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ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR SYLLABUS UNIT 1 UNIT 2 UNIT UNIT 4 UNIT 5 UNIT 6 3 Introduction to Organisational Behaviour, Meaning; Global scenario. Elements; Need; Approaches; Models;
Individual Behaviour; Personality; Learning; Attitudes; Perception; Motivation; Ability; Their relevant organizational behaviour. Group dynamics; Group norms; Group cohesiveness; Group Behance to organizational behaviour. Leadership Styles; Qualities; Organisational communication; Meaning importance, process, barriers; Methods to reduce barriers; Principle of effective communication. Stress; Meaning; Types; Sources; Consequences; Management of stress. Power and Politics; Definition; Types of Powers; Sources; Characteristics; Effective use of Power. Organisational Dynamics; Organisational design; Organisational effectiveness; Meaning, approaches; Organisational culture; Meaning, significance; Organisational Climate; Implications on organizational behaviour. Organisational Change; Meaning; Nature; Causes of change; Resistance of change; Management of change; Organisational development; Meaning; OD Interventions.
REFERENCE BOOKS 1. Fred Luthans, Organisational Behaviour, McGraw Hill Book Co., 1995. 2. Stephen P. Bobbins, Organisational Behaviour, Prentice Hall, 1997. 3. Keith Davis, Human Behaviour at Wor/c,.-M.cGraw Hill Book Co., 1991. 4. Gregory Moorehead and R.S. Griffin, Organisational Behaviours: Managing People and Organisations, Jaico, 1994. 5. Judith R. Gordon, A Diagnostic Approach to Organisational Behaviour, Allyn & Bacon, 1993.
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INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR FOUNDATION OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR MODELS OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR GLOBAL SCENARIO OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR FOUNDATION OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR PERSONALITY LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION MOTIVATION AND BEHAVIOUR JOB SATISFACTION GROUP DYNAMICS GROUP CONFLICT ORGANISATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS LEADERSHIP IN ORGANISATIONS STRESS MANAGEMENT POWER AND POLITICS ORGANISATIONAL DESIGN ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE AND CLIMATE. ORGANISATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE CASE ANALYSIS
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his theory was criticized by many employers and workers. One must know why management needs a new perspective to meet the environmental challenges and to shift to a new paradigm. total quality and diversity are some of the bitter realities that the managers are facing today. Organization is the combination of science and people. There are many solutions being offered to deal with these complex challenges. If one aims to manage an organization. But human behaviour at work is much more complicated and diverse. Taylor at the beginning of the 20th century. which means ''model. they would be productive. the human problems that the management is facing are relatively easy to solve. conceptual and human. Therefore. Sam was once asked the key to successful organizations and management. Sam quickly replied. The technical dimension consists of the manager's expertise in particular functional areas. a way of thinking. reducing workers to machines responding to management incentives. total quality and diversity mentioned earlier has led to a paradigm shift. and application of the time-tested micro-variables. Yet. you should be able to understand: • • • • The major environmental challenges and the paradigm shift that the management faces today The management perspective of organizational behaviour The historical background of modern organizational behaviour The modern approach to organizational behaviour The knowledge and information explosion. Critics worried that the methods took the humanity out of labor. a framework. #4 . MODERN APPROACH TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR The modern approach to organizational behaviour is the search for the truth of why people behave the way they do.W. understanding. dynamics and macro-variables. The organizational behaviour is a delicate and complex process. A NEW PERSPECTIVE FOR MANAGEMENT Management is generally considered to have three major dimensions—technical. Most managers think that their employees are lazy. The new paradigm sets the stage for the study. Yet the simple but most profound solution may be found in the words of Sam Walton. pattern or example". His assumption was that employees are motivated largely by money. First introduced over thirty years ago. They know the requirements of the jobs and have the functional knowledge to get the job done. and that if you could make them happy in terms of money. the term "paradigm" is now used as. reengineering and benchmarking. and learning organization for managing diversity of work. While science and technology is predictable. Workers objected to the pressure of work as being harder and faster. a broad model. it is necessary to understand its operation. "People are the key". the richest person in the world and the founder of Wal-Mart. and are interested only in money. Taylor's view is now considered inadequate and narrow due to the points given by the critics. This theory supported the use of certain steps in scientifically studying each element of a job. selecting and training the best workers for the job arid making sure that the workers follow the prescribed method of doing the job. If such assumptions are accepted. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND FOR MODERN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Scientific Management Approach Scientific management approach was developed by F.LESSON – 1 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. Some of the new paradigm characteristics include coverage of second-generation information technology and total quality management such as empowerment. The term paradigm comes from the Greek word 'paradigma'. But the practicing managers ignore the conceptual and human dimensions of their jobs. NEW PARADIGM The organizational behaviour has a goal lo help the managers make a transition to the new paradigm. To increase the output. the human behaviour in organization is rather unpredictable. The new perspective assumes that employees are extremely complex and that there is a need for theoretical understanding given by empirical research before applications can be made for managing people effectively. Taylor advised managers to pay monetary incentives to efficient workers. global competition. by the philosophy and science historian Thomas Khun. This is because it arises from deep needs and value systems of people. It provided a scientific rationale for job specialization and mass production. The impact of information technology. and a scheme for understanding reality.
rational and efficient. APPROACHES TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR There are mainly four approaches to organizational behaviour. Within the organization 'people' employ 'technology' in performing the 'task' that they are responsible for. Chicago. Hawthorne Studies Even. They helped usher in a more humanity centered approach to work. a group of professors began an enquiry into the human aspects of work and working conditions at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. as Taylor and Weber brought attention with their rational. The findings of these studies were given a new name 'human relations' the studies brought out a number of findings relevant to understanding human behaviour at work. But besides economic inputs and outputs. me researchers were studying how to structure the organization more effectively. In 1924. classical organization theory sought the most effective overall organizational structure for workers and managers. This approach help employees become better in terms of work and responsibility and then it tries to create a climate in which they can contribute to the best of their improved abilities. He made the naive assumption that one structure would work best for all organizations.Bureaucratic Approach While scientific management was focusing on the interaction between workers and the task. proposed a 'bureaucratic form' of structure. which he thought would work for all organizations. human and social inputs and outputs also arc important. Henry Ford. Organizations arc dependent upon their surrounding environment in two main ways: First. The Human element in the workplace was considerably more important. The theory's most prominent advocate. the organization requires 'inputs' from the environment in the form of raw material. money. The real beginning of applied research in the area of organizational behaviour started with Hawthorne Experiments. ideas and so on. Productivity is considered to be improved. economic. The systems view emphasizes the interdependence of each of these elements within the organization. they did not emphasize the human dimensions. Instead of trying to make each worker more efficient. A Contingency Approach A contingency approach to organizational behaviour implies that different situations require different behavioral practices for effectiveness instead of following a traditional approach for all situations. people. if more outputs can be produced from the same amount of inputs. The workers are influenced by social factors and the behaviour of the individual worker is determined by the group. Henry Fayol and Frederick W. This approach is also known as 'supportive approach' because the manager's primary role changes from control of employees to providing an active support for their growth and performance. Systems Approach A system is an interrelated part of an organization or a society that interacts with everyone related to that organization or society and functions as a whole. the early management pioneers. The organization #5 . Thus. recognized the behavioral side of management. Although there were varied and complex reasons for the emerging importance of behavioral approach to management. Productivity Approach Productivity is a ratio that compares units of output with units of input. It is often measured in terms of economic inputs and outputs. The other key aspect of the systems view of organization is its emphasis on the interaction between the organization and its broader environment. logical. their views were criticized on the ground that both approaches ignored worker's humanity. creativity and fulfillment. cultural and political environment within which they operate. Max Weber. But their impact on the emerging field of organizational behaviour was dramatic. Hawthorne studies have been criticized for their research methods and conclusions drawn. if the organization as a whole is to function effectively. Each situation must be analyzed carefully to determine the significant variables that exist in order to establish the more effective practices. which consists of social.. while the 'structure' of the organization serves as a basis for co-ordinating all their different activities. Taylor. The strength of this approach is that it encourages analysis of each situation prior to action. it helps to use all the current knowledge about people in the organization in the most appropriate manner. because people are the central resource in any organization. it is generally recognized that the Hawthorne studies mark the historical roots for the field of organizational behaviour. They are: • Human resources approach ' • Contingency approach • Productivity approach • Systems approach Human Resources Approach The human resources approach is concerned with the growth and development of people towards higher levels of competency. logical approaches to more efficient productivity. However. Weber's idea! bureaucracy was .
group influence and social and cultural factors. there is optimism about the innate potential of man to be independent. does the organizational reward system influence worker's behaviour and attitudes? • How do managers build effective teams? • What contributes to effective decision-making? • What are the constituents of effective communication? • What are the characteristics of effective communication? • How can power be secured and used productively? • What factors contribute to effective negotiations? • How can conflict (between groups or between a manager and subordinates) be resolved or managed? • How can jobs and organizations be effectively designed? • How can managers help workers deal effectively with change? An Applied Science The basic objective of organizational behaviour is to make application of various researches to solve the organizational problems. Now efforts are being made to synthesize principles. what is acceptable by the society or individuals engaged in an organization is a matter of values of the society and people concerned. Normative and Value Centered Organizational behaviour is a normative science. and how. Within themselves the organizations must trade off the interdependencies among people. organizational behaviour tries to integrate both individual and organizational objectives so that both are achieved simultaneously. interpersonal-orientation. on its inputs in order to create outputs in the form of products or services. creative. sociology and anthropology. It draws heavily from other disciplines like psychology.itself can be thought of as performing certain 'transformation' processes. Organizational behaviour integrates the relevant contents of these disciplines to make them applicable for organizational analysis. tasks. Interdisciplinary Approach Organizational behaviour is basically an interdisciplinary approach. personal development. individual's nature is quite complex and organizational behaviour by applying systems approach tries to find solutions for this complexity. law and history. It is based on the belief that needs and motivation of people are of high' concern. it addresses issues. CONTEMPORARY ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR A Separate Field of Study Organizational behaviour can be treated as a distinct field of study. such as the following: • What facilitates accurate perception and attribution? • What influences individual. Oriented towards Organizational Objectives Organizational behaviour is oriented towards organizational objectives. group and organizational learning and the development of individual attitudes toward . Further. Secondly. The systems view of organization thus emphasizes on the key interdependencies that organizations must manage. which are acceptable to the society. It is yet to become a science. predictive and capable of contributing positively to the objectives of the organization. which may be relevant to the case. public to accept its output. it also takes relevant things from economics. particularly related to the human behavioral aspect. technology and structure in order to perform their transformation processes effectively and efficiently. Organizations must also recognize their interdependence with the broader environments within which they exist. Besides. Humanistic and Optimistic Organizational behaviour focuses the attention on people from humanistic point of view. e. and career development affect individual's behaviours and attitudes? • What motivates people to work. Thus.g.work? • How do individual differences in personality. LESSON –2 #6 . the organization depends on environment such as. A Total System Approach An individual's behaviour can be analyzed keeping in view his psychological framework. A normative science prescribes how the various findings of researches can be applied to get organizational results. concepts and processes in this field of study. political science. Thus. In fact.
Above all. to ''predict'" what behavioural responses will be elicited by various managerial actions and finally to use this understanding and these predictions to achieve "control". they must first understand the people who make up the organisations. It is the people that primarily make up an organisation. managers must understand the basic human element of their work. There are three significant aspects in the above definition." The above definition has three parts—the individual behaviour. Each individual brings to an organisation a unique set of beliefs. people as organisations. Understanding an individual behaviour is in itself a challenge. individually or collectively. the interface between human behaviour and the organisational context. Organisational behaviour offers three major ways of understanding this context. the organisation's work gets done through people. feelings. While the primary goal . "Understanding one individual's behaviour is challenging in and of itself. and without people there would be no organisations. if managers are to understand the organisations in which they work. Organisational behaviour can then be defined as: "The study of human behaviour in organisational settings. They are as follows: • Social Inventions: The word "social" as a derivative of society basically means gathering of people. Ultimately. which require further analysis. people as resources and people as people.of any commercial organisation is to make money for its owners.FOUNDATION OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. on their. • Accomplishing Goals: All organisations have reasons for their existence. DEFINITION OF ORGANISATION According to Gary Johns. organisations are people. The organisational behaviour is specifically concerned with work-related behaviour. you should be able to: • • • Define and explain the meaning of organizational behaviour Understand the nature and importance of organizational behaviour Relate the organizational behaviour to manager’s job DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT Management is commonly defined as "Getting work done through other people". Accordingly. Thus. This simple definition explains the significance of the role of people. but understanding group behaviour in an organisational environment is a monumental managerial task. this goal is inter-related with many other goals. both as members of the society at large and as a part of an organisation interact with each other and are inter-dependent. schools. #7 . As Nadler and Tushman put it. These reasons are the goals towards which all organisational efforts are directed. MEANING AND DEFINITION OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Organisational behaviour is concerned with people's thoughts. and the organisation itself. values. In addition to understanding. own or in collaboration with technology. fraternal groups. This definition covers wide variety-of groups such as businesses. understanding a group that is made up of different individuals and comprehending the many relationships among those individuals is even more complex. hospitals. religious bodies. which takes place in organisations. the cooperation of the workers is crucial to the success or failure of the organisation. the management of organisational behaviour is central to the management task—a task that involves the capacity to "understand" the behaviour patterns of individuals. in 'their own jobs. Individuals in themselves have physical and intellectual limitations and these limitations can only be overcome by group efforts. Therefore. attitudes and other personal characteristics and these characteristics of all individuals must interact with each other in order to create organisational settings. government agencies and so on. the on-going behavioural processes involved. any organisational goal must integrate in itself the personal goals of all individuals associated with the organisation. groups and organisations. • Group Effort: People. the organisation and the (interface between the two. The work will not be done unless "people" want to do the work and if the work is not done then there will be no organisation. Hence. "Organisations are social inventions for accomplishing goals through group efforts". emotions and actions in setting up a work.
the organisation itself represents a crucial third perspective from which to view organisational behaviour. structure. They have a right to expect satisfaction and to learn new skills. technology and the environment in which the organisation operates. The groups may be big or small. the organisation influences and is influenced by individuals. Clearly. there is people as people . • Structure: Structure defines the formal relationships of the people in organisations. official or unofficial. NEED FOR STUDYING ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR The rules of work are different from the rules of play. changes. and vitalise and revitalise it. experiences from other organisation. guide and direct its course. people are one of the organisation's most valuable assets. The organisation is also affected by the presence and eventual absence of the individual. People spend a large part of their lives in. and answer the questions. All of these mutually influence each other in a complex system that creates a context for a group of people. In considering the people working in an organisation. It is the part of a larger system that contains many other elements such as government. Points of contact include managers. Organisational behaviour is concerned with the characteristics and behaviours of employees in isolation. Different people in the organisation are performing different type of jobs and they need to be (elated in some structural way so that their work can be effectively co-ordinated. • Environment: All organisations operate within an external environment. As managers increasingly recognise the value of potential contributions by their employees. studying the people who-make it up. One cannot understand an individual’s behaviour completely without learning something about that individual's organisation. the environment surrounding the organisation and1 they also posses a personal background. Thus. as a function of both the personal experiences and the organisation. The uniqueness of rules and the environment of organisations forces managers to study organisational behaviour in order to learn about normal and abnormal ranges of behaviour. Thus. • People: People make up the internal and social system of the organisation. Similarly. But individuals do not work in isolation. organisational behaviour must look at the unique perspective that each individual brings to the work setting. and various changes implemented by the organisation. mostly as employees. They have a right to expect something in return beyond wages and benefits. People make the decisions. the characteristics and processes that are part of the organisation itself. Finally. 'and the characteristics and behaviours directly resulting from people with their individual needs and motivations working within the structure of the organisation. the individual. he cannot understand how the organisation operates without.an argument derived from the simple notion of humanistic management. the study of organisational behaviour must consider the ways in which the individual and the organisation interact.As resources. family and other organisations. People create the organisation. it will become more and more important for managers and employees to grasp the complexities of organisational behaviour. Over time. exists before a particular person joins it and continues to exist after he leaves it. More specifically. organisational behaviour serves three purposes: • What causes behaviour? • Why particular antecedents cause behaviour? • Which antecedents of behaviour can be controlled directly and which are beyond control? A more specific and formal course in organisational behaviour helps an individual to develop more refined and workable sets of assumption that is directly relevant to his work interactions. The technology used has a significant influence on working relationships. formal policies and procedures of the organisation. formal or informal. Groups are dynamic and they work in the organisation to achieve their objectives. ELEMENTS OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR The key elements in the organisational behaviour are people. They come in contact with other individuals and the organisation in a variety of ways. They consist of individuals and groups. It allows people to do more and work better but it also restricts' people in various ways. too. solve the problems. An organisation. organisational settings. co-workers. characteristically. An understanding of organisational behaviour can help the manager better appreciate the variety of individual needs and' expectations. • Technology: Technology such as machines and work processes provide the resources with which people work and affects the tasks that they perform.. Organisational behaviour helps in #8 . NATURE OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Each individual brings to an organisation a unique set of personal characteristics.
be utilised so that both organisational and individual objectives are achieved simultaneously. judgement that explicitly takes into account the managers own goals. which provide such understanding. Organisational behaviour provides opportunity to management to analyse human behaviour and prescribe means for shaping it to a particular direction. • • • Interpersonal Level: Human behaviour can be understood at the level of interpersonal interaction. Inter-group relationship may be in the form of co-operation or competition. they are often modified by group pressures. cohesion. hang-ups.predicting human behaviour in the organisational setting by drawing a clear distinction between individual behaviour and group behaviour. These research results are advancing managerial knowledge of understanding group behaviour. Understanding Human Behaviour Organisational behaviour provides understanding the human behaviour in all directions in which the human beings interact. which is very important for organisational morale and productivity. managers can adopt styles keeping in view the various dimensions of organisations. #9 . Human behaviour is a complex phenomenon and is affected by a large number of factors including the psychological. It identifies various leadership styles available to a manager and analyses which style is more appropriate in a given situation. Thus. Leadership: Organisational behaviour brings new insights and understanding to the practice and theory of leadership. individuals should be studied in groups also. organisational behaviour can be understood at the individual level. procedures. role analysis and transactional analysis are some of the common methods. This suggests that since an organisation is Ihe interaction of persons. group level and inter-group level. Organisational behaviour only assists in making judgements that are derived from tenable assumptions. leadership. The communication process and its work in inter-personal dynamics have been evaluated by organisational behaviour. judgement that are assigned due recognition to the complexity of individual or group behaviour. managers are required to control and direct the behaviour at all levels of individual interaction. Organisational behaviour helps to analyse 'why' and 'how' an individual behaves in a particular way. Communication: Communication helps people to come in contact with each other. blind spots and weaknesses.. Organisational behaviour does not provide solutions to all complex and different behaviour puzzles of organisations. Power is referred to as the capacity of an individual to take certain action and may be utilised in many ways. Thus. avoidance of win-lose situation and focussing on total group objectives. rotation of members among groups. Analysis of reciprocal relationships. they should be given adequate importance in managing the organisation. Inter-group Level: The organisation is made up of many groups that develop complex relationships to build their process and substance. the communication must be effective. goals. Barnard has observed that an organisation is a conscious interaction of two or more people. communication pattern and leadership. which are formally defined by the organisation. social and cultural implications. communication and building organisational climate favourable for better interaction. Understanding the effect of group relationships is important for managers in today's organisation. Thus. IMPORTANCE OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Organisational behaviour offers several ideas to management as to how human factor should be properly emphasised to achieve organisational objectives. It is only the intelligent judgement of the manager in dealing with a specific issue that can try to solve the problem. Organisational behaviour explains how various means of power and sanction can . To achieve organisational objectives. Research in group dynamics has contributed vitally to organisational behaviour and shows how a group behaves in its norms. Therefore. Organisational behaviour provides means to understand and achieve co-operative group relationships through interaction. judgement that takes into account the important variables underlying the situation. Group Level: Though people interpret anything at their individual level. motives. which then become a force in shaping human behaviour. The co-operative relationships help the organisation in achieving its objectives. individuals and situations. Organisational behaviour provides • means for understanding the interpersonal relationships in an organisation. • • • • Controlling and Directing Behaviour: After understanding the mechanism of human behaviour. Thus. managers are required to control and direct the behaviour so that it conforms to the standards required for achieving the organisational objectives. interpersonal level. Use of Power and Sanction: The behaviours can be controlled and directed by the use of power and sanction. organisational behaviour helps managers in controlling and directing in different areas such as use of power and sanction. Organisational behaviour integrates these factors to provide* simplicity in understanding the human behaviour.
• • Organisational Climate: Organisational climate refers to the total organisational situations affecting human behaviour. These different perspectives on the study of organisational behaviour are not in conflict with one another. Besides improving the satisfactory working conditions and adequate compensation. • Organisation at the Individual Level: Organisational behaviour can be studied in the perspective of individual members of the organisation. • Organisation at the Group Level: People rarely work independently in organisations. the organisation can be viewed as consisting of individuals working on tasks in the pursuit of the organisational goals. Factors such as attitudes. This j macro perspective on organisational behaviour draws heavily on theories and concepts from the discipline of 'sociology'. perceptions and personalities are taken into account and their impact upon individuals’ behaviour and performance on the job is studied. When management practices organisational behaviour. This means that individual does not have only the skill and intelligence but he has a personal life. age. Researchers seek to understand the implications of the relationship between the organisation and its environment for the effectiveness of the organisation. committees and groups. Organisational Adaptation: Organisations. his personal life cannot be separated from his work life since people function as total human beings. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Organisational behaviour starts with the following six fundamental concepts revolving around the nature of people and organisations: The nature of people: • Individual differences • A whole person • Motivated behaviour • Value of the person The nature of organisation: • Social system • Mutual interest • Individual Differences: Individuals are different in their physical and mental traits. Finally. beliefs. weight. Individual differences mean that the management has to treat them differently to get the best out of them. This frequently results in people working together in teams. In other words. #10 . Organisational climate takes a system perspective that affect human behaviour. complexion and so on but also different in their psychological trait such as intelligence. The benefit will extend beyond the firm into the larger society in which each employee lives. the size of the organisation and the organisation's age are also examined and their implications for effective organisational functioning are explored. satisfaction and leadership are brought to bear upon the behaviour and performance of individual members of an organisation. organisational behaviour can be analysed from the perspective of the organisation as a whole. Organisations have to adapt themselves to the environmental changes by making suitable. motivation and perception. psychologically based theories of learning. they employ the 'whole person'. the opportunity for the realisation of personal goals. An important component of organisational behaviour involves the application of knowledge and theories from social psychology to the study of groups in organisations. Emphasis is placed upon understanding how organisational structure and design influences the effectiveness of an organisation. A second level of analysis focuses upon the interaction among organisational members as they work in' teams. • A Whole Person: Though the organisation may feel that they are employing only the individual's skill or intelligence. organisational climate includes creation of an atmosphere of effective supervision. attitude. This approach to organisational behaviour draws heavily on the discipline of psychology and explains why individuals behave and react the way they do to different organisational policies. they have to necessarily work in coordination to meet the organisational goals. Within this perspective. They are different not only in the physical appearance such as sex. How do people work together in groups? What factors determine whether group will be cohesive and productive? What types of tasks could be assigned to groups? These are some of the questions that can be asked about the effective functioning of groups in organisations. motivation. internal arrangements such as convincing employees who normally have the tendency of resisting any changes. A full and complete understanding of the nature of organisations and the determinants of their effectiveness requires a blending of knowledge derived from each perspective. Instead they are complementary. needs and desires as well. as dynamic entities are characterised by pervasive changes. • Organisation at the Organisational Level: Some organisational behaviour researchers take the organisation as a whole as their object of study. At one level. This belief that each person is different from all others is typically called the 'Law of Individual Differences'. it is not only trying to develop a better employee but it also wants to develop a 'better person' in terms of all round growth and development. groups and departments. Other factors such as the technology employed by the organisation. in fact. practices and procedures. congenial relations with others at the work place and a sense of accomplishment. height. LEVELS OF ANALYSIS Organisational behaviour can be viewed from different perspectives or levels of analysis.
Class Structure: This is a social system of different classes with in a society. however simple. The organisation can show to its employees how certain actions will increase their need fulfilment. Matriarchate: This is social system. Patriarchate: This is social system. whole group. In other words. A political and economic system based on the holding of. In other words. Thus. which is developed in Europe in the 8th Century. the individuals of a society are considered as a system organised by a characteristic pattern of relationships having a distinctive culture and values. power lies in her hands. Mutual Interest: Organisational relationships are most likely to be strong if different groups can negotiate strategies. in which a male is considered to be the family head and title or surname is traced through his chain. In context with an organisation. they provide a holistic concept of the subject. It is also called social organisation or social structure. Every job. whole organisation and whole social system. entitles the people who do it to proper respect and recognition of their unique aspirations and abilities. Since organisational behaviour involves people. and forfeiture. which provides separate facilities for minority groups of a society. Motivation is essential for the proper functioning of organisations. This can be defined as the interests that are common to both the parties and are related to the accomplishment of their respective goals. • Value of the Person: It is more an ethical philosophy. and to incorporate the perspectives of their colleagues. the blending of nature of people and organisation results in an holistic organisational behaviour. This helps to build sustainable and harmonious activities that can operate in the mutual direct interests of the organisation. land and relation of lord to vassal and characterized by homage. It can be further divided into following categories: Feudal system: This is a social system. Meritocracy: This is a social system. The nature of an organisation can be understood with the help of tjie description of following two points: • • ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • Social System: A system is a group of independent and interrelated elements comprising a unified whole. Holistic Organisational Behaviour: When the above six concepts of organisational behaviour are considered together. Holistic organisational behaviour interprets people-organisation relationships in terms of the whole person. in which power vests in the hands of the person with superior intellects. #11 . This space for sharing ideas builds trust.Motivated behaviour: It is the urge of the individual to satisfy a particular need that motivates him to do an act. legal and military service of tenants. in which a female is considered to be the family head and title or surname is traced through her chain. It stresses that people are to be treated with respect and dignity. because even though the views are different they have a shared concern for similar objectives. power lies in his hands. ethical philosophy is involved in one way or the other. It is important for the individuals to think about their issues openly. Segregation: This is a social system. The motivation could be positive or negative. Individuals who have shared mutual interests are likely to make their organisation the strongest.
The primary advantage of organizational behaviour system is to identify the major human and organizational variables that affect organizational outcomes. Earlier employers had no systematic program for managing their employees instead their simple rules served as a powerful influence on employees. communicating and operating an organizational behaviour system. level of customer service. CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR SYSTEM Organizations achieve their goals by creating. managers can exert some control over them. today increasing many organizations are experimenting with new ways to attract and motivate their employees. but sometimes in varying forms. The outcomes are measured in terms of quantity and quality of products and services. though. However. For some variables managers can only be aware of them and acknowledge their impact whereas for other variables. regularly examined and updated to meet new and emerging conditions. Organizational behaviour system defines organizational structure and culture and explains their impact on employees. These systems exist in every organization. though. if they have been consciously created. ELEMENTS OF THE SYSTEM #12 .LESSON –3 Models of organizational behaviour Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. if they have been consciously created. managers can exert some control over them. For some variables managers can only be aware of them and acknowledge their impact whereas for other variables. you should be able to understand: • • • • The concept of organizational behaviour system The different models of organizational behaviour The importance of organizational behaviour to managers The future of organizational behaviour Organizations have undergone tremendous change in the behaviour of their employee's. The primary advantage of organizational behaviour system is to identify the major human and organizational variables that affect organizational outcomes. employee satisfaction and personal growth and development. but sometimes in varying forms. They have a greater chance of being successful. The outcomes arc measured in terms of quantity and quality of products and services. regularly examined and updated to meet new and emerging conditions. The figure 3.1 shows the major elements of a good organizational behaviour system: These systems exist in every organization. employee satisfaction and personal growth and development. They have a greater chance of being successful. level of customer service.
The primary challenge for management is to identify the model it is actually using and then assess its current effectiveness. Collegial Model The term 'collegial' relates to a body of persons having a common purpose. management provides a climate to help employees grow and accomplish in the interest of an organization. Hence. Its main weakness is its high human cost. the purpose for these activities. Custodial Model This model focuses better employee satisfaction and security. as in the custodial approach. The psychological result of this model on employees is their increasing dependence on their boss. Supportive Model The supportive model depends on 'leadership' instead of power or money. Organizations differ in the quality of organizational behaviour that they develop. the manager has the power to command his subordinates to do a specific job. FOUR MODELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Basis of Model Managerialorientation Employee psychological result Employee needs met Performance result Autocratic Power Authority Dependence on boss Subsistence Minimum Custodial Economic resources Money Dependence on organization Security Passive cooperation Supportive Leadership Support Participation Status and recognition Awakened drives Collegial Partnership Teamwork Self-discipline Self-actualization Moderate enthusiasm It is wrong to assume that a particular model is the best model. develop a drive to contribute and improve them if management will give them a chance. The following four models of organizational behaviour are as follows: A. the existing philosophy. The philosophy of organizational behaviour held by management consists of an integrated set of assumptions and beliefs about the way things are. Management believes that it knows what is best for an organization and therefore. Therefore. organization. These differences are substantially caused by different models of organizational behaviour that dominant management's thought in each organization. In this kind of environment employees normally feel some degree of fulfillment and worthwhile contribution towards their work. This model leads to employee dependence on an organization rather than on boss. This model assumes that employees will take responsibility. employees are required to follow their orders. Custodial model C. it is known as custodian model. Collegial model Autocratic Model In an autocratic model'. Under this model organizations satisfy the security and welfare needs of employees. Through leadership. In addition.The system's base rests in the fundamental beliefs and intentions of those who join together to create it such as owners and managers who currently administer it. It is a team concept. environmental conditions help in determining which model will be the most effective model. vision and goals of manager. These philosophies are sometimes explicit and occasionally implicit. The selection of model by a manager is determined by a number of factors such as. Management is the coach that builds a better team. The management is seen as joint contributor rather than as a boss. employees are happy and contented but they are not strongly motivated. management's direction is to 'Support' the employee's job performance rather than to 'support' employee benefit payments. which is unpredictable. The model that a manager holds usually begins with certain assumptions about people and thereby leads to certain interpretations of organizational events. and the way they should be. As a result of economic rewards and benefits. The employee response to this situation is responsibility. Autocratic model B. in the minds managers. This is because a model depends on the knowledge about human behaviour in a particular environment. Supportive model D. The psychological result of the collegial approach for the employee is 'selfdiscipline'. This results in enthusiasm in employees' performance. the psychological result is a feeling of participation and task involvement in an. Since management supports employees in their work. IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR TO MANAGERS #13 .
suppliers. All these. organizing. which can be defined as organized set of behaviors identified with the position. the managers build up their own external information system. trade journals and informal personal contacts with outside agencies. primarily. taking important customers to lunch. in one form or other deal with people and their behaviour. personal phone calls. All these roles. superiors. The first category called the interpersonal roles arises directly from the manager's position and the formal authority given to him. by virtue of his interpersonal contacts. the informational role arises as a direct result of the interpersonal roles and these two categories give rise to the third category called decisional roles. subordinates. they need to have a constant contact with their own subordinates.Managers perform four major functions such as planning. emerges as a source of information about a variety of issues concerning an organization. These interactions involve the following three major interpersonal roles: • Figure/lead Role: Managers act as symbolic figureheads performing social or legal obligations. He must be an ideal leader so that his subordinates follow his directions and guidelines with respect and dedication. social changes or changes in governmental rules and regulations. peers and superiors in order to assess the external environment of competition. #14 . These roles are developed by Henry Mintzberg in 1960s after a careful study of executives at work. These people include peers. The roles. a manager executes the following three roles. • Leadership Role: The influence of the manager is most clearly seen in the leadership role as a leader of a unit or an organization. These duties include greeting visitors. Studies show that interacting with people takes up nearly 80% of a manager's time. In addition. customers. government officials and community leaders. in the context of organizational behaviour. In this role.2 shows the categories of managerial roles. Information Roles A manager. All these interactions require an understanding of interpersonal behaviour. In addition to these functions there are ten managerial roles. In this capacity of information processing. The second category. directing and controlling. • Liaison Role: The managers must maintain a network of outside contacts. attending a subordinate's wedding and speaking at functions in schools and churches. signing legal documents. Since he is responsible for the activities of his subordinates therefore he must lead and coordinate their activities in meeting task-related goals and motivate them to perform better. This can be achieved by attending meetings and professional conferences. Figure 3. are as follows: Interpersonal Roles In every organization managers spend a considerable amount of time in interacting with other people both within their own organizations as well as outside. These ten managerial roles are divided into three categories. are duties of a ceremonial nature but are important for the smooth functioning of an organization.
By building a better climate for people. It is a way to improve but not an absolute answer to problems.e. machine breakdowns.Monitor Role: The managers are constantly monitoring and scanning their internal and external environment. it has a tremendous potential to contribute to the advancement of civilisation. collecting and studying information regarding their organization. interrogating their liaison contacts and through gossip. phone calls. organizational behaviour will release their creative potential to solve major social problems. For example.. • Negotiator Role: The managers in their negotiator role represent their organization in negotiating deals and agreements within and outside of an organization. among people and among the organizations of future. LESSON – 4 GLOBAL SCENARIO OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR • #15 . even though some roles may be more influential than others depending upon the managerial position. there is a decline in returns. • The law of diminishing returns also operates in the case of organizational behaviour. sales manager gives more importance to interpersonal roles. This can be done by reading reports and periodicals. • Entrepreneur Role: Managers. For example. • Resource Allocation Role: The managers establish priorities among various projects or programs and make budgetary allocations to different activities of an organization based on these priorities. In this way organizational behaviour will contribute to social improvements. • Information Disseminator Role: The managers must transmit the information regarding changes in policies or other matters to their subordinates. i. hearsay and speculation. When that point is exceeded. This can be done through memos. research and managerial practice. a manager plays four important roles. • A significant concern about organizational behaviour is that its knowledge and techniques could be used to manipulate people without regard for human welfare. The field of organizational behaviour has grown in depth and breadth. too much security may lead to less employee initiative and growth. as entrepreneurs are constantly involved in improving their units and facing the dynamic technological challenges. • It is only one of the many systems operating within a large social system. It should produce a higher quality of life in which there is improved harmony within each individual. their peers and to other members of an organization. This can be achieved through suggestion boxes. employee grievances. cash flow shortages and interpersonal conflicts. FUTURE OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR The growing interest in organizational behaviour stems from both a philosophical desire by many people to create more humanistic work places and a practical need to design more productive work environments. In that respect. LIMITATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR • Organizational behaviour cannot abolish conflict and frustration but can only reduce them. • People who lack system understanding may develop a 'behavioral basis'. which gives them a narrow view point. • Conflict Handling Role: The managers are constantly involved as judge in solving conflicts among the employees and between employees and management. organizational behaviour is now a part of the curriculum of almost all courses including engineering and medical. They initiate feasibility studies. arrange capital for new products and ask for suggestions from the employees to improve organization. They negotiate contracts with the unions. Although organizational behaviour has certain limitations. The concept implies that for any situation there is an optimum amount of a desirable practice. It states. a tunnel vision that emphasizes on satisfying employee experiences while overlooking the broader system of an organization in relation to all its public. customer complaints. The keys to its past and future success revolve around the related processes of theory development. Mangers must anticipate such problems and take preventive action and take corrective action once the problem arises. As a result of these forces. • Spokesman Role: A manager has to be a spokesman for his unit and represent his unit in either sending relevant information to people outside his unit or making some demands on behalf of his unit. This relationship shows that organizational effectiveness is achieved not by maximizing one human variable but by working all system variables together in a balanced way. People who lack ethical values could use people in unethical ways. individual meetings and group meetings. holding strategy meetings with project managers and R&D personnel. They are constantly on the lookout for new ideas for product improvement or product addition. while the production manager may give more importance to decisional roles. that at some point increase of a desirable practice produce declining returns and sometimes. Decision Roles A manager must make decisions and solve organizational problems on the basis of the environmental information received. negative returns. All these ten roles are important in a manager's job and are interrelated. It has provided and will provide much improvement in the human environment. Improved organizational behaviour is not easy to apply but opportunities are there. Purchasing managers may negotiate prices with vendors. Sales managers may negotiate prices with prime customers. These problems may involve labor disputes.
In some nations. political and economic environments. • Another potential barrier to easy adaptation of another culture occurs. Barriers to Cultural Adaptation • Managers and other employees who come into a host country tend to exhibit different behaviors and somewhat. This organizational instability leaves workers insecure and causes them to be passive and low in taking any initiatives. MANAGING AN INTERNATIONAL WORKFORCE Whenever an organization expands its operations to other countries. These people are called. Their role is to provide fusion of cultures in which employees from both countries adjust to the new situation seeking a greater productivity for the benefit of both the organization and the people of the country in which it operates. it tends to become multicultural and will then face the challenge of blending various cultures together. communication patterns and other practices to fit their host country. a nationalistic drive is strong for locals to run their country and their organizations by themselves without any interference by foreign nationals. When the government is unstable. This predisposition is known as the 'self-reference criterion' or 'ethnocentrism'. A few countries arc agriculture dominated and a few other manufacturing industries dominated. State tends to be involved in collective bargaining and other practices that affect workers. scientists and technicians. This feeling interferes with understanding human: behaviour in other cultures and obtaining productivity from local employees. when-people are predisposed to believe that their homeland conditions are the-best. many organizations now operate in more than one country. restricting industries to a particular area and nationalistic drives such as self-sufficiency in latest technologies. ECONOMIC CONDITIONS The most significant economic conditions in less developed nations are low per capita income and rapid inflation. the nature of their culture and work life will be different. In spite of instability. The different socio-economic and political conditions existing in countries influence the introduction of advanced technology and sophisticated organizational systems. political and economic differences among countries" influence international organizational behaviour. organizations become cautious about further investments. Another significant social condition in many countries is that the local culture is not familiar with advanced technology. Cultural Distance To decide the amount of adaptation that may be required when personnel moves to another country. For example. The social. you should be able to understand: • • The global scenario of organizational behaviour The barriers to cultural adaptation and measures to overcome those barriers Due to globalization of economy. POLITICAL CONDITIONS Political conditions that have a significant effect on organizational behaviour include instability of the government. Whatever may be the amount of cultural distance. workers' participation in management are restricted by law while in other countries they are permitted. They are more concerned about themselves than the host country. • Another category of managers called 'individualistic' place greatest emphasis on their personal needs and welfare. It is a step into different social. These multinational operations add new dimensions to organizational behaviour. and training programs need to be developed to train the local workers. there is shortage of managerial personnel. communication and control becomes difficult. Hence the required skills must be temporarily imported from other countries. thereby spreading the training through masses. it is helpful to understand the cultural distance between the two countries. see situation around them from their own perspectives. They may fail to recognize the key differences between their own and other cultures. SOCIAL CONDITIONS In many countries due to poorly developed resources. 'parochial'. In some nations. organized labor is mostly an arm of the authoritarian state and in some other nations labor is somewhat independent. Naturally. Therefore. Cultural distance is the amount of distance between any two social systems. The managerial personnel entering another nation need to adjust their leadership styles. These limiting conditions cannot be changed rapidly because they arc too well established and woven into the whole social fabric of a nation. A developed country can easily adopt advanced technology when compared to a less developed country.Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. Trained locals become the nucleus for developing others. it does affect the responses of all individuals to #16 . Inflation makes the economic life of workers insecure when compared to developed countries.
social system.business. • Pre-departure training in geography. it is difficult for expatriates to re-adjust to the surroundings of their home country. acknowledge its benefits and use its differences effectively in their organization. Labor policy. Motivating and Leading Local Employees Same motivational tools may not suit the employees of all the nations. may fear losing face and self-confidence or may become emotionally upset. personnel practices and production methods need to be adapted to a different labor force. Overcoming Barriers to Cultural Adaptation • Careful selection. If local culture is ignored. Hence. friends and colleagues • Unique currency system Many expatriates report difficulty in adjusting to different human resource management philosophies. you should be able to: #17 . of employees. appropriate motivational techniques need to be implemented depending on the requirement of employees of that particular nation. customs. They may not know how to act. communication problems may also arise between the expatriate manager and the employees of the host country. the expatriate managers must learn to operate effectively in a new environment with certain amount of flexibility. Cultural Shock When employees enter another nation they tend to suffer cultural shock. For a firm to be truly multi-national in character. it should have ownership. which is the insecurity and disorientation caused by encountering a different culture. multinational firms that operate in a-variety of national cultures. availability of goods • Attitude towards work and productivity • Separation from family. operations. The manager's job is to make the employees adapt to the other culture and integrate the interests of the various cultures involved. markets and managers truly diversified. Cultural shock is virtually universal. After adjusting to the culture of another nation and enjoying its uniqueness. culture and political environment in which the employee will be living will help for cultural adaptation. Eventually. LESSON – 5 FOUNDATION OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. MANAGEMENT'S INTEGRATING ROLE Once managers are in a host country. organizations need repatriation policies and programs to help returning employees obtain suitable assignments and adjust to the 'new' environments. Similarly. Hence. Some of the more frequent reasons for cultural shock are as follows: • Different management philosophies • New language • Alternative food. Trans-cultural employees are especially needed in large. who can withstand/adjust cultural shocks for international assignments* is important. They usually can communicate fluently in more than one language. Its leaders look to the world as an economic and social unit. managers need to make adjustments in their communication suited to< local cultures. their attention needs to be directed toward integrating the technological approaches with the local cultures involved. Hence. respect its integrity. • Employees who return to their home country after working in another nation for sometime tend to suffer cultural shock in their own homeland. but they recognize each local culture. the different currency and work attitudes in another culture. They are low in ethnocentrism and adapt readily to different cultures without major cultural shock. Organization structures and communication patterns need to be suitable for local operations. the resulting imbalance in the social system interferes with the productivity. the language. economic development and employee's values in the host country. These employees are 'trans-cultural’ employees because they operate effectively in several cultures. Hence. a cadre of employees with cross-cultural adaptability can be developed in organizations with large international operations. This reflects the idea of cultural contingency that the most productive practices for a particular nation will depend heavily on the culture. • Incentives and guarantees for better position will motivate employees for cultural adaptation in the new country. Cultural Contingencies Productive business practices from one country cannot be transferred directly to another country. dress.
If the organization can take complete advantage of those behaviors and abilities and exactly fulfill the employee's needs. A psychological contract is not written down like a legal contract. ability. skills. These contributions presumably satisfy various needs and requirements of the organization. when they begin a working relationship with an organization formulate a psychological contract with their employer. NATURE OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Individual differences are personal attributes that vary from one person to another. is very difficult to define in absolute terms.• • Understand the nature of individual differences in organizations Identify the individual factors affecting organizational behavior INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR Human behavior. most people.2 #18 . Similarly. The figure 5. the behavior of individuals in organization is the primary concern of management and it is essential that the managers should have an understanding of the factors influencing the behavior of the employees they manage. Thus. for example. He believes that people are influenced by a number of diversified factors. loyalty and so forth. which is. If both the individual and the organization consider the psychological contract fair and equitable. An individual makes a variety of contributions to an organization in the form of—efforts. The figure 5. both the buyer and the seller sign a contract that specifies the terms of the sales agreement.1 identifies five sets of factors that have an impact upon individual behavior in organizations. The 'person-job fit' is the extent to which the contributions made by the individual match the incentives offered by the organization. which can be both genetic and environmental. These responses would reflect psychological structure of the person and may be results' of the combination of biological and psychological processes. It is primarily a combination of responses to external and internal stimuli. If either party perceives an imbalance or iniquity in the contract. time. Whenever people buy something. Individual differences may be physical and psychological. such a precise. A psychological contract is the overall set of expectations that an individual holds with respect to his or her contributions to the. Just as the contributions available from the individual must satisfy the organization's needs. considered a complex phenomenon. thus. they will be satisfied with the relationship and are likely to continue it. constant change in the needs and requirements of people and organization. a car. considerable research into the human behavior and its causes. the incentives must serve the employees' needs in return. One specific aspect of managing psychological contracts is managing the person-job fit. Psychologist Kurt Levin has conducted. it may initiate a change. Of course. which interpret them. In theory. it will achieve a perfect person-job fit. is to manage the psychological contracts. In return for contributions. organization and the organization's response to those contributions. The influence of these factors determines the pattern of human behavior. A major challenge faced by an organization. • • • • • Physical Differences Height Weight Body Shape Appearance Complexion Psychological Differences • Personality • Attitudes • Perception • Motivation • Learning figure 5. promotion.2 shows the attributes of physical and psychological differences. level of person-job fit is seldom achieved due to various reasons such as imperfect selection procedures. respond to them in an appropriate manner and learn from the result of these responses. the organization provides incentives such as pay. differences in individual skills. and job security to the employee. each employee has a specific set of needs to fulfill and a set of job related behaviors and abilities to contribute.
recent research uncovered flaws among those having high self-esteem. "Self-efficacy arises from the gradual acquisition of complex. There is strong linkage between high self-efficacy expectations and success in terms of physical and mental tasks. Those with low self-esteem tend to view themselves in negative terms. and/or physical skills through experience". Self-efficacy Self-efficacy is a person's belief about his' or her chances of successfully accomplishing a specific task. is a major challenge for organizations as they attempt to establish effective psychological contracts with their employees and achieve optimal fits between people and jobs. Among many different types of cognitions. according to a recent research. then. Self-esteem Self-esteem is a belief over one's own worth based on an overall self-evaluation. • For systematic self-management training. linguistic. high self-esteem subjects tended to become self-centered and boastful when faced with situations under pressure Hence moderate self-esteem is desirable. "any knowledge. tend to have trouble in dealing effectively with others. interests. Individual differences make the manager's job extremely challenging. Cognitions represent. or belief about the environment about oneself. Self-efficacy Implications for Managers Managers need to nurture self-efficacy in them and in their employees. Individuals who are satisfied in one context may prove to be dissatisfied in another context. it must consider the situation in which that particular behavior occurs. • To evolve suitable leadership. those with low self-efficacy expectations tend to have low success rates. A self-concept would be impossible without the capacity to think. anxiety reduction. see themselves as worthwhile. "variability among workers is substantial at all levels but increases dramatically with job complexity. 2. autonomy and challenges that suit the individual's values. Although. According to one organizational behavior writer. • For goal-setting and quality improvement. today's managers need to better understand and accommodate employee diversity and individual differences. or about one's behavior". They do not feel good about themselves. and • Personal values and ethics. In fact. In other words. This brings us to the role of cognitions. • For designing job. high self-esteem is generally considered a positive trait because it is associated with better performance and greater satisfaction. pain tolerance and illness recovery.Whenever an organization attempts to assess the individual differences among its employees. skills and abilities. goal setting. opinion. reward successes. growing work force diversity compel managers to view individual differences in a fresh way. every individual recognizes himself as a distinct individual. social and spiritual or moral being". Strive for management-employee cohesiveness and trust building. Self-concept Self is the core of one's conscious existence. • To design interview questions to probe applicant's general self-efficacy for determining orientation and training needs. Assessing both individual differences and contributions in relation to incentives and contexts. Oppositely. 4. evaluating and setting personal standards are particularly relevant to organizational. as in the past. those involving expectation. and are hampered by self-doubts. Sociologists Viktor Gecas defines self-concept as "the concept the individual has of himself as a physical. addiction control. capable and acceptable. Personality Dimensions #19 . Managers can build employee self-esteem in four ways: Be supportive by showing concern for personal problems. behavior. 3. social. Self-efficacy requires constructive action in each of the following managerial areas: • To design recruitment selection procedure. So rather than limiting diversity. Offer work involving variety. High self-esteem individuals. Specifically. 1. • To design suitable regards. Leaders now talk frequently about "valuing differences" and learn to "manage diversity". planning. cognitive. IMPORTANT DIMENSIONS OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES • Self-concept • Personality dimensions • Abilities. in contrast. Awareness of self is referred to as one's self-concept. status and contribution. Due to these reasons. Have faith in each employee's self-management ability.
Mental abilities such as reasoning. Intellectual differences are somewhat more difficult to discern. The abilities/skills and competencies of employees are both physical and intellectual qualities. Abilities develop from an individual's natural aptitudes and subsequent learning opportunities. for example. #20 . the terms business ethics and management ethics are often heard. Learning opportunities translate aptitude into abilities through practice. This can 6e accomplished either by careful selection of people or by a combination of selection and training. They are also relatively easy to assess. it becomes a skill. comprehension and inter-personal abilities can also be developed through practice and education. The individuals who exhibit. (for example accounting). agreeableness. and other information for ascertaining their ethical behavior. achieve the greatest good for the greatest number of people. emotional stability and openness to experience. • Screen potential employees by checking references. Competencies are skills that have been refined by practice and experience and that enable. Ethics involve the study of moral issues and choices. accounting and computer science. credentials. PERSONAL VALUES AND ETHICS According to Milton Rokeach. skills and competencies in order to remain valuable to their organizations. Moral Principles for Managers • Judge actions by their consequences. • Rules and rewards should be administered impartially. such as physical. Physical abilities such as strength. It is concerned with right versus wrong and good versus bad. Ethical behavior is a 1 top to bottom proposition. endurance and stamina can be developed with exercise and training. memory visualization. traits associated with a strong sense of responsibility and determination generally perform better than those who do not. can be trained to apply their ability in the field of engineering. when a particular ability is applied to a specialized area. • Skills are generally thought of as being more task-specific capabilities than abilities. Organizations have to ensure that people possess the necessary abilities to engage in the behaviors required for effective performance. Even in the absence of such formal programs. For example. thoroughness. these personality dimensions that correlate positively and strongly with job performance would be helpful in the selection. Improving Organization's Ethical Climate • Managers are powerful role models whose habits and actual behavior send clear signals about the importance of ethical conduct. mental or interpersonal work. For example. experience and formal training. an accountant with numerical "ability and accounting skill takes a position in the Taxation Department and as time passes. Ideally. Thus. • Basic human rights should be respected. flexibility. Aptitudes are relatively stable capacities for performing some activity effectively. PHYSICAL AND INTELLECTUAL QUALITIES Physical differences among individuals are the most visible of all differences. the-individual to specialize in some field. a value is "an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-stated of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct are end-state of existence".The big. • Competencies are skills associated with specialization. training and appraisal of employees. five personality dimensions are: extroversion. an individual with numerical ability who goes to school to learn accounting develops a numerical skill specific to that field'. fairly and equitably. he develops more competency as a tax expert. Relative to the workplace. but they too can be assessed by fairly objective means. • Ability refers to an individual's skill to perform effectively in one or more areas of activity. Individuals with numerical ability. many individuals manage their own careers in such a way as to continually upgrade their abilities.
Such a social learning analysis is one of the most comprehensive and meaningful ways included in the overall study of organizational behavior. Three major types of factors play important roles in personality formation. PERSONALITY FORMATION The personality formation of an individual starts at birth and continues throughout his life.LESSON . color and other physical aspects and traits. From the above definition we can infer that all individuals have some universally common characteristics. Experienced managers become aware of the stages that their employees often go through.6 PERSONALITY Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. therefore. This is equivalent to recognizing thd social learning aspects related to personality. cooperative and trusting. The managers should. “A stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine those commonalities and differences in the psychological behavior and that may not be easily understood as the sole result of the social and biological pressures of the moment". artistically sensitive and intellectual. social and cultural. 3. facial features. • Stages: According to Sigmund Freud human personality progresses through four stages: dependent. Openness to Experience: Imaginative. Conscientiousness: Responsible. compulsive. From this perspective. Yet they differ in some other specific attributes. as well as their pattern of inner and outer measurable traits. does not mean that people never change. Personality traits are very important in organizational behavior. In particular. their personalities become very clearly defined and generally stable. The definition. dependable. Some personality theorists stress the need 6f identifying person-situation as interaction. multi-dimensional construct and there is no simple definition of what personality is. the social context (family and friends) and the cultural context (religion and values). These three parts interact with • each other to shape personality. values and actions remain relatively stable over time. Emotional Stability: Viewed from a negative standpoint such as tense. It also involves people's understanding themselves. occur gradually over a period of time. however. five personality traits especially related to job performance have recently emerged from research. Characteristics of these traits can be summarized as follows: 1. As people grow into adulthood. personality means the way people affect others. This helps them 19 deal with these stages effectively and promote maximum growth for the individual and for the organization. the aspects of personality concerned with the self-concept such as self-esteem and self-efficacy and the person-situation interaction also play important roles. however. Maddi defines personality as. feelings. #21 . Besides physical appearance and personality traits. Extroversion: Sociable. Agreeableness: Good-natured. According to some trait theories. you should be able to: • • • • Understand perceptual clarity about personality Discuss main determinants of personality Explain nature and dimensions of personality Describe personality attributes that are relevant to organizational behavior Personality is a complex. talkative and assertive. which are as follows: • Determinants: The most widely studied determinants of personality are biological. People affect others depending primarily upon their external appearance such as height. Their thoughts. This concept of stages of growth provides a valuable perspective to organizational behavior. Identifying the above "big five" traits related to performance reveals that personality plays an important role in organizational behavior. like social. In simple terms. attempt to understand certain dimensions of personality. oedipal and mature. This can enable them to predict the behavior of their employees on a daily basis. (political. religious and aesthetic preferences but each individual's nature differentiates that person from all others. People grow up in the presence of certain hereditary characteristics (body shape and height). persistent and achievement-oriented. • Traits: Traits to personality are also based on psychology. it asserts that individuals do not change all at once. insecure and nervous. 5. all people share common traits. This makes it difficult for the managers to assume that they can apply same reward types or motivation techniques to modify different individual behaviors. weight. and the person and situation interaction. Changes in individual's personality can. 4. 2.
Introversion and Extroversion Introversion is the tendency of individuals. By contrast. certain individuals have an internal locus of control. define themselves as to who they are and derive their sense of identity. Since managers have to constantly interact with individuals both in and out of the organization and influence people to achieve the organization's goals. Conversely. and so on. For example. rather than the lack of skills or poor performance on their part. important and worthy individuals. preferring to interact with a small intimate circle of friends. Self-esteem is important to self-concept. Self-Esteem and Self-Concept Self-esteem denotes the extent to which individuals consistently regard themselves as capable. which.these individuals think that forces beyond their control dictate the happenings around them. on the other Hand. searching for external stimuli with which they can interact. Tolerance for Ambiguity This personality characteristic indicates the level of uncertainty that people can tolerate to work efficiently without experiencing undue stress.. Introverts are more likely to be successful when they can work on highly abstract ideas such as R&D work. While there is some element of introversion as well as extroversion in all of us. which directs them to be inward and process feelings. Managers who have a high tolerance for ambiguity can cope up well under these conditions. High self-esteem provides a high sense of selfconcept. refers to the tendency in individuals to look outside themselves. some people think that what happens to them is a result of fate. thoughts and ideas within themselves. successful. locus of control has clear implications for organizations. Thus. introspective. Locus of Control Locus of control is the degree to which an individual believes that his or her behavior has direct impact on the consequences of that behavior. the way individuals. They may prefer a leader who makes most of the decisions and a reward system that considers seniority rather than merit. Extroversion.e. They are said to have an internal locus of control. they will be enhancing their selfconcept i. which means they have a relatively strong desire to participate in the management of their organizations and have a' freedom to do their jobs. and intellectual people. where they can interact face to face with others.. i. are quiet. Such individuals are likely to be most successful while working in the sales department. Thus. they are said to have an external locus of control. Managers. Self-esteem is an important personality factor that determines how managers perceive themselves and their role in the organization. Thus. The need for affiliation: Those in greater need for affiliation like to work cooperatively with others. Introverts. Extroverts are sociable. they would tend to define themselves as highly valued individuals in the organizational system. it is believed that extroverts are likely to be more successful as managers. strongly believe that each individual is in control of his or her life. As a personality attribute. personal relations unit. Thus. are likely to prefer a more centralized organization where they need not take any decisions. The higher #22 . Individuals with a high selfesteem will try to take on more challenging assignments and be successful. publicity office. the two are mutually reinforcing. Managers have to work well under conditions of extreme uncertainty and insufficient information. reinforces high self-esteem. on the contrary. tolerance for ambiguity is a personality dimension necessary for managerial success. The need for dominance: Those high in need for dominance are very effective while operating in environments where they can actively enforce their legitimate authority. They are as follows: • • • • The need for achievement: Those with a high achievement need engage themselves proactively in work behaviors in order to feel proud of their achievements and successes. They may like a reward system that recognizes individual performance and contributions. Some people. in turn. The need for autonomy: Those in need for autonomy function in the best way when not closely supervised. especially when things are rapidly changing in the organization's external environment. believe that if they work hard they will certainly succeed. chance. people with an external locus of control. They may incline to structured jobs where standard procedures are defined for them.e. people tend to be dominant as either extroverts or introverts. for example.PERSONALITY FACTORS IN ORGANISATIQN5 Some of the important personality factors that determine what kind of behaviors are exhibited at work include the following: Need Pattern Steers and Braunstein in 1976 ^developed a scale for the four needs of personality that became apparent in the 'work environment. luck or the behavior of other people. They. in a relatively quiet atmosphere. Because. who have a low tolerance for ambiguity may be effective in structured work settings but find it almost impossible to operate effectively when things are rapidly changing and much information about the future events is not available. reflective. lively and gregarious and seek outward stimuli or external exchanges. they may prefer a decentralized organization where they have a right of decision-making and work with a leader who provides them freedom and autonomy.
if he tends to be logical in assessing the system around. An individual tends to be Machiavellian. but given the degree of change in the nature of organizations and their environments. individuals who are. Similarly. Managers with a good mix of achievements. managers with internal locus of control will be more efficient as intellectual and skilled performers. While Type A persons help the organization to move ahead in a relatively short period of time they may also suffer health problems. Risk Propensity Risk-propensity is the decree to which an individual is willing to take chances and make risky decisions. They are likely to be more successful in their jobs. managers need to develop a high tolerance for ambiguity. For a workaholic turning to work can sometimes become a viable alternative to facing non-work related problems. Type A individuals are significantly more prone to heart attacks than Type B individuals. especially when the system rewards them for their contributions. extrovert managers will fit better in their jobs. Work-Ethic Orientation Some individuals are highly work-oriented while others try to do the minimum Work that is necessary to get by without being fired on-the-job. exhibit a competitive drive. A manager with a high-risk propensity might be expected to experiment with new ideas and to lead the organization in new directions. Type B persons are easy-going individuals who do not feel the time urgency. Thus. events and situations by manipulating the system to his advantage. which is dysfunctional for both organization and the workaholic members. A high level of work ethic orientation of members is good for the organization to achieve its goals. and are impatient when their work is slowed down for any reason. might lead to premature physical and mental exhaustion and health problems. The popular terms 'close-minded' and 'open-minded' describe people who are more and less . For example. an employee who is highly authoritarian may accept directives or orders from his superior without much questioning. Apart from possessing the necessary skills and abilities. there arc some personality ^predispositions. In sales and other people-oriented roles. a manager may be unwilling to listen to a new idea related to doing something more efficiently. but they need to know how to relax through exercises and self-monitor their stress levels. Type A and B Personalities Type A persons feel a chronic sense of time urgency. #23 . which are favourable "to managerial effectiveness and to the success of managers. Authoritarianism and Dogmatism Authoritarianism is the extent to which an individual believes that power and status differences are important within' hierarchical social systems like organizations.. the greater will be their contributions to the goals of the organization. are highly achievement-oriented. which might be detrimental to both themselves and the organization in the long run. a high tolerance for ambiguity is a desired managerial trait. managerial and organizational effectiveness. and try to gain control of people. affiliations and power will be successful in most situations. Too much "workahollism". express disagreement and even refuse to carry out requests if they arc for some reason objectionable. Dogmatism is the rigidity of a person's beliefs and his or her openness to other viewpoints. not dogmatic are most likely to be useful and productive organizational members. Managers with good work ethic values. He is said to be a person who is close-minded or highly dogmatic.dogmatic in their beliefs respectively. willing to twist and turn facts to influence others. A person who is not highly authoritarian might agree to carry out appropriate and reasonable directives from his boss. For example. a manager with low risk propensity might lead to a stagnant and overly conservative organization. Extreme work ethic values could lead to traits of "workahollism" where work is considered as the only primary motive for living with very little outside interests. But he may also raise questions. Machiavellianism Machiavellianism is manipulating or influencing other people as a primary way of achieving one's goal. without experiencing undue stress. will get more involved in their jobs and make things happen. Naturally. several unpredictable factors are involved in any complex situation. In contrast.the self-concept and self-esteem. The extremely work oriented person gets greatly involved in the job. There are many changes taking place in the internal and the external environment of an organization. and who do not experience the competitive drive. they should be able to. A manager who is very receptive to hearing about and trying out new ideas in the same circumstances might be seen as more open-minded or less dogmatic. however. Therefore. DESIRED PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS FOR EFFECTIVE MANAGERS Obviously. Dogmatism can be either beneficial or detrimental to organizations. which have inbuilt performance pressures and deadlines. This is because they will have the drive to achieve the goals and the interpersonal orientation to get the job done through others. which are beyond the managers’ control. Managers with Type A personalities may suit very well for some jobs. handle situations as they come. The above ten different personality predispositions are important for individual.
"to some extent. like some other people's. "both research and everyday experience confirm that employees with high self-esteem feel unique. Those with high self-efficacy feel capable and confident of performing well in a situation. Recognizing the essential ingredients for managerial success is the first step towards making the changes. This self is particularly relevant to the concepts of self-esteem and self-efficacy in the field of organizational behavior. our tolerance for ambiguity and ability to handle stress can be considerably enhanced. Most recently done studies indicate that self-esteem plays an important moderating role in the areas of emotional and behavioral responses and stress of organizational members. Selfefficacy.Personality is a relatively stable factor. People's self-esteem has to do with their self-perceived competence and self-image. For instance. the attributions we make for success such as internal versus external-locus of control can be changed. Probably the best statement on personality was made many years ago by Kluckhohn and Murray. Also. personality is a very diverse and complex cognitive process. self and situational interactions. Considerable research has been done on the role played by self-esteem outcomes in the organizational behavior. while self-efficacy tends to be situation specific. empowered and connected. a person's personality is like all other people's. In summary. has been shown to have an empirical relationship with organizational performance and other dynamics of organizational behavior. self-efficacy is conceptually close to self-esteem. The human self is made of many interacting parts and may be thought of as the personality viewed from within. to the people around them" Self-efficacy is concerned with self-perceptions of how well a person can cope with situations as they arise. Miner points out the differences by noting that self-esteem tends to be a generalized trait (it will be present in any situation). personality means the whole person." #24 . THE SELF-CONCEPT: SELF-ESTEEM AND SELF-EFFICACY People's attempt to understand themselves is called the self-concept in personality theory. competent. It incorporates almost everything. As defined above. and like no other people's. It is concerned with external appearance and traits. but our predispositions can be changed through conscious choice. our latent needs can be activated and our skills in decision-making can be increased through training programs and by deliberately making the necessary changes. In the field of organizational behavior. It was recently noted that. secure.
it is necessary to establish which drives are stimulating the most. Discrimination has wide applications in 'organizational behavior. Responses The stimulus results in responses. COMPONENTS OF THE LEARNING PROCESS The components of learning process are: drive. If two stimuli are exactly alike. Without reinforcement. The practice or experience must be reinforced in order so as to facilitate learning to occur. Individuals operate under many drives at the same time. Drive Learning frequently occurs in the presence of drive . Any temporary change in behavior is not a part of learning. There are four important points in the definition of learning: 1. Learning involves a change in behavior. cue stimuli. stereotypes. The. 3. they will have the same probability of evoking a specified response. prejudices. a supervisor can discriminate between two equally high producing workers. Cue Stimuli Cue stimuli are those factors that exist in the environment as perceived by the individual. reinforcement and retention. response. the supervisor discriminates between the worker producing low quality products and the worker producing high quality products. In the above example. one with low quality and other with high quality. The behavioral change must be based oh some form of practice or experience. behavioral change must be relatively permanent. Reinforcement may be defined as the environmental event's affecting the probability of occurrence of responses with which they are associated.any strong stimulus that impels action. Discrimination is a procedure in which an organization learns to emit a response to a stimulus but avoids making the same response to a similar but somewhat different stimulus. LEARNING THEORIES #25 . and secondary (or psychological).LESSON – 7 LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. The individual can borrow from past learning experiences to adjust more smoothly to new learning situations. 4. Reinforcement Reinforcement is a fundamental condition of learning. and work restrictions are also learned. It allows the members to adapt to overall changing conditions and specific new assignments. For example. and positively responds only to the quality conscious worker. Because of generalization. To predict a behavior. you should be able to: • • • Understand various factors affecting human behavior Explain implications of behavior modification Describe reinforcement for inducing positive behavior Learning is an important psychological process that-determines human behavior. perception or other complex phenomena. but bad habits. These two categories of drives often interact with each other. a person does not have to 'completely relearn each of the new tasks. familiarity. Responses may be in the physical form or may be in terms of attitudes. no measurable modification of behavior takes place. 2. Some of the learning is retained over a period of time while others may be forgotten. Generalization occurs when a response is elicited by a similar but new stimulus. The principle of generalization has important implications for human learning. The idea is to discover the conditions under which stimulus will increase the probability of eliciting a specific response. Learning can be defined as “relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience or reinforced practice". Learning generally has the connotation of improved behavior. There may be two types i of stimuli with respect to their results in terms of response concerned: generalization and discrimination. though this change is not necessarily an improvement over previous behavior. Retention The stability of learned behavior over time is defined as retention and its contrary is known as forgetting. Drives are basically of two types -primary (or physiological).
without going through a lengthy operant conditioning process. Secondary reinforcers like job advancement. It is based on the principle that if a response is not reinforced. OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING Observational learning results from watching the behavior of another person and appraising the consequences of that behavior. Most behaviors in organizations are learned. The learning of these complex behaviors can be explained or better understood by looking at operant conditioning. Negative reinforcers also serve to strengthen desired behavior responses leading to their removal or termination. Cognitive Learning Here the primary emphasis is on knowing how events and objects are related to each other. Reinforcement is anything that both increases the strength of response and tends to induce repetitions of the behavior. Pavlov noticed a great deal of salivation. management must select reinforcers that are sufficiently powerful and durable. Pavlov had conditioned the dog to respond to a learned stimulus. Operant Conditioning An operant is defined as a behavior that produces effects. When Pavlov presented a piece of meat to the dog in the experiment. Negative Reinforcement The threat of punishment is known as negative reinforcement. viz. Primary reinforcers such as food. i. it salivated. Operant conditioning. Positive Reinforcement Positive reinforcement strengthens and increases behavior by the presentation of a desirable consequence (reward). There are two typos of positive: reinforces: primary and secondary. Most of the learning that takes place in the classroom is cognitive learning. positive reinforcement. X observes that Y is rewarded for superior performance. which arc independent of past experiences. praise and esteem result from previous association with a primary reinforcer. when Pavlov merely rang a bell. a primary reinforcer like food satisfies hunger need and reinforced food-producing behavior. Management can use the operant conditioning process successfully to control and influence the behavior of employees by manipulating its reward system. extinction and punishment. Operant conditioning is a powerful tool for managing people in organizations. Operant conditioning is a voluntary behavior and it is determined. #26 .Classical Conditioning The work of the famous Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov demonstrated the classical conditioning process. Extinction is a behavioral strategy that does not promote desirable behaviors but can help to reduce undesirable behaviors. operant behaviors. a positive reinforce is a reward that follows behavior and is capable of increasing the frequency of that behavior. and it is voluntary rather than reflexive.. controlled and altered by the consequences. Cognitive learning is important because it increases the change that the learner will do the right thing first. But behavior of people in organizations is emitted rather than elicited. It does not require an overt response. He termed the food an unconditioned stimulus and the salivation an unconditioned response. It is elicited in response to a specific. Classical conditioning is passive. Punishment Punishment is a control device employed in organizations to discourage and reduce annoying behaviors of employees. it will eventually disappear. water and sex are of biological importance and have effects. As pointed out by Skinner. In order to apply reinforcement procedures successfully. Four types of reinforcement strategies can be employed by managers to influence the behavior of the employees. negative reinforcement. When the dog saw the meat. Primary reinforcers must be learned. X learns the positive relationship between performance and rewards without actually obtaining the reward himself. recognition. Observational learning plays a crucial role in altering behaviors in organizations. classical conditioning represents an insignificant part of total human learning. Classical conditioning has a limited value in the study of organizational behavior. basically a product of Skinnerian psychology. suggests that individuals emit responses that are either not rewarded or are punished. Extinction Extinction is an effective method of controlling undesirable behavior. the dog did not salivate. The dog eventually learned to salivate in response to the ringing of the-bell-even when there was no meat. As such it explains simple and reflexive behaviors. On the other hand. Pavlov subsequently introduced the sound of a bell each time the meat was given to the dog. When Mr. Thorndike called this the "law of exercise" which states that behavior can be learned by repetitive association between a stimulus and a response. maintained and controlled by its consequences.e. identifiable event. For instance. In other words. Something happens and we react in a specific or particular fashion. It refers to non-reinforcement.
Managers know that individuals capable of giving superior performance must be given more reinforces than those with average or low performance. Managers can successfully use the operant conditioning process to control and influence the behavior of employees. poor performance. When individuals engage in various types of dysfunctional behavior such as late for work. by manipulating its reward system. Learning concepts provide a basis for changing behaviors that are unacceptable and maintaining those behavior that are acceptable. disobeying orders.LEARNING THEORY AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR The relevance of the learning theories for explaining and predicting of organizational behavior is marginal. Learning theory can also provide certain guidelines for conditioning organizational behavior. This does not mean that learning theories are totally irrelevant. the manager will attempt to educate more functional behaviors. #27 .
The affective component of an attitude reflects 'feelings and emotions' that an individual has towards a situation. an "attitude" is an individual's point of view or an individual's way of looking at something. which are as follows: • Affective component • Cognitive component • Intentional component The figure 8. the intentional component of an attitude reflects how an individual 'expects to behave' towards or in the situation. the different components of an attitude held towards a firm. An attitude is defined as. People try to maintain consistency among the three components of their attitudes. "I will never do business with them again"'—Intentional component. Attitude is the combination of beliefs and feelings that people have about specific ideas. which prepares him to react or make him behave in a particular pre-determined way. Finally. an "attitude" may be explained as the mental state of an individual. To be more explicit. situations or other people. "They are the worst supply firm I have ever dealt with"—Cognitive component. conflicting circumstances often arise. The conflict that individuals may experience among their own attitudes is called 'cognitive dissonance. "a learned pre-disposition to respond in a consistently favourable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object". For example. you should be able to: • • • • • Explain the concept of attitude in organizations Understand the method of formation of attitude Discuss individual attitude in organizations and indicate their effect on behaviour Explain the concept of perception and perceptual process Describe perception attribution in organizations In simple words. Attitude is important because it is the mechanism through which most people express their feelings.1 shows the components of attitude. The cognitive component of an attitude is derived from 'knowledge' that an individual has about a situation. which supplies inferior products and that too irregularly could be described as follows: • • • "I don't like that company"—Affective component. However.LESSON – 8 LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE Attitude has three components. ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE #28 .
a manager may come to realise that he is actually very talented and subsequently may develop a more positive attitude toward him. they do and help supervisors in winning cooperation from them. it is very essential for the efficient working of an organization. for our interaction with others. For example. Organizations send messages in a variety of forms to their members regarding what they are expected to do and not to do. learning and personality. perceptual selectivity is influenced by the individual's motivation. Both selectivity and organization go 'into perceptual. If employees are satisfied with their job. satisfaction depends on individual factors like individual's needs and aspirations. In particular. Both may increase with an employee's age and years with the organization. organizational commitment and job involvement. and with the world around us. situations or people. Attitude is an understanding or learning of why employees feel and act the way. In contrast. Different people perceive the same information differently. working conditions. It is a process that takes place between the situation and the behaviour and is most relevant to the study of organizational behaviour. Organizational Commitment and Involvement Two other important work-related attitudes arc organizational commitment and involvement. Group factors such as relationship with co-workers and supervisors also influence job. Hence. it may lead to low employee turnover and less absenteeism and vice-versa. makes positive contributions. can enhance job involvement. food in the canteen. From a personal perspective.Individual attitude are formed over time as a result of repeated personal experiences with ideas. a dissatisfied employee may be absent more often may experience stress that disrupts coworkers. size. A satisfied employee also tends to be absent less often. the observation that a department head and a subordinate may react quite differently to the same top management directive can be better understood and explained by the perceptual process. Involving employees in decision-making can also help to increase commitment. Similarly. ATTITUDE: IT’S IMPORTANCE IN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Attitudes of both workers and management react to each other and determine mutual relationships. selectivity is affected by intensity. An employee with little involvement is motivated by extrinsic motivational factor and an employee with strong involvement is motivated by intrinsic motivational factors. Internally. our mental state. superiors. One of the very important ways to understand individual behaviour in an organization is that of studying attitude. Although there arc a number of cognitive processes. Extensive research conducted on job satisfaction has indicated that personal . contrast. designing jobs. and in turn organizational working. attitudes provide knowledge base or prepare. Individual differences and uniqueness are largely the result of the cognitive processes. policies and procedures of the organizations and working conditions.factors such as an individual's needs and aspirations determine this attitude. the incoming information is organized into a meaningful whole. In spite of organizations sending clear messages. If the organization treats its employees fairly and provides reasonable rewards and job security. Work-Related Attitudes People in an organization form attitude about many things such as about their salary.satisfaction. employees are more likely to be satisfied and committed. Through this complex process. people make interpretations of the stimulus or situation they are faced with. repetition. There are a number of factors that lead to commitment and involvement. which is situationally specific and learned. So. This directly affects organizational behaviour. Involvement refers to a person's willingness to be a team member and work beyond the usual standards of the job. and stays with the organization. work policies and compensation. motion and novelty and familiarity. After the selective process filters the stimulus situation. which are interesting and stimulating. Especially some important attitudes are job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. fringe benefits. Externally. and may keep continually looking for another job. Organizational factors that influence employee satisfaction include pay. Perception plays a key role in determining individual behaviour in organizations. In the process of perception. assimilate them and then interpret them. #29 . After working with a new person. promotion possibilities. it is generally recognized that the perceptual process is a very important one. Organizational commitment is the individual's feeling of identification with and attachment to an organization. with his sense of job security and participation in decision-making. along with group and organizational factors such as relationships with co-workers and supervisors. Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction is an attitude reflects the extent to which an individual is gratified or fulfilled . promotion. Perception Perception is an important mediating cognitive process.by his or her work. interpretations. those messages are subject to distortion in the process of being perceived by organizational members. An attitude may change as a result of new information. people receive many different kinds of information through all five senses. managers need to have a general understanding of the basic perceptual process. A manager may have a negative attitude about a new employee because of his lack of job-related experience. uniform etc.
Attribution is a mechanism through which we observe behaviour and then attribute certain causes to it. The forces within the person (internal) or outside the person (external) lead to the behaviour. Stereotyping Stereotyping is the process of categorizing or labeling people on the basis of a single attribute. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT Social perception is concerned with how one individual perceives other individuals. impression management has considerable' implications for activities like determining the validity of performance appraisals. consistency and distinctiveness. if you observe that an employee is much more motivated than the people around (low consensus). impression management is the process by which the general people attempt to manage or control the perceptions that others form about them. In this case influenced by the selective perception process he too will disregard it. intensity. Perceptions based on stereotypes about people's sex exist more or less in all work places. Selective perception may make the manager to quickly disregard what he observed. organization. Among these. selective perception and stereotyping are particularly relevant to organizations. a manager has a very positive attitude about a particular worker and one day he notices that the worker seems to be goofing up. The details of a particular situation affect the way a person perceives an object. and the halo effect process. impression management has many possible conceptual dimensions arid has been researched in relation to aggression. PERCEPTION AND ATTRIBUTION Perception is also closely linked with another process called attribution. motivated to control how their boss perceives them. Consistency is the degree to which the same person behaves in the same way at different times. It serves as a pragmatic. He might realize that this employee is the only one whois laic (low consensus). repetition and novelty. if a woman is sitting behind the table in the office. the same person may perceive the same object very differently in different situations. Typically. At this point. People often tend to present themselves in such a way so as to impress others in a socially desirable manner. and subsequently recall that the same employee is sometimes late for work (low distinctiveness). Consensus is the extent to which other people in the same situation behave in the same way. For example. subordinates may be. if dishonesty is associated with politicians. political tool for someone to climb the ladder of success in organizations. Conversely. recall that he is often late for other meetings (high consistency). selective perception is beneficial because it allows us to disregard minor bits of information. Most recently. But it would induce holding an exactly opposite assumption about a man. is consistently motivated (high consistency). among other things. politician). Selective Perception Selective perception is the process of screening out information that we are uncomfortable with or that contradicts our beliefs. however. a manager who has formed a very negative attitude about a particular worker and he happens to observe a high performance from the same worker. Thus. For example. For instance. • Characteristics of the person include attitude. by the characteristics of the person and by the situational processes. In one sense. But if selective perception causes managers to ignore important information.Basic Perceptual Process Perception is influenced by characteristics of the object being perceived. once we observe behaviour we evaluate it in terms of its consensus. The processes through which a person's perceptions are altered by the situation include selection. • Characteristics of the object include contrast. associating certain characteristics with those categories (like passivity. movement. and seems to work hard no matter what the task (low distinctiveness) you might conclude that internal factors are causing that particular behaviour. projection. Especially in an employment situation. these perceptions lead to the belief that an individual's sex determines which tasks he or she will be able to perform. For example. we are likely to assume that all politicians are dishonest. Stereotyping consists of three steps: identifying categories of people (like women. According to Attribution theory. two separate components of impression management have been identified . dishonesty respectively) and then assuming that any one who fits a certain category must have those characteristics. she will be very often. Another example is of a manager who observes that an employee is late for a meeting. it can become quite detrimental. Distinctiveness is the extent to which the same person behaves in the same way in other situations. The degree of this motivation to manage impression will depend on factors like the #30 .impression motivation and impression construction. stereotyping process. This pattern of attributions might cause the manager to decide that the individual's behaviour requires a change. attributions and social facilitation. self-concept and personality. the manager might meet the subordinate to establish some disciplinary consequences to avoid future delays. perceived as a clerk and not an executive at first. The Process of Impression Management As with other cognitive processes. attribution. For example. attitude change.
Employee Impression Management Strategies There are two basic strategies of impression management that employees can use. perceptions and attributions. trying to treat each individual as a unique person #31 . five factors have been identified as being especially relevant to the] kinds of impression people try to construct: the self-concept. is concerned with the specific type of impression people want to make and how they create it. target values and current social image. but received a lesser credit. • Employees ascertain that they are seen with the right people at the right times. Using this broader approach. physical status. if they are seeking to maximize responsibility for a positive outcome or to look better than what they really are. If employees are trying to minimize responsibility for some negative event or to stay out of trouble. Successful managers constantly monitor their own assumptions. Impression construction. then they lean use a promotion-enhancing strategy. Coping with Individual Differences Individual differences and people's perception of them affect every aspect of behaviour in organizations. Employees using this approach try to disassociate themselves from the group and from the problem. The promotion enhancing strategies involve the following activities: • Employees harbor a feeling that they have not been given credit for a positive outcome. • Employees point out that they did more. desired and undesired identity images. • Employees identify cither personal or organizational obstacles they had to overcome to accomplish an outcome and expect a higher credit. there is still little known of how they select the way to manage others' perceptions of them. interests. Although some theorists limit the type of impression only to personal characteristics others include such things as attitudes. the value of these goals. the other major process. role constraints. • Employees apologies to the boss for some negative event. the differences between individuals. • Employees secretly tell their boss that they fought for the right thing. or values. Managers must never underestimate. the discrepancy between the image one would like others to hold and the image one believes others already hold. Although there has been a considerable research done on how these five factors influence the type of impression that people try to make.relevance that these impressions have on the individual's goals. but were overruled. they may employ a demotion-preventative strategy. On the other hand. The demotion-preventative strategy is characterized by the following activities: • Employees attempt to excuse or justify their actions.
• Motivation also plays a crucial role in determining the level of performance. A high degree of motivation may lead to high morale. needs. A team of highly qualified and motivated employees is necessary for achieving objectives of an organization because of the following reasons: • Motivated employees make optimum use of available resources for achieving objectives. The manager in general has to get the work done through others. • Motivation is also a process of stimulating and channelising the energy of an individual for achieving set goals. Terry. These factors help reduce absenteeism and labor turnover. • The motivation process is influenced by personality traits. use of force etc. Positive motivation includes incentives. which forces him to work more efficiently. FEATURES OF MOTIVATION The following are the features of motivation: • It is an internal feeling and forces a person to action." On the basis of above definitions. • Motivating force an^ its degree. DEFINITION According to George R. "Motivation refers to the degree of readiness of an organism to pursue some designated goals and implies the determination of the nature and locus of force inducing a degree of readiness. • Motivation originates from the-needs and wants of an individual." According to Encyclopaedia of Management. the following observations can be made regarding motivation: • Motivation is an inner psychological force. it is "the complex of forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organization". It is a tension of lacking something in his mind. #32 ." In the words of Robert Dubin. causing the individual to move in a goal directed pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium. • The process of Motivation helps the manager in analysing and understanding human behavior and finding but how an individual can be inspired to produce desirable working behavior. you should be able to: • • • • Understand the meaning. may differ from individual to individual depending on his personality. IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION Motivation is an important part of managing process. • Motivated employees make full use of their energy and other abilities to raise the existing level of efficiency. competence and other factors. perception and competence of an individual. fear. These 'others' are human resources who need to be motivated to attain organizational objectives.LESSON – 9 MOTIVATION AND BEHAVIOR Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. Highly motivated employees get higher satisfaction. which may lead to higher efficiency. • A highly motivated employee works more efficiently and his level of production tends to be higher than others. • It is a continuous activity. • It may be positive or negative. rewards and other benefits while negative motivation implies some punishment. "Motivation is the desire within an individual that stimulates him or her to action. craving or need that must be satisfied. • Motivation is directly related to the level of efficiency of employees. • Motivation is considered as a backbone of good industrial relations. They are more committed and cooperative for achieving organizational objectives. which activates and compels the person to behave in a particular manner. • Motivated employees make goal-directed efforts. by satisfying the need. Viteles defines motivation as "an unsatisfied need which creates a state of tension or disequilibrium. • It varies from person to person and from time to time. • The motivation procedure contributes to and boosts up the morale of the employees. which means an active form of a desire. • Motivated employees are more loyal and sincere to an organization. Motivation is the key to organizational effectiveness. nature and importance of motivation Explain need-based theories of motivation Discuss expectancy theory of motivation Explain ways of enhancing employee motivation The word motivation is derived from ‘motive'. learning abilities. • Motivation may be positive as well as negative.
water and air. Physiological needs represent the basic issues of survival such as food. behaviorists and psychologists. This 'moving up process continues until the individual reaches the self-actualization level. Understanding human motivation is crucial for managing people. This includes managers. social scientists. Security or safety needs refer to the requirements for a secure physical and emotional environment. An individual is motivated first and foremost to satisfy physiological needs. a grievance resolving system and an adequate insurance and retirement benefit package. Motivation also helps in improving the image of an organization. NEED-BASED THEORIES TO MOTIVATION Need-based theories try to answer the question.• • Effectively motivated employees get more job satisfaction and possess high morale. "what factor(s) motivate people to choose certain behaviors?" Some of the widely known need-based theories are as follows: (a) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Maslow Abraham proposed his theory in the 1940s. Belonging or social needs are related to the. esteem and selfactualization needs. A number of theories have been developed. When these needs are satisfied. sex. Esteem needs actually comprise of two different sets of needs: • The need for a positive self-image and self-respect.1 shows Maslow's hierarchy of needs Maslow suggested that the five levels of needs are arranged in accordance with their importance. working harder while simultaneously looking for a job. Since people have many different needs. For example. Examples include the desire for adequate housing and clothing. He then chooses to pursue one or more of these options for instance. social aspect of human life. Managers can help ensure the 'satisfaction of these important needs by allowing social interaction and by making employees feel like part of a team or work group. The motivation process begins with identification of individual needs. he is motivated and 'moves up' the hierarchy to satisfy security needs. comfortable temperatures and ventilation. Security needs are satisfied for people in the work place by job continuity. the cycle of motivation is constantly repeated. the satisfaction of one need or set of needs is likely to give rise to the identification of other needs. The figure 9. adequate lighting. Understanding these theories facilitates the managers to get a better insight into the human behavior. starting from the bottom of the hierarchy. popularly known as the Hierarchy of Needs assumes that people are motivated to satisfy five levels of needs: physiological. most physiological needs are satisfied by adequate wages and by the work environment itself. • The need for recognition and respect from others. then he tries to fulfill his needs by asking for a raise or by working harder to earn a raise or by seeking a new job. #33 . when an employee feels underpaid then what. even though there is no universally acceptable motivation theory. This theory. If his hard work resulted in a pay rise. Extensive research has been performed to find out what makes people work and how to motivate them. security. They include the need for love and affection and the need to be accepted by one's peers. For most people these needs are satisfied by a combination of family and community relationships and friendships on the job. belongingness. he probably feels satisfied and will continue to work hard. Thus. In organizational settings. the need to be free from worry about money and job security and the desire for safe working conditions. which provides employees with rest rooms. But if no raise has been provided he is likely to try another option.
For example. The existence needs in this theory refers to the physiological and security needs of Maslow. regress to a lower level and will begin to pursue low level needs again. The letters E. from security needs to belongingness. The figure 9. a worker previously motivated by money (existence needs) is awarded a pay rise to satisfy this needs. But research has revealed several shortcomings of the theory such as some research has found that five levels of needs are not always present and that the order of the levels is not always the same as assumed by Maslow. which Maslow defines the self-actualization needs.called the ERG Theory of Motivation. Maslow's concept of the need hierarchy possesses a certain intuitive logic and has been accepted universally by managers. it also suggests that if needs remain unsatisfied at some higher level. friendship (relatedness). for example. This process of contributing to actual organizational performance helps employees experience personal growth and development associated with self-actualizing. Growth needs refers to both self-esteem and self-actualization needs. At the top of the hierarchy are those needs. an organization can help in fulfillment of these needs by encouraging employee’s participation in decision-making process and by providing them with an opportunity to learn new things about their jobs and organization. Maslow maintained that one heed must be satisfied before an individual can progress to needs at a higher level. Although ERG Theory assumes that motivated behavior follows a hierarchy in somewhat the same fashion as suggested by Maslow.Organizations can help address esteem needs by providing a variety of external symbols of accomplishment such as job titles and spacious offices. self-actualization needs are perhaps the most difficult for managers to address. and an opportunity to learn new skills (growth) all at the same time. For" example. This is termed as satisfaction—progression process. Since these needs are highly individualized and personal. an organization can help his employee by creating a climate for fulfillment of self-actualization needs. • Firstly. Therefore. it allows for the possibility that people can be motivated by a desire for money (existence). it is difficult for organizations to use the need hierarchy to enhance employee motivation. For instance. • Secondly. (b) ERG Theory of Motivation Clayton Alderfer has proposed an alternative hierarchy of needs . there are two important differences. organizations can also help satisfy esteem needs by providing employees with challenging job assignments that can induce a sense of accomplishment. At a more fundamental level. an employee should try to meet these needs on his own end.2 shows ERG theory: ERG Theory the need hierarchy developed by Maslow into three 9. Relatedness and Growth. These needs involve realizing one's potential for continued: growth and individual development. Relatedness needs refers to belongingness and esteem needs. the individual will become frustrated. However. R and G stand for Existence.2. ERG theory has an element of frustrations-regression that is missing from Maslow's need hierarchy. Moreover. If for some #34 . Although the ERG theory includes this process. Then he attempts to establish more friendship to satisfy relatedness needs. ERG theory suggests that more than one kind of need might motivate a person at the same time.
security and working conditions. For instance. be satisfied. Hertzberg recommends focusing on a different set of factors to increase motivation. he may eventually become frustrated and regress to being motivated to earn even more money. (c) The Dual-Structure Approach to Motivation Another popular need-based approach to motivation is the dual-structure approach developed by Frederick Herzberg. which are related to the work environment in which the job is performed. Motivators • Achievement • Recognition • Advancement • The work itself • The possibility of personal growth • Responsibility Hygiene or Maintenance Factors • Company policies • Technical supervision • Interpersonal relations with supervisor • Interpersonal relations with peers • Interpersonal relations with subordinates • Salary • Job security • Personal life • Work conditions • Status Based on these findings. however. Instead. Hence. Hertzberg’s dual structure approach however suffers from certain drawbacks. were cited as causing satisfaction. The ERG theory emphasis on the following key points regarding needs: ○ Some needs may be more important than others. This is also known as Two-factor Theory. advancement and growth. The theory. Specifically. He asked them to recall such occasions when they had been dissatisfied and less motivated. He found that entirely different sets of factors were associated with satisfaction and dissatisfaction.reason an employee finds that it is impossible to become better friends with others in the work place. One structure involves a set of factors that result in feelings ranging from satisfaction to no satisfaction. Herzberg recommended that managers seeking to motivate employees should first make sure that hygiene factors are taken care of and that employees are not dissatisfied with pay. he recommends job enrichment as a means of enhancing the availability of motivation factors. an individual who identified 'low pay' as causing dissatisfaction did not necessarily mention 'high pay' as a cause of satisfaction. Once a manager has eliminated employee dissatisfaction. They have also criticized Herzberg's theory for its inability to define the relationship between satisfaction and motivation and to pay enough attention to differences between individuals. Employees would. ○ People may change their behavior after any particular set of needs has been satisfied. which are related specifically to the job itself and the factors causing dissatisfaction are called hygiene factors. Although widely accepted by managers. Herzberg argued that attitudes and motivation consists of a dual structure. by improving opportunities for advancement. such as recognition or accomplishment. Herzberg identified two sets of factors responsible for causing either satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Other researchers who measured satisfaction and dissatisfaction based on different aspects reached very different conclusions. therefore. several other factors. recognition. Herzberg developed this approach after interviewing 200 accountants and engineers in Pittsburg. at present Herzberg's theory is not held in high esteem by researchers in the field of motivation. dissatisfied or somewhere in between. This is termed as ‘frustration-regression' process. had a major impact on managers and has played a key role in increasing their awareness of motivation and its importance in type work place. This finding suggests that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are at opposite ends of a single scale. The other structure involves a set of factors that result in feelings ranging from dissatisfaction to no satisfaction. 'X' AND ‘Y' THEORIES OF MOTIVATION #35 . The factors influencing satisfaction are called motivation factors or motivators.
this theory of behavior is related to organizations that lay hard and rigid standards of work-behavior. establish 'norms of production. • Leadership qualities. controlled or threatened to do the work. They prefer a job that entails a good deal of social interaction and offers opportunities to make friends. Organization should keep in mind that once theory 'X' is employed for organizational working. Need for Affiliation 3. The concepts of 'Job' Enlargement'. Such types of individuals generally look for positions of leadership. • Most employees consider security of job. • Employees accept and seek responsibilities. are outspoken. • Employees dislike work. Need for Achievement : : Need for Power According to this theory the need for power. Literally. • Star attraction in gathering. in an effort to maintain friendship. have a stubborn character and exert authority. have rigid rules and regulations. McGregor supports the applicability of motivational theory 'Y'. Need for Power 2. • Employees avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction. it is difficult for the management to shift to theory ' Y'. instead of theory ‘X'. Some examples of such organizations are organizations that break down jobs into specialized elements. • Innovative spirit is not confined to managers alone. Need for Affiliation The need for affiliation means the desire for human companionship and acceptance. they act effectively. 'Participation' and 'Management by Objectives' are quite consistent with theory ' Y'. McClelland and his associate Atkinson have contributed to an understanding of motivation by identifying three types of basic motivating needs. MC-CLELLAND's NEED THEORY OF MOTIVATION David C. one is negative called "Theory of X" and another is positive called "Theory of Y". secures the commitment of employees to organizational objectives. This motivational theory places emphasis on satisfaction of employees. • Employees must be coerced. relies heavily on self-control -and self-direction. on the other hand. while theory 'Y'. • Excel in group task. some employees also possess it. Theory of Y Following are the assumptions of managers who believe in the "Theory of Y" regarding their employees. all of a sudden. Those with a high need for affiliation often behave the way they think other people want them to. These needs have been classified as: 1. I Theory of X Following are the assumptions of managers who believe in the "Theory of X" regarding their employees. The principal characteristics of such peoples' traits are as follows: • Desire to like and be liked. #36 . Applicability of Theories 'X' and 'Y' Theory 'X' in its applicability. the use of authority. that are sometimes very vigorously enforced. judicious and slow steps. While applying this theory. • Prefer cooperative situation. Theory 'X' points to the traditional approach of management. • Employees are self-directed and self-controlled and committed to the organizational objectives. most important of all other factors in the job and have very little ambition. which might be defined as the desire to be influential in a group and to control one's environment is an important motivation factor.Douglas McGregor observed two diametrically opposing viewpoints of managers 'about their employees. Research suggests that people with a strong need for power. Theory 'Y’. are likely to be superior performers and occupy supervisory positions. shifting in the practical applicability of theory 'X' to theory ' Y' usually can be achieved. places exclusive reliance upon external control of human behavior. with systematic. as an instrument of command and control is minimal. • Employees love work as play or rest. • Enjoy company and friendship. However. Employees exercise self-direction and self-control. design equipment to control worker's pace of work.
who are sociable. and possess a high sense of personal responsibility in getting jobs done.3 shows the expectancy theory of motivation. a person is looking for a job and reads an advertisement for a position of Marketing Executive with a starting salary of Rs. Basically. Then he comes across another advertisement for a Management Trainee in a big organization with a starting salary of Rs. Process-based theories to motivation are concerned with how motivation occurs. are ever prepared to face challenging situations and set arduous goals . cooperative and understanding. but still doesn't apply simply because he doesn't want it.process of governing choices. These questions relate to behaviors or actions. For instance. He chooses to apply for this job because he wants it and also thinks that he has a reasonable chance of getting it. Need for Achievement People with a high need for achievement. 2 lakh per year.. Two of the most useful process-based approaches to motivation arc expectancy theory and equity theory.This need is closely associated with the "social-type” of personality. In this case he realizes that he . desires and goals.for themselves. They focus on why people choose to enact certain behavioral options to fulfill their needs and how they evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained these goals. he probably does not apply because he is aware that there is little chance of getting it.that is. • It assumes that different people have different types of needs. Next he sees an advertisement is for Field Supervisor for a salary of Re. #37 . friendly. Even though he might want the job. These concepts are addressed by various process-based theories to motivation. • It assumes that people make decisions about their own behavior in organizations. 1 lakh per year. Figure 9. always feel ambitious to be successful. Persons with high motivation for power and affiliation have better chances of becoming good managers. Needs theories are content-oriented . 3 lakh per year. goals and feelings of satisfaction. and feel inclined to put in longer hours of work" Failures never dishearten them and they are always ready to put in their best efforts for excellent performance. PROCESS-BASED THEORIES TO MOTIVATION The field of organizational behavior has generally moved a way from the needs theories of motivation. The expectancy theory tries to explain how and why people choose a particular behavior over an alternative. The theory suggests that motivation depends on two things: how much an individual desires a particular goal and how likely he thinks he can get it. They do not explain why or how motivated behavior occurs. (a) Expectancy Theory of Motivation Expectancy theory of motivation was developed by. The expectancy theory rests on four assumptions: • The theory assumes that behavior is determined by a combination of forces in the individual and in the environment. They are prone to take calculated risks. they explain what are the causes leading to motivated behaviors. Vroom's expectancy theory views motivation as a.Victor Vroom. These people are concerned with their progress.can probably get the job.
Practical Applicability of Expectancy Theory If a manager wishes to motivate his employees for increased and better performance. The above model suggests that motivation leads to efforts and that effort. When an individual believes that effort and performance are unrelated. The human relationists assumed that employee satisfaction causes good performance but research has not supported such relationship. the effort-to-performance expectancy is very weak. According to this model. result in performance. but much more work still needs to be put in. For instance. which should not be ignored by the manger. Thus. then his effort-to-performance expectancy is high. approaching to 1. the performance-to-outcome expectancy must also be greater than zero. Each of these outcomes has an associated value or valence that is. The managers can perform the following activities in relation to this • Determine what outcomes employees prefer.0. Usually we are not sure about our expectations. Expectancy theory maintains that when all of these conditions are met. For example. then he has to make sure whether the reward system is highly supportive to hard work or high quality. individuals develop some sense of these expectations before they exhibit motivated or non-motivated behavior. that is close to 1. The manager will particularly see that the specific system.• It assumes that people make choices from among alternative plans of behavior based on their perceptions of the extent to which a given behavior will lead to desired outcomes. • Link desired outcomes to performance goal achievement. an index of how much an individual desires a particular outcome. When an individual believes that effort will lead directly to high performance. The expectancy theory also has several other important practical implications. its valence is positive. • Third..0 with a moderate expectancy. It is this advantage of expectancy theory that goes beyond the need-based approaches to motivation. the individual is motivated to expand effort. the effort-to-performance expectancy must be greater than zero. If an individual does not want an outcome. Another important point. its valence is negative. may get big pay raises. that is close to 0. Porter and #38 . leads to various outcomes—each of which has an associated value called its 'valence'. • Establish attainable performance goals. Performance.00 and 0. And an individual who believes that performance has no relationship to rewards has a low performance-to-outcome expectancy that is close to 0. .00. A high performer. in turn. the sum of the valences for all relevant outcomes must be greater than zero. three conditions must be met.0. Performance-to-Outcome Expectancy The performance-to-outcome expectancy means an individual's perception of the probability that performance will result in a specific outcome. • Define. Effort-to-Performance Expectancy The effort-to-performance expectancy refers to an individual's perception of the probability that effort will result in high performance. fast promotions and praise from the boss. no doubt 'expectancy' theory has gained much popularity with theorists. for example. If an individual wants an outcome. • Second. so as to make them feel confident that their energized efforts will be rewarded. is communicated to them. of behavior in an organizational environment. as applicable in their case. communicate and clarify the level of performance that is desired. which managers should keep in mind. is that rewards must correspond to the varying preferences of an individual employee. An individual who believes that high performance may possibly lead to a pay raise has a moderate expectancy between 1. that is close to 1. expectancy is quite strong. so they fall somewhere between 0.0 and 1. However. before it can be accepted for use as an effective instrument of explanation of 'motivation' with all its implications. if one feels sure that studying hard for an examination (effort) will result in scoring high marks (performance).00. an individual who believes that high performance will lead to a pay raise has a high performance-to-outcome expectancy. which are as follows: • First. If an individual is indifferent to an outcome. Outcomes and Valences Expectancy theory recognizes that an individual may experience a variety of outcomes as a consequence. In conclusion. The Porter-Lawer Extension Porter and Lawler have proposed an interesting extension to the expectancy theory. he may also be subject to a lot of stress and incur resentment from co-workers. its valence is zero. when combined with individual ability and environmental factors. for motivated behavior to occur on the part of any individual.
Lawler suggest that there may indeed be a relationship between satisfaction and performance but that it goes in the opposite direction, that is, superior performance can lead to satisfaction. Porter-Lawler Model First, an individual's initial effort is influenced by his perception regarding the value of reward and the likelihood that the effort will yield a reward. The probability that increased effort will lead to improved performance is affected by an individual's traits, abilities and perception of his role in an organization. The model also distinguishes between intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Finally, the Porter-Lawler model borrows from equity theory the idea that the employee's satisfaction depends on the perceived equity of the rewards relative to the 'effort expended and the level of performance attained. Implications for Managers Expectancy theory can be useful for organizations attempting to improve the motivation of their employees. Nadler and Lawler suggest a series of steps for managers in applying the basic ideas of the theory. 1. They should determine the primary outcomes that each employee likely desires. 2. They should decide what kind and levels of performance are needed to meet organizational goals. 3. They should ascertain that the desired levels of performance are attainable. 4. They should ensure that desired outcomes and performance are linked. 5. They should also analyze the complete work situation for conflicting expectancies. 6. They should make sure that the rewards are large enough. 7. They should make sure that the overall system is equitable for everyone. The expectancy theory has also its limitations. It is quite difficult to apply, for example, application of this theory in the work place would require to identify all the potential outcomes for each employee, to determine all relevant expectancies and then to balance everything somehow to maximize employee motivation. Expectancy theory also assumes that people are rational - therefore, they will systematically consider all the potential outcomes and their associated expectancies before selecting a particular behavior. However, few people actually make decisions in such a precise and rational manner.
(b) Equity Theory J. Stacy Adams developed equity theory of motivation. The equity theory argues that motivations arise out of simple desire to be treated fairly. Equity can be defined as an individual's belief that he is being treated fairly relative to the treatment of others. The figure 9.4 shows the equity process. A person's perception of equity develops through a four-step process as shown below: 1. First an individual evaluates the way he is being treated by an organization. The next step is for an individual to choose a co-worker who seems to be in a roughly similar situation and to observe how an organization treats him. In the crucial step of equity theory an individual 'compares' the two treatments. In the fourth step he evaluate a sense of equity to see if the two treatments seem similar or if the are different.
2. 3. 4.
Adam suggests that employees make these comparisons by focusing on input and outcome ratios. An employee's contributions or input to an organization include time, education, effort, experience and loyalty. Outcomes are what an individual receives from an organization such as, pay, recognition and social relationships. The theory suggests that people view their outcomes and inputs as ratio and then- compare their ratio to the ratio of someone else. This other 'person' may be someone in the work group. The comparison may result in three types of attitudes: • The individual may feel equitably rewarded, • Under-rewarded. • Over-rewarded. An individual will experience a feeling of equity when the two ratios are equal. If an individual has the feeling of equity then he should maintain the status quo. If he has a feeling of inequity then he is likely to change the input. The single most important idea for managers to remember about equity theory is that if rewards are to motivate employees, they must be perceived as being equitable and^ fair. However, managers must remember that different
employees have different sense towards basis for a reward and this may result in problems. Hence, the best way to avoid such problems is to make all employees aware of the basis for rewards. Reinforcement Based Approaches to Motivation A final approach to the motivation process focuses on why some behavior are maintained and changed overtime. Reinforcement-based approaches explain the role of those rewards as they cause behavior to change or remain the same over time. Specifically, reinforcement theory is based on the fairly simple assumption that behaviors that result in rewarding consequences are likely to be repeated, whereas behavior that results in punishing consequences are less likely to be repeated. There arc similarities between expectancy theory and reinforcement theory. Both consider the processes by which an individual chooses behaviors in a particular situation. However, the expectancy theory focuses more on behavior choices and the latter is more concerned with the consequences of those choices. Reinforcement Contingencies Reinforcement contingencies are the possible outcomes that an individual may experience as a result of his or her behaviors. The four types of reinforcement contingencies that can affect individuals in an organizational setting are positive reinforcement, avoidance, punishment and extinction. Positive Reinforcement is a method of strengthening behavior. It is a reward or a positive outcome after a desired behavior is performed. When a manager' observes an employee is doing a good job and offers praise then this praise helps in positive reinforcement of behavior. Other positive reinforces include pay, promotions and awards. The other reinforcement, contingency that can strengthen desired behavior is avoidance. This occurs when an individual chooses certain behavior in order to avoid unpleasant consequences. For instance, an employee may come to work on time to avoid criticism. Punishment is used by some managers to weaken undesired behaviors. The logic is that the unpleasant, consequence will reduce an undesirable behavior again, for example, punishing with fine for coming late. Extinction can also be used to weaken behavior, specially that has previously been rewarded. When an employee tells a vulgar joke and the boss laughs, the laughter reinforces the behavior and the employee may continue to tell similar jokes. By simply ignoring this behavior and not reinforcing it, the boss can cause the behavior to subside which eventually becomes 'extinct'. Positive reinforcement and punishment are the most common reinforcement contingencies practiced by organizations. Most managers prefer a judicious use of positive reinforcement and punishment. Avoidance and extinction are generally used only in specialized circumstances. NEW APPROACHES TO MOTIVATION IN ORGANIZATIONS New approaches are emerging to supplement the established models and theories of motivation. Two of the most promising are Goal-Setting Theory and the Japanese Approach. (a) Goal-Setting Theory This approach to motivation has been pioneered in the USA by Edwin Locke and his associates in 1960s and refined in 1980s. Goal-setting theory suggests that managers and subordinates should set goals for an individual on a regular basis, as suggested by MBO. These goals should be moderately difficult and very specific and of type that an employee will accept and make a commitment to accomplishing them. Rewards should be tied directly to accomplished goals. When involved in goal-settings, employees see how their effort will lead to performance, rewards and personal satisfaction. Salient features of this theory are as follows: • Specific goal fixes the needs of resources and efforts. • It increases performance. • Difficult goals result higher performance than easy job. • Better feedback of results leads to better performances than lack of feedback. • Participation of employees in goal has mixed result. • Participation of setting goal, however, increases acceptance of goal and involvements. • Goal setting theory has defined two factors,' which influences the performance. These are given below: ○ Goal commitment ○ Self-efficiency. The mere act of goal setting does not ensure higher levels of motivation among employees. In fact, there seem to be three important criteria that goals must meet if they are to influence the behavior of organization members. They are goal specificity, goal difficulty and goal acceptance. Goal Specificity
Goals must be stated in specific terms if they are to motivate effective performance. Goals must be set in terms of measurable criteria of work performance, i.e., number of units produced, new sales etc. and must specify a lime period within which the goal is to be attained. It also gives a sense of personal satisfaction and accomplishment to workers if he is able to meet the specific goal.
Goal Difficulty/Challenge There exists a relationship between goal difficulty and work motivation. The more difficult- and challenging the goal is, the higher the level of motivation and performance. However, it is essential that goals are set at realistic levels. Goals that are very difficult to achieve are unable to motivate since it is beyond the capacity of the concerned individual. Goal Acceptance In order to influence motivation and performance, a goal must be internalized by an individual. In other words, the person has to feel some personal ownership of the goal and must have commitment to achieve it. Goal Setting in Practice The most obvious implication of goal-setting theory is that managers should be helping subordinates to set goals that are specific and reasonably difficult so that subordinates accept and internalize them as their own goals. Besides this, there are a number of issues that arise in implementing goal setting in practice. • Though specificity of goal is essential and measurability is desirable, it should not affect in identifying meaningful and valid objective of goal attainment. • The manager can stimulate goal acceptance in at least three ways: ○ By involving subordinates in goal-setting process. ○ By demonstrating a supportive attitude and approach toward his subordinates. ○ By assigning various rewards to the achievement of goals. Management by Objectives (MBO) is a managerial technique for improving motivation and performance using goal-setting principles. Cognitive Evaluation Theory A researcher 'Charms' reported in 1960 that extrinsic motivation like pay or rewards for a job, which has an intrinsicmotivation content, which is prior to such rewards. It tends to decrease overall level of motivation. This proposal is called cognitive Evaluation Theory" which has been supported by a large number of research studies conducted subsequently. (b) Japanese Approach to Motivation The Japanese approach to motivation has gained increasing popularity around the world during the past few years. This approach is rather a philosophy of management than a theory or model. The basic tenet of the Japanese approach is that managers and workers should perform together as partners. Since both of them see themselves as one group, ail members are committed and motivated to work in the best interests of an organization. No one is called an employee; instead everyone is a team member, team leader or coach and everyone owns the 'share' of an organization. Like goal-setting meow, the Japanese approach is likely to become more common in businesses throughout the world. Integration of Motivation Theories Thus several theories complicate our understanding. Some of these theories are compatible and some are not. The real challenge that a researcher has to face is integration of all or at least some of these together so that their inter and intra-relationships are established. This will also improve the understanding of motivation. Certain attempts are made in USA and elsewhere. Enhancing Motivation in Organizations Managers trying to enhance the motivation of their employees can, of course, draw on any of the theories described above. They may in practice adopt specific interventions derived from one or more theories or they may influence motivation through the organization's reward system. The organization can enhance motivation in following ways: • Humanize the work environment: Respect the need to treat each employee as an individual. • Publicize both short and long-term organizational goals: Encourage personal and departmental goal setting. • Promote from within: It's great for morale and simplifies hiring procedures. • Use incentive programs: Inducing the feeling that 'if you're creative enough, you won't have to rely on expensive financial bonuses.' • Establish appropriate deadlines: Every project should have a deadline. • Be liberal with praise: It's almost impossible to over praise and easy to under praise. • Be consistent in your own work and in your relations with others.
#42 . Managerial Approaches for Improving Motivation A number of approaches can help managers motivate workers. personnel and the utilization of resources. Job-Redesign Job-Redesign or changing the nature of people's job is also being used more as a motivational technique. social-need satisfaction. A modified 'work-week' can be any work schedule that does not conform to a traditional 8 hours a day or 5 days a week format. however. They are. have been especially effective: linking pay to jot performance and quality of work-life programs. It also provides an opportunity to fulfil several needs simultaneously. and • Create conditions in which rewards other than pay are evaluated as related to good performance. The idea pursued here is that mangers can use any of the alternatives job rotation. There are three types of QWL programs. job enlargement. Pay and Job Performance Pay often can be used to motivate employee performance. The following steps promote intrinsic motivation: • Workers Participation in Management (WPM) • Management by Objectives (MBO) • Organization Behavior Modification • Job-Redesign • Alternative Work Schedules. • Minimize the negative consequences of good performance. vehicles for providing employees with opportunities to satisfy lower and upper-level needs as stated by Maslow. But a pay plan also must be able to do the following tasks: • Create the belief that good performance leads to high levels of pay. Alternative Work Schedule Organizations also frequently use the modified 'work-week' as a way to increase employee motivation. Don't whitewash unpleasant assignments: Prepare subordinates for unpleasant assignments well in advance and offer what support you can. through the motivators described in 'Herzberg's theory. The modified 'work-week' helps individual satisfy higher-level needs by providing more personal control over one's work schedule. to perform more effectively.• • • Show a personal interest in the people who work for you: Relations are always smoother between people who know each other on a personal basis than relations between people who merely want something from each other. Admit mistakes: People will respect you for it and will be less likely to hide their own mistakes. job enrichment as part of motivational programme. in essence. which are as follows: Quality Circles Quality Circles (QC) are small groups of workers who meet regularly with their supervisor as their 'circle leader' to solve work-related problems. participation in work improvement and challenge and opportunity for growth. Expectancy theory helps explain the role of work design in motivation. Quality of Work Life Programs Quality of Work Life (QWL) is defined as an attempt through a formal program to integrate employee needs and well being with the intention of improved productivity. QCs give an employee an opportunity for involvement. Two approaches. Programs for QWL improvements range from those requiring minor changes in an organization to those requiring extensive modifications in structure. greater worker involvement and higher levels of job satisfaction.
The first approach is that work attitudes such as job satisfaction are dispositional in nature.e. Locke defines job satisfaction as a "pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job experiences". job satisfaction significantly contributes to employee productivity and morale. then both the quantity and quality of his output will be low. educational level. which suggests that job satisfaction and other work place attitudes are developed or constructed out of experiences and information provided by others at the work place. Job Factors These factors include the type of work to be performed. as a number of research studies have shown that varied work generally brings about more satisfaction than routine work. wages and salaries. Job satisfaction is the result of various attitudes the employee holds towards his job. this is the most obvious approach. which have less social status or prestige. there will be high absenteeism and employee turnover and increased unionism. Basically. Desirable working conditions are also important to job satisfaction. skill required for work performance. Caldur and Schurr in 1981 suggested that there are three different approaches to evaluating job satisfaction. you should be able to understand: • • • The concept of job satisfaction The various factors relating to job satisfaction The methods of enhancing job satisfaction The term 'job satisfaction' refers to an employee's general happiness with his or her job. research evidences indicate that employees are relatively more dissatisfied in those jobs. i. an effective downward flow of communications in an organization is also important to job satisfaction as employees are keen to know more about the company and its plans. As regards the relation of occupational status to job satisfaction. For our purposes job satisfaction will be defined as the amount of overall positive affect or feelings that individuals have towards their job..LESSON – 10 JOB SATISFACTION Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. intelligence etc. age. policies etc. Most of the evidence on the relation between age and satisfaction seems to indicate that there is generally a positive relationship between the two variables up to the pre-retirement years and then there is a sharp decrease in satisfaction. they are stable. occupational status involved in the job etc. In a sense. A person will be satisfied if there is no discrepancy between desired and actual conditions Importance of Job Satisfaction Obviously. As regards the relation of opportunity for advancement to job satisfaction. it has been found that this factor is most important to skilled personnel and least important to unskilled personnel. An organization can be substantially benefited if it develops general attitudes of its employees that can effectively contribute to job satisfaction. which is based on the accumulation of cognitive information about the -work place and one's job. then there is an improvement in both the quality and quantity of production. #43 . job satisfaction is determined by the discrepancy between what individuals expect to get out of their jobs and what the job actually offers. towards related factors and towards life in general. Where skill exists to a considerable degree it tends to become the main source of satisfaction to the employee. working conditions etc. As regards the relationship between the intelligence level and job satisfaction. There is no clear research evidence between educational level and job satisfaction. Organizational Factors These factors include security. positive or negative disposition learned through experiences. Besides. The importance of job Satisfaction is that if the people are satisfied with their work. as it argues that a person's job satisfaction is influenced directly by the characteristics of their job. fringe benefits. There is as yet no consistent evidence as to whether women are more satisfied with their jobs than men. The second approach is the 'social information processing model'. opportunities for advancement. Social and economic security to employees increases job satisfaction. the wages and salaries and fringe benefits are definitely the main factors that affect job satisfaction of employees. The third approach is the if information processing model'. FACTORS RELATING TO JOB SATISFACTION Some of the most important factors relating to job satisfaction are briefly stated below: Personal Factors These factors include the individual employee's personality. If they are not satisfied. it usually depends upon the level and range of intelligence and the challenge of the job. sex. The type of work is very important.
4. 22. 20. Further. The way in which conflicts are resolved in your company. For example. The actual job itself The degree to which you feel “motivated” by your job Current career opportunities The level of job security in your present job The extent to which you may identify with the public image or goals of your organization The style of supervision that your superiors use The way changes an innovations are implemented The kind of work or tasks that you are required to perform The degree to which you feel that you can personally develop or grow in your job. 16. and job enlargement may help increase job satisfaction. 13. 19. job enrichment. the management can use the factors inherent in the job to plan and administer jobs more advantageously for its personnel. 7. The relationships you have with other people at work. and relationship with superiors and relationship with colleagues. work activities. 6. 5. 15. which explore pay. working conditions.1. 18. They all tend to involve scales. #44 .If employees are satisfied. Your level of salary relative to your experience The design or shape of your organization’s structure The amount of work you are given to do whether too much or too little The degree to which you feel extended in your job 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 MEASURES TO INCREASE JOB SATISFACTION Although management cannot change the personal factors in job satisfaction. which contains all of the elements that usually make up a job satisfaction measure. career prospects. TABLE 10. satisfaction of individual expectations results in group integration and cohesiveness. Similarly. 12. 10. Management should also take necessary steps to raise the occupational status of the workers. The psychological “feel” or climate that dominates your organization. 9. The feeling you have about the way you and your efforts are valued. 3. 21. 8. 2. the policy of job rotation. it should appreciate the role-of such factors and must take care to place the employees where the personal factors of the individual help him in achieving job satisfaction. An example of a measure of job satisfaction from the OSI. is given in the Table 10. The scope your job provides to help you achieve your aspirations and ambitions The amount of participation which you are given in important decision making The degree to which your job taps the range of skills which you feel you possess The amount of flexibility and freedom you feel you have in your job. 11. 14. 17. Measuring Job Satisfaction There have been many measures of job satisfaction in the work place from the Job Description index to Job Satisfaction Scales to the more recent job satisfaction scale of the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). Communication and the way information flows around your organization. turnover and absenteeism will be less and productivity will be more.1: An Example of a Measure of Job Satisfaction from the OSI How You Feel About Your Job? Very much satisfaction 6 Much satisfaction 5 Some satisfaction 4 Some dissatisfaction 3 Much dissatisfaction 2 Very much dissatisfaction 1 1.
It is evident from the above description that there are many factors that influence job satisfaction and the managements must be able to work out a broad strategies that may help increase job satisfaction and must also able to identify the specific factors that causes the individual differences and must evolve appropriate strategies that could raise the job satisfaction of those particular segment. while keeping in view the factors related to job satisfaction. wages. Proper delegation of authority. grievance handling. freedom to do work will also help increase job satisfaction.The management should carefully develop appropriate policies and practices for promotions and transfers. satisfactory hours of work and adequate rest pausing. Above all. fringe benefits. working conditions. Management should also able to recognize and appreciate the good work done by the employees and give respect for their creative suggestion. the management must recognize the importance of the stability of employee attitudes that may lead to high morale and production. #45 .
Work committees. managers must pay attention to the needs of individuals. But for a group to work effectively. The importance of group behavior has been realized from time to time. • While accomplishing tasks. which are as follows: • Functional or formal groups Functional groups are the groups formed by the organization to accomplish different organizational purposes. It is difficult for members to interact sufficiently in a large group. there are three types of groups. construction of a fly-over. They are useful for the organization as they form foundation of human resources. Need for a Group The reasons for the need. Managers need groups to co-ordinate individual behavior in order to reach the organizational goals. For example. who move in groups. In 1920.11 GROUP DYNAMICS Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. the interactions between its members should be productive. • Groups help in making participative management more effective. DEFINITION OF A GROUP A group is a two or more individual who interact regularly with each other to accomplish a common purpose or goal. They use project teams and work committees where workers get due recognition. individuals communicate with each oilier. A manager can easily coordinate with the work of an individual by giving the group a task and allow them to co-ordinate with each other. building a ship. • An individual cannot perform each and every task. • Group efforts affect an individual. According to A L Stencombe. Group efforts are required for its completion. They also make the environment at workplace more lively. The group in which he moves influences individual work. of groups are as follows: • Management of modern organizations make mutual efforts to introduce industrial democracy at workplace. he need not explain the task to each and every individual. Groups can make a manager's job easier because by forming a group. • Groups of all kinds and types help by cooperating in all the matters related to production and human relations to work effectively in the organization. Groups have significant influence on an organization and are inseparable from an organization. The study of group behavior is essential for an organization to achieve its goals.LESSON . "a group comprises. work groups and teams are formed to monitor the work. working in a group. All these require coordinated and unified efforts of many individuals. • Group has the ability to satisfy the needs of its members. The key parts of this definition are the concepts of interaction and influence. Therefore. "a formal group is said to be any social arrangement in which the activities of #46 . • The tasks in modern industries are becoming more complex. tedious arid of repetitive nature. of two or more persons who interact with one another in such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by each other person'. Groups or work teams are the primary tools used by managers. They willingly participate in decision-making. etc. Individual and group behavior vary from each other. you should be able to: • • • Define the term group and describe types of groups Understand group formation and development Discuss group norms and group cohesiveness A group consists of a number of individuals working together for a common objective. Human behavior consists of individuals. his attitude and behavior. The knowledge of group behavior as well as individual behavior is necessary for a manager. • A group can judge in a better way as compared to an individual. • In a group. Types of Groups In an organization. all members of a group together use their creative and innovative ideas than a single individual. job satisfaction and effective performance. making of a movie. According to Marvin Shaw. discuss their work performances and take suggestions from each other to make it better. He must understand group psychology and should also understand individual behavior in the context of group behavior. which also limit the size of the group. Elton Mayo and his associates conducted the Hawthorne experiments and came to know that the group behavior has great impact on productivity.
The organization after specifying a group membership. They suspect their integrity and consider as a virtual threat. GROUP FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT Groups can form when individuals with similar goals and motives come. ○ Friendship group: Friendship groups are the groups of individuals belonging to same age group. For example. which an organization cannot avoid. having similar views. According to Keith David. They are also like a powerful force. evaluating a proposed grievance procedure. etc. Informal groups are of following types: ○ Interest group: Interest groups are the groups formed to attain a common purpose. assigns a narrow set of purposes such as developing a new product. the quality control department and the public relations department. The organization does not take any active interest in their formation. Groups are formed voluntarily. medical benefit and other facilities are the examples of interest groups ○ Membership group: Membership groups are the groups of individuals' belonging to the same profession and knowing each other. There are certain motives because of which. #47 . teachers of the same faculty in a university. together. The individuals of a group can join and leave the group any time and they can also change their tasks. ○ Reference group: Reference groups are the group where individuals shape their ideas. These groups are spontaneous. the advertising department. values etc. These are the groups formed by the employees themselves at the workplace while working together. Informal groups are very effective and powerful. These groups can also be formed outside the plant or office and can be in the form of clubs and associations. Some managers do not consider them as threat and seek the help of group members in getting the organizational task accomplished. which are as follows: • Organizational motives to join groups: Organizations form functional and task groups because such groups help the organization in structuring and grouping the organizational activities logically and efficiently. increase in salary. beliefs. They have to follow rules. • Informal group Informal groups are the groups formed for the purposes other than the organizational goals. task forces and work teams are included in task groups. regulations and policy of the organization. A formal organizational group includes departments such as the personnel department. tastes and opinions. Employees coming together for payment of bonus. They want support from the group. Informal committees. • Task group Tasks groups are the groups formed by an organization to accomplish a narrow range of purposes within a specified time. Informal groups form when individuals are drawn together by friendship. by mutual interests or both.some persons are planned by others to achieve a common purpose". Hence. They also develop a solution to a problem or complete its purpose. These groups are permanent in nature. Some managers consider them to be harmful to the interest of an organization. the individuals join a group. These groups are temporary in nature. understanding how groups form and develop is important for managers. "the network of persons and social relations which is not established or required form an informal organization". These groups work as an informal communication network forming a part of the grapevine to the organizations.
The factors that contribute to interpersonal attraction are sex. The closeness of group members may also be an important factor. all these are group activities that individuals enjoy. group members share their opinions and formulate the group's goals. various personal motives affect membership. which inter-personal behavior is acceptable and which is unacceptable by the other members of the group. • Interest in-group activities: Individuals may also be motivated to join an informal or interest group because the activities of the group appeal to them. Mutual Acceptance • Making Acceptance • Sharing Acquaintances • Discussing Subjects • Testing Each Other • Being Defensive Slow Evolution to Next Stage Communication and Decision-Making • Expressing Attitudes • Establishing Norms • Establishing Goals • Openly Discussing Tasks • Being Defensive Burst of Activities to Next Stage Motivation and Productivity • Cooperating • Working Actively on Tasks • Being Creative Slow Evolution to Next Stage Control and Organization • Working Independently • Assigning Tasks Based on Ability • Being Flexible Figure 11. Some of these are shown in the figure 11. • Instrumental benefits: Group membership sometimes also helpful in providing other benefits to an individual. as they arc also attracted to each other. Retired/old aged individuals join groups to enjoy the companionship of other individuals in similar situation. may motivate individuals to join. For example. similar attitudes. a manager might join a Rotary/ Lions club if he feels that being a member of this club will lead to important and useful business contacts. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Members of new group are unfamiliar with one another's personalities and : hesitant in their interactions. During this stage. • Communication and Decision-making The second stage of group development is "Communication and Decision-making''. Motivation and Productivity • #48 . personality and economic standing. a club. For example. which is dedicated to environmental conservation. discussing current events or contemporary literature. The new group must pass s of development.1: • Interpersonal attraction: Individuals conic together to form informal or interest group. the members of the group get familiar with one another and check.• Personal motives to join groups: Individuals also choose to join informal or interest groups for unimportant reasons. Through communication and decision-making. which are depicted in the figure 11. Since joining these groups is voluntary. During this stage. This helps all the members of a group to know each other better and helps the group to move to the next stage easily. Playing tennis. • Support for group goals: The individuals may also be motivated goals by the other group members to join. the structure becomes clear and the group moves to the third stage. Individuals join groups.2 These different stages of group development are explained as follows: • Mutual Acceptance The very first stage of a group development is called "Mutual Acceptance". • Need for affiliation: Another reason for individuals to join groups is to satisfy their need for attachment.2. such as these in order to donate their money and time to attain the goals they believe in and to meet other individuals with similar values.
Norms play a significant role in disciplining the members of a group to make them to work regularly and properly. which arc as follows: • Behavior norms: Behavior norms are rules that standardise how individuals act while working on a day-to-day basis. ○ Satisfaction of the needs of group members. It also emphasizes on the group's ability to satisfy its members needs. This will make the group more organized Types of Group Norms There are two types of group norms. Only those behaviors that sound to-be important by group members should be brought under control. Reasons for Strong Enforcement of Norms • norms are rules that standardize employee output and Groups don't have the time or energy. The members of the group are expected follow the norms strictly. therefore. Every informal group has one primary leader apart from the secondary: leaders. These goals are temporary and can be changed in accordance with the needs of the group members. commitment to the organization and therefore result in high level of performance. in which the members perform the roles they have accepted and direct their group efforts toward goal attainment. behavioral norms. These leaders come forward on the basis of acceptance of all the group members. CHARACTERISTICS OF MATURE GROUPS As groups pass through the stages of development to maturity. • Role Structures A role is the part that an individual plays in a group to reach its goals. which is characterized by a shared acceptance among members of what the group is trying to do. Role structure is the set of defined roles and interrelationships among those roles that the group members define and accept. they begin show signs of the following four characteristics: a role structure. ○ Maintenance of an efficient communication system. In reality. Members also become more comfortable with each other and develop a sense of group identity and unity. The failure in role development result in role ambiguity. ○ Power of the group to influence its members. attitudes. Each person recognizes and accepts his role as well as to accept and to understand the roles to others. helps the group members to work more consistently and make greater contribution to the achievement of the organizational goals. According to Michael Argyle. "greet every customer with a smile''. like individuals. personal characteristics of group members and frequency of interaction. "Group norms are rules or guidelines of accepted behavior which are established by a group and used to monitor the behavior of its members". The primary leader has more influence on the group members than the secondary leaders. but they must have some goals over a period of time. Groups. try to operate in such a way that they maximize their chances of task success and minimize (heir chances of task failure. This reduces absenteeism and employee turnover. ○ Feeling of security on the part of the members. It. • Behavioral norms Although informal groups do not have any specific goals to accomplish. It is also psychologically more satisfying to all of its members. Some individuals are leaders. Examples are. "do not come to committee meetings unless you have read the reports to be '"discussed"'. traditions and expectations shared by group members. ○ Degree of participation and loyalty of members. beliefs. Managers have to take steps to avoid role ambiguity. Groups want to facilitate their performance and overcome barriers to reach their #49 . The goals can be achieved effectively depending on the following factors: ○ The extent of cooperation with management. They are framed to achieve objectives of the group. Performance norms: Performance number of hours worked. According to Cartwright there are four principal consequences of cohesiveness. cohesiveness and informal leadership. role conflict and role overload. role conflict and role overload. to regulate each and every action of the group members. They make the members to identify themselves with the group. etc. which are as follows: ○ Ability of a group to retain its members. These norms tend to reflect motivation. depending on the time. • Cohesiveness Cohesiveness is defined as the attractiveness of group members towards the group. They can be social and fair in nature. some interact with other groups and so on. this developmental sequence varies from group to group. • Informal leadership Each informal group has one or more leaders. Control and Organization The fourth stage is "Control and Organization". Norms define boundaries between acceptable and unacceptable behavior.• The third stage is "Motivation and Productivity". GROUP NORMS Norms refer to group behavior standard. some focus on the group's task.
Attractiveness is the key to cohesiveness. Advantages of Group Cohesiveness The advantages of group cohesiveness are as follows: • The members of cohesive groups have high morale. • Competitiveness within group. even very similar work groups may develop different norms-. • If the norms simplify or predict regarding the behavior which is expected from group members. Cohesiveness is the extent to which group members are loyal and committed lo the group and to each other. Aswalhappa. Uniqueness of Group Norms The norms of one group cannot be easily mixed with another group. • Disagreement on goals. support and trust one another and are generally effective at achieving their chosen goals. Managers should develop an understanding of the factors that increase and reduce group cohesiveness. "cohesiveness is understood as the extent of liking each member has towards others and how far everyone wants to remain as the member of the group". There are several factors consist of norm conformity. "cohesiveness is the attractiveness of the members towards the group or resistance of the members leaving it". • If the norms emphasize the roles of specific members within a group and • If the norms help the group to solve the inter-personal problems themselves. • Members of cohesive groups are regular at their work. which decreases the chances of in clash among the views of group members at the workplace or elsewhere. Group Cohesiveness According to Rcnsis Likert. In a highly cohesive group. According lo K. • Individuals of cohesive groups have no anxiety at the workplace. • Agreement on goals. A group that lacks cohesiveness will not be very much coordinated. • Favourable evaluation from outsiders. groups want to increase morale and prevent any interpersonal discomfort to their members. • Domination by one or more members. you should be able to understand: • • Conceptual clarity about nature and levels of conflicts The sources and effects of conflicts to manage conflicts #50 . The following factors decrease cohesiveness: • Large group size. the members work well together. • The history of the group and its members also plays a part in conformity.goals. The following factors can increase group cohesiveness: • Competitiveness with other groups. • The members don't have conflicting views. • Organizations gain from the members of cohesive group because they communicate better they share ideologies and respect opinions of fellow employees. LESSON .12 LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. Norms that will help groups meet these aims of performing successfully and keeping morale high are likely to be strongly enforced. Conditions where group norms will be strongly enforced are as follows: • If the norms facilitate group success or ensure group survival. If the group was not successful in the past. For example. • Frequent interaction. • Inter-personal attraction. which are as follows: • Some groups may exert more pressure for conformity than others because of the personalities of the group members. a new group member may have greater freedom to exhibit other behaviors. • Unpleasant experiences. • Cohesiveness increases productivity. However. if the group has always been successful by following certain behaviors. It refers to the attachment of members with the group. Moreover. Its members will not support one another and they may face difficulty in reaching their goals. Some differences are primarily due to the difference in structure of the groups. new group members are also asked to follow the same. The members of one group may be friendly with their supervisor whereas those of another group may not Norm Conformity Norms have the power to force a certain degree of conformity.
• Group conflict: Are the conflicts arising within two or more groups due to difference in their attitudes and behavior. Each group is dissatisfied will the quality or quantity of work received. The only linkage between the two is that they share financial resources from a common pool and the success of each branch contributes to the success of the organization. two groups competing for scarce resources. In other words. Following is the sequence in which a conflict can arise: Latent conflict: Is a situation when the conditions for conflict arise. conflict among groups of different interests is unavoidable. or a decision. communication problems. differences in interests and goals. The conflict between production and marketing departments. Inter-group conflicts result from the ways in which organizations co-ordinate the work of different groups and distribute rewards among those groups. Life and staff groups often have conflicts resulting from this type of interdependence. a proposal. • Incompatible goals: Inter-group conflict arises because of goal incompatibility. Misinformed receivers often become irritated and then hostile. • Task interdependence: Task interdependence means to what extent a work. there are three types of interdependence among groups. TYPES OF CONFLICT The levels of group conflict are as follows: • Personal conflict: Are the conflicts that arise among employees. For example. which are as follows: ○ Pooled interdependence: It arises when groups have little interaction with each other but are affected by each other's activities. which are of two types. According to one survey. sections or work teams. Some of them are related to limited resources. In sequential task interdependence. individuals because of their competitive roles. Horizontal conflict arises among the employees at same level. An organization is an interlocking network of groups. #51 . knowledge and understanding of conflict and the methods of resolving it are important. In organizations everywhere. goal attainment by one group may reduce the level of goal attainment by other groups. The receiver of information should be considered when a group communicates an idea. Manifest conflict: Is a situation when both the group try to frustrate each other. In such situations. union and management are few examples of inter-group conflicts that arise because of incompatibility of goals. a branch in Delhi does not need to interact with a branch in Chennai. Conflict outcome: Is a situation or consequence arising after the conflict is eliminated. The reasons for group conflicts are as follows: • Communication problems: Groups often become very involved with their own areas of responsibility. In simple words. it refers to the dependence of one group on another for resources or information. the potential for conflict increases. • Infra-organizational conflict: Are the conflict arising between levels of an organization. line and staff departments. For example. It can be said in genera] that as interdependence increases. the output of one group becomes the input of another group. which depend on each other for their respective task such as production department and quality department. In either case. Managers may either directly resolve the conflicts or they may act as mediators between two or more employees. ○ Reciprocal interdependence: It arises between the groups. attitudes and lack of clarity about responsibilities. different perceptions. The success of an organization depends upon the harmonious relations among all independent groups. This may be due to horizontal differentiation and task specialization. Felt conflict: Is a situation when members involved in the conflict feel tense or anxious. The production department provides the goods to the marketing department to sell and the marketing department prepares the orders and estimates on the basis of the volume produced by the production department. Vertical conflict arises between higher and lower level of management. but it can result in communication problems. REASONS FOR CONFLICT There are many reasons for conflicts among groups and its members. ○ Sequential task interdependence: It arises when one group is unable to commence its work until the work of other group gets completed. Perceived conflict: Is a situation when both the groups realize that there exists conflict between them. from the other group. Inter-group conflict arises from reciprocal task interdependence over difference in performance expectations.Conflict arises from difference of opinion between the group members while attaining the organizational goals. They tend to develop their own unique vocabulary. group relies on other organizational groups to complete its tasks. Thompson. Paying attention to an area of responsibility is a worthy Endeavour. the potential for conflict is greater. managers spend an estimated 20 percent of their time dealing with group conflicts. According to J. departments.
conflict of this nature. DYNAMICS OF INTER-GROUP CONFLICT The following points are covered in the dynamics of an inter-group conflict: • Changes within each group: When there is inter-group conflict in an organization. Second. Task ambiguity often arises where the organization is growing quickly or the organization's environment is changing rapidly. Different perceptions and attitudes: The attitudes. The range of work of manufacturing group is evaluated on how quickly it can manufacture high-quality products while the range of R&D scientists can be evaluated on the basis of product development and testing after a long period of time. finance. ○ The interaction and communication between groups' decreases. The goals of manufacturing groups are more specific and clear-cut than the goals of R&D groups. The confusion may also arise regarding who has the final authority to execute the final decisions. Resource sharing: The relation between two groups can be affected by the degree to which they make use of a common pool of resources and the degree to which this common pool of resources is adequate to meet the demands of both the groups. the goals of different functional groups vary to a large extent. GROUP STRATEGIES TO GAIN POWER #52 . They are as follows: ○ The group demands more loyalty from individual members while facing an external threat. The conflict between management and the labor union-is the best example. the organization and structure of the work group becomes more rigid. First. R&D scientists have a longer-range of goals than manufacturing groups.○ Task ambiguity: The lack of clarity over job responsibilities is called task ambiguity and it frequently ○ ○ ○ ○ leads to aggression between groups. Conflicting reward systems: Sometimes the ways in which reward systems in organizations arc designed create a situation in which one group can only. It leads to more coordination of activities. ○ In an inter-group conflict. Conflicting reward systems inevitably result in poor inter-group relations. misinterpretation of the behaviors and activities of other groups. It becomes difficult for each group to see the positive behavior and attitude of the other group. disagreements in their views and among themselves. functional groups differ in their time perspectives. Thus. the line group may have to depend even more heavily on staff groups such as advertising. Each party of the conflict competes with each other to get a larger share. the more likely it is that conflict will arise between them while co-ordinating their work efforts. However the staff groups are being rewarded for cutting costs and personnel provided the types of services asked for by line groups can prevent them from meeting their own goals. ○ There is a shift among the groups from a problem-solving motive to a win-lose motive. systematic changes take place in the perceptions. working conditions and other related matters. These differences between groups result in frustration. To increase the amount of products sold. there is a possibility of conflicts. competitiveness. For example. In the face of an external threat. Such conflicts take place in the quantum of wages. Inter-group conflict also arises when it is not clear which group is responsible for certain activities. allocution of responsibilities to different group members. Each party undervalues the interests of the other group. Difference in work orientation: The ways in which employees do their work and deal with others vary widely with the functional areas of an organization. The greater the differences in goal and time between two groups. This can affect the success of a group to accomplish their work in an effective manner. Union-Management relationships during contract negotiations are one of the examples of the group dynamics. secrecy and closed communications. accomplish its goal at the expense of other groups. If the group relations begin with the attitudes of distrust. amenities. The changes that occur arc as follows: ○ There are distortions of perception about one's own group and about the other group. staff departments may be rewarded for cutting costs and personnel while line departments are rewarded for increasing the amount of products sold or services provided. In an inter-group conflict. attitudes and behaviors of the participants. values and perceptions of members of various groups towards each other can be a cause and a consequence of the nature of their relationship. It may be the responsibility of either the personnel department or any of the functional departments such as marketing. past differences and difficulties between group members are forgotten and group cohesiveness increases. A good example of task ambiguity is inter-group conflict arising in the recruitment of new employees. ○ Changes in relation between groups: The nature of the relationships between groups also changes markedly during inter-group conflicts. it is important for a group to respond quickly and in a unified manner to the activities of other groups. ○ There is increased ill feeling towards the rival group. For example. arises because of the differences between aggregate demand of a group and available resources to meet them.
But management usually tries to minimize the conflict indirectly and if this fails. Bargaining between two groups is successful if both groups are comfortable with the agreement between them. Methods to Solve Inter-group Conflict Indirectly The various methods to solve inter-group conflicts indirectly are as follows: • Avoidance: It is an indirect method often used by the managers. It is also difficult to pinpoint accurately the individuals who are the root-cause of conflicts. the groups try to show how important it is to each of them in attaining organizational goals. • Removing the key figures in the conflict: This is another direct method to solve the inter-group conflicts. It includes encouragement on the part of managers to the groups so that they will be able to meet and discuss their differences. Some of these strategies allow co-operation and sharing between groups while other strategies are more competitive and increase the power of one group at the expense of others. • Controlling Information: Gaining access to sensitive information and then limiting other group's access lo it increases the power of" the information-' rich group and other subunits. become directly involved. In this. • Forming association: In forming an association. But persuasion is possible only if there are no clashes between the groups and its members Methods to Solve Inter-Group Conflict The various methods to solve inter-group conflicts directly are as follows: • Ignoring the conflict: This is a direct method used by (he managers to solve inter-group conflicts. For example. This makes the accomplishment of the assigned task much easier. they can find out a solution without the involvement of management. representatives from financial institutions are included in the Board of Directors of a Company to participate in decision-making activities. Ignoring the conflict is characterized by the absence of behavior wherein the members of the groups avoids dealing with the dysfunctional aspects of the conflict. It includes avoidance of direct approaches on the part of managers to solve among groups. greater integration or collaboration among groups is needed. Management can use domination to minimize the conflicts by exercising its authority and power over the groups and their members. in which the groups find the areas of common interests among themselves. The final method to minimize the conflicts is to find super-ordinate goals. a quick turn around time on the repairs of needed equipment only if the Second group agrees to bring complaints about the quality of repairs to it before going to management. two or more groups cooperate or combine their resources in order to increase their power over other groups. It includes the removal of the key figures in the conflict. The task force develops the ideas 'and procedures for improving group interaction and thereby attempt to solve the conflicts arising between the groups. To improve the inter-group relations. • Influencing decision criteria: Groups can also sometimes exert power lo change criteria for decision-making that are selected as the basic for resource distribution. ○ Appealing to super-ordinate goals. • Encouragement: This is another indirect method to solve the group conflicts. Each group makes some compromises so that there can be some predictability and stability in their relationships. The groups try to find out those interests levels where they have the same say. removing them is a possible solution. If a conflict arises because of personality differences between two individuals. When conflicting groups have to cooperate to accomplish a goal. POT example. • Persuasion: This is the indirect method. These are goals desired by two or more groups that can only be accomplished through the cooperation of the groups. For instance. a wide profit-sharing plan of a company may encourage groups to #53 . But the disadvantage of this method is that it ignores the causes of conflicts and as a result. contracting occurs between labor and management at the time collective bargaining. For example. group simply refuses to attack the other group. conflict can be minimized. • Bargaining: This is the indirect method. the conflict situation frequently continues or gets worse over time. But avoidance does not always minimize the problem. • Contracting: It refers to the negotiation or an agreement between two groups. in which the groups agree as to what each of them will get and give others regarding their work. • Pressure tactics: These are applied to force other to use the most competitive strategy a group can use to gain power. a. Members of groups co-operate with each other in order to compete more effectively with members of other groups. For example. Management reaction to disruptive inter-group conflict can take many different forms.There are several strategies that various groups use to gain power in an inter-group conflict situation. The key figures that are to be removed may be leaders of the groups and removing them could lead to greater conflict. Afterwards'. a union might threaten to strike to pressurize management. • Problem solving: Management can also establish a task force with representatives from groups in conflict to work on problems. By doing so. • Domination by the management: This method of solving inter-group conflicts emphasizes on improving the inter-group relations. Matters can get worse if nothing is done and the groups can become more aggressive and unfriendly. • Co-opting: It occurs when a group gives some of its leadership positions to members of other groups or includes them in its policy-making committees. one group may agree to give the other.
If the profits of a company are distributed among employees at the end of the year. The super ordinate goals are as follows: The assignment and coordination of work among groups should be clarified so that the daily disputes over minor issues can be avoided. Managers should monitor reward systems to eliminate any win-lose conflicts among groups. #54 .○ ○ ○ work together. The use of co-operative approaches among groups in organizations often leads to more positive results than does the use of competitive approaches. the conflicts among groups can reduce. Managers can establish rules and standard procedures to regulate conflict in more constructive and effective ways.
you should be able to understand: • • • • The meaning and importance of communication Communication process Various types of organizational communication The barriers and the methods of overcoming barriers to effective communication Communication is one of the most frequently discussed dynamics in the entire field of organizational behavior. through which channel and with what effect. Communication allows people to co-ordinate with each other by providing them with a way to share information. Since managers work with and through other people. Also there must be channel of communication for feedback. Interpersonal communication is fundamental to all managerial activities. Therefore. People need to knowwhere they are heading and why. some of the purposes of communication are: • • • • • • To discourage the spread of misinformation. In practice. To develop information and understanding among all workers. policies. DEFINITION OF COMMUNICATION In modern society.1: Chain of Communication in Organizational Behavior Objectives of Communication Managements depend upon communication to achieve organizational objectives. In other words. Communication Technology Interpersonal Technology Verbal Technology Figure 13. effective management is a function of effective communication. Accordingly. organizational behavior scholars. This personal and behavioral exchange view of communication takes many forms. To prepare workers for a change in methods of environment by giving them necessary information in advance. To foster any attitude. ambiguity and rumors. that is necessary for motivation. facts. They also need directions for their specific tasks. the term communication is frequently and freely used by everyone. • Importance of Communication Interpersonal roles require managers to interact with supervisors. To improve labor management relations by keeping the communications channels open and accessible. communication is considered to be the most important and most effective ingredient of the management process. To improve social relations among workers by encouraging intercommunication. effective communication is a basic prerequisite for the attainment of organizational goals. feelings and values. cooperation and job satisfaction. it means who says what. including members of the general public. thoughts. Communication is the process of transmitting information from one person to another. and management practitioners. which can cause conflict and tension. The figure 13. Thus. Thus. Communication experts emphasize the behavioral implications of communication by pointing out that "the only means by which one person can influence another is by the behaviors he shows that is. peers and others outside the organization. #55 .1 can be used to identify the major categories of communication that arc especially relevant to the study of organizational behavior. the communicative exchanges between people provide the sole method by which influence or effects can be achieved". all their acts. to whom. Communication transforms a group of unrelated individuals into a team that knows what its goals are and how it will try to reach them. Broadly. orders and procedures must pass through some kind of communication channel. for co-ordinated action. sub-ordinates. This would satisfy the basic human need for a sense of belonging and friendship. rules.LESSON-13 ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. communication is necessary. It is a way of reacting to the other person with ideas. To encourage subordinates to supply ideas and suggestions for improving the product or work environment and taking these suggestions seriously. All other management functions involve communication in some form of directions and feedback. This is necessary for group effort. The first type of information that needs to be shared is what the goals of the organizations are. the behaviors that occur in an organization are vital to the communication process.
Employees who feel that they cannot vent their anger or express their joy on the job may feel frustrated and repressed. letters and reports. graphs etc. decide not to try to decode. light. pictures. your experience with the letter-writer and so on. idea. A manager. gestures. The encoding process is influenced by the content of the message. In the simplest kind of communication. can be reduced by communicating that information.2 presents a general view of the communication process. The sender has generally little control over how the receiver will deal with the message. Communication goes up. Source or Sender The communication cycle begins when one person called the sender wants to transmit a fact. for example. for instance. opinion or other information to someone else. The communication cycle continues when the receiver responds by the same steps back to the original sender. facial expressions. it is transmitted through the appropriate channel or medium. #56 . COMMUNICATION PROCESS The figure 13. physical actions and symbols such as numbers. Encoding The second step is to encode the message into a form appropriate to the situation. Receiver The receiver can be an individual. a group. the familiarity of the sender and receiver and other situational factors. most communication involves a combination of these. Once a decision has been made. understand it or respond immediately. Transmission After the message has been encoded. The uncertainty resulted from the lack of information. there is a communication gap and misunderstanding is likely to follow. Indeed. you may need to use all your knowledge of the language. Decoding The person to whom the message is sent. The greater the uncertainty about a task. Market researchers. down and across the levels of the hierarchy of an organization. communication is necessary to implement the decision and to evaluate its results. the more important the communication of information becomes. Communication also allows people to express their emotions. Even when you are just reading a letter. On any given day. Changes in market or in customer preferences can lead to uncertainty about whether a product Or a marketing strategy needs to be updated or overhauled. The encoding might take the form of words. Communication of feelings can be very important to employee morale and productivity. both the sender and the receiver perform the encoding and decoding functions automatically. If the intended message and the received message differ a great deal. called the receiver interprets the meaning of the message through the process of decoding. might call the research department to send the latest information on a particular market. Decision-makers must share their views on what the problem is and what the alternatives are. but it can also be quite complex. The receiver may ignore it. This process may be simple and automatic.Communication is especially important for the task of decision-making. a manager may communicate for all the purposes described above. or an individual acting on behalf of a group. which is called the feedback. Common channels or media in organizations include face-to-face communication using the media of sound waves. as a loop between the source and the receiver. can communicate with other groups about changes in the market place.
Where one-way communication is required. Probably the most common form of written communication in organizations is the office memorandum. manuals and forms. The human voice can impart the message much more forcefully and effectively than the written words and is an effective way of changing attitudes. generally someone outside the organization. speed and volume of the spoken word. The figure 13. Other common forms of written communication include reports. or a memo. the nature of the message. A performance appraisal form is an example. policy and procedure manuals inform them of organizational rules. since faith. It is most effective for leaders to address the followers via public address system or audio-visual media. As such. also known as face-to-face communication is the most prevalent form of organizational communication. noise takes on a meaning slightly different from its usual one. They tend to deal with a single topic and are more impersonal. It may be in the form of direct talk and conversation between the speakers and listeners when they are physically present at one place or through telephone or intercom system conversation. Typically organizations produce a great deal of written communication of many kinds. METHODS OF COMMUNICATION There are mainly three primary methods of communication in an organization. they represent attempts to make communication more efficient and information more accessible. Memos usually are addressed to a person or group inside the organization. Manuals have various functions in organizations. and non-verbal. which are written. then oral communication may include public address system. Reports generally summarize the progress or results of a project and often provide information to be used in decision-making. weak signal due to bad weather etc. but less formal than letters. and the lost of transmission. Oral communication is particularly powerful because the receiver not only hears the content of the message. It can be a disruption such as disturbance in a telephone line. Considerations that affect the choice of method include the audience whether it is physically present. a car driving by etc. beliefs and feelings. other people talking dosely. trust and sincerity can be much better judged in a face-to-face conversation rather than in written words. but also observes the physical gestures associated with it as well as the changes in tone. ORAL COMMUNICATION Oral communication. #57 . pitch. Noise refers to any type of disturbance that reduces the clearness of the message being transmitted. It can also be internal to the receiver such as tiredness or hunger or minor ailments. it might be something that keeps the receiver from paying close attention such as someone coughing. These methods of communication are often combined. Informal rumour mill or grapevine is also a popular form of oral communication. which may affect the message.3 given below shows various forms each method can take. A letter is a formal means of communication with an individual. Instruction manuals tell employees how to operate machines.Noise In the communication process. oral. Thus. operations manual describe how to perform tasks and respond to work-related problems.
According to Tipkins and Mc-Carter. if necessary. • It can save time when many persons must be contacted at the same time. the greater is the potential distortion. • It reduces the likelihood of misunderstanding and misinterpretation. These areas have to be covered in writing for efficient functioning of the organization. • It appears formal and authoritative for action. • Confidential written material may leak out before time. rules and regulations. Advantages • It serves as an evidence of events and proceedings. The more people the message is to pass through. it helps in avoiding delays. The written communications are more likely to be well considered.the long hierarchical chain of command. • It leads to excessive formality in personal relations. • If the verbal message is passed on. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION Some of the meaningful communication is conveyed through non-verbal ways. • Organizational Communications • More or less or a different meaning might be conveyed by manner of speaking. • There is no immediate feedback opportunity to be sure that the receiver has understood the message. policy manuals. folding of arms or sitting position in a chair. • Because the message is conveyed instantaneously. #58 . so that if the receiver js unsure of the message. Disadvantages • There is no formal record of communication so that any misunderstood message cannot be referred back to what was actually said.Advantages Some of the advantages of oral communication are: • It is direct. • Lengthy and distant communication cannot be conveyed verbally in an efficient way. causing disruption in its effectiveness. Disadvantages • It can be very time-consuming. rapid feedback allows for early detection by the sender so that corrections can be immediately made. logical and clear. • It conveys personal warmth and friendliness and it develops a sense of belonging because of these personalized contacts. facial expressions can be categorized as: • Interest-excitement • Enjoyment-joy • Surprise-startle • Distress-anguish • Fear-terror • Shame-humiliation • Contempt-disgust • Anger-rage Physical movements or body language is known as "kinesics". A handshake is probably the most common form of body language and tells a lot about a person's disposition. • Spontaneous responses may not be carefully thought about. • It allows for feedback and spontaneous thinking. • It provides a permanency of record for future references. some of the environmental elements such as building and office space can convey a message about the authority of the person. information bulletins and so on. time saving and least expensive form of communication. specially for lengthy reports. then some distortions can occur during the process. It also ensures that everyone has the same information. simple. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION A written communication is put in writing and is generally in the form of instructions. • The spirit of authority cannot be transmitted effectively in verbal transactions. In addition. It is most effective when it is required to communicate information that requires action in the future arid also in situations where communication is that of general informational nature. tone of voice and facial expressions. formal reports. The message can be stored for an indefinite period of time. • It is more reliable for transmitting lengthy statistical data. The message can be checked for accuracy before it is transmitted. Other examples of body language are tilting of head. letters. Even some of the verbal messages are strengthened or diluted by non-verbal expressions. These non-verbal expressions include facial expressions and physical movement. memos. • The receiver may receive the message in his own perception and thus misunderstand the intent of the message. red tape and other formalities.
On the other hand. Members of a task force or committee often develop a circle network of communication with each person communicating directly to the other members of the task.force. arrogance. wink an eye for mischief or intimacy. a small metal desk on a corner communicates the status of a low ranking officer in the organizational setting. Some of the other body language symptoms are shrugging our shoulders for indifference. Figure 13. #59 .5 shows Chain Communication Network. frustration. As far as environmental elements are concerned.4 shows Wheel Communication Network.7 shows All Channel Communication Network. power and prestige such as that of a chief operating officer. Informal groups that lack a formal leader often form an all-channel network that everyone uses to communicate with everyone else. When the members of a group communicate mostly with the group leader. Figure 13. Accordingly non-verbal actions have considerable impact on the quality of communication. a wheel network develops. Figure 13.Our facial expressions can show anger. a chain network is developed. Communication Networks A communication network is the pattern of information exchange used by the members of a group. fear and other characteristics that can never be adequately communicated through written word or through oral communication itself. Figure 13. shyness.6 shows Circle Communication Network. tap our fingers on the table for impatience and we slap our forehead for forgetfulness. When the members of a group are on different levels/of the organization's hierarchy. a large office with luxurious carpeting and expensive furniture conveys a message of status.
FORMS OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION Although interpersonal and group forms of communication pertain even at the broadest organizational levels. For instance. norms and cohesiveness also affect the' formation of communication networks. The following factors influence the formation of communication patterns within small groups: Organizational Communications • 123 1. a group with high density and distance can expect a lot of noise distortion in its communication. Members' commitment to the group's work is defined by the centrality of the position of the members. Environment: Environment including the group's seating arrangement and meeting place also affects communication patterns. For hard tasks. the manager may need to take action. A manager. who sees that a wheel network is forming around an experienced. Individuals can send and receive messages across whole organizational levels and departments by means of vertical communication or the informal communication network. as messages travel a long distance to get to the receivers. Non-verbal communication is also important and can be a part of interpersonal. they do not sufficiently describe the paths of all messages transmitted in organizations. Type of Task: If the task of the group is simple. all channel networks arises. The ease with which members can communicate with others is measured by members' relative freedom to use different paths to communicate. if members always sit around a table. #60 . 3. trusted employee might not interfere with the process. If the manager relies on a group to help make decisions.The density of communication refers to the total quantity of communication among members. a chain or wheel network is used. For instance. 2. then circle network arises. the manager may encourage silent group members to speak in order to get the desired decisions. All these provide insight into possible communication problems. Group Performance Factors: The group performance factors like group's size. The distance between members describes how far a message must travel to reach the receiver. Managers must make use of all these characteristics and tendencies to help groups communicate and work most efficiently. group and organizational communication. If an assertive but irresponsible employee becomes the hub of such a wheel. it is much easier to have an all-channel network in a group of eight than in a group of eighty. For instance. composition.
performance feedback and information that the superior thinks are of value to the sub-ordinate. In the transactional process. which is mutual and reciprocal because. Other Form's of Communication One that has become especially popular is informally labelled as "management by wandering around". customers. Transactional Communication Wenburg and Wilmont suggest that instead of communication being "upward" or "downward" which is intercommunication. The content of gossip is likely to be personal information or the information about the organization itself. managers may need to intervene. This communication typically takes place between managers and their superiors or subordinates. Managers can also obtain valuable information from the grapevine and use it for decision-making. suggestions or complaints and information the sub-ordinate thinks is of importance to the superior. otherwise it will not achieve the desired result and a communication breakdown will occur.Vertical Communication Vertical communication is the communication that flows both up and down the organizational hierarchy. which interferes with the effectiveness of communication. The basic idea is that some managers keep in touch with what is going on by wandering around and talking with people such as subordinates. They can hold open meetings and objectively discuss the issues that are being informally discussed already. dealers and any one else involved with the company in any way. assignments. "all persons are engaged in sending and receiving messages simultaneously. Upward Communication Upward Communication consists of messages moving up the hierarchy from subordinates to superiors. For example. the grapevine in an organization may be carrying harmful information. Each person is constantly sharing in the sending and receiving process and each person is affecting the other". Inappropriate Channel Poor choice of channel of communication can also be contributory to the misunderstanding of the message. A message must be sent at an appropriate time to avoid these problems. In addition. This will give managers. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION The communication must be interpreted and understood in the same manner as it was-meant to be sent by the sender. When these kinds of rumors are being spread. The term is derived from noise or static effects in telephone conversation or radio wave transmission. Downward Communication Downward Communication consists of messages moving down the hierarchy from superiors to sub-ordinates. but it develops a personal linkage between the superior and the subordinate. Hence the manager must know when to communicate. there are personal factors. The content of upward communication usually includes requests. false information or politically motivated information. Improper or Inadequate Information #61 . Some of the organizational barriers and some of the interpersonal barriers to effective communication are discussed below: Noise Barriers Noise is any external factor. For instance. It may cause interference in the process of communication by distraction or by blocking a part of the message or by diluting the strength of the communication. Some of the sources contributing towards noise factor are: Poor Timing A message sent on poor timing acts as a barrier. It is in the form of gossip in which a person spreads a message to as many other people as possible who may either keep the information to themselves or pass it on to others. the communication is not simply the flow of information. new ideas and a better feel for the entire company. which affect communication. it should be "transactional" communication. a last minute communication with a deadline may put too much pressure on the receiver and may result in resentment. The manager must decide whether the communication would be most effective if it is in writing or by a telephone call or a face-to-face conversation or a combination of these modes. There are certain external roadblocks to effective communication. Informal networks are found in all organizations. Managers should have some control over the informal network. The content of downward communication often includes directives. They may also issue a clearly worded memo or report stating the facts and thereby help minimize the damage that the informal network can do. Informal Communication Another term for informal communication network is the grapevine.
then the decoding and the interpretation of the message will lead to a meaning of the sender. The result could be confusion or some important information may be laid aside for the purpose of convenience. The choice of a wrong word or a comma at a wrong place in a sentence can sometimes alter the meaning of the intended message. chaotic or distorted if the channels are not clear or if there are bottlenecks. but it not clean and decent. It could also be that the receiver is simply told what he wants to hear. a nightclub advertisement sign. Some factors contributing to such disruptions are: • The managers may withhold important negative information. Information Overhead Overload occurs when individuals receive more information than they are capable of processing. specially for multi-national companies and enterprises. Different people may perceive the same situation differently. either because the sender believes that the receiver does not need all the information or that the receiver is better off not knowing all aspects of a given situation. could lead to two interpretations. Hearing what we want to hear and ignoring information that conflicts with what we know can totally distort the intent or the content of the message. Ambiguity in use of words will lead to different interpretations. Physical Distractions Any physical distractions such as telephone interruptions or walk-in visitors can interfere with the effective face-to-face communication process. Cultural Barriers The cultural differences can adversely affect the communication effectiveness. Semantic Barriers These barriers occur due to differences in individual interpretations of words and symbols. Some of the perceptual situations that may distort a manager's assessment of people resulting in reduced effectiveness of the communication are: • A manager may perceive people to belong to one category or another as stereotypes. he may perceive women to be less efficient managers. that there is no dancing on Sundays and second. For example. Organizational Structure Communication may be blocked. • A manager may assume that his subordinate's perception about things and situations are similar to his own.Information must be meaningful to the employee and should be precise or to the point. rather than unique and distinct individuals. Sender Credibility When the sender of the communication has high credibility in the eyes of the receiver. The words and paragraphs must be interpreted with the same meaning as was intended. the message is taken much more seriously and accepted at face value. Network Breakdown Network breakdown may be intentional or due to information overload and time pressures under which a communication has to be acted upon. Perception Perception relates to the process through which we receive and interpret information from our environment and create a meaningful word out of it. This perception limits the manager's ability to effectively respond to and deal with individual differences and differing views of work situations. First. Hence the organization structure should be such that the chain of command and channels of communication are clearly established and ithe responsibility and authority are clearly assigned and are traceable. • The secretary may forget to forward a memo. If the receiver has confidence. that there is dancing on Sundays. Some of these are: Filtering Filtering refers to intentionally withholding or deliberate manipulation of information by the sender. Too little or too much information endangers effective communication. For example. Interpersonal Barriers There are many interpersonal barriers that disrupt the effectiveness of the communication process and generally involve such characteristics that either the sender or the receiver can cause communication problems. trust and respect for the sender. if the sender is not #62 . "clean and decent dancing every night except Sunday". • There may be professional jealousy resulting in closed channels. A pleasant smile may make a positive first impression. • A manager may make total assessment of a person based on a single trait. Conversely.
avoids distrust and leads to trust and openness. • Write concisely: Use as few words as possible. • Do not jump to conclusions before the message is over and is clearly understood. and believe it specially if the message is related to the field of expertise. the managers must make sure that they use the word in the same manner as the receiver is expected to understand it. your understanding of what has been said. • The language used tone of the voice and emotions should receive proper attention. Multi-meaning Words Many words in English language have different meanings when used in different situations. Listen for feelings in (he message content and respond positively to these feelings. which leads to misunderstanding of the meaning or intent of the message. A wellwritten communication eliminates the possibility of misunderstanding and misinterpretation. The message will be lost if the words are complex and do not lend to a clear single meaning. Develop Writing Skills: Clearly written messages can help avoid semantic and perception barriers. Some guidelines for effective listening are: • Listening requires full attention to the speaker. they should not take priority over the ultimate purpose of the communication. otherwise it will create a barrier to proper understanding of the message. Accordingly. Feedback Barriers The final source of communication barrier is the feedback or lack of it. frustrated or depressed may be interpreted differently than when he is happy. selecting appropriate channels for communicating these messages. The same message received when the receiver is angry. positive or negative. When writing message it is necessary to be precise thus making the meaning as clear as possible so that it accomplishes the desired purpose. Some helpful hints in written communication are suggested by Robert Degise as follows: • Keep words simple: This will reduce your thoughts to essentials and the message will be easier to understand for the receiver. Accordingly. Hence. Two-way communication. otherwise you will not be able to grasp the meaning of the message in its entirety. but express your thoughts. Do not be brief at the cost of completeness. Do not let your mind wander or be preoccupied with something else. which helps in building a healthy relationship contributing to communication effectiveness. Extreme emotions are most likely to hinder effective communication because rational judgments are replaced by emotional judgments. 3 #63 . even though more time-consuming. be specific and to the point. then the receiver will scrutinize the message heavily and deliberately look for hidden meanings or tricks and may end up distorting the entire message. assisting receivers of messages in correct decoding and interpretation and providing an efficient and effective feedback system. Some of the steps that can be taken in this respect are as follows: 1 Feedback: Feedback helps to reduce misunderstandings. • Make sure that there are no outside interruptions and interference during the course of conversation. • Do not prejudice or value the importance of the message due to your previous dealings and experiences with the sender or your perceptions about him.trusted. Similarly. • Do not be boggart down by rules of composition: While the rules of grammar and composition must be respected. 2 Improve Listening Skills: Good listening habits lead to better understanding and good relationships with each other. • Be specific: Vagueness destroys accuracy. opinions and ideas in the fewest number of words possible. if the source is believed to be an expert in a particular field then the listener may pay close attention to the message. Emotions The interpretation of a communication also depends upon the state of the receiver at the time when message is received. • Summarize and restate the message after it is over to make sure about the content and the intent of the message. The information is transferred more accurately when the receiver is given the opportunity to ask for clarifications and answer to any questions about the message. Overcoming Communication Barriers It is very important for the management to recognize and overcome barriers to effective communication for operational optimization and this would involve diagnosing and analyzing situations. Feedback is the only way to ascertain as to how the message was interpreted. designing proper messages. • Ask questions to clarify any points that you do not understand clearly and reflect back to the speaker. a manager must not assume that a particular word means the same thing to all people who use it.
The message must be clear. It is now even possible for managers from different cities to meet by teleconferencing method without leaving their offices. thus contributing to communication effectiveness. and feedback. Mode of Delivery While delivering the communication. attentiveness to the receiver and so on. E-Mail and Internet have made the communication quick and convenient. precise and to the point and free from distortions and noise. the established channels must be used as required. Consider the Receiver's Interest Take the receivers interests into account. Sense of Timing The message should not only be timely so that the decisions and actions can be taken in tie and when necessary. Luft. psychologists are beginning to discover some problems associates with these new advances in communication. Communication should be Comprehensive Communication should be complete so as not only to meet the present demands. The response and feedback to the communication should determine whether the action to the communication has been prompt. the nature of managerial and organizational communication has changed dramatically. appropriate and accurate. When these concerned levels are omitted or bypassed. Accordingly. the management must be sincere and should earn the trust of the subordinates. It should also fee based on future needs of the organization as well as individuals. The Ideas and Messages should be Clear. The success of the communication also depends upon the tone of the voice if the communication is verbal. questions. Use proper Follow-up All communications need a follow-up to ensure that these were properly understood and carried out. The management must always be helpful in carrying out the intended message of the communication. they would be highly motivated to give active support to such communication. avoid negative statements like. The written communication should be polite and unambiguous. but be confident and definitive. but also the timing of the message and the environmental setting in which the message is delivered and received is equally important. Accordingly. and then the receiver will be more responsive to the communication. mainly because of break through of the electronic technology and advent of computers. Recently. distrust. GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION These guidelines are designed to help management improve their skills in communicating so as not only avoid any barriers to effective communication. expressions and emotions exhibited. "I am not sure it will work". Integrity The communication must pass through the proper channels to reach the intended receiver. It should also be brief so that only necessary and sufficients meanings are provided. At the same time. it creates bickering. Brief and Precise The ideas to be communicated must be well planned and clearly identified. This will eliminate ambiguity so that the message will not be subject to more than one interpretation. The people who are concerned must know exactly what they need and when they need the communication. Now cellular phones.1 Avoid Credibility Gaps: Communication is a continuing process and the goal of the communication is complete understanding of the message as well as the creation of trust among all members of. Management should not only be sensitive to the needs and feelings of workers but also its promises should be supported by actions. Consult with others who are involved in Planning the Communication If people have participated in the planning process. confusion and conflict. The communication flow and its spread must avoid bypassing levels or people. openness and an atmosphere of trust builds healthy relationship and closes credibility gaps. The management must clarify any part of the communication that may be necessary and must encourage comments. but also to strengthen the basis for optimum results which depend upon the clear understanding of the desired communication. According to the studies conducted by J. the organization. #64 .
It has an ability to attract others and potential to make them follow the instructions. given group for a pre-determined period of lime. #65 . Leadership acquires dominance and the followers accept the directives and control of a leader. • Leadership is continuous process of influencing behavior. "Leadership is the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly towards the achievement of group goals". • A leader possesses qualities to influence others. the building of man's personality beyond its normal limitations". It encourages liveliness in the group. • A leader must be able to unite the people as a team and build up team spirit. As a process. According to Koontz and O'Donnell. toward a vision of the future”. and confidence to the employees and helps in the attainment of goals in much easier way.LESSON -14 LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONS Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. It provides direction. • A leader should have the confidence of the individuals of the organization. a vision for future. more broadly. According to Peter Drucker. According to Grey and Starke. Individuals can be induced to contribute their optimum towards the attainment of organizational goals through effective leadership. • A leader must have the capacity to recognize the potentials of the individuals and transform them into realities. • Leadership directs the individuals to attain the tasks assigned to them by following the instructions of their leaders. • • A leader must be able to build up a high morale among the individuals of the organization. • Leadership uses non-coercive methods to direct and coordinate the activities of the individuals of an organization. • A leader should be able to maintain discipline among his group and develop a sense of responsibility. • Leadership is a group activity. their efforts towards the achievement of organizational goals and activate the individuals of an organization to make them work. Importance of Leadership The following points can judge the importance of leadership: • A leader should act as a friend of the people whom he is leading. as a superior person to them. DEFINITION Leadership is the art of influencing and inspiring subordinates to perform their duties willingly. "Leadership is the process of influencing the behavior of others in the direction of a goal or set of goals or. leadership is the set multi characteristics attributed to those who are perceived to be leaders". the raising of man's performance to higher standard. managers play the role of leader and acquire leadership of subordinates. it is used for noncoercive influence lo shape up the goals of a group or organization. competently and enthusiastically for achievement of groups objectives. leaders are people who are able to influence the behavior of others without recourse to threats or other forms of force towards the individuals. Leaders are the people who are accepted by the other individuals. Leadership provides direction and vision for future to an organization. According to Wendell French. In business and industrial organizations. • Leadership is meant for a given situation. “Leadership is the process of encouraging and helping others to work enthusiastically towards objectives”. "Leadership means the lifting of man's visions to higher sights. guidance. Leader influences his followers and followers also exercise influence over his leader. you should be able to understand: • • • The meaning of leadership The various types and theories of leadership The importance of leadership in organizations Leadership is an integral part of management and plays a vital role in managerial operations. According to Keith Davis. Thus. to motivate behavior toward the achievement of those goals and to help define group or organizational culture. Leadership influences behavior of the individuals. FEATURES OF LEADERSHIP The features of leadership are as follows: • Leadership is the process of influencing behavior of individuals of an organization. "Leadership is both a process and a property. • Leadership gives the individuals. As a property.
• Managers have formal authority but the leaders have no such authority. He has all the powers to make decisions. A successful manager must possess both the managerial and leadership qualities. therefore. It improves quality of decision as it is taken after due consideration of valued opinions of the talented group members. There is complete delegation of authority to subordinates so that they can make decisions by themselves. there is no difference between the management and the administration in #66 . Leaders give more freedom to their group members. There is no participation from the subordinates in decision-making. But he makes all decisions by himself. Democratic or Participative Democratic or Participative leadership is also known as group centered or consultative leadership. Laissez-faire or Free Rein In this type of leadership. It is. there is virtual absence of direct leadership. as a lot of time is wasted while taking the views from the employee. The demerit of this type of leadership is that it takes more time to arrive at a decision. Filippo. therefore. Absence of leadership may have both positive and negative effects. TYPES OF LEADERSHIP Following are the main types of leadership: Autocratic or Authoritarian In this type of leadership. It develops a sense of confidence among subordinates and they derive job satisfaction. 2. He is quite rigid on performance.. Hard Boiled or Strict Autocrat: Leader. there is a complete centralization of authority in the leader. The following are the differences between the leadership and the management: • Management takes rational and logical decisions while leadership takes decision on expectations of the followers. their opinions arc honored and they are given importance. Therefore. who feel that. A leader should act as a link between the work groups and the forces outside the organization. is a process of influencing the behavior of the people to attain their assigned tasks. Difference between Leadership and Management Leading and managing go together but some differences exist between the two. • The management establishes relationship through a lawful authority while leadership establishes relationship through power. He uses coercive measures and adopts. directing and controlling the activities of others to attain the organizational objectives. Bureaucratic This type of leadership emphasizes the rules and regulations of an organization. Leadership has an emotional appeal while management acts on rationality. very time consuming. The negative aspect shows that the leader is not competent enough to lead his group effectively. He creates a feeling in the minds of his subordinates and workers that they are participating in decision-making processes. A leader thinks that he is the only competent person in the organization. Exchange of ideas among subordinates and with the leader is given encouragement. The leader and the subordinates both follow these rules and regulations. According to Edwin B. there are following three types of leaders in autocratic: 1. Any negligence on the part of subordinates results in punishment. In this type of leadership. authority is centered in the leader himself. It is. Leadership on the other hand.• • • A leader should motivate his people to achieve goals. Free rein leadership may be effective if members of the group are highly committed to their work. under such type is manipulative in nature. Members may feel insecure and develop frustration for lack of decision-making authority. Benevolent Autocrat: Benevolent autocrat leader uses positive influences and develops effective human relations. organizing. • All leaders are not managers and all managers are leaders. He praises his employees if they follow his orders and invites them to get the solutions of the problems from him. i. He makes all decisions and does not disclose anything to anyone. A leader should try to raise the morale of the individuals and should maintain ethical standards among the individuals. Manipulative Autocrat: Leader. under such type uses negative influence and expects that the employees should obey his orders immediately. 3. negative method of motivation. • Management is a process of planning. Leaders encourage discussion among the group members on the problem under consideration and arrive at a decision depending on their consent. He is known as paternalistic leader. He feels happy in controlling all the actions of his subordinates. Non-compliance of his orders also results jn punishment. He wants immediate obedience of his orders and instructions. The behavior of a leader is determined by the rules. Participation or involvement of the employees in the decision-making process is also rewarded. known as "no leadership at all". regulations and procedure to be followed under his leadership. Non-compliance of his orders results in punishment. leaders consult their groups and consider their opinion in the decision-making process.e.
• It is difficult to define traits in absolute terms. #67 . • It does not identify the traits that are most important and that are least important for a successful leader. He should remember that leadership is situational. • Some traits may not be inherited. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP A number of theories and approaches to study leadership have been developed. in spite of the required traits. Employee centered leadership behavior: The second behavior was identified as employee centered leader behavior. studies the psychology of the subordinates and adopts the most useful type of leadership to lead the people at work to accomplish the organizational goals. (b) Behavior Theory The behavioral theory assumed that effective leaders behaved differently from ineffective leaders. Expert Leadership The expert leadership emerged as a result of complex structure of modern organizations. the Michigan studies identified two forms of leadership behavior. which focuses on performances and efficient completion of the assigned tasks. They exhibit different behaviors as they differ in attitude and outlook also. Michigan. Since all individuals do not have these qualities. • Trait Theory • Behavior Theory • Contingency Theory (a) Trait Theory This theory of studying leadership is taken into consideration to analyze the personal. initiative and understanding of interpersonal human relations. The leader must understand their behavior and accordingly can make use of the various types LEADERSHIPS. Manipulative This type of leadership manipulates the employees to attain their assigned tasks. This type of leadership is based on the ability. • The Michigan Studies: Researchers at the University of. Some of the weakness of this theory is: • All the traits are not identical with regard to essential characteristics of a leader. the leadership traits might include intelligence. he has to face the hatred of the employees at times. high performance standards to be accomplished. began studying leadership in the late 1940s. only those who have them would be considered potential leaders. • It has been found that many traits exhibited by leaders are also found among followers without explaining as to why followers could not become leaders. psychological and physical traits of strong leaders. Possession of these traits helps the individuals to gain possession of leadership. knowledge and competences. They differ in quality. determination and their attitude towards the organization. Due to such attitude. The existence of these traits determines the importance of leadership. The employees feel relieved as they are working under a person who is expert and can handle the situation without any problem. They are discussed as below: Job-centered leadership behavior : The first was called job-centered leadership behavior. The assumption made in this theory was that some basic traits or set of traits differentiates leaders from non-leaders. but can only be acquired by training. Everyone within the organization should work together like a family. A manipulative leader is quite selfish and exploits the aspirations of the employees for his gains. Depending on broad discussions with both the managers and sub-ordinates. which focuses on. which suits that situation. self-confidence. It is the rules that determine their performance. the trait theory has been criticized for lack of conclusiveness and predictability. • Thus. above average height. In modern organizations. The manager should assess the situation and adopt that type of leadership.this type of leadership. It maintains that the fatherly altitude is the right one for better relationship between the manager and the employees. This can be done by developing a cohesive work group and ensuring that employees are satisfied with their jobs. A successful leader is the one who assesses the situation. A job-centered leader interacts with group members to explain task procedures and oversee their work. themselves cannot do anything in this regard. For example. knowledge and competence of the leaders. Thus. It also identified the need of consistency of behavior of good leaders. The employees. If situation changes. This theory can be more clearly understood with the help of following case studies. the use of leadership among its various types also changes. He handles the situation skillfully with his talent. led by Rensis Likert. There are broadly three theories of leadership. assertiveness. • It does not explain the leadership failures. He knows very well the needs and desires of the employees but he does very little to fulfill them. Paternalistic The paternalistic leadership believes in the concept that the happy employees work better and harder. human resources vary in terms of skill.
Good relations are assumed to be favourable and bad relations unfavorable. but not both. the leader clearly defines the leadersubordinate roles so that everyone knows what is expected. recommend employees for promotion or demotion.Interesting 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The leader's LPC score is (hen calculated by adding up the numbers below the line checked on each scale. He attempts to establish a warm. For example. structure is assumed to be low. If the leader and the group enjoy mutual trust. If there is little trust. if they do not like one another. Consideration behavior: In consideration behavior. • Position-power: Position-power is the power vested in the position of a leader in an organization. which are as follows: Initiating-structure behavior: In initiating-structure behavior. respect or confidence and. This is because some of the LPC measures show whether the score is an index of behavior. But the researchers could not come up with one best combination of behavior suitable to all the situations. The leader also establishes formal lines of communication and determines how tasks will be performed. the structure is assumed to be high. whereas leaders rated highly on consideration structure had lower-performing sub-ordinates who showed signs of higher satisfaction. When the task is non-routine. The universal approaches to leadership can help managers examine their own leadership characteristics and match them against the traits most commonly identified with good leaders. position-power is assumed lo be strong. The Michagan researchers thought a leader could show signs of one kind of behavior. High structure is more favourable for the leader and low structure is unfavorable. However. their studies at International Harvester found that leaders rated highly on initiating structure behavior have higher performing but dissatisfied sub-ordinates. A leader is asked to describe characteristics of the person with whom he or she is least comfortable while working. the leader will not have to pay much attention. the leader will have to play a major role in guiding and directing the group's activities. They can do this by marking in a set of sixteen scales at each end. A high total score is assumed to reflect a relationship orientation and a low score. administer rewards and punishment. friendly and supportive. and unambiguous and when the group has standard procedures. • The Ohio State Studies: At about the same time. complex. According to Fielder. relations will remain good. If the leader does not have required powers. they assumed the behaviors to be independent variables.the leader's primary concern is the welfare of the ordinates. In order to understand the full complexity of leadership. When the task is routine. the contingency factor favours the situation from the leader's point of view. If the task structure is high. The motive of a contingency theory is to identify key situational factors and to specify how they interact to determine appropriate behavior of a leader The three most important and widely accepted contingency theories of leadership are as follows: • The LPC theory: The first contingency theory of leadership is Fred Fielder's Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) Model. confidence and they like one another. Fielder identified two types of leadership: task-oriented and relationship-oriented. with no standard procedures and precedents. This factor is determined by leader-member relations. relations will remain bad.e. The LPC measure is controversial because researchers disagree about its validity. ambiguous. In. easily understood. Fielder used the Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) scale to measure the type of leadership. Most experts now agree that no single set of traits or behaviors appears to be common to all good leaders.Frustrating 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Tense ------------------. if the situation also remains same. If the leader has the power to assign work. • Task-structure: Task-structure is the degree to which the group's task is clearly defined. personality or some other unknown factor. Rather. The most obvious difference between Michigan and Ohio State studies is that the Ohio State researchers did not position their two forms of leader behavior at opposite ends of a single continuum. If the task structure is low. the position- #68 . low ratings on both or high ratings on one and low on the other.Relaxed 12345678 Boring ------------------. The researchers used to believe that the leaders in possession of both types of behavior are most effective. respect. which are discussed as below: • Leader-member relations: A Leader-member relation refers to the nature of relationship between the leader and his work group. Fielder believes that a leader's tendency to be task-oriented or relationship oriented remains constant. by a positive or negative adjective. a particular leader could have higher ratings on both measures. three of the scales Fielder uses in the LPC are: Helpful -------------------. (c) Contingency Theory The main assumption of contingency theory is that the behavior of an appropriate leader varies from one situation to another. a task orientation by the leader. which means that a leader could exhibit varying degrees of initiating structure and consideration at the same time i.other words. a leader is either task-oriented or relationship-oriented while leading his group members. the leader shows concern for subordinates feelings' and ideas. contingency theory is to be studied. a group of researchers at Ohio State also began studying leadership. task-structure and position-power. The Ohio State researchers found that a leader’s behavior remains consistent over a period of time. The Ohio State leadership studies also identified two major kinds of leadership behaviors or styles.
The figure 14. LI relationshiporiented leader is considered to be most effective. Leaders do not always have control over environmental factors. • A final point about LPC theory is that. when structure is high. to look after their needs and ensuring that they get the rewards and benefits. As the group becomes more familiar with the task and as new problems are taken into consideration. According to the path-goal theory. A leader who helps employees reduce such uncertainty can motivate them. the leader may be directive in giving guidance and instructions to them. Fielder's contingency theory has been criticized on the ground that LPC measure lacks validity and that the assumption about the inflexibility of the leader's behavior is unrealistic. Sub-ordinates do not usually need their boss to repeatedly tell them how to do a routine job. participative and achievement-oriented. The path-goal model assumes that leaders can change their style or behavior to meet the demands of a particular situation.power is weak. supportive. When the situation includes good relations. the primary work group and the formal authority system. but the theory emphasizes that leaders can use the control they want. Leaders can motivate sub-ordinates by making clear what they have to do to get the reward they desire. Path-goal theory says that a leader can motivate subordinates by influencing their expectations. the leader may use achievement-oriented behavior to encourage continued high performance of sub-ordinates.1 shows the path goal model of leadership. a risk-oriented leader to lie most effective. This model identifies four kinds of leader behavior: directive. Fielder and his associates conducted various studies highlighting if a situation favors the leadership and group effectiveness or not. which is measured by the LPC is inflexible and cannot be changed. However. Finally. For instance. while leading a new group of sub-ordinates. He may also adopt supportive behavior to encourage group cohesiveness. directive leadership is less effective than when structure is low. to adjust the environment and to motivate sub-ordinates. strong position power is favourable and weak position power is unfavorable. (d) The Path-Goal theory The path-goal model of leadership was introduced by Martin Evans and Robert House. Environmental characteristics are factors. For instance. when relations are good but task structure is low and position-power is weak. the leader may use participative behavior by which he can participate with employees in making decisions and take their suggestions as well. It includes task structure. From the leader's point of view. which are beyond the control of subordinates. (e) The Vroom-Yetton-Jago Theory (VYJ) #69 . high structure and strong power. these environmental factors can create uncertainty for employees. Fielder argues that any particular-type of leadership. According to this model managers can adjust their behavior to include any four kinds of leadership behavior mentioned above. In other words a leader cannot change his behavior to fit a particular situation.
OTHER CONTINGENCY APPROACHES In addition to these three major theories. the leader uses one of the four decisions. evidence so far indicates that this model can help leaders to choose the most effective way to include the sub-ordinates in decision-making. These people constitute the ‘in-group’. the situations where the leadership is not needed. The Vertical Dyad Linkage model suggests that leaders establish special working relationships with some subordinates based on some combination of respect. C II Manager and subordinates meet as a group to discuss the situation but the manager makes the decision. The VYJ theory argues that decision-effectiveness is best judged by the quality of decision and by the acceptance of that decision on the part of employees. AII Manager asks for information from subordinates but makes (he decision alone. As summarized in the following table. Two of them are used when the problem affects the entire group. However. The substitute concept identifies the situations where the characteristics of the subordinates. the leader's employee-oriented behavior should start low. increase at a moderate rate and then decline again. The other models are as follows: • Vertical Dyad Linkage Model: This model stresses the . one of each is to be used when the decision has to be made quickly because of some urgency and the others arc to be used when the decision can be made more slowly and the leaders wants to use the opportunity to develop subordinates' decision-making abilities.g. Subordinates do not meet as a group and the manager alone makes the decision. Decision acceptance is the extent to which employees accept and are loyal to their decisions. This model has a much less focus than the path-goal theory. G = Group The situation is defined by a series of questions about the characteristics or attributes of the problem under consideration. the leader needs to move gradually from high to low task orientation. CI Manager shares the situation with individual subordinates and asks for information and evaluation. there are other contingency models or theories developed in recent years. Computer software has been developed to aid leaders in defining the situation. Other subordinates remain in the ‘out-group’s. a new office for that individual only. G II Manager and subordinates meet as a group to discuss the situation and the group makes the decision. Decision-Making Styles in the VYJ model Decision Style Description AI Manager makes the decision alone. C= Consultative. Each manager-subordinate relationship represents one vertical dyad.The Vroom-Yetton-Jago model was first introduced by Vroom and Yetton in 1973 and was revised by Vroom and Jago in 1988. there are two autocratic types of leadership. To address the questions. to which employees should participate in the decision-making processes.fact that leaders actually have different kinds of working relationship with different subordinates. a decision about the facilities to be given to employees in a new office affects the entire group and the other two are appropriate when the decision affects a single individual only. maturity includes motivation. who receive less of leader's time and attention. For example. The VYJ model was criticized because of its complexity. • Life Cycle Model: The life cycle model suggests-that appropriate leader behavior depends on the maturity of the followers. trust and liking.ordinates may or may mil be informed about what the situation is. the task and the organization replace #70 . it has received little scientific support from researchers. the VYJ theory suggests that leaders adopt one of five decision-making leaderships. A = Autocratic. answering the questions about the problem attributes and developing a strategy for decisionmaking participation. Although the VYJ model is too new to have been thoroughly tested. Research shows that people in the ‘in-group’ are more productive and more satisfied with their work than ‘out group’ members. In this context. To maximize decision effectiveness. Substitutes for Leadership The existing leadership theories and models try to specify what kind of leader’s behavior is appropriate for different situations. two consultative types of leadership. Many leaders are familiar with the life cycle theory because it is both simple and logical. Simultaneously. which are CI and CII and the other one is group GII. Those in the 'ingroup' receive more of the manager's time and attention and are better performers. which are AI and All. The appropriate leadership depends on the situation. They do not take into consideration. Sub. competence and experience. It helps a leader to determine the extent. EMERGING PERSPECTIVES ON LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONS The new perspectives that have attracted attention are the concepts of substitutes for leadership and transformational leadership. Moreover. The model suggests that as followers become more mature. e.
#71 . involving developing self-awareness. accept. job design and leaders can also effectively use behavioral management. For example. Leadership Skills There is now recognition in both leadership theory and practice of the importance of skills. HRD.the behavior of the leaders. leadership may not be needed.leaders' behaviors. For example. doctors and attendants act immediately without waiting for directive or supportive behaviors of leaders in an emergency ward. employees with much ability and experience may not need to be told what to do. Charisma is a form of interpersonal attraction. Organizational characteristics that may substitute for leadership include formalization group cohesion. inflexibility and a rigid reward structure. The followers of a charismatic leader identify with the leader's beliefs. trust and obey the leader without questioning him and thereby contribute toward the success of the organizational goals. increases teaming experiences and inspires new ways of thinking. the research-based skills identified by Whetten and Cameron seem to be most valuable. inspirational leadership. Similarly. communication. the interpersonal skills model. Charismatic leaders are self-confident and can influence others. the availability of feedback and intrinsic satisfaction. motivating others and managing conflict. a strong need for independence by the sub-ordinate may result in ineffectiveness of leaders’ behavior. For example. how leaders should behave and perform effectively. are especially comprehensive and useful. This is a leadership that transmits a sense of mission. creativity. Several characteristics of the sub-ordinate may serve to replace or change . For example. and self-management of learning. Their personal skills model. training. Charismatic people attract followers and this type of leader has great power over his or her followers. involving communicating supportively. Although there are many skills.techniques such as. such as cultural flexibility. Transformational Leadership Another new concept of leadership goes by a number of labels: charismatic leadership. nurses. symbolic leadership and transformational leadership. when a patient is admitted to an emergency room in a hospital. the subordinate may not need direction. the widely recognized organizational behavior . gaining power and influence. when policies are formal and rigid. Characteristics of the task that may substitute the leadership include. the subordinate may not need or want support. when the job is routine and simple. Finally. When the task is challenging. managing stress and solving problems creatively.
For example. and Hunt (1980) and Sckaran (1986). forgetting to do things. if one experiences stress at work. Physicians. There are both positive and negative stresses that come from our work and nonwork lives. SOURCES OF JOB STRESS • Job Characteristics o Role ambiguity o Role conflict o Role overload o Ethical dilemmas • Interpersonal Relationships o Amount of contact with others o Dealing with people in other departments o Organizational climate • Organizational Factors #72 . If one operates in a very low stress environment and constantly experiences boredom. One major source of job stress is the job itself. and thinking of things other than work during work hours. Third source is problems in personal lives. If the stress experienced is below this optimum level. there are certain other types of work that are very threatening and anxietyarousing. For example. promotions to new jobs present employees with positive stress. and excitement. Interpersonal relationships are a second source of job stress. they also anticipate them eagerly and look forward to the additional challenges.LESSON -15 STRESS MANAGEMENT Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. the person is likely to psychologically or physically withdraw from work. how much time he or she deals with clients or consumers. Psychological withdrawal will result in careless mistakes being frequently made. As pointed out by Near. Thus. and apathy sets in. which may ultimately lead to turnover. Employees may feel anxious about their new work assignments. Though the optimum stress level is different Form different individuals. the motivational level to work reaches a low. each individual can sense and determine how much stress is functional for an individual to operate in a productive manner. An individual possessing high degree of tolerance for ambiguity allows him to experience very little anguish while operating under conditions of insufficient information or in an uncertain environment. The positive stress is also called the eustress. The way the job is designed. point. that stress will be carried over to the home. the work and non-work domains of one's life are closely interrelated. then the individual gets bored. it is possible to raise one’s capacity to handle in different situations. and how pleasant those interactions are all influences of how much stress an individual experiences at work. Thus. the new and uncertain job situations create positive stress. rather than feeling controlled by the situation they are facing. SOURCES OF STRESS Stress is a reality of our everyday life. Some new work situations can bring us positive challenges and excitement. and have defined the term in a variety of different ways. Stress can be either positive or negative. People with an internal locus of control also handle stress well since they feel they are in control of the situation. Physical withdrawal will manifest itself in increased rates of tardiness and absenteeism. the amount of time pressure an individual faces and the amount of expectations others have of a person at work can all lead to job stress. How much contact an individual has with coworkers and managers. Those with high self-esteem also handle stress with ease since a high self-esteem increases the confidence and enables them to deal with stressful situations with calmness and clear thinking. The more successfully one handles a stressful situation without panicking or getting overwhelmed by it. the more confidently will the individual face further stressful situations. you should be able to understand: • The meaning of stress • Various sources of stress • Various effects or consequences of stress • Various methods of managing stress The nature of stress has been studied by scholars in a wide range of academic disciplines. internal locus of control and selfesteem seem to effectively handle a high level of stress. which can spill over into the work environment. because they will be much more anxious about making sales commissions and sales quotas. depression in the economy can create negative stress for sales personnel. adding further tension to an already stressful work situation. Rice. The stresses and strains experienced in one domain are carried over to the other. Research indicates that those who possess high tolerance of ambiguity. and researchers in management have all studied its causes and its symptoms. psychiatrists. This makes it possible for them to manage their environmental stress without experiencing its harmful effects. Stress is defined as "the reactions of individuals to new or threatening factors in their work environments”. For every individual there is an optimum level of stress under which he or she may perform to full capacity. In these cases. among others. However. rewards.
which can cause stress. When one has to produce and perform with inadequate resources on a long-term basis. which have a negative impact on job stress. may cause stress.. • Environmental factors of stress include sudden and unanticipated changes in the marketplace. When interpersonal relationships at work are unpleasant. are as follows: • Amount of contact with others: Jobs vary in terms of how much interpersonal contact is built into them. A second career concern that can cause employees stress is status incongruity. or clients. this naturally imposes stresses and strains on the individuals who are responsible for getting the job done. or hostile exchanges. heal. They have more energy and patience for dealing with problems at work. Personal Factors Employees’ personal lives have a marked effect on their lives at work. salespeople in a store with no customer. If things are going well personally. i. • Structural factors in the organizational setting such as staff rules and' regulations and reward systems. • Lack of career promotion in organizations may be sometime cause stress. Three aspects of interpersonal relationships at work. • Role Underload: Role Underload is the condition in which employees have too little work to do or too little variety -in their work. Interpersonal Relationships Another major source of stress in organization is poor interpersonal relationships with supervisors. • Role Conflict: Often employees discover that different groups of people in an organization have widely varying expectations of them. having jobs with less status. or too high for the employee to meet within the time allotted. technology. budget. a diffuse feeling of dread about upcoming meetings and interactions. Ironically. distant. raw materials. With the recent increase in mergers and acquisitions among major organizations. employees are continually tense and this causes stress. A role is simply the set of expectations that other people in the organization have for an individual. This will be especially true for those who have strong moral values of right and wrong and a deep sense of personal and corporate social responsibility. more and more employees arc experiencing job stress as a result of role ambiguity. Working under time pressure is especially stressful. People in other departments do not always have an adequate understanding of jobs outside their own areas. coworkers.• Personal Factors o Career concerns o Geographical mobility o Rate of life change Job Characteristics A major source of job stress is a person's role in the organization. they might be more tense or distracted when they go to work. The expectations others have of an employee arc sometimes unclear. role underload leads to low self-esteem. customers and suppliers expect an employee to behave in certain predictable ways. if employees are having some personal problems. For example. which results in stress. For example. • Role Ambiguity: When there is a lot of uncertainty surrounding job definitions or job expectations. increased frequency of nervous symptoms and increased health problems. they are more likely to be upbeat and optimistic. • Ethical Dilemmas: Ethical dilemmas such as whether or not one should report the observed unethical behaviors of another person can cause extreme levels of stress in individuals. space or manpower also induce stress in the work environment. and that they cannot meet all those expectations. power and prestige than they think they deserve. coworkers. supervisors. • Organizational climate: The overall psychological climate of the organization can create stress. • Role Overload: Role overload is a situation in which employees feel they are being asked to do more than time or ability permits.e. Organizational Factors Following are the organizational factors that cause stress in individuals: • Work environment factors such as noise. Factors that influence how much stress people bring from their persona! lives to the work setting are as follows: • Career Concerns: One major career concern that can cause stress is lack of job security. Role ambiguity is anxiety arousing among employees that leads to job stress. This inconsistency of expectations associated with a role is called role conflict. #73 . When day-today life in an organization is marked by unfriendly. could be said to experience role underload. the financial market and so on. On the other hand. employees develop a generalized anxiety. poor lighting. • Amount of contact with people in other departments: Having contacts with people outside one's own department creates a special sort of stress. • Insufficient resources such as time. Tensions arise because one might have to contend against one's own colleagues who might be close friends. Too much prolonged contact with other people can cause stress. people experience role ambiguity. standing around all day with nothing to do. subordinates. and he or she experiences stress. in conflict. radiation and smoke are stress-inducing agents. and may fear of reprisal and other undesirable consequences.
and other psychosomatic disorders. Employee Assistance Program Another widely used strategy is the employee assistance Programs. excessive eating. dryness of throat. short attention span. In addition. will also decline as excessive stress is experienced. and even destructive and aggressive behaviors resulting in strikes and sabotage. Effects on the Individual The impacts of distress on individuals are of following types: • The subjective or intrapersonal effects of stress are feelings of anxiety. When geographical moves arc undertaken as part of a job transfer. Some of them are: Role Analysis Technique (RAT) The Role Analysis Technique helps both the manager and the employee to analyze the requirements and expectations from the job. asthma. depression. by finding alternative employment for the spouses of the transferred employees and getting admissions in schools for their children in the new place. such as drinking or withdrawal behaviors. There are several ways in which stress can be handled so that the dysfunctional consequences of stress can be reduced. Since the body has only a limited capacity to respond to stress. Sometimes experiencing the stress may cause aggressive behaviors on the part of the individual. and experience their new work environments as unpredictable. which offer a variety of assistance to employees. eczema. high blood pressure. These arrangements help to reduce the anxiety and stress for the moving family. The transferred employees are likely to feel out of control at work. navigator. Breaking-down the job into various components clarifies the role of the job for the entire system. and anger. the stresses experienced by a train driver or railway guard. their families and for the organizations they serve. too. It also leads to lost of customers because of poor worker attitudes. Recreational Program Providing recreational facilities. or air traffic controller may result in serious accidents. Job Relocation Job relocation assistance is offered to employees who are transferred. drinking. The stresses experienced by employees who take on critical roles and are responsible for safety can sometimes be detrimental to the public. Consequences to Organizations The adverse consequences on an organization include low performance and productivity. EFFECTS OR CONSEQUENCES OF JOB STRESS Negative stress has unpleasant consequences for them. the mental health. Consequences for the Family Negative stress. poor image and loss of future business are enormous. • The cognitive effects include poor concentration. which is handled by individuals in dysfunctional ways. help to reduce the stress levels of the employees. it is important for individuals to optimally manage their stress level to operate as fully functioning human beings. arranging group meditation programs. • The physiological effects can be seen in increased heart and pulse rate. nervousness. handling conflicts at the work place. smoking. and excessive sweating.• Geographical Mobility: Geographical moves create stress because they disrupt the routines of daily life. Needless to say that the costs of employee stress to the organization in terms of lost profits. For instance. increased alienation of the worker from the job. apathy. METHODS OF MANAGING STRESS Stress is a factor that everybody has to contend with on a daily basis both in the work and non-work spheres of life. high rates of absenteeism and poor decision-making. fatigue. and even divorce could result from dysfunctional coping mechanisms. • The manifest health effects could be stomach disorders. impulsive behaviors. will have an adverse effect on their home life. the moves can be even more stressful. dealing with marital and other family problems. Spouse abuse. or that of an airline pilot.e. mental blocks and inability to make decisions. and withdrawal behaviors. #74 . the ability lo function effectively in one's daily life. alienation from family members. i. • The behavioral effects arc manifest in such things as accident proneness. depression. These include counseling employees who seek assistance on how to deal with alcohol and drug abuse. boredom. child abuse. This also helps to eliminate reduction of work and thus lowering down the stress level.
effective work. and some strategies for dealing with that stress more effectively. and to communicate job assignments and instructions more clearly. meditation to career counseling. Supervisor Training Another type of stress management Program that organizations are experimenting with is supervisor training. By becoming knowledgeable about the possible avenues for advancement. Managers are trained to give better performance appraisals. the employees who consider their careers to be important can reduce their stress levels by becoming more realistic about their options and can start preparing themselves for it. People can learn to get better organized so that they can do their work more efficiently. time management and interpersonal skills workshops. Many companies invest large sum of money in gym and sport facilities for maintaining the health of the employees. to listen to employees’ problems more effectively. It would also reduce anxiety and stress among the employees. Delegation can directly decrease workload upon the manager and helps to reduce the stress. The emphasis on supervisory training Program is how to prevent job stress. participants are given materials to help them identify the major sources of stress in their own lives. These programs include biofeedback. Delegation Another way of coping with job stress is to delegate some responsibilities to others. Individual Stress Reduction Workshops Some organizations have also sponsored individual stress reduction workshops for their employees. In lectures and seminars. participants are given a basic understanding of the causes of stress and its consequences. (hat they should acquire. ! More Information and Help Some new employees have to spend more time on a job than necessary because they are not sure what they are doing. #75 . So it is necessary that some help should be provided before doing the work that would lead to much efficient. if any. Then. Health Maintenance Probably the most frequently used organizational stress management program is health maintenance. It also makes the employees aware of what additional educational qualifications or specialized technical training.Career Counseling Career Counseling helps the employee to obtain professional advice regarding career that would help the individual to achieve personal goals. Time Management Another way of coping with stress is to manage time more effectively.
is personal and does not have any legitimacy. Manager who uses praise and recognition has also a good deal of power. POWER AND AUTHORITY Sometimes power and authority is used synonymously because of their objective of influencing the behavior of others. Legitimate power is similar to formal authority and hence it can be created. Expert power is that influence which one wields as a result of one's experience. A manager’s coercive power increases with the number and severity of the sanctions over which the manager has control. granted. you should be able to: • Know the meaning and sources of power. power is a crucial factor in influencing the behavior in organizational situation. Authority is institutional and is legitimate. coercive power if they have control over some form of punishment such as threat of dismissal. Referent Power A person who is respected by certain others for whatever reason has referent power over those people. A person with referent power may have charisma and people who respect that person are likely to get emotionally involved with the respected person and identify with. special skill or knowledge. Both formal and informal groups and individuals may have power. Since any person who is not easily replaceable has more power as compared to those who are easily replaceable. Organizational rewards include pay. One person has influenced another if the second person's opinions. it tends to create resentment and hostility and therefore is usually detrimental to the organization in the long run. It can be a factor in almost any organizational decision. • Understand how people use power • Discuss how people use political behavior in organizations • Understand the techniques of political behavior Power is easy to feel but difficult to define. there is difference between the two. Organizations vary in how much legitimate power they grant to individuals. it does not need an official position or the backing of an institution to have power. Power is a factor at all levels of most organizations. the greater the power. reward. People with referent power are often imitated by others with the star's actions. P. It is the potential ability of a person or group to influence another person or group. expert and referent power. The organization gives managers the power to direct the activities of their subordinates. #76 . It is the ability to get things done the way one wants them to be done. Sources of Power John R. French and Bertram Raven identified five bases or sources of power: legitimate. Legitimate Power A person's position within organization provides him with legitimate power. changed or withdrawn by the formal organization. The structure of the organization also identifies the strength of the legitimate authority by position location. Power does not have any legal sanctity while authority has such sanctity. Power. In such organizations. coercive. attitudes and dress. If the sub-ordinates view their superior as competent. This power occurs when the expert threatens to withhold his knowledge or skill. But stilt. To the extent. A manager who has complete control over such rewards has a good deal of power. The greater the perceived values of such rewards. on the other hand. For instance. and knowledgeable. behavior or perspectives have changed as a result of their interaction. he is likely to have more power. accept and be willing to follow him or her.LESSON-16 POWER AND POLITICS Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. This imitation reflects the rising star's power over the imitations. demotion or other method of embarrassment for the people. a manager can cause psychological harm also lo an employee. that a low-ranking worker has important knowledge not available to a superior. suspension. Although the use of coercive power is often successful in the short run. Expert Power It is more of personal power than organizational power. However. promotions and valued office assignments. naturally they will obey and respect the superior. Reward Power This type of power is the extent to which one person has control over rewards that are valued by another. higher-level positions exercise more power than lower-level positions in a classical hierarchical organizational structure. Influence can take many forms. Perhaps. everyone knows who has the most power and few people challenge the power structure. Coercive Power People have.
Managers who wish to maintain their credibility should make threats only when they intend to carry through on them and should never threaten a punishment that they cannot bring about. Managing Political Behavior The very nature of political behavior makes it difficult to manage or even approach in a rational and systematic manner. Public punishment makes everyone uneasy and humiliating and hence should be done private. The boss must follow normal procedures and make sure the request is appropriate. Such by passing of the normal chain of command can cause hard feelings among all the people involved. when a superior asks a sub-ordinate to do something. the manager must be able to identify the defect and must be able to help and educate him. a vicepresident whose secretary is busy should not assume that he or she can just ask a supervisor's secretary to drop all other work and type a letter. Using Expert Power To gain power from their expertise. Managers who are insensitive to their employees may find that their legitimate power dwindles and that they must resort to coercive power. For instance. the way the superior makes the request and follows it up are very important for ensuring the sub-ordinate’s future compliance and the growth of the superior's referent power. The secretary who understands the importance of a task will be more likely to work enthusiastically on it. POLITICAL BEHAVIOR AND ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS Power and politics are inextricably interwoven with the fabric of an organization's life. directions and the other major parameters of the organization. considerate and creative can simply demonstrate those behaviors herself and her employees will likely imitate her actions. However a leader who relics on coercive power is very unlikely to have committed employees. a number of people are seeking to gain and use power to achieve their own ends. A respected manager who wants her employees to be punctual. of power. However. Most of these suggestions imply that managers must be sensitive to employees concerns. before giving a reward. The work of Gary Yukl provides both a way to predict the consequences of certain uses of power and guidelines for using power. However a manager who understands why people use political behavior and the techniques people usually employ has the best chance to manage political behavior successfully. This pursuit of power is political behavior. Hence. managers must make people aware of how much they know. coercion is now generally recognized to be the most difficult form of punishment to use successfully in an organization. The following table list^ the five sources of . warning an individual who uses copying machine to make -personal copies but firing someone who steals equipment from the organization. For instance. at any given moment. #77 . Using Reward Power The manager. One great organizational scholar. Tushman defined politics. Using Referent Power Leaders have traditionally strengthened their referent power by hiring employees with backgrounds similar to their own. must be sure that the employee has actually done the job and done it well. Manager can use his expert power most effectively to address employee concerns. ‘as the structure and process of the use of authority and power to affect definition of goals. using coercive power is a natural response when something goes wrong. Decisions are not made in rational or formal way but rather through compromise accommodation and bargaining. Organizational politics refers to the activities carried out by people to acquire. For instance. Though the secretary does what the boss asks.HOW PEOPLE USE POWER An individual manager may have power derived from any or all of the five bases of power and the manager may use that power in different1 ways. enhance and use power and other resources to obtain their preferred outcomes in a situation where there is uncertainly or disagreement. Therefore. One of the most positive and subtle uses of referent power is the process of rote modeling. If a particular sales person faces any difficulty in selling a particular product and turns to manager for his help. good managers must try to analyse the sources of their power and be careful how they use that power. the table shows that a leader's use of referent power will lead employees to be committed lo the leader’s project if they see that the project is important to the leader. compliance and resistancewhen the leader uses the power. still the boss could be cordial and polite when making requests and should whenever possible explain why a particular task needs to be done. A good manager will be such that the punishment fit the crime. Employees must know that they get rewarded for good work. But often employees resist coercive power. Using Coercive Power For some people. resent it and losing respect for people using that type.i leader's power and some of the variables that are likely to lead to three general types of employee responses or outcomes-commitment. Using Legitimate Power The use of legitimate power is seldom challenged in an organization. the sub-ordinate usually complies without resistance. In any organization.
perceptions are selective and biased and information processing capacities are constrained. political behavior is increased when the internal technology is complex and when external environment is highly volatile. Hence decisions are taken on intuition. for instance. introducing a new product line and all these changes influence political behavior when various individuals and groups try to control the given situation. The opinions of outside experts and consultants often curry much weight in organizations and many consultants can be swayed by political interests. Non-Programmed Decisions Sometimes. Controlling lines of communication is another political technique related to the flow of information. preferences are conflicting. TECHNIQUES OF POLITICAL BEHAVIOR The most commonly used techniques of political behavior are: • Controlling information • Controlling lines of communication • Controlling agenda • Using outside experts : • Game playing • Image building • Building coalitions One technique of political behavior is to control the dissemination of critical information to others. For example. She may use this power in favoring those whom she likes and frustrating those against whom she may have it grudge. Controlling the agenda also gives a person power over information.• • • • • People use political behavior in organizations in response to the five main factors: Ambiguous goals Scarce resources Technology and the environment Non-Programmed decisions Organizational change FACTORS INFLUENCING POLITICAL BEHAVIOR Ambiguous Goals When the goals of a department or the entire organization are ambiguous then there is more room available for playing politics. who has done extensive research on -the subject of power in organizations. CHANGES IN TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT Organizational effectiveness is largely a function of the organization’s ability to appropriately respond to external environment which is highly dynamic and generally unpredictable as well as adequately adopt to complex technological developments. Organizational Change Whenever there are changes in the organizational structure and policies. the companies have to make a lot of non-Programmed decisions on certain issues. the secretary may have considerable power in deciding who sees the boss and who does not at a given time. personnel changes. These decisions are not based on clear standards and precedents. In situations in which technologies are uncertain. Consultants know who is paying them and even honest consultants are likely to #78 . People who have some control over lines of communication can yield considerable political power. because such issues involve many factors and variables that are complex in nature. may consistently put a particular item last on the list and then take up time so that meeting adjourns before considering the item. These changes may include restructuring of a division or creating a division. states as follows: “If there is one concluding message. people have the tendency to use political behavior to make sure that they get the biggest possible share of the resource. Scarce Resources When resources are scarce. Thus. bunch and guesses and all these subjective feelings can be affected by political behavior. the model of an effective politician may be an appropriate one for both the individual and for the organization in the long-run”. peoples in powerful positions have the opportunity to play politics. The more critical (he information and fewer the people who have it. Some people may use the ambiguity to manipulate the situation for their benefit. If is even better that some of them are quiet effective at it. it is that it is probably effective and it is certainly normal that these managers do behave as politicians. the stronger is political power base of those who possess these information. Pfeiffer. It is widely accepted that managers have to be politicians in order to maintain their positions in the organizational hierarchy as well as serve the interests of their units. The person who controls a meeting's agenda.
having a pleasant smile. but not outright illegal or unethical to gain political ends. the employees will be likely to put their energy into meeting the stated criteria for gelling resources rather than into political activity. combating politics must be undertaken by the top management and some of the steps that can be undertaken are: open communication. Reducing such uncertainty can. Hence. It is necessary to have the alliance with the right people. Accordingly. Building coalitions or alliance is another technique of gaining political power. a manager who does not want to answer a committee's tough questions may. managers who develop an ability to recognize and predict political activity are in the best position to limit its effects. appearance and style. For instance. avoid meeting by going out of the town on the day of meeting. It involves people doing something insincere. Game playing can range from fairly innocent to very manipulative. honest. for instance.give opinions consistent with those of their employer. Some of the factors that enhance a preferred image consist of being well dressed. If the organization is open about why it made particular decision. Open communication is one of the ways an organization can reduce uncertainty. always project an image of competence and selfassurance. if a manager understands the reasons for it and the techniques of political behavior. Open communication can reduce the political activity if all employees know how and why an organization allocates resources. damper co-operative spirit and much time and energy is spent planning attacks and counter attacks which are detrimental to organizational health. Coalition building can become simply a matter of quid pro quo: I will support you if you will support me. therefore. Managers with this awareness will expect an increase in political activity during times of organizational change and will learn how to handle it. being attractive. sociable and loyal to the organizational interests. Uncertainty in the form of ambiguous goals and changes that affect the organization tends to increase the use of political activity. reduce the political behavior. In addition. create enemies. then employees will he less likely to think that the decisions were political and less likely to use political techniques to try to influence the next decision. Politics when carried to the extreme can damage morale. hiring an outside consultant can be a clever political move. Managing Political Behavior Though it is virtually impossible to eliminate political behavior in organizations. destroy loyalty. For instance. Finally. in case of lay off the organization can reduce political behavior. Image building is creating positive impression reflected by the personality. reduction of uncertainty and creating awareness. laying down clear criteria and making it transparent to the employees who will be laid off. it is possible to reduce it. #79 .
products are manufactured according to customer specifications in small quantities. war. shareholders competitors. If the managers are good at analyzing and predicting changes in the environment. machines and events. and organization size and life cycle. ' An organization that uses continuous process. Examples are home-appliance. which include interest rates. Bums and Stalker argued that managers should examine the rate of change in technology to determine the best organizational structure. economic factors. Woodward defined three basic types of technology. a highly formalized centralized structure is appropriate for an organization that uses the same routine technology while a more flexible structure is necessary for an organization that often uses new technology. therefore. are manufactured in assembly-line fashion by combining component pans to create finished goods. groupings of jobs. finance. • Technology: Technology is the set of processes that an organization uses to transform various resources such as materials and labor into products or services. which include customers. In his view. Joan Woodward was the first person to see the link between technology and organizational design. Life cycle refers to organization's maturity relative to that of other organizations." automobile and computer manufacturers.LESSON -17 ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. the hierarchy. Examples are printing press and studios. In particular. DETERMINANTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN The key situational determinants of organizational design are technology. for example. then. floods etc. products. legislatures and regulatory agencies. They recommended a bureaucratic or mechanistic structure for organizations with slowly changing technology and an organic or flexible structure for organizations with rapidly changing technology. • Environment: The environment also influences the type of design an organization is likely to adopt. patterns of authority. approaches to co-ordination and line-staff differentiation into a single and unified organizational system. not just production and the same technological change can have very different effects on different organizations. Organizational Size and Life Cycle: Organization size refers to how large : the organization is. organizational environment. they can help the organization to take advantage of any change. products are transformed from raw materials into finished goods through a series of machine transformations that change the composition of the materials themselves. Technology can affect all aspects of an organization. the differences in organizational design that might exist between a computer manufacturer and university. The environment of an organization consists of all the factors and conditions outside the organization that might affect it. Woodward viewed unit or small-batch technology as -the least complex while the continuous process technology as the most complex. Consider. you should be able to: • Understand the concept of organizational design • Identify the determinants of organizational design • Know the various forms of organizational design CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN Organizational design is the overall configuration of structural components that defines jobs. Examples are petroleum refiners. it is likely to have a relatively flat and decentralized design whereas the university has a more stable environment and is less affected by technology. She found that organizations within each set had similar designs but the designs varied somewhat from set to set. food processors and chemical manufacturers. In unit or small-batch technology. objects. • #80 . Since the computer manufacturer has to respond to frequent technological breakthroughs and changes in its competitive environment. non-routine or intensive technology needs to ensure that its structure can adapt to changes in the technologies. Charles Perrow concluded that me key question concerning an organization’s technology is whether it is routine or non-routine. it has a more centralized structure with numerous rules and regulations. which include as elections. usually. Since the environment affects organization both directly and indirectly. unemployment rate. In continuous-process technology. the managers must keep an eye on it and be ready to modify organization's design to respond to environmental changes. Therefore. in terms of the number of its full-time employees. In large batch or mass-production technology. which include buildings.
The following figure 17.2 shows the H-form organization. Secondly. #81 . as organizations grow in size. U stands for Unity. It is also called as "functional design as it relies exclusively on the functional approach to departmentalization. It allows an organization to staff each department with experts. When the organizations grow. An organization's life cycle and growth rates are directly linked to the strategy that the organization is pursuing. After they are created. an organization design needed by a small but rapidly growing business is different from an organization design needed by an established and entrenched industry giant growing at a stable and predictable rate. The loss in one product is compensated by profit in another. The main disadvantage of this form of organization is that it is complex and diverse thereby creating difficulty for top managers in having knowledge about all products. H stands for Hybrid and is also known as conglomerate. the U-form design shows decision-making and employees within each department may concentrate on their own function forgetting overall organizational goals. CONTEMPORARY FORMS OF ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN Every organization has its own unique design depending on its technology. Organizations tend to follow a predictable pattern of growth. Thus. more standard operating procedures. such an organization can protect itself from cyclical fluctuations in a single industry. they often find that the disadvantages of the U-form tend 10 become more significant and adopt different designs as they evolve through their life cycles. since each department is highly dependent on another. To summarize. Such organization requires perfect coordination to operate smoothly aiming the various departments. However. more rules and regulations. they grow for some period of time and then eventually stabilize as a mature organization. It tends to make it hard for organization to monitor the performance of individual managers within each functional area.Size can affect organization design in many different ways. This design has two advantages. Members of the organization who perform the same functions arc grouped together into departments. it also facilitates wide spans of management and helps the Managing Director to maintain centralized authority. The H-Form Organization: In the H-form organization. This design usually results from the corporate strategy of unrelated diversification of the products. A group of researchers in England found that large organizations tend to have more job specialization. The U-Form design has several advantages. The figure 17. and more decentralization than small organizations.1 shows the organization cycle. an organization can buy and sell its individual businesses with little or no disruption to the others. The design relics on product departmentalization with the various products constituting different businesses. Following are the various forms of an organization based on their design: • The U-Form Organization: In the U-form organization. limits and potentials of" its environment and the life cycle stage it follows. An organization's life cycle is related to its size. they should be prepared to adapt their design accordingly. First.
its strengths and weaknesses. environment. Nestle is a big global organization and highly decentralized. For example. co-ordinate and control them. Each organization has to carefully assess its own strategy. an organization with an M-form design might own one business that manufactures automobile batteries. A matrix design is seldom used for an entire organization and is often used for a portion of it. Thus. As a result. Nestle is almost a confederation of independent operating organizations. the M-form design is used to implement a corporate strategy of related diversification. For example. A global organization must modify and adapt its design to allow it to function effectively. 'the organization cannot escape from the effect of cyclical fluctuations. life cycle and size. Such companies have offices and/or factories in different countries and usually have a centralized head office where they coordinate the global management. These organizations have centralized head office in their home country that controls their various office in other parts of the world. A primary advantage of the M-form organization is that it can achieve a great deal of synergy in its operations. e. • The Matrix Organization: A matrix organization is created by overlaying product-based departmentalization on lo a functional structure. who arc empowered with a great deal of autonomy and authority to make decisions. The organization also has to devote more resources to coordination because of high levels of interdependence that result from a matrix. its history. Us organizational design is like an umbrella. Global Organization: An organization. It has also some drawbacks such as an organization lacks a clear chain of command thereby 'resulting into confusion about which manager lies authority over a given employee. Nestlé’s various organizations scattered around the world are operated by its own general managers. Most of its businesses are in the same or related industries. which has assets in more than one country other than its home country is called as global organization. Figure 17. Moreover.g. if the businesses are too closely related. It is similar to the H-form design but has one notable distinction. It must then choose a design that fit these elements most effectively. other that manufactures lyre and still another that manufactures car polish. • A matrix design allows an organization to capitalize on the advantages of both functional and product departmentalization. #82 . Its design is similar to the M-form but because the operating units are so far apart that there is little synergy. it is easy for top managers to understand.• The M-Form Organization: In the M-form organization M stands for Multi-divisional and it is called the divisional design.3 shows the matrix organization. in terms of manufacturing products that is used by automobile owners. However. It is to be remembered that there is no one best form of design that all organizations should adopt. Although each is distinct from the other but still related. because the various units are in the same or related businesses. its technology. a consumer familiar with an organization’s batteries will be inclined to buy its tyres and car polish.
you should be able to understand: • • Organizational culture and explain its importance. a strong culture is. According to Deal and Kennedy. For instance. The manager trying to change an organizational culture faces lots of difficulties. One way to brine about such changes is to manage the symbols that are important to the organization." Organizational climate is a relatively enduring quality of the internal environment that is #83 . any organization willing to change its culture must realize that such a change is never easy and cannot be brought about simply by ordering employees. Once successfully made. changes in the organizational culture will be as stable as the old culture was. weak and poorly defined cultures. one organization might value solidarity and loyalty to organization more than any other value whereas another organization might stress on good relations with customers. Most managers agree that a strong and clear culture is preferable to weak and vague culture because it helps to provide a common frame of reference for managerial decision-making and a wide variety of other organizational activities. All the above definitions stress acceptable and unacceptable behavior of its members. the box will have little effect on organization morale. Factors affecting organizational climate CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE Organizational culture is the set of values that states what an organization stands for. Such values are part of organizational culture in spite of not being formally written like rules and regulations of the organization. Because organizational culture embody the organizational values. Schein defines organizational culture as the pattern of basic assumptions that a given group has invented. They must create new role model and new stories to help employees understand the meaning of what is happening around them. According to Bowditch and Buono. possible to change organizational culture. many organizations have difficulty in expressing their cultural values. an organization's values automatically enter every employee's personal values and actions over a period of time. stories. while climate is an indicator of whether those beliefs and expectations are being fulfilled.LESSON -18 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND CLIMATE Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. heroes. Organizational Climate Even though organizational culture and organizational climate are sometimes used interchangeably. "Organizational culture is concerned with the nature of beliefs and expectations about organizational life. which are embedded in organization's soul that stays stable irrespective of the changes in leadership and environment. As organizational culture evolves. Organizational culture has a profound influence on individual employees because it is generally an accepted set of values rather than a written set of rules with which employees might not argue. An organizational culture generally lakes shape over time and is often deeply influenced by the values of the organizational founders. discovered and developed while learning to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. serve to maintain and perpetuate the culture through subsequent generations of employees. how it operates and what it considers important. to improve the organization performance. however. slogans and ceremonies also come into being. "a system of informal rules that spells out how people have to behave most of the time". strong and well-defined culture whereas: others have ambiguous. Some organizations try to emphasize the importance of employees’ ideas by rewarding them for their suggestions. It is. However. Culture communicates whether the organization expects its managers to be aggressive or conservative in decisions-making. there are certain differences between the two. An organization's suggestion box is a symbol of an organization's openness to the ideas of the employees. generous or moderate in supporting social causes and ruthless or kind in competitive dealings. Changing Organizational Culture Change is most often needed when the organization has lost its effectiveness and is struggling to either" carry out or change its strategic goals. However. However. then. For this managers must change employee's ideas about what is and what is not appropriate behavior. They do not usually appear in the organizational training Program and in fact. These. various symbols. Some organizations have clear. Importance of Culture Culture plays a very significant role in any organization by communicating information about the overall acceptable and unacceptable behavior. if the suggestion box remains just a symbol and organization never translates the suggestions into actions.
leadership style. the nurture of subordinates. Similarly. which serve as a major force in influencing their behavior. motivation and leadership.experienced by its members. influences their behavior. strict supervision and promotional achievement orientation. Thus. organizational structure and process. which include management philosophy. it is very difficult to generalize exactly the factors affecting the climate." It is a set of characteristics and factors of the organization that are perceived by the employees and. FACTORS AFFECTING ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE In every organization. performance arid evaluation standards. Schneider and Barlett describe six factors that have an influence over organizational climate such as managerial support. which include communication. Organizational climate has a major influence on human performance through its impact on the motivation. Lawrence James and Allan Jones have identified five factors influencing climate. and can be described in terms of the values of a particular set of characteristics. agent dependence and general satisfaction. inter-agency conflict. These factors may include job descriptions. physical environment and values. challenges and innovations. there exist certain factors that exert deep influence on the climate. job satisfaction and attitudes of people. Kahn has identified factors such as rules orientation. #84 .
quality. The limitation of this model is that an acquisition of resources from environment is again related to the goal of an organization. Instead. It refers to an amount of resources used to produce a particular unit of output. However the concept of effectiveness is not simple because there are many approaches in conceptualizing this term. it cannot be applied for measuring organizational effectiveness in terms of its contributions to social system. The interdependence takes the form of input-output transactions and includes scarce and valued resources such as physical. accidents.e. the vital question in determining effectiveness is how well an organization is doing for the super-ordinate system. Functional Approach This approach solves the problem of identification of organizational goals. Both the goal and functional approach do not give adequate consideration to the conceptual problem of the relations between the organization and its environment. you should be able to understand: • • The concept of organizational effectiveness Factors contributing organizational effectiveness CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS Organizational effectiveness is defined as an extent to which an organization achieves its predetermined objectives with the given amount of resources and means without placing undue strain on its members. it is important to explain the difference between the concepts of effectiveness and efficiency to understand why organizations may he effective bin not efficient. motivation and satisfaction. it is difficult to accept that ultimate goal of organization will be to serve society. However. which help in measuring organizational effectiveness. • Functional Approach • System Resource Approach Goal Approach Goal attainment is the most widely used criterion of organizational effectiveness. morale.19 ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. or efficient but not effective. focus towards attainment of these goals should also aim at serving the society. turnover. discussion of organizational effectiveness leads to the conclusion that there is no single indicator of effectiveness. The limitation of this approach is that when organizations have autonomy to follow its independent courses of action. Sometimes efficiency and effectiveness are used as synonyms. this model is not different from the goal model. there exists a difference between the two concepts. Further. As such. economic and human for which every organization competes. System Resource Approach System-resource approach of organizational effectiveness emphasizes on interdependency of processes that relate the organization to its environment. efficiency is a limited concept that pertains to the internal working of an organization. Effectiveness is a broad concept and takes into account a collection of factors both inside and outside an organization. Thus. On the other hand. It is commonly referred to as the degree to which predetermined goals are achieved. It has been defined in terms of organizational goal-achieving behavior. It is generally measured as the ratio of inputs to outputs. Thus.LESSON . Such approaches can be grouped into following three approaches: • Goal Approach. Parson states that since it has been assumed that an organization is identified in terms of its goal. Campbell has suggested several variables such as. FACTORS AFFECTING ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS Likert has classified the factors affecting organizational effectiveness into following three variables: • Causal • Intervening • End result Causal Variables #85 . effectiveness refers to maximization of profits by providing an efficient service that leads to high productivity and good employee morale. Managerial effectiveness is a causal variable in organizational effectiveness. The main limitation of this approaches the problem of identifying the real goals rather than the ideal goals. However. Therefore. in goal approach. Therefore. none of the single variable has proved to be entirely satisfactory. efficiency. productivity. the manager's own behavior contributes to achievement of organizational goals.. i. profit. the approach should focus on operative goals that would serve as a basis for assessment of effectiveness. effectiveness concentrates more on human side of organizational values and activities whereas efficiency concentrates on the technological side of an organization.
i. attitudes.1 shows the relationship among various variables. The extent to which individual and organizational goals are integrated.Causal variables are those independent variables that determine the course of developments within an organization and the objectives achieved by an organization. group and organizational levels in order to make the organization more effective. affects the degree of organizational effectiveness. intervening and end-result ore interrelated. which can be altered by organization and its management.2 shows Levels of Variables. The causal variables are the key to organizational effectiveness. Intervening Variables Intervening variables according to Likert are those variables that reflect the internal state and health of an organization. skills and behavior. intervening and end-result variables comprise a complex network with many interdependent relationships. The causal. Hence. attempt should be made to improve the causal variables. The effectiveness model can be presented in a more complex way i. loss and earnings. He may sec his goal satisfaction in satisfying organizational goals. performance goals and perceptions of all the members and their collective capacity for effective interaction..1: Inter-relationship of Variables The above model is quiet simple. Casual Variables • Leadership Style • Management Decision • Organizational Philosophy Objectives and policies • Technology Intervening Variables • Commitment to Objective • Motivation and Morale • Communication Leadership Skills • Conflict Resolution • Decision –Making Figure 19. each individual tries to satisfy his goal by working in an organization and simultaneously satisfying organizational minis. business and leadership strategies. Figure 19. Inter-Relationship of Variables The three variables such as causal. to make organization effective. If there is no perfect integration #86 . communication and decision-making.e. decisions. End-Result Variables End-Result variables are the dependent variables that reflect achievements of an organization such as its productivity. Causal variables include organization and management's policies. These causal variables include only those independent variables. while other variables will be corrected or improved automatically because of causal variables. Figure 19. loyalties. The inter-relationship may be visualized as psychological process where stimuli or causal variables acting upon the organism or intervening variables and creating certain responses or end-result variables. End Results Variables • Production • Cost • Sales • Earning • Turnover • Management Union Relationship The effective organization is built of effective individuals who work collectively in groups. at three different levels such as the individual. costs.e. For example. motivations.
Changing Conversion Process: The organization takes the inputs from environment for further processing. Exploring New Outputs: When the internal change is stabilised. • Successful coping requires integration and commitment to organizational goals. which can support good communication. Importing the Relevant Information: Organizations must be able to take the relevant information from the environment. • There should be enough internal flexibility so that changes can be brought and absorbed by an organization. This is similar to first stage. A successful coping suggests that all the stages have to be successfully-negotiated and failure at any of these stages may result into ineffectiveness. #87 . However.of individual and organizational goals then organizational effectiveness is affected adversely. Effectiveness through Adaptive-Coping Cycle The organization must develop a system through which it can adapt or cope with the environmental requirements. 2. sub-system. Obtaining Feedback: The last stage in the cycle is to obtain feedback on the outcome of the changes for further sensing the state of the external environment and the degree of integration of internal environment. 3. • There should be supportive internal climate. There are six stages in the adaptive-coping cycle as follows: 1. 4. research and development and other similar devices for effective coping with the environment. reduction in inflexibility and stimulation of self-protection. Schein has suggested that an organization can do this through the adaptive coping cycle. 6. Following are the major organizational conditions for effective coping: • There should be an effective communication system through which reliable and valid information can be passed. which are in accordance with environment requirements. which is dependent on external. which consists of various activities that enable an organization to cope with the dynamics of environment. Most of the organizations have adaptive sub-system such as marketing research. This is because change in one may affect other and this change can be either positive or negative. which provide willingness for change. 5. which constitutes the input. organizational effectiveness is not a result of integration between individual and organizational goals only but there are other causal variables affecting it. Maintaining organizational effectiveness requires additional efforts. normally known as conversion process. Stabilizing Internal Changes: The fourth stage of the cycle is to stabilize an internal sub-system of an organization. Sensing of Change: The first stage is the sensing of change in internal or external environment. Adaptive-Coping cycle is a continuous process. especially when the major organizational changes take place. the organization can export new outputs.
These forces come from external and internal sources of the organization. EXTERNAL FORCES External forces for change originate outside an organization. There are four key external forces for change: Demographic Characteristics: These include age. This may come from both human resource problems and managerial behavior. Inappropriate leader behavior such as inadequate direction and support are the cause of conflict between managers and their subordinates. stress. Unless the people arc willing to accept the need and responsibility for organizational change. skill level and gender of employees. #88 . Therefore. intended changes can never be translated into reality. attitudes. Organizations are entering into new partnerships with their suppliers in order to deliver higher quality products at lower prices. Management of change involves both individual and organizational change. Organizations encounter different forces for change. you should-be able to understand: • The concept of change in the organization • Forces affecting the change • Model and dynamics of planned change • The reasons for resistance to change • The method of overcoming resistance to change Change simply refers to alteration in the existing conditions of an organization. In addition. Individual change is behavioral change. education. Personal values affect employees’ needs. individuals have to learn to adapt their attitudes and behavioral patterns to constantly changing environments. managers need to adjust their managerial style according to the changing employee values. which is determined by individual characteristics of members such as their knowledge. priorities and motivation. Although it is difficult for organizations to predict changes in political forces.which changes are initiated and executed. Although. Even in most stable organizations change is necessary to maintain stability. Organizations need to effectively manage these characteristics in order to receive maximum contribution and commitment from their employees. Political events also create substantial change in an organization. work overload and ambiguity. expectations and skills. Managerial Behavior Excessive interpersonal conflict between managers and their subordinates is a sign of implementing an immediate change. the degree of difficulty involved in the change and the time taken to bring about the change will depend on the target of change. Organizations might respond to these problems by using the various approaches to job design by implementing realistic job previews and by reducing employees' role conflict.LESSON .20 MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. Therefore. Social and Political Pressures: These forces are created by social and political events. needs. The attitudes towards change are largely dependent on the nature of the situation and the manner in . The economic and social environment is so dynamic that without adapting to such change even the most successful organizations cannot survive in the changed environment. Nature of Change Organizations introduce changes through people. beliefs. It is possible to bring about a total change m_ an organization by changing behaviors of individual members through participative and. educative strategies. Market Changes: The emergence of a global economy is forcing Indian organizations to change the way they do business. Technological Advancements: Both manufacturing and service organizations are increasingly using technology as a means to improve productivity and market competitiveness. INTERNAL FORCES Internal forces for change come from inside the organization. Human Resource Problems These problems stem from employee perceptions about their work environment and conflict between an employee and organization needs. many organizations hire lobbyists and consultants to help them detect and respond to social and political changes. management must continuously monitor the outside environment and be sufficiently innovative and creative to implement these changes effectively.
One's attitude does not necessarily get reflected in one's behavior. attitude and behavior.1 shows seven steps that can lead to effective change. Due to this group dynamics. Planned change is designed and implemented by an organization in an orderly and timely fashion in the anticipation of future change. A COMPREHENSIVE MODEL OF CHANGE The comprehensive model of change shown in the figure 20.who are honest but in certain situations.Changing individual behavior is more time consuming and a difficult task. APPROACHES TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE As organizational change is a complex process. More often than not. Managers who sit back and respond to change only when they can no longer avoid it are likely to waste a lot of time and money trying to patch together a last-minute solution. External forces that the organization has failed to anticipate or interpret always bring about reactive change. This model is useful for both planned and reactive change. Reactive change results from a reaction of an organization to unexpected events. In contrast to planned change. Bringing total behavioral change in all the groups and members of an organization involves difficult long-range effort. individual member's ‘changed behavior’ may revert to earlier normative behavior in order to maintain the change in the existing conditions. we know that honesty is the best policy and we have favourable altitudes towards people. policies. Since reactive change may have to be carried out hastily. sometimes it may be easier to tackle the group as a whole rather than trying to change the behavior of members one by one. Planned change is always preferable to reactive change. To accomplish this. due to the same reasons of a group's over-riding influence on individual members. Changing group behavior is usually a more prolonged and harder task. For example. we may still act in a less honest way. procedures and techniques leads to total organizational change. However. it increases the likelihood of a poorly conceived and poorly executed Program. managers must understand the steps needed for effective change. the complexity of managing change increases manifold. it is a slow painful process to usher a total cultural change in an organization. #89 . therefore managers must approach it systematically and logically. These types of changes alter prescribed relationships and roles assigned to members and eventually modify the individual members’ behavior and attitudes. As these two kinds of changes are interdependent. it is a piece-meal response to circumstances as they develop. The more effective approach is to anticipate the significant forces for change working in an organization and plan ways to address them. The linkage between attitude and behavior is not direct and therefore changing behavior is more difficult than changing attitudes. Modification in the organization's structures. Every group has its own dynamics of push and pull that attempt to neutralise the change that may have taken place in an individual. It is possible to change total organization without focusing at the level of individual's change of knowledge. Some organizational changes are planned whereas other changes are reactive.
Establish goals for change The manager must then set goals for the proposed change. These managers tend to ‘initiate change because they expect it to be necessary in the near future in any case’. if turnover is the recognized stimulus for change. Planning the implementation of change involves consideration of the cost of the change. The goals can be set to maintain or increase the market standing. how the change will affect other areas of the organization and the degree to #90 .The seven steps of comprehensive model of change are as follows: Recognize need for change The first step in this model is recognizing need for change. the manager may discuss the situation with employees and other managers. poor working conditions. recognition is likely to come much earlier. change. Select change intervention After the manager has developed an understanding of the problem and its causes then he must select a change intervention that will accomplish the intended goal. if turnover is caused by low pay. to enter new markets. To carry out this diagnosis. may be caused by a variety of factors such as low pay. For example. the manager must understand what has caused it in a particular situation in order to make the right changes. Plan implementation of change The manager must then carefully plan the implementation of change. poor supervision. to settle a strike and to identify good investment opportunities. for example. Thus. It is important for the manager to specify goals that the change is supposed to accomplish. as a result of marketing forecasts indicating new market potential. Turnover. then a new reward system is required and if the cause is poor supervision then interpersonal skills and training for supervisors is required. to reduce turnover. For marketing managers who anticipate needed . to restore employee morale. expert indications about impending socio-economic change or a perceived opportunity to capitalize on a key technological breakthrough. better alternatives in the job market or employee job dissatisfaction etc. An intervention is a specific change induced in an organization with the intention of solving a particular problem or accomplishing a specific objective. Diagnose relevant variables An important next step is diagnosing organizational variables that have brought about the need for change.
Any change. it is important to highlight the assumptions on which. Moreover. after the change has been implemented. if change is thrust upon them too quickly. Additional coaching and modelling are also used at this point to reinforce the stability of the change. Change will not occur unless there is motivation to change. new behavioral models.which employees should participate in bringing about the change. #91 . whether in terms of structure. or new ways of looking at things. quick fix solutions to organizational problems. Expanded process model is illustrated in the figure 20. Implement change A systematically implemented change is more likely to proceed smoothly and to encounter fewer obstacles than is a change that is implemented too quickly and without adequate preparation. attitudes and organizational practices. 3. the manager should verify that it has accomplished its intended goals. Managers also need to devise ways to reduce the barriers to change during this stage. Once exhibited. This is often the most difficult part of the change process. their resistance may stiffen. if the change involves the use of new equipment.2. MODELS AND DYNAMICS OF PLANNED CHANGE Managers are criticized for emphasizing short-term. this model is based: 1. In doing so individuals are encouraged to replace old behaviors and attitudes with those desired by management. A change may fail to bring about the intended results. it does not deal with several important issues. Re freezing The focus of this stage is stabilizing the change during refreezing by helping employees integrate the changed behavior or attitude into their normal way of doing things. behaviors and organizational practices. benchmarking organization against world-class organizations and training are useful mechanisms to facilitate change. the manager should not make any changes that rely on the use of new equipment until it has arrived and been installed and workers know how to use it. Expanded Process Model Lewin's model is very simple and straightforward and virtually all models of organizational change use his approach. group process. Changing The focus of this stage is in providing employees with new information. mentors. The following are the three stages of change: Unfreezing The focus of this stage is to make organization open to change. The following models have been developed to effectively manage change: Lewin's Change Model Most theories of organizational change originated from the landmark work of social psychologist Kurt Lewin. Role models. People are the hub of all organizational changes. 2. changing and refreezing. Resistance to change is found even when the goals of change are highly desirable. However. The three stages are unfreezing. Quick-fix solutions do not really solve underlying problems and they have little staying power. Lewin developed a three-stage model of planned change. positive reinforcement is used to reinforce the desired change. 4. Effective change requires reinforcing new behaviors. experts. Researchers and managers have thus tried to identify effective ways to manage the change process. as well discontinuing current attitudes. reward systems or job design requires individuals to change. The change process involves learning something new. Evaluate implementation Finally. This may be due to inappropriate goals or inaccurate diagnosis of the situation or wrong selection of intervention. The purpose is to help employees learn new concepts to implement change. 5. This is accomplished by first giving employees the chance to exhibit the new behaviors or attitudes. The model incorporates Lewin's concept as part of the implementation phase. Hastily implemented change can result in more harm than benefit. which explained how to initiate. For example. manage and stabilize the change process. This model looks at planned change from the perspective of top management. Before reviewing each stage.
Acceptance • • • • • • Enthusiasm Cooperation Cooperation under pressure from management Acceptance Passive resignation Indifference • • • • • • • • • • • • Apathy: loss of interest in the job Doing only what is ordered Regressive behavior Non-learning Protests Working to rule Doing as little as possible Slowing down Persona! withdrawal (increased time off the job) Committing "errors" Spoilage Deliberate sabotage Indifference Passive Resistance Active Resistance #92 .Figure 20. Therefore. managers can use the list given in following table. or outputs will be like after the change. if they want to be more effective in supporting change. RESISTANCE TO CHANGE Although organizations initiate changes in order to adjust to the changes in their environments but people sometimes resist them. For example. Alternatives for change are generated and evaluated and then an acceptable one is selected.2 Top management according to this model perceives certain forces or trends that call for change and issues that are subjected to the organization's usual problem solving and decision-making processes. managers need to recognize the manifestations of resistance both in themselves and in others. the top management defines its goals in terms of what the organization or certain processes. Usually.
• Perhaps the biggest cause of employee resistance to change is uncertainty. Often a part of division cannot be changed without changing the whole division.The sources of resistance to change within organizations are classified into organizational sources of resistance and individual sources of resistance. In the face of impending change. Most people prefer to do their work the way they did it last week rather than learn a new approach. the employees perceptions or interpretations of a change should be considered. policies and structure to maintain the existing conditions and therefore resist change even when change would benefit the organization more than stability. They make change by personally rewarding people. Individual Sources of Resistance According to researchers. They clearly explain change to people affected by change. First. 3. thus disrupting existing social networks. They can translate desires into practical action. has listed the following characteristics of people who are good at managing changes. Third. Second. employees are likely to become anxious and nervous. They show reverence for tradition and respect for experience. 2. Organizational restructuring that involves reducing the number of job categories often meets this kind of resistance. They can propose changes not only from their own view point but also from that of others. They know clearly what they want to achieve. They have a history of successful change. Resistance may occur when a change threatens quantum of resource allocation from one part of the organization to another. Group inertia may weaken an individual’s attempt to bring about change. leading to feeling of job insecurity. They do not pile one change on another but wait for assimilation. They present changes as a relational decision. 11. Any change that may alter the power relationships within an organization may meet the form of resistance known as ‘threatened power’. so they resist any change that might adversely affect those relationships. The following methods of overcoming-resistance to change are as follows: • Participation: Participation is generally considered the most effective technique for overcoming resistance to change. Employees who take part in planning and implementing change are better able to understand the reasons for the change than those who are not involved. 4. 14. OVERCOMING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE Managers need not abandon planned change in the face of resistance. • Some people resist change to avoid feeling of loss. organizational sources of resistance can be divided into following six general groups. ORGANIZATIONAL SOURCES OF RESISTANCE According to Daniel Kantz and Robert L Khan. Resistance may also take the form of threatened expertise if the change lends to weaken special expertise built after years of experience. They share maximum information about possible outcomes. 10. 1. When an organization tries to change one of its division or part of the division without recognizing the interdependence of the division with other divisions of the organization. there are three key conclusions that should be kept in mind. 13. wherever possible. Change may also threaten people's feelings of familiarity and self-confidence. individuals have the following reasons for resisting change: • Simple habits create a lot of resistance. an organization must be ready for change. 5. They show that change is ‘related to business or job’. 9. • People may resist change because their perceptions of underlying circumstances differ from the perceptions of those who are promoting the change. the top management should inform the employees about the process of change. 12. 6. 8. They worry about their ability to meet new job demands therefore. Social relationships are important to most people. Valerie Stewart (1983). They are not discouraged by setbacks. a British Psychologist and business consultant. then it is said to have a narrow focus of change. many organizations change interventions and alter work arrangements. Before recommending specific approaches to overcome resistance. They involve their staff in the management of change and protect their security. 7. They harness circumstances to implement change. They become committed to the change and make it #93 . For example. • • • • • • Over determination or structural inertia refers to the tendency of an organization's rules.
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work. Employees who have the opportunity to express their own ideas and to understand the perspectives of others are likely to accept change gracefully. It is a time consuming process. Education and Communication: Educating employees about the need for and the expected results of an impending change help reduce their resistance. Managers should maintain an open channel of communication while planning and implementing change. However, it is also a time consuming process. Facilitation of Change: Knowing ahead of lime that employees are likely to resist change then the manager should do as much as possible to help them cope with uncertainly and feeling of loss. Introducing change gradually, making only necessary changes, announcing changes in advance and allowing time for people to adjust to new ways of doing things can help reduce resistance. Force-Field Analysis: In almost any situation where a change is being planned, there are forces acting for and against the change. In force-field analysis, the manager list each set of forces and then try to remove or minimize some of the forces acting against the change. Negotiation: Where someone or some group will clearly lose out in a change and where that group has considerable power to resist, there negotiation is required. Sometimes it is a relatively easy way to avoid major resistance. Manipulation and Cooperation: This is followed when other tactics will not work or are too expensive. It can be quick and inexpensive, However, it can lead to further problems if people feel manipulated. Explicit and Implicit Coercion: This is adopted where speed is essential and where the change initiators possess considerable power. It is speedy and can overcome resistance.
Each of the above methods has its advantages and disadvantages. There is no universal strategy for overcoming resistance to change. Hence, an organization that plans to introduce certain changes must be prepared to face resistance from its employees. An organization should also have a planned approach to overcome such resistances. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT The term Organizational Development (OD) refers to a broad range of behavioral science based strategies used to diagnose the need for change in organizations and to implement changes when necessary. OD can be defined as a technique for bringing change in the entire organization, rather man focusing attention on individuals to bring change easily in the entire organization. Nature of OD OD is a general strategy or approach to organizational change mat is employed to analyze and diagnose the sources of organizational problems and to develop and implement action plans for their solution. According to Bennis, OD has the following characteristics; • It is an educational strategy for bringing planned change. • It relates to real problems of an organization. • Laboratory training methods based on experienced behavior are primarily used to bring change. • Change agent applying OD technique for change is external to the forms of consultants. • There is a close working relationship between change agents and the people who are being changed. The relationships involve mutual trust, joint goals, means, and mutual influence. • The change agents share social philosophy about human value. They are humanists seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in organization. OD Interventions OD interventions refer to various activities which consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational functioning by enabling organization members to better manage their team and organization cultures. French and Well have defined OD interventions as "sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development; they make things happen and are what is happening.” Intervention Techniques • Sensitivity Training • Process Consultation • Team Development • Grid Organization Development Sensitivity Training: Sensitivity training is a small-group interaction under stress in an unstructured encounter group, which requires people to become sensitive to one another's feelings in order to develop reasonable group activity. In sensitivity training, the actual technique employed is T-group. T-group has several characteristic features: • The T-group is generally small, from ten to twenty members • The group begins its activity with no formal agenda
The primary role of trainer is to call attention of members from time to time lo the ongoing process within the group The procedure lends to develop introspection and self-examination, with emotional levels of involvement and behavior.
The objectives of such training are increased openness with others, more concern for others, increased tolerance for individual differences, less ethnic prejudice, understanding of a group process, enhanced listening skills and increased trust and support. Process Consultation: Process Consultation (P-C) represents a method of intervening in an ongoing system. The basic content of P-C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups to help them learn about human and social processes and learn to solve problems that stem from process events. P-C consists of many interventions and activities which affect the various organizational processes such as. communication, roles and functions of group members, group problem-solving and decision-making, group norms, authority and leadership and inter-group cooperation and conflicts. Team Development: The underlying aim of team development is to increase trust among team members because people work better together when there is open and honest sharing about the problems and difficulties that they have with one another. As such, at the initial level, the attempt should be to develop such an environment where such trust can be developed among the team members Grid Organization Development: Grid organization development, developed by Blake and Mounton, is a comprehensive and systematic OD Program. The Program aims at individuals, groups and the organization as a whole. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments, enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strength and weaknesses. It also focuses on skills, knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual, group and inter-group and total organization levels. In addition to these people focused interventions, there may be other types of interventions too. e.g. structural and job interventions such as job enlargement, job enrichment, management by objectives, rules, procedures and authority structure. OD offers some very attractive methodologies and philosophies to practicing managers and academicians. William Halal is right when he says "OD in future includes any method for modifying the behavior in the organization, hereby, encompassing the entire spectrum of applied behavioral science". There also have been experiences of failure in OD but these are being recorded and collected to be reviewed. In general, OD shows a promising future, since there are no rigid sets of procedures in OD work and different strategies have to be evolved for different types of organizations.
MODEL QUESTION PAPER ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Time: 3 Hours Max. Marks: 100 SECTION-A (5x8 = 40) Answer any Five questions Note: All questions carry equal murks 1. What do you understand by organizational behavior? Bring out its nature and importance. 2. Discuss the personality attributes in organization. 3. What is the organizational design? What are its forms? 4. What is group cohesiveness? What are its determinants? 5. What are the forms of organizational communications? 6. What are the sources of power? 7. What are the causes of stress? 8. What is organizational culture? How it affects the behavior of the people? SECTION1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. B (4x15 = 60) Answer any four questions
Compare the Maslow's Theory with ERG Theory of Motivation. What are the barriers to effective communication? How to overcome those barriers? What are the techniques of managing political behavior? State the consequences of stress and method of managing the stress. Suggest strategies to resolve inter-group conflicts. Why do people resist change? As a manager how would you overcome such resistance?
MODEL QUESTION PAPER ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Time: 3 Hours Max. Marks: 100 SECTION-A (5x8 = 40) Answer any Five questions Note: All questions carry equal murks 1. What do you understand by organizational behavior? Bring out its nature and importance. 2. Discuss the personality attributes in organization. 3. What is the organizational design? What are its forms? 4. What is group cohesiveness? What are its determinants? 5. What are the forms of organizational communications? 6. What are the sources of power? 7. What are the causes of stress? 8. What is organizational culture? How it affects the behavior of the people? SECTION1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. B (4x15 = 60) Answer any four questions
Compare the Maslow's Theory with ERG Theory of Motivation. What are the barriers to effective communication? How to overcome those barriers? What are the techniques of managing political behavior? State the consequences of stress and method of managing the stress. Suggest strategies to resolve inter-group conflicts. Why do people resist change? As a manager how would you overcome such resistance?
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