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Practical 1: Objective: Theory


Basic needs of plants. To determine the basic needs of plants: sunlight, air and water.

Plants are organisms that grow and reproduce their own kind. They need for air, soil, water, light, and space to grow. Plants need soil. Water and minerals are taken from the soil through roots. Soil also provides support for the plant and an anchor for the roots to grow in. Decaying plants and animals leave behind minerals in the soil that are essential for future plant growth. Plants need sunlight in order to grow properly. Green plants have a chemical called chlorophyll in their leaves. This chemical lets the plant use the sun's energy, water and carbon dioxide to make food in the process known as photosynthesis. They use light energy to change the materials that are carbon dioxide and water into food substances (sugars). It is the chlorophyll which makes the leaves green. Plants most also have clean air. Green plants take in carbon dioxide from air and use it during photosynthesis to make food. Dirty, smoggy air blocks sunlight that plants must have. Plants need water. Water is essential to all life on earth. No known organism can exist without water. Plants use water to carry moisture and nutrients from the roots to the leaves and food from the leaves back down to the roots. water acts as a solvent for minerals and stored food that must be moved through the plant. water evaporation on the leaf surface helps cool the plant during very hot weather in the same way that perspiration keeps us cool. Problem: Do Plants need Sunshine Materials: Growing plant with large leaves Vaseline Black construction paper Paper clips Procedure A: 1) Green plant is placed in well-lighted place where it can be seen without being handled by class members. 2) Both sides of several leaves are covered carefully with vaseline. 3) These leaves are observed each day and compared with uncoated leaves. The colour and the freshness of the leaves are noticed. Procedure B :

Results : Observation Plant “A” Inferences . Result : Observation Procedure A Inferences Procedure B Problem: Can Plants Live Without Water? Materials: Bean seeds Two small flowerpots Water Soil. But plant “B” is not watered. the construction paper is removed and the results are observed. Both plants are placed in the sunshine.1) The patern on one side of a folded piece of black construction paper are cut out. humus Procedure : 1) 2) 3) 4) Some bean seeds are planted in each of the flowerpots. 3) After several days. 2) The patern on the leaf is clipped and leaved it attached for several days. Plant “A” is watered lightly each day.

This cuts off the air supply to the plant. 3) The first jar is capped. 3) Seeds are dropped into the water of the second cup thus eliminating the air. Procedure B : 1) The two cups are filled with water. This will keep the seeds moist. 2) Both soils are watered fairly well. 4) The temperature and the light are kept same for both cups. 4) The second plant is kept moist by watering as needed.Plant “B” Problem: Can Plant Live Without Air? Materials: Bean seeds Two jars and two plastic cups Soil . When the air bubbles cease to rise. a cotton pad is put on top and some beans are put on the cotton. the air has been expelled from the soil. Results : Observation Procedure A Inferences Procedure B . 2) On one place. humus Cotton Water Procedure A: 1) Bean seeds are planted in jars.

Would leaf continue to die if the coating were removed after one day? .Conclusion / Discussion : Problem: Do Plants need Sunshine Questions and Answers : 1. What would happen if only the top side were coated? The bottom side? 2.

How can farmer tell if plant is receiving enough water? Not enough water? Too much water? . Is it possible to give a plant too much water? 3. Problem: Can Plants Live Without Water Questions and Answers : 1. What happen to the plant leaf after the mask is removed? Observe for several days.3. What would happen if only half the leaf were covered? (half of the topside and half of the bottom side) 4. Would the same results be possible with different kind of seeds? 2.

Give two reasons why animals and plants need food. Plants make their food but they do need a supply of minerals. Animals and plants need food. . Is too much air ever a problem to the farmer? 3.Problem: Can Plant Live Without Air? Questions and Answers : 1. Would the same results occur with different types of seeds? 4. What other ways might air be eliminated from the cup? 2. 5. Choose three minerals and describe what happen to plant growing without them.