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om;b0&Jh tykdif;tpawGwJhvm;
om;jiif;qefw,f tar
tar rodbl;vm;
tarhom;u uAsmq&mav
tar&JU/
wu,fawmhvnf; tar&,f
uAsmq&mqkdwm
'PfcHBudK;av;wpfacsmif;ygAsm /
tar&,f
a[m'D urÇmavmuBuD;rSm
tarhom; uAsmq&mjzpfvmwm
tjypf&Sdygovm; tar
om;&Jh tcspfrSmav
a[m'D urÇmBuD;epfcJh&ifawmif
ppfjzpfzkdY raocsmawmhygbl; tar&,f /
ckawmh
wjcm;olawG rjrifrdwJh toHuav;ukd
acgif;tkH;tdyfrdvkdY
tMuifemtrJhqkH; qkv'fukd om;&cJhygw,f /
tarrodbl;vm;
vlawG&Jh tNyHK;rSm
ukefaps;EIef;awGygw,f tar&Jh /
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

19

{nfhcef;eJY tusÐaumif;rS
qufqHwwfwJhvlawG&Jh oabmxm;ukd
om; wl;wl;cg;cg; rkef;w,ftar /
tar&,f
wjcm;olawG twGufawmh
t&m&m[m
vufwpfypfpm&,fyg /
om;rSmawmh
,lZemoef;aygif;rsm;pGm a0;uGmvkdY
om;av
a&a&mxm;wJh n&,fvkdY r&cJhzl;bl; /
om;&Jh ] bD; } uav;[mav
b,favmufawmif yg;vSyfaeovJqkdawmh
qHjcnfrQifav;wpfrQif eif;rd&ifawmif
bD;u xaygufoGm;Ekdifygw,f tar /
tvQHnD;nD; rD;awmufrD;vQHBuD;xJ
aeYpOf ckefckefcsae&wJh b0c&D;
tcrJhnawG odyfNyD; odyfonf;vGef;vS
tar&,f
vGwfvGwfuRwfuRwfBuD; uefoGif;cH&
usaemf b,favmufrSm;,Gif;rdvkdYvJ tar
tqkwfu Muyfckd;pGJrD;zkdacsmif
acsmif;qkd;vkdufwkdif; acsmif;qkd;vkdufwkdif;
&ifacgif;BuD;xJ rD;x xawmufwmjrif&
tar&,f
twGif;vlrrm wpfa,mufyg /
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

20

'gayr,fh
opfom;bwfpfum;tkdtkdBuD; ckdpD;vkdY
uAsmq&m rm,maumhpuD;qkdwJh vlvnf;ygw,fav
vleJYoleJY rwlwJhvlvkdY
vlawGolawG ajymcH&wJh om;rdwfaqGaygh
b,favmufawmif aMumufrufzG,f&mNydKvJcJhygovJ
b,fawmhrsm;rS or®a'0awGvufxJ a&mufrSmwJhvJ
wpfa,mufukd wpfa,muf ar;&if;aygh
rsufaphwpfrSdwf vQyfwpfjyuftwGif;rSm
aomrN*dK[fawG acsmif;aumjzpfoGm;
b0ukd jzpfnSpfMunfhvkdufawmh
vdar®mfoD;uav;rSm
tcsdK&nf usefao;w,f
tkd . . .
tonf;ESvkH;xJrSm
yef;awG t&rf;yGifhwmyJ tar&,f /
ukwftusÐ0wfcsifwJh aqmif;&moD&,f
rD;vQHuif;rJhwJh rD;vif;zkdBuD;&,f
ESif;pufawGukd
taocHaomufcsifwJh jrufyifuav;&,f
vrif;ukd
jynfhjynfh00 wkduf&kdufrjrifcsifwJh tNyHK;&,f
taetxkdifrwwfwJh a&yef;wkdifuav;&,f
rkdufwGif;eufeuf uAsmay: tcspf&,f
rMumcP
vlvdrfcH&wJh
&ifxJu Mu,fjymav;&,f
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

21

eu©wfrdrd aysmfcsif&SmwJh
taysmfav;&,f
om;vufz0g;xJrSm uspfuspfygatmifqkyfxm;vkdY
wqwfqwfwkefaewJh om;b0av;&,f
tarhom;rSm ykdifqkdifygw,f /
xrif;ppfppf pm;csifw,f tar&,f
tdrfeHYarT;wJh tdyf&mppfppfrSm tdyfcsifw,f
ajcaxmufawGukd rD;zkdtaiGYay;csifw,f
Arm y&aq;oefYoefY aomufcsifw,f
NyD;awmh a[m'Dvkd
tarhrsufvkH;ta&mifukd rGwfodyfygw,f
awayavvGifhNyD; jyefvmwJhom;ukd
u½kPmoufNrJoufwJh tarhtMunfhav
tar&,f
tarhqdyfurf; ruyfwm MumNyDjzpfwJh
om;oabFmav tar&Jh /
usaemf &kd;om;cJhygw,f tar
þokdYyif yJhwifygvdrfhr,f / /
armifacsmEG,f

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

22

ukd,fvufoefYpifxm;wJhaeY
'DrSm
pmr[kwfwJh pmwpfapmif
atmfoHwpfck
yifv,feufeufxJu
vlawGrjrifomwJh yifv,feufeufxJuvmwm
'g[m
owif;ykdYcsufwpfck
okdYr[kwf
&wemuRef;&Sd&m jynTefajrykHwpfck
tdrfrufwpfaxmifnawG ygw,f
tNrJpdrf;opfawmwpfck ygw,f
q,fb0pm tarmrD;ckd; ygw,f
a½Tom;rD;vQHwpfckvnf; ygw,f
a&uefav;wpfuefom awmifhwwJh
ief;jzLwpfaumif&Jh
qE´tylawG ygw,f
wpf0ufrIdwufcH&wJh
EkysdKrIawGygw,f
vufcHyg
bmwpfckrS rjyefMum;&ifaeyg
bmwpfckrS aqmifusOf;ray;&ifaeyg
acwåavmufawmh
em;qifMunfhvkdufprf;yg
oifh&JU vlYtjzpfukd
tHhMoxdwfvefYzG,f&m
oif ... ... awGY&Sd&rSm jzpfygw,f/
armifacsmEG,f
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

23

yef;oD;
wpfaeYrSm
ig[m igYudk,fig
ig;½SOfYpl;wdk;ovdk
taotcsm trdt& xdk;pdkufzrf;MunfYvdkufawmY
ig[m vlenf;enf;om wefzdk;odjyD;pm;oHk;wJY
yef;oD;jzpfaew,f/
armifacsmEG,f

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

24

yifrSnfhaw;
vlwpfa,muf&JU t"dyÜg,fukd
vm vm rpGufzufeJY
ukd,fht"dyÜg,feJY ukd,fae
qkH;½IH;cJhw,fqkdwmyJ
aocsmyavhap /
vlwpfa,mufa,mufukd
vufoD;eJY xkd;zkdYqkdwmu
ukd,fhrSm ar;½kd;½Sd&w,f wJh ?
ighvufoD;awGu
rif;qDoufa&mufzkdY
ighrSm ar;½kd;½Sdw,f /
ckawmh rif;rSm ar;½kd;r&SdbJ
rifh vufoD;awG
ightay: vmvmoufa&mufaewm
trSefw&m;a&
rif; w&m;vGefvGef;NyD /
b0rSm
av; ig; ajcmufck rvkdygbl;
ESpfckyJ
cspfolppfppfeJY &efolppfppf
'D ESpfckyJ /
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

25

vlpdrf;eHYawGeJY touf&Sifae&wJh
oli,fcsif; armifprf;at;a&
NrdKUawGukd rmMuL&Drqif&ygbl;
bmaMumifhvJqkdawmh
NrdKUawGukd,fwkdifu
rmMuL&DeJY vkyfxm;vkdYyJ /
a[m[kd pm;yGJeHygwfwpfrSm
ukd,fhb0ukd,f ususee pD&ifcsufcs
tckdiftrmxkdifaewJh
igh oli,fcsif;atmifcsdrfh[m
xGef;um;wJh NrdKUBuD;wpfNrdKUaygh /
yGefyD;vkd
acsmf&nfawGatmufa&mufcJh&ayr,fhvJ
] azmfa0; } qkdwJh uAsmq&m[m
xGef;um;wJh NrdKUBuD;wpfNrdKUaygh /
b,fol[m
urÇmajrwpfckvkH;vkH;
qkH;&IH;cJhzl;ovJ
urÇmajrwpfckvkH; qkH;&IH;olom
urÇmukd jyef&ayvdrfh /
abmvkH;orm; rm&m'kdem[m
*kd;awGukd arSmfeJYoGif;cJhwmayghuGm / /
armifacsmEG,f
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

26

&kyf&Sif
tonf;ESvHk;udk tvnfxGufrdvdkufawmY
udk,fYtdrfrSm
udk,faep&mr&dSwmMuHK&
ocFsKdif;ukef;udk acgif;tHk;tdyfwJYnu
nudkrkef;w,fvdkY pum;qdk
EIwfqufjyD;
n[mnu
Edkufuvyfudk xGufoGm;jyD/
armifacsmEG,f

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

27

rpOf;pm;jcif;aowåm
urÇmajray:rSm
ukd,fhukdcspfwJhvl[m
abmvkH;toif;wpfoif;pmavmufrS ½Sd&JYvm;
rpOf;pm;awmhygbl; .. .. wJh/
b,fol[m
yef;oD;wpfvkH;ukd pm;NyD;
e,lwefvkd awG;ac:rdygovJ
rpOf;pm;awmhygbl; .. .. wJh/
oDcsif;wpfyk'fukd em;axmif&if;
b,fol[m
urÇmopfapr,fh oDtkd&D&zl;vkdYvJ
rpOf;pm;awmhygbl; .. .. wJh/
wpfukd,fvkH; wpfb0vkH; pkwf,l
ukd,fhukdrao&kH arG;jrLxm;wJhvlawG
&SdaeNyD
rpOf;pm;awmhygbl; .. .. wJh/
rnfolrqkdaygh
t&mtm;vkH;ukd rpGrf;aqmifekdifbl;
wpfckck vGJacsmfaewJhtaMumif;
ajymjycsifw,f
rpOf;pm;awmhygbl; .. .. wJh/
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

28

urÇmay:rSm
b,ft&mukdrqkd nmvkdY&ayr,fh
tpmtdrfukd nmvkdYr&wJhtaMumif;
ajymjycsifw,f
rpOf;pm;awmhygbl; .. .. wJh/
vlwkdif;vlwkdif;&JU &ifxJrSm
yifv,f&Sdw,f
vlawG[m
'Dyifv,fukd us,fjyefYatmif
euf½Idif;vSyatmif
rpD;qif;wwfMubl;
rpOf;pm;awmhygbl; .. .. wJh/
rpOf;pm;jcif;aowåmwpfvkH;&SdcJhw,f
bmukdrS rpOf;pm;awmhygbl;wJh
*sif;abmif;bDtdwfxJukd vufEIduf
rpOf;pm;jcif; aowåm[m .. ...
avcRefNyD;aeav&JU .. .. .. / /
armifacsmEG,f

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

29

c&D;vrf;
(1)
iSufuav;a&
wkdUvnf; rif;vkdyJ avukdqefysHolawGygyJ /
(2)
a½T0g;yif0g;½kH&dyfav;atmuf uRefawmfa&mufcJUw,f /
a½Ta&mif0if;0gaewJU 0g;yifawG ukdMunfU&if;
uRefawmfvnf; tJ'Dvkd &Sm;&Sm;yg;yg; a½T0g;yifuav;
NzpfcsifcJUygw,f/ Nzpfrsm;Nzpfaeovm;
uRefawmfUukd,f uRefawmf prf;oyfcJUygw,f /
a½T0g;yifuav;[m uAsmq&m Nzpfaewm uRefawmf
awGU&Sd&ygw,f /
(3)
uRefawmfwkdU[m uRefawmfwkdU&JU tonf;ESvkH;awGukd
xdef;odrf;cJU&ygw,f/
0rf;enf;zG,f tcsuftvufawGcsnf;ygyJ /
uRefawmf wkdU&JU aeUpOf aeUpOf &ufrsm;[m
'Pf&meJU&ufrsm;csnf;ygyJ/
cspfNcif;arwåm&JU [kdbufrSm bmrsm;&SdygovJ /
uRefawmfwkdU[m bkwfvkdvnf; wtDtDeJU tDcJU&ygw,f /
uRefawmfwkdU[m csKd;uav;vkdvnf;
wul;ul;atmfNrnfcJU&ygw,f/
uRefawmfwkdU[m uRefawmfwkdU b0ukd pl;xkd;pkdufysKd;cJU&ygw,f
qkH;Nzwfcsufcs&ef cufcJwJUtcsuftvuftaMumif; aNrmufrsm;pGm
uRefawmfwkdU&&SdcJUygw,f /
pl;&Seuf½Idif;rIwpfckay:rSm uRefawmfwkdU &yfcJUrdNyefao;w,f /
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

30

uRefawmfwkdU[m uRefawmfwkdU b0awGukd ausmufpdrf;uGrfovkd
uGrfaecJU&Nyefygao;w,f/
vef;vef;qef;qef; yef;uav;awG yGifUvef; / 'gukdvnf;
uRefawmfwkdU MunfU½I MunfEl;cJU&ygao;w,f /
aeUwkdif; aeUwkdif; uRefawmfwkdU euf½Idif;cJUMu&ygw,f /
aeUwkdif; aeUwkdif; uRefawmfwkdU vIdif;xcJU&ygw,f /
Nrufukdwpfyifcsif; qGJwuf&wJU awmifwufvrf;ukd
uRefawmfwkdU a&G;cs,frdcJUMuygw,f/
(4)
uav;b0u awmvrf;auGUuav;rSm aqG;zG,fyef;rsm;
vTrf;cJUygNyD/
ta0;&yfukdarQmfMunfUvkdufawmU
taetxm;rSm;wJU oufwH wHwm;atmufrSm
uRefawmfwkdU &JU touf&SifNcif;awG[m
rD;ckdNymaiGUwpfaiGUvkd aysmufNy,fNyD; yg;vsm;oGm;cJUygNyD /
yifv,fNymat; rSm aNcaq;yg&ap
a½TaeNcnfa& /
ywåNrm;wdrftkyfukd qkyfukdifyg&ap
a½TaeNcnfa& /
iSufarG;awmtkyfukd vIyfupm;yg&ap
a½TaeNcnfa& /
csnfBudK;rSm oDvmcJU
NznfBudK;rSm aNyygvSnfU
wkdUtdrf&m b,frSm½Sdw,f
ykdYcJUyguAsmav;awG&,f / /
armifacsmEG,f
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

31

ig;
wpfb0vHk;vdkvdk
ig;&,fvdkY wpfaumifwpfavrS rrd
Munfh
rdr,fhrdawmh pju0VmBuD;
tay:qGJwifvdkufawmh
ighig;rQm;wH[m udkif;nGwfNyD;
oufwefY jzpfoGm;
ighudk jyefrQm;cJhaygh/ /
armifacsmEG,f

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

32

uefemAm½dk&JYabmvHk;awG
igwdkY[m
tvSqHk; xdk;azmufrIawGeJY
wpfzuftoif;udk xdk;azmufEdkifcJhMuw,f/
rdrd&& uefcsufawGeJY
wpfzuftoif;&JU xkd;ppfawGudk
ckcHEdkifcJhMuw,f/
wcsdefvHk; wpfzuftoif;udk zdupm;EdkifcJhMuw,f
'gayr,fh ...
wpfzuftoif;&JU axmifhuefabmawG[m
aMumufcref;vdvd
wpfzuftoif;&JU axmifhjzwfabmawG
vQyfwpfjyuf xdk;ppfawGuvnf;
tonf;udk at;at;oGm;&atmifygyJ
igwdkYawG
b0eJY&if;NyD; taotvJ upm;cJh&w,f
xdk;ppft&Sif cHppft&SifawGeJY
trsKd;rsKd;ajymif;vJNyD;
tvJvJtNydKNydK upm;cJh&w,f
tck ... tcsdefydk upm;&vdkY a&eufydkif;udk a&mufcJhNyD/
“uefemAm½dka&
rif;taumif;qHk; upm;cJhayr,fh
rif; *dk;r&cJhbl; r[kwfvm;
at; ... igwdkYvnf; rif;vdkyJ
*dk;r&cJhMubl;av
olwyg;&JU ajcBudKajcMum;u
abmvHk;awG
igwdkYawG jzpfcJhMuvdkYaerSmyguGm” /
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

armifacsmEG,f
33

acgif;xJu 0dnmOf
acgif;xJrSm 0dnmOfwckyJ vHk;vHk;&Sdw,f
acgif;xJrSm tavmif;r&Sdbl;
tavmif;u aojcif;w&m;eJY pm;aomufaeav&JU/
MuufuifawG
'defcJawG Edkif;csif;
'ef;bvuf tref;nuf b&ef'D
urÇmausmf pD;u&ufawGeJY 0dkif;aumif;vdkY/
olwdkYtyg;rSm pm;yGJxdk; 96 a,mufuvnf;
vdkav;ao;r&Sdatmif jyKpkvdkYaygh/
aojcif;w&m;u a[m'Dvdk pum;pajymw,f
“a[m'DavmuBuD;rSm
jrufavQmvdk vif;a`rGvdk vrf;avQmufwJh olawGudk
igodyftxifao;w,f”
tavmif;u 'Dpum;udk axmufcHw,f
“[kwfw,f ...
'DaumifawGu b0wpfavQmufvHk;vHk;csnf;
um,da`E´r&SdwJh aumifpm;awG

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

34

NyD;awmhvnf;
a&SUckESpfb0 aemufckESpfb0
tEkynmr&wJh aumifawG
tEkynmonfa,mifa,mif aumifpm;awG
wu,fajymwm
a&SUckESpfb0 aemufckESpfb0
tEkynmr&wm odyfaocsmwJh aumifpm;awG”
tavmif;u t&ufcGufudk armhcsvdkufwJhtcg
aojcif;w&m;u ajymw,f
“[kwfw,f ...
tJ'DaumifawG[m
ykpGefajcmufokyfavmufrS
pm;raumif;wJh aumifawGyguGm
bk&m;ocifu olwdkYOD;aESmufudk ESpfZGef;avmuf cyf,lNyD;rS
vlYb0 vTwfvdkufwm
'gawG 'if;wdkYu odwJhaumifawG r[kwfbl;
[m; [m; [m; ...
pm;yGJxdk;awGuyg 0dkif;&,fvdkufMuvdkY
wcef;vHk; toHawGvQHNyD; tcef;BuD; yGifhoGm;av&JU/
tavmif;u ...
“[kwfw,f 'DieJawGu
twkawGudk vdkufvdkufwkae&wJh ieJawGuG
olwdkYrSm trSm;trSef rvdkbl;
aoG;ylaewJh tcsdefrSm udkufr,f
NyD;awmh vdkcsifwm tukefylqmwwfwJh aumifawGuG”

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

35

odvm; [kwfvm;
tmav;vSsmav;eJY
tavmif;a&m aojcif;w&m;yg rl;aeMuNyD
aojcif;w&m;u rl;&if aoG;qdk;w,fav
“bmvJ rif;u ighudk ylqmwJh aumifvdkY ajymwmvm;
a[m [dkrSm 0dnmOf½Sdw,f
rif;ubmvJ”
tJ'Dvdkuae aojcif;w&m;eJY tavmif; &efjzpfMuw,f
tavmif;u aojcif;w&m;udk vufoD;eJY xdk;ypfvdkufw,f
½THUap;ajr aysmhzwfBuD;xJ
aojcif;w&m; xdk;usoGm;w,f
tavmif;u &ifhusufol rsufESmeJY
aojcif;w&m;udk vufydkufNyD; pdrf;pdrf;Munfhae
'DtcsdefrSm acgif;xJu 0dnmOf ckefxvm
t&ufwvHk;udk azmufNyD;aomuf
a[h ...
'gawGtm;vHk;[m
('Dtjzpftysuftm;vHk;udk qdkvdkcsif[ef)
aomMumaeYu aomufxm;wJh
vufuseft&ufawG r[kwfbl;vdkY ajymvdkufw,f/
tJ'DtcgrSm
tavmif;a&m aojcif;w&m;yg aoqHk;oGm;ygava&m/ /
armifacsmEG,f

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

36

rpöwmcsmvD cifAsm;udk usKyfqGwfvdkufNyD
rpöwmcsmvD
cifAsm;udk usKyfqGwfvdkufNyD/
xyfajymyg&ap
rpöwmcsmvD
cifAsm;udk usKyfqGwfvkdufNyD/
'DrSm usKyftqGwfcH rpöwmcsmvD
awmfawmfrsm;rsm;[m cifAsm;ay:rSm wnfrSDNyD;
usKyfqGwfcGifh&vdkufawmh
cifAsm;[m
awmfawmfrsm;rsm; qGwfxm;wJhvlvdkY
usKyfodvdkuf&/
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

37

usefwcsKdU awmfawmfrsm;[mvnf;
cifAsm;tqGwfcHzdkY apmifhaeMurSef;
usKyfodxm;wmxuf ydkodvdkuf&
usKyfrodcsifwmawGudkvnf; odvkduf&
'DrSm ...
rpöwmcsmvD
cifAsm;[m 'Dvdk rqGwfwwfcifuwnf;u
vlvnfvkyfenf;udk t&ifwwfcJh
cifAsm;[m
oifpkef; r[kwfbl;
cifAsm;[m 0rf;wGif;pkef;qdkwm
usKyfodvdkuf&rIu
oHwHk;oHcJawG jzpfcJhaygh/
'DrSm ...
rpöwmcsmvD
oHwHk;oHcJawGrSm aoG;om;r&Sdbl;
cifAsm;&JU cl;qGwfxm;rI
cifAsm;&JU qGwfzsef;xm;rIawGudk
usKyfqGwfvdkufNyD
xyfajymvdkufyg&ap
rpöwmcsmvD
cifAsm;udk usKyfqGwfvdkufNyD/ /
armifacsmEG,f

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

38

jzL;
y#doaE¨ wm;aq;pm;NyD; 0zD;olrdef;rvdk
ta0;aNy;um;MuD;awG
cspfrIwpfckckqD pkefpkefoGm;Mu
ukefpnftopftopfawGqD qefqefoGm;Mu
axG;ayGUvdkufprf;yg
axG;ayGUvdkufprf;yg qdkqdkNyD;
&xm;
0ifcsvm
NrdKUawGudk jzL;csvdkufygaygY
jzL; .. /
armifacsmEG,f

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

39

*sHK;eD
*sKH;eD
igt&ufrl; jyefvmwdkif; jyefvmwdkif;
ight&ufeHYudk rif;BudKqdkaeus?
vlawG[m
olwdkYaomufwJh a&udk olwdkYESmacgif;½HIUaeus?
vlawG[m
olwdkYaqmufwJh taqmufttHkudk olwdkYonf;nnf;rcHEdkifMubl;
rif; ight&ufeHYudk ysLysLiSmiSm vufcHaeus?
t&uform; ighudk todtrSwfjyKaeus/
*sKH;eD
ig pdwftcefYroifh&ifav
rif;udk,fay:
ighajcaxmufawG a&mufaeus?
igha'gou
bmrSrqdkifwJh rif;udk,fay:
ighajcaxmufawG a&mufaeus?
emvGef;vdkY rif;atmfvdkuf&ifawmif
rif;
ighajcaxmufawGudk tm;emaeus/
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

40

*sKH;eD
rif;tiftm;ukefoHk;NyD; ckefaygufajy;0ifvm
tjrJwrf; ighudkBudKwm
wm0eft&vdkY rif;pdwfrSm rxm;r&Sdwm
igjrif&
ig&cJhw,f/
*sKH;eD
ig rif;udk tom;aumif;aumif; rauGß;cJhbl;
wpfcgwpf&Hawmh
ighpdwfaumif;0ifaerI[m
acsmuvufuav;awGtjzpf rif;pm;&ygw,f/
*sKH;eD
igrSwfrdw,f
rif;ajrBuD;udk wl;wl;NyD; aqmhwwfwmav
igodyfMunfEl;wJh ½Icif;av;aygh
igu rif;a½SUudkausmfNyD; cJvHk;av;awG ypfw,fav/
*sKH;eD
avw[l;[l; xefaewkef;u
rifhEIwfoD;udk a&SUypfNyD;
wtl;tl; wtktkeJY rif;tl;jrL;aewm
igwkwfeJY vkduf½dkufawmh
rif;aMumuf[efaqmifNyD; xGufajy;wm

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

41

*sKH;eD
rif;udk,f 00zD;zD;BuD;BuD;eJY
ighudk aqmifhaqmifh wdk;a0SYaeusav
igvufazsmufwpfzspfwD;vdkuf&if
rif;vdkufvdkuf [D[Daeus?
igu rmefrJvdkufwJhtcg
rif;vQmBuD;eJY ighudk jrefjrefvsufw,f
igu vdkvm;wJhtcg
rif;ausmawGudk yGwfyGwfay;aeus/
*sKH;eD
ig tckcg
tJvdkrsKd; rmefrJt&omcHcsifw,f/
*sKH;eD
rif;rsufvHk;rSm
igharwåmudk rGwfodyfaMumif; jyaeusta&mif
igtck 'gudk rif;vdkrGwfodyf&NyD/
*sKH;eD
rif;rSm tonf;ESvHk;&Sdwm igodygNyD/

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

42

*sKHH;eD
ig b,favmuf&ufpufovJuGm
rkefYyJoa&pmav; rif;udk auGß;wmawmif
rkefYuav; rif;udk ajr§mufjy
NyD; ...
zkefxJypfcsvdkufwm
zkefxJusaewJh rkefYuav;udk
rif; pdwfrmerxm;bJ
rif;EIwfoD;eJY xdk;[yfypfvdkufwm
(wu,fawmh
arwåmqdkwm zkefxJu rkefYuav;ygvm;vdkY
ig rodvdkufcJhbl;uG,f)/
*sKH;eD
rif; aeaumif;&JUvm;uG,f/
*sKH;eD
tdyf&may:rSm
bmrSrvIyfEkdifwJh rif;ocif
aemufqHk;xGufoufeJYaygh
rif;udk EIwfqufcsif&JU
ighaemufqHk;xGufoufeJY yg
*sKH;eD&,f / /
armifacsmEG,f

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

43

zsHzrf;orm;
bmrSr[kwfygbl;
bmrSr[kwfwJh tvum;aumifyg
b0rSm rjzpfcsifwmawG cyfrsm;rsm;eJYaumifyg
zdkY('f)um;ukrÜPDydkif&Sifvnf; rjzpfcsifbl;
oAspfjcHydkif&Sifvnf; rjzpfcsifbl;
a*gufoD;orm; tm;Edk;yg;rm;vnf; rjzpfcsifbl;
0g&ifbDwDvnf; rjzpfcsifbl;
jzpfcsifwmu wpfckwnf;&,fyg
zsHzrf;orm;yJ jzpfcsifw,f
'geJYyJ
zsHawGudkzrf;zdkY vdkuf&SmcJhw,f
zsHawGu b,fae&mawGrSm
b,fvdkusufpm;MuovJ
zsHawG&JU toGm;tvmawGu
b,ftcsdefawGrSm b,fvdkwJhvJ ...
ck ...
olwdkYawGu
vDAmyl;toif;eJY refcsufpwmtoif;awGrSm
0ifupm;aeMuw,fqdkyJ
[kwfvm; ...
'gqdk&ifoGm;r,f
oGm;zrf;r,f
r&SdMuawmhbl;wJh
tvef&SD;,m; ajcaxmufudk0,fNyD;
xGufoGm;MuNyD ... wJh/
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

44

'gqdk&if
b&mZD;u aumfzDcif;awGrSm
usufpm;aeMuwmjzpfrSm
a[m ... r&SdMujyefbl;
ajrxJyifv,fbufudk xGufoGm;MuNyDwJh
tJ'DrSm ...
uma&AD,ef ig;OausmfawG pm;aomufvdkYwJh/
a[m ... r[kwfjyefbl;wJh
a[mfw,fumvDzdk;eD;,m;rSm
a[mfw,fumvDzdk;eD;,m;oDcsif;eJY
uckefaeMujyefNyDwJh/
Munfh ... r&Sdjyefbl;
cufyD?
owif;xGufvmwmu
abhpfabmvHk; oGm;upm;aeMujyefNyDwJh/
a[m ... r[kwf&jyefbl;
Edkif&m*g a&wHcGefqDoGm;NyD;
a&wHcGeftvSudk ½Ipm;&if;
'if;wdkY ZdrfcHaeMujyefNyDwJh
vdkufoGm;awmh vef'efZl;&pfrSm
a&ToGm;0,fMuw,f ... wJh
a[m ... r[kwf&jyefbl;wJh
'if;wdkYu ruf'dkemeJY yvl;yvJ jzpfaeMujyefowJh
cufNyD
umpyg;a&mheJYvJ csufupm;jyefNyDwJh
cufNyD
'DaumifawG
awmfawmfzsHuswJh aumifawGygvm;
at;av ... 'DaumifwpfawGu zsHawGyJudk;
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

45

'geJYigav
vdkufarm&Smarm tarmausmydk;tdwfeJY
&xm;pD;NyD; NrdKUjyefcJhw,f/
[m ... Munhfprf;
awGUNyD awGUNyD
'ufxdudk awGUawmhwmyJudk;
Munfhprf; ... awGUr,fhawGUawmh
acgif;arG;pkwfzGm;eJY v,fa0;ysOf;rem;u
aysmfbG,fBuHcif;xJrSm
Zyf Zyf Zyf Zyf
*wf *wf *wf *wfeJY
bJawG rpifeif;ovdkeif;NyD;
EIwfoD;cRefcRefuav;ay:rSm
abmvHk;udk ajr§mufajr§mufNyD; upm;vdkY
tm; yg; yg;
'Dvkdyg
zsHzrf;orm; atmifjrifcJhw,fqdkwm
ajymjywmyg/ /
armifacsmEG,f

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

46

yef;csD
ightlawGu acG;vdk oH&SnfqGJtlvdkY
ightpmtdrfu ppfvrf;aMumif;uswJh ½Gmav;wpf½Gmvdk/
ighausmufuyfawGu
wAGrf;AGrf; a&awGvQHvdkY/
ightqkwfawGu
zGwfcsuf zGwfcsufeJY rD;cdk;wtltl
b,fvdkrS pm;oHk;vdkY r&awmh/
ight½dk;tqpfawG *GßKdif;xm;wJh *GßKdif;ewfawGjyKef;aygh
ighcE¨m wmbkdtif*sif ol&Jaumif;BuD;av ...
ol&Jaumif;BuD;wJh
b,fvdkrS qkwHqdyfawG rarSsmfrSef;
bmqkwHqdyfawGrS r&cJhwJh ol&Jaumif;BuD;aygh/
ig b,fawmhrS vufeufrcsEdkifbl;wJh
bmaMumifhvJqdkawmh
ighrSm csp&m vufeufr&SdvdkYyguG,fwJh / /
armifacsmEG,f

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

47

pdwftefzwf
“usm;” rD;jcpfudk
wtm;BuD; zdjcpfypfvdkufw,f
vufzuf&nfcGufxJu
urÇmBuD;udk
igodyfpdwfrawGUbl;/
owdxm;Mu
xrif;yef;uefxJu trSefw&m;
ig pm;ypfvkdufNyD/
wpfjcrf;u rSnfh½Trf;t&om&SdNyD;
wpfjcrf;u pdrf;aeao;wJh urÇmBuD;[m
igyHkMurf;avmif;xm;wJh yef;yk½kyfuav;aygh/
0dnmOfawGudk zdeyfvkyfNyD; pD;ypfr,f
vlawGrsufESmay:u
urÇmBuD;udk igr,Hkbl;/
tirf;r& aomufjcif;rsKd;eJY
vrif;udk igaomufypfvdkufNyD
aw;*Dwtm;vHk;udk igaomufypfvkdufNyD
rkefwdkif;awGudk igaomufypfvkdufNyD
urÇmBuD;udkvnf; igaomufypfvkdufNyD
avxJrSm
uAsmqefqef 0JaewJh
Am'H½GufawGudkvnf; igaomufypfvdkufNyDaygh/
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

48

a[m[dku
cHkzdeyf wcGyfcGyfeJY vrf;avQmufvmwm
ightm½Hkaygh/
awGUvm;
tyifay:rSm ñGwfatmifoD;aewJh
0if;zefYzefY vdar®mfoD;awGuvnf;
ightm½Hkaygh/
[dkuwåDyg jrufcif;av;&,f
[dkaumifrav; qdk;xm;wJh EIwfcrf;eD&,f
ightm½HkawGaygh/
ig ighvufxJrSm
ighb0av;udk uspfuspfygatmif qkyfxm;NyD;
ig
OD;aESmufu xGufcJhNyD
ESvHk;om;tdrfu xGufcJhNyD
tm½HkuzD;u xGufcJhNyD
tcspfa& ...
ESvHk;om;udkav
xbDtqifvSvSav; &ufay;r,f
avmu"Hw&m;awGudkawmh
zefcGufxJrSm t&ufeJYa&mNyD;
“udkudk” armhxnfhvdkufNyDuGm / /
armifacsmEG,f
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

49

toHxGufnHhnHheJY uHMur®m
wnfNidrfwJh aeYeHawGr[kwf
pdwåum&uN*dK[fqdkwJh ieJuvnf;
acs;us&maysmf
bmawGudkrsm;
tcsif;csif; ac:xl;aeMuwmvJ
bmvJ
yGJawmfawGudk xm;cJh&rSmvm;
bmvJ
*sufvef'efudk xm;cJh&rSmvm;
bmvJ
teEåol&d,&JU uAsmudk xm;cJh&rSmvm;
bmvJ
rsuf&nfppfppfawGudk xm;cJh&rSmvm;
oGm;prf;yg?
aojcif;w&m;uvGJNyD; bmrSrqef;wJh
'DurÇmavmuqdkwJh aowåmBuD;xJrSm
vlYb0qdkwmuvnf;
Munfhav ...
O(tk)uaeyJ aygufzGm; aygufzGm;
taygufuaeyJ aygufzGm; aygufzGm;
tnpftaMu;awGeJY tkdif;temBuD;yg
wD½IyfaxG; 0ufpmusif;xJ 0ufawGaysmf
tm;vHk;[m
wGefYvdrf½IyfaxG;NyD; aumufauGU
npfayaysmf½Tif oHa0* 0wfaumif;pm;vSeJY
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

50

aojcif;w&m;uvGJNyD; bmrSrqef;wJh
'DurÇmavmuqdkwJh aowåmBuD;xJrSm
OD;aESmufudk azmufcsay;vkdufayr,fh
bmrSr&
rdrdudk,frdrd vdrfnmwJh yHkzrf;Mu
,kwfrmMu
,kwfrmjcif;udk oifMum;Mu
t&mtm;vHk; wGefYvdrfaumufauGUNyD;
tkwfta&ma&m ausmufta&ma&m
eHeHapmfapmfawGcsnf;yJ
xdkifae&if; 'Hk;ajy;xm;&ovdkarm
armNyD&if; armae& tarmBuD;eJY
b0udk rat;cJvGef;atmif yHkjyK&wmudku
ESpfaygif;av;q,favmuf Mumr,f
tonf;ESvHk;eJY EIwfcrf;uvnf;
rdkifav;q,favmuf a0;uGmw,f
vGwfvGwfvyfvyfBuD;udkyJ
rwfwyfu NydKNydKvJvdkufvmae
avmu"H 'ef;avmharGU&may:
uHMur®mawG taysmfr,m;eJY aESmMuvdkYrdkY
aomwm½HkawG om;pyfcH&
b0jynfwnfemawGom
'gpGrf;Edkif&JU
ta&cGHawG zsm;a,mif;cHvdkuf&NyD
tem*wfwpfckckudk &rvm;vdkY
Edk;Mum;ae&Smol
tdk;rJh tdrfrJh nae&DuGßef;uav;a& / /
armifacsmEG,f
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

51

rsuf&nfppfppfawG
igwdkYt&dyfawG wdkwdkvmcJh
a[m'D
urÇmajray:
t&dyfuav;wpf&dyf zdwfpOfrSmawmif
MunfMunfvifvif rpD;cJh&acsbl;
½HI;vdkufwm/
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

52

avmuBuD;rSm
olYae&meJYol pm;&r,fh tpm;tpm
&SdMu&rSmudkyJ
olYae&m olYtpm
&SdMuwmudkyJ
ckawmh ... 'DrSm
ighaygifrkefYawGudk vmvmNyD; vkaeMu
b,folawGwkef; ...
b,fN*dK[fu N*dK[fom;awGwJhwkef;
b,facsmifu xGufxGufvmaewJh
eDwdtqHk;trawGwJhwkef;
b,fvdkuHZmwm0wfpHkawGwkef;
b,fbHkuvmwJh ewfom;awGwJhwkef;
b,fvdkraumif;qdk;0g;awGwJhwkef;/
bmvJ
Ouúvm[dk;rm;u tdk;rJhtdrfrJhawGvm
a[mfvefu EdkYcsuform;awGvm;
bmvJ
paumhwvefu t&ufcsuform;awGvm;
bmvJ
tr&yl&u &ufuef;orm;awGvm;
bmvJ
ig;wefacsmif;u ig;zrf;orm;awGvm;
bmvJ
rusD;yifoHk;cGu qm;csuform;awGvm;
ighrSmjzifh qHk;½HI;vdkuf&wJh ighaygifrkefYawG/

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

53

r[kwfbl;
b,fewfa'0wmrS vmrvkbl;
r[kwfbl;
b,fN*dK[fom;rS vmrvkbl;
r[kwfbl;
b,fpkef; Nydwåm wapä zkwfbDvl;rS vmrvkbl;
vlvlcsif;om vmvk,ufaeMuwm/
'DtrI
'DtrIom
aq;om;a&;jc,f pDuHk;vdkY&&if
'DtrIom qifzdkeDvnfqGJjzpfcJh&if
igqHk;½HI;cJh& ighaygifrkefYawG
[kkwfw,f
igqHk;½HI;cJh& ighaygifrkefYawG
tvkcH&wJh ighaygifrkefYawG
igbmvdkYrsm; ESarsmay;awmhrSmvJav/
ckawmhjzifh
igh wl&moDrSm rD;vmvmawmufawmufaew,f
ckawmhjzifh
igh uef&moDrSm MumawG vmvmaygufaew,f
ckawmhjzifh
igh od[f&moDrSm jcaoFhvmvma[mufa[mufaew,f
vSvdkufwm
okckrES,fajrmufvdkufwm
ighaygifrkefYawG aysmufNyD;&if; aysmufaysmufaeawmh&JU / /
armifacsmEG,f
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

54

t&dyfa`cGopfyif
t&dyfa`cGopfyif[m
urÇmay:rSm wpfyifwnf;&Sdw,f
t&dyfa`cGopfyif[m
opf&dyfawG ra`cGbl;
t&dyfawGom a`cGa`cGcsay;aew,f
ola`cGcswJh t&dyfxJrSm
qef;opfwJh aeY&ufawGygw,f
yef;opfa0a0 reufcif;awGygw,f
½Tef;vuf0if;ywJh opfoD;awGygw,f
jyefusrdk;pufawGygw,f
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

55

bmjzpfvdkYrsm;
olu t&dyfawG a`cGvdkufwdkif;
tJ'gawGu yg0ifae&wmvJ
igpOf;pm;
ighrSm pOf;pm;jcif;blwm
qdkufuyfuyfaerd
ighrSm
xx ysH0Jaerd
ighrSm
oDcsif;xx atmf[pfqdkrd
bmjzpfvdkYygvdrfh
igpOf;pm;
igawG;Munfh
igodcsifrd
xl;qef;vS&JU
'Dt&dyfa`cGopfyiftaMumif;
oluawmh bmodbmomyJJ
t&dyfawGyJ a`cGa`cGcsay;ae
igpl;prf;
igraeEdkifawmhbl;
'geJY ig[m t&dyfa`cGopfyifqDoGm;um
oGm;udkifwG,fMunhfrd
igodvdkuf&NyD
olYwudk,fvHk;rSm
BuD;aygif;wuf 'Pf&mawGcsnf; Edkif;csif;
urÇmay:rSm 'Pf&m& opfyifawGavmufvSwm
'Pf&m& opfyifyJ&Sd
aMomf ...
'gaMumifh olu t&dyfawG a`cGay;Edkifwmudk; / /
armifacsmEG,f
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

56

&efolrJhaom aeY&ufrsm;
reuf rsufESmopfzdkYjyifwdkif;
oGm;wdkufwHay:rSm vGJacsmfrIudk awGU&
arT;&eHYawG aMuuGJ
&moDOwku ajcjywfvufjywf taetxm;
t&ufqkdifrSmawmif vlyg;owJh
‘EGm; aq;vdyfwpfvdyfeJY ckcHxm;&if
cHomr,f xifw,f/
aoGUajcmufajcmuf opf&dyfpdrf; ... wJh
'g[m ysufacsmfrIwpfckyg
rGwfrGwfodyfodyf jiif;qef&JU
ajrmufjrm;pGm vrfacsmfNyD;cJhygNyD/
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

57

we*FaEGrsm;
tzefwvJvJ we*FaEGrsm;
emwm&Snf we*FaEGrsm;
ap;ESJolom tpD;teif;rsm;
nnf;nLoHrsm;
½Tifvef;0rf;ajrmufMuygap/
'DvdkeJY
uGef;cdk vGrf;cJh
umva&MunfwpfpufrSm
touf&SLoHawG taiGUysH
toufcGufxJ b0udk a&cHMunfhaomtcg
touf½SifcGifhuvGJNyD;
tm;vHk; zdwfpifuGJ&ScJhayNyD/
nDrav; rrjrifha& ...
wdkYESvHk;om;awGeJYom xkqpfcJhMuwmayghuG,f
(wdkYESvHk;om;awGeJYom wdkYacwfudk xkqpfcJhMuwmayghuG,f)
aocsmvGef;wmu
rNrJwJh tedpöw&m;u NrJvGef;
wdkYawG ½HI;vGef;vSw,fuG,f/ /
armifacsmEG,f

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

58

rrwif&JU ausmif;uav;
aewazG;azG; avwazG;azG;
rrwif&JU ausmif;uav;/
oJwazG;azG; zHkwazG;azG;
rrwif&JU ausmif;uav;/
rrwif&JU ausmif;uav;rSm
xef;yifawGuvnf; vufydkufNyD; wef;pD&yfvdkY
wpfb0vHk;yJ rrwifausmif;u rxGufawmhbl;wJh?
wpfoufvHk;yJ rrwif&JU ausmif;rSm ausmif;wufrwJh/
xef;oD;awGuvnf; t`yGwfvdkuf tckdifvdkuf
oD;vdkY?
rrwif&JU ausmif;rSmvnf;
ausmif;om;awGu t`yGwfvkduf tcdkifvdkuf
oD;vdkY?
,muGufuav; wpfuGufuvnf;
rrwif&JU ausmif;rSm ausmif;wufvdkY
ajryJeJY yJpOf;iHkawGuvnf;
rrwif&JU ausmif;rSm ausmif;vmwufvdkY?
[dkawmifbufu a*gif;eDawmifuvnf;
rrwifausmif;udk wufcsif&uf rwuf&vdkY
wpfb0vHk; wpfoufvHk; aqG;ae&ygNyD ... wJh/
rrwif&JU ausmif;uav;udk
vSrf;arQmfai;vdkY/
ykyÜg;awmifBuD;uawmh
rrwif&JU ausmif;xGufBuD;aygh
rrwif&JU ausmif;om;a[mif;BuD;aygh
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

59

ckvnf; rrwifausmif;udk ai;Munfh
wpfb0vHk; yDwdawGeJY
rrwifausmif;uav;udk
NrdefNrdefBuD;ai;vdkY/
rrwif ausmif;vm&if
olrsm;rdef;uav;awGvdk
a½TawG aiGawG zdwfvufaeatmif 0wfpm;rvmbl;/
apwem&,f
0goem&,f
tepfem&,f
emoHk;emudk
zdwfvuf½Tef;awmufaeatmif 0wfpm;vmw,f/
rrwif[m ausmif;tkyfq&mrBuD;aygh
rrwifu
vifr,l om;rarG;
tem*wfopfawGudk arG;w,f
pmusufoH pmtHoH wnHnHawGudk arG;w,f
ta0;ajy; toHopfawGudk arG;w,f/
rrwif&JU ausmif;uav; ajrmufbufrSm
ocsKØif;xJu tkwf*lawG[m
ta0;ajy; um;*dwfxJrSm
um;awG wef;pD*dwfxkd;ovdkyJ
rrwifausmif;uav;rSmawmh
ta0;ajy;aw;oHawG aqmhupm; aysmfyg;vdkYaygh /
armifacsmEG,f
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

60

rif;rkef;wJhaeY[m igtrSefw&m;udk awGU&SdwJhaeYjzpfw,f
rif;&ufpufrSI[m urÇmrSm r&SdcJhygbl;
ig[m emusifusKd;aMuNyD;
tdyf&may:rSm tvl;vl; tvdSrfhvdSrfh
bmrSvnf; rawG;ac:Edkif
bmrSvnf; rcHpm;ay;Edkif
yGJawmfawGeJY uif;a0;vdkY
jyusroGm;½Hk toufaiGUaiGUuav;eJY
rif;yufpufvdkufwmuG,fvdkYawmifrS
ighrSm toHrxGufEdkifcJhygbl;/
aexGufae0ifcsdefawGvnf;
ighrSm rodawmhyg ...
ightEkynm t&if;tjrpfuav;vnf;
b,fqDb,f0,frSmvJ
igrodawmhyg ...
ightbd"r®mawGvnf;
ighrSm rqkyfrd rudkifrdawmhyg/

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

61

ig[m
‘0drkwåd udkom ai;arSsmf&if;
cyfrQif;rQif; touf&SLcJh&w,f
we*FaEGwpf&uf xifyg&JU
pMu0VmBuD;&,f
qdkufqdkufNrdKufNrdKufBuD; ighqDa&mufvmw,f
tifrwef ylaEG;vSwJh olYvufBuD;eJY
vufqGJEIwfqufw,f
yef;oD; cs,f&Dyef;eJY a½Ta&mifuavmifwHwpfacsmif;
vufaqmifay;w,f/
NyD;awmh ...
“rdwfaqGBuD; c&D;opfxGufawmhwJh”
tJ'Dvdk ajymtNyD;rSm
pGwfzm;vSnf;uav;pD;um xGufoGm;awmhw,f/
ig[m
yef;oD; cs,f&Dyef;
a½Ta&mifuavmifwHeJY
igha&mifuavmifwHeJY
ightrSefw&m;0wfpHkudk 0wfqifum / /
armifacsmEG,f

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

62

urÇmBuD;twGuf armeif;yuf
reufvif;NyDqdkawmh ...
urÇmBuD;eJYtwl tdyf&mx
urÇmBuD;eJYtwl rsufESmopf
urÇmBuD;eJYtwl vrf;avQmufxGufcJhw,faygh/
urÇmBuD;u reufcif;udkMunfh
urÇmBuD;u olYurÇmBuD;udk olMunhf
iguawmh
urÇmBuD;udkaum olYurÇmBuD;udkaum Munfh&if;aygh/
urÇmBuD;u reufcif;twGuf aumfzDwpfcGufwJh/
urÇmBuD;u aumfzDaomufw,f/
iguawmh urÇmBuD;twGuf armeif;yufaygh/
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

63

urÇmBuD;twGuf armeif;yufudk
pD;u&ufwpfvdyfeJY pwif
igwdkYawG atmifjrifaysmf½Tif &,farmzdkY
toHxGufcyfnHhnHheJY uHMur®m
wpfaeYxufwpfaeY opfvGifvmwJh
opfopfvGifvGif 'Pf&mawG
b,favmuf pkaqmif;rdNyDvJ?
b0u pD;u&ufcdk;aiGUawG yGwfoyfrd&if;
[kwfw,f ...
igwdkYwawG ...
urÇmBuD;twGuf armeif;yufawG aomufoifhw,f
'DvdkrsKd; ...
urÇmBuD;twGuf armeif;yuf aomufw,fqdkwm
odyfaumif;jrwfwJh tcsuftvufwpfckvdkY
igwdkYawG odcJhwmtwGufvnf;
urÇmBuD;u aus;Zl;wifrqHk; &SdaerSmyg/
[kwfw,f .../
urÇmBuD;twGuf armeif;yufawG aomuf&r,f
bmaMumifhvJ odvm;
igwdkYawG[m taumif;qHk; tcsuftvufawGodwJh
trsKd;aumif;om;awGjzpfvdkY
'gayr,fh trsKd;aumif;awG[m
trsKd;aumif;½HkuvGJNyD;
bmrSrusefawmhbl;qdkwm urÇmBuD; rodapeJY/ /
armifacsmEG,f

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

64

aywdk;
b,fuav;wpfa,mufqDu
uscJhrSef;rodwJh
tusxnf *g0efyGyGBuD;eJY
tJ'D tusxnf *g0efBuD;udk
xyfrHpyf[yf zmax;xm;ao;
tJ'D tqDtai:rwnfhwJh *g0efyGyGBuD; 0wfvdkY
aywdk;/
EIwfcrf;wpfjcm; aq;wpfjcm;
taygpm; EIwfcrf;eDeDBuD;vnf;
eDeD&J&JBuD; qdk;xm;cH&ao;
aywdk;/
taygpm;aygif'gvnf;
rsufESmay: wzkef;zkef; ½dkufcHxm;&
vlyHktv,frSm
rsufESmBuD; azG;zHkvdkY
aywdk;/

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

65

qHyift&Snf r&SdvdkYomaygh
EdkYrdkYqdk
aumhprufwpfawG? b,f&Du&drf;awG
wavSBuD; vdrf;cH&OD;rSm
usdcGßJcGßJBuD;eJY aeOD;rSm
'gayr,fh (rvGwfygbl;)
ckvnf; b,foufomvdkYvJ
acgif;&rf;yef;½dkif;yGifhBuD; wum;um;
acgif;rSm yefxm;jcif;cH&ao;
aywdk;
arsmufuav; aywdk;/
arsmufqdkwmeJY vHkavmufcJh&JUom;eJY
aywdk;vdkY emrnfrSnfhjcif;vnf; cH&ao;wJh
aywdk; aywdk;
arsmufuav; aywdk;/
olYarsmufq&mu BudrfvHk;av; wpfcsuf0ifh
[Jh aywdk; a&SU*Gßrf;(uGßrf;)qdk&if
aywdk;crsm
a&SU*Gßrf;/
[Jh aywdk;
aemuf*Gßrf;qdk&if
aywdk;crsm
aemuf*Gßrf;awG woGifoGif xdk;vdkuf&

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

66

[Jh aywdk;
a&SU*Gßrf;qdk&if
aywdk;crsm
a&SU*Gßrf;awG woGifoGif xdk;vdkuf&/
arsmufq&mu
BudrfvHk;uav; 0ifh0ifhjyvdkufwdkif;
arsmufuav; aywdk;crsm
*g0efBuD; wzm;zm;
aygif'gBuD; wazG;azG;
EIwfcrf;eDBuD; w&J&J
yef;yGifheDBuD; wum;um;eJY
vlv,facgifBuD;rSm
tNrD;aigufawmufeJY
aywdk;crsm
uckef& *Gßrf;awG *Gßrf;awG
xdk;xdk;jy&
oli,fcsif; vDuDa& ..
igwdkYawGrvJ
qdkMuygpdkY
avmu"H arsmufq&mu
Budrfuav; 0ifhjyvdkufwJhtcg
aywdk;yJ r[kwfbl;vm;/

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

67

'gayr,fh
wdkYawG
aywdk;vdkyJ uHaumif;w,f
wdkYu
½IarSsmfaeMu&w,f
aywdk;crsm
ausmay:uswJh BudrfcsufurS
oufomvdrfhOD;r,fhvdkY
rodcJh&Smbl;udk;/
ckawmh ..
tNrD;aigufawmufBuD;eJY
crsmrSm
*g0efBuD; wzm;zm;
EIwfcrf;eDBuD; w&J&J
aygif'gBuD; wazG;azG;eJY
vlv,facgifBuD;rSm
aywdk;
arsmufuav; aywdk;/ /
armifacsmEG,f

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

68

a&xJjrdKY
a[m'DrSm NrdKUav;wpfNrdKUav ...
uAsmq&m rmvmar jrifroGm;cJhbl;wJhNrdKU
NrdKUav;wpfNrdKUav ...
olYv,fuGif;&ifbwfxJrSmu aomfubk&m;&,f
olYESvHk;om;&ifbwfxJ ..
0if0ifacGUwwfwJh ajrmufjyefav&,f
tJ'Dajrmufjyefavu ayGUayGUvmwJh
pyg;yifysKduav;&JU udk,feHYav;&,f
vrkyif tkyfuav;eJY cspfBudK;oG,faeol
o½GwfoGyf acsmif;uav;&,f
t&ufrrl;ol t&ufcsufpuf½Hkuav;&,f
ZmwfyGJuovdk ujyaeol qefpufuav;awG&,f
b00rf;pm azG½Smarmol avSarsmav;awG&,f
arT;&eHY uefx½dkufwm oeyfcg;puf½Hkuav;&,f
a[m Mumqefpuf½Hkuav;uvnf; &yf½SdvdkY
pyg;&,f? A½T&,f? ig;&,f? Mumqef&,f
oeyfcg;&,f? a&&,f
raMuygapvifhvdkY qkawmif;&if;
twGwfeJY arT;a&
a&xJNrdKUuav;[m &ifxJNrdKU jzpfcJhaygh/

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

69

twGwfeJY arT;a&
MunfhuG,f ...
NrdKUnaumif;uifxJ
ESpfopfBudKaw;awG oDumxGef;vif;vdkY
NyD; ESpfopfaw;awG aumfzDvmaomufMu
c&pörwf tBudKnvdk a0qmvSyvdkY
b,fvdkrS rxifrSwfbJ
Aif;epfNrdKU t&omrsKd;&cJh&
a&eJY y#doaE¨jyKaom NrdKUav;
acsmif;aygufuav;u
acsmif;aygufuav;xJ0ifum
NrdKUtvSudk NrdKUuacsmif;Munhfae&aom a&xJNrdKUygvm; / /
armifacsmEG,f

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

70

NrdKUopfrdk;
iSufawGu avxJrSm em;aeMu
uefpGef;yifawGu a&xJrSm em;aeMu
aqmufNyD;p wdkufawGvdkvdk
aqmufvufp tdrfuav;awGvdkvdk
rdIewdk ueazmhawGvnf; pDNyD;
ayghayghyg;yg; pum;awG qdkMuvdkY
“b,fvkdrS ratmufarheJYaemf
udk,fht&yf udk,fhtajcrdkY rpGefYvTwfEdkifbl;” wJh
uefoif;½dk;uae ajreDvrf;jzpfoGm;wJh
uefoif;½dk; ajreDvrf;awGuav
i,fb0awGudk vGrf;&if;eJYaysmf
uefpGef;cif;eJY tzGJUav;zGJUaexdkif
rdIewdk ueazmh b0uae
b0rajymif;vJbJ aexdkifumarSsmfMunfh
tvSysufcJhayr,fh tvSrzsufatmifaygh/
b0ysufcJhayr,fh b0rzsufatmifaygh/
aumifrav; armif;vmwJh qD'ifum;u
"mwfqDeHYav; &SL½Iduf&if;av
NrdKUopfjzpfap NrdKUopfrSm
[dkwkef;u vla[mif; vlaumif;
av½dkif;awGudk vSrf;EIwfquf&if;
0if;yaep b0awG
NrdKUopfjzpfzdkY
topfpufpufNrdKUawG NrdKUjzpfzdkY

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

71

rdk;uav ...
topfpufpufNrdKUrSm
rdk;uav ...
olYv,fuGufawG NrdKUjzpfoGm;wm
olrodayr,fh
rdk;uav ...
olYv,fuGufawG ola&ay;zdkYyJ
olod?
rdk;uav ...
olYb0wpfavSsmufvHk; jrwfEdk;cJhwJh v,fuGufawG
ola&ay;r,fh
olYjrwfEdk;rIu a&awGurf;zdkYyJ
'Dtodwpfckwnf; olYrSm&Sd?
cPcP½Gm
awmfMum&if;½Gm
awmfaeMum½Gm
wjAef;jAef;½Gm
uGefu&pfazsmfpufwpfckvdk
wtkef;tkef; toHay;
½Gmcs?
rdk;uav ...
topfpufpufNrdKUrSm
tnmzkefvHk;BuD;awGvdk
wvdyfvdyfeJY
vSdrfhvSdrfhNyD;½Gm / /
armifacsmEG,f
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

72

*Dw
vrf;ab;rSm at;at;aq;aq; tdyfaewJYacG;
&kwfw&ufBuD; um;Nzwfeif;cH&
aNcaxmufESpfacsmif;oGifoGifusdK;
em;vGef;vdkY crsmrSm
b,fvdkatmf&rSef;rod
olUtouf&SL a&iifyHk;uav;
a&wGif;eufeufMuD;xJ
iifiifaewm Nrif&/
armifacsmEG,f

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

73

pufcsKyform; &efukef
reufrdk;vif;NyDqdkwmeJYyJ
vlawGuawmh olwdkYtvkyf olwdkY'ku©awG
cg;xpfcGifus?
acgif;ay:u cHawmif;xJxnfhus?
a[m ... cHawmif;xJJu ig;t&Sifvwfvwfwpfaumif
um;ay: xGufus?
cg;xpfcGifay:u uav;uidk
aumifrav;awGu ckefa&Smif
vlBuD;awGu &,fMu
vrf; 50 rSm ...
ig;u um;ay:u qif;rvdkY xifyg&JU
a*:uD&yfuGufu vmMuwmawGav
vef'efta&SUydkif;uvnf; jzpfEdkifayao;&JU
“udkudkuav ...
reufrsufESmopf a&rdk;oefYpifNyD;&if
udkumudkvm wpfAl;aomufr,f
tJ'grS tmcHwGif;uae MumndKeHYoif;aer,f”
“NyD;&if *Gwfarmeif;udwf pm;r,f”
“urÇmBuD;twGufyg udkudkYtwGuf r[kwfygbl;”
[m; [m; [m; ...
'DvdktwGJuav;uvnf;
NrdKUawmfudk pdkajyapovdkayghav
yef;uav;awGuawmh
aysmfvdkYayghav
rMumcif ocifrqDa&mufr,f?
rMumcif bk&m;ocifqDrSm qnf;uyf&r,f?
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

74

. . . uawmh aysmfw,f
vdyfpmay;xm;aemf
aemufvnf; qHkMu&atmif
wD;wdk;uav;rsm;
pum;awGzGJUMuvdkYom
aysmfMu&Sm/
½kef;xm; ½kef;xm;
½Hk;orm;a&
½kef;xm;&rSmyJ
½Hk;orm;awGvnf;yg&JU/
'g &efukefav
NrdKUBuD;om; &efukefav?
uzD;qdkifawG zGifhukefMuNyD
pufcsKyform; &efukefvnf;
olYpufacgif;udk zGifhaygh?
raeYnu tyfxnfav;udk b,fvdkn§yfr,f
b,fvdk csKyfoDr,f
b,fvdk bDwifazmufr,f?
b,fvdk Zmem;uGyfr,f?
pufcsKyform;&efukef
pOf;pm;NyD;
vlawGuyJ ulpOf;pm;ovdkvdk
pOf;pm;NyD;&if; pOf;pm;
pdwful;'DZdkif;&&if
&ifxJaysmf
a&SUu eufpfaumfzDudk wpfiHkiHk
vef'efpD;u&ufudk wpfudkufcJ
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

75

qdkifa&SUu jzwfoGm;MuwJh acwfvli,f
tysKduav;awGudkMunfh
vufzuf&nfoHk;cGufAsKdUvdkY atmfvdkufwJh
pm;yGJxdk; acwfvli,fuav;&JU toHrSm
&efukefrsufvHk;yGifhNyD;us,fokOf;
atmf ...
NrdKUBuD;udk pm;yGJxdk;ae&NyDayghuG,f/
ta&mifpHk taoG;pHk tom;pHk toHpHk
&efukef?
&efukef[m &efukefrSmyJ arG;w,f
&efukef[m &efukefrSmyJ BuD;w,f
&efukef[m urÇmhNrdKUBuD;awGeJY
&ifabmifwef;NyD; &yfwnfw,f
&efukef[m aoG;BuD;w,f
olYudk,fol NrdKUBuD;om;vdkY tjrJwrf; cH,lw,f
rD;oD;t0gawG
rD;oD;tjymawG
rD;oD;tjzLawG
rD;oD;teDawG[m
vlawGvdkY &efukefu cH,lw,f
aeYa&m na&m xGef;vif;w,f
oloabmusw,f
&efukefu olY&ifbwfBuD;xJ
vlrD;oD;awG vmxGef;vif;jzma0wmudk
yDwdjzpfw,f? oabmusw,f?
wkefcgr,f
rdk;cgr,f
&efukefrdk;[m
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

76

&efukefvdk om,moGm;r,f
&efukefrSm aqmif;r&Sdbl;
&efukefrSm aEGr&Sdbl;
&efukefrSm rdk;yJ&Sdw,f
&efukefrSm rdk;
rEåav;rSm aEG
jynfrSmaqmif;vdkY qdkMuw,f r[kwfvm;
wu,fyJ
&efukefrdk;uawmh
rl,mrm,mawGrsm;w,f
½GmwmawmifrS OmPfeDOmPfeufawG
OmPfjymOmPf0gawGrsm;w,f
rdk;rSrdk;
&efukeft&om[m rdk;rSrdk;ygyJ/
odygw,f &efukef
Nidygw,f &efukef&,f
Adkufacgufxlxl 0wfaumif;pm;vSawG
qdkifxJ0ifvmMujyefNyD?
a&mifpHkumvmaygh?
bJom;zwf? qdwfom;zwfawG rSmpm;Mu
rkefYbl;av;xJxnfh
acwfvli,f ausmif;om;av;awG
ckefaygufvdkY?
“arar q&mrzdkY rkefY0,foGm;&tHk;r,fav
at; at; om;” ...
“*Gwfwarmeif; udwfwpfvHk;qdk
vHkavmufygNyD”
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

77

'grSr[kwf attefwDudwf
wpfvHk;vHk;ayghav
“arar 0,fcJhNyD om;wdkYa&” wJh
atmifjrifwJh avoHrSm
&efukefNrdKUBuD;vnf; wHcg;zGifhNyD
*sdrf; *sdrf; ... *sdrf; *sdrf;
*sKH; *sKH; *sKH; *sKH; ...
&xm;OMorIwfoHvnf; csvmjyefNyD
NrdKUBuD;xJ
NrdKUBuD;udk 0,fcJhwJh rD;&xm;awG
ta0;&yfu wifvmwJh rD;&xm;oHawG
ukrÜPDwHcg;zGifhoHawG
aps;awG? aps;awGrSmvJ
aps;onf aps;0,fawG
iSuftkyf qiftkyfawG
NydKqif;vmovdk NydKqif;vmMu
*syefzdeyf aemufNrD;jywfeJY
ukefxrf;orm; tajy;tvTm;
pnfyifwHjrufvSnf;orm;
tajy;tvTm;
eufuwdkifawG tusÐawG
txnfawG? bGwfzdeyfawG
uwåDygpawG? cuf&if;eJY ZGef;awG
yef;uefawG? ydwfom;a&mifpHkawG
toHawG jrefvmMuNyD
t½kyfawG jrefvmMuNyD
vl\xif&Sm;rIawG jrefvmMuNyD

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

78

‘atmifaZ,s xGufcGmr,f
‘AE¨Kv qdkufuyfr,f
vlawG vlawG tajy;tvTm;
yef;qdk;wef;qdyfurf;rSm
csDwufvmMu
ajy;qif;oGm;Mu
0rf;pmqDuyfyGJ
0rf;pmajy;NydKifyGJ
yifv,ful; oabFmBuD;awG &yfwcsKdU
0ifvmckwfarmif;wcsKdU
wnfNidrfvdkY?
'DvdkeJY &efukefpufcsKyform;
wpfaeukef w*sKef;*sKef;csKyf
wpfaeukef wukef;ukef;csKyf
a[m ... nae&D rdk;csKyfpjyKvmNyD
rmusL&DrD;awG xGef;um;
um;rD;a&mifpHkawG xGef;um;
t&ufbm;awG usL;&ifhzGifhoD
EdkufuvyfawG zl;yGifhwifhNyD
uJ ...
NrdKUBuD;om; pufcsKyform;&efukefa&
nNrdKUBuD;udk bDwifazmufvdkufygawmh
EdkYrdkYqdk
rif;udk tarSmufaomufoGm;ayvdrfhr,f
a[m ...
a½TayguúHudk ta&mufjyefr,f
bwfpfum;udk &J&Jwdk;pD;
bwfpfum;udk rD;zdkBuD;vdkvHIum
&efukefa& ... wmh wmaemf wJh / /
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

armifacsmEG,f
79

jynf
v0ef;xJ
yGJMunhfavSuav; avSmfcwf0ifoGm;
vrf;a½G;rSm;oljrpf
ESpfxyfoabFmNrdKUuav;ay: em;cJhaygh/ /
armifacsmEG,f

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

80

wefzdk;
jyefrvmwJh ajc&mawGay:
vmaewm b,folawGvJ
topfawGvm; ...
trdkuftrSm; vdkufpm;olawGvm; .../
'DrSm ...
trSm;awG rsm;jym;xlxyfvGef;
'DrSm ...
tBudKufcsif; rwlnDMuzl;
vufcHw,f?
b0csif; rwlnDMubl;
vufcHw,f?
a~uG;NrDawGeJY av;vHydwifaevGef;
vufcHw,f?
av;awmfudk igwifNyD; ypfcsvdkuf&rSmu
tNrdKufw&m;ayyJudk;/
ighbufu ightbd"r®mt&
ig[m
vGwfvGwfuGßwfuGßwfBuD; ½HI;cJh&awmh
vGwfvGwfuGßwfuGßwfBuD;yJ Edkifcsifw,f/
trSefwu,fyJ
igypfcsvdkufygw,f
tNrdKufw&m; / /
armifacsmEG,f
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

81

rkqdk;
ykpämr[kwfbJ
tajzazmfvdkY igr&cJh?
rkqdk;armif;wpf0uf armif;wifxm;NyD;
om;aumifudk ig&Sm?
igawGY?
igypfcsvdkufw,f
ighwpfudk,fvHk; 'Pf&mawGcsnf; Edkif;csif;
ememusifusiftvS igawGY?
tBuD;tus,f igpdk;&drfrd
ighaoewfrSm usnfqefr½SdrSmudkbJ/ /
armifacsmEG,f

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

82

aMuuGJrIta&mif
cE¨mudk,frsm; ayghyg;a&;u pwif
‘rdk;a0;a& ...
NyD;rSyJ urÇmBuD;udk cspfcifaMumif; ajymMuwmaygh/
igwdkYawG apmcJhMuw,f
igwdkYawG apmNyD; aemufuscJh&w,f/
'gaMumifhyJ
'DZmwfudk igwdkYawG ucJhMu&
igwdkYawG[m
jyZmwfxJu qufwifvdk tdrfawGrSm
aecJhMu&
igwdkYawG[m
cspfolYtoHawGudk xdefcsefcJhwJh uHw&m;vnf;
w&m;pD&ifcJh&/
ta&;BuD;w,f
wpfa,mufwpfa,muf t&om&SdzdkYuvnf;
ta&;BuD;ay&JU
wdkYawG
wpfa,mufeJYwpfa,muf t&om&SdcJhMuw,f r[kwfvm;/

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

83

wdkYawG
wpfa,mufeJYwpfa,muf cspfcJhMuw,fqdkwm
trSefw&m;awmif
enf;enf;yg;yg; &dyfpm;rdoGm;NyDav/
wdkYawG[m
&moDqdk;oGrf;vrf;ru
ysHusrdk;awGaygh
'Dvkdr[kwfbl;vm;/
‘rdk;a0;a& ...
igwdkYawG tm;vHk;[m
wpfcsyfarSmufzJ0dkif;rSm ..
igwdkYtm;vHk;&JU zJawGu wjcm;tdrfawGrSm
xGufukefMuNyD
igwdkYzJawG[m qef;zJawG r[kwfMuawmhbl;
wpfcsyfarSmuf upm;&mrSm
vkduf&JzdkYxuf ajy;&Jwm owådyg
‘rdk;a0;a& ...
igwdkYawG ajy;MupdkY&JU
ckavmufqdk
‘armifjynfhrif;wpfa,muf ESif;awGa0aea&maygh / /
armifacsmEG,f

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

84

taiGUysHaeU&ufrsm;
tmcdrd'doDtdk&D[m
oGm;wpfacsmif;tNzpfa&muf&Sdvmw,f/
a&csdefvGwfaewJUpmyGJcHkwpfcHkckefvdkU/
tvGefw&m t&om&SdcJUwmu
arQmfvifUae&wm rSeforQaygU/
cspfvSpGmaom avmu"Hw&m;a& ...
Nzpfcsifwdkif; rNzpf&wmudkyJcspfae&ygw,f/
touf&SLoHawGxJrSm yef;yGifUawG&Sdw,f
touf&SLoH[m yef;yGifUNzpfw,f
ql;&Sd?
t&omcsOfpl;pl;
tap;vnf;xGuf
usD;aygif;wufaewJU tdyfrufwpfck
touf&SLoHyef;yGifUxJrSm &dSaeav&JU/
armifacsmEG,f
(a&mifNyef? 2001 Mo*kwf)

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

85

aeUa[mif;rsm;
vGrf;p&maeU&ufawGcsnf;ygvm;
xkxnfeJUtwHk;tcJawG
ypfxnfUcH&/
udk,fudkq,fcJU&wm ESpfaygif;oHk;q,f
wcufwcJMuD;yg
&moDqdk;oGrf; vrf;rMuD;ygvm;
&moDopf yef;opfwa0a0
igwdkUwpfawGvrf;rSm
Zvyf cwåm
tifMuif;0geD
awmf0ifydawmuf
aygufyGifUeDeD&J&J
aEGudkaomufMuNyD;
tonf;at;NrMu
oli,fcsif; ]azmfa0;}a&
tdkcJvS emcJUMu bk&m;wdkiftvGrf;awGeJU
b0[m aNy;vrf;NzpfNyD;
avmuMuD;[m
tarmaNyaomufzdkU a&wpfaygufavmufyg
oEÅdokcavNynf
aer0ifcJUygbl;tar/

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

86

tar&,f
avmuMuD;u om;&JUwHcg;udkzGifUray;cJUbl;
&eHUarT;NyD;
tyGifUa0aMuGwJU ca&yifNrpfurf;yg;av;rSm
xdkifcJU&wmvnf; ESpfoHk;q,fyg
tar&,f
uRefawmfU&JU ESpfoHk;q,f[mvnf;
t½IH;awGcsnf;ygyJ
uRefawmf a&mufatmifoGm;cJUygw,ftar
NzpfNyD;om;tNypfawG
aysmufysufvGef;cJU
trSefudkzefwD;cJUayr,fUvnf;
urÇmMuD;rSm bmrSvnf;vGrf;p&mr&SdawmUygbl;
wu,fawmUvnf; [kwfygw,f
b0qdkwm avxJuzkefrIefUav;ygyJ
ckawmU..
tcGHuzD;rSm
tarUom;[m
rdkufvHk;BuD;BuD;opfoD;awG a0a0qmqmoD;vdkU/
armifacsmEG,f

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

87

aEGOD;opfoD;opfrsm;
ighoDcsif;av;eJYom
ighavSuav; igavSmfcJh?
ightoufuav;
igxGef,ufcJh?
ighOpömxkyfuav; b,frvJ
iga&mufcJh?
&rSa&mufw,f igodcJh
ighOpömxkyfuav; &Sdyg&JU
b,frvJ
ig&cJh
a&mufrS&w,f igodcJh?
ig&cJh
tJ'g t½IH;vm;
t½IH;udk cH,lw,f
'g[m
ighrD;vQH
igckefqif;
igh,mcif;awG ylvSonf
'g[m
ighrD;vQH
igckefqif;
tqHk;awG qifhqifh&vGef;cJh
igh,mcif;awG ylvScsnfh
igxGef,ufcJh
&vnf;&w,f
a&mufvnf;a&mufw,f
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

88

aygufyGifheD&J
'dkif;ueJayhg
aEGudk &J&JzGifhvdkufNyD
'g[m ighrD;vQH
'g[m ighOpömxkyf
'g[m igh,mcif;
ighaEGjywif;rSm a½T&nfa½Ttqif;awG
vif;awmhr,f/ /
armifacsmEG,f

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

89

nDrav;rrjrifY
(u)
ajrmufuRef;oltwkvum&D&JY
wpfpvnf0if xrif;tdk;av;[m
&[EÅm tyg;500udk
qGrf;uyfvSLEdkifowJYuG ...
nDrav;rrjrifY&JY
a½Tom;oHa,mZOfuvnf;
udk,fYb0wpfckvHk;udk
usef;rma0qmatmif
uAsmq&mjzpfatmif
jznfYpGrf;ay;EdkifcJYygw,f/
nDrav;rrjrifYa&
rjrJwJYtedpöw&m;uNrJvGef;
wdkYawGarmifESrvdkaeMur,fuG,f/
oli,fcsif;okcrdefa&
rif;u y@dwvrf;rSmaew,f
rif;uokcrdefvrf;rSmaew,fqdkawmY
igYtwGuf tifemAGefpD&,f
tonf;aq; vifAdkvif&,f
tifemAGefpD&,f 0,fzdkY
jrefrmusyfaiGwpfaomif; tjrefay;yguG,f.../

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

90

nDav; armifjynfYrif;a&
rif;&JYaemufqHk;j'yfpifxJu Zmwfvdkuf[migaygYuGm
aemufqHk;vufusef t&ufwpfcGufudkjiif;qdk
oDcsif;qdkjyD; jyefcJYw,f
rif;[m emrnfeJYvdkufatmif jynfYjyD;
emrnfeJYvdkufatmif jynfYolyguGm
ckawmY Ouúvm[dk;rm;rSmaemf/
aiGMum,Hu ZdrfcHwdkufMuD;eJY
oli,fcsif;udkausmfvdIifa&
uAsmtif*sifeD,m&if;rSm
cifAsm;u
urÇmjcm;&JYtoif;0ifwpfOD;yg/
igYwlav; vlqef;a&
rif;uawmY armfawmfqdkifu,fav;wpfpD;
pkefqefvdkY yJcl;eJYyk*H pkefcsnfqefcsnf
rif; yef;awGbmawG qufcJY&JYvm;
Mount ykyÜm;&JY ae0ifcsdefawG
odyfvSwmyJuG,f/
awmifqDrSmrdk;awGndKY&if
armifzDvm&,f igYudkyJcl;udkydkYyguG,f
a&xJjrdKYuav;u nDav; armifoufjidrf&,f
rif;&JY u&if&Gmu bk&m;ausmif;rSm
acgif;avmif;oHvnf; rMum;&MumjyD
rif;nDrav;eJY orD;av;a&m aeaumif;&JUvm;uGm
aomfubk&m;MuD;vnf; zl;csifw,f
0g;c,frbk&m;MuD;eJYjyefravmYjrpfrSm a&csdK;csifw,f
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

91

vrkoD;av;eJY awmt&ufav;udkvnf;
qE´jyif;jyif;½Sdw,f
jyefravmYjrpf&JY ae0ifcsdefav;udk &Ipm;csifw,f
a,musfm;csif;tcspfeJY
a,mufsm;csif;tcspf&dScJYw,fqdk&if
tJ'DAdkif;&yfpfydk;udk igt&ifawGY&dSwmyguG,f/
rHk&Gmuwifudkudka&
rif; t&ifvdktcspfawG igYtay: &dSao;&JYvm;
igvmcJYr,fuG,f/
rHk&Gmu tnmom;av; rif;aqGESpfa&
rif;&JY qlyg½kzfum;av;eJY igYudk
rHka½G;aMu;rHkudk ydkYyguG,f
tJ'DrSm q&mBuD;rdIif;&JY awmfvSefuAsmawG &dSw,fuGJY
awmfvSefuAsmq&mMuD;
awmfvSefaomuAsmawG tyGifYqef;
acsmif;eHab;rSm atmifcsrf;omZD;oD;av;bmav;
pm;&if;
olrsm;raumif;aMumif; udk,fYraumif;aMumif;
urÇmBuD;raumif;aMumif;awG ajymMuwmaygYuGm/
teD;pcef;u nDav; jrwfay:OD;a&
rif;&JY *E¨rmyef;jcHxJrSm *pfwmwpfvHk;eJY
rm,maumYpuD&JY uAsmawG½Gwf&if;
uAsmq&muG,fvGef&if
uAsmeJY uAsmeJY o&P*Hkwif&w,fqdkwm
igajymcJYw,fav
rif;aumif;aumif;rSwfrdrSmyg/
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

92

'kX0wDjrpfurf;eHab;u
MuGufezm;awmifMuD;&JY ae0ifcsdefu odyfvSwmyJuG,f
uifr&mrif;av; armifpdk;&JY
MuGufezm;awmifMuD;&JY ae0ifcsdefawGudk
rif;&JtvSqHk;&dkufcsufeJY &dkufcJYw,faemf
igaumif;aumif;rSwfrdygw,f
ae0ifcsdefwdrfawmufvdkY
ysdKaMumufygwJY 'DtcsdefqdkoDum
vSnf;,OfaMumYav;armif;vdkY
awmolrav;&JY &ifodrfYwkefoHrSm
wdkY&JY aomwm&kHrSm vGwfvyfjidrf;apcJYw,faemf/
udkoef;xGef; rHk½Gm rD;&xm;vrf;eHab;u
vufzufqdkif uaz;qdkifav;rSm
&JcJYbd tpOftvmeJY tvHvTifYxl
cifAsm;vufeufrcsao;bl;r[kwfvm;
usKyf *kPf,lwm
ukef;abmifolykef *VKefq&mpH
ik,ifAefx&GdKif;
twdkif;rodwJYwdkufyGJrSm cifAsm;yg0ifcJYw,faemf
Adkvfatmifausmf
tdk...[,f&Dwef
pD;tefyGufyGuf
oifYaoG;pufonf
acwfopfqDudk a&mf&nfEdkifapownf;/

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

93

rD;vdkylMuG igY&if0u
wocJYwJY igY&if0u wocJYwJY uAsm
tdk... *dsK;jzL&,f ulygYoHawG
vlYajr vSyapavmY
igY&if0u wocJYwJY uAsm
atmYZ0pf tusOf;pcef;u
nDoli,fcsif; wifat;MuL armifrdIif;vGifa&
cifAsm;&JYcspfol nDrav;cifrdk;ausmf
&GufaMuGawmtkyfeJY rdacsmif;&Jokóefav;u
apmifYaew,fav
cifAsm; vGrf;olYyef;acGcszdkY jynfudkvmcJYygOD;
ESvHk;eJYwnfaqmufcJY&wmu
acwf&,f urÇmMuD;&,fyg
'gayr,fY
urÇmMuD;u jym;ygw,fAsm/
yifv,fa&jyif tjrifYay oHk;aomif;ausmfu
nDav;rl;rl;&,f
rif;tEkynmarSmfawG atmifcJYjyDuGm
rif;yxrausmfawGvnf; &cJYjyDuG,f
oli,fcsif;rif;opf&,f &S,fvDxGm;&,f
uGsefawmfwdkYwpfawG *pfwmav;wpfvHk;eJY
uGsefawmfwdkYawG *pfwmwD; aw;qdkMur,fAsm
þtdrfawmfrSm aumif;jcif;r*FvmjynfYapownf;
þtdrfawmfrSm jidrfoufjcif;vnf; &dSygapaygY
aysmf&Gifjcif;vnf; &dSygapaygY/

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

94

awmiforeftif;u avnif;&,fu aqmf
tpfudkBuD; udkav;tif;0*kPf&nf&,f
armifaygufpnf ref;wuúodkvf&,f
tdkifAifaemY&,f
uGsefawmfwdkYwawG awmiforeftif;rSm
ig;aMumfeJY xrif;pm;Mur,f
jyD;&if
a[m'Dvdk aw;oDMur,fAsm
a[m'Dvdk aw;oDMur,fAsm
“igonf rSefaom pyspfEG,fyifjzpfonf
igYcrnf;awmfonf O,smOfrSL;jzpfzl;jyD;
toD;roD;aom tcuf½dSorSs ckwfrnfwnf;
toD;oD;aom tcufwdkYomwnfapawmfrlownf;”
oHk;BudrfoHk;cg qdkNyD;oumv ig;aMumfeJY tif;ab;rSm
xrif;aMumf avG;MuwmaygYAsm/
oli,fcsif;okcrdefa&
oDcsif;&JU vay:u bD,mqdkifudkoGm;Mur,f
tJ'DrSm
awmt&uf ig;ykvif;
awmifqdwfom;ig;aumif
ig;uif? 'defcJ? MuufuifeJY
uAsmawG &Gwfzwfo&ZÑm,fMur,f
aysmfw,fAsm

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

95

nDrav;rrjrifY&,f armifESrvdk aeMur,fuG,f
ac:r,faemf
tpfudkeJYnDrawGudk ac:r,f
nDeJYnDrawGudkac:r,f
tm;vHk;yJaysmfMur,f
jidrf;csrf;a&; jidrf;csrf;a&;yGJawmf
ac:r,f ac:r,f aysmfr,f aysmfr,f
tm;vHk;yJ aysmfMur,f
jidrf;csrf;a&; jidrf;csrf;a&;yGJawmf
tpfudkwdkYa& t&yfuwdkYa&
bk&m;'umygcifAsm;
oem;rnSmwmrvkyfvdkufygeJY
bk&m;'umygcifAsm;
'ku©dweJY emwm&SnfygcifAsm;
roem;rnSmrwm rvkyfvdkufygeJY
awmifpG,f aeuG,f&ifuG,f
a½T"m;qGJum owfr,fwJY
wu,fygyJAsm vlYb0MuD; tMuD;tus,frkef;p&m
usKyfjzifY tvGefrkef;oAsm
tm*sef;qdkwJY oGm;tazG;om;eJY
igYuav;av;a&
rif;[mav ewfom;av;ygyJuG,f
nDrav;rrjrifYa&
rjrJwJY tedpöw&m;ujrJvGef;
wdkYawG &IHvGef;vSw,fuG,f
nDrav;rrjrifYa&
av;pm;ygw,f *kPf,lygw,f/

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

96

(c)
igzGJYqdkpygoDwJYuAsmav;awGom oDqdkyg
okcpmaywdkufu nDav;armifoD[a&
rif;[m auo&mZmyg
igYuAsmav;awGudk rQa0cHpm;Muyg
jrdKYopfu wdk;aESmifrdk;av;&,f
armifpGrf;om&,f
aumif;[ef
rdk;aomufMu,f&,f
igwdkYawG tdrfa&SYrif;xef;awmrSm
A,maMumfpm;oHk;&if ab;b,mawG ausmf&rSmaygY
emusifwm'Pf&maygY
'Pf&mqdkwm uAsm
'Pf&mqdkwm opömw&m;
'Pf&mqdkwm cspfjcif;arwåm
avmuMuD;udkawmY
Oayu©ma&ydkifeufxJrSm
ig;ref;pmauGs;wmaygY
t0dZÆmqdkwm tifrwef cGeftm;&dSav&JY
olwdkYwpfawG qmavmifaeMujyD/
yJcl;jra&
jruav;&JY
½Id;jyjyw,fvdkY rjzpfacsbl;
ysdK;csorQ[mvnf;
ydk;usvdkYaeacsaygY
ydk;usvdkYaeacsaygY
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

97

uAsm 'DvefaomrwfwdkY
uefrfwmuavmYwdkY
q,fA,f,myvyfwdkY
wuf'f[lcsfwdkY
a[;rwfa&SeDwdkY
atmf'ifwdkY rif;uvnf;uGm
a,musfm;{uefppfppf jzpfvsufom;eJYrsm;
zifav;&w,f
*seftHY'if;Am;a&
rif;&JY cspfaomjrpfMuD;a&m
usef;usef;rmrmyJr[kwfvm;
iguawmY qDrD;cGufavmuf&dSwJY
wdkif;i,fuav;u uAsmq&myg
ol&owådMuD;rm;vSpGm
aeylavylrSm ajcylcH&if;
txl;xl;qef;jym;aom uAsmawGpyfvdkYaygY
Aif;epfjrdKYom; ukefonfMuD;a&
rif;eJYig jyZmwfoGm;MunfYMuwmaygY/
ysOf;rem;om; uAsmq&mav; udkoufa&
0DvsHvif;a&
cifAsm;pmawGzwfzdkY
usKyf jynfudkvmOD;r,f
usaemfYudk ESpftpdwfavmuf
axmufyHYcJYwJY cifAsm;udk
usKyf&JYjruRef;wuúoDvmMuD;vnf;
ESpf&Spfq,f
t&G,fa&mufcJYygjyDAsm/
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

98

nDrav;
rrjrifYa& armifESrvdkaeMur,f
tEkynmiSufuav; ysHawmYr,f
rysHEdkifao; nDrav;
nDrav;&,f
awmyGJav;rSm aqG;&OD;r,f
&SifOwårausmf a½Tpufawmfawmvm;
&wkbk&if ewfoQifaemif jynfe0a';
ESrvufavQmY
aeavawmY[k
cspfcGifYrMuHK
ndSK;i,f&HkrQ
iSufoGifyHsMuGrwwfaomfwJY
rjyefEdkifao;
nDrav;&,f
rjyefEdkifao;
awmyGJav;rSm
aqG;&OD;r,fuG,f
yvdyfjrdKY ajrGbk&m;yGJrSm
(jrdwf) bdwfjrdKYnDi,fuAsmq&mav;
&Jbkef;acgifa&
rif;uawmY bdwftusqHk;
rMumrwifrSmawmY
rMumcifrSmawmY
rif;&JYr*Fvmzdwfpm&,f
igzwf&rSmyguGm/

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

99

om;av;udk tm;ay;ygOD;uG,f
uefYvefYumMuD;&,f aeygOD;
uvdkY aumif;aewkef;
½Gmpm;MuD;&,f wD;vdkufygOD;
qdkvdkYaumif;aewkef;
rdk;rdk;cspfvdkYvm;
rdk;rdk;vSvdkYvm;
nDav;rdk; usef;rmygap...
arwåmjzifY armifacsmEG,f .../
at;uGm rif;wdkYnDtpfudkeJY at;apwDbk&m;yGJrSm ucJYwmawGa&m?
a&Tpnf;cHkbk&m;yGJrSm ucJYwmawGa&m jyefvnfvGrf;armrdygw,f/
rif;wdkYvnf; aumif;cJYygw,f? igvnf;aumif;cJYygw,f/
ckvdk uGJuGmae&wmvnf; MumvSjyDaygYaemf/ cspfjcif;arwåmawG
pD;vsufomwnf;yguGm/ aw;oDiSufawG oDjrJyguG,f/
yef;opfav;awG opfjrJyguG,f/ yef;qdkwm aMuGwmuudku
yGifYjcif;yg/ One flower flow down flower blossom
aygYav/yef;awG yef;awG t&rf; t&rf;yJ yGifYaeMuw,f
nDrav;rrjrifY&,f/ tdrfrSm ausmif;rSm vrf;rSm nDrav;emrnfeJY
t&rf; t&rf;udk yGifYaeMuw,fuG,f/ udk,fYtonf;udk
tmx&maqmif;½dkufMunfYawmY yef;yGifYav;emrnfu
nDrav;rrjrifYwJY ... /
armifacsmEG,f
(acwå-pdwåZaq;&Hk)
( [efopfr*¾Zif; ? 2002 atmufwdkbm )

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

100

igaeaumif;oGm;NyDyef;uav;a&
aNrmufNyefav woGifoGifrSm
oZif&eHUawGwoif;oif;eJY
a[rEÅ &moD[m urÇmaNrudk qdkufuyfvdkY
ig t&kPfaomufvdkY vGwfaNrmufcJYNyD
ppfaNy;'ku©onfvdkvJ xrif;rpm;Edkifyg
"g;udkzGifYxm;rnf
acG;aNcykykay:rSm b0udk rwnfaqmufvdkyg
okwdom,moHeJY eHeufcif;iSufuav;awG
igYudkBudKvifYNyD
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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

101

jzpfcJYw,f
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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

102

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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

103

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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

104

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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

105

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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

106

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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

107

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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

108

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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

109

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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

110

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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

111

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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

112

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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

113

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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

114

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pdwftdkufaew,f/

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

115

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armifacsmEG,f

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

116

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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

117

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olqif;&Jom; jzpfcJY&Sm&JY/
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

118

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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

119

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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

120

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(rdarG;wdkif; zarG;wdkif;)
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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

121

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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

122

b0uvnf;
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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

144

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wdkYawG
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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

145

igwdkYawG
a0;cJYMu&w,f
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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

146

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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

147

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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

148

(2)
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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

149

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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

150

r[kwfygbl;uG,fh
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r[kwfbl;a[h ... r[kwfbl;
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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

151

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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

152

Opöm"eawGeJU
b0udk rykyfodk;ygapeJUuG,fh
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uav;awGaomufwJh a&rSm
aiGawGaMu;awGrygapeJU
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ydk;awGb,favmufukefukef
armifyHkapmif;wwf&r,f/

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

153

(6)
tjrwfqHk;w&m;rsm;
uyfoHk;yg;ausmf&Hkwifr[kwf
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armifacsmEG,fudk
csdKNrdefzG,ftcsdefrsm;taMumif;
tdyfrufcGifh ay;awmfrlyg/
20 &mpk aemufqHk;ywfrSm
EdkifiHausmfrif;orD;wpfa,mufeJU
vufxyf&rSmjzpfygw,f/
armifacsmEG,f
1977 wGifa&;onf
(yifv,fr*¾Zif; trSwf 2? 1993 azazmf0g&D)

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

154

&xm;
tjrJwrf; aemufusol em&DtdkBuD;vdkU
tjrJwrf; aemufusaeol em&DtdkBuD;udk wifaqmifum
&xm;xGufcJhjyD/
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xm;cJh?
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csnfrQifeJU &ufxm;wJh tr&yl&jrdKUudk
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awmiforeftif;udk
xm;cJh?
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

155

om;ysufusol oajywef;udk
xm;cJh?
ppfyifBuD;udkif;jyD; wHwm;jzpfaewmudk
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&xm;oGm;rSmu
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tJonfrSmu
ae[mvJ rsufjzLvefvdkU?
tJonfrSmu
wcsKdUjrpfawG[mvnf;
tem;,lvdkUaygh/
tJonfrSmu
awmifcdk;eJUwdrfawG
vifcef;r,m;cef; taetxdkifawGuvnf; &Sd?
tJonfrSmu
v[mjyif
awmifwef;eJUjrLawG
vlvdkolvdk taetxdkifawGuvnf;&Sd?
tJonfrSmu
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tckawmh rkqdk;rav;b0a&muf&ol
urÇmausmf vD'dkvrf;rvnf;&Sd?
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

156

tJonfrSmu
urÇmhajr &ifbwfxJu tonf;ESvHk;[m
tpdrf;a&mif taoG;tom;&Sd
ocif&Sm ocif&Sm;wJh &wemawG bmawGjzpf
tJonf &wemawGu
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(urÇmeJUvlom;eJUaygh)
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avsmceJ?
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qifawGvdk cGeftm;Av jynfh0Muwmvnf;
&Sdoaygh?
tJonfrSm
avmu"Hw&m;uvnf; *syfckwfykqdk;,ufaeordkU
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&xm;u
tJonfudk pGJvrf;w,faygh?
&xm;u
tJonfrSm aysmfw,faygh?

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

157

&xm;&ifacgif;xJ
b,fvdk &moDOwk a&mufaeovJ
vlawG vlawG
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apmaeMu
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tJonfvli,fu jzm;a,mif;cJhvdkUrdkU
q&m0efb0 arhcJh&ol
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pum;wazmifazmifvnf; yg&Sd?
jrdKUwpfjrdKUvHk;
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q,fb0ajymif;vJ
opömr&Edkifolvnf;yg½Sd
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

158

t&ufraomufvkduf&wJh
jrdKUwpfjrdKUvnf;yg&Sd?
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trSefwu,f
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r&Sdolvnf;yg&Sd
raumif;rajymcsifayr,fh
ajymvdkufrdyg&JU
oHk;vifajymif;wJh rdef;rvnf;yg&Sd?
oHk;ausmif;ajymif;wJh &[ef;vnf; yg&Sdoaygh/
b,fawm0if0if
b,fawmifwufwuf
ta&mifrajymif;bl;qdkwJh
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tEkynm&NyDvdkU
b0ifajrmufaewJholvnf;yg&Sd
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

159

aMu;pm;b0rSm El0JaeoleJU
olU&JUudk,feHUvnf;yg&Sd
rkqdk;jcHKu r,m;eJU uGJaeolvnf;yg&Sd
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yg&SdcJhw,faygh
&xm;vmcJhjyD/
a&epfaewJh ausmufcJ&JU
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cg;awmif;usKduf jyKwfuswJh
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jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

160

yifv,fudkvJ
o,faqmifvmcJh&
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olUacgif;ay:u
udavomwdrfwdkufawGudkvnf;
wifaqmifvmcJh&
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

161

&xm;[m
olUatmufu
odrfi,fpdwfarG;wJh acsmif;aygufpawGudkvnf;
wifaqmifvmcJh&
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wifaqmifvmcJh&
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onfvdkeJU
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tjrJpdrf;awmeJU &Gufa<uawm
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opfckwform; vufpGrf;jy
awmajymifajymifawG
aygifrkefUrD;uifxm;ovdk
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

162

jrdKUawG
rkefUavayGvdk &GmawG
&xm;[m
bPfpma&;wpfa,muf aiGawGa&wGufovdk
wpfjrdKUjyD;wpfjrdKU a&wGuf
wpfawmifjyD;wpfawmif a&wGuf
tm;vHk;udk a&wGuf
&xm;c&D;qufcJhw,faygh/
onfvdkeJU
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tyfezm;aygufuav;wpfaygufrSm
rsufESmopfjyD;wJhaemuf
a&SUc&D;qufr,fvdkU
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jrdKUwpfjrdKU
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&xm;ay: &xm;wifcJh&wmudkyJ
&xm;
pdwfysufcJhw,f
&xm;vmcJYNyD/ /
armifacsmEG,f (1990)
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

163

aq;ppfcHwJhn
n
aemufb0rsm;pGm;rSm
nrjzpfawmhwm aocsmaMumif;
oufaojyvkdufwJh n
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cE¨mukd,fwpf0ufu
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wjcm; cE¨mukd,fwpfcku
olYrdef;rqD oGm;tdyfwJhnaygh/
vlawG
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wpfpuúefY
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wpfpuúefYu vGJ&ifaygh
ukd,fvkd&ma&mufaewJh wpfpuúefYawGrsm;vSaygh /
pD;u&ufav; wpfvdyfavmufukd
wpfnvkH; apmifhpm;cJh&ygw,f/

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

164

oHNydKifaw;awG a&pD;tm;aumif;wJh naygh
'Dnukd jzwf&awmh
b0qkdwm vGrf;zdkYtm;aumif;cJhwmaygh /
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ukd,fhESvkH;om;ukd rD;NrdKufcJhygw,f tar
b,fol[m
ukd,fhESvkH;om;ukd,f rD;NrdKufcJhNyD;
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uRefawmfuawmh
&J&ifhayghyg;pGmaygh tar
'DnrSmrS
uRefawmfu a&'D,kdowådawGMuGwJhn jzpfvkdYaygh /
vnfvSD;cH& ajrGwpfaumifvkd
em&DoHacsmif;acgufoHawG
tpGrf;ukef wGefYvdrfvkdY
jrifcJh&zl;NyD
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wpfpufrS
t&omcH&ufp&m raumif;ygbl;
rpmemwwf&ifvnf odMuygap
od&ifyJ
tarhom;u NyD;ygNyDwJh /
rdrdukd,frS eH½kd;rsm;
wHwm;tjzpf cif;usif;
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armifacsmEG,f
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

165

ighukd usm;wHqdyfbD,m rwkdufwJhaeYu
ajym&&if wpfb0vkH;ukefr,f
olYwpfukd,fvkH;rSm
ol0wfvmwJh tuÐsyJaumif;w,f
½IarQmfcif;awGygvkdYrkdY ...
olYvuf olYajc olYcE¨m olYpdwf"mwfawGuawmh
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15 rdepfNidrf
pwkw¬ .. armifpdrf;acgif
uJ .. ½kd;jywfawmatmifcuf 15 rdepfNidrf
uJ .. tm;vkH; oufomEdkifygNyD/
BudKufovdkaeEdkifygw,f
BudKufovdkaygY/
a½S;OD;pGm ]a&mbif[k} u ol&JrsufESmzkH;udk pGyfvdkufw,f
tm;vkH;rsufESmzkH;awG pGyfvdkufMu&JU
tm;vkH; wapäawG? ol&JawG? bDvl;awG? zkwf NydwåmawG
rSifpmawG jzpfoGm;Mu&JU/
a[mcef;BuD;wpfcef;vkH; rD;cdk;awG vIdiftlvm&JU
tm;vkH; pD;u&ufawGaomufMu
bD,mawG? 0dkifawG? 0DpuDawG aomufMueJY
pum;awG wajzmif;ajzmif;xatmif ajymMuawmY&JU
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

210

tm;vkH; rD;awG rSdwfvdkufMu
tm;vkH; uMur,f
tm;vkH; tm;vkH;
pdwfvGwfvyf udk,fvGwfvyf
axmifYrD; rD;av;awGvif;vm
tpdrf; teD tjym t0g
a[Y .. toHwpfoH ay:vm
vlYb0qdkwm avxJu za,mif;wdkifrD;av;yg
tm;vkH; Candle in the Wind yJ
'gyJ .. 'gyJ .. 'gyJ
tm;vkH; za,mif;wdkifrD;awG xGef;ndSMu
oDcsif;qdkMur,f (oHNydKif)/
(3)
ppftwGif;u uGJoGm;wJY
oli,fcsif; nDtpfudkwpfawG jyefawGYwJYaeY
a[Y .. ppfoDcsif;awGqdkMu
csDwufMur,f .. urÇmopfqD
a[m ..
opfukvm;tkwf[DoHawG jrif;[DoHawG
armfawmfum;oHawG &[wf,mOfoHawG ..
uAsmq&mawG vmMuNyDa[Y
toHawGMum;ae&NyD
jcaoFYa[mufoHawG usm;[def;oHawG qifESmrIwfoHawG
uvJeufrIwfoHawG a0qmvdkY
igwdkY uAsmq&mawG vmukefMuNyDa[Y
BudKqdkvdkufMu&atmif

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211

a[m .. Munf0if;awm? rdkCf;aZmf? aiG,HOD;
rdk;a0;? udka½G;? 0if;jrifY? cufxefydkif;pdk;? aZmf0if;wifY? urÇmyk
pwD;vf tp½Sdaom
vli,fuAsmq&mawG wNyHKwrBuD;[m
a[mcef;wGif; 0ifa&mufvmMu
awGYqkHMuonfESifY wpfNydKifeuf
a[; .. a[; .. a[; .. toHawG
qlnHpGm wpfNydKifwnf; xGufvmMu&JU
tkwfatmfaomif;wif;ygyJ
ujAKef;u½kef;ygyJ
a[m .. atmfMujyefNyD
a[Y rufqdkydkaw;eD;,m;uvmwm
a[Y igvnf; rufqdkuyJ
[dkrSm rif;eJY igeJY rawGYcJYwmwpfckyJ
a[Y igvnf; rufqdkydkaw;eD;,m;ppfajrjyifrSm
uscJYwmyJuG
tJ'DrSm vljzpfcJYwmyJ
ckaoNyD; ck vl0ifpm;jyefjzpfwm
wefygw,f
t&m&mjzpfysufaewm wefygw,fuGm
a[Y igu [dkEdkvlvlu vmwm
igeJY twlwlaygYuGm
a[Y igvnf;ygw,fuG
a[; .. a[; .. a[;a[;
awGYukefMujyDuGm/

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212

(4)
a[Y igu tDwvDuvmwm
tDwvDpyspfNcHuvmwm
pyspf0dkifawGygw,f
&JabmfawGtm;vkH;twGufyJ
wdkYawGtm;vkH;u ppftwGif;u uGJoGm;wJY
oli,fcsif; nDtpfudkwpfawG
wpfa,mufeJY wpfa,muf ypfcsvdkYr&bl;
ajymjy&ifawmYvnf; vGrf;p&mBuD;uGm
[m; .. [m; .. [m; [m;
uJ ckawGYNyDyJ
bmvkyfMurvJ
igodwmuawmY
avmuBuD;rSm t&ufuvGJNyD;
bmrS aysmfp&maumif;wm r½Sdbl;
a[Y aomufypfMu aomufypfMu
a[YaumifawG igu a[mfvefu vmwm
igYrSm EdkYqDawGygw,f aomufMu
igwdkYawG EdkYiwfcJYMuw,f r[kwfvm;
azmufom aomufMu
a&mufcsif&m a&mufMuyap
wdkYawG aeylcJYw,f
'gaMumifYyJ wdkYawGaerylbl;aygY
a[Y igu 'g*sDvifu vmwm/
a[Y igu yef*syfu vmwm/

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

213

(5)
bmvJ b0qdkwm bmvJ
pl;prf;aep&mrvdkbl;
ig[m pyspfNcHtvkyform;av;
'g 0rf;enf;p&mvm;
ig .. cspfoleJYawGYcsifwJYtcg
igawGY&w,f
igaysmfcsif&if aysmf&w,f
igu aeaysmf aoaysmform;yJ
ppftwGif;u oli,fcsif;awG
aygifrkefYuav; wpfa,mufwpf0uf
a&bl;av; wpfa,mufwpf0uf
aq;vdyfav; wpfa,mufwpf0uf
aorif;usnfqHawG wazsmufazsmufatmufrSm
wdkYawG avQmufcJYwm
bmjzpfvmvJ
bmrSrxl;qef;bl;
aeMu aoMuygyJuGm
wdkYawG .. jyefrqkHjzpfMubl;xifwm
ck jyefqkHMuw,f
'gaumif;w,f
'g taumif;qkH;qkvmbfyJ
'gaumif;w,f
at; .. aumif;w,f

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214

'gayr,fY igwdkYvnf;ajymyg&apOD;
igu uGif;pvefrSm EGm;NcHydkif½Sif
ig MopaMw;vs urf;ajcwpfae&mrSm uscJYwm
tJ'DrSm vloGm;jzpf
EGm;awGarG;
EdkYpm;EGm;awGaygY
igYrSm
EGm;EdkYawG ygw,f
tm;vkH;aomufypfMu
'g[m ewfqdk;&JU 0dkifyJ
EGm;EdkY[m ewfqdk;&JU0dkifyJ
ewfqdk;&JU 0dkifawGudk igwdkYyJ aomufMu&JU/
(6)
aomufEdkifMuwm
uAsmq&mqdkwm
ewfqdk;0dkifawG aomufwJYolawG
txufwef;pm;awG
'ku©eJY 'Pf&mawG[m
igwdkY&JU ½IarQmfcif;awGyJuG
igwdkYawG tvSMunfYaeusawGyJ
[kwfw,f .. [kwfw,f
[kwfw,f .. [kwfw,f
[kwfw,f .. [kwfw,f
tm;vkH; 0dkif;atmfMu
tm;vkH;aysmfoGm;MuNyD

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

215

bmeJYwlovJqdkwm
Oyrmuvnf; cyf½Sm;½Sm;ygyJ
*&if; zmvl'gqdkifu a&cJwkH;BuD;vdk
aysmfvdkY NyJvdkY
atmfvdkY [pfvdkY
cef;vkH;jynfY atmfoHawG
aysmfp&mBuD;
(ppftwGif;uuGJoGm;wJY oli,fcsif;nDtpfudkawG
cspfjcif;eJY tNrJyJ nDnmMuap)
aw;oHazmufNyD; xGufvm
0dkifazmufovdk aw;oHazmufNyD;xGufvm
tm;vkH; oDqdkMu
bmeJYwlovJqdkawmY
wDaumifawG taxG;vdkufBuD; ½IyfaxG;ovdkrsdK;
½IyfaxG;aysmf½TifMu
aw;oH cP&yftoGm;
a[Y .. igwdkYu aemfref'DrSm uscJYwmuG
rif;wdkYeJYuGJuGmNyD; aemfref'DrSm
igwdkY aoG;tvl;vl;eJY ususef&pfcJYwm/
(7)
0rf;renf;bl;
rsuf&nfrusbl;
b,ft&mrS tvum;r&bl;
'Pf&mawGvnf; tvum;r&bl;
'ku©awGvnf; tvum;r&bl;
b,ft&mrS tvum;r&bl;
b,ft&mrS tvum;r&bl;
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

216

'g igY oDtdk&DyJ
ropfvm; ..
opf½kHwifrubl; vSaew,f/
a[Y igu ykvJqdyfurf;rSm uscJYwm
MunfYygvm;? igYoGm;awG acgaewm
ig *syefuRef;pkwpfpkrSm vljzpfNyD;
[dkufuk uAsmawGbmawG a&;aewm
ckrS oli,fcsif; nDtpfudkawGeJY
awGY&atmif a&mufvmwm
ppftwGif;u oli,fcsif; nDtpfudkwpfawG
cspfjcif;eJY nDnmap ..
cspfjcif;eJY nDnmap ..
olYtoHwdwfoGm;? olYaoG; olcsdefMunfYae
aemufxyf toHay:vmjyef
toHMoBuD;eJY
a[Y igu ppfawmif;jrpf0Srf;rSm uscJYwmuG
ck ocGm;oD;awGygw,f
pm;ypfMu .. igu ocGm;cif;ydkif½Sif
a[Y .. igu½dk;r ½dk;prfrSm uscJYwm
NrdKUr[kwfbl;
a[Yaumif cufxef
rif; rrSwfrdbl;vm;
&efolY usnfqH wzGm;zGm;Mum;rSm
igwdkYwpfawG a½SUwufcJYMuwmav/

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

217

(8 )
a[Y igu [efa*&D ppfrsufESmu
AkH;eif;rdwm wpfppDyJ udk,fYvla&
tJ'Duae vljyefjzpfNyD;
yg&D awm&yfydkif;av;rSm aecJY&wmaygY
t&ufbm;u pm;yGJxdk;av;aygY
tJ'DuaerS 'Da&mufcJY&wm
wpfa,mufu xatmfw,f
tm;vkH; cPNidrfay;Muyg
uAsmq&mawGvmaeMuNyD
opfukvm;tkyfoHawG Mum;&w,f
jrif;[DoHawGMum;&w,f
usm;opfoHawG ..
jcaoFYa[mufoHawG Mum;ae&w,f
a[m .. awmacG;tloHawG Mum;&w,f
yifv,fvIdif;½dkufoHawG Mum;&w,f
jcaoFYa[mufoHuawmY
'g aeaoG;OD; ac: tm&yfzufwD;yJ jzpfrSm
'DaumifBuD; jcaoFYeJY wax&mwnf;wlatmif
a[mufwwfw,f
a[m .. avSavSmfoHawG Mum;&jyefNyD
'g u'kHwifpdk;yJ jzpfrSm
a[m ajrGwGefoHawG Mum;&jyefNyD
'g ajrGBuD; ac: aZmf0if;wifYyJ jzpfrSm
rvGJygbl;/

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218

(9)
a[m wu,f0ifvmawmYvnf;
oif;tkyfq&m t0wftpm;BuD;0wfvdkY
],laum} qdkwJY aumifBuD;&,f
tmz&duAkHudk xkESufum
qefvnf;r[kwf ajymif;vnf;r[kwf
qefajymif;&,f
[mMuL&DiaysmY ac: Munf0if;NrdKU&,f
ig;oavmuf ESpfaumif yl;csnfxm;wJYtNyHK;eJY
tcef;us,fBuD;xJ tm;vkH;vnf;a&mufa&m
qefajymif;&JU tmz&duAkHoH Mum;&awmYwmyJ
wcef;vkH;
tmz&duAkHoHawG vTrf;rdk;oGm;
oli,fcsif;nDtpfudkwpfawG
½dk;a[; nmoHawG
AkHoHtvdkuf vdkufuMu
tcef;BuD; 0uf0ufuGJrQ
tawmfuvdkYarmawmY
tm;vkH;ydkifoDcsif;av;udk
wpfa,mufrusefoDqdkMu
]ppftwGif;u uGJoGm;wJY
oli,fcsif;nDtpfudkwpfawG
cspfjcif;eJY nDnmMuap?
ppftwGif;u uGJoGm;wJY
oli,fcsif;nDtpfudkwpfawG
cspfjcif;eJY nDnmMuap}/

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

219

(10)
xdkoDcsif;udk av;BudrfoHNydKifoDqdkNyD;
a[Y a[Y oli,fcsif;nDtpfudkwpfawG
Munf0if;NrdKU wdkYrSm 0ufaygif ESpfaygifygw,f
bmbDusL;rD;zdk zdkMu&atmif
NyD;&if
0ufaygif uifMu&atmif
NyD;&if
'DrSm 0dkifawG trsm;BuD;½Sdw,f
0ufaygifeJY 0dkifeJY aomufMuwmaygY
a[; .. wJY
toHBuD; wpfpkwpfcJwnf;xGuf
bmbDusL;rD;zdk zdkvdkufMuw,f
rD;ykHBuD;ab;rSm
Munf0if;NrdKUu
olu yJcl;½dk;rrSm uscJYwmwJY
,laumBuD;u
olvnf; yJcl;½dk;rrSmyJwJY
ajrGBuD; ac: aZmf0if;wifYu ppfawmif;jrpf0Srf;rSm
oifBuD; ac: pmoifBuD;uawmY
tifzmwdkufyGJrSm
tJ'DrSm vljzpfwm
'g*sDvifu vufzufcif;xJrSm aeaeNyD;rS
ckrS 'Dudka&mufvm&wmwJY
NyD;awmY oluajymao;w,f
urÇmBuD;[m jym;w,fwJY
a[m .. azmfa0;&,f
0wf½kHteDBuD;0wfNyD; azmfa0;0ifvm
tm;vkH; 15 rdepf NidrfoufpGm tav;jyKMu/

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

220

(11)
igwdkY oli,fcsif;awG jyefqkHzdkYqdkwm
b0toD;oD; wdkif;jynftoD;oD;u vmMu&wm
'gtwGuf igwdkYawG pdwfrysufcJYMubl;
igwdkYrSm
ewfawGawmif rjrifEdkifwJY
cGeftm;awGtjynfY½Sdw,f
uAsmq&m[m
awmif0ef½kd;pGef;vnf; jzpfw,f
uAsmq&m[m
Owå&,mOfpGef;vnf; jzpfw,f
uAsmq&m[m
{0&ufawmifvnf; jzpfw,f
uAsmq&m[m
ajr0yfiSufuav;vdkvnf; aewwfw,f
uAsmq&m[m
owåKwGif; wl;olvnf; jzpfw,f
uAsmq&m[m
Mu,fuav;awGvdkvnf; rSdwfwkwfrSdwfwkwf aewwfw,f
uAsmq&m[m
ppfrkef;olvnf; jzpfw,f
a0[ifrSm pmr&DiSufjzpfNyD;
ajrjyifrSm auo&mZmvnf; jzpfw,f
a&jyifrSm e*g;jzpfw,f
uAsmq&m[m
a&wGufr&wJY emrfawGjzpfw,f
rjrifEdkifwJY pGrf;tif½SdolawGjzpfw,f
vufckwfoHawG wpfcef;vkH;
tkef;tkef;uRufuRufqlnHoGm;/

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

221

(12)
0ufaygifeJY 0dkifawG tm;vkH;aomuf
qdkcsifwJYoDcsif;awG toHeufBuD;awGeJY qdkMu
BudK;wef;qGJNyD; [dkbufonfbuf cdkpD;Mu
uif;rD;aumufaxmifNyD; vrf;avQmufol avQmufMu
uRrf;xdk;olawGuvnf; a½SYuRrf; aemufuRrf;awG xdk;Mu
qefajymif;u tmz&duAkHudkESufvdkufawmY
tm;vkH; NrdKifoGm;NyD; uMujyefNyD
AkHoHuvnf; r&yfrem;udk wD;vdkY
tm;vkH;uvnf; r&yfrem;udk uMuvdkY
aysmfp&mBuD;yg
tcef;us,fBuD;xJrSm
uAsmq&mawGcsnf;yJ
uAsmq&m r[kwfwm wpfa,mufrS r½Sdbl;
a[; ..
uAsmq&mawGuG
urÇmBuD;udk rsufjcnfrysuf apmifYMunfYaewm
NyD;&if urÇmBuD;udk tuÐscsKyf0wfr,f
wpfa,mufwpfcGef;pD atmf[pfMu
tm;vkH;vnf; rl;ukefMuaygY
'gayr,fY
wpfa,mufrS owdrvpfMuygbl;
a[m .. aemufqkH; 0ifvm a&mufvmwmu
a&mfAif[k ac: odef;Zuf
olYrsufESmu vif;weJYwlw,f
olYuAsmuvnf; vif;w&JU tw¬KyÜwådwJY/

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

222

(13)
'DaumifBuD;0ifrl;
tmz&duAkHoHeJYuckef
atmfcsifwmawG atmf[pf
cPaeawmY AkHoH&yfoGm;
tJ'DrSm atmifcsdrfYtoHBuD;xGufvm
]a[Y .. uAsmq&mqdkwm igwpfa,mufwnf;yJ ½Sd&r,f}
atmifcsdrfYMuD;u uAsmq&mawGudk aoewfeJYypfcsvdkufawmY
tm;vkH;
tdkufwiftrsdK;rsdK;eJY vJusoGm;Mu
(olypfwmu a&aoewfeJY ypfwm)
cPaeawmY tm;vkH; w[m;[m;&,fNyD; xvmMu
uAsmq&mqdkwm b,fawmYrS raobl;
odxm; ..
raoaq;jrpf½Sdw,f
r&yfem;wJY jrpfawGf½Sdw,f
tJ'DvdkeJY
tcef;us,fBuD;xJu xGufzdkYjyifawmY
tcef;BuD;[m y'kr®mMumzufBuD;vdk
tvdkvdkyGifYusoGm;
olwdkYtm;vkH;rSm
urÇmopf0wfpkHawG 0wfNyD;jzpfaewm
tHYMozG,f awGY½Sdvdkuf&w,f/
armifacsmEG,f
13 ZGef 2001

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

223

NyD;ygNyD
t&ufeJYpD;u&ufukd BudKufw,f
nDrav;rrjrifhukd cspfw,f
tvif;a&mifukd jrwfEkd;w,f
uAsmeJY opömxm;w,f
tqkH;t½IH;rsm;twGuf 0rf;renf;bl;
raMuuGJbl;
aemifwr&bl;
c&D;Murf; b0Murf;awGukd Muifemw,f
vJNydKaeolawGukd pmemw,f
'Pf&meJY&ufrsm;ukd vIdufvSJpGm awGYqkHw,f
,kHMunfcsuf&SdwJh ajcvSrf;awGukd &ifckefw,f
trSm;awGeJY aomufpm;rl;,pfw,f
ig;rQm;csdwfawGu tpmudk igr[wfbl;
ighb0 ig;pmukdom ig[wfcJhw,f / /
armifacsmEG,f

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

224

aus;Zl;rSwfwrf;
armifacsmEG,fuAsmawG tay: ca&ZDjzpfwJY uGsefawmf[m
tifwmeuf ay:rSm awGYorSs armifacsmEG,fuAsmawGudk vdkufvH
&SmazG&if;? awmfawmfrsm;rsm; pkaqmif;rdvmawmY wjcm;
armifacsmEG,f&JU uAsmy&dówfawGudk xkyfxkyf xnfxnf
jyefjyD;a0iSay;csifvdkY?
armifacsmEG,fuAsm
jyyGJav;wckudk
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf ay:rSm cif;usif;jzpfygw,f/ tJ'D tm;xkwf
rIav;&JU &v'f uawmY 'Dpmtkyfav;ygyJ/
'DxJrSmygwJY uAsmawGudk rlvazmfjyay;cJYMuaom r*¾Zif;rsm;?
jyefvnfazmfjyay;cJYaom vrf;tdkav; armf'efuAsm 0ufbfqdkuf?
a'gufwmvGPf;aqG bavmYcf? ae;wpf jrefrmzdk&rf? y'kr®mzdk&rf?
0dkifattrfpDzdk&rf? jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rfwdkYrS armifacsmEG,f fan
tm;vHk;udk txl; aus;Zl;wif½SdygaMumif; ajymMum;vdkygw,f/
armifacsmEG,f uAsmrsm;ESifY vdkufzufnDvSvdkY cGifYrawmif;bJ
,lokH;rdwJY yef;csDum;rsm;twGuf ]rkwfokef} udk aus;Zl;yg/

av;pm;pGmjzifY
armifydk
jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rf

225

armifacsmEG,f (1949 - 2002)
1949 - ckESpfrSm
a[monf urÇmavmuBuD;udk
zGJUqdk zwfMum;zdkY
tarYom;tdrfuae
urÇmYom;tdrfBuD;xJ a&mufcJYw,f/

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226

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