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Article Materials CC:CCG in engineering MATERIALS IN ENGINEERING Materials in engineering

Science Direct (Elsevier)

The effect of coating material and geometry of cutting machinability properties of Inconel 718 super alloys Nalbant, 28

tool and cutting

speed on

5
2007 1719-1724 0261-3069 [TN: 575221] [ODYSSEY: 130.184.237. 7/ILL]

ID:
VERIFIED:

BORROWER: PATRON:
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-;;,
ELSEVIER

-,,~

ScienceDirect

Materials

& Design

Materials and Design 28 (2007) 1719-1724 www.elsevier.comllocatelma tdes

Short communication

The effect of coating material and geometry of cutting tool and cutting speed on machinability properties of Incone1 718 super alloys
Muammer Nalbant
a

a,."

Abdullah Altm

b,

Hasan Gokkaya

c

Department
b
C

of Mechanical Education, Faculty of Technical Education, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara, Turkey Van Vocational School of Higher Education, Yiiziincu Yil University, 65100 Van, Turkey Safranbolu Vocational School of Higher Education, Karaelmas University, 78600 Karabiik, Turkey

Received 21 July 2005; accepted 1 March 2006 Available online 27 April 2006

Abstract In this study, the effects of cutting tool coating material and cutting speed on cutting forces and surface roughness are investigated. For this purpose, nickel based super alloy Incone1718 is machined at dry cutting conditions with three different cemented carbide tools in CNe lathe. Metal removing process is carried out for five different cutting speeds (1 S, 30, 45, 60, 75 m/min.) while 2 rum depth of cut and 0.20 mm/rev feed rate are to be constant. Main cutting force, Fe is considered to be cutting force as a criterion. In the experiments, depending on the tool coating material, lowest main cutting force is found to be 506 N at 75 m/min with multicoated cemented carbide insert whose top layer is coated by A1203. Lowest average surface roughness (0.806 urn) is obtained at the cutting speed of IS m/min with single coated (TiN) cemented carbide inserts. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords:

Machining; CVD Coated cemented carbide inserts; Cutting force; Surface roughness; Inconel 718

1. Introduction Advanced materials, such as nickel-base and titanium alloys as well as composites are generally used at 650°C or higher temperatures at which high stresses occur and surface balancing is necessary. These materials are widely used in the areas of industrial gas turbines, space vehicles, rocket engines, nuclear reactors, submarines, stream production places, petrochemical devices, hot tools and glass ind us tries [1,2]. These advanced materials, called "Super Alloys", are designed for high temperature applications and at the same time maintain very high strength to weight ratios. Generally known that nickel-base super alloys are one of the most difficult materials to machine [3,4]. Surface processes carried out by using different manufacturing methods are directly or indirectly affected by
• Corresponding author. Tel.: +90 312 212 39 52; fax: +90 312 22 00 59. E-mail address:naJbant@gazi.edu.tr (M. Nalbant), 0261-3069/$ - see front matter © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All righ IS reserved. doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2006.03.003

machining parameters. Poor selection of machining parameters causes cutting tools to wear and break quickly as well as economical losses such as damaged work-piece and poor surface quality [5J. Cutting speed and tool geometry are the most important parameters from the point of view of the effect of machinability properties [6,7]. Inconel 718 is machined by using cemented carbide inserts at lower speeds while it is machined by using ceramic cutting tools at higher speeds [1,8J. Cutting tool geometry and chip formation have an important effect on cutting forces. Greater negative rake angle increases tool-chip contact area causing friction force between tool--chip interface and cutting forces to increase [9,10]. In this paper, Inconel 718 is machined using quadruple (top layer is TiN), triple (top layer is Al203) and single (TiN) coated cemented carbide inserts by means of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at five different cutting speeds and at constant feed rate and depth of cut. The effects of coating (layer) number and cutting speed on cutting forces and on arithmetic average surface roughness

1720

M. Nalbant et al. I Materials

and Design 28 (2007) 1719-1724 and SRDC N 2525 M 12 type tool holder 90° approaching angle. SCMT 120412 and RCMT 120400 cutting tools have 0° rake angle and T clearance angle. Full factorial design was applied in the experimental study.

(Ra) are investigated for the cutting tools having same

layer.
2. Materials and method 2.1. Experiment specimens
of Inconel 0.08.% Si, 17.80'},0 Fe of Inconel

2.3. Machine tool and measurement roughness

of cutting forces and surface

For the experimental study, 050 x 500 mm test specimens 718 having special usage in industry (0.040% C, 0.0.8% Mn, 0.98% Ti, 0.50% Al, 0.23'}'0 Co, 3.04% Mo, 5.43'}'0 Nb + Ta, 19.00% Cr ve 52.82% Ni) are used. Mechanical properties 718 are given in Table 1.

2.2. Cutting parameters,

cutting tools and tool holder

Five different cutting speeds are chosen as 15, 30,45,60 and 75 m/min according to ISO 3685 and as recommended. by manufacturing companies for cutting tool qualities. Feed rate of 0.20 nun/rev and cutting depth of 2 nun are used as recommended by ISO 3685. In this study, whose purpose is to investigate the effects of coating material on main cutting force and on surface roughness taking into account the cutting speed; TiN and AI203 coated cemented carbide inserts having two different geometries are used. Technical specifications of cutting tools are given in Table 2. SRDC N 2525 M 12 and CSRN R 2525 MI2-MX7 type tool holders are used for RCMT 120400 and SCMT 120412 type cutting tools, respectively. CSRN R 2525 MI2-MX7 type tool holder 75° approaching angle

JOHNFORD T35 industrial type CNC lathe max. power of which is 10 kW and has revolution number between 50 and 3500 rev/min is used. During dry cutting process, Kistler brand 9257 B-type three-component piezoelectric dynamometer under tool holder with the appropriate load amplifier is used for measuring three orthogonal cutting forces (Fe, Fr, Fp). And data acquisition software was used. This allows direct and continuous recording and simultaneous graphical visualization of the three orthogonal cutting forces. Technical properties of the dynamometer and schematically figure of experimental setup are given in Table 3 and Fig. I, respectively. Surtrasonic 3-P measuring equipment is used for the measurement of surface roughness. Measurement processes are carried out with three replications. For measuring surface roughness on work-piece during machining, cut-off and sampling length are considered as 0.8 and 2.5 mm, respectively. Ambient temperature is 20 ± 1°C.

Table 3 Technical

properties

of dynamometer

[11] -5 ... 10 kN <0.01 N ~7.5pC/N ~3.5pC/N 3.5 kHz 0... 70 "C 220 pF >1013.0

Table I Selected mechanical Hardness (HB) 388

properties

of test specimens Yield strength (MPa) 1170 Breaking extensionvs (5do) 23.3 Thermal conductivity (W/mK) 11.4

Tensile strength (MPa) 1370

Accuracy F" F" F, Natural frequency fo(x.,y,z) Working temperature Capacitance Insulation resistance at 20 Grounding insulation Weight

Force interval (Fx, Fy, Fz) Reaction

Q

>1080.
7.3 kg

Table 2 Properties Coating TiN Ah03 TiN

of cutting material

tools Coating method and layers ISO grade of material P25-40, M20-30 P20-40, M20-35 K05"20, M 10-25 (grade) Geometric form Manufacturer and code

(top layer)

CVD (TiN, A1203, TiCN, TiN, We) CVD (Ah03, TiC, TiCN, We) CVD (TiN, We)

SCMT 120412 SCMT 120412 MF RCMT 120400

Kennemetal KC 9225 Kennemetal KC 935 SECO 560 45 FI

Printer

y component

Z

~~-L

~

c

component Lathe
Fig. I. Measurement of cutting

Charge amplifier forces and schematically

U- V recorder
figure of dynamometer unit.

M. Nalbant etal. J Materials and Design 28 (2007) 1719-1724

1721

2.4. Statistical

analyze

1400T------;:::=====::;==~--1 F=1247.S·1.S66Y R2=0-.7S31

I

Multiple variance analyze and linear regression analysis were applied to the experimental data by using ]MP 5.0 statistical software for determination of the effects of coating material, layer number, geometry and cutting speed on the main cutting force and on the surface roughness, Tukey-Kramer HSD test was applied for determining the degree of difference among the data.

1200 z

.tl 'S s»
.c

i'.l1000

.--......

~--~ a.,
g --~

......

I F=1338.2·8.2S3Y R2=0.831 I
... - ........... 'P', .... .,.
"_ ..

.~

'"
"

800

3. Results and discussion 3.1. The change of main cutting force depending on cutting speed and coating material of cutting tool

2:

600

IF=1432.3-11.806V
10
20

-~1:1

400

30

40

50

60

70

80

Cutting speed, mlmin

After prepared test specimens were cut for experimental purposes, they were measured with a three-component piezoelectric dynamometer to obtain the main cutting force. The results of analysis of variance of the models supported strong linear relationship in the models (Table 4). R2 of the model was 0.801. The Fvalues were 4.83 and 4.95 for cutting speed and cemented carbide insert, respectively. These F values indicated significance for model in rejecting the null hypothesis (Ho) that there is no effect or equal to zero for cutting speed and materials of cemented carbide insert on the main cutting force (P < 0.05). Next, a linear regression analysis was completed on the data. A single cutting parameter, cutting speed was used to develop a regression model. The regression analysis was done using main cutting force as dependent variable and cutting speed as the predictor variable for each cemented carbide inserts. Results of the regression analysis are shown in Fig. 2. In addition to data and plot, linear regression equations and coefficient of determination (R2) are also shown in Fig. 2. The scatter plot between main cutting force and cutting speed as shown in Fig. 2 indicated that there is a linear relationship between main cutting force and cutting speed. Results of Fig. 2 show that main cutting force decreases with increasing in cutting speed. Mean main cutting force values are found to be 808, 931, 982, 1074 and 1277 N at the cutting speeds of 75, 60, 45, 30 and 15m/min, respectively. Cutting speed has to be increased for decreasing cutting force [12-14]. High temperature at flow region and decreasing contact area and chip thickness cause cutting force to decrease depending on cutting speed. Material properties, working conditions and cutting speed affect cutting force decrement [9,10], As a result of experimental

-AIP3(ML) --TiN

SCMT120412

- - - - TiN (ML) seMT 120412 (SL) RCMT120400

Fig. 2. Effect of cutting speed on main cutting force of 2 mm depth of cut and 0.20 nun/rev federate for using each of cemented carbide inserts.

data, main cutting force decrement by 63% with increasing cutting speed by 400% is observed at low cutting speeds (I5 m/min). Box plot of main cutting force values depending on coating layer number, tool material and tool geometry is given in Fig. 3. Average main cutting force value determined with TiN coated RCMT 120400 type tool is found to be 1173 N greater than that with multiple coated cutting tools. Minimum cutting force values are found to be 901 and 967 N with multiple coated SCMT 120412 (upper layer is A1203) and TiN coated SCMT 120412 type tools, respectively. Main cutting forces decrease by 17.5% (967 N) with multiple TiN coated tools and decrease by 23'% (901 N) with multiple Al203 coated tools comparing the cutting force 1173 N with those of TiN and Ah03 coated tools. It is considered that main cutting force with single TiN coated RCMT 120400 type cemented carbide tool can be grater than that of multiple coated Ah03 and TiN SCMT 120412 type depending on coating layer number, coating material and length of cutting edge [7,9,10]. However, there is no statistical difference for average main cutting force among them.
3.2. The change of average surface roughness depending on cutting speed and cutting tool coating material

Table 4 Variance Source

analysis for' main cutting DF 4 2 7 13

forces Mean square 95142.26 97549.74 19696.4

Sum of squares 380569.03 195099.47 137874.53 693633.43

FRatio
4.83 4.95

Prob 0.034 0.045

Cutting speed Cemented carbide insert Error C. Total

The results of analysis of variance for the surface roughness supported strong linear relationship in the models (Table 5). R2 of the model was 0.965. The F values were 7.857 and 91.259 for cutting speed and cemented carbide insert, respectively. These F values indicated significance for model in rejecting the null hypothesis (Ho) that there is no effect or equal to zero for cutting speed and materials of cemented carbide insert on the surface roughness. Therefore, it can be said cutting speed and cutting tool (cemented carbide insert) have important effect on the average surface roughness.

1722

M. Nalbant et al. I Materials

and Design 28 (2007) 1719-1724

1200 z ~1000
co

.e
c

~ 800 o
·iii ::0

600 400~-----------,------------,-----------~--------~
AIP3 (ML) SCMT 120412 TiN (ML) SCMT 120412 TiN (SL) RCMT 120400 All Pairs

cemented carburinsert

T~key-Kramer 0.05

Fig. 3. Main cutting force values related

to tool type by using cemented

carbide inserts.

Table 5 Variance Source

(R2) are also shown in Fig. 4. The scatter plot between suranalysis for average surface roughness DF 4 2 7 13 Sum of squares 0.471 2.737 0.105 3.067 Mean square 0 ..118 1.368 0.015 F ratio 7.857 91.259 Prob>F 0.010 <0.001

Cutting speed Cemented carbide insert Errol" C. Total

Determined average surface roughness values according to cutting speeds are given in Fig. 4. Next, a linear regression analysis was completed on the data. The regression analysis was done using surface roughness as dependent variable and cutting speed as the predictor variable for each cemented carbide inserts. Results of the regression analysis are shown in Fig. 4. In addition to data, fitted line, linear regression equations and coefficient of determination

E ~1.75
C<: ",-

21.========;;:::::=~-----a---::-:7~

I Ra=1 A85+0005V
1:1

~ 1.5

-€.
OJ

~..:~r-j
1:1

Ra=1 .118+0.012V

'" 1.25 e
o

~

., '" .,

~
.l(

Ii; 0.75

+

0.5-t---,---,.---,---.,.---,....---r--[ 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
CuHing speed, mknin
-AI203(ML) -TiN (Sl) SCMT 120412 RCMT 120400

-

- - _. TiN (ML) SCMT 120412

+

80

Fig. 4. Effect of cutting speed on average Surface roughness at 2 mm depth of cut and 0.20 nun/rev federate using cemented carbide inserts.

face roughness and cutting speed as shown in Fig. 4 indicated that there is a linear relationship between surface roughness and cutting speed. The results of Fig. 4 show that average surface roughness increases with increasing cutting speed. Increasing the cutting speed from 15 to 75 m/min by 400% average surface roughness increases by 27.5'%. Average surface roughness values are found to be 1.27, 1.34, 1.38, 1.50 and 1.62 urn at the cutting speeds of 15, 45, 30, 60 and 75 m/min, respectively. As widely known, cutting speed must be increased to improve average surface roughness [12,14,15]. Maximum average surface roughness is firstly observed with multiple Al203 coated SCMT 120412 type cutting tools considering coating layer number, coating material and tool geometry. Subsequently, multiple TiN coated SCMT 120412 type-cutting tools take second place as maximum surface roughness. Minimum average surface roughness is determined with single TiN coated cemented carbide RCMT 120400 type cutting tools. Average surface roughness values according to coating layer number, coating material and tool geometry are given in Fig. 5. Average surface roughness values, which are determined with multiple coated A1203 and TiN SCMT 120412 type tool, are found to be greater than that of single TiN coated RCMT 120400 type cutting tools. Minimum average surface roughness values are recorded as 0.762 urn with single TiN coated RCMT 120400 type inserts and as l.652 urn with multicoated TiN SCMT 120412 type inserts. Maximum average surface roughness values are found to be 1.734 urn with multicoated Ah03 SCMT 120412 type cemented carbide inserts. Average surface roughness increases by 0.047% from 1.734 urn by using multicoated Ah03 SCMT 120412 inserts to 1.652 urn by using multicoated TiN SCMT 120412 inserts. In the Tukey-Kramer test, it was seen that there is no statistical difference related to cutting parameters between multicoated cutting tools affecting average surface roughness (Table 6). But there is a difference between multilayer and single coated cemented carbide inserts. Surface roughness decreases by 56% to

M Nalbant etal. J Materials and Design 28 (2007) 1719-1724

1723

~ ,,;175

'" "
~
'I>

~ 1:5 c: -§, ~ 1.25

"
g

~

~ 0.75

AI203(ML)

SCMT 120412

TiN (ML) SCMT 120412

TiN (SL) RCMT 12040 All Pai,s
Tukey-Kr,mer

cemeotec carbur imer!

005

Fig. 5. Average surface roughness values related to tool geometry by using cemented carbide inserts which have three different coating layer numbers and two different geometries.

Table 6 Comparisons for all pairs using Tukcy-Kramcr HSD of average surface roughness Level Al203 (ML) SCMT 120412 A TiN (ML) SCMT 120412 A TiN (SL) RCMT 120400 B Mean
1.734

1.652 0.762

q = 2.7008 (;(= 0.05. Levels not connected by same letter are significantly different,

~

2

J:_-1.75

., .,
2!
<:J

.
1

Th

1.5

0
AIIP(lIrS 0.05

when single TiN coated RCMT 120400 type inserts are used. Average surface roughness value with single TiN coated RCMT 120400 type inserts is found to be better than that of multicoated (AI203,TiN) SCMT 120412 cemented carbide inserts. It is noted that in the above result there is share of tool nose radius. It is appeared that there is a difference the effect of tool nose radius on the surface roughness (Fig. 6 and Table 7). It was examined a new approach for the correlation between main cutting force and average surface roughness in turning of Inconel 718 super alloys. It was found that there is a negative correlation (Fig. 7). Correlation coefficient was -0.674 (P < 0.008).
0.762
~L1n

" 1.25 e .,
g' 0.75
0.5

~ ~ .,
:;; >«

Q
a
1.2
tool nose radius, mm

C

Table 7 Comparisons for all pairs using Tukey-Kramer Level 1.2 A o (round) B
q = 2.178 different.
OC

[-ISD of tool nose radius

Mean
1.693 0.762 = 0.05. Levels not connected by same letter are significantly

Tukev-Kramer

Fig. 6. Average surface roughness values related to tool nose radius by using cemented carbide inserts.

1400 .; 1200 z

2~~----~--------~---.

t!8'

.E

1000 800 600

"'c 1.75 "' ~ ga 1.5
2

~
.~

::e "

.: ~ " ~
-4:

s

\
1400

1.25

~ 0.75

.75 Average

1.25

1 .5

1.75
I

2

600

800

1000

1200

surface roughness

Ra.lJm

Main cutting force. N

Fig. 7. Correlation between main cutting force and average surface ro ughness.

1724

M. Nalbant et al. I Materials

and Design 28 (2007) 1719-1724

4. Conclusions The goal of this study was to identify significant effect of different coated cemented carbide tool and cutting speed on the main cutting force and surface roughness. The experimental design described herein was used to develop a main cutting force and surface roughness prediction model for turning operation. Results of this experimental study can be summarized as follows: • There is an increment-decrement relationship between cutting speed and main cutting force. • Minimum main cutting force is obtained with SCMT 120412 type multicoated Ah03 carbide tools while maximum main cutting force is obtained with RCMT 120400 type single coated TiN carbide tools. But cutting tools (cemented carbide inserts) have no different effect on the main cutting force in machining of Inconel 718. • An increasing relation between cutting speed and arithmetic average surface roughness as well as between coating number and average surface roughness is observed. • In the case of coated tools, the effect of cutting speed on surface roughness is much more pronounced than the effect of different cemented carbide inserts. • Minimum average surface roughness is determined with single layer (TiN) coated cemented carbide tools while maximum average surface roughness is observed with multicoated Ah03 tools. • Single layer and multiple layer coated tools have sign ificantly different effect on the average surface roughness. • Insert geometries (round and radius) seem to have a significant effect on the surface roughness. Round insert was the best, in terms of surface roughness.

• It was found that there is a negative correlation in between main cutting force and average surface roughness.

References
[I] Ezugwu EO, Wanga ZM, Machadop AR. The machinability of nickel- based alloys: a review. J Mater Process TechnolI998;86(l-3): 1-16. [2] Chouldhury lA, El-Baradie MA. Machinability assessment of nickel based alloys: tool life in turning Inconel 718. In: Proceedings of the sixth Cario University international MDP conference, Cario, Egypt; 1996. p. 233-40. [3] Sims CT. In: Sixth Plan see Seminar Book; 1968. [41 Gessinger GB. Powder Metallurgy of Super alloys. Londou: Butterworths; 1984. [5] Thomas TR. Rough surface. New York: Longman; 1982. [6] Ozcatalbas Y. The effects of tool wear and mechanical properties of workpiece material on surface Toughness and cutting forces. G.D. J Poly tech 2002;4(Special issue):47-52. [71 Whitney ED. Ceramic cutting tools. New Jersey: Noyes Publications; 1994. [8] Gatto A, Iuliano L. Advanced coated ceramic tools for machining superalloys. Int J Mach Tools Manufact 1997;37(5):591-605. [9] Calm C. Modern metal cutting principles. Vipas, Bursa; 2000. [10] Sandvik. Modern metal Gutting practical Handbook, Sandvik; 1994. [II] Kistler. Practical handbook, Kistler; 2004. [121 Trent EM. Metal cutting. 2nd ed. London: Butterworths; 1984, ISBN 0408-10856-8. [13] Boothroyd G. Fundamentals of metal machining and machine tools. International Student ed. 5th Printing. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1981, ISBN 0·07-085057-7. [l4] Paul Degarmo E, Black JT, Ronaldo AKohser. Material and process in manufacturing. Englewood Cliffs (NJ): Prentice-Hall International Inc.; 1997. [15] Shaw MC. Metal cutting principles. London: Oxford University Press; 1984, ISBN 0-19-8590024.

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