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6 © WALTER Kadrnos Bd. 90e. local phases 5 and 6. He also conducted preliminary excavations on behalf of Harvard at Samaria in 1908 where he unearthed another four similar marks (Samaria I: 119-120. 73138 supplied by courtesy of the Hebrew Union College and the author's visual validation). For a stratigraphic and architectural revision see Franklin (forthcoming (a) and (b)). therefore the total number may be in [he high sixties. such as a simple cross. For the recent chronological revision.4 The marks have not been assigned to any cultural group or alphabet and it is the purpose of this article to address this issue. Other utilitarian marks. There is the possibility that some of the Megiddo marks have been published twice. The sole mark at Hazer is deeply incised on a proto-Aeolic capital and bears no relationship to the Megiddo and Samaria masons' marks.! A further two This paper forms part of the author's doctoral dissertation that will be submitted to Tel Aviv University. Commonly referred to as "masons' marks". The relative and absolute chronology of the strata pertaining to the masons' marks is currently being dealt with by the author in separate articles. While the partial remains of a sole mark at Gezer are inscribed on a broken stone fragment. Area Cl in St. 47). S. fig. Samaria and Megiddo. 40. appear on Wall 4898. J 1 4 . See Franklin (forthcoming (a) and (b)). A further six marks were discovered at Samaria by the Harvard Expedition during the years 1909-1910 (Harvard-Samaria: Pis. Contra Shiloh 1979. The first fourteen marks were revealed by Schumacher (1908: Tafel XXXe) at Megiddo in 1902-04. One ashlar has two signs inscribed on it.' They originate in Building Period I Samaria and Stratum IVB Megiddo. based on pottery analysis. However the basic signs remain the same. VI.' and can be attributed to the 9th century BCE. 107-116 DE GRUYTER 2001 ISSN 0022-7498 . see Finkelstein 1996. seventy-one' of these have been published in five separate excavation reports. at Dor (Stern 1995:34) and on Wall 7502 at Tel Dan (unpublished photograph No.NORMA FRANKLIN MASONS' MARKS FROM THE NINTH CENTURY BCE NORTHERN KINGDOM OF ISRAEL EVIDENCE OF THE NASCENT CARlAN ALPHABET?" The Israelite Masons' Marks Seventy-three marks. incised on seventy-two' limestone ashlars have been excavated at two northern Israelite sites.
Institute of Chi32). Investigations by the Hebrew Yadin at Megiddo in 1965 revealed a single mark (Yadin 1970:92. masons from Mari were sent to neighbouring provinces. At Samaria the years 1931University under fig. where they are a typical feature of palace architecture (Palyvou 1999:611-612). In Achaemenian Persia. In ancient Israel scribes used ciphers or wrote number words in full (Millard 1995:194). 17). During the Middle Bronze Age. A). 90f). 16:20. 1:13 fig. It would follow that these Israelite masons' marks must have been some sort of cipher or alphabetical mark. where more than eighty masons' marks have been found.108 Norma Franklin marks.). Megiddo . Carian and other foreign craftsmen were employed as builders (Zaccagnini 1983: 2 62-26 3). hitherto unrecorded. 16. were noted on site at Megiddo in 1996 by the author. The earliest examples of masons' marks occur in Middle Minoan I to Late Minoan I Crete (Evely 1993:217). In the Late Bronze Age. a member of the Megiddo Expedition of Tel Aviv University. Mobile Craftsmen Lack of skilled workers could have been overcome by employing foreign craftsmen (Nylander 1965:52). Thirty-six marks came to light at Megiddo by the Oriental cago during the years 1925-1939 (Megiddo I: Figs. another ten marks were found by the Joint Expedition during 1933 (Samaria III: 34-35. Sakellarakis (1967:277) and Hood (1987) have argued that these masons' marks served as religious or magical alphabetic signs. numbers and various symbols occur on ancient. They also appear on Thera. The Use of Masons' Marks Throughout Time Masons' marks in the form of letters. and enhance comparative studies with related linear scripts. fig.) while Minoan artisans traveled and worked along the coast of the Levant (Niemeier 1991: 199). masons from the Hittite empire were sent to Ramesside Egypt (ibid.26:25. 26. medieval and later constructions in Asia and Europe. sometimes fantastic. There are many. 25 fig. and this is presently being done by Hitchcock (forthcoming 2002) who proposes that the accurate documentation of masons' marks might be used to identify and compare particular building and masonry traditions. 32. hypotheses as to their use. An in-depth study of the ancient material was called for by Nylander (1974:216). 20 fig. mainly in the largest most elaborate building. Xeste 4 (ibid.
and some five hundred years before the Carian inscriptions in mainland Caria. Finkelberg. Sukenik. noted that some of the marks resemble ancient Hebrew (Samaria 111:34). Some of the masons' marks do resemble certain letters used in the Eteo-Cypriote and Classical Cypriote alphabets. while some are specific to only one. then the inexplicable occurrence of these marks in the Northern Kingdom of Israel in the 9th century BCE must be examined cautiously. Massey. I feel that I have no choice but to risk the consequences and present the following scenario. . Massey-Gillespie. 7 a Apart from five Cypriote syllabic signs on an Skaies dated to the 11th c. A.! it appears that the closest match for the masons' marks is with the Carian alphabet. however. where fourteen masons' marks from diverse periods have been recorded (Hitchcock 2000). and V. Eighteen of the twenty Israelite masons' marks appear in the established Carian alphabet and two match Carian quarry marks (Gosline 1992). See Figure 1. J. Sevoroskin. After scrutinizing the many ancient alphabets. Another plausible origin is Cyprus. for they appear some two hundred years before the first attested use of the Carian alphabet. BCE (Maier and In my quest I have been helped by a number [ike to thank for their input and support. If they are indeed related to the Carian alphabet. and inspired by the words of Ray (1982a:77). of experts in this field whom 1 would M. but there are too many variants for the marks to have originated from the Phoenician alphabet. In addition several of the marks can be matched with one or another of the Aegean scripts. these alphabets do not emerge until the 7th century BCE' (Knapp and Marchant 1982:22). obelos from Tomb 49 at PalaepaphosKarageorghis 1984:133-134). The Affinity of the Masons' Marks One of the excavators of Samaria. K. It seems that these marks belonged to a distinctive work forceskilled craftsmen who left them behind as a tantalizing due to their identity. K. A possible and logical solution for the origin of these masons' marks is Phoenicia.Masons' Marks from the Northern Kingdom of Israel 109 In the 9th century Israelite kingdom the newly founded Omride dynasty had no heritage of creating monumental art and architecture. Despite this. and no masons' marks have been found in that region.
110 Norma Franklin Carlan? sign no. 0/ examples 1 1 2 1 Mnwils' S(I"'(Irla II(I..J - f}¢O ~ <=0 38 and variants of 38 variants of 41 48 '" II/ ! ~ c... S 6 Megiddo nos.150 appear in the Israelite corpus arc shown. CD - " "- " "" "- - = cross - = squa.re' - - = trident Fig.. The examples shown are as depicted by the excavators. . 21 27 283 32 6 1 7 6 J I 1 J " " V " "._. - -J " " "- "-:r = eta V 10 variants of II or 36 IS) 3 3 ~ roSE£#' ~ 1\1\ VV ~~ ~ 5 I " " V 'U ~ ~ vtfM 17 " .a.~ IJ:=O Ii] dJ HH 7 variant oi8 - " " V " " -J ..J " -J X D= ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 c:~ ID (Ope m=I e· s * .. 6 I) .2 similarities 111 ij n II V \. Only examples that a. " - - . 1 I J . - ~ = snake 18 19 3 8 1 1 " .\'. Unique to Carlan. of examples I I 1 Mnrks lrom rhc NCJ1'fhCI'llKillgdum of IHAel The Israelite Masons' Marks! Elepl. 9F .ti"c2 gardae1 Pasa- Sardis2 Labranda2 Cretal..
from some archaic Semitic writing system: Carian letters bear undeniable resemblance not only to the North but also to the South Semitic writing" (Sevoroskin 1991192:117. Some seventy-five masons' marks. Although the masons' marks differ from sculptors' . most were wri tten in the 7th through to the 4th centuries BCE (Sevoroskin 1991192:117). Carian letters are very archaic. The Carian alphabet consists of some forty-eight letters. and it is the alphabet that must be examined. "the Carian alphabet (more precisely: local alphabets) is of paramount importance as far as the origin of writing is concerned. Therefore I suggest that the Israelite masons' marks can tentatively be regarded as an early variant of the Carian alphabet. appear on the earliest stonework in Apadana at Susa. Ray (1988: 150) noted that the Carians left more of their language in Egypt than in Caria. According to Sevoroskin. It seems. At Pasargadae there are two hundred and thirty-one Carian alphabetic marks (Gosline 1998:60). there are at least five localized Carian alphabets. 1975:322-3). Carians as Stonemasons The Persepolis Treasury Tablets specifically mentioned the Carians as being stonemasons (Hallock 1960:99. Carian inscriptions bear clear evidence of an underlying Semitic way of writing. Therefore the Israelite masons' marks. 135). Cameron 1965). if an early variant of the Carian alphabet. though it is likely that only twenty-five letters were actually used at anyone time or in anyone place (Ray 1987:99. The Egyptian Carian alphabet also varies due to a chronological or regional rationale (Ray 1982b: 181). and that the Egyptian inscriptions may be two or three centuries older than those of Asia Minor. consisting of ten basic signs. the Carians borrowed their writing directly from Semites. 34). These ten basic signs have parallels amongst the thirty basic signs used at Persepolis and were attributed to Anatolian workmen by Nylander (1974:2167. would also exhibit chronological or regional variation. However. n. and many variants within Caria itself (Ray 1982a:78). but the alphabet is possibly a different matter.112 Norma Franklin The Carian Alphabet Some three hundred Carian inscriptions have been recorded (Sevoroskin 1994: 131). 1990:56). The Carian language is affiliated with the Anatolian (Hittite-Luwian] language. In the Treasury' at Persepolis there are one hundred and eighty-one masons' marks (Nylander 1965:54. In addition.
Rarnses II period sources. . namely. Excavations at Carian Labranda revealed seven masons' marks incised on limestone ashlars (Saflund 1953). a possible link with the region of Caria in Iron Age I may also exist. Therefore the use of "Carian-related alphabetic marks" as masons' marks throughout time may point to an enduring vocational rather than an ethnic link. note 19) . both have affinities with the Lydian.131).7. 1998:60). Lydian and Phrygian alphabets (Gusmani 1988:33). A link with the Hurrian-Luwian language group. may be reflected in the Bible in the use of the names phicol. as shown by the archaic forms of Egyptian words preserved in Carian. At Elephantine. a personal name. from an island off the coast of Caria. In addition. The Carians arrived in Egypt well before the Achaemenid period. 1988:100-101). The Washosh together with the Sherden are the only two groups to be specifically called" of the Sea" in Papyrus Harris 76. The Recurring Use of Comparable Marks Some of the masons' marks reappear over a long period and can be seen on Israelite. or Qayqisha II "Sea People" from the southwest corner of Asia Minor (identified with Caria). Carian alphabetic marks have also been found engraved In stone quarries in Egypt. to which the later Carian language belongs. At the time of Ramses III they formed an alliance against him together with the Libyans and the Saii (Redford 1993:244. and ziklag. A "Sea People" from Caria? Although the evidence presented here relates to Iron Age II Israel.12 )J Hittite sources.Masons' Marks from the Northern Kingdom of Israel 113 marks. while Gosline (1998:59) cites the use there of sixty-nine Carian alphabetic masons' marks. A vocational link may explain the evolution of the Carian alphabet and its eventual application to the Carian language. biblical tradition suggests that the 9 10 Il . were part of a Carian-based coalition that took part in the invasion of Year 8 of Ramses IIp3 (Redford 1993:252-256). Southwest Anatolian. the Kar-ki-sa". And. Egyptian and Persian stone and quarry work (see table). Aramaic or South Arabian alphabets (Roaf 1983:92-93). four hundred and twenty-eight alphabetic marks have been recognised by Gosline (1992. The Weshesh or Washosh12. many started as employees of the Pharaoh in the l st millennium (Ray 1998:127. The "Lydian Wall" at Sardis has masons' marks from the Carian. or Qarqisha'". a place name (Ray 1986:357-359.
24:167-192. New Tablets from the Persepolis Treasury. W. S. and Tadmor. 1965. !4 For complementary evidence see Franklin (forthcoming (ell. the question must be raised . G. Minoan Crafts. Megiddo: Revealing Stratum V. with the realization that 9th century BCE Israelite ashlar masonry has masons' marks using an early variant of the Carian alphabet. 1996. the masons' marks are still tangible evidence for the existence of a group of skilled foreign craftsmen working in the Northern Kingdom of Israel in the 9th century BCE14. 2) These craftsmen were either originally hired. R. 1982. The Archaeology of the United Monarchy: An Alternative View. II Kings: The Anchor Bible. I. M. G. Israelite prisoners of war were the construction workers for King Mesha (ibid. Cameron. Even if these hypotheses are not accepted. or were subjected to servitude as stonemasons. and attempts have been made to associate the Carites or kari with the Carians (Cogan and Tadmor 1988:126). Franklin. D. Conclusions Now. The use of prisoners of war as construction workers by the Omrides has been proposed by Na'aman (1997:123). New York. Goteborg..114 Norma Franklin Cherethites or keretilkeretim were Cretans and that they were the forerunners of the biblical Carites or kari (Greenfield 1962:557). Finkelstein. Tools and Techniques (Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology Vol. Royal Administration and National Religion in Ancient Palestine. and prisoners were also used by the Assyrians for their building projects (Zaccagnini 1983:260). Evely. Forthcoming (a).The significance of these masons' marks demands further investigation. Levant 28:177-187. . 1988. While in Moab. BIBLIOGRAPHY Ahlstrom. C. Leiden. . JNES Cogan.how to explain the use of these marks in the northern Kingdom of Israel? The following hypotheses are presented for consideration: I} The craftsmen who used these alphabetic marks were originally associated with one or more of the "Sea Peoples". Ahlstrom 1982:15). XCII:I). N. M. 1993.
A. Samaria: From the Bedrock to the Omride Palace. G. S. Tel Aviv 24:122-128. S. Gusmani. Na'aman. Newsletter of the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology at UCLA 6-7. G.. and Karageorghis. 2000. N. Report of the Department of Antiquities Cyprus. JNES 19. T. Cypro-Minoan and Hurrians. Cyprus. V. R. Hitchcock.. S. 'Steinmetzmarken' aus Sardis. and Schoors. Megiddo I: Seasons of 1925-1934. I-II. 1987. Lamon. 1924. N. Immigration and Emigration within the Ancient ear East: Festschrift E. Forthcoming (c). Setting and Team Marks: The Carian Connection. B.). 1998. The Function of the Minoan Palaces (Acta Instituti Atheniensis Regni Sueciae 4). Reisner. G.The Signs for Numbers in Early Hebrew. J. W. Franklin. C. Connecticut. 1982. (eds. Greenfield. 18-21 April 2002. Phaphos. and Marinates. AJA 69:49-55. Samaria and Megiddo. and Shipton. ": Documentation of Pre-classical Ashlar Masonry in the East Mediterranean. In: Van Lerberghe. Forthcoming (b). S. Harvard Excavations at Samaria 1908-1910. Niemeier. M. The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible Vol. Masons' Marks in the Palaces. 1991. Gosline. Acres de 1atroisieme rencontre egeenne internationale de l'Universite de Liege. 1965. In: Laffineur. Leuven: 189-194.-D. A New Look at the Persepolis Treasury Tablets. Fisher. Hood. A. A. In: Hagg. L. Kadmos 27:27-34. Calvi. (eds. Hallock. Gosline. Leventis Foundation. Maier. 1992.). and Basch. Carian Quarry Markings on Elephantine Island. USA.). Historical and Literary Notes on the Excavation of Tel Jezreel. Journal of Ancient Civilisations 13:59-82. Megiddo I. and Marchant. Yale University. Corse (23-25 avril 1990) (Aegaeum 7). Metrological Investigations at 9th and 8th c.:90-100. S. 1982:15-30. E. History and Archaeology. D. hewn according to measurement . R. Strangers from Egypt and Greece . 1960. . A. Millard. K. L. Nylander. Cambridge. L. Minoan Artisans Travelling Overseas: The Alalakh Frescoes and the Painted Plaster Floor at Tel Kabri (Western Galilee). Kadmos 31:43-39. Quarry. R. Knapp. N. Mass. Stockholm. Hitchcock. Thalassa: L'egee prehistorique et Ia mer. 1939.. 1988. A. Strata I-V (OIP 42). Liege: 189-200. Forthcoming (2002) "Andabove were costly stones. 9th International Aegean Conference. C. R. One Cannot Export a Palace on Board a Ship: Studying Aegean Elements in Cypriot Late Bronze Age Architecture. C. Harvard-Samaria. New Haven. A. L. Chicago. Backdirt. icosia: A. R. A. N. L. 1962. and Lyons. 1997. (eds. 1995. . Lipinski. 1:557. Station de Recherches Sons-marines et Oceanographiques (StaReSo). 1984. Old Persian and Greek Stonecurting and the Chronology of Achaernenian Monuments: Achaernenian Problems 1. G. Paper to be presented at Metron: Measuring the Aegean Bronze Age. G.Masons' Marks from the Northern Kingdom of Israel 115 Franklin.
In: Betancourt. D. 1999. 1979. Siiflund. Masons' Marks from Arkhanes. Melemeta.-D. On Carian Language and Writing. Laffineur. 1982a. R. Ray. and Israel in Ancient Times. Y. Wiener as he enters his 65th year (Ageratum 20). C. Princeton. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 208:77-89. and Sukenik. v. W. v. P. Schumacher. L. V. The Objects from Samaria (Sarnaria-Sebaste Reports III). 1986. Sevoroskin. Stern. Y. Volume 1A. In: Crowfoot. D. (eds. Ray. 1974. V. The Egyptian Approach to Carian. Berlin: 277-288. and Kenyon. Kadmos 27:150-154. (ed. Leipzig: Fundbericht. Polorne. In: E Bagherzadeh (ed. E. Sukenik. Palyvou. 1908. 1988. W. Ray. C. VT 36:355-361. Culture and Religion. Kenyon. C. Kadmos 37:125-136. D. J. D. Roma: 131-166. J. 1987. Studies in Honor of Edgar C. Jerusalem. J. W. In: Perspectives on Indo-European Language. 1983. 5evoroskin. Zaccagnini. J. Kadmos 29:54-83. Megiddo of the Kings of Israel. K. . Karische Inschriften aus Labranda. In: La decifrazione del cario (Monografie Scientifiche. Qedern 11. Samaria III. O. B. Excavations at Dor. 1991/92. M.). Tell el-Mutesellim I. Kadmos 26:98-103. 1995. J. Ussollos in Caria. Theran Architecture Through the Minoan Looking Glass. Karageorghis. Ray. K. The Carian Inscriptions from Egypt. Canaan. Redford.]. Crowfoot. J. O. 1957. London: 34-35. 1982b. Qedern. Patterns of Mobility Among Ancient Near Eastern Craftsmen. 1970. Shiloh. Sculptures and Sculptors at Persepolis. Yadin. M. Ray.A Progress Report. Aegypto-Carica. Masons' Marks. L. M. G. Two Etymologies: ziklag and Phicol. A. E. Studies in Aegean Archaeology presented to Malcolm H.116 Norma Franklin Nylander. Samaria I. Ray. .. C. JEA 68:181-198. Monograph 7:117-135.. Opuscula Atheniensia 1:199-205. London. 1967. J. and Niemeier. BA 33:66-93. D. Roaf. Istituto per gli Studi Micenei ed EgeoAnatolici.). Sakellarakis. Tehran: 216222. 1998. The Carlan Script.Reports. 1990. G. V. An Outline of Carian Grammar. Journal of Indo-European Studies. J. In: Brice. W. 1994. G. Egypt. 1953. The Buildings at Samaria (Sarnaria-Sebaste Reports I). Masons' Marks in Persepolis . 1983. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche). O. 1942. Iran 21. Carian .). Crowfoot. 1993.Three Decades Later. E. ]NES 42:245-264. J. Liege: 609-616. Festschrift Grumach. The Proto-Aeolic Capital and Israelite Ashlar Masonry. Ray. Europa.. Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on Archaeological Research in Iran 29th Ocrober-Tst November 1973. P. M. (eds. O.). Final Report..
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