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Netflix: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Netflix: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

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Published by Emereo Publishing
Netflix, Inc., (NASDAQ: NFLX) is an American provider of on-demand internet streaming video in the United States and Canada, and flat rate DVD-by-mail in the United States. The company was established in 1997 and is headquartered in Los Gatos, California. It started its subscription service in 1999 and by 2009 it was offering a collection of 100,000 titles on DVD, surpassing 10 million subscribers. On February 25, 2007, Netflix announced the billionth DVD delivery. In April 2011, Netflix announced 23.6 million subscribers. In summer 2011, Netflix announced they will expand into the European market, starting in Spain by 2012.

This book is your ultimate resource for Netflix. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Netflix right away, covering: Netflix, 4od, 56.com, 6rounds, ABC iview, Academic Earth, Akimbo (on-demand service), Alfa Omega, Amazon Instant Video, Ameibo, ArtBabble, BBC iPlayer, BlackTV247, Blastro, Blastro Networks, Blip.tv, Bloggingheads.tv, Brightcove, BT Vision, BTV247, Inc, C-SPAN Video Library, Catch up TV, CBS Innertube, Citytv.com.co, CNN, Comedy.com, Comparison of streaming media systems, Comparison of video hosting services, Computaris, Content delivery network, Crackle, Creativity (magazine), Current TV, Dailymotion, Demand 5, Eurocinema vod, EuroparlTV, Everyday Explorers, ExerciseTV, Fabchannel.com, Fancast, FarsiTube, Filemobile, Filipino On Demand, FilmFlex, Filmklik, FilmOn, FORA.tv, Funny or Die, Google Videos, Gravitas Ventures, GreatAmericans.com, Grid casting, HD share, Hiro-Media, Hulu, Imeem, In2TV, Internet television, Smart TV, IPTV, ITunes Store, ITV Player, Jaman, Jumpcut.com, Kaltura, Kangaroo (video on demand), Kewego, LeTV.com, List of Internet television providers, List of streaming media systems, Mag Rack, MaYoMo, Megaupload, Metacafe, MovieBeam, Movieclips, Movieland, Movielink, MSN Soapbox, MSN Video, MSN Video Player, Music Choice, Muziic, MUZU TV, MyOutdoorTV.com, MyToons, National Film Board of Canada, The NewsMarket, NyooTV, OneWorldTV, Openfilm, Ourmedia, OVGuide, P2PTV, Pocket tv, PornoTube, Putfile, Qlipso, Qriocity, QuickPlay Media, Rayzz, Redlasso, ReelTime.com, Reeltime.tv, Revver, Riverflix, RTÉ player, RuTube, ScienceStage, SF Anytime, Sky Anytime, Sky Anytime+, Sky Go, Social viewing, Stage6, Stream recorder, Streaming media, STV Player, Super Deluxe, TeacherTube, The Doomed Planet, ThePlatform, Trilulilu, TroopTube, Truveo, Tudou, Twango, VBOX7, VBS.tv, Veoh, Video spokesperson, VideoJug, VideoLectures.net, VideoSift, Vidoosh, VidZone, Vimeo, Virgin Central, VODone, Vongo, Vuclip, Vzaar, Web acceleration, WeShow, Wildscreen.tv, Windows Media Center, WWE Classics on Demand, XBMC, Xtube, Youku, YouTube

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Netflix. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Netflix with the objectivity of experienced professionals.
Netflix, Inc., (NASDAQ: NFLX) is an American provider of on-demand internet streaming video in the United States and Canada, and flat rate DVD-by-mail in the United States. The company was established in 1997 and is headquartered in Los Gatos, California. It started its subscription service in 1999 and by 2009 it was offering a collection of 100,000 titles on DVD, surpassing 10 million subscribers. On February 25, 2007, Netflix announced the billionth DVD delivery. In April 2011, Netflix announced 23.6 million subscribers. In summer 2011, Netflix announced they will expand into the European market, starting in Spain by 2012.

This book is your ultimate resource for Netflix. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Netflix right away, covering: Netflix, 4od, 56.com, 6rounds, ABC iview, Academic Earth, Akimbo (on-demand service), Alfa Omega, Amazon Instant Video, Ameibo, ArtBabble, BBC iPlayer, BlackTV247, Blastro, Blastro Networks, Blip.tv, Bloggingheads.tv, Brightcove, BT Vision, BTV247, Inc, C-SPAN Video Library, Catch up TV, CBS Innertube, Citytv.com.co, CNN, Comedy.com, Comparison of streaming media systems, Comparison of video hosting services, Computaris, Content delivery network, Crackle, Creativity (magazine), Current TV, Dailymotion, Demand 5, Eurocinema vod, EuroparlTV, Everyday Explorers, ExerciseTV, Fabchannel.com, Fancast, FarsiTube, Filemobile, Filipino On Demand, FilmFlex, Filmklik, FilmOn, FORA.tv, Funny or Die, Google Videos, Gravitas Ventures, GreatAmericans.com, Grid casting, HD share, Hiro-Media, Hulu, Imeem, In2TV, Internet television, Smart TV, IPTV, ITunes Store, ITV Player, Jaman, Jumpcut.com, Kaltura, Kangaroo (video on demand), Kewego, LeTV.com, List of Internet television providers, List of streaming media systems, Mag Rack, MaYoMo, Megaupload, Metacafe, MovieBeam, Movieclips, Movieland, Movielink, MSN Soapbox, MSN Video, MSN Video Player, Music Choice, Muziic, MUZU TV, MyOutdoorTV.com, MyToons, National Film Board of Canada, The NewsMarket, NyooTV, OneWorldTV, Openfilm, Ourmedia, OVGuide, P2PTV, Pocket tv, PornoTube, Putfile, Qlipso, Qriocity, QuickPlay Media, Rayzz, Redlasso, ReelTime.com, Reeltime.tv, Revver, Riverflix, RTÉ player, RuTube, ScienceStage, SF Anytime, Sky Anytime, Sky Anytime+, Sky Go, Social viewing, Stage6, Stream recorder, Streaming media, STV Player, Super Deluxe, TeacherTube, The Doomed Planet, ThePlatform, Trilulilu, TroopTube, Truveo, Tudou, Twango, VBOX7, VBS.tv, Veoh, Video spokesperson, VideoJug, VideoLectures.net, VideoSift, Vidoosh, VidZone, Vimeo, Virgin Central, VODone, Vongo, Vuclip, Vzaar, Web acceleration, WeShow, Wildscreen.tv, Windows Media Center, WWE Classics on Demand, XBMC, Xtube, Youku, YouTube

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Netflix. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Netflix with the objectivity of experienced professionals.

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Published by: Emereo Publishing on Jul 25, 2011
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  • Netflix
  • 56.com
  • 6rounds
  • ABC iview
  • Academic Earth
  • Akimbo (on-demand service)
  • Alfa Omega
  • Amazon Instant Video
  • Ameibo
  • ArtBabble
  • BBC iPlayer
  • BlackTV247
  • Blastro
  • Blastro Networks
  • Blip.tv
  • Bloggingheads.tv
  • Brightcove
  • BT Vision
  • BTV247, Inc
  • C-SPAN Video Library
  • Catch up TV
  • CBS Innertube
  • Citytv.com.co
  • Comedy.com
  • Comparison of streaming media systems
  • Comparison of video hosting services
  • Computaris
  • Content delivery network
  • Crackle
  • Creativity (magazine)
  • Current TV
  • Dailymotion
  • Demand 5
  • Eurocinema vod
  • EuroparlTV
  • Everyday Explorers
  • ExerciseTV
  • Fabchannel.com
  • Fancast
  • FarsiTube
  • Filemobile
  • Filipino On Demand
  • FilmFlex
  • Filmklik
  • FilmOn
  • FORA.tv
  • Funny or Die
  • Google Videos
  • Gravitas Ventures
  • GreatAmericans.com
  • Grid casting
  • HD share
  • Hiro-Media
  • HIRO-Media
  • Hulu
  • imeem
  • In2TV
  • Internet television
  • Smart TV
  • IPTV
  • iTunes Store
  • ITV Player
  • Jaman
  • Jumpcut.com
  • Kaltura
  • Kangaroo (video on demand)
  • Kewego
  • LeTV.com
  • List of Internet television providers
  • List of streaming media systems
  • Mag Rack
  • MaYoMo
  • Megaupload
  • Metacafe
  • MovieBeam
  • MovieBeam
  • Movieclips
  • Movieland
  • Movielink
  • MSN Soapbox
  • MSN Video
  • MSN Video Player
  • Music Choice
  • Muziic
  • MyOutdoorTV.com
  • MyToons
  • National Film Board of Canada
  • National Film Board of Canada logo
  • The NewsMarket
  • NyooTV
  • OneWorldTV
  • Openfilm
  • Ourmedia
  • OVGuide
  • P2PTV
  • Pocket tv
  • PornoTube
  • Putfile
  • Qlipso
  • Qriocity
  • QuickPlay Media
  • Rayzz
  • Redlasso
  • ReelTime.com
  • Reeltime.tv
  • Revver
  • Riverflix
  • Riverflix
  • RTÉ player
  • RuTube
  • ScienceStage
  • SF Anytime
  • Sky Anytime
  • Sky Anytime+
  • Sky Go
  • Social viewing
  • Stage6
  • Stream recorder
  • Streaming media
  • STV Player
  • Super Deluxe
  • TeacherTube
  • The Doomed Planet
  • ThePlatform
  • Trilulilu
  • TroopTube
  • Truveo
  • Tudou
  • Tudou"
  • Twango
  • VBOX7
  • VBS.tv
  • Veoh
  • Video spokesperson
  • VideoJug
  • VideoLectures.net
  • VideoSift
  • Vidoosh
  • VidZone
  • Vimeo
  • Virgin Central
  • VODone
  • Vongo
  • Vuclip
  • vzaar
  • Web acceleration
  • WeShow
  • Wildscreen.tv
  • Windows Media Center
  • WWE Classics on Demand
  • WWE Classics On Demand
  • WWE Classics on Demand [1]

Netfl ix

High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know:
Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors
Kevin Roebuck
Netflix, Inc., (NASDAQ: NFLX) is an American provider of on-demand internet streaming video in the United
States and Canada, and flat rate DVD-by-mail in the United States. The company was established in 1997
and is headquartered in Los Gatos, California. It started its subscription service in 1999 and by 2009 it was
offering a collection of 100,000 titles on DVD, surpassing 10 million subscribers. On February 25, 2007,
Netflix announced the billionth DVD delivery. In April 2011, Netflix announced 23.6 million subscribers. In
summer 2011, Netflix announced they will expand into the European market, starting in Spain by 2012.
This book is your ultimate resource for Netflix. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis,
background and everything you need to know.
In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about
Netflix right away, covering: Netflix, 4od, 56.com, 6rounds, ABC iview, Academic Earth, Akimbo (on-de-
mand service), Alfa Omega, Amazon Instant Video, Ameibo, ArtBabble, BBC iPlayer, BlackTV247, Blastro,
Blastro Networks, Blip.tv, Bloggingheads.tv, Brightcove, BT Vision, BTV247, Inc, C-SPAN Video Library,
Catch up TV, CBS Innertube, Citytv.com.co, CNN, Comedy.com, Comparison of streaming media systems,
Comparison of video hosting services, Computaris, Content delivery network, Crackle, Creativity (maga-
zine), Current TV, Dailymotion, Demand 5, Eurocinema vod, EuroparlTV, Everyday Explorers, ExerciseTV,
Fabchannel.com, Fancast, FarsiTube, Filemobile, Filipino On Demand, FilmFlex, Filmklik, FilmOn, FORA.
tv, Funny or Die, Google Videos, Gravitas Ventures, GreatAmericans.com, Grid casting, HD share, Hiro-
Media, Hulu, Imeem, In2TV, Internet television, Smart TV, IPTV, ITunes Store, ITV Player, Jaman, Jumpcut.
com, Kaltura, Kangaroo (video on demand), Kewego, LeTV.com, List of Internet television providers, List of
streaming media systems, Mag Rack, MaYoMo, Megaupload, Metacafe, MovieBeam, Movieclips, Movieland,
Movielink, MSN Soapbox, MSN Video, MSN Video Player, Music Choice, Muziic, MUZU TV, MyOutdoorTV.
com, MyToons, National Film Board of Canada, The NewsMarket, NyooTV, OneWorldTV, Openfilm, Ourmedia,
OVGuide, P2PTV, Pocket tv, PornoTube, Putfile, Qlipso, Qriocity, QuickPlay Media, Rayzz, Redlasso, Reel-
Time.com, Reeltime.tv, Revver, Riverflix, RTÉ player, RuTube, ScienceStage, SF Anytime, Sky Anytime, Sky
Anytime+, Sky Go, Social viewing, Stage6, Stream recorder, Streaming media, STV Player, Super Deluxe,
TeacherTube, The Doomed Planet, ThePlatform, Trilulilu, TroopTube, Truveo, Tudou, Twango, VBOX7, VBS.tv,
Veoh, Video spokesperson, VideoJug, VideoLectures.net, VideoSift, Vidoosh, VidZone, Vimeo, Virgin Cen-
tral, VODone, Vongo, Vuclip, Vzaar, Web acceleration, WeShow, Wildscreen.tv, Windows Media Center, WWE
Classics on Demand, XBMC, Xtube, Youku, YouTube
This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Netflix. It reduces the risk of your technology,
time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Netflix with the
objectivity of experienced professionals.

Topic relevant selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and
Combine the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of
printed books.
A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation
to support their mission: to empower and engage people around the world to collect
and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to
disseminate it effectively and globally.
The content within this book was generated collaboratively by volunteers. Please be
advised that nothing found here has necessarily been reviewed by people with the
expertise required to provide you with complete, accurate or reliable information. Some
information in this book maybe misleading or simply wrong. The publisher does not
guarantee the validity of the information found here. If you need specifc advice (for
example, medical, legal, fnancial, or risk management) please seek a professional who is
licensed or knowledgeable in that area.
Sources, licenses and contributors of the articles and images are listed in the section
entitled “References”. Parts of the books may be licensed under the GNU Free
Documentation License. A copy of this license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free
Documentation License”
All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners.
Netflix 1
4od 19
56.com 37
6rounds 39
ABC iview 41
Academic Earth 43
Akimbo (on-demand service) 44
Alfa Omega 46
Amazon Instant Video 46
Ameibo 50
ArtBabble 51
BBC iPlayer 52
BlackTV247 67
Blastro 68
Blastro Networks 69
Blip.tv 70
Bloggingheads.tv 71
Brightcove 77
BT Vision 80
BTV247, Inc 85
C-SPAN Video Library 87
Catch up TV 89
CBS Innertube 90
Citytv.com.co 91
CNN 92
Comedy.com 111
Comparison of streaming media systems 111
Comparison of video hosting services 116
Computaris 125
Content delivery network 126
Crackle 130
Creativity (magazine) 132
Current TV 134
Dailymotion 142
Demand 5 146
Eurocinema vod 147
EuroparlTV 148
Everyday Explorers 149
ExerciseTV 150
Fabchannel.com 152
Fancast 154
FarsiTube 155
Filemobile 158
Filipino On Demand 161
FilmFlex 161
Filmklik 163
FilmOn 164
FORA.tv 166
Funny or Die 168
Google Videos 170
Gravitas Ventures 176
GreatAmericans.com 178
Grid casting 180
HD share 181
Hiro-Media 183
Hulu 185
imeem 191
In2TV 199
Internet television 200
Smart TV 206
IPTV 210
iTunes Store 224
ITV Player 245
Jaman 248
Jumpcut.com 250
Kaltura 252
Kangaroo (video on demand) 255
Kewego 257
LeTV.com 258
List of Internet television providers 259
List of streaming media systems 266
Mag Rack 269
MaYoMo 271
Megaupload 273
Metacafe 276
MovieBeam 279
Movieclips 281
Movieland 282
Movielink 288
MSN Soapbox 289
MSN Video 290
MSN Video Player 291
Music Choice 293
Muziic 299
MyOutdoorTV.com 303
MyToons 305
National Film Board of Canada 307
The NewsMarket 320
NyooTV 322
OneWorldTV 325
Openfilm 327
Ourmedia 328
OVGuide 330
P2PTV 332
Pocket tv 334
PornoTube 336
Putfile 338
Qlipso 340
Qriocity 342
QuickPlay Media 344
Rayzz 346
Redlasso 348
ReelTime.com 350
Reeltime.tv 352
Revver 354
Riverflix 357
RTÉ player 358
RuTube 360
ScienceStage 361
SF Anytime 363
Sky Anytime 363
Sky Anytime+ 365
Sky Go 369
Social viewing 371
Stage6 372
Stream recorder 375
Streaming media 377
STV Player 381
Super Deluxe 383
TeacherTube 385
The Doomed Planet 387
ThePlatform 388
Trilulilu 391
TroopTube 393
Truveo 394
Tudou 397
Twango 401
VBOX7 403
VBS.tv 404
Veoh 406
Video spokesperson 409
VideoJug 410
VideoLectures.net 411
VideoSift 412
Vidoosh 416
VidZone 418
Vimeo 421
Virgin Central 424
VODone 425
Vongo 426
Vuclip 428
vzaar 429
Web acceleration 431
WeShow 432
Wildscreen.tv 435
Windows Media Center 436
WWE Classics on Demand 441
XBMC 446
Xtube 470
Youku 472
YouTube 474
Article Sources and Contributors 489
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 501
Article Licenses
License 505
Netflix, Inc.
Type Public company
Traded as
Industry Video rental
Headquarters Los Gatos, California, US
Area served United States, Canada
Key people Reed Hastings, co-founder and CEO
David Wells, CFO, Secretary
Leslie J. Kilgore, CMO
Products Proprietary Microsoft VC-1 video download, online DVD and Blu-ray Disc rental
US$1.67 billion (FY 2009)
Operating income
US$194 million (FY 2009)
Net income
US$116 million (FY 2009)
Total assets
US$680 million (FY 2009)
Total equity
US$199 million (FY 2009)
2,180 full-time (2010)
Netflix, Inc., (NASDAQ: NFLX
) is an American provider of on-demand internet streaming video in the United
States and Canada,
and flat rate DVD-by-mail in the United States. The company was established in 1997 and is
headquartered in Los Gatos, California. It started its subscription service in 1999
and by 2009 it was offering a
collection of 100,000 titles on DVD, surpassing 10 million subscribers. On February 25, 2007, Netflix announced the
billionth DVD delivery.
In April 2011, Netflix announced 23.6 million subscribers.
In summer 2011, Netflix
announced they will expand into the European market, starting in Spain by 2012.
Netflix headquarters in Los Gatos
Netflix was founded in 1997 in Scotts
Valley, California by Marc Randolph and
Reed Hastings, who previously had worked
together at Pure Software, along with Mitch
Lowe. Hastings was inspired to start the
company after being charged late fees for
returning a rented copy of Apollo 13 after
the due date.
The Netflix website
launched in April 1998 with an online
version of a more traditional pay-per-rental
model (US $4 per rental plus US $2 in
postage; late fees applied).
introduced the monthly subscription concept
in September 1999,
then dropped the
single-rental model in early 2000. Since that
time the company has built its reputation on
the business model of flat-fee unlimited rentals without due dates, late fees, shipping or handling fees, or per title
rental fees.
Netflix developed and maintains an extensive personalized video-recommendation system based on ratings and
reviews by its customers. On October 1, 2006, Netflix offered a $1,000,000 prize to the first developer of a
video-recommendation algorithm that could beat its existing algorithm, Cinematch, at predicting customer ratings by
more than 10%.
"Some 35,000 different film titles are contained in the 1 million DVDs it sends out every day."
Netflix has played a prominent role in independent film distribution. Through a division called Red Envelope
Entertainment, Netflix licensed and distributed independent films such as Born into Brothels and Sherrybaby. As of
late 2006, Red Envelope Entertainment also expanded into producing original content with filmmakers such as John
Netflix announced plans to close Red Envelope Entertainment in 2008, in part to avoid competition with
its studio partners.

Netflix initiated an initial public offering (IPO) on May 29, 2002, selling 5,500,000 shares of common stock at the
price of US $15.00 per share. On June 14, 2002, the company sold an additional 825,000 shares of common stock at
the same price. After incurring substantial losses during its first few years, Netflix posted its first profit during fiscal
year 2003, earning US $6.5 million profit on revenues of US $272 million. The company is well-known for its
worker-oriented culture, including unlimited vacation time for salaried workers and allowing those employees to
take any amount of their paychecks in stock options.
Netflix has been one of the most successful dot-com ventures. A The New York Times article from September 2002,
said that, at the time, Netflix mailed about 190,000 discs per day to its 670,000 monthly subscribers. The company's
published subscriber count increased from one million in the fourth quarter of 2002 to around 5.6 million at the end
of the third quarter of 2006, to 14 million in March 2010. Netflix's growth has been fueled by the fast spread of DVD
players in households; as of 2004, nearly two-thirds of U.S. homes had a DVD player. Netflix capitalized on the
success of the DVD and its rapid expansion into U.S. homes, integrating the potential of the Internet and
e-commerce to provide services and catalogs that brick and mortar retailers could not compete with. Netflix also
operates an online affiliate program which has helped it to build online sales for DVD rentals.
Netflix is a subscription-based movie and television show rental service that offers media to subscribers via Internet
streaming and via US mail.
Internet video streaming
Netflix offers Internet video streaming ("Watch Instantly") of selected titles to computers running Windows or Mac
OS X and to compatible devices. Internet video streaming comes at no additional charge with Netflix's regular
subscription service; however, only a portion of Netflix's content is available via the "Watch Instantly" option.
its simplest form, video is streamed to the user using standard PC hardware, and requires Microsoft's Silverlight
software to be installed. Viewing is initiated by pressing a "Play Instantly" button, and played back on the PC
monitor. Films can be paused or restarted at will. According to a 2011 report by Sandvine, Netflix is the biggest
source of North American web traffic, accounting for 24.71 percent of aggregated traffic.
Initially, the feature offered subscribers one hour of media for approximately every dollar they spent on their
subscription. (A $16.99 plan, for example, entitled the subscriber to 17 hours of streaming media.) In January 2008,
however, Netflix lifted this restriction. Virtually all subscribers now are entitled to unlimited hours of streaming
media at no additional cost. Subscribers with a plan of $4.99/two DVDs per month, one DVD at a time, are allowed
two hours which can only be watched on a computer. The new terms of the service are a response to the introduction
of Apple's new video rental services.
According to Netflix Tech Support, Netflix's content library is encoded into three bandwidth tiers, in a compression
format based on the VC-1 video and Windows Media audio codecs. The lowest tier requires a continuous
downstream bandwidth (to the client) of 1.5 Mbit/s, and offers stereo audio and video quality comparable to DVD.
The middle tier requires 3 Mbit/s, and offers "better than DVD quality". The highest tier requires 5 Mbit/s, and offers
720p HD with surround sound audio. As of December 2010, the PS3 is the only device able to stream Netflix at
1080p resolution.
Netflix does not support playback on Linux PCs although the Linux-based Roku devices are supported. It is possible
to connect the Roku device, game console, or blu-ray player to a Linux PC (or directly to the computer monitor) with
an adapter. It is also possible to run Windows and Netflix in a virtual machine such as Virtualbox or Qemu. In a
TechRepublic interview in August 2010, Netflix's VP of Corporate Communications stated that available Silverlight
plugins for Linux, such as Moonlight, do not support the PlayReady DRM system that Netflix requires for
Netflix does support the Android operating system, which uses the Linux kernel, although is otherwise
separate from Linux.
On October 1, 2008, Netflix announced a partnership with Starz Entertainment to bring 2,500+ new movies and
television shows to Watch Instantly in what is being called Starz Play.
In August 2010, Netflix announced it had reached a five-year deal worth nearly $1 billion to stream movies from
Paramount, Lionsgate and MGM. The deal increases the amount Netflix spends on streaming movies annually. It
spent $117 million in the first six months of 2010 on streaming, up from $31 million in 2009. This deal adds roughly
$200 million per year.
As of 2011, Netflix's "Watch Instantly" service holds first-run rights to films from Paramount Pictures, MGM, Lions
Gate Entertainment (through an output deal with Epix), along with films from Sony Pictures, Walt Disney Motion
Pictures Group, Overture Films, Anchor Bay Entertainment (through an output deal with Starz). Other studios
providing first-run films include First Look Pictures, Relativity Media and other smaller and independent
distributors. In addition, Netflix holds rights to back-catalog titles to films from Time Warner, Universal Pictures,
Sony Pictures, Paramount Pictures, MGM, Lions Gate Entertainment, 20th Century Fox and other distributors.
Netflix also provides current and back-catalog TV programs distributed by NBC Universal, 20th Century Fox, Sony
Pictures, Disney-ABC Domestic Television, with select shows from Warner Bros. as well. Netflix also previously
showed movies from the Criterion Collection, but the titles were pulled from the streaming library when Criterion
Collection titles were added to Hulu's Hulu Plus streaming library.
On July 12, 2011 Netflix announced that it would separate the current subscription plans into two separate plans: one
covering the instant streaming and the other DVD rental.
The cost for streaming would be $7.99 while DVD
rental would start at the same price. The announcement led to a flurry of negative reception amongst Netflix's
Facebook followers, with over 9,000 negative comments.
Twitter comments also spiked a "Dear Netflix" trend
with generally negative comments as well.
The company defended its decision during its initial announcement of
the change. "Given the long life we think DVDs by mail will have, treating DVDs as a $2 add-on to our unlimited
streaming plan neither makes great financial sense nor satisfies people who just want DVDs," Netflix wrote on its
blog. "Creating an unlimited-DVDs-by-mail plan (no streaming) at our lowest price ever, $7.99, does make sense
and will ensure a long life for our DVDs-by-mail offering."
Disc rental
The discs are returned to Netflix in the same envelopes in which they are sent to
In the United States, the company provides a
monthly flat-fee service for the rental of
DVD and Blu-ray discs. A subscriber
creates an ordered list, called a rental queue,
of movies to rent. The movies are delivered
individually via the United States Postal
Service from an array of regional
warehouses. As of March 28, 2011, Netflix
had 58 shipping locations throughout the
The subscriber can keep the rented
movie as long as desired, but there is a limit
on the number of movies (determined by
subscription level) that each subscriber can
have on loan simultaneously. To rent a new
movie, the subscriber must mail the
previous one back to Netflix in a prepaid mailing envelope. Upon receipt of the disc, Netflix ships the next available
disc in the subscriber's rental queue.
Netflix offers several pricing tiers, starting at $4.99 per month for one disc at a time and a limit of two-per-month.
Netflix also offers gift subscriptions for various rental tiers.
Since November 21, 2008, Netflix has offered their subscribers access to Blu-ray Discs for an additional fee of $1
plus $1-per-disc in the subscription plan (i.e., a 3-DVD-at-a-time plan with Blu-Ray costs an additional $4). The fee
for this service increased on April 27, 2009.
In addition to its movie rental service, Netflix formerly sold used movies. The purchase was delivered via the same
system and billed using the same payment methods as rentals. This service was discontinued at the end of November
Starting January 6, 2010, Netflix reached an agreement with Warner Brothers Pictures to delay renting new releases
for 28 days from their retail release in an attempt to help studios sell more physical media at retail outlets. A similar
deal with Universal Studios and Twentieth Century Fox was reached on April 9, 2010.


Original programming
In March 2011, Netflix announced plans to begin acquiring first-run original content for its popular Watch Instantly
subscription service, beginning with the hour-long political drama House of Cards, which will debut on the
streaming service in late 2012. The series will reportedly be helmed by David Fincher, with Academy Award
winning actor Kevin Spacey headlining the cast.
Netflix is rumored to have outbid heavyweights HBO and AMC,
two of the current market leaders in original
dramatic programming. As Deadline.com reported on March 15, 2011:
"Netflix landed the drama project by offering a staggering commitment of two seasons, or 26 episodes. Given
that the price tag for a high-end drama is in the $4–$6 million an episode range and that a launch of a big
original series commands tens of millions of dollars for promotion, the deal, is believed to be worth more than
$100 million and could change the way people consume TV shows."
Initial industry reactions largely echoed this tone, and, while generally positive, have focused heavily on Netflix's
bold, risky, and potentially transformative entry into the original content game. In the face of breathless and rampant
media speculation, Netflix's response has thus far been reserved and mostly focused on downplaying the potential
implications in its core strategy. In an interview with All Things Digital's Peter Kafka, Netflix content chief Ted
Sarandos attempted to put the situation into perspective:
"It's not much of a radical departure in what we do every day. There’s an added risk factor, in that this is the
first time we’re licensing something that hasn't been produced, or at least completed."
But there's no risk factor in terms of delivery, because we're not investing development money, and we don't
pay for it unless they deliver the show. But it is the first time we've made a very large commitment to a series
that hasn’t been produced.
It's just a matter of your philosophy around development. Networks can typically invest tens of millions of
dollars in the development of a pilot. And if they put the show on the air and it fails, that's all lost money.
There's no monetization of a broken series.
We're betting on the creative team and the source material. "House of Cards" is incredible source
material–the BBC version is quite popular already on Netflix. David Fincher's work has all been incredibly
well-received on Netflix, and Kevin Spacey's films have all worked on Netflix. The notion that that team will
produce a very good product is a pretty safe bet.
[...] If the show proves very popular, it won't be any more expensive than licensing a popular show off of a
network. So economically, it's not a seismic shift, if it's popular. If it isn't, then we'll have paid more for an
unpopular show than we normally would have.
The day after the after news of the acquisition broke, The Wall Street Journal responded to Deadline.com's report
that Netflix could pay more than $100 million as part of a deal for 26 episodes, citing a source "[...] familiar with
Netflix's plans," who claimed the actual amount will be "[...] much less than that,"
a sentiment echoed Peter
Kafka in his influential Media Memo blog.
Despite initial media confusion to the contrary, Netflix will not be producing House of Cards directly, but rather will
license it from Media Rights Capital who will deficit finance the series.
Netflix will have first-run domestic
exclusivity, but Media Rights Capital will own the series and retain domestic syndication, foreign distribution,
worldwide DVD/Blu-ray, and all other ancillary rights.
Netflix spokesmen have declined to specify what the company will actually be paying for the series House of Cards,
but as reliable sources have confirmed it to be significantly less than the series' rumored $100 million production

Netflix's fee for the 26 episode deal will necessarily amount to less than $3.85 million per episode. For
comparison, during the 2006–2010 television seasons, Fox Broadcast Network paid a license fee of $5 million per
episode to 20th Century Fox Television for 24,
while satellite provider DirecTV pays license fees of only
$1–$1.25 million per episode
for its critically acclaimed series Damages and Friday Night Lights. Netflix's
licensing costs for House of Cards will therefore fall somewhere between that of a typical high-end hour-long
network drama and a modestly budgeted niche cable production.
Another significant cost factor for the series will be Netflix's unique marketing strategy, which, unlike the networks,
does not involve spending "anything" to promote the series. According to Netflix spokesman Steve Swasey, "You
won't see billboards or TV ads or banner ads." Instead, Netflix will rely entirely on its recommendation technology
to suggest House of Cards only to its subscribers who are most likely to enjoy it—viewers who, for example, enjoy
political dramas, films by David Fincher, and liked American Beauty and The Usual Suspects. It remains unclear
however if or how Netflix plans to leverage House of Cards to drive subscriber growth. But regardless, the frenzy of
press attention that emerged even before the acquisition was officially announced demonstrates that, at least for now,
public and media interest in the series are high.
In June 2008, Netflix announced plans to eliminate its online subscriber profile feature that fall.
Profiles allow
one subscriber account to contain multiple users (e.g. husband and wife, or two roommates) with separate DVD
queues, ratings, recommendations, friend lists, reviews, and intra-site communications for each. Netflix contended
that elimination of profiles would improve customer experience.
However, likely as a result of negative reviews
and reaction by Netflix users.


Netflix reversed its decision to remove profiles 11 days after its
In announcing the reinstatement of profiles, Netflix defended its original decision, "Because of an
ongoing desire to make our website easier to use, we believed taking a feature away that is only used by a very small
minority would help us improve the site for everyone." Then explained its reversal, "Listening to our members, we
realized that users of this feature often describe it as an essential part of their Netflix experience. Simplicity is only
one virtue and it can certainly be outweighed by utility."
Device support
Hardware supported
List of Netflix-ready devices:
• Apple TV set-top box
• Boxee Box set-top box
• Insignia Blu-ray Disc players and home theater systems
• LG Electronics Blu-ray Disc players, TVs (LH50 series LCD and PS80 plasma), and home theater systems
• Logitech Revue Google TV Buddy Box
• Microsoft Xbox 360
• Nintendo Wii
and Nintendo 3DS
(Wii U support also confirmed)
• Panasonic Some Blu-ray Disc players, televisions and home theater systems
• Philips Some Blu-ray Disc players and TVs
• Popbox set-top box (announced)
• Roku set-top box
• Samsung Some Blu-ray Disc players and home theater systems
• Seagate FreeAgent Theater+ HD Media Players
• Sharp Some Blu-ray Disc players
• Sony Blu-ray Disc players, TVs, Google TV devices, and PlayStation 3
• TiVo DVRs (HD, HD XL, Series3™, Premiere and Premiere XL boxes)
• Viewsonic VMP75
• Vizio Some Blu-ray Disc players and TVs
• Western Digital WD Live plus Media Player
Software support
Supported Web Browsers by Platform:
• Microsoft Windows: Windows XP Service Pack 2, Windows Vista, Windows 7 running Internet Explorer 6 (or
higher), Firefox 2 (or higher) or Google Chrome 6 (or higher). New viewer requires use of the Microsoft
Silverlight technology and a 1.2 GHz CPU.
• Mac OS X: An Intel-based Mac with OS 10.4.8 or later. Browser support is Safari 3 (or higher), Firefox 2 (or
higher) or Google Chrome. Mac Netflix was added October 27, 2008, which requires use of the Microsoft
Silverlight technology.
Other software options:
• Android including the HTC Incredible (2.2), Nexus One (2.2/3), EVO 4G (2.2) and G2 (2.2), Samsung Nexus S
(2.3), Motorola Droid (2.2), LG Revolution (2.2), Casio G'zOne Commando C771 (2.2), and Archos 32 Internet
Tablet (2.2). May be limited due to DRM issues
Now with device check removed it will work on various
• Boxee OS X and Windows versions only (beta)
• iOS iPad,
iPod Touch,
Apple TV
• MediaPortal Windows using the My Netflix plug-in.
• PlayOn Windows, from MediaMall, used with UPnP clients such as PlayStation 3, Wii and XBMC Media Center
• Plex media center for Mac OS X only, using the Netflix plug-in from their App Store.
• Windows Phone 7
Video game consoles
At E3 2008, Microsoft announced a deal to distribute Netflix videos over Xbox Live.
This service was launched
on November 19, 2008
to Xbox 360 owners with a Netflix Unlimited subscription and an Xbox Live Gold
allowing them to stream movies and TV shows directly from their Netflix Instant Queue from an
application on the Dashboard.
In October 2009, Sony Computer Entertainment and Netflix announced that the service would also be available on
the PlayStation 3 from November 2009. The set-up was similar to that on the Xbox 360, allowing Netflix subscribers
to stream movies, videogames, and TV shows from their Instant Queue to watch on the console. Unlike on the Xbox
360, the Netflix application was originally available on a Blu-ray Disc (available free to subscribers). On October 19,
2010, a downloadable application was made available through the PlayStation Network.
Users do not have to pay
for use of the service other than the monthly Netflix subscription.
On January 13, 2010, Nintendo and Netflix announced that the service would become available on the Wii. This
service was launched in Spring 2010. The service allows the console to stream content in a user's Instant Queue.
Initially, a streaming disc specifically for the Wii was required along with an Internet connection to the console.
Besides a Netflix account with unlimited streaming, there are no additional costs for the service. In contrast to the
other two consoles, the Wii is not capable of HD resolution.
The Wii streaming disc was released for testing to
customers starting Thursday March 25, 2010. The disc was released to all registered Netflix members on April 12,
On October 18, 2010, the streaming disc on the Wii was no longer necessary as Netflix became a free
downloadable application on the Wii Shop Channel. On the PlayStation 3, the streaming disc is also no longer
necessary, as members can download the application through the PlayStation Store, and will be a tab under the
On June 14, 2011, Nintendo's president Satoru Iwata confirmed that Wii's successor console, the Wii U will also
have support for Netflix.
Netflix service launched for the Nintendo 3DS on July 14, 2011.
Set-top boxes
In May 2008 the first set-top-box to stream Netflix's Watch Instantly movies directly to televisions was released. The
device is manufactured by Roku and provides unlimited access to the Netflix streaming media catalog for all
subscribers starting at $7.99/month.
Set-top box can easily transform your normal regular TV into a "Smart"
Blu-ray players
In October 2008 Netflix agreed to instantly stream movies to two of Samsung's Blu-ray Disc players.
They soon
after announced a partnership to instantly stream movies to TiVo DVRs.
In January 2009 Netflix announced a similar partnership with Vizio and LG to instantly stream movies directly to
their high definition televisions.
In July 2009, Sony announced a partnership with Netflix that will enable Sony BRAVIA Internet Platforms to access
instant queues for Netflix users. Any Netflix member with an internet-enabled BRAVIA HDTV will be able to link
up their account to their TV and stream videos from their queue.
The 2010 line of Panasonic HDTVs with Viera Cast functionality gained the ability to stream Netflix content directly
to the television.
With 2010's release of the Google TV, a built in application was Netflix streaming.
All other TVs, including LCD and plasma, require connection to a desktop computer, set-top box or game console in
order to view streamed content.
Handheld devices
In September 2009, Netflix CEO Reed Hastings expressed his desire to expand his company's video-streaming
service to Apple's iPhone and iPod Touch mobile devices once the Xbox 360 exclusivity deal expires.
In April
2010, the Netflix app debuted on the Apple's iTunes app store for use with the iPad.
The iPhone/ iPod Touch
version was released on August 26, 2010 via the App Store.
Netflix is also available on Windows Phone 7
devices. Nintendo announced that the Nintendo 3DS portable video game console will support Netflix video
streaming in summer 2011.
On March 15, 2011, it was announced that Netflix was available for Android phones
but not all Android phones can use the application due to DRM issues.
Netflix became available on July 14th on
the 3DS although no 3D content is available.
Sales and marketing
The domain netflix.com attracted at least 194 million visitors annually by 2008, according to a Compete.com survey.
This is about five times the number of visitors to blockbuster.com.
On March 30, 2009 Netflix announced an increase in the monthly fee it would charge to customers who rent
Blu-Ray discs, from $1 a month to $2 a month.
During the first quarter of 2011, sales and rentals of packaged DVD and Blu-ray discs plunged about 20 percent, and
the sell-through of packaged discs fell 19.99 percent to $2.07 billion, with more money spent on subscription rentals
than in-store rentals.
Netflix had preliminary plans to expand to the UK in 2004, but the expansion was cancelled as Netflix concentrated
its services on the U.S. market.
Zip.ca currently markets itself as a Canadian equivalent to Netflix. Posren and
Tsutaya discas would be Japanese equivalents. On July 19, 2010 Netflix announced that in the fall of 2010 it would
launch its instant streaming service in Canada, making Canada the first international market expansion for
On September 22, 2010, Netflix became available in Canada for $7.99/month, but with a severely limited
selection due to licensing restrictions. However, since the initial launch in Canada, Netflix has since improved their
movie database and continues to add titles several times per week.
On September 23, 2010, company CEO Reed Hastings announced that Netflix aims to expand beyond the U.S. and
Canadian market. "For now, we're focused on Canada," Hastings said in an interview. "If we succeed in Canada, we
will certainly look at other markets."
Netflix announced on July 5, 2011 that by the end of 2011 it would expand its services into 43 countries and
territories in Latin America and the Caribbean, offering items in English, Spanish and Portuguese.
Netflix's success has inspired a number of other DVD rental companies both in the United States and abroad, but
none of the purely online companies appear to approach Netflix in terms of market share or revenues. Wal-Mart
began an online rental service in October 2002, but left the market in May 2005 and now has a cross-promotional
arrangement with Netflix. Netflix has also cited Amazon.com as a potential competitor,
which until 2008 offered
online video rentals in the UK and Germany (now sold to LoveFilm), but has remained coy about any similar
intentions for the North American market. Amazon bought Lovefilm in 2011.
Blockbuster Video, the world's largest in-store video rental chain, entered the U.S. online market in August 2004
with a US$19.95 monthly subscription service. This sparked a price war; Netflix had raised its popular three-disc
plan from US$19.95 to US$21.99 just prior to Blockbuster's launch, but by October Netflix reduced this fee to
US$17.99. Blockbuster responded with rates as low as US$14.99 for a time, but by August 2005, both companies
settled at the (identical) current rates. On July 22, 2007, Netflix announced that it would drop the prices of its two
most popular plans by US$1.00 in an effort to better compete with Blockbuster's online-only offerings.
Blockbuster's subscriber base after one year was roughly a third of Netflix's size and growing, including promotions
such as the option to swap DVDs rented online at neighborhood stores and the simultaneous elimination of late fees
altogether. Netflix has also been credited with playing a large part in the bankruptcy and shrinkage of several movie
rental chains including Blockbuster and Movie Gallery.
Many in-store video rental chains now have unlimited rental plans similar to those of Netflix. Hollywood Video
started its Movie Value Pass (MVP) service in late 2004, which enables customers to rent up to three movies at a
time (due in five days) for US$15 a month. New releases, however, are typically excluded from the service for two
to six weeks in the MVP "Basic" plan. Blockbuster started Movie Pass in 2004, which lets customers keep two to
three DVDs at a time for US$25–30 a month, without restrictions or due dates. Hollywood's MVP "Premium" plan
offers the same benefits for a comparable price. Both services still require the customer to travel to the store to rent
and return the movies, and their respective selections are not as diverse as that offered by Netflix.
Redbox is another competitor that uses a kiosk approach: rather than mailing DVDs, customers pick up and return
DVDs at self-service kiosks located in metropolitan areas. Coinstar, the owners of Redbox also plan to launch an
online streaming service in early 2011. Some speculate this service to be offered at $3.95 per month.
Netflix and Blockbuster largely avoid offering pornography, but several adult-video subscription services were
inspired by Netflix, such as SugarDVD and WantedList.

Time Warner cable
In March 2011, with its plans of the $11.5 billion DVD rental and online video service to branch out into original
content encroach on the territory staked out by the pioneering Time Warner cable network, Netflix looked less like
Web TV and more like HBO.
Finance and revenue
In 2010, Netflix's stock price increased 219% to $175.70 and it added 8 million subscribers, bringing its total to
20 million. Revenue jumped 29% to $2.16 billion and net income was up 39% to $161 million.
In April 2011, Netflix is expected to earn $1.07 a share in the first quarter of 2011 on revenue of $705.7 million, a
huge increase compared to the year-earlier profit of 59 cents on revenue of $493.7 million, according to a survey of
25 analysts polled by FactSet Research.
Legal issues and controversies
"Recommendation Algorithm"
In 2006, Netflix held the first "Netflix Prize," competition to find a program to better predict user preferences and
beat its existing Netflix movie recommendation system known as Cinematch, by at least 10%. An AT&T Research
Team called BellKor combined with commendo's team BigChaos and others won the 2009 grand prize competition
for $1 million. The winning team algorithm called Pragmatic Chaos used machine learning techniques to find that,
for example, the rating system people use of older movies is very different than for a movie they just saw. The mood
of the day made a difference also; for example, Friday ratings were different than Monday morning ratings.
In 2010, Netflix canceled a running contest to improve the company's recommendation algorithm due to privacy
concerns: under the terms of the competition, contestants were given access to customer rental data, which the
company had purportedly anonymized. However, it was discovered that even this anonymized dataset could, in fact,
personally identify a user. Netflix was sued by KamberLaw L.L.C. and ended the contest after reaching a deal with
the FTC.
Chavez v. Netflix Inc.
In September 2004, a consumer class action lawsuit, Frank Chavez v. Netflix, Inc.,
was brought against Netflix
in San Francisco Superior Court. The suit alleged false advertising in relation to claims of "unlimited rentals" with
"one-day delivery." In January 2005, Netflix changed its "Terms of Use" to acknowledge what has commonly
become known as "throttling". (Mike Kaltschnee, owner of the Hacking Netflix blog, says Netflix calls this practice
"smoothing" internally.)
In October 2005, Netflix proposed a settlement for those who had enrolled as a paid Netflix member prior to January
15, 2005. These earlier members would be able to renew their subscriptions with a one-month free membership, and
those early members with current subscriptions would receive a one-month free upgrade to the next-highest
membership level. Netflix's settlement denied allegations of any wrongdoing, and the case did not reach a legal
judgment. Netflix estimated the settlement cost at approximately US$4 million, which included up to
US$2.53 million to cover plaintiff lawyer fees. A controversial aspect of the settlement offer was that the customer's
account would continue at the renewed or upgraded membership level after the free month provided by the
settlement, with customers being charged accordingly unless they opted out after the month-long free period ended.
After Trial Lawyers for Public Justice filed a challenge to the proposed settlement
and the Federal Trade
Commission filed an amicus brief urging the rejection or modification of the settlement, Netflix offered to alter the
settlement terms requiring customers to actively approve any continuation after the free month. The final settlement
hearing took place on March 22, 2006.
but, implementation of the settlement was delayed pending appeal the
California Appellate Courts.
The settlement was affirmed on 2008-04-21, with the court saying, "the trial court
did not abuse its discretion in approving the amended class action settlement agreement, approving the notice given
to class members, or determining the amount of fees."
Interestingly, the court approved email notice and an
online claims submission process.
The court said:
The summary notice and long-form notice together provided all of the detail required by statute or court
rule, in a highly accessible form. The fact that not all of the information was contained in a single e-mail
or mailing is immaterial… Using a summary notice that directed the class member wanting more
information to a Web site containing a more detailed notice, and provided hyperlinks to that Web site,
was a perfectly acceptable manner of giving notice in this case… The class members conducted
business with defendant over the Internet, and can be assumed to know how to navigate between the
summary notice and the Web site. Using the capability of the Internet in that fashion was a sensible and
efficient way of providing notice, especially compared to the alternative Vogel apparently
preferred—mailing out a lengthy legalistic document that few class members would have been able to
plow through.
The settlement was criticized because it paid out $2.5 million to attorneys for fees and costs, while offering only
coupons to the class members.

The Terms of Use have since been amended with terms that indicate such a suit would not be possible in the
These Terms of Use shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the state of
Delaware, without regard to conflicts of laws provisions. You and Netflix agree that the United States
District Court for the Northern District of California and/or the California Superior Court for the County
of Santa Clara shall have exclusive jurisdiction over any dispute between you and Netflix relating in any
way to the Netflix service or Web site or these Terms of Use. You and Netflix expressly and irrevocably
consent to personal jurisdiction and venue in these courts. The parties agree that in any such dispute or
subsequent legal action, they will only assert claims in an individual (non-class, non-representative)
basis, and that they will not seek or agree to serve as a named representative in a class action or seek
relief on behalf of those other than themselves.
Releasing This Week
The Netflix website at one time featured a list of titles "Releasing This Week" (RTW) that enabled customers to
easily view new DVDs the company planned for rental release each week.
On December 21, 2007, the company
removed the link to the page without notice and replaced it with a slider system showing only four previously
released movies at a time. The new page, called "Popular New Releases", does not list newly released DVDs for
The listing of new releases is still active,
though no menu option links to the page.
On January 1, 2008, a Netflix employee unofficially stated on the Netflix Community Blog that customers used the
RTW page to add newly released movies to the top of their queues, then complained about delays in receiving them
after demand outstripped the supply of DVDs on hand. By removing the page, Netflix sought to quell complaints
that these movies were not readily available. Critics, however, have suggested this was just another Netflix attempt
at "throttling".
Dynamic queue, subscription & delivery methods
Netflix vs. Blockbuster
On April 4, 2006, Netflix filed a patent infringement lawsuit in which it demanded a jury trial in the United States
District Court for the Northern District of California, alleging that Blockbuster's online DVD rental subscription
program violated two patents held by Netflix. The first cause of action alleged Blockbuster's infringement of U.S.
Patent No. 7,024,381 (issued April 4, 2006; only hours before the lawsuit was filed) by copying the "dynamic queue"
of DVDs available for each customer, Netflix's method of using the ranked preferences in the queue to send DVDs to
subscribers, and Netflix's method permitting the queue to be updated and reordered.
The second cause of action
alleged infringement of Patent No. 6,584,450 (issued June 24, 2003), which covers in less detail the subscription
rental service as well as Netflix's methods of communication and delivery.
The dispute was ended a year later,
on June 25, 2007, with both companies declining to disclose the terms of their legal settlement, except for a
statement by Blockbuster that it would not have a major impact on its future financial performance.

Blockbuster also said that the company planned to close 282 stores that year to shift focus to its online service. The
company already had closed 290 stores in 2006.
In fall 2006, Blockbuster signed a deal with The Weinstein Company, that gave it the exclusive rental rights to the
studio's films beginning January 1, 2007.
This agreement forced Netflix to obtain copies from mass merchants or
retailers, instead of directly from the studio.
Netflix has speculated that the effect of the Blockbuster-Weinstein
agreement could result in higher rental costs and/or fewer copies of the studio's movies, which would limit the
number of each movie's DVDs that would be available to subscribers at any one time.
As of June 2007, Netflix
continues to make available Weinstein movies, including Unknown, School For Scoundrels and Harsh Times, among
others. The first-sale doctrine allows Netflix and other video rental businesses to offer movies released by the
Weinstein Company, but the long-term effects of the Blockbuster-Weinstein deal remain uncertain.
Removal of Friends feature
Since 2004, Netflix subscribers could utilize a feature that allowed them to interact with friends who were also
members. This feature was meant to tap into the growing popularity of social networking. With this feature, users
could see how their friends rated a movie on that movie's page; view what DVDs their friends were renting; and
allow them to leave their friends notes with film recommendations.

In March 2010, as part of a redesign of its movie-details pages, the Friends feature began to be phased out. Users
could no longer see their friends' ratings on movie pages, and what remained of the friends section was moved to a
small link at the bottom of each page. The initial announcement about the redesign on Netflix's official blog made no
reference to any changes to the Friends feature.
Hundreds of angry users posted negative comments, and the
feedback prompted Netflix's Vice President of Product Management, Todd Yellin, to post a follow-up statement.
While apologizing for poor communication about the changes, Yellin stated that the Friends feature would continue
to be phased out, citing figures that only 2% of members used the feature and the company's limited resources to
maintain the service.


Netflix users also began using the movie-reviews section of the website to post
comments protesting the changes.
Linux support
Netflix has consistently shown reluctance to support customers using Linux and other open-source operating
The company continues to support only Microsoft Windows and Macintosh, relying on Microsoft
Silverlight technology. Steve Swasey, Netflix Vice-President of Corporate Communications, told TechRepublic that
despite the willingness of developers to implement Digital Rights Management measures in the media framework
application Moonlight (which is an open-source implementation of Silverlight), Netflix cannot be "everything for
everybody all the time". Netflix does support Android, which is a mobile variant of Linux optimized for cell phones.
As of May 9, 2011, Google released plans for a Chrome/Chrome OS plugin that would allow users with the Chrome
OS/browser to use said plugin to view and stream material on Netflix, including Linux users.
In April 2011, the pay cable channel, Starz, was about to be more restrictive about what it allows Netflix to stream to
customers’ computers and television sets.
Starz – one of Netflix’s closest partners – backed off a bit from that partnership, when it announced a three-month
delay between the time Starz plays new TV episodes and when those episodes will be available on Netflix.
Closed captioning
In June 2011, the National Association of the Deaf filed a lawsuit against Netflix for not providing closed captioning
on all of its Watch Instantly movies. The group claims that Netflix is violating the Americans with Disabilities Act
by not providing equal access on entertainment.
Technical details
Netflix streams HD content using Microsoft VC1AP encoding at a maximum bitrate of between 2600 kbit/s and
3800 kbit/s (depending on the movie).
A lower bitrate feed
may be supplied if the user's network connection
is not capable of handling the maximum bitrate available for the film in question. One problem with the streaming is
the content, a film can change from "Instant Streaming" to "Just DVD" because of the licenses Netflix agrees with
the studios. An example is the movie 1984 which fluctuates from "save" to "Instant Streaming" and back because of
the licensing agreement.
Netflix recommends that people stream its movies over a broadband connection with a speed of at least 1.5 megabits
per second (1.5 Mbit/s), and that people use an Internet connection of at least 3 megabits per second to get
better-looking video on par with a DVD.
Netflix's allocation policy – referred to by many as "throttling" – gives priority shipping and selection to customers
who rent fewer discs per month. Higher volume renters may see some of their selections delayed, routed elsewhere,
or sent out of order.
Netflix claims that "the large majority of our subscribers are able to receive their movies in about one business day
following our shipment of the requested movie from their local distribution center."
However, not all shipments
come from the subscriber's local distribution center, and shipments from distant centers are often delayed, as well.
Netflix API
On October 1, 2008, Netflix launched an Application Programming Interface (API).
The Netflix API
access to data for all Netflix titles as well as access on a user's behalf to manage their movie queue. The Developer
Network includes a forum for asking and answering questions. The Netflix API is free and allows commercial use. A
variety of services have been created around the Netflix API or have integrated the API. Examples include Rotten
Tomatoes and The New York Times, which allow users to click to add titles to their Netflix queue or begin watching
on Watch Instantly from their pages,
and Jinni, which additionally enables search within Watch Instantly and
import of some user information like reviews.
The API has allowed many developers to release Netflix applications for mobile devices. On November 16, 2009
Netflix released an official Nokia app that allows some trailer streaming.
An official iPhone app was released on
August 26, 2010.
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[131] Wallen, Jack (August 14, 2010). "The Netflix Linux Conjecture: How Netflix snubs the Linux community" (http:// www. techrepublic.
com/ blog/ opensource/ the-netflix-linux-conjecture-how-netflix-snubs-the-linux-community/1745). .
[132] West, Jullian (May 9, 2011). "Netflix Plug-in for Chrome and Chrome OS is on the way" (http:/ / www. thechromesource.com/
netflix-plug-in-for-chrome-and-chrome-os-is-on-the-way/). .
[133] BRIAN STELTER, New York Times. " Starz to Delay Release of Shows on Netflix (http:// www. nytimes. com/ 2011/ 03/ 25/ business/
media/ 25starz.html?_r=2&ref=netflixinc)." March 24, 2011. Retrieved April 22, 2011.
[134] Whitney, Lance (June 20, 2011). "Netflix sued by deaf group over lack of subtitles" (http:/ / news. cnet.com/ 8301-13578_3-20072619-38/
netflix-sued-by-deaf-group-over-lack-of-subtitles/). .
[135] Wilson, Mark (November 19, 2008). "The Tech Specs of HD Netflix Streaming" (http:// gizmodo.com/ 5093323/
the-tech-specs-of-hd-netflix-streaming). Gizmodo. . Retrieved July 19, 2010.
[136] Hunt, Neil (November 6, 2008). "Encoding For Streaming" (http:/ / blog.netflix.com/ 2008/ 11/ encoding-for-streaming.html).
Blog.netflix.com. . Retrieved June 1, 2011.
[137] J. D. BIERSDORFER, New York Times. " How Fast is Netflix? (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2011/ 03/ 17/ technology/ personaltech/
17askk.html?ref=netflixinc)." March 16, 2011. Retrieved April 22, 2011.
[138] Liedtke, Michael (February 10, 2005). "'Throttling' angers Netflix heavy renters" (http:// web.archive.org/web/ 20060215072830/ http:/ /
www. businessweek. com/ ap/ financialnews/ D8FMEGTO0.htm?). Associated Press (Internet Archive). Archived from the original (http://
www. businessweek. com/ ap/ financialnews/ D8FMEGTO0.htm?) on February 15, 2006. . Retrieved February 11, 2005.
[139] "Terms of Use" (http:/ / www. netflix.com/ TermsOfUse#how). Netflix. . Retrieved January 30, 2006.
[140] "Netflix API Launches Tomorrow" (http:// www. readwriteweb.com/ archives/ netflix_api_launches_tomorrow.php). ReadWriteWeb. .
Retrieved September 30, 2008.
[141] "Netflix API – Welcome to the Netflix Developer Network" (http:/ / developer.netflix.com/ ). Netflix. . Retrieved July 19, 2010.
[142] "New York Times & Rotten Tomatoes Add Netflix "Add" & "Watch" Links" (http:// www.hackingnetflix. com/ 2009/ 02/
ny-times-rotten-tomatoes-add-netflix-add-play-links. html). HackingNetflix. . Retrieved February 20, 2009.
[143] "Jinni Searches Netflix better than Netflix" (http:// news. cnet.com/ 8301-17939_109-10199106-2.html). CNET. . Retrieved March 18,
[144] Hart, Michael (November 16, 2009). "Netflix for Nokia Phones" (http:// blog.netflix. com/ 2009/ 11/ netflix-for-nokia-phones.html).
Netflix. . Retrieved April 2, 2011.
External links
• Netflix (http:// www. netflix.com/ )
• Netflix Online Community (http:/ / community. netflix.com/ )
• Settlement of Frank Chavez v. Netflix, Inc. Class Action (http:/ / www.netflix.com/ Settlement)
• An Analysis of Netflix's DVD Allocation System (http:// dvd-rent-test.dreamhost. com/ )
• 'Throttling' angers Netflix Heavy Renters (http:// sfgate. com/ cgi-bin/ article.cgi?f=/news/ archive/2006/ 02/
10/ financial/f112412S32. DTL&type=business)
• The Brain Behind Netflix: Lesley Stahl Profiles Company Founder Reed Hastings (http:/ / www.cbsnews. com/
stories/2006/ 12/ 01/ 60minutes/ main2222059.shtml)
• For Some Netflix Users, Red Envelopes Gather Dust (http:// online. wsj. com/ public/ article/
SB115255814013802582-M1q9pbUxty8N5ItDg5CdaiVP6_A_20070717. html)
• "Behind How Netflix gets your movies to your mailbox so fast" (http:/ / www.chicagotribune.com/
entertainment/chi-0804-netflixaug04,0,6424990.story) The Chicago Tribune accessed January 3, 2010.
• "Behind the scenes at Netflix" (http:/ / www.boston. com/ business/ technology/ articles/ 2007/ 08/ 23/ netflix/
)—a photo essay by The Boston Globe about Netflix' Northborough, Massachusetts hub, August 23, 2007.
Channel 4
Launched 2 November 1982
Owned by Channel Four Television Corporation
Picture format 576i (SDTV 16:9)
1080i (HDTV)
Audience share
1.0% (+1)
(June 2011, BARB
Country United Kingdom
Sister channel(s) Film4,
Smash Hits!,
The Box
Timeshift service Channel 4+1
Analogue Normally tuned to 4
(excluding Wales) (To be phased out nationwide by 2012)
Freeview Channel 4
Channel 8 (Wales)
Channel 13 (+1)
Channel 52 (HD, excluding Wales)
(Currently being rolled out)
Freesat Channel 104
Channel 120 (Wales)
Channel 121 (+1)
Channel 126 (HD)
Sky Channel 104
Channel 117 (Wales)
Channel 135 (+1)
Channel 135, 136 +1 (IRL)
Channel 140 (HD)
Astra 2D 10714H 22000 5/6
10729V 22000 5/6
Astra 2A 12480V 27500 2/3
Eurobird 1 12606V 27500 3/4 (HD)
Virgin Media Channel 104
Channel 143 (+1)
Channel 142 (HD)
UPC Ireland Channel 111
Cablecom (Switzerland) Channel 163 (CH-D)
TalkTalk TV Channel 4
Internet television
Main online service of Channel 4
Channel 4 is a British public-service state owned television broadcaster which began working on 2 November 1982.
Although largely commercially self-funded, it is ultimately publicly owned; originally a subsidiary of the
Independent Broadcasting Authority (IBA), the station is now owned and operated by the Channel Four Television
Corporation, a public body established in 1990, coming into operation in 1993. With the conversion of the Wenvoe
transmitter in Wales to digital on 31 March 2010, Channel 4 became a UK-wide TV channel for the first time.
The channel was established to provide a fourth television service to the United Kingdom in addition to the
television licence-funded BBC's two services and the single commercial broadcasting network, ITV.
Public service remit
Channel 4 was established with, and continues to hold, a remit of public service obligations which it must fulfil. The
remit changes periodically, as dictated by various broadcasting and communications acts, and is regulated by the
various authorities Channel 4 has been answerable to; originally the IBA, then the ITC and now Ofcom.
The preamble of the remit as per the Communications Act 2003 states that:
"The public service remit for Channel 4 is the provision of a broad range of high quality and diverse
programming which, in particular:
• demonstrates innovation, experiment and creativity in the form and content of programmes;
• appeals to the tastes and interests of a culturally diverse society;
• makes a significant contribution to meeting the need for the licensed public service channels to include
programmes of an educational nature and other programmes of educative value; and
• exhibits a distinctive character."

The remit also involves an obligation to provide programming for schools,
and a substantial amount of
programming produced outside of Greater London.
Channel Four Television Corporation
Channel Four Television Corporation
Type Private/Limited
Industry Broadcasting
Founded 2 November 1982
Headquarters London, United Kingdom
Area served United Kingdom
Products Television and Radio
As an organisation, Channel 4 is known as the Channel Four Television Corporation (sometimes abbreviated to
C4C), a statutory corporation,
though this form is more recent than the station itself, having previously been the
Channel Four Television Company Limited, a subsidiary of the IBA, between 1982 and 1993.

Towards the end of the 1980s, the government began a radical process of re-organisation of the commercial
broadcasting industry,
which was written onto the statute books by means of the Broadcasting Act 1990.
Significantly, this meant the abolition of the IBA, and hence the Channel Four Television Company. The result led to
the creation of a corporation to own and operate the channel, which would have a greater deal of autonomy and
would eventually go on to establish its other operations. The new corporation, which became operational in 1993,
remained publicly owned and was regulated by the new Independent Television Commission (ITC), created under
the same act. The ITC and its duties were later replaced by Ofcom, which like its predecessor is responsible for
appointing the Corporation's board, in agreement with the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport.
In terms of the station's remit and other duties, the creation of the corporation meant little change; the new
corporation would have to manage its own advertising, rather than this being carried out on its behalf by the local
ITV contractors (see Funding).
At the time the fourth service was being considered, a movement in Wales lobbied for the creation of dedicated
service that would air Welsh-language programmes, then only catered for at 'off peak' times on BBC Wales and
HTV. The campaign was taken so seriously by Gwynfor Evans, former president of Plaid Cymru, that he threatened
the government with a hunger strike were it not to honour the plans.
The result was that Channel 4 as seen by the rest of the United Kingdom would be replaced in Wales by Sianel
Pedwar Cymru (S4C) (English: Channel Four Wales). Operated by a specially created Welsh Fourth Channel
Authority, S4C would air programmes in Welsh as made by HTV, the BBC, or from independent companies.
Initially limited frequency space meant that Channel 4 could not be broadcast alongside S4C, though some English
Channel 4 programmes would be aired at less popular times on the Welsh variant, a practice that carried on up until
the closure of S4C's analogue transmissions in 2010.
Since then, carriage on digital cable, satellite and digital terrestrial has introduced Channel 4 to Welsh homes where
it is now universally available.
Before Channel 4 and S4C, Britain had three terrestrial television services: BBC1, BBC2, and ITV. The
Broadcasting Act 1980 began the process of adding a fourth, and Channel 4, along with its Welsh counterpart, was
formally created by an Act of Parliament in 1982. After some months of test broadcasts, it began scheduled
transmissions on 2 November 1982.
The notion of a second commercial broadcaster in the United Kingdom had been around since the inception of ITV
in 1954 and its subsequent launch in 1955; the idea of an 'ITV2' was long expected and pushed for. Indeed television
sets sold throughout the 1970s and early 1980s had a spare channel called 'ITV/IBA 2'. Throughout ITV's history and
until Channel 4 finally became a reality, a perennial dialogue existed between the GPO, the government, the ITV
companies and other interested parties, concerning the form such an expansion of commercial broadcasting would
take. It was most likely politics which had the biggest impact in leading to a delay of almost three decades before the
second commercial channel became a reality.
With what can crudely be summed up as a clash of ideologies
between an expansion of ITV's commercial ethos and a public service approach more akin to the BBC, it was
ultimately something of a compromise that eventually led to the formation of Channel 4 as launched in 1982.
One clear benefit of the 'late arrival' of the channel was that its frequency allocations at each transmitter had already
been arranged in the early 1960s, when the launch of an ITV2 was highly anticipated.
This led to very good
coverage across most of the country and few problems of interference with other UK-based transmissions; a stark
contrast to the problems associated with Channel 5's launch 14 and a half years later.
Launch and IBA control: 1982–1993
The first voice ever heard on Channel 4's opening day of Tuesday 2 November 1982 was that of continuity
announcer Paul Coia, who intoned, "Good afternoon. It's a pleasure to be able to say to you: Welcome to Channel
Four", before heading into a montage of clips from its programmes set to the station's signature tune, "Fourscore",
written by Lord David Dundas, which would form the basis of the station's jingles for its first decade. The first
programme to air on the channel was the teatime game show Countdown, at 16.45 produced by Yorkshire
Television; it is still running as of 2010. The first person to be seen on Channel 4 was Richard Whiteley with Carol
Vorderman being the second and the first female on the channel. Whiteley opened the show with the words "As the
countdown to a brand new channel ends, a brand new countdown begins." On its first day, Channel 4 also broadcast
controversial soap opera Brookside, which ran for 21 years.
Upon its launch, Channel 4 committed itself to providing an alternative to the existing channels, an agenda in part set
out by its remit which required the provision of programming to minority groups.
In step with its remit, the channel became well received both by minority groups and the arts and cultural worlds
during this period, especially under Isaacs, where the channel gained a reputation for programmes on the
contemporary arts. The channel often did not receive mass audiences for much of this period, however, as might be
expected for a station focusing on minority interest.
Channel 4 also began the funding of independent films, such as the Merchant-Ivory docudrama The Courtesans of
Bombay, during this time.
In 1992, Channel 4 also faced its first libel case by Jani Allan, a South African journalist, who objected to her
representation in the documentary The Leader, His Driver and the Driver's Wife.
Channel Four Television Corporation: 1993 onwards
After control of the station passed from the Channel Four Television Company to the Channel Four Television
Corporation in 1993 (see above), a shift in broadcasting style took place. Instead of aiming for the fringes of society,
it began to focus on the edges of the mainstream, and the centre of the mass market itself. It began to show many US
programmes in peak viewing time, far more than it had previously done. It premièred such shows as Friends and ER.
In the early 2000s, Channel Four began broadcasting reality formats such as Big Brother and obtained the rights to
broadcast mass appeal sporting events like cricket and horse racing. This new direction increased ratings and
In addition, the channel launched a number of new television channels through its new 4Ventures off-shoot,
including Film4, At The Races, E4 and More4 (see Other services).
Partially in reaction to its new 'populist' direction, the Communications Act 2003 directed the channel to demonstrate
innovation, experimentation and creativity, appeal to the tastes and interests of a culturally diverse society and to
include programmes of an educational nature which exhibit a distinctive character.
Under the leadership of Freeview founder Andy Duncan, 2005 saw a change of direction for Channel 4's digital
channels. Channel 4 made E4 'free to air' on Digital Terrestrial, and launched a new 'free to air' digital channel called
More4. By October, Channel 4 had joined the Freeview consortium.
By July 2006, Film4 had also become a 'free
to air' and re-started broadcasting on Digital Terrestrial.
Venturing into radio broadcasting, 2005 saw Channel 4 purchase 51 per cent of shares in the now defunct Oneword
radio station with UBC Media holding on to the remaining shares. New programmes such as the weekly, half-hour
The Morning Report news programme were among some of the new content Channel 4 provided for the station, with
the name 4Radio being used. As of early 2009, however, Channel 4's future involvement in radio remained
On 2 November 2007, the station celebrated its twenty-fifth birthday. It showed the first episode of Countdown, an
anniversary Countdown special, as well as a special edition of The Big Fat Quiz and using the original multicoloured
1982-1996 blocks logo on presentation and idents using the Fourscore jingle throughout the day.
In November 2009, Channel 4 launched a week of 3D television, broadcasting selected programmes each night using
stereoscopic ColorCode technology. The accompanying 3D glasses were distributed through Sainsbury's
The future
Channel 4 has raised concerns over how it might finance its public service obligations after digital switch-over.
However, some certainty lies in the announcement in April 2006 that Channel 4's digital switch-over costs would be
paid for by licence fee revenues.
On 28 March 2007, Channel 4 announced plans to launch a music channel "4Music" as a joint venture with British
media company EMAP which would include carriage on the Freeview platform. On 15 August 2008, 4Music was
launched across the UK.
Recently, Channel 4 have announced interest in launching a high-definition version of
Film4 on Freeview, to coincide with the launch of Channel 4 HD,

however the fourth HD slot was given to
Channel 5 instead.
Channel 4 has since acquired a 50% stake in EMAP's TV business for a reported £28
Channel 4 was carried from its beginning on analogue terrestrial , which was practically the only means of television
broadcast in the United Kingdom at the time. It will continue to be broadcast through these means until the
changeover to digital terrestrial television in the United Kingdom is complete. Since 1998, it has been universally
available on digital terrestrial, and the Sky platform (encrypted, though free of charge) as well as having been
available from various times in various areas, on analogue and digital cable networks.
Due to its special status as a public service broadcaster with a specific remit, it is afforded free carriage on the
terrestrial platforms,
in contrast with other broadcasters such as ITV.
Channel 4 is also available overseas: parts of the European mainland have been able to receive terrestrial
transmissions from the United Kingdom, and some overseas cable networks have carried the service.
Channel 4 Ulster has been available in large parts of Ireland, especially border counties which have been able to
receive terrestrial transmissions from Northern Ireland. Channel 4 Ulster has been carried on Irish cable networks
since the station went on the air in 1982. S4C has been available as a terrestrial transmission from Wales in southern
counties such as Cork, Waterford, Wexford and Wicklow.
From 4 December 2006 Channel 4 was officially available to Sky viewers in Ireland; some programmes, mainly
imports, are not aired on this channel variant, due to Channel 4 not owning the relevant broadcast rights within the
Channel 4 allowed Internet users in the United Kingdom to watch Channel 4 live on the Internet. However some
programmes (mostly international imports) were not shown and this service no longer exists. Channel 4 is also
provided by Virgin Mobile's DAB mobile TV service which has the same restrictions as the Internet live stream had.
Channel 4 also makes some of its programming available "on demand" via cable and the Internet (see 4oD).
During the station's formative years, funding came from the ITV companies in return for their right to sell
advertisements in their region on the fourth channel.
Nowadays it pays for itself in much the same way as most privately run commercial stations, i.e. through the sale of
on-air advertising, programme sponsorship, and the sale of any programme content and merchandising rights it
owns, such as overseas sales and video sales. It also has the ability to subsidise the main network through any profits
made on the corporation's other endeavours, which have in the past included subscription fees from stations such as
E4 and Film4 (now no longer subscription services) and its 'video-on-demand' sales. In practice, however, these
other activities are loss-making, and are subsidised by the main network. According to Channel 4's last published
accounts, for 2005, the extent of this cross-subsidy was some £30 million.
The change in funding method came about by the Broadcasting Act 1990 when the new corporation was afforded the
ability to fund itself. Originally this arrangement left a 'safety net' guaranteed minimum income should the revenue
fall too low, funded by large insurance payments made to the ITV companies. Such a subsidy was never required,
however, and these premiums were phased out by government in 1998. After the link with ITV was cut, the
cross-promotion which had existed between ITV and Channel 4 also ended.
In 2007 due to severe funding difficulties, the channel sought government help and was granted a payment of £14
million over a six-year period. The money would have come from the television licence fee and would have been the
first time that money from the licence fee had been given to any broadcaster other than the BBC.
The plan was
scrapped by The Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport, Andy Burnham, ahead of "broader decisions about
the future framework of public service broadcasting".
The broadcasting regulator Ofcom released their review in
January 2009 in which they suggested that Channel 4 would preferably be funded by "partnerships, joint ventures or
Channel 4 share of viewing 1992-2007 BARB figures. Peaks from mid-2000
coincide with broadcast of Endemol's Big Brother and Celebrity Big Brother
Channel 4 is a "publisher-broadcaster",
meaning that it commissions or "buys" all of
its programming from companies
independent of itself, and was the first
broadcaster in the United Kingdom to do so
on any significant scale. This had the
consequence of starting an industry of
production companies that did not have to
rely on owning an ITV licence in order to
see their programmes air, though since
Channel 4, external commissioning has
become regular practise on the numerous
stations that have launched since, as well as
on the BBC and in ITV (where a quota of
25% minimum of total output has been
imposed since the 1990 Broadcasting Act
came into force). Ironically, having been the
first British broadcaster to completely
commission its core product from third parties, and after 25 years in-house, Channel 4 will now become the last
terrestrial broadcaster to outsource its transmission and playout operations (to Red Bee Media).
The requirement to obtain all content externally is stipulated in its licence.
Additionally, Channel 4 also began a
trend of owning the copyright and distribution rights of the programmes it aired, in a manner that is similar to the
major Hollywood studios' ownership of television programs that they did not directly produce. Thus, although
Channel 4 does not produce programmes, many are seen as belonging to it.
Channel 4 also pioneered the concept of stranded programming, where seasons of programmes following a common
theme would be aired and promoted together. Some would be very specific, and run for a fixed period of time; the 4
Mation season, for example, showed innovative animation. Other, less specific strands, were (and still are) run
regularly, such as T4, a strand of programming aimed at teenagers, on weekend mornings (and weekdays during
school/college holidays); Friday Night Comedy, a slot where the channel would pioneer its style of comedy
commissions, 4Music (now a separate channel) and 4Later, an eclectic collection of offbeat programmes transmitted
to a cult audience in the early hours of the morning.
In its earlier years, Red Triangle was the name given to the airing of certain risqué art-house films due to the use of a
red triangle DOG in the upper right of the screen, dubbed as being pornographic by many of Channel 4's critics,
whilst general broadcasting of films on the station for many years came under the banner of Film on Four prior to
the launch of the FilmFour brand and station in the late 1990s.
Its critically acclaimed news service, Channel 4 News, is supplied by ITN whilst its long-standing investigative
documentary, Dispatches, causes perennial media attention.
Other services
November 1998 saw Channel 4 expand beyond its remit of providing the 'fourth service' in a significant way, with
the launch of FilmFour. Since then the corporation has been involved in a range of other activities, all in some way
associated with the main channel, and mainly using the '4' brand.
In March 2010 these additional services were reviewed by the government's Culture, Media and Sport select
committee. The channel and its Chief Executive were criticised for breaking service commitments, a lack of
transparency in accounting for digital channels, poor governance and failed investments
In 2001 4Ventures
was created as the parent body of Channel 4 related commercial activities, rather than
public-service obligations, with the intent of making profit which would serve to subsidise the main Channel 4.
Following the sale of Quiz Call (a gaming channel operated by the then-owned subsidiary Ostrich Media) in 2006, a
restructure of 4Ventures saw many of its activities re-integrated back into the main channel's operations (including
day-to-day running of E4, Film4 and More4).
4Rights, was formed from an amalgamation of Channel 4 International and Channel 4 Consumer Products. As
part of the restructure, much of the 4Ventures management team either left the company - former chief executive
(and Channel 4 commercial director) Rob Woodward, and managing director Anmar Kawash are now Chief
Executive Officer and Chief Operating Officer respectively of STV Group plc - or transferred to other posts within
Channel 4.
In 2007, the expanding, UK-based, independent distribution group Digital Rights Group (DRG) announced an
intention to buy Channel 4 International (adding it to Zeal and ID Distribution among its other companies),
following a review by Channel 4 of its commercial division. The deal was completed in November of the same year
. The Consumer Products division has been retained by Channel 4 as part of a new, restructured, 4Rights division.
Channel 4 digital channels viewing figures 1998-2008
Channel 4 has had a long record of success
in funding the production of films through
Channel Four Films, renamed FilmFour in
1998 to coincide with the launch of its
digital channel of the same name. Notable
successes include The Madness of King
George, The Crying Game and Four
Weddings and a Funeral. However, this
dedicated film-making wing was scaled
back in 2002 as a cost-cutting measure in
the face of substantial losses.
Channel 4 launched a subscription film
channel, FilmFour, in November 1998. It
was available on digital satellite television
and digital cable. Companion services, such
as FilmFour+1, FilmFour World and FilmFour Extreme were also available on some digital services. In 2003
Extreme and World were discontinued, and replaced with FilmFour Weekly. FilmFour Weekly closed in July 2006,
when the main, newly named Film4 channel went free-to-view and became available on Digital Terrestrial. The
switchover to digital terrestrial was heavily advertised. The adverts featured Lucy Liu, Christian Slater, Ewan
McGregor, Dame Judi Dench, Gael García Bernal, Willem Dafoe, Mackenzie Crook, Rhys Ifans and Ray Winstone
declaring "Film4 is now free" in various situations across London. It remains the only film channel available free on
digital terrestrial television.
In 2002, Channel 4's film financing division (Film4 Productions) was seriously scaled back, due to massive losses,
although total closure was averted. It had however had various successes, most notably Four Weddings and a
Funeral and Trainspotting. In 1994, BAFTA/LA (the Los Angeles branch of the British Academy of Film &
Television Arts) presented a full-length film festival in Los Angeles in conjunction with the American Cinematheque
(the US equivalent of Britain's National Film Theatre) that saluted the considerable contributions to British film of
Channel 4's film division since its inception. The festival presented many of the most celebrated Channel 4 films,
and also featured panel discussions about Channel 4's role between Channel 4 chief executive Michael Grade and US
TV producer Norman Lear.
When Channel 4 had the rights to broadcast test match cricket in England, the downtime of the FilmFour channel
was often used to broadcast uninterrupted coverage of a match when the main channel was committed elsewhere,
usually to racing. At these times FilmFour was available unencrypted and free-to-air.
E4, a digital entertainment channel previously available on the Internet, with a target age-range of 16-34, was
launched in January 2001. It features premières of US imports and supplementary footage for programmes on its
main channel (most notably extended Big Brother coverage).
In 2005 it launched on Digital Terrestrial. E4 now has as much coverage as other services available on Cable,
Satellite and Digital Terrestrial like ITV2 and BBC Three. It is a very successful channel with a first look or sneak
peek, with the next episode of some series, such as Hollyoaks and Desperate Housewives appearing on E4
immediately after the show on Channel 4 has finished. Also they have "Second Chance Sunday" which allows you to
see programmes you have missed during the week on a Sunday. New show Skins was a massive success for E4,
peaking at the 2 million mark - one of the most viewed premières in digital TV history. There has, however, been
some criticism that E4 (like many other digital channels), relies on seemingly endless repeats of a small selection of
shows (notably Friends), with further suggestion that it is often the same season of a particular show that is endlessly
During Big Brother, E4 plays host to live coverage of the show, subject to a delay. Until 2005, programmes on the
channel did not air until 14.00 GMT, but on 12 August 2005 the widely-advertised E4 Music airs from 06.00 until
10.00 GMT, with various music shows and videos being showcased. This however is rested during Big Brother.
Transmission of E4 Music has since declined and has been replaced with repeats of popular E4 shows. It has been
declared that E4 Music has been moved permanently to the new 4Music channel. Since 2008, live coverage of Big
Brother has been shortened during the day, until coming to a close in 2010.
E4 is widely available in Ireland in close to 70% of homes. It is carried on the NTL / Chorus cable networks and also
on Sky. The channel operates a separate advertising opt-out in Ireland allowing advertisers to directly target Irish
audiences. This has been a highly successful commercial operation and all airtime sales are handled on the channels
behalf by Medialink in Dublin.
More4 is a channel aimed at those aged 35–60. Launched on 10 October 2005, it channel carries news and nightly
discussion programmes, such as More4 News, an extension of Channel 4 News that attempts to look "beyond the
headlines", giving in-depth analysis. Advertising before the launch of the channel flaunted such HBO shows as Curb
Your Enthusiasm and The Sopranos, as well as NBC's The West Wing. Its conception has met conflicting responses;
many people believe the programmes shown to be of great quality, while others see it as an excuse to free up more
room for a deluge of property programmes or less respectable programmes (see Fat Pets) in all other free slots on
Channel 4.
Over recent years 4Music has risen, showing new single releases, as well as other music shows frequently broadcast
across T4, Channel 4 and E4. 2007 saw its own logo being devised and since then has had many themed weekends
dedicated to a current band or performer.
On Sundays, Channel 4's 4Music strand aired between 17:00 and midnight on The Hits. The first 'episode' was
presented by the most successful female act of the century Sugababes, however 4Music Sundays were meant to
feature live acts and also The Shockwaves Album Chart Show.
On 20 February 2008, it was announced that The Hits was to be rebranded as 4Music later in the year, and on 15
August 2008, Channel 4 replaced The Hits with 4Music. 4Music is available on Sky 360, Virgin 330 and Freeview
(See Box Television)
4Music also has its own monthly music magazine show, The Crush. Which is hosted by Rick Edwards.
'+1' Channels
Channel 4 "+ 1" logo.
Channel 4 runs timeshift variants of all its services (excluding 4Music and Channel 4
HD), including Channel 4 +1 since 20 August 2007.
across all digital platforms.
Channel 4 was the first terrestrial broadcaster in the United Kingdom to offer a time-shift
variant of its main channel. In common with many other broadcasters, these channels
output exactly the same programmes and continuity as was broadcast an hour previously,
and are titled with the station name followed by a "+1" suffix.
Channel 4 +1, E4 +1 and More4 +1 all carry a "+1" indication onscreen. There was some
concern about how it would be indicated on Channel 4 +1 as Channel 4 does not carry its
own on-screen graphic. Eventually, a "+1" symbol that is derived from the Channel 4
logo was unveiled. Neither Film4 nor Film4 +1 carry on-screen graphics.
Box Television
In July 2007 Channel 4 bought 50% of Box Television Ltd for £28 m from Emap plc. It has since emerged that, as a
result of Emap's decision to sell off its divisions in a break-up sale of the group, Channel 4 may be interested in
acquiring the remaining half of the business. Box TV operates seven music TV stations (4Music, The Box, Smash
Hits, Kerrang!, Q, Kiss and Magic). Emap's stake in Box Television Limited was transferred to new owners, Bauer
Consumer Media, following Bauer's acquisition of Emap's publishing and radio businesses.
Channel 4 HD
On 10 December 2007, Channel 4 launched a high definition television
simulcast of Channel 4 on Sky+ HD, after British Sky Broadcasting
agreed to contribute toward the channel’s satellite distribution costs.
is planned to roll out on other platforms "in the future".
On 31 July
2009, Virgin Media added Channel 4 HD on channel 146 as a part of the
M pack.
On 25 March 2010 Channel 4 HD appeared on Freeview
channel 52 with a placeholding caption, ahead of a commercial launch on
30 March 2010, coinciding with the commercial launch of Freeview

On 19 April 2011, Channel 4 HD was added to Freesat on
channel 126.
As a consequence, the channel moved from being free-to-view to free-to-air on satellite during
March 2011.
The channel carries the same schedule as Channel 4, broadcasting programmes in HD when available. Initially this
has been mostly American imports (such as Ugly Betty for example) and movies, however, original programming
such as Hollyoaks and Skins have been broadcast in HD. Although the intention is to increase the amount of "home
grown" material being broadcast in HD. It has been announced as the UK's first full-time high definition channel
from a terrestrial broadcaster.
Previously, in the summer of 2006, Channel 4 ran a six month closed trial of HDTV, as part of the wider Freeview
HD experiment via the Crystal Palace transmitter to London and parts of the home counties,
including the use of
Lost and Desperate Housewives as part of the experiment, as US broadcasters such as ABC already have an HDTV
back catalogue.
Previous channels
At the Races
In 2000, Channel 4 launched a dedicated horse racing channel, At the Races. The channel ceased broadcasting in
2003. It was subsequently bought by British Sky Broadcasting and relaunched in June 2004. Channel 4 has no
involvement with the new At The Races, which is branded with almost identical livery as Sky Sports. Channel 4's
racing coverage, re-named to incorporate "At The Races" in the title, returned to its original name of Channel 4
Racing when the channel left involvement with At The Races. Channel 4 racing programmes now feature close
co-operation with rival digital racing channel Racing UK, who sub-licence the live rights and share the same
production company. Channel 4 cross-promote Racing UK's coverage of the day's racing during its broadcasts.
4 Digital Group
Channel 4 was the leading member of the 4 Digital Group consortium, which includes EMAP, UTV and STV
Group plc as partners (although STV's involvement will cease when Virgin Radio is floated as a separate company).
In July 2007 The group was awarded the 12 year licence to operate the second national DAB radio licence after
having defeated its only rival, National Grid Wireless, in the three-month bidding process.
The service would have operated ten radio stations, including Channel 4 Radio, E4 Radio, Sky News Radio
(operated by BSkyB and Global Radio) and Radio Disney (in association with Disney). Many of the services,
especially Channel 4 Radio and E4 Radio would have competed directly with national BBC Radio stations. Podcast
and text services were also to have been provided.
In October 2008 Channel 4 announced that it was abandoning
its plans for digital radio stations.
In June 2006 Channel 4 tried to launch 4radio,
offering audio
programmes in the shape of podcasts aimed at introducing new public
service radio services informed by C4's values of creativity and innovation.
Coupled with its strategy of becoming a truly multimedia company, 4radio
hosts shows that tie in with its flagship TV hits including Big Brother, Lost,
and Channel 4 News.
The successful multiplex consortium was expected to launch in 2008 with a taste of Channel 4 Radio's audio output
made available earlier,
including a revival of the channel's The Tube
music programme, and a very small
amount of 4radio-branded content was heard on Oneword until its closure in January 2008.
Channel 4, as part of its review of public serving spending in 2008 decided to focus its expenditure on TV content
and decided to stop its radio plans, resulting in the closure of 4 Digital Group.
Oneword was a digital radio station featuring the spoken word. In early 2005 Channel 4 purchased a minority stake
in it, later that year buying a majority one worth £1,000,000. On 4 January 2007 it was announced that had Channel
4 sold its 51% stake back to UBC Media for £1. Its normal programming was suspended while a strategic review
took place on the station.
The station ceased broadcasting on 11 January 2008.
The station's website is channel4.com
. The site offers detailed programme information, highlights, and chats with
actors and presenters of all Channel 4 channels. It also has in-depth sections including news, film, homes, sport, and
more. Its learning sections are often used by many for educational needs.
In January 2008, Channel 4 joined with Aardman Animations and Lupus Films to create 4mations, a user-generated
content animation portal, similar to aniBOOM or MyToons.
4oD / Catch-up
4oD Logo
Launched in November 2006, 4oD stands for "4 on Demand", an Internet Television
service which allows Internet (e.g. via SeeSaw, Virgin Media, TalkTalk TV and BT
Vision) users to view programming recently shown on Channel 4, E4 or More4, or from
their archives. The cable and IPTV versions is operated through an appropriate set top
box whilst the Internet variant can be accessed via Internet websites such as Channel 4 or
As of April 2009, the Internet version is fully available to Windows, Mac and Linux
users so long as Adobe Flash Player is installed.
The "Catch-up" service offers content free of charge for both
streaming and downloaded versions of a programme for thirty days after its broadcast on Channel 4. At this time, not
all content is available to Irish users, due to licensing restrictions, however the majority of the programming is
A Download to Own (DTO) or "Buy" feature was once available on selected content, allowing users to purchase a
programme and keep it for as long as they wish. This service has now been suspended alongside the application to
power it, in favour of further investment into their online cross platform catchup service powered by Adobe Flash
The 4oD service is also partly available on YouTube, launching in the United Kingdom in late 2009 with seven
genre dedicated channels for 4oD, additional to separate channels Channel 4 and E4.
A 14 day catchup version of 4oD is now available on the PS3, at http:/ / ps3. channel4. com.
Also a IPad Application was launched on May 3, 2011.
Channel 4 originally licensed an ancillary teletext service to provide schedules, programme information and features.
The original service was called 4-Tel and was provided in collaboration with Oracle.
In 1993, with Oracle losing
its franchise to Teletext Ltd, the running of 4-Tel was taken over by Intelfax,
and in 2002 was renamed FourText.
Teletext on 4
In 2003, Channel 4 awarded Teletext Ltd a ten year contract to run the channel's ancillary teletext service, named
Teletext on 4.
The service is provided on both Channel 4 analogue and digital television services, Channel 4, E4
and More4. This has now been ceased and Teletext is no longer available on Channel 4, ITV and Channel 5.
Corporate structure
Channel 4 is run by a chief executive, whose role can be compared to that of the Director-General of the BBC. The
chief executive is appointed by the chairman, which is a part-time position appointed by Ofcom.
• Edmund Dell (1982–1987)
• Richard Attenborough (1987–1992)
• Michael Bishop (1993–1997)
• Vanni Treves (1998–2003)
• Luke Johnson (2004–2010)
• Terry Burns (2010–Present)
Deputy Chairmen
• Richard Attenborough (1982–1987)
• David Puttnam
Chief Executives
• Jeremy Isaacs (1981–1987)
• Michael Grade (1988–1997)
• Michael Jackson (1997–2002)
• Mark Thompson (Mar 2002 – Jun 2004)
• Andy Duncan (Jul 2004 - Nov 2009)
• Anne Bulford (Interim) (Nov 2009 - Jan 2010)
• David Abraham (Jan 2010 – Present)
Financial information
Channel 4's total revenue for the year to 31 December 2005 was £894.3 million, of which £735.2 million was
generated by its main channel, and the remainder by its subsidiaries channels, sales of programming rights to other
broadcasters, Film Four and "new media". Operating profits for the year to 31 December 2006 fell 70% to £14.5
million from £56.9 million in 2005.
The Channel 4 building
The Channel 4 building with the
Channel 4 Logo Statue outside
Channel 4 was originally based at 60 Charlotte Street in the West End
of London. Since 1994 the channel has occupied distinctive,
purpose-built headquarters at 124 Horseferry Road, Westminster.
Designed by Richard Rogers Partnership with structural engineering by
Ove Arup & Partners, its 15,000sq metres architecture follows on from
- but is more restrained than - the Lloyd's building in the City of
London, and was constructed between 1990 and 1994.
four-storey office blocks arranged in an L shape are connected by a
curved front with a dramatic concave glazed wall.
Despite nearly all Channel 4 programmes being commissioned from
independent production companies, the Channel 4 headquarters
originally contained a studio and post-production facility, marketed as
124 Facilities. The studio was used for Channel 4 programmes (such
as T4 continuity), and other channels' programmes such as Channel 5's
football coverage. The studio was closed at the end of October 2007
and only the post-production operation remains, though it is now
managed by Red Bee Media.
Channel 4 has, since its inception, broadcast identical programmes and continuity throughout the United Kingdom
(excluding Wales where it did not operate on analogue transmitters). At launch this made it unique, as both the BBC
and ITV had long established traditions of providing regional variations in their programming and announcements
between transmitters in different areas of the country (although in the case of BBC2, variations have by and large
tended to be limited to national idents as opposed to regional ones). In ITV's case, this was a consequence of its
inherent federal structure (see ITV companies). Since the launch of subsequent British television channels, Channel
4 has become typical in its lack of variations of this nature.
A few exceptions exist to this rule for programming and continuity: Ireland has a dedicated variant broadcast on Sky
Ireland which omits programmes for which broadcast rights are not held in Ireland. For example, the series Glee is
not available on Channel 4 on Sky in Ireland.
Some of Channel 4's schools' programming (1980s/early '90s) were regionalised due to differences in curricula
between different regions.
Part of Channel 4's remit covers the commissioning of programmes from outside London. Channel 4 has a dedicated
director of nations and regions, Stuart Cosgrove, who is based in a regional office in Glasgow. As his job title
suggests, it is his responsibility to foster relations with independent producers based in areas of the United Kingdom
(including Wales) outside of London.
Advertising on Channel 4 does contain regular variation: prior to 1993, when ITV was responsible for selling
Channel 4's advertising, each regional ITV company would provide the content of advertising breaks, covering the
same transmitter area as themselves, and these breaks were often unique to that area. After Channel 4 became
responsible for its own advertising, it continued to offer advertisers the ability to target particular audiences and
divided its coverage area into six parts coining the term 'LEMNUS' standing for "London, The East [and South] of
England, The Midlands, The North of England, Ulster and Scotland.
At present, Wales does not have its own advertising region, instead its viewers receive the southern region on digital
platforms intentionally broadcast to the area, or the neighbouring region where analogue transmissions spill over into
Wales. Ireland (the Republic) shares its advertising region with Northern Ireland (referred to by Channel 4 as the
'Ulster Macro') with many advertisers selling products for Ireland here.
E4 has an advertising variant for Ireland,
although Northern Ireland receives the UK version of E4.
The six regions are also carried on satellite, cable and
Digital Terrestrial.
Channel 5 and GMTV use a similar model to Channel 4 for providing their own advertising regions, despite also
having a single national output of programming.
Future possibility of regional news
With ITV plc pushing for much looser requirements on the amount of regional news and other programming it is
obliged to broadcast in its ITV regions, the idea of Channel 4 taking on a regional news commitment has been
considered, with the corporation in talks with Ofcom and ITV over the matter.
Channel 4 believe that a
scaling-back of such operations on ITV's part would be detrimental to Channel 4's national news operation, which
shares much of its resources with ITV through their shared news contractor ITN. At the same time, Channel 4 also
believe that such an additional public service commitment would bode well in on-going negotiations with Ofcom in
securing additional funding for its other public service commitments.
Annual Reports and Financial Statements
Annual Reports and Financial Statements 1983-Present
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aspx?year=2006&id=21). Archived from the original (http:// www. channel4sales. com/ news/ news-article.aspx?year=2006& id=21) on
2007-02-03. . Retrieved 2007-04-03.
[17] http:// www. channel4. com/ programmes/3d-week
[18] Plunkett, John (2006-04-26). "Media registration promo - Media - MediaGuardian.co.uk" (http:// media.guardian. co. uk/ bbc/ story/
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[22] "Five awarded Freeview HD licence" (http:// www.digitalspy. co. uk/ digitaltv/ a159413/ five-awarded-freeview-hd-licence.html). Digital
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[23] Neil Wilkes (2007-07-23). "Channel 4 takes 50% stake in Emap TV" (http:// www. digitalspy. co.uk/ broadcasting/ a67199/
channel-4-takes-50-percent-stake-in-emap-tv. html). Digital Spy. .
[24] (http:// www. ofcom. org.uk/ tv/ psb_review/ digitalpsb/ digitalpsb.pdf) Digital PSB, Public Service Broadcasting post Digital Switchover,
section 1.1
[25] "Ofcom determination of financial terms for Channel 3 licences ITV plc response" (http:// web. archive.org/web/ 20061015170803/ http:/ /
www. itvplc. com/ itv/ news/ releases/ pr2005/ 2005-06-29/). Archived from the original (http:// www. itvplc.com/ itv/ news/ releases/
pr2005/ 2005-06-29/) on 2006-10-15. . Retrieved 2007-04-03.
[26] 11419_11419_C4 (http:// www.channel4. com/ about4/ pdf/2005_C4_Complete. pdf)
[27] Burrell, Ian (2007-06-21). "Jowell challenges Channel 4 to justify £14m of public funding" (http:// www. independent.co.uk/ news/ media/
jowell-challenges-channel-4-to-justify-16314m-of-public-funding-454035. html). The Independent (London). . Retrieved 2010-04-01.
[28] "Channel 4 switchover cash shelved" (http:// news. bbc.co.uk/ 1/ hi/ entertainment/7750501. stm). BBC News. 2008-11-26. . Retrieved
[29] http:/ / www. ofcom.org. uk/ consult/ condocs/ psb2_phase2/ statement/
[30] Fitzsimmons, Caitlin (2007-11-14). "Channel 4 outsources to Red Bee" (http:// www.guardian.co.uk/ media/ 2007/ nov/ 14/ channel4.
television1). The Guardian (London). . Retrieved 2010-04-01.
[31] Channel 4 select committee review is a stinker The Guardian 22 March 2010 (http:/ / www. guardian.co. uk/ media/ organgrinder/2010/
mar/ 22/ channel-4-select-committee-review) Retrieved 22 March 2010
[32] http:// www. channel4. com/ 4ventures/ about/ index. html
[33] http:/ / www. guardian.co. uk/media/ 2007/ nov/ 23/ channel4. television
[34] "4Music Launch" (http:/ / www.channel4. com/ music/ features/ F/ 4musiclaunch.html). . Retrieved 2008-08-10.
[35] Chris Tryhorn (2007-07-05). "Channel 4 launches '+1' timeshift service" (http:// media. guardian.co. uk/ broadcast/ story/ 0,,2119529,00.
html). London: Media Guardian. . Retrieved 2007-07-05.
[36] "BBC HD strategy comes into focus as Five opts for BSkyB, not Freeview" (http:/ / www. dtg.org. uk/ dtg/ press_releases/
dtg_nmm_20100318. pdf). New Media Markets. 2010-03-18. .
[37] James Welsh (2007-09-19). "Channel 4 HD to launch in December" (http:// www.digitalspy. co. uk/ digitaltv/ a75939/
channel-4-hd-to-launch-in-december. html). Digital Spy. . Retrieved 2007-09-19.
[38] "C4 HD coming to Virgin Media tomorrow" (http:// www.digitalspy.co.uk/ digitaltv/ a168390/ c4-hd-coming-to-virgin-media-tomorrow.
html). Digital Spy. 2009-07-30. .
[39] "C4 HD begins Freeview test transmissions" (http:/ / www.digitalspy. co. uk/ digitaltv/ news/ a210797/
c4-hd-begins-freeview-test-transmissions.html). Digital Spy. 2010-03-26. .
[40] "Freeview HD launches, gets Channel 4" (http:// www.reghardware.co. uk/ 2010/ 03/ 30/ freeview_hd_launches_gets_channel_4/ ).
Register Hardware. 2010-03-30. .
[41] "Channel 4 HD Finally Arrives On Freesat" (http:/ / www.joinfreesat.co. uk/ index. php/ channel-4-hd-finally-arrives-on-freesat). Join
Freesat. 2011-04-19. .
[42] Digital Dividend Review Annexes (http:/ / www.ofcom.org.uk/ consult/ condocs/ ddr/ddr_annexed.pdf)
[43] Ben Dowell (2007-07-06). "Channel 4 wins radio multiplex bid" (http:// media.guardian.co.uk/ radio/ story/ 0,,2120230,00.html).
London: Media Guardian. . Retrieved 2007-07-06.
[44] "The 4 Digital Group radio stations" (http:// media. guardian.co.uk/ radio/ story/0,,2120639,00. html). London: Media Guardian.
2007-07-06. . Retrieved 2007-07-06.
[45] The Guardian, News, Media, Radio, Tuesday 14 October, 2008 16.52 BST - 4 Digital radio partners in crisis talks (http:// www.guardian.
co. uk/ media/ 2008/ oct/ 14/ radio-channel4)
[46] "4radio" (http:/ / web. archive.org/web/ 20070323012109/ http:/ / www.channel4radio. com/ ). Archived from the original (http:// www.
channel4radio.com) on 2007-03-23. . Retrieved 2007-04-03.
[47] "4Radio - The Tube" (http:// www.channel4. com/ music/ microsites/ 0-9/ 4radio/thetube/ index. html). . Retrieved 2007-04-03.
[48] Plunkett, John (2008-01-04). "Channel 4 sell majority stake in Oneword" (http:/ / www.guardian.co.uk/ media/ 2008/ jan/ 04/ channel4.
digitaltvradio). London: Media Guardian. . Retrieved 2008-01-04.
[49] http:/ / blogs. channel4. com/ platform4/2009/ 04/ 01/ its-here-all-new-4od-catch-up/
[50] http:// blogs. channel4. com/ platform4/2009/ 09/ 24/ 4od-returns-to-the-republic-of-ireland/- 4oD returns to Ireland
[51] Channel 4 Youtube Link (http:// www.youtube. com/ user/ channel4?blend=2& ob=4).
[52] http:/ / www. channel4. com/ info/press/ news/ 4od-catch-up-launches-on-ipad
[53] Brown, Mike. "ANCILLARY TELETEXT SERVICES" (http:// teletext. mb21.co.uk/ gallery/ ancillary/c4-s4c/ index.shtml). MB21. .
Retrieved 2007-06-10.
[54] "Teletext and C4 sign text services deal" (http:// www. dmgt.co.uk/ mediacentre/newsreleases/ 20030701/ 3282/ ). Daily Mail and General
Trust plc. 2003-07-01. . Retrieved 2007-06-10.
[55] 11419_11419_C4 (http:/ / www.channel4. com/ about4/ pdf/Finance_2005. pdf)
[56] "Channel vision - Channel 4's new building in London, England" (http:/ / findarticles.com/ p/ articles/ mi_m3575/ is_n1174_v196/
ai_16561918/ pg_1). The Architectural Review. December 1994. .
[57] "Channel 4 Building" (http:// www.channel4. com/ about4/ c4building.html) Retrieved 3 April 2010
[58] SchoolsTV.com (http:/ / web. archive. org/web/ 20070706195104/ http:/ / www. schoolstv. com/ itvschoolson4_history. shtml?1) History of
ITV Schools on Channel 4. Retrieved at the Internet Archive, 16 February 2008
[59] "Channel 4's 'Macro Regions' for advertising, including a map" (http:// www.channel4sales. com/ advertising/ television/ macromap). .
[60] "Channel 4's Dublin Sales Office" (http:/ / www.channel4sales. com/ advertising/regions/ dublin). .
[61] Leigh Holmwood (2008-03-07). "Channel 4 ponders move into regional news as ITV retreats" (http:/ / www.guardian.co.uk/ media/ 2008/
jul/ 03/ channel4. ofcom). London: "guardian.co.uk". . Retrieved 2008-09-30.
[62] http:/ / www. channel4. com/ microsites/ F/ foia/five-4.html
External links
• Official website (http:// http:// www. channel4.com)
• 4od (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ user/ channel4) channel on YouTube
• Media Guardian special report on Channel 4 (http:/ / www.guardian. co. uk/ media/ channel4)
• Channel 4 (http:/ / www2. tv-ark.org.uk/ channel4/ index. html) on TV Ark
Type Private
October, 2005
Guangzhou, China
Key people
Jay Chang
Industry Web 2.0
Services Social network service, Online movie and book database
Alexa rank
Type of site Video sharing
Registration Optional
(required to upload)
Available in Simplified Chinese
Current status Active
56.com is one of the largest video sharing websites in China, where users can upload, view and share video clips.
The domain 56.com attracted at least 3.2 million visitors annually by 2008 according to a Compete.com survey.
Access to Chinese online video provider 56.com was suspended since 18:00 on June 3, 2008. 56.com made an
explanation at 10:00 on June 4, 16 hours after the website's access was stopped, and said that the website had
experienced a server failure and was being repaired, but it did not give a clear time for when the site's services would
be fully resumed.
Some media, such as Hexun.com and Sina.com, reported that as 56.com has frequently violated relevant government
rules with its video content, it has therefore been issued a warning by the government and may be closed for a few
days. However, this has been denied by 56.com.
As of July 11, 2008, 56.com is back and operational.
[1] "Video Sharing Site 56.com Reportedly Receives $10 Million in Venture Funding" (http:/ / www.redlinechina.com/ main/ ?q=node/ 210),
RedlineChina, June 15, 2007.
[2] "56.com - Site Information from Alexa" (http:/ / www.alexa. com/ data/ details/ main/ 56. com), Alexa, June 24, 2008.
[3] "56.com aims to become YouTube of China, raises $20M" (http:// venturebeat.com/ 2007/ 12/ 07/
56com-aims-to-become-youtube-of-china-raises-20m/ ), VentureBeat, July 12, 2007.
[4] http:// www. 56. com/
[5] (http:// siteanalytics. compete. com/ 56. com?metric=uv)
[6] "Chinese YouTube 56.com Returns To Living" (http:/ / www. alleyinsider.com/ 2008/ 7/ chinese-youtube-56-com-returns-to-living), Silicon
Alley Insider, July 11, 2008.
External links
• Official website (http:// http:// www. 56. com/ ) ( Mobile (http:// http:/ / 3g.56. com/ ))
Rounds Webcam Chat Platform
Company GixOO LTD.
Type Private
Launched July 2009
Slogan See You Around
Headquarters Tel Aviv, Israel
Key People Dany Fishel, CEO
Ilan Leibovich, COO
Dmitry Shestek, CTO
Platform Cross-platform
Rounds (formally known as 6rounds) is a video-enabled real-time social network with collaborative browsing, chat,
multi-player gaming and built-in social recommendation features that can be expanded through an open API.


It is the first product of GixOO LTD. which was incorporated in April, 2008
. The company was founded by two
Israeli entrepreneurs, CEO Dany Fishel and COO Ilan Leibovich. Rounds launched their website in July 2009, and it
is in beta as of March 2010.
GixOO LTD. is financed by Startup Factory, Rhodium and additional private and angel investors. As of 2010, they
have received $2 million in a pre-seed round of funding. They are headquartered in Tel Aviv, Israel.
Features and uses
Rounds users create their own (embeddable) personal slide show to inform other users about themselves
. Users
connect through messaging and video chats (referred to as rounds). They initiate rounds either by inviting a specific
person or by joining a specified room based on activity, game or topic. Once users join a specified round they are
systematically matched with another user interested in the same type of round.
While chatting, users can share in various activities, including watching videos on YouTube, co-browsing on
Facebook, and playing games such as chess, backgammon, checkers, and truth or dare.
External features
The Rounds platform offers an open API which allows third party integrations, from small scaled modifications to
white-label solutions. Rounds was one of the first Google Wave extensions to be featured and the only video chat to
be launched at the Google Wave beta launch
In a crowded sphere of video chat software, 6rounds has been criticized for not bringing any technological
innovations. The platforms activity elements of watching YouTube videos, browsing the net and Facebooking
together have been said to be unnecessary additions to the personal act of internet surfing
. As of March 2010,
Rounds does not fully support Linux.
• Finalists in CEA (Consumer Electronics Association)'s i-Stage award
• Winners of BBDO Lab's Startup Competition
• Among top 5 finalists of TechAviv Peer Awards
[1] http:/ / www. rounds. com/
[2] Wauters, Robin. "6rounds Launches Video Communication Platform With Several Layers Of Fun" (http:// www.techcrunch.com/ 2009/ 06/
30/6rounds-launches-video-communication-platform-with-several-layers-of-fun/). TechCrunch. . Retrieved 2009-06-30.
[3] Rottmann, Ralf. "You have to try this: 6rounds launches amazing new social video communication site! (invites inside)" (http:// thenextweb.
com/ 2009/ 07/ 10/ 6rounds/ ). TheNextWeb. . Retrieved 2009-07-10.
[4] Alpheus. "6rounds: The Live Meeting Point!" (http:// www.walyou. com/ blog/ 2009/08/ 15/ 6rounds-live-meeting/). Walyou. . Retrieved
[5] Nahid. "6Rounds – A live Meeting Point" (http:// www.antsmagazine. com/ 2009/ 07/ 6rounds-a-live-meeting-point/). AntsMagazine. .
Retrieved 2009-07-02.
[6] Ha, Anthony. "6rounds wants to add video to all your web activity (invites)" (http:/ / digital. venturebeat.com/ 2009/ 08/ 28/
6rounds-wants-to-add-video-to-all-your-web-activity-invites/ ). VentureBeat. . Retrieved 2009-08-28.
[7] Zee. "6rounds brings video conversation to Google Wave" (http:// thenextweb. com/ 2009/ 09/ 29/
6rounds-brings-video-conversation-google-wave/). TheNextWeb. . Retrieved 2009-09-29.
[8] גיא גרימלנד. "ג'יקסו רוצה שתגלשו ברשת ביחד" (http:// it. themarker.com/ tmit/article/ 7925). TheMarker (Israel). . Retrieved 2009-08-31.
ABC iview
ABC iview
ABC iview
Developer(s) Australian Broadcasting Corporation
Initial release 24 July 2008
Stable release 376
Development status Active
Operating system Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, iOS (iPad only), Linux, PlayStation 3, Sony Bravia and Samsung TVs
Platform Adobe Flash or Native Applications
Available in English
Type Catch up / Internet Television
ABC iview
ABC iview is a video on demand and Catch up TV service run by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. The
service became available on 24 July 2008.
This was the next step after the podcasting of programmes since July
2006. Currently, this site is only viewable to users in Australia.
The site streams video in 650kbps H.264 format.
The iview website uses the RTMP protocol, and is thus officially accessible mainly on platforms supported by
Adobe Flash, however the iPad and internet connected TVs such as Sony and Samsung provide access through use
native applications.
In November and December 2008 the iview player was updated to allow for unmetering by several Australian ISPs
through a peering arrangement with Hostworks. The ISPs included Internode,
Westnet, Apex Internet
and Adam Internet. iiNet was able to offer iview unmetered without the peering upgrade. In addition, AARNet,
Cinenet, and Comcen/SPIN since offer unmetered access to iview.
The ABC News 24 live stream and content not
streamed using Adobe Flash (i.e. through the iPad and internet connected TVs) is currently not unmetered however
this may change in the future.
Some shows may premier on iview before they feature ABC1, such as Rake.
Third-party Access
Internet Connected TVs and Blu-ray Players
• Sony Bravia TVs and blu-ray players offer an Internet Video Service which includes iview.
• Samsung TV and Blu-ray devices with the internet@TV/SMARTtv can install an iview app as of June 2011
iOS Devices
• The ABC iview for iPad App was launched in December 2010.
• An iPhone (and presumably iPad) App is planned for 2011.
Games Consoles and Other Devices
• PlayStation 3 supports iview, accessible via the XrossMediaBar.
• Boxee Box supports iview as of January 2011.
ABC iview
• HiMedia HD500B/HD560B/HD600A/HD600B media player/PVR with the enhanced firmware can play iview
and other catchup TV services.
Offline viewing
Unlike the ABC's podcasts, programs on the iview service are not officially downloadable and are only available to
watch for a short time after the program has aired on the ABC. However, some individuals have been able to
reverse-engineer the method that the Flash application uses to request videos from the media streaming servers
allow programs such as rtmpdump or flvstreamer to download the videos for offline playing
or watch them in
another RTMP-supporting client (such as XBMC).
[1] http:/ / www. abc. net. au/ iview/
[2] Australian Broadcasting Corporation (2008-07-24). "The Television Revolution Has Begun!" (http:/ / www.abc.net. au/ corp/ pubs/ media/
s2313534. htm). Press release. . Retrieved 2008-09-21.
[3] Internode (2008-12-10). "Internode offers unmetered peering into ABC iview" (http:// www.internode. on.net/ news/ 2008/ 12/ 121. php).
Press release. . Retrieved 2009-02-19.
[4] iPrimus (2008-12-11). "iPRIMUS offers high quality ABC iview unmetered to all customers" (http:// www.iprimus. com. au/ PrimusWeb/
AboutUs/News/ iPRIMUS+ offers+high+ quality+ABC+ iview+ unmetered+to+all+ customers. htm). Press release. . Retrieved
[5] "iview unmetered on Selected ISPs" (http:/ / www.abc. net. au/ tv/ iview/ isp.htm). . Retrieved 2009-12-04.
[6] ABC iview FAQs (http:// www.abc. net. au/ tv/ iview/ faq. htm)
[7] "Rake preview on iview" (http:// www.tvtonight. com. au/ 2010/ 10/ rake-preview-on-iview.html). . Retrieved 2010-11-17.
[8] Sony strengthens its IPTV offering in Australia (http:// www.sony.com. au/ pressrelease/ asset/ 392405/ section/
[9] ABC message board discussion: Samsung internet@TV widget. (http:// www2b. abc.net.au/ tmb/ Client/ Message. aspx?b=98& m=13441&
ps=50& dm=2)
[10] ABC iview for iPad (http:// itunes. apple. com/ au/ app/ abc-iview/id401778175)
[11] ABC iView iPad app launched (http:/ / www.abc. net. au/ technology/ articles/ 2010/ 12/ 03/ 3083642. htm),
[12] ABC iview on PS3 (http:/ / au. playstation. com/ psn/ support/ general/detail/ item273118/ ABC-iView-on-PS3/)
[13] Boxee Box now supports playback of ABC iView captions (http:/ / www.mediaaccess. org.au/ captions/
[14] http:/ / bbs. himedia. com. au/ index. php?topic=401
[15] Andy Botting's blog post on using ABC iview with XBMC (http:/ / www.andybotting. com/ wordpress/ abcs-iview-on-xbmc-update-1)
[16] GUI Applications for downloading iview videos at Wikia (http:// iviewdownloaders.wikia.com/ wiki/ ABC_iview_Downloaders_Wiki)
[17] http:// code.google. com/ p/ xbmc-boxee-iview/
External links
• Official website (http:// http:// www. abc.net. au/ iview/ )
• Press release announcing iview (http:/ / www. abc.net.au/ corp/ pubs/ media/ s2313534. htm)
• iPrimus Press Release announcing unmetering of iview (http:// www.iprimus. com. au/ PrimusWeb/ AboutUs/
News/ iPRIMUS+ offers+high+ quality+ABC+ iview+ unmetered+to+all+ customers. htm)
• Internode Press Release announcing unmetering of iview (http:/ / www.internode.on.net/ news/ 2008/ 12/ 121.
Academic Earth
Academic Earth
Academic Earth is a website launched March 24,
2009, by Richard Ludlow

which offers free online
video lectures from universities such as UC Berkeley,
UCLA, University of Michigan, Harvard, MIT,
Princeton, Stanford, and Yale
in the subjects of Astronomy, Biology, Chemistry, Computer Science, Economics,
Engineering, English, Entrepreneurship, History, Law, Mathematics, Medicine, Philosophy, Physics, Political
Science, Psychology, and Religion.
The idea behind Academic Earth came to Ludlow upon stumbling on a full video course lecture from MIT
Mathematics Professor Gilbert Strang. Doing further research, he found out that there are various academic resources
online although these resources were scattered across different websites and in varying file formats. Patterned after
Hulu, Academic Earth serves as an easily-accessible repository for online academic lectures.
[1] "Academic Earth Launches Website Offering Free Video Lectures from Leading Universities" (http:// www.reuters.com/ article/
pressRelease/idUS157269+ 24-Mar-2009+PRN20090324). Reuters. March 24, 2009. . Retrieved 2009-08-22.
[2] Rao, Leena (2009-03-24). "Academic Earth Is The Hulu For Education" (http:/ / www.washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/content/ article/ 2009/
03/ 24/ AR2009032400958. html). The Washington Post. . Retrieved 2009-03-26.
[3] "Academic Earth: Universities" (http:/ / academicearth.org/universities/ ). . Retrieved 2009-03-26.
[4] "Academic Earth: Subjects" (http:// academicearth.org/subjects/ ). . Retrieved 2009-03-26.
External links
• Academic Earth (http:// academicearth.org/)
Akimbo (on-demand service)
Akimbo (on-demand service)
Akimbo was a video on demand system that allowed subscribers to download television shows, movies, and other
video to a set-top box on demand.
Before adopting the name Akimbo, the company also operated under a number of other names including StaticTV
and Blue Falcon Systems.
Based out of San Mateo California, the company employed approximately 80 people at its peak. It was founded by
Steve Shannon, a former executive of ReplayTV, a TiVo competitor that was to became a unit of D&M Holdings,
and is now owned by DirecTV.
Akimbo had released a software version of its on-demand system that ran on any computer running Windows XP
Media Center Edition 2005. The software version was compatible with media center extenders such as the Xbox and
Xbox 360.
The service was initially announced in February 2004, when Akimbo demonstrated its product at the Demo 2004
conference in Scottsdale, Arizona.
It was launched in October 2004,
and signed on with Amazon as their official retailer.
Initial reactions were mixed, with criticisms of high prices of unknown content being levelled at it, although the user
interface was regarded as intuitive and responsive.


From December 2004, AT&T Homezone began to offer some of Akimbo video content through its set top boxes,
result of a partnership deal inspired by AT&T's deep investments in the company.
Akimbo had also released its new RCA Akimbo Player which was a set top box that offers up to 100 hours of
recording and was connected to the Akimbo Video On Demand Service.
On August 1, 2007, Akimbo finalized the dissemination of its Video on Demand service.
On June 2, 2008, Akimbo went out of business.
With the initial launch of the service, complaints were rampant regarding the cost of the set-top-box (about $300),
and then the added cost for users to purchase video content. Users would be able to buy or rent video content which
would then be downloaded to their player for viewing. Akimbo would purchase the rights to provide content from
content providers, then allow the content providers to set the cost of their content. This resulted in erratic pricing and
exorbitant costs for users, as content owners would often set prices of 5-9 dollars for a 30 minute show, and load the
show with commercials.
Akimbo also struggled with video quality, using Windows Media as the video type. Videos often were encoded in
standard definition with the audio and video out of sync, audio cutting out part way through a video, and or
pixelation and distortion to the video.
About a month after launching the Akimbo service, the company had about 120 active set-top boxes, about 60 of
which were being used by employees and/or investors. On average only about 20 of those 120 players downloaded
any content during a month. At the time when the company began its first round of lay-offs, about a year and a half
after the initial launch, the number of users had grown to only about 140.
Akimbo (on-demand service)
Equipment and programming
Akimbo's hard-drive-equipped set-top box connected to a broadband connection and stored the chosen full-resolution
programs using Akimbo’s TiVo-like guide.
The initial content was a bit eccentric — Turkish-language shows, independent films, British dramas from Granada
TV, a lot of skin flicks — but 6ABC CNBC Cartoon Network & VH1 Uno were also among the offerings from its
200 content partners.
Channels which were available on Akimbo were:
• 2FlyTV • CNBC • How to Web TV • Stage One
• 6ABC • DIY Network • iFilm • Stash TV
• A&E • DLT Entertainment • Illusion • Steve Garfield's Video Blog
• Action TV • EarthTalk Today • Inside China • Studio 4 Networks
• Adult Swim • Endorphin • IntoVid • Turner Classic Movies
• Adven TV • FilmClix • latelelatina • Ultimate Combat
• AmazeFilms • Fine Living • LetGo!Yoga • Underground Film
• The Anime Network • FitnessOnDemandTV • Luxury Channel • Union
• Animusic • Fletcher's Place • Moviebear • Varsity TV
• ArtsPass • Food Network • National Geographic • VegTV
• AsiaMovieChannel.com • Freshwave.TV • Oasis TV • VH1 Uno
• The Baby Channel • GolfSpan • Pan-O-Rama • Westpark Foundries
• BBC • Granada TV • Re: Evolution of Sports • Wine TV
• Best of California • GreenCine • Rocketboom • World Affairs Council
• Billiard Club Network • Guardian Studios • sail.tv • World Cinema Online
• blip.tv • HGTV • SecurityTV
• Cartoon Network • high.tv • Skyworks
• Clint Sharp's Vlog • History Channel • The Soundtrack Channel
[1] Hayes, Duffy (1 April 2002). "Peering into the future of content delivery" (http:// www.cedmagazine.com/
peering-into-the-future-of-content. aspx). Communications, Engineering and Design Magazine. . Retrieved 2009-08-12.
[2] Hesseldahl, Arik (20 February 2004). "Video That's Finally On-Demand" (http:// www.forbes. com/ 2004/ 02/ 20/ cx_ah_0220tentech.
html). Forbes. . Retrieved 2009-08-12.
[3] Hesseldahl, Arik (22 August 2005). "Akimbo: From Niches to Riches?" (http:/ / www.businessweek. com/ technology/ content/ aug2005/
tc20050822_1608_tc024. htm?chan=sb). Business Week. . Retrieved 2009-08-12.
[4] Olsen, Stefanie (25 October 2004). "Akimbo debuts video on demand on Amazon" (http:// news. cnet.com/
Akimbo-debuts-video-on-demand-on-Amazon/2100-1025_3-5425547.html). CNET News. . Retrieved 2009-08-12.
[5] Fordahl, Matthew (16 May 2005). "What's on TV? You decide" (http:// www.pe.com/ business/ local/ stories/ PE_Biz_D_ttest17.583e4.
html). The Press-Enterprise. . Retrieved 2009-08-12.
[6] Baig, Edward C (4 May 2005). "On-demand Akimbo shows promise" (http:// www.usatoday. com/ tech/ columnist/ edwardbaig/
2005-05-04-akimbo_x. htm). USA Today. . Retrieved 2009-08-12.
[7] Kim, Ryan (1 November 2006). "AT&T service to create the digital living room" (http:// www. sfgate.com/ cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/
chronicle/ archive/2006/ 11/ 01/ BUG0IM3N1Q1. DTL&type=business). San Francisco Chronicle. . Retrieved 2009-08-12.
[8] Tew, Chris (27 September 2006). "Akimbo Internet video on-demand set top box" (http:/ / www. pvrwire.com/ 2006/ 09/ 27/
akimbo-internet-video-on-demand-set-top-box/ ). PVR Wire. . Retrieved 2009-08-12.
[9] "Video-on-Demand Service Akimbo Shuts Down" (http:// www.animenewsnetwork.com/ news/ 2008-06-02/
video-on-demand-service-akimbo-shuts-down). Anime News Network. 2 June 2008. . Retrieved 2009-08-12.
Akimbo (on-demand service)
External links
• Official website (http:// http:// www. akimbo. com/ )
Alfa Omega
Alfa Omega is a Romanian broadcaster with a satellite channel and an IPTV station. It started as a distributor of
programming working with more than 50 stations in both cable and terrestrial networks inside of Romania.
It now also has operations in Moldava.
[1] alfaomega. "alfaomega" (http:// www.alfaomega.tv/ #axzz1QhSBeogp). alfaomega. . Retrieved 2011-06-29.
External links
• Online schedule and details: (http:/ / www. alfaomega.tv/ )
Amazon Instant Video
Amazon Instant Video (formerly Amazon Video On Demand) is an Internet video on demand service, only
available in the United States, offered by Amazon.com which offers television shows and films for rental and
purchase. The service became available on September 7, 2006 as Amazon Unbox.
On September 4, 2008, the
service was rebranded as "Amazon Video on Demand." The Unbox name still refers to the locally-installed player,
which is now optional.
By default, AIV uses Flash Video in all web browsers with the Adobe Flash plugin installed. This feature was
launched in public beta July 17, 2008
and was released September 4, 2008.
Using Flash should make AIV
relatively portable (compared to, e.g., Netflix Watch Instantly). AIV has been reported to run well on some Linux
distributions, e.g., Linux Mint
Customers may also download videos to TiVo Series 2 and Series 3 DVRs, except those made for use with DirecTV
(DirecTiVo). Sony BRAVIA TVs equipped with an Internet Video Link device, and Panasonic VIERA TVs
equipped with Viera Cast
can also use Amazon VOD directly through the TV's menu system.
The optional Amazon Unbox player lets users download higher-quality copies of videos. The Unbox player is
compatible only with the Windows XP family of operating systems, Windows Vista, and Windows 7. Downloaded
films include a full-resolution video file and can include a lower-resolution copy for portable devices. The content
can be viewed using the Amazon Unbox Video Player, Windows Media Player, a Windows Media Center Extender
such as an Xbox 360, a PlaysForSure portable device. Downloaded videos may be burned to a DVD for storage
purposes, but the resulting DVD will not play on a DVD player.
It is not compatible with Playstation 3 or Apple TV.

Amazon Instant Video
Video quality
Amazon.com describes the content as "DVD quality". The average video bit-rate of an Amazon Unbox download
equals 2500 kbit/s; this means that a two hour movie consumes roughly two gigabytes (2 GB) of storage space. In
comparison, a typical DVD averages 5600 kbit/s, which makes a 2-hour movie about 4.7 GB. However, Amazon
uses the VC-1 codec, a more modern codec than MPEG-2, which is used on DVDs. VC1 achieves a higher quality
picture at a smaller file size.
The quality for the TiVo files is advertised as being 2800 kbit/s and as being "of equal or better quality than videos
recorded at the Best Quality setting on a TiVo Series2 DVR."
Due to the large size of the files being downloaded, the service requires a broadband internet connection capable of
sustaining transfer speeds of 800 kbit/s. A 2-hour movie may take 7 hours and 20 minutes to download using a 750
kbit/s DSL/cable connection or 1 hour and 50 minutes with a 3.0 Mbit/s DSL/cable connection. Amazon asserts that
for customers with an internet connection of 3 Mbit/s or more, any Unbox file will start playing within 5 minutes. In
November 2007, TiVo enabled "progressive download" for Unbox content so that users may watch downloaded files
before the download is complete.
Users of the streaming video on demand service need only a web browser with the Adobe Flash plugin to stream
For transfer to portable device, the service requires the installation of a client application which manages playback
and the transfer of video to portable devices that bear the Microsoft PlaysForSure certification, such as the Creative
Zen or a Portable Media Center.
For use with a TiVo DVR, no client application is needed. The user only needs a broadband enabled (and connected)
Series2 or Series3 DVR. DirecTiVo DVRs are not supported.
Sony BRAVIA TVs require an Internet Video Link to play Amazon VOD videos. Some models come equipped with
this device; for other DMeX-capable models, a separate device must be purchased and installed.
Is also available on Panasonic TVs with VIERA CAST. http:/ / www2.panasonic. com/ consumer-electronics/ learn/
Televisions/ vieracast
Also available on Samsung 650 series and above HDTVs, as well as newer Vizio and LG TVs.
Points of Differentiation
• RemoteLoad allows customers to download to any Unbox-registered PC or TiVo from any Internet-connected
computer. For example, a user can purchase an Unbox video from a work computer and request that it be
downloaded on a home computer or TiVo DVR.
• Your Media Library allows people to delete most large video files from their local hard drive when finished and
store them in Amazon's Media Library for later redownload. This allows people to download more movies than
their hard drive could otherwise store, and it provides a backup in case of hard drive failure.
• Unbox on TiVo allows customers to send content directly to their DVR.
• As of March 26, 2008, Unbox offers over 5,000 movies to purchase
This compares with about 800 movies on
the iTunes Store.
• Many Unbox videos are also available for rental for $.99 to $3.99. Rented movies must be viewed within the first
30 days after purchase and they may only be viewed within 24 hours of the first time the user presses Play.
• In addition to shows from mainstream networks (CBS, NBC and FOX), Unbox sells television series from the
BBC, MTV, BRAVO and the Korean Broadcasting System (KBS). Unbox also sells more obscure television
series such as Giant Robo (also known as Johnny Sokko and His Flying Robot), a 1960s Japanese television show
Amazon Instant Video
popular in the US in the early 1970s.
• Beginning with the 2007–08 television season, Amazon Unbox became the exclusive provider of NBC content,
replacing iTunes as the delivery mechanism for these shows. NBC Universal later signed a new distribution
agreement with Apple starting with the 2008–09 season and started distributing some of its shows for free on
In the first version of Unbox, a background service would launch itself upon system startup to contact the Amazon
server to see if there were any new videos to download. Also, the program would attempt to contact the Amazon
server when uninstalled. This automatic behavior, which could not be disabled without uninstalling the Unbox
application, drew negative reviews for its implicit permission to run arbitrary code as designated by Amazon.com
This is also confirmed in the video player's license agreement. In an upgrade released shortly after
launch, thought to be a response to these criticisms,
Amazon made "launch on startup" optional, though disabling
it necessarily disables the RemoteLoad feature, and makes the program impossible to run in non-administrator
Rented Unbox movies cannot be transferred to a portable device. They can only be viewed on the device to which
they are downloaded.
TV Passes purchased in the middle of the television season require the purchase of the entire season, and there is no
other way to pre-order all future episodes of a season. Further, there is no way to pre-order all future seasons of a
television show.
Related links
• Amazon Unbox Launch Press Release
• Amazon Unbox: Frequently Asked Questions
• Amazon.com unwraps its 'Unbox'
, CNET News.com
• Amazon's Online Video Gambit
, Wired News
• Amazon Unbox On TiVo
[1] Amazon Press Release March 7, 2007 (http:/ / phx. corporate-ir.net/ phoenix. zhtml?c=97664& p=irol-newsArticle&ID=971365&
[2] Amazon Customers Can Now Instantly Watch Ad-Free Movies and TV Shows on Macs, PCs and Compatible Sony BRAVIA Televisions
Starting Today on Amazon Video On Demand (http:/ / biz.yahoo.com/ bw/ 080903/ 20080903006572. html?. v=1)
[3] Amazon Plans an Online Store for Movies and TV Shows (http:// www.nytimes. com/ 2008/ 07/ 17/ technology/ 17amazon.html?_r=1&
[4] "Ubuntu & Linux Mint Compatible Amazon Prime Unlimited Instant Video Streaming Now Available!" (http:/ / www.ainer.org/ news/
ubuntu-linux-mint-compatible-amazon-prime-unlimited-instant-video-streaming-now-available). . Retrieved 5 March 2011.
[5] http:// www. amazon. com/ gp/ video/ ontv/ panasonic
[6] "Setting up and watching Amazon Instant Video on your TV" (http:// www.amazon.com/ gp/ video/ ontv/ faq). . Retrieved 2 July 2011.
[7] "What Is Amazon Instant Video?" (http:/ / gizmodo. com/ 5767054/ what-is-amazon-instant-video). . Retrieved 2 July 2011.
[8] Amazon Unbox on TiVo (http:// www.amazon. com/ gp/ video/ tivo)
[9] Amazon Video on Demand - Sony Bravia (http:/ / www.amazon.com/ gp/ video/ ontv/ bravia)
[10] Amazon Unbox Video Frequently Asked Questions (http:/ / www.amazon.com/ gp/ help/ customer/ display.html?nodeId=3748)
[11] List of Unbox movie downloads available for purchase (http:// www. amazon.com/ s?node=16386761& field-drm_rights=Purchase&
[12] List of iTunes movie downloads available for purchase (http:// phobos. apple.com/ WebObjects/ MZStore.woa/ wa/
viewRoom?fcId=190869757& sortMode=1& id=39& batchNumber=14). Link requires iTunes to be installed.
[13] Merritt, Tom. "My fight with Amazon Unbox." Alpha: The CNET Blog, 8 September 2006. Accessed at (http:/ / reviews. cnet. com/
4531-10921_7-6636289.html) on 7 April 2007.
Amazon Instant Video
[14] Ouchi, Monica Soto. "Amazon listens to Unbox beefs." The Seattle Times, 27 September 2006. Accessed at (http:/ / archives.seattletimes.
nwsource. com/ cgi-bin/texis. cgi/ web/ vortex/display?slug=amazon27& date=20060927) on 7 April 2007.
[15] http:/ / phx.corporate-ir.net/ phoenix. zhtml?c=176060&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=903243&highlight
[16] http:// www. amazon. com/ gp/ help/ customer/ display. html?nodeId=3748
[17] http:// news. com. com/ Amazon. com+unwraps+ its+ Unbox/ 2100-1026_3-6113478.html
[18] http:/ / www. wired.com/ news/ technology/ 0,71751-0.html
[19] http:/ / www. amazon. com/ gp/ video/ tivo
External links
Official Site
• Amazon Unbox (http:// www. amazon. com/ unbox/ )
• Amazon Unbox FAQ (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ gp/ help/ customer/ display.
• Amazon Unbox Terms of Use (http:/ / www.amazon.com/ gp/ help/ customer/ display.
• Amazon Unbox Blog (http:/ / unbox. typepad. com/ )
• CNET Review (http:// reviews. cnet. com/ 4531-10921_7-6635840.html) – CNET
• My fight with Amazon Unbox (http:/ / reviews.cnet. com/ 4531-10921_7-6636289.html) – CNET
• Boing Boing review of the Unbox TOS (http:/ /www. boingboing. net/ 2006/09/ 15/ amazon_unbox_to_cust.
html) – Boing Boing
• Amazon Unbox - Terms Undermine Value (http:// www.mp3newswire.net/ stories/ 6002/ unbox.html) -
September 20, 2006 MP3 Newswire article
• Review of Unbox on ExtremeTech (http:// www. extremetech.com/ article2/ 0,1697,2078466,00.asp)
• TiVo goes live with Amazon Unbox partnership (http:/ / news. com. com/ TiVo+goes+ live+ with+ Amazon+
Unbox+ partnership/2100-1041_3-6165106.html)
Ameibo is a web-based video on demand (VOD) company that allows its users to legally download and share
movies with other paying customers. It is the only website in the world that pays you cold hard cash when you
legally share/seed the movies you Buy or Rent from the website. The company aims to combat online movie piracy
by imitating the common BitTorrent (protocol) technique as a way for users to only share the content with other
paying users.
Users earn money when legally sharing the movies bought or rented from Ameibo
Ameibo was founded in April 2008 and is based in Stockholm, Sweden.
The company has 20,000 members in 150
countries and distributes about 4,000 digital downloadable movies from such major studios as Paramount and
Warner Bros, and also from more than 100 minor and independent studios from around the world.
The following
genres are available on the website: sports, action, adventure, drama, comedy, animation, horror, war, western,
special interest, Swedish, thriller, music, musical, children and family, animation, science fiction, suspense, and
When users go to Ameibo they are given the choice of either renting or purchasing movies from a growing database.
These movies are directly provided to Ameibo by legal movie distributors. Ameibo allows downloading of approved
BitTorrent programs, making legal sharing of movies with other users possible and 100 percent legal. Ameibo works
with the following BitTorrent clients: Azureus, uTorrent, BitTorrent.
Ameibo offers three ways to download movies:
1. Click and download using a built-in java applet. Watch instantly while movie is downloading.
2. BitTorrent download.
3. Download into iTunes as a podcast.
BitTorrent is a tool that was designed to transfer files. Ameibo users can directly send and receive legal movie files
using BitTorrent. The BitTorrent application can be downloaded for use directly from Ameibo.com. The
downloader, called BitEasier runs on all major platforms. Some movies on Ameibo may be burned to DVD – it will
depend on their technical specifications. Movie trailers and comments and reviews on Ameibo are available to assist
in choosing which movie users should Rent or Buy.
Recently, Ameibo added a new service where Filmmakers, (including both indie and major productions) can upload
their movies to The Content Bay
. Production companies may sign non-exclusive deals without starting fees –
movies may be sold on Ameibo or anywhere else. These production companies can choose the selling price and what
territories movies will be sold in and which will then be published on Ameibo.com.
[1] Podadventurepartners (http:// www.podventurepartners.com/ PodPortfolio.aspx?id=55). Podadventurepartners.com Retrieved 2009-09-16
[2] http:// www. ameibo. com
[3] Businessweek, Oct 2009 (http:/ / investing. businessweek. com/ research/ stocks/ private/snapshot. asp?privcapId=44266172)
Businessweek.com Retrieved 2009-09-14
[4] Ameibo – Buy and Download Movies (http:// www. ameibo.com/ about.php) Ameibo.com Retrieved 2009-09-14
[5] Killerstartups, 2008 (http:/ / www.killerstartups. com/ Video-Music-Photo/ ameibo-com-legal-movie-buying-sharing-renting).
Killerstartups.com Retrieved 2009-09-14.
[6] http:// www. thecontentbay. com/ content-owner/upload/
[7] The Content Bay – Sell and distribute movies (http:// www. thecontentbay. com/ content-owner/upload/ ) TheContentBay.com Retrieved
ArtBabble is a cloud based video hosting service for art content
and has been called the "YouTube of the arts".
It was launched in April 2009 and won the 2010 "Best of the Web" (overall category) award at the Museums and the
Web conference.
The original design and hosting is provided by the Indianapolis Museum of Art.
ArtBabble partners include the following:
• Indianapolis Museum of Art
• Art Institute of Chicago
• J. Paul Getty Museum
• Hammer Museum
• Los Angeles County Museum of Art
• Museum of Modern Art
• The New York Public Library
• San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
• San Jose Museum of Art
• Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum
• Smithsonian American Art Museum
• Van Gogh Museum
[1] Presentation (http:// www. archimuse. com/ mw2009/ abstracts/ prg_335002100.html), Museums and the Web conference, 2009.
[2] Ruth Jamieson, ArtBabble: The YouTube of the arts (http:/ / www.guardian.co. uk/ artanddesign/ 2009/ apr/14/ artbabble), The Guardian,
April 14, 2009.
[3] Congratulations to the MW2010 Best of the Web Winners! (http:// conference.archimuse.com/ forum/
congratulations_mw2010_best_web_winners), Archives & Museum Informatics, April 16, 2010.
[4] Kate Taylor, ArtBabble Site Opens Window to World of Museums (http:// www.nytimes. com/ 2009/ 04/ 07/ arts/ design/ 07babb.html),
New York Times, April 6, 2009.
[5] Full list of partners (http:/ / www.artbabble.org/ partner), ArtBabble.
External links
• ArtBabble website (http:/ / www. artbabble.org/ )
BBC iPlayer
BBC iPlayer
BBC iPlayer
BBC iPlayer homepage
Original author(s) BBC
Developer(s) BBC
Initial release December 25, 2007
Stable release 3.2.7 / May 18, 2011
Development status Current
Written in Adobe AIR, Adobe Flash, Objective-C, others
Operating system Windows (XP, Vista, 7)
Mac OS X
iOS (iPad, iPhone, iPod Touch) (beta)
Symbian S60 (beta)
Wii (beta)
Virgin Media
(Streaming only)
Freesat (beta)
Sky Go (part of On Demand service)
TalkTalk (soon)
BT Vision (part of On Demand service) PlayStation 3 (beta)
Available in
Welsh,</rb> Scottish Gaelic
Type Television & radio catch-up
BBC iPlayer, commonly shortened to iPlayer, is an internet television and radio service, developed by the BBC to
extend its former RealPlayer-based and other streamed video clip content to include whole TV shows.
BBC iPlayer left Beta and went live on 25 December 2007.
On 25 June 2008, a new-look iPlayer was launched,
originally as a beta-test version alongside the earlier version.
The site tagline was "Catch up on the last 7 days of
BBC TV & Radio", reflecting that programmes are unavailable on iPlayer after this time (with some exceptions),
which was later changed to "Making the unmissable, unmissable". The BBC state on their website that this is due to
copyright reasons. In May 2010 the site was updated again, to include a recommendations feature and a "social
BBC iPlayer
In February 2011, the BBC iPlayer was once again modified to include links to other programmes on other television
programmes. Since the launch it showcased programmes on ITV1, ITV2, ITV3, ITV4, Channel 4, E4, More 4, Film
4, Channel 5, 5*, 5USA and S4C. The feature was added to the search function and the channels function. When a
user clicks on a programme by another broadcaster, they are redirected to the relevant broadcaster's catch up service
(either the ITV Player, 4OD or Demand 5).
During its development, iPlayer was formerly known as Integrated Media Player (iMP),

Interactive Media
and MyBBCPlayer.
The original iPlayer service was launched in October 2005, undergoing a five month long trial of five thousand
broadband users until 28 February 2006. The iPlayer was heavily criticised for delay in its launch, rebranding, and
cost to BBC licence-fee payers, because no finished product had been released after four years of development.
new, improved iPlayer service then had another very limited user trial which began on 15 November 2006.
The iPlayer received the approval of the BBC Trust on 30 April 2007, and an open beta for Windows XP and
Windows Server 2003 was launched at midnight on 27 July 2007, where it was announced that only a fixed number
of people would be able to sign up for the service, with a controlled increase in users over the summer.
The BBC has also been criticised for saying that the iPlayer would 'launch' on the 27 July 2007, when what was on
offer was simply an extension of the beta to an open beta, admitting more users in a controlled manner.
This was
done reportedly to allow British ISPs and the BBC to gauge the effect of the iPlayer traffic on the Internet within the
The open beta incorporated a media player, an electronic programme guide (EPG) and specially designed download
client, and allowed the download of TV content by computers assigned to a United Kingdom-based IP address, for
use up to thirty days after broadcast. However, it was available only to users of Windows XP.
This was a controversial decision by the BBC, which led to a petition against the decision being posted on 10
Downing Street's e-petition website.
The petition reached 16,082 signatures on 20 August 2007. The response
from the Government was:
... the Trust noted the strong public demand for the service to be available on a variety of operating
systems. The BBC Trust made it a condition of approval for the BBC's on-demand services that the
iPlayer is available to users of a range of operating systems, and has given a commitment that it will
ensure that the BBC meets this demand as soon as possible. They will measure the BBC's progress on
this every six months and publish the findings.

On 16 October 2007, the BBC announced a strategic relationship with Adobe, that would bring a limited,
streaming-only version of the iPlayer to Mac and Linux users, and Windows users who cannot or do not wish to use
the iPlayer download service, such as Windows 9x users.
The streaming service was launched on 13 December
Most programmes can be viewed for up to seven days after broadcast, unlike the thirty days provided by
the download service.
Since January 2008, iPlayer has supported Mozilla Firefox under the Microsoft Windows platform for downloading
Before the iPlayer had even launched, it was announced that the BBC, alongside ITV and Channel 4, were intending
to launch a new video on demand platform, provisionally named Kangaroo. It was intended that Kangaroo would
complement the video on demand services that these channels were already offering, including the iPlayer, by
making programmes available once their "catch up" period expires.
The Kangaroo project was eventually
abandoned after being blocked by the Competition Commission early in 2009.
BBC iPlayer
Following a deal between the BBC and cable television provider Virgin Media, the iPlayer service was made
available through the provider's on-demand service.
The cable service launched on 30 April 2008,
and keeps
the look and feel of the BBC iPlayer program.
In response to a Freedom of Information Act request, the BBC revealed that as of 8 April 2008 the iPlayer had so far
cost £6 million to develop.
On 23 August 2008, a new feature, Series Stacking, was announced.
This feature started being rolled out on 13
September 2008, and allowed viewers to watch previous programmes from selected series until the series has ended,
with a limit of up to thirteen weeks after first broadcast.
Not all programmes will form part of the stack, however.
The BBC Trust has permitted 15% of content to be offered as part of the stacking service; soaps, news bulletins and
review-based programmes will not be stacked, nor programmes containing material of a legal nature, such as
On 19 December 2008, the BBC released, as part of the iPlayer Labs feature, iPlayer Desktop for Mac OS X and
Linux operating systems. This moved the download service away from the previous P2P based distribution model
and onto an HTTP download model.



On 20 April 2009, the BBC incorporated high-definition streams and downloads of some content on the iPlayer.
There are plans to roll out the HD streams to devices such as the Virgin Set Top Box, but no date has yet been set. A
BBC iPlayer application for the PlayStation 3 was announced by Sony in August 2009 and was released on the 1
September 2009 along with the Firmware 3.0 update to coincide with the launch of the slimline PlayStation 3 .
Another version of iPlayer was released in late 2009 as a 'channel' for the Nintendo Wii. This shows only low
definition videos of BBC shows up to 7 days after their release on Television.
Computer platforms
'iPlayer 1.0'
Download service
One of the key features of the original iPlayer download service was the use of peer-to-peer technology to enable the
distribution of large video files (i.e. TV programmes) to scale effectively. Once downloaded, the content was only
playable within the iPlayer itself or Windows Media Player 10 or 11, and subject to digital rights management. In
December 2008 the BBC moved to an Adobe AIR based client that downloaded content via HTTP rather than P2P.
The new system replaced the Windows DRM system with Adobe's own. DRM software prevents it being directly
copied to another medium (e.g. another computer or CD-ROM), and allows the BBC to control how long the
programmes remain watchable. Programmes are available for download for seven days following broadcast. Once a
programme is downloaded a user has only thirty days to start watching it. Once a user starts to watch a programme, it
will continue to be available for the next seven days. These limitations do not apply to viewers using the online
streaming service, where most programmes become unavailable from the website after 7 days.
There was criticism levelled at the iPlayer's use of KService from Kontiki, the peer-to-peer application which
continues to use users' bandwidth even after the iPlayer has been shut down,
though this can be controlled using
options available within the software. Because of this, users may have been charged by their Internet service
provider for exceeding their download limit or breaching the so-called "fair use" policy.
However, the Kontiki
P2P system has not been used since the new client was introduced in December 2008.
The client also offers an electronic programme guide (EPG) with listings for both the previous seven and next seven
days' programmes; selecting a programme which has already been broadcast will begin downloading it immediately,
while those not yet shown will be downloaded as soon as they have been. It is currently not possible to schedule a
series to be automatically downloaded when the next episode becomes available, but the BBC hopes to make this
available in a later version.
BBC iPlayer
Online streaming service
A screenshot of the old version of BBC iPlayer
streaming page for television programme, Sound
The BBC's streaming version of iPlayer, which uses Adobe Flash
software, was launched on 13 December 2007.
The BBC made use
of the Christmas period to trumpet the new service with the tagline
'Making the unmissable... unmissable', and the service came out of beta
on the 25 December 2007.
Also, seasonal specials were followed
routinely throughout the Christmas week with plugs for iPlayer.
The streaming version of iPlayer offers replays of programmes
broadcast on all BBC TV channels during the last seven days.
Programmes are available from all national BBC television channels,
and Welsh programmes shown on S4C.
Due to licensing
agreements, all international - and some privately produced - TV
shows and movies are not available on iPlayer.
'iPlayer 2.0'
On the 25 June 2008, the BBC announced that they had been developing a new version of the iPlayer based on user
feedback - it was then called "BBC iPlayer 2.0".
New features included combining the normal television iPlayer
with the radio iPlayer, schedules of programmes due to be on the iPlayer, automatic resumption of the last
programme watched, an increase in the size of the screen by 25% to 640 pixels wide, RSS feeds of iPlayer data, and
a "Yesterday's TV" function.
The beta ran alongside the existing site until 3 July 2008, when a new version
replaced it.
Later versions have implemented an option of streaming videos in high quality in H.264.
BBC iPlayer Desktop Manager
At the end of 2008, a newer platform was launched which facilitated use of the new BBC iPlayer Desktop
(replacement for Download Manager) and other "BBC iPlayer Labs" features such as adjustable video windows and
user feedback options. In March 2009, the BBC launched a streaming version of the player which needs a 1500 kbps
minimum connection.
On 1 April 2010, this Desktop Manager was updated to version 1.5.15695.18135.
The update claimed, amongst
other things, optimisation of CPU usage in full screen: 20% to 40% improvement; videos that start to download in
the UK should be able to complete downloading abroad; and update to use Adobe Integrated Runtime AIR 1.5.3
which has improved reliability, compatibility and security.
'iPlayer 3.0'
The iPlayer team released the next-generation of the iPlayer, calling it the iPlayer 3.0 release, on 6 September 2010.
It brings integration with various social networking sites to the TV on-demand service. Deals with Facebook,
Twitter, and Bebo are already in place, with more likely to follow.
iPlayer users will be asked to integrate their accounts with the BBC Online site. Then every time they sign in and use
the iPlayer, they will also be connected to the social networks they use. This will enable the BBC to see what they
and their friends are watching or listening to.
The only other feature of the new-look iPlayer discussed was a new embeddable video player, being rolled out across
the whole of the BBC’s online presence.
This new release has been met with much criticism from users, most hailing it as unfriendly and a backwards step in
usability and functionality.


BBC iPlayer
Television platforms
In the second half of 2010, 3view enabled HD iPlayer on its connected Digital Terrestrial TV boxes allowing owners
to access iPlayer content in HD via the box.
Virgin Media
On 30 April 2008 the iPlayer service was fed directly to Virgin Media's 3.4m digital cable TV customers as part of
the company's video-on-demand service. Pressing the 'red button' while watching a BBC channel on TV will bring
up the iPlayer service without the user having to access the web.
On 29 May 2008 Virgin Media successfully integrated iPlayer with the Virgin Media electronic programme guide.
Most BBC shows are now listed alongside other VOD content in Virgin's Catch Up TV section, and through the red
button while viewing a BBC channel. There is no charge for watching BBC shows through the iPlayer on Virgin
As of 21 July 2008, iPlayer on Virgin Media had received 10.5 million views since its official launch on 1 June
On 26 September 2008 it was revealed that one third of all iPlayer programme views were accessed
through Virgin Media.
On 1 May 2009, the BBC and Virgin Media announced the launch of HD content via BBC iPlayer on Virgin Media's
TV platform, including Robin Hood, Friday Night with Jonathan Ross and Later... with Jools Holland.
On 2 March 2011, Virgin released an iPlayer application for their TiVo digital video recorder. Unlike the previous
implementation, the application streams over the internet rather than utilizing Virgin's video-on-demand service, in
order to comply with the BBC's proposed syndication policy.
Virgin Media was also forced to remove direct
access to BBC content on TiVo, meaning that instead of being able to access BBC content through its backwards
EPG, Virgin TiVo users must instead go through the Apps and Games area or press the Red Button from a BBC
The change also allows an increase in the amount of programmes available, from around 300 to 700
hours on average, bringing Virgin into line with the iPlayer on connected TV devices.
On 23 July 2009 the first subscription-free digital terrestrial device to include iPlayer went on sale in UK retailers.
The FetchTV Smartbox connects to any broadband connection and gives access to the BBC iPlayer and is a
Freeview+ PVR.
FetchTV created its own version of the iPlayer, believing it was adhering to BBC guidelines, but support was refused
by BBC Future Media and Technology. IP Vision made a formal complaint to the BBC in March 2009: the matter
then passed to the BBC Executive’s Fair Trading Complaints Panel, which rejected the complaint, and IP Vision then
appealed to the BBC Trust. On 22 December 2009 the BBC Trust rejected FetchTV's request to release the
The Trust’s Finance and Compliance Committee (FCC) found that the BBC had given reasonable
arguments as to why IP Vision should not be allowed to go ahead with its self-build product.
The Trust FCC also rescinded new guidelines introduced by the BBC in October 2009 formalising a ban on third
parties building their own commercial iPlayer products . The Trust concluded that the clarification amounted to a
significant change to the syndication guidelines which should have been referred to the Trust for approval before
BBC iPlayer
BT Vision
On 27 May 2008, BT began to charge BT Vision customers £3 per month for watching BBC Replay, a cut down
version of iPlayer offering a more limited 30 hours of BBC programming per week.
A spokesman for BT said
that its customers had previously been able to view only BBC on-demand content because of "technical issues".
BBC spokesman said: "In line with other TV platforms where BBC programmes are made available on demand, the
BBC requires that all public service content should be accessible via the lowest cost subscription tier. In this case, it
is BT Replay."
From 1 April 2009, the Replay package was included in all of BT Vision's Value Packs but remains available as a
separate, £2.93 per month, package to non-subscribers.
On 11 November 2010, the BBC and BT announced plans to bring the full BBC iPlayer package to BT Vision,
replacing the BBC content on BT Vision's 50-hour "TV Replay" package.
BT introduced BBC iPlayer in a
phased release, starting in early December 2010, with all BT Vision customers able to access the service on channel
990 by 22 June 2011.

BBC iPlayer as displayed by Freesat
On 2 November 2009, it was announced that a beta release of BBC
iPlayer for Freesat would be released on 7 December 2009 to a limited
number of Freesat viewers.


On 21 December 2009, iPlayer
was made available on a soft launch to Freesat viewers with Humax
Foxsat HD receivers only, with an official release on 11 January

It is the final beta version of iPlayer, available via the red
button on interactive page 7001. On 20 January 2010, Sony released
software update 1.630SA to enable BBC iPlayer on all of their Freesat
integrated televisions.
On 25 March 2010, iPlayer was added to
TechniSat receivers, with an update for Harvard International receivers
released on 31 March.
However, the Harvard upgrade will not be
available on early model standard definition Freesat receivers sold under the Bush, Goodmans and Grundig brands.
Harvard International is therefore offering a replacement high definition receiver to anyone affected.
had aimed to add iPlayer to all of its devices by October 2010,
but as of 2011 support has not been extended to
the 2008 range.
LG have been unable to update their Freesat integrated LF7700 television and are therefore
offering a free Freesat set-top box.
On 16 December 2010, BBC iPlayer was assigned to Freesat channel 901, in
addition to access via the BBC Red Button.
On 4 May 2009, the managing director of Freeview, Ilse Howling, announced expectations that iPlayer-enabled
Freeview boxes would be available in 2009.
From 1 April 2011, all new Freeview HD receiver products must
include MHEG Interaction Channel (MHEG-IC) as part of D-Book 6.2.1.
The move allowed the standard
MHEG-5 reliant iPlayer application to be offered from 7 April via the red button on all BBC channels to Freeview
HD certified devices.
BBC iPlayer
In December 2009, Cello Electronics released the Marks & Spencer branded iViewer TV.
The television is
internet enabled, allowing for the viewing of online content including the BBC iPlayer, which has its own physical
button on the remote, although BBC iPlayer HD won’t be available until 2010.
On 11 January 2010, the BBC announced that BBC iPlayer will be built directly into TVs that will be widely
available in the UK within months.
Samsung Electronics became the first major manufacturer to officially
announce that its televisions will be updated to include full access to the iPlayer through their Internet@TV service.
Sony added BBC iPlayer to its BRAVIA Internet Video service, included in its 2010 range of televisions and Blu-ray
On 9 September 2010, iPlayer was added to Sony's BRAVIA televisions, having previously only been
available on Blu-ray players.
Televisions needed a firmware update which could be upgraded over the internet or
downloaded onto a USB flash drive for loading directly to the TV. At the time of launch BBC HD content is not
available, though high and standard video quality are available on all programmes.
Game consoles
BBC iPlayer as displayed by the Nintendo Wii
On 9 April 2008, the BBC iPlayer was made available to stream video
content on the Wii video game console via the Internet Channel.

This was enabled by a recoding of the iPlayer to use Flash 7 rather than
Flash 9. However, the Autumn 2009 update to the Wii's Internet
Channel resulted in the iPlayer no longer working on updated
A BBC iPlayer in the form of a dedicated Wii channel
was launched on 18 November 2009.
The BBC iPlayer Channel is
free to download from the Wii Shop Channel; the service is available
to UK residents only.
PlayStation 3
Soon after the Wii release, several unofficial PlayStation 3 iPlayer proxy sites arose that used JavaScript to replace
the UA string, However on 2 December 2008, an official iPlayer application widget was provided by the BBC for
the PS3.
Shortly after release, the PS3 accounted for 6% of all iPlayer traffic, making it the third most popular
platform used to access the service behind personal computers (85%) and mobile phones and iPods (7%).
January 2010, PS3 usage had risen to 8%,
and by November 2010, over 6 million people accessed the iPlayer
through the PlayStation 3.
In September 2009, the PS3 iPlayer was also upgraded by the BBC to provide H.264 playback and full screen
Future plans for the PS3 iPlayer include features from iPlayer V3 scheduled for late 2010
Xbox 360
A deal between the BBC and Microsoft has been unable to be reached, because Microsoft’s strategy of charging for
all content on its Xbox Live platform is incompatible with the BBC’s public service remit.
Microsoft wants to
ensure that only those paying for Xbox Live Gold accounts can access its added content services. The BBC is not
legally allowed to charge the UK public for access to the iPlayer, as the access charges for it are included in the BBC
licence fee already.
As of November 2010, Microsoft is still considering BBC iPlayer for Xbox 360. Head of Xbox UK Steven McGill
told Eurogamer that the firm is still discussing how it can add original features to the service.
BBC iPlayer
Mobile platforms
Android devices
On 23 June 2010, after many months of complaints from Android users, BBC iPlayer officially announced support
for the Android platform. Users can navigate to the usual BBC iPlayer website, and a mobile website is displayed.
As a result of the BBC's decision to use Adobe Flash Player to handle video playback for Android devices on this
website, users must be using Android 2.2 or later
(the earliest Android version supported by Flash Player).
There was also an unofficial but functional application for the Google Android platform called myPlayer but all BBC
content was removed in November 2010 as the service was alleged to be in breach of the BBC terms of use.
Another such application — beebPlayer — was removed from the market in May 2010 at the BBC's request.
On 8 February 2011 the BBC announced that Android, alongside the iPad, would be amongst the first two platforms
to receive a native iPlayer application.
The application was made available via the Android Market to UK users,
but as with the earlier mobile website, the application uses Adobe's Flash Player for video playback and as a result is
only available for devices running Android 2.2 or later.
iOS devices
BBC iPlayer as displayed by the iPhone
On 7 March 2008, a beta version for Apple's iOS devices iPhone and
iPod Touch was released, allowing streaming over a Wi-Fi connection.
The EDGE/3G connectivity on the iPhone, however, is not supported,
as it is too slow for streaming video.

Non-iPhone users were found to be watching and downloading streams
intended for iPhone users allowing them to play them on alternative
devices. The BBC modified the iPlayer service on 13 March 2008 to
prevent this.
Through the month of June 2008 further methods
were discovered by iPlayer users to watch and download streams
intended for iPhones. A Ruby
hole was followed by the BBC
introducing XOR encryption on parts of the downloaded files if a
genuine iPhone was not detected. The BBC introduced specially
crafted web bugs, referrer checks and download chunk limits, such that
only devices exhibiting this behaviour, i.e. a genuine iPhone handset,
would be able to stream the video content. A cycle of updates and
reverse engineering has followed
such that all the various streams,
both for the iPhone and flash streaming service, are now able to be downloaded without the need for decryption or
DRM circumvention. This has been made possible by various software
which can effectively simulate a RTMP
flash client or an iPhone. As of early December 2010 the iPhone mp3 access has been changed to use https. The
server checks the client's certificate and only accepts connections for those issued to Apple. This change to the
protocol not only prevents access to non Apple devices but also disables use by a number of early generation iPod
Touch devices.
BBC iPlayer
Nokia N96 phone
On 18 September 2008, the BBC announced that a version will become available to the Nokia N96 mobile phone as
a download service to allow viewers to watch programmes even when they are out of reach of Wi-Fi or 3G

The launch date was set of 1 October 2008.
Shortly after on 9 September 2008, even before the BBC Nokia N96 download service had gone live, a method was
published to independently download and play the iPlayer N96 3GP stream on other mobiles, Linux and Mac OS.
BlackBerry devices
On 5 November 2010, an official BBC iPlayer app that allows users to stream live television and radio, and catch-up
on previously aired content became available for download on BlackBerry OS 5.0 (and higher) devices.
A Wi-Fi
connection is needed for an "optimal viewing experience" but 3 and Vodafone are allowing it run on their 3G
Additional mobile devices
In early December 2008, iPlayer was updated to include streaming radio and television, and extended to a variety of
including the Samsung Omnia, Sony Ericsson XPERIA X1, Sony Ericsson C905, Sony Ericsson
W995, Nokia 5800 XpressMusic and the Nokia N8.
Reception and adoption
Before the launch in December 2007, the BBC had hoped the service would reach half a million users in its first six
This turned out to be a gross underestimate, as 3.5 million programmes were streamed or downloaded in
the first three weeks alone.
The Guardian described these figures as "remarkably promising".
In its first year, 2008, growth continued at an impressive rate. By April, the iPlayer accounted for around five percent
of all UK traffic,
and had approximately five million page views per day by June.
In December, it was
announced that more than 180 million programmes have been watched on iPlayer since its release.
During the
BAFTAs in May, the iPlayer won the "Interactive Innovation Service/Platform" Award, beating Channel 4's 'Big Art
Mob' and the Bebo 'Open Media Platform'.
The streaming of programmes forms the lion's share of the success,
outnumbering downloads eight to one in January 2008,
and 97:3 in October 2009.
In the month of October 2009, it was revealed that the site experienced 70 million requests and transferred seven
petabytes of data.
Television formed about two thirds of all requests, with radio making up the rest.
TV was streamed from pre-recorded footage, whereas live streaming was preferred of radio.
Eighty-five percent
of requests were from computers, with much of the rest coming from iPods, iPhones and PS3s (from a total of 15
The most popular TV programme of 2009 was Top Gear,
and the most popular radio was that
reporting The Ashes.
The success of iPlayer may be down to a "long tail" effect, with users seeking out niche programmes; programmes
broadcast on digital channels are doing remarkably well.
However, this is expected to change with the
introduction of booking programmes to download in advance, and automatic downloading of the next episode.
The demands of the iPlayer have met with some concern and criticism from UK ISPs due to the added bandwidth the
service will need.
Several ISPs, notably Tiscali, have called on the BBC to partially fund network upgrades to
cope with iPlayer traffic. The BBC responded by saying that the iPlayer was driving demand for broadband
By May 2010, the site was getting 123 million monthly play requests.
BBC iPlayer
DRM criticism
During the 2005 and 2006 iPlayer trials, the DRM system used was based on Microsoft's Windows Media DRM,
which led to concerns about cross-platform availability, as this technology is available only for Windows XP.
However, some users have managed to get it working using compatibility options in Vista.
The BBC emphasises
that it "has a commitment to platform neutrality and a remit to make its content as widely available as possible",
and that while the initial trial used a Microsoft-based technology, they are constantly looking for new technologies
which would enable them to relax the restriction: Ashley Highfield, then BBC's director of Future Media and
Technology, explained that "we have always started with the platform that reaches the most number of people and
then rolled it out from there". They also point out that not all of the content delivered through the iPlayer will be
subject to DRM - live streaming content, for instance, may not need the same level of control, presumably implying
that players for Mac OS X and Linux systems could be developed with a restricted range of content. However, a
project was started to enable the iPlayer to work with other platforms via the Wine project.
Streaming via the
BBC iPlayer website is now available in all browsers supporting Adobe Flash. Also, iPlayer Desktop, which allows
downloading programmes for later offline viewing, is available for Windows, Mac OSX and Linux.
On 14 August 2007, the Free Software Foundation staged a demonstration outside BBC Television Centre.
FSF's Peter T. Brown criticised the BBC for what he claimed was a break from previous tradition: the insistence that,
for the first time, BBC viewers would be forced to use proprietary technology to watch BBC programmes.
On 18 February 2010, the BBC updated iPlayer with an SWF verification layer which attempts to close the door on
open source implementations of Real Time Messaging Protocol streaming.
The attempt was unsuccessful, with
most existing open source applications remaining capable of playing or downloading rtmp content from the iPlayer.
Overseas availability
BBC TV productions are paid for by the UK television licence fee and rights agreements with third parties. Thus, all
BBC iPlayer TV programmes are accessible from IP addresses allocated to the UK only, as of 2011. It has been
reported that many people outside the UK circumvent that rule by buying a virtual private network account with an
IP address located in the UK.
However, most radio programmes can be accessed globally, with the exception of a few programmes, mainly sports
broadcasts, that are affected by rights issues. One quirk is that mobile devices such as the iPhone and iPod Touch
cannot access radio overseas via BBC iPlayer whereas computers can.
An international version of the iPlayer will be launched after receiving the approval of the BBC Trust.
Bradley-Jones, BBC Worldwide's commercial director of BBC.com, confirmed that the BBC would charge a
monthly subscription fee to access the on-demand application, partially to get audiences "used to the service", but
also to "generate additional value from the service in terms of the user data that it gives us. We will also offer
advertisers the chance to partner with us on the 'free' areas of the service."
The international version of the iPlayer could be available in western European from late summer 2011.
iPlayer will take the form of an iPad application, with a mix of contemporary and archive content, all of which will
be in English.
BBC iPlayer
TV licence
A television licence is not needed to view programmes on the iPlayer after they have been broadcast. The exception
lies with the 'Watch Live' simulcast option, which is accessible through and played on the iPlayer site, where eight of
the BBC's channels are broadcast at virtually the same time as on television and hence a valid TV licence is
In 2009, the BBC's April Fools' joke was a press release announcing the availability of the iPlayer on a specialised
toaster, supposedly for users to watch breakfast television.
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2009-12-23. . Retrieved 2010-04-26.
BBC iPlayer
[114] "The BBC iPlayer's 2009 audio top 10" (http:/ / www.guardian.co. uk/ media/ table/ 2009/ dec/ 22/ iplayer-digital-media). The Guardian
(London). 2009-12-23. . Retrieved 2010-04-26.
[115] Jemima Kiss (2007-08-13). "ISPs fear iPlayer overload" (http:/ / www.guardian. co. uk/ media/ 2007/ aug/ 13/ digitalmedia. bbc). London:
The Guardian. . Retrieved 2008-04-27.
[116] "BBC and ISPs clash over iPlayer" (http:/ / news. bbc. co.uk/ 1/ hi/ technology/ 7336940. stm). BBC News. 2008-04-09. . Retrieved
[117] Hewines, James. "Behind the scenes of BBC iPlayer" (http:/ / www. bbc.co.uk/ blogs/ bbcinternet/2010/ 05/
hello_im_james_hewines_the.html). BBC Internet Blog. BBC. . Retrieved 1 June 2010.
[118] "Vista.. Long live XP" (http:// www.bbc. co. uk/ dna/ mbiplayer/ F7331805?thread=4237025). BBC. . Retrieved 2008-02-04.
[119] "iMP using Microsoft ... no chance of a linux version then ?" (http:/ / www.bbc.co. uk/ dna/ mbimp/ F2824809?thread=2535012). BBC. .
Retrieved 2008-02-04.
[120] "BBC iPlayer on Linux project Wiki" (http:// bbciplayerlinux. sourceforge.net/ index. php/ Main_Page). BBC iPlayer Wiki. . Retrieved
[121] "Free software campaigners stonewalled at BBC" (http:/ / www.theregister.co. uk/ 2007/ 08/ 14/ bbc_iplayer_protests/ ). The Register.
2007-07-14. .
[122] "BBC iPlayer rejects open source plugins, takes Flash-only path" (http:/ / www.theregister.co.uk/ 2010/ 02/ 24/
iplayer_xbmc_adobe_swf_verification/). The Register. 2010-02-24. .
[123] "BBC aims to gain from global iPlayer" (http:// www.telegraph.co.uk/ finance/ newsbysector/ mediatechnologyandtelecoms/
digital-media/8114911/ BBC-aims-to-gain-from-global-iPlayer.html). The Daily Telegraph. 7 November 2010. .
[124] "Global BBC iPlayer to launch next year" (http:/ / www. digitalspy. co. uk/ digitaltv/news/ a290912/
global-bbc-iplayer-to-launch-next-year.html). Digital Spy. 1 December 2010. .
[125] "BBC iPlayer global launch to begin in western Europe" (http:// www.guardian. co.uk/ media/ 2011/ jun/ 14/
bbc-iplayer-global-launch-western-europe). The Guardian. 2010-06-14. . Retrieved 2010-06-15.
[126] "Do I need a TV licence to watch programmes on BBC iPlayer?" (http:// iplayerhelp.external.bbc.co.uk/ help/ about_iplayer/tvlicence).
BBC iPlayer Help. . Retrieved 2009-11-11.
[127] "BBC iPlayer now available on a toaster" (http:// www. bbc.co.uk/ blogs/ bbcinternet/2009/ 04/ bbc_iplayer_now_available_on_a.html).
BBC internet blog. . Retrieved 2010-05-07.
External links
• Official website (http:// www. bbc. co. uk/ iplayer)
• Press release announcing extended trial of iMP (http:/ / www.bbc. co. uk/ pressoffice/ pressreleases/ stories/
2005/ 05_may/ 16/ imp. shtml) at BBC Online
• "Ask Bruce" article on iMP (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ webwise/ askbruce/ articles/ bbc. co. uk/ imp_1. shtml) at
BBC Online
• Microsoft Builds on the Success of Red Button And BBC IPlayer For Next Gen T.V. (http:/ / www.
netnewspublisher.com/ microsoft-builds-on-the-success-of-red-button-and-bbc-iplayer-for-next-gen-tv)
Type Private Subsidiary of BTV247, Inc.
Founder Justin Beckett
Cecil Cox
Headquarters Los Angeles, U.S.
BTV247, Inc
Type of site video sharing
Registration Optional
(required to upload)
Available in English
Launched 2010
Current status active
BlackTV247 is an Internet-based video website which features Black inspired programming. The site has over 16
different channels and claims to have the world's largest library of Black inspired programming.

BlackTV247 employs a two-pronged programming strategy whereby it both hosts programming on its own network
and links to programming hosted on external networks.

Although the majority of the programming on
BlackTV247 is produced by third parties, the site also broadcasts its own original programs including, The Best of
BlackTV247.com and BlackTV247 News.
BlackTV247 debuted on January 27, 2010 and is a wholly owned subsidiary of Los Angeles based BTV247, Inc and
was conceived by BTV247, Inc. founders, Justin Beckett and Cecil Cox.
As of February 2010, BlackTV247 has over 16 different channels including TV. Film, Comedy, Sports, Shorts,
Music Video, Critic's Choice, Faith Based, Politics, Dance, Business, International, Education, Music Programming,
Lifestyle and Haiti Relief.
Original Programming
BlackTV247's sister company, BTV Productions, provides the network and its affiliates with original programming.
Examples of the type of original programming that appears on BlackTV247 includes The Trial of Huey Newton,
developed in partnership with the Dr. Huey P. Newton Foundation
, BlackTV247 News and the Best of
BlackTV247.com, which features Miss Brittany Bell, Miss Arizona USA 2010.
Over 75% of BlackTV247's content is viewable from anywhere in the world.
[1] http:/ / www. btv247.com/
[2] http:/ / www. blacktv247. com/
[3] "Black Culture Goes Front & Center With the Launch of BlackTV247.com" (http:/ / www.forbes.com/ feeds/ prnewswire/ 2010/ 01/ 27/
prnewswire201001270915PR_NEWS_USPR_____LA44563.html) (Press Release). January 27, 2010. . Retrieved 2010-02-11.
[4] "Black Culture Goes Front & Center With the Launch of BlackTV247.com" (http:// www.thestreet. com/ story/ 10668042/
black-culture-goes-front-center-with-the-launch-of-blacktv247com.html) (Press Release). January 27, 2010. . Retrieved 2010-02-16.
[5] "BlackTV247.com Announces Black History Month Channel" (http:// sanfrancisco.bizjournals. com/ sanfrancisco/ prnewswire/
press_releases/ California/ 2010/ 02/ 02/ LA47068) (Press Release). February 2, 2010. . Retrieved 2010-02-16.
[6] "Cynopsis: Digital - Website of the Day" (http:// www. cynopsis. com/ editions/ digital/ 020410/ ) (Digital Newsletter). February 4, 2010. .
Retrieved 2010-02-16.
[7] http:// www. blackpanther. org/
External links
• Official Site (http:// www.blacktv247. com/ )
• Corporate Site (http:/ / www. btv247.com/ )
• BlackTV247.com Aggregates All Black TV, All the Time (http:/ / www.blackweb20. com/ 2010/ 01/ 29/
Launched in 2000 by Blastro Networks in Austin, TX, Blastro.com is a music video programming company. Now
with a catalog of over 5,000 Hip-Hop, R&B, Pop, Latin and Dance videos, Blastro offers music videos, original
content and industry news.
With mentions from the Financial Times
and Vibe
and recognition from BusinessWeek as a 2007 "Best of the
Blastro's Original Series
EbenGregory Presents: Dubbed “The Jewelry Man,” EbenGregory presets an entertainment show, “The Jewelry
Showcase Series: The “Showcase Series” features interviews and live performances from hip-hop musicians.
Ozone Magazine Award Show: Blastro teamed up with AllHipHop.com for the 2008 Ozone Awards in Houston,
[1] http:/ / www. blastronetworks. com/
[2] Chaffin, Joshua. "Music Videos Become Hits All Over Again" (http:/ / www.ft. com/ cms/ s/ 2/
ef47e38c-5882-11db-b70f-0000779e2340,s01=1. html/ ), Financial Times, October 10, 2006.
[3] "Vibe Takes On The Big and Small Screens" (http:// idolator.com/ 358028/ vibe-takes-on-the-big-and-small-screens), Idolator, February 2,
[4] "Best of the Web: Music" (http:// images. businessweek. com/ ss/ 07/ 09/ 0924_bestofweb/ source/ 12. htm), BusinessWeek, September 24,
External links
• Blastro (http:/ / www. blastro. com/ )
Blastro Networks
Blastro Networks is a web-based company headquartered in Austin, TX, that runs three genre-specific, on-demand,
streaming music video websites. With an additional production team outside of Austin in Nashville, TN, Blastro
Networks’ websites not only feature music videos from major-label, independent and unsigned artists but also
original video series relevant to the music industry, including artist interviews, live performance footage, festival
coverage, news and gossip.
Blastro, voted “Best of the Web 2007”
by BusinessWeek, is an urban-centric site for Hip-Hop, R&B, Pop, Latin
and Dance music enthusiasts. Roxwel is an alternative fusion of Rock, Metal and Indie entertainment, and Yallwire
features Country, Bluegrass and Christian artists. All three sites heavily promote the discovery and sharing of both
mainstream and underground artist videos.
Founded in 1999 and continually gaining momentum since due to the natural migration of music videos to the
, Blastro Networks remains independently owned and operated with major-label agreements that include
Universal Music Group
and Sony BMG. The company has also struck heavyweight distribution partnerships with
Windows Media Guide and Verizon FiOS TV
, both of which feature the sites’ diverse catalogs of original
Blastro Networks’ founders and employees are looked upon as experts in digital music, high-quality video and online
, as well as beyond-the-banner, niche online advertising as can be seen from prior ad campaigns run by
major brands, including VH1
, Toyota
and Ford
, on the sites.
[1] Laban, Linda. "Bye-bye TRL, hello Internet" (http:// www. examiner.com/
x-1465-Rock-n-Roll-Examiner~y2008m11d18-Byebye-TRL-hello-Internet), Examiner, November 18, 2008.
[2] "Best of the Web: Music" (http:/ / images. businessweek. com/ ss/ 07/ 09/ 0924_bestofweb/ source/ 12. htm), BusinessWeek, September 24,
[3] "Blastro Networks Goes Country" (http:/ / austin. bizjournals.com/ austin/ stories/ 2006/ 11/ 06/ daily4.html), Austin Business Journal,
November 6, 2006.
[4] Chaffin, Joshua. "Music Videos Become Hits All Over Again" (http:/ / www.ft. com/ cms/ s/ 2/
ef47e38c-5882-11db-b70f-0000779e2340,s01=1. html/ ), Financial Times, October 10, 2006.
[5] "Blastro Networks To Stream UMG Videos" (http:// www. adotas. com/ 2006/07/ blastro-networks-to-stream-umg-videos/), Adotas, July
24, 2006.
[6] "Blastro to Provide Verizon FiOS TV with Music Content Through New HD Video-On-Demand Channel" (http:/ / www. hiphoppress. com/
2008/ 04/ blastro-to-prov.html), Hip Hop Press, April 16, 2008.
[7] Novikov, Alexey. "CMJ Panel Banters Online Video Strategy" (http:/ / www.billboard.biz/ bbbiz/ content_display/ industry/
e3ib20410a1dcba952db109a77df253a6bb), Billboard.biz, October 27, 2008.
[8] Burns, Enid. "A Widget Campaign for VH1's 'Charm School'" (http:/ / www.clickz.com/ 3626083), ClickZ, June 6, 2007.
[9] Burns, Enid. "A Hyper-Relevant CGM Campaign for HBO's 'The Wire'" (http:// www.clickz. com/ 3623445), ClickZ, September 15, 2006.
Blastro Networks
[10] Rodgers, Zachary. "Scion Goes Urban, Eschewing Big Reach Buys" (http:/ / www.clickz.com/ 3626318), ClickZ, July 3, 2007.
[11] "Ford Focus on Sync Sought Urban Consumers" (http:// www. brandweek.com/ bw/ search/ article_display.
jsp?vnu_content_id=1003788934), Brandweek, April 14, 2008.
External links
• Blastro Networks (http:/ / www. blastronetworks.com/ )
• Blastro (http:/ / www. blastro. com/ )
• Roxwel (http:/ / www. roxwel.com/ )
• Yallwire (http:/ / www. yallwire.com/ )
The website Blip.tv is a platform for web series. The company offers a consumer destination site
for the "best in
original web series" and also offers a dashboard for producers of original web series to distribute and monetize their
The company was founded in May 2005, is located in New York City, and is financed by Bain Capital Ventures and
Canaan Partners.
Founded in May 2005 by Mike Hudack (CEO), Dina Kaplan, Justin Day (CTO), Jared Klett, and Charles Hope,
blip.tv was bootstrap funded by its founders for the first year of its operation.
As of 29 July 2007, Blip.tv was blocked by the Chinese Government, in an attempt to make the site unavailable to
Chinese mainland users.
As of April 2011, Blip.tv was blocked by Turkey.
In May 2011, Blip.tv launched its consumer destination site.
Market and business model
With a focus on serial web show programming to the exclusion of other types of online video, "the Blip.tv formula
purposefully does not emulate the YouTube viral video sharing and friends and family video hosting model",
according to ZDNet writer Donna Bogatin.
All revenue from advertising is split 50/50 between content producers and blip.tv. Users can opt in and out of
advertisements at any time.
[1] http:/ / blip.tv/
[2] "Blip.tv vs. YouTube? Founder talks 'The Real Deal' in exclusive interview" (http:/ / blogs.zdnet. com/ micro-markets/?p=658). 2006-11-13.
. Retrieved 2006-11-01.
External links
• Blip.tv (http:/ / blip. tv/ )
Type Video discussion
Founded November 1, 2005
Founder Robert Wright, Mickey Kaus
Key people Robert Wright, Mickey Kaus, John Horgan, George Johnson, David Corn, James Pinkerton, Glenn Loury, Will Wilkinson
Services Video, Audio
Owner Robert Wright
Employees less than 10 paid; over 250 volunteer
Website http:/ / bloggingheads. tv/
Type of site video sharing, video blog, podcast
Registration Optional (required to comment)
Available in English
Launched November 1, 2005
Current status Active
Bloggingheads.tv (sometimes abbreviated "bhtv") is a political, world events, philosophy, and science video blog
discussion site in which the participants take part in an active back and forth conversation via webcam which is then
broadcast online to viewers. The site was started by the journalist Robert Wright (The Evolution of God, Nonzero,
The Moral Animal) and the blogger and journalist Mickey Kaus on November 1, 2005.
(Kaus has since dropped
out of operational duties of the site as he didn't want his frequent linking to be seen as a conflict of interest.
) Most
of the earlier discussions posted to the site involved one or both of those individuals, but since has grown to include
a total of hundreds of other individual contributors, mostly journalists, academics, scientists, authors, well known
political bloggers, and other notable individuals.
Unregistered users are able to view all of the videos which are contained on the site, while free registration is
required to comment on the individual discussions, or participate in the forums.
Bloggingheads discussions are conducted via webcam between two (or more) people, and can be viewed online in
Flash format, or downloaded as WMV video files, MP4 video files, or MP3 sound files.
New diavlogs are
generally posted daily, and are all archived for future viewing. The diavlogs are generally broken up into a series of
topics and subtopics a few minutes in length, links to which are placed below the video window to allow viewers to
navigate to a given topic if they do not wish to view the whole discussion.
Most of the discussions posted to Bloggingheads.tv involve well known (or semi-well known) journalists, bloggers,
science writers, scientists, philosophers, book authors, or other specialists in segments of current world events. Many
of the discussions are of a political nature or are related to the current political environment. Those with differing
points of view are often matched against one another.
Diavlogs involving guests appearing for the first time often
take the form of an interview, more often than that of a discussion, with a longtime Bloggingheads contributor
playing the role of interviewer.
Regular segments
Although most episodes and matchups do not occur on any kind of a regular basis, there are a few notable exceptions
to this. There is a frequent (previously biweekly and weekly, but now less frequent) diavlog matchup between the
two co-founders of Bloggingheads.tv, Robert Wright and Mickey Kaus, generally related to politics in some form,
that usually occurs on either Wednesday or Thursday. While some of the other diavloggers are frequently matched
against each other (e.g. David Corn & James Pinkerton) there is usually not a regularly scheduled time at which they
take place.
John Horgan and George Johnson in a discussion on a
"Science Saturday" episode of Bloggingheads.tv.
"Science Saturday" is the name given to the weekly episode
appearing on Saturday that is always science related; It usually
(but not always) involves either one or both of the science writers
John Horgan and George Johnson. Many well-known people in the
science community have been a part of Science Saturday,
including Michael Shermer of Skeptic Magazine,
biologist PZ
Craig Venter of the Human Genome Project,
researcher and biogerentologist Aubrey de Grey,
philosopher David Chalmers,
among many others. However, in
September 2009, four high-profile science bloggers who had
previously participated in Bloggingheads.tv discussions publicly
distanced themselves from the site and stated they would no longer agree to appear in Bloggingheads.tv segments.
The scientists—Sean Carroll, Carl Zimmer, Phil Plait and PZ Myers—all criticized what they claimed was a policy
by Bloggingheads.tv to provide a platform for the anti-scientific ideology, Creationism without an opposing point of
view for balance. PZ Myers said: "[Bloggingheads.tv] was setting up crackpots with softball interviews that made
them look reasonable, because their peculiar ideas were never confronted."
Aubrey de Grey being interviewed by Eliezer
Yudkowsky on Bloggingheads.tv.
"The Week in Blog" is a weekly segment which normally
appears on the site on Fridays. The format is to discuss what has
showed up on the past week on both liberal and conservative
blogs, from both a liberal and conservative viewpoint. The three
regular hosts of "TWIB" are Bill Scher of Liberal Oasis, Kristin
Soltis of the Winston Group, and Matt Lewis of The Daily Caller.
Original host Conn Carroll of The Heritage Foundation stepped
aside in early 2009. Guests who have appeared on the show are
Armando Llorens (of Daily Kos),
Amanda Carpenter,
Nate Silver (of FiveThirtyEight)
among many others.
"Values Added" is a weekly segment on the intersection between religion and politics.
November 1, 2005 is when the site launched, with Robert Wright and Mickey Kaus being the only two initial
participants in the video discussions.
The site has since featured more than 250 other diavloggers.
On October 18, 2006, a site redesign was launched, with a revised home page and improved functionality: ability to
comment on diavlogs was added,and to participate in forum discussions.
In January 2007, it was announced that cable TV pioneer and C-SPAN founding chairman Bob Rosencrans, with a
loose network of others, would become an angel investor of Bloggingheads.tv. The infusion of cash
kicked off a
dramatic expansion of the site's content, and a corresponding growth in viewers.
On March 24, 2007, in a diavlog between Garance Franke-Ruta and Ann Althouse, Althouse became quite animated
and angry (to the point of yelling) over a comment Franke-Ruta made (in reference to an earlier controversy
involving Jessica Valenti and former US president Bill Clinton


) referred to as an on air "meltdown" by
This led to many blog posts and news stories in the following days on both the initial controversy and
Althouse's on air behavior.



On October 13, 2007, a conversion to Flash format from the initial Windows Media format took place.
On October 24, 2007, Bloggingheads.tv entered into a relationship with the New York Times, whereby selected video
segments from the Bloggingheads site would appear in the "Videos" section on the Times website, under the Opinion

On December 13, 2007, a site redesign took place which removed the familiar green pages in favor of a more "Web
2.0"-look, featuring more user generated content, new navigation, new forum software for the "comments" section,
and other updated features.
In 2008, several new segments and diavloggers were added or made more regular, including "Free Will", "This
Week in Blog", and "UN Plaza". Other updates and tweaks to the site, such as the addition of the MP4 video format
were also gradually phased in.
Media recognition
Traditional media outlets, such at the New York Times
and others,
have written mostly favorable reviews of
Bloggingheads.tv. Stories are also often written about individuals who take part in the video discussions,
as they
are often well known individuals in the scientific, academic, journalism, or blogosphere community.
The majority of coverage of the site, however, has been in the form of blog coverage,
sometimes on the form of
the blog of the person participating in the Bloggingheads discussion, and sometimes in the form of other blogs.
Some events and personality appearances on Bloggingheads.tv have led to larger than usual amounts of media
coverage, such as the March 24, 2007 Ann Althouse controversy described above, and the appearance of Andrew
Sullivan on December 26, 2006 and January 1, 2007, when he discussed in the most clear terms up to that point his
reversal of viewpoint on the Iraq war, and his plea of apology for supporting it in the first place.

Site terms, features, and technology
The term "diavlog" (sometimes written "dia-vlog" by some bloggers
) means a type of video blog (or "vlog")
generally in which two people participate, as contrasted with a (mono)vlog in which one contributor is featured. The
word "diavlog" is a portmanteau of the phrase "dialog video weblog" (or, alternately, "video weblog dialog"). The
diavlog format is most popular for political, world events, or other types of conversational video blog discussions in
which two (or more) people are actively participating in a real-time, give-and-take discussion of ideas.
The term "diavlog" was first adopted and put into wide use by Bloggingheads.tv contributors, (initially by Robert
Wright and Mickey Kaus), though its original coinage is subject to debate.
The term is widely used both by
people on air, as well as commentors, to describe a specific conversation.
Although initially coined on the Bloggingheads site, the term has come to be used in other parts of the blogosphere
and among journalists who frequently (or infrequently) participate in the encounters.



The term is sometimes spelled "diavlogue" by those outside the United States.
(see: American and British English
spelling differences)
Direct video linking ("dingalink") and embedding
Button used to direct link to a relevant part of the video
or to embed video in another website.
"Dingalink" is a term used to describe a direct link to a specific
place in a video. (a beginning time and an end time) "Dingalinks"
have the ability for users to direct viewers directly to a relevant
part of a video, without the viewer having to watch the video in its
entirety. They are used with video blogs when others who write
blogs, articles, emails, etc., have the aim of discussing only one
segment of an entire video post. The term was named after
Bloggingheads.tv's technical advisor Greg Dingle, who initially
developed the technology.
On Bloggingheads.tv, direct linking is often useful in the
discussion surrounding a specific "diavlog" to refer to a particular
point (or points) in the discussion to clarify what is being commented on. The direct linking can be automatically
generated from the Bloggingheads Flash video player, through the adjustment of the beginning and end of the video
that one might want to display. (Start/End time can also be manually edited once the code is generated.)
Embedding of video is a feature that was added to Bloggingheads.tv in 2008 as a consequence of converting to Flash
Video. It allows for bloggers and other websites to embed the video player into their blog or website so that the
content can be viewed locally instead of the need to visit the actual Bloggingheads.tv site. This feature is similar to
the YouTube and Google Video (among others) feature which had previously become prevalent on the internet.
Visual aids
Wright and Kaus compare stuffed moose visual
Due to the fairly limited medium of using webcams to record the video
used in the Bloggingheads.tv episodes, a variety of visual aids and
enhancements are sometimes added to the program by the participants.
Generally this takes the form of holding up books, newspapers, or
other objects that are being discussed to the camera, but sometimes it
involves other, more exotic, items to either enhance a point or add
something to the diavlog.
Mickey Kaus is particularly known for using visual aids such as masks
(of Al Gore, Laura Bush, and others), an Ann Coulter doll, and perhaps
most recognizably, a stuffed moose doll. According to Kaus, "deploying the moose"
symbolizes Pinch
Sulzberger's idea of "the unaddressed important issue" similar to the "elephant in the room." Robert Wright has since
received a stuffed moose of his own.
Also, various live animals (usually pets) have been displayed onscreen during the course of conversations. Wright
has displayed his family pet, a poodle mix named Frazier, several times.

(Frazier was popular enough to
subsequently get his own Facebook and Twitter profiles.

) Other people have had their cat displayed onscreen,
such as that of Ana Marie Cox,
John McWhorter,
and Jonah Goldberg.
Other interesting onscreen visual aids that have been employed include the use of a kazoo by Matt Welch,
hats by
various people (e.g. a Santa hat by Jonah Goldberg,
and a New Years Day hat by Mickey Kaus
), and the
display of a sextant by Robert Farley in a discussion on pirates.
Contributors to Bloggingheads.tv
While many of the initial diavlogs featured Wright and Kaus exclusively, other regular participants at
Bloggingheads.tv have grown to include many differing ideologies and viewpoints, politically, scientifically, and
philosophically. Regular contributors include Ann Althouse, Peter Beinart, Rosa Brooks, Jonathan Chait, David
Corn, Ross Douthat, Daniel Drezner, Heather Hurlburt, John Horgan, Jonah Goldberg, Ezra Klein, Eli Lake, Glenn
Loury, Megan McArdle, John McWhorter, James Pinkerton, Mark Schmitt and Matthew Yglesias, among many
Apart from the regular contributors, a host of well known occasional guests have appeared, usually in the form of
being interviewed. Among others, the political scientist Francis Fukuyama talked about his book America at the
Crossroads; the Israeli journalist Gershom Gorenberg discussed his book The Accidental Empire (about the history
of the settlements);
the Washington Post columnist Joel Achenbach on an article of his about global-warming
(among other topics
); Andrew Sullivan on his book The Conservative Soul;

Aubrey de Grey on how to defeat the "disease" of aging;
philosopher David Chalmers;
Nate Silver (of
and Craig Venter, director of the Human Genome Project, who spoke of future scientific
innovations he is currently pursuing.
[1] "BusinessWeek Profiles Robert Wright's BloggingHeads.tv | The New America Foundation" (http:/ / web.archive.org/web/
20080604051759/http:/ / www.newamerica.net/ pressroom/ 2006/ businessweek_profiles_robert_wrights_bloggingheads). Newamerica.net.
2006-07-03. Archived from the original (http:// www.newamerica.net/ pressroom/ 2006/
businessweek_profiles_robert_wrights_bloggingheads) on June 4, 2008. . Retrieved 2009-03-11.
[2] "Eat The Press | Bloggingheads Gets A Cash Infusion From Angel Investor Rosencrans: "Obviously There Is The Possibility Of Financial
Gain, But That's Not The Point" | The Huffington Post" (http:// www.huffingtonpost.com/ eat-the-press/ 2007/ 01/ 26/
bloggingheads-gets-a-cash_e_39709. html). The Huffington Post<!. 2007-01-26. . Retrieved 2009-03-11.
[3] Bloggingheads.tv (http:// bloggingheads. tv/ help. php)
[4] Bellafante, Ginia (2006-05-04). "Watching Rigorous Talk on a He Said, He Said Blog" (http:// www.nytimes. com/ 2006/ 05/ 04/ arts/
04kaus. html). The New York Times. . Retrieved 2010-04-26.
[5] "diavlogs" (http:// bloggingheads. tv/ video. php?id=390). Bloggingheads.tv. 1970-01-01. . Retrieved 2009-03-11.
[6] "'PZ Myers on Blogging Heads' by BloggingHeads.tv - RichardDawkins.net" (http:// richarddawkins.net/
article,1445,PZ-Myers-on-Blogging-Heads,BloggingHeadstv). RichardDawkins.net<!. 2007-07-22. . Retrieved 2009-03-11.
[7] "The Loom : Tomorrow: Talking To Craig Venter" (http:/ / scienceblogs. com/ loom/ 2007/10/ 19/ tomorrow_talking_to_craig_vent.php).
Scienceblogs.com. . Retrieved 2009-03-11.
[8] "diavlogs" (http:// bloggingheads. tv/ diavlogs/ 16508). Bloggingheads.tv. . Retrieved 2009-03-11.
[9] "diavlogs" (http:// bloggingheads. tv/ video. php?id=287). Bloggingheads.tv. 1970-01-01. . Retrieved 2009-03-11.
[10] "Phil Plait ditches bloggingheads, too!" (http:// scienceblogs. com/ pharyngula/2009/ 09/ phil_plait_ditches_blogginghea. php). .
[11] "diavlogs" (http:// bloggingheads. tv/ diavlogs/ 14899). Bloggingheads.tv. . Retrieved 2009-03-11.
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[21] "Althouse gets a bit angry... | MetaFilter" (http:/ / www.metafilter.com/ 59789/Althouse-gets-a-bit-angry). MetaFilter<!. . Retrieved
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43354?page_no=1). Nysun.com. . Retrieved 2009-03-11.
[29] "Econ prof Loury takes on the blogosphere - Campus News" (http:// media.www.browndailyherald.com/ media/ storage/ paper472/news/
2007/10/ 09/ CampusNews/ Econ-Prof.Loury.Takes. On. The.Blogosphere-3020677. shtml). Media.www.browndailyherald.com. .
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[30] "bloggingheads - Google Blog Search" (http:// blogsearch.google.com/ blogsearch?hl=en& q=bloggingheads& btnG=Search+Blogs).
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[31] "diavlogs" (http:/ / bloggingheads. tv/ video.php?id=173). Bloggingheads.tv. 1970-01-01. . Retrieved 2009-03-11.
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[33] (http:// teaching. jensimmons. com/ videoblogging/games/ diavlog/ )
[34] "LISTSERV 14.4" (http:// listserv. linguistlist. org/cgi-bin/ wa?A2=ind0603a&L=ads-l&P=1092). Listserv.linguistlist.org. 2006-03-01. .
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[35] "Althouse: Official Song of the Althouse/Goldberg Diavlog" (http:/ / althouse. blogspot. com/ 2006/ 12/ official-song-of-althousegoldberg.
html). Althouse.blogspot.com. 2006-12-26. . Retrieved 2009-03-11.
[36] "Appearances and Media" (http:/ / www.brinklindsey. com/ ?page_id=9). brinklindsey.com. . Retrieved 2009-03-11.
[37] "Global Warming Skeptics: The Tempest - Achenblog" (http:// blog. washingtonpost. com/ achenblog/ 2006/ 05/
global_warming_skeptics_the_te. html). Blog.washingtonpost.com. . Retrieved 2009-03-11.
[38] http:// www. google. com/ search?q=diavlogue+-diablogue& btnG=Search
[39] "Deploying the Moose, an explanation" (http:/ / bloggingheads.tv/ diavlogs/ 14122?in=28:21&out=28:26). Bloggingheads.tv. . Retrieved
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[41] "diavlogs" (http:// bloggingheads. tv/ diavlogs/ 11864?in=00:02:13.5& out=00:02:43). Bloggingheads.tv. . Retrieved 2009-03-11.
[42] Frazier's Facebook profile (http:/ / www. facebook.com/ people/ Frazier-Wright/1757480065)
[43] Frazier's Twitter profile (http:/ / twitter.com/ FrazierWright)
[44] "diavlogs" (http:/ / bloggingheads. tv/ diavlogs/ 16598). Bloggingheads.tv. . Retrieved 2009-03-11.
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[52] "diavlogs" (http:// bloggingheads. tv/ video.php?id=96). Bloggingheads.tv. 1970-01-01. . Retrieved 2009-03-11.
[53] http:// bloggingheads. tv/ search/ ?participant1=Achenbach,%20Joel
[54] "diavlogs" (http:// bloggingheads. tv/ diavlogs/ 144). Bloggingheads.tv. 1970-01-01. . Retrieved 2009-03-11.
[55] "diavlogs" (http:// bloggingheads. tv/ diavlogs/ 148). Bloggingheads.tv. 1970-01-01. . Retrieved 2009-03-11.
[56] "diavlogs" (http:// bloggingheads. tv/ video.php?id=431). Bloggingheads.tv. 1970-01-01. . Retrieved 2009-03-11.
External links
• Bloggingheads.tv (http:/ / bloggingheads. tv)
• New York Times Article on the operation of Bloggingheads.tv (http:// www.nytimes. com/ 2006/ 05/ 04/ arts/
04kaus. html)
• Associated Press article in the NY Sun on the BloggingHeads.tv setup (http:/ / www.nysun. com/ article/
• Yahoo! Picks - 15 November 2006 (http:// picks. yahoo. com/ picks/ i/ 20061115. html)
• Business Week article on Bloggingheads.tv (http:/ / www.businessweek. com/ magazine/ content/ 06_27/
Brightcove is a Cambridge, MA based company that produces an Online Video Platform (OVP).
Brightcove was founded in 2004 by Jeremy Allaire, who now serves as CEO. In March 2006, Brightcove acquired
Seattle-based Metastories, makers of StoryMaker, a publishing tool for video, audio, images, and text. In May of that
year it established a distribution partnership with TiVo


and a content delivery partnership with Limelight
Coinciding with a series of deals with UK media companies, Brightcove opened an office in London in July, 2007.
In November 2009, Brightcove was named as one of the top two US video platform vendors.
In April 2010, it was reported that Brightcove raised $12 million in fourth-round funding, nearing a total of $100
million, but still barely breaking even with the projected $50 million in annual revenue.
Internet TV partnerships
In December 2005 Brightcove partnered with Reuters to create a program to syndicate customized news video
In 2006, Brightcove completed Internet TV partnership deals with a number of large media companies
including The New York Times Company (NYTimes.com and About.com),
Discovery Communications
(Discovery Channel, Travel Channel), and Sony BMG among others. In 2007, Brightcove capitalized on a trend of
magazine and newspaper publishers expanding into online video
by signing deals with print media companies
including Time Inc., TV Guide, and Washingtonpost.Newsweek Interactive.
Since then, a number of television and cable media companies began to use Brightcove as an alternate, non-exclusive
distribution channel for their video content.
Brightcove Studio
The Brightcove Studio was home to the Brightcove Internet TV platform. Geared toward professional video
publishers, the studio was used to create, customize, distribute, and monetize video player widgets. Videos, lineups,
players, and online channels were all created and managed through a content management system called the
Brightcove Console, a Flex-based rich internet application. Monetization was achieved through video sales and
Brightcove.tv was a video website dedicated to promoting Brightcove content. Every publisher who created a
Brightcove account was assigned a channel, their own page on Brightcove.tv.
Publishers could customize their channel through the Brightcove Console. Simple details like the channel's name,
logo, and description could be updated in the user's profile. The content of a channel was defined by changing the
settings of individual titles, lineups, and players to allow distribution and promotion on Brightcove.tv.
On December 17, 2008, Brightcove shut down Brightcove Network accounts that have not been upgraded to paid
Brightcove platform accounts. At the same time, they shut down the Brightcove.TV website (which is separate from
the corporate Brightcove website).
App Cloud
In May 2011, Brightcove announced its App Cloud online product that is targeted at the development of mobile
App Cloud allows companies to develop apps once using its online interface, and then deploy them
as iPhone and Android native apps, as well as mobile web apps.
In 2009, Brightcove received Streaming Media Readers' Choice Award,
CSI Product Award,.
In 2010, it was
named in Lead411's List of Hottest Boston Companies.
[1] Lieberman, David (2006-05-09). "TiVo hooks up with Internet video and ad sales service" (http:// www.usatoday.com/ tech/ news/
2006-05-09-tivo-brightcove_x.htm). http:// www. usatoday. com. . Retrieved 2010-04-26.
[2] Wingfield, Nick (2006-05-10). "TiVo to Offer Video From the Internet In Brightcove Deal" (http:// online. wsj. com/ article/
SB114722999038648626.html). http:// online. wsj. com/ . .
[3] "TiVo links with Brightcove as PC-TV lines blur" (http:/ / www.news. com/ 2100-1041_3-6070542.html). http:// www.news. com/ .
2006-05-09. .
[4] "Brightcove a top online video platform vendor" (http:/ / www.broadcastnow.co.uk/ technology/
forrester-names-top-online-video-companies/5007957. article). http:// www.broadcastnow.co.uk/ . 2009-11-10. .
[5] "Brightcove raises $12M on way to IPO: More money down the online-video drain?" (http:/ / digital. venturebeat.com/ 2010/ 04/ 05/
brightcove-takes-12m-on-way-to-ipo/ ). 2010-04-05. .
[6] "Reuters video to get mass distribution" (http:// www.news. com/ Reuters video to get mass distribution/ 2100-1025_3-6001968.
html?tag=nefd. top). http:// www. news. com/ . 2005-12-20. .
[7] "New York Times partners with Web-video firm" (http:// newyorkbusiness. com/apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/20060208/ FREE/
602080708). http:// newyorkbusiness. com. 2006-02-08. .
[8] Lieberman, David (2007-02-12). "Magazines start studios to join online video craze" (http:/ / www.usatoday. com/ money/ media/
2007-02-12-mag-video-usat_x.htm). http:// www.usatoday. com/ . . Retrieved 2010-04-26.
[9] Schneider, Michael (2007-06-17). "Fox locks deal with Web TV service: Brightcove pacts with company" (http:// www.variety.com/
article/ VR1117967102. html). http:// www.variety. com/ . .
[10] NewTeeVee.com (http:/ / newteevee. com/ 2008/ 11/ 03/ brightcove-shuts-the-door-on-free-access/) (11/03/2008)
[11] Devindra Hardawar, VentureBeat. " Brightcove steps into app creation biz with App Cloud (http:// venturebeat.com/ 2011/ 05/ 24/
brightcove-app-cloud/)." May 24, 2011.
[12] The Envelope Please: The 2009 Streaming Media Readers' Choice Award Winners (http:// www. streamingmedia.com/ Articles/
[13] CSI 2009 Awards shortlist (http:// www.csimagazine. com/ awards/ Shortlist_2009. php)
[14] Lead411's List of Hottest Boston Companies (http:/ / www. lead411.com/ boston-companies. html)
External links
• Brightcove Corporate (http:// www.brightcove.com)
• Brightcove.tv (http:/ / www. brightcove. tv)
• Brightcove Studio (http:/ / studio. brightcove.com)
• Brightcove Blog (http:/ / blog. brightcove.com)
BT Vision
BT Vision
BT Vision
Type Pay TV and Download Service
Industry Media & Telecoms
Founded December 2006
Headquarters London, United Kingdom
Products Pay TV services
Owner(s) BT Group
BT Vision is an IPTV television service provided in the United Kingdom, launched in December 2006, and owned
by the BT Group. It requires access to a BT Broadband internet connection with BT's official router (BT Home Hub)
to watch programmes, including on demand services. Watching BT's on demand service with the BT vision service
does not use any of the customer's broadband allowance.
BT Vision was launched on 5 December 2006, and entered the market to compete with Sky, Virgin Media and
TalkTalk TV (then known as Tiscali TV).
Initial reaction by the industry was positive although there was some
criticism that set up costs were expensive and it was noted that BT Group were entering a competitive market.
May 2007, BT Group launched a national advertising campaign for this service.
The aim was to attract "hundreds
of thousands" of customers by the end of 2007 and 2-3 million in the medium term.
As of March 2011, An
estimated 575,000 customers have access to this service.
BT Vision provides digital terrestrial television channels using a Freeview decoder and on demand film, TV, sport,
kids and music programming delivered via broadband through a hybrid DTT/IP/PVR set top box, known as the
Vision+ (see below).
Vision+ set-top box
The Vision+ is a set-top box, similar to Sky+ and V+, that enables 80 hours of television programmes to be recorded
while watching other live programmes. The service is described as providing a range of on demand content without
compulsory subscriptions. However, a BT broadband connection with a guaranteed line speed is required. A
self-install version and a technician install version of BT Vision are available.
The original Silver Vision+ box is a Philips DIT9719 running Microsoft Mediaroom software, and the new Black
Vision+ box is made by Pace. The operating system of the Vision+ is Windows CE, from Microsoft. However plans
are afoot to move to an open source operating system. Only one Vision+ can be used at a time to connect to the BT
Vision service using a single Home Hub / Broadband Line.
BT Vision
BT have recently forced an update on subscribers which effectively removes the ability of the box to skip forward 30
seconds. Many subscribers use this to skip adverts in recorded programmes.
BT Vision Music
BT has agreed deals with:
• Sony BMG
• EMI Music
• Universal Music
• Music Mall
• Planet Rock
who provide a range of music videos, concerts and music documentaries on demand. The concert programming
covers a wide variety of genres including rock, pop, urban and ‘alternative', jazz and opera.
The music line-up includes names such as Avril Lavigne, Coldplay, Duran Duran, Fatboy Slim, Oasis, Queen and
Phil Collins.
BT Vision Film
BT Vision has signed deals with the following studios to provide classic and new films:
• DreamWorks
• Paramount Pictures
• NBC Universal
• Lionsgate films
• Buena Vista International (Disney)
• Walt Disney Pictures
• Touchstone Pictures
• Miramax Films
• Pixar Animation Studios
• Warner Bros.
• Momentum Pictures
• Film 4
• Artificial Eye
All films are available on a pay-per-view basis.
BT Vision Sport
BT won the rights to carry 242 same-day (but not live) Premier League football matches per season. The three year
deal covers the 2007-8, 2008-9 and 2009-10 seasons. BT has acquired the rights in a joint bid with BSkyB. BT
Vision also have the right to offer on demand coverage of 125 matches each season from the Football League and
Carling Cup. These matches are available from 10pm on the evening that the game is played. (This service has
ceased as from season 2010-11)
In addition to the football above, BT Vision is building an archive of classic matches from a variety of sports.
All of this on demand sports content is available on a pay per view basis, without the need for an upfront television
subscription. Alternatively, customers can take a monthly viewing package allowing them to watch as much content
BT Vision
as they like.
Between August 2007 and June 2009, Setanta Sports was available through BT Vision, via DTT and a smart card,
offering Live Barclays Premiership and Clydesdale Bank Premier League games, as well as other sporting events
such as US PGA Tour Golf and Magners League Rugby. BT Vision has now made a deal with American sports giant
for carriage of its new channel which replaced Setanta on DTT.
The company announced the pricing of their Sky Sports packages in July 2010, following the outcome of Ofcom's
review into pay-TV pricing in March, which directed Sky to reduce the wholesale price it charges for the Sky Sports
The price charged to customers signing up for broadband, calls and TV with BT for a two-year contract
results in the organisation making a "significant loss on the service",

allowing them to undercut the price
charged by Sky to its own customers.
BT Vision TV & BT Vision Kids
• BBC Worldwide
• The History Channel
• CBS Television Studios
• Living TV
• The Battlefield Channel
• National Geographic Channel
• Channel 4
• Channel 5
• Warner Bros.
• Adult Swim
• Fireworks / Paranormal Media
• Discovery Channel
• Ginx TV
• BBC Worldwide
• Disney on Demand (Disney Channel VOD and Disney Cinemagic VOD)
• Nickelodeon
• Cartoon Network
• HIT Entertainment
• Disney XD (UK & Ireland)
• Entertainment Rights
• Milkshake!
On Demand
• Channel 4 on Demand (4oD)
• BBC on Demand. From late May 2008, BT discontinued free access to BBC TV replay, instead requiring Vision
users to take out a £2.93 a month subscription. However, In November 2010, BT announced that BT Vision
subscribers will begin to be able to access the BBC iPlayer. They expect all subscribers should have access by the
end of June 2011.
This service was built by Pushbutton
for Microsoft Mediaroom.
• ITV Catch Up, available from December 2008.
BT Vision
• Demand 5, removed on 6 October 2010 but reinstated in May 2011.
When British Telecom (BT) was privatised in 1984 it was barred from providing television broadcasts over its
telecommunication network, which meant that it was not possible for BT to provide a cable television service. The
ban was designed to protect the new smaller telecommunications companies and the small cable television networks
in the United Kingdom as it was felt that BT had an unfair advantage because its pre-privatisation monopoly meant
that its equipment was already installed in virtually every home and business in the United Kingdom. In January
2001, the ban was lifted.
Powerline adaptors
The set-top box is connected to the hub via an Ethernet cable either connected directly to the BT Home Hub, or to
one of a pair of Comtrend Ethernet adapters. The Comtrend UPA adaptors use the mains wiring in a house to create
an Ethernet network. A second adaptor is plugged into the mains and connected to the BT Home Hub via an Ethernet
cable. These plugs are provided as part of the BT Vision package.
Radio Amateurs have claimed that these powerline adaptors cause disruption and interference. Following their
introduction by BT in 2007
an estimated 500,000 units were in use by January 2009, resulting in around 40
complaints from radio amateurs in that time
to the communications regulator Ofcom. Following internet publicity
the figure rose to 143 complaints in the year to September 2009, of which 121 were resolved.
Ofcom concludes
that "there does not at present appear to be significant public harm arising from this situation."
Nonetheless The Radio Society of Great Britain continues to maintain that PLT is causing disruption to Shortwave
radio services. Ofcom has commissioned an independent study into the likelihood and extent of interference caused
by PLT apparatus.
[1] http:/ / www. btvision. com/
[2] BT Vision - passing you the control (http:// www.btplc. com/ News/ Articles/ ShowArticle.
cfm?ArticleID=aefe3bbc-65cd-4bf0-9e63-7d6bb6aee1c6), BT Group news release, 4 December 2006, retrieved on 2 June 2007
[3] Hi-tech world assesses BT Vision (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ technology/ 6213960. stm), BBC new report, 6 December 2006, retrieved
on 2 June 2007.
[4] BT Vision unveils national advertising campaign (http:/ / www.btplc. com/ News/ Articles/ ShowArticle.
cfm?ArticleID=3b30ad56-aca5-49be-a286-c452cbe8cfc2), BT Group news release, 10 May 2007, retrieved on 2 June 2007.
[5] Multi-million pound campaign to promote Britain's most flexible digital TV Service (http:/ / www.btplc. com/ News/ Articles/ ShowArticle.
cfm?ArticleID=eba64c3a-a6b7-4922-b29e-b231897580c0), BT Group new release, 10 May 2007, retrieved 2 June 2007.
[6] BTplc.com (2011-05-12). "Results for the fourth quarter and year to 31 March 2011" (http:/ / www.btplc. com/ News/ Articles/ Showarticle.
cfm?ArticleID=9CA00AF0-D824-41D1-B3CE-2646FF821EF7). Press release. . Retrieved 2011-05-12.
[7] http:/ / www. productsandservices. bt. com/ consumerProducts/ displayTopic. do?topicId=24693
[8] Pay Per View TV | BT Vision (http:// www.btvision. bt.com/ vision/ whats_btv/ whatitcosts. htm)
[9] http:// www. btvision. com/ sport/ setanta
[10] Sweney, Mark (31 March 2010). "Ofcom orders Sky Sports price cut" (http:/ / www.guardian.co.uk/ media/ 2010/ mar/31/
ofcom-sky-sports-price-cut). London: The Guardian. . Retrieved 8 July 2010.
[11] Wray, Richard (1 July 2010). "War breaks out between BT and Sky over pricing of Sky Sports channels" (http:// www.guardian.co. uk/
business/2010/ jul/ 01/ bt-vision-sky-sports). London: The Guardian. . Retrieved 8 July 2010.
[12] "BT Vision to offer ut price deal on Sky Sports channels" (http:// www.dailyrecord.co.uk/ news/ uk-world-news/2010/ 07/ 02/
bt-vision-to-offer-cut-price-deal-on-sky-sports-channels-86908-22376813/). Daily Record. 2 July 2010. . Retrieved 8 July 2010.
[13] "BBC iPlayer on TV in your living room: update" (http:// www.bbc.co.uk/ blogs/ bbcinternet/2011/ 04/ bbc_iplayer_on_tv_update.html).
BBC. 2011-04-05. .
[14] http:/ / www. pushbutton. tv/
[15] BT to begin broadcasting (http:// news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/business/ 1354686.stm), BBC news report, 27/5/2001, retrieved on 2 June 2007.
[16] http:/ / www. powerlinenetworking.co. uk/ content/ view/ 138/ 75/
BT Vision
[17] http:/ / www. theregister.co. uk/ 2009/01/ 15/ bt_vision_interference/
[18] http:// www. ofcom.org. uk/ radiocomms/ ifi/enforcement/plt/
External links
• BT Vision (http:/ / www. btvision. bt. com/ ), official site.
• BT Vision Sport (http:// sport. btvision. com/ ), BT Vision Sport
BTV247, Inc
BTV247, Inc
AffinityTV247, Inc.
Type Private
Industry Digital Media
Founded Los Angeles,CA USA (2008)
Headquarters Los Angeles, California, USA Offices in Los Angeles, CA
Key people Justin Beckett, Chairman & CEO
Cecil Cox, President
Dorika Mamboleo Beckett, Chief Financial Officer
Renee Warren, Executive producer
Annmarie Morais, Senior producer,
Isaac Díaz, Production Director,
Derek Young, Creative director
AffinityTV247, Inc. (Formerly BTV247, Inc.) is a digital media company primarily focused on content derived
from or related to Black culture.

AffinityTV247, Inc. (formerly known as BTV247, Inc.) was founded in Los Angeles, California in June 2008 by
Justin Beckett and Cecil Cox. The initial seed funding for the venture was provided by VIZX Corporation.
AffinityTV247, Inc. has three operating divisions: BlackTV247.com,

BTV Productions
and BlackTV247
University.com (further defined below).
AffinityTV247.com is an Internet-based video viewing community which features Black inspired programming.
BlackTV247 and its affiliate network offer more than 16 distinct viewing channels and claim to have the largest
database of Black related video programs.
AffinityTV Productions is a digital production company that is primarily responsible for the network's original
production activities. Examples of AffinityTV247 original titles include, the Best of BlackTV247.com, BlackTV247
News and The Trial of Huey Newton.
BTV247, Inc
BlackTV247 University is an Internet-based educational institution which is focused on providing "hands on"
Internet-based internships to aspiring media professionals. BlackTV247 University offers unpaid internships in the
areas of Writing, Directing, Production and Editing. Internships are customized around student schedules and tuition
is free for students who attend a BlackTV247 partnered institution.
[1] "Black Culture Goes Front & Center With the Launch of BlackTV247.com" (http:/ / www.thestreet. com/ story/ 10668042/
black-culture-goes-front-center-with-the-launch-of-blacktv247com.html) (Press Release). January 27, 2010. . Retrieved 2010-02-16.
[2] "W. Harriers Finish 3rd at Heps; Men 6th" (http:// www.thecrimson. com/ article/ 1989/ 5/ 8/ w-harriers-finish-3rd-at-heps/?print=1) (News
Article). January 27, 2010. . Retrieved 2010-02-11.
[3] "BlackTV247.com Aggregates All Black TV, All the Time" (http:// www.blackweb20. com/ 2010/ 01/ 29/
blacktv247-aggregates-all-black-tv/ ) (Website Review). January 29, 2010. . Retrieved 2010-02-18.
[4] "Cynopsis: Digital - Website of the Day" (http:// www. cynopsis. com/ editions/ digital/ 020410/ ) (Digital Newsletter). February 4, 2010. .
Retrieved 2010-02-16.
[5] "HBO channels historical miniseries" (http:// www.variety.com/ index. asp?layout=print_story&articleid=VR1118008605&
categoryid=14) (Variety Article). September 14, 2009. . Retrieved 2010-02-18.
External links
• Official Site (http:// www.btv247. com/ )
• BlackTV247.com (http:/ / www. blacktv247. com/ )
C-SPAN Video Library
C-SPAN Video Library
C-SPAN Video Library
Screenshot as of January 9, 2011
URL http:/ / www.c-spanvideo.org/
Type of site Public affairs video streaming
Registration None
Available language(s) English
Owner C-SPAN
March 17, 2010
Current status Online
C-SPAN Video Library is the audio and video streaming website of C-SPAN, the American legislative broadcaster.
The site offers a complete, freely accessible archive going back to 1987. It was launched in March 2010.
Available content
The site provides access to C-SPAN's collection of Congressional proceedings and other political and public affairs
programming, including complete archives dating back to 1987. Content is searchable and browsable by program,
topics, date, and speaker. At its launch in 2010, the site offered 160,000 hours of archived programming. New
programming is archived shortly after broadcast.



C-SPAN was launched in 1979 but has limited archived material from its early years. When the site was launched in
2010 its director Robert X. Browning said 10,000 hours of tapes from 1979 to 1987 were slated for restoration,
digitization, and addition.

Congressional Chronicle is a section with searchable transcripts of House and Senate floor debates and pages for
current and past members of Congress, with biographies, voting records, campaign finance records, and a timeline of
House and Senate sessions.
The site also provides episodes of Book TV and Booknotes, its now discontinued series
of author interviews.

In addition to C-SPAN programming, the site provides access to certain historic videos
from the National Archives, such as video from President Nixon's 1972 trip to China.
C-SPAN Video Library
Journalists and opposition researchers have used the site to locate past statements by politicians. Three sources used
it to locate clips and information about Christine O'Donnell during her failed 2010 Senate bid.
Political commentator Rachel Maddow is a prominent fan of the site. She said having access was "like being able to
Google political history using the ‘I Feel Lucky’ button every time."
Mediaite columnist Frances Martel called it "a
landmark in government transparency" and said it was valuable for historical research.
In September 2010, the site was awarded the Golden Beacon by the Association of Cable Communicators,
and in
March 2011 it was recognized with a Peabody Award.
C-SPAN has recorded and catalogued its coverage of Congress and other public affairs programming since the
establishment of the C-SPAN Archives, in West Lafayette, Indiana, since 1987.
However, prior to the Video
Library's launch, C-SPAN's archived programming was only available to the public via videocassette and DVD
purchase from C-SPAN; with the approval of the network's board of cable industry executives, the online archive
was developed to make C-SPAN content more immediately accessible.
The C-SPAN Video Library debuted
unofficially in August 2007, with hosted video streaming and limited search tools. The following year, C-SPAN
added an embeddable player to the Video Library's website.
The full archive officially launched March 17,

upon completion of a multi-year project that digitized C-SPAN programming from 1987 onward.
[1] "C-SPAN’s Online Video Library Now Open to the Public" (http:// www.c-span.org/ pdf/Video Library Now Open.pdf). C-SPAN. 17
March 2010. . Retrieved 31 October 2010.
[2] Reynolds, Mike (16 September 2010). "ACC Awards Golden Beacon To C-SPAN's Video Library" (http:/ / www.multichannel.com/ article/
457243-ACC_Awards_Golden_Beacon_To_C_SPAN_s_Video_Library.php). Multichannel News. NewBay Media. . Retrieved 27 September
[3] Stelter, Brian (15 March 2010). "C-SPAN Puts Full Archives on the Web" (http:// www.nytimes. com/ 2010/ 03/ 16/ arts/ television/
16cspan.html?_r=1). The New York Times. . Retrieved 27 September 2010.
[4] Martel, Frances (16 March 2010). "C-SPAN Online Archives Will Redefine Social Studies Education in America" (http://www. mediaite.
com/ online/ c-span-online-archives-will-redefine-social-studies-education-in-america/). Mediaite. . Retrieved 27 September 2010.
[5] Raasch, Chuck (25 March 2010). "Changing the way we view history" (http:/ / gns. gannettonline.com/ article/ 20100325/
COLUMNISTS01/ 3250301). CommonGround. Gannett News Service Multimedia. . Retrieved 27 September 2010.
[6] Weddle, Eric (24 March 2010). "C-SPAN Archive puts history's raw copy on the Internet". Journal & Courier (Lafayette, Indiana).
[7] Fusaris, J.. "C-SPAN Congressional Chronicle" (http:// www.law.uconn.edu/ content/ c-span-congressional-chronicle). University of
Connecticut School of Law. . Retrieved 23 December 2010.
[8] "Congressional plus: C-SPAN's archives are online (Editorial)" (http:/ / www. unionleader.com/ article. aspx?headline=Congressional+
plus:+C-SPAN's+ archives+ are+online& articleId=c5402089-b96b-4966-8eb1-217d19d638eb). New Hampshire Union Leader (Manchester,
New Hampshire). 28 March 2010. . Retrieved 8 January 2011.
[9] Kurtz, Howard (23 September 2010). "C-SPAN's blasts from the past" (http:// voices.washingtonpost. com/ howard-kurtz/2010/ 09/
c-spans_blasts_from_the_past. html). The Washington Post. . Retrieved 8 January 2011.
[10] Dave Itzkoff (31 March 2011). "Peabody Awards Go to ‘Justified,’ ‘The Good Wife’ and ‘Sherlock’" (http:// artsbeat. blogs.nytimes. com/
2011/03/ 31/ peabody-awards-go-to-justified-the-good-wife-and-sherlock/). Arts Beat (The New York Times). . Retrieved 21 April 2011.
[11] Godfrey, Donald G. (2006). Methods of historical analysis in electronic media (http:/ / books.google.com/ books?id=DlU4g8PZG2kC).
Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. p. 325. ISBN 9780805851861. . Retrieved 8 January 2010.
[12] "C-SPAN Milestones" (http:// legacy. c-span. org/about/ company/ index.asp?code=MILESTONES). C-SPAN. . Retrieved 7 October
C-SPAN Video Library
External links
• C-SPAN Video Library (http:// www. c-spanvideo. org/videoLibrary/)
Catch up TV
Catch up TV or Replay TV is a type of Internet TV in which TV shows are available through the Internet for a
period of days after the original broadcast. The shows are made available by the broadcasters themselves, and also
by aggregator sites.
Examples of available services
Australia's five major networks all offer such a services:
• ABC via its iView
• SBS via its website player
• Seven Network via its Plus7
• Nine Network via its FixPlay
• Network Ten via its website
United Kingdom
• BBC via its iPlayer
• ITV via its itvPlayer
• Channel 4 via 4 on Demand (4od)
• M6
• canal+
• pluzz
United States and Canada
The networks FOX, CBS, NBC and ABC all have similar sites, as do the Canadian networks Global, CTV, and
[1] http:/ / www. abc. net. au/ iview
[2] http:/ / player.sbs. com. au/ programs
[3] http:/ / au.tv. yahoo.com/ plus7/
[4] http:// fixplay.ninemsn. com. au/
[5] http:// ten.com.au/ watchtv
[6] BBC iPlayer voted best catch-up TV service (http:// www. digitalchoices. co.uk/ bbc-iplayer-voted-best-catch-up-tv-service-19102010.
Catch up TV
External links
• AOL Catch-Up (http:// tvlistings. aol. co. uk/ watch-tv-online/)
• What's on tv Catch-Up (http:/ / www. whatsontv. co. uk/ catchup-tv)
• TV Replay France (http:// www. tv-replay.fr/)
• Australia's Network Ten Catch-Up TV (http:/ / ten. com. au/ watch-tv-episodes-online. htm)
CBS Innertube
"Innertube" redirects here. For the part of an inflatable tire (USA) / tyre (UK), see tire.
CBS Innertube is a broadband video channel launched by CBS in May 2006. The channel offers original web-only
shows, as well as rebroadcasts of CBS's regular shows. This service is currently only available in the United States.
In 2008, CBS began adding classic television series such as Hawaii Five-O, The Ed Sullivan Show, and The
Twilight Zone to its selection (also including shows such as Melrose Place, MacGyver and Star Trek: The Original
Series, which never aired on CBS but are owned by CBS Television Distribution).
Advertising on Innertube was different and independent from CBS. Sponsors who had network coverage had to
purchase Innertube advertising separately.
These spots were sold in 15 and 30 second increment, similar to the
network version.
Although the goal of Innertube was to attract newer, more technologically advanced viewers,
CBS had also hoped to gain some overlap from network viewers wishing to watch rebroadcasts of network shows.
Finally, CBS planned to include special one-on-one interviews with celebrities.
Fate of Innertube
Nearly a year after its launch, Innertube was not attracting the numbers that had been hoped for. Network executives
realized that not many viewers were going to the site and decided to rebrand “Innertube” as “CBS.com,” a more
recognizable site for its viewers.
[1] Newcomb, Kevin. "CBS Launches 'innertube' Broadband Video Network." ClickZ. 5 May 2006.
[2] "CBS Inflates Innertube Broadband TV." Digital TV Group Limited. 5 Aug. 2006
[3] WebPro News Staff. "CBS Goes Net As Innertube Fails to Pop." WebPro News Online. 14 May 2007.
External links
• CBS Innertube (works only in the United States) (http:// www.cbs.com/ innertube/ index. php)
• Index of CBS Innertube Clips and Episodes (http:/ / onlinetvindex. com)
URL http:/ / citytv. com. co
Slogan Free videos in Spanish and Citytv Programming
Commercial? yes
Type of site Video sharing
Available language(s) Spanish
Content license Copyrighted and Creative Commons.
Owner Casa Editorial El Tiempo
Launched 2009
Current status Active
Citytv.com.co is a Colombian video sharing website that operates under the Canadian-based brand name Citytv,
which is licensed to the Colombian newspaper El Tiempo. The website was created by El Tiempo Publishing
Company (Casa Editorial El Tiempo)
in order to compete with other popular video sharing websites such as
YouTube and Metacafe with the difference being that it targets a Colombian audience.

As of August 2009 the
vast majority of videos in the website come from Citytv Bogota's television programming.
Users can upload their
own videos upon registration or by accessing via Facebook Connect. The website's terms of service warns that
videos with improper material such as pornography or defamation are prohibited and that all videos are screened
prior to publishing.
Facebook Connect integration
Citytv.com.co is tightly integrated with Facebook by allowing users to post a comment in the website and at the
same time having the comment published in their Facebook wall.
[1] http:/ / www. eltiempo. com/ archivo/documento/ MAM-3379424 El Tiempo Newspaper - Reports on Citytv.com.co
[2] http:/ / www. portafolio.com. co/ economia/ economiahoy/ ARTICULO-WEB-NOTA_INTERIOR_PORTA-6028771.html Portfolio reports
on leadership of Citytv.com.co in Colombia
[3] http:// www. alexa. com/ siteinfo/ citytv. com. co Alexa traffic details for Citytv.com.co
[4] http:/ / www. iabcolombia. com/ lo-ultimo/citytvcomco-una-nueva-puesta-de-video-online/Citytv.com.co Overview by Jerome Sutter
[5] http:/ / www. citytv.com. co/ terminos Citytv.com.co TOS
Cable News Network
CNN logo
Launched June 1, 1980
Owned by Turner Broadcasting System, Inc.
(a Time Warner company)
Picture format 480i (SDTV)
1080i (HDTV)
Slogan "The Worldwide Leader in News"
"CNN = Politics"
"The Best Political Team on
"CNN = Money"
"Go Beyond Borders"
Country United States
Language English
Broadcast area United States
Headquarters CNN Center
Atlanta, Georgia
Sister channel(s) CNN International
CNN Airport Network
CNN Türk
CNN en Español
CNN Chile
Turner Classic Movies
Cartoon Network
DirecTV (USA) Channel 202 (SD / HD)
Channel 1202 (VOD)
Dish Network (USA) Channel 200 (SD / HD)
Channel 9436 (HD)
Bell TV (Canada) Channel 500 (SD)
Channel 1578 (HD)
Shaw Direct (Canada) Channel 140 / 500 (SD)
Channel 257 / 331 (HD)
SKY PerfecTV! (Japan) Channel 679 (HD)
Available on most cable systems in the USA & Canada Check local listings
In-House (Washington) Channel 12
Verizon FiOS Channel 100 (SD)
Channel 600 (HD)
Satellite radio
Sirius Channel 132
XM Channel 122
Bell Fibe TV (Canada) Channel 500 (SD)
Channel 1500 (HD)
AT&T U-Verse Channel 202 (SD) Channel 1202 (HD)
Cable News Network (CNN) is a U.S. cable news channel founded in 1980 by Ted Turner.

Upon its launch,
CNN was the first channel to provide 24-hour television news coverage,
and the first all-news television channel in
the United States.
While the news channel has numerous affiliates, CNN primarily broadcasts from its
headquarters at the CNN Center in Atlanta, the Time Warner Center in New York City, and studios in Washington,
D.C. and Los Angeles. CNN is owned by parent company Time Warner, and the U.S. news channel is a division of
the Turner Broadcasting System.
CNN is sometimes referred to as CNN/U.S. to distinguish the American channel from its international counterpart,
CNN International. As of August 2010, CNN is available in over 100 million U.S. households.
Broadcast coverage
extends to over 890,000 American hotel rooms,
and the U.S broadcast is also shown in Canada. Globally, CNN
programming airs through CNN International, which can be seen by viewers in over 212 countries and territories.
Starting late 2010, the domestic version CNN/U.S., is available in high definition to viewers in Japan under the name
Early history
CNN's first broadcast with David Walker and
Lois Hart on June 1, 1980.
The Cable News Network was launched at 5:00 p.m. EST on Sunday
June 1, 1980. After an introduction by Ted Turner, the husband and
wife team of David Walker and Lois Hart anchored the first
Burt Reinhardt, the then executive vice president of CNN,
hired most of CNN's first 200 employees, including the network's first
news anchor, Bernard Shaw.
Since its debut, CNN has expanded its reach to a number of cable and
satellite television companies, several web sites, specialized
closed-circuit channels (such as CNN Airport Network), and a radio
network. The company has 36 bureaus (10 domestic, 26 international),
more than 900 affiliated local stations, and several regional and
foreign-language networks around the world. The channel's success
made a bona-fide mogul of founder Ted Turner and set the stage for the Time Warner conglomerate's eventual
acquisition of Turner Broadcasting.
A companion channel, CNN2, was launched on January 1, 1982 and featured a continuous 24-hour cycle of
30-minute news broadcasts. A year later, it changed its name to "CNN Headline News", and eventually it was simply
called "Headline News". (In 2005, Headline News would break from its original format with the addition of
Headline Prime, a prime-time programming block that features news commentary; and in 2008 the channel changed
its name again, to "HLN".)
Major events
Replica of the newsroom at CNN Center.
Challenger disaster
On January 28, 1986, CNN was the only television channel to have
live coverage of the launch and subsequent explosion of Space Shuttle
Challenger, which killed the seven crew members.
Baby Jessica rescue
On October 14, 1987, an 18-month-old toddler named Jessica McClure
fell down a well in Midland, Texas. CNN was quickly on the spot, and
the event helped make their name. The New York Times ran a
retrospective article in 1995 on the impact of live video news. "If a
picture is worth a thousand words, then a moving picture is worth many times that, and a live moving picture makes
an emotional connection that goes deeper than logic and lasts well beyond the actual event. This was before
correspondents reported live from the enemy capital while American bombs were falling. Before Saddam Hussein
held a surreal press conference with a few of the hundreds of Americans he was holding hostage. Before the nation
watched, riveted but powerless, as Los Angeles was looted and burned. Before O. J. Simpson took a slow ride in a
white Bronco, and before everyone close to his case had an agent and a book contract. This was uncharted territory
just a short time ago."
The Gulf War
The first Persian Gulf War in 1991 was a watershed event for CNN that catapulted the channel past the "big three"
American networks for the first time in its history, largely due to an unprecedented, historical scoop: CNN was the
only news outlet with the ability to communicate from inside Iraq during the initial hours of the Coalition bombing
campaign, with live reports from the al-Rashid Hotel in Baghdad by reporters Bernard Shaw, John Holliman, and
Peter Arnett.
Operation Desert Storm as captured live on a
CNN night vision camera with reporters
The moment when bombing began was announced on CNN by
Bernard Shaw on January 16, 1991 as follows:

This is Bernie Shaw. Something is happening outside...Peter Arnett, join me here. Let's describe to our viewers what we're seeing...The skies
over Baghdad have been illuminated...We're seeing bright flashes going off all over the sky.

CNN's coverage of the initial hours of the Gulf War was carried by TV stations and networks around the world,
resulting in CNN being watched by over a billion viewers worldwide -- a feat that led to the subsequent creation of
CNN International.
The Gulf War experience brought CNN some much sought-after legitimacy and made household names of
previously obscure reporters. Many of these reporters now comprise CNN's "old guard." Bernard Shaw became
CNN's chief anchor until his retirement in 2001. Others include then-Pentagon correspondent Wolf Blitzer (now host
of The Situation Room) and international correspondent Christiane Amanpour. Amanpour's presence in Iraq was
caricatured by actress Nora Dunn as the ruthless reporter "Adriana Cruz" in the film Three Kings (1999). Time
Warner later produced a television movie, Live from Baghdad, about the channel's coverage of the first Gulf War,
which aired on HBO.
The CNN effect
Coverage of the first Gulf War and other crises of the early 1990s (particularly the infamous Battle of Mogadishu)
led officials at the Pentagon to coin the term "the CNN effect" to describe the perceived impact of real time, 24-hour
news coverage on the decision-making processes of the American government.
September 11 attacks
CNN breaking the news about the September 11
CNN was the first channel to break the news of the September 11
Anchor Carol Lin was on the air to deliver the first public
report of the event. She broke into a commercial at 8:49 a.m. ET and

This just in. You are looking at obviously a very disturbing live shot there. That is the World Trade Center, and we have unconfirmed reports
this morning that a plane has crashed into one of the towers of the World Trade Center. CNN Center right now is just beginning to work on
this story, obviously calling our sources and trying to figure out exactly what happened, but clearly something relatively devastating
happening this morning there on the south end of the island of Manhattan. That is once again, a picture of one of the towers of the World
Trade Center. ”
Daryn Kagan and Leon Harris were live on the air just after 9 a.m. ET as the second plane hit the World Trade
Center and through an interview with CNN correspondent David Ensor, reported the news that U.S. officials
determined "that this is a terrorist act."
Later, Aaron Brown anchored through the day and night as the attacks
unfolded. Brown had just come to CNN from ABC to be the breaking news anchor.
Sean Murtagh, CNN vice-president for finance and administration, was the first CNN employee on the air in New
Coincidentally, September 11, 2001 was Paula Zahn's first day as a CNN reporter. She mentioned this as a guest clue
presenter on a 2005 episode of Jeopardy!.
2008 U.S. election
The stage for the second 2008 CNN-YouTube
presidential debate.
Leading up to the 2008 U.S. presidential election, CNN devoted large
amounts of coverage to politics, including hosting candidate debates
during the Democratic and Republican primary seasons. On June 3 and
June 5, CNN teamed up with Saint Anselm College to sponsor the New
Hampshire Republican and Democratic Debates.
Later in 2007, the
channel hosted the first CNN-YouTube presidential debates, a
non-traditional format where viewers were invited to pre-submit
questions over the internet via the YouTube video-sharing service.
In 2008, CNN partnered with The Los Angeles Times to host two
primary debates leading up to its coverage of Super Tuesday.
CNN's debate and election night coverage led to its highest ratings of
the year, with January 2008 viewership averaging 1.1 million viewers, a 41% increase over the previous year.
Current shows
ET Program Host(s) Location Description
4a-5a World Business Today Andrew Stevens and
Charles Hodson
Hong Kong and
A live simulcast of CNN International's weekday business
5a-6a AM: Wake Up Call Ali Velshi New York An early morning news show.
6a-9a American Morning Kiran Chetry (and
Christine Romans, Ali
New York The channel's morning news program
9a-11a CNN Newsroom Kyra Phillips CNN Center A daily look at what's making news presented in a lighter
and soft news format.
11a-1p Suzanne Malveaux
1p-3p Ali Velshi
3p-5p Brooke Baldwin
The Situation Room Wolf Blitzer Washington D.C. Daily headline stories focusing on politics, homeland
security, and human interest stories
7p-8p John King, USA John King The day's top political stories are discussed.
8p-9p In the Arena Eliot Spitzer New York A discussion of the day's top news with journalists and
9p-10p Piers Morgan Tonight Piers Morgan New York
Nightly interview program
simulcast to CNN
10p-11p Anderson Cooper 360° Anderson Cooper New York Nightly news and talk, series-documentary program
11p-12a The second hour is typically a repeat of the first, unless
special events or breaking news warrant it to be live
ET Program Hosts Location Description
6a-730a CNN Saturday Morning T. J. Holmes CNN Center Weekend morning news program
730a-8a Sanjay Gupta MD Dr. Sanjay Gupta Medical news program
8a-930a CNN Saturday Morning T. J. Holmes The channel's weekend morning news program
930a-10a Your Bottom Line Christine Romans New York A personal finance show with a focus on the viewer's
bottom line
10a-12p CNN Newsroom T. J. Holmes CNN Center A daily look at what's making news
12p-1p Fredricka Whitfield
1p-2p Your $$$ Ali Velshi CNN Center A weekend business news program
2p-5p CNN Newsroom Fredricka Whitfield CNN Center A daily look at what's making news
5p-6p Don Lemon
6p-7p The Situation Room Wolf Blitzer Washington D.C. Weekly look at political news
7p-8p CNN Newsroom Don Lemon CNN Center A daily look at what's making news
8p-9p CNN Special Investigations Unit / CNN Presents / Other specials Various special programming
9p-10p Piers Morgan Tonight Piers Morgan New York Nightly interview program
10p-11p CNN Newsroom Don Lemon CNN Center A daily look at what's making news
ET Program Host(s) Location Description
6a-730a CNN Sunday Morning T. J. Holmes CNN Center The channel's weekend morning news program
730a-8a Sanjay Gupta MD (repeat) Dr. Sanjay Gupta Medical news program
8a-9a CNN Sunday Morning T. J. Holmes The channel's weekend morning news program
9a-10a State of the Union with
Candy Crowley
Candy Crowley Washington D.C. CNN's political talk show
10a-11a Fareed Zakaria GPS Fareed Zakaria Various A weekly talk show focused on international issues
11a-12p Reliable Sources Howard Kurtz Washington D.C. Critical look at the media issues
12p-1p State of the Union with
Candy Crowley (repeat)
Candy Crowley CNN's political talk show
1p-2p Fareed Zakaria GPS
Fareed Zakaria Various A weekly talk show focused on international issues
2p-3p CNN Newsroom Fredricka Whitfield CNN Center A daily look at what's making news
3p-4p Your $$$ (repeat) Ali Velshi CNN Center A weekend business news program
4p-6p CNN Newsroom Fredricka Whitfield CNN Center A daily look at what's making news
6p-8p CNN Newsroom Don Lemon A daily look at what's making news
8p-9p State of the Union with Candy Crowley / CNN SIU / CNN Presents
9p-10p Piers Morgan Tonight Piers Morgan New York Nightly interview program
10p-11p CNN Newsroom Don Lemon CNN Center A daily look at what's making news
On-air presentation
In December 2008, CNN introduced its new graphics package, a comprehensive redesign replacing the existing style
that had been used since 2004.
The design replaced the scrolling ticker that had been in use since 2001. Also,
since March 1, 2009, the redundant CNN HD logo has been missing from the bottom left corner of the screen. CNN's
new graphic design is similar to its sister channel, CNN International. The CNN logo itself has remained relatively
unchanged since the channel's launch, except that it was originally displayed in yellow.
On January 10, 2011, CNN introduced its most recent graphics package, in conjunction with the network-wide
switch to a 16:9 letterbox format from 4:3. Both of CNN's standard-definition and high-definition feeds now carry
the same 16:9 format; however, video footage broadcast in standard-definition on either feed is not pillarboxed,
leaving black bars on the right and left sides of the screen as well as the top and bottom of the screen. World
Business Today and World One, which both began to be simulcast from CNN International on January 17, 2011, are
however both broadcast in the 4:3 picture format on the CNN SD feed.
Former programs
Program Terms Description
Both Sides with
Jesse Jackson
A political talk show, hosted by civil rights leader and two-time presidential candidate Jesse Jackson, that
aired Sundays. Each program began with a short taped report on the topic by CNN Correspondent John
Bisney. The show ran from 1992 to 2000
Capital Gang 1988–2005 One of cable news' longest running programs, focusing on discussion of the political news of the week.
The original panelists were Pat Buchanan, Al Hunt, Mark Shields, and Robert Novak. When Buchanan left
CNN to run for president, Margaret Warner, Mona Charen, and later Margaret Carlson and Kate O'Beirne
became regular panelists. The Capital Gang aired Saturday nights at 7 p.m. ET from 1988 to 2005
Crossfire 1982–2005 A political "debate" program, anchored by hosts from left-wing and right-wing ideologies, that aired
during prime time and daytime until mid-2005. Originally hosted by Tom Braden and Pat Buchanan, other
hosts included Robert Novak, Michael Kinsley, John H. Sununu, Bill Press, Geraldine Ferraro, Mary
Matalin, Tucker Carlson, James Carville, and Paul Begala.
Evans and Novak Saturday night political interview program with Rowland Evans and Robert Novak. The name changed to
Evans, Novak, Hunt & Shields in 1998 when Al Hunt and Mark Shields became permanent panelists.
When Evans died in 2001, the name changed to Novak, Hunt, & Shields for its final year on CNN.
Next@CNN 2002–2005 A scientific and technology oriented program hosted by Daniel Sieberg. Aired on weekends.
Inside Politics A political program that aired from 3:30–5 p.m. ET weekdays. Replaced by The Situation Room in 2005.
Wolf Blitzer
2001–2005 A daily look at the day's stories that aired live from Washington at 5 p.m. ET. Replaced by The Situation
Room in 2005.
NewsNight with
Aaron Brown
2001–2005 A hard-news program anchored by Aaron Brown which took an in-depth look at the main U.S. and
international stories of the day. Was axed from CNN's schedule on November 5, 2005, leading to Brown's
immediate resignation from CNN.
CNN Daybreak A first look at the day's stories that aired live from New York City at 5 a.m. ET
CNN Sports
Co-anchored by Bob Kurtz and Nick Charles
Connie Chung
2002–2003 Hosted by Connie Chung. Cancelled in March 2003
Freeman Reports one of the original programs from 1980. Host Sonja Freeman interviewed guests and took live telephone
call-ins regarding current news events and other topics of interest. For a brief period the program featured
a live audience in Atlanta. Freeman's former time slot is now occupied by Larry King.
People Now another original program. Host Lee Leonard interviewed celebrities and discussed entertainment news in a
one hour program live from the CNN Los Angeles bureau. Leonard was replaced by Mike Douglas, who
himself was replaced by Bill Tush in December 1982.
Pinnacle with
Tom Cassidy
unknown–2004 Business news and leaders
Technological issues
Future Watch Technological issues
Science and
Technology Week
Weekly half hour featuring scientific and technology reports and comments on week's news on those
subjects. Anchored most recently by Miles O'Brien.
Your Health Health news
Style with Elsa
Weekly half hour on Saturday mornings featuring news on style and fashion
TalkBack Live 1994–2003 A call-in talk show with a live audience hosted most recently by Arthel Neville
On the Story unknown–2006 CNN's interactive "week-in-review" series featuring an in-depth look at the story behind some of the
week's biggest stories. Anchored by Ali Velshi. However, the show was suspended in June 2006, later
cancelled in July
Burden of Proof 1995–2001 A show that discussed legal issues of the day, hosted by Greta Van Susteren and Roger Cossack
Newsstand 1999–2001 News magazine
Newshour Daily news
Sonya / Sonya
Live In LA
1987–1994 A weekday call-in show airing at 1PM Eastern in the late 80's & Early 90s hosted by Dr. Sonya Friedman
CNN Live Today 2001–2006 Daily look at what's making news, airing live from Atlanta at 10 a.m. ET on weekdays. Anchored by
Daryn Kagan
Live From... A lively look at the day's stories airing live from Atlanta at 1 p.m. ET. Anchored by Kyra Phillips
CNN Live
Saturday / CNN
Live Sunday
A look at what's making news on the weekends, airing live from Atlanta. Anchored by Fredricka Whitfield
12:00–6:00pm and Carol Lin 6:00–11:00pm. Replaced in 2006 by CNN Newsroom Weekend.
CNN Saturday
Night / CNN
Sunday Night
The channel's weekend evening news program, airing at 6 p.m. ET and 10 p.m. ET. Anchored by Carol
Lin. Replaced in 2006 by CNN Newsroom Weekend.
People in the
unknown–2005 CNN's feature-format program with People Magazine profiling newsmakers from politics, sports,
business, medicine, and entertainment. The program aired on the weekend and was first hosted by Daryn
Kagan and later by Paula Zahn.
1994–2006 Weekly program on CNNI hosted by Richard Roth, focusing on the United Nations
Global View 1994–1999 International policy interview show hosted by world affairs correspondent Ralph Begleiter, aired weekly
on CNN classic (1994-5) and CNN International (1994–1999). Program began with Begleiter package on
subject, followed by lengthy interview with international figure, and ended with brief "Reporter's
Notebook" segment featuring insider tidbits from the host's extensive travel covering global politics.
Produced by Pam Benson with Joann Sierra.
Live From the
Was Paula Zahn's prime-time show after moving from her morning slot,
airing from 7–9 PM and later
co-hosted by Anderson Cooper; replaced by Paula Zahn Now in 2003
Paula Zahn Now 2003–2007 Was a look at the current issues affecting the world, with former CBS and Fox News anchor Paula Zahn.
Last broadcast was on August 2, 2007
CNN Tonight 2001 Anchored by Bill Hemmer (10pm ET) and Catherine Callaway (1am ET/10pm PT). Brought back in late
2009 to replace Lou Dobbs Tonight as a placeholder until new programming debuts in 2010
First Evening
2001 Bill Hemmer anchors half-hour news show at 6pm (in June) or 7pm (in July to September 10)
The Spin Room 2001 Tucker Carlson and Bill Press host political talk show (aired at 10.30pm ET)
Greenfield at
2001–2002 Anchored by Jeff Greenfield in New York (aired at 10.30pm ET weeknights)
CNN NewsSite 2001 Anchored by Joie Chen from Atlanta (aired at 4pm ET weekdays: integrated the news and internet)
The Point with
Greta Van
2001–2002 Primetime news and interviews. Canceled when Susteren moved to Fox News
Ballot Bowl 2008 Election 2008 news
Lou Dobbs This
Lou Dobbs
1980–2009 Anchored by Lou Dobbs, the program originally aired as Moneyline before re-launching as Lou Dobbs
Tonight in 2003.
Campbell Brown 2008–2010 A political debate show hosted by Campbell Brown. Ended after Brown resigned from the channel.
Rick's List 2010 Anchored by Rick Sanchez, the host would discuss the day's news with viewers via social networking sites
such as Facebook and Twitter. Sanchez was fired from the channel after making controversial statements
on a radio show (see Controversy for further details).
Larry King Live 1985–2010
Hosted by Larry King, it was CNN's most watched (and longest running) program, with over one million
viewers nightly.
CNN's current president is Ken Jautz. He replaced Jonathan Klein on September 24, 2010.
Anderson Cooper, anchor of AC 360° Richard Quest, London-based correspondent
• Paul Begala
• Hilary Rosen
• James Carville
• Roland S. Martin
• Donna Brazile
• Ed Rollins
• William Bennett
• Amy Holmes
• Tara Wall
• Alex Castellanos
• Sam Dealey
Political analysts
• Jack Cafferty, Commentator
• Gloria Borger, Senior Political Analyst
• Candy Crowley, Senior Political Correspondent
• Ali Velshi, Chief Business Correspondent
• Jeffrey Toobin, Senior Legal Analyst
• Bill Schneider, Senior Political Analyst
• David Gergen, Senior Political Analyst
• John King, Chief National Correspondent
• Jill Dougherty, Foreign Affairs Correspondent
High definition
American Morning on CNN HD with the
2004–2008 graphics package.
CNN HD is a 1080i high definition simulcast of CNN that launched in
September 2007.
All studio shows are aired in HD, as well as
special events.
Starting late 2010, the domestic version CNN/U.S., is available in high
definition to viewers in Japan under the name CNN HD. If this is a
one-off case or the beginning of an international roll-out of CNN HD
with more countries to come is unclear.
Formerly during American Morning, CNN HD viewers saw weather
forecasts in graphic form on the sides of the screen (American cities on
the right, and cities outside of the U.S. on the left). This feature was removed in November 2009.
The documentary Planet in Peril was CNN's first documentary program produced in HD, followed by Black in
America (Its sequel Black in America 2 also aired in HD). Its spinoff Latino in America was also in HD. CNN HD
also used to display a CNN HD logo (the normal CNN logo with the letters HD in a different, gray colored font next
to it) on the bottom left corner of the screen. It was last used on February 28, 2009.
Special events
All special events are aired in full HD. During primary and caucus nights, America Votes 2008 was produced in
complete HD with Wolf Blitzer anchoring from CNN's main New York studio which was renamed the CNN
Election Center. During this time, CNN HD viewers got additional information on the side of their TV screens such
as poll numbers, charts and graphs. This also happened for the 2008 Democratic National Convention, the 2008
Republican National Convention, the 2008 United States Presidential Debates, the 2008 United States Vice
Presidential Debate and the 2008 Election Day coverage on November 4, all of which were also shot in HD. Other
special events such as Presidential speeches and press conferences are aired in HD
The CNN Election Express bus, used for HD
CNN's political coverage in HD was given mobility by the introduction
of the CNN Election Express bus in October 2007. The Election
Express vehicle, capable of five simultaneous HD feeds, was used for
the channel's CNN-YouTube presidential debates and for presidential
candidate interviews.
Initial carriage of CNN HD on cable and satellite systems was limited.
DirecTV was the first provider to carry it, adding it mid-September
By June 2008, Comcast, Time Warner Cable, Cox
Communications, AT&T U-verse, Rogers Cable, Midcontinent
Communications, Bright House Networks, and Dish Network launched carriage of CNN HD.

Verizon is
currently in the process of adding CNN HD to its FiOS service on a market by market basis.

International version in April 2011
CNN debuted its news website CNN.com
(initially an experiment
known as CNN Interactive) on August 30, 1995. The site attracted
growing interest over its first decade and is now one of the most
popular news websites in the world. The widespread growth of blogs,
social media and user-generated content have influenced the site, and
blogs in particular have focused CNN's previously scattershot online
offerings, most noticeably in the development and launch of CNN
Pipeline in late 2005.
In April 2009, CNN.com ranked third place among online global news
sites in unique users in the U.S. according to Nielsen/NetRatings; with
an increase of 11% over the previous year.
CNN Pipeline was the name of a paid subscription service, its
corresponding website, and a content delivery client that provided
streams of live video from up to four sources (or "pipes"), on-demand
access to CNN stories and reports, and optional pop-up "news alerts" to
computer users. The installable client was available to users of PCs
running Microsoft Windows. There was also a browser-based "web
client" that did not require installation. In July 2007 the service was
discontinued and replaced with a free streaming service.
The now-defunct topical news-program Judy Woodruff's Inside Politics
was the first CNN program to feature a round-up of blogs in 2005.
Blog coverage was expanded when Inside Politics was folded into The
Situation Room. In 2006 CNN launched CNN Exchange and CNN
iReport, initiatives designed to further introduce and centralize the impact of everything from blogging to citizen
journalism within the CNN brand. CNN iReport which features user-submitted photos and video, has achieved
considerable traction, with increasingly professional-looking reports filed by amateur journalists, many still in high
school or college. The iReport gained more prominence when observers of the Virginia Tech Shootings sent-in first
hand photos of what was going during the shootings.
As of early 2008, CNN maintains a free live broadcast.
CNN International is broadcast live, as part of the
RealNetworks SuperPass subscription outside US. CNN also offers several RSS feeds and podcasts.
On April 18, 2008 CNN.com was targeted by Chinese hackers in retaliation for the channel's coverage on the 2008
Tibetan unrest. CNN reported that they took preventative measures after news broke of the impending attack.

The company was honored at the 2008 Technology & Engineering Emmy Awards for development and
implementation of an integrated and portable IP-based live, edit and store-and-forward digital news gathering (DNG)
The first use of what would later win CNN this award was in April 2001 when CNN correspondent Lisa
Rose Weaver
covered, and were detained,
for the release of the U.S. Navy crew of a damaged electronic
surveillance plane after the Hainan Island incident. The technology consisted of a videophone produced by 7E
Communications Ltd of London, UK.
This DNG workflow is used today by the network to receive material world
wide using an Apple MacBook Pro, various prosumer and professional digital cameras, software from Streambox
Inc., and BGAN terminals from Hughes Network Systems.
On October 24, 2009 CNN launched a new version of their CNN.com website, revamping it adding a new "sign up"
option where users may create their own user name, a new "CNN Pulse" (beta) feature along with a new red color
However, most of the news archived on the website has been deleted.
CNN also has a channel in the popular video-sharing site YouTube, but its videos can only be viewed in the United
States, a source of criticism among YouTube users worldwide.
In April 2010, CNN announced via Twitter its upcoming food blog called "Eatocracy," in which it will "cover all
news related to food – from recalls to health issues to culture."
CNN had an internet relay chat (IRC) network at chat.cnn.com. CNN placed a live chat with Benjamin Netanyahu on
the network in 1998.
Specialized channels
CNN en Español televised debate for the 2005
Chilean elections.
Post Production editing offices in Atlanta.
• CNN Airport Network
• CNN Chile A Chilean news channel launched on December 4,
• CNN en Español
• CNN International
• CNN TÜRK A Turkish media outlet.
• CNN-IBN An Indian news channel.
• CNNj A Japanese news outlet.
• n-tv German 24 hour news channel in German language. In 2009,
on air graphic (DOG position and news ticker) is like CNN. Owned
by RTL Group
Former channels
• CNN Checkout Channel (Out-of-home place-based custom channel
for grocery stores started in 1991 and shuttered in 1993)
• CNN Italia
(an Italian news website launched in partnership with
the publishing company Gruppo Editoriale L'Espresso, and after
with the financial newspaper Il Sole 24 Ore, launched on November
15, 1999

and closed on September 12, 2003.)
• CNN Pipeline (24-hour multi-channel broadband online news
service, replaced with CNN.com Live)
• CNN Sports Illustrated (also known as CNNSI), CNN's all-sports channel, closed in 2002.
• CNN+ (a partner channel in Spain, launched in 1999 with Sogecable)
• CNN.com Live
• CNNfn (financial channel, closed in December 2004)
CNN launched two specialty news channels for the American market which would later close amid competitive
pressure: CNNSI shut down in 2002, and CNNfn shut down after nine years on the air in December 2004. CNN and
Sports Illustrated's partnership continues today online at CNNSI.com. CNNfn's former website now redirects to
money.cnn.com, a product of CNN's strategic partnership with Money magazine. Money and SI are both properties
of Time Warner, along with CNN.
CNN bureau locations
The CNN Center in Atlanta.
CNN Center studios.
Note: Boldface indicates that they are CNN's original bureaus,
meaning they have been in operation since CNN's founding.
United States
• Atlanta (World Headquarters) • Columbus
• Boston • Denver
• Chicago • Houston
• Dallas • Las Vegas
• Los Angeles • Minneapolis
• Miami • Orlando
• New Orleans • Philadelphia
• New York City • Phoenix
• San Francisco • Raleigh-Durham
• Washington, D.C. • Seattle
Many of the following bureaus have been closed or—due to the financial crisis—their budget cut:
• Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (Middle East regional headquarters)
• Baghdad, Iraq
• Bangkok, Thailand
• Beijing, China
• Beirut, Lebanon
• Berlin, Germany
• Bogotá, Colombia
• Cairo, Egypt
• Dubai, United Arab Emirates
• Havana, Cuba
• Hong Kong (Asia/Pacific regional headquarters)
• Islamabad, Pakistan
• Istanbul, Turkey
• Jakarta, Indonesia
• Iran, Tehran (until the 2009 election when foreign media were expelled from the country)
• Jerusalem, Israel
• Johannesburg, South Africa
• Lagos, Nigeria
• London, United Kingdom (European regional headquarters)
• Madrid, Spain
• Mexico City, Mexico
• Moscow, Russia
• Nairobi, Kenya
• New Delhi, India
• Paris, France
• Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
• Santiago of Chile, Chile
• São Paulo, Brazil
• Seoul, South Korea
• Sydney, Australia
• Tokyo, Japan
In a joint study by the Joan Shorenstein Center on Press, Politics and Public Policy at Harvard University and the
Project for Excellence in Journalism, the authors found disparate treatment by the three major cable channels of
Republican and Democratic candidates during the earliest five months of presidential primaries in 2007: "The CNN
programming studied tended to cast a negative light on Republican candidates—by a margin of three-to-one.
Four-in-ten stories (41%) were clearly negative while just 14% were positive and 46% were neutral. The network
provided negative coverage of all three main candidates with McCain fairing the worst (63% negative) and Romney
fairing a little better than the others only because a majority of his coverage was neutral. It's not that Democrats,
other than Obama, fared well on CNN either. Nearly half of the Illinois Senator's stories were positive (46%), vs. just
8% that were negative. But both Clinton and Edwards ended up with more negative than positive coverage overall.
So while coverage for Democrats overall was a bit more positive than negative, that was almost all due to extremely
favorable coverage for Obama."
CNN has been accused of perpetrating media bias for allegedly promoting both a conservative and a liberal agenda
based on previous incidents. Accuracy in Media and the Media Research Center have claimed that CNN's reporting
contains liberal editorializing within news stories.

CNN is one of the world's largest news organizations, and its international channel, CNN International is the leading
international new channel in terms of viewer reach.

Unlike the BBC and its network of reporters and bureaus,
CNN International makes extensive use of affiliated reporters that are local to, and often directly affected by, the
events they are reporting. The effect is a more immediate, less detached style of on-the-ground coverage. This has
done little to stem criticism, largely from Middle Eastern nations, that CNN International reports news from a
pro-American perspective. This is a marked contrast to domestic criticisms that often portray CNN as having a
"liberal" or "anti-American" bias. In 2002, Honest Reporting spearheaded a campaign to expose CNN for
pro-Palestinian bias, citing public remarks in which Ted Turner equated Palestinian suicide bombing with Israeli
military strikes.
Chicago Sun-Times. June 5, 2007. As said by Ted Turner, founder of CNN, "There really isn't much of a point
getting some Tom, Dick or Harry off the streets to report on when we can snag a big name whom everyone identifies
with. After all, it's all part of the business." However, in April 2008, Turner criticized the direction CNN has
Others have echoed that criticism, especially in light of CNN's drop in the ratings.
A Chinese website, anti-cnn.com,
has accused CNN and western media in general of biased reporting against
China, with the catch-phrase "Don't be so CNN" catching on in the Chinese mainstream as jokingly meaning "Don't
be so biased". Pictures used by CNN are allegedly edited to have completely different meanings from the original
ones. In addition, the channel was accused of largely ignoring pro-China voices during the Olympic Torch Relay in
San Francisco.
On April 24, 2008 beautician Liang Shubing and teacher Li Lilan sued commentator Jack Cafferty and CNN $1.3
billion damages ($1 per person in China), in New York, for "violating the dignity and reputation of the Chinese
people". This was in response to an incident during CNN's "The Situation Room" on April 9, where Cafferty stated
his opinion that "[the USA] continue to import their junk with the lead paint on them and the poisoned pet food"
despite his view that "[the Chinese leaders were] basically the same bunch of goons and thugs they've been for the
last 50 years". Further, amid China's Foreign Ministry demand for an apology, 14 lawyers filed a similar suit in

In June 2009, musician M.I.A. stated she did an hour-long interview with CNN condemning the mass bombing and
Tamil civilian fatalities at the hands of Government forces in Sri Lanka in 16 weeks the same year, "and they cut it
down to one minute and made it about my single “Paper Planes.” When I went to the Grammys, I saw the same
reporter from CNN, and I was like, “Why did you do that?” And she said, “Because you used the G-word.”
"Genocide. I guess you’re not allowed to say that on CNN," raising questions concerning CNN's coverage and
commitment to free speech.

On November 11, 2009, longtime CNN anchor Lou Dobbs resigned on air. He didn't explain why in his exit speech
but it has been reported that he was bothered by a memo that ordered anchors to stop allowing Obama birthers
On July 7, 2010, Octavia Nasr, senior Middle East editor and a CNN journalist for 20 years, was fired after she
expressed on her Twitter account admiration for a liberal-minded Muslim cleric who had recently died, casting
doubts on the company's commitment to freedom of speech.
On October 1, 2010, CNN anchor Rick Sanchez was fired after remarks he made during an interview with comedian
Pete Dominick at a radio show the previous day about prejudices he faced during his television career, at CNN and
jokes about him by comedian Jon Stewart. Calling him a "bigot" before retracting this and describing him instead as
"prejudiced" and "uninformed", the interviewer invoked Stewart's faith as an example of how Stewart was "a
minority as much as you are". Sanchez stated his view that Jewish people were not an oppressed minority in
America, and his view that "everybody that runs CNN is a lot like Stewart" before stating "And a lot of people who
run all the other networks are a lot like Stewart."
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[62] Dobbs gave up on $9M – Nixed CNN pact in 'Obama birther' flap (http:/ / www.nypost. com/ p/ news/ national/
dobbs_gave_up_on_3EsCWZGeRuYrPsFuzm8YoJ#ixzz0WlY7TOMc) New York Post November 13, 2009.
[63] Harnden, Toby (July 13, 2010). "Land of the free now home of the afraid" (http:/ / www.smh. com.au/ opinion/ society-and-culture/
land-of-the-free-now-home-of-the-afraid-20100712-107sq. html). The Sydney Morning Herald. .
[64] Stelter, Brian (October 1, 2010). "CNN Fires Rick Sanchez for Remarks in Interview" (http:// www. nytimes. com/ 2010/ 10/ 02/ business/
media/ 02cnn.html?src=busln). New York Times. .
External links
• Official website (http:// http:// www. cnn. com/ ) ( Mobile (http:// http:/ / m. CNN. com))
• CNN International (http:/ / edition. cnn. com)
• CNN (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ user/ CNN) channel on YouTube
• CNN (http:/ / twitter.com/ CNN) on Twitter
• CNN (http:/ / www. facebook.com/ CNN) on Facebook
Type Comedy
Founded California (2006)
Headquarters Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Comedy.com is an internet video sharing/social networking website.
External links
• Comedy.com
[1] http:/ / www. comedy. com/
Comparison of streaming media systems
This is a comparison of streaming media systems. A more complete list of streaming media systems is also available.
The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of streaming media systems both
audio and video. Please see the individual systems' linked articles for further information.
Name Creator First Public
Cost (USD) license Media Media Player
VideoLAN ? 1.1.10
Free GPL v2 Audio/Video Any with
PeerCast Giles ? 0.1217 Free GPL Audio/Video {?}
2002-07-9 4.0
$4,500 proprietary Video Flash Player
Comparison of streaming media systems
Wowza Media
2007-02-17 2.2.3
license, $995
proprietary Audio/Video/Data Any with
including Flash
players, VLC
players, Safari
touch, 3GPP
Symbian, etc.),
IPTV set-top
boxes, game
consoles (Wii,
PS3 and other).
Evostream Pre-release N/A $500 - $2500 proprietary Audio/Video/Data Any with
support, Flash,
VLC, iPhone,
IPTV, game
consoles, etc.
Apple Inc. 1999-03-16 6.0.3
Free APSL Audio/Video Any with
Flumotion 2004-11-30 0.8.0
Free GPL Audio/Video Any with
Ron Pedde
Free GPL Audio Any with
FreeCast Alban Peignier 2004-09-14 2006-06-29 Free GPL Audio/Video FreeCast client
Helix DNA
RealNetworks 2003-01-22 11.1
Free RCSL/RPSL Audio/Video Any with
RealNetworks 1994-01-01 14.0
Free for 12
months (Basic)
proprietary Audio/Video Any with
protocol support
(PC & Mobile
Comparison of streaming media systems
Microsoft Free proprietary Video Windows
Media Player
NCH Software 2006-07-21 1.01 Free
proprietary Audio Any with
1998-12 2.3.2
Free GPL Audio/Video Any with
http:/ / www.red5.
2005-10 0.9.1
Free LGPL Audio/Video Flash
Nullsoft 1998-12 1.9.8
Free proprietary Audio Any with
Unreal Streaming
2003-11 8.0
proprietary Audio/Video Flash,
Media, UMedia
SVT http:/ / www.
2008-04-10 2.0
Free GPL v3
FFmpeg, Flash
http:/ / lscube. org/
2007-05-31 2009-10-14 Free GPL Audio/Video Any with
http:/ /
? ?
seems stalled
before beta
Free LGPL Audio/Video Flash
Operating system support
Comparison of streaming media systems
Name Windows Mac OS X Linux BSD Unix Solaris Other Unix
PeerCast Yes Yes Yes ? ? ?
Firefly Yes ? Yes Yes ? ?
Flash Media Server Yes No Yes No No No
Wowza Media Server Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Evostream Media Server Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Darwin Streaming Server Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Flumotion Streaming
Yes Yes Yes
? ? ?
FreeCast Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Helix DNA Server Yes ? Yes Yes Yes ?
Helix Universal Server Yes No Yes No Yes No
Windows Media Services Yes No No No No No
Broadwave Yes No Yes No No No
Icecast Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Red5 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
SHOUTcast Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Unreal Media Server Yes No No No No No
CasparCG Yes No No No No No
Name Windows Mac OS X Linux BSD Unix Solaris Other Unix
Container format support
Information about what container formats are supported.
Name AVI ASF QuickTime Ogg OGM Matroska MP4 MPEG transport stream FLV
? ? ? Yes ? ? ? ? ?
Firefly No
? ? Yes ? ? ? ? ?
Flash Media Server ? ? ? ? ? ? Yes No Yes
Wowza Media Server No No Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes
Evostream Media Server No No Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes
Darwin Streaming Server ? ? Yes ? ? ? Yes ? No
Flumotion Streaming
Yes Yes
Yes Yes Yes
? ? ? Yes ? ? ? ? ?
Helix DNA Server ? ? ? ? ? ? No ? ?
Helix Universal Server No Yes Yes
No No Yes Yes Yes
Windows Media Services ? Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? No
Comparison of streaming media systems
Broadwave ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Icecast Yes
? ? Yes ? ? ? ?
Red5 ? ? ? ? ? ? Yes ? Yes
SHOUTcast Yes
? ? Yes ? ? ? ?
Unreal Media Server Yes Yes Yes
Yes Yes Yes Yes
CasparCG Yes Yes Yes
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Protocol support
Information about which internet protocols are supported for broadcasting streaming media content.
PeerCast Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Firefly ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
No No No No No
? ?
Yes No
(Apple HLS,
Adobe Dynamic
Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Yes No
Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
No Yes No Yes Yes
? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
FreeCast Yes No No ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Helix DNA
Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes
? ?
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
MSBD and
and HTTP)
? ?
Comparison of streaming media systems
Broadwave Yes No No ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Icecast Yes No No No No ? ? ? ? ?
Red5 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Yes ? ?
SHOUTcast Yes No No No No ? ? ? ? ?
Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
[1] http:/ / evostream. com
Comparison of video hosting services
The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of notable video hosting services.
Please see the individual products' articles for further information. This article is not all-inclusive or necessarily
General information
Basic general information about the hosts: creator/company, license/price etc.
Service Creator
Ads # Videos Views Watched
Per Day Censorship Multilingual
AtomFilms 1998
own TOS
? ?
Yes No Yes No
blip.tv 2005 May
own TOS
Opt-in ? ?
Yes No
Yes, including
the original
Break.com 1998
own TOS
? ? ?
Citytv.com.co 2009
March 10
? ? ?
Dailymotion 2005
March 15
own TOS
>10000000 ~60000000
Yes Yes
EngageMedia 2005
? ?
No Yes No Yes
Ludicorp 2004
own TOS
? ?
Yes Yes No No
Globo Video
Globo.com 2002 ?
>500000 ?
Comparison of video hosting services
acquired by
2000 May
own TOS
? 2000000 ? ? ? ?
imeem 2004
own TOS
>500000 ? ?
Yes No
own TOS
? ? ? ? ? ?
Metacafe 2003 July
own TOS
? 17000000
No No
MoboVivo 2006 June
2500+ TV
? Paid
own TOS
Text ? ? ? ? ? ?
MyVideo MyVideo 2006 April ? Yes 5400000 ~7000000 Yes Yes ? No
Nico Nico
Niwango 2006
own TOS
>3200000 ?
Yes Yes No No
OneWorldTV OneWorldTV
own TOS
? 10000
? ? ?
Openfilm 2008 June
own TOS
Opt-in >10000 >10000
Yes Yes Yes No
Ourmedia 2005
March 21
own TOS
Text 120000 ?
Phanfare 2004
own TOS
? ? ? ? ? ?
Putfile Ltd. 2004
? Text ? ?
? ? ?
Qik, Inc. 2007
own TOS
>1000000 ?
Yes Yes No Yes
Revver 2005
own TOS
? ?
RuTube 2006
own TOS
? ? >1100000 ?
? ?
UG September,
Commons Yes
? ?
sevenload 2006 April Creative
>500000 1500000
Yes No
? ?
No Yes No Yes
Tudou 2005 April
own TOS
? ?
Comparison of video hosting services
Twango 2006
October 11
own TOS
? ? ? ? ? ?
own TOS
? ? ?
own TOS
>1000000 1000000
? ?
2008 June
? 350000
Yes No
own TOS
>100000 ?
No Yes
Yahoo Video
Yahoo 2006
own TOS
? ?
? ?
Youku 2006 ? ? ?
? ? ?
acquired by
own TOS
Yes Yes
Supported Input file formats
Atom.com Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
? ? ? ? ?
No No
Yes Yes
Yes No
Break.com ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Citytv.com.co Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
No No
Dailymotion Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
? ? ? ?
Yes Yes
No No
No No Yes
Yes Yes
Flickr Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Yes ? No Yes ?
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
? ?
No No
iFilm Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
No No
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes
Yes Yes
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
? ? ?
Yes Yes
Comparison of video hosting services
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No
No No
Yes Yes Yes
No Yes
Nico Nico
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No
No No
OneWorldTV Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Openfilm Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
No No
Ourmedia ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Phanfare ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes
? ? ?
Yes Yes
No Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes
Yes Yes
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
? ? ? ?
No No
RuTube Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes
No No
ScienceStage Yes Yes Yes Yes
? ? ? ? ? ? Yes
Yes Yes
? ?
Yes Yes
Showmedo -
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
? ? ?
Yes Yes Yes
Yes No
Twango Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
No No
Veoh Yes Yes
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
No No
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
No No
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
No No
Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Yes Yes
Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Yes No
Yahoo Video Yes Yes Yes Yes
? ? ? ?
Yes ? ? ?
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
? ? ?
Yes Yes Yes
No No
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
No No
Comparison of video hosting services
Streaming Video Technical Information
Service Video
Video Format
Max size
Max time
Resolution Video bitrate
Atom.com Flash 1000 unlimited 640x480 ? ? ? ?
Open Web
Video or
On2 VP6 1024 unlimited 1280x720 ? ?
Flash On2 VP6 500 ? 464x352 340 kbit/s 30
mp3 CBR
Flash H.264,
2048 11 1280x720 ? ?
Open Web
Video or
or H.264,
1280x720 ? mp3 CBR
Flash H.264 unlimited unlimited 400x320 260 kbit/s 25
mp3 CBR
kbit/s lavc
Flickr Flash ? 150 1.50 1280x720 ? ? ? ?
Globo Video
Flash Sorenson
codec, H.264
unlimited unlimited 480x360 420 kbit/s
H264 codec
mp3 96
kbit/s Yes
Google Video
(closed for
Flash Sorenson
codec, H.264
unlimited 320x240 variable
H264 codec)
AAC 124
kbit/s Yes
HD share
(closed for
Flash On2 VP6 4096 unlimited 1280x720 ? ?
iFilm Flash On2 VP6 100 ? ? ? ? ? ?
Open Web
Video or
unlimited unlimited unlimited unlimited unlimited
Multiply 100 ? ? ? ? ? ?
Nico Nico
Flash H.264, On2
100 unlimited 512x384 ~600 MP3 128
AAC 96
OneWorldTV 100 ? ? ? ? ? ?
Flash H.264, On2
unlimited unlimited 690x518
700 kbs (min) AAC 96
kbs (min)
Comparison of video hosting services
Ourmedia unlimited unlimited ? ? ? ? ?
Phanfare 2048 10 ? ? ? ? ?
Flash Sorenson
unlimited unlimited 640x480 variable ?
& Flash
On2 VP6 100 unlimited 480x392 ? ? ? ?
Flash h.264 300 ? 640x480
1000 ? ? ?
Flash Sorenson
1500 ? 1280x720 ? ? ? ?
showmedo Flash ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
DivX Web
DivX, XviD 2048 unlimited 1920x1080 ? ? ? ?
Flash Sorenson
100 ? ? ? ? ? ?
Flash On2 VP6 unlimited If video is
longer than
30 minutes,
only a 5
preview is
shown. To
see the full
video the
user has to
install the
540x304 512 64
Flash H.264 500 unlimited 1280x720 variable,
average 1600,
max 5000
Open Web
Video or
500 unlimited 1280x720 variable,
average 1600,
max 5000
DivX Web
Player &
H.264, DivX,
unlimited unlimited unlimited unlimited
Flash H.263,
2000 unlimited ? ? 128
Yahoo Video Flash 150 ? ? ? ? ? ?
Flash On2 VP6
unlimited ? ? ?
Comparison of video hosting services
Open Web
Video or
codec, VP8
4096x3072 ~4,000 VBR ~124
Yes Yes
Service Video
Video Format
Max size
Max time
Resolution Video bitrate
Site Traffic
Service Alexa Site Rank Quantcast Site Rank Monthly Unique Visitor (US)
blip.tv 3923 812 2209322
Break.com 433 120 8162650
Dailymotion 103 59 17300000
FC2 Video 34 ? ?
flickr 33 ? ?
Google Video 296 4800000
iFilm 4018 1437 1600000
imeem 146 107 9115420
Internet Archive 372 1582 1600000
Metacafe 182 104 9192447
Multiply 106 3794 694738
Nico Nico Douga 137 18250 51795
OneWorldTV 1332511 2000
Openfilm 86316 15109 113100
Ourmedia 75830 98644 16253
Phanfare 26269 8025 322164
Putfile 2266 3452 772083
Qik 14857 26931 505000
Revver 3861 4210 606734
RuTube 1261 ? 4000000
sevenload 1923 12798 192022
showmedo 74919 ? ?
Tudou 84 6553 266022
Veoh 77 233 5429576
Vimeo 5963 7237 351665
Yahoo Video ? 760 2400000
Youku 49 ? ?
4 52436820
Comparison of video hosting services
[1] http:/ / www. atom. com/ legal/ terms_of_use/
[2] http:/ / blip.tv/ tos/
[3] publishers who opt-in get 50% share
[4] No possibility to opt-out downloading (http:/ / blip. tv/ file/post/ ).
[5] http:// info.break. com/ static/ live/ v1/ pages/ terms. html
[6] http:// www. citytv.com. co/ terminos
[7] http:/ / www. dailymotion. com/ legal/ terms
[8] No Porn
[9] "Dailymotion legal terms" (http:// www.dailymotion. com/ legal/ terms). . Retrieved 2009-07-24.
[10] http:// www. flickr.com/ terms. gne
[11] http:// www. ifilm.com/ about/ terms_of_use. jsp
[12] http:/ / www. imeem. com/ terms. aspx
[13] http:/ / www. archive. org/about/ terms. php
[14] http:/ / www. metacafe. com/ terms/
[15] http:// www. mobovivo. com/ legal. html
[16] http:// multiply. com/ info/tos
[17] http:// www. nicovideo. jp/ static/ base/ rule. html
[18] http:// tv.oneworld.net/ user/ tos
[19] No sexual content or bad language
[20] http:// www. openfilm.com/ info/ terms
[21] http:// www. ourmedia.org/ rules
[22] Depends on codec and OS
[23] http:// www. phanfare.com/ page/ tos. html
[24] http:/ / qik.com/ info/terms_of_service
[25] http:// one.revver.com/ go/ tou
[26] English preferred
[27] Quicktime Only
[28] http:// rutube.ru/ agreement.html
[29] English, German, Spanish
[30] English, German, Turkish, Mandarin, Spanish, Italian, French, Polish, Russian
[31] http:// www. showmedo. com
[32] http:// www. tudou.com/ aboutus/
[33] For more info, see " Tudou now bigger than Youtube?" (http:// shanghaiist. com/ 2007/ 10/ 11/ tudou_now_bigge.php) Shanghaiist,
October 11, 2007.
[34] http:/ / www. twango. com/ terms
[35] http:// appserver.veoh. com/ static/ corporate/termsOfUse.html
[36] http:/ / www. vimeo. com/ terms
[37] VReel Revenue Share scheme (http:// vreel.net/ board/showthread. php?t=3272) VReel-Eoin at 29 December 2008
[38] http:// vzaar.com/ policies
[39] http:/ / video.yahoo. com/ html/ tos. html
[40] For more info, see "About Youku" (http:/ / www. youku. com/ about/ en/ youku/ )
[41] http:/ / youtube.com/ t/ terms
[42] Users may choose to enable or disable ads. Automatically enabled when video is identified as third-party content.
[43] YouTube - Broadcast Yourself (http:// youtube.com/ results?search_query=*& search=Search)
[44] [YouTube "YouTube Video Streams Top 1.2 Billion/Day"]. Techcrunch (Techcrunch). YouTube.
[45] "YouTube revenue sharing program" (http:// googlesystem. blogspot. com/ 2007/ 12/ youtubes-revenue-sharing-program.html). Google,
Inc (Google, Inc). 2007-12-10. . Retrieved 2008-05-27.
[46] Many external services exist to download YouTube videos, but none are officially sanctioned by YouTube. Some Presidential videos allow
MP4 downloading.
[47] converts to Flash, original available
[48] no conversion
[49] converts to Flash
[50] 3G2, DIVX
[51] H.263, H.264, FLV
[52] converts to Google Video
[53] GVI, FLV
[54] DV, FLV. mp3, wma, wav
Comparison of video hosting services
[55] MP2, All formats are converted to WMV, FLV, and MP4
[56] FLV MP2 DV (these, among others convert to Flash; unsupported formats available for traditional file download)
[57] DivX, H.263, H.264, FLV, Xvid
[58] Converts to Embedded Flash and QT
[59] H.264, 3GP, MV4
[60] Converts to Embedded Flash
[62] FLV, M4V, 3G2
[63] 3G2, DIVX, DV. Original file can also be downloaded in original format.
[64] H.263, H.264, FLV, WebM
[65] http:/ / info.break. com/ break/html/ break-3d/break-3d.html
[66] longer for MotionMaker users
[67] 100 MB when using the web-based uploader
[68] since May 2009 (http:// www. vimeo. com/ forums/topic:5110), phasing out VP6
[69] When not being a premium member it's 1024 MB
[70] 200 MB when using the web-based uploader
[71] Users with a historical compliance of guidelines, YouTube partners, accounts registered as directors accounts are allowed unlimited upload
[72] Youtube.com - Reviews, Site Info, Traffic Stats and Related Links from Alexa (http:// www.alexa. com/ siteinfo/ youtube. com)
Computaris International Limited Company
Type Privately owned
Industry Telecommunication
Founded England (1992)
Founder(s) Ian Tidder
John Wolstencroft
Area served Worldwide
Key people Ian Tidder
(President, CEO)
Bogdan Danila
(CFO, Chief Business Development
Raluca Rusu
Irina Arsene
(General Manager Computaris Romania)
Corina Bulucea
(Marketing Director)
Michal Misiaszek
(General Manager Computaris Poland)
Adrian Chitu
(General Manager Computaris Moldova)
Revenue 7 million GBP(2009)
Employees 260
Official website
Computaris is a UK based company owned by R Systems group that provides BSS technical consultancy, system
integration and software development services for the telecommunication industry in Europe, Middle East, Africa
and South East Asia. Computaris operates from its seven technology centers from Poland, Romania, Moldova,
Malaysia and USA, being involved in solutions deployed worldwide at more than 60 communication service
providers in the last 18 years.
Computaris provides solutions including telecom specialist consultancy, BSS system integration, product
development partnerships and product deployment partnerships. It provides expertise in the area of convergent
billing, messaging, SDP, VAS, messaging, provisioning, mediation, adjunct rating and charging, service
management, mobile commerce, mobile payment systems, IN (SCP and IN Protocols), Next generation services,
Policy management, Business Intelligence and integration with GSM network elements (MSC, HLR, VLR, GGSN
In the field of telecom quality assurance services, Computaris has developed a telecom Orchestration Platform
(TOP) that includes an E2E telecom testing solution including major telecom protocols such as: Diameter, CORBA,
CAMEL, WS and SIP and also graphical Service creation and execution tools.
On 27 January 2011, R Systems International Limited (NSE: RSYSTEMS
) announced that it has completed the
acquisition of 100% shares of Computaris International Limited.
External links
• Computaris website
• Wall-Street article
• Computaris solutions - testing capabilities pag. 46
• Convergence helps MVNOs to meet new challenges
• Billing World article
• PR announcing 2010 FY results
• Opinion article: Policy Management & On-line Charging - Standard Based or Proprietary Solutions?
[1] http:/ / www. computaris. com
[2] http:/ / www. nseindia. com/ marketinfo/companyinfo/ companysearch.jsp?cons=RSYSTEMS& section=7
[3] http:// www. computaris. com/
[4] http:/ / www. computaris. com/ Uploads/ files/ Articol%20Bogdan%20Wall%20Street%20engleza.pdf
[5] http:/ / www. billingoss. com/ 101
[6] http:// www. computaris. com/ Uploads/ files/ articol%20Vanilla%20Plus%201.pdf
[7] http:/ / www. billingworld.com/ news/ 2008/ 11/ xox-implements-services-from-highdeal-computaris.aspx
[8] http:// blog.connectedplanetonline. com/ briefingroom/2010/ 07/ 13/ computaris-27-increase-in-turnover-in-fy-2010/
[9] http:// www. 4gwirelessjobs. com/ articles/ article-detail.php?Policy-Management-&
-On-line-Charging-Standards-Based-or-Proprietary-Solutions-& Arid=MTQ5&Auid=MTU5
Content delivery network
A content delivery network or content distribution network (CDN) is a system of computers containing copies of
data placed at various nodes of a network. When properly designed and implemented, a CDN can improve access to
the data it caches by increasing access bandwidth and redundancy and reducing access latency. Data content types
often cached in CDNs include web objects, downloadable objects (media files, software, documents), applications,
live streaming media, and database queries.
CDN benefits
The capacity sum of strategically placed servers can be higher than the network backbone capacity. This can result in
an impressive increase in the number of concurrent users. For instance, when there is a 10 Gbit/s network backbone
and 200 Gbit/s central server capacity, only 10 Gbit/s can be delivered. But when 10 servers are moved to 10 edge
locations, total capacity can be 10×10 Gbit/s.
Strategically placed edge servers decrease the load on interconnects, public peers, private peers and backbones,
freeing up capacity and lowering delivery costs. It uses the same principle as above. Instead of loading all traffic on a
backbone or peer link, a CDN can offload these by redirecting traffic to edge servers.
CDNs generally deliver content over TCP and UDP connections. TCP throughput over a network is affected by both
latency and packet loss. In order to reduce both of these parameters, CDNs traditionally place servers as close to the
edge networks that users are on as possible. Theoretically the closer the content the faster the delivery, although
network distance may not be the factor that leads to best performance. End users will likely experience less jitter,
fewer network peaks and surges, and improved stream quality—especially in remote areas. The increased reliability
allows a CDN operator to deliver HD quality content with high Quality of Service, low costs and low network load.
Some providers also utilize TCP acceleration technology to further boost CDN’s performance and end-user
Content delivery network
CDNs can dynamically distribute assets to strategically placed redundant core, fallback and edge servers. CDNs can
have automatic server availability sensing with instant user redirection. A CDN can offer 100% availability, even
with large power, network or hardware outages.
CDN technologies give more control of asset delivery and network load. They can optimize capacity per customer,
provide views of real-time load and statistics, reveal which assets are popular, show active regions and report exact
viewing details to the customers. These usage details are an important feature that a CDN provider must provide,
since the usage logs are no longer available at the content source server after it has been plugged into the CDN,
because the connections of end-users are now served by the CDN edges instead of the content source.
ASP versus on-net
Most CDNs are operated as an application service provider (ASP) on the Internet, although an increasing number of
internet network owners, such as AT&T and Level3, have built their own CDN to improve on-net content delivery
and to generate revenues from content customers. Some develop internal CDN software; others use commercially
available software.
CDN nodes are usually deployed in multiple locations, often over multiple backbones. These nodes cooperate with
each other to satisfy requests for content by end users, transparently moving content to optimize the delivery process.
Optimization can take the form of reducing bandwidth costs, improving end-user performance (reducing page load
times and improving user experience), or increasing global availability of content.
The number of nodes and servers making up CDN varies, depending on the architecture, some reaching thousands of
nodes with tens of thousands of servers on many remote PoPs. Others build a global network and have a small
number of geographical PoPs.
Requests for content are typically algorithmically directed to nodes that are optimal in some way. When optimizing
for performance, locations that are best for serving content to the user may be chosen. This may be measured by
choosing locations that are the fewest hops, the fewest number of network seconds away from the requesting client,
or the highest availability in terms of server performance (both current and historical), so as to optimize delivery
across local networks. When optimizing for cost, locations that are least expensive may be chosen instead.
In an optimal scenario, these two goals tend to align, as servers that are close to the end user at the edge of the
network may have an advantage in performance or cost. The Edge Network is grown outward from the origin/s by
further acquiring (via purchase, peering, or exchange) co-locations facilities, bandwidth and servers.
Content networking techniques
The Internet was designed according to the end-to-end principle.
This principle keeps the core network relatively
simple and moves the intelligence as much as possible to the network end-points: the hosts and clients. As a result
the core network is specialized, simplified, and optimized to only forward data packets.
Content Delivery Networks augment the end-to-end transport network by distributing on it a variety of intelligent
applications employing techniques designed to optimize content delivery. The resulting tightly integrated overlay
uses web caching, server-load balancing, request routing, and content services.
These techniques are briefly
described below.
Web caches store popular content on servers that have the greatest demand for the content requested. These shared
network appliances reduce bandwidth requirements, reduce server load, and improve the client response times for
content stored in the cache.
Content delivery network
Server-load balancing uses one or more techniques including service based (global load balancing) or hardware
based, i.e. layer 4–7 switches, also known as a web switch, content switch, or multilayer switch to share traffic
among a number of servers or web caches. Here the switch is assigned a single virtual IP address. Traffic arriving at
the switch is then directed to one of the real web servers attached to the switch. This has the advantage of balancing
load, increasing total capacity, improving scalability, and providing increased reliability by redistributing the load of
a failed web server and providing server health checks.
A content cluster or service node can be formed using a layer 4–7 switch to balance load across a number of servers
or a number of web caches within the network.
Request routing directs client requests to the content source best able to serve the request. This may involve directing
a client request to the service node that is closest to the client, or to the one with the most capacity. A variety of
algorithms are used to route the request. These include Global Server Load Balancing, DNS-based request routing,
Dynamic metafile generation, HTML rewriting,
and anycasting.
Proximity—choosing the closest service
node—is estimated using a variety of techniques including reactive probing, proactive probing, and connection
CDNs use a variety of methods of content delivery including, but not limited to, manual asset copying, active web
caches, and global hardware load balancers.
Content service protocols
Several protocol suites are designed to provide access to a wide variety of content services distributed throughout a
content network. The Internet Content Adaptation Protocol (ICAP) was developed in the late 1990s

to provide
an open standard for connecting application servers. A more recently defined and robust solution is provided by the
Open Pluggable Edge Services (OPES) protocol.
This architecture defines OPES service applications that can
reside on the OPES processor itself or be executed remotely on a Callout Server. Edge Side Includes or ESI is a
small markup language for edge level dynamic web content assembly. It is fairly common for websites to have
generated content. It could be because of changing content like catalogs or forums, or because of personalization.
This creates a problem for caching systems. To overcome this problem a group of companies created ESI.
Peer-to-peer CDNs
Although peer-to-peer (P2P) is not traditional CDN technology, it is increasingly used to deliver content to end
users. P2P claims low cost and efficient distribution. Even though P2P actually generates more traffic than
traditional client-server CDNs for the edge provider (because a peer also uploads data instead of just downloading it)
it's welcomed by parties running content delivery/distribution services. The real strength of P2P shows when one has
to distribute data in high demand, like the latest episode of a television show or some sort of software patch/update in
short period of time. One of the advantages of this is that the more people who download the (same) data, the more
efficient P2P is for the provider, slashing the cost of the transit fees that a CDN provider has to pay to their upstream
IP transit providers.
On the other hand, the “long tail” type material does not benefit much from P2P delivery schema, since, to gain
advantage over traditional distribution models, a P2P-enabled CDN must force storing (caching) data on
peers—something that is usually not desired by users and which is rarely enabled.
Contrary to popular belief P2P is not limited to low-bandwidth audio-video signal distribution. There is no technical
boundary, built-in inefficiency, or flaw-by-design in peer-to-peer technology to prevent distribution of full HD
audio+video signal at, for example, 8 Mbit/s. It's just environmental factors, like low (upload) bandwidth or
inadequate computing power in CE devices, that prevent HD material being publicly available in P2P CDNs. (Low
bandwidth problems also apply to traditional CDN, though.)
There are some concerns about lack of Quality of Service control over P2P distribution, but these are being
addressed by the P2P-Next consortium. Other concerns include security (e.g. modification of content to include
Content delivery network
malware) and DRM.
[1] Saltzer, J. H., Reed, D. P., Clark, D. D.: “End-to-End Arguments in System Design,” ACM Transactions on Communications, 2(4), 1984
(http:// web. mit. edu/ Saltzer/ www/ publications/ endtoend/ endtoend.pdf)
[2] Hofmann, Markus; Leland R. Beaumont (2005). Content Networking: Architecture, Protocols, and Practice. Morgan Kaufmann Publisher.
ISBN 1-55860-834-6.
[3] RFC 3568 Barbir, A., Cain, B., Nair, R., Spatscheck, O.: "Known Content Network (CN) Request-Routing Mechanisms," July 2003
[4] RFC 1546 Partridge, C., Mendez, T., Milliken, W.: "Host Anycasting Services," November 1993.
[5] RFC 3507 Elson, J., Cerpa, A.: "Internet Content Adaptation Protocol (ICAP)," April 2003.
[6] ICAP Forum (http:// www. i-cap.org)
[7] RFC 3835 Barbir, A., Penno, R., Chen, R., Hofmann, M., and Orman, H.: "An Architecture for Open Pluggable Edge Services (OPES),"
August 2004.
Further reading
• R. Buyya, M. Pathan and A. Vakali (eds.), Content Delivery Networks (http:/ / www.gridbus. org/cdn/ book/ ),
ISBN 978-3-540-77886-8, Springer, Germany, 2008.
• Content Distribution Resources (http:/ / www. cs.huji. ac. il/ labs/ danss/ p2p/ resources. html)—selected
academic papers
• Majumdar, Saugat; Kulkarni, Dhananjay; Ravishankar, Chinya (2007). "Addressing Click Fraud in Content
Delivery Systems" (http:// www. cs. ucr.edu/ ~ravi/Papers/ NWConf/ clickfraud.pdf) (PDF). Infocom. IEEE.
External links
More commercial CDNs
• Advection.NET (http:// www. advection. net/ )
• Azion (http:/ / www. azion. com/ )
• EWAY Telecom (http:// www. eway. fr/hebergeur-streaming-video.html)
• Microsoft's Windows Azure (http:/ / www. microsoft. com/ windowsazure/ cdn/ )
• TotalStream.Net (http:// www. totalstream. net/ )
For the Bauhaus album, see Crackle - The Best of Bauhaus. For the fifth derivative of the position vector with
respect to time, see Crackle (physics).
Crackle, Inc.
Type Subsidiary of Sony Pictures Entertainment, Inc.
Founded July 2007
Headquarters Culver City, California, U.S.
Owner(s) Sony
Parent Sony Pictures Entertainment, Inc.
Crackle (formerly known as Grouper) is a digital network and studio, featuring commercially-supported streaming
video content in Flash Video format. It is owned by Sony Pictures Entertainment, and its content consists primarily
of Sony's library of films and television shows. Crackle provides its content through a web syndication network,
including YouTube, Hulu, AOL, MySpace, and mobile service providers.
In January 2004 Grouper Networks, Inc. was founded in San Francisco. The company was created to create a new
way to share personal media files on the United States internet using P2P networking technology. Grouper was
released as a desktop application for the Windows platform in May 2005 and won PC Magazine best p2p file sharing
software award.
Grouper's initial focus and vision was to use p2p technologies, mainly used for digital distribution of copyrighted
material, for online distribution of personal media such as photos, videos and music between friends in a legal
manner. But in 2005, the company changed direction by moving from desktop software to browser based software
and focusing on user generated video, which was at the time not yet popularized by YouTube. That year, the
company experienced significant growth, reaching several million of video plays a day. However, Grouper did not
grow as fast as YouTube. In August 2006, Sony Pictures Entertainment acquired Grouper Networks, Inc., under the
terms of a $65 million deal.
In July 2007, Sony announced that Grouper would be re-branded and re-purposed as Crackle, a multi-platform
video-entertainment network and studio, featuring full-length movies and television shows from Sony’s library, as
well as producing original content made just for the Internet. In October 2008, Sony moved Crackle to its Culver
City base.
In April 2009, Crackle blocked access to anyone not in the United States of America. On June 8, 2010, Crackle
announced it had opened up access to selected content on the site to viewers in the UK, Canada and Australia.
Original programming
In addition to content from Sony Pictures, Crackle features original content, including Trenches and The Bannen
Way, which amassed 8.4 million views in February 2010,
and more than 13 million views as of March 2010. At
the series conclusion it had set records for views for a web series.
Live streaming
Crackle also has distributed live streaming events, including the This Is It movie preview
and a live streaming
concert event for Wyclef Jean.
[1] http:/ / www. crackle. com/
[2] "Sony restructuring Crackle online video hub" (http:// www. reuters.com/ article/internetNews/
idUSTRE49S2QX20081029?feedType=RSS&feedName=internetNews). Reuters. 29 October 2008. . Retrieved 2009-01-08.
[3] "G’Day Crackle! Sony’s Online Network Opens Up to Australia, UK" (http:// news. tubefilter.tv/ 2010/ 06/ 08/
gday-crackle-sonys-online-network-opens-up-to-australia-uk/ ). Tubefilter News. . Retrieved 2010-06-08.
[4] Miller, Liz Shannon (9 February 2010). "The Bannen Way Hits 8.4M Streams Since its Crackle Debut" (http:// newteevee.com/ 2010/ 02/
09/the-bannen-way-hits-8-4m-streams-since-its-crackle-debut/). NewTeeVee.org. . Retrieved 7 May 2010.
[5] "Crackle Sees Streams Soar" (http:// www. mediaweek. com/ mw/ content_display/ news/ digital-downloads/ broadband/
e3i888c20be761d1d6565b2dd2b59e50726). Mediaweek. 14 March 2010. . Retrieved 7 May 2010.
[6] Warren, Christina (16 October 2009). "Michael Jackson’s This Is It Premiere: Where to Watch It Online" (http:// mashable.com/ 2009/ 10/
26/michael-jackson-this-is-it-live-stream/). Mashable. . Retrieved 12 May 2010.
[7] "International Superstar and Humanitarian Wyclef Jean In Live Online Performance for Sony make.believe on Wednesday Night, February
10, 2010" (http:// newsblaze. com/ story/ 2010020809060200003. pnw/ topstory. html). NewsBlaze.com. 8 February 2010. . Retrieved 12
May 2010.
Creativity (magazine)
Creativity (magazine)
20th Anniversary Issue - 2006
Editor Teressa Iezzi
Categories Advertising
Frequency Monthly
First issue 1986
Final issue 2009
Company Crain Communications Inc.
Country  United States
Language English
Creativity is a website, formerly a monthly magazine, covering all things creative in advertising and design. The
magazine, launched in 1986, provides a showcase of the best ideas across all areas of consumer culture, an
exploration of the talent and techniques behind the work and insight on the people and the trends shaping brand
Creativity covers the creative process, from concept through execution. The magazine is popular amongst
advertising agency creatives, producers, directors, designers, editors and visual effects artists, advertisers and others
affiliated with marketing, advertising, design and entertainment.
Creativity's web site is Creativity-Online.com
, which showcases the latest TV commercials, virals, print ads,
interactive campaigns and other forms of brand creativity. Work is updated daily accompanied by full creative and
production credits. The site also features news, ad reviews, interviews and content from Creativity Magazine.
Creativity is part of the Ad Age Group, which includes marketing weekly and web site Advertising Age. The Ad
Age Group is part of Crain Communications, a privately held publisher of over 30 trade titles.
The print magazine was closed in 2009.
Creativity (magazine)
History of AdCritic.com
AdCritic.com was founded in 1999 and was a pioneer in providing free downloadable video, specifically, television
commercials. It built a library of thousands of videos and was extremely popular. The cost of providing the
necessary bandwidth was too much, however, and the site shut off access to all videos in December, 2001.[2] The
following notice was posted on the site at that time[3]:
AdCritic.com has enjoyed a successful life as a leader in the area of archiving television and radio
advertising and related information for both consumers and the advertising industry. Our business,
although strong, has been unable to weather the current economic realities besieging the United States
today. The short answer: we became so popular so fast that we couldn't stay afloat!
The site was acquired by The Ad Age Group in March 2002, at which time it changed to a subscription-only service
bundled with Creativity magazine.[4] In August, 2007, the site was relaunched as Creativity Online.
External links
Official website
[1] http:/ / www. creativity-online.com
[2] http:/ / news. com. com/ Popularity+forces+Adcritic+shutdown/ 2110-1023_3-277172.html?tag=st. ref.goo
[3] http:/ / web.archive. org/web/ 20020127101648/ www.adcritic.com/ why/
[4] http:// news. com. com/ 2100-1023-948833.html
[5] http:// www. creativity-online.com/
Current TV
Current TV
Current TV
Current TV's official logo
Launched August 1, 2005
Owned by Current Media, Inc.
Slogan Your World. View.
Headquarters San Francisco, California
DirecTV Channel 358
Dish Network Channel 196
Channel 406
Sky Channel 183
SKY Italia Channel 130
TopTV Channel 406
Virgin Media 155
In-House (Washington) Channel 22
Available on most cable systems Check Local Listing for channels
Current TV, or Current, is a media company led by former U.S. Vice President Al Gore and businessman Joel
Hyatt. The Comcast Corporation owns a ten percent stake of Current's parent company, Current Media LLC.
The Current cable television network went on the air in the US at midnight EDT (4:00 UTC) on the morning of
August 1, 2005. A second network, operated in the United Kingdom and Ireland started its operation March 12,
2007, for Sky in the UK and Ireland and on Virgin Media in the UK. A third network, operated in Italy started its
operation February 8, 2008, for SKY Italia subscribers and later for 3 subscribers. Current TV was launched in South
Africa for satellite subscribers on the TopTV platform on 1 May 2010.
Current TV
After the 2000 U.S. presidential election, Gore and Hyatt wanted to start a conventional cable news network. They
were disenchanted with the existing networks. The plan evolved into making a viewer-generated channel aimed at an
audience demographic age 18–34.
On May 4, 2004, INdTV Holdings, a company co-founded by Gore and Joel Hyatt, purchased cable news channel
NewsWorld International (NWI) from Vivendi Universal for the express purpose of launching their new network
with the space on some digital cable lineups (and DirecTV) that NWI had. The new network would not have political
leanings, Gore said, but would serve as an "independent voice" for a target audience of people between 18 and 34
"who want to learn about the world in a voice they recognize and a view they recognize as their own."
Other reports said that Gore hoped that the channel would help change the tide of "consolidation and
conglomeratization" of the media by leading the change to "democratization." The news network was said to be a
combination between CNN, MTV, and blipverts.
In the summer of 2004, Gore and Hyatt announced their new network, named INdTV, with a series of public
recruitment events. The first of these events was held at the Bambuddha Lounge in San Francisco's Tenderloin, on
August 25.
On April 4, 2005, the former Vice President and business partner Hyatt announced that they had changed the name
of the network from INdTV to Current. The new television network launched in the United States on August 1,
2005. Currently, Current is available in 30 million homes nationwide in the US, with plans underway for several
international versions.
On September 20, 2006, Current TV started a short-lived partnership with Yahoo to supply topic-specific "channels"
to the Yahoo Video website. Called the Yahoo! Current Network
, the first four channels, "Current Buzz",
"Current Traveler" "Current Action" (about action sports) and "Current Driver" quickly became the most popular
videos on the Yahoo Video web site. There were Yahoo branded segments on Current TV, similar to the Google
Current segments. Additional web channels were planned. However, on December 6, 2006, Yahoo and Current TV
announced the end of their relationship.
Madeline Smithberg, co-creator of The Daily Show, was the Executive
Producer for this project.
On October 6, 2006, a deal was announced with British Sky Broadcasting to create a localized UK and Ireland
version of Current TV to its satellite systems in the United Kingdom and Ireland. This version went live on March
12, 2007.
The channel launched on Sky EPG number 229 and Virgin Media Channel 155 following a refreshed
brand identity and advertising campaign developed by Heavenly.
In 2007, Current TV started video-on-demand service on Virgin Media.
On January 31, 2007, Current TV launched on Dish Network.
On September 16, 2007, Current TV won an Emmy award for Best Interactive Television Service at the 59th
Primetime Emmy Awards. This was the first year in which this Emmy was presented during the primetime
broadcast. The award was presented by Masi Oka of Heroes fame and MySpace founder Tom Anderson (through
their own computers), and Al Gore and Joel Hyatt accepted the award on their behalf.
On February 8, 2008, it was announced that the network will be also available on the Italian SKY Italia satellite
digital platform on channel 130. According to the official website, broadcast has started on May 8, 2008.
On June 6, 2008, it was announced that the network will be also available on the Italian 3 DVB-H mobile operator,
as free of charge.
Current TV
Current TV partnered with Twitter for the 2008 Presidential and Vice-Presidential debates, allowing viewers
watching the Current TV version of the debates to post live on Twitter and have their opinions shown on screen, live.
On 28 January 2009 Current Media Inc, revealed it intended to launch an IPO on the NASDAQ to raise $100m
(£67m), but it told US regulators over Easter that it was scrapping the plan due to "current market conditions."
The company added that no securities had been sold and all activity regarding the proposed public offering had been
In June 2009, Current TV received approval from the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications
Commission to establish a Canadian version of the channel, which would be a joint venture of Current TV and the
CBC, with the CBC taking 80% ownership. The channel would be required to feature at least 35% Canadian content.
The new service was planned to begin in fall 2009, pending approval by the Treasury Board,
however those plans
were put on hold later that year and as of June 2011 there are no plans to bring Current TV to Canada
In July 2009, Current TV, because of financial reasons and the failed IPO abandoned, did a series of changes. CEO
Joel Hyatt resigned to a new Vice President position and was replaced by Mark Rosenthal, the former COO and
president of MTV Networks, with a plan to reform Current TV to more traditional programing. The Huffington
Post's Lisa Derrick predicted that Current TV would undergo a transformation similar to MTV's transformation,
during Mark Rosenthal 1990s tenure at MTV, from MTV's multi-minute music video format to longer 30 minute/1
hour reality television programing. Ultimately its assorted pod format was discontinued in lieu of traditional 30
minute block programing. Some elements of the pod format survive inside the themed 30 minute programing. In July
2009, 80 in house staff were laid off, about 25% of Current's staff, and plans were announced to air licensed TV
series and films and other content that is not produced by Current in-house or by the VC2 system. Hollywood
Reporter's Andrew Wallenstein predicts Current will make its targeted demographic a decade older from early 20s to
early 30s, and add more less-serious entertainment programing to its then mostly news and reality/documentary

In late 2009, after the announcement of the Comcast-NBC merger, Comcast Corporation submitted a filing to the US
Securities and Exchange Commission that revealed it owns a ten percent stake of Current Media LLC.
received three Emmy nominations in the news and documentary category in 2009.
In mid 2010, Current's Vanguard journalism program's piece, Oxycontin Express received a Peabody Award a first
for both Mariana Van Zellar the journalist behind the story and Current. Current has also received a Headliner
award. Around this time, a report by Reuters on the network's ongoing problems suggested that it could have
blossomed into something akin to YouTube's video-sharing platform, MSNBC's role as a left-leaning news outlet, or
even the Oprah Winfrey Network. "In retrospect," the report concluded, "what's distinctive about Current's troubles
was that Gore's vision had so much potential. It's uncanny how close he was to capitalizing on several key trends that
transformed the media world, only to watch others do so."
On June 20, 2011 Keith Olbermann relaunched Countdown with Keith Olbermann (previously on MSNBC) on
Current TV. Olbermann stated on The Colbert Report that Current TV was planning to make a nightly news segment
consisting of his show and others that will launch later on Current TV.
Current TV logo 2005-2011
Prior to the 2009 format change, Current TV featured "pods," or short
programs, of which a portion are created by viewers and users.
An experimental Canadian show from CBC called ZeD was the first programmed broadcast of user-generated video
Other inspiration for Current TV came from a 1990s series on MTV called UNfiltered, where the
Current TV
network sent cameras to viewers in order to report on stories they thought were important. Current TV was the first
American 24-hour network based around viewer-created content, which it dubbed VC
Users (called VC
Producers) contributed three-to-seven-minute "pods", which are on a variety of subject matter.
The content was filtered by registered users, on Current's website through a voting process, but pods are ultimately
approved or disapproved by Current's on-air programming department, VC
made up a portion of the material aired
on the channel. Users could also create Viewer Created Ad Messages, or V-CAMs and Current TV promos which
were small promotions for either Current TV or the general topic of VC
. The channel has exclusive broadcast rights
for all media in perpetuity on viewer-submitted pods, and in some cases outright ownership of the pod and its raw
footage, although this is negotiated on a pod by pod basis.
Current at the present broadcasts a variety of programs, including:
• infoMania is a weekly produced half-hour show which takes a satirical look into the world of politics and other
pop culture news; similar to The Soup and The Daily Show.
• Vanguard is Current's in-house journalism department, consisting of a team of young producers and
correspondents who specialize in enterprising reporting on global issues. In addition to contributing original pods
to Current's daily shuffle, Vanguard airs a weekly half-hour or hour long program of longer and more in depth
• Kill it, Cook it, Eat it features diverse participants hunting, butchering and preparing their chosen prey for the
dinner table.
• Bar Karma is the worlds first community-developed television series. Developed by Will Wright (the Sims) and
Albie Hecht (Nick, Spike TV).
• 4th and Forever is a reality TV program featuring High School Football in California.
• Long Way Round features Ewan McGregor and Charley Boorman traveling by motorcycle from London to New
• Cooking in the Danger Zone features Stefan Gates traveling the world to check out the crazy foods that some
people eat.
• The Beat is a reality show featuring the Vancouver police.
• SWAT: Miami Dade is a reality show featuring the Miami-Dade police.
• Deadliest Journeys is a reality show featuring the worlds most dangerous roads.
• Hooked on Danger is a reality show featuring Tuna Fisherman in Australia.
• This American Life is a television version of the Public Radio program.
Hosts on Current TV appear in a set based on The Chemosphere, built by American architect John Lautner in
Current recently launched Current:News, an hourly news broadcast with news stories submitted and voted for by its
online community.
Current TV also gives viewers a chance to win $1000 for making a VCAM advertisement.
On February 8, 2011, Keith Olbermann, the host of MSNBC's formerly top-rated program, Countdown with Keith
Olbermann, announced he was joining Current as its Chief News Officer and as a stakeholder.
Olbermann will
host an hour long primetime news program on Current, also called Countdown with Keith Olbermann, beginning
June 20th, 2011. The new show will air at 8 PM Eastern -- the same time slot as his old MSNBC show.
Olbermann will also be heavily involved in the development of the rest of the network's news programming.
In May 2011, Current unveiled new imaging and a new logo.
Current TV
• Adam Yamaguchi – Vanguard Correspondent
• Amaya Brecher – former Current TV employee and now co-hosts Cosmic Sutra and Stargazing on Karma Air.
Previously on Real World Hawaii.
• Anthony Marshall
• Angela Sun
• Anne Foy
• Ben Hoffman
• Brett Erlich – Campaign Update, Viral Video Film School, Co-host of the Rotten Tomatoes Show
• Bryan Safi
• Christof Putzel – Vanguard Correspondent
• Conor Knighton – InfoMania
• Crystal Fambrini
• Donna Ruko
• Douglas Caballero
• Elizabeth Chambers
• Ellen Fox – Co-host of the Rotten Tomatoes Show
• Gotham Chopra
• Graeme Smith
• Jael de Pardo
• Jason Silva (of "Max and Jason" fame)
• Joe Hanson – Joe Gets, What's Wrong With; no longer a part of Current TV
• Johnny Bell
• Julia Hardy
• Justin Gunn
• Kaj Larsen – Vanguard Correspondent
• Keith Olbermann - Countdown With Keith Olbermann
• Kinga Philipps
• Jared Leto
• Laura Ling – Vanguard Correspondent; formerly imprisoned by North Korea
• Layla Kayleigh – No longer a part of Current TV. She was initially hired as a host, but was terminated before the
network went to air for doing a photo shoot with the magazine Maxim. She hosted a segment called the "The
Feed" on G4's Attack of the Show.
• Mariana van Zeller – Vanguard Correspondent
• Max Lugavere (of "Max and Jason" fame)
• Michelle Lombardo
• Milo McCabe
• Nick Carter – a.k.a Murs, an underground hip-hop artist
• Nzinga Blake
• Rawley Valverde
• Rowly Dennis
• Sarah Haskins
• Scott Logan (TV Presenter and Actor)
• Sergio Cilli
• Shauntay Hinton – former Current TV employee and now hosts on the Fine Living Network
• Zara Martin (TV Presenter and Actress)
Current TV
2009 imprisonment of journalists by North Korea
The North Korean military detained two American journalists working for Current TV in March 2009 after they
allegedly crossed into North Korea from China.
"Two reporters working for a U.S.-based Internet news media outlet, including a Korean American, were detained by
North Korean authorities earlier this week, and they remain in custody there," said Yonhap news agency, quoting an
unnamed diplomatic source. Reports say that the journalists were both warned several times by the North Korean
military, about crossing the border.
The two female journalists are Korean American Euna Lee and Taiwanese American Laura Ling of Current TV
based in California in the United States. Lee is the editor of the news for Current TV and Ling is one of the agency's
reporters. They were said to have been shooting a video of the border region of China and N. Korea when they were
arrested at the Tumen River. Laura Ling is the younger sister of CNN reporter Lisa Ling.
"We're aware of reports that early in the morning of March 17, China time, two American citizens were taken into
custody across the Tumen river by what appear to be North Korean border guards. We are working with Chinese
government officials in that particular area to ascertain the whereabouts and welfare of the Americans in question.
We've also been in touch with North Korean officials to express our concern about the situation," said U.S. State
Department spokesman, Fred Lash.
On March 30, the Korean Central News Agency (KCNA), the state news agency of North Korea, reported that
preparations were under way for indictments and a trial, saying, "The illegal entry of US reporters into the DPRK
(Democratic People's Republic of Korea) and their suspected hostile acts have been confirmed by evidence and their
The two faced trial on June 4.
According to Kim Tae-woo of the Korea Institute for Defense Analysis, “The journalists considerably weakened
their government’s leverage against the North,” in ongoing negotiations over the DPRK's nuclear program.
On June 8, Reuters reported that the two reporters were found guilty of illegal entry and committing "hostile acts
against the DPRK" and subsequently sentenced to twelve years of hard labor.
Stanford Law professor Allen Weiner said that U.S. citizens are charged with crimes in foreign countries all the time,
but: "The difference here is that we have grave doubts whether [the two journalists] have done anything wrong, or
whether they were arrested because they were Americans."
He added that "now we are finding ourselves asking
the North Koreans for something when we were trying to increase international pressure on them. That big stick
we're holding just got a lot smaller."

On August 4, BBC News reported that they were pardoned amidst a visit by former U.S. president Bill Clinton.
They were released and returned home the following day. Upon flying home, they were greeted at an airport in
Burbank, California.
[1] http:/ / www. current.com/
[2] "How Cable Programming Is ‘Chosen’ — The Implications for Comcast-NBC" (http:/ / www. stopbigmedia. com/ blog/ 2010/ 01/
how-cable-programming-is-chosen-the-implications-for-comcast-nbc/ ). StopBigMedia.com, 2010-01-11. Retrieved on 2010-11-08.
[3] http:// video.yahoo.com/ currenttv
[4] Shields, Mike (December 5, 2006). "Yahoo and Current TV Cut Ties" (http:// www.mediaweek.com/ mw/ news/ interactive/
article_display. jsp?vnu_content_id=1003468568). MediaWeek.com
[5] Unknown title (http:// www. c21media. net/ resources/ detail. asp?area=100& article=34439) C21Media.net. (subscription required)
[6] "Current TV Puts Insights to Use in Brand Extension" (http:/ / www. adweek.com/ aw/ esearch/ article_display.
jsp?vnu_content_id=1003627779& imw=Y). Adweek.com. 2007-08-27. . Retrieved 2010-11-08.
[7] "Al Gore joins Emmy parade" (http:// www.variety.com/ VR1117971953. html). Variety.com. September 13, 2007.
[8] "Scopri di più su Current TV" (http:// current.com/ it. htm) (Italian)
[9] "3 Italia: gratis Rai, Mediaset e Current" (http:/ / www. lastampa. it/ _web/ cmstp/ tmplrubriche/tecnologia/ grubrica.asp?ID_blog=30&
ID_articolo=4631&ID_sezione=& sezione=) (Italian) La Stampa. April 6, 2008.
Current TV
[10] "Current TV cancels float due to 'market conditions'" (http:// www.broadcastnow. co. uk/ news/ multichannel/ 2009/ 04/
current_tv_cancels_float_due_to_market_conditions.html). BroadcastNow.co.uk. 2009-04-14. .
[11] "Al Gore's Current Media abandons plans for NYSE listing" (http:// www.mediaweek.co.uk/ news/ 898262/
Al-Gores-Current-Media-abandons-plans-NYSE-listing/ ). MediaWeek.com. 2009-04-14. .
[12] "Current TV Receives CRTC Approval" (http:// www. broadcastermagazine.com/ issues/ ISArticle.asp?aid=1000330494). Broadcaster
Magazine. 6/11/2009.
[13] http:/ / www. cbc. ca/ news/ arts/ media/ story/ 2009/ 12/ 22/ currenttv-canada.html
[14] Derrick, Lisa (November 12, 2009) Al Gore's Current TV Lays Off 80 Staff, Changes Direction (http:// www. huffingtonpost.com/
lisa-derrick/ al-gores-current-tv-lays_b_355248.html). HuffingtonPost.com.
[15] Unknown title (http:// www. hollywoodreporter.com/ hr/content_display/ television/ news/
e3ieb17ddd24af6bab60564449e5fa82a27?pn=2) HollywoodReporter.com.
[16] "New troubles at Al Gore's Current TV" (http:/ / www.reuters.com/ article/ idUSTRE65O0HA20100625?pageNumber=2). Reuters. June
25, 2010. .
[17] McKay, Niall (April 14, 2005). "Gore's TV Seeks Northern Insights" (http:// www. wired.com/ entertainment/ music/ news/ 2005/ 04/
67205). Wired.com. Retrieved on 2010-11-08.
[18] John Lautner Foundation (http:// www. johnlautner.org/ current.html). Johnlautner.org. Retrieved on 2010-11-08.
[19] Carter, Bill; Stelter, Brian (2011-02-07). "Olbermann Said to Be Going to Current TV" (http:// mediadecoder.blogs. nytimes. com/ 2011/
02/07/ olbermann-said-to-be-going-to-current-tv/?partner=rss&emc=rss). The New York Times (blog). . Retrieved 2011-02-07.
[20] "Keith Olbermann Current TV Show Time: 8 PM ET" (http:/ / www.huffingtonpost.com/ 2011/ 02/ 09/
keith-olbermann-current-tv-show-time_n_821089. html). HuffingtonPost. 2011-02-09. . Retrieved 2011-02-09.
[21] "Keith Olbermann Is Coming To Current TV" (http:// current.com/ keith-olbermann/). Current TV (announcement). 2011-02-08. .
Retrieved 2011-02-08.
[22] "About Sign of the Times" (http:// web. archive.org/ web/ 20070507100820/ http:// www. karmaair.com/ archive.aspx?showid=24).
KarmaAir.com. Archived from the original (http:// www.karmaair.com/ archive.aspx?showid=24) on 2007-05-07. .
[23] "About Stargazing" (http:// web. archive. org/web/ 20070826143129/ http:/ / www.karmaair.com/ archive.aspx?showid=55).
KarmaAir.com. Archived from the original (http:// www.karmaair.com/ archive.aspx?showid=55) on 2007-08-26. .
[24] Laura Ling, Euna Lee Detained In North Korea (http:// www.huffingtonpost.com/ 2009/ 03/ 22/ laura-ling-euna-lee-detai_n_177725.
html). Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved on 2010-11-08.
[25] Jong, Lee. (2009-03-19) N. Korea tests US over detained reporters (http:// www.upiasia. com/ Politics/ 2009/ 03/ 19/
n_korea_tests_us_over_detained_reporters/ 3540/ ). upiasia.com. Retrieved on 2010-11-08.
[26] US reporters face N Korea trial (http:// news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ asia-pacific/ 7973241. stm). bbc.co.uk; BBC, March 31, 2009.
[27] "N Korea to try reporters in June" (http:// news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ asia-pacific/8049238.stm). BBC News. 2009-05-14. . Retrieved
[28] Sang-Hun, Choe (April 3, 2009). "North Korea Perfects Its Diplomatic Game: Brinkmanship" (http:// www. nytimes. com/ 2009/ 04/ 03/
world/ asia/ 03korea.html). nytimes.com (The New York Times). . Retrieved April 30, 2010.
[29] Herskovitz, Jon (June 8, 2009). "North Korea sentences U.S. journalists to 12 years" (http:/ / www.reuters.com/ article/
idUSTRE5570NT20090608). reuters.com (Reuters). .
[30] Garofoli, Joe (June 9, 2009). "Journalists' imprisonment puts U.S. in a bind" (http:// articles.sfgate. com/ 2009-06-09/news/
17209205_1_north-korea-korea-chair-journalists-lisa-ling). SFGate.com. . Retrieved June 3, 2010.
[31] Egelko, Bob (August 3, 2009). "U.S. take on detained journalists hypocritical" (http:// articles.sfgate.com/ 2009-08-03/news/
17178176_1_foreign-journalists-media-advocacy-group-high-security). SFGate.com. . Retrieved June 3, 2010.
[32] "North Korea pardons US reporters" (http:// news. bbc. co.uk/ 2/ hi/ asia-pacific/8184583. stm). BBC News. August 4, 2009. . Retrieved
April 30, 2010.
External links
• Current TV (http:// www. current.com/ ) official site
• Current TV (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ user/ Current) channel on YouTube
• Current TV (http:/ / www. hulu. com/ network/current-tv) on Hulu
• Current TV (http:/ / twitter.com/ current) on Twitter
• Current TV (http:/ / www. facebook.com/ pages/ Current-TV/58215873691) on Facebook
• Current TV (http:/ / www. myspace. com/ currenttv) on Myspace
• Current TV (http:// topics. nytimes. com/ top/ reference/timestopics/ organizations/ c/ current_tv// ) collected
news and commentary at The New York Times
Current TV
• 'Betting a Network on Youths Who Think' – New York Times article (http:// www.nytimes. com/ 2005/ 08/ 22/
arts/ television/ 22watc. html?ei=5090&en=b67c55a383fb1652&ex=1282363200& partner=rssuserland&
emc=rss& pagewanted=print), August 22, 2005
• Current TV at one year – Associated Press (http:/ / www. sfgate. com/ cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/ a/ 2006/ 07/ 27/
entertainment/ e094123D46. DTL&hw=Laura+Ling& sn=002& sc=840), July 27, 2006
• 'The Other Man Behind Current TV' – Broadcasting and Cable (http:/ / www.broadcastingcable. com/ article/
106627-The_Other_Man_Behind_Current_TV.php). About CEO Joel Hyatt, November 19, 2006
• 'All Eyes on The Shins' – Wired Magazine (http:/ / www.wired.com/ wired/archive/15. 01/ play. html?pg=3),
January 2007
• Current TV makes its move -Gore promotes new network to overseas markets (http:/ / www.variety.com/ article/
VR1117960943. html?categoryid=19&cs=1& query="Current+TV"). Variety, March 12, 2007
• Current TV's V-CAMs (Viewer Created Ad Messages) – Adweek (http:/ / www.adweek.com/ aw/ search/
article_display. jsp?vnu_content_id=1002501601)
• Current TV Tops 50 MM Subs – Multichannel News (http:/ / www.multichannel. com/ article/CA6423628.
html?display=Breaking+News), March 12, 2007
• Al Gore's Low Voltage Network (http:// boston. com/ ae/ tv/ articles/ 2007/ 11/ 12/
al_gores_low_voltage_network/ ), November 12, 2007
• Interview with Robin Sloan, New Media Director at Current, Intruders tv) (http:// intruders.tv/ en-tech/
robin-sloan-of-currentcom-on-the-future-of-advertising/) Video, April 2009
Type Private
Founded March 15, 2005
Headquarters Paris, 49-51 rue Ganneron, 18th arr., France
Key people Cédric Tournay, CEO
Benjamin Bejbaum, Co-founder
Olivier Poitrey, Co-Founder & CTO
Martin Rogard, MD France
Roland Hamilton, MD US
Employees 100 (September 2010)
Slogan Regarder, publier, partager (Watch, publish, share)
Alexa rank
109, 14 in France
Type of site video sharing
Advertising contextual & video ads
Registration Optional
(required to upload/comment)
Available in 19 Countries and 12 languages
Launched March 15, 2005
Current status Active
Dailymotion is a video sharing service website, headquartered in the 18th arrondissement, Paris, France.
According to Comscore, Dailymotion is the second largest video site in the world after YouTube.
As of October 2010, the site was getting over 93 million unique visitors monthly and is 32 most visited website in
the world.
Since February 18, 2008, the site supports video content that can play at 720p on a HD set, but the bit rate is
significantly less than the 5–9 megabits for expected HD quality.
On January 25th, 2011, France Telecom's Orange entered exclusive negotiations with Dailymotion with a view to
acquiring a 49% stake in the company for EUR 58.8M (hence valuing the company at EUR120M).
The headquarters, 49-51 rue Ganneron, Paris
The founders of Dailymotion began the website in an apartment in
Paris; the business opened in the living room of Olivier Poitrey, one of
the founders. Six founders pooled together €6,000 ($9,260 USD) to
begin the website.
The dailymotion.com domain name was registered one month after
youtube.com was registered.
Dailymotion allows users to browse and upload videos by searching
tags, channels or user-created groups; the search system also
introduces results based on things other users have searched for. The
maximum size of a video file is 2 gigabytes. The length of the video
file is also limited to 60 minutes, except for the MotionMakers and the
Official Users.
Videos uploaded by users to Dailymotion are converted to the VP6
codec at a resolution of 320×240. Audio on Dailymotion videos is
encoded as MP3 at 96 kbit/s in stereo.
In 2007, Dailymotion signed a major agreement with the Canal+ network to broadcast its television series in full on
the site. All Canal+ videos are shown on an encrypted channel of the site with anti-piracy safeguards. Within a year,
the site's revenue had increased to €10 million and they had an estimated 8 million unique visitors per month in
The partnership gave Dailymotion the financial backing it needed to upgrade its servers to handle High Definition
video and showcase its MotionMaker videos. In February 2008, the HD quality (1280 × 720 pixels and 1.58 to 1.85
Mb/s) was made available to the MotionMaker users. In October 2008, the HQ quality (512 × 384 pixels, 30 images
per second, H.264 is used for images and AAC at 96 kb/s for the sound) was made available to regular users.
In May 2009, Dailymotion announced that it would make its videos available using the HTML5 video element using
an Ogg video format.
MotionMaker and Official User
MotionMaker is a group for the original content creators. Official User is a group for the official content producers
(record labels, film studios, news media, television channels, sports associations, political parties...).
A MotionMaker or an Official User can :
• Customize his/her profile.
• Upload videos of unlimited length.
• Upload HD quality videos.
• Benefit of an increased visibility.
• Have a OfficialContent/CreativeContent overlay affixed on his video thumbnails.
Hidden Features
Using Stupeflix
' technology, Dailymotion provides a tool for its users to create video slideshows. The link to the
slideshow creation tool can be found from the option menu > settings > extra. Creating a slideshow takes a
maximum of 30 pictures, and a music file. Stupeflix' slideshows are rendered in a MP4 video format, not Flash.
Blocking of Dailymotion
According to the article Tunisia: Video-sharing website Dailymotion Blocked! written by Reporters sans
Frontières (Paris) April 11, 2007, Omar Mestiri, an editor of the opposition online newspaper "Kalima", is a victim
of judicial harassment. Reporters Without Borders has said that a libel suit could result in a three-year prison
sentence. RWB organization also called on the authorities to stop blocking Dailymotion, which has been inaccessible
in Tunisia since April 1, 2007.
Reporters Without Borders said:

The lawsuit against Mestiri is absurd because it is based on an online article that cannot even be accessed from within Tunisia ... But we take
this case very seriously. The three and a half year sentence imposed on lawyer Mohammed Abbou in April 2005 for an article posted online
showed how the Tunisian courts are controlled by the government and how a libel suit can lead to a heavy sentence. ”
The press freedom organisation added:

The censorship of Dailymotion's website shows that the government, which is as paranoid about the Internet as it is about the traditional
press, is ready to ban tens of thousands of inoffensive videos in order to block a handful it does not like.

The suit against Mestiri was brought by Tunisian lawyer Mohammed Baccar over an article posted on September 5,
2006 accusing him of fraud and forgery. Mestiri was summoned by the deputy state prosecutor to respond to a
charge of libel on March 29. Mestiri's lawyers have challenged the suit's legal basis on the grounds that Kalima's site
is blocked in Tunisia and the article couldn't have been accessed there.
Despite the relatively few videos about Libya in Dailymotion, it was blocked there by March 2010.
Between end of March and April the 20th Dailymotion experienced technical problems with the Family Filter on the
Australian site. As of April 20 this issue has been resolved, which was confirmed by Dailymotion on its blog.

Copyright protection
Dailymotion with the help of Audible Magic, implemented an acoustic fingerprinting system that can detect
copyrighted videos and not publish them.
Dailymotion is also the first video sharing website to implement a video
fingerprinting solution supplied by INA.
[1] http:/ / www. dailymotion. com
[2] http:/ / www. alexa. com/ siteinfo/ www.dailymotion. com
[3] " About us (http:/ / www.dailymotion. com/ us/ about)." Dailymotion. Retrieved on 5 January 2010. "Registered office: 49/51 rue Ganneron,
75018 Paris."
[4] "Dailymotion Hits 70 Million Monthly Uniques with 57 Percent Jump in North America: Launches in Australia, Next Morocco" (http:/ /
www.beet.tv/ 2010/ 09/ dailymotiongrowth.html). September 30, 2010. .
[5] Lowensohn, Josh (February 19, 2008). "Dailymotion gets high-definition videos" (http:// www. webware.com/ 8301-1_109-9874323-2.
html). Webware. CNET Networks. . Retrieved 2008-06-26..
[6] Orange Press Release (http:// www.orange.com/ en_EN/ press/ press_releases/ cp110125en.jsp)
[7] Carvajal, Doreen. " Taking on the Godzilla of video-sharing sites (http:// www.nytimes. com/ 2008/ 03/ 21/ business/ worldbusiness/
21iht-motion24.html)." The New York Times. Friday 21 March 2008. Retrieved on 4 May 2011.
[8] Gonzalès, Paule (2008-10-04). "Dailymotion signe avec la major du cinéma Warner" (http:// www.lefigaro.fr/medias/ 2008/ 10/ 04/
04002-20081004ARTFIG00248-dailymotion-signe-avec-la-major-du-cinema-warner-.php) (in French). Le Figaro: p. 30. . Retrieved
[9] http:// blog.dailymotion. com/ index. php/ 2009/ 05/ 27/ watch-videowithout-flash/
[10] http:// www. stupeflix. com/
[11] "Dailymotion Family Filter Is Broken For Australian Users" (http:/ / www.lifehacker.com. au/ 2011/ 04/
dailymotion-family-filter-is-broken-for-australian-users/ ). April 7, 2011. .
[12] "Dailymotion Family Filter Is Broken For Australian Users" (http:// blog.dailymotion.com/ index.php/ 2011/ 04/ 21/
family-filter-issue-fixed-in-australia/). April 21, 2011. .
[13] http:// www. dailymotion. com/ press/ AudibleMagic-Dailymotion. pdf
[14] http:/ / www. dailymotion. com/ press/ PR_20080225_ina_implementation_final. pdf
External links
• Dailymotion (http:// www. dailymotion.com/ gb)
• Dailymotion mobile website (http:/ / iphone. dailymotion. com/ )
• Dailymotion, with the HTML5 player for the reencoded videos (http:// openvideo. dailymotion. com/ )
• Dailymotion, with the beta player (http:/ / betaplayer.dailymotion. com/ )
• Dailymotion blog (http:/ / blog. dailymotion. com/ )
• Dailymotion (http:/ / twitter.com/ dailymotion) on Twitter
• Dailymotion (http:/ / twitter.com/ dailymotionusa) on Twitter - US division
Demand 5
Demand 5
Demand 5 is the brand name of video on demand services offered by Channel 5 in the United Kingdom. The
service, which was previously known as 'Five Download', went live on 26 June 2008.
As Five Download the service offered Windows Media Video format downloads of the US imports CSI, House and
Grey's Anatomy. Individual episodes of these series could be 'rented' with some episodes available 7 days before they
appear on TV.
More varied content from Channel 5's programming has become available since June 2008 with a wider prevalence
of free content offered for 30 days after broadcast. In January 2009 Demand 5 began to offer content in the Flash
video format, allowing users with Apple Macintosh computers to access their content.
Demand 5 content is also available on Facebook,
Samsung Smart TV's,
Sony Bravia Internet
Virgin Media
and YouTube.
Demand 5 was removed from BT Vision on 6 October 2010,
two years after its launch on the platform.
As of
November 2010, the two companies are in discussions in a bid to reinstate the service, having previously stalled
during contract renegotiations.
The service returned to BT Vision in May 2011.
[1] http:/ / about.five.tv/ press/ press-releases/ demand-five-launches
[2] "Five to deliver on-demand TV over Facebook" (http:/ / www. wired.co. uk/ news/ archive/2010-08/ 11/ five-tv-on-facebook). Wired. 11
August 2010. .
[3] "Channel 5 agrees Samsung VOD tie-up" (http:// www.digitalspy. co.uk/ digitaltv/news/ a319399/ channel-5-agrees-samsung-vod-tie-up.
html). Digital Spy. 13 May 2011. .
[4] "SeeSaw agrees BBC Worldwide deal" (http:// www.digitalspy. co.uk/ digitaltv/ news/ a189515/ seesaw-agrees-bbc-worldwide-deal.html).
Digital Spy. 2 December 2009. .
[5] "Five signs agreement with Sony for new internet TV Platform" (http:/ / about. five. tv/ press/ press-releases/
Five-signs-agreement-with-Sony-for-new-internet-TV-Platform). Channel Five. 3 September 2009. .
[6] "TV.com and Five announce content partnership" (http:// www.cbsinteractive.co. uk/ press/ releases/ 0,10000069,10000526,00.htm). CBS
Interactive. 25 February 2010. .
[7] "Catch-up with Demand Five on Virgin Media" (http:// pressoffice.virginmedia.com/ phoenix.zhtml?c=205406& p=irol-newsArticle&
ID=1495095& highlight=). Virgin Media. 11 November 2010. .
[8] "Five agrees YouTube on-demand deal" (http:// www.digitalspy. co. uk/ digitaltv/ news/ a189910/ five-agrees-youtube-on-demand-deal.
html). Digital Spy. 4 December 2009. .
[9] "Demand Five - GONE" (http:// community. bt. com/ t5/ BT-Vision/ Demand-Five-GONE/m-p/54530/ highlight/ true#M7036). BT Vision.
7 October 2010. .
[10] "Channel Five signs BT Vision on-demand deal" (http:/ / www.guardian. co.uk/ media/ 2008/ oct/ 07/ channelfive.bt). The Guardian. 7
October 2008. .
[11] "BT Vision adds iPlayer, Virgin takes Demand Five" (http:/ / www.c21media. net/ news/ detail. asp?area=4& article=58289). C21Media.
11 November 2010. .
External links
• Demand 5 (http:// www. channel5. com/ demand5) at Channel5.com
• Demand 5 (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ user/ demandfive) channel on YouTube
Eurocinema vod
Eurocinema vod
Eurocinema is an on- demand TV network dedicated solely to presenting award-winning European and
international films to North American audiences. Each film comes with a short film on a related theme, and is in
original audio with English subtitles. Eurocinema is currently available in 30 million homes US and Canada.
Eurocinema was successfully launched on cable in 2005 by Sebastien Perioche. He is also the Chairman and CEO of
EuroMedia Holdings, Corp, which operates Eurocinema. A native of France, Mr. Perioche decided to apply his
expertise of global business and cultural practices, to bring other immigrants a connection to their homeland and
language through Eurocinema.
At first only available on a few US cable systems, Eurocinema grew to be an influential foreign cinema channel
available on the main cable and satellite providers.
[1] [www.eurocinema.com]
Commercial? No
Type of site Online broadcasting of the European Parliament's activities
Launched 17 September 2008
Current status Active
EuroparlTV is the official online platform for webcasting from the European Parliament. The service includes live
streaming of parliamentary sessions and committee meetings, archived content, debate programmes and educational
videos. Subtitles and voice-overs in the 22 official languages of the European Union (EU) are available for most of
the content. It was launched 17 September 2008. The parliament has awarded the development of the channel to two
separate private contractors. The content is produced by Mostra, a Brussels based communication agency. The
technical platform (website, hosting and streaming) is managed by a broadcasting and communications company
headquartered in Plymouth, Twofour. The channel is funded via the Parliament's budget.
Camera in the hemicycle of the Paul-Henri Spaak
building in Brussels
The content of europarltv is divided into four 'channels';
• Your Parliament
• Your Voice
• Young Europe
• Parliament Live
The videos are in both Adobe Flash- and Windows Media Player
proprietary format.
The European Parliament decided to use external resources to create the service. It organised an external tender to
identify two companies, one to set up the web platform and organise the hosting of the service, the other to create
The parliament signed contracts in December 2006 and July 2007 with, respectively, Twofour, a UK-based company
for the platform, and Mostra, a Brussels-based company for the content.
A prototype of europarltv was unveiled in November 2007.
In June 2009 the Daily Telegraph reported that the channel had a budget of £32 million over four years and costs
£53,000 for every hour broadcast and was only attracting between 900 and 1200 viewers every day.
[1] http:/ / www. europarltv.europa.eu/ StartPage. aspx
[2] http:/ / www. europarl.europa.eu/ pdfs/ news/ expert/background/ 20080901BKG35904/ 20080901BKG35904_en. pdf
[3] http:/ / www. telegraph.co. uk/ news/ worldnews/ europe/eu/ 5430351/ European-elections-2009-European-Parliament.html
External links
• Homepage of europarltv (http:// www. europarltv.europa.eu/ ) (multilangual, requires Javascript) or english
version (http:/ / www. europarltv.europa.eu/ StartPage.aspx)
• Official launch document (http:/ / www. europarl.europa.eu/ pdfs/ news/ expert/ background/
20080901BKG35904/ 20080901BKG35904_en. pdf)
• Feedback from EU citizens regarding the prototype of europarltv (http:// www.europarl.europa.eu/ meetdocs/
2004_2009/ documents/ dv/ report_focus_groupsand_annex_/REPORT_FOCUS_GROUPSand_ANNEX_en.
• EU parliament TV channel set to go online (http:// www.theparliament.com/ latestnews/ news-article/
newsarticle/ eu-parliament-tv-channel-set-to-go-online/) - TheParliament.com
Everyday Explorers
Everyday Explorers is National Geographic's user-generated video site. It was launched in Beta format in July,
2008. Users can upload and comment on each other's videos, as well as rating their favorites. Clips may be selected
as a featured videos, which may also result in being contacted by National Geographic to include the film in the
organization's professional library. Videos must be in .flv, .wmv, .asf, .avi, .mov, .3gp, .mpg, .mpeg, or .mp4 format,
with the files no larger than 100 MB.
Video Categories
At present, users can upload videos into four categories
• Wildlife and Pets animal and animal-related videos
• Weather all types of weather phenomena
• Favorite Places travel destinations
• Green Tips anything related to promoting a healthy environment
External links
• Everyday Explorers
Official Website
[1] http:/ / everydayexplorers.nationalgeographic.com/
Type Joint venture
Founded January 2006
Key people Chris Mansolillo
Jake Steinfeld
Industry Video on demand
Owner NBC Universal
Time Warner Cable
New Balance
Jake Steinfeld
Employees 8 (2009)
Slogan Fitness anywhere anytime
ExerciseTV is a United States digital cable television network
available as a free video-on-demand channel.

The network receives around eight million views every month.
It features workouts ranging from cardio and abs to
yoga, pilates and personal training.
ExerciseTV is a United States digital cable television network available as a free video-on-demand channel. The
network receives around eight million views every month, and is headquartered in Los Angeles, California. It
features workouts ranging from cardio routines and abs to yoga, pilates and personal training.
The free video-on-demand television service is currently available in 40 million cable television homes. Online,
http:/ / www. exercisetv. tv is a leading fitness destination with over a 1,000+ free, high-quality workout videos to
choose from plus free, downloadable workout plans.
Recently launched, ExerciseTV's new Premium Pass is a home fitness program that makes over 200+ workouts
available commercial free and streaming anytime, anywhere. Premium Pass also powers up with of slew of available
extras ranging from create-your-own playlist features to one-on-one fitness and health advice from an ExerciseTV
professional, and the ability to download and save workouts on your computer.
[1] http:/ / www. exercisetv. tv/
[2] "Coke to sponsor ExerciseTV" (http:/ / www. bizjournals. com/ atlanta/ stories/ 2007/ 12/ 24/ daily10. html). Atlanta Business Journal
(American City Business Journals). 2007-12-28. . Retrieved 17 April 2009.
[3] Athavaley, Anjali (2009-04-16). "Lean Times Bring Workouts Home" (http:/ / online.wsj. com/ article/SB123984558896723563. html). The
Wall Street Journal (Dow Jones & Company). . Retrieved 17 April 2009.
[4] "Comcast's ABQ customers workin' out to ExerciseTV" (http:/ /www. bizjournals.com/ albuquerque/ stories/ 2008/ 02/ 25/ daily26.
html?Ia7HR4TvBI6uygSh1Ln7CA). New Mexico Business Weekly (American City Business Journals). 2008-02-28. . Retrieved 17 April 2009.
[5] Stein, Anne E (2007-01-07). "The ups and downs of ExerciseTV" (http:/ / pqasb. pqarchiver.com/ chicagotribune/ access/ 1190479711.
html?dids=1190479711:1190479711& FMT=ABS& FMTS=ABS:FT& date=Jan+ 07,+2007& author=Anne+E+Stein,+ Special+to+ the+
Tribune& pub=Chicago+ Tribune&desc=The+ ups+ and+ downs+ of+ExerciseTV&pqatl=google). Chicago Tribune (Tribune Company). .
Retrieved 17 April 2009.
Launched in January 2006,ExerciseTV was founded by Jake Steinfeld. The channel’s digital reach includes over 200
free workouts on demand on television, downloadable and free videos online, DVDs, and a wireless app for both iOS
and Android. The channel is managed by Comcast Corporation with Body By Jake, New Balance Athletic Shoe,
Inc., and Time Warner Cable acting as additional equity partners. It is currently available in the United States via
Comcast, Time Warner Cable, Cox Communications and Bresnan Communications.
External links
• Official website (http:// www. exercisetv. tv/ )
Commercial? No
Type of site Video on demand
Available language(s) English
Owner Fabchannel
Created by Justin Kniest (CEO)
Launched 2000
Current status Inactive (as of March 13, 2009)
Fabchannel.com was a Dutch company that aimed to give attention to artists unrecognized by the mass media. The
project was founded by Justin Kniest in 2000 in collaboration with internet service provider XS4ALL and broadcast
facility company N.O.B.
The website streamed free, live, and on-demand video from the Paradiso, Melkweg venues in Amsterdam, the
Netherlands and The Roxy Theatre venue in Los Angeles.
With more than 900 live concerts, festivals, performances, debates and lectures, Fabchannel.com built a substantial
concert video archive, their claim of being 'the largest concert video archive in the world' however being an
exaggeration, given the far larger archives developed by major broadcasters such as BBC.
In April 2007 Fabchannel announced that it has launched its own channel on Joost, an online TV distribution
platform. This channel, The Best Of Fab, shows a selection of the archive.
In November 2007, the city of Amsterdam and Foreman Capital each took a 25% share in Fabchannel. The city of
Amsterdam paid 1.25 million euro for the share.
In February 2008 Fabchannel and Universal Music Netherlands announced a recording and multi-territory digital
exploitation partnership for concert videos. This was a breakthrough for Fabchannel as this meant Fabchannel was
able to record and stream concerts of artists signed by Universal. Despite this deal, the business model underlying
Fabchannel proved difficult to maintain, with no clear source of direct revenue from the end users (viewers), and
with copyright holders (artists and/or record labels) being reluctant to allow premium value content to be streamed
for free. Moreover, notwithstanding tight security measures, Fabchannel content got pirated on places like Youtube
and Peer-to-Peer filesharing networks.
On March 6, 2009, Kniest announced that the site would be shutting down the following Friday, March 13.
In an
email to subscribers titled "Fabchannel Stops." Kniest wrote: "After nine passionate and beautiful years of sharing
the most amazing concert recordings with you, Fabchannel is stopping. ... With a bleeding heart we're pulling the
plug of our online archive Friday 13th of March. Until that time, enjoy your favorite concerts and who knows - we'll
meet again."
• Spin Award: Winner Best Dutch Website Concept of 2003
• EuroPrix.nl: Overall Winner Best Dutch E-Content Production 2005
• Prix Europa: Winner Best European Website 2005
• Webby Awards: Winner Best Music Website 2006
• Musikexpress Style Award: Winner Best Media 2007
• W3 Silver Award: Winner 2007
• Best Dutch entertainment website of the year 2008
[1] http:/ / www. fabchannel. com/
[2] "Amsterdam neemt belang in Fabchannel" (http:/ / www.nos. nl/ nosjournaal/ artikelen/2007/ 11/ 2/ 021107_fabchannel.html). www.nos.nl
(http:/ / www. nos. nl/ ). Nederlandse Omroep Stichting. 2007-11-02. . Retrieved 2007-11-02. (Dutch)
[3] "Fabchannel Stops." (http:/ / www. fabchannel.com/ ). . 2009-03-06. . Retrieved 2009-03-06. (Dutch)
[4] "Fabchannel. About. Awards" (http:/ / www.fabchannel. com/ ). . Fabchannel. . Retrieved 2007-11-02.
External links
• Fabchannel.com (http:// www. fabchannel. com)
• (http:/ / blog. wired.com/ music/ 2008/ 02/ fabchannel-scor.html) (article on wired.com covering the
Universal/Fabchannel partnership)
• (http:/ / www. billboard.biz/ bbbiz/ content_display/ industry/ e3ibebff426749f11d65aa2871d35c276b2) (article
on Billboard.biz covering the Universal/Fabchannel partnership)
• I want my Fabchannel (http:/ / www. muniwireless. com/ 2005/ 09/ 05/ i-want-my-fabchannel) (interview with
founder Justin Kniest)
Fancast (Xfinity TV)
Founded January 2008
Headquarters ,  United States
Owner Comcast
Slogan TV Anywhere
Website http:/ / xfinitytv.comcast. net
Type of site Video on demand
Available in English
Fancast (Now XfinityTV) is a website where people may watch full-length network television shows, feature films,
trailers and clips, as well as in-depth news and editorial content surrounding entertainment. Fancast is a division of
Comcast Interactive Media the Internet division of Comcast Corporation. Fancast videos are currently offered only
to users in the United States and its overseas territories.
The site is best known for its extensive library of current and archival television shows. Current shows available on
Fancast include CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, Family Guy, The Young and the Restless, South Park, and more.
Some of the most-watched shows on the site are no longer in production, such as Arrested Development, Friends,
and Star Trek. Fancast also offers full-length streaming feature films as well as movie trailers. Fancast has an
editorial team that conducts interviews and live chats with popular talent, as well as gets the latest news and recaps
of television shows. Comcast Interactive Media gets content for Fancast via distribution deals with NBC, ABC,
CBS, Fox and the WB. Besides programming from these larger networks, the site has more than 100 sources of
content in all. The Fancast site also offers customizable TV listings and a patent-pending “Six Degrees” application
which lets users explore connections between TV shows, movies, and their casts and crews through an interactive
Business model
Free content is supported by advertising. The company also offers paid video-on-demand via the Fancast Store. The
site offers downloads for purchase and rent (on Windows PCs) from major television and film studios including Fox,
Lionsgate, Sony, Paramount, Warner Bros, and Buena Vista/Disney. The store launched with over 3,000 film and
TV episodes and had over 10,000 titles by the end of 2008.
Comcast CEO Brian L. Roberts formally launched Fancast in January 2008 at the 2008 Consumer Electronics Show
(CES). The launch was preceded by months of beta testing. Roberts described Fancast as: “The launch pad for the
convergence of the TV and the PC.”
Fancast developed a proprietary video player for enhanced computer viewing. Videos on Fancast are natively
displayed much larger than videos on other sites. Bit rates and picture quality are calculated to maximize the
playback experience on a majority of computer devices. Fancast applies the latest proven codes to continually
increase video quality and performance. The player also takes into consideration the aspect ratio of each particular
video, respecting the quality of widescreen 2.35:1 movies and HD television ratio 16:9 videos without use of black
bars. Furthering the long form viewing experience, the player will remember where users left off when coming back
to a movie or TV episode that had not completed on one sitting.
External links
• Official website (http:// http:// xfinitytv. comcast. net)
• Comcast Interactive Media Labs (http:/ / labs. comcast. net)
• Comcast Launches Fancast.com (http:/ / www. lightreading.com/ document. asp?doc_id=142622& site=cdn)
• Comcast Hires Yahoo Exec To Run Fancast (http:/ / www.multichannel. com/ article/
133988-Comcast_Hires_Yahoo_Exec_To_Run_Fancast. php)
FarsiTube (The Persian Video Community) is an online video-sharing community targeted towards Iranians and
Iranian Americans. It was launched on November 3, 2006 with a viral marketing campaign through social
networking sites Facebook, MySpace, and Orkut. The site features a number of video categories, including music
videos, comedy, entertainment, people, places, political, news, classics, TV shows, and full-length movies, as well as
the standard interactivity features, including comments, subscriptions, friends, messaging, and more.
FarsiTube's videos are user-submitted, although moderated. Currently the site features videos in both Persian and
English, with appeal towards Iranian-American youth built on humorous clips such as "Typical Persian Dad," which
satirize Iranian culture from a westernized perspective, as well as the more politically-active youth living in Iran.
While the bulk of FarsiTube's traffic comes from humorous videos, it also features a number of full-length Iranian
films such as "Maxx," "Under the Peach Tree," and "Persian Wedding." In addition, political and topical news clips
are available, including documentaries about Iran, the recent nuclear controversies, and numerous videos
humorously mocking President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. There is also a large number of Persian music videos.
Controversy over Saddam Hussein Execution Video
FarsiTube was one of the first websites to post the unedited Saddam Hussein hanging video, recorded by a cell
phone camera. FarsiTube came under fire for posting the video, because most media outlets at the time had
embargoed the unedited video. The video has since spread considerably, but FarsiTube was included in numerous
criticisms for initially posting the video.
Most Viewed Videos
The top videos in terms of views gives an interesting perspective to the dichotomy of the target audience of
FarsiTube. On one hand, Iranian-American youth born and raised in America traffic the humorous clips satirizing
Iranian culture. The "Typical Persian" series of videos, created by three Iranian-American youths in Los Angeles,
mocks the veracity of Iranian parents and their handling of cultural issues such as dating, school, and MySpace, and
are some of the most viewed videos on the site. On the other hand, the youth living in Iran post and view videos
mocking other ethnic cultures such as Arabs, as well as viewing and linking to videos demonstrating the current
political climate in Iran.
Recent Publicity
Traffic has increased exponentially after being discovered by the vast Iran-based blogosphere. A link was first
featured on Sobhaneh.org
, and was later followed by a link from GlobalVoicesOnline.org
, a large progressive
blog covering Iranian affairs. That day, FarsiTube founder and former webmaster Sherwin Noorian was interviewed
by Radio Farda, a Persian-language radio station backed by the United States, and broadcast over the internet and
satellite to America, Europe, and Iran. The site has been embraced by the Iranian youth as a medium of expression
and education regarding the vast political issues the country is experiencing.
Accessibility in Iran
Due to the nature of political videos available on the site, FarsiTube has been blocked by the Iranian government
once in the past. It was removed from the block list within 36 hours, however, the site continues to be threatened
with a potential permanent blocking of access through Iranian internet providers.
Downtime & Acquisition
On June 29, 2007, the site was defaced and the videos were deleted by a hacker. The video site was down for over
two months, while the music and forum sites remained active. The company was subsequently sold to a private
company in August 2007 and rebuilt.
Court Television
FarsiTube was brought into the limelight again when original owners Sherwin "Asa" Noorian and Bayan Rabbani
appeared on an episode of Family Court with Judge Penny in an effort to settle a dispute over the distribution of
finances from the final sale of the site. The case was settled in favor of the plaintiff.
External links
• FarsiTube
• Iranian Videos
• FarsiTube - Typical Persian Series
- "Typical Persian" series of satirical videos.
• Radio Farda FarsiTube Interview Transcript
- Interview with FarsiTube founder Sherwin Noorian.
[1] http:/ / www. sobhaneh. org
[2] http:// www. globalvoicesonline. org
[3] http:// www. farsitube.com
[4] http:/ / www. begim. com/ iranianvideos. html
[5] http:// www. farsitube.com/ ?id=9& keyword=typical+persian& kat=0&submit=Go
[6] http:// www. radiofarda.com/ Article/ 2007/ 01/ 24/ f3-farsitube.html
Filemobile Inc.
Type Private
Industry Internet, Computer software
Founded 2006
Headquarters 18 Mowat Ave 2nd Floor, Toronto, Ontario, 241 Centre Street, 6th Floor, Suite 7 New York, New York, USA
Key people Chris Becker, CEO
Steve Hulford, Founder
Marc Milgrom
Ron Watson, Founder
Filemobile Inc. is a privately owned software development company that develops software-as-a-service (SaaS)
applications for rich media experiences online. Many major media companies in Canada (e.g CTV, CBC, Rogers
Media, Transcontinental, MSN, and a variety of digital agencies, brands, educational institutions and enterprise
clients use Filemobile's software.
Filemobile's platform is called Media Factory and it is a hosted solution that powers a suite of social media white
label applications and API's. Media Factory is a rich media, user-generated content (UGC) and community platform.
Additional applications include UGC contests, user communities, broadband video and citizen journalism.
Filemobile’s products are designed for use by advertising agencies, large brands, enterprise-level firms, content
producers and media companies to facilitate interaction with various constituencies through a variety of mediums
including video, social networks, mobile and the web.
The Media Factory platform allows for easy deployment of complex web applications. Filemobile works with clients
in one of two ways: i) By offering white label applications, or ii) Through a REST or SOAP API.
Media Factory and other applications are built on a open source LAMP stack with public APIs to enable broad
integration and configuration.
Below is an map of Filemobile Architecture and the various components that make up the Media Factory
Filemobile's white label applications include:
• User Generated Content Contests
• Broadband Video
• Multimedia Comments
• Media Community
• Citizen Journalism
• Video Mashup editing tool
• Audio Recording tool
Filemobile was incubated out of the offices of PoolExpert in the summer of 2005 as a ’bootstrapped’ research and
development project to produce consumer websites that would allow users to upload digital files and share them with
blogs and friends. In February 2006 the firm launched a beta user generated content community under the domain
. By the summer of 2006, the firm changed its strategic approach and began designing
interactive online communities for business. In January, 2007, Filemobile launched the first version of its Media
Factory online community management platform and in the fall, CEO Chris Becker and Chief Creative Officer Steve
Hulford took on full-time roles in the company. They were joined the following year by President Marc Milgrom and
Co-Founder Ron Watson, upon the completion of his successful sale of Poolexpert to Rogers Canada.
Filemobile has received some media attention since its inception in 2006. The company was ranked 8th on PROFIT
Magazine’s HOT 50 list in 2008
and 21st on the HOT 50 list in 2009,
Backbone Magazine ranked Filemobile
6th on its annual list of ‘20 companies that are driving innovation and changing the way we use the Internet’.
Technology research firm IDC Canada named Filemobile one of the ‘10 Canadian New Media Companies To
Founder Steve Hulford was featured as "Digital Media People to Watch in Ontario in 2010" by
technology publisher Techvibes.
In June 2008 after the loss of the well-known The Hockey Theme to CTV, CBC proceeded with a nationwide contest
powered by the Filemobile Media Factory platform
for a new theme in collaboration with music label
The contest began June 10, 2008, and at the end of the submissions period on August 31, the network
had received over 14,000 entries. These entries were reduced to five semi-finalists, whose themes were re-arranged
by producer Bob Rock and presented for public voting. Taken from Finding a new theme: Canada's Hockey Anthem
Founders Ron Watson and Steve Hulford owned and operated PoolExpert.com
from 2005–2008 prior to selling
the business to Rogers Media.
In August 2009 Filemobile was credited for helping Toronto based TV news station CP24 break a viewership record
with over 1.2 million viewers.
[1] http:/ / www. filemobile.com/
[2] The Globe and Mail - Filemobile capitalizes on active marketing - February 16, 2010 (http:// www.theglobeandmail.com/
report-on-business/ your-business/ grow/customer-experience/filemobile-capitalizes-on-active-marketing/article1470240/)
[3] Techcrunch - FileMobile raises the bar for multimedia sharing - Jul 3, 2006 (http:// techcrunch.com/ 2006/07/ 03/
[4] Profit Magazine Hot 50 - Sept 17, 2008 (http:// list. canadianbusiness. com/ rankings/ hot50/ 2008/ DisplayProfile.aspx?profile=8)
[5] Profit Magazine Hot 50 - Sept 17, 2009 (http:// list. canadianbusiness. com/ rankings/ hot50/ 2009/ DisplayProfile.aspx?profile=21)
[6] Backbone Magazine - 20 companies that are driving innovation and changing the way we use the Internet - July 28, 2009 (http:// www.
backbonemag.com/ Web2/ PICK20_Winners_2009. asp)
[7] Nowpublic - 10 Canadian New Media Companies to Watch - April 5, 2009 (http:/ / www. nowpublic.com/ tech-biz/
[8] Techvibes - Digital Media People to Watch in Ontario in 2010 - January 5, 2010 (http:// www.techvibes. com/ blog/
[9] http:// anthem.projects. fm
[10] Area Startups - CBC's Hockey Anthem Challenge launches on Filemobile's Media Factory platform - Jul 11, 2008 (http:/ / toronto.
areastartups. com/ news/ 2008/ 07/ 11/ cbcs-hockey-anthem-challenge-launches-on-filemobiles-media-factory-platform/)
[11] CBC press release (http:/ / www.newswire. ca/ en/ releases/ archive/June2008/ 06/ c9522. html), June 6, 2008
[12] http:/ / www. poolexpert.com
[13] Techvibes - PoolExpert Exits to Grow Rogers Sports Empire - August 5, 2008 (http:// www. techvibes. com/ blog/
[14] CP24’s Breaking Storm Coverage: 1.2 Million Viewers Set a Prime-Time Record for CP24 Most Watched Night in Station’s History -
August 21, 2009 (http:// ctvmedia. ca/ cp24/ releases/ release. asp?id=11577& yyyy=2009)
External links
• Filemobile website (http:/ / www. filemobile.com)
• The Filemobile Blog (http:/ / www. filemobile.com/ blog)
• Filemobile Developer documentation (http:/ / developer.mediafactory.fm/ )
• Filemobile on Twitter (http:/ / www. twitter.com/ filemobile)
• Filemobile on Crunchbase (http:/ / www. crunchbase. com/ company/ filemobile)
Filipino On Demand
Filipino On Demand
Filipino On Demand is a subscription video-on-demand service offered by Comcast and ABS-CBN to its
Filipino/Fil-Am Customers.
External links
• Official website
• Official website
of Comcast
[1] http:/ / http:/ / www. imediadistribution. com/ Networks/ FOD/
[2] http:/ / http:/ / www. comcast. com/
The FilmFlex logo
FilmFlex, is the pay-per-view movie service, which is a joint venture
between Sony and The Walt Disney Company.
Virgin Media
FilmFlex makes up part of Virgin Media's "On Demand" video on demand system. FilmFlex has been available on
Virgin since January 2005 and saw over 11 million films watched on demand in 2009.

FilmFlex replaced Front
Row which was a near video on demand pay-per-view service which was initially available on analogue cable from
1997, switching to digital when digital cable services launched from late 1999 onwards.
FilmFlex provides over 500 movies some of which are available in HD (high definition), which are available at any
time for the viewer to watch when they want to. Viewers can search for a movie by title, genre, cast or director. Once
a movie has been ordered it can be viewed any time within the next 24 hours before it has to be paid for again. The
movie can also be viewed as many times as the viewer likes within the 24 hours for no additional cost. Once viewers
are watching a movie they have full control over it by the use of pause, rewind and fast forward functions, much like
a DVD.
All genres of movies are available ranging from Hollywood blockbusters to action, adventure, horror, comedy,
romance and classic movies.
From the 16th May 2007, 21 of the 22 James Bond movies are available to view on FilmFlex. From the 1962 Dr. No,
all the way through to the 2006 Casino Royale.
Virgin Media Online Movies
On 26 April 2010, Virgin Media announced the launch of its first online movies service: Virgin Media Online
All rentals will offer unlimited streamed views for 48 hours so viewers can pause, rewind and watch
again, plus the film can be watched wherever the account holder logs on. Virgin Media Online Movies is powered by
FilmFlex Movies Ltd., the service is delivered over the web using Microsoft Silverlight and will initially present
movies in standard definition.
A HD version of the service is in testing, though there is no word on when it might
become available.
Penny Movies Festival
From 30 March 2007 Virgin Media ran a movies promotion called the ‘Penny Movies Festival’. The promotion was
run over five weeks and each week focused on a different genre. Week one: blockbusters, week two: family
favourites, week three: cult classics, week four: comedy, week five: action adventure.
Each week viewers could vote on the Virgin Media website for their favourite movie out of a selection of 15 movies
and the winning movie would be available to view on the On Demand service, during the next week for the price of
The festival returned in 2008.
The Film4oD logo
Channel 4 partnered with FilmFlex to launch an online video
on-demand service for Film4.
Film4oD, which officially launched on
1 November 2010, has more than 500 films available for 48-hour rental
[1] "Sony, Disney VoD JV wins EC approval" (http:/ / www.theregister.co.uk/ 2004/
11/ 11/ eu_okays_movieco/ ). The Register. 2004-11-11. .
[2] "Telewest Broadband launches first wave of TV-on-demand services with FilmFlex" (http:/ / ir. telewest. co. uk/ phoenix. zhtml?c=76808&
p=irol-newsArticle& t=Regular& id=663415& ). Telewest. 2005-01-18. .
[3] "Virgin Media launches first online movies service" (http:/ / phoenix.corporate-ir.net/ phoenix. zhtml?c=205406& p=irol-newsArticle&
ID=1417528& highlight=). Virgin Media. 2010-04-26. .
[4] "Virgin Media fires up movie streaming service" (http:// www.reghardware.co.uk/ 2010/ 04/ 26/ virgin_to_offer_movie_streaming/). Reg
Hardware. 2010-04-26. .
[5] "Channel 4 launches Film4 on-demand" (http:// www.digitalspy. co. uk/ digitaltv/news/ a285390/ channel-4-launches-film4-on-demand.
html). Digital Spy. 2010-11-01. .
External links
• Official website (http:// http:// www. filmflexmovies.co. uk) including Film Listings and Contact Info
• Virgin Media Online Movies (http:/ / moviesondemand. virginmedia.com/ )
• Film4oD (http:// film4od.film4.com/ )
• Unofficial Virgin Media info (http:// www. virginmediainfo.co.uk/ filmflex.shtml) Film listings and schedules
in PDF and XPS formats
• Filmflex Ratings (http:/ / www. filmflexratings.com/ ) Currently available movies listed by ratings according to
Rotten Tomatoes, Metacritic etc
Filmklik, Kft.
Industry Electronic commerce
Founded 2007
Headquarters Budapest, Hungary
Area served Hungary
Key people Peter Bognar, founder and CEO
Renaud Bekliz, project manager
Products Online VOD rental
Filmklik is a VOD service offering online streaming to customers in Hungary. Established in 2007 and
headquartered in Budapest, the service offers movies from a large online catalogue always available on its platform,
which allows customers to stay at home and select movies anywhere at anytime. All of the film content of the site is
under DRM protection.
Filmklik offers movies, which can either be downloaded to be burned on DVD and/or streamed instantanly for 48
hours. Filmklik’s library includes independent, international and studio films.
• Variety: “Germany, Hungary deal for VOD”
• Europa Distribution: "The new challenge of VOD"
External links
• Filmklik home page
[1] http:/ / www. filmklik.hu/
[2] http:/ / www. variety.com/ article/ VR1117980556. html?categoryid=13&cs=1& query=filmklik
[3] http:// www. europa-distribution.org/files/ 2007_11_20%20CR%20VOD%20Lisbonne. pdf
[4] http:/ / www. filmklik.hu
FilmOn.com Inc
URL http:/ / www.filmon.com/
Commercial? Yes
Type of site Television, Video-on-demand
Available language(s) English, Spanish
Owner FilmOn.com Inc, Alki David
Launched U.K - January 2009, USA - September 2010
Revenue US$7 million in 2009
Current status Live
FilmOn.com is an internet based pay tv provider. The service was founded by Alki David and features over 30 ip
television channels in two subscription packages.
On 5 November, 2010, FilmOn.com launched a streaming TV service for mobile devices. The FilmOn.com Mobile
TV platform offers streaming television to iPhone, iPad, Blackberry and Android.
FilmOn.com subscription packages
FilmOn.com subscription packages include over 90 premium TV channels in addition to premium FilmOn.com
Movie channels and pay-per-view channels; as well as around 30,000 video on demand titles,
distribution deals with Granada, CBC, Playboy, Screen Media, Revelation Films, Cinetel Films,
and Cirque Du
Current services include:
• Fashion TV
• CNN International
• World TV
• Live Well Network
• Unreliable Sources
• Universal Sports
• BBC News
• 4 Music
• Scuzz
• Flava
• Dance Nation
• Battlecam TV
• Rai Sport
• Dubai Sports
• Viva
• Russia Today
• Clubland TV
• Wine Channel TV
• Horse & Country TV
• Motorz TV
• FilmOn Classics, FilmOn Movies 1 & 2
• Music Legends TV
• Al Jazeera
• JSC Sport Global
• FilmOn Sports, FilmOn Docu, FilmOn Drama, FilmOn Horror
• Multiple adult channels
[1] "Free Broadcast TV on your iPad" (http:// www.pcworld.com/ article/ 209953/ free_broadcast_tv_on_your_ipad.html). PC World. 05
December 2010. . Retrieved 2010-11-14.
[2] "FilmOn unveils high definition film and television download service" (http:/ / www.brandrepublic.com/ News/ 870382/
FilmOn-unveils-high-definition-film-television-download-service/). BrandRepublic. 22 December 2008. . Retrieved 2009-11-14.
[3] Barraclough, Leo (16 February 2009). "FilmOn floats on Frankfurt exchange" (http:// www. variety.com/ article/ VR1118000174.
html?categoryid=13&cs=1). Variety. . Retrieved 2009-11-14.
[4] Rushton, Katherine (13 June 2008). "FilmOn signs Cirque deal" (http:// www.broadcastnow.co.uk/ news/ multi-platform/news/
filmon-signs-cirque-deal/1548212. article). Broadcast Now. . Retrieved 2009-11-14.
[5] FilmOn website (http:// www. filmon.com/ )
FORA.tv, Inc.
Type Privately Held
Founded 2005
Headquarters San Francisco, California, U.S.
Key people Blaise Zerega, CEO and President
Slogan Videos on the People, Issues, and Ideas Changing the Planet; The World Is Thinking
Type of site Video on demand
FORA.tv, Inc. runs a website that gathers a large collection of unmediated video drawn from live events, lectures,
and debates at universities, think tanks and conferences.
FORA.tv provides a digital forum ("fora" is the Latin plural of "forum") where people can get and discuss
information on public affairs, politics and culture, as well as see historic speeches and other events.
It has
operations on every inhabited continent across the globe.
In February 2009, FORA.tv partnered with WIRED creating a channel that features videos about the day's most
important technological, science, business, and cultural issues – all gathered from leading thinkers, institutions and
In August 2009, FORA.tv was selected for TIME.com's 50 Best Websites of 2009. The site was also featured in a
related TIME.com video, "50 Best Websites: 5 You May Not Know," along with Omgpop, Yelp, PopUrls and Boing
FORA.tv was founded in 2005 and is funded by private investors including William R. Hearst III and Adobe
FORA.tv distributes video both on its own website and syndicates content to other sites, as well as allows users to
embed videos on their websites. FORA.tv's content partners include: The Asia Society, Aspen Institute, Australian
Broadcasting Corporation, The Brookings Institution, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Council on
Foreign Relations, Duke University, Georgetown University, Heritage Foundation, The Hoover Institution,
Transatlantic Institute and the World Affairs Council.
[1] http:/ / www. fora.tv/
[2] Mills, Elinor (2007-01-25). "The YouTube for thinkers" (http:// news.cnet.com/ 8301-10784_3-6153396-7.html). CNET News. . Retrieved
[3] FORA.tv (2009-02-20). "FORA.tv Partners with WIRED.com for Online Video Channel" (http:// fora.tv/ pressroom/ release/ 2/
FORA_tv_Partners_with_WIRED_com_for_Online_Video_Channel). Press release. . Retrieved 2008-05-29.
[4] FORA.tv (2009-08-25). "FORA.tv Named to TIME's 50 Best Websites" (http:// www.prweb. com/ releases/ foratv/time/ prweb2786364.
htm). Press release. . Retrieved 2008-08-26.
External links
• Official website (http:// http:// www. fora.tv)
• "Want a free education? A brief guide to the burgeoning world of online video lectures." (http:// www.boston.
com/ bostonglobe/ ideas/ articles/ 2008/ 11/ 02/ u_tube/ ), The Boston Globe
• "Fora.tv, the C-Span of the Web, raises $4M" (http:// www.thestandard. com/ news/ 2008/ 05/ 07/
fora-tv-c-span-web-raises-4m), The Industry Standard
• "50 Best Websites of 2009: FORA.tv" (http:/ / www.time. com/ time/ specials/ packages/ article/
0,28804,1918031_1918016_1917931,00.html), TIME.com
Funny or Die
Funny or Die
Funny or Die
Type Comedy
Founded California (late 2006 early 2007)
Headquarters Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Key people Adam McKay
Will Ferrell
Judd Apatow
Randy Adams
Owner(s) Funny or Die Inc.
Funny or Die is a comedy video website founded by Will Ferrell and Adam McKay's production company, Gary
Sanchez Productions with original and user-generated content. Funny or Die contains exclusive material from a
number of famous contributors (e.g. Judd Apatow, James Franco) and also has its own Funny or Die Team, which
creates original material for the site. Many clips featured on the site feature well-known actors (examples include
Charlie Sheen, Patrick Stewart, Daniel Radcliffe, Lindsay Lohan and Jerry Seinfeld). Michael Kvamme, an aspiring
young comedian, came up with a concept for a new kind of comedy site and the site was developed by Randy
Adams. Videos are voted on by users of the site; those that are deemed funny stay, but those that are not "die" and
are relegated to the site's "crypt". The title is a reference to the well known political cartoon, Join, or Die.
The site's first video, "The Landlord," has received over 70 million views and features Ferrell confronted by a
swearing, beer-drinking two-year-old landlord.
In June 2007, they received venture capital funding from Sequoia
and in June 2008, they announced a partnership with HBO.
Voting System
Unlike other viral video sites, members of Funny or Die are encouraged to vote on videos which they view, with the
options of "Funny" or "Die". The video then gets a score of the total percent of people who voted the video "Funny".
If the video receives an 80% or greater "Funny" rating after 100,000 views, it gets an "Immortal" ranking. If the
video receives a 20% or less "Funny" rating after 1,000 views, it is relegated to the Crypt section of the site.
The Funny or Die staff can also select a rating of "Chosen One", which hides the score from the public, merely
saying "Chosen One" instead.
Funny or Die Comedy Tour
In February 2008, Funny or Die launched "Will Ferrell’s Funny or Die Comedy Tour Presented by ‘Semi-Pro’", in
conjunction with the promotion of the movie Semi Pro. The tour featured Ferrell, members of the FOD Team and
comedians Zach Galifianakis, Demetri Martin, Nick Swardson and Andrea Savage. Adam McKay and Will Arnett
served as tour announcers. The eight-city tour hit college campuses in Kansas, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode
Island, Massachusetts, North Carolina and New York.
Funny or Die
Funny or Die Presents
In June 2008, HBO and Funny or Die announced that HBO had purchased a stake of less than 10% in Funny Or Die.
With this, Funny or Die will be responsible for developing at least 10 half-hour episodes for HBO, and the
companies may organize future comedy tours together. Regarding the agreement, Will Ferrell said, "I don't want to
overstate the importance of this deal, but this is the missing link moment where TV and Internet finally merge. It will
change the way we as human beings perceive and interact with reality. Okay, I overstated it. But it is an exciting
In August 2008, FunnyorDie hired Andrew Steele, a twelve year veteran of Saturday Night Live, and one of three
head writers in recent years, to oversee content production and development for the site and for the HBO
Or Die Networks
Following the success of FunnyorDie, parent organization Or Die Networks
has spun out three additional verticals,
based on FunnyorDie’s binary voting system.
Funny or Die UK
Funny or Die UK, launched on September 23, 2008, was a UK specific version of Funny or Die.
The patrons of
the site were Little Britain stars Matt Lucas and David Walliams, in place of Will Ferrell.
The site worked in much
the same way as the U.S. site, but featured a number of UK comedians, including Peter Serafinowicz, Kevin Eldon,
Brendon Burns, Matt Berry and Dom Joly. Or Die Networks and UK partners Hatrick Productions chose to close the
dedicated UK website due to financial struggles. The UK contents were consolidated in the main site and today the
funnyordie.co.uk domain redirects to funnyordie.com.
Shredordie.com, launched October 23, 2007,
is an action-sports website OrDie Networks created in partnership
with Tony Hawk. Users rate videos of members performing (or failing to perform) stunts by clicking either "Shred"
or "Die." Shredordie.com was prominently featured in Tony Hawk’s Boom Boom Huckjam Tour.
Pwnordie.com, launched July 1, 2008,
is a site devoted to all things video game, where users can post and enjoy
videos about walkthroughs, cheats, reviews, or parodies of popular games. Users vote content either "Pwn" or "Die."
Morraderir.com.br, launched July 28, 2008, and brings to Brazil the same home for comedy as FunnyorDie.com in
the US. Users can view professional and user-generated content unique to Brazil and also from FunnyorDie.com, and
upload their own videos as well. The site features celebrity content from Ivete Sangalo, Sabrina Sato, Diogo
Portugal, Fernando Caruso, Luis Miranda and others.
Eatdrinkordie.com, launched August 20, 2008,
is a culinary site where users vote videos on preparing and
enjoying food as either "delicious" or "die." Tom Colicchio is one of EatDrinkorDie’s primary content partners, and
the site has also featured content by Art Smith, Gary Vaynerchuk, Michael Chiarello, Jon Shook and Vinney Dotolo,
and Sophie Uliano. EatDrinkOrDie.com no longer exists. It now just links to FunnyOrDie.com.
Funny or Die
[1] http:/ / www. funnyordie.com/
[2] "The Landlord video page" (http:// www. funnyordie.com/ videos/ 74). Funnyordie.com. . Retrieved 2009-06-24.
[3] "Sequoia Capital funds Funny or Die" (http:// www.sequoiacap. com/ company/ funny-or-die/). .
[4] Littleton, Cynthia (2008-06-10). "HBO Joining Forces with FunnyorDie" (http:/ / www.variety. com/ article/VR1117987248.
html?categoryid=14&cs=1). Variety. .
[5] "HBO invests in Will Ferrell's Funnyordie.com" (http:// news. cnet. com/ 8301-10784_3-9965649-7.html). .
[6] Littleton, Cynthia (2008-08-05). "Funny or Die made of Steele" (http:// www.variety.com/ article/VR1117990102. html?categoryid=1238&
cs=1). Variety. .
[7] "Or Die Networks" (http:/ / www.dmwmedia. com/ tags/ or-die-networks). Dmwmedia.com. 2008-07-11. . Retrieved 2009-06-24.
[8] "Funny or Die" (http:// www.funnyordie.co. uk/ ). Funnyordie.co.uk. . Retrieved 2009-06-24.
[9] Gibson, Owen (2008-09-23). "US comedy website Funny or Die gets Little Britain backing" (http:// www. guardian.co. uk/ media/ 2008/
sep/ 23/ digitalmedia. television?gusrc=rss& feed=media). London: Guardian. . Retrieved 2009-06-24.
[10] http:// paidcontent.co. uk/ article/419-funny-or-die-shutting-uk-site-/
[11] "Tony Hawk’s Shredordie.com Launches" (http:// www. 901am. com/ 2007/ tony-hawks-shredordiecom-launches.html). 901am.com.
2007-10-23. . Retrieved 2009-06-24.
[12] "Or Die Networks Got Game" (http:/ / findarticles.com/ p/ articles/ mi_m4PRN/ is_2008_July_1/ ai_n27877482)
[13] "Funnyordie sites expand into Cooking" (http:/ / ap.google.com/ article/ALeqM5hgJNhb-Wf2LoMwde_89q22VLoIGwD92M92P03)
External links
• Funny or Die (http:// www. funnyordie.com/ )
• Funny or Die UK (http:/ /www. funnyordie.co. uk/ )
Google Videos
Google Videos
Type of site video search
Registration no (previously required to upload)
Available language(s) multilingual
Owner Google Inc.
Created by Google
Google Videos (originally Google Video) is a video search engine, and formerly a free video sharing website, from
Google Inc. Before removing user-uploaded content, the service allowed selected videos to be remotely embedded
on other websites and provided the necessary HTML code alongside the media, similar to YouTube. This allowed
for websites to host large amounts of video remotely without running into bandwidth or storage capacity issues.
The service was launched on January 25, 2005.
On October 9, 2006, Google bought former competitor YouTube.
Google announced on June 13, 2007 that the Google Videos search results would begin to include videos discovered
by their search crawlers on other hosting services, in YouTube and user uploads.
Search result links now open a
frameset with a Google Videos header at the top, and the original player page below it, similar to the way the Google
Images search results are presented. In 2009, Google discontinued the ability to upload videos to Google's web
Google Videos
Video content
Google Videos is geared towards providing a large archive of freely searchable videos. Besides amateur media,
Internet videos, viral ads, and movie trailers, the service also aims to distribute commercial professional media, such
as televised content and movies.
A number of educational discourses by Google employees have been recorded and made available for viewing via
Google Videos. The lectures have been done mainly at the employees' former universities. The topics cover Google
technologies and software engineering but also include other pioneering efforts by major players in the software
engineering field.
On January 6, 2009 the Google Video Store was launched, which allowed paid downloads through Google Videos.
The service launched with independent films Aardvark'd: 12 Weeks with Geeks, and Waterborne, as well as content
from media partners CBS, the NBA, The Charlie Rose Show, and Sony BMG.
Initially, the content of a number of
broadcasting companies (such as ABC, NBC, CNN) was available as free streaming content or stills with closed
captioning. In addition, the U.S. National Archive used Google Videos to make historic films available online, but
this project was later discontinued.
Google Videos also searches other non-affiliated video sites from web crawls. Sites searched by Google Videos in
addition to their own videos and YouTube include GoFish, ExposureRoom, Vimeo, Myspace, Biku, and Yahoo!
Video. It appears that Google Videos is moving away from an online video archive and toward a search engine for
videos, similar to their web and image searches.
As of August 2007, the DTO/DTR (download-to-own/rent) program ended. Users who previously purchased a video
from Google Videos were no longer able to view them. Credits for users were made available as values for Google
Checkout and were valid for 60 days.

Termination of video upload service
In 2009, Google ended the ability for users to upload videos to Google Videos. Videos that were already uploaded
continued to be hosted.
Later, other navigation features were retired, such as ability to cross-reference videos back
to now-inactive user accounts, as well as selection of top videos
Uploading videos
Until 2009, users were able to upload videos either through the Google Videos website (limited to 100MB per file);
or alternatively through the Google Video Uploader, available for Windows, Mac OS X and Linux. Major producers
with a thousand or more hours of video can apply for Google's Premium Program, which continues to allow for the
uploading of videos.

While the Video Uploader application was available as three separate downloads, the Linux version was written in
Java, a cross-platform programming language, and would therefore also work on other operating systems without
modifications, providing that the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) is installed. This Java executable (.jar) file was a
standalone application that did not require installation. Consequently, it could be run from removable media such as
USB flash drives, CD-ROMs, or network storage. This allowed users to upload video even if the computer terminal
on which they were working would not allow them to install programs, such as a public library computer.
Uploaded videos were saved as a .gvi files under the "Google Videos" folder in "My Videos" and reports of the
video(s) details were logged and stored in the user account. The report sorted and listed the number of times that
each of the user's videos had been viewed and downloaded within a specific time frame. These ranged from the
previous day, week, month or the entire time the videos have been there. Totals were calculated and displayed and
the information could be downloaded into a spreadsheet format or printed out.
Google Videos
Video distribution methods
Google Videos offers both free services and commercial videos, the latter controlled with digital rights management.
The basic way to watch the videos is through the Google Videos website, video.google.com
. Each video has a
unique web address in the format of http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=<video id>, and
that page contains an embedded Flash Video file which can be viewed in any Flash-enabled browser.
Permalinks to a certain point in a video are also possible, in the format of
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=<video id>#XXhYYmZZs
(that is, with a fragment
identifier containing a timestamp).
Flash Video
The browser automatically caches the flash file while it plays, and it can be retrieved from the browser cache once it
has fully played. There are also several tools and browser extensions to download the file. It can be then viewed in
video players that can handle flash, for example VLC media player, Media Player Classic (with ffdshow installed),
MPlayer or Wimpy.
Google Video Player
Google Video Player
The main window
Developer(s) Google
Stable release / 2006-08-22
Operating system Mac OS X, Windows
Type Video player
License Freeware
Google Video Player was another way to view Google videos; it ran on Windows and Mac OS X. The Google
Video Player plays back files in Google's own Google Video File (.gvi) media format and supported playlists in
"Google Video Pointer" (.gvp) format. When users downloaded to their computers, the resulting file used to be a
small .gvp (pointer) file rather than a .gvi file. When run, the .gvp file would download a .gvi (movie) file to the
user's default directory.
As of August 17, 2007, Google Video Player has been discontinued and is no longer available for download from the
Google Videos website. The option to download videos in GVI format has also been removed, the only format
available being iPod/PSP (MP4 format).
While early versions of Google's in-browser video player code were based on the open source VLC Media Player,
the last version of Google Video Player was not based on VLC, according to its readme file. However, it did include
Google Videos
the OpenSSL cryptographic toolkit and some libraries from the Qt widget toolkit.
GVI format and conversion
Google Video Files (.gvi), and latterly its .avi files, are modified Audio Video Interleave (.avi) files that have an
extra list containing the FourCC "goog" immediately following the header. The list can be removed with a hex editor
to avoid playback issues with various video players.

The video is encoded in MPEG-4 ASP alongside an MP3
audio stream. MPEG-4 video players can render .gvi Google Video Files without format conversion (after changing
the extension from .gvi to .avi, although this method of just renaming the file extension does not work with videos
purchased with DRM to inhibit unauthorized copying. Among other software VirtualDub is able to read .gvi files
and allows the user to convert them into different formats of choice. There are also privately developed software
solutions, such as GVideo Fix
, that can convert them to .avi format without recompression. MEncoder with "-oac
copy -ovc copy" as parameters also suffices.
AVI and MP4
Besides GVI and Flash Video, Google provided its content through downloadable Audio Video Interleave (.avi) and
MPEG-4 (.mp4) video files. Not all formats are available through the website's interface, however, depending on the
user's operating system.
Where available, Google's "save as" function for Windows/Mac produced an .avi file, while the "save as" function
for iPod and PSP produced an .mp4 file.
This .avi file was not in standard AVI format. To play the file in a popular media player such as Winamp or
Windows Media Player, the file had to first be modified, using a hex editor to delete the first LIST block in the file
header, which started at byte 12 (000C hex, first byte in file is byte 0) and ended at byte 63 (003F hex).

Optionally, the file length (in bytes 4 to 7, little endian) should also be amended, by subtracting 52 (3F hex – 0C hex
= 33 hex).
Winamp and Windows Media Player cannot play the unmodified .avi file because the non-standard file header
corrupts the file. However, Media Player Classic, MPlayer, the VLC Media Player and GOM Player will play the
unmodified .avi file, and the Google .mp4 file. Media Player Classic can do so only if an MPEG-4 DirectShow
Filter, such as ffdshow, is installed. Most Linux media players (including xine, Totem, the Linux version of VLC
Media Player, and Kaffeine) have no problem playing Google's .avi format.
An .mp4 video file will play in Winamp 5 if an MPEG-4/H.264 DirectShow Filter such as ffdshow and an MP4
Splitter such as Haali are installed, and the extension ;MP4 is added to the Extension List in the Winamp DirectShow
decoder configuration.
In the Spring of 2008, the option to download files in .AVI format was removed. Files were henceforth only
available as Flash video or .MP4 video. The same videos, when accessed through the companion YouTube.com site,
were available only in Flash video format.
Google Videos
Third-party download services
Google offers users the means to save only some of the videos on the site, mostly for copyright reasons. Their
documentation goes so far as to claim that only these videos can be downloaded. However, since viewing a video
requires downloading it to the computer, their software merely makes saving videos difficult, not impossible: a
number of solutions, including external software and bookmarklets, have been developed.
RSS feed
Google Videos search results can be viewed in an RSS feed by clicking the RSS link to the right of the results
or by adding &output=rss to the end of the URL in your web browser's address area.
Changing the &num=20 part of the URL to &num=100 shows 100 results in the RSS feed instead of 20.
Market adoption
Despite availability of downloading in multiple formats, being less restrictive on video uploads, and Google being
tremendously well-known, Google Videos had only a minor share from the online video market, amassing around
2,500,000 videos uploaded.
Availability of service
While initially only available in the United States, over time Google Videos has become available to users in more
countries and can now be accessed from many other countries, including the United Kingdom, France, Germany,
Italy, China and Japan.
Regardless of general availability, content providers are given the opportunity to limit access to video files to only
users from certain countries of residence. However, methods of circumventing geographical filtering exist.
Countries for which Google Videos is localized
Google Videos has been localized for several countries:
Country/Region URL Languages
 AUS http:/ / video. google.com.au/ Australian English
http:/ / video. google.com.br/ Brazilian Portuguese
 CAN http:/ / video. google.ca/ Canadian English Canadian French
http:/ / video. google.cn/ Chinese
http:/ / video. google.fr/ French
 GER http:/ / video. google.de/ German
http:/ / video. google.it/ Italian
http:/ / video. google.nl/ Dutch
 POL http:/ / video. google.pl/ Polish
Google Videos
http:/ / video. google.es/ Spanish
 UK http:/ / video. google.co.uk/ British English
 USA http:/ / video. google.com American English
 Argentina http:/ / video. google.com.ar Spanish
http:/ / video. google.ru Russian
Google Videos has little organization of content and no noticeable pricing scheme.

However, pay content
(available currently in the United States only) is arranged in a few categories. A video ranking in the form of a Top
has been introduced and the official Google Video Blog
features "Google Picks" (videos considered
noteworthy by Google) on a regular basis. "Google Picks" are currently also available via the Google Videos
The strategy for Google Videos has shifted dramatically from an initial focus on digitizing offline content, akin to
Google BookSearch, to then later focusing on fee-based downloads akin to iTunes, to then later focusing on social
networking features akin to YouTube. Despite constant product development and business development churn,
Google Videos had never attained market leadership in the online video space at the time when Google acquired
Google Videos currently doesn't display the username under which videos on the service were uploaded.
[1] http:/ / video.google. com
[2] Google Video Search Live (http:// blogoscoped. com/ archive/2005-01-25-n90.html)
[3] tdeos-new-frame.html Google Frames a Video Search Engine (http:// googlesystem. blogspot.com/ 2007/ 06/ google-vity), by Alex Chitu,
June 13, 2007
[4] Turning Down Uploads at Google Video (http:/ / googlevideo. blogspot. com/2009/ 01/ turning-down-uploads-at-google-video.html), by
Michael Cohen, Product Manager, January 14, 2009, Official Google Video Blog (http:/ / googlevideo.blogspot.com), accessed April 23,
[5] Raman, Sanjay (August 8, 2005). "A New Year for Google Video" (http:// googleblog.blogspot. com/ 2006/ 01/ new-year-for-google-video.
html). . Retrieved April 22, 2011.
[6] National Archives and Google Launch Pilot Project (...) (http:/ / www.archives.gov/ press/ press-releases/ 2006/ nr06-64.html) (NARA
press release, published on February 24, 2006)
[7] Cory Doctorow, " Google Video robs customers of the videos they "own" (http:// www.boingboing. net/ 2007/ 08/ 10/ google-video-robs-cu.
html)." boingboing.net (http:// www.boingboing. net/ ) August 10, 2007.
[8] John C. Dvorak, " Google Pulls Plug, Everyone Misses Point (http:// www. pcmag.com/ article2/ 0,2704,2170676,00. asp)". PC Magazine
(online) (http:/ / www. pcmag.com/ ). August 14, 2007.
[9] http:// www. google. com/ search?q=top+google+ videos
[10] Google Video (http:/ / services. google. com/ inquiry/video)
[11] http:// video.google. com/
[12] New Feature: Link within a Video (http:// googlevideo. blogspot. com/ 2006/ 07/ new-feature-link-within-video_19.html), Official Google
Video Blog, July 19, 2006
[13] Copyrights for Google Video Player (http:/ / video. google.com/ copyrights. html), noting the inclusion of several open source libraries
[14] Removing the "goog" list from a Google Video file (http:// www.youtube. com/ watch?v=OtuX_eUyaLg) (tutorial video)
[15] Comprehensive FAQ related to video downloads (http:// 1024k. de/ bookmarklets/ video-bookmarklets.html#faq)
[16] http:// www. jlrconcepts. com
[17] À propos des flux – Google Video (http:// video. google.com/ about_feeds. html)
[18] Google Video: Trash Mixed With Treasure (http:// www. nytimes.com/ 2006/ 01/ 19/ technology/ circuits/ 19pogue.html?ei=5088&
en=3103b6e30c19436c& ex=1295326800) (a New York Times editorial, by David Pogue, published on January 19, 2006)
[19] C|net Editor's Review For Google Video (Beta) (http:// reviews.cnet.com/ Google_Video_beta/ 4505-9239_7-31703160-2.html) (edited
by James Kim, reviewed by Troy Dreier on February 7, 2006)
[20] http:/ / video.google. com/ videoranking
[21] http:// googlevideo. blogspot. com
Google Videos
External links
• Google Video (http:// video. google. com/ )
Gravitas Ventures
Gravitas Ventures, LLC
Gravitas Ventures
Founded 2006
Company Video-on-Demand Distribution
CEO Nolan Gallagher
Website [1]
Gravitas Ventures, LLC is a video-on-demand (VoD) distribution company founded by Nolan Gallagher in 2006.
Gravitas Ventures aggregates entertainment content for worldwide VoD distribution via cable, broadband, mobile
and hospitals/airlines. Content represented by Gravitas Ventures includes feature films, documentaries, television
series, and mixed martial arts and wrestling events.
Gravitas Ventures has a content distribution agreement with
Warner Bros. Digital Distribution.

In 2008 Gravitas Ventures formed a partnership with the North American digital media services company TVN
Entertainment (presently Avail-TVN Entertainment). Through that partnership Gravitas Ventures releases four
monthly programming packages: Gravitas New Release Movies on Demand, Gravitas Events on Demand, Gravitas
Documentaries on Demand and Gravitas Horror on Demand.
Entertainment content from Gravitas Ventures is distributed to VoD customers in the United States via Time Warner
Cable, In Demand, Comcast, Cox Cable, Cablevision, TVN, AT&T, Verizon, Direct TV, Dish Network, Lodgenet,
iTunes, Microsoft X-Box, Amazon Unbox, CinemaNow, and Netflix

In August 2010, Gravitas Ventures
partnered with Rentrak for its OnDemand Essentials tracking and measurement service.
In April 2011, in partnership with Variance Films, Gravitas Ventures released their first in-theaters title, the
documentary American: The Bill Hicks Story. That title was also released simultaneously on VoD.
Production companies known to have business relationships with Gravitas Ventures include: Zeitgeist Films,
Vanguard Cinema, WellGo USA, Imagination Worldwide, The Film Sales Company, Genius Products, UTV,
Submarine Entertainment and Liberation Entertainment.
Gravitas Ventures
Gravitas VOD Packages
Gravitas Ventures offers the following four content packages to VoD distribution companies through Avail-TVN:
Gravitas New Release Movies on Demand
Monthly; 10 hours. This is the signature package of VoD content that Gravitas offers. In includes content from all
genres, including same-day-as-theaters titles.
Gravitas Events on Demand
Monthly; 10 hours. A monthly mixture of ring sports (Mixed Martial Arts & Wrestling), extreme sports, music
concerts, and comedy content.
Gravitas Horror on Demand
Monthly; 10 hours. Launched in late 2009. Offers films exclusively for horror fans concurrent with DVD street-date
and/or theatrical release.
Documentaries on Demand
Monthly; 10 hours. Launched in fall 2010. Gravitas Ventures partnered with documentary industry leader PBS to
launch its fourth monthly content packaged titled 'Documentaries on Demand'.

Gravitas releases 30 programs each month and over 350 films each year that includes:
• The Secret (2006 film) (2006) – by Drew Heriot
• Hounddog (film) (2007) – by Deborah Kampmeier
• I'll Believe You (2007) – by Paul Francis Sullivan
• Crips and Bloods: Made in America (2008) – by Stacy Peralta
• American Meth (2008) – by Justin Hunt
• Ballast (2008) – by Lance Hammer
• The Merry Gentleman (2008) – by Michael Keaton
• Good Dick (2008) – by Marianna Palka
• Forever Strong (2008) – by Ryan Little
• Harvard Beats Yale 29-29 (2008) – by Kevin Rafferty
• Remarkable Power (2008) – by Brandon Beckner
• Ip Man (2008) - by Wilson Yip
• Michael Jackson: The Trial and Triumph of the King of Pop (2009) – by Pearl Jr.
• Rock Slyde (2009) – by Chris Downling
• We Live in Public (2009) – by Ondi Timoner
• Beer Wars (2009) – by Anat Baron
• The Flying Scissors (2009) - by Jonah Tulis
• Splinterheads (2009) - by Brant Sersen
• Godkiller (series) (2010) - by Matt Pizzolo
• The Lottery (2010 film) - by Madeleine Sackler
• American Grindhouse (2010) - by Elijah Drenner
• A Fork in the Road (2010) - by Jim Kouf
• The Truth (2010) - by Ryan Barton-Grimley
• American Grindhouse (2010) – by Elijah Drenner
Gravitas Ventures
[1] http:/ / www. gravitasventures. com
[2] OnDemand weekly interview (http:// ondemandweekly. com/ blog/ article/vod_spotlight_nolan_gallagher/ ) with Nolan Gallagher
[3] Netherby, Jennifer. Variety Magazine. (August 5, 2009) "WB signs indie VOD deals" (http:/ / www.variety.com/ article/
[4] Kaufman, Anthony. Filmmaker Magazine "Why VOD is turning into a profitable avenue for indie filmmakers." (http:// www.
filmmakermagazine.com/ issues/ fall2009/industry-beat. php)
[5] Marketwirepress release "TVN Entertainment and Gravitas Ventures Partner to Debut Hundreds of Hours of VOD Programming" (http://
www.marketwire.com/ press-release/ tvn-entertainment-gravitas-ventures-partner-debut-hundreds-hours-vod-programming-841778.htm)
[6] Szalai, George. "Netflix extends indie film offerings" (http:// www.hollywoodreporter.com/ news/
netflix-extends-indie-film-offerings-20140) The Hollywood Reporter. (October 13, 2010)
[7] Sandoval, Greg. CNET News: "Some indie studios wary of Netflix partnership" (http:// news. cnet.com/ 8301-31001_3-20049881-261.
html#ixzz1IaAoVY3z) (April 4, 2011).
[8] Reuters via PR Newswire press release: "Gravitas Ventures Signs With Rentrak to Track Its On-Demand Movie Content Offerings" (http://
www.reuters.com/article/ 2010/ 08/ 30/ idUS92377+30-Aug-2010+PRN20100830) (August 30, 2010)
[9] Sneider, Jeff. The Wrap News: "Gravitas & Variance Rescue 'American: The Bill Hicks Story" (http:// www.thewrap.com/ deal-central/
column-post/gravitas-variance-pick-american-bill-hicks-story-24145) (January 23, 2011)
[10] Fernandez, Jay A. The Hollywood Reporter: "Gravitas, UTV to import Bollywood features" (http:// www.hollywoodreporter.com/ news/
gravitas-utv-import-bollywood-features-24028) (October 14, 2010)
[11] "Gravitas Ventures to Launch "Documentaries on Demand" with PBS " (http:// www.huffingtonpost.com/ wires/ 2010/ 07/ 06/
gravitas-ventures-to-laun_ws_636858.html) The Huffington Post via indieWIRE (July 6, 2010)
[12] Umstead, R. Thomas. "PBS, Gravitas To Launch On Demand Package" (http:// www. multichannel.com/ article/
454430-PBS_Gravitas_To_Launch_On_Demand_Package.php) Multichannel News (July 6, 2010)
[13] "Gravitas Ventures Takes SXSW’s “Grindhouse” To VOD" (http:// www. indiewire. com/ article/
gravitas_ventures_takes_sxsws_grindhouse_to_vod) indieWIRE on American Grindhouse
GreatAmericans.com is an online video portal offering free access to videos about men and women in a variety of
military, fire/rescue and law enforcement jobs. GreatAmericans.com was launched on Veterans Day, November 11,
2008 by Great Americans, a US-based private media company.
Purpose of the Website
GreatAmericans.com states its mission is “to inspire America with videos telling stories about Great Americans.”
The trademarked website banner states: “Ordinary people. Extraordinary deeds.”
Website History
GreatAmericans.com was launched on Veteran’s Day, Nov. 11, 2008.
Website Features
Visitors to GreatAmericans.com can upload or view videos.
A link to the streaming video website Hulu connects to episodes and short films on the Hulu channel entitled, Great
Americans: Ordinary People, Extraordinary Deeds. The films were produced by Great Americans.
Videos are also posted by military personnel, military support organizations, veterans’ groups, law enforcement, fire
and rescue and NASA.
Stories feature uniformed personnel in these categories:
• Military: United States Army, Navy, Marines, Air Force, National Guard, Special Ops and veterans.
• Law Enforcement: Federal Bureau of Investigations, Drug Enforcement Administration, Bureau of Alcohol,
Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, state police and police.
• Firefighters and Rescue Organizations: Firefighters, Emergency Medical Technicians, Smoke Jumpers.
• National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
• Homeland Security: U.S. Coast Guard, Border Patrol and the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
• Heroes: Those who have been wounded or lost their lives in the line of duty.
An interactive forum allows visitors to post comments on subjects including their own personal military experience,
law enforcement, fire and rescue and current affairs.
Reception by the Military
Brigadier General Wilma L. Vaught, USAF (Ret) President of Women in Military Service Memorial Foundation
stated that GreatAmericans.com provides “…an opportunity to showcase and tell the stories of courage and
patriotism of the women serving in America’s armed forces…”
The Congressional Medal of Honor Foundation issued a statement that it is “pleased to partner with Great Americans
to bring these stories of amazing courage, valor, sacrifice and patriotism to its viewers…”
Creator and Founder
Matthew Daniels graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Dartmouth College in 1985. In 1993, he was awarded a Public
Interest Law Fellowship by the University of Pennsylvania Law School. He earned a doctorate in American politics
from Brandeis University in 2003.
Daniels credits his academic and professional success to the positive role models that inspired him to escape a
difficult childhood in New York City’s Spanish Harlem neighborhood and pursue higher education. His stated goal
in creating greatamericans.com is to provide visitors to the website with similar positive role models.
[1] http:/ / www. pr-inside.com/ print905971. htm
[2] http:// www. greatamericans. com/
[3] http:/ / video.foxnews. com/ v/ 3917593/ greatamericanscom
[4] http:/ / www. womenmilitaryaviators.org/ index. php?option=com_content&view=article&id=93:new-patriotism-channel-on-hulu&
catid=1:news& Itemid=50
External links
• http:/ / www. greatamericans.com
• http:/ / video. foxnews. com/ v/ 3917593/ greatamericanscom
Grid casting
Grid casting
Grid casting or gridcasting is a file and stream sharing system that cooperates transparently by using idle
bandwidth on a user's computer to deliver large scale live or on-demand broadcasts. Grid casting is used for the
purpose of improving performance, scalability, and cost efficiency, of delivering files and streams to end users
through the use of a media plug-in.
Grid casting is similar to peer-to-peer file sharing systems such as BitTorrent, but has the advantage of providing a
robust live or on-demand streaming solution. The original high bit-rate stream is split up into smaller bit-rate streams
that are shared through users computers, by incorporating a plug-in, that reconstructs the smaller streams back to the
original high bit-rate stream.
Grid casting constructs several smaller data streams a lower bit-rates from an original higher bit-rate stream. In grid
casting, none of the data streams are identical.
As an example, assume the live stream is a 400 kbit/s signal and the gridcasting solution constructs multiple data
streams at a size of 100 kbit/s. Now, an end user receiving any four of the different data streams at 100 kbit/s may
use these four data streams to construct the original live stream back to 400 kbits/s, and thus the movie can be played
in real time at the end user.
External links
• Gridcasting description by Octoshape
[1] http:/ / www. octoshape. com/ press/ pdf/ news/ id0604dw_dw. pdf
HD share
HD share
HD share
Type Subsidiary of Novelion Media
Founded 2008
Headquarters Lappeenranta, Finland
Owner Novelion Media
Slogan The best way to share your emotions !
HD share.tv
Type of site Video hosting service
Launched July 1, 2008
Current status Future
HD share is a video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips.
HD share was launched on 1 July 2008.
The site uses Flash Video to display content.
HD share is the first website to exclusively host high definition videos.
LOKI Group was acquired by Novelion Media Oy Ltd (Finland) on 26 March 2009.
All services are now supported by Novelion Media Oy Ltd.
From July 2008 to March 2009, LOKI Group was acting as SinCOM Video Services.
Technical Informations
HD share's video playback technology is based on Macromedia's Flash Player. This technology allows the site to
display videos with quality comparable to more established video playback technologies (such as Windows Media
Player, QuickTime and RealPlayer) that generally require the user to download and install a web browser plugin in
order to view video. Flash also requires a plug-in, but Adobe considers the Flash 7 plug-in to be present on about
90% of online computers.
Users can view videos in windowed mode or full screen mode and it is possible to
switch modes during playback without reloading it due to the full-screen function of Adobe Flash Player 9. The
video can also be played back with third-party media players such as GOM Player, gnash, VLC as well as some
ffmpeg-based video players.
Videos uploaded to HD share are not limited in length and have a maximum size of 4 Gigabytes.
The best format
that HD share can display is 1280*720.
• Video formats: Cinepak, DV, H.263, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, HuffYUV, Indeo, MJPEG, MPEG-1, MPEG-2,
MPEG-4 Part 2, RealVideo, Sorenson, Theora, WMV
• Audio formats: AAC, AC3, ALAC, AMR, FLAC, Intel Music Coder, Monkey's Audio, MP3, RealAudio,
Shorten, Speex, Vorbis, WMA
HD share
Interruption of services
On June 10, 2009, HD share announced that the site will be offline for an indefinite time "due to the increasing
illegal content posted". They are looking into ways to gain more control of submissions so they can restart the
Restart of operations
On September 29, 2010, HD share and Novelion Media announced the restart of the development operations and the
soon reopening of the website. The aim of the company is to become the best video portal where users can share
only quality videos (HD).
External links
• (English) HD share website
• (English) LOKI Group
[1] http:/ / www. hdshare. tv/
[2] http:/ / www. 20min. ch/ ro/news/ romandie/story/ 29033059
[3] http:// www. lenouvelliste. ch/ fr/news/ valais/ un-youtube-puissance-huit_9-93526
[4] Adobe Flash Player Version Penetration (http:// www.adobe.com/ products/ player_census/ flashplayer/version_penetration.html) Adobe
[5] http:// www. hdshare. tv/ upload
[6] http:// www. lokigroup.com/ products
[7] Announcement on HD share homepage (http:// www.hdshare. tv/ ), retrieved 2009-06-21
[8] http:// www. hdshare. tv/
[9] http:/ / www. hdshare. tv
[10] http:/ / www. lokigroup.com
Type Private
Industry Video ad serving
Founded August 2005
Headquarters Tel Aviv, Israel
http:/ / www.hiro-media.com
HIRO Media is a privately-held company founded in 2005, which provides a cross platform ad server and ad
decisioning system for professional online videos.
HIRO claim to allow TV advertising practices in the online advertising environment.
HIRO uses a survey system for determining demographic information about the users. This information enables TV
like demo targeting in the online environment.
HIRO's advertising platform supports multiple distribution method (download, streaming, P2P) and is cross platform
(broadband, mobile, IPTV etc.). The advertising platform was cited in a piece in Variety, the entertainment trade
publication, that discussed digital-rights management technologies in the platform that support legal peer-to-peer
distribution of content.
In November 2005 the company launched the world’s first free ad supported video download service with Jetix
Israel. In, 2006, HIRO – Media created the download feature for NBCU's dotcomedy.com
In 2007 Reshet TV
launched with HIRO media a download service which became the first free ad supported download service by a
On March 2008, HIRO launched a catch up tv service with ninemsn in Australia
Upon the launch
of the Australian drama "underbelly " series, ninemsn claimed the series was the highest rated of legal downloads in
Australian History
In 2009 HIRO expanded to support monetization of streaming video and launched services
globally with publisher as MGA in the US, Ynet, Reshet and HOT in Israel,
and ad networks in Europe.
Technology and Data
HIRO's online video ad server measures and aggregates targeting data and integrates it with campaign parameters
and video syndication demands.
HIRO system includes demographic survey. Several articles were published in Israel and Australia which raised
concerns over the usage of this information.
The company claims that the survey high acceptance rate (above 60%)
proves the users themselves are not concerned.
External links
• HIRO-Media Official website
[1] http:/ / www. hiro-media.com/
[2] "WSJ: NBC Unit To Enable Ad-Supported Downloads For P2P Networks" (http:/ / online. wsj. com/ article/ SB118669947011393568.
html?mod=technology_main_whats_news). The Wall Street Journal. 2007-08-10. .
[3] Jaafar, Ali (2007-10-19). "Variety: Israeli TV programs available online" (http:// www. variety.com/ article/ VR1117974366.
html?categoryid=14&cs=1& nid=2562). .
[4] "Sydney Morning Herald: TV takes the online challenge" (http:// www.smh. com. au/ news/ web/ tv-takes-the-online-challenge/2008/ 04/
17/1208025342224. html). The Sydney Morning Herald. 2008-04-17. .
[5] "marketing.com.au: Underbelly online downloads smash records" (http:/ / www.marketingmag.com. au/ news/ view/
underbelly-online-downloads-smash-records-1043). .
[6] "TheMarker: Ynet group to use HIRO video ad server platform" (http:/ / it. themarker.com/ tmit/ article/8878). .
[7] "bloggers: HIRO the company behind the survey screen" (http:/ / www.140.co.il/ blog/ tag/ ההרה-הההה/). .
Type Joint venture
Founded March 2007
Headquarters Los Angeles, California, United States
Area served United States and its overseas territories
Key people
Jason Kilar
NBCUniversal (32%)
Fox Entertainment Group (31%)
Disney-ABC Television Group (27%)
Providence Equity Partners (10%)
Slogan Anywhere, Anytime
Website http:/ / www.hulu. com
Alexa rank
231 (July 2011)
Type of site Video on demand
Available in English
Launched March 12, 2008
Hulu is a website and over-the-top (OTT) subscription service offering ad-supported on demand streaming video of
TV shows, movies, webisodes and other new media, trailers, clips, and behind-the-scenes footage from NBC, Fox,
ABC, and many other networks and studios. Hulu videos are currently offered only to users in the United States and
its overseas territories.
In order to ensure that no international users outside the US have access to the videos, Hulu
blocks many anonymous proxies, Amazon EC2 IP addresses and virtual private networks. Hulu provides video in
Flash Video format, including many films and shows that are available in 288p, 360p, 480p, and in some cases, 720
HD. Hulu also provides web syndication services for other websites including AOL, MSN, MySpace, Facebook,
Yahoo!, and Comcast's fancast.com.
Hulu is a joint venture of NBCUniversal (Comcast/General Electric), Fox Entertainment Group (News Corp) and
Disney-ABC Television Group (The Walt Disney Company),
with funding by Providence Equity Partners, which
made a US$100 million equity investment and received a 10% stake.
The name Hulu comes from two Mandarin Chinese words, hulu (simplified Chinese: 葫 芦 ; traditional Chinese:
葫 蘆 ; pinyin: húlú; Wade–Giles: hu-lu) "calabash, bottle gourd" and hulu (simplified Chinese: 互 录 ; traditional
Chinese: 互 錄 ; pinyin: hùlù; Wade–Giles: hu-lu) "interactive recording". The company blog explains:
In Mandarin, Hulu has two interesting meanings, each highly relevant to our mission. The primary
meaning interested us because it is used in an ancient Chinese proverb that describes the Hulu as the
holder of precious things. It literally translates to "gourd," and in ancient times, the Hulu was hollowed
out and used to hold precious things. The secondary meaning is "interactive recording." We saw both
definitions as appropriate bookends and highly relevant to the mission of Hulu.
The Hulu venture was announced in March 2007 with AOL, MSN, Facebook, and Yahoo! planned as "initial
distribution partners."
Jason Kilar was named the CEO in June.

The name Hulu was chosen in late August
2007, when the website went live, with an announcement only and no content. It invited users to leave their email
addresses for the upcoming beta test.
In October, Hulu began the private beta testing by invitation, and later
allowed users to invite friends.
Hulu launched for public access in the United States on March 12, 2008.
Hulu began an advertising campaign during NBC's broadcast of Super Bowl XLIII with an initial ad starring Alec
Baldwin titled "Alec in Huluwood."
The ad intended to humorously reveal "the shocking secret behind Hulu,"
portraying the site as being an "evil plot to destroy the world" by suggesting that Baldwin is really an alien in
Advertisements have since aired featuring Eliza Dushku, Seth MacFarlane and Denis Leary.
On April 30, 2009, Disney announced that it would join the venture, purchasing a 27% stake in Hulu.
At an industry conference on October 21, 2009, News Corporation Deputy Chairman Chase Carey stated that Hulu
"needs to evolve to have a meaningful subscription model as part of its business" and that it would likely start
charging for at least some content by 2010.
Carey's comment jibes with other News Corp. heads, including
Rupert Murdoch who has expressed a desire to charge for content with a number of on-line units.
Early in 2010, Hulu chief executive Jason Kilar said the service has made a profit in two quarters, and that the
company could top $100 million in revenue by summer 2010, more than its income for all of 2009. comScore says
monthly video streams reached 903 million in January 2010, over three times the figure for a year earlier,
second only to YouTube.
Hulu Plus, a monthly subscription service, was launched in beta (preview) on June 29, 2010 and officially launched
on November 17, 2010. Like the free version of Hulu, the video available on Hulu Plus also contains commercials.
However, it offers subscribers an expanded content library in the form of full seasons and more episodes of shows
already available through Hulu. Hulu Plus is available on a wide range of platforms, including any Blu-ray-linked
television made by Samsung, Sony, and Vizio, as well as all iOS 4 devices made by Apple, the gaming consoles
PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360, as well as the Roku Streaming Player and WD TV Media Player. As of December
2010, Hulu Plus was announced to coming soon to Blu-ray-enabled Panasonic and LG TVs, as well as the TiVo
Premiere set-top box.
As of January 17, 2011, Hulu has streamed its own in-house web series The Morning After, a light-hearted
pop-culture news show. It is produced by Hulu in conjunction with Jace Hall's HDFilms and stars Brian Kimmet and
Ginger Gonzaga. Producing the show is a first for the company, which in the past has been primarily a content
Hulu has been identified as a possible candidate for an IPO by 2013.
On August 16, 2010, a report revealed that
Hulu is planning an Initial Public Offering (IPO) which could value the U.S. video viewing site at more than $2

On June 21, 2011, The Wall Street Journal reported that an "unsolicited offer" caused Hulu to begin "weighing
whether to sell itself."
Hulu distributes video both on its own website and syndicates its hosting to other sites,
and allows users to embed
Hulu clips on their websites.
In addition to NBC, ABC and FOX programs and movies, Hulu carries shows from
other networks such as Current TV, PBS, USA Network, Bravo, Fuel TV, FX, NFL Network, Speed, Big Ten
Network, Syfy, Style, Sundance, E!, G4, Versus, A&E, Oxygen and online comedy sources such as Onion News
Each supplier gets 50 to 70 percent of advertising revenue resulting from its content.
In November 2009, Hulu also began to establish partnerships with record labels to host music videos and concert
performances on the site, including EMI in November 2009,
and Warner Music Group in December 2009.
In early March 2010, headlines were made when Viacom announced that they were pulling two of the website's most
popular shows,
The Daily Show and The Colbert Report, off Hulu.
The programs had been airing on Hulu
since late 2008.
A spokesman for Viacom noted: "In the current economic model, there is not that much in it for
us to continue at this time. If they can get to the point where the monetization model is better, then we may go back."
In February 2011, both shows were made available for streaming on Hulu once again.
Hulu on TV
Since Hulu's inception, consumers have been able to watch Hulu on their TVs by simply connecting a computer with
a streaming capable video card to the TV via HDMI or other connection. Additionally, the Hulu Plus service, fully
launched in November 2010, allows first-party access to Hulu from a variety of Blu-Ray linked TVs, integrated into
Internet-connected televisions, iOS devices, gaming consoles, and set-top boxes.
In late June 2010, it was announced that a version of Hulu would be available to the iTunes App Store for the iPad,
iPhone and iPod Touch running iOS4 or higher. Viewing the content on Hulu, however, requires a subscription.
On November 2010, Orb Networks announced the Orb TV
box which streams Hulu on the TV for free when
used in conjunction with a computer and a smartphone.
Hulu Desktop (Windows, Mac, and Linux)
Hulu has released a beta version of Hulu Desktop, a standalone program for watching Hulu programming without a
web browser. The program uses a 10-foot user interface and is designed to be compatible with existing computer
remote controls. It requires a Flash player and runs on Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. Hulu Desktop does not
currently support all content accessed through normal browser means.
The latest version of the software was released on February 10, 2011, bringing the version number to 0.9.14. The
new version includes both bug fixes and also support for the new Hulu Plus subscription service.
Hulu on Tablets
Hulu Plus, the monthly subscription package, unlocks the iPad application that allows streaming of some, but not all
Hulu content from Wi-Fi and Wireless data networks via a dedicated iPad app.
Hulu on Smartphones
Hulu Plus, the monthly subscription package, unlocks the iPhone and iPod application that allows streaming all Hulu
content from Wi-Fi and Wireless data networks via a dedicated app users may download freely. Hulu Plus is also
available on the Android platform.
Hulu includes programming from several sources, including:
Networks and channels
• Fox: FOX, FX, Fox News, Fox Business
• NBC Universal: NBC, CNBC, MSNBC, Syfy, Oxygen
• The Walt Disney Company: ABC, ABC Family
• The Biography Channel
• MTV Networks: MTV, VH1, Comedy Central, TV Land, Spike, Nickelodeon
• National Geographic Channel
Producers and distributors
• NBCUniversal
• Lionsgate
• Endemol
• American Broadcasting Company
• News Corporation
• Viacom
• Public Broadcasting Service
• Sony Pictures
• Time Warner
Currently, Hulu's content is only available in the United States with licensing reasons cited.
Hulu was planning on
launching in the U.K. and Ireland in September 2009, but as of April 2010 these had been abandoned for the
foreseeable future after failure to sign any content deals.
In July 2010, the Financial Times revealed that Hulu had
been working on plans for an international launch of Hulu Plus for several months, and had now identified the UK
and Japan as markets where its free website and subscription model could feasibly work.
Hulu chief executive
Jason Kilar expressed his belief that the US model could be replicated elsewhere, saying "We won't be satisfied until
this is a global service."
As of February 2009, Hulu has pulled its content from CBS Corp.'s TV.com, and from Boxee, a software firm that
makes Internet video suitable for viewing on a large screen, like a television connected to a PC.
However, Hulu
worked with PlayOn, which when combined with an Xbox 360, PS3, or certain other devices would allow playback
of Hulu content on a TV. Also, Boxee produced a workaround for Hulu support.
Additionally, not all content is available indefinitely. Full episodes of television shows rotate which are available,
showing anywhere from 1 to 10 of the latest episodes, depending on the show. Certain movies are also featured on
the site and available for viewing on a rotating basis. Once a full episode or movie has rotated off of the website,
users can subscribe to Hulu+ (premium subscription) to view episodes from all seasons.
[1] "25 Smartest People in TV" (http:/ / www.ew. com/ ew/ gallery/0,,20243951_16,00.html), Entertainment Weekly, Page 17 of 26; Accessed
October 23, 2009
[2] ""NBC Officially Owns 32 Percent of Hulu (Until Comcast Acquires It)" Page 17 of 26; Accessed February 14, 2010" (http:/ / www.
thebigmoney.com/ blogs/ hulucination/ 2010/ 02/ 03/ nbc-officially-owns-32-percent-hulu-until-comcast-acquires-it). Thebigmoney.com.
2010-02-03. . Retrieved 2010-12-29.
[3] "Hulu.com Site Info" (http:/ / www.alexa. com/ siteinfo/ hulu. com). Alexa Internet. . Retrieved 2011-07-12.
[4] "Hulu - Support" (http:/ / www.hulu. com/ support/ geofilter). . Retrieved February 15, 2010. "Hulu is a US-only service. Unfortunately, we
don't have international streaming rights for our content at this time. Our intention is to make Hulu's growing content lineup available
worldwide as quickly as possible. This requires working with the content owners to clear the rights for each show or film in each specific
region. It's a long-term project. We don't have a definite timeline yet, but we'll continue to work to make it happen"
[5] Kramer, Staci D. It's Official: Disney Joins News Corp., NBCU In Hulu; Deal Includes Some Cable Nets (http:// www.washingtonpost.
com/ wp-dyn/content/ article/ 2009/ 04/ 30/ AR2009043001853. html), April 30, 2009. Retrieved October 30, 2009.
[6] Brady, Shirley (2007-08-29). "NBC and Fox Jump Through Hulu Hoop" (http:// www.cable360.net/ competition/ web/ 25376. html).
Cable360.net. . Retrieved 2007-08-29.
[7] Kilar, Jason (2008-05-14). accessdate=2010-07-17 "What's in a Name?" (http:/ / blog. hulu. com/ 2008/ 05/ 13/ meaning-of-hulu/).
[8] "Hulu - About" (http:// www.hulu. com/about). Hulu. 2007-03-22. . Retrieved 2009-04-08.
[9] Hulu (2007-03-22). "NBC Universal and News Corp. Announce New Online Video Venture" (http:// www.hulu. com/ press/
new_video_venture.html). Press release. . Retrieved 2008-03-28.
[10] Nat Worden (2007-03-22). "Google's Still on Top" (http:// www.thestreet.com/ s/ googles-still-on-top/ newsanalysis/ technet/ 10346071.
html). TheStreet.com. . Retrieved 2007-08-29.
[11] Nat Worden (2007-08-29). "Google's New Foe: Hulu" (http://www. thestreet.com/ s/ googles-new-foe-hulu/newsanalysis/
mediaentertainment/ 10376991. html). TheStreet.com. . Retrieved 2007-08-29.
[12] Hulu (2007-10-29). "Hulu Debuts Via Private Beta" (http:// www. hulu. com/press/ private_beta.html). Press release. . Retrieved
[13] Hulu (2007-03-12). "Hulu.com Opens to Public" (http:/ / www.hulu.com/ press/ launch_press_release. html). Press release. . Retrieved
[14] "Hulu - Hulu TV Ads: Alec in Huluwood." http:/ / www. hulu. com/ watch/ 58538/ hulu-tv-ads-alec-in-huluwood.Accessed May 10, 2009.
[15] McCarthy, Caroline (January 26, 2009). "Hulu to shock the world with Super Bowl ad" (http:/ / news.cnet. com/
8301-13577_3-10150197-36.html). CNET News. . Retrieved 2009-02-02.
[16] Atkinson, Claire (2009-10-21). "Chase Carey: Hulu to Charge in 2010" (http:// www.broadcastingcable.com/ blog/
ADverse_Atkinson_on_Advertising/23941-Chase_Carey_Hulu_to_Charge_in_2010. php?nid=2228& source=title& rid=6454445).
Broadcasting & Cable. Reed Business Information. . Retrieved 2009-11-08.
[17] Sandoval, Greg (22 October 2009). "More signs Hulu subscription service is coming" (http:// news. cnet.com/
8301-31001_3-10381622-261.html). Media Maverick. CNET. . Retrieved 4 November 2009.
[18] Stelter, Brian; Stone, Brad (2010-04-05). "Hulu, the online-video hub, contemplates its future" (http:// seattletimes. nwsource.com/ html/
businesstechnology/2011517934_bthulufuture05.html?syndication=rss). The New York Times. . Retrieved 2010-04-27.
[19] Grotticelli, Michael (2010-04-26). "Hulu plans subscription service" (http:/ / broadcastengineering.com/ news/
hulu-plans-subscripiton-service-0426/ ). Broadcast Engineering. . Retrieved 2010-04-27.
[20] "Hulu Plus - Devices" (http:// www.hulu. com/ plus#devices). Hulu.com. . Retrieved 2010-12-29.
[21] Liz Shannon Miller (2011-01-18). "New Series The Morning After Nudges Hulu Into Production" (http:// gigaom.com/ video/
new-series-the-morning-after-nudges-hulu-into-production/). GigaOM. . Retrieved 2011-05-02.
[22] "6 Reasons Groupon's Rejection Of Google Is Great For The Universe" (http:// www.businessinsider. com/ google-groupon-deal).
Businessinsider.com. 2010-12-10. . Retrieved 2010-12-29.
[23] U.S. video viewing site Hulu plans an IPO: report (http:// news. yahoo.com/s/ nm/ 20100816/ tc_nm/ us_hulu_ipo)
[24] By Dealbook (2010-08-16). "Hulu Is Said to Be Ready for an I.P.O" (http:// dealbook.blogs. nytimes. com/ 2010/ 08/ 16/
hulu-is-said-to-be-ready-for-an-i-p-o/). Dealbook.blogs.nytimes.com. . Retrieved 2010-12-29.
[25] VASCELLARO (2011-06-21). "Website Hulu Considers Sale" (http:// online.wsj. com/ article/
SB10001424052702303936704576400133483416612.html). The Wall Street Journal. . Retrieved 2011-06-21.
[26] Rebecca Dana and Emily Steel (2008-03-11). "Can Hulu Find Its Mojo With Viewers?" (http:// online. wsj. com/ article/
SB120519822483125987.html?mod=technology_main_promo_left). The Wall Street Journal. . Retrieved 2008-03-19.
[27] "ABC to offer shows on Hulu" (http:// www.thrfeed.com/ 2009/ 04/ abc-to-offer-shows-on-hulu.html). The Live Feed. April 30, 2009. .
[28] "Hulu, EMI Strike Deal for Music Videos, Concerts" (http:/ / www.pcmag. com/article2/ 0,2817,2356071,00. asp). PC Magazine.
November 18, 2009. . Retrieved 24 December 2009.
[29] "Hulu, Warner Music Sign Deal for Music Content" (http:/ / www.pcmag.com/ article2/0,2817,2357529,00. asp). PC Magazine. December
23, 2009. . Retrieved 24 December 2009.
[30] New York Daily News article: " Comedy Central yanks 'The Daily Show' and 'The Colbert Report' off Hulu (http:// www. nydailynews.
com/ entertainment/2010/ 03/ 03/ 2010-03-03_comedy_central_pulls_daily_show_and_colbert_off_hulu.html)."
[31] Multichannel News article: " Dauman: Viacom Could Return To Hulu (http:// www.multichannel. com/ article/
[32] Sandoval, Greg (2010-06-29). "Hulu unveils $9.99 premium service" (http:// news. cnet.com/ 8301-31001_3-20009174-261.html). CNET.
. Retrieved 2010-07-27.
[33] http:// new.orb.com/ en/ orb-tv/features. html
[34] November 19, 2010  (2010-11-19). "Orb TV brings Hulu to the TV, minus the fee | Technology | Los Angeles Times" (http:// latimesblogs.
latimes.com/ technology/ 2010/ 11/ orb-tv-brings-hulu-to-the-tv-minus-the-fee.html). Latimesblogs.latimes.com. . Retrieved 2010-12-29.
[35] Barnett, Emma. Hulu 'abandons UK plans' after broadcaster talks collapse (http:// www. telegraph.co. uk/ technology/ news/ 7639763/
Hulu-abandons-UK-plans-after-broadcaster-talks-collapse.html), The Daily Telegraph, April 27, 2010. Retrieved April 28, 2010.
[36] Garrahan, Matthew. Hulu eyes launching global pay platform (http:// www.ft. com/ cms/ s/ 0/ f01d42b0-8ade-11df-bead-00144feab49a.
html), Financial Times, July 8, 2010. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
[37] Laughlin, Andrew. Hulu 'puts UK launch back on agenda' (http:// www. digitalspy. co.uk/ digitaltv/ news/ a240992/
hulu-puts-uk-launch-back-on-agenda.html), Digital Spy, July 9, 2010. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
[38] Holmes, Elizabeth (2009-02-19). "Hulu Withdraws its content from TV.com, Boxee" (http:// blogs. wsj.com/ digits/ 2009/ 02/ 19/
hulu-withdraws-its-content-from-tvcom-boxee/). Wall Street Journal. . Retrieved 2009-02-19.
[39] Ronen, Avner (2009-04-25). "new boxee version for Ubuntu, update for Mac and Apple TV" (http:// blog. boxee.tv/ 2009/ 04/ 25/
new-boxee-version-for-ubuntu-update-for-mac-and-apple-tv/ ). boxee blog. . Retrieved 2009-05-10.Hulu also tries to become international and
all the content will be available worldwide. Hulu says that has some legalities involved so it will take some time. We estimate that it will be
available for the visitors in the mid of the year 2010.
External links
• Hulu official website (http:// www.hulu. com)
• "With Hulu, Older Audiences Lead the Way" (http:/ / online. wsj. com/ article/ SB123387543162854319.
html?mod=WSJ_TimesEMEA), The Wall Street Journal
Commercial? Mixed
Type of site Viral content sharing, social network service
Registration free, required to play many full-length songs
Owner News Corp.
Created by Community
Current status Defunct
The online service imeem was a social media Web site where users interacted with each other by streaming,
uploading and sharing music and music videos. However, after MySpace acquired the service, it was shut down, in
The company was founded in 2003 by Dalton Caldwell (formerly of VA Linux) and Jan Jannink (formerly of
Napster), and many of its core engineering team came from the original Napster file-sharing service.
The company
takes its name from "meme", a term coined by biologist Richard Dawkins to describe the ideas and cultural
phenomena that spread as if they had a life of their own.
Helping to pioneer the free, advertising-supported model for online music, imeem permitted consumers to legally
upload, stream and share music and music playlists for free with the costs supported by advertising. In 2007, imeem
became the first-ever online music site to secure licenses from all four U.S. major music labels to offer their music
catalogs for free streaming and sharing on the web.
The company also created the web's first embeddable music and video playlists. People could use imeem's widgets to
embed songs and playlists from imeem virtually anywhere on the web, including on their MySpace and Facebook
profiles or on their personal blogs.
Headquartered in San Francisco's South of Market district (SoMa),
imeem had additional offices in New York and
Los Angeles. The company's investors included Morgenthaler Ventures and Warner Music Group.
On December 8, 2009, imeem was bought out by MySpace Music in a firesale for an undisclosed amount. However,
it is stated to have been less than $1 million.
Business model
Revenue generation at imeem was through a combination of direct and indirect advertising sales, sales of MP3
downloads, ringtones and concert tickets, and subscription revenue from premium services. The bulk of its revenue
came from direct advertising sales; advertisers who have run campaigns with imeem include
TheTruth.com/American Legacy Foundation,
Kia Motors,

and Dr Pepper,

among others.
The company was one of the pioneers of the ad-supported streaming music model.
In 2007, imeem became the
first-ever online music site to secure licenses from all 4 major music labels to offer their music catalogs for free
streaming and sharing on the web.
Under this model, artists and labels were paid a share of imeem's ad revenue in proportion to the popularity of their
music on imeem, and had the right to register their content and determine how (or whether) that content is available
on the site or through its embeddable widgets.
This business model was made possible by imeem's proprietary content fingerprinting and digital registry
technology. Initially, imeem licensed this technology from SNOCAP, the digital rights and content management
startup founded by Napster creator Shawn Fanning.
In 2008, imeem acquired SNOCAP and its technology
imeem continued to operate the SNOCAP digital registry, and used the technology acquired from
SNOCAP to power its ad-supported streaming music service.
The company provided two main services: imeem.com, where people could discover, stream and share music and
music videos for free, and imeem Mobile, an Internet radio service for mobile devices. In addition, the company
offered a premium service, imeem VIP, that gave people access to additional features on the imeem site.
Registered users of the site could stream and share millions of songs and tens of thousands of music videos free of
charge, with the costs for licensing and streaming supported by advertising on the site and on imeem Mobile.
One of imeem's key features was the playlist. Users could create personal playlists, via a "Create Music Playlist"
page, with music they had uploaded themselves or with music and video already available on the site. They could
publish and share these playlists on imeem, where they could be played by, shared with, commented on, or tagged by
other users.
Visitors could also share music, videos and playlists beyond imeem,
either by embedding imeem players into
external sites.
imeem Mobile
With the free cell phone application imeem Mobile, users could discover, purchase and enjoy music on their mobile
device. It was available as a free download to users on the Android and iPhone/iPod touch platforms.
Users could create custom Internet radio stations based on their favorite artists, discover new music through
personalized recommendations and buy DRM-free MP3 downloads directly onto their mobile device (on Android,
downloads are from the Amazon MP3 application; on the iPhone and iPod touch, downloads are from the iTunes
The app also enabled people to browse and stream their personal imeem music libraries to their mobile device.
People could upload up to 20,000 songs of the music they own directly to imeem.com, and then access that music
through their mobile devices.
To upload more than 100 songs, users had to subscribe to one of imeem's premium
The company introduced imeem Mobile on the Android platform in October 2008,
and launched it for iPhone and
iPod touch users in May 2009. At launch, it was the only streaming music application on the Android platform,
which in turn led to it being one of the most popular applications installed on Android devices.
In June 2009,
imeem Mobile crossed a milestone of over 1 million installs on the Android and iPhone platforms.
The application received several awards, including a 2009 Crunchie Award for Best Mobile Application,
Editor's Choice award from the blog AndroidGuys,
and an award for 'Best Streaming Music App' in the 2009
Android Network Awards.
imeem VIP
In 2008, imeem launched a premium imeem VIP service that gave subscribers access to additional site features,
most prominently the ability to upload more music (over 100 songs), and to watch videos up to 1080p in resolution.
There were three imeem VIP subscription tiers. * The imeem "VIP" plans started at US$$9.99 per year for the "VIP
Lite" plan, which gave subscribers access to streaming songs through the VIP Player, and 480p video (up from 360p
for basic users). The "VIP" subscription option allowed uploading of up to 1,000 songs and viewing of 720p video,
for $29.99 per year. And the "VIP Plus" subscription allowed uploading of up to 20,000 songs and viewing of 1080p
video, for $99.99 per year

Early history: 2003-2005
The imeem service has changed drastically since its original inception as an messaging application that let people
communicate by online chat, blogging, instant messaging and file sharing.
The service was billed as a
"distributed, peer-to-peer, social network".
Founder Dalton Caldwell began working on what would become the imeem messaging application during
Thanksgiving weekend in 2003. Initially, he worked on the software from his home. In 2004, imeem moved into
offices in downtown Palo Alto's 285 Hamilton building,
with Caldwell, Jannink and a small team of engineers
continuing work on the software.
The company first unveiled its software in February 2005 at the DEMO conference
and formally launched it that
When imeem first launched, to use the service, users were required to download and install the desktop messaging
and file-sharing software; the imeem Web site merely existed as a means for users to register and download the
client. Though originally designed for messaging, it was the file-sharing function that took off. The client software
supported the service's distributed database model: Every imeem client on the network had a database that would
generate and store references to media content shared on the network; this system would accelerate access to content
deemed to be close to the user. The service's media-sharing was peer-to-peer – if a user shared photos or a podcast,
then the data would only exist on the client database network; users who wanted to view the actual content would
access it by peering directly with the publisher.
In March 2006, imeem re-launched at the South by Southwest (SXSW) conference in Austin, Texas, with a new
focus on enabling people to interact through the imeem.com website, using media (photos, videos, music) to express
their personalities and interests. Timed to coincide with the re-launch, imeem introduced new features enabling users
to upload and play music and video on the site.
In September 2006, imeem introduced embeddable Adobe Flash-based playlists that gave people the ability to take
music and video playlists they created (or found) on the site and embed them virtually anywhere on the web. The
company's players quickly became popular with consumers using MySpace and other social networks, giving them a
way to customize & personalize their profiles with music.
As a result, imeem quickly gained traction, with the site's traffic growing to 10 million unique monthly users by the
end of 2006. By March 2007, imeem's monthly traffic reached over 16 million unique monthly users.
In February 2007, MySpace took steps to limit the posting of imeem content on its site: any updates or comments
with "imeem" even mentioned in them were removed upon posting. However, MySpace stopped blocking imeem in
In March 2007, imeem announced it was partnering with SNOCAP,
the digital rights and content management
startup founded by Napster creator Shawn Fanning, to enable legal uploading, streaming and sharing of music on
imeem, utilizing SNOCAP's content fingerprinting and digital registry technology. The goal was to provide a way
for consumers to upload and share music with their friends, for free, and to do so in a way where label and artists can
both make money and have greater control over where and how their music was available.
The partnership marked imeem's move to an ad-supported model, in which consumers could freely stream and share
music and video content with the costs supported by advertising. Under this model, artists and labels are paid a share
of the site's ad revenue in proportion to the popularity of their music on imeem, and have the right to register their
content and determine whether that content is available on the site or through its embeddable widgets.
Ultimately, the imeem messaging and file-sharing application had proven to be something of a resource hog for
power-users, since the database could grow to large proportions just by associating with a few individuals who were
sharing a lot of content. This messaging product was ultimately phased out; the site became entirely Web-based
beginning in June 2007. While this distributed model was interesting and received positive press,

it proved to
be difficult to attract many users since the only way to participate was to download the imeem client software. Over
time, imeem integrated many of the client's features into its website and the innovative distributed database model
was been centralized.
Throughout the first half of 2007, imeem had negotiated with the major labels to secure licenses for this new model.
Warner Music Group and imeem announced a licensing agreement for imeem's new Web-based service in July
followed by Sony Music Entertainment
and EMI Music
in September. In December 2007, imeem
signed a licensing agreement with Universal Music Group,
becoming the first online music service to partner with
all four major music labels to let people legally stream and share music for free online.
On January 28, 2008, imeem announced that it was acquiring the music locker service Anywhere.FM.
On February 1, 2008, imeem acquired SNOCAP. It had already been making extensive use of SNOCAP's audio
fingerprinting technology and music database.
As part of the acquisition, SNOCAP's chief operating officer, Ali
Aydar (ex-Napster), joined imeem.
On March 24, 2008
imeem announced the launch of a developer's platform that will permit third-party developers
to interact with imeem data.
In April 2008, imeem received a new round of funding from Sequoia Capital.
In October 2008, imeem launched imeem Mobile,
a free mobile music application. However, on the 22nd of that
month, the company laid off 25% of its staff.
The company's troubles continued into 2009, as Warner Music wrote down its entire $15 million dollar investment in
It seemed possible the company could close in April 2009, but it was able to renegotiate deals with its major label
and subsequently found enough new investors to continue service.
Sources told TechCrunch that
imeem raised $6 million in this most recent funding round,
with Morgenthaler Ventures and Warner Music Group
among those investing.
The company launched imeem Mobile for the iPhone and iPod touch in May 2009.
In June 2009, imeem Mobile
crossed a milestone of over 1 million installs on the Android and iPhone platforms.
On June 25, 2009, imeem announced that it was removing all user-uploaded video and photos from the site.
move, and the lack of advance notice, was unpopular with many users.
In October 2009, imeem and Google announced the integration of links to music on imeem within Google search
results; imeem was one of several online music companies involved in such efforts.
On December 8, 2009, MySpace (owned by News Corporation) acquired imeem, and angered many imeem users
when the new parent company closed down the beleaguered service on the same day, redirecting all imeem traffic to
MySpace Music. Furthermore, MySpace social network did not pay artists or labels the money still owed to them by
imeem for music streaming.
The controversial closure was criticized as a sign that MySpace was out of touch
with the times.
MySpace, on December 22, 2009, assured imeem.com users that their playlists are safe and that
they are currently duplicating every users' playlist and will migrate them on to MySpace Music as soon as
MySpace assured that features and functionality that users were used to at imeem would soon find their
way onto MySpace, and complement the existing platform alongside free full-song streaming, artist profiles, music
videos, and more.
MySpace will email imeem users the instructions on how to claim their playlists.
January 15, 2010, MySpace began allowing users to import imeem playlists.
However, songs that are currently
not available via MySpace Music were not converted over, and there was no means provided to even recover the
names of the missing tracks. Additionally, user "favorites" metadata was not able to be carried over, with the result
that users who depended upon their favorites lists instead of normal playlists were unable to retrieve their music.
Other complaints include incorrect artist info, garbled tracks, and an increase in between-songs advertising.
The back-end software for imeem's services was primarily written in C#. While most of the front-end Web servers
ran under Microsoft Windows, some used the Linux operating system. The Web site heavily used Ajax programming
and Flash animation.
Audio streams were delivered as 128 kbps-quality MPEG-2 Audio Layer III (MP3) format. Video was encoded in
the Sorenson Video codec at >700kbps, in the Flash Video (FLV) container format, with resolution resized to 400
pixels wide and preserving its aspect ratio, and with embedded mp3 audio at 96 kbps. While the video quality and
resolution was significantly better
than other video sites at that time (YouTube, for example, used 300kbps
the late-arriving video sharing aspect of imeem was largely eclipsed by the original audio sharing
component. In 2008 imeem upgraded the video quality further and became one of the first media sharing sites to
offer video encoded with the MPEG 4 H.264 codec and at the original source resolution.
The original imeem client software conducted most of its network activity using an encrypted protocol, making it
difficult to monitor user activity. Thus, conversations via the client's IM functionality and group chats were
encrypted and only visible to participants. On startup, the application validated with a central server. This ensured
that unauthorized clients could not connect and run malicious exploits (such as for monitoring network traffic or
spoofing identities) against the network. Software updates were also delivered via the client and authenticated before
they were installed. The company's move to a Web-based file-sharing business model in 2007 made most of these
considerations moot.
Copyright infringement lawsuit
Warner Music Group announced on July 12, 2007 that it had dropped its copyright infringement lawsuit against
imeem by agreeing to license its music and video content to the site for a percentage of imeem's advertising revenue.
Financial details were not disclosed. Under the agreement, imeem could carry music and videos from all of the
record company's artists. Warner also released financial statements indicating that it invested $15 million into
Meems (groups)
Users of imeem could link to each other through topic groups (which were originally called meems), based on
common interests. Some meems were created by imeem itself, while others were user-generated. Media content
could be placed in custom profile pages and topic groups, as well as in browseable content channels and charts.
Meems could serve as basic online communities for artists, bands, clubs, films, schools, festivals, concert tours,
friends, and sports enthusiasts. A late redesign of the site replaced most of the "meem" references with the familiar
word "group". Early on, it had been possible for links to be made between groups which had related subject matter,
but this feature had only been implemented in the original client software. After the transition to the Web-only
service model, it became impossible for users to add (or even remove) such links, although official imeem-created
groups sometimes had links added at creation time, by an administrative means not available to subscribers.
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video_quality_around_the_inernets). Illectro.imeem.com. . Retrieved 2011-02-20.
[61] "Warner Music has $15M investment in imeem" (http:// www.thedeal. com/ techconfidential/the-note/ the-note/
warner-music-filing-reveals-15. php). TheDeal.com. 2008-08-08. . Retrieved 2008-08-11.
External links
• imeem official website (http:// www. imeem.com) (defunct)
• SNOCAP site (http:/ / www. snocap. com)
Founded March 2006
Headquarters ,  United States
Owner AOL Warner Bros. Television
Website http:/ / www. in2tv. com
Type of site Video on demand
Available in English
In2TV was a website offering ad-supported streaming video of classic TV shows in the USA only [1].
The main appeal of the service was that it made available numerous old shows which were rarely, if ever, aired on
broadcast television. The downsides of the service were that the selection of shows were largely limited to those
owned by Warner Bros, and some of the shows did not have every episode available to watch. Another downside
was that the bandwidth was limited. A show would go to commercial break periodically, however, it is not always
able to return. Many complaints to AOL Video and In2TV were that, after spending time watching a program, they
were unable to finish the program, due to the commercial interruption.
The In2TV was announced in November 2005 as a collaboration of AOL and Warner Bros. Television. The service
launched in March 2006 and was later integrated with AOL Video in December 2006.
When In2TV first launched the shows were categorized into channels. These included LOL (Comedy), Drama Rama
(Drama), What a Rush (Action), Vintage TV (Classic), Heroes Horror (Sci-Fi/Horror), Toon Topia TV (Cartoons)
and Pilot Theater (first episodes).
In2TV also included bonus channels featuring original content based on the TV shows featured on the service. These
channels included:
• Starplay, featuring stars before they were stars
• Betcha Didn't Know!, trivia about top TV stars
• TV Karaoke, theme-song sing-alongs
• Where Are They Now, updates on stars of past series
• Rock 'n Flix, musical clips from movies
After the move to AOL video in December 2006, the channels were dropped and the shows were put into more
generic categories such as Animation, Comedy, Drama, Reality, Sci-Fi, Secret Agent, Urban and en Espanol.
External links
• Official In2TV site
[1] http:/ / help.aol.com/ AIMhelp/ dynamickc. do?externalId=http--helpchannelsaolcom-kjumpadparticleId221124&sliceId=&
command=show& forward=nonthreadedKC&kcId=http--helpchannelsaolcom-kjumpadparticleId221124
[2] http:// television. aol. com/ in2tv
Internet television
"Net TV" redirects here. For other uses, see Net (disambiguation).
Internet television (otherwise known as Internet TV, or Online TV, and not to be confused with Web television or
Internet protocol television (IPTV)), is a television service distributed via the Internet. Some Internet television is
known as catch-up TV. It has become very popular with services such as BBC iPlayer, 4oD, ITV Player (also STV
Player and UTV Player) and Demand Five in the United Kingdom; Hulu and Revision3 in the United States;
Nederland 24 in the Netherlands; ABC iview and Australia Live TV in Australia; SeeSaw; RTÉ Player in Ireland;
and Tivibu in Turkey. See List of Internet television providers.
Greek internet television Tvonline
created by Film Director Angelos Diamantoulakis, is the first web tv in world.
It was built in 2005.


Internet television allows the users to choose the program or the television show they want to watch from an archive
of programs or from a channel directory. The two forms of viewing Internet television are streaming the content
directly to a media player or simply downloading the program to the user's computer. With the "TV on Demand"
market growing, these on-demand websites or applications are essential for major television broadcasters. For
example, the BBC iPlayer brings in users which stream more than one million videos per week, with one of the
BBC's headline shows The Apprentice taking over three percent to five percent of the UK's internet traffic due to
people watching the first episode on the BBC iPlayer. Availability of online TV content continues to grow. As an
example, in Canada as of May 2011 there were more than 600 TV shows available for free streaming, including
several major titles like Survivor, and The Daily Show with Jon Stewart.
Every night the use of on-demand television peaks at around 10 pm,
Most providers of the service provide several
different formats and quality controls so that the service can be viewed on many different devices. Some services
now offer a HD service along side their SD, streaming is the same but offers the quality of HD to the device being
used, as long as it is using a HD screen. During Peak times the BBC iPlayer transmits 12 GB (gigabytes) of
information per second.
Over the course of a month the iPlayer sends 7 PB (petabytes) of information.
Before 2006, most catch-up services used peer-to-peer (P2P) networking, in which users downloaded an application
and data would be shared between the users rather than the service provider giving the now more commonly used
streaming method. Now most service providers have moved away from the P2P systems and are now using the
streaming media. The old P2P service was selected because the existing infrastructure could not handle the
bandwidth necessary for centralized streaming distribution. Some consumers didn't like their upload bandwidth
being consumed by their video player, which partially motivated the rollout of centralized streaming distribution.
Internet television
Market competitors
Many providers of internet-television services exist including conventional television stations that have taken
advantage of the internet as a way to continue showing programmes after they have been broadcast often advertised
as "on-demand" and "catch-up" services. Today, almost every major broadcaster around the world is operating an
internet-television platform.
Examples include the BBC, which introduced the BBC iPlayer on 25 June 2008 as an
extension to its "RadioPlayer" and already existing streamed video-clip content, and Channel 4 that launched 4oD
("4 on Demand") in November 2006 allowing users to watch recently shown content. Most internet-television
services allow users to view content free of charge; however, some content is for a fee. Other internet-television
providers include Been TV
Australia Live TV
SeeSaw, ITV player, TVCatchup, Demand Five, Eurosport
player, iSTATION TV and Sky Go.
The ability to access internet television is heavily dependent on internet-streaming speeds. This limits adoption in
many countries, as broadband penetration is limited; in the European Union only twenty-five percent of consumers
had access to Broadband internet in 2010.
Using an Internet service provider, something which is common in
many homes in the developed world, the user simply enters their chosen website address. For example,
bbc.co.uk/iplayer or http:// video. pbs. org . If the user has no select preference of streaming service, the name of a
chosen television programme can be inputted into a search engine followed by a phrase such as "online streaming" or
"watch on the net". Accessing television on the internet has never been so simple, due to this usability of streaming
services has had to be improved to maintain the simplicity of the process. Upon selection of a programme and
website, the user may have to wait a few seconds or minutes to allow their desired programme to stream. A process
called buffering allows the programme to run in one smooth showing as opposed to stopping and starting to allow
the programme to stream.
Controlling content on the Internet presents a challenge for most providers; to try to ensure that a user is allowed to
view content such as programmes with age certificates, providers use methods such as parental controls that allows
restrictions to be placed upon the use and access of certificated material. The BBC iPlayer makes use of a parental
control system giving parents the option to "lock" content, meaning that a password would have to be used to access
it. Flagging systems can be used to warn a user that content may be certified or that it may be post watershed for a
programme. Honor systems are also used where users are asked for their dates of birth or age to verify if they are
able to view certain content.
An archive is a collection of information and media much like a library or interactive-storage facility. It is a
necessity for an on-demand media service to maintain archives so that users can watch programmes that have already
been aired on standard-broadcast television. However, these archives can vary from a few weeks to months to years,
depending on the curator and what programme it is.
For example, the BBC iPlayer's programmes are in general available for up to seven days after their original
This so called "seven-day catch-up" model seems to become an industry standard for
internet-television services in many countries around the world.
However, some programmes may only be
available for shorter periods. Others, such as Panorama are available for an extended period because it is a factual
programme and is highly watched and so is worth the extra money needed to host it for longer.
In contrast, 4oD channel 4's on-demand service
offers many of its much-older programmes as well that were
originally aired years ago. An example of this is the comedy The IT Crowd where users can view the full series on
Internet television
the internet player. The same is true for other hit channel 4 comedies such as The Inbetweeners and Black Books.
Having an extensive archive, however, can bring problems along with benefits. Large archives are expensive to
maintain, server farms and mass storage is needed along with ample bandwidth to transmit it all. Vast archives can
be hard to catalogue and sort so that it is accessible to users.
The benefits in most cases outweigh these problems. This is because large archives bring in far more users who, in
turn, watch more media, leading to a wider audience base and more advertising revenue. Large archives will also
mean the user will spend more time on that website rather than a competitors, leading to starvation of demand for the
Broadcasting rights
Broadcasting rights vary from country to country and even within provinces of countries. These rights govern the
distribution of copyrighted content and media and allow the sole distribution of that content at any one time.
An example of programmes only being aired in certain countries is BBC iPlayer. Users can only stream content from
the BBC iPlayer from Britain because the BBC only allows free use of their product for users within the UK because
those users pay a television license to fund part of the BBC.
Broadcasting rights can also be restricted to allowing a broadcaster rights to distribute that content for a limited time.
Channel 4's online service 4oD can only stream shows created in the US by companies such as HBO for thirty days
after they are aired on one of the Channel 4 group channels. This is to boost DVD sales for the companies who
produce that media.
Some companies pay very large amounts for broadcasting rights with sports and US sitcoms usually fetching the
highest price from UK-based broadcasters.
Profits and costs
With the exception of Internet-connectivity costs many online-television channels or sites are free. These sites
maintain this free-television policy through the use of video advertising, short commercials and banner
advertisements may show up before a video is played. An example of this is on the abc.com catch-up website; in
place of the advertisement breaks on normal television, a short thirty-second advertisement is played. This short
advertising time means that the user does not get fed up and money can be made on advertising, to allow web
designers to offer quality content which would otherwise cost. This is how online television makes a profit.
Technologies used for Internet television
The Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV (HbbTV) consortium of industry companies (such as SES Astra, Humax,
Philips, and ANT Software) is currently promoting and establishing an open European standard (called HbbTV) for
hybrid set-top boxes for the reception of broadcast and broadband digital television and multimedia applications with
a single-user interface.
Current providers of internet television use various technologies to provide a service such as peer-to-peer (P2P)
technologies, VoD systems, and live streaming. BBC iPlayer makes use of the Adobe Flash Player to provide
streaming-video clips and other software provided by Adobe for its download service. CNBC, Bloomberg Television
and Showtime use live-streaming services from BitGravity to stream live television to paid subscribers using a
standard http protocol. DRM (digital rights management) software is also incorporated into many internet-television
services. Sky Go has software that is provided by Microsoft to prevent content being copied. Internet television is
also cross platform, the Sky Player service has been expanded to the Xbox 360 on October 27 and to Windows
Media Center and then to Windows 7 PCs on November 19. The BBC iPlayer is also available through Virgin
Media's on-demand service and other platforms such as FetchTV and games consoles including the Wii and the
Internet television
PlayStation 3. Other Internet-television platforms include mobile platforms such as the iPhone and iPod Touch,
Nokia N96, Sony Ericsson C905 and many other mobile devices.
Samsung TV has also announced their plans to provide streaming options including 3D Video on Demand through
their Explore 3D service.
Website vs. applications
The main problem with on-demand video services that are applications on desktop computers is getting users to
download them and register. It is far easier for a user to simply log onto a webpage without registering than to have
to spend time registering and downloading often large programs.
However, applications are more powerful in that they can manage the downloading of content far better and these
programs can usually be watched offline for thirty days after downloading.
Stream quality
Stream quality refers to the quality of the image and audio transferred from the servers of the distributor to the home
screen on a user.
Higher-quality video such as video in high definition (720p+) requires higher bandwidth and faster connection
speeds. The general accepted kbit/s download rate needed to stream high-definition video that has been encoded with
H.264 is 3500, where as standard-definition television can range from 500 to 1500 kbit/s depending on the resolution
on screen.
In the UK, the BBC iPlayer deals with the largest amount of traffic yet it offers HD content along with SD content.
As more people get internet connections which can deal with streaming HD video over the internet, the BBC iPlayer
has tried to keep up with demand and pace. However, as streaming HD video takes around 1.5 gb of data per hour of
video it took a lot of investment by the BBC to implement this on such a large scale.
For users which do not have the bandwidth to stream HD video or even high-SD video which requires 1500 kbit/s,
the BBC iPlayer offers lower bitrate streams which in turn leads to lower video quality. This makes use of an
adaptive bitrate stream so that if the users bandwidth suddenly drops, iPlayer will lower its streaming rate to
compensate for this.
This diagnostic tool offered on the BBC iPlayer site measures a user's streaming capabilities and bandwidth for
Although competitors in the UK such as 4oD, ITV Player and Demand Five have not yet offered HD streaming, the
technology to support it is fairly new and widespread HD streaming is not an impossibility. The availability of
Channel 4 and Five programs on YouTube is predicted to prove incredibly popular as series such as Skins, Green
Wing, The X Factor and others become available in a simple, straightforward format on a website which already
attracts millions of people every day.
Overview of Platforms and availability
Internet television
availability Website-based
TV set
Set Top
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Beeplayer Wii, PS3 Samsung,
Media On
Tivibu Argela TR
Yes Yes Yes Yes
Pending None Ttnet on
Sky Go Sky UK & Ireland Yes Yes Yes Yes Xbox 360
Yes Yes Yes Yes
PS3 Virgin
Media On
VuNow Verismo Networks World
iPad Samsung,
4OD Channel 4 UK & Ireland
Yes Yes Yes
PS3 Virgin
Media On
SeeSaw Arqiva UK Yes Yes Yes
Google, Intel, Sony ??
Universal, ABC,..
Yes Yes Yes Yes
RTÉ Ireland
Yes Yes
Ireland/Worldwide Yes
TV3 Ireland
Yes Yes
Internet television
[1] http:/ / www. tvonline. gr
[2] Greek Newspaper "Eleftherotypia" (http:// www.tvonline. gr/eleytherotypia.jpg)
[3] Tv Show "Double Click" in Greece (http:// www. youtube.com/ watch?v=-HKUYfYgh2g)
[4] Greek Newspaper "Eleftheros Typos" (http:// www. tvonline. gr/e-tipos1.pdf)
[5] 'Streaming Guide' List of Online TV Shows in Canada (http:// www. streaming-guide.com/ ), 05/16/2011 'Streaming Guide' List of Online
TV Shows in Canada.
[6] BBC iPlayer 'risks overloading the internet' (http:// technology. timesonline. co.uk/ tol/ news/ tech_and_web/ article3716781.ece), The
Sunday Times, 04/10/2008 News article regarding BBC iPlayer internet traffic.
[7] BBC iPlayer – Stats and Facts (http:// www. bluestagstudio. co.uk/ blog-3-BBCiPlayer_StatsandFacts), 12/05/2009 Brief blog style entry on
BBC iPlayer traffic per month.
[8] iPlayer uncovered: What powers the BBC's epic creation? (http:/ / crave.cnet.co.uk/ software/0,39029471,49302215,00. htm), 08/05/2009
CNet interview with iPlayer boss Anthony Rose, mostly on iPlayer 3.0
[9] Internet television platforms around the world (http:// www. international-television.org/ itve/ ) International TV Explorer
[10] http:// www. beentv. com
[11] http:/ / www. australialivetv. com
[12] "Broadband penetration in Europe – Google Public Data Explorer" (http:// www. google. com/ publicdata/ explore?ds=l6t8doc0rch3u_&
ctype=l&strail=false&nselm=h& met_y=i132&scale_y=lin& ind_y=false& rdim=country_group&idim=country_group:eu&
tstart=1167609600000& tunit=M& tlen=36&hl=en& dl=en& iconSize=0.5& uniSize=0. 035). Google.com. . Retrieved 2011-01-02.
[13] BBC iPlayer Help (http:/ / iplayerhelp.external.bbc. co.uk/ help/ prog_availability/ how_long) BBC iPlayer
[14] International TV Explorer (http:// www. international-television.org/ itve/ ) International Television Expert Group
[15] "Channel 4's home page for channel 4 programmes on demand" (http:// www.channel4.com/ programmes/ 4od). Channel4.com. .
Retrieved 2011-01-02.
[16] HbbTV Consortium (August 27, 2009). "New European Initiative Merges Television with the Power of the Internet" (http:// www. hbbtv.
org/ news/ HBBTV_PR_Final. pdf). Press release. .
[17] "Info page detailing all platforms iPlayer works with" (http:/ / www.bbc.co. uk/ iplayer/where_to_get_iplayer). Bbc.co.uk. 2010-05-15. .
Retrieved 2011-01-02.
[18] ["http:/ / www. twice.com/ article/468711-Samsung_To_Do_3D_VOD_Streaming.php"Samsung To Do 3D VOD Streaming, May 24,
[19] BBC iPlayer goes HD, adds higher quality streams, releases iPlayer Desktop out of Labs (http:/ / www.bbc. co.uk/ blogs/ bbcinternet/
2009/ 04/ bbc_iplayer_goes_hd_adds_highe. html), BBC Internet Blog, 20/04/2009
[20] "BBC web page which runs a diagnostic of internet download speeds for streaming remotely" (http:/ / www.bbc.co.uk/ iplayer/
diagnostics). Bbc.co.uk. . Retrieved 2011-01-02.
External links
• (http:// theconnectedset. tv/ iptv_platforms_youview_googletv_virgintivo_etc/) "Overview of internet connected
TV platforms in the UK" The Connected Set (Feb 2011)
• IPTV future (http:// www. theregister.co. uk/ 2006/ 05/ 05/ iptv_future/) The Register 2006-05-05
• As Internet TV Aims at Niche Audiences, the Slivercast Is Born (http:/ / www.nytimes. com/ 2006/ 03/ 12/
business/ yourmoney/ 12sliver. html?ex=1299819600en=b93a73a9426aeb16ei=5088partner=rssnytemc=rss&
pagewanted=all) New York Times 2006-03-12
• IPTV vs Internet Video (http:// www. masternewmedia. org/news/ 2005/ 05/ 17/ internet_television_is_an_open.
• TV's future stars will come from the web (http:// www.guardian.co.uk/ technology/ 2008/ sep/ 11/ internet.
socialnetworking)The Guardian 2008-09-11
• Your top web TV (http:/ / www. telegraph.co. uk/ culture/tvandradio/ 3666961/ Your-top-web-TV.html)The
Telegraph 2007-08-03
• International TV Explorer (http:/ / www. international-television.org/itve/ index.html) Industry project
identifying internet TV services around the world (2010)
Smart TV
Smart TV
For the Danish company, see SmartTV A/S.
Smart TV, which is also sometimes referred to as "Connected TV" or "Hybrid TV", (not to be confused with
Internet TV, Web TV, or LG Electronics's upcoming "SMART TV" branded NetCast Entertainment Access
is the phrase used to describe the current trend of integration of the internet and Web 2.0 features into
modern television sets and set-top boxes, as well as the technological convergence between computers and these
television sets / set-top boxes. These new devices most often also have a much higher focus on online interactive
media, Internet TV, over-the-top content, as well as on-demand streaming media, and less focus on traditional
broadcast media like previous generations of television sets and set-top boxes always have had.






Similar to how the internet, web widgets, and software applications are integrated in modern smartphones, hence
also the name ("Smart TV" versus "Smart Phone").














The technology that enables Smart TVs is not only incorporated into television sets, but also devices such as set-top
boxes, Blu-ray players, game consoles, and other companion devices.

These devices allow viewers to search
and find videos, movies, photos and other content on the web, on a local cable TV channel, on a satellite TV
channel, or stored on a local hard drive.
The reception of digital TV and, in particular, high definition broadcasting in the home is well established across
Europe. Internet TV and the delivery of multimedia content to the home user via the Internet are also becoming
increasingly common, although such content is often viewed on a PC or fed to a TV screen from a PC via a media
player connected to a home network.
SmartTV TV systems is intended to extend the reach of multimedia content directly to the television set in a
seamless, viewer-friendly manner and to enable the TV viewer to more conveniently access both broadcast digital
content and Internet multimedia content (including Internet TV and IPTV) on a TV set using a single remote
control/box and a single on-screen interface.
A Smart TV device is either a television set with integrated internet capabilities or a set-top box for television that
offers more advanced computing ability and connectivity than a contemporary basic television set. Smart TVs may
be thought of as a information appliance or the computer system from a handheld computer integrated within a
television set unit, a such Smart TV often allows the user to install and run more advanced applications or
plugins/addons based on a specific platform. Smart TVs run complete operating system or mobile operating system
software providing a platform for application developers.










Services delivered through Smart TV include traditional broadcast TV channels, catch-up services,
video-on-demand, EPG, interactive advertising, personalisation, voting, games, social networking, and other
multimedia applications,
Smart TV devices enables consumers to view all of these advanced services on their flat screen TV, via a single
device. In addition to a broader range of content from TV providers – ranging from traditional broadcast TV, video
on-demand and catch-up TV services, like BBC iPlayer. Smart TV also provides consumers with access to
user-generated content [either stored on an external hard drive, or cloud storage, and to a range of advanced
interactive services and Internet applications, such as YouTube.
Smart TV
Smart TV set-top boxes are increasingly commonplace amongst pay-TV operators, as they look to meet the changing
media consumption trends for more video content, advanced interactivity and internet applications, like social
While the concept of Smart TVs is still in its incipient stages, with up and coming software frameworks such as the
proprietary Google TV and the open source XBMC platforms getting a lot of public attention in the news media
within the consumer electronics market area, and commercial offerings from companies such as Logitech, Sony, LG,
Boxee, Samsung and Intel have indicated products in the area that will give television users search capabilities,
ability to run apps (sometimes availabe via an 'app store' digital distribution platform), interactive on-demand media,
personalized communications, and social networking features.















Operating systems
There are a multiple array of mobile operating systems currently available, and while most are targeting
smartphones, nettops or tablet computers, some also run on Smart TVs or were even designed specifically for Smart
TV usage.
Most often the operating system of Smart TVs are originally based on Unix, Linux, or another
open-source software platforms.






Interface Design
Designing and developing a Smart TV interface is a complex challenge, and not simply a matter of integrating the
different input sources. The consumer experience must be optimized so that all media sources are integrated
seamlessly and accessible through a single Electronic Programme Guide, something which requires very advanced
software progamming.
Social networking
A number of Smart TV platforms come prepackaged, or can be optionally extended, with social networking
technology capabilities, with which users can both glean updates from, and post their own updates to, existing social
networking services (like for example Boxee's social networking features which other then their own interfaces with
Facebook, Last.fm, Tumblr, and Twitter, among other similar services
), including posts related to the content
currently being played. The addition of social networking synchronization to Smart TV and HTPC platforms may
provide an interaction with both on-screen content and other viewers than is currently available to most televisions,
while simultaneously providing a much more cinematic experience of the content than is currently available with
most computers.
List of notable platforms
Following list encompasses notable Smart TV platforms that are used as framework by more than one manufacturer:
• Blobbox (software by TVBLOB
in products by Telesystem
, Tiscali TvBox
• Boxee
• Google TV (Android based platform by Google, Intel, Sony, and Logitech)
• LG Smart TV
(by LG Electronics)
• Mediaroom

(by Microsoft)
• MeeGo for Smart TV
(Linux Foundation, Intel, AMD
• Philips NetTV
(by Philips) based on the Open IPTV Forum
• Samsung Smart TV
(by Samsung)
Smart TV
• Viera Cast (by Panasonic)
• Vudu (by Wal-Mart)
• XBMC Media Center (by the XBMC Foundation and its open source community)
• Yahoo! Connected TV, formerly Yahoo! GoTV (by Yahoo!)
[1] Internet-Connected TV Apps System Renamed to "Smart TV" by LG (http:// gizmodo.com/ 5627132/ internet+
[2] What Is A Smart TV? (http:// www.businessinsider. com/ what-is-a-smart-tv-2010-12)
[3] Future of television is online and on-demand (http:// www.thestar. com/ business/ media/ article/
[4] After 14 years, FCC Tries Again To Bring Competition to Cable Access (http:/ / broadbandbreakfast.com/ 2010/ 10/
[5] Contentinople interviews Avner Ronen, Boxee CEO & Founder (http:// www. contentinople.com/ document.asp?doc_id=173973)
[6] The Battle for the Future of TV Sets SXSWi On Fire (http:/ / www.ifc.com/ news/ 2010/ 03/ battle-for-tv.php)
[7] Why Connected TVs Will Be About the Content, Not the Apps (http:// mashable.com/ 2010/ 10/ 20/ connected-tv-content-not-apps/)
[8] Internet TV and The Death of Cable TV, really (http:// techcrunch.com/ 2010/10/ 24/ internet-tv-and-the-death-of-cable-tv-really/)
[9] Smart TV competition heats up market (http:/ / www. asianewsnet. net/ home/ news. php?id=13857)
[10] Smart TV Shower Opens Smart Life (http:/ / www. koreaittimes. com/ story/ 10855/smart-tv-shower-opens-smart-life)
[11] Sony: There's a Smart TV In Your Future (http:/ / www.extremetech.com/ article2/0,2845,816885,00.asp)
[12] Intel: Smart TV revolution 'biggest since move to colour' - The wonders of widgets? (http:/ / www.techradar.com/ news/ television/
[13] Intel and Smart TV - A new vision of television (http:// www.intel. com/ inside/ smarttv/ )
[14] Intel Consumer Electronics introducing Smart TV (http:/ / intelconsumerelectronics.com/ Smart-TV/)
[15] Poll: Smart TV or dumb monitor? (http:// news. cnet. com/ 8301-17938_105-20015791-1.html)
[16] Smart TV also pushed by Samsung at IFA 2010 (http:// www. i4u.com/ 38756/smart-tv-also-pushed-samsung-ifa-2010)
[17] Google, With Intel and Sony, Unveils Software for 'Smart' TVs (http:// www.businessweek. com/ technology/ content/ may2010/
tc20100520_211952. htm)
[18] Google “Smart TV” launch at IO confirmed by press site (http:// www.slashgear. com/
[19] The Next Smart TV – On it’s Way! (http:// brajeshwar.com/ 2010/ the-next-smart-tv-on-its-way/)
[20] Windows Media Center Embedded gets Acer Smart TV STB demo; Intel CE4200 unveiled (http:// www.slashgear. com/
[21] Apple TV… Google TV… Smart TV… What About My TV? (http:// www.displaysearchblog. com/ 2010/ 09/
[22] Samsung Pitches Smartphones, Smart TV (http:// www.brandchannel.com/ home/ post/ 2010/ 08/ 31/ Samsung-Smartphones-Smart-TV.
[23] http:// www. slashgear. com/ samsung-d9500-is-75-inches-of-smart-tv-09150902/Samsung D9500 is 75-inches of Smart TV
[24] http:// www. engadget. com/ 2011/ 06/ 08/ panasonics-1-4-ghz-dual-core-smart-tv-chip-is-industrys-fastes/Panasonic's 1.4 GHz dual-core
Smart TV chip is industry's fastest, should load Netflix quicker
[25] Intel and Smart TV (http:// www. intel. com/ inside/ smarttv/ ). intel.com. Retrieved on 2010-11-11.
[26] What Is A Smart TV? (http:/ / www.businessinsider. com/ what-is-a-smart-tv-2010-12)
[27] Android Holds the Key to Samsung’s Smart TV Plans (http:// www. wired.com/ gadgetlab/ 2010/ 09/
android-holds-the-key-to-samsungs-smart-tv-plans/ )
[28] Google Introduces Google TV, New Android OS (http:// www.wired.com/ gadgetlab/ 2010/ 05/ google-introduces-google-tv/)
[29] Google Android Smart TV Patent Images Surface (http:// www.androidguys.com/ 2010/ 05/ 17/
google-android-smart-tv-patent-images-surface/ )
[30] Google TV is Smart TV (http:// cnettv. cnet. com/ 8301-13991_53-20005363-10391624.html)
[31] ARM conference draws eyes to Internet TV (http:// www.eetindia.co.in/ ART_8800625261_1800001_NT_64c52f34.HTM)
[32] Intel launches Atom chips for smart TV and cars (http:/ / www.reuters.com/ article/idUSTRE68D50H20100914)
[33] What Smart TVs Need to Succeed (http:// www. cepro. com/ article/what_smart_tvs_need_to_succeed/ )
[34] http:/ / www. slashgear. com/ samsung-d9500-is-75-inches-of-smart-tv-09150902/Samsung D9500 is 75-inches of Smart TV
[35] http:// www. tvover.net/ 2010/ 03/ 26/ IPTV+World+Series+Awards+ 2010+ Winners+Announced.aspx
[36] Why your TV is the new app battleground (http:/ / venturebeat.com/ 2010/ 12/ 08/ why-your-tv-is-the-new-app-battleground/)
[37] BBC News - Google launches smart TV service (http:/ / www.bbc. co. uk/ news/ 10132877). bbc.co.uk (2010-05-20). Retrieved on
[38] Google, Intel and Sony to Introduce Smart TV (http:/ / mashable.com/ 2010/ 05/ 17/ google-intel-sony-smart-tv/)
Smart TV
[39] Why Google's 'Smart TV' Will Succeed (http:// itmanagement. earthweb.com/entdev/ article.php/ 3883071/
Why-Googles-Smart-TV-Will-Succeed. htm)
[40] Google Unveils Web TV (http:// itmanagement.earthweb.com/ features/article.php/ 3883616/ Google-Unveils-Web-TV.htm)
[41] Plex and the Future of Television (http:// elan. plexapp. com/ 2010/ 09/ 02/ plex-and-the-future-of-television/)
[42] Technologies like LG Smart TV will kill HTPCs (http:// tbreak. com/ tech/ 2010/10/ technologies-like-lg-smart-tv-will-kill-htpcs/)
[43] LG Partners with Plex to Bring XBMC Goodness to LG NetCast HDTVs and Blu-ray Players (http:/ / www.ehomeupgrade.com/ 2010/ 09/
03/ lg-partners-with-plex-to-bring-xbmc-goodness-to-lg-netcast-hdtvs-and-blu-ray-players/)
[44] Logitech Revue - Welcome to Smart TV (http:// www.logitech.com/ en-us/ smartTV)
[45] Microsoft’s Well-Timed Entry into Smart TV May Herald a Turnaround (http:// www.bnet. com/ blog/ mobile-internet/
[46] Opinion: Will Google’s Smart TV Finally Bring Apps and Web Browsing To The Living Room? (http:// www. socialtimes. com/ 2010/ 05/
[47] Google launches smart TV service (http:// www. bbc.co.uk/ news/ 10132877)
[48] Google TV review (http:/ / www.engadget. com/ 2010/ 10/ 29/ google-tv-review/)
[49] Boxee CEO Avner Ronen talks about the Boxee Box, programming, Netflix, Hulu, and an industry revolution (http:// www. fierceiptv.
com/ story/ boxee-ceo-avner-ronen-talks-about-boxee-box-programming-netflix-hulu-and-in/2010-11-08)
[50] http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2011/ 05/ 11/ google-tv-shows-off-new-honeycomb-ui/Google TV shows off new Honeycomb UI, plans for
Market, SDK; opens up remote app source code
[51] "Smart" TV - Have It Your Way (Intel Blog post by Bill Kircos) (http:// blogs. intel.com/ technology/ 2010/ 10/
smart_tv_-_have_it_your_way. php)
[52] http:// www. linuxfoundation.org/ news-media/ announcements/ 2011/ 03/ linux-foundation-announces-meego-tv-working-group The
Linux Foundation Announces MeeGo TV Working Group
[53] http:// www. slashgear. com/ google-tv-gets-android-market-and-android-3-1-honeycomb-10151173/Google TV Gets Android Market And
Android 3.1 Honeycomb
[54] http:// www. engadget. com/ 2011/ 05/ 10/ google-tv-getting-android-3-1-and-market-this-summer-sony-vizi/Google TV getting Android
3.1 and Market this summer; Sony, Vizio, Samsung and Logitech onboard
[55] http:// www. eetindia. co. in/ STATIC/PDF/ 200703/ EEIOL_2007MAR31_SIG_TA_01.pdf?SOURCES=DOWNLOAD
[56] http:// blog.boxee. tv/ 2011/ 05/ 11/ boxee-box-grows-into-a-size-1-1/Boxee Box Grows Into a Size 1.1
[57] TVs get smart with Internet access in 2011 (http:// www. abc15.com/ dpp/ news/ science_tech/ tvs-get-smart-with-internet-access-in-2011)
[58] http:// www. blobbox.tv
[59] http:/ / www. Telesystem-World. com
[60] http:/ / tvbox.tiscali. it/
[61] (http:// www. lg. com/ global/ smarttv/ index. jsp)
[62] Microsoft Mediaroom: IPTV gets a makeover (http:/ /www. engadget.com/ 2007/ 06/ 18/ microsoft-mediaroom-iptv-gets-a-makeover/)
[63] Microsoft unveils all new time shifting, interactive features for Mediaroom IPTV (http:// www.engadget. com/ 2009/ 01/08/
microsoft-unveils-all-new-time-shifting-interactive-features-fo/ )
[64] https:// meego. com/ devices/ smart-tv MeeGo for Smart TV
[65] "AMD to contribute to MeeGo development" (http:// www.h-online.com/ open/ news/ item/
AMD-to-contribute-to-MeeGo-development-1136583. html). The H open. 2010-11-15. . Retrieved 2011-01-27.
[66] (http:// www. nettv. philips. com/ )Philips NetTV Homepage
[67] (http:/ / www. openiptvforum.org)Open IPTV Forum Homepage
[68] (http:/ / www. samsung. com/ us/ article/ samsung-2011-ces-wrap-up-products-for-a-smarter-life) Samsung 2011 CES Wrap-up: Products
for a Smarter Life
[69] http:/ / connectedtv.yahoo. com/ Yahoo! Connected TV
External links
• Intel and Smart TV - A new vision of television (http:// www.intel. com/ inside/ smarttv/ )
• Intel Consumer Electronics introducing Smart TV (http:// intelconsumerelectronics. com/ Smart-TV/)
• Linux Foundation MeeGo Smart TV Working Group (http:/ / www.linuxfoundation. org/news-media/
announcements/ 2011/ 03/ linux-foundation-announces-meego-tv-working-group)
Internet Protocol television (IPTV) is a system through which Internet television services are delivered using the
architecture and networking methods of the Internet Protocol Suite over a packet-switched network infrastructure,
e.g., the Internet and broadband Internet access networks, instead of being delivered through traditional radio
frequency broadcast, satellite signal, and cable television (CATV) formats.
IPTV services may be classified into three main groups:
• live television, with or without interactivity related to the current TV show;
• time-shifted television: catch-up TV (replays a TV show that was broadcast hours or days ago), start-over TV
(replays the current TV show from its beginning);
• video on demand (VOD): browse a catalog of videos, not related to TV programming.
IPTV is distinguished from general Internet-based or web-based multimedia services by its on-going standardization
process (e.g., European Telecommunications Standards Institute) and preferential deployment scenarios in
subscriber-based telecommunications networks with high-speed access channels into end-user premises via set-top
boxes or other customer-premises equipment.
Historically, many different definitions of IPTV have appeared, including elementary streams over IP networks,
transport streams over IP networks and a number of proprietary systems.
The official definition approved by the International Telecommunication Union focus group on IPTV (ITU-T FG
IPTV) is as follows:
"IPTV is defined as multimedia services such as television/video/audio/text/graphics/data delivered over IP based
networks managed to provide the required level of quality of service and experience, security, interactivity and
Another official and more detailed definition of IPTV is the one given by Alliance for Telecommunications Industry
Solutions (ATIS) IPTV Exploratory Group on 2005:
"IPTV is defined as the secure and reliable delivery to subscribers of entertainment video and related services. These
services may include, for example, Live TV, Video On Demand (VOD) and Interactive TV (iTV). These services are
delivered across an access agnostic, packet switched network that employs the IP protocol to transport the audio,
video and control signals. In contrast to video over the public Internet, with IPTV deployments, network security and
performance are tightly managed to ensure a superior entertainment experience, resulting in a compelling business
environment for content providers, advertisers and customers alike."
One definition for consumer IPTV is for single or multiple program transport streams (MPTS) which are sourced by
the same network operator that owns or directly controls the "last mile" to the consumer's premises . This control
over delivery enables a guaranteed quality of service (QoS), and also allows the service provider to offer an
enhanced user experience such as better program guide, interactive services etc.
In commercial environments IPTV is widely deployed for distribution of live TV, video playout channels and Video
on Demand (VOD) material across LAN or WAN IP network infrastructures, with a controlled QoS.
In 1994, ABC's World News Now was the first television show to be broadcast over the Internet, using the
CU-SeeMe videoconferencing software.
The term IPTV first appeared in 1995 with the founding of Precept Software by Judith Estrin and Bill Carrico.
Precept designed and built an Internet video product named IP/TV. IP/TV was an MBONE compatible Windows and
Unix-based application that moved single and multi-source audio/video traffic, ranging from low to DVD quality,
using both unicast and IP multicast Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) and Real time control protocol (RTCP). The
software was written primarily by Steve Casner, Karl Auerbach, and Cha Chee Kuan. Precept was acquired by Cisco
Systems in 1998.
Cisco retains the IP/TV trademark.
Internet radio company AudioNet started the first continuous live webcasts with content from WFAA-TV in January,
1998 and KCTU-LP on January 10, 1998.
Kingston Communications, a regional telecommunications operator in UK, launched KIT (Kingston Interactive
Television), an IPTV over DSL broadband interactive TV service in September 1999 after conducting various TV
and VoD trials. The operator added additional VoD service in October 2001 with Yes TV, a VoD content provider.
Kingston was one of the first companies in the world to introduce IPTV and IP VoD over ADSL.
In 2006 the KIT
service was discontinued, subscribers having declined from a peak of 10,000 to 4,000
In 1999, NBTel (now known as Bell Aliant) was the first to commercially deploy Internet Protocol Television over
digital subscriber line (DSL) in Canada

using the Alcatel 7350 DSLAM and middleware created by iMagic TV
(owned by NBTel's parent company Bruncor
). The service was marketed under the brand VibeVision in New
Brunswick, and later expanded into Nova Scotia in early 2000
after the formation of Aliant. iMagic TV was later
sold to Alcatel.
In 2002, Sasktel was the second in Canada to commercially deploy Internet Protocol (IP) video over digital
subscriber line (DSL), using the Lucent Stinger(R) DSL platform.
In 2006, it was the first North American
company to offer HDTV channels over an IPTV service
In 2003, Total Access Networks Inc launched its IPTV service, comprising 100 free IPTV stations world wide. The
service has been used in over 100 countries world wide, and has channels in 26 languages.
In 2005, Bredbandsbolaget launched its IPTV service as the first service provider in Sweden. As of January 2009,
they are not the biggest supplier any longer; TeliaSonera who launched their service later has now more
In 2006, AT&T launched its U-Verse IPTV service in the United States, comprising a national head end and regional
video-serving offices. AT&T offered over 300 channels in 11 cities with more to be added in 2007 and beyond. In
March 2009, AT&T announced that U-verse had expanded to 100 or more High Definition channels in every
U-Verse TV market.
While using IP protocols, AT&T has built a private IP network exclusively for video
In 2010, CenturyLink - after acquiring Embarq (2009) and Qwest (2010), entered five U.S. markets with an IPTV
service called Prism.
This was after successful test marketing in Florida.
In the past, this technology has been restricted by low broadband penetration and by the relatively high cost of
installing wiring capable of transporting IPTV content reliably in the customer's home. In the coming years,
however, residential IPTV is expected to grow at a brisk pace as broadband was available to more than 200 million
households worldwide in the year 2005, projected to grow to 400 million by the year 2010.
Many of the world's
major telecommunications providers are exploring IPTV as a new revenue opportunity from their existing markets
and as a defensive measure against encroachment from more conventional Cable Television services.
Also, there are a growing number of IPTV installations within schools, universities, corporations and local
In December 2009, the FCC began looking into using set-top boxes to make TVs with cable or similar services into
broadband video players. FCC Media Bureau Chief Bill Lake had said earlier that TV and the Internet would soon be
the same, but only 75 percent of homes had computers, while 99 percent had TV. A Nielsen survey said 99 percent
of video viewing was done on TV.
Map of IPTV countries of the world.   Countries where IPTV is available in at least some
parts of the country
The number of global IPTV
subscribers is expected to grow from
28 million in 2009 to 83 million in
2013. Europe and Asia are the leading
territories in terms of the over-all
number of subscribers. But in terms of
service revenues, Europe and North
America generate a larger share of
global revenue, due to very low
average revenue per user (ARPU) in
China and India, the fastest growing
(and ultimately, the biggest market) is
Asia. The global IPTV market
revenues are forecast to grow from US$12 billion in 2009 to US$38 billion in 2013.
While all major western countries and most developed economies have IPTV deployments, the world's leading
markets for IPTV for now are Germany (by Deutsche Telekom) France (led by Free, then Orange, then Neuf Cegetel
(now SFR) ; total of over 4 million subscriptions), South Korea (1.8 million subscriptions), United States (by
AT&T), Hong Kong, Japan, Italy, Spain, Belgium, Luxembourg, Austria, China, Singapore, Taiwan, Switzerland
and Portugal (with meo, Optimus Clix and Vodafone Casa).
Services have also launched in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Pakistan, Canada, Croatia, Lithuania, Republic of Moldova,
Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia,
the Netherlands,
Georgia, Greece, Denmark,
Finland, Estonia, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary,

Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Turkey, Colombia and
Chile. The United Kingdom launched IPTV early and after a slow initial growth, in February 2009 BT announced
that it had reached 398,000 subscribers to its BT Vision service.
Claro has launched their own IPTV service
called "Claro TV". This service is available in several countries in which they operate, such as Dominican Republic,
El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua. IPTV is just beginning to grow in Central and Eastern Europe and
Latin America, and now it is growing in South Asian countries such as Sri Lanka, Pakistan and especially India.
but significant plans exist in countries such as Russia. Kazakhstan introduced
its own IPTV services by the
national provider Kazakhtelecom JSC
and content integrator Alacast under the "iD TV" brand in two major cities
Astana and Almaty in 2009 and is about to go nationwide starting 2010. Australian ISP iiNet launched Australia's
first IPTV with fetchtv.
The first IPTV service to launch on the Chinese mainland sells under the "BesTV" brand and is currently available in
the cities of Shanghai and Harbin.
In India IPTV was launched by Airtel and the government service provider
MTNL and BSNL and is available in most of the major cities of the country . In Pakistan IPTV was launched by
PTCL, brand name Smart TV which is available in most of the major cities of Pakistan.
In Malaysia, various companies have attempted to launch IPTV services since 2005. Failed PayTV provider MiTV
attempted to use a IPTV-over-UHF service but the service failed to take off. Hypp.TV was supposed to use an
IPTV-based system, but is not true IPTV as it does not provide a set top box and requires users to view channels
using a computer. True IPTV providers available in the country at the moment are Fine TV and DETV. In Q2 2010,
Telekom Malaysia launched IPTV services through their fiber to the home product UniFi in select areas.
In Turkey, TTNET launched IPTV services under the name IPtivibu in 2010. It is currently available in pilot areas in
the cities of Istanbul, İzmir and Ankara. As of 2011 IPTV service is launched as a large scale commercial service and
widely available across the country under the trademark "Tivibu EV"

Superonline plans to provide IPTV
under the different name "WebTV" in 2011. Türk Telekom started building the fiber optic substructure for IPTV in
late 2007.
IPTV for hospitality
Besides targeting the homes, there are also vendors targeting IPTV services to the hospitality sector. Applications for
the IPTV sector is a natural progression from the pay-per view and video on demand offerings which became
popular more than a decade ago. Some of the players such as Select-TV, VDA have actually started offering IPTV to
the hotels before moving into the homes.
Discussion of IPTV
A telecommunications company IPTV service is usually delivered over an investment-heavy walled garden network,
which is carefully engineered to ensure bandwidth efficient delivery of vast amounts of multicast video traffic. The
higher network quality also enables easy delivery of high quality SD or HD TV content to subscribers’ homes. This
makes IPTV by default the preferred delivery platform for premium content. However, the investment for a
telecommunications company to build an end-to-end telecommunications company IPTV service can be substantial.
Broadcast IPTV has two major architecture forms: free and fee based. As of June 2006, there are over 1,300 free
IPTV sources available.
This sector is growing rapidly and major television broadcasters worldwide are
transmitting their broadcast signal over the Internet. These free IPTV sources require only an Internet connection and
an Internet enabled device such as a personal computer, HDTV connected to a computer or even a 3G cell/mobile
phone to watch the IPTV content. Various Web portals offer access to these free IPTV sources. Some cite the
ad-sponsored availability of TV series such as Lost as indicators that IPTV will become more prevalent.
Because IPTV uses standard networking protocols, it promises lower costs for operators and lower prices for users.
Using set-top-boxes with broadband Internet connections, video can be streamed to households more efficiently than
current coaxial cable. Home networks currently use technology from the Multimedia over Coax Alliance, HomePlug
Powerline Alliance or Home Phoneline Networking Alliance to deliver IPTV content to any set-top-box in a home,
without having to install new Ethernet wires and without relying on wireless technologies like 802.11, which are not
optimized for reliable delivery of video streams. ISPs are upgrading their networks to bring higher speeds and to
allow multiple High Definition TV channels.
IPTV uses a two-way digital broadcast signal sent through a switched telephone or cable network by way of a
broadband connection and a set-top-box programmed with software (much like a cable or satellite TV box) that can
handle viewer requests to access to many available media sources.
Local IPTV, as used by businesses for audio visual AV distribution on their company networks is typically based on
a mixture of:
1. Conventional TV reception equipment and IPTV encoders
2. IPTV Gateways that take broadcast MPEG channels and IP wrap them to create multicast streams.
Architecture of IPTV
• TV Head-end: where live TV channels are encoded, encrypted and delivered in the form of IP multicast streams.
• VOD platform: where on-demand video assets are stored and served when a user makes a request in the form of
IP unicast stream.
• Interactive portal: allows the user to navigate within the different IPTV services, such as the VOD catalog.
• delivery network: the packet switched network that carries IP packets (unicast and multicast).
• home gateway: the piece of equipment at the user's home that terminates the access link from the delivery
• user's set-top box: the piece of equipment at the user's home that decodes and decrypt TV and VOD content and
displays it on the TV screen.
Architecture of a Video Server Network
IEEE Home networking Recommendations
HomePlug AV
HomePlug AV2
HomePlug Green PHY
Recommendations GHz
Wi-Fi 802.11a 5 GHz
Wi-Fi 802.11b 2.4 GHz
Wi-Fi 802.11g 2.4 GHz
Wi-Fi 802.11n 2.4GHz and/or 5GHz
ITU-T Home networking Recommendations
Common Name Recommendations
HomePNA 2.0 G.9951, G.9952, G.9953
HomePNA 3.0 G.9954 (02/05)
HomePNA 3.1 G.9954 (01/07)
G.hn/HomeGrid G.9960, G.9961
G.cx G.9972
G.hnta G.9970
Depending on the network architecture of the service provider, there are two main types of video server architectures
that can be considered for IPTV deployment, centralized, and distributed.
The centralized architecture model is a relatively simple and easy to manage solution. For example, as all contents
are stored in centralized servers, it does not require a comprehensive content distribution system. Centralized
architecture is generally good for a network that provides relatively small VOD service deployment, has adequate
core and edge bandwidth and has an efficient content delivery network (CDN).
Distributed architecture is just as scalable as the centralized model, however it has bandwidth usage advantages and
inherent system management features that are essential for managing a larger server network. Operators who plan to
deploy a relatively large system should therefore consider implementing a Distributed Architecture model right from
the start. Distributed architecture requires intelligent and sophisticated content distribution technologies to augment
effective delivery of multimedia contents over service provider's network.
Home Networks for IPTV distribution
In many cases, the Residential Gateway that provides connectivity with the Broadband Access network is not located
in close proximity to the IPTV Set-Top Box. This scenario becomes very common as service providers start to offer
service packages with multiple Set-Top Boxes per subscriber.
Traditional home networking technologies such as Ethernet and 802.11 do not provide a good solution to provide
connectivity between the Gateway and each Set-Top-Box. Most homes today are not wired with Ethernet cable in
every room, and installing new Ethernet cables is expensive for service providers and undesirable for consumers.
Wireless technologies like 802.11 are optimized for data transmission, but they usually don't provide the Quality of
Service required by IPTV applications.
Networking technologies that take advantage of existing home wiring (such as power lines,

phone lines or
coaxial cables

) have become a popular solution for this problem, although fragmentation in the wired home
networking market has limited somewhat the growth in this market.

On December 2008, ITU-T adopted Recommendation G.hn (also known as G.9960), which is a next generation
home networking standard that specifies a common PHY/MAC that can operate over any home wiring (power lines,
phone lines or coaxial cables).
IMS architecture for IPTV
There is a growing standardization effort on the use of the 3GPP IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) as an architecture
for supporting IPTV services in carriers networks. Both ITU-T and ETSI are working on so-called "IMS-based
IPTV" standards (see e.g. ETSI TS 182 027
). The benefits of this approach are obvious. Carriers will be able to
offer both voice and IPTV services over the same core infrastructure and the implementation of services combining
conventional TV services with telephony features (e.g. caller ID on the TV screen) will become straigthforward.
The MultiService Forum recently conducted interoperability of IMS-based IPTV solutions during its GMI event in
IPTV covers both live TV (multicasting) as well as stored video (Video-on-Demand, or VoD). The playback of
IPTV requires either a personal computer or a set-top-box connected to a TV. Video content is typically compressed
using either a MPEG-2 or a MPEG-4 codec and then sent in an MPEG transport stream delivered via IP Multicast in
case of live TV or via IP Unicast in case of video on demand. IP multicast is a method in which information can be
sent to multiple computers at the same time. H.264 (MPEG-4) codec is increasingly used to replace the older
MPEG-2 codec.
In standards-based IPTV systems, the primary underlying protocols used are:
• Live IPTV uses IGMP version 2 or IGMP version 3 for IPv4 for connecting to a multicast stream (TV channel)
and for changing from one multicast stream to another (TV channel change). IGMP operates within LAN's or
VLAN's so other protocols, such as Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM), are used to route IPTV multicast
streams from one LAN segment to another.
• VOD uses UDP or RTP protocols for channel streams and control is done using the control protocol RTSP (Real
Time Streaming Protocol).
• NPVR (network personal video recorder), like VOD, uses UDP or RTP for IPTV streams, and the RTSP control
protocol for end-user control communications.
IPTV via satellite
Although IPTV and conventional satellite TV distribution have been seen as complementary technologies, they are
likely to be increasingly used together in hybrid IPTV networks that deliver the highest levels of performance and
reliability. IPTV is largely neutral to the transmission medium, and IP traffic is already routinely carried by satellite
for Internet backbone trunking and corporate VSAT networks.
The use of satellite to carry IP is fundamental to
overcoming the greatest shortcoming of IPTV over terrestrial cables – the speed/bandwidth of the connection.
The copper twisted pair cabling that forms the last mile of the telephone/broadband network in many countries is not
able to provide a sizeable proportion of the population with an IPTV service that matches even existing terrestrial or
satellite digital TV distribution. For a competitive multi-channel TV service, a connection speed of 20Mbit/s is likely
to be required, but unavailable to most potential customers.
The increasing popularity of high definition TV (with
twice the data rate of SD video) increases connection speed requirements, or limits IPTV service quality and
connection eligibility even further.
However, satellites are capable of delivering in excess of 100Gbit/s via multi-spot beam technologies, making
satellite a clear emerging technology for implementing IPTV networks. Satellite distribution can be included in an
IPTV network architecture in several ways. Simplest to implement is an IPTV-DTH architecture, in which hybrid
DVB/broadband set-top boxes in subscriber homes integrate satellite and IP reception to give near-infinite
bandwidth with return channel capabilities. In such a system, many live TV channels may be multicast via satellite
(IP-encapsulated or as conventional DVB digital TV) with stored video-on-demand transmission via the broadband
connection. Arqiva’s Satellite Media Solutions Division suggests “IPTV works best in a hybrid format. For example,
you would use broadband to receive some content and satellite to receive other, such as live channels”.
Hybrid IPTV
Hybrid IPTV refers to the combination of traditional broadcast TV services and video delivered over either managed
IP networks or the public Internet. It is an increasing trend in both the consumer and pay TV [operator] markets
Hybrid IPTV has grown in popularity in recent years as a result of two major drivers. Since the emergence of online
video aggregation sites, like YouTube and Vimeo in the mid-2000s, traditional pay-TV operators have come under
increasing pressure to provide their subscribers with a means of viewing Internet-based video [both professional and
user-generated] on their TVs. At the same time, specialist IP-based operators [often telecommunications providers]
have looked for ways to offer analogue and digital terrestrial services to their operations, without adding either
additional cost or complexity to their transmission operations. Bandwidth is a valuable asset for operators, so many
have looked for alternative ways to deliver these new services without investing in additional network
These trends led to the development of Hybrid IPTV Set-Top Boxes that included both a traditional broadcast tuner
and an Internet connection – usually an Ethernet port. The first commercially available Hybrid IPTV Set-Top Box
was developed by Advanced Digital Broadcast, a developer of digital television hardware and software, in 2005. The
platform was developed for Spanish pay TV operator, Telefonica,
and used as part of its Imagenio service,
launched to subscribers at the end of 2005.
A hybrid set-top allows content from a range of sources, including terrestrial broadcast, satellite, and cable to be
brought together with video delivered over the Internet via an Ethernet connection on the device. This enables
television viewers to access a greater variety of content on their TV sets, without the need for a separate box for each
Hybrid IPTV Set-Top Boxes also enable consumers to access a range of advanced interactive services, such as VOD
and catch-up TV, as well as Internet applications, including video telephony, surveillance, gaming, shopping,
e-government accessed via a television set.
From a pay-TV operator’s perspective, a Hybrid IPTV Set-Top Box gives them greater long term flexibility by
enabling them to deploy new services and applications as and when consumers require, most often without the need
to upgrade equipment or for an engineer to visit and reconfigure or swap out the device. This minimizes the cost of
launching new services, increases speed to market and limits disruption for consumers.
The Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV (HbbTV) consortium of industry companies is currently promoting and
establishing an open European standard for hybrid set-top boxes for the reception of broadcast and broadband digital
TV and multimedia applications with a single user interface.
An alternative approach is the IPTV version of the Headend in the Sky cable TV solution. Here, mutilple TV
channels are distributed via satellite to the ISP or IPTV provider’s point of presence (POP) for IP-encapsulated
distribution to individual subscribers as required by each subscriber.
This can provide a huge selection of channels to subscribers without overburdening Internet trunking to the POP, and
enables an IPTV service to be offered to small or remote operators outside the reach of terrestrial high speed
broadband connection. An example is a network combining fibre and satellite distribution via an SES New Skies
satellite of 95 channels to Latin America and the Caribbean, operated by IPTV Americas.
While the future development of IPTV probably lies with a number of coexisting architectures and implementations,
it’s clear that broadcasting of high bandwidth applications such as IPTV is accomplished more efficiently and
cost-effectively using satellite
and it’s predicted that the majority of global IPTV growth will be fuelled by hybrid
The IP(Internet Protocol)-based platform offers significant advantages, including the ability to integrate television
with other IP-based services like high speed Internet access and VoIP.
A switched IP network also allows for the delivery of significantly more content and functionality. In a typical TV or
satellite network, using broadcast video technology, all the content constantly flows downstream to each customer,
and the customer switches the content at the set-top box. The customer can select from as many choices as the
telecomms, cable or satellite company can stuff into the “pipe” flowing into the home. A switched IP network works
differently. Content remains in the network, and only the content the customer selects is sent into the customer’s
home. That frees up bandwidth, and the customer’s choice is less restricted by the size of the “pipe” into the home.
This also implies that the customer's privacy could be compromised to a greater extent than is possible with
traditional TV or satellite networks. It may also provide a means to hack into, or at least disrupt (see Denial of
Service) the private network.
The economics of IPTV
The cable industry's expenditures of approximately $1 Billion per year are based on network updates to
accommodate higher data speeds. Most operators use 2-3 channels to support maximum data speeds of 50 Mb/s to
100 Mb/s. However, because video streams require a high bit rate for much longer periods of time, the expenditures
to support high amounts of video traffic will be much greater. This phenomenon is called persistency. Data
persistency is routinely 5% while video persistency can easily reach 50%. As video traffic continues to grow, this
means that significantly more CMTS downstream channels will be required to carry this video content. Based on
today's market, it is likely that industry expenditures for CMTS expansion could exceed $2 Billion a year, virtually
all of this expenditure being driven by video traffic. Adoption of IPTV for carrying the majority of this traffic could
save the industry approximately 75% of this capital expenditure.
An IP-based platform also allows significant opportunities to make the TV viewing experience more interactive and
personalized. The supplier may, for example, include an interactive program guide that allows viewers to search for
content by title or actor’s name, or a picture-in-picture functionality that allows them to “channel surf” without
leaving the program they’re watching. Viewers may be able to look up a player’s stats while watching a sports game,
or control the camera angle. They also may be able to access photos or music from their PC on their television, use a
wireless phone to schedule a recording of their favorite show, or even adjust parental controls so their child can
watch a documentary for a school report, while they’re away from home.
Note that this is all possible, to some degree, with existing digital terrestrial, satellite and cable networks in tandem
with modern set top boxes. In order that there can take place an interaction between the receiver and the transmitter a
feedback channel is needed. Due to this, terrestrial, satellite, and cable networks for television do not allow
interactivity. However, interactivity with those networks can be possible by combining TV networks with data
networks such as the Internet or a mobile communication network.
IPTV technology is bringing Video-on-demand (VoD) to television
which permits a customer to browse an online
program or film catalog, to watch trailers and to then select a selected recording. The playout of the selected item
starts nearly instantaneously on the customer's TV or PC.
Technically, when the customer selects the movie, a point-to-point unicast connection is set up between the
customer's decoder (Set Top Box or PC) and the delivering streaming server. The signalling for the trick play
functionality (pause, slow-motion, wind/rewind etc.) is assured by RTSP (Real Time Streaming Protocol).
The most common codecs used for VoD are MPEG-2, MPEG-4 and VC-1.
In an attempt to avoid content piracy, the VoD content is usually encrypted. Whilst encryption of satellite and cable
TV broadcasts is an old practice, with IPTV technology it can effectively be thought of as a form of Digital Rights
Management. A film that is chosen, for example, may be playable for 24 hours following payment, after which time
it becomes unavailable.
IPTV-based converged services
Another advantage of an IP-based network is the opportunity for integration and convergence. This opportunity is
amplified when using IMS-based solutions.
Converged services implies interaction of existing services in a
seamless manner to create new value added services. One good example is On-Screen Caller ID, getting Caller ID on
your TV and the ability to handle it (send it to voice mail, etc.). IP-based services will help to enable efforts to
provide consumers anytime-anywhere access to content over their televisions, PCs and cell phones, and to integrate
services and content to tie them together. Within businesses and institutions, IPTV eliminates the need to run a
parallel infrastructure to deliver live and stored video services.
IPTV is sensitive to packet loss and delays if the streamed data is unreliable. IPTV has strict minimum speed
requirements in order to facilitate the right number of frames per second to deliver moving pictures. This means that
the limited connection speed/bandwidth available for a large IPTV customer base can reduce the service quality
Although a few countries have very high speed broadband-enabled populations, such as South Korea with 6 million
homes benefiting from a minimum connection speed of 100Mbit/s, in other countries (such as the UK) legacy
networks struggle to provide 3-5 Mbit/s
and so simultaneous provision to the home of TV channels, VOIP and
Internet access may not be viable. The last mile delivery for IPTV usually has a bandwidth restriction that only
allows a small number of simultaneous TV channel streams – typically from one to three – to be delivered.
Streaming IPTV across wireless links within the home has proved troublesome; not due to bandwidth limitations as
many assume, but due to issues with multipath and reflections of the RF signal carrying the IP data packets. An
IPTV stream is sensitive to packets arriving at the right time and in the right order. Improvements in wireless
technology are now starting to provide equipment to solve the problem.
Due to the limitations of wireless, most IPTV service providers today use wired home networking technologies
instead of wireless technologies like 802.11. Service Providers such as AT&T (which makes extensive use of
wireline home networking as part of its U-Verse IPTV service) have expressed support for the work done in this
direction by ITU-T, which has adopted Recommendation G.hn (also known as G.9960), which is a next generation
home networking standard that specifies a common PHY/MAC that can operate over any home wiring (power lines,
phone lines or coaxial cables).

The latency inherent in the use of satellite Internet is often held up as reason why satellites cannot be successfully
used for IPTV, but in practice latency is not an important factor for IPTV. An IPTV service does not require
real-time transmission, as is the case with telephony or videoconferencing services.
It is the latency of response to requests to change channel, display an EPG, etc. that most affects customers’
perceived quality of service, and these problems affect satellite IPTV no more than terrestrial IPTV. Indeed,
command latency problems, faced by terrestrial IPTV networks with insufficient bandwidth as their customer base
grows, may be solved by the high capacity of satellite distribution.
Satellite distribution does suffer from latency – the time for the signal to travel up from the hub to the satellite and
back down to the user is around 0.25 seconds, and cannot be reduced. However, the effects of this delay are
mitigated in real-life systems using data compression, TCP-acceleration, and HTTP pre-fetching.
Satellite latency can be detrimental to especially time-sensitive applications such as on-line gaming (although it only
seriously affects the likes of first-person shooters while many MMOGs can operate well over satellite Internet
but IPTV is typically a simplex operation (one-way transmission) and latency is not a critical factor for video
Existing video transmission systems of both analogue and digital formats already introduce known quantifiable
delays. Indeed, existing DVB TV channels that simulcast by both terrestrial and satellite transmissions, experience
the same 0.25s delay difference between the two services with no detrimental effect, and it goes unnoticed by
IPTV Bandwidth Requirements
Digital video is combination of sequence of digital images, and they are made up of pixels or picture elements. Each
pixel has two values, which is luminance and chrominance. Luminance is representing intensity of the pixel; on the
other hand chrominance is representing the colour of the pixel. 3 bytes would be used to represent the colour of the
high quality image for a true colour technique. A sequence of images is creating the digital video, in that case,
images is called as frames.
Movies are using 24 frames per second; however, the rate of the frames can change according to territories electrical
system. So that there are different kinds of frame rates, for instance, North America is using approximately 30
frames per second where the Europe television frame rate is 25 frames per second. Each digital video has
dimensions; width and height, when referred to analogue television, the dimension for SDTV is 650×480 pixels, on
the other hand, numerous HDTV requires 1920×1080 pixels. Moreover, whilst for SDTV, 2 bytes (16 bits) is enough
to create the colour depth, HDTV requires 3 (24 bits) bytes to create the colour depth.
Thereby, with a rate of 30 FPS, the uncompressed date rate for SDTV becomes 30x640x480x16, in other words,
147,456,000 bit per second. Moreover, for HDTV, at the same frame rate, uncompressed date rate becomes
30x1920x1080x24 or 1,492,992,000 bits per second. With that simple calculation, it is obvious that without using a
lossy compression methods service provider’s service delivery to the subscribers is limited.
Bandwidth capacity for simultaneously 2 HDTV
stream, 2 SD stream, additional to HSD and
There is no absolute answer for the bandwidth requirement for the
IPTV service because the bandwidth requirement is increasing due to
the devices inside the household. Thus, currently compressed HDTV
content can be delivered at a data rate between 8 to 10 Mbps, but if the
home of the consumer equipped with several HDTV outputs, this rate
will be multiplied respectively.
The high speed data transfer will increase the needed bandwidth for the
viewer, at least 2 Mbps needed to use web based applications on the
computer. Additional to that, 64 kbps required to use landline
telephone for the property. In minimal usage, to receive an IPTV triple
play service requires 13 Mbps to process in a household.
Privacy implications
Due to limitations in bandwidth, an IPTV channel is delivered to the user one at a time, as opposed to the traditional
multiplexed delivery. Changing a channel requires requesting the head-end server to provide a different broadcast
stream, much like VOD (For VOD the stream is delivered using Unicast, for the normal TV signal Multicast is
used). This could enable the service provider to accurately track each and every programme watched and the
duration of watching for each viewer, broadcasters and advertisers could then understand their audience and
programming better with accurate data and targeted advertising.
A small number of companies supply most current IPTV systems. Some, such as Imagenio, were formed by
telecoms operators themselves, to minimise external costs, a tactic also used by PCCW of Hong Kong. Some major
telecoms vendors are also active in this space, notably Alcatel-Lucent (sometimes working with Imagenio), Ericsson
(notably since acquiring Tandberg Television), NEC, Nokia Siemens Networks, Thomson, Huawei, and ZTE, as are
some IT houses, led by Microsoft. California-based UTStarcom, Inc., Tennessee-based Worley Consulting,
Tokyo-based The New Media Group, Malaysian-based Select-TV and Oslo/Norway-based SnapTV also offer
end-to-end networking infrastructure for IPTV-based services, and Hong Kong-based BNS Ltd. provides turnkey
open platform IPTV technology solutions. Global sales of IPTV systems exceeded 2 billion USD in 2007.
Many of these IPTV solution vendors participated in the biennial Global [[MSF
] Interoperability 2008] (GMI)
event which was coordinated by the MultiService Forum (MSF) at five sites worldwide from 20- to 31-October
2008. Test equipment vendors including Absilion, Codenomicon, Empirix, Ixia, Mu Dynamics and Spirent joined
solution vendors such as the companies listed above in one of the largest IPTV proving grounds ever deployed.
Service bundling
For residential users, IPTV is often provided in conjunction with Video on Demand and may be bundled with
Internet services such as Internet access and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telecommunications services.
Commercial bundling of IPTV, VoIP and Internet access is sometimes referred to in marketing as triple play service.
When these three are offered with cellular service, the combined service may be referred to as quadruple play.
IPTV Regulation
Historically, broadcast television has been regulated differently than telecommunications. As IPTV allows TV and
VoD to be transmitted over IP networks new regulatory issues arise.
Professor Eli M. Noam highlights in his
report "TV or Not TV: Three Screens, One Regulation?" some of the key challenges with sector specific regulation
that is becoming obsolete due to convergence in this field.
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[8] NBTel Unveils Interactive TV (http:// www. allbusiness. com/ services/ motion-pictures/4827642-1.html)
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[16] AT&T U-verse TV Lineup Expands to 100 or More High Definition Channels in Every U-Verse TV Market (http:// www.att.com/ gen/
press-room?pid=4800&cdvn=news& newsarticleid=26580)
[17] http:// www. telecompetitor.com/ centurylink-quietly-launches-prism-iptv-product/
[18] Gartner - 2007 Press releases (http:// www.gartner.com/ it/ page.jsp?id=501276)
[19] Internet TV: Communicating in the 21st Century (http:/ / www.iptv-industry.com/ ar/ 19d.htm)
[20] Eggerton, John (2009-12-14). "Broadcasters Squeezed by Convergence Push" (http:/ / www. broadcastingcable.com/ article/
439909-Broadcasters_Squeezed_by_Convergence_Push.php?rssid=20068& q=digital+tv). Broadcasting & Cable. . Retrieved 2009-12-17.
[21] IPTV Global Forecast (2008-2013) (http:/ / www.international-television.org/tv_market_data/ global-iptv-forecast-2009-2013.html)
International Television Expert Group
[22] BHtelecom.ca (http:/ / www.bhtelecom. ba/ portalnovost+ M5c30c4559cc.html)
[23] KPN.com (http:/ / www.kpn. com/ tv. htm)
[24] T-Home.hu (http:// www.t-home. hu/ lakossagi/ tv/ iptv)
[25] InviTV.hu (http:/ / www.invitv. hu)
[26] BT Vision passes 398k subs in 4Q08 (http:/ / www.iptv-news.com/ iptv_news/ february_09/bt_vision_passes_398k_subs_in_4q08)
[27] "Salad days," (http:/ / www. broadbandtvnews. com/ ?p=4685) Chris Dziadul, Broadband TV News, May 2, 2008
[28] Delivering IPTV System to Kazakhtelecom (http:// www.iptv-industry. com/ ar/23i.htm) Article from the IPTV industrial portal
[29] iD TV services for broadband subscribers in Kazakhstan (http:/ / www.telecom.kz/ index.php?actn=home& uin=1240830886&lang=eng)
Kazakhtelecom JSC - iD TV service for Home users
[30] iiNet's Age of Terabyte (http:/ / www.iinet. net. au/ press/ releases/ 20100818-iinet-age-of-terabyte-arrives.pdf) PDF from iiNet press
release 18.8.2010
[31] "BabyFirst launches on BesTV in China," (http:// www.indiantelevision. com/ headlines/ y2k8/ may/ may2. php) Indiantelevision.com
Team, May 2, 2008.
[32] "Turkey's iptv, Tivibu Ev is on air" (http:// www. ntvmsnbc. com/ id/ 25185594/) ntvmsnbc.com, Feb 23, 2011.
[33] "Tivibu Ev's Official Homepage" (http:/ / www. tivibu.com.tr/ev) tivibu.com/ev, Mar 13, 2011.
[34] IPTV - Another Viewing Choice! (http:// www. crtv.net/ hispeed_cable/ iptv.html)
[35] Distributed Architecture vsCentralized Architecture for IP VoD, Annual Review of Communications, Vol. 58 (http:/ / www.inwf. com/
pubs/ print/aroc58_toc.html)
[36] HomePlug Alliance keeps plugging away (http:/ / www. telecoms-mag.com/ article.asp?HH_ID=AR_4934)
[37] IPTV distribution using DS2 powerline networks (http:// blog. ds2. es/ ds2blog/ 2009/ 04/ iptv-distribution-using-powerline-networks.html)
[38] "20 Million MoCA Nodes Have Been Shipped" (http:// www.reuters. com/ article/pressRelease/ idUS171465+ 17-Feb-2009+
GNW20090217). Reuters. February 17, 2009. .
[39] LightReading: Why AT&T Likes HomePNA (http:// www.lightreading.com/ document. asp?doc_id=118351)
[40] Could MoCA/HomePlug win in-home networking wars? (http:// www. smartgridtoday.com/ public/ 873. cfm)
[41] HomeGrid Forum Blog - Why do we need a unified standard at all? (http:/ / homegridforum.typepad.com/ homegrid_forum/2008/ 10/
why-do-we-need-a-unified-standard-at-all-1. html)
[42] New global standard for fully networked home (http:// www. itu.int/ ITU-T/newslog/ New+ Global+ Standard+For+Fully+Networked+
Home. aspx), ITU-T Press Release
[43] ETSI TS 182 027 (http:// pda. etsi. org/pda/ home. asp?wki_id=CaDXV0CcRxTVYVVcl3FyX)
[44] IMS-based IPTV services - architecture and implementation (http:/ / www.staff. city.ac.uk/ ~veselin/ publications/ Sivchenko_ACM07.
[45] MSforum.org (http:// www.msforum.org/ interoperability/02-MGS81044-MFS_Whitepaper.pdf)
[46] Berlocher, Greg and Freyer, Dan. "IP And Satellite: Communications Worlds Merging" Via Satellite January 2009 p24-28
[47] Taga, Karim. "Hybrid delivery of content for IPTV" InterComms Issue 11 August 2008 p13-14
[48] Holmes, Mark. "Broadcast 2.0: The Changing Scene In Europe" Via Satellite September 2008 p20-25
[49] http:/ / www. broadbandtvnews. com/ 2009/ 10/ 14/ uk-and-france-lead-with-hybrid-iptv-set-tops/
[50] http:/ / www. mrgco.com/ press_releases. html#hstb09
[51] http:/ / jviptv.wordpress. com/ 2009/ 06/ 25/ hybrid-iptv-stb/
[52] http:/ / www. digitaltvnews. net/ items/ 060911adb_spain. htm
[53] http:/ / www. v-net.tv/ Webcast. aspx?id=5
[54] HbbTV Consortium (August 27, 2009). "New European initiative merges television with the power of the Internet" (http:/ / www. hbbtv.
org/ news/ HBBTV_PR_Final. pdf). Press release. .
[55] IPTV Americas (January 13, 2009). "IPTV Americas Launches First IPTV Satellite Distribution Platform for Latin America and The
Caribbean via SES NEW SKIES’ NSS-806" (http:/ / www.iptv-americas. tv/ releaseDB.php?leng=& notID=47). Press release. .
[56] International Datacasting Corporation "Why IP Over Satellite?" (http:/ / www. datacast.com/ pg_SolutionIndex. php). Accessed January 18,
2009. Company factsheet
[57] "Future Looks Bright For IPTV" (http:// www.satellitetoday.com/ via/ ednote/ 140. html) Satellite Today'.' Retrieved January 18, 2009.
[58] The Economics of IPTV (http:// www.bigbandnet. com/ index. php/ sol_iptv_economics. html?=mrb)
[59] Broadband Users Control What They Watch and When (http:/ / www.tvgenius.net/ blog/ 2010/ 04/ 06/ broadband-users-control-watch/)
[60] Session and Media SIgnalling for IPTV via IMS (http:// c-mobile.ptinovacao.pt/ files/ PaperMobilWare2008.pdf)
[61] Bulkley, Kate. "IPTV’s Eastern Promise" Digital TV Europe October 2008 p48
[62] Brown, Peter J. "Super Headends And High Expectations" Via Satellite April 2006 p18-30
[63] Market Wire "ZyXEL Announces Industry's First ADSL2/2+ 802.11n Gateway and New IPTV Product Offerings" (http:/ / findarticles.com/
p/ articles/ mi_pwwi/ is_200806/ ai_n26682515) June 2008
[64] HomePNA and HomeGrid Sign Liaison Agreement (http:// www.marketwatch.com/ news/ story/
homepna-homegrid-sign-liaison-agreement/story. aspx?guid={C8E4BB07-375A-41E5-8B05-2E33222E44C2}&dist=msr_9), Groups Work
to Promote New ITU G.hn Global Wired Home Networking Standard
[65] AT&T Participating in G.hn Standard Development (http:/ / www. everywire.com/ 2009/ 02/
[66] Newtec Productions NV "TP210 Sat3Play Broadband Terminal" (http:// www.newtec.eu/ fileadmin/ user_upload/ product_leaflets/
sat3Play/ Sat3Play_Ku-band_Terminal_TP210_R1.pdf) (Version R2/06.2010). Satellite Internet Modem factsheet
[67] Tom’s Hardware "How much latency is too much for Online Gaming?" (http:// www.tomshardware.co. uk/ forum/page-99005_25_0.
html). Accessed January 23, 2009. Internet Forum
[68] IPTV privacy risks (http:/ / www.cedmagazine. com/ iptv-privacy-risks.aspx)
[69] http:/ / www. fiercetelecom.com/ story/ msf-announces-details-gmi-2008/2008-09-10?utm_medium=rss&utm_source=telecom_M&
[70] Ericson report on need for regulation (http:// www. ericsson. com/ ericsson/ corpinfo/publications/ ericsson_business_review/ pdf/ 308/
308_38_41_reshaping.pdf)PDF (217 KB)
[71] TV or Not TV (http:// www.crtc.gc. ca/ eng/ media/ noam2008. htm)
• Securing Converged IP Networks, Tyson Macaulay, Auerbach 2006 (ISBN 0-8493-7580-0)
• "Does Video Delivered Over A Telephone Network Require A Cable Franchise?" (http:// papers. ssrn. com/ sol3/
papers. cfm?abstract_id=932980) AEI-Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies
External links
• ITU IPTV Focus Group (http:// www. itu.int/ ITU-T/IPTV/)
• Ars Technica: An Introduction to IPTV (http:/ / arstechnica. com/ guides/ other/ iptv. ars)
• IPTV over IMS (http:/ / isoc. nl/ activ/ 2008-SIPSIG-standards-OskarVanDeventer-IMS-basedIPTV.ppt)
• Internet-connected TVs finally arrive (http:/ / www.telegraph.co. uk/ technology/ news/ 8081124/
iTunes Store
iTunes Store
iTunes Store
iTunes Store 9.0.2 under Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard
Opened April 28, 2003 (as iTunes Music Store)
Pricing model À la carte, tiered; limited time rentals available for some movies
Platforms Mac OS X, Windows, Apple TV, and iOS.
Format Unprotected AAC (.m4a) @ 256 kbit/s (music), protected AAC (.m4p) @ 32 and 64 kbit/s (audiobooks), unprotected
MPEG-4 Video (.m4v) (music videos), protected MPEG-4 Video (.m4v) (other video)
Restrictions (Protected) Music — streaming to five computers every 24 hours, unlimited CDs (seven with an unchanged playlist),
unlimited iPods and iPhones.
Catalogue More than 14 million songs worldwide, 1,000,000+ podcasts (USA), 40,000+ music videos (USA),
3,000+ TV shows (USA), 20,000+ audiobooks (USA), 2,500+ movies (USA), 300,000+ App Store Apps
Preview 90 seconds (Music, TV, & Video) / 90 seconds (Audiobooks) / 30+ seconds (Movies)
Streaming Previews and Podcasts only
Protocol iTunes Music Store Protocol (itms://)
iTunes Store
Availability See article Australia
New Zealand
Puerto Rico
United Kingdom
United States
Features Allowance, “Just For You”, Celebrity Playlists, gift certificates and gift cards, iMix, billboard charts, advanced search
Customer support Web only; See article
The iTunes Store is a software-based online digital media store operated by Apple. Opening as the iTunes Music
Store on April 28, 2003, with over 200,000 items to purchase, it is, as of April 2008, the number-one music vendor
in the United States.
On February 24, 2010, the store served its 10 billionth song download; this milestone was
reached in just under seven years of being online.
While most downloaded files previously included restrictions on their use, enforced by FairPlay, Apple's
implementation of digital rights management, iTunes initiated a shift into selling DRM-free music in most countries,
marketed as iTunes Plus. On January 6, 2009, Apple announced that DRM had been removed from 80% of the entire
music catalog in the U.S.
Full iTunes Plus availability was achieved on April 7, 2009 in the U.S., coinciding with
the introduction of a three-tiered pricing model;
however, television shows and movies are still FairPlay-protected.
Features and restrictions
Pricing model
Since the introduction of the iTunes Store, individual songs were all sold for the same price with no subscription fee
(in contrast to most existing online music stores at the time of introduction, which charged a monthly fee for access
to their catalog). Music in the store is in the Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) format, which is the MPEG-4-specified
successor to MP3. Songs with DRM are encoded at 128 kbit/s. As of the January 2009 Macworld Expo, Apple has
announced that all music in iTunes will be available without DRM, and encoded at the higher-quality rate of
256 kbit/s. Previously, this model, known as "iTunes Plus", had been available only for music from EMI and some
independent labels. Previews, ninety seconds in length, are available free, prior to buying a song. iTunes had the
option between fully loading previews before playing, or simply streaming the preview; the former feature was
removed with the release of iTunes 8.
iTunes Store
Feature length movies and television episodes are available for purchase. Movies tend to be priced below a DVD of
the same film while television episodes are approximately double the cost of a song.
Finally, some games are available for some models of iPods for various prices, but none as expensive as a feature
length film. In addition, the iTunes Store now offers Apps, which are applications used for various purposes (games,
maps, movie showtimes, etc.) that are compatible with the iPod Touch and iPhone, although some Apps are
specifically for the iPhone only. Some Apps cost money (called "Paid Apps") and some are free (called "Free
Apps"). Developers can decide which price they want for apps. When someone downloads an App, 70 percent of the
purchase goes to the developer(s), and 30 percent goes to Apple.
At the Macworld 2008 keynote, Apple CEO Steve Jobs announced iTunes movie rentals.
Movies are available for
rent in the iTunes Store on the same day they are released on DVD.
They are only viewable for 24 hours after
users begin viewing them. This feature is not yet available in all countries but it is available in the United States, the
United Kingdom and Canada
Weekly promotions
There is a weekly promotion in which one to three songs are available to download for free to logged-in users. Free
downloads are available on Tuesdays, and remain free until the following Tuesday.
Some artists choose to have
select songs available for no charge. This is not available at all iTunes Stores. Some iTunes television programs have
begun the same technique to encourage brand loyalty; although those stay longer. In fact, the iTunes Store used to
have a link to "Free TV" on its home page and the TV Shows section's home page which links to a complete listing
of free TV shows, however it has disappeared (the page has remained online). Apple still offers free TV episodes;
some channels, such as ABC
and NBC
, have their own pages of "Free Season Premieres".
There are usually three types of free songs on the United States iTunes Store: the regular featured free song, the
Discovery Download (featuring songs from different genres), and the Canción de la Semana (Latino free single of
the week). Most recently, iTunes has been weekly offering free music videos.
To buy files through the store, a user must install the proprietary digital media player iTunes to access the store. This
software is available only for certain versions of the Macintosh or Windows operating systems.
A user must also pay with an iTunes gift card or a credit card with a billing address in Australia, Austria, Belgium,
Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Republic of Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico,
Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, or the
United States. Apple also offers other payment methods (like Paypal), which differ from country to country.
Residents in other countries can only buy a gift card from a merchant or download free podcasts and previews.
iTunes Store
iTunes Store for iOS
The iTunes Store shown on iOS 4.2.
The release of the iPhone and iPod Touch brought the introduction of
the iTunes Music Store. This version of the iTunes Store allows
owners of the iPod Touch and iPhone to purchase music and download
podcasts directly on the portable music device.
Originally to access
the store the user had to be connected to a Wi-Fi network in order to
enter the store, hence its original name: the iTunes Wi-Fi Music
Store. However, at Macworld 2009, Apple issued a software update
which automatically allowed 3G and EDGE users to access the store's
full functionality for files smaller than 10 MB.
The 3.0 update
added the ability to download movies, TV shows, audiobooks, iTunes
U, and ringtones on the devices. However, on 18 February 2010, Apple
increased the 10MB limit to 20MB.
Customer support
Apple provides customer support for the iTunes Store over the phone
through AppleCare; Timothy Noah of Slate has also found a customer
service line.
Most customer service inquiries are handled online, via
Report a Problem link in iTunes Application.
Catalog content
The store began after Apple signed deals with the five major record labels at the time, EMI, Universal, Warner, Sony
Music Entertainment, and BMG (the last two would later merge to form Sony BMG - which was later turned back
into Sony Music Entertainment, with BMG becoming defunct as of October 8, 2008). Music from more than 2,000
independent labels were added later, the first from The Orchard on June 24, 2003.
The store has more than 13,000,000 songs,
including exclusive tracks from numerous artists. Not all artists are
available on iTunes, including some popular ones such as AC/DC.
New songs are added to the iTunes catalog every day, while the iTunes Store is updated each Tuesday. Apple also
releases a 'Single of the Week' in both English and sometimes Spanish and usually a 'Discovery Download' on
Tuesdays, which are available for free for one week.
Downloaded songs come with song information (name, artist, album) already filled out, though iTunes provides a
free service by Gracenote to do this for songs not purchased from the store, although they must be imported with
iTunes. Songs that have an entry in the iTunes Store also come with album artwork (Artwork is embedded in the
metadata). As of the release of iTunes 7, the artwork can be obtained for songs not purchased from the store for free
if the user has an iTunes Store account. Purchased songs do not come with lyrics already typed in to the application's
window for them; nor does iTunes provide a service for acquiring the missing lyrics. However, several third-party
applications exist to locate and automatically add lyrics to the user's music.
iTunes Store
"Album Only" songs
Some songs are available from the store by "Album Only", meaning the song can only be acquired through the
purchase of the entire album, whereas most songs can be downloaded separately from the album they belong to.
Most songs above 10 minutes in length are automatically album-only songs. Soundtracks also often have many
Album Only tracks. Movie soundtracks normally include songs owned by many different labels, making licensing
more complex. For example, Forrest Gump: The Soundtrack includes songs from Peacock Records, Argo Records &
Capitol Records, among many others. Greatest Hits by Red Hot Chili Peppers has only one song, "Higher Ground",
that is not available for download on a per song basis.
When entering the U.S. music store, there are multiple sub-divided stores that one can go into. These stores are either
found under ‘More In Music,’ ‘Genres,’ ‘Pre-Orders,’ ‘Celebrity Playlists’ and ‘Free Downloads.’ Within ‘More In
Music,’ one can enter various stores such as Starbucks Entertainment and iTunes Essentials. iTunes Essentials
contains groupings of music based upon the artist of the music (Artist Essentials), the genre or history of the music
(Genres and History), or any other similarities (My Groove). Each grouping of music is essentially a pre-made
playlist. The songs in the playlist are all listed in order of their importance, starting with the artist's most well-known
song. These playlists usually contain either 45 or 75 songs equally distributed in three sections: The Basics (the
biggest, best, and most important songs), Next Steps (usually composed of popular songs just beyond the hits) and
Deep Cuts (under-appreciated songs). Occasionally, specific Artist Essentials do not have a Deep Cuts section. This
usually depends on how many releases the artist has completed over the years. Within ‘Genres,’ one can enter music
stores that only have one genre. These genres include alternative, blues, children's music, Christian & gospel,
classical, comedy (this includes comedy rock and stand-up comedy), country, dance, electronic, hip-hop/rap, jazz,
Latino, pop, R&B/soul, reggae, rock, singer–songwriter, soundtrack, vocal, and world. There are a total of 20 genres
in the U.S. music store. ‘Pre-Orders’ lists albums that one can pre-order before the album is released. ‘Celebrity
Playlists’ contains lists of songs chosen and described by celebrities. ‘Free Downloads’ are songs that subscribed
iTunes Store users can obtain for free.
On November 1, 2006, Apple created a category for Latino and Hispanic content, “iTunes Latino
”. Telemundo
and Mun2 made some of their popular programs available for purchase, becoming the first Hispanic television
content in the store. It offers music, music videos, audiobooks, podcasts and television shows in Spanish in a single
concentrated area. The brief descriptions given to the content is in Spanish as well as several sub-categories.
Gibraltarian Flamenco Metal band Breed 77, released an exclusive album called Un Encuentro to coincide with the
launch of “iTunes Latino”. It features 11 songs, all from previous albums, but all sung in Spanish.
Song censorship
iTunes has a policy of censoring profanity in its song titles.
This has resulted in a Scunthorpe glitch, by which
inoffensive titles are censored due to a coincidental string of letters.
If the song has an explicit label, it will be marked "explicit" next to the song title. If a song is marked "explicit" it is
unavailable for purchase if "restrict explicit content" is checked under the parental controls preference. Often there
will be a "clean" mark next to the title of some songs, meaning the lyrics have been censored, and is available to
purchase on all accounts. Generally if a song is marked "clean" there is an explicit version available as well.
iTunes Store
The iTunes Store has over 150,000 podcasts available to subscribe. Once a podcast has been subscribed to, iTunes
will automatically download new episodes to that person's iTunes library. They are available for free.
The iTunes Store also includes over 20,000 hours of audiobooks,
encoded at 32 kbit/s (22.050-24.000 kHz,
mono) and 64 kbit/s (22.050 kHz, stereo). Ninety-second previews are offered for every book. These books are
provided by Audible.com. This is the same format available if the user signs up directly with Audible.com and chose
the "iPod" format. The main difference is that it is unnecessary to sign up for a subscription to get audiobooks as is
the case with Audible. A small discount is provided through buying audiobooks through the iTunes Store, but on a
selective basis by Apple in comparison to an "always on member discount" if one has an Audible subscription. The
"Audiobooks" category also includes radio shows and all other audio-only programs, except podcasts.
In October 2005, Apple announced the latest iPod would be capable of playing video files, which would be sold
online through the iTunes Store in the U.S.
These videos included 2,000 music videos and episodes of popular
television programs. Apple made a deal with Disney to be the first supplier of TV shows. The first shows available
included episodes of Lost and Desperate Housewives with each episode becoming available the day after it originally
aired on broadcast TV. Several short animated films by Pixar are available.
The selling of videos on iTunes sparked considerable debate as to whether there was a paying audience for
programming available for free on TV. As MP3 Newswire pointed out, users are not so much paying for the TV
programs themselves. Instead they are really paying for a service that offers the convenience of someone else
digitizing free broadcast episodes for them for their portable device, each episode in commercial-free form, and a
convenient place to select and download individual shows. Through an updated version of QuickTime Pro, users can
create their own videos for the iPod, including digitized versions of programs recorded on their VCR if they wish to
take the time and effort to save the cost.
With the launch of iTunes 8, many TV shows, such as The Office and Heroes, have begun offering their programing
in High Definition (HD). The High Definition video on the iTunes Store is in 1280x720 resolution rather than the
better known 1920x1080 Full HD on Blu-ray discs.
In addition to the launch of high definition TV shows, iTunes 8 allowed for the rental of movies through the iTunes
Store. The playing of movie rentals must begin within 30 days of purchase and must be completed within 24 hours of
having been started.
In March 2009, Apple announced that iTunes customers can purchase and rent selected movie titles in HD from their
computers. Previously, HD movie rentals were only available for purchase and playback on the Apple TV. HD
movies available for purchase are priced at $19.99, introduced with titles such as Quantum of Solace and
iTunes U
iTunes U was announced at Cupertino, California on May 30, 2007. The service was created to manage, distribute,
and control access to educational audio and video content and PDF files for students within a college or university as
well as the broader Internet. The member institutions are given their own iTunes U site that makes use of Apple’s
iTunes Store infrastructure. The online service is without cost to those uploading or downloading material. Content
includes course lectures, language lessons, lab demonstrations, sports highlights and campus tours provided by
qualifying two- and four-year accredited, degree-granting, public or private colleges and universities in the United
States, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, New
iTunes Store
Zealand, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and United Kingdom.

An advantage iTunes U has over traditional podcasting tools is that access to content can be restricted because of the
use of the iTunes infrastructure end-to-end. Authentication is handled by the member college or university, who
prompts a visitor for information (like an account and password specific to that institution) and then passes a certain
token on to the iTunes U web site. That token contains (indicates) the access level for that visitor.
An example
might be a class podcast that can only be accessed by students enrolled in the class.
iTunes U has material from myriad places including colleges and universities. There are over 350,000 files available
to download. Individual universities can be visited through the Universities & Colleges section, and other institutions
can be visited through the "Beyond Campus" section.
iTunes U functions much like Podcasts in that users can either download individual streams or subscribe to a stream
so that iTunes will automatically download it.
Since making changes to individual iTunes U sites may be difficult to users not well-versed in XML tools (i.e.
XQuery), Apple has created the Woolamaloo Automator to aid users in the editing of sites. The Woolamaloo
Automator makes it easy for non-programmers to use the iTunes U web services. By using the workflow tool on
Apple’s desktop, Automator, the Woolamaloo actions can not only be configured but can then be combined to help
with any routine iTunes U administrative tasks. The Woolamaloo Automator has become popular because of its easy
iPod games
On September 12, 2006, the iTunes Store began to offer additional games for purchase with the launch of iTunes 7,
compatible with the iPod Classic or iPod Nano with video playback. Launch titles included: Bejeweled, Cubis, Mini
Golf, Mahjong, Pac-Man, Tetris, Texas Hold 'Em, Vortex, and Zuma. Though they are downloaded through iTunes,
the games cannot be played within the application itself; they can only be played on an iPod Classic or iPod Nano.
App Store
With the launch of iPhone 3G and the 2.0 iOS firmware for iPod Touch and iPhone owners, the App Store allows
people to download applications through the iTunes desktop software or the App Store on their iPhones. As of
October 20, 2010, there are over 300,000 third-party applications available.
The applications can only be run on
iPhones, iPod Touch or iPads. Each application is also protected with iTunes FairPlay DRM. Developers of these
applications receive 70 percent of the income and free applications are distributed without charge to the
As with the launch of the App Store on both the iOS as a standalone application and in iTunes as a section of the
iTunes store, the iBookstore is likely to be launched on both platforms in a similar fashion, with the desktop software
being used to store and sync iBooks purchases exclusively with the iPad. The iPhone OS software update on 21 June
2010 also allowed iPhone and iPod touch customers in America to buy iBooks. Other countries are still waiting for
the release of the iBookstore. There has been no word from Apple on when this will occur.
iTunes Store
Market share and milestones
Sales of iTunes songs
Since its launch, the iTunes Store has
crossed many milestones. In the first 18
hours, the store sold about 275,000 tracks
and more than 1,000,000 in its first 5 days.
When released for Windows in October
2003, iTunes was downloaded more than
1,000,000 times in the first 3 days, selling
more than 1,000,000 songs in that period.
On December 15, 2003 Apple announced
that it had crossed 25 million songs sold.
In January 2004 at the Macworld
Conference & Expo in San Francisco, Steve
Jobs announced (Sellers, 2004) that an unnamed person had purchased US$29,500 worth of music. On March 15,
2004, Apple announced that iTunes Music Store customers had purchased and downloaded 50 million songs from
the iTunes Music Store. A song sold on iTunes gives the artist 9 cents in profit. They also reported that customers
were purchasing 2.5 million songs a week which translates to a projected annual run rate of 130 million songs a year.
The 50 millionth song was "The Path of Thorns" by Sarah McLachlan.
On April 28, 2004, the iTunes Music Store marked its first anniversary with 70 million songs sold, clear dominance
in the paid online music market and a slight profit.
The store also offers hundreds of movie trailers and music
videos, in an attempt to boost soundtrack sales. In the conference, Steve Jobs reiterated that a subscription service is
still not in the interest of customers and reported that only 5 million of the 100 million songs offered in the Pepsi
giveaway campaign were redeemed, which he blamed on technical problems in Pepsi distribution. According to an
Apple Press Release released on August 10, 2004, the iTunes Music Store is the first store to have a catalog of more
than one million songs.
Also, the iTunes Music Store at that point maintained an over 70 percent market share of
legal music downloads.
• 100 million songs sold: Summer, 2004
(Kevin Britten of Hays, Kansas, bought the 100 millionth song, and the twenty-year-old was given a call
from Steve Jobs congratulating him.)
• 125 million songs sold: September 1, 2004
• 150 million songs sold: October 14, 2004
• 200 million songs sold: December 16, 2004
(Ryan Alekman of Belchertown, Massachusetts, USA, bought the 200 millionth song, which was one of
the tracks on U2's digital box set The Complete U2.)
• 250 million songs sold: January 24, 2005
• 300 million songs sold: March 2, 2005
• 400 million songs sold: May 10, 2005
On July 5, 2005 Apple announced a promotion counting down to half a billion songs sold.
• 500 million songs sold: July 18, 2005
(Amy Greer of Lafayette, Indiana, USA, bought the 500 millionth song, "Mississippi Girl" by Faith
iTunes Store
• 850 million songs sold: January 10, 2006
• 1 billion songs sold: February 23, 2006
(Alex Ostrovsky of West Bloomfield, Michigan, bought the billionth song, "Speed of Sound" by
He later got a call from Steve Jobs with the good news that the sixteen-year-old was
getting ten iPods, an iMac, a $10,000 music gift certificate, and a scholarship established in his name at
the Juilliard School.)
• 1.5 billion songs sold: September 12, 2006
• 2 billion songs sold: January 10, 2007
• 2.5 billion songs sold: April 9, 2007
• 3 billion songs sold: July 31, 2007
• 4 billion songs sold: January 15, 2008
• 5 billion songs sold: June 19, 2008
• 6 billion songs sold: January 6, 2009
• 8 billion songs sold: July 21, 2009
• 8.6 billion songs sold: September 9, 2009
• 10 billion songs sold: February 24, 2010
Louie Sulcer (SUL'-sir) of Woodstock, Georgia downloaded Guess Things Happen That Way by Johnny
Cash. At 71 years old, he is the oldest milestone winner. He received a call from Steve Jobs and a
$10,000 iTunes gift card.
• 1 million videos sold: October 31, 2005
• 3+ million videos sold: December 6, 2005
• 8 million videos sold: January 10, 2006
• 15 million videos sold: February 23, 2006
• 45 million videos sold: September 12, 2006
• 50 million television episodes sold: January 10, 2007
• 1.3 million feature-length films sold: January 10, 2007
• 2 million feature-length films sold: July 31, 2007
• 200 million television episodes sold: October 16, 2008
• 1+ million HD episodes sold: October 16, 2008
• 10 million apps downloaded: July 14, 2008
• 100 million apps downloaded: September 9, 2008
• 200 million apps downloaded: October 22, 2008
• 300 million apps downloaded: December 5, 2008
• 500 million apps downloaded: January 16, 2009
• 800 million apps downloaded: March 17, 2009
• 1 billion apps downloaded: April 23, 2009
• 1.5 billion apps downloaded: July 14, 2009
• 1.8 billion apps downloaded: September 9, 2009
• 2 billion apps downloaded: September 28, 2009
• 3 billion apps downloaded: January 5, 2010
• 7 billion apps downloaded: October 20, 2010
• 10 billion apps downloaded: January 22, 2011
• 15 billion apps downloaded: July 7, 2011
iTunes Store
Market share
• Steve Jobs announced in his "It's Showtime" keynote that Apple had 88% of the legal U.S. music download
market on September 12, 2006.
• Apple announced that the iTunes Store had sold more than two million movies, making it the world’s most
popular online movie store on April 11, 2007.
• Apple announced that iTunes Store surpassed Best Buy to become the second biggest music seller in the USA
behind Wal-Mart on February 26, 2008 and eventually became number one on April 3, 2008.
Originally only Mac OS X users who had credit cards with a U.S. billing address could buy songs with the service,
but Steve Jobs, the CEO of Apple, announced plans to support both Windows and non-American users. The
Windows version of iTunes and support for the Windows platform from the iTunes Music Store were announced on
October 16, 2003, with immediate availability. Beginning in 2004, the service has become available in a number of
countries other than the United States:
• On 15 June 2004, the iTunes Music Store was launched in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. According
to an Apple Press Release, the European iTunes Music Stores sold a combined total of 800,000 songs in one
week, with 450,000 of those songs sold in the UK.
• On 26 October 2004 nine countries were added to the iTunes Music Store in a large EU store expansion: Austria,
Belgium, Finland, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. This extended availability to
all countries that were then in the Eurozone except for the Republic of Ireland, where the iTMS became available
on 6 January 2005. These countries also pay €0.99 for songs, and have a shared catalogue/database system. The
Italian, Portuguese, Dutch, Greek stores have been localized. Some of these stores also currently (still) lack music
videos, movies and TV series (such as the Swedish, Portuguese, Belgian, Dutch, Italian, Spanish, Irish, Greek,
Austrian, Swiss, Danish, Finnish and Norwegian iTunes Stores). The French, German, American, and British
stores are localized for their respective countries and have different catalogs including but not limited to Music,
Music videos, Movies, TV-Series and iPhone Apps.
• On 3 December 2004 the British Office of Fair Trading referred the iTunes Music Store to the European
Commission because it prevents consumers in one EU country from buying music from stores in other EU
countries, in violation of EU free-trade legislation; the immediate cause of the referral was because the €0.99
price charged in the Eurozone equates to UK£0.68 in sterling, rather than the UK£0.79 actually charged there.
The iTunes Store is not yet available in any of the countries that joined the Eurozone after the original launch of
the store—Slovenia (2007), Cyprus (2008), Malta (2008), Slovakia (2009), or Estonia (2011).
• The iTunes Music Store was launched in Canada on December 3, 2004.
• On 10 May 2005, the iTunes Music Store opened for Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, and Denmark, after about
two weeks of speculation about these countries (and Australia) receiving the store.
• Apple officially launched the iTunes Music Store in Japan on 4 August 2005, with 1 million songs available.
In the next four days the store had sold one million songs – the pace faster than that of the U.S. store.
addition to a long delay, Apple failed to have one set price for singles. Pundits speculated that this may have
indicated the introduction of new price structure to the rest of the stores in future, in favor of record labels who
would like to see higher prices for new songs. This extension to other countries was announced in January 2009.
• The iTunes Music Store was launched in Australia on 25 October 2005. The release of video-capable iPods also
saw the store launch with music videos and short films by Pixar. iTunes Gift Cards (as they are now known) are
now also available in many more stores such as JB Hi-Fi, David Jones, and the Woolworths chain of stores.
Access was inadvertently given to some people in New Zealand, too.
Failed negotiations with the Sony BMG
label meant that none of that label's artists were available at the time of launch; they were later added on January
17, 2006. On June 23, 2008, television shows were added to the Australian iTunes Store, with a combination of
iTunes Store
both Australian and international programming.
• On November 1, 2006, the store started offering a range of Latino content including television shows and music
for its Hispanic American, Mexican and Puerto Rican clients.
• The iTunes Store (along with a local Apple Online Store) was officially launched in New Zealand on December
6, 2006, although New Zealand users had briefly been able to buy from the Australian store when it first opened
until that loophole was closed.
• Many users from central and south Europe are still waiting for their version of iTunes.
• The newly developed iTunes Movie Rentals will be released outside the U.S. within a year from July 2008.
• On 4 June 2008 the United Kingdom and Canada became the first countries to be able to buy and rent films on the
iTunes Store at UK£2.49 per rental and UK£6.99 to buy and CA$3.49 and CA$14.99 respectively.
• On the August 14, 2008, Australia and New Zealand became the 4th and 5th countries, respectively, to have
movies available on iTunes from major movie companies Walt Disney and Lions Gate International. 20th Century
Fox, Sony Pictures, Paramount, and other major motion picture companies are scheduled to be released.
TV shows were added to the Australian iTunes on June 24 starting with 21 titles from ABC in the US, ABC
Australia, the Disney Channel, MTV, and Channel 9. Shows included Summer Heights High, Scrubs, The Hills,
Lost, Hannah Montana, and Desperate Housewives.
• On August 4, 2009, Mexico became the first Latin American country (and the first developing country) to have a
music store,
pricing songs for MX$9, MX$12 or MX$15 each and music videos for MX$18 or MX$24.

Gift cards were also launched, being available for MX$200, MX$300, and MX$600.
The Spanish used on the
Mexican store has been modified to Mexican Spanish.

As of 9 November 2010, movie rentals and
purchases were launched on iTunes Mexico with rentals at MX$10, MX$25 & MX$40 and purchases at MX$25
(short films), MX$35 (HD short films), MX$50, MX$80, MX$100 or MX$150.
• On April 30, Apple launched their film store in the Republic of Ireland and France.
As of the 2009 Macworld Conference & Expo, Apple has given no new information of the (possible; future)
inclusion and expansion of music videos, TV-shows and movies in other European countries. The stores of the UK,
Germany,France and the Republic of Ireland currently remain the only European Stores with local and/or localized
selections of TV-shows, movies and music videos.
Current prices: Songs
Region min. price max. price
United States USD 0.69 (0.69) USD 1.29 (1.29)
Mexico MXN 9 (0.71) MXN 15 (1.19)
Canada CAD 0.69 (0.67) CAD 1.29 (1.25)
United Kingdom GBP 0.59 (0.91) GBP 0.99 (1.53)
Switzerland CHF 1.60 (1.53) CHF 2.20 (2.11)
note EUR 0.69 (0.92) EUR 1.29 (1.72)
Denmark DKK 8 (1.52) DKK 10 (1.90)
Norway NOK 8 (1.32) NOK 10 (1.66)
Sweden SEK 9 (1.25) SEK 12 (1.67)
Australia AUD 1.69 (1.55) AUD 2.19 (2.01)
New Zealand NZD1.79 (1.29) NZD 2.39 (1.72)
iTunes Store
Japan JPY 150 (1.71) JPY 200 (2.28)
Note: iTunes eurozone excludes Cyprus, Estonia, Malta, Slovakia, and Slovenia.
Available file formats / History thereof
Originally, songs were encoded using FairPlay-encrypted 128 kbit/s AAC streams in an mp4 wrapper, using the
.m4p extension.
While licenses to the AAC compression and the mp4 file format are readily available, Apple generally has not
licensed its proprietary FairPlay encryption scheme to other mobile device manufacturers, so only devices from
Apple are able to play the Fairplay-encrypted songs sold at the iTunes Store. The only exceptions were three mobile
phones sold by Motorola in the years 2005–6: the Motorola ROKR E1, the Motorola RAZR V3i, and the Motorola
Currently the digital booklets included with some albums are in PDF. With the present iPod software, these files are
not readable on iPods without third party software. However, with the release of their latest firmware update for the
iPhone and iPod Touch, these can be converted to books and viewed in the iBooks application.
From May 29, 2007 tracks on the EMI label were made available in a DRM-less format called iTunes Plus. These
files are unprotected and are encoded in the AAC format at 256 kbit/s, twice the bitrate of standard tracks bought
through the service. They are labelled as "purchased AAC audio file" (.m4a) rather than "protected AAC audio file"
(.m4p) in iTunes and the context menu obtained by right-clicking the song includes an option to convert to MP3.
In January 2009, Apple announced that all music would be available in the iTunes Plus format, bringing an end to
the sale of music with DRM on iTunes. In April, the sale of protected music ended in the western versions of the
store, making all music in the iTunes Store "iTunes Plus". iTunes store users may choose to "upgrade" any of their
downloaded iTunes music to iTunes Plus if they wish, but most songs require payment to do so. FairPlay
DRM-protected music is still available in the Japanese iTunes store.
In September 2009, Apple introduced the iTunes LP format (known pre-launch by the code name "Cocktail")

which features visual, interactive content alongside album tracks and lyrics.
iTunes Store
Digital rights management
A white fifth-generation iPod with earphones. The only
portable devices licensed to play protected music from the
iTunes Store are iPods, the iPhone, the iPod Touch, the iPad
and selected Motorola mobile phones, such as the ROKR.
Apple's FairPlay digital rights management (DRM) is
integrated into iTunes, which manages songs purchased in
the m4p file format from iTunes Store before January 2009.
iTunes relies on FairPlay to implement three main
• Users can make a maximum of seven CD copies of any
particular playlist containing songs in the m4p file format
purchased from the iTunes Store.
• Users can access their purchased songs in the m4p file
format on a maximum of five computers.
• Songs in the m4p file format can only be played on a
computer with iTunes or an iPod; other MP3 devices do
not support FairPlay encoded tracks.
There are no restrictions on number of iPods to which a
purchased song can be transferred nor the number of times
any individual song can be burned to CD.
When Apple initially introduced FairPlay, songs purchased
through iTunes had limits of three simultaneous machines
and ten CD copies of a playlist. The adjustment to the current
limits was implemented with the introduction of iTunes 4.5
in April 2004, presumably as the result of re-negotiations
Apple had with major labels.
Apple's DRM technology is breakable. Various programs have been written to remove the FairPlay wrapper and
allow the AAC files to be used without technological restriction. More simply, a user can convert protected files to
an unprotected format format by using iTunes to burn them to an audio CD and ripping the CD back to iTunes. If the
CD is ripped back to iTunes in a lossy format, some audio quality will be lost in this transcoding. An alternative way
of transcoding the files is to record the "Wave Out Mix" using an audio recording program (such as Audacity or
Audio Hijack Pro) while playing the song on iTunes — and then encoding it to a format of the user's choice.
Competitors accused Apple of using iPod, the iTunes Store, and "FairPlay" to establish a vertical monopoly and a
lock-in for iPod users to use the iTunes Store exclusively (and vice versa). This "lock" had two aspects:
• Apple has maintained tight control of its FairPlay encryption. Other online music stores cannot sell music files
encoded with FairPlay, and competing devices from companies such as Creative Labs and iriver cannot play such
files. This means that consumers who want to listen to songs downloaded from the iTunes Store must either have
an Apple device (iPod, iPhone, iPad) or convert the files to an open format.
• The iPod does not play files encoded in the Microsoft's WMA format or RealNetwork's Helix-protected format
used by other online music stores. iPod owners who want to play music from other stores must circumvent the
files' DRM.
In July 2004, RealNetworks debuted an application named Harmony, which converted files purchased from
RealNetworks' RealRhapsody service into a FairPlay-compatible format that an iPod could play. In response, Apple
accused RealNetworks of "adopting the tactics and ethics of a hacker to break into the iPod."
and released a
firmware upgrade that rendered iPods incapable of playing such files. On January 3, 2005, an iTunes Music Store
customer sued Apple, alleging the company broke US antitrust laws by freezing out competitors.
In 2006, a controversy erupted about a French draft law aimed at reinforcing the protection of works of art against
"piracy", or illegal copying; some clauses of the law could possibly be used to request Apple to provide information
iTunes Store
about its FairPlay system to manufacturers of competing players. Apple and associated lobbying groups protested the
draft law, going as far as to suggest that it condoned "state-sponsored piracy." Some U.S. commentators claimed that
the law was a protectionistic measure against the iPod.
Movement against DRM
On February 6, 2007, Steve Jobs called on the Big Four record labels to allow their music to be sold DRM-free.
This approach was advocated by the Open Music Model as being revenue maximizing. On April 2, 2007, Apple and
the record label EMI announced that the iTunes Store would begin offering, as an additional purchasing option,
tracks from EMI's catalog encoded as 256 kbit/s AAC without FairPlay or any other DRM.
On May 29, 2007, Apple released version 7.2 of its iTunes software, allowing users to purchase DRM-free music
and music videos from participating labels. These new files, available through the iTunes Store, have been called
iTunes Plus music by Apple. iTunes Plus content was offered at a higher price than the DRM-protected versions of
the same content.
In October 2007, iTunes Plus became automatic instead of optional for all iTunes Plus licensed content. In addition,
the price of iTunes Plus reverted to the lower DRM price.
Almost immediately after the launch of iTunes Plus, reports surfaced that the DRM-free tracks sold by the iTunes
Store contained identifying information about the customer, embedding the purchasing account's full name and
e-mail address as metadata in the file. This information has always been in iTunes downloads both with and without
Fairplay DRM.. Privacy groups expressed concerns that this data could be misused if possessions carrying the files
were stolen, and potentially wrongly incriminate a user for copyright infringement.
On January 6, 2009 at the Macworld Expo, Apple announced a significant overhaul of the iTunes Plus catalog with
Universal Music Group, Sony BMG, Warner Music Group and EMI offering all their music in iTunes Plus
immediately. As of the announcement, 8 million songs were available in Apple's DRM-free format. As of April
2009, all songs became available in the iTunes Plus format, except from the Japanese iTunes store.
On Super Bowl Sunday, February 1, 2004, Apple launched a promotion with Pepsi in which they gave away 100
million songs, through tokens on selected soft drink bottle caps. Unfortunately for Apple, Pepsi failed to properly
distribute the bottles to major metropolitan areas until only weeks before the promotion ended, despite a one-month
extension of the deadline by Apple. The promotion was repeated beginning January 31, 2005, with 200 million songs
available, and an iPod Mini given away every hour.
On July 1, 2004, Apple announced that, starting with the sale of the 95 millionth song, an iPod would be given away
to the buyer of each 100 thousandth song, for a total of 50 iPods. The buyer of the 100 millionth song would receive
a PowerBook, iPod, and US$10,000 gift certificate to the iTunes Music Store.
Ten days later, on July 11, Apple announced that 100 million songs had been sold through the iTunes Music Store.
The 100 millionth song was titled "Somersault (Dangermouse Remix)" by Zero 7, purchased by Kevin Britten of
Hays, Kansas. He then received a phone call from Apple CEO Steve Jobs, who offered his congratulations, as well
as a 40 GB 3rd Generation iPod laser-engraved with a message of thanks.
Inspired by Pepsi's marketing success with iTunes giveaways, Coca-Cola partnered with 7-Eleven to give away a
free iTunes song with every 32 US fl oz (950 ml). Slurpee frozen beverage until July 31, 2005. Songs could be
redeemed until August 31, 2005 by entering a code printed on the Slurpee cup into the iTunes Music Store
application. Coca-Cola did this in spite of having its own music store, myCokeMusic.com, that competed with the
iTunes Music Store in Europe. myCokeMusic.com ceased business on July 31, 2006.
On July 5, 2005, Apple announced that they were counting down to half a billion songs. The buyer of every 100
thousandth song up to 500 million would receive an iPod Mini and a 50-song gift card. The grand prize for the
iTunes Store
person who downloads the 500 millionth song was 10 iPods of their choice, a 10,000-song gift card, 10 50-song gift
cards or 4 tickets to the Coldplay world tour. Twelve days later, on July 17, Apple announced that 500 million songs
had been sold through the iTunes Music Store. The 500 millionth song, purchased by Amy Greer of Lafayette,
Indiana, was "Mississippi Girl" by Faith Hill.
On July 28, 2005, Apple and The Gap announced a promotion to award iTunes music downloads to Gap customers
who tried on a pair of Gap jeans.
From August 8 to August 31, 2005, each customer who tried on any pair of Gap
jeans could receive a free download for a song of their choice from the iTunes Music Store.
On February 7, 2006, Apple announced that they were counting down to the billionth song download and began a
promotion similar to the previous 100 million and 500 million countdown. Whoever downloaded the billionth song
would receive a 20" iMac, ten 60 GB iPods, and a US$10,000 iTunes Music Card. The billionth song was purchased
on February 23, 2006 by Alex Ostrovsky of West Bloomfield, Michigan. The purchased song was "Speed of Sound"
as part of Coldplay's X&Y album.
On July 25, 2006, Facebook and iTunes began offering a promotion where members of the Apple Students group
would receive a free 25 song sampler each week until September 30 in various music genres. The idea behind the
promotion was to get students more familiar and enthusiastic with each service as Autumn classes approached.
However in order to prevent abuse of the promotion, the weekly code that Facebook provided stopped working after
it was redeemed one million times. In addition, the promotion caused discontent among international students, as the
code was only valid in the U.S. iTunes Music Store.
On April 10, 2009, Apple announced that it will be counting down to the billionth app. Apps being the applications
for iPod Touch and iPhone. Launching a counter that is constantly running on Good Friday, Apple starting counting
Connor Mulcahey, age 13 of Weston, CT, downloaded the billionth app, "Bump" by Bump Technologies,
and will receive a Macbook Pro 17", a 32 GB iPod Touch, a Time Capsule, and a $10,000 Gift Card for the iTunes
On February 11, 2010 Apple announced that it would be counting down to 10 billion songs downloaded. A $10,000
gift card was offered as a prize. On February 25, 2010, the 10 billionth song was Guess Things Happen That Way by
Johnny Cash purchased by Louie Sulcer of Woodstock, Georgia.
Other platforms
Although iTunes is only supported on Mac OS X (only on Mac OS X Leopard and above) and Windows operating
systems and devices, users of other platforms have been able to buy music from the iTunes Store by a variety of
methods. iTunes is known to run passably well in Linux on x86-based computers using the Wine compatibility
There have been alternative programs developed to access the iTunes Store, including SharpMusique
(which is no longer functional).
Technical details
Store pages are delivered using standard HTML with a special header. This change was made when iTunes 9.0 was
released. iTunes uses WebKit to render these pages on the screen.
Prior to iTunes 9.0, The iTunes Store was delivered using a custom XML format that describes the position of all of
the elements, boxes, album art and all of their properties — including whether a reference link can be dragged out of
iTunes and into another document. The App Store portion of the store is still rendered in this fashion.
The store's back-end software uses WebObjects - Apple's own application server it acquired from NeXT. Content is
uploaded to the iTunes data store using an internal Apple program called iTunes Producer, which automatically
encodes and adds metadata to uploaded files.
iTunes Store
Legal disputes
Apple Records
For three years, The Beatles' record company Apple Records were in a legal dispute, Apple Corps v. Apple
Computer, with Apple Computer over the name "Apple." On May 8, 2006, a ruling was declared in favor of Apple
Computer, but Apple Records said it would appeal the ruling. Despite this, plans were announced by Neil Aspinall in
April 2006 to completely remaster and release the entire Beatles catalog on an unspecified online music service, as
well as release some previously unheard work by the band. No date was set at that time.
It has also been reported
that the Beatles' music catalog might initially be appearing on iTunes only, as Apple is reported to be negotiating
with Britain's EMI group over an online distribution deal that might be exclusive for a limited time.
During his January 9, 2007 Macworld Keynote address, Apple CEO Steve Jobs used the band's song "Lovely Rita"
to introduce the music-playing capabilities of the company's new iPhone. This was regarded by industry observers as
further evidence that the Beatles catalog would be introduced to the iTunes Music Store catalog in the near future.
On February 5, 2007, Apple Corps and Apple Inc. announced they had reached a settlement in their legal dispute.
In a related development, Apple announced on August 14, 2007 that the entire solo catalog of John Lennon would be
available on iTunes.
The solo catalogs of the other three Beatles, Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr, and George
Harrison, are also available on iTunes.
On November 16, 2010, the entire Beatles catalog was officially made available on the iTunes store.
The Consumer Council of Norway EULA challenge
On June 6, 2006, The Consumer Ombudsmen in Norway, Sweden and Denmark launched a common open letter to
Apple regarding the EULA of iTunes through the Norwegian Consumer Ombudsman Bjørn Erik Thon.
iTunes case is based upon an official complaint
filed by The Consumer Council of Norway on January 25, 2006.
The main allegations were that:
• The EULA is unbalanced to disfavor the customer. Scandinavian law requires any written agreement to favor
both parties. The weak party also enjoys protection from exploitation according to Norwegian consumer laws.
• The iTunes Store's use of Digital rights management limits the number of devices purchased songs can be played
• iTunes' contract entitles the company to at any time change the terms of the contract without notice, including the
selection of players or software that must be used for iTunes files, and also the number of times a customer can
change or copy already purchased files.
• The EULA is both vague and hard to understand for the customers.
• The EULA states that the legal relationship between the company and customers is regulated by English contract
law. It is unreasonable to expect Norwegian consumers to have comprehensive knowledge of English law.
Products marketed to Norwegian consumers in Norway are subject to Norwegian law — a right that cannot be
waived by a clause in a company's standard customer contract.
• The EULA removes iTunes' responsibility regarding damage to the consumer’s computer due to software errors
even though responsibility cannot be waived in Scandinavian Law.
Apple responded July 31, 2006.
On January 22, 2007, German and French consumer groups joined forces with Norway and Finland.

goal is to create a united European front against iTunes (Germany and France have each had their own negotiation
process with iTunes). According to the press statement Apple is in favor of this. The key points in the negotiations
• Interoperability — the consumer should have the right and ability to play his or her music on any device of his or
her own choice.
iTunes Store
• Change of conditions — iTunes must revoke their right to change the terms and conditions (EULA) at any time
without the consent of the consumer.
• Liability — iTunes should change its clause limiting its liability to recover consumer damages if they are caused
by content sold by iTunes.
• Applicable Law — Consumers entering into a contract with iTunes should be able to rely on the consumer
protection rules according to the law of the country in which they live.
EU anti-trust case
In 2004, Which? magazine complained to the European Commission about the higher prices in UK for the same
songs sold in the EU. Typically 0.99 Euro in EU and 79 pence in the UK.
In 2008 the Commission withdrew its
investigation after Apple agreed to end the price discrimination.
Content disputes
Universal Music Group
On July 1, 2007, the New York Times reported
that Universal (currently the world's biggest music corporation)
would not renew its annual contract to sell music through iTunes. Instead, Universal said that it would market music
to Apple at will, allowing it to remove its songs from the iTunes service on short notice if the two sides did not agree
on pricing or other terms.
On August 9, 2007, UMG announced a plan to sell some songs in MP3 format, without Digital rights management,
through a variety of online services such as Amazon MP3 and the newly created gBox. While these tracks continue
to be available through the iTunes Store, Universal chose to license these songs in DRM-free formats only through
other services.
NBC Universal TV series
On August 31, 2007, Apple announced that programs on NBC's 2007-08 television schedule would not be available
on iTunes.
NBC had informed Apple the previous day that it would not be renewing its contract.
It was later
clarified that this change only applied to series produced by NBC Universal-owned Universal Media Studios,
including Universal-produced shows on other networks such as House. NBC programs produced by other studios,
such as Chuck (Warner Bros.) and Journeyman (20th Century Fox), would remain available on iTunes.
Apple has publicly asserted that NBC would only renew their contract if Apple agreed to a price increase of US$4.99
per episode, which they did not. NBC disputes that claim, claiming that Apple balked at NBC's request to package
shows together and make wholesale pricing more flexible.
NBC claims that they never asked to double the
wholesale price and insisted that their shows would be sold by the iTunes Store through early December.
networks who sell their shows via iTunes did not follow suit, as some predicted would happen. On December 1,
2007 NBC shows were pulled from iTunes.
On September 9, 2008, Apple and NBC Universal announced that NBC's TV shows were once again available on the
US iTunes Store.
The UK iTunes Store has many shows from NBC available, though they are distributed by Universal Studios. The
pricing for these seasons are higher than what they were on the US store, an example being, Season 3 of The Office
is priced at UK£43.47 (roughly US$72) vs. $52.99 (US Store HD).
iTunes Store
Notes and references
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[3] "Apple's iTunes serves up 10 billionth song download" (http:// www. apple.com/pr/ library/2010/ 02/ 25itunes. html). .
[4] "Apple to end music restrictions" (http:/ / news. bbc. co.uk/ 2/ hi/ technology/ 7813527. stm). BBC News. 2009-01-07. . Retrieved
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itunes-store-now-infected-with-variable-pricing-amazon-still-0/ ). Engadget. April 7, 2009. . Retrieved 2010-01-25.
[6] "Apple — iTunes — Volume Discounts — Frequently Asked Questions" (http:// web.archive.org/web/ 20080417171948/ http:/ / www.
apple.com/ itunes/ volumediscounts/ faq.html). Apple Inc.. Archived from the original (http:// www.apple.com/ itunes/ volumediscounts/
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[7] "Macworld: New iPhone Software, iTunes Video Rentals, Updated AppleTV" (http:// ipod. about. com/ b/ 2008/ 01/ 15/
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[8] "AppleInsider, Apple Announces same day as DVD release iTunes movies sales" (http:// www.appleinsider.com/ articles/ 08/ 05/ 01/
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[9] Free iTunes Music (http:// freeitunesmusic. blogspot. com/ )
[10] http:// phobos. apple. com/ WebObjects/ MZStore. woa/ wa/ viewRoom?fcId=290099030&id=37
[11] http:// phobos. apple. com/ WebObjects/ MZStore. woa/ wa/ viewCustomPage?& name=pageNBCFall
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Led Zeppelin."
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[82] "Average for USD in multiple currencies for Jan 2010 to Dec 2010" (http:/ / www. oanda. com/ currency/average?amount=1&
start_month=1&start_year=2010&end_month=12&end_year=2010&base=USD& avg_type=Year&Submit=1&exchange=AUD&
exchange=CAD& exchange=CHF& exchange=DKK&exchange=EUR& exchange=GBP& exchange=JPY& exchange=MXN&
exchange=NOK& exchange=NZD& exchange=SEK&interbank=0&format=HTML). . Retrieved 2011-01-03.
[83] New iTunes LP format is live | Digital Noise: Music and Tech - CNET News (http:/ / news.cnet.com/ 8301-13526_3-10347849-27.html)
[84] CNN. http:// money. cnn. com/ news/ newsfeeds/ articles/ djf500/ 200909091345DOWJONESDJONLINE000568_FORTUNE5.htm.
[85] Bangeman, Eric (2004-07-29). "Apple responds to RealNetworks FairPlay hack" (http:// arstechnica.com/ news. ars/ post/ 20040729-4051.
html). Ars Technica. . Retrieved 2006-02-17.
[86] "Lawsuit claims Apple violates law with iTunes" (http:/ / news.com. com/ Lawsuit+ claims+ Apple+violates+ law+with+ iTunes/
2100-1027_3-5514244. html?tag=cd.top). News.com. . Retrieved 2006-02-17.
[87] "Thoughts on Music" (http:// www.apple. com/ hotnews/ thoughtsonmusic/ ). Apple Inc.. . Retrieved 2007-02-07.
[88] Frith, David (2007-06-12). "Privacy problem for iTunes Plus" (http:/ / web.archive.org/web/ 20070714071829/ http:/ / australianit. news.
com.au/ story/ 0,24897,21874643-39525,00.html). Australian IT. Archived from the original (http:// www.australianit. news.com.au/ story/
0,24897,21874643-39525,00. html) on 2007-07-14. . Retrieved 2008-06-03.
[89] Charles Arthur (2006-06-22). "Who benefits from the death of mycokemusic.com?" (http:// technology.guardian. co. uk/ weekly/ story/
0,,1802533,00. html). Guardian Unlimited (London). . Retrieved 2007-02-19.
[90] "Jeans and Music — The Perfect Fit at Gap this Fall" (http:// www.gapinc. com/ public/ Media/ Press_Releases/ med_pr_GapFallJuly2805.
shtml). Gap Inc.. 2005-07-28. . Retrieved 2007-02-17.
[91] Cheng, Jacqui (2006-07-25). "Infinite Loop: Apple and Facebook partner up for back to school iTunes promo" (http:// arstechnica.com/
journals/ apple.ars/ 2006/ 7/ 25/ 4766). Ars Technica. .
[92] Apple - iTunes - Thanks a Billion (http:/ / apple. com/ itunes/ billion-app-countdown)
[93] "Help iTunes reach 10 billion song downloads, and you could win a $10,000 iTunes Gift Card." (http:// www.apple.com/ itunes/
10-billion-song-countdown/). . Retrieved February 11, 2010.
[94] "Wine Application DB — Viewing App — iTunes" (http:// appdb.winehq. org/appview.php?appId=1347). winehq.org. . Retrieved
[95] "iTunes 9, now with more WebKit" (http:// willnorris.com/ 2009/ 09/ itunes-9-now-with-more-webkit). Will Norris. . Retrieved
[96] "Beatles Catalog To Be Remastered, Offered Online" (http:// www.starpulse. com/ news/ index.php/ 2006/ 04/ 11/
beatles_catalog_to_be_remastered_offered). World Entertainment News Network. Starpulse. 2006-11-11. . Retrieved 2006-12-17.
[97] Arungo, Tim (2006-11-27). "Beatles: only on iPod?" (http:/ / money. cnn.com/ 2006/ 11/ 22/ technology/ apple_beatles_ipod. fortune/
index.htm). Fortune. . Retrieved 2006-12-17.
[98] Apple teases fans with "Lovely Rita" — but no Beatles on iTunes (http:// www.iht. com/ articles/ ap/ 2007/ 01/ 10/ business/
NA-FIN-TEC-US-Apple-Beatles. php) - International Herald Tribune
[99] Apple Inc. (2007-02-05). "Apple Inc. and The Beatles’ Apple Corps Ltd. Enter into New Agreement" (http:// www.apple.com/ pr/library/
2007/02/ 05apple. html). Press release. . Retrieved 2007-02-05.
[100] Apple Inc. (2007-08-14). "John Lennon Solo Catalog Debuts on iTunes Store" (http:/ / www. apple.com/ pr/library/2007/ 08/ 14itunes.
html). Press release. . Retrieved 2007-08-15.
iTunes Store
[101] iTunes violates Norwegian law (http:// www. forbrukerombudet.no/ index. gan?id=11032467& subid=0), Homepage Forbrukerombudet
[102] iTunes’ questionable terms and conditions - Forbrukerportalen (http:/ / forbrukerportalen.no/ Artikler/2006/ 1138119849. 71)
[103] Apple response (http:/ / www.forbrukerombudet.no/ asset/ 2445/ 1/ 2445_1. pdf), Simonsen Advokatfirma DA (PDF)
[104] European consumer organisations join forces in legal dispute over iTunes Music Store (http:// www.cnn.com/ 2007/ TECH/internet/ 01/
23/ europe. itunes. ap/ index. html). CNN.com. Retrieved on January 28, 2007.
[105] European drive against iTunes builds support (http:// www. forbrukerombudet.no/ index.gan?id=11037079& subid=0). Homepage
Forbrukerombudet Norway
[106] http:/ / www. theregister.co. uk/ 2008/01/ 09/ apple_cuts_uk_prices/
[107] Universal in Dispute With Apple Over iTunes (http:// www.nytimes. com/ 2007/ 07/ 02/ business/ media/ 02universal.html?_r=2&
ref=business& oref=login&oref=slogin)
[108] Aughton, Simon (2007-08-13). "gBox — Not Google — has DRM-free Universal deal" (http:// web. archive.org/web/ 20071011171928/
http:// pcpro.co.uk/ news/ 122284/ gbox-not-google-has-drmfree-universal-deal.html). PC Pro. Archived from the original (http:// www.
pcpro.co. uk/ news/ 122284/ gbox-not-google-has-drmfree-universal-deal.html) on October 11, 2007. . Retrieved 2007-08-13.
[109] "iTunes Store To Stop Selling NBC Television Shows" (http:// www.apple.com/ pr/library/2007/ 08/ 31itunes.html). Apple Inc..
2007-08-31. .
[110] Barnes, Brooks (2007-08-31). "NBC Will Not Renew ITunes Contract" (http:// www. nytimes. com/ 2007/ 08/ 31/ technology/ 31NBC.
html?ex=1346299200&en=e8dc46b2e3dfee67&ei=5124&partner=permalink&exprod=permalink). The New York Times. . Retrieved
[111] New Episodes of Fox’s House Won’t Be on iTunes (http:/ / www. broadcastingcable.com/ article/ CA6485937. html), Broadcasting &
Cable, October 1, 2007.
[112] Fritz, Ben (2007-08-31). "iTunes drops NBC's new fall shows" (http:/ / www. variety.com/ article/VR1117971161. html?categoryid=14&
cs=1& query=NBC+ iTunes). Variety. . Retrieved 2007-09-03.
[113] "NBCU’s Response: Never Asked To Double Price; Shows Will Be On iTunes Through Early December" (http:// www.paidcontent. org/
entry/419-nbcus-response-never-asked-to-double-price-shows-will-be-on-itunes-thro/). 2007-08-31. .
ITV Player
ITV Player
ITV Player
ITV Player homepage
Developer(s) ITV plc
Initial release 13 December 2008
Operating system Windows, Mac, Linux
Platform Online, Cable, IPTV, PlayStation 3, Mobile
Available in English
Type Television catch-up
ITV Player is an online video on demand service accessible though the main ITV website. The service offers a
variety of programmes from homegrown programming to imports across ITV1, ITV2, ITV3 and ITV4. Some sports
programming is available to watch again via the service, the 2010 FIFA World Cup and highlights being examples.
Some programmes, imports and movies are not currently available due to rights issues, and children's programming
in particular is generally unavailable. There is no distinct CITV offering however some childrens programmes shown
on ITV1 are available to watch. Programmes are available for 30 days on the site after being first shown on ITV. The
service was originally called ITV Catch Up but was then rebranded 'ITV Player' to give it a distinct proposition.
Web Platforms
The service started out as a website before being extended to Television and other platforms. Initially the website
version used Microsoft Silverlight as opposed to Flash (used by BBC iPlayer and Channel 4's 30 day catch-up
service) and Windows Media Video. ITV adopted Adobe Flash for its player in September 2009.
In November
2009 the website was revamped again improving navigation as well as making the site more visually appealing. The
service is free to use funded by pre, mid and post roll adverts. Previously users have been able to use ad-blocking
software to skip the adverts shown. During Summer 2010, the ITV website was upgraded to detect ad-blocking
software. Video is sent at multiple bit rates and uses adaptive technology in the player to best determine rate based
on users connection.
ITV Player
Television Platforms
BT Vision
In December 2008, ITV Player was added to BT Vision's TV Replay service, the deal was ITV's first with a
set-top-box VOD operator.
It allows access to popular ITV1, ITV2, ITV3 and ITV4 shows up to 8 days after their
transmission as well as a selection of archive shows.
ITV Player Beta as displayed by Freesat
A full version of ITV Player will become available to Freesat viewers
in 2011 on channel 903, which currently displays "Arriving soon in
A beta release was made available in December 2010 for
Humax receivers.
Virgin Media
On 8 January 2009, it was announced that ITV Net Player would be
added to Virgin Media's digital cable TV service.
The deal allows
Virgin Media’s 3.5 million TV customers to view over 40 hours of programming from ITV1, ITV2, ITV3 and ITV4
each week. Popular shows such as Coronation Street and Emmerdale are all available for seven days after being
broadcast as part of Virgin Media's free Catch up TV service. Virgin Media’s viewers are able to choose from 500
hours of award-winning ITV comedies, documentaries and dramas, on demand through the TV Choice section. The
service began a three day deployment programme on 24 February 2009.
Games consoles
PlayStation 3
ITV Player was released on 14 December 2010 on PlayStation 3 via the PlayStation Network.
ITV Player on PS3
is free and ad-funded with pre-, mid- and post- roll video ads being sold and served by ITV. Under the terms of the
deal with Sony, STV, UTV and Channel Television will be able to add their own equivalent services so they are also
accessible from the PS3 platform on a similar basis to ITV Player.
Mobile platforms
On 11 May 2011, ITV chief executive Adam Crozier announced that a dedicated ITV Player application would be
released on a "wide range of mobiles and tablets" during 2011.
The app features programming from ITV1, ITV2,
ITV3 and ITV4 for up to seven days after broadcast. However content is only available to view in the UK and ITV1
programming is blocked outside of its licensed areas. The mobile apps were developed by digital agency
Android devices
An application for devices running Google's Android operating system was released on 20 June 2011.
The app
requires Android 2.2 (Froyo) or higher, Adobe AIR and a Wi-Fi connection. Each show is broken up to feature
non-skippable advert breaks. Users are forced to register an email address to use the app in order to allow ITV to
“keep you informed about improvements and other exciting developments at ITV.”
ITV is also planning on
releasing an app that's optimised for Android 3.x (Honeycomb) tablets.
ITV Player
iOS devices
An application for Apple's iOS operating system, used on the iPad, iPhone and iPod Touch, was launched on 1 July
Like the Android app, a Wi-Fi connection is required.
ITV do not syndicate its content to other providers such as YouTube and SeeSaw like Channel 4 or Channel Five.
Although some ITV programmes can been seen on such services, this is where these services have negotiated rights
with the production companies involved and not ITV. The beta launch of the Virgin Media Player saw ITV
programmes become available but Virgin Media have licensed ITV's archive (a separate service also available on
ITV.com under the TV shows section) which is not currently part of the ITV Player.
[1] http:/ / itv.com/ itvplayer
[2] "Silverlight Is Still Racing Flash" (http:/ / online. wsj. com/ article/ SB125297625510710573. html). The Wall Street Journal. 2009-09-15. .
[3] "ITV signs catch-up deal for BT Vision" (http:/ / www. itvplc. com/ media/ newsrelease/ ?page=5&id=13334). ITV plc. 2008-11-17. .
[4] "BT Vision to offer ITV catch-up service, box gets firmware update to help it cope" (http:// hcc. techradar.com/ blogs/ team_hcc/ btvision+
gets+ itv+ vod). Home Cinema Choice. 2008-11-19. .
[5] "Freesat Assign BBC iPlayer and ITV Player Channel Slots" (http:// www.joinfreesat.co. uk/ index.php/
freesat-assign-bbc-iplayer-and-itv-player-channel-slots). Join Freesat. 2010-12-16. .
[6] "ITV Player Beta Code Released" (http:/ / www.joinfreesat.co. uk/ index.php/ itv-player-beta-code-released). Join Freesat. 2011-01-03. .
[7] "Thousands of hours of ITV shows to be made available on demand by Virgin Media" (http:/ / pressoffice.virginmedia. com/ phoenix.
zhtml?c=205406&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1241606&highlight=). Virgin Media. 2009-01-08. .
[8] "ITV Player to launch on PlayStation 3" (http:/ / www.itv. com/ presscentre/ pressreleases/ programmepressreleases/
itvplayertolaunchonplaystation3/ default.html). ITV plc. 2010-08-18. .
[9] "ITV plc Interim Management Statement" (http:// www.itvplc. com/ media/ newsrelease/ ?id=43511). ITV plc. 2011-05-11. .
[10] "ITV brings TV catch-up player to iPad and iPhone" (http:/ / www.nma.co. uk/ news/ itv-brings-tv-catch-up-player-to-ipad-and-iphone/
3028035. article). New Media Age. 2011-07-01. .
[11] "ITV Player catch-up service now available on Android" (http:// www.eurodroid.com/ 2011/ 06/
itv-player-catch-up-service-now-available-on-android/). Eurodroid. 2011-06-20. .
[12] "ITV Player Launches Android App" (http:// www.trustedreviews.co. uk/ news/ itv-player-launches-android-app). Trusted Reviews.
2011-06-22. .
[13] "ITV Player for Android lands" (http:/ / www.techradar.com/ news/ phone-and-communications/mobile-phones/
itv-player-for-android-lands-969109). TechRadar. 2011-06-21. .
[14] "ITV Player launches on Apple's iPhone, iPad" (http:/ / www. digitalspy. co.uk/ digitaltv/ news/ a327888/
itv-player-launches-on-apples-iphone-ipad.html). Digital Spy. 2011-07-01. .
External links
• ITV Player (http:// www.itv. com/ itvplayer) at itv.com • ITV Player (http:// twitter. com/ itvplayer) on Twitter
For the African kingdom, see Gyaaman.
Jaman, LLC
Headquarters San Mateo, California, U.S.
Key people Gaurav Dhillon, CEO
Slogan Join the World
Type of site video on demand
Registration Optional
Available in English
Current status active
Jaman is a company that offers view on demand of media on the internet. It allows viewing on a variety of
platforms via a downloadable P2P client. It specializes in foreign films.
It also offers movies and TV shows
through TiVo.
The company was founded by Gaurav Dhillon, who was the Chief Executive Officer of Informatica (NASDAQ:
INFA), a Silicon Valley company that he co-founded in 1992.
Jaman offers movies in both download rental and free ad-supported streaming formats. Jaman’s library includes
popular and critically acclaimed independent, international and studio films. Jaman has inked deals with major film
distributors such as:
• Lionsgate (Dogville, Girl With A Pearl Earring)
• Paramount Digital Entertainment (Into the Wild, The Kite Runner)
• Arts Alliance America (Super Size Me)
• BBC Worldwide America (acclaimed documentaries including Dowry Law)
• Eros International (Bollywood blockbusters such as Sholay, Chalte Chalte, Devdas and Eklavya)
• First Look Studios (Mayor of Sunset Strip)
• Magnolia Pictures (ENRON: Smartest Guys in the Room)
• Independent productions (Inside Iraq, Amu)
• Wall Street Journal: “Indie Films Hit the Web”
• CNET: ”TiVo Adds Content from Disney/CinemaNow & Jaman”
• New York Times: “The Shape of Cinema, Transformed at the Click of a Mouse”
• Variety: “Jaman firms up indie pacts”
• The Economist: “Hollywood and the internet: Coming soon”
[1] http:/ / www. jaman. com/
[2] Rocky mountain news (http:/ / www. rockymountainnews. com/ news/ 2008/ jan/ 21/ your-ticket-to-the-movies/)
[3] Video Business (http:// www.videobusiness. com/ index. asp?layout=article&articleid=CA6528096& desc=topstory)
[4] http:// online.wsj. com/ article/SB122428678140546541. html
[5] http:/ / news. cnet. com/ 8301-17938_105-10073530-1.html
[6] http:// www. nytimes. com/ 2007/ 03/ 18/movies/ 18scot. html?ref=movies&pagewanted=all
[7] http:/ / www. variety.com/ article/ VR1117972978. html?categoryid=19&cs=1
[8] http:/ / www. economist. com/ displayStory.cfm?Story_ID=10723360
External links
• Jaman home page (http:/ / www. Jaman. com)
URL http:/ / www. jumpcut.com/
Commercial? Yes
Type of site Video editing and hosting
Owner Yahoo!
Created by Mike Folgner and Ryan Cunningham
Launched 5 April 2006 (public launch)
Current status Closed 15 June 2009
Jumpcut.com was a website that provided free video editing and hosting services. The website was launched as a
private alpha in January 2006 and as a public beta on 4 April 2006. In October 2006 Jumpcut was purchased by
Yahoo. Due to corporate prioritizing and the on-going financial problems at Yahoo, the upload service was
terminated on 16 December 2008 and the site was closed on 15 June 2009.


Jumpcut had its offices in the SOMA district of San Francisco, California.
The name is derived from the jump cut, a video artifact that results from the splicing together of two separate parts of
the same shot, or similar sections from two different shots.
Jumpcut was founded in 2005 and launched the Jumpcut.com website publicly on 5 April 2006. Jumpcut was
acquired by Yahoo! in October, 2006.
In December 2008 Yahoo posted the following announcement on the JumpCut upload main page:

We’re sorry to announce that we are no longer accepting uploads to Jumpcut. We will be keeping the Jumpcut site up and running for the
foreseeable future so you‘ll still be able to play, remix and share your existing movies – you just won’t be able to upload anything new. If
you’re looking for a place to upload and share your video, we recommend that you head over to Flickr ... It was a difficult decision that we
wish we didn’t have to make, but it was necessary in order to focus resources on other Yahoo! sites.

On April 15, 2009, Yahoo announced the closing of its service in an e-mail sent to its users:

Dear Jumpcut user,
After careful consideration, we will be officially closing the Jumpcut.com site on June 15, 2009. This was a difficult decision to make, but it’s
part of the ongoing prioritization efforts at Yahoo!
Very soon, we’ll be releasing a software utility that will allow you to download the movies you created on Jumpcut to your computer. We’ll
send instructions to this email address when the download utility is available...Thanks for your understanding and thanks for being a part of
The Jumpcut Team

Shortly after 15 June 2009 the home page carried a notice:

As of June 15, 2009 the Jumpcut.com site has been officially closed. This was a difficult decision to make, but it's part of the ongoing
prioritization efforts at Yahoo!
Thanks for your understanding and thanks for being a part of Jumpcut.
The Jumpcut Team

[1] JumpCut (undated). "About" (http:/ / web. archive. org/web/ 20080110142826/ http:/ / www.jumpcut.com/ company/ ). Archived from the
original (http:// www. jumpcut. com/ company/ ) on 2008-01-10. . Retrieved 2008-02-06.
[2] Yahoo (December 2008). "Upload" (http:// web. archive. org/web/ 20080730103056/ http:/ / www.jumpcut.com/ upload/ ). Archived from
the original (http:// www. jumpcut. com/ upload/ ) on 2008-07-30. . Retrieved 2008-12-17.
[3] Yahoo (June 2009). "Jumpcut Users" (http:// www.jumpcut.com/ ). . Retrieved 2009-06-17.
[4] JumpCut (April 2009). "Closing" (http:// www.techcrunch.com/ 2009/ 04/ 15/ yahoo-shutting-down-the-rest-of-jumpcut-in-june/). .
Retrieved 2009-04-23.
External links
• Jumpcut.com archive from 2008 (http:// web.archive.org/web/ 20080516184943/ http:/ / www.jumpcut. com/ )
Type Privately held
Industry Social media
Founded 2006
Founder(s) Ron Yekutiel, Shay David, Michal Tsur, and Eran Etam
Headquarters New York, US
Services Open Source Video Platform
85 (as of summer 2010)
Kaltura is a software company based in New York which was founded in 2006.
Kaltura's technology allows publishers and content owners to publish, manage, monetize and analyze their video and
other rich-media content. The main components of Kaltura's online video platform are based on open-source
software, enabling any site to add advanced video and rich-media capabilities.
The original concept was built on the collaborative Wiki model but uses media rather than text. Over time, the
company changed its focus to providing an open source video platform with a focus on universities, enterprises,
media companies and service providers looking to deploy video in their organizations.
Publishers can add video capabilities using Kaltura’s hosted services, download the open source community edition,
deploy the platform on-premise behind their own firewall, or on the cloud (such as Amazon Web Services). Kaltura
also provides self-serve video packages for web-platforms such as MediaWiki, WordPress, Drupal, Joomla, etc.
Kaltura was founded in the fall of 2006 by Ron Yekutiel (CEO as of 2008), Dr. Shay David (VP of Community and
Business Development as of 2008), Dr. Michal Tsur (a co-founder of Cyota, President and COO as of 2008) and
Eran Etam (a co-founder of ICQ, Kaltura's CTO as of 2008).
Kaltura was launched at the TechCrunch40 industry event in San Francisco on September 18, 2007, and won the
People’s Choice award based on a vote of the conference's attendees.
At that time, the company had 20 employees,
and had received 2.1 million dollars in funding from business angels and Californian VC fund Avalon Ventures.
On December 21, 2007, Kaltura won the People’s Choice award (over 250,000 users participated in voting) in the
Video Sharing category for the Mashable Open Web Awards.
Also in 2007, Kaltura began a partnership with the
New York Public Library, whose team was headed by Joshua Greenberg. In 2008, Kaltura was selected as one of the
"Global 250 Winners" by AlwaysOn.
Kaltura CEO and cofounder Ron Yekutiel was photographed for the article
"The Suit, Vers. 3.0" in Esquire Magazine's July 2008 edition.
In January 2008, the Wikimedia Foundation and Kaltura announced that they had begun a collaboration aimed at
bringing rich-media collaboration to Wikipedia and other wiki websites.
The technology behind this project is a
form of video-wiki software (open source and still in beta) that is integrated into the Mediawiki platform as an
extension, allowing users to add collaborative video players that enable all users to add and edit images, sounds,
diagrams, animations and movies in the same manner as they do today with text.
Kaltura was a sponsor of the Wikimania 2008 event, where it announced that it is sponsoring Michael Dale, an open
source video developer, to support the further development of a 100% open source video editing solution integrated
into MediaWiki.
In addition to support of MediaWiki, Kaltura enables interactive videos integrated within popular CMS and blogging
platforms such as WordPress.
Kaltura is also a founder of the Open Video Alliance, a group of organizations, academics, artists and entrepreneurs,
geared towards promoting open standards for video on the web.
Kaltura products include video players, video editors (including a collaborative video editor), a content management
system, a WordPress plugin, a Drupal module, a Mediawiki extension, and Ruby and PHP frameworks. In essence,
according to the company's website, Kaltura’s open-source video management platform enables organizations to
deploy applications that involve video creation, ingestion, publishing, management, syndication, engagement,
monetization and analysis. Kaltura’s free community-supported self-hosted software and source-code is available at
www.kaltura.org. A commercial version of the software can be obtained at www.kaltura.com along with Kaltura
services such as rich media streaming, hosting, transcoding, analytics, ad serving, support and maintenance
packages, and professional development. Kaltura’s Application Exchange enables software and service providers to
market solutions that are integrated with Kaltura’s API.
[1] "Conversation with Kaltura Founder Ron Yekutiel" (http:/ / www.centernetworks.com/ conversation-with-kaltura-founder). CenterNetworks.
[2] http:// corp.kaltura. com/ about/ leadership (accessed August 6, 2008)
[3] Mark Hendrickson: Kaltura Wins Spot as 40th Company at TechCrunch40 (http:// www.techcrunch. com/ 2007/ 09/ 18/
kaltura-wins-spot-as-40th-company-at-techcrunch40/ ) TechCrunch, September 18, 2007
[4] "Open Web Awards: Final Winners Announced!" (http:// mashable. com/ 2007/12/ 21/ open-web-awards-winners/). Mashable. 2007-12-21.
[5] AO Global 250 Winners (http:/ / alwayson. goingon. com/ permalink/post/ 27959) July 17, 2008
[6] The Suit, Version 3.0 (http:/ / www.esquire. com/ style/ fashion-story/ suits-0708) Esquire Magazine online, July 7, 2008
[7] Wikipedia Invites Users to Take Part in Open, Collaborative Video Experiment (http:/ / wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/
Wikipedia_Invites_Users_to_Take_Part_in_Open,_Collaborative_Video_Experiment). Wikimedia press release, January 17, 2008
[8] http:/ / blog.wikimedia. org/2008/ 07/ 23/ kaltura-sponsors-michael-dale-open-source-video-developer/
External links
• Kaltura - Open Source Video Platform (http:// www.kaltura.com)
• Yochai Benkler: Love or money? (http:/ / www. kaltura.com/ blog/ 2007/ 10/ 17/ love-or-money/), Kaltura's
blog, October 17, 2007. Commentary by Professor Benkler (a Kaltura adviser) on Kaltura's view of the human
motivation for creative online collaboration (see also Carr-Benkler wager)
• Wikipedia Invites Users to Take Part in Open, Collaborative Video Experiment. Kaltura, Wikimedia Foundation
and WikiEducator announce a beta program to allow users to create collaborative video and other forms of rich
media (http:/ / wikimediafoundation. org/wiki/
Wikipedia_Invites_Users_to_Take_Part_in_Open,_Collaborative_Video_Experiment) Press release, January 17,
• Wikieducator's Collaborative Video page (http:/ / wikieducator.org/Help:Collaborative_video)
• Wikimedia Foundation's Collaborative Video page (http:// wikimediafoundation. org/wiki/
• Kaltura's GPL licenced code at Sourceforge (http:// sourceforge.net/ projects/ kaltura)
• Kaltura's software code hopes for 2008 according to its Chief Technical Officer (http:/ / lists. wikimedia. org/
pipermail/ foundation-l/2008-January/037829.html)
• Kaltura’s Video-wiki extension for the MediaWiki software (http:/ / sourceforge.net/ project/showfiles.
• Kaltura’s All-In-One Video Plugin for WordPress (http:/ / wordpress. org/extend/ plugins/ all-in-one-video-pack/
• Kaltura’s All-In-One Video Plugin for Drupal (http:// drupal.org/ project/kaltura/)
• Full news coverage on Kaltura’s corporate site (http:// corp.kaltura. com/ news)
• TechCrunch (http:/ / www.techcrunch.com/ 2007/ 11/ 26/ techcrunch40-presenters-traffic-two-months-in/)
November 26, 2007
• Computer Business Review (http:/ / www. cbronline.com/ article_news.
asp?guid=05DD3784-44A3-4DC1-9FC7-55A0AC5BBBB7) November 22, 2007
• Venture Beat (http:// venturebeat.com/ 2007/ 09/ 18/
mint-wins-techcrunch-latest-start-ups-mego-wixi-xtr3d-flowplay/) September 28, 2007
• ZDNet (http:/ /blogs. zdnet. com/ BTL/?p=6315) September 19, 2007
• BuzzMachine (http:/ / www. buzzmachine. com/ 2007/ 10/ 01/ in-the-company-of-innovators/) October 1, 2007
• Gartner (http:/ / blog.gartner.com/ blog/ media. php?itemid=2709) 28 September 2007
• Mashable (http:/ / mashable. com/ 2008/ 08/ 04/ kaltura-wordpress/) August 4, 2008
• Ostatic (http:/ / ostatic. com/ 165472-blog/kaltura-gets-funding-expands-its-open-source-video-efforts) June 18,
• Washington Post (http:/ / www.washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/2008/ 06/ 18/ AR2008061800732.
html) June 18, 2008
• CNET (http:// news. cnet. com/ 8301-13505_3-9918865-16.html) April 14, 2008
Kangaroo (video on demand)
Kangaroo (video on demand)
Kangaroo was the working title for a proposed video on demand platform offering content from BBC Worldwide
(the commercial arm of the BBC), ITV.com and Channel 4's 4oD (collectively UK VOD LLP), initially expected to
launch in 2008, but blocked by the Competition Commission in 2009.

Following the Commission's rejection of
the bid, the technology platform was put up for sale. The bidders included Orange (who pulled out)
and Arqiva
The project was bought by Arqiva for about 8 million pounds
on the 23 July 2009 and promising to launch in the
'coming months'
. It was launched as SeeSaw in February 2010.
The Original Project Kangaroo
Unlike the BBC iPlayer, which is publicly funded and has no plans to carry any paid content, Kangaroo would have
allowed users to purchase content from a large back catalogue. As noted below, the plan to link to content on BBC
iPlayer means that it would have provided a single broadband VOD service for the key three broadcasters in the UK.
Kangaroo is the project name; the final name and brand of the service was never announced, but it was believed it
would have been known as SeeSaw.
The evidence it was to be called See Saw includes the DNS record for
which shows it is owned by UK VOD LLP, designs on Ostmodern's website show the brand name
in the footer
and the registered trademark showing the name and the same logo as is on the design mockups
As of 1 Oct 2009, the DNS record is attributed to Arqiva and SeeSaw was released in February 2010.
The three networks behind the project would continue to offer content independently of the service, with ITV and
Channel 4 planning to offer catch up services through their own websites, and the BBC saying that it will not replace
the iPlayer, but content from the iPlayer would be "listed within" the new service.
However, it was expected that
4oD would be subsumed into Kangaroo.
Capablue were the lead agency on the project - responsible for the project management, requirements specification,
product development and user experience. The graphic design was by Ostmodern and the systems integration by
It was announced on 14 April 2008 that Ashley Highfield, Director of Future Media and Technology at the BBC, had
been appointed the CEO of Kangaroo.
Ashley Highfield has now left the project, and has gone to Microsoft.
On 30 June 2008, the UK's Office of Fair Trading referred the proposal to the Competition Commission with
concerns that "there was a danger that the platform could be too powerful".
The Commission published an interim
report on 3 December saying that the service could "hurt competition"
and a final report was published on 4
February 2009, formally blocking the project.
[1] Sweney, Mark (2007-11-27). "Broadcasters to launch joint VoD service" (http:// www. guardian.co.uk/ media/ 2007/ nov/ 27/ bbc.itv).
London: The Guardian. . Retrieved 2008-01-13.
[2] "SeeSaw selected as name of video-on-demand service" (http:/ / www. brandrepublic.com/ MediaPmBulletin/ News/ 808546/
SeeSaw-selected-name-video-on-demand-service/ ?DCMP=EMC-Media PM Bulletin). Media Week accessdate=2008-05-13. 2008-05-13. .
[3] Sweney, Mark (2009-05-19). "Orange pulls out of talks to buy Project Kangaroo technology" (http:// www. guardian.co.uk/ media/ 2009/
may/ 19/ project-kangaroo-orange). London: The Guardian. . Retrieved 2009-07-19.
[4] "TV Tech Firm Arqiva Interested In Kangaroo’s Technology" (http:// paidcontent.co. uk/ article/
419-report-tv-tech-firm-arqiva-in-kangaroo-remains-bid/). 2009-05-28. . Retrieved 2009-07-19.
[5] {{cite publishers=The Guardian | accessdate=2009-07-24 | date=2009-07-24 | title=Arqiva understood to have paid about £8m for Project
Kangaroo assets | url=http:// www.guardian. co. uk/ media/ 2009/ jul/24/ arqiva-project-kangaroo | location=London | first=Mark |
[6] "Arqiva Press Release" (http:// www.arqiva. com/ press-office/press-releases/ press-releases-2009/
arqiva-to-acquire-project-kangaroo-platform-assets). 2009-07-23. . Retrieved 2009-07-23.
[7] "DNS record for seesaw.co.uk" (http:/ / webwhois. nic. uk/ cgi-bin/whois. cgi?query=seesaw.co. uk& WHOIS+Submit. x=0& WHOIS+
Submit.y=0). . Retrieved 2009-07-19.
Kangaroo (video on demand)
[8] "Design mock up" (http:/ / www. ostmodern. co. uk/ wp-content/uploads/ Kangaroo_2.png). . Retrieved 2009-07-19.
[9] ""See Saw trademark on IPO website" (http:// www.ipo.gov. uk/ domestic?domesticnum=2502476). . Retrieved 2009-07-19.
[10] "Project Kangaroo leaps closer to reality" (http:// blogs. thestage. co.uk/ tvtoday/2007/ 11/ project-kangaroo-leaps-closer-to-reality/). The
Stage. 2007-11-27. . Retrieved 2009-02-14.
[11] "Key 4oD exec to leave Channel 4" (http:// www.digitalspy. co.uk/ broadcasting/a80981/ key-4od-exec-to-leave-channel-4.html). Digital
Spy. 2007-12-02. . Retrieved 2008-01-13.
[12] Sweney, Mark (2007-11-27). "VoD: Five left on the sidelines" (http:// www.guardian. co.uk/ media/ 2007/ nov/ 27/ bbc. channelfive).
London: The Guardian. . Retrieved 2010-05-07.
[13] "Ashley Highfield appointed as CEO of Kangaroo" (http:/ / www.bbc.co.uk/ pressoffice/bbcworldwide/ worldwidestories/ pressreleases/
2008/04_april/ashley_highfield_kangaroo. shtml). BBC Worldwide Press Releases. 2008-04-14. . Retrieved 2008-04-14.
[14] Mason, Rowena (2008-11-25). "Microsoft poaches Ashley Highfield from BBC, Channel 4 and ITV joint internet venture" (http:/ / www.
telegraph.co.uk/ finance/newsbysector/ mediatechnologyandtelecoms/ 3437854/
Microsoft-poaches-Ashley-Highfield-from-BBC-Channel-4-and-ITV-joint-internet-venture.html). London: Telegraph.co.uk. . Retrieved
[15] "Probe of video-on-demand venture" (http:// news. bbc. co.uk/ 2/ hi/ business/ 7481655. stm). BBC News. 2008-06-30. . Retrieved
[16] "On-demand video 'not competitive'" (http:// news. bbc.co. uk/ 1/ hi/ entertainment/7762241. stm). BBC News. 2008-12-03. . Retrieved
[17] Competition Commission News Release (http:// www.competition-commission.org. uk/ press_rel/ 2009/ feb/pdf/05-09. pdf)
Type Private
Industry Internet video sharing
Founded 2003
Paris, France
Key people Michel Meyer, Co-founder
Olivier Heckmann, Co-founder
Owner(s) KIT digital
Employees 40 (2007)
Kewego is a video platform provider website. The company is based in Paris, France. In early 2011, KIT digital
purchased Kewego. Clients include brands such as Orange, Ebay, Lycos, M6, and L'Equipe. Kewego also operates
its own branded video sharing sites such as www.mykewego.com, www.mykewego.fr www.mykewego.co.uk, and
so on.
Kewego was founded by Michel Meyer and Olivier Heckmann, two French entrepreneurs. They founded Multimania
in 1995, which they subsequently floated on the French New Market at the Paris bourse in March 2000. It was later
sold to Lycos for 220m Euros. Meyer and Heckmann then founded PulseVision in 2003, which was renamed
Kewego in 2006.
Features of the platform
The Kewego video platform is a white label video hosting platform. Kewego provides all software, hardware and
bandwidth necessary to operate a video portal. Videos are converted to Flash Video format and the platform is
provided with a branded Flash Video Player.
Kewego also offers a viral video placement / seeding service.
[1] http:/ / corporate.kewego.com/
External links
• Kewego Corporate Home page (http:// www.kewego. com)
• Kewego Developers Website and API documentation (http:/ / developers. kewego.com/ )
• Kewego Video sharing Website (http:/ / www.kewego.com/ mykewego. php/ )
• Kewego extensions for chrome. (https:// chrome. google. com/ extensions/ detail/
LeTV.com (Chinese: 乐 视 网 ), operated by Beijing LeTV Mobile Media & Technology Co. Ltd, is an online video
portal in Beijing. It offers online video programs and movie viewing through legal channels. The company also
provides mobile phone video services, as well as engages in the development of online video and mobile video
technologies. LeTV.com was founded in 2004 and is headquartered in Beijing, China.
LeTV website
The LeTV is an interactive platform for entertainment databases, providing movies, animations, news and lifestyle
information etc.
The Company is principally engaged in the research, development, as well as innovation of P2P online video
distribution application technology and mobile phone TV technology.
See also: P2PTV, File sharing, P2P
LeTV.com plans to list in A-shares in 2009 on either growth or small- and medium-enterprise markets.
LeTV.com announced first-round investment of RMB 52.8 million led by Shenzhen Capital Group, Nanhai District
Enterprise Growth Investment Trust Fund, and Beijing Huijin Lifang Venture Capital in early August 2008.[1]
External links
• Official website
[1] http:/ / www. pacificepoch. com/ newsstories?id=134951_0_5_0_M
[2] http:// www. letv.com/
List of Internet television providers
List of Internet television providers
List of Internet television providers is a list of broadcasters of Internet television by region and country. See also
Catch up TV.
• JFOXTV [1]
• Canal 13 [2]
• Telefe [3]
• JFOXTV [1]
• Rede Bandeirantes [4]
• Rede Globo [5]
• RedeTV! [6]
• Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão [7]
• JFOXTV [1]
• Caracol TV [8]
• RCN TV [9]
• Third Storm Internet Television [10]
• CBC [11]
• CTV [12]
• Food Network Canada [13]
• Global TV [14]
• IAPS [15]
• JFOXTV [1]
List of Internet television providers
• Télé-Québec [16]
• Radio-Canada [17]
• Televisa [18]
• TV Azteca [19]
• JFOXTV [1]
United States
• ABC [20]
• FilmOn
• Fox on Demand [21]
• NBC Direct [22]
• CBS [23]
• PBS [24]
• Hulu [25]
• MyTV2me [26]
• USTV [27]
• IAPS [28]
• JFOXTV [1]
• Telemundo [29]
• RCTV Live only
• China Central Television
• DD India
South Korea
• SK Telecom
• KT
• LG Telecom
List of Internet television providers
• Vietnam Television Corporation
• MyTV2Me [31]
• JFOXTV [1]
• RTBF [32]
• 6'eren+Kanal 4+Kanal 5 [33]
• DR1+DR2 [34] [35]
• TV 2 [36]
• TV 3 [37] [38]
• ETV [39]
• ETV2 [40]
• Kanal2 [41]
• TV3 [42]
• Nelonen [43]
• YLE [44]
• Arte [45] (France only)
• Canal+ [46]
• Direct 8 [47]
• Eurosport [48]
• France 2+France 3+France 4+France 5 [49]
• M6 (television channel) [50] Pay for content
• TF1 [52] (France only)
• IAPS [53]
List of Internet television providers
• Arte [54] (Germany only)
• Das Erste [55]
• Deutsche Welle [56]
• Eurosport [57]
• Phoenix [58]
• ProSieben [59]
• RTL Television [60] (Germany only)
• VOX (TV channel) [61] [62]
• ZDF [63]
• RTL Klub [64]
• An Lár TV [65]
• IAPS [66]
• Magnet WebTV [67]
• RTÉ Player [68]
• TG4 Beo [69]
• TV3 [70]
• Mediaset [71]
• RAI [72]
• Netherlands Public Broadcasting [73]
• Nederland 1, Nederland 2, Nederland 3 [74]
• RTL 4, RTL 5, RTL 7, RTL 8 [75]
• SBS6 [76]
• Veronica [77]
• NRK1+NRK2 [78]
• TV 2 [79][80]
• TVNorge [81]
• Rádio e Televisão de Portugal [82]
• Televisão Independente [83]
List of Internet television providers
• Ilink [84]
• La Sexta [85]
• Telecinco [86]
• Televisión Española [87]
• TV3 [88]
• TV4 [89]
• TV6 [90]
• TV8 [91]
• Sveriges Television [92]
French only
• Télévision Suisse Romande [93]
German only
• Schweizer Fernsehen [94]
• IAPS [95]
Tivibu www.tivibu.com.tr
United Kingdom
• iPlayer [97]
• ITV player [98]
• 4oD [3]
• Demand Five [99]
• Sky Anytime [100]
• Eurosport EurosportPlayer
• SeeSaw [102]
• BlinkBox [103]
• msn player [104]
• IAPS [105]
• JFOXTV [1]
List of Internet television providers
• ABC iView [1] (Australia only)
• Australia Live TV www.australialivetv.com
• IAPS [106]
• InSightTV.com.au
• 18FootersTV.com
[1] http:/ / www. jfoxtv.com/
[2] http:/ / www. eltrecetv. com. ar/home/
[3] http:// www. telefenoticias. com. ar/ index.php
[4] http:/ / videos. band. com. br/
[5] http:// video.globo. com/
[6] http:/ / www. redetv.com. br/ portal/videos. aspx
[7] http:/ / www. sbt. com. br/videos/
[8] http:// www. caracoltv. com/ colombiamascerca?menu=videos
[9] http:// www. canalrcn. com/ videos/
[10] http:// thirdstorm.tv
[11] http:/ / www. cbc. ca
[12] http:/ / www. ctv. ca/
[13] http:/ / www. foodnetwork.ca/
[14] http:/ / www. globaltv. com
[15] https:/ / www. intl-alliance.com/ store/ index. php?main_page=index& cPath=208
[16] http:/ / www. telequebec. tv/
[17] http:/ / www. tou. tv/
[18] http:/ / www. tvolucion. com/
[19] http:/ / www. tvazteca. com/ servicios/ videos/ avance/ index.php
[20] http:// abc.go. com/ watch
[21] http:// www. fox.com/ fod/
[22] http:// www. nbc. com/ Video/
[23] http:// www. cbs. com/ video/
[24] http:// video.pbs. org/
[25] http:// www. hulu. com/
[26] http:/ / www. mytv2me. com
[27] http:/ / www. freetv.tv/
[28] https:/ / www. intl-alliance.com/ store/ index. php?main_page=index& cPath=12
[29] http:/ / msnlatino. telemundo. com/ videos
[30] http:// www. rctv.net/ TvEnVivo/tv. html
[31] http:/ / www. mytv2me. eu/
[32] http:/ / www. rtbf.be/ tv/ revoir
[33] http:// www. nutv. dk/ index_main. php
[34] http:/ / www. dr.dk/ odp/ player. aspx
[35] http:/ / www. dr.dk/ nettv/ update/ ?video=
[36] http:/ / sputnik. tv2. dk/ ?channel
[37] http:// 1www. tv3.dk/ /
[38] http:// viasatondemand. com
[39] http:/ / etv.err.ee/ arhiiv.php
[40] http:// err.ee/ etv2/ video-ee.aspx?l=1
[41] http:// kanal2.ee/ vaatasaateid
[42] http:/ / www. tv3play. ee/
[43] http:/ / www. kinotv. fi/
[44] http:/ / areena.yle. fi/
[45] http:/ / plus7. arte.tv/ fr/streaming-home/1697480,filter=dates.html
[46] http:/ / player.canalplus. fr/#/ selection-canal/ les-incontournables
List of Internet television providers
[47] http:/ / www. direct8.fr/replay-8/
[48] http:// video.eurosport.fr/
[49] http:/ / www. pluzz. fr/
[50] http:/ / www. m6replay.fr/#/ choisir-par-genre
[51] http:// www. m6vod.fr/
[52] http:/ / videos. tf1.fr/videos-en-integralite/
[53] https:// www. intl-alliance.com/ store/ index. php?main_page=index& cPath=39
[54] http:/ / plus7. arte.tv/ de/ streaming-home/1697480,filter=dates.html
[55] http:/ / www. daserste. de/ mediathek/ kalender.asp
[56] http:/ / www. dw-world.de/
[57] http:/ / de.eurosport.yahoo. com/ video/
[58] http:// www. phoenix. de/ content/ phoenix/ videos/ 78905
[59] http:// www. prosieben. de/ video/
[60] http:// rtl-now.rtl.de/
[61] http:/ / www. vox. de/ videos. php
[62] http:/ / www. voxnow.de/ vox_hilfe.php
[63] http:// www. zdf.de/ ZDFmediathek/ content/ 9602?inPopup=true
[64] http:/ / www. rtlklub.hu/ most/ kategoriak/osszes
[65] http:/ / AnLar.ie
[66] https:/ / www. intl-alliance.com/ store/ index. php?main_page=index& cPath=50
[67] https:/ / www. magnetwebtv. ie/
[68] http:// www. rte.ie/ player
[69] http:// beo.tg4. ie
[70] http:/ / www. tv3. ie/
[71] http:/ / www. video. mediaset. it/ mplayer-home.shtml?from=menu
[72] http:/ / www. rai.tv/ dl/ RaiTV/ homeTv. html
[73] http:/ / gids. publiekeomroep.nl/ home/
[74] http:// www. uitzendinggemist. nl/
[75] http:// www. rtl.nl/ service/ gemist/ home/
[76] http:/ / www. sbs6. nl/ web/ show/ id=985609/langid=43/ dbid=427/ typeofpage=73941
[77] http:/ / www. veronicatv.nl/ web/ show/ id=997234/ langid=43/dbid=430/ typeofpage=78964
[78] http:// www1. nrk.no/ nett-tv
[79] http:// www. tv2nyhetene. no/ video/
[80] http:// www. tv2underholdning.no/ video/
[81] http:// webtv.maxdome. no/
[82] http:/ / tv1.rtp.pt/ multimedia/
[83] http:// www. tvi. iol. pt/ mediacenter.html
[84] http:/ / www. ilink. ro/rezidential/ webtv/
[85] http:// www. misexta. tv/ inicio
[86] http:// www. mitele. telecinco. es/
[87] http:// www. rtve.es/ mediateca/ videos/
[88] http:/ / www. tv3. se/ play
[89] http:// www. tv4play. se
[90] http:/ / www. tv6. se/ play
[91] http:// www. tv8. se/ play
[92] http:// svtplay. se/
[93] http:/ / www. tsr. ch/ tsr/ index. html?siteSect=500000#vid=11663911
[94] http:/ / videoportal.sf. tv/
[95] https:/ / www. intl-alliance.com/ store/ index. php?main_page=index& cPath=31
[96] http:/ / www. tivibu. com. tr
[97] http:// www. bbc. co. uk/ iplayer/
[98] http:/ / www. itv. com/ itvplayer
[99] http:/ / demand.five.tv/ Home. aspx
[100] http:// skyplayer.sky. com/ vod/ page/ default/home. do
[101] http:// www. eurosportplayer.co. uk/
[102] http:// www. seesaw. com/
[103] http:// www. blinkbox. com/
[104] http:/ / video.uk. msn. com
[105] https:// www. intl-alliance.com/ store/ index. php?main_page=index& cPath=11
List of Internet television providers
[106] https:/ / www. intl-alliance.com/ store/ index. php?main_page=index& cPath=214
List of streaming media systems
This is a list of streaming media systems with articles. A more detailed comparison of streaming media systems is
also available.
• Ampache
• Broadwave Allows you to create your own broadcast from pre-recorded or live audio
• Darwin Streaming Server
• dyne:bolic GNU/Linux live CD ready for radio streaming
• Evostream Unified media server developed in C/C++ capable of being delivered as an embedded technology
within streaming devices.
• FFserver included in FFmpeg
• Firefly Media Server
• Flash Media Server
• Flumotion Streaming Server
• FreeJ video streamer for Icecast
Streaming server for MP3s, OGG vorbis files, movies and other media formats.
• Helix Universal Server Official Link
Helix Universal Streaming Server for mobile phone and broadband
RTSP, HTTP iPhone OS, RTMP delivery developed by RealNetworks
• HelixCommunity RealNetworks Open Source development community
• Icecast an open source streaming media server
• Kaltura Full featured open source video platform running on your own servers or cloud.
• Packet Ship
Commercial Linux RTSP/MPEG-2 TS video server for OEM applications.
• PlayOn a media server that runs on a PC and supports Netflix streaming
• PS3 Media Server open source media server for streaming to a Playstation 3
• QuickTime Broadcaster
• Sirannon an open source media server and client
• SHOUTcast audio streaming (HTTP and/or multicast)
• Squeezebox Server Open source music streaming server, backboned by a music database (formerly known as
• Steamcast a freeware streaming media server
• Subsonic is an open source, web-based media server
• TVersity Media Server partially open source, web-based media server
• Unreal Media Server
MMS, RTMP and UMS protocols supports, near real time live streaming.
• VideoLAN
• Windows Media Encoder
• Windows Media Services
• Wowza Media Server Unified media server for Flash, Silverlight, Apple iOS (iPhone/iPad), QuickTime, 3GPP
mobile, IPTV and game console video/audio streaming
List of streaming media systems
P2P and multicasting
• FreeCast Java application which allows peer-to-peer stream broadcast
• IceShare P2P Icecast protocol
• MediaBlog
• Octoshape
• PeerCast is a peer-to-peer broadcasting tool which allows you to broadcast without needing much upstream
• Peercasting multicasting streaming in a P2P network
• Rawflow
• Red Swoosh
• Tribler
• Veoh
Software as a service
• Deezer
• eMusic
• gogoyoko
• Grooveshark
• iLike
• Justin.tv Allows users to produce and watch live streaming video.
• Last.fm Internet radio and music community website
• Live365 Live365 streaming media library
• MeeMix
• mog
• Musicovery
• MySpace
• Pandora Radio
• Play.it
• Playlist.com
• Tikilive.com HD Streaming
• Qik
• Radiolicious Internet radio
• RadioTime
• Red5Cam.Tv Erotic Webcam Chat and Video Streaming
• ShareTheMusic
• Songza
• Spotify free and paid streaming music tool, currently UK/Europe only
• Stitcher Radio
• TuneCrank
• Tvoop.com
• Ustream.tv
• we7
• Wuala a free online storage solution with streaming capability
List of streaming media systems
• Amarok
• Clementine (forked from Amarok 1.4)
• MediaMonkey
• MPlayer
• Screamer Radio
• StationRipper
• Streamripper
• Totem
• VLC media player
• Winamp a freeware media player for Microsoft Windows
• XBMC, a free and open source media center software and framework platform
• Zinf
• Total Recorder
• [5] Live RTMP Java Publisher]
Other and unknown
• Campcaster Open source radio station management, live broadcast and remote automation
• FFmpeg
• FORscene Java video reviewing, logging, editing and publishing
• LastBASH
• Liquidsoap
• Makradio Streamer
Professional Internet broadcasting automation system
• Mod4Win
• Muziic
• Qtch
• QuickTime
• SAM Broadcaster Professional Internet broadcasting automation system
• Select Station
Internet Radio Player
• SomaPlayer
• Streamsly
Internet Streaming Movies
• Swarmcast
• Traction
• Xiph.Org Foundation
List of streaming media systems
[1] http:/ / www. gnu. org/software/ gnump3d/
[2] http:// www. realnetworks. com/ products-services/helix-server-proxy.aspx
[3] http:/ / www. packetship. com
[4] http:// www. umediaserver. net
[5] http:/ / livertmpjavapublisher.blogspot. com/ 2011/ 06/ release-10.html
[6] http:/ / streamer.makradio. ru/
[7] http:/ / selectstation. co. uk/
[8] http:// www. streamsly. com/
Mag Rack
Mag Rack (Formerly Lifeskool) is a Video on Demand (VoD) television channel. Its primary focus is providing
viewers with informational programs when they want them. These programs range from 'how to' programs to
programs that spotlight past and present products.
The service started off as a 24 hour Catholic channel at the request of James Dolan. It soon grew into a multi-show
on demand channel. Most of its early shows were based on unconventional topics such as: birdwatching,
Catholicism, and healthy living. Soon after, it gravitated towards shows that brought in a larger audience such as:
cooking instruction, car shows, fitness, and yoga.
The majority of Mag Rack's programming is acquired through other production companies or through syndication.
Mag Rack was part of Rainbow Media Holdings, Inc., a subsidiary of Cablevision. It was acquired by two
entrepreneurs, Joe Covey and Matthew Davidge in October, 2008.
• 24seven Gamer
• Auto Access
• Buff Fitness
• Cook With the Pros
• Guitar Xpress
• Inside Weddings
• Katie Brown @ Home
• Mag Rack Kids Club
• Mama Gena's School of Womanly Arts
• Mission Space
• Motorcycle Freedom
• Paloozaville
• Personal Trainer
• Photography Close Up
• Pilates
• Road Rage
• Smart Carb Gourmet
• Steve Schirripa's Hungry
• The Pet Shop with Marc Morrone
• Wild Wheels
• Yoga Retreat
Mag Rack
External links
• Mag Rack Entertainment
[1] http:/ / www. magrack. com/ video/ index.php?show_id=6& video_id=22&bandwidth=standard
[2] http:// magrackentertainment.com/
Map Your Moments
URL http:/ / www.mayomo.com/
Type of site Citizen journalism
Owner MaYoMo B.V.
Launched 2009
MaYoMo is a user-generated news site for mobile citizen journalism. MaYoMo.com, short for "Map Your
Moments", was officially launched in October 2009. The site is owned by MaYoMo B.V., which is based in
Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Global news and local stories by the site's community of contributors are geolocated on an interactive world map,
depending on the place they have happened. With an "Ask for News" option users can request news and information
about particular events from any place of the world .
The news content is ordered at a timeline, according to its
date of action. One can set the time indicator to any year and date between the year 1895 and 2100 for a narrower
search criteria.
Users can comment and also rank on a scale from 1 to 5 on each news submission.
MaYoMo hosts user-generated video news about virtual worlds like Lineage II, Half-Life, World of Warcraft, FIFA,
Second Life, etc, on "Virtu
", a so-called virtual continent, placed between North America and Africa.
In February 2010, MaYoMo had 60,000 videos from 130 countries.
The site is available in 11 languages: English,
German, Spanish, Italian, Russian, Greek, Japanese, French, Arabic, Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese.
[1] Mayomo: A global mission for user-generated news (http:/ / www.journalism.co. uk/ staging/ 5/ articles/ 536405. php),
[2] MaYoMo: News has a new face (http:// media. www. chicagoflame.com/ media/ storage/ paper519/news/ 2009/ 10/ 26/ Features/ Mayomo.
News. Has. A.New. Face-3812371. shtml), Chicago Flame.
[3] http:// www. mayomo. com/ virtu
[4] Amateur video wins prestigious journalism award (http:// www.sfgate.com/ cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/ a/ 2010/ 02/ 19/ BU321C3727. DTL),
San Francisco Chronicle.
External links
• www.MaYoMo.com (http:/ / www. mayomo. com/ )
Megaupload Limited
Type Limited
Founded 2005
Headquarters Hong Kong
Key people Kim Schmitz (CEO) Finn Batato (CMO)
Alexa rank
57 (July 2011)
Type of site one-click hosting website
Available in 20 languages
Launched March 21, 2005
Current status Active
Megaupload is an online Hong Kong-based company established in 2005 for the use of uploading and downloading
files. It includes a video browsing section in the site Megavideo, MegaLive, MegaPix and Megabox as well as a
sister company called Megaporn (formerly Megarotic) which hosts user uploaded pornographic content.
The basic service is available for free and allows users to upload files of up to 2 GB. Free users cannot download
files larger than 1 GB, however. Free registered users are offered 200 GB of total file storage. Premium users have
unlimited file storage. After a successful file upload, the user is given a unique URL which allows others to
download the file.
Any file uploaded anonymously will expire if there are no downloads for at least 21 days. For free registered
accounts, the file expiration period is 90 days. Premium accounts have no expiration period as long as the user
remains a premium member.
Non-registered users have to wait 45 seconds in the download queue and a certain amount of time between transfers
after a certain number of megabytes had been downloaded.
Registered users have to wait 25 seconds in the
download queue.
Paying premium members are able to hotlink.
• Unique visitors: 46,000,000
• Page Views: 450,000,000
• Reach: 3.5%[4]
The website is maintained in 20 languages, including Arabic, Chinese (traditional and simplified), Danish, Dutch,
English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian,
Spanish, Swedish, Turkish, and Vietnamese.
Mega Manager
Mega Manager screenshot
Megaupload also released its upload/download manager, Mega
a download manager which features a link-checker for
Megaupload links as well as options to manage uploaded files, and to
access the online control box that is also on the Megaupload site. Mega
Manager bears striking resemblances to Conceiva DownloadStudio
version 5, self-evident in its "Options..." dialog box and some other
aspects of the program. Mega Manager allows users to automatically
resume interrupted up- and downloads, which is especially important
when transferring large files or transferring several files unattended.
Mega Manager has recently known to be faulty with its built-in
Filemanager, as new files with their Megaupload links are not being
displayed, only files four months and older. A quick email to Megaupload Support
helps correct this issue, but
only for files that a user has posted up until they contacted them, future files are still not being displayed.
Megakey is a software application which removes premium limitations on Mega services during "happy hour"
periods in return for the verification of personal identity/demographic, and the substitution of ads on third party
websites. Currently, more than 45 million people use Megakey.
FileBox is a Flash applet which can be embedded onto any external webpage. It allows for users to upload content to
MegaUpload without having to visit the website itself or download the Mega Manager.
Related services
MegaVideo is an associated, ad-supported video hosting service. For non-members, it is time-limited; it blocks itself
after 72 minutes, and then allows to resume watching after a 72 minute break. It is known for requiring viewers to
wait 72 minutes after watching 72 minutes of film. However it is believed that people can get around this problem by
reseting the router.
Launched in late 2010, MegaPix allows for the uploading of images, competing with other image-hosting services
such as Photobucket, ImageShack, TinyPic and others.
MegaLive is a live video-streaming service, competing with Ustream, Justin.tv and Livestream.
MegaBox is a music/audio-hosting service for the uploading of whole music libraries and playlists.
MegaPorn is a file, video-streaming and picture hosting service with pornographic content only.
Inaccessibility in some countries
Although its incorporation is located in Hong Kong, the company does not operate in Hong Kong. Users with Hong
Kong IP addresses have been banned since 2009. Not even the homepage was accessible by them. Any purchased
premium accounts will still be able to access the Megaupload site in Hong Kong until the last membership day.
Some third party download managers can circumvent this, for example, the Megamanager and JDownloader. IPs
from Mainland China have also been blocked. The reason for the block remains unclear.
A similar situation occurs
in Fileserve, another file hosting service site.
As of 23 May 2010, access to Megaupload has been intermittently blocked by the internet authorities in Saudi
Arabia. Saudi Arabia's Communications and Information Technology Commission is responsible for regulating the
internet and for hosting a firewall which blocks access to thousands of websites, mainly due to sexual and political
content. Megavideo has also been blocked in the United Arab Emirates due to pornographic content being accessible
through the service.
In Malaysia, as of 9 June 2011,the Malaysian government through Malaysian Communications and Multimedia
Commission has ordered all ISPs in Malaysia to block Megaupload and Megavideo. Some ISPs have reportedly
blocked all the sites on the list while other ISPs have been throttling connection speeds. In response a Facebook page
has been started to protest the new filtering regime.
Megaupload Toolbar is claimed to redirect users to a custom error page when a 404 error occurs in the user's
browser. It is also claimed to contain spyware.
However, FBM software asserts that the Megaupload toolbar is free
of spyware.
[1] http:/ / www. megaupload. com
[2] "Megaupload.com Site Info" (http:/ /www. alexa. com/ siteinfo/ megaupload.com). Alexa Internet. . Retrieved 2011-07-12.
[3] "Megaupload FAQ" (http:/ / megaupload. com/ ?c=faq). .
[4] http:// www. google. com/ adplanner/ planning/site_profile#siteDetails?identifier=megaupload.com
[5] http:/ / www. megaupload. com/ manager/
[6] http:// www. megaupload. com/ support
[7] Is Megaupload dead in Hong Kong? (http:// www.hongfire.com/ forum/showthread.php?t=105752&page=1)
[8] http:/ / www. facebook. com/ DontBlockFS
[9] Megaupload Toolbar is a Spyware which Changes Browser Settings (http:// www. thecredence.com/ ?p=126), TheCredence.com, 13/08/08
[10] "MegaUpload Toolbar on Spyware-Net" (http:// www.fbmsoftware.com/ spyware-net/Application/ MegaUpload_Toolbar). . Retrieved
External links
• Megaupload (http:/ / www. megaupload.com)
• Megavideo (http:/ / www. megavideo.com/ )
Metacafe, Inc.
Type Private
Founded July 2002
Headquarters San Francisco, California, United States
No. of locations (San Francisco, New York, Los Angeles, London Tel Aviv)
Area served Worldwide
Key people Erick Hachenburg, CEO
Eyal Hertzog, Founder and CCO
Eran Pilovsky, CFO
Ziv Kabaretti, VP Product
Brent Fraser, VP Sales
Michelle Cox, VP Marketing and Sales Development
Steven Horn, VP Programming and Content
Industry Online video entertainment
Slogan The Video Entertainment Engine
Registration Optional
(required to upload, comment on, rate, and review videos)
Available in English
Current status Active
Metacafe is a web site that specializes in short-form video entertainment in the categories of movies, video games,
sports, music and TV.
The company is headquartered in San Francisco, California, with offices in New York, Los Angeles, London and Tel
Aviv. Metacafe is privately held and its investors include Accel Partners, Benchmark Capital, DAG Ventures and
Highland Capital Partners.
In its early years, Metacafe was similar to other video viewing websites such as YouTube or Dailymotion, but has
since transformed itself into a short-form video entertainment site with several differences. The site now showcases
curated, exclusive and original premium entertainment-related video content.
The company's partners include marquee content providers such as major movie studios, video game publishers,
broadcast and cable TV networks, music labels and sports leagues.
The site is advertising supported, working closely with brands in the entertainment, consumer electronics,
telecommunications, consumer packaged goods, food & beverage, and automotive sectors.
Company statistics
Metacafe attracts more than 13 million unique monthly U.S. viewers and streams more than 53 million videos in the
U.S. each month, according to comScore Video Metrix (March 2011). The site's global audience is more than 40
million unique monthly viewers.
Metacafe Inc. was founded in July 2002 in Tel Aviv by Israeli entrepreneurs Eyal Hertzog (Chief technical officer)
and Arik Czerniak (CEO) and raised $3 million from Benchmark Capital. In June 2006, the company closed a Series
B financing round of $12 million. Investors included Accel Partners and Benchmark Capital. The website's traffic
increased rapidly, and by June 2006 it was ranked 128th by Alexa Traffic Ratings.
That September, the company
moved its headquarters to Palo Alto, California and in October, Metacafe was ranked the third largest video site in
the world according to comScore.
The company is currently headquartered in San Francisco, CA.
On February 5, 2007, Erick Hachenburg, previously of Electronic Arts and Pogo, took over as CEO of the company.
The company closed a Series C financing round of $30 million in August, 2007 with Accel Partners, Benchmark
Capital, DAG Ventures and Highland Capital Partners.
Producer rewards
In October 2006, Metacafe announced its Producer Rewards
program in which video producers were paid for their
original content. Through this program, any video that was viewed a minimum of 20,000 times, achieved a
VideoRank rating of 3.00 or higher, and did not violate any copyrights or other Metacafe community standards was
awarded $5 for every 1,000 U.S. views. Pay only for U.S. views.
The program had several success stories, some of which have been featured on national TV, such as The Can
Tossing Video,
the Beer Launching Fridge on David Letterman, and the Ron Paul Girl series
by Liv Films,
that has been featured on Fox News and CNN.
Metacafe has also teamed up with notable TV producers like Steven Bochco (Hill Street Blues, L.A. Law) with a
series called Cafe Confidential, a 44 webisode series consisting of teens and twenty-somethings sharing
semi-autobiographical stories. The short-form videos, shot close-up, were taken from interviews of more than 100
people talking about memorable moments.
By the end of 2008, Producer Rewards was considerably curtailed before being shut down completely due to a lack
of demonstrable profitability. Once the Producer Rewards program closed, users like Kipkay switched their focus to
Content accessibility
Numerous third-party web sites, applications and browser plug-ins allow users to download Metacafe videos.
In July 2008, Metacafe launched a beta version of its "Wikicafe"—a mass collaboration platform that enables
viewers to edit video metadata. By ensuring that video titles, tags and descriptions are accurate, the community is
helping to improve video search results.
In August 2008, Wikicafe was opened up to trackable community edits (you can easily find out who removed your
video), and this marked the point where Wikicafe comes out of beta, and becomes open to all. Together with opening
Wikicafe to public edits, Metacafe has released 2 new features, Tag Focusing and Web Review, based on Wikicafe.
[1] http:/ / www. metacafe. com/
[2] Alexa.com (http:// www. alexa. com/ data/ details/ main?q=www.metacafe.com& url=www.metacafe.com/ )
[3] We Try Harder, article from IPcommunications.tmcnet.com (http:// ipcommunications.tmcnet.com/ news/ 2006/ 11/ 29/ 234159.
[4] Metacafe - Producer Rewards (http:// www. Metacafe. com/ producer_rewards/)
[5] Metacafe.com (http:// www. metacafe.com/ watch/ 1402448/ can_toss/ )
[6] Livfilms.com (http:// www.livfilms. com/ ?cat=6)
[7] Liv Films' Channel (http:// www. metacafe. com/ channels/ Liv+Films)
[8] Livfilms.com (http:/ / www.livfilms. com)
• Bogatin, Donna. Interview with Metacafe CEO Arik Czerniak on ZDnet Blogs (http:// blogs. zdnet. com/
micro-markets/index. php?p=624)
• Gerson, Jen. Off the wall flips. From the Toronto Star (http:// www.thestar. com/ NASApp/ cs/
ContentServer?pagename=thestar/ Layout/Article_Type1&c=Article&cid=1162206129593&
call_pageid=968332188492). An article about a producer who has earned over $23,000 in Producer Rewards.
• Hansell, Saul. "Viral Videos Still Rule on Metacafe." bits.blogs.nytimes.com (http:/ / bits. blogs. nytimes. com/
2007/10/ 10/ viral-videos-still-rule-at-metacafe) Commentary from New York Times blog "Bits" published on
October 10, 2007.
• Holahan, Catherine. Don't I know you from the Internet? From Business Week (http:/ / www.businessweek. com/
technology/content/ oct2006/ tc20061029_067558. htm)
• Marshall, Matt. Metacafe unveils producer awards, to underscore advantage over YouTube from Venture Beat
(http:// venturebeat. com/ 2006/ 10/ 29/
• Richmond, Will. "Metacafe Drives Community-Based Programming Model." videonuze.com (http:/ / www.
videonuze.com/ blogs/ details. php?id=289), Commentary from online video news blog VideoNuze published on
December 6, 2007.
External links
• Metacafe (http:// www. metacafe. com/ ) Official website
MovieBeam was a video-on-demand service started by Disney. Movies were sent wirelessly into the subscriber's
home by embedding digital data (datacasting) within local Public Broadcasting Service (PBS)
stations' analog TV
(NTSC) broadcast to deliver the movies to a set-top box. The data was embedded using dNTSC technology licensed
from Dotcast, and distributed to TV stations via National Datacast. Up to 10 new movies were delivered to the player
each week. The player also contained free movie trailers, previews, and other extras.
The set-top box was sold for a one-time fee ($149.99 as of August 2007). The cost of viewing a movie varied from
$1.99 for older movies in standard definition to $4.99 for newer releases in HD. Movie rentals expired 24 hours after
the rental period began.
The box had high-end hardware, including HDMI, component video outputs, and coaxial (SPDIF) and optical
(TosLink) digital audio outputs. The box also had USB and Ethernet ports, although these were not activated in the
last release of the firmware. An HDMI or DVI connection was required to watch HD content, which was in 720p
MovieBeam connected to the servers by telephone line to trigger billing of rented movies. The modem may or may
not have worked with VOIP lines, depending on the quality of the connection.
Disney spun off this company in January 2006. Cisco, Disney and several venture capital firms including Intel
Capital, Mayfield Fund, Norwest Venture Partners and Vantage Point Venture Partners had invested $48.5 million in
On March 7, 2007, Movie Gallery Inc acquired MovieBeam Inc. Movie Gallery at the time stated that the expected
cost of acquisition, plus operating expenses for 2007, was $10 million.
On December 5, 2007, MovieBeam began calling its customers informing them that Moviebeam would be ceasing
operations on December 15, 2007,
and on that date MovieBeam officially shut-down service.
The main reason for failure of the service to penetrate and capture a portion of the video-on-demand market was the
presumption that viewers would watch those movies that the network thought they would be interested in. The
dependence on precise positioning of the reception TV antenna to obtain movies was another big problem.
Differences of a centimeter or two, or poor weather conditions, could cause movies to be missed being downloaded
over-the-air. Cable TV and satellite TV set-top boxes now provide video-on-demand services with far better features
than MovieBeam. The video quality of MovieBeam was greatly criticized by viewers due to excessive video
compression, made necessary by using analog instead of digital TV (ATSC). Analog TV is also to become obsolete
in 2009. These and other challenges sealed the fate of this much-hyped company into a flop of technology history.
On July 11, 2008, Valuable Group acquired MovieBeam, known for its success in rapidly building and operating
numerous media and entertainment initiatives also started and runs the largest satellite-based digital cinema network
in the world.
[1] " (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ aboutpbs/ news/ 20060222_moviebeam.html)", PBS / National Datacast (URL accessed 26 January 2008).
[2] " (http:// www. moviebeam. com/ opencms/ opencms/ Pages/ Popups/ HD. html)", MovieBeam (URL accessed 29 December 2006).
[3] " (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2007/ 12/ 05/ moviebeam-shutting-down-operations-on-december-15th/)", [MovieBeam Ceasing Operations]
(URL accessed 5 December 2007).
[4] " (http:// ap.google. com/ article/ALeqM5jpsNDs-EqI2UOf_jTZJMEBwC1mmgD8TK73880)", [On-Demand Video Service MovieBeam
Closes] (URL accessed 19 December 2007).
[5] " (http:// blog.agrawals. org/2006/ 12/ 18/ moviebeams-sort-of-video-on-demand/)", [MovieBeam's (sort of) video on demand] (URL
accessed 26 July 2008).
External links
• Official site (http:// www. moviebeam. com)
• Interview with Carl Crabill, MovieBeam VP of Sales and Marketing (http:/ / www.socaltech. com/ fullstory/
• Moviebeam review (part 1) (http:// www. livedigitally. com/ ?p=766) review part 2 (http:// www.livedigitally.
com/ ?p=792)
• MovieBeam's (sort of) video on demand (http:// redesign. wordpress. com/ 2006/ 12/ 18/
• Dotcast dNTSC tutorial (PDF) (http:/ / dotcast.com/ pdf/ dNTSC_tutorial.pdf)
• Moviebeam ceasing operations (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2007/ 12/ 05/
Founded 2009
Headquarters Venice, California, United States
Slogan |
Website http:/ / www.movieclips. com
Type of site Video on demand
Available in English
Launched December 3, 2009
Movieclips is a Web startup company located in Venice, CA that offers streaming video of movie clips from
Universal Studios, 20th Century Fox, MGM, Paramount Pictures, Warner Bros., Sony Pictures Entertainment and
other studios.

[1] Schuker, Lauren A.E. (2009-12-03). "Site Brings Movies to Social Media" (http:// online. wsj.com/ article/
SB10001424052748704107104574572313564145116.html). The Wall Street Journal. . Retrieved 2009-12-16.
[2] "Movieclips.com launches with studio deals" (http:// abcnews. go. com/ Technology/wireStory?id=9233823). The Associated Press. .
Retrieved 2010-04-14.
External links
• Movieclips official website (http:/ / www. movieclips. com)
Movieland home page, showing various categories of content. A sidebar claims "No Spyware", "Virus Free", and "No Extra Charge"
Commercial? Yes
Type of site Subscription-based movie download service
Registration Required
Available language(s) English
Owner Digital Enterprises, Inc.
Launched 2005
Current status Offline
Movieland, also known as Movieland.com, Moviepass.tv and Popcorn.net, is a subscription-based movie
download service that has been the subject of thousands of complaints to the Federal Trade Commission, the
Washington State Attorney General's Office, the Better Business Bureau, and other agencies by consumers who said
they were held hostage by its repeated pop-up windows and demands for payment, triggered after a free 3-day trial
period. Many said they had never even heard of Movieland until they saw their first pop-up. Movieland advertised
that the service had "no spyware", and that no personal information would need to be filled out to begin the free trial.
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) filed a complaint against Movieland and eleven other defendants in August
2006, charging them with having "engaged in a nationwide scheme to use deception and coercion to extract
payments from consumers." The Attorney General of the state of Washington also filed a complaint, charging
Movieland and several other defendants with violating that state's Computer Spyware Act and its Consumer
Protection Act.
Movieland advertises its movie download service by using pop-up ads at other sites. The ads offer a three-day free
trial, with access to members-only content including music, news, updated sports scores and adult movies. The ads
say there are no forms to fill out, and no need to provide a credit card number or an e-mail address, making the trial
appear anonymous. The site's homepage states that it has "No Spyware", is "Virus Free", and "No Extra Charge".
The site installs a program, MediaPipe, which is used to access the service.
Early consumer complaints
Movieland.com began operations sometime in the fall of 2005 or earlier.
Consumer complaints began soon
thereafter. Most consumers claimed they had never signed up for the free trial, never used the service, and never
even heard of Movieland until they got their first pop-up demand for payment. Some said they found the software on
their computers after downloading a screensaver or other free utility. The company denied that it installed its
software by stealthy means.

Media coverage as early as January 2006 recounted consumer complaints and mentioned that several anti-spyware
companies were buying Google advertisements boasting their product's ability to "Remove Movieland Now".
In a
report updated February 20, 2008, the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School calls
Movieland's MediaPipe component "badware" because "it does not fully disclose what it is installing, does not
completely remove all components and 'obligations' during the uninstall process, and modifies other software
without disclosure."

Richard Stiennon of IT-Harvest referred to Movieland as a form of "Ransomware" due to
its behaviour.
As of July 2008, the MediaPipe report is still cited by the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at
Harvard Law School.
Complaints by the FTC
The expired trial and payment options screens as presented by the Moviepass software, as illustrated in the FTC's complaint. These pop-up windows
blanked the entire screen and forced the user into continuing the process of purchasing the service, with no visible method of closing them.
On August 8, 2006, the FTC filed a complaint in United States District Court "to obtain preliminary and permanent
injunctive relief, rescission of contracts, restitution, disgorgement and other equitable relief for Defendants'
deceptive and unfair acts or practices in violation of Section 5(a) of the FTC Act".
The complaint alleged that the defendants were demanding payment to fix a problem that they themselves created,
and were installing disruptive software that could not be removed through reasonable means.
According to the
FTC complaint, Movieland repeatedly bombarded consumers with pop-up windows, accompanied by music that
lasted nearly a minute. They demanded a minimum payment of $29.95 to end the recurring pop-up cycle, claiming
that consumers had signed up for a three-day free trial and did not cancel the service before the trial period was
The complaint charged that:
Installation of Defendants' download manager is merely a smokescreen concealing Defendants' true purpose:
to install software and other files onto consumers' computers that enable Defendants to launch pop-up
windows on consumers computers demanding payments to Defendants. These pop-up windows, which display
both textual and audiovisual payment demands, significantly disrupt consumers' use of their computers. After
Defendants cause these pop-up payment demands to display on a particular computer for the first time, they
cause them to redisplay again and again with ever-increasing frequency."
The pop-ups had a large dark background and took up much of the screen, blocking access to other windows, and did
not contain close or minimize buttons; forcing the user to continue. The first pop-up showed the date and time "our
content access software was installed on your system and your 3 day free trial began", the text "Click 'Continue' to
purchase your license and stop these reminders", and a graphic reading "STOP THESE REMINDERS NOW" and
"CLICK CONTINUE". The only option offered was the button labeled "Continue".
Clicking "Continue" brought up the next pop-up, a 40-second audiovisual clip featuring a woman who introduced
herself as "your personal customer service representative" and stated "Because you did not cancel during your trial
period, you are now legally obligated to make your payment as per the terms and conditions you agreed to when you
installed our content delivery software." As the clip neared its conclusion, a new dialog box entitled "PAYMENT
OPTIONS" appeared. Choosing its "Close this window" option ended the pop-ups until the unvarying cycle began
In addition, the complaint alleged that the defendants made numerous false statements in attempting to collect
payments from consumers, claiming that the computer owner or someone else consented to receiving the pop-up
payment demands until they paid, the owner of any computer that received the pop-ups was legally obligated to pay
Movieland, and that the computer owner was obligated to satisfy any contract that any other person entered into
while using the computer.
The only customer service telephone number provided was a 900 number. When
consumers called it, a recorded greeting told them that they would incur a $34.95 charge if they did not hang up
within three seconds.
The complaint also alleged that the defendants made it difficult or impossible for consumers to uninstall the
software. Those attempting to remove it through the Windows Control Panel "Add or Remove Programs" function
were redirected to a web page telling them that they had to pay the $29.95 fee to stop the pop-ups. The only way
many consumers could regain control of their computers was to pay the fee, or pay a computer technician to remove
the software.
Movieland's position
Movieland representatives said the downloads were not spyware and did not get on computers accidentally, insisting
they were not "drive-by downloads". They said the FTC lawsuit was "improperly brought", and pointed out that at
the time the complaint was filed a federal judge rejected the FTC's request for a temporary restraining order that
would have immediately ended the cited billing practices.
The terms of service at the Movieland web site warned that if users did not cancel or pay during the three day period,
pop-up billing reminders would begin and "will appear more frequently until you choose one of the payment options
and pay for the license."
Movieland said the pop-ups were "an anti-fraud mechanism" that cannot be received without consumers intentionally
downloading the software through several intentional steps, each of which has a default setting of "cancel". The
company also stated "there are no extrinsic programs (adware or otherwise) bundled with our software." The
company disputed the FTC claim that the software was "very difficult to get rid of", and said it could be removed
using the Windows Control Panel.
The following ten companies and two individuals were named as defendants in the FTC complaint:
• Digital Enterprises, Inc. d/b/a Movieland.com
• Triumphant Videos, Inc. d/b/a Popcorn.net
• Pacificon International, Inc. d/b/a Vitalix
• Alchemy Communications, Inc.
• AccessMedia Networks, Inc.
• Innovative Networks, Inc.
• Film Web, Inc.
• Binary Source, Inc. d/b/a Moviepass.tv
• Mediacaster, Inc. d/b/a Mediacaster.net
• CS Hotline, Inc.
• Easton Herd, sole officer and director of Digital Enterprises and Triumphant Videos
• Andrew Garroni, an officer or director of Pacificon, Alchemy, Film Web, and Binary Source
Pre-trial stipulations
In November 2006, the defendants and the FTC signed stipulations governing their pre-trial conduct.
admitting any wrongdoing, violation of the law, or involvement in the acts and practices alleged in the complaint, the
defendants agreed to make clear and prominent disclosures prior to any software download or installation, to not
download or install software without the user's explicit consent and without disclosing clearly and prominently in the
site's terms of service the nature, frequency, and duration of any pop-up windows that may appear regarding any
purported obligation for payment. The pop-ups also must not lock out access to the rest of the computer.
They also agreed to fixed limits on how many pop-ups they can generate on a computer (maximum of 5 per day, 1
per hour), the requirement to provide a mute button for any sound content in the pop-ups and be able to close the
windows, and provide a hyperlink with toll-free number and email utility, to request stopping the pop-ups under
certain conditions. The defendants also promised to clearly label any single-click download or install buttons, and
not pre-select these as the default.
They are also required to not represent that consumers have any "legal" or "contractual" obligation to pay for the
software unless the computer owner has provided personal identification and agreed to pay, and that failure to pay
will result in collection proceedings or affect the computer owner's credit status unless the owner has provided
personal identification such as a credit card and agreed to pay. Customer service agents may state that they "believe"
the computer owner is responsible for paying for the download, and offer several purchase options including a
one-time 30-day non-renewing license for $29.95, after which access to the service will terminate.
FCC settlement
The FTC complaint was scheduled to be tried in United States District Court in January 2008
, but before trial,
the defendants chose to settle out of court with both the FTC.
Movieland settled with the FTC in September 2007.
Without admitting any wrongdoing or violation of the law,
the defendants agreed to make permanent the terms of the pre-trial stipulations including limiting the number,
frequency and duration of the billing pop-ups; and to pay the FTC $501,367 to reimburse consumers who paid for
the program as a result of the repeated pop-up demands. The defendants also agreed to stop offering anonymous free
trials, have users certify at install time that they are at least 18 years of age, provide an install-time link to their terms
of service or end user license agreement, not download software that reinstalls itself after a user has removed it, and
to prominently post removal instructions at their web sites.
The agreement also requires Herd and Garroni to notify the FTC of any change of name, address or employment
status, and of any new business affiliations, for five years.
Complaints by the State of Washington
On August 14, 2006, Rob McKenna, the Attorney General of the state of Washington charged Movieland, Digital
Enterprises, Herd, and Garroni with violating the state's Computer Spyware Act and its Consumer Protection Act.
The complaint, filed in King County Superior Court in Seattle, alleged misrepresentations and unlawful business acts
and practices similar to those alleged in the FTC complaint, and further alleged violations of Washington state

The defendants were subject to fines of up to $100,000 per violation of the Spyware Act and $2,000 per violation of
the Consumer Protection Act if found liable. They were also subject to paying restitution to affected consumers.
Alleged violations of law
The alleged violations of Washington state law included
taking control of a user's computer in violation of the
Spyware Act and the Consumer Protection Act (CPA), by remotely installing billing software that initiates and
controls the pop-up cycle, misrepresenting the ability to uninstall software in violation of the same acts, by listing the
software in Add/Remove Programs although the software cannot be uninstalled, unconscionable business practices
in violation of the CPA, by the "aggressive and harassing" billing method used and the failure to disclose it,
including use of a billing method "that forces payment by completely obstructing users' access to their computers",
threats, harassment and intimidation in billing practices in violation of the CPA, by threatening collection
proceedings and an adverse effect on users' credit records, while in fact defendants do not even know the consumer's
name; and referring to consumers' "legal obligation" to pay, when in fact there is no legally binding contract, failure
to disclose material facts in violation of the CPA, the "aggressive, relentless, threatening" form of the payment
demands; the fact that the uninstallation option for the software will be disabled; and that the defendants "transmit
software to the user's computer surreptitiously", and misrepresentations in violation of the CPA, including stating the
software contains "no spyware" when in fact the software itself constitutes spyware by its behavior.
In announcing the suit following a seven-month investigation, Washington Attorney General Rob McKenna rejected
one possible defense. "The defendants' claim that users are legally obligated to pay for their service lacks merit
because consumers did not provide knowing consent to the installation of the relentless pop-up demands", he said.
"Furthermore, computer owners are not responsible to satisfy contracts that other people, including minors, entered
into while using a computer." He also said that the defendants' threats of collection proceedings and adverse effects
on users' credit ratings were empty, as the defendants had no way to personally identify computer users.
Assistant Attorney General Paula Selis said the tactics forced some consumers to give in and pay between $20 and
$100 for the service. She said, "We sued them because we were getting complaints from consumers who felt that
they were being harassed and held over a barrel for payments that they didn't agree to make."
Selis said, "It was
harassment, it was intimidation of the consumer. It was using a high-pressure tactic to make him or her pay for
something they were not legally obligated to pay."
Movieland settled with Washington in April 2007 under terms
similar to the FTC settlement but specific to
Washington consumers, agreeing to pay Washington $50,000 as consumer reimbursement and to prominently state
all important contract terms, including the cost of the subscription service, in advertisements.
[1] http:/ / Movieland. com/
[2] "Movie service sued over spyware" (http:/ / www. infoworld.com/ article/06/ 08/ 14/ HNmoviedownload_1. html). InfoWorld. August 14,
2006. . Retrieved 2007-12-14.
[3] "Complaint for Permanent Injunction and Other Equitable Relief (PDF, 25 pages)" (http:// www.ftc.gov/ os/ caselist/ 0623008/
060808movielandcmplt. pdf) (PDF). Federal Trade Commission. August 8, 2006. . Retrieved 2006-12-29.
[4] "FTC, Washington Attorney General Sue to Halt Unfair Movieland Downloads" (http:// www.ftc.gov/ opa/ 2006/ 08/ movieland. htm).
Federal Trade Commission. August 15, 2006. . Retrieved 2006-12-29.
[5] "MovieLand Denies It Pipes Spyware Onto Users' Computers" (http:// www.consumeraffairs.com/ news04/ 2006/ 01/ movieland. html).
Consumer Affairs. January 22, 2006. . Retrieved 2007-01-15.
[6] "MediaPipe" (http:// cyber.law. harvard.edu/ publications/ 2006/ MediaPipe). Berkman Center for Internet & Society. February 20, 2008. .
Retrieved 2008-10-16.
[7] Keizer, Gregg (August 16, 2006). "FTC, AG Blame 'Extortionware' For Pop-Up Hell" (http:// www. informationweek.com/ news/ security/
cybercrime/showArticle. jhtml?articleID=192201442). TechWeb. . Retrieved 2008-10-16.
[8] "Lawsuit holds a lesson about downloading" (http:// www. msnbc. msn.com/ id/ 14359752). MSNBC. August 17, 2006. . Retrieved
[9] "Stipulated Interim Agreement and Order (PDF, 14 pages)" (http:/ / www.ftc.gov/ os/ caselist/ 0623008/
061220interimagreementorderdigitaletal. pdf) (PDF). Federal Trade Commission. November 7, 2006. . Retrieved 2008-10-16.
[10] "Court Enters Stipulated Interim Agreements and Orders in Matter of Movieland.com" (http:// www. ftc.gov/ opa/ 2007/ 01/ fyi0706.htm).
Federal Trade Commission. January 12, 2007. . Retrieved 2007-01-15.
[11] ""Movieland" Defendants Settle FTC Charges" (http:// www.ftc.gov/ opa/ 2007/ 09/ movieland.shtm). Federal Trade Commission.
September 13, 2007. . Retrieved 2007-01-15.
[12] "Settlement Agreement and Stipulated Final Order for Permanent Injunction and Monetary Relief (PDF, 30 pages)" (http:// www.ftc. gov/
os/ caselist/ 0623008/ 070905digitalenterprisesstipfnl. pdf) (PDF). Federal Trade Commission. September 13, 2007. . Retrieved 2008-10-16.
[13] "Movie Download Service Sued Over Spyware" (http:// www. pcworld. com/article/ id,126738/ article.html). PC World. August 15, 2006.
. Retrieved 2007-01-15.
[14] "Complaint for Injunctive and Additional Relief Under the Unfair Business Practices--Consumer Protection Act and the Computer Spyware
Act (PDF, 21 pages)" (http:/ / www.atg. wa. gov/ uploadedFiles/ Another/News/ Press_Releases/ 2006/ MovielandComplaint8-14-06.pdf)
(PDF). Washington State Office of the Attorney General. August 14, 2006. . Retrieved 2007-01-15.
[15] "Attorney General McKenna Sues Movieland.com and Associates for Spyware" (http:// www.atg.wa. gov/ pressrelease. aspx?id=4286).
Washington State Office of the Attorney General. August 14, 2006. . Retrieved 2007-01-15.
[16] "Movie download service faces spyware lawsuit" (http:/ / www. theregister.co.uk/ 2006/ 08/ 16/ washington_movie_spyware_lawsuit). The
Register. August 16, 2006. . Retrieved 2007-01-15.
[17] "Attorney General McKenna Settles with Movieland.com and Associates Concerning Pop-Up Payment Demands" (http:/ / www.atg.wa.
gov/pressrelease. aspx?id=14480). Washington State Office of the Attorney General. April 19, 2007. . Retrieved 2008-10-16.
[18] "Stipulated Agreement and Order" (http:/ / www.atg. wa.gov/ uploadedFiles/ Home/ News/ Press_Releases/ 2007/
MovielandStipulatedAgreementOrder041907. pdf) (PDF). Washington State Office of the Attorney General. April 19, 2007. . Retrieved
Movielink was a web-based video on demand (VOD) and electronic
sell-through (EST) service offering movies, TV shows and other
videos for rental or purchase. First available on November 11, 2002,
Movielink drew its content offerings from the libraries of Paramount
Pictures, Sony Pictures Entertainment, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer,
Universal Studios, Warner Bros. Entertainment, Buena Vista Pictures (including Miramax), Twentieth Century Fox,
Koch Entertainment and others on a non-exclusive basis. While it was only available to users in the United States, it
was the first company in the world to offer legally downloadable movies from major studios.
In general, movies obtained through Movielink could only be viewed on the computer or a TV connected to the
computer that the movie was purchased from. However, consumer electronics devices such as the Xbox 360 game
console also allowed users to more easily view these digital media on a traditional TV screen.
Also, Movielink had
deals with certain set top box companies to offer its movies downloaded directly to people's TV's (including AT&T's
Homezone product).
Experimentation with other business models was underway, including a feature which
allowed users to purchase, download, and burn a DVD of a selected film.
Movielink used digital rights management software from Microsoft and RealNetworks to protect their content.
Consequently, compatibility was limited to Intel-based computers running Microsoft Windows 2000, XP,or Vista
and Windows Media Player version 9 or later.
They offered daily weekday specials for under 99 cents, and certain films for half price every week.
On June 1, 2006, it was revealed that Movielink's initial investors--a joint venture of Paramount, Sony, MGM,
Universal, and Warner Bros--were looking to sell the company.
This came shortly after numerous studios
announced their intent to work with a range of potential Movielink competitors, such as Amazon.com, Apple
Computer, BitTorrent Inc., Jaman and Microsoft Xbox.
On August 8th, 2007, Blockbuster purchased Movielink. According to the 8-K filing by Blockbuster, the total
purchase price was $6.6 million. The deal included content agreements thus giving Blockbuster access to one of the
largest libraries of downloadable movies. With the acquisition of Movielink, Blockbuster was positioned for media
content delivery in brick and mortar rentals, DVD-by-mail, and online delivery of movies.
On December 16th, 2008 the Movielink website was shut down. The site was re-directed to the Blockbuster home
page. All customers were notified 30 days in advance that all movies rented or purchased prior to the shutdown date
must be downloaded by no later than 12/15/08 11:59 P.M. Pacific Time.
The domain name now redirects to Blockbuster's downloading service, which also features titles from IFC Films.
[1] "Movielink FAQ: How do I connect my PC to my TV?" (http:/ / www.movielink. com/ kb/ user/ article. jsf?id=4). Movielink.com. .
Retrieved 2007-08-10.
[2] "Movielink - Watch Movielink on Your TV!" (http:// www. movielink. com/ store/ web/ help/ watchOnTV.jsp). Movielink.com. . Retrieved
[3] "Movielink FAQ: What are the system requirements?" (http:// www.movielink. com/ kb/ user/ article.jsf?id=300007). Movielink.com. .
Retrieved 2007-08-10.
[4] Business Week, May 2006 (http:/ / www.businessweek. com/ technology/ content/ may2006/ tc20060531_484649.
[5] "Press Release: MultiVu Video Feed: Blockbuster Inc. Acquires Movielink, LLC" (http:// biz.yahoo.com/ prnews/ 070809/ mvw073. html?.
v=1). Yahoo! Finance. 2007. . Retrieved 2007-08-10.
External links
• Comparison of video on demand services
• Review of Movielink on Extremetech.com (http:// www.extremetech.com/ article2/0,1697,2078465,00. asp)
MSN Soapbox
Soapbox on MSN Video
Soapbox on MSN Video was a service from
Microsoft via its MSN portal. It is similar to
YouTube in that it is an internet video-sharing
service. As of December 17, 2006, it was an
invitation-only beta. In February 2007 it entered
public beta. In order to be able to upload content,
users are required to sign up for a Windows Live ID.
Those who already have a Windows Live ID are able
to use that. MSN Soapbox has been compared to
YouTube. A major difference between YouTube and
MSN Soapbox is that Soapbox states in its privacy
policy that use of copyrighted material is not allowed
and will be deleted. YouTube has that policy, but
copyrighted material is still present on the site,
because YouTube leaves the responsibility of finding
copyrighted material in the hands of the copyright holder.
On June 16, 2009, Microsoft Vice President Erik Jorgensen said that Microsoft plans to scale back Soapbox, citing
tough economic conditions.
Soapbox uses an interface heavily dependent on JavaScript and AJAX. The original codename for the project was
Warhol, the Soapbox name being subsequently chosen by an intern during the 2007 summer. Soapbox on MSN
Video differs from other video sites as it offers features such as RSS, and the fact that you do not need to open a new
window to continue using the site and browsing videos when you are uploading one of your own.
The current version of Soapbox is in English (U.S.); service and upload instructions are also in English. However,
there were plans for this to be widened in the future. Videos are shown at 400 x 300 pixels by default, but can be
expanded to full screen. Soapbox plays videos in the Microsoft Windows Media Player for Internet Explorer users
and the Adobe Flash Player for users who don't have Internet Explorer.
On July 21, 2009, it was announced that Microsoft will be closing the service to uploads at the end of July. The
service closed entirely at the end of August 2009.
MSN Soapbox
[1] "YouTube Video Identification Beta" (http:// www. youtube. com/ t/ video_id_about). youtube.com. 2007-10-18. . Retrieved 2009-04-23.
[2] "Microsoft gives up YouTube chase" (http:// news. cnet. com/ 8301-13860_3-10265858-56.html). cnet.com. 2009-06-16. . Retrieved
[3] "Microsoft closing YouTube rival" (http:// news. cnet. com/ 8301-10805_3-10292031-75.html). cnet.com. 2009-07-21. . Retrieved
External links
• Soapbox on MSN Video (http:/ / soapbox. msn. com/ )
MSN Video
MSN Video is an Australian video streaming service from ninemsn
as well as a United Kingdom internet
television service from MSN. It was rebranded on March 11, 2010
The previous incarnation of MSN Video was launched in 2004 as an internet video streaming service created and
run by Microsoft, now known as Bing Video. It featured various content, including music videos, JibJab animated
shorts, IFILM picks, viral videos, original content, TV shows such as Arrested Development, and news shorts. It also
hosted the semi-finalists for Film Your Issue. MSN Soapbox was initially an invitation-only beta service under the
family of MSN Video products, designed to be a major contributor to the MSN portal. MSN Video was known as a
user-generated content service in 2007 and 2008.
The MSN Soapbox service was discontinued in August 2009.
Reed Smith, editor in chief of MSN Video and Entertainment, accepted the 2007 Marketer of the Year Award from
the Direct Marketing Association on behalf of Microsoft-MSN.
[1] http:/ / video.au. msn. com/ watch/ video/ election-2007-kevin-rudd/x425005
[2] MSN Video takes on BBC iPlayer with ad-supported online TV offering (http:// www. guardian.co.uk/ media/ 2010/ mar/ 10/
[3] Travis, Hannibal (2008). "Opting Out of the Internet in the United States and the European Union: Copyright, Safe Harbors, and International
Law" (http:// papers. ssrn. com/ sol3/ papers. cfm?abstract_id=1221642). Notre Dame Law Review, vol. 84, p. 337 (President and Trustees of
Notre Dame University in South Bend, Indiana). . Retrieved June 9, 2010.
[4] http:/ / video.xin. msn. com/ watch/ video/2007-xmas/ 3j17pn2q
[5] http:// www. the-dma.org/ cgi/ dispannouncements?article=886+ ++ + ++
External links
• Official site (http:// www. bing.com/ ?scope=video& nr=1&FORM=NOFORM)
• Arrested Development Available on MSN Video, by Mediaweek (http:/ / www.mediaweek. com/ mw/ news/
• NBC Universal Digital Studios to Produce Content for MSN Video, by WorldScreen.com (http:// www.
worldscreen.com/ newscurrent. php?filename=msn110806.htm)
MSN Video Player
MSN Video Player
MSN Video Player is an online video on demand player, launched in the United Kingdom by Microsoft on 11
March 2010.
The service was made available in beta form on 3 August 2009 with 300 hours of shows from BBC Worldwide and

A spokeswoman for BBC Worldwide confirmed that all BBC programmes on MSN Video Player
will be at least 180 days old.
Programmes were made available in both Windows Media Video and Flash formats,
streamed without digital rights management copy protection but only be available to people with a UK web address.
During the opening 11 days of the beta, MSN Video Player pulled in a total of 167,487 video views by 154,841
users, with users staying for an average of 25 minutes.
Microsoft has since agreed additional deals for over 1,000 hours of programming with independent product firms
Digital Rights Group, Endemol, Shed Media, Raw Cut, RDF Media.
The company further holds a separate
agreement with Pact - the UK trade association for independent TV and film producers - which stipulates full
licensing terms for on-demand content, including availability periods and potential exclusives. Users on MSN Video
Player will also be able to access the MSN Video service, featuring short-form clips such as film trailers and news
The platform is optimised for Microsoft Silverlight - support that was notably missing from the beta - although it
also works with Flash, and some of the content is available in HD streaming at 720p on connections of 2 Mbps and
All content on the service will be available for free, with half-hour programmes preceded by short
commercials, while programmes of one hour or longer are interrupted by a commercial break.
Ashley Highfield, Microsoft’s UK consumer and online managing director, suggested that in the future the service
will offer users who have a Windows Live ID and are signed in, programme recommendations – based on their
previous viewing habits and that a tie-up with Microsoft’s gaming console, the Xbox 360, would be on the cards.
MSN's UK head of video, Rob Crossen, added "An obvious place to tale MSN Video Player – given the quality of
content that you are seeing on the platform – is the TV, and there are a number of ways, widgets on internet
connected TVs, we have our own products within the Microsoft network, Xbox and Windows Media Center for
instance." When asked if a mobile MSN Video Player was likely for the forthcoming Windows Phone 7 "We have a
fantastic product coming later in the year, but no fixed plans that we are announcing today."
On 10 May 2010, a
Microsoft spokeswoman said there are currently no plans to roll out the service in other regions.
On 19 May 2010,
MSN Video Player was added to Windows Media Center in the TV Strip.
[1] "MSN Video Player 'to launch UK-wide'" (http:// www. digitalspy. co. uk/ digitaltv/ news/ a207812/ msn-video-player-to-launch-uk-wide.
html). Digital Spy. 2010-03-10. .
[2] "MSN launches free streaming video" (http:// news. bbc. co.uk/ 1/ hi/ technology/ 8175410. stm). BBC News. 2009-07-30. .
[3] "MSN Video finally goes live in the UK" (http:/ / www.techradar.com/ news/ internet/ msn-video-finally-goes-live-in-the-uk-622450). Tech
Radar. 2009-08-03. .
[4] Kendall, Nigel (2009-07-29). "Microsoft to launch internet TV service in the UK" (http:/ / technology. timesonline.co. uk/ tol/ news/
tech_and_web/ article6732070. ece). London: The Times. . Retrieved 2010-05-13.
[5] "MSN launch free online video player to rival BBC's iPlayer" (http:// www.dailymail. co.uk/ sciencetech/ article-1257006/
MSN-launch-free-online-video-player-rival-BBCs-iPlayer. html). London: Daily Mail. 2010-03-11. .
[6] "MSN Video Player launches, sets sights on Xbox and phones" (http:// www.techradar.com/ news/ internet/
msn-video-player-launches-sets-sights-on-xbox-and-phones-675991). Tech Radar. 2010-03-10. .
[7] Barnett, Emma (2010-03-10). "Microsoft's expanded video service 'not intended to rival UK broadcasters' VOD offerings'" (http:/ / www.
telegraph.co.uk/ technology/microsoft/ 7416247/
Microsofts-expanded-video-service-not-intended-to-rival-UK-broadcasters-VOD-offerings.html). London: The Daily Telegraph. . Retrieved
[8] "Microsoft Launches MSN Video Player In UK" (http:// online.wsj.com/ article/ BT-CO-20100310-712454.html). The Wall Street Journal.
2010-03-10. .
MSN Video Player
[9] "MSN Video Player hits Windows Media Center in the UK" (http:/ / thedigitallifestyle.com/ cs/ TDL/b/ ian/ archive/ 2010/ 05/ 19/
msn-video-player-hits-windows-media-center-in-the-uk. aspx). The Digital Lifestyle. 2010-05-19. .
External links
• MSN Video Player (http:// video. uk. msn. com/ )
Music Choice
Music Choice
Music Choice
Logo of Music Choice
Launched circa 1987
Owned by Music Choice
Website http:/ / musicchoice. com
Music Choice is a U.S. company that programs music and produces music-related content for digital cable, cell
phones, and cable modem subscribers in the US. Music Choice programs dozens of audio music channels for digital
cable subscribers, as well as programs and produces music-related content for on-demand customers with access to
Music Choice On-Demand. Music Choice also offers video and audio music programming for cell phone customers
through Sprint Nextel and AT&T Wireless Services. Music Choice recently launched a new interactive music video
network called SWRV.
Many digital cable and telco companies carry Music Choice, including Comcast, Time Warner Cable, Charter
Communications, Cablevision, Cox Communications, Verizon FiOS, AT&T U-verse, Grande Communications,
Service Electric Cable TV, CenturyLink and Bright House Networks. DirecTV discontinued Music Choice on
November 15, 2005 in favour of XM Satellite Radio channels. Other companies offer similar audio services for
commercial customers, such as Muzak and DMX. On July 10, 2006, Music Choice revamped their appearance and
added new graphics and new backgrounds for digital cable.
Music Choice (formerly known as Digital Cable Radio) was the first digital audio broadcast service in the world and,
under its founder and CEO David Del Beccaro, launched in test markets in circa 1987. From its inception as an 8
channel audio service from Motorola's cable group (then General Instrument), Music Choice has evolved into a
multi-platform interactive music network based in New York City that reaches millions of consumers across the
country. Music Choice is a partnership owned by Comcast Cable Communications, Time Warner, Cox
Communications, EMI Music, Microsoft Corporation, Motorola, Inc., and Sony Corporation of America.
In many cases, recording a music channel with a digital video recorder is specifically not allowed by Music Choice
in order to address music piracy concerns, which is a rare audio-only use of the DRM broadcast flag.
Music Choice is distributed within the 6-MHz bandwidth space of one analog television channel, with all of the
Music Choice channels distributed as digital subchannels. Thus some cable providers may make it available via
ClearQAM, allowing even viewers without a digital cable receiver to receive all of the music channels without
additional cost using a digital television.
Music Choice launched its first 24/7 interactive music video cable channel, SWRV, in February 2010.
Music Choice
Music Choice On Demand
Music Choice's offers free Video on demand content, including hundreds of multi-genre music videos from
established and emerging artists. Music Choice On Demand also features exclusive original programming:
• Choice Cuts - Exclusive footage featuring popular artists
• Speaking Of... - Hosted by Amanda Diva, this show is an all access pass to what's hot in music and pop culture
• Certified - Hosted by Micah Jesse, Andrew Schulz, and Samantha Greaves, this show is an interactive music
program where the fans decide which featured artist is Certified
• Video Playlists - Themed playlists hosted by popular recording artists
Original programs are also available for viewing on musicchoice.com
for a limited time after their premiere.
Nielsen Measurement
Music Choice is the first ad-supported Video on demand network to be measured by Nielsen Media Research's video
on demand measurement service. Audience demographics are based on Nielsen's national people meter data.
Music Choice Online
As of August 2007, Music Choice began offering a free broadband music service to its cable partners for use by their
cable-modem subscribers. Music Choice's free broadband music site offers subscribers access to all the same music
channels available on its TV network, in addition to several online exclusives, though online-exclusive channels
were eliminated on April 15, 2009. Additional features include the ability to watch thousands of music videos and
Music Choice Originals (listed below). This service is currently available to Comcast, Cox Communications and
Time Warner, Cablevision, Grande and Conway cable-modem subscribers. The web site relaunched on February 10,
2010 featuring a new interface.
Music Choice has added user interactive functionality to select music channels during the hours of 3pm to 10pm
EST (12:00 PM to 7:00 PM PDT) on Monday through Friday, excluding holidays. Viewers can send in photos and
short text messages via mobile phone, e-mail, AOL Instant Messenger and Music Choice's ShowOff Web Page.
This feature is available on the Hit List, Rock, MC Mixtape, Today's Country, HipHop and R&B, and Musica
Urbana channels, and may expand to other channels in the future. This feature launched on August 23, 2008.
Instructions on how to use this feature run on screen and are also available on Music Choice's ShowOff Web Page.
Music Choice Music Channels
As of 2010, Music Choice offers 49 linear channels: one video channel (SWRV), 46 audio-with-slideshow channels,
and two audio-only channels (Taste of Italy and an unidentified Spanish-language channel); the first, and last two,
are only available in a few limited areas. On most cable providers, Music Choice channels are numbered from 901 to
Music Choice's audio music channels provide continuous uninterrupted music streaming on all its stations. In lieu of
commercial advertising, banner ads are featured on every station. Music choice offers various stations across
multiple genres. While a song is playing, artist, song and album information appears on screen as well as trivia facts,
artist photos, and generic photos that is relevant to that particular channel.
All of Music Choice's programming is entirely music, with no talk, commercials or even bumpers. An unrelated
service, the CRN Digital Talk Radio Networks, provides a complementary slate of talk radio channels to cable
Music Choice
List of channels
(Lineup effective April 15, 2009)
• Classical Masterpieces - Famous classical works from the great classical composers, particularly from the
Classical and Romantic Eras (e.g., Bach, Beethoven, Chopin, Mozart)
• Light Classical - Chamber and solo works from earlier periods of classical music history, particularly from the
Baroque and Classical periods. (e.g., Bach, Mozart, Vivaldi, Haydn)
• Classic Country - Traditional country music from the 1940s to the 1980s. (e.g. Johnny Cash, Waylon Jennings,
Merle Haggard)
• Today's Country - Modern country hits of today's hottest country stars from 2005 to today. (e.g. Brad Paisley,
Taylor Swift, Keith Urban)
• True Country - Country music from 1990 to 2004. (e.g. Garth Brooks, George Strait, Shania Twain)
• Dance/Electronica - A wide variety of electronic and synthetic styles of music, along with current dance hits in
the clubs of America. (e.g. Paul Oakenfold, DJ Shadow, David Guetta)
• Easy Listening - Instrumentals performed by string orchestras and soloists from around the world. (e.g. Living
Strings, Mantovani, Ronnie Aldrich)
• Soundscapes - Mix of new age, atmospheric and ambient music. (e.g. Jim Brickman, Steven Halpern, Enya)
Jazz & Blues
• Blues - Blues music from the early artists of the 1920s to today. (e.g. B.B. King, Muddy Waters, Buddy Guy,
Little Milton)
• Jazz - Traditional and contemporary jazz mix that utilizes traditional jazz elements. (e.g. Miles Davis, John
Coltrane, Stan Getz)
• Smooth Jazz - Modern jazz music with hints of pop and rock inspiration. (e.g. David Benoit, Lee Ritenour,
George Benson, The Rippingtons)
• Mexicana - A wide variety of traditional folk music from Mexico, featuring styles such as Ranchera, Banda and
Mariachi. (e.g. Pepe Aguillar, Joan Sebastian, Huracanes del Norte)
• Musica Urbana - Urban music popular in Latin communities such as Reggaeton and Latin hip-hop. (e.g. Don
Omar, Tego Calderon, Ivy Queen)
• Pop Latino - Today's hottest hits and pop music from Latin artists. (e.g. Ricky Martin, Shakira, Paulina Rubino)
• Tropicales - Music popular in tropical locations, such as the Caribbean. (e.g. Aventura, Victor Manuelle, Marc
• Romances - A mix of romantic and popular Spanish love songs from the past and present. (e.g. Roberto Carlos,
Luis Miguel, Joan Sebastian)
• Taste of Italy - Italian music, ranging from standards such as Dean Martin and Frank Sinatra to contemporary
Italian-language hits. Only available in some areas. No song information.
Music Choice
• Pop Hits - A mix of pop hits that include youth orientated music with no rap. (e.g. Mariah Carey, Coldplay,
Beyoncé, Rob Thomas)
• '70s - Hits from the 1970s. (e.g. Elton John, Stevie Wonder, The Bee Gees, Cat Stevens, The Jackson 5)
• '80s - Hits from the 1980s. (e.g. Michael Jackson, Prince, Madonna, Whitney Houston, George Michael)
• '90s - Hits from the 1990s. (e.g. Alanis Morissette, Nirvana, Janet Jackson, Boyz II Men)
• Hit List - Today's cutting edge and mainstream popular music. (e.g. Katy Perry, Rihanna, Lady Gaga, Kanye
• Party Favorites - Mix of music that is great for special occasions and parties. (e.g."Twist and Shout", "Macarena",
"I Love Rock & Roll")
• Soft Rock - Slow and mid-tempo pop music from the past and present. (e.g. Leona Lewis, Lionel Richie, Celine
Dion) Replaced with contemporary Christmas music from November 1 through January 5.
• Solid Gold Oldies - Classic hits from the 1950s and 1960s. (e.g. Elvis Presley, The Beach Boys, The Beatles)
• Contemporary Christian - Inspiring and uplifting Christian and worship music from the 1980s to the present. (e.g.
Mercyme, Steven Curtis Chapman, Third Day)
• Gospel - Modern and traditional gospel music. (e.g. Yolanda Adams, Kirk Franklin, Hezekiah Walker)
• Adult Alternative - Uncensored alternative music that is targeted for more adult audiences. (e.g. Amy Winehouse,
My Morning Jacket, Tracy Chapman)
• Alternative - Uncensored music from bands redefining the modern rock landscape. (e.g. The Killers, Green Day,
Fall Out Boy, My Chemical Romance)
• Classic Alternative - An uncensored mix of grunge, punk, new wave, college rock, and synthpop. (e.g. Sex
Pistols, Nirvana, REM, A-ha)
• Classic Rock - Album-oriented playlists from the 1960s through the early 1980s with artists who helped pioneer
the genre of rock music (e.g. The Rolling Stones, Lynyrd Skynyrd, Yes).
• Metal - Aggressive sounding metal music using exotic and experimental techniques and genres. (e.g. Metallica,
Slayer, Megadeth, Killswitch Engage)
• Retro Rock -Mix of arena rock and modern rock; music is played in blocks, separated by decade (1980s, 1990s).
(e.g. Bon Jovi, Soundgarden, Alice in Chains, Van Halen).
• Rock - Popular rock music from the 1990s to the present. (e.g. Green Day, Foo Fighters, Linkin Park, Hinder,
Papa Roach, Nickelback)
• R&B Classics - A variety of funk, soul, and Motown hits from the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. (e.g. Aretha Franklin,
Al Green, Prince)
• R&B Soul - Urban adult music and sultry, slow jams. (e.g. Mary J. Blige, Luther Vandross, Alicia Keys, Musiq
• Hip-Hop and R&B - Today's hottest hip-hop and R&B music. (e.g. Chris Brown, Ciara, Usher, Lil Wayne,
• Hip-Hop Classics - Hits from artists that pioneered the genre of hip-hop. (e.g. Run DMC, A Tribe Called Quest,
Tupac Shakur, Notorious B.I.G.)
• Throwback Jamz - Mix of R&B, urban hits, and old-school rap. (e.g. Bobby Brown, Keith Sweat, Heavy D)
• Rap - An uncensored mix of modern rap and hip-hop. (e.g. 50 Cent, Young Jeezy, Jim Jones, The Game)
Music Choice
• Kidz Only! (formerly Radio Disney) - Music popular with youngsters and "tweens". (e.g. Miley Cyrus, the Jonas
Brothers, Miranda Cosgrove, Nat & Alex Wolff)
• Toddler Tunes - Contemporary music aimed at young children; includes lullabies that are played at night. (e.g.
Joanie Bartels, Laurie Berkner, Baby Einstein)
• Reggae - Mix of reggae, ska and other Caribbean rhythms of the past and present. (e.g. Bob Marley, Beres
Hammond, Buju Banton)
• MC MixTape - Mixes and blends of popular music and beats from various artists.
• Sounds of the Seasons - Special music that plays to celebrate various holidays and seasons. Example include:
• Mardi Gras
• Valentine's Day (second week of February)
• St.Patrick's Day (third week of March)
• Cinco De Mayo (first week of May)
• Patriotic music (first week of July)
• Oktoberfest (late September through October 5)
• Halloween (October 5th or 6th to November 1)
• Christmas (traditional Christmas standards; runs from November 2 through January 6)
• The Pulse (periods without a specific widely-celebrated holiday such as April, June and August, etc.)
• Stage & Screen - An original mix of music from the movies, TV and Broadway: from blockbuster film scores to
memorable TV theme songs to classic Broadway showtunes. (e.g. Disney on Broadway, Rogers & Hammerstein)
• Singers & Swing - Big band, Swing & Adult standards (e.g. Frank Sinatra, Glenn Miller, Duke Ellington)
Defunct channels
• Radio Disney (replaced by Kidz Only!)
• Arena Rock (replaced by Retro Rock)
• Retro Active (replaced by Classic Alternative)
• Bluegrass
• Opera
• Showtunes (Replaced by Stage & Screen)
• Music Choice Showcase
• Old School Rap (replaced by Hip Hop Classics)
• Classic Disco (replaced by MC MixTapes)
• Dance and Electronica (merged)
• International Love Songs
• Rock en Espanol (replaced by Romances)
• New Wave (replaced by Retro-Active)
• Americana (replaced by True Country)
• Lite Rock (replaced with Soft Rock)
• Adult Top 40 (merged into and replaced with Pop Hits)
• Chillout (online exclusive)
• Underground Rap (online exclusive)
• Indie Rock (online exclusive)
Music Choice
[1] http:/ / www. musicchoice. com/ Originals/
[2] - Nielsen To Measure Music Choice On Demand Multichannel News (http:// www.multichannel.com/ article/
[3] Music Choice's ShowOff Web Page (http:// www.musicchoice. com/ showoff)
[4] Music Choice's ShowOff Web Page (http:// www.musicchoice. com/ showoff)
[5] Music Choice - Channel Line Up Change - April 15, 2009 (http:// www. musicchoice. com/ channelchange/ ) Retrieved April 2, 2009
External links
• PCMusic (http:/ / www. pcmusic. com/ )
• Music Choice MySpace (http:/ / www. myspace. com/ Music_Choice)
• Music Choice History (http:// www. computeruser.com/ articles/ 2306,2,2,1,0601,04. html)
• Hard Times (http:// www. hardtimes.tv/ )
• Music Choice Career Opportunities (http:/ / www.entertainmentcareers.net/ company/ ?company=MUSIC+
CHOICE) listed on EntertainmentCareers.Net
Developer(s) David Nelson
Initial release February 25, 2009
Operating system Microsoft Windows
Available in Multilingual
Type Media player
License Proprietary
Muziic is a media player, FLV encoder and related website, designed to directly access flash video media files from
YouTube, without the user having to visit the file's display page on the YouTube website. Muziic can also refer to
the organization that created and maintains the project. As the name suggests, the primary focus of Muziic is on
accessing YouTube's music resources.
Muziic was created by then-fifteen-year-old David Nelson and his father Mark Nelson. David was responsible for
the software development, and Mark organized the project as a company. After a year of development, the pair set up
a website, www.muziic.com (launched on 25 February 2009) and debuted the Muziic Player software (version 1.x).
Since its launch, the Muziic website has experienced rapid growth in traffic, leaving the site has inaccessible at
times. The Nelsons are reported as having had to add additional servers, to keep up with demand.
The service is able to search, sort, play, and create playlists of YouTube videos. It also has an upload function,
allowing users to encode media files as flash video and add them to YouTube. Currently, the Muziic Player is
available for Microsoft Windows operating system (XP and Vista) and is dependent on the Flash Player plug-in for
Internet Explorer. The program also has Apple Inc. iPhone and iPod Touch versions. Within twenty-four hours of
launch, Muziic for iPhone had become the 29th most popular free music app in the iPhone App Store. Muziic is also
a version of the iPad. The Muziic website provides a degree of "social networking" functionality for Muziic users as
well, including a community generated directory of YouTube videos, playlists, and channels. Muziic also maintains
its own YouTube channel and has a presence on Myspace, Facebook, and Twitter.
The release of Muziic Player version 1 and the related services provided by the Muziic website generated a degree of
interest and attention in the online IT community. A number of computer-technology and music-related online news
services and bloggers covered the launch and the discussion of various aspects of it. The focus of the coverage has
included the Muziic Player and service, the Nelsons, particularly David, because of his youth and central role in
creating the software, and the reactions of YouTube, its parent company Google, and the recording industry. The
way in which the Muziic Player accesses Youtube videos, bypassing the other content found on the webpages where
those videos would normally be displayed, raised questions about the acceptability of Muziic to YouTube!/Google,
both in terms of the legality and the practical business aspects of the service. It also potentially conflicts with
YouTube's relationship with the recording industry and the agreements that YouTube/Google has reached with a
number of record companies. YouTube does allow videos hosted on the service to be streamed offsite, subject to
certain conditions, and YouTube and Google are developing further aspects of their online video service, including
experimentation with the insertion of commercial advertisements into videos and various ways of accessing and
organizing content. It was not clear, however, what their reaction would be to third-party developers such as the
Nelsons and their Muziic project making use of content hosted on YouTube in such a fashion. The Nelsons state that
they had attempted to contact YouTube/Google prior to the launch of the Muziic website but received no response.
On March 17, 2009, CNET reported that YouTube and the Nelsons had reached an agreement to allow the Muziic
service to continue to operate, and David Nelson was working on minor adjustments to the Muziic Player in order to
meet the requirements of the YouTube API terms; the primary change required seems to have involved increasing
the size of the player's video screen, which had previously been "postage-stamp sized" due to the emphasis of music
in Muziic.
Muziic has recently announced over 225,000,000 plays on the service since their launch in February 2009.
• http:/ / www. muziic. com
• http:/ / www. muziic. com/ about. php
• http:/ / my.muziic. com/ user/ David
• http:/ / my.muziic. com/ user/ Mark
• http:/ / www. huffingtonpost.com/ 2009/ 03/ 09/ david-nelson-muziic-creat_n_173072.html
• http:/ / www. techtree.com/ India/ News/ Muziic_YouTube_Streamlined_Customized/ 551-99903-643.html
• http:/ / news. cnet. com/ 8301-1023_3-10191324-93.html
• http:/ / www. physorg. com/ news155845130. html
• http:// arstechnica. com/ software/news/ 2009/ 03/ muziic-may-only-get-15-minutes-as-a-youtube-media-player.
• http:/ / www. readwriteweb.com/ archives/ will_google_uphold_its_do_no_evil_motto_with_muzii. php
• http:/ / news. cnet. com/ 8301-1023_3-10198628-93.html?tag=newsEditorsPicksArea.0
External links
• Muziic.com
• YouTube video tutorial on installing and using the Muziic player
[1] http:/ / www. muziic. com/
[2] http:/ / www. muziic. com
[3] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=EEJR9C52tkU& feature=channel_page/
Founded July 2008
Founder Ciarán Bollard
Mark French
South William Street,
Dublin, Ireland
Area served Worldwide
Key people Ciarán Bollard (business development director)
Mark French (managing director)
Slogan The Music Video Site
Alexa rank
Type of site Video hosting service
Registration Optional
(required to upload, rate, and comment on videos, but not required to watch videos)
Launched July 16, 2008
Current status Active
MUZU TV is an Irish owned interactive music website featuring free music content

video sharing
website. Co-founded by Ciarán Bollard (now its business development director) and Mark French (now its managing
director), it was launched in Ireland and the United Kingdom on 16 July 2008.
Seven million videos were played
monthly and there were two million users within one year of the launch, with users creating their own TV channel.
Described by Sky News as a likely rival for YouTube,
it expects to obtain a profit in early 2010.
The company's headquarters are divided between three cities, Dublin, Waterford, and London, and it employs 25
It allows videos to be uploaded to the website and external websites, with the original copyright holder
maintaining their ownership, while the website is funded through embedded advertising.
Artists are granted 50 per
cent of advertising revenue.
Company history
Before the launch Sony BMG signed an agreement with MUZU TV to allow more than 6,000 videos by artists,
including The Ting Tings and Kylie Minogue, to appear on the site, with a further 2,000 hours of footage from
entities such as Cherry Red, Eagle Rock Entertainment, Hollywood Music, Ministry of Sound, Ninja Tune and
Planet Rock Profiles.
Converse, Heineken International, O2, Pioneer Corporation, Ray-Ban and Sony were among
the earliest companies to advertise on the website.
On 20 August 2008, it was announced that a deal had been
signed with ITN,
which gave MUZU TV access to archive footage of TV shows such as The Tube and Calendar
Goes Pop.
EMI signed a deal on 16 January 2009 which permitted the website to feature more than 5,000 videos.
On 19
January 2009, it was announced that Beggars Group had signed.
On 27 January 2009, Cooking Vinyl announced
it had signed a global deal, with its founder commenting that MUZU TV was "purpose-built for the music industry
and we believe it holds great revenue potential".

On 21 July 2009, it was announced that Merlin Network,
which had previously refused both MySpace and YouTube, had signed.
Announced on 25 January 2010 were deals
with AOL Music, Bebo and the Telegraph Media Group.
The Samsung Group said in January 2010 it would allow the development of a MUZU TV app for its televisions.
The Irish Internet Association named Bollard and French as the 2009 Net Visionaries.
IIA Chair Maeve Kneafsey
announced the winner at a ceremony on 21 May 2009 by describing the website as "an inspiration to the current and
future generations of internet entrepreneurs who know that the internet means that there are no boundaries on what
we can do in Ireland, the only limit being our imagination".
Bollard and French spoke at the Dublin Wed Summit
on internet business in Trinity College, Dublin on 4 February 2010.
[1] "MUZU TV goes live with music videos old and new" (http:/ / www. hotpress.com/ news/ 4666151. html). Hot Press. 16 July 2008. .
Retrieved 14 March 2010. "MUZU TV, an online video streaming service which allows bands and labels to share in advertising money, has
officially gone live from its studios on South William St."
[2] http:/ / www. alexa. com/ siteinfo/ muzu. tv
[3] Ciara O'Brien (6 February 2009). "Several online services offering free access to music and videos" (http:/ / www.irishtimes.com/
newspaper/ finance/ 2009/ 0206/ 1233796244224. html). The Irish Times. . Retrieved 14 March 2010. "The service works on a simple basis. It
allows users to build their own playlists and TV channels with videos of their favourite artists. The service is free for viewers."
[4] Ciara O'Brien (25 January 2010). "Muzu.tv signs lucrative new deals" (http:// www. irishtimes. com/ newspaper/ breaking/2010/ 0125/
breaking41. html). The Irish Times. . Retrieved 14 March 2010. "The company, which provides a legal music service, has also signed
agreements with the Irish Independent, Communicorp, Spinner UK, Drowned In Sound, Habbo Hotel, Virtual Festivals, Mama Group,
Meanfiddler, and The Fly Magazine"
[5] Mike Butcher (15 July 2008). "Muzu TV turns artists into ad-men" (http:// www.washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/2008/ 07/
15/AR2008071500547. html). The Washington Post. . Retrieved 14 March 2010. "The legal aspect is key - the player is designed to protect
copyright holders buy giving the artist control and allowing it to earn