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EE4101

Antenna Arrays

1 Introduction Antenna arrays are becoming increasingly important in wireless communications. Advantages of using antenna arrays: 1. They can provide the capability of a steerable beam (radiation direction change) as in smart antennas. 2. They can provide a high gain (array gain) by using simple antenna elements. 3. They provide a diversity gain in multipath signal reception. 4. They enable array signal processing.

Hon Tat Hui

1

Antenna Arrays

NUS/ECE

EE4101

An important characteristic of an array is the change of its radiation pattern in response to different excitations of its antenna elements. Unlike a single antenna whose radiation pattern is fixed, an antenna array’s radiation pattern, called the array pattern, can be changed upon exciting its elements with different currents (both current magnitudes and current phases). This gives us a freedom to choose (or design) a certain desired array pattern from an array, without changing its physical dimensions. Furthermore, by manipulating the received signals from the individual antenna elements in different ways, we can achieve many signal processing functions such as spatial filtering, interference suppression, gain enhancement, target tracking, etc.

Hon Tat Hui

2

Antenna Arrays

NUS/ECE

EE4101

**2 Two Element Arrays
**

z

Far field observation point

θ

Dipole 2

r1

I 2 = Ie jβ

d

θ

I1 = I

r

r1 = r − d cos θ , 0 ≤ θ ≤ π

Dipole 1

x

Two Hertzian dipoles of length dℓ separated by a distance d and excited by currents with an equal amplitude I but a phase difference β [0 ~ 2π).

Hon Tat Hui

3

Antenna Arrays

NUS/ECE

EE4101

ˆ E1 = far-zone electric field produced by antenna 1 = aθ E1 ˆ E2 = far-zone electric field produced by antenna 2 = aθ E2

**η kI1d ⎛ e− jkr ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ η kd ⎛ e − jkr ⎞ E1 = j ⎜ r ⎟ sin ⎜ θ + 2 ⎟ = j 4π ⎜ r ⎟ cos θ I1 4π ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ e − jkr ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ e − jkr ⎞ η kI 2 d π⎞ η kd E2 = j ⎜ r ⎟ sin ⎜ θ + 2 ⎟ = j 4π ⎜ r ⎟ cos θ I 2 4π ⎝ 1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎠
**

1 1

Use the following far-field approximations:

0≤θ≤π

1 1 ≈ r1 r e − jkr1 = e − jk ( r −d cosθ )

Hon Tat Hui

4

Antenna Arrays

NUS/ECE EE4101 The total E field is: E = ( E1 + E2 ) aθ ˆ η kd ⎛ e− jkr ⎞ ⎡ ⎤ = aθ j cos θ ⎣ I1 + I 2e jkd cosθ ⎦ ˆ ⎜ r ⎟ 4π ⎝ ⎠ η kI1d ⎛ e− jkr ⎞ = aθ j cos θ ⎡1 + e jβ e jkd cosθ ⎤ ˆ ⎣ ⎦ 4π ⎜ r ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ η kId ⎛ e− jkr ⎞ = aθ j ˆ ⎜ r ⎟ cos θ AF 4π ⎝ ⎠ where Hon Tat Hui 5 Antenna Arrays .

NUS/ECE EE4101 AF = Array Factor = ⎡1 + e jβ e jkd cosθ ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 + e e ⎣ jβ jkd cos θ ⎤ = 2e ⎦ j 1 ( β + kd cos θ ) 2 ⎡ 1 β + kd cosθ ⎤ cos ⎢ ( )⎥ ⎣2 ⎦ = 1 I1 + I 2e jkd cosθ I1 The magnitude of the total E field is: [ ] η kId ⎛ e− jkr ⎞ E = aθ j ˆ ⎜ r ⎟ cos θ AF 4π ⎝ ⎠ = radiation pattern of a single Hertzian dipole × AF 6 Hon Tat Hui Antenna Arrays .

Antenna Arrays Hon Tat Hui . When we plot the array pattern.NUS/ECE EE4101 Hence we see the total far-field radiation pattern |E| of the array (array pattern) consists of the original radiation pattern of a single Hertzian dipole multiplying with the magnitude of the array factor |AF|. we usually use the normalized array factor which is: 1 1 ⎡ 1 β + kd cosθ ⎤ AFn = AF = 2cos ⎢ ( )⎥ Γ Γ ⎣2 ⎦ 7 where Γ is a constant to make the maximum value of |AFn| equal to one. This is a general property of antenna arrays and is called the principle of pattern multiplication.

and d = λ/4) 1 ⎡ 1 β + kd cosθ ⎤ = 1 2cos ⎡ 1 ⎛ π cosθ ⎞ ⎤ AFn = 2cos ⎢ ( )⎥ ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎢2⎝ 2 Γ ⎣2 ⎦ Γ ⎠⎦ ⎣ Hon Tat Hui 8 Antenna Arrays .NUS/ECE EE4101 Examples of array patterns using pattern multiplication: Array pattern of a two-element array of Hertzian dipoles (β = 0°.

and d = λ/4) 1 ⎡ 1 β + kd cosθ ⎤ = 1 2cos ⎡ 1 ⎛ − π + π cosθ ⎞ ⎤ AFn = 2cos ⎢ ( )⎥ ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎢2⎝ 2 2 Γ ⎣2 ⎦ Γ ⎠⎦ ⎣ Hon Tat Hui 9 Antenna Arrays .NUS/ECE EE4101 Array pattern of a two-element array of Hertzian dipoles (β = -90°.

Then in this case. as shown in the example below: × = Element pattern Hon Tat Hui × |F(φ)| Array factor |A(φ)| = Array pattern (normalized) 10 Antenna Arrays . for example the φ-plane pattern of a Hertzian dipole or a half-wave dipole.NUS/ECE EE4101 In many practical arrays. the array radiation pattern will be totally determined by the array factor AF alone. the element radiation pattern is usually chosen to be non-directional.

NUS/ECE EE4101 3 N-Element Uniform Liner Arrays (ULAs) Far field observation point r Dipoles are parallel to the z direction y φ Dipole 1 d rN-1 x Dipole N An N-element uniform antenna array with an element separation d Hon Tat Hui 11 Antenna Arrays .

the array factor for this array is: AF = 1 + e j ( kd cos φ + β ) + e j 2( kd cos φ + β ) + + e j ( N −1)( kd cos φ + β ) ⎛ Nψ ⎞ sin ⎜ ⎟ j( N −1)ψ N ⎝ 2 ⎠e 2 = ∑ e j ( n−1)ψ = ⎛ψ ⎞ n =1 sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ where ψ = kd cos φ + β and 0 ≤ φ . β ≤ 2π Hon Tat Hui 12 Antenna Arrays .NUS/ECE EE4101 The principle of pattern multiplication can be extended to N-element arrays with identical antenna elements and equal inter-element separation (ULAs). If the excitation currents have the same amplitude but the phase difference between adjacent elements is β (the progressive phase difference).

Note that |AFn| is a period function of Ψ. The relation between |AFn|. Hon Tat Hui 13 Antenna Arrays . which is in turn a function of φ. The angle φ is in the real space and its range is 0 to 2π.NUS/ECE EE4101 The normalized array factor is: ⎛ Nψ ⎞ sin ⎜ ⎟ 1 ⎝ 2⎠ AFn (ψ ) = Γ sin ⎛ψ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ where Γ is a constant to make the largest value of |AFn| equal to one. However. and β is shown graphically on next page. leading to the problem of grating lobes or not achieving the maximum values of the |AFn| expression. d. Ψ is not in the real space and its range can be greater than or smaller than 0 to 2π. Ψ.

d. and β Hon Tat Hui 14 Antenna Arrays .Ψ.NUS/ECE EE4101 |AFn(Ψ )| Ψ = kd cosφ +β kd β φ kdcosφ The relation between AFn.

|AFn| is symmetric about the line of the array. |AFn| is a periodic function of ψ. φ = 0 & π.NUS/ECE EE4101 Properties of the normalized array factor AFn: 1. with a period of 2π. Hence it is enough to know |AFn| for 0 ≤ φ ≤ π. 2.. 3.e.2. 2 2 −1 ⎡ λ (− β ± 2mπ ) ⎤ ⇒ φmax = main beam directions = cos ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 2π d ⎦ Hon Tat Hui 15 Antenna Arrays . m = 0. The maximum values of |AFn| occur when (see Supplementary Notes): ψ 1 = (kd cos φ + β ) = ± mπ . As cos(φ) = cos(-φ). i. This is because |AFn(ψ + 2π)| = |AFn(ψ)|.1.

NUS/ECE EE4101 Note that there may be more than one angles φmax corresponding to the same value of m because cos-1(x) is a multi-value function. The condition for grating lobes to occur is that d ≥ λ (disregarding the value of β) as shown below: 2nd grating lobe 1st grating lobe Main lobe 1st grating lobe 2nd grating lobe Hon Tat Hui 16 Antenna Arrays . the second and the subsequent maximum angles give rise to the phenomenon of grating lobes. If there are more than one maximum angles φmax.

5λ.5 λ. i.β ≤ 0 17 Antenna Arrays .. If β is taken into account.NUS/ECE EE4101 2nd grating lobe 1st grating lobe Main lobe |AFn(Ψ )| 1st grating lobe 2nd grating lobe Ψ When β = 0. no grating lobe can be formed for whatever value of β.2π] and d:[0. grating lobes are formed when kd ≥ 2π. For π ≤ β < 2π: kd . Hon Tat Hui Visible region kd φ ψ=kdcosφ General conditions to avoid grating lobes with β:[0. the smallest value of d to form a grating lobe is 0. d ≥ λ. If d < 0.For 0 ≤ β < π: kd + β ≤ 2π 2.λ]: 1.e.

NUS/ECE EE4101 4. the maximum values of |AFn| cannot be determined by the formula in no. They are functions of β and d only. 3 above. 6. In that case.2 N . 3. The main beam directions φmax are not related to N. ⎨ N 2 ⎩n ≠ N .3 N . 5.2. 7. =± .3. There are other angles corresponding to the maximum values for the minor lobes (minor beams) but these angles cannot be found from the formula in no. The nulls of |AFn| occur when: nπ ψ ⎧n = 1. When β and d are fixed. 2n ⎤ −1 ⎡ λ ⇒ φnull = null directions = cos ⎢ (− β ± π ) ⎥ N ⎦ ⎣ 2π d Hon Tat Hui 18 Antenna Arrays . it is possible that ψ can never be equal to 2mπ.

Hon Tat Hui 19 Antenna Arrays . 9. 10.NUS/ECE EE4101 Note that there may be more than one angles φnull corresponding to a single value of n because cos-1(x) is a multi-value function. The larger the number N. This means a narrower main beam and an increase in the directivity or gain of the array. 8.The angle for the main beam direction (m = 0) can be controlled by varying β or d. the closer is the first null (n = 1) to the first maximum (m = 0). The null directions φnull are dependent on N.

Solutions d = λ/4. θmax = 60°. N = 10 main beam dirction = φmax ⇒ ⇒ Hon Tat Hui ⎡ − λ β ± m2π ⎤ = 60° = cos ⎢ ( )⎥ ⎣ 2π d ⎦ −1 − 2 π ( β ± m2π ) = cos ( 60° ) = 0.5 π 4 when m = 1 Antenna Arrays β = − ∓ m2π = −45° + 360° = 315°. Find the excitation current phase difference β such that the main beam direction is at 60° (φmax = 60°).NUS/ECE EE4101 Example 1 A uniform linear array consists of 10 half-wave dipoles with an inter-element separation d = λ/4 and equal current amplitude. 20 .

⎡ ⎛π ⎞⎤ sin ⎢5 ⎜ cos φ + β ⎟ ⎥ 1 ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎝2 AFn = Γ ⎡1 ⎛ π ⎞⎤ sin ⎢ ⎜ cos φ + β ⎟ ⎥ ⎠⎦ ⎣2⎝ 2 Γ = 10 Hon Tat Hui 21 Antenna Arrays .NUS/ECE EE4101 Other values of β corresponding to other values of m are outside the range of 0 ≤ β ≤ 2π and are not included.

Hon Tat Hui 22 Antenna Arrays . This interaction is called mutual coupling effect and it will distort the array characteristics. We characterize the mutual coupling effect using the mutual impedance. We study an example of a two-element dipole array. antennas placed in close proximity to each other interact strongly. We need to consider the mutual coupling effect in order to apply the pattern multiplication principle. In reality. from those predicted based on the pattern multiplication principle. such as the array pattern.NUS/ECE EE4101 4 Mutual Coupling in Transmitting Antenna Array What we studies before about antenna arrays has assumed that the antenna elements operate independently.

When the mutual coupling effect is taken into account. Hence if there is no mutual coupling effect. there is another excitation source (the controlled voltage source) in the equivalent circuit.NUS/ECE EE4101 Consider two transmitting antennas as shown on next page. have a phase difference of β but an equal magnitude. Hon Tat Hui 23 Antenna Arrays . Vs1 and Vs2. This controlled voltage source is to model the coupled voltage from the other antenna. They are separated by a distance of d and the excitation voltages sources. the excitation currents also differ by a phase difference of β and have an equal magnitude. Now because of the mutual coupling effect. the two coupled antennas can be modelled as two equivalent circuits.

r φ Dipole 1 x d Dipole 2 Two coupled dipoles Hon Tat Hui 24 Antenna Arrays .NUS/ECE EE4101 Dipoles are parallel to the z direction y Far field observation point.

NUS/ECE EE4101 Antenna #1 Antenna #2 Vs1 Terminal current Excitation voltage source I1 ± Zg1 a b Vs2 ± Zg2 d I2 c d I1 a ± Coupled voltage I2 c Vs2 ± ± Vs1 ± Zg1 Source b internal Impedance (Zg1 = Zg2 = ZL) Hon Tat Hui V12 Z11 Antenna input impedance ≈ ZA V21 Z11 Zg2 d 25 Antenna Arrays .

NUS/ECE EE4101 Z12 = mutual impedance with antenna #2 excited Voc1 = I 2 I1 =0.Vs1 =0 open-circuit voltage at antenna #1 V12 = = I2 I2 I2 Voc1 ± a b ± c d Hon Tat Hui 26 Antenna Arrays .

Z12 = Z 21 Hon Tat Hui 27 Antenna Arrays .NUS/ECE EE4101 Z 21 = mutual impedance with antenna #1 excited Voc 2 = I1 I 2 =0.Vs 2 =0 open-circuit voltage at antenna #2 V21 = = I1 I1 I1 ± a b Voc2 ± c d Note that for passive antennas.

Vs1 − V12 I1 = ZL + Z A Hon Tat Hui Vs 2 − V21 I2 = ZL + Z A 28 Antenna Arrays . the coupled voltages V12 and V21 can be expressed as follows: V12 = Z12 I 2 V21 = Z21I1 I1 and I2 are the actual terminal currents at the antennas when there is mutual coupling effect. From the antenna equivalent circuits on pp. 25.NUS/ECE EE4101 Using the mutual impedance.

Vs1 − V12 I1 = ZL + Z A I 2 Z12 = I s1 − ZL + Z A Hon Tat Hui Vs 2 − V21 I2 = ZL + Z A I1Z 21 = Is2 − ZL + Z A 29 Antenna Arrays . Vs1 I s1 = ZL + Z A Vs 2 Is2 = ZL + Z A Our aim is to express I1 and I2 in terms of Is1 and Is2.NUS/ECE EE4101 Is1 and Is2 are the terminal currents at the antennas when there is no mutual coupling effect.

NUS/ECE EE4101 From these two relations. we can find: Z12 I s1 − Is2 Z A + ZL I1 = ⎡ Z12 Z 21 ⎤ ⎢1 − 2⎥ ⎣ ( Z A + ZL ) ⎦ That is: Z 21 Is2 − I s1 Z A + ZL I2 = ⎡ Z12 Z 21 ⎤ ⎢1 − 2⎥ ⎣ ( Z A + ZL ) ⎦ 1 ′ I1 = ( I s1 − Z12 I s 2 ) D Hon Tat Hui 1 ′ I 2 = ( I s 2 − Z 21I s1 ) D 30 Antenna Arrays .

then E is just equal to the array factor (see pages 10 and 6). not I1 ⎣ absolute value Hon Tat Hui 31 Antenna Arrays . 1 Vector E =AF = ⎡ I1 + I 2e jkd cos φ ⎤ ⎦ magnitude.NUS/ECE EE4101 where Z12 Z 21 D = 1− 2 ( Z A + ZL ) Z12 ′ Z12 = Z A + ZL Z 21 ′ Z 21 = Z A + ZL Now if we want to find the array pattern E on the horizontal plane (θ=π/2) with mutual coupling effect.

NUS/ECE EE4101 1 E = ⎡ I1 + I 2e jkd cos φ ⎤ ⎦ I1 ⎣ 1 ′ ′ ⎡( I s1 − Z12 I s 2 ) + ( I s 2 − Z 21I s1 ) e jkd cos φ ⎤ = ⎣ ⎦ I1D 1 ′ ⎡( I s1 + I s 2e jkd cos φ ) − Z12 ( I s 2 + I s1e jkd cos φ ) ⎤ = ⎣ ⎦ I1D ′ ′ ( with Z12 = Z 21 ) ⎛ I s1 Is2 j β jkd cos φ jβ jkd cos φ jβ ⎞ ′ ⎡(1 + e e = ) − Z12 ( e + e )⎤ ⎜ with I = e ⎟ ⎣ ⎦ I1D ⎝ ⎠ s1 I s1 ⎡1 + e j( kd cos φ + β ) ⎤ − Z12e jβ ⎡1 + e j( kd cos φ − β ) ⎤ ′ = ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ I1D { } original pattern additional pattern Hon Tat Hui 32 Antenna Arrays .

Note that all parameters in the above formula can be calculated except I1 which will be removed after normalization. Hon Tat Hui 33 Antenna Arrays . Normalization of the above formula can only be done when its maximum value is known. for example by numerical calculation.NUS/ECE EE4101 We see that the array pattern now consists of two parts: the original array pattern plus an additional pattern: ′ Z12e jβ ⎡1 + e j( kd cos φ − β ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ which has a reverse current phase -β and a modified amplitude with a multiplication of a complex number Z’12ejβ.

I s 2 = e jβ .3 Ω Z L = 50 Ω I s1 Hon Tat Hui I s2 34 Antenna Arrays . =λ 4 d Z12 = Z 21 = 21.NUS/ECE EE4101 Absolute value Example 2 Find the normalized array pattern |En| on the horizontal plane (θ=π/2) of a two-monopole array with the following parameters with mutual coupling taken into account: I s1 = 1.j 21. I s1 = I s 2 = 1. β = 150° d = λ 4.9 Ω Z A = 47.3 + j 22.8 .

09 2 ( ZA + ZL ) Hon Tat Hui 35 Antenna Arrays . it is equal to the normalized array factor |AFn|. ∠I s 2 = β = 150° = 2. 2π λ π kd = = λ 4 2 As the required array pattern |En| is on the horizontal plane.26 Z A + ZL Z A + ZL Z12 Z 21 D = 1− = 1. Is2 = e jβ I s1 = I s 2 = 1 ∠I s1 = 0°.NUS/ECE EE4101 Solution I s1 = 1.16 − j 0.62 rad Z12 Z 21 ′ Z12 = = = 0.042 + j 0.

62e j(π 2) cos φ ⎤ ⎦ 0. Hon Tat Hui is shown on 36 Antenna Arrays .62 1 + e − j 2.62e j(π 2 ) cos φ = ⎣ I1 { } − ( 0.26 ) e j 2.94 − j 0.NUS/ECE EE4101 I s1 ⎡1 + e j( kd cos φ + β ) ⎤ − Z12e jβ ⎡1 + e j( kd cos φ − β ) ⎤ ′ E = AF = ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ I1D 0.08 ⎡1 + e j 2.14 + j 0.40 ) e j(π 2 ) cos φ next page.95 − j 0.37 j (π 2 ) cos φ = 1 + ( −1.16 − j 0.14 + j 0.40 ) e I1 ( ) The pattern of f = 1 + ( −1.

40 ) e j(π 2 ) cos φ Hon Tat Hui 37 Antenna Arrays .14 + j 0.NUS/ECE EE4101 f = 1 + ( −1.

40 ) e φ =180° I1 1. E φ =180° 0. When φ = 180°.83/|I1|) to get: Hon Tat Hui 38 Antenna Arrays .14 + j 0.83 = I1 Hence we normalize |E| by this factor (1.94 − j 0.37 j (π 2 ) cos φ = 1 + ( −1.NUS/ECE EE4101 Normalization The pattern of f attains the maximum value when φ = 180°.

40 ) e j(π 2) cos φ ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ I1 En = 1.83 I1 = 0. Hon Tat Hui 39 Antenna Arrays .14 + j 0.94 − j 0.14 + j 0.40 ) e j(π 2) cos φ The polar plot of |En| is shown on next page.37 ⎡1 + ( −1.NUS/ECE EE4101 0.52 1 + ( −1.

14 + j 0.40 ) e Hon Tat Hui j (π 2 ) cos φ Antenna Arrays 40 .52 1 + ( −1.NUS/ECE EE4101 En = 0.

Hon Tat Hui 41 Antenna Arrays . 1 j β jkd cos φ En no mutual coupling effect = 1 + e e Γ where Γ is a constant to make the largest value of |AFn| equal to one (Γ = 1.73).NUS/ECE EE4101 The case when there is no mutual coupling is shown below for comparison.

Singapore. 1988. 1993. 6. Problems and solutions on electromagnetism. Inc. Antennas. 1998. New York. 5. C. New Jersey. Applied Electromagnetics. New York. World Scientific. Balanis. W. Hon Tat Hui 42 Antenna Arrays . A. Inc. Yung-kuo Lim (Editor). John Wiley & Sons.. McGraw-Hill. John D. 3. Antenna Theory and Design. Fawwaz T. Prentice-Hall. Edminister. Analysis and Design. 2007. 2. 4. A. Field and Wave Electromagnetic.NUS/ECE EE4101 References: 1. 7. Singapore. Wiley. Cheng. Kraus. McGraw-Hill.. 1993. Thiele. Joseph A. L. Antenna Theory. New York. AddisonWesley Pub. Ulaby.. Stutzman and G. Schaum’s Outline of Theory and Problems of Electromagnetics. 2005. David K. 1989. New Jersey. Co.

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