# Code No: R05220405

Set No. 1

II B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 ANALOG COMMUNICATIONS ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the collector modulation method for generating AM wave with a neat circuit diagram and waveforms. (b) An AM ampliﬁer provides an output of 106 W at 100% modulation. The internal loss is 20 W i. What is un-modulated carrier power? ii. What is the side band power? [10+6] 2. (a) Explain the operation of Costas loop for demodulating DSB-SC waves. (b) Explain about the quadrature null eﬀect of coherent detector. [8+8] 3. A synchronous detection of SSB signal shows phase and frequency discrepancy.
N

ConsiderS(t) =
i=1

cos [(ωc t) cos(ωi t + Φi ) − sin(ωc t) sin(ωi t + Φi )]is an SSB signal.

The signal is multiplied by the locally generated carrier cosω c t and then passed through a low-pass ﬁlter. (a) Prove that the modulating signal can be completely recovered if the cut-oﬀ frequency of the ﬁlter is fN < fo < 2fc . (b) Determine the recovered signal when the multiplying signal is cos[ωc + Φ]. (c) Determine the recovered signal when the multiplying signal is cos[(ω c t+∆ω)t]. Give ∆Φ << Φi where ωc = 2Πfc , ∆ω = 2 ∆f. [16] 4. Prove that narrow band FM oﬀers no improvement in SNR over AM. [16]

5. Explain the noise performance of SSB - SC receiver and prove its S/N Ratio is unity. [16] 6. Explain the operation of SSB transmitters using phase shift Method with the help of its block diagram. [16] 7. (a) List out the consequences of choosing the IF very high or very low. (b) Present the diﬀerences between AM and FM receivers. [16]

8. (a) Deﬁne and describe pulse position modulation, and explain with waveforms how it is derived from PWM. (b) Explain clearly the generation and demodulation of PWM with the help of necessary diagram. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1 of 1

Code No: R05220405

Set No. 2

II B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 ANALOG COMMUNICATIONS ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain the collector modulation method for generating AM wave with a neat circuit diagram and waveforms. (b) An AM ampliﬁer provides an output of 106 W at 100% modulation. The internal loss is 20 W i. What is un-modulated carrier power? ii. What is the side band power? [10+6]

2. (a) Consider the DSB-SC wave s(t) = Ac cos (2 Πfc t) m(t) where Ac cos (2 Π fc t) is the carrier wave and m(t) is the message signal. The modulated wave is applied to a square law device characterized by y (t) = S 2 (t). Determine and draw the spectrum of the square-law device output y(t). (b) Explain the DSB-SC generation by balanced modulator using diodes. [8+8]

3. (a) For an arbitrary signal m(t), write SSB equation. Plot the spectrums to compare AM, DSB, USB and LSB. (b) A received signal-tone sinusoidally modulated SSB-SC signal cos (ω c + ω m )t has a normalized power of 0.5 volt2 . The signal is to be detected by carrier re-insertion technique. Find the amplitude of the carrier to be reinserted so that the power in the recovered signal at the demodulator output is 90% of the normalized power. The d.c. component can be neglected and ωc = 2Πfc and ωn = 2Πfm . [8+8] 4. (a) Explain the operation of the balanced slope detector using a circuit diagram and draw its response characteristics. Discuss in particular the method of combining the outputs of the individual diodes. In what way is this circuit an improvement on the slope detector and in turn what are the advantages? (b) Compute the bandwidth requirement for the transmission of FM signal having a frequency deviation 75 KHz and an audio bandwidth of 10KHz. [12+4] 5. Explain the noise performance of FM systems. 6. (a) What are the carrier frequency requirements of radio transmitters. (b) What is frequency scintillation? How is it avoided. [16] [16]

7. (a) With the aid of the block diagram explain TRF receiver. Also explain the basic superheterodyne principle. 1 of 2

Code No: R05220405

Set No. 2
[16]

(b) List out the advantages and disadvantages of TRF receiver. 8. (a) How is PDM wave converted into PPM system.

(b) Explain why a single channel PPM of system requires the transmission of synchronization signal, where as a single channel PAM or PDM system does not it. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R05220405

Set No. 3

II B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 ANALOG COMMUNICATIONS ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Describe the phasor representation of AM and Explain trapezoidal method of ﬁnding modulation index. (b) An AM voltage is given by s(t)=50(1+0.2cos100t+0.01cos3500t) cos106 t. State all frequency components (in Hz) present in the voltage, and ﬁnd the modulation index for each modulating voltage term. Calculate the eﬀective modulation index of s(t). [6+10] 2. (a) Consider a baseband signal m(t) with the spectrum shown in ﬁgure2. The message bandwidth is W = 1 KHz. This signal is applied to a product modulator, together with a carrier wave Ac cos ωc t, producing the DSB-SC modulated wave s(t). This wave is next applied to a coherent detector. Assuming perfect synchronism, determine and draw the spectrum of detector output when i. carrier frequency is 1.25 KHz and ii. carrier frequency is 0.75 KHz. (b) A 400 W carrier is modulated on a depth of 75 % . Calculate the total power in the modulated wave in i. AM ii. DSB-SC. [12+4]

Figure 2

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Code No: R05220405

Set No. 3

3. (a) Describe the single tone modulation of SSB. Assume both modulating and carrier signals are sinusoids. Write SSB equation and plot all the waveforms and spectrums. (b) An AM transmitter of 1KW power is fully modulated. Calculate the power transmitted if it is transmitted as SSB. [12+4] 4. (a) Deﬁne Modulation Index in FM. Discuss the spectra of NBFM and WBFM for various Modulation Indices. (b) Describe the balanced slope detection of FM demodulator. 5. Explain the noise performance of FM systems. 6. (a) Illustrate the important requirements of radio transmitters. (b) Explain the necessity of Buﬀer and driver ampliﬁers in radio transmitters.[16] 7. (a) Describe the circuit of an FET amplitude limiter, and with the aid of the transfer characteristic explain the operation of the circuit. (b) What can be done to improve the overall limiting performance of an FM receiver ? Explain the operation of the double limiter and also AGC in addition to a limier. [16] 8. (a) How is PDM wave converted into PPM system. (b) Explain why a single channel PPM of system requires the transmission of synchronization signal, where as a single channel PAM or PDM system does not it. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8] [16]

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Code No: R05220405

Set No. 4

II B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 ANALOG COMMUNICATIONS ( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics & Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Draw the one cycle of AM wave and calculate the modulation index of it in terms of Vmax and Vmin voltages. (b) A modulating signal consists of a symmetrical triangular wave having zero dc component and peak to peak voltage of 12V. It is used to amplitude modulate a carrier of peak voltage 10V. Calculate the modulation index and the ratio of the side lengths L1 /L2 of the corresponding trapezoidal pattern. (c) The rms antenna current of an AM transmitter is 10 A when un-modulated and 12 A when sinusoidally modulated. Calculate the modulation index. [6+6+4] 2. (a) Consider the wave obtained by adding a non coherent carrier Ac cos (2 Π fc t + ϕ) to DSB-SC wave m(t) cos (2 Π fc t ) where X (t) is the message waveform. This waveform is applied to an ideal envelope detector. Find the resulting detector out put. Evaluate the output for. i. ϕ = 0 and ii. ϕ = 0 and |X (t)| << Ac /2. (b) Explain the DSB-SC generation by balanced modulator using FET ampliﬁers. [8+8] 3. (a) Explain with block diagram, the frequency discrimination method of generating SSB modulated waves. (b) Consider a baseband signal m(t) containing frequency components at 100,200 and 400 Hz. This signal is applied to an SSB modulator together with a carrier at 100 KHz, with only the upper sideband retained. In the coherent detector used to recover m(t), the local oscillator supplies a sine wave of frequency 100.02 KHz. Determine the frequency components of the detector output. [8+8] 4. Explain demodulation of FM signal with the help of PLL. [16]

5. Draw DSB-SC receiver using coherent detection and evaluate its noise performance. [16] 6. (a) What are the carrier frequency requirements of radio transmitters. (b) What is frequency scintillation? How is it avoided. 7. (a) Draw the block diagram of FM receiver and explain each block. 1 of 2 [16]

Code No: R05220405

Set No. 4

(b) Will it be necessary to employ AGC in FM receivers that employ limiters. [16] 8. (a) What are the diﬀerent type of Pulse Modulations? Explain? (b) Explain the method of generation and detection of PAM signals with neat schematics. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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