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TRAINING REPORT OF SIX WEEKS INDUSTRIAL TRAINING, UNDERTAKEN AT ESCORTS GROUP IN AGRO MACHINARY GROUP (TRACTOR ASSEMBLY) ON STUDY OF TRACTOR ASSEMBLY SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Submitted By: Name: Suraj Rathore College Roll No.: E094119 University Roll No.: 90181125036 Under the Guidance of: Name: Rajesh Goyal Designation:Head (ER) Department:AMG

CHANDIGARH-PATIALA NATIONAL HIGHWAY, VILL.JHANSLA, TEHSIL, RAJPURA, DISTT. PATIALA 140401

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The special thank goes to my helpful supervisor,Mr. A.K Bhattacharjee (DGM) and Mr. Rajesh Goyal (Head ER) and support that they gave truly helped the progression and smoothness of the internship program. The co -operation is much indeed appreciated. My grateful thanks also go to both Mr. Sunil Grover and Mr.Ajay Bishnoi . A big contribution and hard worked from both of you during the Six weeks is very great indeed. The training during the program would be nothing without the enthusiasm and imagination from both of you. Besides, this internship program made me realize the value of working together as a team and as a new experience in working environment, which challenges us every minute. Not to forget, great appreciation go to the rest of ESCORTSs staff that helped me from time to time during the Training. The whole program really brought us together to appreciate the true value of engineership. Last but not the least I would like to thank my friends especially those who worked together as interns at ESCORTS.

Preface
An assembl line is a manufacturing process in which parts (usuall interchangeable parts) are added to a product in a sequential manner using optimall planned logistics to create a finished product much faster than with handcrafting-type methods. The assembly line developed by Ford Motor Company between 1908 and 1915 made assembly lines famous in the following decade through the social ramifications of mass production, such as the affordability of the Ford Model T and the introduction of high wages for Ford workers. Henry Ford was the first to master the assembly line and was able to improve other aspects of industry by doing so (such as reducing labor hours required to produce a single vehicle, and increased production numbers and parts). However, the various preconditions for the development at Ford stret ched far back into the 19th century, from the gradual realization of the dream of interchangeability, to the concept of reinventing workflow and job descriptions using analytical methods (the most famous example being scientific management). Ford was the first company to build large factories around the assembly line concept. Mass production via assembly lines is widely considered to be the catalyst which initiated the modern consumer culture by making possible low unit cost for manufactured goods. It is often said that Ford's production system was ingenious because it turned Ford's own workers into new customers. Put another way, Ford innovated its way to a lower price point and by doing so turned a huge potential market into a reality. Not only did this mean that Ford enjoyed much larger demand, but the resulting larger demand also allowed further economies of scale to be exploited, further depressing unit price, which tapped yet another portion of the demand curve. This bootstrapping quality of growth made Ford famous and set an exampl e for other industries. Assembly lines are designed for a sequential organization of workers, tools or machines, and parts. The motion of workers is minimized to the extent possible. All parts or assemblies are handled either by conveyors or motorized vehicles such as fork lifts, or gravity, with no manual trucking. Heavy lifting is done by machines such as overhead cranes or fork lifts. Each worker typically performs one simple operation. According to Henry Ford: The principles of assembly are these:

(1) Place the tools and the men in the sequence of the operation so that each component part shall travel the least possible distance while in the process of finishing. (2) Use work slides or some other for m of carrier so that when a workman completes his operation, he drops the part always in the same place--which place must always be the most convenient place to his hand--and if possible have gravity carry the part to the next workman for his operation. (3) Use sliding assembling lines by which the parts to be assembled are delivered at convenient distances.

Company Profile
The Escorts Group, is among India's leading engineering conglomerates operating in the high growth sectors of agri -machinery, construction & material handling equipment, railway equipment and auto components. Having pioneered farm mechanization in the country, Escorts has played a pivotal role in the agricultural growth of India for over five decades. One of the leading tractor manufacturers of the country, Escorts offers a comprehensive range of tractors, more than 45 variants starting from 25 to 80 HP. Escort, Farmtrac and Powertrac are the widely accepted and preferred brands of tractors from the house of Escorts. A leading material handling and construction equipment manufacturer, we manufacture and market a diverse range of equipment like cranes, loaders, vibratory rollers and forklifts. Escorts today is the world's largest Pick 'n' Carry Hydraulic Mobile Crane manufacturer. Escorts has been a major player in the railway equipment business in India for nearly five decades. Our product offering includes brakes, couple rs, shock absorbers, rail fastening systems, composite brake blocks and vulcanized rubber parts. In the auto components segment, Escorts is a leading manufacturer of auto suspension products including shock absorbers and telescopic front forks. Over the years, with continuous development and improvement in manufacturing technology and design, new reliable products have been introduced. Throughout the evolution of Escorts, technology has always been its greatest ally for growth. In the over six decades of our inception, Escorts has been much more than just being one of India's largest engineering companies. It has been a harbinger of new technology, a prime mover on the industrial front, at every stage introducing products and technologies that helped take the country forward in key growth areas. Over a million tractors and over 16,000 construction and material handling equipment that have rolled out from the facilities of Escorts, complemented by a highly satisfied customer base, are testimony to the manufacturing excellence of Escorts. Following the globally accepted best manufacturing practices with relentless focus on research and development, Escorts is today in the league of premier corporate entities in India.

Technological and business collaborati on with world leaders over the years, Globally competitive indigenous engineering capabilities, over 1600 sales and service outlets and footprints in over 40 countries have been instrumental in making Escorts the Indian multinational. At a time when the world is looking at India as an outsourcing destination, Escorts is rightly placed to be the dependable outsourcing partner of world's leading engineering corporations looking at outsourcing manufacture of engines, transmissions, gears, hydraulics, implements and attachments to tractors, and shock absorbers for heavy trailers. In today's Global Market Place, Escorts is fast on the path of an internal transformation, which will help it to be a key driver of manufacturing excellence in the global arena. For t his we are going beyond just adhering to prevailing norms, we are setting our own standards and relentlessly pursuing them to achieve our desired benchmarks of excellence.

The genesis of Escorts goes back to 1944 when two brothers, Mr. H. P. Nanda and Mr. Yudi Nanda, launched a small agency house, Escorts Agents Ltd. in Lahore. Over the years, Escorts has surged ahead and evolved into one of India's largest conglomerates. In this journey of six decades, Escorts has had the privilege of being associated with some of the world leaders in the engineering manufacturing space like Minneapolis Moline, Massey Ferguson, Goetze, Mahle, URSUS, CE OP, Ford Motor Company, J C Bamford Excavators, Yamaha, Claas, Carraro, Lucky Goldstar, First Pacific Company, Hughes Communications, Jeumont Schneider, Dynapac . These valued relationships be it technological or marketing, are our highly cherished experiences treasures, which have helped us inculcate best in class manufacturing practices and to emerge as a technologically independent world class engineering organization. 1944 Launch of Escorts (Agents) Ltd.

1948 - Pioneered farm mechanization in the country by launching Escorts Agricultural Machines Limited, with a franchise from the U.S. based Minneapolis Moline, for marketing tractors, implements, engines & other farm equipment. Launch of Escorts (Agriculture and Machines) Ltd. 1949 - Franchise of Massey Ferguson tractors for northern India 1951 - Escorts established Indias first private Institute of Farm

Mechanisation

at

Delhi.

1953 -Escorts (Agents) Ltd. and Escorts (Agriculture and Machines) Ltd. merged to form Escorts Agents Pvt. Ltd. 1954 - 1st industrial venture of Escorts to manufacture piston rings in collaboration with Goetze of Germany, in an era when joint ventures of Indian firms with foreign companies were virtually unheard of. 1958 - Started importing Massey Ferguson tractors from Yugoslavia for marketing the same in India. 1959 - Collaboration with Mahle of Germany to manufacture pistons. Soon, Escorts became the largest producer of piston assemblies in India. 1960 Set up of Escorts Limited

1961- Setting up of manufacturing base at Faridabad for manufacture of tractors in collaboration with URSUS of Poland and 50% indigenous components. Launch of Escort brand of tractors. Collaboration with CE OP of Poland for manufacture of motorcycles and scooters. Escorts moves into high gear by nurturing the two wheeler culture. T he first Rajdoot motorcycle rolls off the assembly line. 1969 - Escorts Tractors Limited was born. A technical and financial joint venture with the global giant Ford Motor Company, USA, to manufacture Ford tractors in India. The years ahead saw Escorts grow as the largest tractor manufacturer in India. Escorts Institute of Farm Mechanisation (EIFM) established at Bangalore. Escorts Employees Ancillaries Ltd. (EEAL), a unique venture in industrial democracy comes into being. 1971 - 1st February, the first tractor FORD 3000 rolled out of the factory. Escorts diversifies and starts manufacturing construction equipment. 1974 - Crossing national boundaries, Escorts exports for the first time. After winning a global tender, 400 tractors were exported to Afghanistan, which was perhaps the world's largest ever airlift of tractors. 1976 - FORD 3600, an advancement in Farm Mechanis ation launched.

Trial production of in-plant manufacturing of engine parts (Block & Head). 1977 - Escorts enters the world of self-developed technology by setting up its first independent R&D Center. Escorts Scientific Research Centre marked its beginning at Faridabad by developing its own Engines for E-27 and E-37. Due to constant technology absorption, indigenisation level touched 72% for FORD tractors. 2nd plant at Bangalore for manufacturing piston assemblies was set up. 1979 - Collaboration with JCB Excavators Ltd., UK for manufacture of excavators. 1980 - Foray into healthcare, Escorts Hospital and Research Center set up in Faridabad. 1983 - Escorts Tractors Limited (ETL) established a state-of-the-art research and development centre to spearhead newer breakthroughs in Farm Mechanisation and to maintain industry leadership. Line concept introduced for engine block machining. 11,000 ton floating dry -dock Escorts I launched. 1984 JV Escorts Yamaha to manufacture motorcycles

1984 - Signing of agreement with the Japanese bike giant Yamaha to manufacture motorcycles with Yamaha technology. Collaboration with Jeumont Schneider of France to manufacture EPAB systems Collaboration with Dynapac of Sweden to manufacture vibratory road compactors 1985 - Escorts Tractors Limited (ETL) offered its first Bonus Issue (1:1). 1988 - Escorts Heart Institute and Research Centre (EHIRC), a world class cardiac care facility launched in New Delhi. 1989 - Joint Venture with Claas of Germany to manufacture harvest er combines. 1990-91 - First Public Issue in February 1991, over-subscribed four times. Shares listed on Delhi and Bombay Stock Exchanges. 1993 FORD 3620 tractor launched.

1996 - Disengagement of joint venture collaboration with New Holland and launch of FARMTRAC Tractor. 1997 - Joint Venture with Carraro of Italy for manufacturing and marketing of transmission and axles. Joint Venture with First Pacific Company of Hong Kong - Escotel Mobile Communications. 1998 POWERTRAC series of tractors launched.

MoU was signed with Long Manufacturing Company, USA for setting up a Joint Venture in USA. 1999 - MoU for Joint Venture with a Polish Company POL-MOT was signed for assembly, manufacturing and marketing of Farm Machinery. 2004 - Divested Escotel Mobile Telecommunications to Idea Cellular TS16949 certification for Agri Machinery Group.

2005 Divested Escorts Heart Institute and Research Centre (EHIRC) to Fortis Healthcare. 2006 Divested in Carraro India Ltd.

Set up new manufacturing facility in Rudrapur for manufacture of new range of railway equipment Over six decades back two young men set out on a journey together armed with little beyond intelligence, business acumen and determination and dreams aplenty. They believed that India could only achieve total freedom with a breakthrough in the field of agriculture and mechanization would have to rule the fields. Their youthful enthusiasm had kindled the hope that one day they would make a mark of their own. They were in fact writing the first chapter of what has come to be widely recognised as one of the greatest success stories in Indian industry. Escorts came into being with a vision. A vision that eschewed easy paths to profitability, and sought instead for ways to make a contribution. A vision that led two young brothers, Yudi and Hari Nanda, to branch out of their family's prospering transport business and institute ventures that were to become the foundations of Escorts Limited. On 17th October 1944, Escorts

Agents Limited was born at Lahore (now in Pakistan) with Mr. Yudi Nanda as Managing Director and Mr. Hari Nanda as Chairman. It was a trendsetting marketing house driven by the same business philosophy, which had given their family enterprise an unrivalled reputation: customer concern. Not long afterwards, this driving ambition to go beyond the expected led Hari Nanda to the first of his many successful business insights - the discovery of the great business potential that lay in India's villages. This led to the launch, in 1948, of Escorts (Agriculture and Machines) Ltd., with Yudi Nanda as Director. Though separate business entities then, both companies had two great strengths in common: the dynamic Nanda brothers and the unifying force of the name they gave their companies; Escorts, literally 'escorting' their products and services to the customer while most other businessmen were just selling. Tragically, Mr. Yudi Nanda died in an accident in 1952 - but his spirit remained embedded in the foundations of the company. Mr. H P Nanda then took on the mantle to realise the dreams which he had always seen with his brother. Escorts (Agents) Ltd., and Escorts (Agriculture and Machines) Ltd. merged in 1953 to create a single entity -Escorts Agents Pvt Ltd. Having initially started with a franchise for Westinghouse domestic appliances, by this time the Company had already expanded its marketing and service operations, representing internationally known German and American organisations such as MAN, AEG, Haniel & Leug, Knorr Bremse, MIAG and BMA for sophisticated electrical and mechanical engineering equipment and Minneapolis Moline and Wisconsin for agricultural tractors, implements and engines. Escorts made a major thrust into the agricultural arena by taking on the marketing and service franchise for Massey Ferguson tractors in Northern India, which soon comprised 75% of MF's all-India sales - a signal tribute to Escorts' inherent strengths. Its first industrial venture came up in 1954, in partnership with Goetzewerke of Germany for the manufacture of piston rings and cylinder liners - followed by production of pistons in collaboration with MAHLE, also of Germany, in 1960. The company's incorporation in its present name, Escorts Limited, was effected on 18th January, 1960. Escorts' next major industrial activity was the assembly of tractors in 1961 in technical cooperation with URSUS of Poland. Subsequently this led to the manufacture of the country's first indigenous tractors under Escorts' own brand name, which were to play a pivotal role in the Green Revolution. This went on to lay the foundations that even today are the Company's core strengths -relevant, worldstandard technology through strategic international alliances; a broadbased marketing and service network yet unrivalled; power ful

symbiotic relationships with suppliers and dealers; and above all, the crusade to make a difference. Beyond the growth of the organisation, these principles have ensured that Mr. H. P. Nanda's contribution to the cause of industry and the consumer will endure. He pioneered the revolutionary concept of 'interdependence' between ancillary and large industries, institutionalising vendor development and in the process building Faridabad and the entire belt of townships in the region. He introduced the discipline of service going before marketing, reassuring the customer that Escorts would stay with them, that they were here for the long run. He built lasting alliances with an array of the world's most respected names in tractors, industrial equipment, two-wheelers, construction equipment and telecommunications. Going further, he created institutions devoted to value engineering and training, not only as investments in the company's future but also as catalysts for the enhancement of Indian industry as a whol e the Escorts R&D Centre and the unique Escorts Institute of Farm Mechanisation. His concern extended to the society in which he worked, and he manifested it by establishing the Escorts Medical Centre at Faridabad, Escorts Heart Institute and Research Centre at New Delhi, as well as numerous village development programmes. And above all, he imbued the corporation with his own pioneering, entrepreneurial spirit, instilling both a conscience and a vision of leadership. Escorts is testimony to the valour, vision and values of its Founder Mr. H P Nanda. He remains the inspiration for our courage, spirit of adventure and ability to Think Big. These qualities are his enduring legacy and have inspired and encouraged us down the decades and will continue doing s o in all our endeavors. Logo rationale:

A hexagonal nut (in red) representing a geometric perfection. The nut has been a functional device that has stayed at the core of mankinds engineering adventures. In spite of modern technologies coming in, it still remains unarguably a symbol of technology and all that holds it together. Locked into the nut is a spanner (in white), the turning force for the symbol of technology. The two pictorial elements are configured together to form an 'E', a pneumonic for Escor ts. A doctrine of corporate and engineering openness, the Escorts logo allows an aisle, a pathway through which new ideas can walk in any time freely,

giving Escorts the character to listen and absorb new and fresh thoughts. The symbol with its three meanings makes a rebus or visual pun and is rendered in red, the color of energy and dynamism. Every time it is used, it represents the Escorts seal of quality and excellence. Escorts Institute of Farm Mechanization has been an asset of Escorts Limited Agri Machinery Group for over five decades. Situated in the midst of a forest, the institute is spread over ninety acres. Since its inception the institute has been used to impart technical training to the AMG employees. However, the contours and landscape of the Agri mechanization domain in India are transforming rapidly as the balance of needs of the Indian farmer shifts from "machines" to "solutions". The resurrection of EIFM is hinged on the desire that the Agri Machinery Group be at the centre of this transformation in leveraging all opportunities that will make AMG known for its solution providing prowess to the Indian farmer. Central to the ability to traverse the long and challenging journey in the various initiatives taken by AMG and much beyond, will undoubtedly be its people and their re-skilling to adapt to the dynamic market situation. Customer centricity arises out of a strong effort and focus on training and skilling manpower. AMG has taken cognizance of this fact and has made EIFM a "Centre of Excellence" to re-skill its team members both internal as well as those pertaining to its extended family dealers and their employees. EIFM is ideally positioned to be the central repository of thought, knowledge and delivery. Indoctrination of "mar ket aligned" skills through EIFM in order to be able to proactively identify and respond to customer needs has indeed gone a long way in creating the right foundations for the launch of AMG into the next trajectory of growth. EIFM has been revamped to deliver a variety of courses in the areas of Sales, Service, Business Management and other skills and competencies required for efficiently carrying out Sales & Service related responsibilities. All front facing employees of the Company mandatorily undergo the certification programme at the training centre. The re -skilling of manpower in the S&M domain will help achieve the Company's 3 year plan and beyond.

It is an extremely important initiative and helps enhance competency levels across the organization. In order to ensure high quality of delivery of content to the various employee constituents, a Governing Council has been formed which plays an active role in managing the academic delivery. The faculty is a 14 member team of highly qualified trainers suppor ted by Admin staff. EIFM, since its resurrection on 11 Dec'2009 has trained 3079 employees. It offers 28 courses and the duration of these courses varies from 2 days to 11 days depending on the intensity of the course The training programmes lead to cer tification of the staff which is considered as a minimum qualifier for the concerned staff member to represent the dealer and Escorts Limited. In today's world while we are faced with cramped class rooms, noisy surroundings and disordered learning atmo sphere, EIFM offers unique facilities spread over ninety acres of peace and quite. The Institute offers four classrooms, a computer, three fully equipped workshops and farm land which is used for field work in the form of demonstrations. The training sessions are a combination of classroom training comprising of presentations, case studies, team activities and computer based work along with outdoor classes and practicals handled in the workshops. In terms of facilities, EIFM offers comfortable accommodati on, an in-house cafeteria, a recreation room, a lounge, a library and an array of sports activities like cricket, table tennis, basket ball etc The ambience and the atmosphere of EIFM is something that can not be described but needs to be experienced; th e training programmes are unique as they are aimed to equip each individual to perform their jobs to the best of their ability.

Background In 1960, our parent company, Escorts, set up the strategic Agri Machinery Group (AMG) to venture into tractors .

In 1965, we rolled out our first batch of tractors under the brand name of Escort. In 1969 a separate company, Escorts Tractors Ltd., was established with equity participation of Ford Motor Co., Basildon, UK for the manufacture of Ford agricultural tractors in India. In the year 1996 Escorts Tractors Ltd. formally merged with the parent company, Escorts Ltd. Since inception, we have manufactured over 1 million tractors. Technologies Escorts AMG has three recognized and well -accepted tractor brands, which are on distinct and separate technology platforms. Farmtrac: World Class Premium tractors, with single reduction and epicyclic reduction transmissions from 34 to 75 HP. Powertrac: Utility and Value-for-money tractors, offering straight-axle and hub-reduction tractors from 34 to 55 HP. India's No.1 economy range - engineered to give spectacular diesel economy. Escort: Economy tractors having hub-reduction transmission and twincylinder engines from 27 to 35 HP. Pioneering brand of tractors introduced by Escorts with unbeatable advantages.

STUDY OF VARIOUS PROCESSES OF TRACTOR ASSEMBLY


CYLINDER BLOCK A cylinder block is an integrated structure comprising the cylinder(s) of a reciprocating engine and often some or all of their associated surrounding structures (coolant passages, intake and exhaust passages and ports, and crankcase). The termengine block is often used synonymously with "cylinder block" (although technically distinctions can be made between en bloc cylinders as a discrete unit versus engine block designs with yet more integration that comprise the crankcase as well). In the basic terms of machine elements, the various main parts of an engine (such as cylinder(s), cylinder head(s), coolant passages, intake and exhaust passages, and crankcase) are conceptually distinct, and these concepts can all be instantiated as discrete pieces that are bolted together. Such construction was very widespread in the early decades of the commercialization of internal combustion engines (1880s to 1920s), and it is still sometimes used in certain applications where it remains advantageous (especially very large engines, but also some small engines). However, it is no longer the normal way of building most petrol engines and diesel engines, because for any given engine configuration, there are more efficient ways of designing for manufacture (and also for maintenance and repair). These generally involve integrating multiple machine elements into one discrete part, and doing the making (such as casting, stamping, and machining) for multiple elements in one setup with one machine coordinate system (of a machine tool or other piece of manufacturing machinery). This yields lower unit cost of production (and/or maintenance and repair). Today most engines for cars, trucks, buses, tractors, and so on are built with fairly highly integrated design, so the words " monobloc" and "en bloc" are seldom used in describing them; such construction is often implicit. Thus "engine block", "cylinder block", or simply "block" are the terms likely to be heard in the garage or on the street. Development context

The move from extensive use of discrete elements (via separate castings) to extensive integration of elements (such as in most modern engine blocks) was a gradual progression that passed through various phases of monobloc engine development, wherein certain elements were integrated while others remained discrete. This evolution has occurred throughout the history of reciprocating engines, with various instances of every conceptual variation coexisting here and there. (This is an example of how the history of technology is a profusion of scattered data points with the waxing and waning of themes and trends, as opposed to any simplistic linear progression from "bad" to "good".) The increase in prevalence of ever more-integrated designs relied on the gradual development of foundry and machining practice for mass production. For example, a practical low-cost V8 engine was not feasible until Ford developed the techniques used to build the Ford flathead V8 engine, which soon also disseminated to the larger society. (Such techological dissemination tends to happen via a zeitgeist of independent, competitive development just as much as via technology transfer or reverse engineering ). Today the foundry and machining processes for manufacturing engines are usually highly automated, with a few skilled workers to manage the making of thousands of parts. Cylinders integrated into one or several cylinder blocks

Cylinders are cast in three pairs

Cylinders are cast in two blocks of three

CYLINDER BLOCK

A cylinder block is a unit comprising several cylinders (including their cylinder walls, coolant passages, cylinder sleeves if any, and so forth). In the earliest decades of internal combustion engine development, monobloc cylinder construction was rare; cylinders were usually cast individually. Combining their castings into pairs or triples was an early win of monobloc design. Each cylinder bank of a V engine (that is, each side of the V) typically comprised one or several cylinder blocks until the 1930s, when mass production methods were developed that allowed the modern form factor of having both banks plus the crankcase entirely integrated. A wet liner cylinder block features cylinder walls that are entirely removable, which fit into the block by means of special gaskets. They are referred to as "wet liners" because their outer sides come in direct contact with the engine's coolant. In other words, the liner is the entire wall, rather than being merely a sleeve. Wet liner designs are popular with European manufacturers, most notably Renault and Peugeot, who continue to use them to the present. Dry liner designs use either the block's material or a discrete liner inserted into the block to form the backbone of the cylinder wall. Additional sleeves are inserted within, which remain "dry" on their outside, surrounded by the block's material. With either wet or dry liner designs, the liners (or sleeves) can be replaced, potentially allowing overhaul or rebuild without replacement of the block itself; but in reality, they are difficult to remove and install, and for many applications (such as most late-model cars and trucks), an engine will never undergo such a procedure in its working lifespan. It is likelier to be scrapped, with new equipmentengine or entire vehiclereplacing it. This is sometimes rightfully disparaged as a symptom of a throw-away society, but on the other hand, it is actually sometimes more cost -efficient and even environmentally protective to recycle machinery and build new instances with efficient manufacturing processes (and superior machine performance and emission control) than it is to overvalue old machinery andcraft production. Cylinder blocks and crankcase integrated

A flathead engine with integral cylinder bank and crankcase. The head is tipped upward to reveal the deck. This example is typical of engines of the 1930s through 1950s. Casting technology at the dawn of the internal combustion engine could reliably cast either large castings, or castings with complex internal cores to allow for water jackets, but not both simultaneously. Most early engines, particularly those with more than four cyli nders, had their cylinders cast as pairs or triplets of cylinders, then bolted to a single crankcase. As casting techniques improved, an entire cylinder block of 4, 6, or 8 cylinders could be cast as one. This was a simpler construction, thus less expensive (unit-wise) to make. For straight engines, this meant that one engine block could now comprise allthe cylinders plus the crankcase. Monobloc straight fours, uncommon when the Ford Model T was introduced with one in 1908, became common during the next decade, and monobloc straight sixes followed soon after. By the mid-1920s, both were common, and the straight sixes of General Motors (along with other features that differentiated GM's various makes and models from the Model T) were prying market share away from Ford. (These were all flathead designs.) During that decade, V engines retained a separate block casting for each cylinder bank, with both bolted onto a common crankcase (itself a separate casting). For economy, some engines were designed to use identical castings for each bank, left and right. [2] The complex ducting required for intake and exhaust was too complicated to allow the integration of the banks, except on a few rare engines, such as the Lancia 22 narrow-angle V12 of 1919, that did manage to use a single block casting for both banks. [3] The hurdles of integrating the banks of the V for common, affordable cars were first overcome by the Ford Motor Company with its Ford flathead V-8, introduced in 1932, which was the

first V-8 with a single engine block casting, putting an affordable V-8 into an affordable car for the first time. [4] The communal water jacket of monobloc designs permitted closer spacing between cylinders. The monobloc design also improved the mechanical stiffness of the engine against bending and the increasingly important torsional twist, as cylinder numbers, engine lengths, and power ratings increased. Most engines made today, except some unusual V or radial engines, are a monobloc of crankcase and all cylinders. In such cases, the skirts of the cylinder banks form a crankcase area of sorts, which is still often called a crankcase despite no longer being a discrete part. Combined block, head, and crankcase Light-duty consumer-grade Honda GC-family small engines use a monobloc design where the cylinder head, block, and half the crankcase share the same casting, termed 'uniblock' by Honda. [5] One reason for this, apart from cost, is to produce an overall lower engine height. Being an air cooled OHC design, this is possible thanks to current aluminum casting techniques and lack of complex hollow spaces for liquid cooling. The valves are vertical, so as to permit assembly in this confined space. On the other hand, performing basic repairs becomes so time -consuming that the engine can be considered disposable. Commercial -duty Honda GX-family engines (and their many popular knock-offs) have a more conventional design of a single crankcase and cylinder casting, with a separate cylinder head. Honda produces many other hea d-block-crankcase monoblocs under a variety of different names, such as the GXV-series. They may all be externally identified by a gasket which would bisect the crankshaft on an approximately 45 angle. Exhaust valve failure is common and, owing to the mon obloc design, so labour-intensive to repair that the engine is normally discarded. Engine block, transmission case, and rear axle housing as frame members Many farm tractor designs have incorporated their engine block, transmission case, and rear axle housing as frame members. Probably the first was the Fordson tractor, but many others followed. As with many

other instances of integration of components into fewer castings, lower unit cost of production was the driver. In an internal combustion engine, the cylinder head (often informally abbreviated to just head) sits above the cylinders on top of the cylinder block. It closes in the top of the cylinder, forming the combustion chamber. This joint is sealed by a head gasket. In most engines, the head also provides space for the passages that feed air and fuel to the cylinder, and that allow the exhaust to escape. The head can also be a place to mount the valves, spark plugs, and fuel injectors. In a flathead or sidevalve engine, the mechanical parts of the valve train are all contained within the block, and the head is essentially a metal plate bolted to the top of the block; this simplification avoids the use of moving parts in the head and eases manufacture and repair, and accounts for the flathead engine's early success in production automobiles and continued success in small engines, such as lawnmowers. This design, however, requires the incoming air to flow through a convoluted path, which limits the ability of the engine to perform at higher revolutions per minute (rpm), leading to the adoption of the overhead valve (OHV) head design, and the subsequent overhead camshaft (OHC) design. Detail Internally, the cylinder head has passages called ports or tracts for the fuel/air mixture to travel to the inlet valves from the intake manifold, for exhaust gasses to travel from the exhaust valves to the exhaust manifold. In a water-cooled engine, the cylinder head also contains integral ducts and passages for the engines' coolant - usually a mixture of water and antifreeze - to facilitate the transfer of excess heat away from the head, and therefore the engine in general. In the overhead valve (OHV) design, the cylinder head contains the poppet valves and the spark plugs, along with tracts or 'ports' for the inlet and exhaust gases. The operation of the valves is initiated by the engines camshaft, which is sited within the cylinder block, and its moment of operation is transmitted to the valves pushrods, and then rocker arms mounted on a rocker shaft - the rocker arms and shaft also being located within the cylinder head.

In the OHC design, the cylinder head contains the valves, spark plugs and inlet/exhaust tracts just like the OHV engine, but the camshaft is now also contained within the cylinder head. The camshaft may be seated centrally between each offset row of inlet and exhaust valves, and still also utilizing rocker arms (but without any pushrods), or the camshaft may be seated directly above the valves eliminating the rocker arms and utilizing 'bucket' tapets. Implementation The number of cylinder heads in an engine is a function of the engine configuration. Almost all inline (straight) engines today use a single cylinder head that serves all the cylinders. A V (or Vee) engine has two cylinder heads, one for each cylinder bank of the 'V'. For a few compact 'narrow angle' V engines, such as the Volkswagen VR6, the angle between the cylinder banks is so narrow that it uses a single head spanning the two banks. A flat engine (basically a V engine, where the angle between the cylinder banks is now 180) has two heads. Most radial engines have one head for each cylinder, although this is usually of the monobloc form wherein the head is made as an integral part of the cylinder . Some engines, particularly medium- and large-capacity diesel engines built for industrial, marine, power generation, and heavy traction purposes (large trucks, locomotives, heavy equipment etc.) have individual cylinder heads for each cylinder. This reduces repair costs as a single failed head on a single cylinder can be changed instead of a larger, much more expensive unit fitting all the cylinders. Such a design also allows engine manufacturers to easily produce a 'family' of engines of different layouts and/or cylinder numbers without requiring new cylinder head designs. The design of the cylinder head is key to the per formance and efficiency of the internal combustion engine, as the shape of the combustion chamber, inlet passages and ports (and to a lesser extent the exhaust) determines a major portion of the volumetric efficiency and compression ratio of the engine.

An assembly line is a manufacturing process in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added to a product in a sequential manner using optimally planned logistics to create a finished product much

faster than with handcrafting-type methods. The assembly line developed by Ford Motor Company between 1908 and 1915 made assembly lines famous in the following decade through the social ramifications of mass production, such as the affordability of the Ford Model T and the introduction of high wages for Ford workers. Henry Ford was the first to master the assembly line and was able to improve other aspects of industry by doing so (such as reducing labor hours required to produce a single vehicle, and increased production numbers and parts). However, the various preconditions for the development at Ford stretched f ar back into the 19th century, from the gradual realization of the dream of interchangeability, to the concept of reinventing workflow and job descriptions using analytical methods (the most famous example being scientific management). Ford was the first company to build large factories around the assembly line concept. Mass production via assembly lines is widely considered to be the catalyst which initiated the modern consumer culture by making possible low unit cost for manufactured goods. It is often said that Ford's production system was ingenious because it turned Ford's own workers into new customers. Put another way, Ford innovated its way to a lower price point and by doing so turned a huge potential market into a reality. Not only did this mean that Ford enjoyed much larger demand, but the resulting larger demand also allowed further economies of scale to be exploited, further depressing unit price, which tapped yet another portion of the demand curve. This bootstrapping quality of growth made Ford famous and set an example for other industries. Assembly lines are designed for a sequential organization of workers, tools or machines, and parts. The motion of workers is minimized to the extent possible. All parts or assemblies are handled either by conveyors or motorized vehicles such as fork lifts, or gravity, with no manual trucking. Heavy lifting is done by machines such as overhead cranes or fork lifts. Each worker typically performs one simple operation. According to Henry Ford: The principles of assembly are these: (1) Place the tools and the men in the sequence of the operation so that each component part shall travel the least possible distance while in the process of finishing. (2) Use work slides or some other form of carrier so that when a workman completes his operation, he drops the part always in the same place--which place must always be the most convenient place to

his hand--and if possible have gravity carry the part to the next workman for his operation. (3) Use sliding assembling lines by which the parts to be assembled are delivered at convenient distances. [1

Specifications Of Escorts Engines Model Rated Power Rated Speed No. of Cylinder Bore Stroke Total displacement Specific Fuel Consumption Lube oil consumption Compression Ratio Aspiration Cooling System Flywheel Housing/Flywheel FIP Emission Norms Units bhp RPM mm mm cc G-15 22 1500 2 102 120 1960 G-20 28 3 91 110 2146 152 G-25 33 G-30 43 G-40 58 4 91 110 2860 150

105 120 3120 155

g/bhp/hr 160 % fuel of 0.1 17.5 :01 Natural

18.5 :01 Turbo Charge d

Water/Coolant SAE3/SAE10 MICO Bosch - Inline Pump, Mech-A1 governing CPCB Compliant

ENGINE SPECIFICATION FARMTRAC

Description No. of Cylinders Bore / Stroke Displacement Fuel Injection System Rated Speed Low Idling Speed High Idling Speed Engine HP (BHP) PTO Horse Power Drawbar H.P. Average SFC Max. Torque / Engine RPM Oil Sump Capacity

UNIT

Hero Champion
3 3 91/110 2150 In-Line 91/110 2150 In-Line

FT45 3

FT50 EPI

FT60

FT65 EPI

FT70

mm cc

rpm rpm rpm ps ps ps

2200 2200 600-650 600-650 24752475-2525 2300-2400 2300-2400 2300-2400 2450-2550 2450-2550 2525 34.0 33.4 28.69 38.0 35.3 42.0 36.38 32.5 45.0 41.1 38.3 50.0 45.3 55.0 60.0

3 3 3 3 111.8/106. 111.8/106. 106.7/106.7 7 7 111.8/117 111.8/117 2862 3140 3140 3440 3440 Rotary / In-Line Rotary In-Line In-Line In-Line 2000 2000 2000 2100 2200 600-700 600-700 600-700 600-700 600-700

48.7
40.40

49.70
44.01

29.7

40.7

g/bhp/h 182 176 kgfm / 13.68/121 rpm 13.0/1051 0 Liters 6.5 6.5

191 178.3 195 193 165 14.29/115 19.28/95 20.5/120 21.47/120 22.13/1000 3 0 0 0
6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5

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