of birds. their confederate city. sent to Rome.

and taking a large circuit round the mountain Maecius. but the Latins and Volscians. they run out of the city in great crowds. being the third time chosen dictator. their confederates. But the general stream of writers prefer the other account of this war. Marcus. as is stated in his life.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. gaily dressed. the Latin for a goat being capra. prepared to sally forth and join battle. and fearing to be reduced to the same position to which he had brought them. and the like. to show they helped in the conflict against the Latins. Others refer most of what is said or done at this feast to the fate of Romulus. and finding their rampart was all of timber. and call out aloud several familiar and common names. to be besieged himself. and from this. not only those under. detecting their object. and while eating and drinking. resolving to wait for more supplies from home. he vanished outside the gates in a sudden darkness and storm (some think it an eclipse of the sun).Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. For in it. lodged his army on their rear. namely. and amongst themselves. and the place where he disappeared having the name of Goat's Marsh. fearing this exposure to an enemy on both sides. which was then called Quintilis. they took the camp. and destroyed most of them.. in representation of the way in which they called to one another when they went out in such haste. Camillus. and expecting. also. resolved to lose no time. after having prepared a quantity of combustibles. which they thus relate. but also those over. Camillus. and scarce able to bring themselves into order. and learning that the army under the tribunes was besieged by the Latins and Volscians. and then by many fires gave notice of his arrival. first. upon one another's names. about break of day he drew forth his forces. The besieged. and that this was done on the nones of July. playing and jesting upon all they meet.. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and that the feast that is observed on that day is a commemoration of what was then done. drew themselves within their works.11. and observing that a strong wind constantly at sun. In the next place. they sit shaded over with boughs of wild fig-tree. the maid-servants. for. Caius. Lucius. on this day. the age of service. that setting upon the enemy's works. undiscovered by the enemy. the Roman name for a wild fig-tree being caprificus. run about. use a kind of skirmishing.rising blew off from the mountains. as some think from that wild fig-tree on which the maid. was constrained to arm. the day was called Nonae Caprotinae. and fortified their camp with a strong palisade of trees on every side.htm (26 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 .servant held up her torch. and the day they call Nonae Caprotinae. also. encouraged by this. who either were asleep or expected no such matter. the assistance of the Tuscans.

were driven back within a very small compass. went to that side of the enemy's camp to which the wind usually blew. but their whole army scattered about in the houses. and destitute of all things. filled all their rampart with it.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. having just taken a rich and plentiful city. nor any from without to be expected. he gave the signal of onset. heaping in an infinite quantity of fiery matter. leaving his son Lucius in the camp to guard the prisoners and secure the booty.htm (27 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . For all file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. Neither did his opinion fail him. and there waited his opportunity. until the Romans. The Latins. resolved not to defer revenge. Nay. while the Sutrians hung about and clung to them. met Camillus on the way. or surrendered themselves to the conqueror. commanding a part with their missiles to assault the enemy with noise and shouting on the other quarter. so that the flame being fed by the close timber and wooden palisades. having taken the city of the Aequians and reduced the Volscians to obedience. would be found abandoned to enjoyment and unguarded. with those that were to fling in the fire. but came up to their very gates and possessed himself of the walls. that few were able so much as to endeavor to escape. and. and the sun risen. These things performed. without an enemy left within it.. while those that stayed in the camp were all a prey to the fire. Camillus. not a man being left to guard them. and perceiving the soldiers weeping. Camillus himself was struck with compassion. whilst he. having nothing ready to keep it off or extinguish it. where. had already surrendered their city to their enemies. however. conjecturing that the enemy. he not only passed through their country without discovery. they were so overloaded with meat and wine. passed into the enemy's country. when the camp was now almost full of fire. leading their wives and children. extinguished it.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. when at last they did perceive that the enemy had seized the city. and commiserating their case. alike by the means of Camillus. as if they were still in danger and besieged by the Tuscans. and at last forced by necessity to come into their enemy's hands. They. When the skirmish was begun. but that very day to lead his army to Sutrium. with nothing left but their clothes. of these very few escaped. and they who were in possession lost it. but making haste to assist them. drinking and making merry. who stood before the works ready armed and prepared to receive them.. and they who had lost regained it. and a strong wind set in from the mountains. Thus the city of the Sutrians was twice taken in one day.11. went on and spread into all quarters. he then immediately led his army to Sutrium. and bewailing their misfortune. but either waited shamefully for their death within doors. to gain the pillage. not having heard what had befallen the Sutrians.

so that one and the same spot was thus the witness of his greatest glory. defending some by pleading their causes against their creditors. those of them especially that were in debt. to gain the multitude. and ascribed his successes to a certain luck rather than real merit. This man. carried to the Capitol. but was rather the more insolent in his proceedings. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. who was made dictator to suppress these disorders. raising compassion in all that beheld him. were compelled by these last acts of his to allow the whole honor to his great abilities and energy. Marcus Manlius was the most distinguished. unwilling to acquit him of the crime. namely.htm (28 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . Insomuch that the judges were at a loss what to do. and flung headlong from the rock. he who first drove back the Gauls when they made their night attack upon the Capitol..Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. therefore. which was sufficiently proved. for the very spot where Manlius by night fought with the Gauls overlooked the forum from the Capitol. After that Quintius Capitolinus. ordered him to be released. which actions he received a triumph. so that. took that ordinary course towards usurpation of absolute power. Of all the adversaries and enviers of his glory. and weeping. rescuing others by force.11. stretching forth his hands that way. and the senate. the people immediately changed their apparel. and not able by noble ways to outdo Camillus's reputation. affecting the first place in the commonwealth. Camillus again military tribune. and yet unable to execute the law while his noble action remained. fearing some tumult. as it were. and several times adjourned the trial. whose tumults and uproars in the forum struck terror into the principal citizens. and a day being appointed for Manlius to answer to his charge. filling the whole city with faction and sedition. They chose. changed not his course. He was convicted. and his judges were capable of remembering and duly resenting his guilty deeds. Camillus. which brought him no less honor and reputation than the two former ones. The Romans. He. insomuch that in a short time he got great numbers of indigent people about him. a thing never done but in great and public calamities. he called to their remembrance his past actions. and who for that reason had been named Capitolinus. had committed Manlius to prison. however. the prospect from the place where his trial was held proved a great impediment to his accusers. considering this.. before their eyes. for those citizens who before most regarded him with an evil eye. and monument of his most unfortunate end. and not suffering the law to proceed against them. transferred the court outside the gates to the Peteline Grove. Here his accuser went on with his charge. from whence there is no prospect of the Capitol. when set at liberty.

with those he had about him ran to meet them at the gates of the camp. the people.htm (29 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . exhorting one another not to forsake their general. Having marched out with his army. being called to his sixth tribuneship. for he happened at that time to be sick. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. consented. following close upon them. who were in the possession of the city. slaying some and expelling the rest. but. carried away with the desire of glory. and perhaps not unfearful of the malice of fortune. and built there a temple to the goddess they call Moneta. who. desired to be excused. Thus the enemy for that time. his colleague. put to the sword. engaging rashly. fearing he might seem out of envy to be wishing to rob the young men of the glory of a noble exploit. set suddenly upon the Tuscans. And now Camillus. stayed behind with a few in the camp. crying that they wanted not his strength for horse or for foot service. and with one of his fellow-tribunes to lead the army immediately against the enemy. and those that came flying from without made head again and gathered about him. inflamed the inferior officers of the army with the same eagerness. or if there should come any necessity or occasion of fighting. But the most apparent pretense was the weakness of his body. leaping from his bed. he sat down and encamped near the enemy. but only his counsel and conduct. he sent home to Rome the main body of his forces and heaviest-armed. Afterwards. though unwillingly. by reason of weakness. so that those who had got within the camp turned back at once and followed him. The next day Camillus drawing out his forces and joining battle with them. taking with him the lightest and most vigorous soldiers. and. slaying the greatest part of them. was not to be held in.11. so that Camillus. impatient to give battle. and the inhabitants. having heard that the city Satricum was taken by the Tuscans. besides. constrained him to undertake the command. but. was stopped in his pursuit. all Romans. and those reverses which seem to ensue upon great prosperity. could not contain himself.. with large forces. overthrew them by main force. whilst himself. was discomfited.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and. These were the Praenestines and Volscians. and mastered them. and so. in the mean time to regain his strength. as being aged. ordaining for the future that none of the patrician order should ever dwell on the Capitoline. perceiving the Romans to give ground and fly. that he should draw out the forces. razed his house. meaning himself to protract the war. were laying waste the territory of the Roman confederates. but. But Lucius Furius. when Camillus.. making his way through the flyers to oppose the pursuers. would admit of no excuses.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. entered pell-mell with them into their camp and took it. Lucius. however.

and joined himself as an intercessor in their behalf. he found in their workshops. so that their city was acquitted of all guilt and admitted to Roman citizenship. Tribunes of the people were chosen. to dissemble that miscarriage. These were the most memorable actions of his sixth tribuneship. Which arts. but the election of consuls was interrupted and prevented by the people. against the judgment of Camillus. choosing one of his five colleagues to go with him. and the better sort of citizens walking in the public places in their ordinary dress. and not altogether in accordance with his own. contrary to the expectation of all. and their children were being taught in the schools. that of two consuls one should be chosen out of the commons. their gates stood wide open. had rather chosen him who was sickly and desirous to be excused. of the people. though they could not dispossess Camillus of the conviction he had of their treason. they gave Camillus the charge of reducing them. Licinius Stolo raised a great sedition in the city. the revolt of the Tusculans was reported. and free him from the shame of it. had only put him forward now out of envy. the magistrates hurried about to provide quarters for the Romans. hearing of Camillus's coming against them. he might crush the people. the very same man who lately. as it should seem. as if they stood in fear of no danger and were conscious of no fault. After these things. contending. and not both out of the patricians. he commanded them to go to the senate and deprecate their anger. The Tusculans. such as were tradesmen.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. he had little desire for a conflict with men whose past services entitled them to tell him that he had achieved far greater actions in war along with them than in politics with the patricians. yet induced some compassion for their repentance. sorely against the people's will. who.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. their fields. indeed. that. gave signal evidence of their superior wisdom. were full of plowman and shepherds.htm (30 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . as in times of highest peace. had rashly hazarded and nearly lost a battle. and brought the people to dissension with the senate. than younger men who were forward and ambitious to command. And as this absence of any supreme magistrate was leading to yet further confusion. not mistrusting the weakness and age of a commander endued with courage and conduct.. returning to Rome with great spoils. made a cunning attempt at revoking their act of revolt. busied about their several employments. And when every one was eager for the place. willing.. who. When.11. if successful. he passed by the rest and chose Lucius Furius. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. or. therefore. Camillus was the fourth time created dictator by the senate.

or depreciate his own capacity. he caused head-pieces entire of iron to be made for most of his men. for some days together. unanimously chose Camillus the fifth time dictator. lighting upon them. suffered that law to be enacted and ratified. proceeding from the Adriatic Sea. be crushed himself. were marching in vast numbers upon Rome. and such as by flight could not make their escape to Rome were dispersing and scattering among the mountains.. smoothing and polishing the outside. Stolo was much distinguished by the victory he had gained. failing.11. Whether it were. knowing that the great force of the barbarians lay chiefly in their swords. with which they laid about them in a rude and inartificial manner.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. might either file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. The senate created another dictator. who. threatening to set heavy fines upon such as should not obey. On the very heels of the report followed manifest acts also of hostility. professing sickness. leader of the sedition. However. And now the contention about election of consuls coming on (which was the main point and original cause of the dissension. or found himself unable to stem the current of the multitude. who. certain intelligence arrived. knowing the day on which the tribunes of the people intended to prefer the law. the country through which they marched was all wasted. not long after. senate and people together. and called the people from the forum into the Campus. which ran strong and violent. not wanting much of fourscore years. and afterwards. was found himself to possess more than he had allowed to others. he appointed it by proclamation for a general muster.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. then. to provide as good a remedy as he could for the present. that the Gauls again.. pretend sickness. as before. that no person whatsoever should possess above five hundred acres of land. but. And. he betook himself. if he persisted in obstructing the people from giving their suffrages for the law. hacking and hewing the head and shoulders. the tribunes of the people met his threats by solemnly protesting they would fine him in fifty thousand drachmas of silver. and suffered the penalties of his own law. On the other side. which was most grievous to the patricians. and enrolled soldiers. though very aged. namely. and had throughtout furnished most matter of division between the senate and the people). but at once undertook the charge. nobles and commons. choosing Stolo. to his house. for the present. that he feared another banishment or condemnation which would ill become his age and past great actions.htm (31 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . to be his general of horse. that the enemy's swords. finally laid down his dictatorship. The terror of this war quieted the sedition. did not. considering the danger and necessity of his country. yet.

at last.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and their shields were pierced through and through. contrary to their expectation. falling upon them before they could get into their usual order or range themselves in their proper squadrons. a numerous and courageous army. he taught his soldiers to use their long javelins in close encounter. without any disturbance. and planted himself upon a hill of easy ascent. betook themselves to their swords. In the next place. that their enemies had. about the river Anio. Besides. to those upper grounds. in the nighttime he drew up his lightest-armed men.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. so disturbed and pressed upon them. being made of a soft and ill-tempered metal. And the more to increase this opinion in them. when Camillus brought on his heavy-armed legions. and tried to pluck them away... perceiving that part of the enemy were scattered about the country foraging. and. and sent them out before to impede the enemy while forming into order. keeping himself quiet within his works. to receive their strokes upon them. he suffered them. through fear. slide off or be broken. the wood itself not being sufficient to bear off the blows. went vigorously to engage them. however. that they were obliged to fight at random. and loaded with infinite spoil. And thus forced to quit their own weapons. as the barbarians had supposed. and to harass them when they should first issue out of their camp. with the object that the greatest part of his army might lie concealed. the barbarians. and those who appeared might be thought to have betaken themselves. But the Romans. that in a little time great slaughter was made in the foremost file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and set them in battle array in the lower grounds. laid hold of the javelins with their hands.htm (32 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . and that those that were in the camp did nothing day and night but drink and revel. an inconsiderable and fearful division. dragging a heavy camp after them. opposing their javelins and receiving the force of their blows on those parts of their defenses which were well guarded with steel. But at last. without any order at all. and which had many dips in it. the light-armed men. When the Gauls drew near. which they so well used. till. which were well fortified. with their swords drawn. not. by bringing them under their enemy's swords.11. the honor of being aggressors. perceiving them now naked and defenseless. and grew heavy with the javelins that stuck upon them. they endeavored to take advantage of those of their enemies. the Romans. to spoil and pillage even to his very trenches. turned the edge of their weapons. and fitted also their shields with a little rim of brass. so that their swords bent and doubled up in their hands. and early in the morning brought down his main body. Camillus drew forth his forces. The first thing that shook the courage of the Gauls was.

contrary to established law. solemnly vowing. insisted. This fight. an officer.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. the most moderate and most acceptable to the people prevailed.. they voted a temple of Concord to be built. to build a temple to Concord. but. such a noise and tumult as was never heard before. And. that of two consuls. thinking. facing the assembly and the file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.. Being at a loss what to do in these difficulties. while the rest fled over all parts of the level country. filled the whole forum. that priests should be excused from service in war. The senate strongly opposed it. was still to be fought out against the people. they should be better able to contend for the power of the aristocracy. for the voluntary surrender of the city of the Velitrani was but a mere accessory to it.htm (33 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 . dispatching public affairs. he went to the senate-house. commanded him to rise and follow him. when the tumult was ended. whose previous defeat they had attributed rather to pestilence and a concurrence of mischances than to their own superior valor. but. pleased and reconciled with the senate. as. unless in an invasion from the Gauls. ranks. as indeed could not otherwise be. with all expressions and acclamations of joy. through confidence of victory. upon which. returning home full of victory and success. it is stated. When the dictator proclaimed this determination of the senate to the people. to have one of the consuls chosen out of their own body. and their camp they knew it would not be difficult for the enemy to take. that they made a law. But the greatest of all civil contests. But when Camillus was sitting upon the tribunal. assembling together. A great conflict of opposite opinions arose in the senate. sent by the tribunes of the people. as ready to seize and carry him away. laying his hand upon him. and the hardest to be managed. at the moment. the hills and upper grounds Camillus had secured beforehand. they had left it unguarded. and from henceforward the Romans took courage.11. this fear had been formerly so great. and the multitude below calling out to him to bring Camillus down. and consent was given. was thirteen years after the sacking of Rome. he yet laid not down his authority. and would not suffer Camillus to lay down his dictatorship. at last. who. and surmounted the apprehensions they had hitherto entertained of the barbarians. that. some that were about Camillus thrusting the officer from the bench. but before he entered. indeed. they accompanied Camillus home. besought the gods that they would bring these troubles to a happy conclusion. and the next day. under the shelter of his great name and authority. one should be chosen from the commonalty.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. according to Camillus's vow. taking the senators along with him. This was the last military action that ever Camillus performed.

called the Latin holidays. Marcus Aemilius was chosen of the patricians.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-11. whose death cannot be called immature. they added one day more. on the present occasion. if we consider his great age. among whom was Camillus. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. a pestilential sickness infected Rome. In the year following. and this was the last of all Camillus's actions. and ordained that. the whole people of Rome should sacrifice with garlands on their heads. and Lucius Sextius the first of the commonalty. and to the feasts. besides an infinite number of the common people. or greater actions. In the election of consuls held by Camillus.. forum. which. swept away most of the magistrates.11. making four in all.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. yet was he more lamented than all the rest put together that then died of that distemper..htm (34 of 34)2006-05-31 20:37:39 .

on the very contrary. many times. be it what it will. which also produce in the minds of mere readers about them.12. in the exercise of his mental perception. In other things there does not immediately follow upon the admiration and liking of the thing done. and allure it to its own proper good and advantage.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. useful or unuseful. carrying up and down with them in their arms and bosoms young puppy-dogs and monkeys. by expending it on objects unworthy of the attention either of their eyes or their ears. Nay. embracing and making much of them. and would do them good.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. if he chooses. So that it becomes a man's duty to pursue and make after the best and choicest of everything. in perfumes and purple dyes. seeing some wealthy strangers at Rome. so a man ought to apply his intellectual perception to such objects as. but may also be improved by it. an emulation and eagerness that may lead them on to imitation. by that prince-like reprimand gravely reflecting upon persons who spend and lavish upon brute beasts that affection and kindness which nature has implanted in us to be bestowed on those of our own kind. we are taken with the things themselves well enough.. The mere outward sense. for instance. It was not said amiss by Antisthenes. but. when people told him file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. when we are pleased with the work. For as that color is most suitable to the eye whose freshness and pleasantness stimulates and strengthens the sight. any strong desire of doing the like. With like reason may we blame those who misuse that love of inquiry and observation which nature has implanted in our souls. but do not think dyers and perfumers otherwise than low and sordid people. being passive in responding to the impression of the objects that come in its way and strike upon it. that he may not only employ his contemplation. PERICLES Caesar once.htm (1 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:41 . while they disregard such as are excellent in themselves. with the sense of delight. are apt to call it forth. every man. and to change and shift with the greatest ease to what he shall himself judge desirable. took occasion not unnaturally to ask whether the women in their country were not used to bear children. Such objects we find in the acts of virtue. we slight and set little by the workman or artist himself. as. has a natural power to turn himself upon all occasions.. perhaps cannot help entertaining and taking notice of everything that addresses it.

and in that capacity to bear the crossgrained humors of their fellow-citizens and colleagues in office which made them both most useful and serviceable to the interests of their countries. that one Ismenias was an excellent piper. as in their other virtues and good parts. men alike. Whether we take a right aim at our intended file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. told his son Alexander. And so we have thought fit to spend our time and pains in writing of the lives of famous persons. the latter we wish others to experience from us. to the same purpose.. while others engage in such exercises and trials of skill. Moral good is a practical stimulus. to play so well?" For it is enough for a king. ever desire to be a Phidias.12. but. who carried on the war against Hannibal. The goods of fortune we would possess and would enjoy. those of virtue we long to practice and exercise. and influences the mind and character not by a mere imitation which we look at. by the statement of the fact.htm (2 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:41 . we are content to receive the former from others. can so affect men's minds as to create at once both admiration of the things done and desire to imitate the doers of them. containing the life of Pericles." said he. Nor did any generous and ingenuous young man. long to be a Polycletus. so especially in their mild and upright temper and demeanor. on seeing that of Juno at Argos. "It may be so. "but he is but a wretched human being. that.. therefore he that wrought it deserves our admiration. than it inspires an impulse to practice.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C." And king Philip.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. Whence it is that neither do such things really profit or advantage the beholders. at the sight of the statue of Jupiter at Pisa. and have composed this tenth book upon that subject. and that of Fabius Maximus. He who busies himself in mean occupations produces. an evidence against himself of his negligence and indisposition to what is really good. it is no sooner seen. if a piece of work please for its gracefulness. upon the sight of which no zeal arises for the imitation of them. But virtue. son. in the very pains he takes about things of little or no use. or prince to find leisure sometimes to hear others sing. or feel induced by his pleasure in their poems to wish to be an Anacreon or Philetas or Archilochus. For it does not necessarily follow. nor any impulse or inclination. or. "Are you not ashamed. and he does the muses quite honor enough when he pleases to be but present. which may prompt any desire or endeavor of doing the like. who once at a merry-meeting played a piece of music charmingly and skillfully. by the bare statement of its actions. creates a moral purpose which we form. otherwise he would not have been an excellent piper.

and the township Cholargus. in other respects perfectly formed.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. being near her time. and a few days after was delivered of Pericles. the workmen apparently being willing not to expose him. The poets of Athens called him Schinocephalos.. a squill. or sea. purpose.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. from schinos.. His mother. the grandchild of Clisthenes.htm (3 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:41 . in the Chirons. who drove out the sons of Pisistratus. and nobly put an end to their tyrannical usurpation. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. Whom the gods the supreme skullcompeller have named. For which reason almost all the images and statues that were made of him have the head covered with a helmet. of the noblest birth both on his father's and mother's side. who defeated the king of Persia's generals in the battle at Mycale.onion. it is left to the reader to judge by what he shall here find. his father. Which two brought to life That tyrant farfamed. tells us that Old Chronos once took queen Sedition to wife. One of the comic poets. Xanthippus. and moreover made a body of laws. Pericles was of the tribe Acamantis.12. only his head was somewhat longish and out of proportion. took to wife Agariste. Cratinus. or squill-head. fancied in a dream that she was brought to bed of a lion. and settled a model of government admirably tempered and suited for the harmony and safety of the people.

and now abroad. Jove. thou head of gods. exclaims. in embarrassment with political difficulties. addresses him Come.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. in the Nemesis. in the comedy called the Demi. From his huge gallery of a pate.. that now. Eupolis.htm (4 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:41 . file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. he sits in the city.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. And a second. Teleclides. Fainting underneath the load Of his own head. Sends forth trouble to the state. And a third.. says. And. whom he makes in the play to come up from hell. in a series of questions about each of the demagogues.12. upon Pericles being named last.

And here by way of summary. The master that taught him music. Behold. in brief. however. Damon. out of policy.12. the comic poet. sheltered himself under the profession of music to conceal from people in general his skill in other things. who questions him Tell me. now we've done. and under this pretense attended Pericles. the heads of all in one. it is not unlikely. as his training-master in these exercises. did not prove altogether a successful blind. was Damon (whose name. he was banished the country by ostracism for ten years. Damon's lyre. ought to be pronounced with the first syllable short). the young athlete of politics. Though Aristotle tells us that he was thoroughly practiced in all accomplishments of this kind by Pythoclides.. for instance.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. most authors are agreed. being a sophist. Plato. so to say.htm (5 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:41 . Since you're the Chiron who taught Pericles. and. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. they say. if you please.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. gave the stage occasion to play upon him. as a dangerous intermeddler and a favorer of arbitrary power. As. by this means.. introduces a character.

filling himself with this lofty. as Timon of Phlius describes it. superior to all arts of popularity. Say what one would. But he that saw most of Pericles.. but had also perfected himself in an art of his own for refuting and silencing opponents in argument. and of combination of like with like. whether in admiration of the great and extraordinary gift he displayed for the science of nature. besides file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. was Anaxagoras of Clazomenae. raised far above the base and dishonest buffooneries of mob-eloquence. For this man. Pericles entertained an extraordinary esteem and admiration. upin-the-air sort of thought.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. unadulterated intelligence. and furnished him most especially with a weight and grandeur of sense. or because that he was the first of the philosophers who did not refer the first ordering of the world to fortune or chance. elevation of purpose and dignity of language. and. nor to necessity or compulsion. and..12.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. who. derived hence not merely. as they call it. was a hearer of Zeno. who treated of natural philosophy in the same manner as Parmenides did. whom the men of those times called by the name of Nous. which in all other existing mixed and compound things acts as a principle of discrimination. and in general gave him his elevation and sublimity of purpose and of character. mind. as was natural. Also the twoedged tongue of mighty Zeno. also. or intelligence. but. that is. Pericles.htm (6 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:41 . the Eleatic. could argue it untrue. but to a pure.

Nor were these the only advantages which Pericles derived from Anaxagoras's acquaintance. superior to that superstition with which an ignorant wonder at appearances. a sustained and even tone of voice. the man still dogging him at the heels. that. it is true. he ordered one of his servants to take a light.. that once Pericles had brought to him from a country farm of his. had file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. in the heavens possesses the minds of people unacquainted with their causes. where he was engaged in the dispatch of some urgent affair. the diviner. says that Pericles's manner in company was somewhat over-assuming and pompous. there being at that time two potent factions. a ram's head with one horn.12. who must needs make virtue. this. eager for the supernatural. the government would come about to that one of them in whose ground or estate this token or indication of fate had shown itself. include some comic scenes. which no occurrence whilst he was speaking could disturb. But that Anaxagoras. inasmuch as this mere counterfeiting might in time insensibly instill into them a real love and knowledge of those noble qualities.htm (7 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:41 . cleaving the skull in sunder.. by his instructions. however. or interests in the city. and various other advantages of a similar kind. like a show of tragedies. and that Lampon. like an egg. Ion. he continued his business in perfect silence. Once. he seems also to have become. a composure of countenance. Ion. and that into his high bearing there entered a good deal of slightingness and scorn of others. after being reviled and ill-spoken of all day long in his own hearing by some vile and abandoned fellow in the open marketplace. gave it as his judgment. the dramatic poet. and stepping into his house. which produced the greatest effect on his hearers. we shall not altogether rely upon. parties. he reserves his commendation for Cimon's ease and pliancy and natural grace in society.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. There is a story. replacing wild and timid superstition by the good hope and assurance of an intelligent piety. upon seeing the horn grow strong and solid out of the midst of the forehead. Zeno used to bid those who called Pericles's gravity the affectation of a charlatan. and excitable through an inexperience which the knowledge of natural causes removes. and a serenity and calmness in all his movements. for example. to go and affect the like themselves. but being oblong. and pelting him all the way with abuse and foul language.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and in the evening returned home composedly. it being by this time dark. showed to the bystanders that the brain had not filled up its natural place. and to go along with the man and see him safe home. the one of Thucydides and the other of Pericles.

and seeing Cimon on the side of the aristocracy. too.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and those of great age remarked upon the sweetness of his voice. and in what manner and by what means it grew as it did. And that. perhaps. he was fearful all this might bring him to be banished as a dangerous person. and the shadows on sun-dials. now advanced and took his side. fire-beacons. and had friends of great influence. at the same time. Anaxagoras was much admired for his explanation by those that were present. for instance. together with divine prodigies. but in military service showed himself of a brave and intrepid nature. stood in considerable apprehension of the people. the other the end for which it was designed. one justly detecting the cause of this event. most likely. in my opinion. do not take notice that. as. but with the many and poor.htm (8 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:41 . Reflecting. and what it might mean or portend. the clashings of quoits. and much beloved by the better and more distinguished people. and Lampon no less a little while after. Pericles. seeing things in this posture. as he was thought in face and figure to be very like the tyrant Pisistratus. that he had a considerable estate. while yet but a young man. by which it was produced.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. in a point to that place from whence the root of the horn took its rise. he joined the party of the people.12. not with the rich and few. and his volubility and rapidity in speaking. But these are subjects. But when Aristides was now dead. and Themistocles driven out. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. Pericles. For it was the business of the one to find out and give an account of what it was made. with a view at once both to secure himself and procure means against Cimon. fearing he might fall under suspicion of aiming at arbitrary power. and of the other to foretell to what end and purpose it was so made. and Cimon was for the most part kept abroad by the expeditions he made in parts out of Greece. collected from all parts of the vessel which contained it. and was descended of a noble family. Those who say that to find out the cause of a prodigy is in effect to destroy its supposed signification as such. every one of which things has its cause. that would better befit another place. it is no absurdity to say that they were both in the right. which was far from democratical. but. and for this reason meddled not at all with state affairs.. when Thucydides was overpowered. And yet. they also do away with signs and signals of human art and concert. and were struck with amazement at the resemblance.. for that time. both natural philosopher and diviner. and the whole affairs of the state and government came into the hands of Pericles. contrary to his natural bent. and by that cause and contrivance is a sign of something else.

also. giving the people. like an unmanageable horse. For these friendly meetings are very quick to defeat any assumed superiority. and in intimate familiarity an exterior of gravity is hard to maintain. so copious and so strong a draught of liberty. who broke the power of the council of Areopagus. while matters of lesser importance were dispatched by friends or other speakers under his direction. Real excellence.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. that. and among the islands leaping in. reserving himself. nor at all times coming into the assembly. like the Salaminian galley. he was never known to have gone to any of his friends to a supper. For he was never seen to walk in any street but that which led to the marketplace and the council-hall.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. And of this number we are told Ephialtes made one.. to avoid any feeling of commonness. growing wild and unruly. and all friendly visiting and intercourse whatever. in all the time he had to do with the public. and then immediately rose from table and went his way. as their daily common life does that of their nearer friends. according to Plato's expression. it. he remained present till the ceremony of the drink-offering. as the comic poets say. or any satiety on the part of the people. indeed. and in really good men. is most recognized when most openly looked into. not speaking to every business. He immediately entered. however. presented himself at intervals only. but. on quite a new course of life and management of his time. as Critolaus says." file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. except that once when his near kinsman Euryptolemus married. Pericles. which was not a little.htm (9 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:41 . " got beyond all keeping in. for great occasions. and he avoided invitations of friends to supper. nothing which meets the eyes of external observers so truly deserves their admiration. Champing at Euboea..12.

the comedies represented at the time. and drawing hence whatever might be of advantage to him in the art of speaking. stands on record. whenever he went up to the hustings. in addition to his great natural genius. in the tones of that instrument with which Anaxagoras had furnished him. and there are but very few of his sayings recorded. by persisting that he had no fall. insomuch that. "Sophocles.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. the king of the Lacedaemonians." said he. for example. is. he made this answer: "When I. He has left nothing in writing behind him. Again. so to say. and praised the beauty of a youth they met with in the way to the ship. whether of war or peace. except some decrees. and had been his greatest opponent. is. in spite of their own eyes. he showed himself far superior to all others. the son of Melesias. when on a time Sophocles.htm (10 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:41 . and deepened the colors of rhetoric with the dye of natural science. though some are of opinion he was named the Olympian from the public buildings with which he adorned the city.. and. and another. attained. "have thrown him and given him a fair fall. they speak of his "thundering and lightning" when he harangued the people. Thucydides was one of the noble and distinguished citizens. of his teaching he continually availed himself. believe him. who was his fellow-commissioner in the generalship." The truth. A saying also of Thucydides. they say. was going on board with him. and makes the bystanders. let fly many hard words at him. he prayed the gods that no one word might unawares slip from him unsuitable to the matter and the occasion. when Archidamus. The style of speaking most consonant to his form of life and the dignity of his views he found. that Pericles himself was very careful what and how he was to speak. that he said Aegina must. which. one. and of his wielding a dreadful thunderbolt in his tongue. this height of intelligence. Upon which account. he gets the better of me. be removed from Piraeus. by the study of nature. both in good earnest and in merriment. and others again. spoken by him by way of pleasantry upon Pericles's dexterity. however.. Nor is it unlikely that the confluence of many attributes may have conferred it on him. and this universal consummating power. he had his nickname given him. that he said he saw already war moving on its way towards them out of Peloponnesus. like a gathering in a man's eye. "a file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.12. However." said he. to use the words of the divine Plato. plainly show that he got that appellation especially from his speaking. asked him whether he or Pericles were the better wrestler. from his great power in public affairs. For having.

thus outdone in popular arts. that most of those causes and matters which had been used to be tried there.. and by these bad habits were. Pericles. directed the exertions of his party against this council with such success. and by the benefits they do us. Cimon." said he. and bestowing clothes on the aged people. or captain. and what with other forms of pay and largess. thrifty people. as has been said. allowances for attending theaters. and breaking down the hedges and enclosures of his grounds. as having never been appointed by lot either chief archon. that all that would might freely gather what fruit they pleased. intemperance. or king. "For. payments for performing public duties. general ought not only to have clean hands. to lovers of expense. turned to the distribution of the public moneys. by the agency of Ephialtes. "we do not see them themselves. having secured his power and interest with the populace.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C..Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. indeed.12. inviting every day some one or other of the citizens that was in want to supper. that maintained themselves by their own labors. For from of old these offices were conferred on persons by lot. were. and in a short time having bought the people over. as Aristotle states. also. that by him the common people were first encouraged and led on to such evils as appropriations of subject territory. he made use of them against the council of Areopagus. and license. changed from a sober. And so Pericles. by the advice of one Damonides of Oea. he did caress the people. of which he himself was no member. the supremacy of a single great man. was banished by ostracism as a favorer of file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. At the first. Finding himself come short of his competitor in wealth and money. as the gods were. on the contrary. or lawgiver. attribute to them immortality. and the like attributes belong also to those that die in the service of their country. let us examine the cause of this change by the actual matters of fact. that went by the name of a democracy. but only by the honors we pay them. but was. while many others say. under the influence of his public measures. that. he said they were become immortal.htm (11 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:41 . and they who had acquitted themselves duly in the discharge of them were advanced to the court of Areopagus. when he set himself against Cimon's great authority. but also clean eyes." Since Thucydides describes the rule of Pericles as an aristocratical government. removed from its cognizance. in his encomium on those who fell in battle at Samos. by which advantages the other was enabled to take care of the poor." And Stesimbrotus tells us. what with moneys allowed for shows and for service on juries.

he answered. in the mean time. upon his return. "O file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. coming from his banishment before his time was out. as is recorded in the history of his life. the Athenians now felt regret and sorrow for the loss of Cimon. but the Lacedaemonians.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. and himself made the motion for recalling him home. Cimon. But Pericles's friends. the Lacedaemonians and a hater of the people. concluded a peace betwixt the two cities. that Cimon. and had won several most glorious victories over the barbarians. fell together side by side. had before this time procured some favor for her brother Cimon at Pericles's hands.12. And when Elpinice came and besought him in her brother's behalf. All Cimon's friends. and expecting a new and perilous attack with return of spring. and desired by his deeds to wipe off the suspicion of his favoring the Lacedaemonians. He. Defeated in this battle on their own frontiers.htm (12 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . put himself in arms and array with those of his fellow-citizens that were of his own tribe. Pericles. it was thought.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and induced him to be more remiss and gentle in urging the charge when Cimon was tried for his life. and to have been conspicuous above all for his exposure of himself to danger. gathering in a body. being sensible of their feelings. to a man. and be commander-in-chief abroad. So vast an authority had Pericles obtained among the people.. and the Athenians going out against them. and had filled the city with money and spoils of war. Cimon's sister. should go out to sea with a fleet of two hundred ships. with a smile. and repentance for their expulsion of him. forced him to retire as a banished man. for Pericles was one of the committee appointed by the commons to plead against him. entering with a great army into the territory of Tanagra. namely. whom Pericles had accused with him of taking part with the Lacedaemonians. This Elpinice. did not hesitate or delay to gratify it. The ostracism was limited by law to ten years.. and this by means of Elpinice. though in wealth and noble birth he was among the first. by venturing his own person along with his country-men. and that Pericles should have the power at home. For which cause also Pericles seems to have exerted himself more in that than in any battle. with a design to reduce the king of Persia's territories. for the Lacedaemonians entertained as kindly feelings towards him as they did the reverse towards Pericles and the other popular leaders. Yet some there are who say that Pericles did not propose the order for Cimon's return till some private articles of agreement had been made between them. also.

who.htm (13 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . and of his own party in all his political course. his enemies. and where such qualities are. can one believe Idomeneus. in a short time brought the government to an equality of parties. diminishing and obscuring their superiority amongst the masses. there can no such cruel and brutal passion find harbor or gain admittance. having done Cimon the least prejudice of any of his accusers. one who was his friend. by being an uncompromising asserter of the people's rights in calling to account and prosecuting those who any way wronged them. but yet had a noble spirit. he stood up but once to speak. a discreet person. as Aristotle has told it. to make a counter-poise to the other party. that it might not altogether prove a monarchy. though less skilled in warlike affairs than Cimon was. indeed. out of jealousy. there was from the beginning a sort of concealed split. And the aristocratical party. marking the different file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. to conduct the opposition against him.. As to Ephialtes. the popular statesman. but taking them apart by themselves and uniting them in one body. put forward Thucydides of Alopece. ended his days in the Isle of Cyprus. and a soul that was bent on honor. has befouled with them a man who. as it were upon the balance. I know not whence.. to blunt and turn the edge of his power. yet was better versed in speaking and political business. perchance." But. or seam. For he would not suffer those who were called the honest and good (persons of worth and distinction) to be scattered up and down and mix themselves and be lost among the populace. as formerly. while he was admiral. Cimon. by the means of Aristodicus the Tanagraean. having raked up these stories. lying in wait for him. seeing that Pericles was already before this grown to be the greatest and foremost man of all the city.12. who charges Pericles as if he had by treachery procured the murder of Ephialtes. was not altogether free from fault or blame. it seems. is this: that having made himself formidable to the oligarchical party. forsooth.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. the truth of the story.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and went out of court. and a near kinsman of Cimon's. and envy of his great reputation? This historian. Elpinice. as it might be in a piece of iron. you are too old a woman to undertake such business as this. privately dispatched him. when he appeared to impeach him. but nevertheless wishing there should be somebody set up against him. and keeping close guard in the city. by their combined weight he was able. and engaging with Pericles on the hustings. indeed. How. merely to acquit himself of his commission. For. then.

and made his policy subservient to their pleasure. wantonly lavished out by us upon our city. also. by reason of their idleness. hung round with precious stones file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. to gild her all over. but the open rivalry and contention of these two opponents made the gash deep. was to be repeopled. which was contributed by her upon a necessity for the war. a thousand into Thrace to dwell among the Bisaltae. let loose the reins to the people. and others into Italy. and to intimidate. which now was called Thurii. contriving continually to have some great public show or solemnity. meddling crowd of people. however. unedifying. to share the land among them by lot. and how that "Greece cannot but resent it as an insufferable affront. And this he did to ease and discharge the city of an idle.. was his construction of the public and sacred buildings. That which gave most pleasure and ornament to the city of Athens. who were in pay eight months. And so Pericles. and. moreover. and at the same time to meet the necessities and restore the fortunes of the poor townsmen. and how that their fairest excuse for so doing. a thousand of them into the Chersonese as planters. crying out how that the commonwealth of Athens had lost its reputation and was ill-spoken of abroad for removing the common treasure of the Greeks from the isle of Delos into their own custody. and half that number to Andros. and severed the city into the two parties of the people and the few. as it were. by posting such garrisons. some banquet. namely. Yet this was that of all his actions in the government which his enemies most looked askance upon and caviled at in the popular assemblies. on board of which there went numbers of the citizens. when the city Sybaris. and that which now is Greece's only evidence that the power she boasts of and her ancient wealth are no romance or idle story. when she sees the treasure. and on purpose to secure it in a safe place.. He sent. a busy. in the midst of them. coaxing his countrymen like children. popular and aristocratical tendencies. that they took it away for fear the barbarians should seize it. at that time more than at any other. with such delights and pleasures as were not. this Pericles had made unavailable.htm (14 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . Besides that every year he sent out threescore galleys. and five hundred more into the isle of Naxos.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. or some procession or other in the town to please them.12. as it were some vain woman. and to adorn and set her forth. learning at the same time and practicing the art of seamanship.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and check their allies from attempting any change. and consider herself to be tyrannized over openly. and the greatest admiration and even astonishment to all strangers.

as a captain in an army has his particular company of soldiers under him. freely supply all the inhabitants with plenty. those again that conveyed them to the town for use. that they were in no way obliged to give any account of those moneys to their allies. in a manner. on the other hand. roadmakers. if so be they perform the conditions upon which they receive it. have a fair and just occasion of receiving the benefit and having their share of the public moneys.. turners. and would give employment to numerous arts. For as those who are of age and strength for war are provided for and maintained in the armaments abroad by their pay out of the public stock. give them eternal honor. for the present. cartwrights. dyers. "is not theirs that give it. and figures and temples." And that it was good reason. they do actually put the whole city. molders. these vast projects of buildings and designs of works. while in the meantime they did not so much as supply one horse or man or ship. so long as they maintained their defense. cattlebreeders. as would hereafter. that would be of some continuance before they were finished.htm (15 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . stone-cutters. so that the part of the people that stayed at home might. miners. "which money. rope-makers. embroiderers.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. while at the same time she is both beautified and maintained by herself. with the approbation of the people. ivory-workers. which cost a world of money. merchants and mariners and ship. and yet should not have them given them for sitting still and doing nothing. and by land. into state-pay. so. had its own hired company of journeymen and file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and kept off the barbarians from attacking them. but only found money for the service. now the city was sufficiently provided and stored with all things necessary for the war. when completed. And every trade in the same nature.masters by sea.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. goldsmiths. painters. With their variety of workmanship and of occasions for service. that. ebony cypress-wood. founders and braziers. no less than those that were at sea or in garrisons or on expeditions.. The materials were stone. to that end he thought fit to bring in among them. it being his desire and design that the undisciplined mechanic multitude that stayed at home should not go without their share of public salaries. they should convert the overplus of its wealth to such undertakings.12. and. waggoners. which summon all arts and trades and require all hands to be employed about them. informed the people." said he. and the arts or trades that wrought and fashioned them were smiths and carpenters. gold. brass. ivory. shoe-makers and leather-dressers." Pericles. flax-workers. but theirs that receive it. while in process.

and joined them to the architraves. the workmen striving to outvie the material and the design with the beauty of their workmanship.." For ease and speed in doing a thing do not give the work lasting solidity or exactness of beauty. to say all in a word.htm (16 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . and yet in its vigor and freshness looks to this day as if it were just executed. which Socrates says he himself heard Pericles propose to the people. having heard Agatharchus the painter boast of dispatching his work with speed and ease. the occasions and services of these public works distributed plenty through every age and condition. too. For every particular piece of his work was immediately. and was surveyor-general. for their completion. and the long wall. Phidias had the oversight of all the works. to last long. As then grew the works up. as long in finishing. Although they say. For which reason Pericles's works are especially admired. yet the most wonderful thing of all was the rapidity of their execution. who erected the pillars that stand upon the floor or pavement. the chapel at Eleusis. For Callicrates and Ictinus built the Parthenon. Thus. any one of which singly might have required.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12.. There is a sort of bloom of newness upon those works of his. as if they had some perennial spirit and undying vitality mingled in the composition of them. that Zeuxis once. even at that time. This work Cratinus ridicules. though upon the various portions other great masters and workmen were employed. replied. was begun by Coroebus. they thought. "I take a long time. preserving them from the touch of time. for its beauty and elegance. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. were every one of them accomplished in the height and prime of one man's political service. several successions and ages of men.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. Undertakings. Xenocles of Cholargus roofed or arched the lantern on the top of the temple of Castor and Pollux. where the mysteries were celebrated. to be as it were the instrument and body for the performance of the service. and after his death Metagenes of Xypete added the frieze and the upper line of columns. no less stately in size than exquisite in form. was undertaken by Callicrates. antique. the expenditure of time allowed to a man's pains beforehand for the production of a thing is repaid by way of interest with a vital force for its preservation when once produced. as having been made quickly.12. laborers belonging to it banded together as in array.

or music-room.12. And wears the new Odeum in its file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12.. in imitation of the king of Persia's Pavilion.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. which in its interior was full of seats and ranges of pillars. we are told. he's laid aside his head. Jupiter Longpate Pericles appear. was constructed. in his comedy called The Thracian Women. which Cratinus again. this likewise by Pericles's order.. Talk'd up the wall. and outside had its roof made to slope and descend from one single point at the top. yet adds not one mite to it. So. if words would do it.htm (17 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . The Odeum. 'Tis long since Pericles. Since ostracism time. made an occasion of raillery. we see here.

Mnesicles being the principal architect. being chosen judge. the quickest and the handiest workman among them all. surnamed Health. One of the artificers. Minerva appeared to him at night in a dream. were finished in five years' time. also. or entrances to the Acropolis. The comic writers of the town.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. for Pericles's use. And how can one wonder at any number of strange assertions from men whose whole lives were devoted to mockery.. which he applied. when they had got hold of this story. arranged the order and method in which the competitors should sing and play on the flute and on the harp. and indeed the whole work in a manner was under his charge. when even Stesimbrotus the Thasian has dared to lay to the charge of Pericles a monstrous and fabulous piece of criminality with his son's wife? So very difficult a matter is it to trace and find file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. The propylaea. and at other times also. who. and he himself. one who was his friend and served as lieutenant under him in the wars. made him much envied. and who were ready at any time to sacrifice the reputation of their superiors to vulgar envy and spite. they sat in this music-room to see and hear all such trials of skill. with a slip of his foot fell down from a great height. When Pericles was in distress about this. in the citadel near the altar. as if Phidias were in the habit of receiving. used to give presents of peacocks to Pericles's female friends.. and ordered a course of treatment. and with the birds kept by Pyrilampes. the physicians having no hopes of his recovery. but was aiding and cooperating to bring it to perfection. charging him falsely with the wife of Menippus. indeed. But it was Phidias who wrought the goddess's image in gold. and he has his name inscribed on the pedestal as the workman of it.htm (18 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . and in a short time and with great ease cured the man. an acquaintance of Pericles. and this. and his patron shamefully slandered with stories. as we have said already. And both at that time. and he had. and bespattered him with all the ribaldry they could invent. Pericles. the oversight over all the artists and workmen. and lay in a miserable condition. as to some evil genius. freeborn women that came to see the works. made much of it. And upon this occasion it was that he set up a brass statue of Minerva. through Pericles's friendship for him. which they say was there before. then first obtained the decree for a contest in musical skill to be held yearly at the Panathenaea. which showed that the goddess was not averse to the work. A strange accident happened in the course of building. stead. eager for distinction.12. they pretended.

he was able generally to lead the people along. nor as tame and gentle and familiar as formerly with the populace. So that now all schism and division being at an end. he turned those soft and flowery modulations to the austerity of aristocratical and regal rule. which they possessed. and the city brought to evenness and unity. whether they would or no. partly through favor and flattery. they cried aloud. by persuading and showing them what was to be done. urging and pressing them forward extremely against their will. he got all Athens and all affairs that pertained to the Athenians into his own hands. so as readily to yield to their pleasures and to comply with the desires of the multitude. as their custom was. and having gone through this peril. partly through envy and ill-will. their armies. and. and their wide-extended power. and broke up the confederacy that had been organized against him. or out of emulation of the glory of the works. remiss. were at one time crying out. and all that empire. yield submission to what file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.12. he threw his antagonist out." "Then.. on the other hand. too. "since it is so. and sometimes. whether it were out of a surprise to see the greatness of his spirit. whether they thought that he had laid out much. bidding him to spend on. coming to a final contest with Thucydides. which of the two should ostracize the other out of the country.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. who sided with Thucydides and his party.htm (19 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . as a steersman shifts with the winds. and they saying. founded and fortified upon subject nations and royal friendships and alliances. and employing this uprightly and undeviatingly for the country's best interests. and lay out what he thought fit from the public purse. but to mine. the contemporary records of any actions and lives. licentious court of the popular will. out the truth of anything by history. Quitting that loose. as one who squandered away the public money. with their own wills and consents. on the one hand. and made havoc of the state revenues. the islands. and their galleys. partly over other Greeks and partly over barbarians. At length. and to spare no cost. pervert and distort truth. he made them. a great deal." When they heard him say thus. When the orators. "Too much. in some cases.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. till all were finished. After this he was no longer the same man he had been before. and. against Pericles. and let the inscription upon the buildings stand in my name. he rose in the open assembly and put the question to the people." said he. their tributes.. the sea. those who afterwards write it find long periods of time intercepting their view. when. let the cost not go to your account.

at another while gives him keen pains and drugs to work the cure. and that her chief business is to address the affections and passions. as one whose eminence was too great to be any longer proportionable to and compatible with a democracy or popular government. plainly showed by this. he alone. The source of this predominance was not barely his power of language. making that use of hopes and fears.. as was natural. as his two chief rudders. in their spiteful manner. in a complicated and chronic disease. his manifest freedom from every kind of corruption.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12.12. which was great of itself. Notwithstanding he had made the city Athens. In which. styling his companions and friends the new Pisistratidae. and the confidence felt in his character. who some of them also bequeathed by will their power to their children. and calling on him to abjure any intention of usurpation. did not make the patrimony his father left him greater than it was by one drachma. as Thucydides assures us. that rhetoric. And Teleclides says the Athenians had surrendered up to him file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. he did but like a skillful physician. in Plato's language. to say the truth. gives a plain statement of the greatness of his power. is. as great and rich as can be imagined. with the one to check the career of their confidence at any time. the government of the souls of men. knowing how to handle and deal fitly with each one of them. and the comic poets. which are as it were the strings and keys to the soul. and require a skillful and careful touch to be played on as they should be. but. or the art of speaking.htm (20 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . the reputation of his life. for his part. and though he were himself in power and interest more than equal to many kings and absolute rulers.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.. with the other to raise them up and cheer them when under any discouragement. all manner of distempered feelings among a people which had so vast a command and dominion. was for their advantage. more than hint at it. he. as he sees occasion. as a great master. and superiority to all considerations of money. Thucydides. and. who. in an especial manner. indeed. at one while allows his patient the moderate use of such things as please him. For there arising and growing up.

. in the exercise of one continuous unintermitted command in the office.12.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. peace. if he likes. nor was it the mere bloom and grace of a policy that flourished for a season. and war. and with them. stone walls around a town. and again. to which he was annually reelected.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. for no less than fifteen years longer. he preserved his integrity unspotted. To build up.htm (21 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . Nor was all this the luck of some happy occasion. their wealth and their success forevermore. if so he likes. the cities too. and undo. The tribute of the cities. of General. after the defeat and banishment of Thucydides. to pull them down. though otherwise he was not altogether idle or file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. to do with them as he pleases. but having for forty years together maintained the first place among statesmen such as Ephialtes and Leocrates and Myronides and Cimon and Tolmides and Thucydides were. Their treaties and alliances. power.. empire.

made answer: "Pericles. who relieved numerous poor citizens. which of right belonged to him. All this. upon this. a man either naturally gifted or instructed by Pericles so as to excel every one in this art of domestic economy.. Evangelus by name. all disbursements and all receipts. that Anaxagoras himself. careless in looking after his pecuniary advantage. But the life of a contemplative philosopher and that of an active statesman are. any thing to spare. it be true that he. and instantly ran thither. and that. since there was not there. but as a noble thing. and supplied his household needs afterward by buying everything that he or his family wanted out of the market. or over and above. "even those file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. in truth.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. but all that went out or came in.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and put it into such a way of management as he thought to be the most easy for himself. not the same thing. I presume. who tempers and applies his virtue to human uses." said he. not as a matter of mere necessity. voluntarily quitted his house. he was horrorstruck. an intelligence that requires no aid of instruments nor supply of any external materials. indeed. and that. whereas the other. as is usual in a great family and a plentiful estate. upon great and good objects of thought. His manager in all this was a single servant. lamenting not so much Anaxagoras's condition as his own. Anaxagoras unfolded his robe. and showing himself. his paternal estate.. should he lose such a counselor as he had found him to be. proceeded as it were by number and measure. if. which was Pericles's case. his children. he wrapped himself up with a resolution to die for want of food.12. where everything was ordered and set down from day to day. and the most exact. were not well pleased with his management. and left his land to lie fallow and to be grazed by sheep like a common. while Pericles was taken up with public affairs. may have occasion for affluence. he so ordered that it might neither through negligence be wasted or lessened. lay neglected. now being grown old. All his yearly products and profits he sold together in a lump. for the one merely employs. and the women that lived with him were treated with little cost. However. when they grew to age. by a kind of divine impulse and greatness of spirit. nor yet. Upon which account. and reduced to the greatest exactness. and complained of this way of housekeeping.htm (22 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . was very little in harmony with Anaxagoras's wisdom. cost him any great trouble or time with taking care of it. which being by chance brought to Pericles's ear. and used all the arguments and entreaties he could to him. there is a story. being so full of business as he was.

up to Byzantium. to send their deputies to Athens to a general assembly. but always used to say to his citizens that. as it is said.12. proposed a decree. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. however. there to consult and advise concerning the Greek temples which the barbarians had burnt down. In his military conduct. on the other hand. as was desired. and other five besides these to go to Boeotia and Phocis and Peloponnesus. who have occasion for a lamp supply it with oil. and be at peace among themselves. nor did he think them worthy his imitation. he would not by his good-will engage in any fight which had much uncertainty or hazard.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. to introduce the mention of it. he gained a great reputation for wariness. crossing the design underhand. Upon this errand. and the islanders as far as Lesbos and Rhodes. I thought fit. however they were admired by others. Nothing was effected. to summon all the Greeks in what part soever. all of them to treat with the people as they passed. and live forever... there were twenty men." The Lacedaemonians beginning to show themselves troubled at the growth of the Athenian power. and the rest to take their course through Euboea to the Oetaeans and the Malian Gulf. the Lacedaemonians.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. nor did the cities meet by their deputies. or convention. sent by commission. he did not envy the glory of generals whose rash adventures fortune favored with brilliant success. Pericles. so far as lay in his power. to show the spirit of the man and the greatness of his thoughts. five to summon the Ionians and Dorians in Asia. and also concerning the navigation of the sea. and the sacrifices which were due from them upon vows they had made to their gods for the safety of Greece when they fought against the barbarians. and to raise them to the thought of great actions.htm (23 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . Seeing Tolmides. to elevate the people's spirit yet more. the son of Tolmaeus. and the attempt being disappointed and baffled first in Peloponnesus. as far as Acarnania and Ambracia. and to the Achaeans of Phthiotis and the Thessalians. little as well as great. and to persuade them to come and take their part in the debates for settling the peace and jointly regulating the affairs of Greece. every city. upon the confidence of his former successes. five to visit all the places in the Hellespont and Thrace. of such as were above fifty years of age. whether of Europe or Asia. that they might henceforward all of them pass to and fro and trade securely. they should continue immortal. and from hence to pass through the Locrians over to the neighboring continent.

and that many brave citizens had fallen with him. when news was brought that Tolmides himself had been defeated and slain in battle near Coronea. which joins the peninsula to the continent. with main force. advancing far up into main land with the soldiers he had on board. if he would not take Pericles's advice.12. the wisest counselor of all. who stood their ground and joined battle with him. he put a stop to the inroads of the Thracians. and closed the door against a continual and grievous war.. that. and at Nemea. he endeavored to withhold him and to advise him from it in the public assembly. making preparation to attack the Boeotians in their own country. with a hundred galleys. but also by belting the neck of land. and groaning under the evils of a predatory population both upon and within its borders. having proved the safety of the Greeks who inhabited there. sailing along by the mouth of the river Achelous overran Acarnania. But of all his expeditions. For he not only laid waste the sea. but also. and shut up the Oeniadae within their city walls. was but slightly commended. and file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. that to the Chersonese gave most satisfaction and pleasure. with bulwarks and forts from sea to sea. but within a few days after. as Tolmides had done before. This saying. which still goes about.coast. yet he would not do amiss to wait and be ruled by time. lying exposed to the encroachments and influx of barbarous neighbors. and having ravaged and wasted their country. out of Achaia. then in league with Athens he crossed with the fleet to the opposite continent. when there was no likely opportunity. For not only by carrying along with him a thousand fresh citizens of Athens he gave new strength and vigor to the cities. And having taken on board a supply of soldiers into the galleys. it gained him great repute as well as good-will among the people. who lay all about the Chersonese.. for wisdom and for love of his countrymen. having set out from Pegae. and flushed with the honor his military actions had procured him. and that he had prevailed with the bravest and most enterprising of the youth to enlist themselves as volunteers in the service. or The Fountains. Nor was he less admired and talked of abroad for his sailing round the Peloponnesus. the port of Megara.htm (24 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . and. at that time.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. routed and raised a trophy over the Sicyonians. who besides his other force made up a thousand. by the terror of his appearance drove many within their walls. telling him in a memorable saying of his. weighed anchor for home with the double advantage of having shown himself formidable to his enemies. with which that country had been long harassed.

restored Apollo's temple. But in other things he did not comply with the giddy impulses of the citizens. and unsparingly pruned and cut down their ever busy fancies for a multitude of undertakings. The Lacedaemonians. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and kings and chiefs round about them.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12.. as upon many other occasions. and when he and his accomplices had been thrown out. to assist them against Timesileus the tyrant. and to disturb the king of Persia's maritime dominions. There were some also who dreamt of Tuscany and of Carthage. even then. to the Delphians. the whole voyage through. and to bring the whole sea under their control. carried away with the thought of their strength and great success. which. came and restored the Phocians. they were eager to interfere again in Egypt.htm (25 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . which the Phocians had got into their possession. and entered into friendly relations with them. having gone with an army to Delphi. possessed with that unblessed and inauspicious passion for Sicily. with soldiers under the command of Lamachus. supposing it would be quite enough for them to do. sharing among them the houses and land which the tyrant and his party had previously held. so he particularly showed by what he did in the time of the holy war. for there was not so much as any chance-miscarriage that happened. there were a good many who were. which the Delphians gave them. nor quit his own resolutions to follow their fancies. And the Lacedaemonians having engraven the record of their privilege of consulting the oracle before others. He left the Sinopians thirteen ships of war. if they could keep the Lacedaemonians in check. to whom he entertained all along a sense of opposition. he obtained for the Greek cities any new arrangements they wanted. Pericles. their perfect ability and confidence to sail wherever they had a mind.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. with another army. and not without plausible reason in their present large dominion and the prosperous course of their affairs. immediately after their departure. Entering also the Euxine Sea with a large and finely equipped fleet. and directed their power for the most part to securing and consolidating what they had already got. at the same time safe and energetic to his fellow-citizens. to those who were under his charge.12. But Pericles curbed this passion for foreign conquest. and to the barbarous nations. obtained a decree that six hundred of the Athenians that were willing should sail to Sinope and plant themselves there with the Sinopians. displayed the greatness of the power of the Athenians. which afterward the orators of Alcibiades's party blew up into a flame. when.. Nay.

. as laid out upon fit occasion. having corrupted him with money. in giving up his accounts of this expedition. had it cut upon the same wolf of brass on his right side. freely allowed of it. news came that the Megarians were turned their enemies. without any question. Immediately after this. whom the ephors had sent with him. Wherefore Pericles came with his army back again in all haste out of Euboea. in which number is Theophrastus the philosopher. When Pericles. stated a disbursement of ten talents. and be the better able to carry on war hereafter. prevailed with him to withdraw the Peloponnesians out of Attica. This was the father of Gylippus. in the first place. by reason of his youth. but perceiving that Plistoanax was a very young man. while Cleandrides fled. But this we have told at large in the account of Lysander. he. immediately after. that he might prepare at leisure. upon the forehead of the brazen wolf which stands there. having received from the Phocians the like privilege for the Athenians. he quitted Lacedaemon. to meet the war which threatened at home.12. When the army had retired and dispersed into their several states. the events themselves that happened afterward bore sufficient witness. with which he complimented those in office. to keep off the war. and had sentence of death passed upon him in his absence. And it seems that this covetousness was an hereditary disease transmitted from father to son. king of the Lacedaemonians.. and a hostile army was upon the borders of Attica. the Euboeans revolted. and expelled from Sparta for it. not to purchase peace neither. he privately made trial of this man's integrity.htm (26 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . For. have given it as a truth that Pericles every year used to send privately the sum of ten talents to Sparta. And some historians. against whom he passed over with forces. the people. who overpowered the Athenians in Sicily. and then.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. also. under the conduct of Plistoanax. but time. the Lacedaemonians in anger fined their king in so large a sum of money. That he did well and wisely in thus restraining the exertions of the Athenians within the compass of Greece. to be a kind of guardian and assistant to him. unable to pay it. in a short time. nor troubling themselves to investigate the mystery. and did not venture to engage a numerous and brave army eager for battle. for Gylippus also afterwards was caught in foul practices. that.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and governed himself mostly by the counsel and advice of Cleandrides. turning his forces against the revolters. and. and passing over into the island of Euboea with fifty sail of ships and five file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.

and drove out the citizens of the Chalcidians. Socrates himself would sometimes go to visit her. however. and to give the philosophers occasion to speak so much about her. two sons. That she was a Milesian by birth. still thus much seems to be historical. to have rather proceeded from the passion of love. Xanthippus and Paralus. and some of his acquaintance with him.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. a sheep-dealer. Aeschines tells us also. that Lysicles. the daughter of Axiochus. he reduced their cities. surnamed the Rich.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. After this. when they were bid to leave off their war with the Milesians. Aspasia. by public decree.. some say. she had numerous suitors among the Greeks. Thargelia was a great beauty. Her occupation was any thing but creditable.12. this may be a fit point for inquiry about the woman. sowed the seeds of the Median faction up and down in several cities. they had not complied. by whom she had Callias. that she made her addresses to men of great power. And as these measures against the Samians are thought to have been taken to please Aspasia. a man of low birth and character. Afterwards. as she did. and also she brought Pericles. her house being a home for young courtesans. being men of the greatest power and station. when they did not well agree nor like to live together. that she had the repute of being resorted to by many of the Athenians for instruction in the art of speaking. by keeping Aspasia company after Pericles's death. horse-feeders. the chief persons for wealth and reputation among them. and that. called Hippobotae. the greatest statesmen. And in Plato's Menexenus. that. And they say it was in emulation of Thargelia. Pericles's inclination for her seems. and removing all the Histiaeans out of the country.. too.htm (27 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . having made a truce between the Athenians and Lacedaemonians for thirty years. is a thing acknowledged. and at the same time sagacious. brought in a plantation of Athenians in their room. making them his one example of severity. a courtesan of the old Ionian times. came to be a chief man in Athens. who had been married first to Hipponicus. thousand men in arms. while she lived with him. the expedition against the Isle of Samos. because they had captured an Attic ship and killed all on board. he parted with her. though we do not take the introduction as quite serious. on the ground. what art or charming faculty she had that enabled her to captivate. and by their means. was courted and caressed by Pericles upon account of her knowledge and skill in politics. and brought all who had to do with her over to the Persian interest. extremely charming. and those who frequented her company would carry their wives with them to listen to her. with her own file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. not to her disparagement. He had a wife that was near of kin to him. he ordered.

a man he had been long. consent. every day.12. calls her a harlot. in his Demi. Aspasia by name. in downright terms.. and Myronides replying. Eupolis. to another man. and again is styled Juno. both as he went out and as he came in from the marketplace. and himself took Aspasia. introduced Pericles asking after his safety. It should seem.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.. he saluted and kissed her. In the comedies she goes by the nicknames of the new Omphale and Deianira. But that the harlotmother did him file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. "My son?" "He lives.htm (28 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . Cratinus. also. and loved her with wonderful affection. To find him a Juno the goddess of lust Bore that harlot past shame. that he had a son by her.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12.

who made war against Artaxerxes for the Persian monarchy. immediately revolted. went and broke up the oligarchical government at Samos. when Cyrus fell in battle. Moreover. She was a Phocaean by birth. These things coming into my memory as I am writing this story. as some relate. Pissuthnes having privily got away their hostages for them. refused to lay down their arms and to have the controversy betwixt them decided by arbitration before the Athenians. they say. was particularly charged with having proposed to the assembly the war against the Samians.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. of a talent a piece for himself from each one of the hostages.htm (29 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . he laid siege to the Samians. and blocked them up. Pericles obtained a decisive victory. and found them not idle nor slinking away. however. it would be unnatural for me to omit them. sailed back to Athens. and had great influence at court. Together with his victory and pursuit. Pericles. But they. having made himself master of the port. Pissuthnes the Persian. and. who yet. For the two states were at war for the possession of Priene. taking fifty of the principal men of the town as hostages. and. but after he had taken that course with the Samians which he thought fit. that Cyrus also. became so celebrated and renowned. was carried to the king. from favor to the Milesians. and provided them with means for the war. but manfully resolved to try for the dominion of the sea. there to be kept.. sent them to the isle of Lemnos. getting the better. and the Samians. one of the king's lieutenants. The issue was. bearing some good-will to the Samians. Pericles. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. sent him ten thousand pieces of gold to excuse the city. after a sharp sea-fight about the island called Tragia. the daughter of one Hermotimus. gave her whom he loved the best of all his concubines the name of Aspasia. however. that. therefore. wrong." Aspasia. Whereupon Pericles came out with a fleet a second time against them. and set up a democracy among them. twenty of which were carrying soldiers.12. would receive none of all this.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and of many other presents from those who were anxious not to have a democracy. who before that was called Milto. though he had offers. upon the entreaty of Aspasia. Pericles. and as many of their children. having with forty-four ships routed seventy of the enemy's.. fitting out a fleet. however.

and disabled several of the ships. with the intention. Melissus. the Samians are a lettered people. being at that time general in Samos. and brought into port all necessaries they wanted for the war. which they had not before. the son of Ithagenes. with a design of putting over to Cyprus. a philosopher. so as to look snub-nosed.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. as Stesimbrotus says. taking with him sixty galleys. For on his departure. and having defeated Melissus. where he says. whom they took prisoners. they say. But after that another greater fleet from Athens was arrived. sailed out into the main sea. For. But whichever of the two was his intent. Pericles. branded the Athenians. it seems to have been a miscalculation. which is a sort of ship. oh. who bore up against him. For so the Athenians had marked them before with a Samaena. despising either the small number of the ships that were left or the inexperience of the commanders. made all the haste he could to come in to their relief. which does not seem to be probable..htm (30 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . The Samians. and that the Samians were now shut up with a close leaguer on every side. low and flat in the prow. but. by which it both carries a large cargo and sails well. And it was so called. And the Samians having won the battle. too. as soon as news was brought him of the disaster that had befallen his army.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. are the allusion in the passage of Aristophanes. having been built by order of Polycrates the tyrant. were masters of the sea. Pericles. as most authors give the account. and fight under the city walls. but wide and large and well-spread in the hold. with the figure of an owl. and to fight them at as great distance as could be from the island. and taken several of the men prisoners. that Pericles himself had been once before this worsted by this Melissus in a sea-fight. one way or other. because the first of that kind was seen at Samos.. to meet a squadron of Phoenician ships that were coming for the Samians' relief. These brands upon the Samians' foreheads. Aristotle says. still ventured to make sallies. prevailed with the citizens to attack the Athenians. that they might requite an affront which had before been put upon them. in their foreheads.12.

charging the Athenians and Pericles with a great deal of cruelty. But as it was a hard matter to keep back the Athenians.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. who even where he has no private feeling file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. who. that Pericles made use of engines of battery in this siege. that he was carried about in a little hanging bed.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. close to the very ground. put the enemy to flight. rather with some cost and time. and gave hostages for security. and that for this reason he was called Periphoretus. Duris the Samian makes a tragical drama out of these events. being much taken with the curiousness of the invention. he immediately proceeded to hem them in with a wall. he brought the captains and soldiers of the galleys into the market-place at Miletus. and probably with little regard to truth. call it white day. for the most part kept close within doors. unburied. and if he were at any time forced upon necessity to go abroad. gave order to have them killed by beating out their brains with clubs. Pericles pulled down their walls. with the aid and presence of Artemon himself. the engineer. and there having bound them fast to boards for ten days.. nor Aristotle have given any relation of. being a man who loved his ease. used to be carried about in a litter. and for that reason was called Periphoretus. and their dead bodies to be flung out into the open streets and fields. when at any time they have been merry. part of which they paid down at once. then.htm (31 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . And he says that Artemon. nor Ephorus. than with the wounds and hazards of his citizens. Duris. But Heraclides Ponticus disproves this out of Anacreon's poems. where the works required his attendance. where mention is made of this Artemon Periphoretus several ages before the Samian war. In the ninth month. he divided the whole multitude into eight parts. when they were already all but half dead. being lame. in allusion to this white bean. having two of his servants to hold a brazen shield over his head. resolving to master them and take the town. however. that people. and enjoyed themselves. for example.. and arranged by lot that that part which had the white bean should have leave to feast and take their ease. and set a fine of a large sum of money upon them. they say. and were eagerly bent to fight. while the other seven were fighting. how. who were vexed at the delay. and seized their shipping.12. and they agreed to bring in the rest by a certain time. Ephorus the historian tells us besides. the Samians surrendering themselves and delivering up the town. and had a great apprehension of danger. which neither Thucydides. And this is the reason. or any of these occurrences. that nothing might fall upon him from above.

that.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. Old women should not seek to be perfumed. for which he gained great admiration. but Elpinice. is not wont to keep his narrative within the limits of truth. as it is said.. The people readily consenting to the motion. Pericles. after the reduction of Samos. like a victorious athlete in the games. who have lost us many a worthy citizen. he. Ion says of him. as the custom is. and to secure to themselves an island possessed of great naval resources. and made a funeral harangue. who were attacked by the Corinthians. for. concerned. in their commendation at their graves.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12..htm (32 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . After this was over. "These are brave deeds. As he came down from the stage on which he spoke. said. smiling quietly. returned her answer with this verse. to create odium against the Athenians. that you have done. not in a war with Phoenicians or Medes. he advised the people to send help to the Corcyrseans. in real truth. is the more likely upon this occasion to have exaggerated the calamities which befell his country. took care that those who died in the war should be honorably buried. returning back to Athens. coming near to him. he indulged very high and proud thoughts of himself: whereas Agamemnon was ten years taking a barbarous city. upon this exploit of his. the Samian state were within a very little of wresting the whole power and dominion of the sea out of the Athenians' hands. he had in nine months' time vanquished and taken the greatest and most powerful of the Ionians. taking him by the hand. Pericles. like my brother Cimon. but for the overthrow of an allied and kindred city. the Peloponnesian war beginning to break out in full tide.12. conquering the Samians." As Elpinice spoke these words. since the Peloponnesians were already all but in actual hostilities against them. if so be. the rest of the women came and complimented him. and voting an aid file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. as Thucydides tells us. And indeed it was not without reason that he assumed this glory to himself. however. and such as deserve our chaplets. and crownings him with garlands and ribbons. there was much uncertainty and great hazard in this war.

. there being embassies sent to Athens. made supplications in private to the Lacedaemonians for redress. of favoring the Lacedaemonians and playing false. and Archidamus. he allowed him a small number of ships. Cimon's son. kept out and driven away from every market and from all ports under the control of the Athenians. he dispatched Lacedaemonius. the Megarians joined with them. angry and indignant with the Athenians. ill spoken of on account of these ten galleys. having only ten ships with him. also. and succor for them. and to be reconciled to them. and to pacify and allay the heats of the allies. it is very likely that the war would not upon any other grounds of quarrel have fallen upon the Athenians. since Pericles was the man who mainly opposed it. professing that by their very names they were not to be looked upon as native and true Athenians. and the third Eleus. but foreigners and strangers. one being called Lacedaemonius. had revolted. The Aeginetans. endeavoring to bring the greater part of the complaints and matters in dispute to a fair determination. In the meantime. in order that Lacedaemonius might lie the more open to a charge.12. Pericles sent out a larger force afterward to Corcyra. Yet notwithstanding all this. or suspicion at least. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. also. Being. if he performed no considerable exploit in this service. and was beset with a formal siege. could they have been prevailed with to repeal the ordinance against the Megarians. born of an Arcadian woman. professing to be ill-used and treated with violence. and was a further occasion of precipitating the war. as having afforded but a small supply to the people that were in need. and stirred up the people's passions to persist in their contention with the Megarians. as it were out of a design to affront him. however. he was regarded as the sole cause of the war. it was thought. for there was a great kindness and friendship betwixt Cimon's family and the Lacedaemonians. And when now the Corinthians. which arrived after the fight was over. the city Potidaea. but a colony formerly of the Corinthians. and indeed he made it somewhat his business to hinder Cimon's sons from rising in the state. complaining that they were. Upon which account. another Thessalus. and yet given a great advantage to those who might complain of the act of intervention.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. though not daring openly to call the Athenians in question. and they were all three of them. and sent him out against his will. under the dominion of the Athenians. accused them publicly at Lacedaemon. the king of the Lacedaemonians.htm (33 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 .. so.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. contrary to common right and the articles of peace sworn to among the Greeks.

They say. upon a public and open charge against them.. that there should be an irreconcilable and implacable enmity thenceforward betwixt the two commonwealths. moreover. he proposed a decree that a herald should be sent to them. or Double Gate. throw the whole matter upon Aspasia and Pericles. And after that the herald who was sent. died.. in all likelihood. Polyalces by name. To Megara some of our madcaps ran. and it was believed that the Megarians had contrived his death.12. On the other hand. something of a secret grudge and private animosity which he had against the Megarians. There may have been. Which exploit file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. their courtesan. the Megarians. that ambassadors went. and that Anthemocritus should be buried near the Thriasian Gates. and that if any one of the Megarians should but set his foot in Attica. and that the commanders. one of the ambassadors. "Well. and the same also to the Lacedaemonians. swear that they will twice every year make an inroad into the Megarian country. by name Anthemocritus. he should be put to death. did not move Pericles from his resolution. with an accusation of the Megarians. and that when Pericles was urging a certain law which made it illegal to take down or withdraw the tablet of the decree. do not take it down then. when they take the usual oath.htm (34 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . Yet. should. that they had appropriated part of the sacred land on the frontier. though prettily said.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C." which. which are now called the Dipylon. then Charinus proposed a decree against them. but turn it. an order which certainly shows equitable and friendly proceeding enough. said. And stole Simaetha thence. which forbids that. there is no law. utterly denying and disowning the murder of Anthemocritus. by order from Lacedaemon to Athens about this very business. over and above that.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. availing themselves of the famous verses in the Acharnians. I suppose.

Phidias the Molder had. and that a concession would be taken for a confession of weakness. Came to Aspasia's house. there was nothing of theft or cheat proved against him. what kind of judges the commons would prove. which is confirmed by most witnesses. as has before been said. But of inducing the refusal to annul the decree. which Pericles at that time bade the accusers do. and had put in a very fine representation of Pericles fighting with an Amazon. accounting that the demand made in those embassies was designed for a trial of their compliance. stationed him ill the market-place. who envied and maligned him. who also.. the Megarians to outdo. had so wrought and wrapt the gold that was used in the work about the statue. was ingeniously contrived to conceal in some degree the file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. The true occasion of the quarrel is not so easy to find out.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. Some say he met the request with a positive refusal. out of high spirit and a view of the state's best interests. with a petition desiring public security upon his discovery and impeachment of Phidias. had many enemies upon this account. But the reputation of his works was what brought envy upon Phidias. Now he. that he took occasion to slight the Lacedaemonians. And the position of the hand. as if they durst not do otherwise. is to the following effect.htm (35 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . especially that where he represents the fight of the Amazons upon the goddesses' shield. by the advice of Pericles. The people admitting the man to tell his story.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. to show his own strength. having tampered with Menon.12. he had introduced a likeness of himself as a bald old man holding up a great stone with both hands. all alike charge Pericles. and a great favorite of his. should there be occasion to bring Pericles himself before them.. and the prosecution proceeding in the assembly. undertaken to make the statue of Minerva. The worst motive of all. to make trial in a case of his. for Phidias. being admitted to friendship with Pericles. one who had been a workman with Phidias. while other some there are who say that it was rather out of arrogance and a willful spirit of contention. and took off two. that they might take it all off and make out the just weight of it. from the very first beginning. which holds out the spear in front of the face.

upon the urgency of great affairs and public dangers. who also laid further to her charge that she received into her house freeborn women for the uses of Pericles. upon the complaint of Hermippus the comedian. and to allay their jealousy. and moved that the causes should be tried before fifteen hundred jurors. And Diopithes proposed a decree. as some say. or taught new doctrines about things above. and lodge them with the Prytanes. The people receiving and admitting these accusations and complaints. as Aeschines says. Aspasia was indicted of impiety. Aspasia. at least. that public accusation should be laid against persons who neglected religion. should examine and determine the business in the city. to raise a slander. and there died of a disease. About the same time. hoping. or bribery. directing suspicion.. which hitherto had lingered and smothered.12. administered by the enemies of Pericles. The informer Menon. at length. at the motion of Dracontides. of poison. to disperse and scatter these complaints and charges. or any kind of malversation. he sent him out of the city.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. But fearing how it might go with Anaxagoras. sent them word that they should expel the "Pollution" with which Pericles on the mother's side was tainted. the city usually throwing herself upon him alone.. Pericles begged off. they came to enact a decree. feeling sure that if they could once remove him. Phidias then was carried away to prison. carrying their suffrage from the altar in the Acropolis. and personally entreating the jurors. meantime. by reason of his authority and the sway he bore. showed itself on either side. and ordered the generals to take care that nobody should do him any hurt. against Pericles himself. as Thucydides file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. by this means. and blew it up into a flame. the people made free from payment of taxes and customs. These are given out to have been the reasons which induced Pericles not to suffer the people of Athens to yield to the proposals of the Lacedaemonians. by means of Anaxagoras. for their part. And finding that in Phidias's case he had miscarried with the people. likeness. that Pericles should bring in the accounts of the moneys he had expended. but their truth is uncertain. they might be at what terms they pleased with the Athenians. many tears at the trial. as though he had procured it. This last clause Hagnon took out of the decree. upon Glycon's proposal. which. whether they should be styled prosecutions for robbery. and that the judges. being afraid of impeachment. and trusting to his sole conduct. The Lacedaemonians.htm (36 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 .PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. he kindled the war. shedding. but. by that means. or a suspicion.

. they raised him into yet greater credit and esteem with the citizens. under the conduct of king Archidamus. who. therefore. but. and gave them good words. makes all his arrangements. marched on as far as Acharnae. which were sung about the town to his disgrace. for fear lest they should force him to act against his judgment. But the issue proved quite contrary to what those who sent the message expected. that "trees. that if Archidamus." He did not convene the people into an assembly. cannot easily be recovered. The Lacedaemonians. and the tame abandonment of everything to the enemy's hands. and placed guards at all posts for security. either on the ground of friendship or right of hospitality that was betwixt them. that then he did freely bestow upon the state all that his land and the buildings upon it for the public use. also. presuming that the Athenians would never endure that. although there were a great many of his friends that urged him with requests. In the same way.htm (37 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 ..arms of Peloponnesians and Boeotians.12. grow up again in a short time but men. before Archidamus. But Pericles looked upon it as dangerous to engage in battle. so he. making use of the feeling against him as a step to the leadership of the people. and many made songs and lampoons upon him. and were grieved and discontented to see how things went. saying. tells us. and laying waste the country. instead of bringing Pericles under suspicion and reproach. also. and he endeavored to appease those who were desirous to fight. when a sudden squall comes on. and minds the business of the ship. sees that all is tight and fast. who was at the head of the Peloponnesians. should forbear and spare his estate. being once lost. already was among his assailants. as a man whom their enemies most hated and feared. to the risk of the city itself. reproaching him with the cowardly exercise of his office of general. Cleon. made his invasion into Attica. and many of his enemies threatened and accused him for doing as he did. and there pitched their camp. little regarding those that cried out against him and were angry at his management. out at sea. or on purpose to give his enemies an occasion of traducing him. followed his own reason and judgment. taking no notice of the tears and entreaties of the sea-sick and fearful passengers. with a great army. against sixty thousand men-at. having shut up the city gates. while he laid waste the rest of the country. for so many they were in number that made the inroad at first. as file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. like a skillful steersman or pilot of a ship. and then follows the dictates of his skill. when they are lopped and cut.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. he told the Athenians beforehand. but would come out and fight them for their country's and their honor's sake. invaded the Athenian territories. and their allies.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12.

instead of swords.. Satyrking.. Will you always handle words? Very brave indeed we find them. Of sharp Cleon touches you.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. Whetted every day anew. When the little dagger keen. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.htm (38 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 .Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. But a Teles lurks behind them. Yet to gnash your teeth you're seen. appears in the anapaestic verses of Hermippus.12.

file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. Pericles. as Pericles at first foretold they would. The cause and author of all this. to dwell many of them together even as they could. their father. and. Upon occasion of which. in the heat of the summer-weather. they might receive from what their enemies endured. They had been possessed. seized upon the city.12. and pillaged and plundered the towns and smaller cities. but would quickly have given it over. the pestilential disease. and made havoc of it all.. For having turned out all the people of Aegina. and. like patients grown delirious. though they did the Athenians much mischief by land. is he who on account of the war has poured a multitude of people from the country in upon us within the walls. open.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. but keeps them pent up like cattle. whereas before they lived in a pure.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. jaded and distressed with the war. had not some divine power crossed human purposes. Yet to soothe the common people. and ease in their miseries. and ate up all the flower and prime of their youth and strength. but took all patiently. and submitted in silence to the disgrace they threw upon him and the ill-will they bore him. and free air. that he might watch at home and keep the city under his own control. or. sailing round the Peloponnese. was not at all moved by any attacks. would not have protracted the war to such a length. and uses all these many men that he has here upon no employ or service. In the first place. in small tenements and stifling hovels. Some comfort. Whence it is clear that the Peloponnesians. yet suffering as much themselves from them by sea. sought to lay violent hands on their physician. forced as they were now. were utterly enraged like madmen against Pericles. as it were. but stayed behind. the people. till the Peloponnesians broke up their camp and were gone. with the belief that the occasion of the plague was the crowding of the country people together into the town. and ordained new divisions of subject land. however. For the fleet. sending out a fleet of a hundred galleys to Peloponnesus. as well as in their bodies. he did not go along with it in person. affording them neither shift of quarters nor any refreshment. according to lot. distempered and afflicted in their souls. or plague. to be overrun with infection from one another. by his enemies.htm (39 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . he parted the island among the Athenians. and by land he himself entered with an army the Megarian country. also. said they. ravaged a great deal of the country. and to be tied to a lazy course of life within doors.. he relieved them with distributions of public moneys.

And now the vessels having their complement of men. being naturally prodigal. discharged their passion in their stroke. and Pericles being gone aboard his own galley. it happened that the sun was eclipsed.. the people.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. and he answering No. "Why. to a friend one day. public troubles were soon to leave him unmolested. upon the sight of so great a force.12. and having embarked many tried soldiers. Pericles got a hundred and fifty galleys ready. according to Theophrastus. was fifteen talents. and no less alarm to his enemies. while they who reckon most.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. which gave him some hope of surrender. and lost their stings in the wound. took his cloak and held it up before the man's face. He sent.htm (40 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . screening him with it so that he could not see. With the design to remedy these evils. and marrying a young and expensive wife. For the eldest of his lawfully begotten sons. and do the enemy some inconvenience. and borrowed some file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and it grew dark on a sudden. son of Epilycus. perceiving the steersman seized with fear and at a loss what to do. nor persuade or prevail with them any way. which. resumed their power. "and what does that differ from this. and fined him in a sum of money. so to say. Simmias. After this. however after putting out to sea." said he. too. therefore. therefore. asked him whether he imagined there was any great hurt. For it not only seized upon the Athenians. he tried and endeavored what he could to appease and re-encourage them. and Heraclides Ponticus gives it as Lacratidas. till they freely passed their votes upon him. Finding after this the Athenians ill affected and highly displeased with him. by their account that say least. but upon all others. to the affright of all. miscarried in his design by reason of the sickness. for this was looked upon as extremely ominous. was about to sail out. was highly offended at his father's economy in making him but a scanty allowance. or the sign of any great hurt in this. Pericles.. Xanthippus by name. is something greater than a cloak?" This is a story which philosophers tell their scholars. as Idomeneus tells us. seems not to have done any other exploit befitting such preparations. by little and little at a time. and when he had laid siege to the holy city Epidaurus. name fifty. took away his command from him. Pericles. that held any sort of communication with the army. But his domestic concerns were in an unhappy condition many of his friends and acquaintance having died in the plague time. only that what has caused that darkness there. and. both foot and horse. giving great hope to his citizens. and those of his family having long since been in disorder and in a kind of mutiny against him. The name prefixed to the accusation was Cleon. But he could not pacify or allay their anger. the daughter of Tisander.

to perform the ceremony of putting a garland of flowers upon the head of the corpse. his father spent a whole day with Protagoras in a serious dispute. till at last he lost his only remaining legitimate son.. At which time Pericles also lost his sister. nor betray or lower his high spirit and the greatness of his mind under all his misfortunes.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. that he entered an action against him. The city having made trial of other generals for the conduct of war. money of him in his father Pericles's name. to maintain his principle and to preserve and keep up the greatness of his soul when he came. stories about his conversations at home. and apologized file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. or even attend the burial of any of his friends or relations. telling first. made their acknowledgments. having never done any such thing in all his life before. regretted the loss of him. As for instance. or the masters of the games who appointed these sports. he was vanquished by his passion at the sight. and shed copious tears. according to the strictest and best reason. and orators for business of state. how one who was a practicer of the five games of skill. and the discourses he had with the sophists and scholars that came to his house. Subdued by this blow and yet striving still. and the greatest part of his relations and friends. or the man that threw it.12. Upon which the young man. thought himself so ill used and disobliged. continued never to be healed or made up till his death. that he openly reviled his father. and to reassume the office of general. and invited him again to address and advise them. lay at home in dejection and mourning. he was not even so much as seen to weep or to mourn. and the breach betwixt them. For Xanthippus died in the plague time of the sickness. pretending it was by his order. who having. however. by way of ridicule. but was persuaded by Alcibiades and others of his friends to come abroad and show himself to the people. whether the javelin. and in general that this difference of the young man's with his father. having with a dart or javelin unawares against his will struck and killed Epitimus the Pharsalian. he did not shrink or give in upon these occasions. however. However.. to be accounted the cause of this mischance. upon his appearance. Stesimbrotus tells us that it was Xanthippus who spread abroad among the people the infamous story concerning his own wife. Besides this. and those who had been most useful and serviceable to him in managing the affairs of state. Xanthippus. so that he burst into exclamations.htm (41 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . or of authority sufficient to be trusted with so great a command. He. when they found there was no one who was of weight enough for such a charge. as far as he could.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. The man coming afterward to demand the debt. Pericles was so far from yielding to pay it. were.

in his Morals. till that time. might be suspended. by virtue of that edict.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. remained in the government and passed muster for true Athenians were found upon the poll to be fourteen thousand and forty persons in number. that a law. After this. which were to be shared out among the citizens. not with sharp and violent fits. having then. that so the name and race of his family might not.12. leisurely. was. by little and little. This son afterward. it should seem.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. being chosen general. wasting the strength of his body. should be canceled again by the same man that made it. but with a dull and lingering distemper. for absolute want of a lawful heir to succeed. for their untowardly treatment of him. which had been carried so far against so many people. and prevailed with the Athenians to pity him. their pity. after having defeated the Peloponnesians at Arginusae. they gave him permission to enroll his son in the register of his fraternity. by way of present. cases which. enduring the test. as has been said. had not been known nor taken notice of. has left it upon file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. forty thousand bushels of wheat. when discussing whether men's characters change with their circumstances. the king of Egypt having sent to the people. as one whose losses and misfortunes had sufficiently punished his former arrogance and haughtiness. So that Theophrastus. which he himself had formerly caused to be made. and their moral habits. disturbed by the ailings of their bodies. The case of the statute was thus: Pericles. attended with various changes and alterations. and. and his request was such as became a man to ask and men to grant. It looked strange. yet the present calamity and distress which Pericles labored under in his family broke through all objections. as it did others that had it. About the time when his son was enrolled. requested that the statute concerning base-born children. a great many actions and suits about legitimacy occurred. they thought. and several persons suffered by false accusations. giving him his own name. when long ago at the height of his power in the state.. put to death by the people. proposed a law that those only should be reputed true citizens of Athens who were born of such parents as were both Athenians. start aside from the rules of virtue. His sufferings deserved. and undermining the noble faculties of his soul. the plague seized Pericles. children lawfully begotten.htm (42 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . There were little less than five thousand who were convicted and sold for slaves. be wholly lost and extinguished. and even indignation. with his fellowgenerals. those who.. he undertook the public affairs once more.

as their chief commander and conqueror of their enemies. that he wondered they should commend and take notice of things which were as much owing to fortune as to anything else." He was indeed a character deserving our high admiration. he never had gratified his envy or his passion. and had happened to many other commanders. showed one of his friends that came to visit him. ever wore mourning. for there were no less than nine trophies. when he was sick. in the exercise of such immense power. who. as the natural authors of all good and of nothing evil. where they say the gods make their abode. while confounding us with their ignorant fancies. Not as the poets represent. as though such were a home most agreeable for a blessed and immortal nature. and yet. he had set up. record.12. should not speak or make mention of that which was the most excellent and greatest thing of all. the best of the citizens and those of his friends who were left alive. and speaking out among them. in the meanwhile. a life so pure and unblemished. and call the place." said he. however. When he was now near his end. "For. which. but had now lost his consciousness. And to me it appears that this one thing gives that otherwise childish and arrogant title a fitting and becoming significance. He had listened. not only for his equitable and mild temper. all the while.htm (43 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . untroubled with winds or with clouds. might well be called Olympian. to whom. through my means. as though he were unable to understand or mind what they said. affirm that the gods file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. at the same time.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. that he was very sick indeed when he would admit of such a foolery as that was. nor ever had treated any enemy as irreconcilably opposed to him. which all along in the many affairs of his life. are themselves confuted by their own poems and fictions. were speaking of the greatness of his merit.. and attended to all. and the great animosities which he incurred. indeed. a secure and quiet seat. said. sitting about him. and his power.. free from all hazards and commotions. They talked thus together among themselves. as much as to say.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. that Pericles. and reckoning up his famous actions and the number of his victories. and. and equally through all time illumined with a soft serenity and a pure light. he constantly maintained. "no Athenian. we ascribe the rule and government of the world. an amulet or charm that the women had hung about his neck. in the height of power and place. for the honor of the city. but also for the high spirit and feeling which made him regard it the noblest of all his honors that. so dispassionate a temper. in accordance with our conceptions of the divine beings.

themselves are full of trouble and enmity and anger and other passions. But this will. while he lived. readily acknowledged that there never had been in nature such a disposition as his was.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-12. which no way become or belong to even men that have any understanding. And that invidious arbitrary power. seem a subject fitter for some other consideration. by keeping weak and low. did then appear to have been the chief bulwark of public safety..htm (44 of 44)2006-05-31 20:37:42 . had withheld from notice. which he. and had prevented from attaining incurable height through a licentious impunity. Those who.12.. perhaps. so great a corruption and such a flood of mischief and vice followed. as that which eclipsed themselves. and that ought to be treated of in some other place. presently after his quitting the stage. or more grave and impressive in the mildness which he used. making trial of other orators and demagogues.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. more moderate and reasonable in the height of that state he took upon him. The course of public affairs after his death produced a quick and speedy sense of the loss of Pericles. to which formerly they gave the name of monarchy and tyranny. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. resented his great authority.

called Verrucosus. We have yet extant his funeral oration upon the death of his son. by the change of the two letters they grew to be called Fabii.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. his easy submission to everybody. His eloquence. nor empty artifice. or some woman of that country. it was strong and sententious.. and disciplining his tongue for public oratory in a style comformable to his life and character. as a freedom of passion. he saw the wisdom of inuring his body (nature's own weapon) to warlike exercises. Our Fabius. the greater number. on account of his extreme mildness of temper. his slowness in words and actions. his reputed want of energy then was recognized by people in general. was also. FABIUS Having related the memorable actions of Pericles. as if he had no will of his own. and the lionlikeness of his temper. But be these things true or false. who was fourth in descent from that Fabius Rullus who first brought the honorable surname of Maximus into his family. it is said. because the first of the race delighted in digging pitfalls for wild beasts. or The Lamb. esteem him insensible and stupid. made those who judged superficially of him. A son of Hercules and a nymph. indeed. His slowness in speaking. and few only saw that this tardiness proceeded from stability.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-13. was.htm (1 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:43 . and that in process of time. who died consul. his virtues exerted and showed themselves. surrounded by many enemies. who brought him forth on the banks of Tiber. Others will have it that they were first called Fodii. from a wart on his upper lip. and in his first consulship had the honor file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. as constancy and firmness. He was five times consul.13. But as soon as he came into employments. the founder of the numerous and distinguished family of the name. his long labor and pains in learning. and discerned the greatness of his mind. and fossa for a ditch. certain it is that this family for a long time yielded a great number of eminent persons. Living in a great commonwealth. his deliberation in entering into the sports of other children. much after the way of Thucydides. fodere being still the Latin for to dig. the effect of a true prudence. by way of personal nickname.. and in his childhood they in like manner named him Ovicula. had not much of popular ornament. which he recited before the people. but there was in it great weight of sense. the first Fabius. our history now proceeds to the life of Fabius. and his sluggishness. his want of rapidity.

13. but in regard that the Carthaginians were but few. though many were alarmed by them. on the other side. control the movements of the various subject cities. and let the force and vigor of Hannibal waste away and expire. and. For it was said that some targets sweated blood. After this. of a triumph for the victory he gained over the Ligurians. the report of several unheard of and utterly strange portents much increased the popular consternation. from whence they never after made any inroad nor depredation upon their neighbors.htm (2 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:43 . without any apparent cause. whose natural promptness had been much heightened by his late unexpected victory over the Gauls. when he fought them contrary to the order of the senate and the advice of his colleague. to fight for Rome within the walls of Rome. which he thought too strange to be easily understood. many of the ears were filled with blood. desolating the country round about. whom he defeated in a set battle. and marched forward up to Hannibal. but proceeded as he had begun. yet such was the eagerness of the combatants. thought it not seasonable to engage with the enemy. that it had rained redhot stones. nor be reduced. and drove them to take shelter in the Alps. for want of aliment. Accordingly he ordered the tribunes to draw out the army into the field. who. altered the course of rivers. when they reaped their corn. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro." But these prodigies had no effect upon the impetuous and fiery temper of the consul Flaminius. but to send aid to their allies. "Mars himself stirs his arms. not that he much regarded the prodigies..Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-13. he deemed it best not to meet in the field a general whose army had been tried in many encounters. was no sooner mounted but the beast. and though he himself. These weighty reasons did not prevail with Flaminius. that it destroyed several towns. that they were entirely insensible of it. he was no ways deterred. in one of which was plainly written. filled Rome itself with astonishment and terror. at his first entrance. traversed all Tuscany with his victorious army. leaping on horseback to go out. Besides the more common signs of thunder and lightning then happening. that at Antium. like a flame. At the moment of this engagement. who protested he would never suffer the advance of the enemy to the city. there happened so great an earthquake.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. who was posted near the Lake Thrasymene in Tuscany. fell into so violent a fit of trembling and bounding that he cast his rider headlong on the ground.. like Camillus in former time. Hannibal came into Italy. Fabius. having gained a great battle near the river Trebia. and whose object was a battle. that the Falerians had seen the heavens open and several scrolls falling down. and carried off parts of high cliffs. and in want of money and supplies.

in the whole. when the surviving consul came to visit him. sent him word to dismiss his lictors with their fasces. and next asked leave of the senate for himself. fifteen thousand were killed. caused himself to be accompanied with the full body of four and twenty lictors. after many proofs of his strength and courage. placing their greatest strength in their foot. Upon the former engagement near Trebia. told them plainly. in the first place gave the command of the horse to Lucius Minucius. their thoughts found no support or stay. the ensigns of authority.htm (3 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:43 . with equal loss on either side. O Romans. neither the general who wrote. desirous to bestow funeral honors upon the body of Flaminius. and." Letting loose his news like a gale of wind upon an open sea. Fabius. in a great battle. therefore. nor was it ever known what became of it. whose age was so far advanced as to give him experience. what is to be done for your safety. who. how great and absolute soever their authority were. whether it were.. of whom they must ask leave. but on this occasion. might be able to manage the public affairs. and. as soon as Pomponius the praetor had the intelligence. Hannibal. In this battle Flaminius fell. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. the consul Flaminius is killed. without taking from him the vigor of action. which by an ancient law amongst the Romans was forbid to their generals. or else to let them know. "We are beaten. made diligent search after it. that. and appear before him as a private person. however. and to render the people more submissive and obedient to him. the people and senate were still their masters. that in time of battle he might serve on horseback. by the sovereign authority of his office and by his personal wisdom and courage. think. nor related it otherwise than as a drawn battle. being thus installed in the office of dictator. and as many made prisoners. that. to make the authority of his charge more observable. he threw the city into utter confusion: in such consternation. they would have their commanders-in-chief posted amongst them. and his temper was a happy compound of confidence and cautiousness. whose character seemed equal to the greatness of the office.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. The danger at hand at last awakened their judgments into a resolution to choose a dictator. without disguising or dissembling the matter. used straightforward and direct terms. Their choice unanimously fell upon Fabius..Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-13. Fabius. but could not find it among the dead. he caused the people to assemble. his body could execute what his soul designed. nor the express who told the news.13. and round about him all the bravest of the army.

the secret prophecies called the Sibylline Books were consulted.. but by extraordinary honor to propitiate the gods. as being the first of odd numbers. In this manner Fabius having given the people better heart for the future. believing that the gods bestowed victory and good fortune by the instrumentality of valor and of prudence.htm (4 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:43 . and this opinion prevailed yet more in Hannibal's army. and always keeping upon the hills.583 drachmas and 2 obols. all Italy over. sheep. and to celebrate musical festivities with an expenditure of the precise sum of 333 sestertia and 333 denarii. of meeting his want of resources by superior means.13. free from the insults of their horse. This he did. The sum total of which is. goats. by large numbers the smallness of his forces. sundry predictions found in them were said to refer to the fortunes and events of the time. He therefore exhorted them not to fear the enemy. the first that contains in itself multiplication. of the cows. and thus prepared he set forth to oppose Hannibal. Presenting himself to the people.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-13. the dictator made a vow before them to offer in sacrifice the whole product of the next season. but with the purpose of wearing out and wasting the vigor of his arms by lapse of time. unless it were in honor of the perfection of the number three. when they marched he followed them. with one third of a denarius over. With this design. The first solemn action of his dictatorship was very fitly a religious one: an admonition to the people. With this view. he always encamped on the highest grounds. Still he kept pace with them. But this his dilatory way gave occasion in his own camp for suspicion of want of courage. both in the mountains and the plains. not with intention to fight him. swine. for his own part placed his whole confidence in himself. in our money. 83. not to fill their minds with superstition. when they encamped he did the same. but kept them in a continual alarm. Hannibal was himself the only man who was not file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. that their late overthrow had not befallen them through want of courage in their soldiers. What the mystery might be in that exact number is not easy to determine. but by religious feeling to raise their courage. by making them believe that the gods took their side. by which means he gave them no rest. but through the neglect of divine ceremonies in the general. but at such a distance as not to be compelled to an engagement. with all other properties whatsoever belonging to numbers in general.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.. and lessen their fear of the enemy by inspiring the belief that Heaven was on their side. where the enemy's horse could have no access to him. but none except the consulter was informed.

bold and confident. who discerned his skill and detected his tactics. He at one time attacked.. would in the end come to nothing. endeavored in all ways to tempt him from his safe policy. calling him Hannibal's pedagogue. and sought to distract his attention. on the frontier of Campania which the river Lothronus. which they vented in reproaches upon Fabius. shows a man unfit to hold an office such as this. his answer was. he makes the slave of those whose errors it is his business to control.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-13. to avoid the general obloquy. if. he should engage the enemy. unless he could by art or force bring him to battle. saying that he seated them there as on a theater. unable to use the arms in which they were superior. mistaking his bad pronunciation. and himself contributed to fill them with wild eagerness and empty hopes. he ordered his guides to conduct him to the district of Casinum. humored the soldiery. And he would sometimes ask the friends of the general. it had too great an operation: Minucius. and saw. tried to draw him off in various directions. unseasonably eager for action. They. watching every opportunity to get good hold and close with his adversary. by blame. by such conduct." An oversight of Hannibal occurred soon after. and to draw off his army. and suffering the continual drain of lives and treasure in which they were inferior. which. led him and his army to the town of Casilinum.. to behold the flames and desolation of their country. with all the arts and subtilties of war to break his measures. All this artifice. At the same time. "I should be more fainthearted than they make me. whose vanity and presumption rose so high in consequence. to carry them at last (having no hopes on earth) up into heaven. they cried up Minucius for the only captain worthy to command the Romans. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. I should abandon my own convictions. or to hide them in the clouds from Hannibal's army? When his friends reported these things to the dictator. persuading him that. that the Carthaginians. He resolved.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. though it had no effect upon the firm judgment and conviction of the dictator. and to bring Fabius to an engagement. called by the Romans Vulturnus. therefore. whether it were not his meaning. yet upon the common soldier and even upon the general of the horse himself. that he insolently jested at Fabius's encampments upon the mountains. It is no inglorious thing to have fear for the safety of our country. like a cunning wrestler. deceived.htm (5 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:43 . and by misrepresentation. by thus leading them from mountain to mountain. since he did nothing else but follow him up and down and wait upon him. but to be turned from one's course by men's opinions. Desirous to refresh his horse in some good pasture-grounds.13. divides in two parts. through fear of idle reproaches.

with all the baggage. Thus reduced. finding the error and the danger he was fallen into.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-13. orderly pace. and to think themselves surrounded with embarrassments too difficult to be surmounted.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. they were possessed with the alarm that the enemy was approaching in various quarters. and discharges itself into the sea on a very unsafe and rough shore. and lodged the rest of his army upon the neighboring hills in the most advantageous places. when this was done. that there was no hopes of breaking through them. While Hannibal was proceeding hither. he made his army in the dark leisurely march after them. while his soldiers began to be despondent and terrified. succeeded in making his way around before him.. at the same time detaching a party of his lightest armed men to fall upon Hannibal's rear.13. and precipitately retired to their camp on the hills.htm (6 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:43 . in which the river overflowing forms a quantity of marsh land with deep banks of sand. but the light-armed of Hannibal's men. and that they were being surrounded. This was a surprising spectacle to the Romans on guard upon the heights. by his knowledge of the roads. he caused two thousand head of oxen which he had in his camp. and. but considered the enemy to be so advantageously posted. and put the whole army in disorder. Seeing flames which appeared to come from men advancing with torches. according to his order. and with their lighted heads resembled an army marching by night. and soon after the whole army. The oxen at first kept a slow. ordered the beasts to be driven on towards the heights commanding the passages out of the valley and the enemy's posts.. abandoned the pass. quitting their post. before the night was over. they no longer observed their sober pace. astonishing the shepherds and herds men of the hills about. immediately crucified the guides. Hannibal. But when the fire had burnt down the horns of the beasts to the quick. and dispatched four thousand choice men to seize the exit from it and stop him up. which they did with such success. came up and safely marched through the passes. They were no sooner gone. Hannibal had recourse to stratagem. that they cut off eight hundred of them. immediately seized the heights. for file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. Fabius. but. The country around is enclosed by mountains. ran dispersed about. unruly and wild with their pain. quickly found out the trick. tossing their heads and scattering the fire round about them upon each other and setting light as they passed to the trees. with a valley opening towards the sea. and lighting them in the beginning of the night. Fabius. to have torches or dry fagots well fastened to their horns.

file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. not so much out of hatred to him as out of friendship to Minucius. which Fabius in all cases declined. contrary to the honor and interest of the commonwealth. amongst whom many. thought by depressing Fabius to raise his friend.. where.13. killed a good many. As soon as it was day. and the senate now not only refused to allow money for the ransoms. giving orders to his soldiers to burn and destroy all the country about. which was punctually performed by his son. they should be redeemed at the price of two hundred and fifty drachmas a head. and placed guards for their security. Fabius heard and endured all this with invincible patience. but for fear of an ambush in the dark. when reported at Rome. And Hannibal. Their tribunes raised a thousand stories against him. foresight. This. had the effect with the people which Hannibal desired. and to bring with him the price. and. the disorder might have become general. These briskly attacked the Roman troops who were in heavy armor. of themselves active and nimble. but even in that conduct. he kept his men all night to their arms in the camp. were accustomed to the climbing of mountains. who. This action brought the extreme of obloquy and contempt upon the dictator. but also reproached Fabius for making a contract. and left Fabius no longer in condition to follow the enemy.htm (7 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:43 .PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. they said it was now manifest that he was not only inferior to his adversary. if any on either side remained. for redeeming men whose cowardice had put them in the hands of the enemy. and on the other side being resolved to keep his word with Hannibal and not to abandon the captives. having no money by him. that. there remained two hundred and forty Romans unexchanged. and generalship. and delivery accordingly made to him of the prisoners. made proposals to repay the money. when they were released. after exchange made of man for man. chiefly at the instigation of Metilius. he dispatched his son to Rome to sell land. some of the beasts fell into his hands. in courage. whose kinsman he was. but that Hannibal detached from his van a body of Spaniards..Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-13. he attacked the enemy in the rear. sufficient to discharge the ransoms. as they had always thought. to enhance their anger against him. and. Upon the whole account. forbade them to do the least damage in the estates of the Roman general. for the bargain he had made with Hannibal about the exchange of prisoners. after a good deal of skirmishing in the uneven ground. The senate on their part were also offended with him. marched with his army close to the lands and possessions of Fabius. who. the conditions of which were. by which he had proposed to bring the war to an end.

htm (8 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:43 . and advice were lost upon Minucius. For it was in the power of the dictator to imprison and to put to death. but before he parted. not to come.13. with the design to destroy the liberty of the people. hurried to the forum to listen to an address from Metilius the tribune.. and driving them to their very camp. And notice being brought him that Hannibal had sent out a great part of his army to forage. not only charged him as his commander-in-chief. About this time. in his absence. on being told it. The news spread to Rome. entreaties.. boldly applied himself to the people in the file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. according to the duty of his office. of a mild temper in general. said that what he most feared was Minucius's success: but the people. for which end they had at once put the supreme authority into the hands of a single person. words which immediately possessed the people with the belief that Minucius stood in danger of his life. doing great execution. made his retreat. whose office of tribune gave him security to say what he pleased (for in the time of a dictatorship that magistrate alone preserves his authority). with no little terror to the rest. and was thus forced to leave the command of the army with Minucius. and the people of Carthage time and opportunity to supply him with fresh succors to complete his conquests Fabius came forward with no intention to answer the tribune. saying that it was they that had brought the Carthaginians into Italy. but besought and entreated him. at certain sacrifices.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-13. Nobody dared to raise his voice in opposition. His commands. who by his slowness and delays might give Hannibal leisure to establish himself in Italy. to assist. nevertheless. but also many other eminent and considerable persons. he. he fell upon a detachment of the remainder. for his back was no sooner turned but the new general immediately sought occasions to attack the enemy. to a battle with Hannibal. he was called to Rome by the priests. but even of loyalty. and when Hannibal had recalled his scattered forces to the camp. and filled the soldiers with rash confidence. who apprehended their breaking in upon them. would be as hard to be appeased when once irritated. in which he infinitely extolled the valor of Minucius. but only said. and fell bitterly upon Fabius. as he was slow to be provoked. where Fabius. without any loss. that so he might speedily return to the army to punish Minucius. and not only him. a success which aggravated his boldness and presumption. accusing him for want not merely of courage. highly elated. Metilius alone. who had presumed to fight contrary to his orders. and they feared that Fabius. that they should expedite the sacrifices.

"But I am not derided. The first and fourth legion he took for his own division. once acting in public. But they decreed that Minucius should have an equal authority with the dictator in the conduct of the war. the second and third he delivered to Minucius. like the son of Manlius Torquatus. to supply the numerous places of those who were killed. than partially command the whole. being with the army. he had filled those vacant places with a sufficient number. a joint-authority not contenting him. made answer. but they mistook the temper of the man. who. though not so far as wholly to dispossess Fabius of the dictatorship.13. quietly went about his own affairs in the forum. who looked upon their folly as not his loss. behalf of Minucius: that they should not suffer him to be made a sacrifice to the enmity of Fabius. that. so Fabius.. but was contented that the army should be divided. by supplying opportunities to the diseased military ambition of his subordinate. but like Diogenes. and to put it into more worthy hands. This Fabius rejected.. and. Marcus Junius. better able and more inclined to use it for the public good. he returned back with all privacy and speed to the army. with great tranquillity and unconcern. that he might create new senators.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-13. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. though a little later it was again practiced after the disaster at Cannae. he required by turns to have the command of the army every other day. and contributed a proof to the argument of the philosophers that a just and good man is not capable of being dishonored. who was beheaded by his father for a victory fought and triumphantly won against order. But as soon as. nor permit him to be destroyed. Lest the rashness of Minucius should now at once run headlong into some disaster." meaning that only those were really insulted on whom such insults made an impression. where he found Minucius so elevated with his new dignity.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. they chose at Rome Fabius Buteo dictator. which was a thing then without precedent. when the dictator.htm (9 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:43 . and withdrew from all his attendance. mingling like a common person with the rest of the people. thinking each general singly would better command his part. he exhorted them to take away from Fabius that absolute power of a dictator. These impressions very much prevailed upon the people. The enemies of Fabius thought they had sufficiently humiliated and subdued him by raising Minucius to be his equal in authority. he immediately dismissed his lictors. so also of the auxiliary forces each had an equal share. His only vexation arose from his fear lest this ill counsel. being told that some persons derided him. should damage the public cause. submitted to what happened.

file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. According to his expectation. Minucius. in the sight of Minucius. when he saw Hannibal in person advancing to the assistance of his men. and. not discernible to the eye. he looked from officer to officer. thus exalted. and first sends out his light troops. though it had many inconsiderable ditches and dips in it. and yielding to a flight. to dislodge the enemy. Hannibal. proceeded to possess themselves of the rising ground. in proper season. despising these admonitions as the false humility of age. a man so favored by the people served them worse than he who had been illtreated and disgraced by them. marched down with his whole army drawn up. but he had reserved it for a bait. or train. could not contain himself from boasting of his success in humiliating the high and powerful office of the dictatorship. and with loud cries furiously attacked Minucius in the rear. and after them some horse. The young general. It happened that between his army and that of Minucius there was a certain eminence. and not Fabius. could easily have possessed himself of this ground. the level field around it appeared. it had best be in diligence and care for the preservation of Rome.13. to be all smooth and even. The Numidian horsemen were already in full victory riding about the plain. Minucius swallowed the bait. which seemed a very advantageous and not difficult post to encamp upon. upon which they rushed forth from various quarters. He engaged with the troops on the eminence. but if he must needs contend with his colleague. early in the morning he sent forth a small detachment. he thought the opportunity fair for his purpose. who was not ignorant of all these passages. Fabius quietly reminded him that it was. but as soon as Hannibal perceived that the whole army was now sufficiently advanced within the toils he had set for them. and encamped by himself. lay watching his advantage from them. whom he had to combat. who. therefore. the combat for some time was equal.htm (10 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:43 . could not end in safety. and sustained their missiles. Now that Minucius and Fabius were divided. cutting down the fugitives. having in the night time lodged a convenient number of his men in these ditches and hollow places. at last. Hannibal. Hannibal. in all wisdom. from a distance. immediately removed with the body of his army.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-13. and struck universal alarm and disorder through the whole army. however.. he gave the signal.. The surprise and the slaughter was great. Minucius himself lost all his confidence. to draw the Romans to an engagement. which. so that their backs were open to his men whom he had posted in the hollows. and found all alike unprepared to face the danger.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. that it might not be said. had he pleased. and.

telling them. come down with a storm upon us?" Fabius. he saw the army of Minucius encompassed by the enemy. but he himself. and obliging the rest to save themselves by a hasty retreat. but to learn and improve by the faults we have committed. Fabius marched up to the enemy. at some time or other. he foresaw what would happen from the rashness of Minucius. and taught me that I am not the man who should command others. and Fabius. "O Hercules! how much sooner than I expected. and a lover of his country." Thus. in front of his camp. cutting down all that made opposition. Some reasons I may have to accuse fortune. who also on his part. and. though later than he seemed to desire. When. without saying any harsh or reproachful thing to his colleague.13. warily forbore. but have need of another to command me. viewed all that passed.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-13. he said to those about him. therefore. and if he hath been too forward to engage the enemy. Fabius was not ignorant of this danger of his countrymen. but I have many more to thank her. seeing so sudden a change of affairs. in readiness to wait the event. only in showing gratitude file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and first cleared the plain of the Numidians. kept his men to their arms. that this cloud which always hovered upon the mountains would. sounded a retreat. with a great sigh. nor would he trust to the reports of others. who is a valiant man. at the head of his men. while the Romans on their part were no less contented to retire in safety. after his men had picked up the spoils of the field. at another time we will tell him of it. retired to his own camp. and that we are not to contend for victory over those to whom it is our advantage to yield. striking his hand upon his thigh.. and the cunning of Hannibal. beyond the force of his age. Therefore in everything else henceforth the dictator must be your commander. for in a few hours she hath cured a long mistake. they appeared more disposed to flight than to resistance. Hannibal. and next fell upon those who were charging the Romans in the rear. "We must make haste to rescue Minucius. spoke and said to them: "To conduct great matters and never commit a fault is above the force of human nature. that he might join Minucius. hath Minucius destroyed himself!" He then commanded the ensigns to be led forward and the army to follow. and that by their countenance and shifting their ground.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.htm (11 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:43 .. gathering his army together. lest they should be environed as the Romans had been. is that which becomes a good and sensible man. therefore. opening his way through the ranks up the hillside. It is reported that upon this occasion Hannibal said jestingly to his friends: "Did not I tell you. and drew off his men into their camp.

he commanded the Roman eagles to move forward. obtained two victories. they could not see any new resource for the safety of Rome. he threw himself into the arms of the dictator. but very popular and bold. After silence was obtained. the term employed by freedmen to those who gave them their liberty. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. he would that same day free Italy from the strangers. observed the same method in managing the war.13. Minucius said. "You have this day. vaunting that whenever he should get sight of the enemy.htm (12 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:43 . when Terentius Varro. Not long after. that he raised a greater army than had ever yet been sent out of Rome. only terrified the wise and experienced. while the soldiers with him saluted the soldiers here as their patrons. they only succored their allies. For it was his custom to declaim in all assemblies. They addressed themselves. and all his men to follow him to the camp of Fabius. and none more than Fabius. and avoided all occasions of fighting Hannibal in a pitched battle." Having said this. since if so great a body. I can address you by no nobler name than that of a kind father. stood amazed at the novelty of the sight. The soldiers. and always be the first to obey his orders. and the flower of the Roman youth. Those who immediately succeeded. had obtained the consulship. though a father's beneficence falls short of that I have received from you. that. but for all these who are under me. When he came near the dictator's tent.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. calling him with a loud voice his father. but what gave confidence to the populace." After this. by one victory you preserved. O dictator.. should be cut off. to you I owe its preservation not for myself only. one by your valor and conduct over Hannibal. but afterwards. then. and preserved the towns from falling off to the enemy.. and in the same manner the soldiers of each army embraced one another with gladness and tears of joy. as he entered. and another by your wisdom and goodness over your colleague. From a father I individually received the gift of life. and were anxious and doubtful what the meaning might be. as long as Rome employed generals like Fabius there never would be an end of the war. and by the other instructed us. he soon made it appear that by his rashness and ignorance he would stake the whole commonwealth on the hazard. by another welcome one from you we were restored to honor and safety. Fabius laid down the dictatorship. With these promises he so prevailed.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-13. on which he at once laid his standards at his feet. and consuls were again created. towards him I will still be your leader. and when we were already suffering one shameful defeat from Hannibal. There were enlisted eighty-eight thousand fighting men. Fabius went forth to meet him. a man of obscure birth.

which caused a general laughter amongst them all.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-13." and when Gisco inquired what. "Did I only consider myself. in matters relating to Hannibal. "that you should believe me than Varro. with a serious countenance.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.. inasmuch as. double theirs. and with a small train rode out to take a full prospect of the enemy as they were now forming in their ranks. but he set up the scarlet coat flying over his tent. nothing would content but a separate command. from a rising ground not far distant. The army. or else he will be glad to depart of his own will. called Gisco." he said to him. Gisco. a Carthaginian of equal rank with himself. that "in all those great numbers before us. to which Hannibal replied. since both alike conspired to decide the fate of Rome by a battle. he must no less oppose Varro's ignorant eagerness than Hannibal's conscious readiness. if he would profitably serve his country. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. told him that the numbers of the enemy were astonishing. who are urgent for what you disapprove. when they were both come to the army. yet more astonishing. but Hannibal commanded them to their arms.htm (13 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:43 . that if for this year you abstain from fighting with him. there is not one man called Gisco. and when his turn came." To this Paulus is said to have replied. they told it to those whom they met. It was no sooner day. at a village called Cannae. seeing Hannibal's attendants come back from viewing the enemy in such a laughing condition. whom. and as they came down from the hill. I will rather seek in my conduct to please and obey Fabius than all the world besides.13. startled the Carthaginians. This evidently appears. to the other consul. answered. a man of great experience in war. which you take no notice of. Fabius told him. which was the signal of battle. One of his followers. This boldness of the consul. when I tell you. "It is more reasonable. none of the countries or towns of Italy come in to him. he posted his army close to Hannibal. from which they were hardly able to recover themselves. notwithstanding his victories. but unpopular. "There is one thing. by the river Aufidus. therefore. Aemilius Paulus. and his army is not now the third part of what it was at first. that each consul should have his day. yet since the cause of Rome is at stake. who once before upon some impeachment had condemned him. either his army will perish of itself. so that he needed encouragement to withstand his colleague's temerity.. I should rather choose to be exposed to the weapons of Hannibal than once more to the suffrages of my fellow-citizens. and fearful also of the people." These good measures were defeated by the importunity of Varro. and the numerousness of his army." This unexpected jest of their general made all the company laugh.

At last Cornelius Lentulus. we refer our reader to those authors who have written at large upon the subject. alighted from his horse. Hannibal employed stratagems to advantage himself. when the enemy had made a thorough charge upon that middle advanced body. which was somewhat more advanced than the wings. charge them in the flank. tendering it to him. In the next place. To this general calamity. His face was so disfigured. a young man of patrician race. in their pursuit. Aemilius Paulus. and to cut off and destroy all who did not fall back before the Carthaginian wings united in their rear. For the horse of Aemilius receiving a hurt and throwing his master. and when the Romans. they should. it is also said. all his best men he put into his wings. and. and gave ample opportunity to the captains of the chosen troops to charge them right and left on their flanks. with a thin company. which gave ground.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and his soul no less wounded with grief. or the pursuit of the enemy. The consul Varro. those about him immediately alighted to aid the consul. should be far enough engaged within the two wings. Hannibal was heard to say.htm (14 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:43 .13. At the sight of this. and. that a strange mistake among the cavalry much contributed. that. He commanded those in the wings.. they reduced the form of his army into a perfect half-moon. took it for a sign that they should all dismount and charge the enemy on foot.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-13.. expecting the kindness of a dispatching blow. desired him to get file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and endeavor to encompass them. carried before it a cloud of dust over the Carthaginian army into the faces of the Romans. sweeping over the great plains of sand. fled to Venusia. as not being able to withstand their shock. and all his person so stained with blood. his body all covered with wounds. that made their general at this moment indulge in such hilarity. unable any longer to oppose the flight of his men. concluded that it must be profound contempt of the enemy. "This pleases me better than if they had been delivered to me bound hand and foot. and the Roman troops. Pressing upon Hannibal's front. This appears to have been the chief cause of the Roman loss." For the particulars of this engagement. which at that time blew with a perfect storm of violence. which much disturbed them in the fight. perceiving who he was. seeing their commanders thus quitting their horses. placed the worst and the weakest of his army. he so drew up his men that the wind was at their backs. that his very friends and domestics passing by knew him not. sat himself down upon a stone. In the first place. which he knew would recoil. both on the right and the left. and in the body. According to his usual manner.

assuring him that in five days' time he might sup in the capitol. next to Rome the most flourishing and opulent city. and pursue the flying Romans into the very gates of Rome. It is the saying of Euripides. that "a man is in ill-case when he must try a friend. and ten thousand in the camp of both consuls." and so neither. In him. the counsels and actions of Fabius. how to gain a victory. then standing up. in the other extreme they accounted to have been more than human wisdom. and his counsels. when it needs an able general. he marked where the slaughter was greatest. but was roving. who had nothing for the subsistence of his men but what he pillaged from day to day. he.. a Carthaginian. therefore. at this time. which. is a state in a good one. more than file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and of Capua itself. as though nothing but a divine power of intellect could have seen so far. would dearly want so great a captain. Having dispatched Lentulus with this commission. all which came over to him.. with tears in his eyes. before the battle. now. a result which. to remount his horse.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. even now it had arrived. market. he obliged young Lentulus. nor is it easy to imagine what consideration hindered him from it. and foretold. and submitted to his authority. up and save a life so necessary to the safety of the commonwealth. as it were. who hitherto had not one town. contrary to the judgment of all others. it would seem. and commanded him to tell Fabius Maximus that Aemilius Paulus had followed his directions to his very last. It would seem rather that some supernatural or divine intervention caused the hesitation and timidity which he now displayed. The friends of Hannibal earnestly persuaded him to follow up his victory. But nothing could prevail upon him to accept of the offer. "You know. they placed their whole remaining hopes. with a huge troop of banditti. which. he gave him his hand. tell him with indignation. and which made Barcas. but that it was his hard fate to be overpowered by Varro in the first place. And so it was with the Romans. and had not in the least deviated from those measures which were agreed between them. Hannibal.htm (15 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:43 . or seaport in his possession. and secondly by Hannibal. but not how to use it. In this battle it is reported that fifty thousand Romans were slain. four thousand prisoners taken in the field. was hardly credible.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-13. they had branded as cowardice and fear. now became master of the best provinces and towns of Italy. who had no place of retreat or basis of operation.13. his wisdom was the sacred altar and temple to which they fled for refuge. and there threw himself upon the swords of the enemy." Yet it produced a marvelous revolution in his affairs.

and the sorrowful countenance of those who should celebrate it. and procuring auspicious signs and presages. he heartened up the magistrates. let us admire the high spirit and equanimity of this Roman commonwealth. Fabius Pictor. anything. was now the only man. who showed no fear. full of shame and humiliation. the magistrates and chief of the senate. And.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-13. he regulated and controlled their mournings for their slain friends. according to custom. He placed guards at the gates of the city to stop the frighted multitude from flying. silence being commanded. in a prosperous condition. When word was brought to Rome that Hannibal. the one killed herself. addressed his fellow-citizens. Above all. whom they esteemed fearful and pusillanimous when they were. because he did not despair of the safety of the commonwealth. was buried alive. after so great a loss. after he had so disgracefully and calamitously managed their affairs. but was come to take the government into his hands. yet the whole senate and people went forth to meet him at the gates of the city. were by the direction of the augurs carefully performed. a near kinsman to Maximus.. it was decreed that the solemnity should be intermitted. The feast of Ceres happening to fall within this time. as in the time when the Gauls took possession of Rome. Fabius amongst them. was sent to consult the oracle of Delphi. to execute the laws.13. commended him before the people. checked the women's lamentations. preserved them from dispersing and deserting their city. But those rites which were proper for appeasing their anger. both as to time and place. and about the same time. in this general and unbounded dejection and confusion. and then the whole city should be purified. and the other. ordering that each family should perform such observances within private walls.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. two vestals having been detected to have been violated. and the public gatherings of those who wanted thus to vent their sorrows. and was himself as the soul and life of every office.. and received him with honor and respect. as they thought. after the fight.htm (16 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:43 . besides that. and that they should continue only the space of one month. He caused the senate to meet. had file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and aid his fellow-citizens in their prospect of future deliverance. He. but walked the streets with an assured and serene countenance. might too much expose to the people the greatness of their loss. that when the consul Varro came beaten and flying home. lest the fewness. the worship most acceptable to the gods is that which comes from cheerful hearts.

he was insensibly washed away and consumed. was brought to this. and. and marked his engagements. which drove him back. and not long after it was discovered that the letters had been forged by Hannibal. Posidonius tells us that the Romans called Marcellus their sword. perhaps. In preserving the towns and allies from revolt by fair and gentle treatment. that he dreaded Marcellus when he was in motion. So that Hannibal found by experience that. and in not using rigor. we must rather attribute to the favor of the gods than to the prudence of Fabius. though silently and quietly passing by him. impetuous river.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. made a happy compound that proved the salvation of Rome. had laid an ambush to entertain him. the hearts of the Romans began to revive. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. still persuaded that. and intimations that they should expect him. they had always a part in the government of the army. and that the vigor of the one. for his reception. During the whole course of this war. The most distinguished commands were held by Fabius Maximus and Claudius Marcellus. and Fabius when he sat still.htm (17 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:43 . who only once was in some danger of being caught.13. to match those of Hannibal. For Marcellus. as we have set forth in his life. and daring. who. This. and was diverted only by consulting the omens of the birds. Marcellus fell into the trap which Hannibal had laid for him. constituted his tactics.. his conduct was remarkable. encountering the one. when counterfeit letters came to him from the principal inhabitants of Metapontum. This train had almost drawn him in. and was killed in his fifth consulship.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-13. and. both generals of great fame. he met with a rapid. he had still to do with one or both of these generals. mixed with the steadiness of the other. as praetors or proconsuls or consuls. that. he resolved to march to them with part of his army. Boldness. for each of them was five times consul. with promises to deliver up their town if he would come before it with his army. and Fabius their buckler. and still made some breach upon him. and delighting in fights. fierce. and they proceeded to send out generals and armies. till. by following close and not fighting him. like a wrestler in too high condition. and. enterprise. It is told of him. ready and bold with his own hand. But Fabius adhered to his former principles. whose very excess of strength makes him the more likely suddenly to give way and lose it. which he found to be inauspicious. at last. though upon opposite grounds. as Homer describes his warriors. at last. Hannibal and his army would at last be tired out and consumed. or showing a suspicion upon every light suggestion. and by the other.. marched with his army into other parts of Italy. was a man of action and high spirit. But all his craft and subtlety were unsuccessful upon Fabius.

but he knew also how brave he was.. and then sent for the Lucanian. but to keep him in good order.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. he was resolved to place one over him to be his keeper. that the whole army had not a better man. he said. in consideration of them. he was willing to forgive him his fault. which was a capital transgression against military discipline and the Roman laws. or for any other worse design. Fabius was so far from using severity against him. and the good services he had done. who had been speaking underhand with some of the soldiers about deserting. and told the soldier. from that time forwards. "I shall consider it your fault. which. and not treat them worse than gardeners do those wild plants. and bear excellent fruit. Upon which he gave private order to some of his men to find out the woman and secretly convey her into his own tent. calling him aside. and discovered at last that these frequent excursions which he ventured upon were to visit a young girl. which. that he very well knew how often he had been out away from the camp at night. that he was a native of Lucania.13. some of his officers informed him that one of their men was very often absent from his place. that he called for him. there was not a faithfuller and more trusty man in the whole army.. if you apply yourself to any but to me." file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.htm (18 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:43 . terrified and amazed at the adventure. they all answered. he produced the woman. told him. was a great fault in the commanders who reward more by favor than by desert. With good reason he judged. with whom he was in love. he asked them what kind of man he was. lose gradually the savageness of their nature. Having said this." said Fabius. whenever you are aggrieved. that. and. "This is the person who must answer for you. and told him he was sensible of the neglect that had been shown to his merit and good service. Fabius made strict inquiry. "but henceforward. much more should those who have the command of men try to bring them to order and discipline by the mildest and fairest means. rather than by cruelty and beating. being informed of a certain Marsian. and proceeded to speak of several actions which they had seen him perform. At another time. and out at nights. if those who have the government of horses and dogs endeavor by gentle usage to cure their angry and untractable tempers. therefore. eminent for courage and good birth. and. he bestowed an excellent horse and other presents upon him. with care and attention." and when he had so spoken. and by your future behavior we shall see whether your night rambles were on account of love.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-13. who should be accountable for his good behavior.

and being a countrywoman and an acquaintance of the Bruttian governor. was deeply in love with his sister. the bargain was struck. compulsion makes all things honorable. There was a young Tarentine in the army that had a sister in Tarentum. with the brother advanced. his friendship. So that at last our Tarentine thought this Bruttian officer well enough prepared to receive the offers he had to make him. In conclusion. "if he be a man that has bravery and reputation." said he. which gained him possession of Tarentum. who entirely loved her brother. so that the loss of them would not be any great grief to the Romans.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-13. conceived hopes that he might possibly turn it to the advantage of the Romans. the large rewards promised by Fabius. something of the same kind. and went over to Tarentum. to accept. Whilst these matters were thus in process. And having first communicated his design to Fabius. the worst of the Roman army. and makes the brother and him acquainted. was not a native of Tarentum. therefore. then in possession of the enemy.htm (19 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:43 . whom Hannibal had made a commander of the garrison.. upon the terms proposed. The young Tarentine. who was in love. and storm the place with all their might. we may be thankful if might assumes a form of gentleness. and should also lay siege to Caulonia. and wholly depended upon him. who had most of them been runaways. since at this time the sword mingles all nations. however. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. by whom the Bruttian was inveigled.. and in a time when right is weak. he privately sent her to him to corrupt him. and the Bruttian abstained from visiting the sister. Fabius sends orders to the garrison in Rhegium. in dishonor. to draw off Hannibal from scenting the design. but a Bruttian born. though some relate the story otherwise. in the same degrees that her kindness increased. and the promise made of delivering the town. and was kept by Fabius as his concubine. and that it would be easy for a mercenary man. for neither of them knew that the brother had notice of the amour between them. He. and desired her. took an occasion to tell his sister how he had heard that a man of station and authority had made his addresses to her. and say. he left the army as a deserter in show. The first days passed. "for. it matters not what countryman he is. that this woman. also. and whereas she henceforth showed more countenance to her lover than formerly.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.13. to betray the town. and makes them equal. This is the common tradition. being informed that a certain Bruttian." Upon this the woman sends for her friend. that they should waste and spoil the Bruttian country. and had been brought home by Marcellus from Sicily. Another passage there was. to tell him who it was. Fabius. These were a body of eight thousand men.

On the sixth day of the siege. so have we lost it. and not by treachery. scaled the walls. yet he did not succeed in establishing the impression he desired. but now he held it impossible. the young Tarentine slips by night out of the town. gave order for a general assault to be made on the other side of the town. therefore. gave an account of the whole matter to Fabius. he told them. Whilst they were carrying off everything else as plunder. the officer who took the inventory asked what should be done with their gods. "Let us leave their angry gods to the Tarentines. Fabius had a triumph decreed him at Rome. threw out these men as a bait for Hannibal. Fabius answered. while proceeding with secrecy to the post.. and could file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. to divert him from Tarentum. and there was brought into the treasury three thousand talents." And. Many of the Tarentines were also killed. that he always thought it difficult. in the meantime. ambition seems to have overcome him. with the forces he then had. then. as appears in the account of his life. who thought it not safe to rely wholly upon the plot. indeed. This being accordingly executed. it is said. has also got a Hannibal. was to admit the Romans. much more splendid than his first. "Rome. he removed the colossal statue of Hercules. and which. when he was informed that the town was taken. proceedings very different from those of Marcellus on a like occasion. near it. as we won Tarentum. while the Tarentines hurried to defend the town on the side attacked. Fabius sat down before Tarentum. and thirty thousand of them were sold for slaves..htm (20 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:43 . both by land and sea. but. who instantly caught at it. meaning the pictures and statues. and. having carefully observed the place where the Bruttian commander. in private with some of his confidants. Hannibal. we must confess. with one of himself on horseback. in brass." Nevertheless. Fabius received the signal from the Bruttian. according to agreement. Here.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. was within five miles of Tarentum. To make it appear to the world that he had taken Tarentum by force and his own prowess. to master Italy. and led his forces to Caulonia. he commanded his men to kill the Bruttians before all others. and had it set up in the capitol. very much set off in the eyes of the world his clemency and humanity. Upon this success. for the first time.13. He said openly. but merely gained the character of perfidy and cruelty. they looked upon him now as a champion who had learned to cope with his antagonist. and entered the town unopposed.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-13. the army had the plunder of the town.

was annoyed at these honors and distinctions. or perhaps out of design to try his son. and with open arms came up. now easily foil his arts and prove his best skill ineffectual. both in reputation and authority. He. and made it his glory. as one of his attendants. for if Marcus Livius had not lost Tarentum. my son. however. in fact. and was acknowledged to be.htm (21 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:43 . The standers by seemed offended at the imperiousness of the son towards a father so venerable for his age and his authority. almost running. that by his resistance. and then retired into the citadel. and embraced his son.13. came up to him on horseback. there being some business on foot about provision for the war. either by reason of age and infirmity. who was governor of Tarentum when it was betrayed to Hannibal. But the praises of our Fabius are not bounded here. and. that while he really was. openly declared in the senate." And. and tell him that. and partly weakened and become dissolute with overabundance and luxury. who was undoubtedly the greatest man of Rome in his time.. when he went as consul to his command. the old man followed. and held a father's full power over his son.. gave his son the consulship of the next year. it is told that the great-grandfather of our Fabius. And when afterwards his son had a triumph bestowed upon him for his good service. He afterwards file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. This was the way by which we and our forefathers advanced the dignity of Rome. While he was still at a distance. the greatest man in Rome. he should come on foot. Marcus Livius. took pleasure in serving as lieutenant under his own son. saying. indeed. shortly after whose entrance upon his office. and turned their eyes in silence towards Fabius. Tarentum had been recovered. you do well. he yet submitted himself to the laws and the magistrate. who had been five times consul. on horseback. more than by any action of Fabius. the young consul observed it. and had been honored with several triumphs for victories obtained by him. "Yes. which he kept till the town was retaken. instantly alighted from his horse. and bade one of his lictors command his father to alight. his triumphant chariot.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-13. on one occasion. if be had any business with the consul. and over whom you are to use it. amongst other marks of gratitude. his father. And. on which Fabius laughingly replied: "You say very true." The people.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and understand well what authority you have received. preferring ever her honor and service to our own fathers and children. Fabius Maximus had never recovered it. the army of Hannibal was at this time partly worn away with continual action.

defeated by him in many battles. After Cornelius Scipio. and had gained over to Rome many towns and nations with large resources. of driving Hannibal out of Italy. and. alarming the city. in his own nature. on the other side.htm (22 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:43 .. and so oblige Hannibal. to have a funeral oration recited by some of the nearest relations. as it was the custom amongst the Romans. he probably did it out of caution and prudence. instead of invading the countries of others. and have the glory. fill Africa with arms and devastation. the colleague of Scipio. out of the country. lost this son. to prevent it. and urged him not to yield the command to Scipio. which had for so many years continued and been protracted under his management. and proposed no less a task to himself than to make Carthage the seat of the war.13. to draw back and defend his own. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. To say the truth. and that he was afraid lest this young conqueror should achieve some great and noble exploit. which he committed afterwards to writing. being. and made him violent and personal in his opposition. and was remarkable for bearing the loss with the moderation becoming a pious father and a wise man. but when he found Scipio every day increasing in the esteem of the people. who was sent into Spain. if his inclinations were for it. He also hindered the giving money to Scipio for the war. and sparing no means. he thought the occupation of contesting Italy with Hannibal a mere old man's employment. upon the death of any illustrious person. On the other side. in consideration only of the public safety. Knowing what high expectation they had of him. opposed the undertaking with all his might. he was received at his coming home with unexampled joy and acclamation of the people. For he even applied to Crassus. he took upon himself that office. Fabius. and delivered a speech in the forum. rivalry and ambition led him further. And to this end he proceeded to exert all the influence he had with the people. but the common people thought that he envied the fame of Scipio. nor remove out of Italy. perhaps.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. he should himself in person lead the army to Carthage.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-13. when Fabius first opposed this project of Scipio. elected him consul for the year ensuing. had driven the Carthaginians. Crassus would not stir against him. by word or deed. who. to show their gratitude. or even of ending the war. which were extremely attached to him.. so that he was forced to raise it upon his own credit and interest from the cities of Etruria. and telling them that nothing but the temerity of a hot young man could inspire them with such dangerous counsels. but that. He prevailed with the senate to espouse his sentiments. and of the danger which the commonwealth might incur.

and that Hannibal was a more formidable enemy under the walls of Carthage than ever he had been in Italy. in some degree. of two camps of the enemy burnt and destroyed. of those men who had served with him in Spain. Fabius. as if she would be weary of long favoring the same person. that the further off Hannibal was.. it seemed to be morosity and ill-will. both in the senate and to the people. startled with these declamations. of which the fame was confirmed by the spoils he sent home. to defend Carthage. whenever Scipio should encounter his victorious army. even then. and in them a great quantity of arms and horses. expressing his fears and apprehensions. or a fear. however. tried other ways to oppose the design. and taken his leave of Italy. dictators. and when. leaving behind them their parents. gave his countrymen joy and exultation beyond all their hopes. and consuls slain. the Carthaginians were compelled to send envoys to Hannibal to call him home. whom he particularly trusted. And the people were. telling them that the commonwealth was never in more danger than now. when Hannibal had put his army on shipboard. therefore. humbled the pride of Carthage beneath his feet. and the city itself. Fabius seems to have followed the dictates of his own wary temper. for such eminent and transcending services. by his office of high priest.htm (23 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:43 . wives.. Scipio.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. the whole people of Rome cried up and extolled the actions of Scipio. after that Scipio was gone over into Africa. and were brought to believe. and he declaimed. shortly afterwards fought Hannibal. alleging for it only the old reason of the mutability of fortune. but was also endeavoring to drain Italy of all its forces. Fabius still could not forbear to oppose and disturb the universal joy of Rome. when. that at last they would only allow Scipio for the war the legions which were in Sicily. and also having. a defenseless prey to the conquering and undefeated enemy at their doors. With this language many did begin to feel offended. the pusillanimity of old age. of a Numidian king taken prisoner. But. the nearer was their danger. and leave his idle hopes in Italy. Fabius contended that a successor should be sent in his place. and children. religious duties to retain him. when news almost immediately came to Rome of wonderful exploits and victories. he impeded the levies. and three hundred. of a vast slaughter of their men. and file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. In these transactions. that Scipio was not only himself flying from Hannibal. and utterly defeated him. and to spirit away the youth of the country to a foreign war. hereupon. that had now become exaggerated.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-13. that it would be fatal to Rome. of the skill of Hannibal. averse to all contention. Nay.13. With this he so far alarmed the people. still warm with the blood of so many Roman generals.

but the people.. he fell sick and died. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro." Fabius Maximus. thus owning him their common father. Epaminondas died so poor that he was buried at the public charge.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. "Long shaken on the seas restored the state. that was found in his house. it is said.htm (24 of 24)2006-05-31 20:37:43 . for about the time that Hannibal left Italy. and the final overthrow of Hannibal. and making his end no less honorable than his life.. nor to rejoice in the reestablished happiness and security of the commonwealth. as a mark of their affection.13.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-13. however. did not live to see the prosperous end of this war. defrayed the expenses of his funeral by a private contribution from each citizen of the smallest piece of coin. one small iron coin was all. Fabius did not need this. At Thebes.

with the firmness of his resolution. I do not find that Fabius won any set battle but that against the Ligurians. the victories of Cimon. were employed by Pericles rather to fill the city with festive entertainments and solemnities than to enlarge and secure its empire. combining the highest file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Prov. a noble act. with the many famous exploits of Tolmides. not to be daunted nor discomposed with the vast heap of calamities under which the people of Rome at that time groaned and succumbed. when Fabius redeemed both him and his army from utter destruction.. he. the trophies of Myronides and Leocrates. Perhaps it may be more easy to govern a city broken and tamed with calamities and adversity. great and growing in power. and compelled by danger and necessity to listen to wisdom.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and the conquest of Euboea we may well balance with the towns of Campania. Let us first compare the two men in their warlike capacity. and rivers stained with the blood of his fellow-citizens. for which he had his triumph. as it were. COMPARISON OF PERICLES WITH FABIUS We have here had two lives rich in examples. was not to preserve and maintain the well-established felicity of a prosperous state. and kept it up from foundering through the failings and weakness of others.14. of lakes and plains and forests strewed with the dead bodies. but to raise and uphold a sinking and ruinous commonwealth. of their generals and consuls slain. than to set a bridle on wantonness and temerity. But then again. Besides. whereas Pericles erected nine trophies for as many victories obtained by land and by sea. had the frightful object before his eyes of Roman armies destroyed. But no action of Pericles can be compared to that memorable rescue of Minucius. and yet. We may set Tarentum retaken against Samos won by Pericles. argues a courage in Fabius and a strength of purpose more than ordinary. Pericles presided in his commonwealth when it was in its most flourishing and opulent condition.htm (1 of 3)2006-05-31 20:37:44 . though Capua itself was reduced by the consuls Fulvius and Appius. both of civil and military excellence. Whereas Fabius.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-14. with his mature and solid cousels. But the task of Fabius.. so that it may be thought it was rather the common success and fortune that kept him from any fall or disaster. put his shoulder to the falling commonwealth. when he took upon him the government. and rule a people pampered and restive with long prosperity as were the Athenians when Pericles held the reins of government. who undertook the government in the worst and most difficult times.

But Fabius was not so good a prophet. As to liberality and public spirit. by their grasping more than they were able to manage. when day came. though the sum did not exceed six talents. since no terms of peace. it does not appear that Pericles was ever so overreached as Fabius was by Hannibal with his flaming oxen. only Tolmides broke loose from him. also.. rebuke and condemn the exertions of Pericles to banish Cimon and Thucydides. put himself accidentally into his power. offered by the Lacedaemonians. Pericles was eminent in never taking any gifts. and. unadvisedly fought with the Boeotians. to lose an advantage through diffidence is no less blamable in a general than to fall into danger for want of foresight. and Fabius was a bad prophet of success that was good. had not the means to obviate the miscarriages of others. and was slain. noble. Hence it was more easy for him to prevent miscarriages arising from the mistakes and insufficiency of other officers. and. but it had been happy for the Romans if his authority had been greater. and humanity. we may presume. wisdom. rather than lessen the empire of Rome. and told them beforehand the ruin the war would bring upon them. it is imputed to Pericles that he occasioned the war. contrary to his persuasions. was worsted by him. their disasters had been fewer. The greatness of his influence made all others submit and conform themselves to his judgment. sure and unerring himself. would content him. for giving his own money to ransom his soldiers. If it is the part of a good general. want of judgment and experience. On the other side. but was ready to hazard all. The mildness of Fabius towards his colleague Minucius does.. As for their civil policy. without his agency. valor. His enemy there had. was not for yielding any point to the Carthaginians. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Prov. The authority of Pericles in Athens was much greater than that of Fabius in Rome. spring from the same root. was anticipated in the moment of success. though of a contrary nature. for so. indeed. and Fabius.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. for want of that general power. when he denounced to the Romans that the undertaking of Scipio would be the destruction of the commonwealth. yet Fabius let him slip in the night. by way of comparison. that Fabius. who by his means suffered ostracism. not only to provide for the present.14. aristocratic men.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-14. It is true. but also to have a clear foresight of things to come. And. I presume.htm (2 of 3)2006-05-31 20:37:44 . Than Pericles. in this point Pericles is the superior. for both these faults. Whereas Fabius. and mastered by his prisoner. for he admonished the Athenians. So that Pericles was a good prophet of bad success.

to the time of the Caesars. that all the ornaments and structures of Rome. with the luster of those which Pericles only erected at Athens.htm (3 of 3)2006-05-31 20:37:44 . either in greatness of design or of expense. And for the beauty and magnificence of temples and public edifices with which he adorned his country. yet no man was ever more free from corruption. it must be confessed.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. meantime.14. had nothing to compare. having had presents offered him from so many kings and princes and allies. no man had ever greater opportunities to enrich himself... file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Prov.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-14.

in his infancy. His father Clinias. fighting against the Boeotians. What Euripides says. notwithstanding these were all illustrious men of the same period. was anciently descended from Eurysaces. and in his manhood. as it is supposed. only that it bloomed with him in all the ages of his life. in every one of them. of Lamachus or Phormion.. a grace and a charm. Aristophanes takes notice of it in the verses in which he jests at Theorus. his mother. became him well. perhaps. the son of Ajax. But it happened so with Alcibiades. having fitted out a galley at his own expense.15. that "Of all fair things the autumn. that." is by no means universally true. is fair. It is said that his lisping. by reason of his happy constitution and natural vigor of body. nearly related to him. ALCIBIADES Alcibiades.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. gained great honor in the sea-fight at Artemisium. was the daughter of Megacles. and her name Amycla. in the peculiar character becoming to each of these periods.. and. gave him. of Thrasybulus or Theramenes. Pericles and Ariphron. amongst few others.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. meaning a corax. that her country was Lacedaemon. It is not. and certain it is. and gave a grace and persuasiveness to his rapid speech. in his youth. material to say anything of the beauty of Alcibiades. yet we know even the nurse of Alcibiades. and was afterwards slain in the battle of Coronea. though we have no account from any writer concerning the mother of Nicias or Demosthenes." says Alcibiades. and that Zopyrus was his teacher and attendant. "How like a colax he is. the sons of Xanthippus.htm (1 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . too. the one being recorded by Antisthenes. Dinomache. and by his mother's side from Alcmaeon. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. It has been said not untruly that the friendship which Socrates felt for him has much contributed to his fame. became the guardians of Alcibiades. and the other by Plato. when he spoke. by his father's side.

PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C." Archippus also alludes to it in a passage where he ridicules the son of Alcibiades." His conduct displayed many great inconsistencies and variations. He walks like one dissolved in luxury. Lets his robe trail behind him on the ground.. not unnaturally.htm (2 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . and in his talk affects to lisp. the one most prevailing of all was his ambition file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. Carelessly leans his head.15. in accordance with the many and wonderful vicissitudes of his fortunes. but among the many strong passions of his real character. "That people may believe him like his father.. "How very happily he lisped the truth. on which it is remarked.

by saying. but the man giving him no attention and driving on. like a woman. and said." Another time as he played at dice in the street. that once. and desire of superiority. while all that saw it were terrified. as our ancestors have told us. stretching himself out. In consequence of which. at first he called to the driver to stop. and prevents all articulation. When he began to study. had not Pericles diverted him from it. when he was a boy. one of those who made a favorite of him. Besides." Thus." "No.. that he put back his horses. between raillery and good earnest. how Alcibiades despised playing on the flute. and.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. he ran away to the house of Democrates. he obeyed all his other masters fairly well. "like a lion. that if he were dead. but refused to learn upon the flute. who do not know how to speak. It is stated in the invective which Antiphon wrote against Alcibiades. when playing on the flute. that to play on the lute or the harp does not in any way disfigure a man's body or face. as it presently became the talk of the young boys. Alcibiades. when the rest of the boys divided and gave way. because he was to throw in the way over which the cart was to pass. "let the Theban youths pipe. and became generally neglected." said he. which appears in several anecdotes told of his sayings whilst he was a child. and ridiculed those who studied it. he got the hand of his antagonist to his mouth. and not becoming a free citizen.. being then but a child. it ceased to be reckoned amongst the liberal accomplishments. But it is unreasonable to give credit to all that is objected by an enemy. Once being hard pressed in wrestling. as a sordid thing. but we Athenians. and if he were safe. Antiphon also says. it would be a reproach to him as long as he lived.15. and that Ariphron had determined to cause proclamation to be made for him. the proclaiming of him could only cause it to be discovered one day sooner. and fearing to be thrown. when it was his turn to throw. one who plays on the harp may speak or sing at the same time. and when the other loosed his hold presently. one of whom threw away the flute. "Therefore.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. that he killed one of his own servants with the blow of a staff in Sibyrtius's wrestling ground. ran to assist Alcibiades. and. crying out. and bit it with all his force. and Apollo for our protector. saying. but the use of the flute stops the mouth. "You bite. and the other stripped the Flute-player of his skin. but one is hardly to be known by the most intimate friends. intercepts the voice. Alcibiades kept not only himself but others from learning. who file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro." replied he. have Minerva for our patroness. bade the carter pass on now if he would. Alcibiades threw himself on his face before the cart. which so startled the man. a loaded cart came that way.htm (3 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 .

For never did fortune surround and enclose a man with so many of those things which we vulgarly call goods." He esteemed these endeavors of Socrates as most truly a means which the gods made use of for the care and preservation of youth. detected both in and under his personal beauty. there became formed in his mind that reflex image and reciprocation of Love. were attracted and captivated by his brilliant and extraordinary beauty only. before its fruit came to perfection. and. and. indeed.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.15. But the affection which Socrates entertained for him is a great evidence of the natural noble qualities and good disposition of the boy. and indispose him to listen to any real adviser or instructor. finding himself with one who sought to lay open to him the deficiencies of his mind.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. and to stand in awe of his virtue. "Dropped like the craven cock his conquered wing. makes open profession of his design to defame him. from the beginning. listening now to language entirely free from every thought of unmanly fondness and silly displays of affection. they grew intimate. was exposed to the flatteries of those who sought merely his gratification. to be pleased with his kindness. and the great number both of strangers and Athenians who flattered and caressed him. who. and fence him from every access of free and searching words. such as might well unnerve him. or so protect him from every weapon of philosophy. and to admire him. resolved. that Plato talks of. and preserve so hopeful a plant from perishing in the flower. whilst he drove away the wealthy and the noble who made court to him. Yet such was the happiness of his genius.htm (4 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 .. It file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. fearing that his wealth and station. and began to think meanly of himself. might at last corrupt him. and repress his vain and foolish arrogance. and admitted him. It was manifest that the many well-born persons who were continually seeking his company. which Socrates.. to interpose. in a little time. and Alcibiades. as she did Alcibiades. that he discerned Socrates from the rest. or Anteros. And. and making their court to him. unawares to himself. if possible.

15. but when that file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. "Set my name down. said. when people saw him joining Socrates in his meals and his exercises. and acted. He behaved in the same manner to all others who courted him.. but Alcibiades. which he presented to Alcibiades.htm (5 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . Alcibiades. they perceived that all their contrivance was defeated. and seeing the tables covered with gold and silver cups. was a matter of general wonder. however. the son of Anthemion. for their way was. Alcibiades would not suffer him to accept of less than a talent. on the contrary he had shown great consideration and tenderness in taking only a part. he is a friend of mine. when he might have taken all. threatened to have him beaten if he refused. and exclaimed at his rude and insulting conduct. and then. so that. smiling and well pleased at the thing. enraged and consulting together." When the other bidders heard this. standing at a distance. not to fail to be present the next day. the stranger. concluding that he could find none. requiring him. sold it all for about a hundred staters. coming to the marketplace. as soon as he had done this. As in particular to Anytus. cried out to the magistrates. indeed. I will be security for him. and would cost many talents. gave him his gold again. he commanded his servants to take away the one half of them. The next morning. they began to entreat the stranger.. Anytus.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. went away. Alcibiades refused the invitation. disdaining so much as to enter into the room himself. being startled at the proposal. began to retire. standing at the door of the room where the guests were enjoying themselves. and carry them to his own house. having drunk to excess at his own house with some of his companions. after a very kind entertainment. invited him to supper. and besought him to accept. The poor man. as the story is told. went thither with them to play some frolic. and offered him a sum of money. who had at that time a private pique against the existing farmers of the revenue. who. one who was very fond of him. except only one stranger. offered a talent more than the existing rate. whilst he was reserved and rough to all others who made their addresses to him. moreover. upon which the farmers. living with him in the same tent. and invited him to an entertainment which he had prepared for some strangers. with great insolence to some of them. and. called upon him to name his sureties. with the profits of the second year to pay the rent for the year preceding. not seeing any other way to extricate themselves out of the difficulty. but Alcibiades. and to outbid all others. because the contract was so large.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. The man would have excused himself. and. The company was indignant. but. when the public revenue was offered to farm. having but a small estate.

and would desert Socrates. yet the natural good qualities of Alcibiades gave his affection the mastery. and how very far from perfection in virtue.15.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. that as soon as he began to concern himself in public affairs. so. and all its parts are closed again. he went to his house and was told there that he was not at leisure. and to disturb his very soul. he went once to a grammar-school." said Alcibiades. Alcibiades." Whilst he was very young. Another schoolmaster telling him that he had Homer corrected by himself. Alcibiades gave him a blow with his fist. having by this device relieved his necessity. persuading him. and the expression used by Thucydides about the excesses of his habitual course of living gives occasion to believe so. by showing him in how many things he was deficient. His words overcame him so much. he was a soldier in the expedition against file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. who are able to amend Homer. but outdo the authority and the reputation which Pericles himself had gained in Greece. and thrust him on unseasonably to undertake great enterprises. he commanded him to relinquish the bargain.htm (6 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . and he making answer that he had nothing of Homer's. But in the same manner as iron which is softened by the fire grows hard with the cold. and there is no question that Alcibiades was very easily caught by pleasures. as often as Socrates observed Alcibiades to be misled by luxury or pride. "How. took advantage chiefly of his vanity and ambition. Cleanthes the philosopher. He despised everyone else. Yet sometimes he would abandon himself to flatterers. he would not only obscure the rest of the generals and statesmen. and asked the master for one of Homer's books.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. "It were better for him to consider how he might avoid giving up his accounts at all. may well undertake to instruct men. when they proposed to him varieties of pleasure.. he reduced and corrected him by his addresses. while his rivals had all the others offered them. was paid down. would pursue him. speaking of one to whom he was attached. says his only hold on him was by his ears. "and do you employ your time in teaching children to read? You. When he was past his childhood. and made him humble and modest. then. and went away. who. as if he had been a fugitive slave. but busied in considering how to give up his accounts to the Athenians." Being once desirous to speak with Pericles.. Though Socrates had many and powerful rivals. as to draw tears from his eyes. said. and had no reverence or awe for any but him. But those who endeavored to corrupt Alcibiades. as he went away.

and stood next him in battle. Upon this Hipponicus forgot all his resentment.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. together with a portion of ten talents. though the enemy pressed hard upon them. but his son Callias. when it became known through the city. Callias. for fear of coming to his death by his means. the instrument by which she claimed a divorce. and not only pardoned him. and beyond any question saved him and his arms from the enemy. Hipparete was a virtuous and dutiful wife. took off his outer garment. but the law requiring that she should deliver to the archon in person. observing it. And this he did unprovoked by any passion or quarrel between them. but early the next morning. desired him to scourge and chastise him as he pleased. the father of Callias. Socrates.15. upon pretense that such was the agreement if she brought him any children. and so in all justice might have challenged the prize of valor. and to decree to him the complete suit of armor. in the battle of Delium. that if he should happen to die without children. but stayed to shelter him from the danger. and pressed them to crown him. Potidaea. he had agreed with his companions to do it. who gave Hipparete to Alcibiades. Afterwards. Alcibiades seemed not at all concerned at this. who was on horseback. as well strangers as Athenians. and. was the first to give evidence for him. who desired to increase his thirst after glory of a noble kind. because of his rank. People were justly offended at this insolence. in a full assembly of the people. would not pass on. and lived on still in the same luxury. and cut off many. where Socrates lodged in the same tent with him. but soon after gave him his daughter Hipparete in marriage. but. being admitted to him. growing impatient of the outrages done to her by her husband's continual entertaining of courtesans. in a frolic.. and not by proxy. at last.htm (7 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . she departed from him and retired to her brother's house. in obedience to the law. He gave a box on the ear to Hipponicus. when. Alcibiades. Once there happened a sharp skirmish. when the Athenians were routed and Socrates with a few others was retreating on foot. Alcibiades forced him to give ten talents more. presenting his naked body. But this happened some time after. But the generals appearing eager to adjudge the honor to Alcibiades. and. Alcibiades went to his house and knocked at the door. Afterwards. and brought him safe off. and that after. whose birth and wealth made him a person of great influence and repute.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. but only because. Socrates threw himself before him to defend him. Some say that it was not Hipponicus. in which they both behaved with signal bravery. when she had a child. she presented herself before file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. declared. the state should inherit his house and all his goods. but Alcibiades receiving a wound..

upon which the people made louder acclamations than before. and very handsome. allows that Alcibiades. who of all philosophers was the most curious inquirer. This was not done by design. when Alcibiades had gone to Ephesus. among other perfections. that they might not say something worse of me. we give credit to Theophrastus. a pilot. Alcibiades came in." It is said that the first time he came into the assembly was upon occasion of a largess of money which he made to the people. in his oration against Midias.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. and inquiring the cause. then. his riches. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. his noble birth. and of endeavoring to retain her. "Just what I wanted has happened. That he was a master in the art of speaking. in making her who desires to be divorced appear in public. and telling him that all Athens was sorry for the dog. and having learned that there was a donative making to the people. and carried her home through the marketplace. that he forgot a quail which he had under his robe. and one Antiochus. and shouting. and cried out upon him for this action. and his acquaintance exclaiming at him for it. which happened not long after.. Nor is this violence to be thought so very enormous or unmanly. caught it and restored it to him. His tail. but as he passed along he heard a shout. for which he was ever after a favorite with Alcibiades. He had great advantages for entering public life. him to perform this. he laughed. no one daring to oppose him.. threw open. was a most accomplished orator. caught her up. the comic poets bear him witness. being frighted with the noise. and many of them started up to pursue the bird. flew off. nor to take her from him. rather than on his own gift of eloquence. for discerning what was the right thing to be said for any purpose. and the bird. Alcibiades had a dog which cost him seventy minas. the personal courage he had shown in divers battles. so to say. If. The multitude thereupon applauding him. and the most eloquent of public speakers. he caused to be cut off. I wished the Athenians to talk about this. we are to understand that Alcibiades had the highest capacity for inventing. and the multitude of his friends and dependents. and was a very large one. and said.15. But he did not consent to let his power with the people rest on any thing.htm (8 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . which was his principal ornament. and the greatest lover of history. seems to design to give her husband an opportunity of treating with her. he was so transported at it. however. She continued with him till her death. For the law. he went in amongst them and gave money also. folding doors for his admittance.

. either private person or king. And to have carried away at once the first. Euripides celebrates his success in this manner: "But my song to you. how much more To do as never Greek before.15. and on any occasion. Son of Clinias. the second. but also at saying it well. were matter of great observation. as Thucydides says. and in the number of his chariots. never did anyone but he. as Euripides relates it. when these did not readily occur. but. To obtain in the great chariot race The first. in respect.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and had considered what to say. and the fourth prize. send seven chariots to the Olympic games. or the third. Victory is noble.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. aiming not only at saying what was required. the second. and would be silent and stop till he could recollect himself. and third place.htm (9 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . outdoes far away every distinction that ever was known or thought of in that kind. he would often pause in the middle of his discourse for want of the apt word. of words and phrases. is due. His expenses in horses kept for the public games.. that is. With easy file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.

occasioned either by the ill-nature of his enemies or by his own misconduct. passionately desiring to obtain the victory at the Olympic games..Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. Yet in the midst of all this he escaped not without censure.15. It would seem there was a suit at law commenced upon this occasion. that one Diomedes. adorned magnificently. prevailed with him to undertake to buy the chariot. rendered this success yet more illustrious. except Phaeax. The Ephesians erected a tent for him. he quickly lessened the credit of all who aspired to the confidence of the people. in the presents which they made to him. who alone could contest it with him. Phaeax was but a rising statesman like file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.. To bid the herald three times claim The olive for one victor's name. and having heard much of a chariot which belonged to the state at Argos. a worthy man and a friend to Alcibiades. the son of Erasistratus. and to call upon the gods and men to bear witness to the injustice. step advanced to fame." The emulation displayed by the deputations of various states.htm (10 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . Alcibiades did indeed buy it. written by Isocrates in defense of the son of Alcibiades. the son of Niceratus. and was esteemed their first general. Nicias was arrived at a mature age. leaving Diomedes to rage at him. and the Lesbians sent him wine and other provisions for the many great entertainments which he made. As soon as he began to intermeddle in the government. For it is said. and Nicias. where he knew that Alcibiades had great power and many friends. which was when he was very young. but then claimed it for his own. all Athenian. But the plaintiff in this action is named Tisias. and not Diomedes.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and there is yet extant an oration concerning the chariot. the city of Chios furnished him with provender for his horses and with great numbers of beasts for sacrifice.

there was no doubt but that the ostracism would fall upon one of those three. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. so that Plato. a temper which some people call boldness and courage.. and.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. For. whereas it is indeed impudence and recklessness. and. in eloquence. no mean or obscure person had ever fallen under that punishment. and. procured the banishment of Hyperbolus. and of speakers worst. He possessed rather the art of persuading in private conversation than of debate before the people. This they made use of to humiliate and drive out of the city such citizens as outdid the rest in credit and power. a general butt for the mockery of all the comic writers of the time. by his persuasions. as in many other things. at this time.htm (11 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . that he consulted. principally. communicating his project to Nicias. in which. of the township of Perithoedae. also insensible of shame." There is extant an oration written by Phaeax against Alcibiades. the people. whom Thucydides also speaks of as a man of bad character. which belonged to the commonwealth. "The best of talkers. but Phaeax. turned the sentence upon Hyperbolus himself. so.15. before that time. amongst other things. called ostracism. yet the people made frequent use of him. as Eupolis said of him. and was. when he suspected nothing less. There was a certain Hyperbolus. that Alcibiades made daily use at his table of many gold and silver vessels. but was his inferior. might well say. that it was not with Nicias.. when they had a mind to disgrace or calumniate any persons in authority. but quite unconcerned at the worst things they could say. And when. were ready to proceed to pronounce the sentence of ten years' banishment. speaking of Hyperbolus. by help of his party. the comic poet. indulging not so much perhaps their apprehensions as their jealousies in this way. being careless of glory. At this time. Alcibiades contrived to form a coalition of parties. he was descended from noble ancestors.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. He was liked by nobody. Others say. Alcibiades. it is said. as if they had been his own.

. as well out of fear as hatred to the Lacedaemonians. sought file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.htm (12 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . set himself to break the league. being full of envy. And it was commonly said in Greece. than at the honors which the Athenians themselves paid to him.15. yet. deny 't who can? Yes.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and that Nicias made an end of it. therefore. by the procurement chiefly of Nicias. and had taken particular care of those that were made prisoners at Pylos.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. For though Alcibiades was the proper appointed person to receive all Lacedaemonians when they came to Athens. that the war was begun by Pericles. and the peace was generally called the peace of Nicias. observing that the Argives." But we have given elsewhere a fuller statement of what is known to us of the matter. after they had obtained the peace and restitution of the captives. Not for the like of him and his slavebrands Did Athens put the sherd into our hands. Alcibiades was not less disturbed at the distinctions which Nicias gained amongst the enemies of Athens. Alcibiades was extremely annoyed at this. and. "The man deserved the fate. they paid him very special attentions. First. but the fate did not deserve the man..

said what seemed very satisfactory. and begin to treat with the people upon some reasonable articles. were all but sorry they had made peace. which seemed probable enough: as that. and had not delivered up Panactum entire.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. as well in person as by letters. but. he gave them his oath for the performance of what he file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. if you let them know what full powers your commission gives you. already. which gave great offense to the people of Athens. And communicating. that ambassadors arrived from Lacedaemon. And. He exclaimed fiercely against Nicias. that he would not make use of his credit with them. and I will be ready to assist you.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. Alcibiades grew very apprehensive of this. as they ought to have done by the treaty. and the people was to assemble on the morrow to give them audience. It happened. but only after first destroying it. declaring that they had full powers to arrange all matters in dispute upon fair and equal terms. and keep their eyes on the Athenians. he said: "What is it you intend. he procured their release and sent them back to the Lacedaemonians. out of good-will to the Lacedaemonians. but that the people are full of ambition and great designs? So that.htm (13 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . When they were met. who. and would soon give it up.15. Quit therefore. when they were afterwards made prisoners by others. afterwards. Alcibiades laid hold of that opportunity to exasperate them more highly. and contrived to gain a secret conference with the ambassadors.. if you expect to obtain equal terms from the Athenians. he encouraged them not to fear the Lacedaemonians. when the Lacedaemonians had made a league with the Boeotians. if the Lacedaemonians did not like it. for protection against them. not avowing yourselves plenipotentiaries.. and would not have things extorted from you contrary to your inclinations. this indiscreet simplicity. with the chief advisers of the people there. only to get favor with them. at their first coming. nor make concessions to them." When he had said thus. he made no attempt himself to capture their enemies that were shut up in the isle of Sphacteria. and yet. he gave them a secret assurance of alliance with Athens. you men of Sparta? Can you be ignorant that the council always act with moderation and respect towards ambassadors. they will urge and press you to unreasonable conditions. on the other side. The council received their propositions. when he was general. who. and accused him of many things. that he sought to stand in the way of those Greeks who were inclined to make an alliance and friendship with Athens. to prevent their entering into this confederacy with the Boeotians and Corinthians. but to wait a little. at the very time when Nicias was by these arts brought into disgrace with the people.

and displayed the greatest zeal for their service. to remove the war and the danger so far from the frontier of the Athenians.htm (14 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . and the Lacedaemonians came to their aid and abolished the democracy. yet it was a great political feat thus to divide and shake almost all Peloponnesus. into a confederacy with the Athenians. and make themselves masters of the city. He also persuaded the people of Patrae to join their city to the sea. With what powers they were come? They made answer that they were not come as plenipotentiaries. should they be conquerors. Sparta itself was hardly safe. who knew nothing of the deceit and the imposture. the people were in a rage. when the people were assembled and the ambassadors introduced. that even success would profit the enemy but little. and to urge that such men could not possibly come with a purpose to say or do anything that was sincere. he procured them builders and masons from Athens. and gained the advantage. So thus the Lacedaemonian ambassadors were utterly rejected. To this purpose.. and the people of Mantinea. and Nicias. by building long walls.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. The next day. whereas. and left them full of admiration of the discernment and sagacity they had seen in him. and by this way drew them from Nicias to rely entirely upon himself. promised. with great apparent courtesy. Instantly upon that. if they were defeated. the select thousand of the army of the Argives attempted to overthrow the government of the people in Argos. moreover. with a loud voice.15. and Alcibiades was declared general. by way of warning.. demanded of them. and Alcibiades came in to their aid and completed the victory. was in the greatest confusion. and. After this battle at Mantinea. and to combine so many men in arms against the Lacedaemonians in one day before Mantinea. and by that means to join their city to the sea. as though he had received and not done the wrong. Alcibiades. that the Athenians would swallow file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. equally surprised and ashamed at such a change in the men. and so to bring it wholly within the reach of the Athenian power. Alcibiades. and when some one told them. The council was incensed. No man commended the method by which Alcibiades effected all this. began to call them dishonest prevaricators. and persuaded them to build long walls. But the people took arms again. and gained no less honor and power to himself than to the commonwealth of Athens. who presently united the Argives.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. the Eleans.

to be the limits of Attica. and often put the young men in mind of the oath which they had made at Agraulos. which dragged after him as he went through the marketplace. holding a thunderbolt in his hand.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and hate. But with all these words and deeds. them up at last Alcibiades made answer. to the effect that they would account wheat and barley. and cannot do without him. "Possibly it may be so. and with all this sagacity and eloquence. that so he might lie the softer. and vines and olives. and his contempt of law." Nor did he neglect either to advise the Athenians to look to their interests by land. his bed not being placed on the boards. His shield. as things monstrous in themselves. but a Cupid. under a figurative expression. and apprehension also. Aristophanes has well expressed the people's feeling towards him: "They love. which was richly gilded. was painted upon it. had not the usual ensigns of the Athenians. again. whereas the Lacedaemonians will begin at the head and devour you all at once.htm (15 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . wore long purple robes like a woman.15." And still more strongly. at his free-living. caused the planks of his galley to be cut away.. but hanging upon girths.. and beginning at the feet. and indicating designs of usurpation. but it will be by little and little. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. by which they were taught to claim a title to all land that was cultivated and productive.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. he intermingled exorbitant luxury and wantonness in his eating and drinking and dissolute living. The sight of all this made the people of good repute in the city feel disgust and abhorrence.

having spoken in favor of that decree. and looked on these things as enormities. joined with his great courage and knowledge in military affairs. the multitude seemed pleased with the piece. and yet he was the principal cause of the slaughter of all the inhabitants of the isle of Melos who were of age to bear arms. who exhibited certain shows in opposition to him and contended with him for the prize. the painter. to give the softest names to his faults.htm (16 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . Once." The truth is. his strength of body. He publicly struck Taureas. had drawn Nemea sitting and holding Alcibiades in her arms. But treat him like a lion if you do. and the whole file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. "Best rear no lion in your state. the force of his eloquence. This the Athenians styled great humanity. He selected for himself one of the captive Melian women..PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.. the painter. he kept Agatharcus. whom he took care to educate. the grace of his person. a prisoner till he had painted his whole house. 'tis true. and had a son by her. When Aristophon. to indulge many things to him. which were such as nothing could exceed. attributing them to youth and good nature. his public shows. prevailed upon the Athenians to endure patiently his excesses. but then dismissed him with a reward. that Greece could not support a second Alcibiades. the glory of his ancestors. according to their habit. when Alcibiades succeeded well in an oration which he made. for example. and other munificence to the people. As.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. his liberalities.15. and. So that it was not said amiss by Archestratus. and thronged to see it. and movements towards tyranny. but older people disliked and disrelished it.

under pretense of aiding their confederates. presaging what would ensue. But Alcibiades was the person who inflamed this desire of theirs to the height. for thou wilt one day bring them calamities enough. but did not attempt any thing till after his death. nor avoid him. and undertake at once to make themselves masters of the island. and the conquest of Sicily. and listened gladly to those of riper years. and. that he did not take upon him to act the madman. and. but there were others upon whom it made a deep impression. after such a file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. assembly attended upon him to do him honor. but to sail out with a great fleet. by representing to them that the taking of Syracuse would be a work of great difficulty. by the intervention of his attendant Genius. even in the lifetime of Pericles. so various was the judgment which was made of him. never to have hoped for any good to the commonwealth from this war. taking him by the hand. but Alcibiades dreamed of nothing less than the conquest of Carthage and Libya. my son. the one.15. feigning madness. and he himself entertained yet greater. and the next morning besought the people. conceived fears for its issue. and so irregular his own character.. and increase in credit with the people. had already cast a longing eye upon Sicily.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. but purposely met him. or by use of the art of divination. that for his comfort." Some that were present laughed at the saying. but secretly in the night set his house on fire. either upon rational consideration of the project. caught up a burning torch. He possessed the people with great hopes. in their design. The Athenians. "Go on boldly. and some reviled Timon. Timon the misanthrope did not pass slightly by him.. and by little and little. Nicias endeavored to divert the people from the expedition. as he did others. said. Others report.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. and prevailed with them no longer to proceed secretly. and by the accession of these conceiving himself at once made master of Italy and of Peloponnesus. and seemed as if he would have set his own house on fire. however. which was the utmost bound of their ambition. Then. Socrates the philosopher and Meton the astrologer are said. was but the mere outset of his expectation. they sent succors upon all occasions to those who were oppressed by the Syracusans. so that you might see great numbers sitting in the wrestling grounds and public places. The young men were soon elevated with these hopes.htm (17 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . seemed to look upon Sicily as little more than a magazine for the war. it is to be supposed. drawing on the ground the figure of the island and the situation of Libya and Carthage. who talked wonders of the countries they were going to. and the other. preparing the way for sending over a greater force.

and to prevent the war. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. though he was of mature years. terrified many persons who were wont to despise most things of that nature. but tempered his heat with the caution of Nicias. who were their colony. When they began to deliberate of the number of forces. produced certain slaves and strangers before them. and obtained of them what he desired. much against his will. where one Theodorus represented the herald.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. in which the women were used to expose. they would spare his son from the expedition. in one night. yet in several battles had appeared no less hot and rash than Alcibiades himself. proposing to give the generals absolute power over the preparations and the whole management of the war.. And one Demostratus. as well as the assembly of the people. an orator. of the images of Mercury. the council. many unlucky omens appeared. Nicias. It was given out that it was done by the Corinthians. During this examination. But the Athenians thought the war would proceed more prosperously. This they chose the rather to do. Together with Alcibiades. and of having profanely acted the sacred mysteries at a drunken meeting. if they did not send Alcibiades free from all restraint. committed. one of the demagogues. But the report gained no credit with the people. calamity. by such prodigies. in hopes that the Athenians. in all parts of the city. the third general. images resembling dead men carried out to their burial. was appointed general: and he endeavored to avoid the command.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. At that very time the feast of Adonis happened. for the sake of the Syracusans. had their faces all disfigured.. by wild young men coming from a debauch. examined diligently everything that might administer ground for suspicion. who accused Alcibiades and some of his friends of defacing other images in the same manner. and of the manner of making the necessary provisions. Nicias made another attempt to oppose the design.15. not the less on account of his colleague. however. because Lamachus. most of which. but that it was only an extravagant action. and carried his point with the people. nor yet the opinion of those who would not believe that there was anything ominous in the matter. By which artifice. The mutilation. which was held frequently in a few days' space. and to represent funeral solemnities by lamentations and mournful songs. but Alcibiades contradicted him.htm (18 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . he deceived his fellow-citizens. Androcles. in that sort of sport which runs into license. When all things were fitted for the voyage. might be induced to delay or abandon the war. it was presently decreed so. looking upon it to proceed from a conspiracy of persons who designed some commotions in the state. Alike enraged and terrified at the thing.

but really hated him no less than those who avowed it. whilst the people were choosing his judges by lot. and Alcibiades the chief priest. and about 1. having with them near 140 galleys. to obviate this. openly declared that they had undertaken this distant maritime expedition for the sake of Alcibiades. These were the matters contained in the articles of information. exhibited against Alcibiades. the son of Cimon. he should then cheerfully apply himself to the war. after his troops were assembled.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. let him set sail at once. So he departed. but when he had so done. if he could not clear himself of the crimes objected to him. And. should stand up in the assembly and say. they would all go home.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. Polytion the torch. who did not appear to be enemies to Alcibiades. and light-armed men. therefore. who commanded him to sail immediately. and. should lose the opportunity. appearing in the assembly represented that it was monstrous for him to be sent with the command of so large an army. because of the occasion they had for his service. that he deserved to die. being aggravated by Androcles. they contrived that some other orators. which. and when the Argive and Mantinean auxiliaries. at first disturbed his friends exceedingly.15. while the rest of the party appeared as candidates for initiation. good fortune attend him. At this his enemies were again discouraged. Alcibiades perceived the malice of this postponement. and appointing times for the hearing of the cause. the most malicious of all his enemies.htm (19 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . fearing lest the people should be more gentle to him in their sentence. The people were highly exasperated and incensed against Alcibiades upon this accusation. But when they perceived that all the seamen designed for Sicily were for him. and when the war should be at an end. and the soldiers also.. slingers. a thousand men at arms.300 archers. and that. and became eager to make use of the present opportunity for justifying him. they recovered their courage. if he was ill-used. that it was a very absurd thing that one who was created general of such an army with absolute power. Therefore.. he landed at Rhegium. But he could not prevail with the people. and all the other provisions corresponding. together with the other generals. Ceres and Proserpine. as standing no longer in fear of false accusers. and there stated file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and had proved his innocence. and received the title of Initiates. he might then in person make his defense according to the laws. for his impious mockery of the goddesses. and the confederates were come. when he lay under such accusations and calumnies. 5.100 men at arms. which Thessalus. Arriving on the coast of Italy.bearer.

there were only some slight suspicions advanced against Alcibiades. considering the importance of the charge.15. But afterwards. the comic poet. for he was soon after recalled by the Athenians to abide his trial. and accusations by certain slaves and strangers. Should you get hurt. And mind you do not miss your footing there. his enemies attacked him more violently. his views of the manner in which they ought to conduct the war. in whom we find the following: "O dearest Hermes! only do take care. they sailed for Sicily forthwith. did not fail to meet with very severe usage. in his absence. occasion may arise For a new Dioclides file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. Amongst whom is Phrynichus.htm (20 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . but others mention Dioclides and Teucer. This was all that was done while he was there. that they had not immediately brought Alcibiades to his trial. as we before said. and without hearing them.. and confounded together the breaking the images with the profanation of the mysteries.. without distinction. as though both had been committed in pursuance of the same conspiracy for changing the government. whilst they were in this fury.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. At first. and took Catana. but Lamachus being of his opinion. He was opposed by Nicias.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. Thucydides has omitted to name the informers. and given judgment against him. The people proceeded to imprison all that were accused. Any of his friends or acquaintance who fell into the people's hands. and repented now.

such as he was. secure of his pardon. contracted particular acquaintance and intimacy with one Timaeus. if he regarded himself. amongst the rest who were prisoners upon the same account. by the decree of the people. and was an ancient monument of the tribe Aegeis. So that it was better for him. replying. For this cause. upon his confession. to tell lies. than to suffer an infamous death. was almost the only statue of all the remarkable ones. for I feel no inclination To reward Teucer for more information. it is now called the Mercury of Andocides. The chief ground of his being suspected of defacing the images was because the great Mercury.. but of remarkable dexterity and boldness. and to support oligarchy. to save his life by a falsity. most formidable." The truth is. This made all men of understanding cry out upon the thing. which stood near his house. Amongst those who were detained in prison for their trials was Andocides the orator. urging to him that. but they instantly seized and imprisoned every one that was accused. all men giving it that name. being asked how he knew the men who defaced the images. but to great persons. whereas the event of judgment is uncertain to all men." To which he makes Mercury return this answer: "I will so. for it was just new moon when the fact was committed. that he saw them by the light of the moon. One of them. He was always supposed to hate popular government. he would be. whose descent the historian Hellanicus deduces from Ulysses. his accusers alleged nothing that was certain or solid against him.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. a person inferior to him in repute. though the inscription is evidence to the contrary. It happened that Andocides.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. made a palpable misstatement. but the people were as eager as ever to receive further accusations. which remained entire.htm (21 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 .. He persuaded Andocides to accuse himself and some few others of this crime. nor was their first heat at all abated.15.

he went on shore. nor seize upon his person.15. knowing the persons. and that the war would be drawn out into a lazy length by Nicias. and. and so defeated the whole contrivance.. he accused his own servants amongst others. obtained his pardon. was taken away.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. to recall him. To gain the greater credit to his information. concealing himself there. And. poverty deprived him of authority and respect in the army. There were some in that city who were upon the point of delivering it up. but he. expecting for the future tedious delays. it was commendable to sacrifice a few suspected men. For they feared mutiny and sedition in the army in an enemy's country. when Alcibiades.. Andocides was prevailed upon.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. they sent the galley named the Salaminian. "I will make them feel that I am alive. they were at leisure to pour out their whole rage upon Alcibiades." The information against him was conceived in this form: file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and a man of courage. and asked him if he durst not trust his own native country. afterwards. "In everything else. but address themselves to him in the mildest terms. But to one who knew him. I would not even my own mother. For the soldiers were dispirited upon his departure. he made answer. escaped those who searched after him. But notwithstanding this. by the terms of the decree. which indeed it would have been easy for Alcibiades to effect. And if he had regard to the public good. suffered death. and. while all the persons named by him. prevented Messena from falling into the hands of the Athenians." When. he was told that the assembly had pronounced judgment of death against him.htm (22 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . Alcibiades. yes. But they expressly commanded those that were sent. gave information to some friends of the Syracusans. and accused himself and some others. all he said was. to use no violence. as really guilty of the crime. lest she might by mistake throw in the black ball instead of the white. but in a matter that touches my life. For though Lamachus was a soldier. and clear himself before the people. who was the spur to action. by that means to rescue many excellent persons from the fury of the people. just upon his departure. and being now no longer diverted by the mutilators. When he arrived at Thurii. in conclusion. except some few who had saved themselves by flight. if he had wished it. the people's anger was not wholly appeased. requiring him to follow them to Athens in order to abide his trial.

Polytion the torch-bearer.15. lays information that Alcibiades. "Thessalus.. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. he named himself the chief priest.htm (23 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . and showing them to his companions in his own house.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. being habited in such robes as are used by the chief priest when he shows the holy things. has committed a crime against the goddesses Ceres and Proserpine.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. Where. of the township of Lacia.. of the township of the Scambonidae. the son of Cimon. the son of Clinias. by representing in derision the holy mysteries.

desiring safe conduct. lying under these heavy decrees and sentences. the herald. is said to have opposed that part of the decree. and the heralds and priests of the temple at Eleusis. and Theodorus. The Spartans giving him the security he desired. the daughter of Menon. and. and so roused and excited them.. passed over into Peloponnesus and remained some time at Argos. of the township of Phegaea. that they forthwith dispatched Gylippus file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.. he sent to Sparta. without any further caution or delay.15. of the township of Agraule.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15." He was condemned as contumacious upon his not appearing. but not execrations. and assuring them that he would make them amends by his future services for all the mischief he had done them while he was their enemy. Alcibiades. All which was done contrary to the laws and institutions of the Eumolpidae. saying that her holy office obliged her to make prayers.htm (24 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . his property confiscated. to send aid to the Syracusans. succeeded in inducing them. at his very first coming. he went eagerly. and saluted the rest of his company as Initiates and Novices. and it was decreed that all the priests and priestesses should solemnly curse him. was well received. But being there in fear of his enemies and seeing himself utterly hopeless of return to his native country. Theano. But one of them. when first he fled from Thurii.

or had worn a mantle of Milesian purple. whenever he was sensible that by pursuing his own inclinations he might give offense to those with whom he had occasion to converse. and equally wear the appearance of virtue or vice. in his vain way.. he exceeded the Persians themselves in magnificence and pomp. "'Tis not Achilles's son. he captivated and won over everybody by his conformity to Spartan habits. and abroad with the army. Not that his natural disposition changed so easily. People who saw him wearing his hair close cut. while his real feelings and acts would have rather provoked the exclamation. So that to have seen him at Lacedaemon. the Persian satrap.htm (25 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . that he observed to be most agreeable to them. to renew the war upon the Athenians at home. would whisper that his name was Alcibiades. amongst her confidants and attendants. indeed. that he could at once comply with and really embrace and enter into their habits and ways of life. luxurious. could adapt himself to his company. judging by the outward appearance. and the most important of all. but Alcibiades. and change faster than the chameleon. bathing in cold water. But the third thing. He. A second point was. was frugal and reserved. "'Tis the same woman still. nor that his real character was so very variable. At Sparta. as it was observed. The renown which he earned by these public services was equaled by the admiration he attracted to his private life. and indolent.15. on the other side." For while king Agis was absent. or rather could not believe. would say. in Ionia. but when she was brought to bed of a son. which above everything reduced and wasted the resources of the Athenians. always drinking. he corrupted his wife Timaea. Nor did she even deny it. For he had. called him in public Leotychides. to crush the forces which the Athenians had in Sicily. a man. he was devoted to athletic exercises. To such a degree was she transported by her passion for him. in Thrace. they say the chameleon cannot assume. it cannot make itself appear white. and adopted any fashion. but. gay. nor to gratify a passion.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. but he himself. the very man" that Lycurgus designed to form. and had a child born by her.. this peculiar talent and artifice for gaining men's affections. would have said. in Thessaly. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. he transformed himself into any shape. into Sicily. and when he lived with Tisaphernes. eating coarse meal. was to make them fortify Decelea.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. ever on horseback. and dining on black broth. that he ever had a cook in his house. or had ever seen a perfumer. he had not done this thing out of mere wantonness of insult. doubted. but that his race might one day be kings over the Lacedaemonians. whether with good men or with bad. but. One color.

at last. But Agis was his enemy.. the king of Persia's satrap. the charm of daily intercourse with him was more than any character could resist or any disposition escape. of the most powerful and ambitious amongst the Spartans. and was always so called and so spoken of. and. There were many who told Agis that this was so. hating him for having dishonored his wife.15.htm (26 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . quitting the interests of the Spartans. whom he file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. The Boeotians interposed in favor of the Lesbians. and Pharnabazus of the Cyzicenes. For this barbarian. And. For Agis. but a lover of guile and wickedness. received by his direction the name of Alcibiades. which was the reason that afterwards he was not admitted to the succession. that he set himself even to exceed him in responding to them. and. he would not acknowledge him for his son. while he communicated all affairs to the Lacedaemonians. also. in apprehension of the result. admired his address and wonderful subtlety. After the defeat which the Athenians received in Sicily. At last he retired to Tisaphernes. and have a sort of kindness for him. above all other Persians. cooperating with the Lacedaemonian generals. had quitted his wife. Even those who feared and envied him could not but take delight. yet took care not to put himself into their power.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. to signify their purpose of revolting from the Athenians. went instantly to sea. ambassadors were dispatched to Sparta at once from Chios and Lesbos and Cyzicus. at the persuasion of Alcibiades. where he had built pavilions. was yet so won by the flatteries of Alcibiades. did great mischief to the Athenians. and places of retirement royally and exquisitely adorned. therefore. when they saw him and were in his company. So that Tisaphernes. were possessed with jealousy of him. was never with her. indeed. but time itself gave the greatest confirmation to the story. had secret intelligence of this. and.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. procured the immediate revolt of almost all Ionia. Thus Alcibiades. Alcibiades. prevailed with the magistrates in the city to send orders into Ionia that he should be killed. alarmed by an earthquake. not being himself sincere. chose to assist Chios before all others. and.. being born after those ten months. also. for his security. otherwise a cruel character. but the Lacedaemonians. He himself. Others. as almost every enterprise and every success was ascribed to Alcibiades. The most beautiful of his parks. however. containing salubrious streams and meadows. a hater of the Greeks. and. for ten months after. Leotychides. and also impatient of his glory. and immediately became the first and most influential person about him.

15. and to fear lest. and render them odious to Tisaphernes.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. giving them hopes that he would make Tisaphernes their friend. Tisaphernes readily pursued his counsel. and consume them insensibly. and to insinuate himself into their good opinion. And he. At that time the whole strength of the Athenians was in Samos. in one way or other still contriving to be a match for their enemies at sea. could no longer trust. Understanding this. endeavored to do them ill offices. they would make the attempt to put down the insolence of the people. if that commonwealth were utterly destroyed. but only sought by any means to make way for his return into his native country.. and to seize him as a double dealer. he should fall into the hands of the Lacedaemonians. nor in reliance upon them. and the Athenians. but to the better citizens.htm (27 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . thereby to gain the others. and protect the rest of their territories. and so wear them out. the enemy's admiral. cautioning him to beware of Alcibiades. Their fleet maintained itself here. who suspected. unaware that one traitor was making discoveries to another. who. not to the people. like brave men. when they had wasted their strength upon one another. All of them gave a ready ear to the proposal made by Alcibiades. because he stood in fear of Agis. and issued from these head-quarters to reduce such as had revolted. if those came. would endeavor to save the city from ruin. as the truth was. he gave secret intelligence to Astyochus. was Tisaphernes and the Phoenician fleet of one hundred and fifty galleys. by taking upon them the government. was hindered from assisting them vigorously. observing the credit file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. now in their misfortunes. on the other side. and from finally ruining the Athenians. he implied. by his means. who were then at Samos. he was willing. if only. which was said to be already under sail. to do some favor. repented them of their severe sentence against him. that Alcibiades was looked up to by the Greeks of both parties. For Astyochus. But when Phrynichus found his counsel to be rejected. they would both become ready to submit to the king. and to that end inveighed against the people. For his advice was to furnish them but sparingly with money. except only Phrynichus of the township of Dirades. and that he was himself become a declared enemy of Alcibiades. and. one of the generals. there remained then no hopes for the commonwealth of Athens.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15.. and so openly expressed the liking and admiration which he had for him. What they stood in fear of. who was eager to gain the favor of Tisaphernes. his enemies. began to be troubled for them. Alcibiades sent secretly to the chief men of the Athenians. that Alcibiades concerned not himself whether the government were in the people or the better citizens.

who always befriended the government of the few. This occasioned no damage to the Athenians. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. dispatched Pisander to Athens. in order to impose upon them in this false accusation of Phrynichus. one of the guard. This was the color and pretense made use of by those who desired to change the government of Athens to an oligarchy. and set themselves against him. they were but four hundred). because Astyochus repeated his treachery. who secretly detested this change.. solemnly condemned Phrynichus of treason. Yet. Alcibiades at once dispatched messengers to Samos. Upon this. was merely making use of that knowledge. to attempt a change of government. and overthrow the democracy. Alcibiades would procure them the friendship and alliance of Tisaphernes.15. He sent to Astyochus to reproach him for betraying him. Alcibiades had with him. who knew perfectly the counsels and preparations of the enemy. as one who designed to betray their fleet to the enemy. and therefore advised them to fortify their camp. and he. attempted to remedy one evil by a greater. And now the friends of Alcibiades.. to deliver into his hands both the army and the navy of the Athenians. they received other letters from Alcibiades. advertised the Athenians beforehand that the enemy was ready to sail in order to surprise them. under the name of the Five Thousand (whereas. all the commanders were enraged with Phrynichus. that. partly because they durst not yet trust the citizens. seeing no other way to extricate himself from the present danger. and to encourage the aristocratical citizens to take upon themselves the government. when Phrynichus was stabbed with a dagger in the market-place by Hermon. revealed to Alcibiades all that Phrynichus had said against him. representing to them. While the Athenians were intent upon doing these things. and had got the administration of affairs into their hands. admonishing them to beware of Phrynichus. afterwards. and partly because they thought the Lacedaemonians. carrying all before them at Samos. entering into an examination of the cause. indeed. to anticipate him. the Athenians. who.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and to make an offer to him at the same time. would be inclined to give them favorable terms. expecting a second accusation from Alcibiades. and revealed also this proposal to Alcibiades. they slighted Alcibiades altogether. conceiving that Alcibiades. to accuse Phrynichus of the treachery. upon these terms. and decreed crowns to Hermon and his associates. and to be in a readiness to go aboard their ships. But this again was foreseen by Phrynichus. But as soon as they prevailed. to which they then gave no credit at all. and prosecuted the war with less vigor.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15.htm (28 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 .

He sailed off with all expedition in order to perform this.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. having the loudest voice. who thus deceived the Lacedaemonians. they declared him general. which had already been seen as near as Aspendus. all Ionia and the islands and the Hellespont would have fallen into the enemies' hands without opposition. and it was by both sides believed that they had been diverted by the procurement of Alcibiades. and suffer the Greeks to waste and destroy one another. would have been fighting with one another within the circuit of their own walls.15. It was Alcibiades alone. by Thrasybulus of Stiria. from a fugitive and an exile. one by one. unequivocally saved the commonwealth. who. many of those who had dared openly to oppose the four hundred having been put to death. or.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. entreating some. Soon after this. and. as it might have been thought a man would. and cried out to those who were ready to be gone. and constraining others. as became a great captain. A second great service which Alcibiades did for them was. while the Athenians. indignant when they heard this news. who prevented all this mischief. principally. that he had advised the Barbarian to stand still. And now the people in the city not only file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. had created him general of so great an army. should either come in aid of the Athenians. sending for Alcibiades. as it was evident that the accession of so great a force to either party would enable them to take away the entire dominion of the sea from the other side. The Lacedaemonians. accused him. in particular.htm (29 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . at least. however. in that juncture. however. went along with him. by restraining them from the great error they were about to commit. were not brought any further by Tisaphernes. and showed them the danger. were eager to set sail instantly for the Piraeus.. as we are told of all the Athenians. For if they then had sailed to Athens. and the ships. on being suddenly exalted by the favor of a multitude. for he not only used persuasion to the whole army. or otherwise should not come at all. requiring him to lead them on to put down the tyrants. and given him the command of such a fleet. his undertaking that the Phoenician fleet. involved in civil war. He. He was much assisted. But. he opposed himself to the precipitate resolutions which their rage led them to.. the friends of Alcibiades vigorously assisting those who were for the popular government. and. did not. But those who were at Samos. but applied himself to them. which the Lacedaemonians expected to be sent to them by the king of Persia. The people in the city were terrified into submission. think himself under an obligation to gratify and submit to all the wishes of those who. the four hundred usurpers were driven out.

and broke the ships in pieces. must be all one for them. After the gaining of so glorious a victory. as. in spite of all the efforts of Pharnabazus. his vanity made him eager to show himself to Tisaphernes.htm (30 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . and after some service done. and the Athenians terrified. who had come down to their assistance by land. however. and sent away prisoner to Sardis. To this end. and followed them so close that he forced them on shore. but commanded Alcibiades to return home from his exile. and. For both the fleets having engaged near Abydos. there was no money for them. not with empty hands.. to clear himself from all former imputations. unless they conquered everywhere. and did what he could to protect them from the shore. upon that account. and the other on another. had sailed with his whole army into the Hellespont. the Athenians. he sailed from Samos with a few ships. telling them that seafighting. land-fighting. where he procured Tisaphernes' additional disgrace by professing he was a party to his escape. and was afraid to fall into disgrace with his king.. the sailors abandoning them and swimming away. the one side having the advantage on one quarter. erected a trophy. Alcibiades escaped from his keepers. and an equipage suitable to his dignity. both sides formed a false impression. the fight between them had lasted till night. for Tisaphernes had been long suspected by the Lacedaemonians. but with glory. the enemy was encouraged. fled to Clazomenae. and immediately caused him to be seized. fighting against fortified cities too. the Spartan admiral. and.15. and recovered all their own. and. and that the Athenians had followed him. desired. being informed there that Mindarus and Pharnabazus were together at Cyzicus. having furnished himself with gifts and presents. He soon put these to flight. In fine. From there he sailed to the Athenian camp. But about thirty days after. But the thing did not succeed as he had imagined. and. arrived with eighteen galleys at a critical time. he set out to visit him. and therefore thought that Alcibiades arrived very opportunely. but receiving intelligence there that Mindarus. and. and cruised on the sea of Cnidos. having got a horse. desired not to owe his return to the mere grace and commiseration of the people. and fell upon those galleys of the Peloponnesians which had the advantage and were in pursuit. He.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. and resolved to come back. having taken thirty of the enemy's ships. he hurried back to succor the Athenian commanders. Upon his first appearance. by the gods. and about the isle of Cos. by this act of injustice. But Alcibiades suddenly raised the Athenian ensign in the admiral ship. As soon as ever he got file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. he made a speech to the soldiers.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. by good fortune. fancying.

. showed himself to the enemy. upon that occasion. the Peloponnesian fleet were seen riding out at sea in front of the harbor of Cyzicus. and a great storm of rain. and gave command to seize all the small vessels they met." The soldiers who followed Alcibiades in this last fight were so exalted with their success. They also made themselves masters of Cyzicus. Upon that. Thrasyllus had received a defeat near Ephesus. made themselves ready and began the fight. they perceived the other part of the fleet coming down upon them. and guard them safely in the interior of the fleet. Pharnabazus saved himself by flight. after their short laconic manner. but by force drove the Lacedaemonians from out of all the rest of the sea. They intercepted some letters written to the ephors. them on shipboard. that. but the Athenians themselves were ignorant of it.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and felt that degree of pride. and set sail when they had abandoned all intention of it. Indeed. Mindarus and Pharnabazus. We know not what to do. Mindarus is slain. The soldiers of Alcibiades reproached file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. at which they were so terrified that they fled immediately. and took all their ships. whilst he. if they discovered the number of his ships. which was deserted by Pharnabazus. coming to their succor. breaking through the midst of them with twenty of his best ships. and. and pursued those who abandoned their ships and fled to land. As the darkness presently passed away. being deceived as to their numbers. and. the Ephesians erected their brazen trophy to the disgrace of the Athenians. which gave an account of this fatal overthrow. fighting valiantly. he commanded the rest of the captains to slacken. Alcibiades. The enemy. accompanied with thunder and darkness. looking on themselves as invincible. they might endeavor to save themselves by land. The Athenians slew great numbers of their enemies. who had been often overcome. won much spoil. and thereby not only secured to themselves the Hellespont. for he commanded them suddenly on board. contributed much to the concealment of his enterprise.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. supposing they were to contend with those only. it was not only undiscovered by the enemy. they disdained to mix with the other soldiers. that the enemy might have no notice of his coming. advancing with forty ships. "Our hopes are at an end. Fearing. which happened at the same time. he hasted to Proconnesus.. despised them. and made a great slaughter of them. and provoked them to fight. and destroyed its Peloponnesian garrison. and follow him slowly. The men starve. For it happened not long before. But as soon as they were engaged.htm (31 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . were utterly defeated. hastened to the shore. Mindarus was slain upon the place.15. disembarked.

together with Thrasyllus. nor lodge in the same quarters. taking with him about thirty men only. and enclosed it with a wall from sea to sea. For some within the town had undertaken to betray it into his hands. at the same time magnifying themselves and their own commander. and. through his precipitation. and returned together to the camp.. After this he sailed into the Hellespont. But soon after. and entered with his thirty men. and Hippocrates. in which action. gathering together all the strength he had. Alcibiades came to their aid. made a sally upon the Athenians. and had received a Lacedaemonian governor and garrison. delivered up to him the booty. terrified at his approach.htm (32 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 .15. the rest. for fear of being discovered. who had revolted from the Athenians. and then sent a herald to charge them with this proceeding. but released them without ransom. But one of the conspirators beginning to repent himself of the design. ran instantly towards the walls. were to give him a signal by a lighted torch about midnight. but defeated Hippocrates. Pharnabazus advanced with his forces to raise the siege. and killed him and a number of the soldiers with him. and commanding the rest of the army to follow him with all possible speed. When he came thither. and about twenty more light-armed men.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. The Bithynians. who were their friends. and entered into alliance with him. and took the city of Selymbria. and it went so far that they would not exercise with them. at the same time. and then proceeded to lay waste with fire and sword the whole province which was under Pharnabazus. the governor of the town. falling upon the soldiers of Thrasyllus.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. routed Pharnabazus. those who were under the command of Thrasyllus with this misfortune. He prepared next to attack the Chalcedonians. with a great force of horse and foot. as they were laying waste the territory of Abydos. Alcibiades divided his army so as to engage them both at once. he found the gate opened for him. by agreement. and not only forced Pharnabazus to a dishonorable flight. who were come up to file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. he exposed himself to great danger. where none ventured to resist. Alcibiades. were driven to give the signal before the appointed hour. Pharnabazus. and he took divers priests and priestesses. Afterwards he proceeded to the siege of Chalcedon. he drew down his army to the frontier of the Bithynians.. and were conveying it all to the Bithynians. The next day he erected a trophy. though his army was not in readiness to march. pursued him till it was night. as soon as he saw the torch lifted up in the air. But having intelligence that they had removed their corn and cattle out of the fields. and. rejoicing and congratulating one another. in order to raise supplies of money. and in this action the troops united.

So. he saved them from being pillaged. Whilst they were parleying. coming down upon him. for they supposed that all their enemies were within the walls.. after placing an Athenian garrison in the town.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. accordingly. that the Chalcedonians should return to the subjection of Athens. on the other hand.15. and Pharnabazus was also to provide safe conducts for the Athenian ambassadors to the king of Persia. And upon the submission of the Selymbrians. having been always successful till that day. This cooled such of the inhabitants as were fiercest for the fight. Afterwards. unless Pharnabazus would swear at the same time. and propositions making on one side and the other. by reason of some unexpected movement in Ionia. together with some others. but he perceived the Selymbrians all armed. and. They were no sooner in the city. he caused a report to be spread abroad. departed.. And now. But Anaxilaus and Lycurgus. conjecturing rightly. Pharnabazus required that he also should be sworn to the treaty. silently and undiscovered. And. During this action. Alcibiades's whole army came up to the town. them. requiring silence by sound of a trumpet. he should be obliged to raise the siege. and with great shouts and outcries. he commanded them all to retreat without the walls. and. that day he made a show to depart with his whole fleet. At the same time. as if. marched up to the walls. so that there was no hope of escaping if he stayed to receive them. his ships rowed into the harbor with all possible violence. having undertaken to betray the city to him upon his engagement to preserve the lives and property of the inhabitants. The file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. coming on with much fury. when Alcibiades returned thither. When the treaty was sworn to on both sides Alcibiades went against the Byzantines.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. he could not endure to be defeated and fly. he commanded one of his men to make proclamation that the Selymbrians should not take arms against the Athenians. and went ashore with all his men at arms. but he refused it. that the Selymbrians were well inclined to peace. but returned the same night. wherever he commanded. out of kindness for him. only taking of them a sum of money. and fearing lest the city might be sacked by the Thracians. the Athenian captains who besieged Chalcedon concluded a treaty with Pharnabazus upon these articles: that he should give them a sum of money.htm (33 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . and that the Athenians should make no inroad into the province whereof Pharnabazus was governor. who came in great numbers to his army to serve as volunteers. and drew a line of circumvallation about the city. who had revolted from the Athenians. and it raised the hopes of others who were disposed to an accommodation. and.

with their wives and children. and other ornaments used in the theater. devouring the old stores. securely to receive Alcibiades into the city. betrayed his country to enemies. that Chrysogonus. and that Callippides. And thus Anaxilaus. but. or driven out of the city. neither disowned nor professed to be ashamed of the action. whilst the Byzantines.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. and the Peloponnesians and Boeotians.. respected it. He set sail for Athens. but Byzantium. Yet the enterprise was not accomplished without fighting. and had but followed the example of the most worthy Lacedaemonians. while they all hurried to the defense of their port and shipping. and that the admiral galley entered into the port file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. hearing that the Athenians were entered on the other side. perhaps. for the Peloponnesians. attired in his buskins. Boeotians. and took about three hundred. not one of the Byzantines was slain. but what was profitable for their country. and forced them on board again. Byzantines. who esteemed nothing to be honorable and just. Alcibiades. who survived of the enemy. prisoners of war. and Megarians not only repulsed those who came out of the ships.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. but a Byzantine and saw not Sparta. and discharged all that were accused. gained the victory after some sharp fighting. the tragedian. After the battle. and Theramenes of the left.htm (34 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . however. Little credit. his purple robes. in which he himself had the command of the right wing. the ships that accompanied him being adorned with great numbers of shields and other spoils. that he had not. but had delivered it from the calamities of war. who were in garrison. being afterwards accused at Lacedaemon for this treason. according to the terms upon which the city was put into his hands. that they should receive no prejudice in life or property. the city so blockaded that it was not possible to bring in any new provisions. and went to meet them. or rather to show his fellow-citizens a person who had gained so many victories for them. and towing after them many galleys taken from the enemy. upon hearing his defense. And now Alcibiades began to desire to see his native country again. in extreme danger. adds. thus surprised and astonished. who had gained a victory at the Pythian games. and the ensigns and ornaments of many others which he had sunk and destroyed. were starving. whilst the oars kept time with the music. who professed to be descended from Alcibiades. gave the word to the rowers. can be given to what Duris the Samian.15.. therefore. drew up in order. played upon his flute for the galleys. for he urged that he was not a Lacedaemonian. The Lacedaemonians. all of them together amounting to two hundred. gave opportunity to those who favored the Athenians.

but had also made them everywhere victorious over their enemies on land. and others of his friends and acquaintance. since. and the old men pointed him out. when they were in a manner driven from the sea. and the command of their forces. indeed. Nevertheless. As soon as he was landed. upon his undertaking the administration. at the instance of Critias. to Alcibiades. were miserably distracted with intestine factions. and. as appears by his elegies.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. who were ready to receive him.htm (35 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . nor Ephorus. and such variety of misfortunes. and invited him to land. There had been a decree for recalling him from his banishment already passed by the people. is it credible. that one who returned from so long an exile. and still followed him. should come home to his countrymen in the style of revelers breaking up from a drinking-party.. mention them. and they who could not come up so close yet stayed to behold him afar off. that they could not have so unfortunately miscarried in Sicily. and could scarce defend the suburbs of their city by land. and showed him to the young ones. with a purple sail. nor would he venture to go on shore. the son of Callaeschrus. and the present happiness was allayed by the remembrance of the miseries they had endured. and saluted him with loud acclamations. On the contrary. but came in throngs about Alcibiades. standing on the deck. Nor. or been defeated in any of their other expectations..PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. this public joy was mixed with some tears. nor Xenophon. he had raised them up from this low and deplorable condition. in which he puts Alcibiades in mind of this service: file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and had not only restored them to their ancient dominion of the sea. if they had left the management of their affairs formerly. he entered the harbor full of fear. he saw Euryptolemus. till. Neither Theopompus. at the same time.15. the multitude who came out to meet him scarcely seemed so much as to see any of the other captains. those who could press near him crowned him with garlands. his cousin. They made reflections.

" file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro..PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. "if he is innocent. From my proposal did that edict come. with absolute power. imputed all to his hard fortune. Theodorus.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. and created him general. The public vote at first was moved by me. and that the Eumolpidae and the holy heralds should absolve him from the curses which they had solemnly pronounced against him by sentence of the people. in gentle terms complaining of the usage he had received.15..htm (36 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . The people being summoned to an assembly. and. The people crowned him with crowns of gold. Which when all the rest obeyed. Which from your tedious exile brought you home. and exhorted them to courage and good hope. both at land and sea. and first bewailed and lamented his own sufferings. excused himself. the high-priest. And my voice put the seal to the decree. and some ill genius that attended him: then he spoke at large of their prospects. They also made a decree that his estate should be restored to him." said he. I never cursed him. Alcibiades came in amongst them. "For.

htm (37 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . that were to return with him. Hence the Athenians esteem this day most inauspicious and never undertake any thing of importance upon it. as he was exalted in his own thought. Upon which. which had usually been performed in the way. which they call the Plynteria. and keeping the part of the temple where it stands close covered. therefore. an august and venerable procession. they were forced to omit the sacrifices and dances and other holy ceremonies. when they led forth Iacchus. and thus he brought them back in safety to the city.15. taking all the ornaments from off her image. and at the break of day sent forth his scouts.citizens witnesses of his valor. and looked upon the time of his arrival to be ominous. But notwithstanding the affairs of Alcibiades went so prosperously. being conducted by sea.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. or. notwithstanding. where he should have all his fellow. he placed sentinels on the tops of the hills. he performed at once the office of a high-priest and of a general. For on the day that he came into the port. if Agis stood still and did not oppose. As soon as he had resolved upon this design. judged it would be a glorious action. everything succeeded according to his wish. the feast of the goddess Minerva. when the Praxiergidae solemnize their secret rites. the procession. had not been performed with any proper solemnity. if he restored the ancient splendor to these rites. For ever since Decelea had been occupied. in the other alternative. in the cause of the gods. he conducted them with great order and profound silence. wherein all who did not envy him said. they imagined that the goddess did not receive Alcibiades graciously and propitiously. which would do honor to the gods and gain him esteem with men. It is the twenty-fifth day of Thargelion. yet many were still somewhat disturbed. thus hiding her face and rejecting him. was kept. and so much to his glory. Alcibiades.. and. therefore. were fitted out and ready to sail. When the one hundred galleys. and this in the sight of his country. The enemy did not dare to attempt any thing against them. and in defense of the most sacred and solemn ceremonies. that they looked upon their armies as irresistible and invincible while he commanded them. an honorable zeal detained him till the celebration of the mysteries was over. Yet. For either. so the opinion which the people had of his conduct was raised to that degree. and encompassing them with his soldiers. as the enemy commanded the roads leading from Athens to Eleusis. escorting the procession again by land.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. it would very much diminish and obscure his reputation. and protecting it with his army in the face of the enemy. and file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and had communicated it to the Eumolpidae and heralds. Alcibiades would engage in a holy war.. And then taking with him the priests and Initiates and the Initiators.

Alcibiades could hardly allow his men three obols.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. gave every sailor four obols a day. without standing in fear of being called to an account. arriving at Andros. that they hastened him on ship-board as speedily as they could. if he went about it in good earnest. is uncertain. and grew impatient that things were not effected as fast and as rapidly as they could wish for them. by abolishing the laws and ordinances of the people. and allowing him all other things as he desired. he so won. he stood for Ephesus. having to carry on war with an enemy who had supplies of all things from a great king. but the most considerable persons in the city were so much afraid of it. every day. that.htm (38 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . Thereupon he set sail with a fleet of one hundred ships. How far his own inclinations led him to usurp sovereign power. For they thought nothing was too hard for him.. if ever man was ruined by his own glory. and that. it was imputed to his neglect. and being furnished by Cyrus with a great sum of money. and to advise him to put himself out of the reach of envy. take the city. This it was which gave occasion for the last accusation which was made against him. and of the rest of Ionia. having made ready his own galley and another.15. he there fought with and defeated as well the inhabitants as the Lacedaemonians who assisted them. that so he might act and take upon him the management of affairs. which gave the first occasion to his enemies for all their accusations against him. to Antiochus. Certainly. For his continual success had produced such an idea of his courage and conduct. and some of them did not scruple to tell him so. that they should hear news of the reduction of Chios. in his absence. For Lysander. upon the lower and meaner sort of people. in order to procure money and provisions for the subsistence of his soldiers. that they passionately desired to have him "tyrant" over them. whereas before they had but three. however. and no one would believe it was through want of power. They never considered how extremely money was wanting. if he failed in anything he undertook. They fancied. he was often forced to quit his armament. it was Alcibiades. indeed. and. but rash and inconsiderate.. But he slighted and disregarded these directions to that degree. He left the care of the fleet.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. appointing the colleagues whom he chose. and suppressing the idle talkers that were ruining the state. though the enemy provoked him. an experienced seaman. that. He did not. who had express orders from Alcibiades not to engage. and therefore was constrained to go into Caria to furnish himself with money. being sent from Lacedaemon with a commission to be admiral of their fleet. where the enemy file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.

giving himself up to every sort of luxury and excess amongst the courtesans of Abydos and Ionia.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. brought up his whole fleet. Tydeus. and. were at that time posted at Aegospotami. all the rest of the day. at a time when the enemy's navy were on the watch close at hand. and acknowledged no king. and offer battle to Lysander. and. whilst he wandered up and down at pleasure to raise money. was his particular enemy. with all the ships which the Athenians had left. took many men and ships. who was not far off. Addressing the people. He slew Antiochus himself. content with the victory he had gained. and pursued him. Lysander. as one that either could not. made war upon his own account against those Thracians who called themselves free. at the same time. mounting his file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and loosing from thence with his whole fleet. Thrasybulus. both in words and deeds. It was also objected to him. collecting a body of mercenary soldiers. the new-made generals. the son of Thrason. who lay near Lampsacus. he immediately forsook the army. lay. for a safe retreat for himself. as he sailed before the heads of their galleys. and went purposely to Athens to accuse him. returning back again.. secured the bordering Greeks from the incursions of the barbarians. lay. would not stir. which gained an entire victory. Menander.15. used every provocation possible. nor neglect to let them know it. in contempt of the enemy. and when they had done so. but. But Lysander. As soon as Alcibiades heard this news. did not think so slightly of their danger. or would not. and. and Adimantus. As soon as Alcibiades heard of this. he returned to Samos. Lysander at first manned out a few ships. to men who gained his favor by drinking and scurrilous talking.. The Athenians gave credit to these informations. that he had fortified a castle near Bisanthe in Thrace.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and erected a trophy.htm (39 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . committing the government of the army. From whence they were used to go out to sea every morning. afraid of what might follow. he represented that Alcibiades had ruined their affairs and lost their ships by mere selfconceited neglect of his duties. live in his own country. Alcibiades. and showed the resentment and displeasure which they had conceived against him. Amongst others in the army who hated Alcibiades. also. in his absence. by choosing other generals. carelessly and without order. and to exasperate his enemies in the city against him. By this means he amassed to himself a considerable treasure. But all the Athenian ships coming in to his assistance. came and offered battle to Lysander.

which were about two hundred. either to have fought the Athenians at sea. that if the generals had not used him with such insupportable contempt. He sent thither great treasure before him. soon made it evident how rightly he had judged of the errors which the Athenians committed.. who accompanied him out of the camp. He concluded that Pharnabazus would most readily procure him a safe conduct. but others. had the command of the forces. so that they were constrained to send for their necessary provisions as far as Sestos. and where they were distant from any town. lay so very near them. where there was no safe harbor. And within a short time after. came to the generals.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. the thing was probable. but against their enemies. however unwilling. while the enemy's fleet. others said. or to have deserted their ships. He also pointed out to them their carelessness in suffering the soldiers. Alcibiades.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15.. The event however. retired into Bithynia. For he went. and represented to them that they had chosen a very inconvenient station. But the admirals not only disregarded what he said. when they least suspected it. together with three thousand prisoners. suspecting something of treachery in them. all the rest. saying. standing in dread of the Lacedaemonians. besides that he was recommended by a more honorable cause. not as Themistocles did.htm (40 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . escaped him. and demolished their long walls. with insulting expressions. would find him not inferior to Themistocles. he took and carried away. but Tydeus. not doubting but that the king. to disperse and wander up and down at their pleasure. he would within a few days have forced the Lacedaemonians. when they went ashore. who were now masters both at sea and land. that now not he. For Lysander fell upon them on a sudden. and thereupon determined to go to the court of Artaxerxes. commanded him to be gone. Alcibiades. under the command of one general. if he would make trial of his abilities. being robbed by some Thracians who lived in those parts. with eight galleys. and to implore the king's aid for the defense of his country.15. He advised them to remove the fleet to Sestos. and strictly obedient to discipline. to offer his service against his fellow-citizens. But he lost great part of his wealth in Bithynia. to assault and disorder them in their camp. whom he put to death. with such fury that Conon alone. Some looked upon this as a piece of ostentation only. horse. and therefore went into Phrygia file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. After this. for that he might have brought down by land great numbers of the Thracian cavalry and archers. he took Athens itself. took much with him. and told his friends. departed. burnt all the ships which he found there. but left much more in the castle where he had before resided.

in their ruin now they began to turn to those thoughts which. Upon receipt of this order. and continued to dwell there some time. at any rate. Pharnabazus committed the affair to Magaeus. and that she. till at last he received secret orders from the magistrates of Lacedaemon. but when they were deprived of liberty also. when he was an exile. and only because they were incensed against his subordinate for having shamefully lost a few ships. and though now the people of Athens seemed quietly and patiently to submit to so small a number of governors. Lysander sent away a messenger to Pharnabazus. they much more shamefully deprived the commonwealth of its most valiant and accomplished general. when the Thirty themselves were so very solicitous to be informed and to get intelligence of all his actions and designs. Nor was it an absurd thing in the people to entertain such imaginations. nor would they utterly despair of the Athenian commonwealth. to him. while safety was yet possible. For he was rejected. while Alcibiades was safe. The Athenians. For they persuaded themselves that if before. desiring him to put it in execution.15. were miserably afflicted at their loss of empire. they would not entertain. together with Timandra.htm (41 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . Yet in this sad state of affairs. paying him great respect. and to his uncle Susamithres. he could not content himself to live idly and at ease. they had still some faint hopes left them. Alcibiades resided at that time in a small village in Phrygia. expressly requiring him to get Alcibiades dispatched: whether it was that they feared his energy and boldness in enterprising what was hazardous. As he slept. he had this dream: he thought himself attired in his mistress's habit. his brother. or that it was done to gratify king Agis. and the outrages of the Thirty.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. they acknowledged and bewailed their former errors and follies. and judged this second ill-usage of Alcibiades to be of all the most inexcusable. Yet Lysander would not be prevailed upon by these representations. without any fault committed by himself. and Lysander set up thirty despotic rulers in the city.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. if he could find any favorable opportunity. In fine. the knowledge of this fact would never suffer them to acquiesce in their present circumstances. Critias represented to Lysander that the Lacedaemonians could never securely enjoy the dominion of Greece. holding him in her arms. till the Athenian democracy was absolutely destroyed. dressed his head and painted his face as if he had been a woman.. a mistress of his. it was file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. others say. yet so long as Alcibiades lived. in the meantime. he dreamed that he saw Magaeus cut off his head and burn his body. and being honorably treated by him.. much less now. would he endure the insolence of the Lacedaemonians.

It is said. whom he had debauched. who was called the Corinthian. or to engage with him. There are some who agree with this account of Alcibiades's death in all points. as he endeavored to save himself from the flames. standing at a distance. he was keeping with him a young lady of a noble house. and.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-15. nor the Lacedaemonians: but.15. except that they impute the cause of it neither to Pharnabazus. from whence she was brought a captive. and none of them durst stay to expect him. though she was a native of Hyccara. and that her brothers.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and.. was the daughter of this Timandra. he cast himself into the middle of the fire. she buried it as decently and as honorably as her circumstances would allow. in the manner just related. before his clothes were burnt. covering and wrapping it up in her own robes.htm (42 of 42)2006-05-31 20:37:47 . as soon as they saw him. and escaped securely through it. threw them upon the fire to choke it. they say. and set it on fire. but. as soon as he perceived it. but surrounded it first. Those who were sent to assassinate him had not courage enough to enter the house. Alcibiades. getting together great quantities of clothes and furniture. and. the barbarians departed. The barbarians. set fire by night to the house where he was living. slew him with their darts. that the famous Lais.. and Timandra took up his dead body. and holding his naked sword in his right. not being able to endure the indignity. When he was dead. nor Lysander. retreated. but a little while before his death that he had these visions. having wrapped his cloak about his left arm. they slew him with their darts and arrows. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. a small town in Sicily.

and with his overbearing. yet it can hinder none from being either virtuous or eminent in the world. he rendered himself incapable of acting and associating with others. one file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. Of the same family were also Publius and Quintus Marcius. and that it is no obstacle to true goodness and excellence. to produce also much that is bad and faulty. the hardships of service. who. could not choose but be disgusted at the severity and ruggedness of his deportment.. Nor is he less an evidence to the truth of their opinion. afterwards himself induced them to make a law that nobody should bear that office twice. who conceive that a generous and worthy nature without proper discipline. which two conveyed into the city the best and most abundant supply of water they have at Rome. yet. and among the rest. CORIOLANUS The patrician house of the Marcii in Rome produced many men of distinction. But Caius Marcius. fortitude. Education and study. and king after Tullus Hostilius. confer no greater benefit on those that seek them. and the allurements of gain. Those who saw with admiration how proof his nature was against all the softnesses of pleasure. While the force and vigor of his soul. As likewise Censorinus. in the life of the citizen and the statesman.. and to avoid the wildness of extremes.16. Ancus Marcius. grandson to Numa by his daughter. being left an orphan. of whom I now write. led him successfully into many noble achievements. with its better fruits.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. has shown us by experience. is apt. Those were times at Rome in which that kind of worth was most esteemed which displayed itself in military achievements. and through all obstinate reluctance to yield or accommodate his humors and sentiments to those of people about him. haughty. and a persevering constancy in all he undertook. than these humanizing and civilizing lessons. on the other side. although the early loss of a father may be attended with other disadvantages.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and the favors of the muses. and brought up under the widowhood of his mother. while allowing to that universal firmness of his the respective names of temperance. by indulging the vehemence of his passion. and imperious temper. yet. which teach our natural qualities to submit to the limitations prescribed by reason. also. however bad men may be pleased to lay the blame of their corruptions upon that misfortune and the neglect of them in their minority.htm (1 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . that. having been twice chosen censor by the people. and justice. like a rich soil without culture.

be thought a propel ornament for one who preserved a citizen. might. a people the oracle had made famous by the name of acorn-eaters. after having gained the victory. while fighting bravely in the dictator's presence. therefore. saw a Roman soldier struck down at a little distance. was when Tarquinius Superbus. crowned him for this act. however. began at once. they used as the common term the name of the particular excellence. as to gratify their own fear and envy at the increase of the Roman greatness. As if valor and all virtue had been the same thing. from which it was hard for any to disengage himself. finally. after many unsuccessful attempts. But Marcius. which they were anxious to check and reduce. which they said no resistance and no fatigue could exhaust. have plenty of oak for that purpose. whether that the law intended some special honor to the oak. he so exercised and inured his body to all sorts of activity and encounter. so much out of a desire to serve and oblige Tarquin. The first time he went out to the wars. and is the strongest of all that are under cultivation. in truth. to procure his restoration. and slew his assailant. and proceeded to hazard all as it were upon a single throw. Marcius. and were marching with him toward the city. or. The armies met and engaged in a decisive battle. to handle arms. that. loath to own themselves inferior in that respect. and feeling that adventitious implements and artificial arms would effect little. being sacred to Jupiter. he had a weight in close seizures and wrestlings with an enemy. The general. being yet a stripling. having a more passionate inclination than any of that age for feats of war. not. and immediately stepped in and stood before him. one of the first. or whether the reason of it was because they might easily. it being the Roman custom thus to adorn those who had saved the life of a citizen.. who had been king of Rome and was afterwards expelled.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. in memory of the Arcadians. now entered upon his last effort. so that his competitors at home in displays of bravery. from his very childhood. besides the lightness of a racer. which is properly equivalent to manly courage. and file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. its acorns were the principal diet of the first mortals.16. And the oak. evidence of which we find in the Latin word for virtue.htm (2 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . A great number of the Latins and other people of Italy joined their forces. in the vicissitudes of which.. with a garland of oaken branches.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. whether the oaken wreath. and in all places where they fought. and be of small use to such as have not their native and natural weapons well fixed and prepared for service. the guardian of the city. is the tree which bears the most and the prettiest fruit of any that grow wild. were wont to ascribe their deficiencies to his strength of body.

which should pay him the greatest honor and speak highest in his commendation. if they are of a nature but slightly touched with emulation. Of all the numerous wars and conflicts in those days. that when young men arrive early at fame and repute. the honey found in it gave them drink. like a wind. in producing mistletoe for birdlime to ensnare them. And. and. and told the news of the victory to the people in the Forum.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. meantime. ashamed now to forsake or underlive the credit they have won. but he thought he was bound to outdo it at the next occasion. they look upon these marks and testimonies to their virtue not as a recompense received for what they have already done. so as to make it a matter of contest also among his commanders. rendered him. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. rather. Epaminondas is similarly said to have acknowledged his feeling. immediately after the battle. there was not one from which he returned without laurels and rewards. But Marcius.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. but as a pledge given by themselves of what they will perform hereafter. It may be observed in general. I may say. it is stated that Castor and Pollux appeared. the most honored and most happy person in the world. that it was the greatest felicity of his whole life that his father and mother survived to hear of his successful generalship and his victory at Leuctra. how extraordinary soever. or. having a spirit of this noble make. Marcius.16. with their horses foaming with sweat. and her weeping for joy in his embraces. believing himself bound to pay his mother Volumnia all that gratitude and duty which would have belonged to his father. in his own thoughts. whereas others made glory the end of their daring. the later still vying with the earlier.htm (3 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . whereas the first distinctions of more solid and weighty characters do but stimulate and quicken them and take them away. it furnished fowl and other creatures as dainties.. not to exceed and obscure all that is gone before by the luster of their following actions. too.. the delight she took to hear him praised and to see him crowned. were seen at Rome just by the fountain where their temple now stands. and heaped up trophies upon trophies. And he had the advantage. and ever desiring to give continual fresh instances of his prowess he added one exploit to another. was ambitious always to surpass himself. became consequently a solemn holiday sacred to the Twin Brothers. had he also been alive. being the day of this conquest. to have both his parents partake with him. the end of his glory was his mother's gladness. In this battle. and did nothing. and enjoy the pleasure of his good fortune. indeed. The fifteenth of July. in the pursuit of honor. this early attainment is apt to extinguish their thirst and satiate their small appetite.

alleging that the business of money on either side was not the main thing in question. about this difficulty.. which they undertook upon a promise made by their rich creditors that they would treat them with more gentleness for the future. began to be at variance with the common people. to live still with his mother. and had nothing more to be deprived of. at her request and wish. the members of the government. without parting families. while others withstood this proposal. were themselves again divided in opinion: some thought it most advisable to comply a little in favor of the poor.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. after they had fought courageously and beaten the enemy. The repute of his integrity and courage had. by the way of pledges and sales. also. notwithstanding the scars and wounds that they could show in attestation of their public services in numerous campaigns.16. and the enemy. and such as through former exactions were reduced already to extreme indigence. who made sad complaints of the rigorous and inhuman usage they received from the money-lenders. by this time. and had any sort of property. But when. within a small compass of time.. He took a wife. also.htm (4 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 .Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. and mitigating the extreme rigor of the law. nevertheless. invaded and laid waste the country. there was. they stripped of all they had. and continued. these they led away in person and put their bodies under constraint. There had been frequent assemblies of the whole senate. when the senate. having. with more vehemence than the rest. and sat without testifying the least concern to see them dragged away like slaves and their goods seized upon as formerly. and the senate also professed to remember nothing of that agreement. gained him a considerable influence and authority in Rome. urged that this disorderly proceeding was but the first insolent step towards open revolt against the laws. favoring the wealthier citizens. which it would become the wisdom of the government to check at the earliest moment. Marcus Valerius. the last of which had been against the Sabines. by relaxing their overstrained rights. Marcius in particular. the consul. even after he had children. no moderation or forbearance used. could never satiate himself in his tenderness and respect to her. by order from the senate. there began now to be open disorders and dangerous meetings in the city. that all who were of an age to bear arms should make their personal appearance. then coming to consult what course should be taken. but found no one regard the summons. For as many as were behind with them. And when the consuls now gave notice. but without any certain file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. engaged also for the performance of it. aware of the popular confusion.

encouraging each other in their resolution. expelled and excluded from the city by the cruelty of the rich.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. the privilege of being wounded and killed in time of war for the defense of their creditors." he said. sat down by the river Anio. Menenius Agrippa.16. their chief spokesman..Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16.htm (5 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 ." A reconciliation ensued. with the celebrated fable. and the first two they pitched upon were Junius Brutus and Sicinnius Vellutus. the same that are now called the tribunes of the people. perhaps. Such is the case. concluded. while the rest were put to hardships and the expense of much labor to supply and minister to its appetites. but to prove that they were superior to them. unless it were. perceiving there was likely to be no redress of their grievances. The stomach. that Italy would everywhere afford them the benefit of air and water and a place of burial. though he was not a little vexed himself to see the populace prevail so far and gain ground of the senators. and much plain speaking on behalf of the senate. which was all they could expect in the city. "It once happened. he yet besought them not to yield at least to the common people in the zeal and forwardness they now allowed for their country's service. without committing any sort of violence or seditious outrage. therefore. at length. the poor commonalty. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and redistribute it amongst the rest. but merely exclaiming. that they had this long time past been. the commons stood presently to their arms. sent the most moderate and popular men of their own order to treat with them. in fact. after much entreaty to the people. and. and followed their commanders to the war with great alacrity. As for Marcius. but only to return it again. the senate acceding to the request of the people for the annual election of five protectors for those in need of succor. "that all the other members of a man mutinied against the stomach. your proper benefit and support. between you and the senate. merely ridiculed the silliness of the members. "ye citizens. on a sudden collected in a body. The counsels and plans that are there duly digested. apprehending the consequences. issue. which they accused as the only idle. as they went along. their leaders in the secession. uncontributing part in the whole body. however. and might observe many other patricians have the same dislike of the late concessions. who appeared not to be aware that the stomach certainly does receive the general nourishment. The senate. The city being thus united. convey and secure to all of you.. forsook the city with one accord and seizing the hill which is now called the Holy Mount." he said.

stood and urged them to the attempt. the enemies soon retreated. and that none of his followers had the hardiness to think of falling in pellmell among the fugitives and so entering a city full of enemies in arms. while the remainder submitted. obliged the other assailants to slacken their speed. designing to give the Romans battle before the city. where. they now took courage. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. by strength of hand. A combat ensued of the most extraordinary description. divided his army.. what Cato thought a great point in a soldier. fearing it would be taken. and threw down their arms. and thrust himself into the gate through the midst of them. marching himself with one body to encounter the Volscians on their approach from without. and then.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. made good his passage. and so attack them on both sides. and came up and attacked them. not content to see them draw off and retire. thus affording Lartius abundant opportunity to bring in the rest of the Romans with ease and safety. nobody at first daring to resist him. Those within Corioli. on looking about. in the interior of the town. saw that a very small number had entered. when. crying out. to avoid this inconvenience. beaten off by the multitude of darts poured in upon them from the walls. mustered up whatever force they could from all parts. Here it was that Marcius. one of the bravest Romans of his time. to command the other and continue the siege. nevertheless. The Romans were now at war with the Volscian nation. as to receive the conquerors. whose principal city was Corioli. not so much to shelter the vanquished. but also a voice and look that of themselves were a terror to an enemy. to relieve it. not so much in power and riches as in merit and worth. for the most part. But when the citizens. Divers of his own party now rallying and making up to him. Seconded by a few that were willing to venture with him. despising now the smallness of their number. Cominius. with loud cries. flying out with a slender company. the rest of the Volscians. he bore along through the crowd. and prevailed at first. overpowering every one that he assailed. and leaving Titus Lartius. as they fled away in haste. to the very gates of their city. made a sally upon them. but Marcius. that fortune had now set open Corioli. called upon the Romans to renew the battle.16. and daring of soul. perceiving the Romans to fall back from their pursuit. and swiftness of foot. not only strength of hand and stroke. succeeded in driving the enemy to seek refuge.. he. and pursued the Romans into their trenches. Cominius the consul had invested this important place. in which Marcius.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. and cutting those in pieces that first engaged him.htm (6 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . pressed hard upon the rear. therefore. For he had. and drove them.

too. but. "Let me then demand and obtain of you. those that were near enough hearing. and enclosing him on each side with their weapons. when the consul and their fellowcitizens had now perhaps encountered the other Volscians. and partake in the peril of the action.htm (7 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . keep out of danger. and. every one took fresh heart. and come seasonably up to assist Cominius. and those that were at a distance guessing. "that we may be posted against them. and exclaimed that it was a dishonorable and unworthy thing. he broke their ranks. It was customary with the Romans of that age. with much admiration of his gallantry. and Marcius sallied out before the rest.. and praying often to the gods. First. the enemy being advanced within view. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. that would yield to none in bravery.16. and to name who should be their heirs. In this precise posture Marcius found them at his arrival. and attended with a small train. as they went along. Corioli being thus surprised and taken. and girding their coats about them. and when they saw Cominius also embrace and salute him. Marcius desired to know of him how the Volscians had arrayed their army. wherever he fell in. not to give up. the greater part of the soldiers employed themselves in spoiling and pillaging it. putting himself at the head of these. And when the conflict began by the soldiers darting at each other. Few paid him any attention. but when he hastily made up to the consul with gladness in his looks. and recounting to him how the city had been taken. and on his answering that he took the troops of the Antiates in the center to be their prime warriors. when they were moving into battle array. while Marcius indignantly reproached them. to make at the same time an unwritten will. and all cried out to be led to battle. basely to misspend the time in running up and down for booty. that he might be so happy as to arrive before the fight was over. and were on the point of taking up their bucklers. They were not a little disturbed by his first appearance. he took the road by which the consul's army had marched before him. and where they had placed their best men. and were hazarding their lives in battle. under a pretense of enriching themselves. in the hearing of three or four witnesses. the Volscians opposed to him were not able to make head against him. however." The consul granted the request. encouraging his companions.. and beseeching them.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. seeing him covered with blood and sweat. or verbal testament. and made a lane through them. but the parties turning again. what had happened." said Marcius.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. giving him his hand.

and this I hope you will not deny me. before any division should be made to others. Marcius. which he could only regard rather as mercenary advantages than any significations of honor. great numbers killed. that one who so nobly could refuse reward. who observed the danger he was in. that weariness was not for conquerors. dispatched some of the choicest men he had for his rescue. and first of all delivered the strongest encomium upon his rare exploits. and to quit the field. and faint and heavy through the loss of blood. when Marcius. they besought Marcius. The conflict then growing warm and sharp about Marcius. The day after. presented themselves at the consul's tent. and no less taken captive. he made him the special present of a horse with trappings and ornaments. and he had many more admirers of this generous superiority to avarice. There was a certain hospitable friend of mine among the Volscians. he must waive. and had partly learned from the testimony of Lartius. and from former wealth and freedom is now reduced to servitude. And then he required him to choose a tenth part of all the treasure and horses and captives that had fallen into their hands. that they forced them at length to abandon their ground. Cominius rose. And. and declaring his thankful acceptance of the horse. It is the hither file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. "one special grace to beg. than with any of those former actions that had gained him his title to it. and were more charmed with that virtue which made him despise advantage. The whole army applauded.16." Such a refusal and such a request on the part of Marcius were followed with yet louder acclamations. and should be content with the ordinary proportion of such rewards." said he. than of the bravery he had shown in battle. was beyond others worthy to receive it. The rest of the Volscian army was in like manner defeated. and joined with them in the pursuit. turned next to Marcius. said. the Romans bore so hard upon the enemies. Among his many misfortunes let my intercession redeem him from the one of being sold as a common slave. in honor of his actions. and having rendered all due acknowledgment to the gods for the success of that enterprise. stepped forth. tired out with his toils. which he had partly been an eyewitness of himself.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. however. that he would retire to the camp. however. and his gratification at the praises of his general. The very persons who conceived some envy and despite to see him so specially honored. and many falling dead in a little space.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. going now to prosecute the victory. who is become a prisoner. the consul. a man of probity and virtue.htm (8 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . could not but acknowledge.. with the rest of the army.. in the late battle. besides which. that all other things. and pressed them with such violence. "I have only. He replied.

too. from the rapidity he displayed in giving a funeral entertainment of gladiators within a few days after his father's death. Marcius. than the popular orators revived domestic troubles. he had his third name of Coriolanus. but to answer to such names without shame. wisely endeavoring to accustom their people not to reckon either the loss of sight. From bodily peculiarities they derive not only their Syllas and Nigers. without any new cause of complaint or just grievance to proceed upon." Hence. fellow-soldiers. Lathyrus. and one dies at the birth. Euergetes and Philadelphus. that he shall hereafter be called Coriolanus.. the title of the second Battus. Cominius. as Physcon and Grypus. and the second. and Ptolemy. When the noise of approbation and applause ceased. the survivor has the name of Vopiscus. and another. I mean. good fortune. Just as the Greeks. as if they were really their own. resuming. This sort of title was yet more common among the Romans. or good quality of the bearer. but their Caeci and Claudii. to conceal a scar. because he walked about for a long time with a bandage on his head. the third being a subsequent addition which used to be imposed either from some particular act or fortune. or surname. therefore. got the name of Celer. Several monarchs have also had names given them in mockery. but not to need it is more noble than to use it. good qualities. of the same family. said.16. as Antigonus was called Doson. let us pass a vote. gave additional names in old time. and when twins come into the world. his speed and energy in doing which was thought extraordinary. as a matter of disgrace to them. "It is idle. or personal appearance. There are some. therefore. making it all the plainer that Caius was a personal proper name.. for example. But this discussion better befits another place. or Postumus. in some cases from some achievement. and Callinicus. who even at this day take names from certain casual incidents at their nativity. too. and raised another sedition. let us. accomplishment to use money well than to use arms. One of the Metelli was surnamed Diadematus. one common to his house and family.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.htm (9 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . a child that is born when his father is away from home is called Proculus. bodily characteristic. The war against the Volscians was no sooner at an end. or any other bodily misfortune. but merely turning the very mischiefs that file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. unless you think that his performance at Corioli has itself anticipated any such resolution. if after his decease. give him one of such a kind that he cannot well reject it. Eudaemon. to force and obtrude those other gifts of ours on one who is unwilling to accept them . Soter.

Meanwhile. as a late pestilential disease had swept away so many of the natives. that none of them would appear upon the consular summons to be enlisted for file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. interposed. to dissipate the gathering sedition by ridding themselves of the more violent and heated partisans. that no calamity might be wanting to complete the punishment of the citizens for refusing to submit to that of slavery to the rich. and the ground covered with dead bodies. and were simply precipitating so many poor citizens into a mere pit of destruction. And then. they must proceed to involve them also in a needless war of their own making. This necessity of the Velitrani was considered by all more prudent people as most opportune in the present state of affairs. proposing to deliver up their city to the Romans. as if it would not satisfy their hatred to destroy some by hunger. at the same time. unavoidably ensued from their former contests into a pretext against the patricians. bidding them settle down in a country where the air was charged with disease. had purposely contrived the famine. there came an embassy from the Velitrani. that they should be ready to march against the Volscians. plebeians and patricians. and offer others to the mercy of a plague. it would mutually dispose them to reconciliation and friendship. singled out such citizens to supply the desolation at Velitrae. and in the hope.16. that there was hardly a tenth part remaining of their whole community. if there had been.htm (10 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . and they were in hope also. out of malice. and discharging. began to calumniate the wealthy with false stories. since the dearth made it needful to ease the city of its superfluous members. that there was no corn to be bought. and engage in one common service for the public. with the politic design of preventing intestine broils by employment abroad. so to say. By such addresses. that the consuls disguised the most cruel and barbarous action in the world under that mild and plausible name of a colony. the popular orators. therefore. and whisper it about. should be mingled again in the same army and the same camp. there was an extreme scarcity. the people were so possessed. and that. as if they. The consuls.. and desiring they would send some new inhabitants to people it.. that when rich as well as poor. they had no money to buy it. The movers of the people then observing. and gave notice to others. the elements of disease and disorder in the state.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. crying out.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and the time of war allowing them no means or leisure to import provision from other countries. But Sicinnius and Brutus. and expose themselves to the evil influence of a strange and angered deity. The greatest part of their arable land had been left unsown and without tillage.

. with envy at their fortunate fellow-citizens. proceeding thence to attempt their tribunals. those that were chosen by lot being compelled to depart upon high penalties. when. and with feelings of dislike to Marcius. and many ages after this. finding a considerable quantity of corn. he mustered up his own clients. both of cattle and prisoners. and driving their prey before them. or that such as had received wounds might more readily display those marks of their fortitude. not being at once discerned and taken notice of.. and no tunic under it. At Rome the mischief seems to have stolen secretly in. and turned their commonwealth into a monarchy. he reserved nothing for himself in private. This sight filled those that had stayed at home with regret for their perverseness. and collecting much booty. either to promote their supplications by the humility of their dress. and by little and little.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. so that the senate was at a loss what to say or do. and even attack their camps. which might probably be used against the popular interest. presenting themselves in the forum with the toga on alone.htm (11 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . conscious. it was not out of suspicion of bribery and corruption that they required all such petitioners for their favor to appear ungirt and open.16. being sensible what a shame it would be to repulse and affront a man of his birth and merit. and enslaving iron to silver. after he had done them so many signal services. It is not certainly known who the man was that did there first file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. as it was much later. But Marcius. and as many others as could be wrought upon by persuasion. without any close garment. and with these made an inroad into the territories of the Antiates. openly took the lead in opposing the favorers of the people. too. it grew master of the state.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. by hiring the valiant. who began now to bear himself higher and to feel confidence in his past actions. the people began to relent and incline to favor him. and they showed entire aversion to the proposal for a new plantation. For it was well and truly said that the first destroyer of the liberties of a people is he who first gave them bounties and largesses. of the admiration of the best and greatest men of Rome. The colony was dispatched to Velitrae. that buying and selling crept in at their elections. however. It was usual for those who stood for offices among them to solicit and address themselves personally to the citizens. till. where. Certainly. and when they obstinately persisted in refusing to enroll themselves for the Volscian service. the war. but returned safe to Rome. and hostility to his growing reputation and power. and money became an ingredient in the public suffrages. Not long after he stood for the consulship. while those that ventured out with him were seen laden with pillage.

is said to have been the first that gave money to the judges. they rejected Marcius. in Athens. whereas. Marcius. and in the place of their late benevolence. reason and discipline had not imbued him with that solidity and equanimity which enters so largely into the virtues of the statesman. for his part. so to say. had always been devoted to file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. for letting the fort of Pylos fall into the hands of the enemy. which. and told one another that they ought in common modesty to create him consul.16. and possessed with the idea that to vanquish and overbear all apposition is the true part of bravery. the commons then fell off again from the kindness they had conceived for him. He had always indulged his temper. to avoid above all things that self-will. he might employ it to deprive the people of all that liberty which was yet left them. than they had ever done before on the like occasion. He. all that were proudest and most conscious of their noble birth. or corrupt the courts. toward the latter end of the Peloponnesian war. retired. could not bear the affront with any patience. But when the day of election was now come. above all things. should be invested with the power which that office would give him.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and had regarded the proud and contentious element of human nature as a sort of nobleness and magnanimity. and to pursue. Anytus. too. In conclusion. as the fashion of candidates was showing the scars and gashes that were still visible on his body. and desires to deal with mankind. Two other names were announced. to the great mortification of the senators. began to feel something of indignation and envy. put out of countenance at this display of merit. Marcius. straightforward and direct.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. that if a man of such aristocratic temper. passions assisted by the fear they entertained. belongs to the family of solitude. as Plato says. when on his trial. of submission to ill treatment. with a pompous train of senators attending him. therefore. so to say. He had never learned how essential it is for any one who undertakes public business. the son of Anthemion. and seemed to be exerting greater efforts. full of fury and bitterness against the people.htm (12 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . The young patricians. in these ulcerations of anger. and so influential among the patricians. in a period while the pure and golden race of men were still in possession of the Roman forum. and never imagining that it was the weakness and womanishness of his nature that broke out. and Marcius appeared in the forum. who felt as if the indignity reflected rather upon themselves than on Marcius. either bribe the citizens. that capacity so generally ridiculed.. from the many conflicts in which he had signalized himself during a service of seventeen years together they were. and the patricians all manifested greater concern..

each other's brave achievements. and not have suffered the plebeians to grow so strong..16. He had been their captain. standing up. for us to sit here and decree largesses and bounties for them. a large quantity of corn reached Rome. what would it be else. but will rather conclude that a bounty which seems to have no other visible cause or reason." said he. "When things are come to such a pass. by granting them magistrates of such authority as the tribunes. calling them flatterers of the rabble traitors to the nobility. without envy or jealousy. must needs be the effect of our fear and flattery. his interest. eagerly awaiting the issue of that deliberation. and their model in that true emulation and love of excellence which makes men extol.. and. Concession is mere madness. that. "but to take their disobedience into pay. they refused obedience to the consuls. sharply inveighed against those who spoke in favor of the multitude. and their willing instructor in the arts of war.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. no constraint was put on their will. and that what had come as a gift would be distributed as such. with a fidelity that did him no good. therefore. then reigning there. but an equal amount sent as a present from Syracuse. adhering to him now. which they know they have so often deserted. would be delivered at once. even now formidable to the state. by which they openly renounced their country. supposing the city. and will. but Marcius. They were. overthrowing all law and magistracy. if we have any wisdom and file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and. There were some within who so advised the senate. which they should have done well to observe and stifle at their first appearance. much less of the calumnies and slanders they have been always so ready to entertain against the senate. set no limit to their disobedience. therefore. being presently held. by this means. indeed. and maintain it for the common ruin of us all? They certainly cannot look upon these liberalities as a reward of public service. when out upon expeditions.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. a great part bought up in Italy. A council. by such gratifications. the people came flocking about the senate-house. aggravated his resentment with the expression of their indignation and condolence. they did but cherish those ill seeds of boldness and petulance that had been sown among the people. since everything they desired was granted them. both of its want and discord.htm (13 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . and alleging. Many began now to hope well of their affairs. to their own prejudice. expecting that the market prices would now be less cruel. gave the title of magistrate to their private factious leaders. nor yet of those secessions. from Gelo. like those Greeks where the populace is supreme and absolute. nor ever cease from disturbances and sedition. In the midst of these distempers.

we shall. on the contrary. whom. and come in to their assistance. and a perpetual ground of separation in our city. that were their seconds in the quarrel. as being a plain subversion of the consulship. by laying all the blame on Coriolanus.htm (14 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . and a mere point of glory. As. excited them to such fury. if they wisely considered the state of things. however. accordingly. as soon as it was day. and soon became tumultuous. such a critical conjuncture called for gentle methods. to an extraordinary degree. therefore. opposed him. the consuls proceeded to pacify the people in the best manner they were able. never rest till we have recovered from them that tribunician power they have extorted from us. suspecting the consequences. they came themselves. On the point of the price of file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. they cited by their messengers to come before them. and. proposing to carry him away by force. and for temperate and humane counsels. with much more to this purpose.16.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. that they were ready to break in upon the senate. and defend himself. or suffer us to be of one mind. therefore. The sum of what Marcius had spoken. with the Aediles. calling on the plebeians to stand together. coming to his rescue. The tribunes prevented this. began to lay hold on his person. perceiving how the proposal of Marcius took. not only thrust off the tribunes. for the tribunes. put an end to the contest. and that they ran from all quarters and gathered in the forum. having been reported to the people. ran out into the crowd with exclamations. resolution at all. who were present. that is no longer one. so that. were afraid for the whole city. superior alike to force and flattery. but has in this received such a wound and rupture. indeed. observing the people to be highly exasperated. The assembly met. of the senators giving way. and had almost all the wealthy on his side. but also beat the Aediles. the consuls. night. approaching.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.. succeeded. and being a torment to each other. and to give over inflaming our distempers. And when he contemptuously repulsed the officers who brought him the summons.. who cried him up as the only person their city had. The majority." Marcius. But. or overseers of the market. however. and using much tenderness and moderation in the admonitions and reproof they gave them. answering gently to such imputations and charges as had been cast upon the senate. they desired them to advise how they might best compose and pacify the incensed multitude by equitable language and indulgent decrees. there came no good of it. since. in inspiring the younger men with the same furious sentiments. The patricians. convening the senate afresh. as heretofore. as is never likely to close and unite again. they would find that it was no time to stand upon terms of honor. some of the older men.

When a great part of the commonalty was grown cool. there should be no difference at all between them. and bid the Aediles take him to the Tarpeian rock. felt it to be a horrible and extravagant act. or.16.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and while some made actual use of their hands to hinder the arrest. should be ready to yield in all that was fair and equitable on their side. and gave evident signs of impatience and disgust.. that Marcius should give in his answer to the several charges as follows: first.htm (15 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . that since the senate was pleased to act soberly and do them reason. in the name of the people. the patricians. and. in compliance with the order. which they rather expected from their judgment of his character. however. got him in among them. he began to use not only an offensive kind of freedom. lastly. as well by the tone of his voice as the air of his countenance. others.. meantime. proceeded solemnly to pronounce before them all. by the blows and other public affronts to the Aediles. to make his apology. contrary to his nature. if he should follow his natural disposition. and gave him a quiet hearing. that Marcius was condemned to die by the tribunes of the people. as it were. stretched out theirs.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. in which belief the people kept silence. as in so great a tumult no good could be done by words. in the next place. beseeching the multitude that file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and show his submission if. but. came to seize upon his body. and without delay throw him headlong from the precipice. the tribunes. instead of the submissive and deprecatory language expected from him. therefore. When they. did he not disobey their summons? and. the whole multitude then became angry. after a little private conference with his colleagues. with a design either to humble Marcius. and Sicinnius. surrounding Marcius. they must insist. displayed a security that was not far from disdain and contempt of them. declared. when called to account for it. wholly beside themselves with distress and horror. and clear himself. and it appeared from their orderly and peaceful behavior that they had been very much appeased by what they had heard. could he deny that he instigated the senate to overthrow the government and annul the privileges of the people? and. standing up. however. But when. they. they said. had he not done all he could to commence a civil war? These articles were brought in against him. hurried up with cries to the rescue. seeming rather to accuse than apologize. then that he might thus make the breach final between himself and the people. even of the plebeian party. many. the most violent of the tribunes. likewise. He came. provisions. he should now court and sue the people.

thus forcibly to rescue Marcius out of the people's hands. on the other side. During the interval before the appointed time (for the Romans hold their sessions every ninth day. and to try if you can satisfy the Roman citizens of your innocence. or without regular process. they made a speedy agreement with the people of Antium. made a solemn declaration." directing his speech to him. "you shall have no ground in this respect for quarrel or complaint against the people. that the people would not be so harsh and severe upon them. wisely perceiving how impossible it would be to carry off Marcius to punishment without much bloodshed and slaughter of the nobility. without either abandoning Marcius. and the army came back to Rome. the patricians were again in great perplexity. to a barbarous and illegal execution?" "Very well. the friends and acquaintance of the tribunes. and gladly returned home. contrary to expectation. "Rather. how came it into your minds. and the question put." said Sicinnius. if they should once suffer the people to assume the authority of pronouncing sentence upon any of the patricians. Sicinnius then. on the other side. that the senate would utterly destroy itself and betray the government. "the third market-day ensuing." The patricians were content with such a truce and respite for that time. would become tractable.16. not to dispatch him by any sudden violence.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.. whom they counted among the senators most averse to the popular interest. a war fell out with the Antiates. Marcius. to appear and defend yourself. which gave them hope they might one way or other elude the judgment. who will then judge your case by vote. The people grant your request.. which from that cause are called nundinae in Latin). if occupation and war did not wholly put it out of their mind. when it was replied by them. they would not proceed to such furious extremities. demanded what their meaning was. But when. The people.htm (16 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . thus to drag one of the worthiest men of Rome. and their indignation lessen and languish by degrees in so long a space. likely to be of some continuance. but refer the cause to the general suffrage of the people. and told them beforehand. as some were pleased to imagine. after a little pause. and had frequent meetings to consider how things might be arranged. Appius Claudius. and your partisan shall be tried. and at length. or yet giving occasion to the popular orators to create new disorders. persuaded them to forbear everything unusual and odious. and what is it you design. as they were going to punish him. they presumed. but rather become more gentle file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. without trial. but the oldest senators and most favorable to the people maintained. turning to the patricians. having for the present brought off Marcius in safety. We appoint you.

And when. as he had not anticipated he should ever be questioned on that subject. In conclusion. only. and what the heads of the indictment they would oblige him to plead to before the people. would be sure to carry it against those who were rich and well known. a change. adding further. when they came to vote. and urged instead. more discompose Marcius than all the rest. which made them pretend to such a prerogative. and humane upon the concession of that power. that had no respect for honesty and justice. but the impression of being contemned by it. he came to his trial. but tribes." he said. being more numerous than the other. "let what you now mention be really made my accusation. as a new impeachment. which last accusation did. When. that votes should be taken. "to clear myself from that imputation before an assembly of them. by way of excuse. not by centuries.16. whereas they had engaged to prosecute Marcius upon no other head but that of tyranny. which could never be made out against him. he began to magnify the merits of those who had been partakers with him in the action. he desired to know of the tribunes what the crimes were they intended to charge him with. In the next place. as it were. and accustomed to serve the state in war. they say. was less provided with any satisfactory answer to it on the sudden. and do not you play false with the senate. I freely offer myself to any sort of trial. extorted first.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. nor do I refuse any kind of punishment whatsoever. therefore. Let that be once allowed them as a mark of respect and kind feeling.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. therefore. Marcius saw that the senate was in pain and suspense upon his account.. and that they would prove him guilty of designing to establish arbitrary government. But when the people met together. divided. which he had divided among those that had followed him.htm (17 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . contrary to all former practice. the distribution that was made by him of the spoil and booty he had taken from the Antiates. and. by which the indigent and factious rabble. the tribunes." he continued." On their consenting to these terms. and for the overthrow of the tribunician power. when he overran their country.. his language in the senate against an abatement of the price of corn. and being told by them that he was to be impeached for attempting usurpation. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. "Let me go then. betwixt their kindness for him and their apprehensions from the people. they relinquished this plea. and the mere possession of this power of voting would at once dispossess them of their animosity. whereas it ought rather to have been brought into the public treasury. stepping forth upon this. since it was not contempt of the senate. interrupted him with outcries. those that had stayed at home.

all this action of the soul is but mere diseased palpitation. with a profound and deep. In mien. transmuted. such as rage and indignation suggested to him. carriage. having only three or four clients with him. and countenance. or gentleness of temper made it natural for him. a plebeian. a patrician. There was no need then to look at men's dresses.16.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. as their spite and auger increased. the people went away with greater triumph and exultation than they had ever shown for any victory over enemies. and exhorting them to moderate the sense they had of his calamity. distention. The sentence of his condemnation being pronounced. He continued solitary for a few days in a place in the country. whither all the nobility came to attend him. or making any request to the company. and inflammation. he bore the appearance of entire composure. as the man in a high fever does of natural heat. distracted with a variety of counsels. and while all his friends were full of distress. not so much as taking anything with him.seated fury. That such was his distempered state appeared presently plainly enough in his actions. or other marks of distinction. he proceeded at once to the city gates. Marcius alone. but only how he might best satisfy his revenge on the Romans. Not that either reflection taught him. and so. while. in fact. He determined. any one who looked sorrowful. And pain. On his return home. and he imagined their force and power was not so much abated. after saluting his mother and his wife. the angry man makes a show of energy. seemed the only man that was not touched with his misfortune. loses every appearance of depression and feebleness. beyond all doubt.. on the contrary. he resolved at length to raise up a heavy war against them from their nearest neighbors. repenting now and vexed to the soul that they had not done and suffered all things rather than give way to the insolence of the people. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. to know one from another: any one who was glad was. and proposing to himself no honorable or useful end. who were all in tears and full of loud lamentations. a majority of three tribes condemned him. by its own fiery heat into anger. himself. while the senate was in grief and deep dejection. and permit them to assume and abuse so great an authority. so to say. it is true. both in men and treasure. was neither stunned nor humiliated. the penalty being perpetual banishment. first to make trial of the Volscians. by the late overthrows they had received from the Romans. which passes with many for no pain at all.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. he departed from them.htm (18 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 .. whom he knew to be still vigorous and flourishing. to submit: he was wholly possessed.

and though several met him file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. considering Tullus to have a certain generosity of temper.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. and those exchanges of defiance to which their hot and eager emulation is apt to prompt young soldiers had added private animosity to their national feelings of opposition. Which makes us buy its pleasure with our life. who. so much as he.16. Yet for all this. His arrival at Antium was about evening. There was a man of Antium. called Tullus Aufidius. but whom Marcius knew to have a particular hostility to himself..htm (19 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . The town he entered of his mortal foes. Putting on such a dress as would make him appear to any whom he might meet most unlike what he really was. thus. like Ulysses. and knowing that no Volscian. that Hard and unequal is with wrath the strife. for his wealth and bravery and the splendor of his family.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. he did what much confirms the saying. had the respect and privilege of a king among the Volscians. above all other Romans. desired an occasion to requite upon the Romans the evils they had done.. Frequent menaces and challenges had passed in battle between them.

in the present you make us of yourself. exclaimed. but they recounted to Tullus. entering undiscovered. I am neither desirous to live myself. expect everything that is good from the Volscians. or do not believe your eyes concerning me. covering up his head. in the streets. and then Marcius. appears unprofitable and useless to you. Tullus. and pausing awhile. Marcius. I have already obtained. and now. went up to the fire-hearth. as. was extremely rejoiced. He immediately rose from table and came in. nor will it be well in you to preserve a person who has been your rival and adversary of old. I am Caius Marcius. come then. I have been stripped and deprived by the envy and outrage of the Roman people. and went directly to the house of Tullus. being then at supper. "If. unmuffling himself. you have really a mind to attack your enemies. "you cannot yet call me to mind. make use of that affliction you see me in to assist the enterprise. on hearing this." He then proceeded to feast and entertain him with every display of kindness. therefore.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. indeed. the author of so much mischief to the Volscians. by putting myself into your hands. and for what business he came thither. was the title that proclaims my enmity to your nation. the surname of Coriolanus I now bear would be a sufficient evidence against me. as to seek vengeance against those that expelled me. I am likely to be more serviceable in fighting for than against you.htm (20 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . it is a great happiness you bring to Antium. and asked him who he was. of knowing all the secrets of the enemy that I am attacking.. and yet they were afraid either to raise or question him. with the advantage. had I been afraid to die?). "Rise. The one recompense I received for all the hardships and perils I have gone through. and. But if you decline to make any further attempts. and the cowardice and treachery of the magistrates and those of my own order. I am driven out as an exile." said he. and for several days after they were in close deliberation together on the prospects of a war. and convert my personal infelicity into a common blessing to the Volscians. yet he passed along without being known to any. I must of necessity be my own accuser.16. If. not so much for safety and protection (should I have come hither. the strangeness of this accident." Tullus. and giving him his right hand. and seated himself there without speaking a word.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. of which. were I seeking to deny it. methinks. and become an humble suppliant at your hearth. when he offers you his service.. and be of good courage. which. Those of the family could not but wonder. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. Of all other advantages. and this is the only thing which is still left me. for there was a certain air of majesty both in his posture and silence. which I now possess.

but after he had seen and slighted it a second and third time. That which his dream alluded to was this: some citizen had. to have to take the piece of wood which supports the pole of a wagon.. or acted further in the matter than merely to utter some common reproaches and execrations on a master who inflicted so cruel a punishment. and was himself struck with palsy. heightened just now by the late condemnation of Marcius. yet no one of them interfered. who screwed and turned himself into all manner of shapes and unseemly motions. that it was with a bad and unacceptable dancer that they had headed his procession. through the pain he was in. scandalized at the sight. working and laboring themselves. and got upon his legs. their soothsayers and priests. It was one of the severest punishments for a slave who had committed a fault. Besides that. and while they were executing this command. with charge to whip him first through the market. furca being the Latin word for a prop. he had lost a hopeful son. While this design was forming. and the story goes. When. and carry it about through the neighborhood. therefore. that he had no sooner delivered his message there. in wonder and surprise. and even private persons. and the senators were considering who this disagreeable and ungainly dancer could file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. free from all superstitious fancies. and went home alone. for some heinous offense. Several of the attendants on which were. a slave who had once undergone the shame of this. Having beheld the vision.16. given up a servant of his to the rest of his fellows. He was brought into the senate on a litter to tell this. had no longer any trust or credit among them. a man of ordinary condition. the solemn procession in honor of Jupiter chanced to follow at their heels. and then to kill him. had an apparition in his sleep. indeed. as if Jupiter came and bade him tell the senate. and had the name of furcifer. and been thus seen by the household and the neighbors. Latinus had related his dream. and scourging the wretch. made a diligent search into the matter.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. but of a quiet and virtuous character. there were great troubles and commotions at Rome. but he at once felt his strength return. from the animosity of the senators against the people. he did not much attend to it at the first appearance. and yet more from vanity and exaggeration. and living together among them.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. For the Romans treated their slaves with great humanity in these times. The senators. without need of any support. or support. he said. one of which is stated to have occurred as follows: Titus Latinus. they naturally were more gentle and familiar with them.htm (21 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . when.. reported signs and prodigies not to be neglected.

the Romans themselves soon furnished them with a pretense. and working on their indignation. having been struck with the strangeness of the punishment.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. and to set the city on fire. requiring the Romans to restore that part of their country and those towns which they had taken from file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. and orders given for a new celebration of the procession and the spectacles in honor of the god. would seem to have been especially judicious in his direction. and proclaim with a loud voice.16. not only upon such a cause as this.. but for any slighter reason. and so warn them to mind whatever sacred action they were engaged in. a herald should go before. and Tullus. in the midst of the spectacles. in other respects also a wise arranger of religious offices. till he persuaded them. the master was punished. perceiving it. Do this you are about. be. they would decree that the whole operation should commence anew. because of the occurrence of some defect or mistake or accident in the service. when consulted.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. confirmed the conjecture. called to mind and mentioned the miserable slave who was lashed through the streets and afterward put to death. some of the company. and. and not suffer any business or worldly avocation to disturb and interrupt it. advising them to invade the Romans while they were at variance among themselves. being in a manner forced from them. happened to fail and falter.. Such was the Roman reverence and caution in religious matters. falsely to accuse the Volscians of intending to fall upon the Romans during the games. Marcius and Tullus were now secretly discoursing of their project with the chief men of Antium. or if the driver took hold of the reins with his left hand. most of the things which men do of this kind. Numa. who sent a man privately to the consuls. one and the same sacrifice was performed thirty times over. and effected by constraint. when the magistrates or priests performed any divine worship. aggravating the fact. If but one of the horses which drew the chariots called Tensae. at last. as they had sworn to a truce and cessation of arms for the space of two years. The priests. to dispatch ambassadors to Rome. out of some jealousy or slanderous report. It is usual with the Romans to recommence their sacrifices and processions and spectacles. made his advantage of it. This public affront roused and inflamed their hostility to the Romans. Some affirm that this was a contrivance of Marcius. upon which the images of their gods were placed.htm (22 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . that. with a view to the attentiveness of the people. in latter ages. Hoc age. by making proclamation. that all the Volscians who had come to see them should depart the city before sunset. And when shame appeared to hinder them from embracing the motion.

however. the senators reproaching those of the commonalty with their late injustice to Marcius. which was of great advantage to the Volscians. he then proposed that they should call in Marcius. and possessed himself of so much booty. they indignantly replied. And he. while spoiling all the fields and destroying the property of other men. were. the Volscians in the late war. was to increase at Rome the suspicions entertained of the patricians. and the waste and havoc of the country which he made.. to have full power as general of their forces in all that related to the war. or seize upon anything which belonged to them. They joined him in commission with Tullus. solicited him to this enterprise. After this incursion and exploit. and having made his entrance. out of spite and revenge. of themselves and in his account. that the Volscians were the first that took up arms.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. he took special care to preserve their farms and lands untouched. the great mischief he intended. his skill. when others were involved in the miseries of a war by their means. With this view. and assuring themselves that the services they should now receive from him as a friend and associate.. did not hesitate to accuse them of having.htm (23 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . left order with the chief persons and magistrates of the city to provide other things. the smallest results of that invasion. fearing lest the time that would be requisite to bring all the Volscians together in full preparation might be so long as to lose him the opportunity of action. and his special object in all. on their side. When the Romans heard the message. counsel. they sat like unconcerned spectators. would abundantly outweigh any harm or damage he had done them when he was their enemy.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. when nobody expected him. The abundance of provision which he gained. as they learned by it to grow more hardy and to contemn file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. From hence their invectives and quarrels against one another broke out afresh. but the Romans would be the last to lay them down. Marcius was accordingly summoned. and spoken to the people. and boldness.16. made a sudden inroad into the Roman confines. and rose to a greater height than ever. while the plebeians. and thus. and would not allow his soldiers to ravage there. not less by his present words than by his past actions. and to make them upon worse terms with the people. in the very person of the public enemy. Tullus called a general assembly of the Volscians. won their good opinion of his capacity. prevailing upon the most forward to assemble and march out with him as volunteers without staying to be enrolled. laying aside the remembrance of former grudges. and the vote passing for a war. as being furnished with a guardian and protector abroad of their wealth and fortunes. that the Volscians found they had more than they could either carry away or use in the camp. while he himself. This answer being brought back.

it appeared so considerable a body. their enemy. and when. But when the whole strength of the Volscians was brought together into the field. for the security of their towns. on their part. Tullus answered..16. where he found great treasure. showing little inclination for the service. having taken by force Toleria. with all this. that since he knew Marcius to be equally valiant with himself.. and universal wonder prevailed at the sudden and mighty revolution in the fortunes of two nations which the loss and the accession of a single man had effected. but came hastening in their arms to Marcius. he entered and laid waste the country of the Latins. moved first towards the city called Circaeum.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and far more fortunate. hearing of his achievements and success. He received its surrender. and returned in safety. had not patience to remain any longer at home. the other Volscians that were ordered to stay behind and protect their cities. Marcius drew them off. and put almost all the adults to the sword. a Roman colony. that he had made himself master of Bola. however. Meantime. he would have him take the command of those that were going out to the war. when the time of their office was almost ready to expire. they dismissed the Latin ambassadors without any effect. and. but made a prey likewise of their persons. finding no army to oppose him. all of which offered resistance. that they agreed to leave part in garrison.htm (24 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . on this. and wholly abstained from the lands of their property. and the consuls themselves being unwilling to run the hazard of a battle. Lavici. and Bola. and had often sent to demand succors from them. however. saying that he alone was their general and the sole commander they would own. his name and renown spread throughout all Italy. for fear they might sustain any damage against his will. so that Marcius. and much stronger than before. as the Latins were their confederates and allies. not only plundered their houses. and. Marcius thus reinforced. Marcius now desired Tullus to choose which of the two charges would be most agreeable to him. marched up to their cities. Peda. while he made it his care to defend their cities at home. and with the other part to march against the Romans. and did the inhabitants no injury. After. a town not above ten miles from Rome.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. The people. encamped at the greatest distance he could. where he expected the Romans would meet him. and provide all conveniences for the army abroad. he showed particular regard for all such as came over to his party. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. passing thence. with great expedition and alacrity.

htm (25 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 .16. though he knew well enough that the principal and all the better men condoled with him. seeing their women running affrighted up and down the streets. and desiring he would free them from the terrors and distresses of the war. and. perhaps. in short. create much terror and disturbance. an calling him back into the city. offering him return to his country. where were the images and sacred things of their tutelar gods. though he had not been ill treated by all. having no authority to pass anything by suffrage. therefore. and from whence they derived the origin of their nation. either out of the mere humor of contradicting and withstanding the people in whatever they should desire. durst any longer contradict the people in their design of recalling Marcius but.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. being assembled to preconsider the decree. who was bringing distress upon all alike. The nearness of his approach did. yet it also ended their dissensions for the present. and spent their whole time in cabals and disputes and reproaches against each other.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. he was more exasperated than ever. or because they were unwilling. opposed and finally rejected the proposal. declared enemy to his whole country. These tidings produced a change as universal as it was extraordinary in the thoughts inclinations of the people. and that the senate was guilty of a fatal error to begin a quarrel with him when it was a time to forget offenses. that ambassadors should be dispatched. but occasioned a yet stranger revulsion of feeling among the patricians. This resolution of theirs being made public. and suffered in his injuries. and that. there was a general absence among them both of courage and wisdom to provide for their own safety. indeed. as nobody now. quitting the seige of Lavinium. whether consul or senator. until news was brought that the enemy had laid close siege to Lavinium. and the old men at prayer in every temple with tears and supplications. The persons file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro... When Marcius heard of this. without a previous decree from the senate. that he should owe his restoration to their kindness or having now conceived a displeasure against Marcius himself. that the people had been in the right to propose as they did a reconciliation with Marcius. they were utterly averse from fighting. the people could proceed no further. whereas the senate. marched furiously towards Rome. It was. and enact it for a law. and was become. and they should have studied rather to appease him. that being the first city which Aeneas built in Italy. All at Rome was in great disorder. The people now were for repealing the sentence against Marcius. about five miles from the city. they came at last to be all of one mind. unanimously agreed by all parties. and encamped at a place called the Cluilian ditches.

and the ill usage he had received from them. he withdrew his forces out of the Roman territory. and took from them seven great and populous cities in that interval.16. but as general of the Volscians. which they did in the most gentle and tender terms. without fair and just conditions on both sides. however. upon the score of that relation and their old familiarity and friendship with him. and could not endure to see the influence he had with the people laid hold of. who had so great an opinion of their new leader that he alone was all to them. but attacked the confederates of the enemy ravaged their land. that to retreat as he did was in effect to betray and deliver up.. Yet Marcius spent not any part of the time idly. and himself overlooked and neglected now by the Volscians. He allowed them thirty days to consider and resolve. not for any wrong done him personally by Marcius. He bade them declare the cause of their coming. and with a behavior suitable to their language. they found him sitting in state amidst the chief men of the Volscians. Among them was also Tullus himself. and the malcontents met and heightened each other's indignation. sent by the senate with this message were chosen out of his kindred and acquaintance. but through the weakness incident to human nature. which he might think fit to accord. When they had made an end of speaking. as to what concerned himself.. He could not help feeling mortified to find his own glory thus totally obscured. should be content with that share of power. for which he had given a respite from the war. they thought.htm (26 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . looking insupportably proud and arrogant. durst not venture out to their relief. This. which had been before accorded to the Latins. on which depend the preservation or the loss of everything else. From hence the first seeds of complaint and accusation were scattered about in secret. since there could be no assurance that a peace would be firm and lasting. in the meanwhile. they were much mistaken. though not their cities and their arms. since in less than thirty days' space.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. in which. yet what was as bad. full of bitterness and angry resentment. as the first matter of complaint against him. who naturally expected a very kind reception at their first interview. the critical times and opportunities for action. The Romans. The ambassadors being departed. while other captains. but were utterly file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. he returned them a sharp answer. he demanded restitution of the cities and the lands which had been seized upon during the late war. saying. and that the same rights and franchises should be granted them at Rome. there might happen the greatest changes in the world. Being led through the enemy's camp. those of the Volscians who had long envied his reputation.

they sent another embassy. The reply of Marcius was. they determined to sit still within the city. should all and every one of them go in full procession to Marcius with their pontifical array. but granted nothing at all. but. they must understand that they could not have any further freedom of passing through his camp upon idle errands. but if it were his opinion that the Volscians ought to have any favor shown them. and then treat with his countrymen in favor of the Volscians. than if their bodies had been struck with a palsy. upon laying down their arms they might obtain all they could in reason desire. indeed. as the case stood. till at last a thing happened not unlike file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. He consented so far. that the whole order of their priests. in the quality still of a Roman citizen. without capitulating or receding. A decree was made. not to carry it so high. mere confusion and terror and ill-boding reports possessed the whole city. that he should make no answer to this as general of the Volscians. to withdraw his forces. he would advise and exhort them. nor so much as expressed himself more mildly. and then make any proposals he thought best for both parties. should he offer to attack them. fearful. as to give the deputation an admittance into his camp.. When the ambassadors were come back.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. they felt incapable of doing any thing for their own deliverance.htm (27 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . and should urge him. and the waves ready to overwhelm them. according to the ancient practice of the country. and become destitute of sense and motion. as to themselves. with a ratification of his previous demands. they were forced. intending only to repulse the enemy. the priests. otherwise. bade them once for all choose whether they would yield or fight. as we say in extreme perils. those who initiated in the mysteries or had the custody of them.16. but think rather of just compliance. but. But when the thirty days were expired.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. to let down the sacred anchor. and placing their hopes chiefly in time and in extraordinary accidents of fortune. and showed no more disposition or capacity for action. and return to him. since the old terms were the only terms of peace. returning unsuccessful. the Romans would make no concessions to menaces. divined from birds. and keep watch about their walls. When this solemn application proved ineffectual. before three days were at an end. and would withdraw the Volscian army. and the dress and habit which they respectively used in their several functions. as before. and had acquainted the senate with the answer.. seeing the whole state now threatened as it were by a tempest. and those who.to beseech him that he would moderate his displeasure. and Marcius appeared again with his whole army. too.

htm (28 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . being accepted as true by people in general.16.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.. what we so often find represented. in Homer. however.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16.. On some great and unusual occasion we find him say: But him the blueeyed goddess did inspire. and elsewhere: But some immortal turned my mind away. To think what others of the deed would say. and again: Were 't his own thought or were 't a god's command. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. without.

16. Achilles. he were denying the action of a man's own deliberate thought and free choice. to censure and disregard the poet. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. Revolved two purposes in his strong breast.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. as in another passage: He spoke.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. as if.. the case in Homer's representation. and in a third: Yet never to her wishes won The just mind of the brave Bellerophon. in such passages. with quick pain possessed. by the introduction of mere impossibilities and idle fictions. probable. People are apt. where the ordinary.htm (29 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . which is not. and habitual conclusions that common reason leads to are continually ascribed to our own direct agency. in the least.. He certainly says frequently enough: But I consulted with my own great soul. or.

both rose herself.. But where the act is something out of the way and extraordinary. but offering images to stimulate our own. aided and sustained by feelings of confidence and hope. For either we must totally dismiss and exclude divine influences from every kind of causality and origination in what we do. such either as to excite it to. sister to the great Poplicola. to do what is right: it is obvious that they must actuate the practical and elective element of our nature. not to create in us another agency. and enjoyed great respect and honor at Rome. the mother of Marcius. any particular course. and happily lighting.law. by images presented to the imagination. or else what other way can we conceive in which divine aid and cooperation can act? Certainly we cannot suppose that the divine beings actually and literally turn our bodies and direct our hands and our feet this way or that. the Roman women went. suddenly seized with the sort of instinct or emotion of mind which I have described. spoke in the name of them all: file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. but the greater part. and seems in a manner to demand some impulse of divine possession and sudden inspiration to account for it here he does introduce divine agency.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. but give occasion rather to spontaneous action. her life and conduct no way disparaging her birth. Among these suppliants was Valeria. and with her little grandchildren on her lap. In the perplexity which I have described.16. and went directly with them to the house of Volumnia. and the ladies of highest rank. not without divine guidance. Poplicola himself was now deceased. not to destroy. on the right expedient.htm (30 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . and bade the others rise. by certain initial occasions. as is told in the history of his life. who did the Romans eminent service both in peace and war. or avert and withhold it from. And coming in and finding her sitting with her daughter-in. and thoughts suggested to the mind. then surrounded by her female companions. She. but to prompt the human will.. to the altar of Jupiter Capitolinus. but Valeria lived still. some to other temples. Valeria.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. images that in no sort or kind make our action involuntary.

not by direction of the senate.htm (31 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . "We that now make our appearance.. moved to compassion by prayers. who won over their fathers and their husbands from mortal enmity to peace and friendship. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. or an order from the consuls.. Vergilia.16.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and which. O Volumnia. or the appointment of any other magistrate. and you. are come as mere women to women. but the divine being himself. and request a thing on which our own and the common safety depends. as I conceive. if you consent to it.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. will raise your glory above that of the daughters of the Sabines. prompted us to visit you in a body.

nor so much as thought of treating you ill. to which Volumnia made answer: file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.16. though there be small likelihood she should obtain from him any equitable terms. and bear for your country this true and just testimony on her behalf: that. Arise and come with us to Marcius.. join in our supplication." The words of Valeria were seconded by the acclamations of the other women.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. but does now restore you safe into his hands.htm (32 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 .Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. notwithstanding the many mischiefs that have been done her. in all her resentment. yet she has never outraged you..

For it is hardly imaginable he should have any consideration left for us. which is wholly ours.. rather than protected. my countrywomen. Yet I account this the greatest of all misfortunes. have an equal share with you all in the common miseries. when he has no regard for file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro.. and we have the additional sorrow. that we have lost the merit and good fame of Marcius. by the arms of the enemy.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16.16.htm (33 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 .PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and see his person confined. "I and Vergilia. if indeed the affairs of Rome be sunk to so feeble a state as to have their last dependence upon us.

sparing neither tears nor caresses.16. Marcius was then sitting in his place. if nothing more. seeing the party of women advance toward them. and the young children. we are able. however. overcome by his feelings. and observed that his mother Volumnia was desirous to say something. as it were.htm (34 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . by the impetuous violence of his passion. of our service. to him. and. at least to spend our last breath in making suit to him for our country. and confounded at what he saw. and now consider with yourself. though we should say nothing ourselves.. whether we may not pass for the most unfortunate of all file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. but came down hastily to meet them." Having spoken thus. So lamentable a sight much affected the enemies themselves. When he had satisfied himself. but suffering himself to be borne away and carried headlong. wondered what should be the matter. the Volscian council being first called in. and embracing her a long time. he would fain have hardened himself in his former inexorable temper. saluting his mother first. might tell you. and so accompanied them to the Volscian camp. in how forlorn a condition we have lived at home since your banishment and absence from us.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and lead us. but. the country which he was wont to prefer before his mother and wife and children.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. Make use. who viewed them in respectful silence. with his chief officers about him. he did not endure they should approach him sitting in state. if you please. she took Vergilia by the hand. and then his wife and children. he heard her to the following effect: "Our dress and our very persons.. but perceiving at length that his mother was at the head of them. my son.

then. to satisfy a revengeful humor.citizens. be assured of this from me. but if they be not granted. that you shall not be able to reach your country. The chance of all war is uncertain. then the world will say. by conquering Rome.Volumnia to behold her son. Even prayer itself. yet thus much is certain in the present." said she. is the very object of our vows. resumed: "O my son. converted.16. to one of all others the most formidable and dreadful. It is base to bring destitution on our fellow. or of their native soil. rather than the destroyer of one of them. If we obtain these. and wrong to gratify a mother in a request like file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. that. whence others gain comfort and relief in all manner of misfortunes. either led in triumph by his own countrymen. even when they themselves receive the same. only more glorious and honorable on the Volscian side. I confess. the common thanks will be chiefly due to you as the principal cause. "what is the meaning of this silence? Is it a duty to postpone everything to a sense of injuries. will only get the reputation of having undone your country. in arms against the walls of Rome. -.htm (35 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . peace and friendship. to have that sight. Your wife and children are under the sad necessity. you brought misery on your friends and patrons. it is unjust to betray those who have placed their confidence in us. as superior in arms. I am resolved not to wait till war shall determine this alternative for me. but if I cannot prevail with you to prefer amity and concord to quarrel and hostility. women." Marcius listened to his mother while she spoke. and Volumnia. the case would be hard for you to solve. we do but desire a deliverance equally expedient for them and us.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. but if the Volscians happen to be defeated under your conduct. that you. as it is. and Vergilia her husband. but what the worst of our enemies would imprecate as a curse. seeing him stand mute also for a long time after she had ceased. will be thought freely to bestow the two greatest of blessings. which should be the sweetest that we could see. For it will be ill in me to wait and loiter in the world till the day come wherein I shall see a child of mine. and to be the benefactor to both parties.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. But.. nor can we at the same time petition the gods for Rome's victory and your preservation. unless you trample first upon the corpse of her that brought you into life. is that which most adds to our confusion and distress. who.. Did I require you to save your country by ruining the Volscians. As for myself. and reckon steadfastly upon it. that they must either be deprived of you. or triumphing over them. without answering her a word. since our best wishes are inconsistent with themselves. you alone must expect to bear the blame from both nations. my son. through I know not what fatality.

beyond all question.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. I will even use my last resource. Those that guarded the walls had no sooner given notice that the Volscians were dislodged and drawn off. this? Is it the characteristic of a great man to remember wrongs that have been done him. have defeated. The Roman people. as did also his wife and children. You have punished your country already. but if it must be so. as they were wont to do upon tidings brought of any signal victory. as they desired of him. should have won your consent to petitions so worthy and so just as these. whom you. methinks. every one declaring that they were. while much disliking his proceedings. "You have gained a victory." said he. The next morning. however. meantime.. more effectually manifested how much fear and danger they had been in while the war lasted. A third party. crying out. he sent them back again to Rome. though rather from admiration of his virtue. but thought it pardonable in him to be thus shaken and driven to surrender at last. under such compulsion. But the joy and transport of the whole city was chiefly remarkable in the honors and marks of affection paid to the women. though none else. "O mother! what is it you have done to me?" raised her up from the ground. who were inclined to a peaceful conclusion. who are so relentless in the punishment of the ungrateful. should not be more careless than others to be grateful yourself. they all obediently followed him. and began to crown themselves with garlands and prepare for sacrifice. by their deportment after they were freed from it. as well by the senate as the people in general.htm (36 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . upon which Marcius. you have not yet paid your debt to me. unattended by any constraint. the instruments of the public safety. and to requite them with honor and respect? You. they demanded simply that a temple might be erected to Female Fortune. variously affected with what he had done. and pressing her right hand with more than ordinary vehemence. opposed his commands. he broke up his camp. yet could not look upon Marcius as a treacherous person. she threw herself down at his feet. but destructive to your son. None. surely. and not the part of a great and good man to remember benefits such as those that children receive from parents.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. and led the Volscians homeward. unfavorable to neither. Nature and religion. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. "fortunate enough for the Romans." After which. and a little private conference with his mother and his wife.. than any regard they now had to his authority.16. And the senate having passed a decree that whatsoever they would ask in the way of any favor or honor should be allowed and done for them by the magistrates." Having said this. some of them complaining of him and condemning his act. but they set open all their temples in a moment. others.

and tenderness for religion. if the city would be at the cost of sacrifices. they. words to this effect. and then carries away the judgment. The senate. the modes or the strength of its operations. a thing utterly out of possibility. much commending their public spirit. have certainly a strong argument for their faith. as it was putting up. however.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. without an organized body and members fitted for speech. productive of moisture. however. But where history seems in a manner to force our assent by the concurrence of numerous and credible witnesses. is. for a second image of Fortune. and various tints may form on the surfaces. For it was never known that either the soul of man. and to run with tears. without really doing either. out of the common treasury. or the deity himself. which the Romans say uttered. the expense of which they offered to defray out of their own contributions. and language so clear and exact and elaborate. It may be possible enough. Knowledge of divine things for the most part. we are to conclude that an impression distinct from sensation affects the imaginative part of our nature.16. for timber and stones are frequently known to contract a kind of scurf and rottenness. made up a sum among themselves. and effect what for us is impracticable: differing from us in all respects. is lost to us by incredulity. It may happen. that images and statues may sometimes make a noise not unlike that of a moan or groan. is your gift. and such express words. Persons. that statues may seem to sweat. uttered vocal sounds and language. and other matters pertaining to the due honor of the gods. through a rupture or violent internal separation of the parts.. O women. in the wonderful and transcendent character of the divine power. should proceed from inanimate things. "Blessed of the gods. but that an articulate voice.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. either in its nature or its action. It is no contradiction to reason that it should do things that we cannot do.. both from within and from the action of the air outside. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. caused the temple to be built and a statue set up in it at the public charge. alone. also. expecting our belief for what seems pretty nearly an impossibility. which admits no manner of comparison with ours. so as to believe it to be a sensation: just as in sleep we fancy we see and hear. whose strong feelings of reverence to the deity. will not allow them to deny or invalidate anything of this kind. in my judgment.htm (37 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . as Heraclitus says. in its acts yet more than in other points we may well believe it to be unlike us and remote from us." These words they profess were repeated a second time. and to stand with certain dewy drops of a sanguine color. and by these signs it is not absurd to imagine that the deity may forewarn us.

nor to test the general feeling. got together and suborned several partisans against him. Tullus. nor allow him still to retain office and play the tyrant among them. he was never likely to give him such another advantage. as to all particulars of his conduct. and out of reverence allowed him to speak without the least disturbance. He.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. to which they gave honorable interment. therefore. When the file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. fell upon Marcius in a body. began to dread the issue of the defense he was going to make for himself. made it evident by their whole behavior. made answer. Indeed. since people could never have complained or thought themselves wronged. An assembly was called. Having. But it quickly appeared that the action was in nowise approved by the majority of the Volscians. if he escaped now. When Marcius came back to Antium.16.htm (38 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . and that in the meantime he was ready to give the Antiates satisfaction. while Tullus held the office of general and exercised the greatest power among his fellow. as had been concerted. came forward to exasperate and incense the multitude. but when Marcius stood up to answer. as the monument of a noble hero and a famous general. proceeded at once to contrive how he might immediately dispatch him. but the boldest of their faction. Tullus. whenever those from whose common authority he had received it. that he was ready to lay down his commission. he required Marcius to resign his charge. none of those that were present offering to defend him. For these reasons. and popular speakers. apprehending the danger of a private condition. the very accusation itself was a proof and testimony of the greatness of his merits. and judge and pronounce according to equity. and give the Volscians all account of his administration.citizens. and such as were satisfied with a peace. and the former services he had done the Volscians had procured and still preserved for him greater kindness than could be outweighed by any blame for his late conduct. because Rome was not brought into their power. but that by his means they had come so near to taking it. adorning his sepulchre with arms and trophies. therefore. if they were desirous of it.. who thoroughly hated and greatly feared him. while all the better people. crying out that they ought not to listen to a traitor. should think fit to recall it. who hurried out of their several cities to show respect to his corpse. the more unruly and tumultuous part of the people became quiet on a sudden. and slew him there.. that they would give him a favorable hearing.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. as. for he was an admirable speaker. the conspirators judged it prudent not to make any further delays.

they gave no other signification either of honor or of anger towards him. Marcius was no sooner deceased.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C.. where not only Tullus lost his life. as is more amply told in the account of him.16.Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-16. about the appointment of the general of their joint forces. They quarreled first with the Aequians. their confederates and their friends.htm (39 of 39)2006-05-31 20:37:49 . and carried their dispute to the length of bloodshed and slaughter. but the principal flower of their whole army was cut in pieces. Romans heard tidings of his death. as the usage was upon the loss of a father or a son or a brother. and pledging themselves to submission. file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Pro. that they might put themselves into mourning and bewail him for ten months. but the Volscians felt the need of his assistance. that being the period fixed for the longest lamentation by the laws of Numa Pompilius.. so that they were forced to submit and accept of peace upon very dishonorable terms. becoming subjects of Rome. but simply granted the request of the women. and were then defeated by the Romans in a pitched battle.

He is more especially blamed for the dishonorable and treacherous way in which. COMPARISON OF ALCIBIADES WITH CORIOLANUS Having described all their actions that seem to deserve commemoration. displayed in his. and the motive of this action seems to make it the worse of the two. were the abhorrence of the Roman populace. nevertheless placed it in a powerful and formidable position. in his public life. Neither of these courses can be called commendable. as Ion says. and when they were driven into exile. and file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Prov. violence. and oligarchical haughtiness which Marcius. which engaged the city again in war. insults. incline the balance very decidedly upon neither side. All the sober citizens felt disgust at the petulance. in the false report which he spread about the visitors at the Games. Simply to gratify anger. no one ever yet got any return. of the alliance of Argos and Mantinea. as Thucydides relates. their military ones. and the skill and foresight of the general. from which. yet more eminently damaged the fortunes of those countries. And Coriolanus also. out of ordinary political jealousy. the low flattery. but to maintain it by terror. since it was not done. Marcius. on the other hand. but an injustice. strife.0Library/001%20-Da%20Fare/PlutarchParallelLives-17. and false. like the other. to avoid the appearance of flattering. but a man who ingratiates himself by indulgence and flattery. and the ungraciousness. in pretty equal measure. They both. was undoubtedly simple and straightforward.17. is common to both. the fact that Alcibiades was victorious and successful in many contests both by sea and land. Alcibiades. ought to gain him the title of a more complete commander. unless. he threw whole districts of Italy into confusion. Dionysius relates. pride.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. which Alcibiades obtained for it. Yet this policy. is hardly so censurable as one who. and disturbed the continuance of the peace.. To seek power by servility to the people is a disgrace. allowed himself to employ with the view of winning the people's favor. according to our common conceptions of his character. and base seductions which Alcibiades. unscrupulous as a public man. and competition.. is not a disgrace only. and oppression. indeed. by the accession. they eminently sustained. he imposed upon the Lacedaemonian ambassadors. That so long as they remained and held command in their respective countries. used unfair means to excite war between the Romans and the Volscians. we may say.htm (1 of 4)2006-05-31 20:37:50 . displayed on numerous occasions the daring and courage of the soldier.

even when pressed upon him by his commanders as all honor.PlutarchPARALLEL LIVES OF NOBLE GRECIANS AND ROMANS: C. and one great reason for the odium he incurred with the populace in the discussions about their debts was. he did the very thing that Aristides is so highly commended for doing to Themistocles: he came to the generals who were his enemies. was not safe among the Spartans. that Alcibiades also. and spent it in in luxury and dissipation. the better and nobler portion. Antipater." and the absence of this in the character of Marcius file:///D|/Documenta%20Chatolica%20Omnia/99%20-%20Prov. observes. It is true. by his resentment. As regards money. as well as sympathized. Coriolanus. whereas Marcius could not honorably have left the Volscians. but he relented as soon as he found their feelings to be changed. sacrificed to his passion against his country numerous innocent cities. he showed that it had been to destroy and overthrow. "Amongst his other gifts he had that of persuasiveness. we are to suppose that his object in courting favor with him was to avert the entire destruction of his native city. in a letter written upon the death of Aristotle the philosopher. had actually suffered. secondly. the latter had no resort