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Antenna Arrays|Views: 16|Likes: 0

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EE4101

Antenna Arrays

1 Introduction Antenna arrays are becoming increasingly important in wireless communications. Advantages of using antenna arrays: 1. They can provide the capability of a steerable beam (radiation direction change) as in smart antennas. 2. They can provide a high gain (array gain) by using simple antenna elements. 3. They provide a diversity gain in multipath signal reception. 4. They enable array signal processing.

Hon Tat Hui

1

Antenna Arrays

NUS/ECE

EE4101

An important characteristic of an array is the change of its radiation pattern in response to different excitations of its antenna elements. Unlike a single antenna whose radiation pattern is fixed, an antenna array’s radiation pattern, called the array pattern, can be changed upon exciting its elements with different currents (both current magnitudes and current phases). This gives us a freedom to choose (or design) a certain desired array pattern from an array, without changing its physical dimensions. Furthermore, by manipulating the received signals from the individual antenna elements in different ways, we can achieve many signal processing functions such as spatial filtering, interference suppression, gain enhancement, target tracking, etc.

Hon Tat Hui

2

Antenna Arrays

NUS/ECE

EE4101

**2 Two Element Arrays
**

z

Far field observation point

θ

Dipole 2

r1

I 2 = Ie jβ

d

θ

I1 = I

r

r1 = r − d cos θ , 0 ≤ θ ≤ π

Dipole 1

x

Two Hertzian dipoles of length dℓ separated by a distance d and excited by currents with an equal amplitude I but a phase difference β [0 ~ 2π).

Hon Tat Hui

3

Antenna Arrays

NUS/ECE

EE4101

ˆ E1 = far-zone electric field produced by antenna 1 = aθ E1 ˆ E2 = far-zone electric field produced by antenna 2 = aθ E2

**η kI1d ⎛ e− jkr ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ η kd ⎛ e − jkr ⎞ E1 = j ⎜ r ⎟ sin ⎜ θ + 2 ⎟ = j 4π ⎜ r ⎟ cos θ I1 4π ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ e − jkr ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ e − jkr ⎞ η kI 2 d π⎞ η kd E2 = j ⎜ r ⎟ sin ⎜ θ + 2 ⎟ = j 4π ⎜ r ⎟ cos θ I 2 4π ⎝ 1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎠
**

1 1

Use the following far-field approximations:

0≤θ≤π

1 1 ≈ r1 r e − jkr1 = e − jk ( r −d cosθ )

Hon Tat Hui

4

Antenna Arrays

NUS/ECE EE4101 The total E field is: E = ( E1 + E2 ) aθ ˆ η kd ⎛ e− jkr ⎞ ⎡ ⎤ = aθ j cos θ ⎣ I1 + I 2e jkd cosθ ⎦ ˆ ⎜ r ⎟ 4π ⎝ ⎠ η kI1d ⎛ e− jkr ⎞ = aθ j cos θ ⎡1 + e jβ e jkd cosθ ⎤ ˆ ⎣ ⎦ 4π ⎜ r ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ η kId ⎛ e− jkr ⎞ = aθ j ˆ ⎜ r ⎟ cos θ AF 4π ⎝ ⎠ where Hon Tat Hui 5 Antenna Arrays .

NUS/ECE EE4101 AF = Array Factor = ⎡1 + e jβ e jkd cosθ ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 + e e ⎣ jβ jkd cos θ ⎤ = 2e ⎦ j 1 ( β + kd cos θ ) 2 ⎡ 1 β + kd cosθ ⎤ cos ⎢ ( )⎥ ⎣2 ⎦ = 1 I1 + I 2e jkd cosθ I1 The magnitude of the total E field is: [ ] η kId ⎛ e− jkr ⎞ E = aθ j ˆ ⎜ r ⎟ cos θ AF 4π ⎝ ⎠ = radiation pattern of a single Hertzian dipole × AF 6 Hon Tat Hui Antenna Arrays .

we usually use the normalized array factor which is: 1 1 ⎡ 1 β + kd cosθ ⎤ AFn = AF = 2cos ⎢ ( )⎥ Γ Γ ⎣2 ⎦ 7 where Γ is a constant to make the maximum value of |AFn| equal to one. When we plot the array pattern. Antenna Arrays Hon Tat Hui . This is a general property of antenna arrays and is called the principle of pattern multiplication.NUS/ECE EE4101 Hence we see the total far-field radiation pattern |E| of the array (array pattern) consists of the original radiation pattern of a single Hertzian dipole multiplying with the magnitude of the array factor |AF|.

and d = λ/4) 1 ⎡ 1 β + kd cosθ ⎤ = 1 2cos ⎡ 1 ⎛ π cosθ ⎞ ⎤ AFn = 2cos ⎢ ( )⎥ ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎢2⎝ 2 Γ ⎣2 ⎦ Γ ⎠⎦ ⎣ Hon Tat Hui 8 Antenna Arrays .NUS/ECE EE4101 Examples of array patterns using pattern multiplication: Array pattern of a two-element array of Hertzian dipoles (β = 0°.

NUS/ECE EE4101 Array pattern of a two-element array of Hertzian dipoles (β = -90°. and d = λ/4) 1 ⎡ 1 β + kd cosθ ⎤ = 1 2cos ⎡ 1 ⎛ − π + π cosθ ⎞ ⎤ AFn = 2cos ⎢ ( )⎥ ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎢2⎝ 2 2 Γ ⎣2 ⎦ Γ ⎠⎦ ⎣ Hon Tat Hui 9 Antenna Arrays .

the element radiation pattern is usually chosen to be non-directional. as shown in the example below: × = Element pattern Hon Tat Hui × |F(φ)| Array factor |A(φ)| = Array pattern (normalized) 10 Antenna Arrays . for example the φ-plane pattern of a Hertzian dipole or a half-wave dipole.NUS/ECE EE4101 In many practical arrays. Then in this case. the array radiation pattern will be totally determined by the array factor AF alone.

NUS/ECE EE4101 3 N-Element Uniform Liner Arrays (ULAs) Far field observation point r Dipoles are parallel to the z direction y φ Dipole 1 d rN-1 x Dipole N An N-element uniform antenna array with an element separation d Hon Tat Hui 11 Antenna Arrays .

the array factor for this array is: AF = 1 + e j ( kd cos φ + β ) + e j 2( kd cos φ + β ) + + e j ( N −1)( kd cos φ + β ) ⎛ Nψ ⎞ sin ⎜ ⎟ j( N −1)ψ N ⎝ 2 ⎠e 2 = ∑ e j ( n−1)ψ = ⎛ψ ⎞ n =1 sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ where ψ = kd cos φ + β and 0 ≤ φ .NUS/ECE EE4101 The principle of pattern multiplication can be extended to N-element arrays with identical antenna elements and equal inter-element separation (ULAs). If the excitation currents have the same amplitude but the phase difference between adjacent elements is β (the progressive phase difference). β ≤ 2π Hon Tat Hui 12 Antenna Arrays .

The angle φ is in the real space and its range is 0 to 2π. which is in turn a function of φ. and β is shown graphically on next page.NUS/ECE EE4101 The normalized array factor is: ⎛ Nψ ⎞ sin ⎜ ⎟ 1 ⎝ 2⎠ AFn (ψ ) = Γ sin ⎛ψ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ where Γ is a constant to make the largest value of |AFn| equal to one. However. Ψ is not in the real space and its range can be greater than or smaller than 0 to 2π. The relation between |AFn|. Ψ. leading to the problem of grating lobes or not achieving the maximum values of the |AFn| expression. Hon Tat Hui 13 Antenna Arrays . d. Note that |AFn| is a period function of Ψ.

d.NUS/ECE EE4101 |AFn(Ψ )| Ψ = kd cosφ +β kd β φ kdcosφ The relation between AFn. and β Hon Tat Hui 14 Antenna Arrays .Ψ.

3. 2 2 −1 ⎡ λ (− β ± 2mπ ) ⎤ ⇒ φmax = main beam directions = cos ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 2π d ⎦ Hon Tat Hui 15 Antenna Arrays . Hence it is enough to know |AFn| for 0 ≤ φ ≤ π. The maximum values of |AFn| occur when (see Supplementary Notes): ψ 1 = (kd cos φ + β ) = ± mπ .2. m = 0.NUS/ECE EE4101 Properties of the normalized array factor AFn: 1.1. 2. i. This is because |AFn(ψ + 2π)| = |AFn(ψ)|. φ = 0 & π. |AFn| is a periodic function of ψ. with a period of 2π. |AFn| is symmetric about the line of the array.e. As cos(φ) = cos(-φ)..

the second and the subsequent maximum angles give rise to the phenomenon of grating lobes.NUS/ECE EE4101 Note that there may be more than one angles φmax corresponding to the same value of m because cos-1(x) is a multi-value function. The condition for grating lobes to occur is that d ≥ λ (disregarding the value of β) as shown below: 2nd grating lobe 1st grating lobe Main lobe 1st grating lobe 2nd grating lobe Hon Tat Hui 16 Antenna Arrays . If there are more than one maximum angles φmax.

the smallest value of d to form a grating lobe is 0.5λ.. no grating lobe can be formed for whatever value of β. For π ≤ β < 2π: kd . If β is taken into account. d ≥ λ. If d < 0. grating lobes are formed when kd ≥ 2π. Hon Tat Hui Visible region kd φ ψ=kdcosφ General conditions to avoid grating lobes with β:[0.2π] and d:[0.β ≤ 0 17 Antenna Arrays .5 λ.λ]: 1.For 0 ≤ β < π: kd + β ≤ 2π 2.e. i.NUS/ECE EE4101 2nd grating lobe 1st grating lobe Main lobe |AFn(Ψ )| 1st grating lobe 2nd grating lobe Ψ When β = 0.

2n ⎤ −1 ⎡ λ ⇒ φnull = null directions = cos ⎢ (− β ± π ) ⎥ N ⎦ ⎣ 2π d Hon Tat Hui 18 Antenna Arrays . =± . it is possible that ψ can never be equal to 2mπ. 5. ⎨ N 2 ⎩n ≠ N .3 N . The nulls of |AFn| occur when: nπ ψ ⎧n = 1. 3. 6.2. In that case. They are functions of β and d only. There are other angles corresponding to the maximum values for the minor lobes (minor beams) but these angles cannot be found from the formula in no. The main beam directions φmax are not related to N. 7. 3 above. When β and d are fixed. the maximum values of |AFn| cannot be determined by the formula in no.2 N .NUS/ECE EE4101 4.3.

8. Hon Tat Hui 19 Antenna Arrays . This means a narrower main beam and an increase in the directivity or gain of the array. The larger the number N. 10.NUS/ECE EE4101 Note that there may be more than one angles φnull corresponding to a single value of n because cos-1(x) is a multi-value function.The angle for the main beam direction (m = 0) can be controlled by varying β or d. The null directions φnull are dependent on N. the closer is the first null (n = 1) to the first maximum (m = 0). 9.

Solutions d = λ/4. N = 10 main beam dirction = φmax ⇒ ⇒ Hon Tat Hui ⎡ − λ β ± m2π ⎤ = 60° = cos ⎢ ( )⎥ ⎣ 2π d ⎦ −1 − 2 π ( β ± m2π ) = cos ( 60° ) = 0. Find the excitation current phase difference β such that the main beam direction is at 60° (φmax = 60°). 20 .5 π 4 when m = 1 Antenna Arrays β = − ∓ m2π = −45° + 360° = 315°. θmax = 60°.NUS/ECE EE4101 Example 1 A uniform linear array consists of 10 half-wave dipoles with an inter-element separation d = λ/4 and equal current amplitude.

⎡ ⎛π ⎞⎤ sin ⎢5 ⎜ cos φ + β ⎟ ⎥ 1 ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎝2 AFn = Γ ⎡1 ⎛ π ⎞⎤ sin ⎢ ⎜ cos φ + β ⎟ ⎥ ⎠⎦ ⎣2⎝ 2 Γ = 10 Hon Tat Hui 21 Antenna Arrays .NUS/ECE EE4101 Other values of β corresponding to other values of m are outside the range of 0 ≤ β ≤ 2π and are not included.

We study an example of a two-element dipole array. from those predicted based on the pattern multiplication principle. In reality. This interaction is called mutual coupling effect and it will distort the array characteristics. such as the array pattern. We need to consider the mutual coupling effect in order to apply the pattern multiplication principle. We characterize the mutual coupling effect using the mutual impedance. Hon Tat Hui 22 Antenna Arrays . antennas placed in close proximity to each other interact strongly.NUS/ECE EE4101 4 Mutual Coupling in Transmitting Antenna Array What we studies before about antenna arrays has assumed that the antenna elements operate independently.

the excitation currents also differ by a phase difference of β and have an equal magnitude. have a phase difference of β but an equal magnitude. Hon Tat Hui 23 Antenna Arrays . When the mutual coupling effect is taken into account. Hence if there is no mutual coupling effect. there is another excitation source (the controlled voltage source) in the equivalent circuit. the two coupled antennas can be modelled as two equivalent circuits. Vs1 and Vs2.NUS/ECE EE4101 Consider two transmitting antennas as shown on next page. They are separated by a distance of d and the excitation voltages sources. This controlled voltage source is to model the coupled voltage from the other antenna. Now because of the mutual coupling effect.

NUS/ECE EE4101 Dipoles are parallel to the z direction y Far field observation point. r φ Dipole 1 x d Dipole 2 Two coupled dipoles Hon Tat Hui 24 Antenna Arrays .

NUS/ECE EE4101 Antenna #1 Antenna #2 Vs1 Terminal current Excitation voltage source I1 ± Zg1 a b Vs2 ± Zg2 d I2 c d I1 a ± Coupled voltage I2 c Vs2 ± ± Vs1 ± Zg1 Source b internal Impedance (Zg1 = Zg2 = ZL) Hon Tat Hui V12 Z11 Antenna input impedance ≈ ZA V21 Z11 Zg2 d 25 Antenna Arrays .

Vs1 =0 open-circuit voltage at antenna #1 V12 = = I2 I2 I2 Voc1 ± a b ± c d Hon Tat Hui 26 Antenna Arrays .NUS/ECE EE4101 Z12 = mutual impedance with antenna #2 excited Voc1 = I 2 I1 =0.

NUS/ECE EE4101 Z 21 = mutual impedance with antenna #1 excited Voc 2 = I1 I 2 =0. Z12 = Z 21 Hon Tat Hui 27 Antenna Arrays .Vs 2 =0 open-circuit voltage at antenna #2 V21 = = I1 I1 I1 ± a b Voc2 ± c d Note that for passive antennas.

NUS/ECE EE4101 Using the mutual impedance. the coupled voltages V12 and V21 can be expressed as follows: V12 = Z12 I 2 V21 = Z21I1 I1 and I2 are the actual terminal currents at the antennas when there is mutual coupling effect. From the antenna equivalent circuits on pp. 25. Vs1 − V12 I1 = ZL + Z A Hon Tat Hui Vs 2 − V21 I2 = ZL + Z A 28 Antenna Arrays .

Vs1 − V12 I1 = ZL + Z A I 2 Z12 = I s1 − ZL + Z A Hon Tat Hui Vs 2 − V21 I2 = ZL + Z A I1Z 21 = Is2 − ZL + Z A 29 Antenna Arrays . Vs1 I s1 = ZL + Z A Vs 2 Is2 = ZL + Z A Our aim is to express I1 and I2 in terms of Is1 and Is2.NUS/ECE EE4101 Is1 and Is2 are the terminal currents at the antennas when there is no mutual coupling effect.

we can find: Z12 I s1 − Is2 Z A + ZL I1 = ⎡ Z12 Z 21 ⎤ ⎢1 − 2⎥ ⎣ ( Z A + ZL ) ⎦ That is: Z 21 Is2 − I s1 Z A + ZL I2 = ⎡ Z12 Z 21 ⎤ ⎢1 − 2⎥ ⎣ ( Z A + ZL ) ⎦ 1 ′ I1 = ( I s1 − Z12 I s 2 ) D Hon Tat Hui 1 ′ I 2 = ( I s 2 − Z 21I s1 ) D 30 Antenna Arrays .NUS/ECE EE4101 From these two relations.

not I1 ⎣ absolute value Hon Tat Hui 31 Antenna Arrays . then E is just equal to the array factor (see pages 10 and 6). 1 Vector E =AF = ⎡ I1 + I 2e jkd cos φ ⎤ ⎦ magnitude.NUS/ECE EE4101 where Z12 Z 21 D = 1− 2 ( Z A + ZL ) Z12 ′ Z12 = Z A + ZL Z 21 ′ Z 21 = Z A + ZL Now if we want to find the array pattern E on the horizontal plane (θ=π/2) with mutual coupling effect.

NUS/ECE EE4101 1 E = ⎡ I1 + I 2e jkd cos φ ⎤ ⎦ I1 ⎣ 1 ′ ′ ⎡( I s1 − Z12 I s 2 ) + ( I s 2 − Z 21I s1 ) e jkd cos φ ⎤ = ⎣ ⎦ I1D 1 ′ ⎡( I s1 + I s 2e jkd cos φ ) − Z12 ( I s 2 + I s1e jkd cos φ ) ⎤ = ⎣ ⎦ I1D ′ ′ ( with Z12 = Z 21 ) ⎛ I s1 Is2 j β jkd cos φ jβ jkd cos φ jβ ⎞ ′ ⎡(1 + e e = ) − Z12 ( e + e )⎤ ⎜ with I = e ⎟ ⎣ ⎦ I1D ⎝ ⎠ s1 I s1 ⎡1 + e j( kd cos φ + β ) ⎤ − Z12e jβ ⎡1 + e j( kd cos φ − β ) ⎤ ′ = ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ I1D { } original pattern additional pattern Hon Tat Hui 32 Antenna Arrays .

Normalization of the above formula can only be done when its maximum value is known. Hon Tat Hui 33 Antenna Arrays .NUS/ECE EE4101 We see that the array pattern now consists of two parts: the original array pattern plus an additional pattern: ′ Z12e jβ ⎡1 + e j( kd cos φ − β ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ which has a reverse current phase -β and a modified amplitude with a multiplication of a complex number Z’12ejβ. for example by numerical calculation. Note that all parameters in the above formula can be calculated except I1 which will be removed after normalization.

β = 150° d = λ 4.j 21.9 Ω Z A = 47.NUS/ECE EE4101 Absolute value Example 2 Find the normalized array pattern |En| on the horizontal plane (θ=π/2) of a two-monopole array with the following parameters with mutual coupling taken into account: I s1 = 1. I s1 = I s 2 = 1.8 . =λ 4 d Z12 = Z 21 = 21.3 + j 22. I s 2 = e jβ .3 Ω Z L = 50 Ω I s1 Hon Tat Hui I s2 34 Antenna Arrays .

NUS/ECE EE4101 Solution I s1 = 1.26 Z A + ZL Z A + ZL Z12 Z 21 D = 1− = 1.62 rad Z12 Z 21 ′ Z12 = = = 0. ∠I s 2 = β = 150° = 2. it is equal to the normalized array factor |AFn|.042 + j 0.16 − j 0.09 2 ( ZA + ZL ) Hon Tat Hui 35 Antenna Arrays . 2π λ π kd = = λ 4 2 As the required array pattern |En| is on the horizontal plane. Is2 = e jβ I s1 = I s 2 = 1 ∠I s1 = 0°.

NUS/ECE EE4101 I s1 ⎡1 + e j( kd cos φ + β ) ⎤ − Z12e jβ ⎡1 + e j( kd cos φ − β ) ⎤ ′ E = AF = ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ I1D 0.94 − j 0.16 − j 0.37 j (π 2 ) cos φ = 1 + ( −1.40 ) e I1 ( ) The pattern of f = 1 + ( −1.62e j(π 2) cos φ ⎤ ⎦ 0.14 + j 0.26 ) e j 2.08 ⎡1 + e j 2.62 1 + e − j 2. Hon Tat Hui is shown on 36 Antenna Arrays .40 ) e j(π 2 ) cos φ next page.62e j(π 2 ) cos φ = ⎣ I1 { } − ( 0.14 + j 0.95 − j 0.

40 ) e j(π 2 ) cos φ Hon Tat Hui 37 Antenna Arrays .14 + j 0.NUS/ECE EE4101 f = 1 + ( −1.

83 = I1 Hence we normalize |E| by this factor (1.37 j (π 2 ) cos φ = 1 + ( −1.83/|I1|) to get: Hon Tat Hui 38 Antenna Arrays .94 − j 0. When φ = 180°.40 ) e φ =180° I1 1. E φ =180° 0.14 + j 0.NUS/ECE EE4101 Normalization The pattern of f attains the maximum value when φ = 180°.

52 1 + ( −1.94 − j 0.14 + j 0.NUS/ECE EE4101 0.40 ) e j(π 2) cos φ The polar plot of |En| is shown on next page.40 ) e j(π 2) cos φ ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ I1 En = 1.14 + j 0.83 I1 = 0. Hon Tat Hui 39 Antenna Arrays .37 ⎡1 + ( −1.

14 + j 0.40 ) e Hon Tat Hui j (π 2 ) cos φ Antenna Arrays 40 .NUS/ECE EE4101 En = 0.52 1 + ( −1.

NUS/ECE EE4101 The case when there is no mutual coupling is shown below for comparison. 1 j β jkd cos φ En no mutual coupling effect = 1 + e e Γ where Γ is a constant to make the largest value of |AFn| equal to one (Γ = 1. Hon Tat Hui 41 Antenna Arrays .73).

Fawwaz T. 1993.. Inc. Stutzman and G. New Jersey. Singapore. Inc. Schaum’s Outline of Theory and Problems of Electromagnetics. 1988. Co. A. John Wiley & Sons. W. 2007. 7. AddisonWesley Pub. 2005. McGraw-Hill. McGraw-Hill. Applied Electromagnetics. David K. 2. C. World Scientific. New York. Kraus.. Wiley. Singapore. 1998. New York. Prentice-Hall. 1989. 4. Balanis. Antenna Theory.NUS/ECE EE4101 References: 1. A. 5. Antenna Theory and Design. Joseph A. Hon Tat Hui 42 Antenna Arrays . Cheng. Yung-kuo Lim (Editor). L. 3. 6. New York. Problems and solutions on electromagnetism. Ulaby. Field and Wave Electromagnetic. Thiele. Analysis and Design. John D. 1993. Edminister. New Jersey. Antennas..

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