Politically

U.S.Religious Landscape Survey
Religious Affiliation: Diverse and Dynamic February 2008

About the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life
This report was produced by the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. The Forum delivers timely, impartial information on issues at the intersection of religion and public affairs. The Forum is a nonpartisan organization and does not take positions on policy debates. Based in Washington, D.C., the Forum is a project of the Pew Research Center, which is funded by the Pew Charitable Trusts. This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals: Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life Luis Lugo, Director Sandra Stencel, Deputy Director John Green, Senior Fellow in Religion and American Politics Gregory Smith, Research Fellow Dan Cox and Allison Pond, Research Associates Tracy Miller, Editor Elizabeth Podrebarac and Michelle Ralston, Research Assistants Pew Research Center Andrew Kohut, President Paul Taylor, Executive Vice President Scott Keeter, Director of Survey Research Visit religions.pewforum.org for the online presentation of the findings of the Landscape Survey. Pew Forum Web Publishing and Communications Mark O’Keefe, Oliver Read and Chris Ingraham, Web Publishing Erin O’Connell, Robbie Mills and Liga Plaveniece, Communications The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life 1615 L Street, NW, Suite 700 Washington, D.C. 20036-5610 Phone (202) 419-4550 Fax (202) 419-4559 www.pewforum.org © 2008 Pew Research Center
Cover images: Muslim girls reciting prayer, Ed Kashi/Corbis; Pentecostal church services, Robert Nickelsberg/Getty; Apache dance, Corbis; Rabbis convene in Brooklyn, Keith Bedford/Reuters/Corbis; White church, Nik Wheeler/Corbis; Buddha statue, Blaine Harrington III/Corbis; Man praying with flag, Yumiko Kinoshita/Getty

U.S. Religious Landscape Survey
Table of Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 1 Summary of Key Findings............................................................................................................. 5 Chapter 1: The Religious Composition of the United States ...................................................... 10 Chapter 2: Changes in Americans’ Religious Affiliation .............................................................. 22 Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups .......................................................... 36 Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables ............................................................................................... 72 Appendix 2: Classification of Protestant Denominations.......................................................... 101 Appendix 3: A Brief History of Religion and the U.S. Census................................................... 108 Appendix 4: Survey Methodology .............................................................................................113 Topline .......................................................................................................................................119

Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.S. Religious Landscape Survey

Introduction

F

rom the beginning of the Colonial period, religion has been a major factor in shaping the identity and values of the American people. Despite predictions that the United States would follow Europe’s path toward widespread secularization, the U.S. population remains highly religious in its beliefs and practices, and religion continues to play a prominent role in American public life. In recent decades, much high-quality research has been done on the religious makeup of the United States and on the way religion relates to politics and public life. Nevertheless, there are still major gaps in our knowledge of the American religious landscape. For instance, estimates of the size of religious communities in the U.S. – especially the smaller groups – are often contested, basic information on the religious beliefs and practices of many groups is lacking and there is little solid data on the demographic characteristics of many of America’s newer faiths. The increasing diversity of the American religious landscape, the remarkable dynamism of its faith communities and the pervasive presence of religion in the American public square all serve to underscore the pressing need for up-to-date, reliable information on these and other questions. Building on our own work as well as others’ previous research, the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life has conducted a pathbreaking survey on American religion that seeks to address many of these important issues. The U.S. Religious Landscape Survey includes reliable estimates of the size of religious groups in the United States as well as detailed information on their demographic characteristics, religious beliefs and practices, and basic social and political values. Based on interviews with a representative sample of more than 35,000 Americans, this study will serve as the baseline for similar large-scale surveys the Forum plans to conduct periodically.

There are good reasons for the relative absence of authoritative information on American religion. Most importantly, the U.S. Census Bureau has been prevented by law or administrative rules since the late 1950s from collecting even basic information on religious affiliation from the public in its decennial census or other demographic surveys (see Appendix 3), thus excluding religion from America’s largest and most authoritative survey instrument. Even when the Census Bureau collected such data, however, it was of very limited value for shedding light on Americans’ religious beliefs or practices. The absence of such official statistics is not unique to the U.S. (only about half of the world’s countries include questions on religion in their censuses), but the omission is particularly significant in the U.S. because it is among the most religiously dynamic and diverse countries in the world. Two types of studies have attempted to fill the void created by the absence of census data on American religion. One approach has been to aggregate statistics collected by individual religious bodies. Good examples of this include the Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches, produced by the National Council of Churches, and Religious Congregations & Membership in the United States, produced by the Glenmary Research Center. Some efforts – including the World Christian

Introduction

1

In fact. For instance. Religious Landscape Survey builds on the foundation of these previous studies by combining the advantages of more in-depth surveys based on small samples with the strengths of shorter surveys based on large samples. like most surveys. but they have their shortcomings. there is a sizeable number of Americans who are not affiliated with any particular religious group but who nonetheless have religious beliefs or engage in a variety of religious practices. Other surveys – such as the 2001 American Religious Identification Survey.S. We believe this combination of multiple questions on religion and large sample size fills an important niche by providing a new basis for enumerating and understanding the country’s increasingly diverse religious landscape.S. all surveys have their limitations. they ask a few questions about religion to a large sample of Americans. but they too have their limitations. In addition. usually ask relatively few questions on religion and thus do not delve deeply into the particular beliefs and practices of religious groups. A second approach to collecting data on American religion has been to measure religion through surveys rather than head counts. including religion. was conducted among people who are age 18 and older. These surveys are also a very valuable source of information on religion in the U. and numerous surveys conducted by The Gallup Organization – involves administering fairly lengthy interviews to a small number of Americans on a wide range of topics. These collections are quite valuable. On the one hand. We fully acknowledge these and seek to be transparent throughout our analysis. some do not share their counts publicly and others do not collect membership statistics at all. First. a significant percentage of Americans have only a vague denominational identification (that is. they tell us they are “just a Baptist” or “just a Methodist”). so it documents the religious affiliation of adults. No matter how rigorous. Large-sample surveys. These limitations are particularly apparent when it comes to providing definitive figures on membership in religious groups. however. Moreover. on the other hand. The U. ensuring a degree of ambiguity in any survey-based measure of affiliation.S. religious groups and denominations use different methods for counting members. relatively few groups collect information on the religious beliefs and practices of their members. most in-depth surveys interview relatively few people. conducted since 1972 by the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago. the Landscape Survey.. conducted by the Graduate Center of the City University of New York – go in the other direction. many Americans are simply unclear about the religious group to which they belong. Religious Landscape Survey Database – attempt to merge these denominational statistics with other data to produce broader estimates of the size of religious groups. and the Landscape Survey is no exception. as the Landscape Survey illustrates.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. making it difficult to analyze smaller religious groups.S. who represent only about three-quarters of the U. Introduction 2 . public. One kind of survey – such as the General Social Surveys. Moreover.

Latinos. This first report based on the Landscape Survey includes basic information on religious affiliation and provides estimates of the size of religious groups that are as small as three-tenths of 1 percent of the adult population.6%. adults – is not proficient in English. our previous research shows that Latinos who are able to complete interviews only in Spanish are more likely to be Catholic as compared with Latinos who are fluent in English. that even the Landscape Survey was not truly bilingual in nature. including immigration and changes in affiliation. see page 41.) Furthermore.S. Urdu and Farsi in addition to English. allowing for a more accurate representation of the religious affiliation of Latinos. Census figures that the number of people who are not fluent in English is much lower among non-Latino immigrants. For this reason. and so the Landscape Survey may understate the proportion of Catholics among U.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. we know from other Pew research that even these efforts fall short of a truly bilingual approach. This number is particularly high among Hispanic immigrants.5%. however. this still means that other religious groups that have a large proportion of foreign-born members will also likely be undercounted by the Landscape and other surveys.S. Since many surveys are conducted only in English. Much of this difference is likely attributable to the more complete representation of the Muslim community yielded by conducting the survey in multiple languages.. English-speaking interviewers made note of the households they encountered where there was a Spanish-language barrier. Religious Landscape Survey Another limitation is related to the relatively high number of foreign-born individuals in the U. nativity. For example. who constitute nearly half of foreign-born adults in the U.S. estimates the Muslim share of the population to be higher. (For a fuller discussion of the challenge of measuring religious affiliation among Latinos.. According to recent U. The report also examines the sources of the shifts in the religious composition of the U. only about one-quarter of whom are fluent in English.S. This has consequences for the survey findings.S. ethnicity. the number and views of individuals who are unable to complete a survey in English will not be fully represented.S.S. who are not fluent in English. For instance. Landscape Survey estimates of the size of various religious groups that have disproportionately large numbers of adherents who are foreign born (such as Buddhists. Census figures. which was conducted in Arabic. at 0. and approximately half of this group – around 8 percent of the total number of U. more than 34 million are foreign born. including age. It should be kept in mind.S. In other words. Introduction 3 . although we know from U.S. To help address this shortcoming. But Pew’s 2007 survey of Muslim Americans.S. Although this represents a significant improvement over surveys conducted solely in English. of the approximately 225 million adults in the U. educational and income levels. the Landscape Survey was conducted in both English and Spanish. These households were later called back by Spanish-speaking interviewers and asked to participate in the survey. gender. Hindus and members of other world religions) should be viewed as minimum estimates. Rather. family composition and regional distribution – including for these smaller groups. The report describes and analyzes the relationship between religious affiliation and various demographic factors. population to be roughly 0. most interviewers were not able to switch between English and Spanish as necessary. previous Pew research finds that most Englishonly surveys estimate the Muslim share of the U.

The online presentation of the findings of the Landscape Survey. including people who are unaffiliated with any particular religion. Religious Landscape Survey Groups analyzed in this report include specific denominations such as the Church of God in Christ (a prominent historically black Pentecostal denomination) and the United Church of Christ (the largest Congregationalist denomination) as well as groups such as Jehovah’s Witnesses and Unitarians. Additionally. making it impossible to draw any statistically valid conclusions about the characteristics of these groups. It is our hope that the U. Luis Lugo Director. attitudes about the proper role of government and opinions on foreign affairs. The website will be updated as subsequent analyses are released.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. www.org. each of whom account for between 0. includes interactive mapping.pewforum. (For definitions of these and other religious groups. attitudes toward the authority of sacred writings. available directly at religions. frequency of worship attendance and prayer.S.pewforum. and social and political views of American religious groups.org. the Forum is introducing some new features on its website. including such smaller groups as Buddhists.5% and 1% of the total adult population. we recommend the Religion Newswriters Association’s Religion Stylebook and The Associated Press’ Stylebook as starting points. beliefs and practices. Religious Landscape Survey will contribute to a better understanding of the role religion plays in the personal and public lives of most Americans. In typical surveys. Using the responses to these and other survey questions on a variety of subjects. the survey findings will serve as the basis for a series of portraits that will provide an easily accessible view of the religious and demographic characteristics. We will extensively probe such topics as belief in God and the afterlife. such groups would be represented by just a few dozen respondents.S. This provides unprecedented detail on the characteristics and views of America’s multitude of religious groups.) Other findings from the Landscape Survey – specifically on Americans’ religious beliefs and practices as well as their social and political views – will be released this spring. views on abortion. we will examine the internal diversity that exists on these questions within the country’s various religious groups. In conjunction with the release of this report. dynamic charts that illustrate key findings and a variety of other tools that are designed to help users delve deeper into the material. Jews and Muslims. Hindus. But the large sample size of the Landscape Survey ensures that even smaller groups than these are represented by at least 100 respondents. Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life Introduction 4 .

1 Hist.7 Jewish 1. one-in-four say they are not currently affiliated with any particular religion.3 Other 0. If change in affiliation from one type of Protestantism to another is included.3 Theravada Buddhist <0.1 Secular unaffiliated 6. A n extensive new survey by the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life details the religious affiliation of the American public and explores the shifts taking place in the U. Among all adults.3 Other Christian 0. is both very diverse and extremely fluid.6 Greek Orthodox <0. moved from being unaffiliated with any religion to being affiliated with a particular faith.S. More than one-quarter of American adults (28%) have left the faith in which they were raised in favor of another religion – or no religion at all.3 Other <0.3 Evangelical churches 26. black churches 6.6 Sunni 0..4 Protestant 51..3 Mainline churches 18. or dropped any connection to a specific religious tradition altogether. the number of Americans who report that they are members of Protestant denominations now stands at barely 51%.3 Unaffiliated 16. The survey finds that the number of people who say they are unaffiliated with any particular faith today (16. Religious Landscape Survey finds that religious affiliation in the U. % Christian 78.000 Americans age 18 and older.S.6 Agnostic 2.5 Orthodox <0.S.7 Zen Buddhist <0.3 Religious unaffiliated 5. mainline Protestant churches (18.1 Atheist 1. Moreover. Pew ” Research Center.8 100 * From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream.8 Don’t Know/Refused 0.3 Other faiths 1. The Landscape Survey confirms that the United States is on the verge of becoming a minority Protestant country.9 Mormon 1.3 Other <0. the U.9 Catholic 23.7 Orthodox 0. Based on interviews with more than 35.3 Muslim* 0. the Protestant population is characterized by significant internal diversity and fragmentation.3 Hindu 0.S. encompassing hundreds of different denominations loosely grouped around three fairly distinct religious traditions – evangelical Protestant churches (26. 2007 Due to rounding.3 Shia <0.4 Native American relig. Religious Landscape Survey Summary of Key Findings Major Religious Traditions in the U.2 Unitarians and other 0.9%). figures may not add to 100 and nested figures may not add to the subtotal indicated. <0.3% of the overall adult population).7 Conservative 0.3 Buddhist 0.4 Other world relig. Among Americans ages 18-29.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.1%) is more than double the number who say they were not affiliated with any particular religion as children.3 Other 0.3 Russian Orthodox <0. Catholicism Summary of Key Findings 5 .7 liberal faiths New Age 0. religious landscape. roughly 44% of adults have either switched religious affiliation.7 Reform 0.S. <0. While those Americans who are unaffiliated with any particular religion have seen the greatest growth in numbers as a result of changes in affiliation.1%) and historically black Protestant churches (6.4 Nothing in particular 12.3 Other Religions 4.7 Jehovah’s Witness 0.3 Tibetan Buddhist <0.

regardless of their specific beliefs and whether or not they attend Mass regularly. and the “religious unaffiliated. are defined as all respondents who said they are Catholic. people who are unaffiliated with any particular religion (16. ” those who say that religion is either somewhat important or very important in their lives (5. those who say that religion is ” not important in their lives (6.3% of the adult population).4% of the adult population overall. 21% Catholic). respectively). For instance. For more details on how and far exceeds the number of members of both mainline respondents were grouped into Protestant churches and historically black Protestant particular religious traditions. Like the other major groups. Although one-quarter of this group consists of those who describe themselves as either atheist or agnostic (1.S.3%). members of the third major branch of global Christianity – Orthodoxy – whose adherents now account for 0. on the other hand.1% of the adult population overall) is made up of people who simply describe their religion as “nothing in particular. for instance. 24% Protestant). While nearly one-in-three Americans (31%) were raised in the Catholic faith. today fewer than one-in-four (24%) describe themselves as Catholic. Summary of Key Findings 6 . This group. Hinduism and Buddhism. ” is fairly evenly divided between the “secular unaffiliated. we rely on respondents’ self-reported religious identity as the measure of religious affiliation.7% of the overall adult population) belong to one of three major groups within Buddhism: Zen. Conservative or Orthodox Judaism. Religious Landscape Survey has experienced the greatest net losses as a result of affiliation changes. in turn.6% of the U. Catholics. that is.6% of the overall adult population) divide primarily into two major groups: Sunni and Shia. atheists and agnostics are defined here as all respondents who described themselves as being atheist or agnostic.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Similarly. Protestants outnumber Catholics by an even larger margin (55% Protestant vs. Similarly. Theravada or Tibetan Buddhism. that is.7% of the adult population). For more details on the exact as Protestants.S. American Christianity also includes sizeable numbers of Mormons (1. see churches. These losses would have been even more pronounced were it not for the offsetting impact of immigration.S. the number of Catholics nearly rivals the questions used to measure relinumber of members of evangelical Protestant churches gious affiliation.. also includes a significant number of Appendix 2.7%) and other Christian groups (0. Even smaller religions in the U.S. the majority of the unaffiliated population (12. even though some of them may believe in some notion of God. Muslims (0.8% of the overall adult population).6% and 2.7% of the overall adult population) identify with one of three major groups: Reform. The U. see the survey topline. A Note on Defining Religious Affiliation In this survey. including Islam. Although there are about half as many Catholics in the U.S. reflect considerable internal diversity. more than half of Buddhists (0.S. Catholics outnumber Protestants by nearly a two-to-one margin (46% Catholic vs. adult population. The Landscape Survey finds that among the foreign-born adult population. most Jews (1.1%) also exhibit remarkable internal diversity. Jehovah’s Witnesses (0. Immigrants are also disproportionately represented among several world religions in the U. among nativeborn Americans.

Conversely. one need only look at the biggest gainer in this religious competition – the unaffiliated group. Those that are growing as a result of religious change are simply gaining new members at a faster rate than they are losing members. To illustrate this point. as every major religious group is simultaneously gaining and losing adherents. young adults ages 18-29 are much more likely than those age 70 and older to say that they are not affiliated with any particular religion (25% vs.S.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Other surveys – such as the General Social Surveys. have been partly offset by the number of people who have changed their affiliation to Catholicism (2. Summary of Key Findings 7 . for instance. At the same time. and describing the dynamic changes in religious affiliation. the survey findings show that more than six-in-ten Americans age 70 and older (62%) are Protestant but that this number is only about four-in-ten (43%) among Americans ages 18-29. This means that more than half of people who were unaffiliated with any particular religion as a child now say that they are associated with a religious group. is the large number of people who have left the Catholic Church. conducted by the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago since 1972 – find that the Catholic share of the U. Conversely. These losses.S. Another example of the dynamism of the American religious scene is the experience of the Catholic Church. Approximately one-third of the survey respondents who say they were raised Catholic no longer describe themselves as Catholic. In addition to detailing the current religious makeup of the U.S. adult population has held fairly steady in recent decades. By detailing the age distribution of different religious groups. 8%). In short. however. Religious Landscape Survey A Very Competitive Religious Marketplace The survey finds that constant movement characterizes the American religious marketplace. the Landscape Survey shows that the unaffiliated population has grown despite having one of the lowest retention rates of all “religious” groups. People moving into the unaffiliated category outnumber those moving out of the unaffiliated group by more than a three-to-one margin. What this apparent stability obscures. at around 25%.S. however. If these generational patterns persist. however. The result is that the overall percentage of the population that identifies as Catholic has remained fairly stable. This means that roughly 10% of all Americans are former Catholics. recent declines in the number of Protestants and growth in the size of the unaffiliated population may continue.S.6% of the adult population) but more importantly by the disproportionately high number of Catholics among immigrants to the U. a substantial number of people (nearly 4% of the overall adult population) say that as children they were unaffiliated with any particular religion but have since come to identify with a religious group. the findings from the Landscape Survey also provide important clues about the future direction of religious affiliation in the U. those that are declining in number because of religious change simply are not attracting enough new members to offset the number of adherents who are leaving those particular faiths.

roughly two-thirds of whom are immigrants.S. now account for approximately 0. compared with roughly 13% of women. • The Midwest most closely resembles the religious makeup of the overall population. Muslims. Summary of Key Findings 8 . • Mormons and Muslims are the groups with the largest families. now account for roughly 0. and Hindus.6% of the U. The South. has the heaviest concentration of members of evangelical Protestant churches. nearly four-in-ten (37%) are married to a spouse with a different religious affiliation. Catholics in the future. Nearly one-in-five men say they have no formal religious affiliation. more than one-in-five Mormon adults and 15% of Muslim adults in the U. Finally. Religious Landscape Survey Major changes in the makeup of American Catholicism also loom on the horizon.S.) Hindus and Mormons are the most likely to be married (78% and 71%. such as a Baptist who is married to a Methodist. • Of all the major racial and ethnic groups in the United States.S. For example.4% of the population. respectively). have three or more children living at home. the Landscape Survey documents how immigration is adding even more diversity to the American religious quilt.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.S. more than eight-in-ten of whom are foreign born. who already account for roughly one-in-three adult Catholics overall. Even among those blacks who are unaffiliated. Latinos. Catholics age 70 and older (12%). three-in-four belong to the “religious unaffiliated” category (that is. (This figure includes Protestants who are married to another Protestant from a different denominational family. • Among people who are married. by a wide margin. and the West has the largest proportion of unaffiliated people.S. Other Survey Highlights Other highlights in the report include: • Men are significantly more likely than women to claim no religious affiliation. black Americans are the most likely to report a formal religious affiliation. including the largest proportion of atheists and agnostics. may account for an even larger share of U. adult population. The Northeast has the greatest concentration of Catholics. they say that religion is either somewhat or very important in their lives). respectively) and to be married to someone of the same religion (90% and 83%. they account for nearly half of all Catholics ages 18-29 (45%). For while Latinos represent roughly one-in-eight U. compared with slightly more than one-third of the unaffiliated population overall.

S. Only 37% of all those who say they were raised as Jehovah’s Witnesses still identify themselves as Jehovah’s Witnesses. which was conducted by the Forum in partnership with its sister projects. adult population. Buddhism in the U.. • Members of Baptist churches account for one-third of all Protestants and close to one-fifth of the total U.. The study also takes advantage of the 2007 survey of American Muslims (“Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream”). respectively) are under age 50. than members of other groups. 13. with additional oversamples of Eastern Orthodox Christians. on average. 12 large Protestant denominational families and 25 individual Protestant denominations in the United States. • People not affiliated with any particular religion and Muslims stand out for their relative youth compared with other religious traditions. • In sharp contrast to Islam and Hinduism. • Jehovah’s Witnesses have the lowest retention rate of any religious tradition. compared with approximately four-in-ten American adults overall. In total. which draws primarily on a new nationwide survey conducted from May 8 to Aug. whites and converts. the Pew Hispanic Center and the Pew Global Attitudes Project. Religious Landscape Survey.S. Roughly half of Jews and members of mainline churches are age 50 and older. Summary of Key Findings 9 .000 Americans. About the Survey These are some of the key findings of the Pew Forum’s U. Only one-in-three American Buddhists describe their race as Asian.S. is primarily made up of native-born adherents. the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press. Detailed tables.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. one-third of Jews and a quarter of Buddhists have obtained post-graduate education. About three-in-ten (31% and 29%. Hindus and Jews are also much more likely than other groups to report high income levels.000 adults in the U. Baptists also account for nearly two-thirds of members of historically black Protestant churches. Buddhists and Hindus.S. • By contrast. representative sample of more than 35. provide extensive demographic information on the 14 largest religious traditions. while nearly three-in-four Buddhists say they are converts to Buddhism. 2007 among a . members of mainline Protestant churches and Jews are older. Religious Landscape Survey • Nearly half of Hindus in the U.S. Comparable numbers for the overall adult population are 20% under age 30 and 59% under age 50. compared with only about one-in-ten of the adult population overall. these surveys included interviews with more than 36. respectively) are under age 30 and more than seven-in-ten (71% and 77%. published as Appendix 1 starting on page 72.S.

9% of the overall adult population and slightly less than one-seventh of all Protestants).3% of the overall adult population and roughly one-half of all Protestants). is not homogeneous. Members of Protestant churches now constitute only a slim majority (51.S. can be divided into hundreds of distinct religious groups.4 Protestant 51. Chapter 1: The Religious Composition of the United States 10 .Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Other Christian traditions are much smaller. The adult population can be usefully grouped into more than a dozen major religious traditions that.7 Orthodox 0.3% of the adult population. it is divided into three distinct traditions – evangelical Protestant churches (26.4 Other World Religions <0.9 Catholic 23. Religious Landscape Survey Chapter 1: The Religious Composition of the United States T he Landscape Survey details the great diversity of religious affiliation in the U.7 Jewish 1.7% of the adult population. Pew ” Research Center. mainline Protestant churches (18. Overall.1%) are not affiliated with any particular religion. Protestantism is also comprised of numerous denominational families (e.6 Other Christian 0.6 Hindu 0. Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and other Mormon groups account for 1. about 5% belong to other faiths and almost one-in-six (16. Major Religious Traditions in the U. Baptist.6%.7% and 0. Among all adults % Christian 78. in turn. But Protestantism in the U.1 Hist.1 0. black churches 6.7 Buddhist 0. Catholics account for nearly one-quarter (23. while Jehovah’s Witnesses and members of Orthodox churches each account for slightly less than 1% (0.S. A variety of other Christian churches account for an additional 0.4%) adults report belonging to various forms of Christianity. nearly eight-in-ten (78. respectively).9%) of the adult population and roughly three-in-ten American Christians. at the beginning of the 21st century.9 Mormon 1.1% of the adult population and more than one-third of all Protestants).S.3 Other Religions 4.7 Jehovah’s Witness 0.S. Methodist and Pentecostal) that fit into one or more of the traditions.3 Evangelical churches 26.7 Muslim* 0.2 Unaffiliated Don’t know/Refused 16.3%) of the overall adult population.g. rather.8 100 * From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream.3 Mainline churches 18. 2007 Due to rounding. and historically black Protestant churches (6.3 Other Faiths 1. figures may not add to 100 and nested figures may not add to the subtotal indicated..

1%) of the adult population. adults and provides a sense of the remarkable diversity that characterizes the U. New Age groups and Native American religions. include Jews (1.6%). Buddhists (0. including Baha’is. They thus comprise the fourth largest “religious” tradition in the United States. Chapter 1: The Religious Composition of the United States 11 . religious landscape. combine to make up an additional 1. Members of a variety of other faiths. Hindus (0. nearly approximating the number of members of mainline Protestant churches. The following table summarizes the religious affiliation of U.S.S. individuals who are not affiliated with any particular religion make up about one-sixth (16.3% of the population).4%) and members of other world religions. including Unitarians. Zoroastrians and others (which together account for less than 0. Religious Landscape Survey Other major faith traditions in the U.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.S. Finally.7% of the adult population).7%).S.2% of the population. Muslims (0.

Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.S. Religious Landscape Survey

Religious Composition of the U.S.
% of U.S. Adult Population % of U.S. Adult Population % of U.S. Adult Population

Evangelical Protestant Churches

26.3

Mainline Protestant Churches

18.1
1.9 1.2 <0.3 0.6 5.4 5.1 <0.3 0.4 0.9 0.3 <0.3 0.6 2.8 2.0 <0.3 0.8 1.9 1.1 <0.3 0.7 1.4 1.0 0.3 <0.3 <0.3 0.4 0.3 <0.3 0.7 0.5 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 2.5

Jehovah’s Witness Orthodox
Greek Orthodox Russian Orthodox Other Orthodox church Orthodox, not further specified

0.7 0.6
<0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3

Baptist in the Evangelical Tradition 10.8 Southern Baptist Convention 6.7 Independent Baptist in the Evangelical Tradition 2.5 Baptist Missionary Association <0.3 Free Will Baptist <0.3 General Association of Regular Baptists <0.3 Other Baptist denomination in the Evangelical Tradition <0.3 Baptist in the Evangelical Tradition, not further specified 0.9 Methodist in the Evangelical Tradition <0.3 Nondenominational in the Evangelical Tradition 3.4 Nondenominational evangelical 1.2 Nondenominational charismatic 0.5 Nondenominational fundamentalist 0.3 Nondenominational Christian <0.3 Interdenominational in the Evangelical Tradition 0.5 Community Church in the Evangelical Tradition <0.3 Other nondenominational group in the Evangelical Tradition <0.3 Nondenominational in the Evang. Trad., not further specified 0.8 Lutheran in the Evangelical Tradition 1.8 Lutheran Church, Missouri Synod 1.4 Lutheran Church, Wisconsin Synod <0.3 Other Lutheran denomination in the Evangelical Tradition <0.3 Lutheran in the Evangelical Tradition, not further specified <0.3 Presbyterian in the Evangelical Tradition 0.8 Presbyterian Church in America 0.4 Other Presbyterian denomination in the Evangelical Tradition <0.3 Presbyterian in the Evangelical Tradition, not further specified <0.3 Pentecostal in the Evangelical Tradition 3.4 Assemblies of God 1.4 Church of God Cleveland Tennessee 0.4 Four Square Gospel <0.3 Pentecostal Church of God <0.3 Pentecostal Holiness Church <0.3 Nondenominational, Independent Pentecostal <0.3 Church of God of the Apostolic Faith <0.3 Apostolic Pentecostal in the Evangelical Tradition <0.3 Other Pentecostal denomination in the Evangelical Tradition <0.3 Pentecostal in the Evangelical Tradition, not further specified 0.7 Anglican/Episcopal in the Evangelical Tradition <0.3 Restorationist in the Evangelical Tradition 1.7 Church of Christ 1.5 Christian Churches and Churches of Christ <0.3 Restorationist in the Evangelical Trad., not further specified <0.3 Congregationalist in the Evangelical Tradition <0.3 Conservative Congregational Christian <0.3 Other Congregationalist denomination in the Evangelical Trad. <0.3 Congregationalist in the Evangelical Trad., not further specified <0.3 Holiness in the Evangelical Tradition 1.0 Church of the Nazarene 0.3 Free Methodist Church 0.3 Wesleyan Church <0.3 Christian and Missionary Alliance <0.3 Church of God (Anderson, Indiana) <0.3 Other Holiness denomination in the Evangelical Tradition <0.3 Holiness in the Evangelical Tradition, not further specified <0.3 Reformed in the Evangelical Tradition <0.3 Christian Reformed Church <0.3 Other Reformed denomination in the Evangelical Tradition <0.3 Reformed in the Evangelical Tradition, not further specified <0.3 Adventist in the Evangelical Tradition 0.5 Seventh-Day Adventist 0.4 Other Adventist group in the Evangelical Tradition <0.3 Anabaptist in the Evangelical Tradition <0.3 Pietist in the Evangelical Tradition <0.3 Other Evangelical/Fundamentalist 0.3 Protestant nonspecific in the Evangelical Tradition 1.9

Baptist in the Mainline Tradition American Baptist Churches in USA Other Baptist denomination in the Mainline Tradition Baptist in the Mainline Tradition, not further specified Methodist in the Mainline Tradition United Methodist Church Other Methodist denomination in the Mainline Tradition Methodist in the Mainline Tradition, not further specified Nondenominational in the Mainline Tradition Interdenominational in the Mainline Tradition Other nondenominational group in the Mainline Tradition Nondenominational in the Mainline Trad., not further specified Lutheran in the Mainline Tradition Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) Other Lutheran denomination in the Mainline Tradition Lutheran in the Mainline Tradition, not further specified Presbyterian in the Mainline Tradition Presbyterian Church USA Other Presbyterian denomination in the Mainline Tradition Presbyterian in the Mainline Tradition, not further specified Anglican/Episcopal in the Mainline Tradition Episcopal Church in the USA Anglican Church (Church of England) Other Anglican/Episcopal denomination in the Mainline Trad. Anglican/Episcopal in the Mainline Trad., not further specified Restorationist in the Mainline Tradition Disciples of Christ Restorationist in the Mainline Tradition, not further specified Congregationalist in the Mainline Tradition United Church of Christ Congregationalist in the Mainline Trad., not further specified Reformed in the Mainline Tradition Reformed Church in America Other Reformed denomination in the Mainline Tradition Reformed in the Mainline Tradition, not further specified Anabaptist in the Mainline Tradition Friends in the Mainline Tradition Other/Protestant nonspecific in the Mainline Tradition

Other Christian
Metaphysical Spiritualist Unity; Unity Church; Christ Church Unity Other Metaphysical Other

0.3
<0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3

Jewish
Reform Conservative Orthodox Other Jewish groups Jewish, not further specified

1.7
0.7 0.5 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3

Buddhist
Theravada (Vipassana) Buddhism Mahayana (Zen) Buddhism Vajrayana (Tibetan) Buddhism Other Buddhist groups Buddhist, not further specified

0.7
<0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 0.3

Muslim*
Sunni Shia Other Muslim groups Muslim, not further specified

0.6
0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3

Hindu Historically Black Churches 6.9
Baptist in the Historically Black Tradition 4.4 National Baptist Convention 1.8 Progressive Baptist Convention 0.3 Independent Baptist in the Historically Black Tradition 0.5 Missionary Baptist <0.3 Other Baptist denomination in the Historically Black Tradition <0.3 Baptist in the Historically Black Tradition, not further specified 1.7 Methodist in the Historically Black Tradition 0.6 African Methodist Episcopal 0.4 African Methodist Episcopal Zion <0.3 Christian Methodist Episcopal Church <0.3 Other Methodist denomination in the Historically Black Trad. <0.3 Methodist in the Historically Black Trad., not further specified <0.3 Nondenominational in the Historically Black Tradition <0.3 Pentecostal in the Historically Black Tradition 0.9 Church of God in Christ 0.6 Apostolic Pentecostal in the Historically Black Tradition <0.3 United Pentecostal Church International <0.3 Other Pentecostal denomination in the Historically Black Trad. <0.3 Pentecostal in the Historically Black Trad., not further specified <0.3 Holiness in the Historically Black Tradition <0.3 Protestant nonspecific in the Historically Black Tradition 0.5 Vaishnava Hinduism Shaivite Hinduism Other Hindu groups Hindu, not further specified

0.4
<0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3

Other World Religions Other Faiths
Unitarians and other liberal faiths Unitarian (Universalist) Liberal faith Spiritual but not religious Eclectic, “a bit of everything, own beliefs ” Other liberal faith groups New Age Wica (Wiccan) Pagan Other New Age groups Native American Religions

<0.3 1.2
0.7 0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 0.4 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3

Unaffiliated
Atheist Agnostic Nothing in particular

16.1
1.6 2.4 12.1

Catholic Mormon
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Community of Christ Mormon, not further specified

23.9 1.7
1.6 <0.3 <0.3

Don’t Know

0.8

* From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream, Pew Research Center, 2007 ”

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American Protestantism: Diverse, Fragmented and Declining in Number
Protestants account for roughly half (51.3%) of the adult population and nearly two-in-three (65%) Christians in the United States. But American Protestantism is very diverse. It encompasses more than a dozen major denominational families, such as Baptists, Methodists, Lutherans and Pentecostals, all with unique beliefs, practices and histories. These denominational families, in turn, are composed of a host of different denominations, such as the Southern Baptist Convention, the American Baptist Churches in the USA and the National Baptist Convention. Because of its great diversity, American Protestantism is best understood not as a single religious tradition but rather as three distinct traditions – evangelical Protestant churches, mainline Protestant churches and historically black Protestant churches. Each of these traditions is made up of numerous denominations and congregations that share similar beliefs, practices and histories. For instance, churches within the evangelical Protestant tradition share certain religious beliefs (such as the conviction that personal acceptance of Jesus Christ is the only way to salvation), practices (such as an emphasis on bringing other people to the faith) and origins (including separatist movements against established religious institutions). In contrast, churches in the mainline Protestant tradition share other doctrines (such as a less exclusionary view of salvation), practices (such as a strong emphasis on social reform) and origins (such as long-established religious institutions). Meanwhile, churches in the historically black Protestant tradition have been uniquely shaped by the experiences of slavery and segregation, which put their religious beliefs and practices in a special context. The Terminology of Affiliation
Denominations The term “denomination” refers to a set of congregations that belong to a single administrative structure characterized by particular doctrines and practices. Examples of denominations include the Southern Baptist Convention, the American Baptist Churches in the USA and the National Baptist Convention. Families A denominational family is a set of religious denominations and related congregations with a common historical origin. Examples of families include Baptist, Methodist and Lutheran. Most denominational families consist of denominations that are associated with more than one of the three Protestant traditions. The Baptist family, for instance, consists of some denominations that fall into the evangelical tradition, others that belong to the mainline tradition and still others that are part of the historically black church tradition. Traditions A religious tradition is a set of denominations and congregations with similar beliefs, practices and origins. In this report, Protestant denominations are grouped into three traditions: evangelical churches, mainline churches and historically black churches.

The Protestant denominational families include denominations that are associated with different Protestant traditions. For instance, some Baptist denominations (such as the Southern Baptist Convention) are part of the evangelical tradition; some (such as the American Baptist Churches in the USA) are part of the mainline tradition; and still others (such as the National Baptist Convention) are part of the historically black

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Protestant tradition. Not all families, however, are represented in all three traditions. (For more details, see the “Religious Composition of the U.S. table on page 12.) ” Despite the detailed denominational measures used in the Landscape Survey, many respondents (roughly one-third of all Protestants) were either unable or unwilling to describe their specific denominational affiliation. Some respondents, for instance, describe themselves as “just a Baptist” or “just a Methodist. In this report, Protestant respondents with this type of vague ” denominational affiliation were sorted into one of the three traditions in two ways. First, blacks who gave vague denominational affiliations (e.g., “just a Methodist”) but who said they were members of Protestant families with a sizeable number of historically black churches were coded as members of the historically black church tradition. Black respondents in families without a sizeable number of churches in the historically black tradition were coded as members of the evangelical or mainline traditions depending on their response to a separate question asking whether they would describe themselves as a “born-again or evangelical Christian. ” Second, non-black respondents who gave vague denominational affiliations and who described themselves as a “born-again or evangelical Christian” were coded as members of the evangelical tradition; otherwise, they were coded as members of the mainline tradition. (For more details on the analytical processes used to sort respondents with vague denominational affiliations into Protestant traditions, see Appendix 2.)

The Composition of American Protestantism
The largest of the Protestant families in the U.S. is the Baptist family, which accounts for onethird of all Protestants and close to one-fifth (17 .2%) of the overall adult population. Baptists are concentrated within the evangelical tradition, making up a plurality (41%) of this tradition. Baptists also account for nearly two-thirds (64%) of members of historically black churches. However, they constitute a much smaller share (10%) of mainline Protestantism. The largest Baptist denomination, and the largest Protestant denomination overall, is the Southern Baptist Convention. The Southern Baptist Convention accounts for more than a quarter (26%) of the membership in evangelical Protestant churches and nearly 7% of the overall adult population. The National Baptist Convention is the largest of the historically black Baptist denominations, while the American Baptist Churches in the USA is the largest mainline Baptist denomination. (For details, see the “Religious Composition of the U.S. table on page 12.) ” Methodists represent the second largest Protestant family, accounting for more than one-in-ten of all Protestants (12.1%) and 6.2% of the overall adult population. Methodists are particularly well represented within mainline Protestantism, accounting for nearly one-third (30%) of all members of mainline churches, as well as within the historically black church tradition, where they account for nearly one-in-ten (9%) of all members. Most Methodists within mainline Protestantism are members of the United Methodist Church, while most Methodists in the historically black church

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The Composition of American Protestantism
Evangelical Protestant Churches % 41 1 7 13 13 3 6 <0.5 4 <0.5 2 1 1 <0.5 0 1 7 100 Mainline Protestant Churches % 10 30 16 5 0 10 2 8 0 4 0 1 <0.5 0 1 0 14 100 Historically Black Protestant Churches % 64 9 0 3 14 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 100

Total Population Baptist Methodist Lutheran Nondenominational Pentecostal Presbyterian Restorationist Anglican/Episcopal Holiness Congregationalist Adventist Reformed Anabaptist Pietist Friends/Quakers Other Evangelical/Fundamentalist Protestant nonspecific % 17 .2 6.2 4.6 4.5 4.4 2.7 2.1 1.5 1.2 0.8 0.5 0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 0.3 4.9

All Protestants % 33.5 12.1 9.0 8.9 8.5 5.2 4.0 3.0 2.2 1.5 0.9 0.5 0.4 <0.3 <0.3 0.5 9.5 100

51.3% PROTESTANT
Due to rounding, figures may not add to 100.

tradition are affiliated with the African Methodist Episcopal denomination. Methodists represent a very small share (1%) of the evangelical Protestant tradition. Nearly 5% of the adult population consists of Protestants who attend nondenominational churches, that is, churches that are not affiliated with any specific denomination. Members of these churches are particularly well represented within the evangelical tradition; 13% of all members of evangelical churches belong to nondenominational congregations. By contrast, only 5% of the members of mainline churches and 3% of the members of historically black churches belong to nondenominational congregations. Like nondenominational Protestants, the Lutheran and Pentecostal1 families each account for slightly less than 5% of the overall adult population (4.6% and 4.4%, respectively). Lutherans are
1

For more detailed information about American Pentecostals, see “Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals, Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, 2006. ”

Chapter 1: The Religious Composition of the United States

15

while the Holiness family is distributed among the evangelical and historically black church traditions. highly represented within mainline Protestantism and less so within evangelicalism. Finally.4 1. it is also true that certain denominational families tend to fall primarily into one of the three traditions.0 1. Protestant Traditions and Denominational Families Although most denominational families include denominations that belong to different Protestant traditions.3 Southern Baptist Convention (Evangelical Tradition) United Methodist Church (Mainline Tradition) Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (Mainline Tradition) National Baptist Convention (Historically Black Tradition) Church of Christ (Evangelical Tradition) Assemblies of God (Evangelical Tradition) Lutheran Church.8 3.1 9.7 5.1% of the adult population).5 1.2 Percent of Total Protestants % 13.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.2 1.S. The Anglican/Episcopal and Holiness families each account for slightly more than 1% of the adult population. account for nearly 10% of all Protestants and roughly 5% of ” the overall adult population.4 1. More than one-in-ten members of evangelical churches and historically black churches are affiliated with the Pentecostal family (13% and 14%. Protestants who do not identify with any particular family.8 1. the Baptist. The Presbyterian family is the next most numerous Protestant denominational family (2.0 23.4 2.2 2.8 2.0 2.5 3. followed by the Restorationist family (2. Holiness and Adventist families as well as nondenominational churches are primarily associated with the evangelical tradition. Episcopalians and Anglicans account for nearly 10% of the mainline Protestant tradition. including those who describe themselves as “just a Protestant.1 2. Pentecostal.0 45. Religious Landscape Survey Ten Largest Protestant Denominations Percent of Total Population % 6. Missouri Synod (Evangelical Tradition) American Baptist Churches in the USA (Mainline Tradition) Presbyterian Church USA (Mainline Tradition) Episcopal Church in the USA (Mainline Tradition) Total Note: The Protestant tradition to which each denomination belongs is indicated in parentheses. For example.7% of the overall adult population). Restorationist. None of the remaining Protestant families account for more than 1% of the overall adult population. The denominational families that consist primarily of members of mainline Protestant Chapter 1: The Religious Composition of the United States 16 .7 2.9 3. respectively).1 1.

Methodist. Presbyterian. Pentecostal and Holiness families all include a sizable number of members of historically black churches. No Protestant denominational family consists primarily of historically black churches. Lutheran. though the Baptist.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. figures may not add to 100. Religious Landscape Survey churches include the Methodist. =100 56 63 75 79 83 88 100 44 11 20 0 17 0 0 0 26 5 21 0 12 0 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 39 30 14 2 6 38 61 70 86 88 94 50 0 0 0 10 0 11 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 The Decline of American Protestantism The detailed religious composition of the United States provided in the Landscape Survey raises an important question: How does the current religious makeup of the United States differ from previous years? Although the questions on religious affiliation in the Landscape Survey are not directly comparable to those in previous surveys. Anglican/Episcopal and Congregationalist families. there is a rich body of research that looks at the question of change Chapter 1: The Religious Composition of the United States 17 . Classification of Protestant Traditions by Denominational Family Evangelical Protestant Churches % 51 Mainline Protestant Churches % 35 Historically Black Protestant Churches % 13 Total Protestants Largely Evangelical Families Reformed Baptist Nondenominational Pentecostal Restorationist Holiness Adventist Largely Mainline Families Lutheran Presbyterian Congregationalist Methodist Anglican/Episcopal Protestant nonspecific Due to rounding.S.

This trend is clearly apparent. Jewish. between 60% and Question: What is your religious preference? Is it Protestant. an estimate that is very similar to the one produced by the Landscape Survey.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Religious Landscape Survey over time in the religious affiliation of the U. (1972-2006) of the General Social Surveys Protestant Catholic No Religion (GSS). What scholars who have analyzed the GSS data have found is that the proportion of the population identifying with the large mainline Protestant denominations has declined significantly in recent decades. Although scholars contributing to this research have adopted a variety of definitions of major religious groups and pursued various approaches to measuring change over time. or no religion?” Through the 1970s Source: General Social Surveys (1972-2006) and 1980s.S. however. while the proportion of Protestants identifying with the large evangelical denominations has increased. Over this period. population. namely. this research arrives at a similar conclusion: The proportion of the population that is Protestant has declined markedly in recent decades while the proportion of the population that is not affiliated with any particular religion has increased significantly. Chapter 1: The Religious Composition of the United States 19 20 06 72 18 .S. the GSS registered Protestant affiliation at 50%. in the findings Religious Composition of the U. In the early 1990s. 65% of respondents described some other religion. Catholic. population raises another important question. 84 19 93 19 The decline in the Protestant share of the U.S. Catholic. Jewish. for example. conducted between 70% 1972 and 2006 by the 60% National Opinion Research Center at the University of 50% Chicago. the proportion of adults identifying as Protestant began a steady decline.S. or no religion? themselves as Protestant. the 40% GSS have asked the same 30% basic religious identification question each time the survey 20% was conducted: “What is your 10% religious preference? Is it Protestant. whether the decline in Protestantism has occurred across all three traditions or has been concentrated in one or another of the traditions. By 2006. 0% some other religion.

in recent decades. etc. An analysis of changes in religious affiliation (discussed in detail in Chapter 2) finds that Catholicism has lost more people to other religions or to no religion at all than any other single religious group. % 79 55 21 2 1 <0. territories (Guam. at around 25%. These losses. The Landscape Survey finds. who have seen their ranks dwindle as a share of the population.) and Puerto Rico Due to rounding.S. that nearly half of all immigrants (46%) are Catholic.S.S. but mostly by the significant number of Catholics who have immigrated to the U. Virgin Islands.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.5 4 2 <0.5 <0. however. in recent decades. Religious Landscape Survey Catholicism Unlike Protestants.5 <0.5 5 2 1 1 <0.S. figures may not add to 100.5 1 16 1 100 (12%) Christian Protestant Catholic Mormon Jehovah’s Witness Orthodox Other Christian Other Religions Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other world religions Other faiths Unaffiliated Don’t Know/Refused Total Share of Total Population * Includes respondents who were born in U. have been offset partly by people who have switched their affiliation to Catholicism.S. the GSS findings suggest that the proportion of the adult population that identifies itself as Catholic has held fairly steady. for example.5 <0.S. Chapter 1: The Religious Composition of the United States 19 . primarily from Latin America. But the Landscape Survey makes clear that this apparent stability obscures a great deal of change in the makeup of Catholicism in the U. U. compared with 21% of the native-born Religious Composition of the Native Born and Foreign Born Total Population % 78 51 24 2 1 1 <0.5 9 1 2 2 3 <0.5 1 16 1 100 (100%) Born in U.5 1 <0.5 1 16 1 100 (88%) Born in a Foreign Country* % 74 24 46 1 1 2 <0.

For instance.) In addition to helping keep the Catholic share of the U. they can be thought of as being mostly secular in their orientation. This latter group consists of two smaller.S.3% of the overall adult population) say that religion is not too important or not at all important in their lives. 1%). (Differences in the native-born and foreign-born Catholic population are discussed further in Chapter 3. immigrants are also fueling the growth of many non-Christian religious groups in America. By 2006.. Religious Landscape Survey population. despite their lack of affiliation with any particular religious group. less than 0.8 100 Due to rounding. adults reported no religious affiliation. But the other half of this group (5. this group can be thought of as the “religious unaffiliated. Thus. more than one-in-six American adults (16.5%). % Unaffiliated 16.3 Religious unaffiliated 5. population steady.1 Atheist 1.1% of the adult population) consists of people who describe their religion as “nothing in particular.1 Don’t know/Refused 0. (A ” fuller discussion of the religious beliefs and practices of the unaffiliated population will be included in a subsequent report.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. About half of people who describe their religion as nothing in particular (6. more than six times as likely to be Hindu (3% vs..S.4% of the adult population).1%) are not currently affiliated with any particular religious group. Roughly one” quarter of the unaffiliated population identifies itself as atheist (1. the GSS showed that 16% of U.8 Affiliated with a religion 83.6% of the overall adult population) or agnostic (2. ” (Differences in the demographic characteristics of the religious unaffiliated and their more secular counterparts are discussed in more detail in Chapter 3.) Chapter 1: The Religious Composition of the United States 20 .6 Agnostic 2. immigrants are roughly four times as likely as native-born adults to be Muslim (2% vs.) Makeup of the Unaffiliated Among all adults. the GSS consistently found that between 5% and 8% of the public was not affiliated with any particular religion.5%) and roughly four times as likely to be affiliated with Orthodox churches (2% vs. fairly distinct subgroups. The Unaffiliated According to the Landscape Survey. less than 0. Through the 1980s.S. however. less than 0.8% of adults) says that religion is somewhat important or very important in their lives. The Landscape Survey finds that the unaffiliated population is quite diverse and that it is simply not accurate to describe this entire group as nonreligious or “secular.1 Secular unaffiliated 6.5%). Thus. nested figures may not add to the subtotal indicated.4 No particular religion 12. twice as likely to be Buddhist (2% vs. But the remaining threequarters (12.

7 <0.3 0.6 Greek Orthodox <0. % Orthodox 0. exhibit considerable internal diversity.S.3 0. Religious Traditions Among all adults.7 0.6 0. identify as Sunni and 16% are Shia.3 Others <0. one-in-three.3 <0.7 liberal faiths New Age 0. For example.3 0.4 Native American relig. however.5 <0.3 Russian Orthodox <0. come from a number of different Orthodox churches. too. members of the Orthodox Christian tradition.3 * From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream. such as the Armenian Orthodox.S.S. Muslims (0.3 <0. Nearly one-in-three (31%) describe themselves as Conservative Jews and 10% say they are Orthodox Jews. is made up of several distinct groups.S.3 0.7% of the overall adult population) also consists of several distinct groups.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Ukrainian Orthodox and Ethiopian Orthodox churches. Judaism (1. ” Makeup of Smaller U. The Buddhist tradition (0.3 Other Faiths 1. Chapter 1: The Religious Composition of the United States 21 .6% of the adult population. who account for 0. Pew Research ” Center..2 Unitarians and other 0.. Religious Landscape Survey Diversity Within Smaller Religious Traditions Even smaller religious traditions in the U. including the Greek and Russian Orthodox churches as well as at least a dozen other Orthodox churches mentioned by respondents in the survey.7% of the adult population). Syrian Orthodox. either say they are affiliated with a different Muslim group or describe themselves as “just a Muslim.3 <0. nested figures may not add to the subtotal indicated.3 <0. <0.6% of the adult population) fall primarily into two traditions: Half of the Muslims in the U. the largest of which is Zen Buddhism.3 Jewish Reform Conservative Orthodox Others Muslim* Sunni Shia Others Buddhist Zen Buddhism Theravada Buddhism Tibetan Buddhism Others 1. More than four-in-ten Jews (43%) describe themselves as Reform Jews.7 0. 2007 Due to rounding.

Moreover. Nor do they include people who changed religious affiliation at some point in their lives but then returned to their childhood affiliation. these figures may understate the extent of religious movement taking place in the U. more than one-in-four U. or from Judaism to no religion).. For instance.S. adults (28%) have changed their religious affiliation from that in which they were raised. say from the American Baptist Churches in the USA to the Southern Baptist Convention. from Baptist to Methodist) and within the unaffiliated population (e. Even groups that are net losers are attracting new members – just not enough to offset the number who are leaving.S. Together with other sources of change in religious affiliation. but these losses are more than offset by the number of people who are joining these groups. from nothing in particular to atheist) is included.g. from Protestantism to Catholicism. the survey underscores the fact that all groups are gaining and losing individual adherents. groups that are net winners are also losing some adherents.g.S. It also analyzes the patterns of membership gain. this shifting helps account for the great dynamism of American religion.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. they do not include individuals who have changed affiliation within a particular denominational family. The Landscape Survey confirms that. roughly 44% of Americans now profess a religious affiliation that is different from the religion in which they were raised. This chapter closely examines the net winners and losers from changes in religious affiliation and documents the high degree of turnover among American religious groups.. religious marketplace. If anything. there is a remarkable amount of movement by Americans from one religious group to another. and religious groups are compelled to compete for members. these figures do not capture multiple changes in affiliation on the part of individuals.. loss and retention among religious groups and describes the demographic characteristics of the many Americans who are “on the move” religiously. Religious Landscape Survey Chapter 2: Changes in Americans’ Religious Affiliation R eligion in the United States is often described as a vibrant marketplace where individuals pick and choose religions that meet their needs. Looking only at changes from one major religious tradition to another (e.S. If change of affiliation within the ranks of Protestantism (e.g. such as immigration and fertility rates. Chapter 2: Changes in Americans’ Religious Affiliation 22 . Conversely. Although there are net “winners” and “losers” in the U. indeed.

(The religious composition of immigrants is explored further in Chapter 3. Overall.) The significant effect of immigration on the size of the U. whose share of the population has more than tripled as a result of changes in affiliation.5 How can this decline in the percentage of Catholics be reconciled with the findings from the General Social Surveys discussed in Chapter 1 that show that roughly the same proportion of the population is Catholic today as was Catholic in the early 1970s? Part of the answer is that the Catholic Church has also attracted a good number of converts.3% of the adult population says they were unaffiliated with any particular religion as a child.1 percentage points). Catholic population underscores the fact that while changes in affiliation are a major factor contributing to the size of religious groups. 7 . . Chapter 2: Changes in Americans’ Religious Affiliation 23 . Today.8 percentage points. 16. Overall. to a great extent. Sizeable numbers of those raised in all religions – from Catholicism to Protestantism to Judaism – are currently unaffiliated with any particular religion.S. however. Another group that shows a net gain is nondenominational Protestants. compared with 4. the group that has experienced the greatest net loss by far is the Catholic Church. however. adults with their childhood religious affiliations. The biggest gains due to changes in religious affiliation have been among those who say they are not affiliated with any particular religious group or tradition. a net loss of 7 percentage points. The many people who have left the Catholic Church over the years have been replaced. 31.4% of U.9% of adults identify with the Catholic Church.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. a net increase of 8. Today. Religious Landscape Survey Net Winners and Losers Which groups are the net winners and losers in the dynamic process of shifting religious affiliation? By comparing the distribution of the current religious affiliations of U.S. by the large number of Catholic immigrants coming to the U. they are by no means the only factor. only 23.1% of adults say they are unaffiliated.7 percentage points) and Methodists (2. In addition to immigration.5% of the population was raised within nondenominational Protestantism.S. the Landscape Survey is able to provide a clear sense of the net effect of these movements within American religion.S. However. But the main answer is immigration.5% who currently report such an affiliation. other factors – such as differential fertility and death rates – also contribute to these shifts. adults say that they were raised Catholic.S. Groups that have experienced a net loss from changes in affiliation include Baptists (net loss of 3. 1.

3 17 .1 0.3 0.2 6. Adults Childhood Religion % 53.3 4.0.2 4.9 .3 .4 3.2.S. Due to rounding.2.9 8.8 0.4 0 0.4 <0.2 0 0.0 .1 0 N/A .8 0.7.3 0.3 0.1 N/A N/A N/A N/A 1.9 1.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.3 0.3 7.7 4.7 0.1 3.3 <0.3.8 2.6 0.5 <0. figures may not add to 100 and nested figures may not add to the subtotal indicated. this analysis requires use of the Landscape Survey number.5 5.3 0 N/A 0.4 31.6 2.6 0.6 <0.7 0.8 1.7 .7 0.5 2.8 1.5 0.7 0.3 <0.S.8 0.2 16.5 -0.3 0.3 0.1 1.3 1.4* 0.3 0.9 23.6 2.4 0.2 0.0.3 1.4 0.5 .6 . Religious Landscape Survey Childhood Versus Current Affiliation of U. nonspecific Catholic Mormon Jehovah’s Witness Orthodox Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other world religions Other faiths Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Nothing in particular Don’t Know/Refused Total .2 0.4 1.0.4 <0.9 8.1 0.0.1 0.3 1.5 4. Chapter 2: Changes in Americans’ Religious Affiliation 24 .9 1.5 3.5 <0. Because the question on childhood religion was not asked in the earlier survey. which is from the May 2007 Pew survey “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream” (see page 3 for more details).1 0.3 1. however.3 3.1 N/A 5.1 * This figure is from the Landscape Survey and differs from the number used throughout the rest of the report.9 0.7 0.3 6.3 <0.8 100 Net Change Protestant Baptist Methodist Nondenominational Lutheran Presbyterian Pentecostal Anglican/Episcopal Restorationist Congregationalist Holiness Reformed Adventist Anabaptist Pietist Friends/Quakers Other Evangelical/Fundamentalist Protestant.7 100 Current Religion % 51.3 <0.3 <0.4 12.0.9 20.4 1.5 .6 0.

A similar dynamic is at work within Catholicism. 2. 3. one must look at the total number of people entering and leaving each religion.5% of the adult population was raised as something other than Baptist but is now Baptist.4%.S.S. Overall.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. But Baptists and Methodists also have attracted a significant number of new adherents from other faiths.7% of the adult population overall) were raised in a particular faith but have since become unaffiliated with any religious group. The unaffiliated group provides a good example of the high degree of religious movement that has taken place in the U.S. To get the most complete picture of the dynamism of the American religious landscape. adult population was raised Baptist but is no longer Baptist. the number for Methodists is 2.6% of the U.1% of the adult population overall) were raised in the Catholic Church but have since left for another faith or for no faith at all. However. But nearly four times as many people (10. more than three times as many people (12. Chapter 2: Changes in Americans’ Religious Affiliation 25 . although there are net winners and losers in the process of religious change. Religious Landscape Survey The Dynamics of Religious Change As stated above. Overall. but with very different results.S. Some 8. Other groups that have experienced high levels of change include Baptists and Methodists. and 4. Some 4.9% of the adult population reports being raised without any particular religious affiliation but later affiliating with a religious group. each religious group is simultaneously gaining and losing members.3% of the U. no group is simply losing members or simply gaining members.4% of the adult population was raised Methodist but has since moved away. Rather. adult population has switched their affiliation to Catholic after being raised in another faith or in no faith at all.

7 100 Entering Group % + 8.3 = 0.3 .9 Methodist 8.9 Anglican/Episcopal 1.<0.3 .4 Mormon 1.7 = 4.3 + 0.0.4 + 0.5 <0.9 0.4.3 + 0.3 .4 + 4.4 <0.9 + 1.2 = 6.3 = <0.3 + 1.3 .3 .0.5 Lutheran 5.3 .4 + 3.<0.6 = 2.3 .5 .7 + 1.6 + 0.2.<0.6 0.3 .8 Restorationist 2.0.4 = 1.3 Nondenominational 1.5 +<0.4 + 1.4 = <0.7 = 0.0.<0.9 = 1.3 Congregationalist 0.S.0 .8 = 1.1.<0.6 Other Christian <0.3 .8 Reformed 0.9 Baptist 20.5 = <0.3 Other Evangelical/Fundamentalist <0.<0.3 .0 + 0.3 .3 Pietist <0.4 + 0.2 = 16.3 = 17 .<0.5 .<0.1 = 0.7 = 0.2 .5 .4 Pentecostal 3.2.3 6.1 .3 Friends/Quakers <0.3 0.1 Current Religion % = 51.3 = 1.<0.3 + <0.8 .3 0.3 .1 + 12.2 = 0.8.4 Catholic 31.8 100 Chapter 2: Changes in Americans’ Religious Affiliation 26 .3 + 0.3 + <0.3 + 2.<0.5 = 4.<0.3 + <0.1 0.3 .6 + 0.0 .3 = 1.1.4 + 2.4 0.4 Anabaptist 0.10.11.4 = 12.3 + <0.<0.0.2.5 .3.3 = <0.4 . Religious Landscape Survey Percentage of Adults Entering and Leaving Each Group Childhood Religion % Protestant 53.8 Jehovah’s Witness 0.3 = 0.5 + 2.3 .7 = 0.3 .6 Leaving Group % .<0.4.4 .6 + 2.3 Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other world religions Other faiths Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Nothing in particular Don’t Know/Refused 1.7 + 1.3 0.5 = 2.3 + <0.6 = 2.3 + <0.3 + 3.2 = 4.3 + 9.9 = 23.3 + 0.0 .5 Presbyterian 3.4 = 0.1 .7 + <0.3 7.3 Adventist 0.0.3 .5 + <0.9 .7 = 0.3 = 4.2.3 .6 Orthodox 0.1 = 1.<0.0.0 .6 = 0.8 Holiness 0.3 Protestant nonspecific 3.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.

Catholics and Jews are the groups with the lowest proportion of members who have switched affiliation to these respective faiths. analysis of the Landscape Survey also details which groups are most heavily comprised of people who have changed their affiliation. Hindus. Religious Landscape Survey Affiliation Patterns: Coming. Among people who are currently unaffiliated with any particular religion. what faiths these people came from and which religious groups are most successful at retaining their childhood members..S. For instance. more than two-thirds of Jehovah’s Witnesses were raised in some other faith or were not affiliated with any particular religion as a child. population and the net winners and losers from changes in affiliation. nearly eight-in-ten were raised as members of one religion or another. Going and Staying Put In addition to documenting the high degree of religious movement in the U. Raised as Member % 90 89 85 77 74 60 33 27 10 9 21 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 % 10 11 15 23 26 40 67 73 90 91 79 Chapter 2: Changes in Americans’ Religious Affiliation 27 . Percentage of People Changing Affiliation Within Major Religious Groups Switched Affiliation Current religion… Hindu Catholic Jewish Orthodox Mormon Muslim Jehovah’s Witness Buddhist Other Christian Other Faiths Unaffiliated Due to rounding. as were nearly three-quarters of Buddhists.S. 89% of Catholics were raised Catholic and 85% of Jews were raised Jewish. figures may not add to 100. The religious traditions most heavily comprised of people who have switched affiliation include the unaffiliated. Buddhists. Unitarians. Jehovah’s Witnesses. nine-in-ten Hindus were raised Hindu.g. members of the “other faiths” category (e.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. members of New Age groups and members of Native American religions) and members of the “other Christian” tradition (including metaphysical Christians). Overall.

fewer than one-in-five Protestants (16%) were raised outside of Protestantism. and nearly one-in-five have changed affiliation from outside of Protestantism (18% and 16%).. Chapter 2: Changes in Americans’ Religious Affiliation 28 .Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. family Protestant Evangelical churches Mainline churches Hist. etc. black churches 16 18 16 10 29 31 30 21 % raised as member 54 51 54 69 =100 =100 =100 =100 Due to rounding. About one-third of both evangelical and mainline Protestants have switched their affiliation from other Protestant families (31% and 30%. Methodist. figures may not add to 100.. Religious Landscape Survey Overall. Percentage of People Changing Affiliation Within Protestant Traditions % who switched affiliation from. respectively). are much less likely to have moved either from another Protestant family (21%) or from outside Protestantism (10%).S.) with which they are currently affiliated (54%) or have switched from one Protestant family to another (29%). This means that more than eight-in-ten Protestants were raised either in the same Protestant family (e. Outside Protestantism Another Prot. Members of historically black Protestant churches.g. by comparison. Lutheran.. Baptist.

Chapter 2: Changes in Americans’ Religious Affiliation 29 . What Groups are People Switching From? % who were raised… All other Catholic faiths/DK 4 N/A 3 5 7 4 26 22 23 23 2 1 2 1 1 4 1 6 7 8 Protestant Current religion.. But overall nearly one-in-ten Protestants were raised in the Catholic Church. the comparable numbers for Buddhists are 32% and 22%. Most people who have changed their affiliation to one of the Protestant traditions. black churches 27 8 % who were raised… All other Catholic faiths/DK 9 2 11 2 9 2 4 1 Unaffiliated Non-converts 6 54 6 51 5 54 4 69 =100 =100 =100 =100 Due to rounding.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. more than one-in-three of all Jehovah’s Witnesses (33%) were raised Protestant. are people who were raised in another Protestant denominational family. including Unitarians and members of New Age religions. Religious Landscape Survey Source of New Members It is also interesting to see which childhood faiths people leave behind. Hindu Catholic Jewish Orthodox Mormon Muslim Jehovah’s Witness Buddhist Other faiths Other Christian Unaffiliated 2 8 5 12 13 24 33 32 50 53 44 In other Prot.. respectively. family 29 31 30 21 Unaffiliated Non-converts 2 2 5 4 5 8 8 12 11 7 N/A 90 89 85 77 74 60 33 27 9 10 21 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 Protestant Evangelical churches Mainline churches Hist. as do members of other faiths. figures may not add to 100. nearly half (44%) were raised as Protestant and more than one-in-four (27%) were raised as Catholic. for instance.S. while 26% were raised Catholic. For example. Jehovah’s Witnesses and Buddhists both draw large numbers of people who switch their affiliation from Protestantism and Catholicism. Among those who are currently unaffiliated with any particular religion.

Hinduism exhibits the highest overall retention rate. As mentioned previously. The Mormon.5 Converted to another group/DK % 30. Hindu Jewish Orthodox Mormon Catholic Buddhist Jehovah’s Witness Unaffiliated =100 84 76 73 70 68 50 37 46 8 9 21 15 18 22 30 54 8 14 7 14 14 28 33 N/A =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 Due to rounding.. while the retention rate for Catholics is 68%. Retention of Childhood Members Among Groups Nonconverts % 56. Two of the religious groups with the lowest retention rates are Jehovah’s Witnesses and Buddhists. Orthodox and Jewish traditions all have retention rates of at least 70%. Nevertheless. Half of all of those who were raised as Buddhists (50%) are still Buddhists.1 Converted to no religion % 13. Only slightly more than a third (37%) of adults who were raised as Jehovah’s Witnesses still identify themselves as Jehovah’s Witnesses.S. figures may not add to 100. Chapter 2: Changes in Americans’ Religious Affiliation 30 .4 Total population Among those raised.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. This means that more than half (54%) of those who were not affiliated with any particular religion as a child now identify themselves as members of one religion or another. with more than eight-in-ten (84%) adults who were raised as Hindu still identifying themselves as Hindu. the Landscape Survey makes it possible to look at which groups are most successful in retaining their childhood members.. the group that has exhibited the strongest growth as a result of changes in affiliation is the unaffiliated population. the overall retention rate of the unaffiliated population is relatively low (46%) compared with other groups. Religious Landscape Survey Retention of Childhood Members Finally.

. Religious Landscape Survey Roughly half of those raised as Protestant (52%) retain their childhood religious affiliation. either within the same denominational family in which they were raised (52%) or within another Protestant family (28%). at roughly 60% each. All Protestant denominational families lose a considerable number of childhood adherents to the ranks of the unaffiliated (ranging from 7% among those raised Anabaptist to 20% among those raised in Congregationalist and Anglican/ Episcopal churches). Anabaptist and Congregationalist families. line black religion/ No churches churches DK religion % 10 % 3 % 7 % 13 =100 Did not change Among those raised … Protestant % 52 Largely Evangelical Families Baptist 60 Nondenominational 44 Pentecostal 47 Restorationist 46 Holiness 32 Adventist 59 Anabaptist Largely Mainline Families Methodist Lutheran Presbyterian Anglican/Episcopal Congregationalist 40 47 59 40 45 37 23 27 35 35 51 23 51 32 19 36 23 35 12 16 23 21 36 10 29 19 10 16 10 15 8 11 8 13 9 6 20 11 9 18 11 17 4 1 3 1 5 6 2 3 * 1 2 2 6 10 6 6 4 7 2 8 9 9 12 9 11 19 12 13 13 10 7 12 13 14 20 20 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 Due to rounding. Overall.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. In fact. then. below 40% each.. Of all of the Protestant families. figures may not add to 100. Baptists. So only one-in-five (20%) adults who were raised as Protestant have left Protestantism altogether (7% for a non-Protestant religion and 13% for no religion at all). family % 28 Evangelical churches % 15 Changed to . but this comparatively low number relative to other groups is largely due to the fact that the change figures reported here include movement between Protestant denominational families. Retention of Childhood Members Among Protestant Religious Groups New Prot. Non-Prot. MainHist. The Holiness. have much lower retention rates.S. 80% of those who were raised as Protestant are still Protestant. by contrast. the majority of them now belong to another Protestant denomination. Adventists and Lutherans have the highest retention rates. Chapter 2: Changes in Americans’ Religious Affiliation 31 . of the 48% of people who were raised Protestant but now belong to something other than the denomination in which they were raised.

Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. more have become members of other largely evangelical families compared with the number who have become members of largely mainline families. Religious Landscape Survey The data also show that among those who have left largely evangelical denominational families for other Protestant families.S. figures may not add to 100. those leaving largely mainline denominational families are more evenly divided. Chapter 2: Changes in Americans’ Religious Affiliation 32 . with approximately equal numbers joining other largely mainline families and largely evangelical families. By contrast. For example. Who Changes Affiliation? The most significant demographic differences in rates of affiliation change are found among the different racial and ethnic groups in the U. about a third (35%) of Latinos and a Demographic Patterns of Religious Change Converts (NET) % 45 42 42 44 45 45 43 40 Changed within tradition % 14 17 11 13 15 18 19 22 Changed to another tradition % 30 25 32 31 29 27 24 18 Not Converts % 55 58 58 56 55 55 57 60 Among … Men Women Ages 18-29 Ages 30-39 Ages 40-49 Ages 50-59 Ages 60-69 Age 70+ Education High school or less Some college College graduate Post-grad degree Race/Ethnicity Non-Latino whites Non-Latino blacks Non-Latino Asians Non-Latino mixed/other Latinos =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 41 46 45 47 15 17 17 16 26 30 28 31 59 54 55 53 =100 =100 =100 =100 45 42 37 54 35 17 20 9 18 4 28 22 29 36 31 55 58 63 46 65 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 Due to rounding.S.

college graduates and people with a post-graduate education (46%. by contrast. For instance.S... left Protestantism for Catholicism) or for no religion at all. more than half of people who have changed affiliation have switched affiliation from one family to another within a religious tradition (e. These rates are significantly lower than those seen for both blacks (42%) and whites (45%). there are few differences among adults with different educational backgrounds. for instance. Religious Landscape Survey similar number of Asians (37%) report having changed their religious affiliation from that in which they were raised. 45% and 47%. Chapter 2: Changes in Americans’ Religious Affiliation 33 .Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Though the rates of change in affiliation among the different age groups are fairly comparable. Americans with a high school education or less are only somewhat less likely to have switched affiliation from the religion in which they were raised (41%) than people with at least some college education. men are only slightly more likely to switch affiliation than women (45% vs.g. the Landscape Survey reveals few major demographic differences in the rates of religious change. Similarly. from one Protestant denominational family to another). respectively). With respect to other demographic characteristics. roughly three-quarters of those who have changed affiliation left one religious tradition for another (e. 42%).g. there are interesting generational differences in the types of affiliation changes people undergo. Among people age 70 and older. Among those under age 30.

divorced. 81% of all married Protestants are married to other Protestants. and an additional 18% have a spouse who belongs to a Protestant family different from their own. Hindus and Mormons are most likely to have a spouse with the same religion (90% and 83%. majorities of the unaffiliated population. If marriages between people of different Protestant denominational families are included. members of the “other faiths” category and Buddhists are married to someone of a different religious background than their own. Intermarriage Patterns Same religion % 90 83 78 69 65 65 45 33 41 Spouse is… Different religion Protestant Catholic % % % 10 1 2 17 5 5 22 14 N/A 31 7 12 35 12 16 35 9 6 55 15 7 67 28 11 59 28 22 All other/ DK/REF % 3 2 3 3 4 5 6 8 9 Unaffiliated % 3 5 5 8 3 15 27 19 N/A Among married…* Hindus Mormons Catholics Jews Orthodox Jehovah’s Witnesses Buddhists Other faiths Unaffiliated =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 * Figures include respondents who say they are married and respondents who say they are living with a partner. Question: Are you currently married. while 10% are married to Catholics. or have you never been married? See table on page 35 for intermarriage patterns within Protestantism. the number of married people in religiously mixed marriages is nearly four-in-ten (37%).S. Among married couples. widowed. About six-in-ten married Protestants (63%) are affiliated with the same Protestant denominational family as their spouse. Due to rounding.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. young people are more likely to be in religiously mixed marriages as compared with their older counterparts. Chapter 2: Changes in Americans’ Religious Affiliation 34 . figures may not add to 100. For example. 6% to spouses who are not affiliated with any religion and 3% to people who belong to other religious groups. Religious Landscape Survey Religiously Mixed Marriages and Changes in Affiliation The Landscape Survey finds that 27% of married people are in religiously mixed marriages. Nearly four-in-five Catholics (78%) and sevenin-ten Jews (69%) are also married to someone with the same religious affiliation. Among all the major religious traditions. respectively). By contrast. living with a partner. separated. In total. only fourin-ten (41%) unaffiliated adults are married to a spouse who is also unaffiliated.

family % 37 32 45 31 % 18 17 19 19 All other/ UnaffilDK/REF iated % 3 2 3 3 % 6 5 8 4 Catholic % 10 8 15 5 =100 =100 =100 =100 * Figures include respondents who say they are married and respondents who say they are living with a partner. only 15% and 12%. divorced. respectively.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. 8% to people not affiliated with any particular religion and 3% to members of other religious groups. or have you never been married? These patterns vary significantly among the three Protestant traditions. Question: Are you currently married. Religious Landscape Survey Intermarriage Patterns Within Protestantism Same religion Among married…* Protestants Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically black churches % 63 68 55 69 Spouse is… Different Different religion Prot. figures may not add to 100. 15% are married to Catholics. To the extent that people change their religious affiliation to match that of their spouse. Due to rounding. Of these. The Landscape Survey findings also make it possible to gauge. In fact. the importance of marriage in changes in religious affiliation. widowed. has changed religion =100 =100 =100 * Figures include respondents who say they are married and respondents who say they are living with a partner. separated. more than one-in-four (26%) married members of mainline churches are married to non-Protestants. at least indirectly. however. living with a partner. Among married members of evangelical and historically black churches. the survey finds just the opposite to be true: The incidence of religiously mixed marriages is much higher among people who have switched affiliation (50%) than among married people who have retained the religious affiliation of their youth (28%). Members of evangelical Protestant churches (68%) and historically black Protestant churches (69%) are more likely than members of mainline Protestant churches (55%) to have the same affiliation as their spouse. has not changed religion Married. widowed.S. are married to non-Protestants. divorced. living with a partner. Question: Are you currently married. one would expect to find lower rates of religiously mixed marriages among people who have changed affiliation than among those who have not switched. Intermarriage and Change in Affiliation Spouse has… Same Religion Different Religion % % 63 37 72 28 50 50 Among… All married* people Married. separated. or have you never been married? Chapter 2: Changes in Americans’ Religious Affiliation 35 . By contrast.

If these patterns continue. Each section then looks at the relationship from the opposite direction. young adults are much more likely to be unaffiliated with any particular religion. The religious affiliation of immigrants. from age and ethnicity to family composition and geographic location. more than twice the rate seen among the native born. for instance. the decline of Protestantism and the increase in the size of the unaffiliated population are likely to persist. for instance. The Landscape Survey finds. But while immigrants are much more likely to be Catholic. While about half of all Catholics under age 30 are Hispanic (45%). Similarly. This chapter examines the complex relationship between religion and other demographic characteristics.S. nearly half of all immigrants are Catholic. More than three-quarters (78%) of blacks are Protestant.. Religious Landscape Survey Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups C hange in religious affiliation is not the only factor shaping the contours of the American religious landscape.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Important generational differences in religious affiliation are also evident. and nine percentage points higher than in the overall adult population. Important demographic factors such as immigration and generational replacement are also contributing in a major way to this dynamic process. for example. onequarter of all adults under age 30 are not affiliated with any particular religion. there are major differences in the religious affiliation of various racial and ethnic groups. Each section first looks at the religious composition of major demographic groups.S. differs markedly from the affiliation of those born in the U. the vast majority of Catholics age 70 and older (85%) are white. For example. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 36 . demographic groups. for example. that immigrants and young adults are significantly less Protestant than are native-born and older Americans. breaking down and examining the key demographic features of the major religious traditions. compared with just over half of whites (53%) and about a quarter of Asians (27%) and Latinos (23%). The Landscape Survey finds significant variation in the religious affiliation of these and other U.S. The ethnic composition of religious groups also varies across generations. which is more than three times the number of unaffiliated adults who are age 70 and older.

Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.5 <0.5 6 2 1 1 <0.5 5 1 1 1 1 <0.5 5 2 <0. Religious Composition of Age Groups Total Pop.5 <0.5 1 1 <0.5 1 15 1 2 6 6 1 100 (18%) 50-59 % 80 54 27 20 7 23 1 1 1 <0.5 1 14 1 2 6 5 60-69 70+ % % 84 88 57 62 29 30 21 26 7 6 24 23 2 1 1 1 <0.5 1 10 1 2 4 3 1 100 (12%) 1 100 (12%) 4 2 <0. figures may not add to 100 and nested figures may not add to the subtotal indicated.5 1 <0. Religious Landscape Survey Age Differences The survey finds significant differences between the religious affiliation of younger and older Americans.5 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 2 25 3 4 9 9 1 100 (20%) 1 100 (19%) 30-39 % 76 47 26 16 6 25 2 1 1 <0.5 1 19 2 2 7 7 1 100 (20%) 40-49 % 80 52 28 17 7 25 2 1 1 <0.5 4 1 <0.5 5 2 <0. older groups are both more affiliated and more Protestant.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 8 1 1 3 3 Share of Total Population Due to rounding. younger Americans tend to be considerably less Protestant and far less religiously affiliated than older Americans.5 <0.5 Other Religions Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other world religions Other faiths Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Secular unaffiliated Religious unaffiliated Don’t Know/Refused 5 2 1 1 <0.S.5 <0.5 1 16 2 2 6 6 1 100 (100%) 18-29 % 68 43 22 12 8 22 2 1 1 <0.5 <0. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 37 . Overall. % Christian 78 Protestant 51 Evangelical churches 26 Mainline churches 18 Historically black churches 7 Catholic 24 Mormon 2 Jehovah’s Witness 1 Orthodox 1 Other Christian <0.

Major differences are also apparent in the proportion of each age group that has no formal religious affiliation.S. These differences are especially pronounced among members of mainline Protestant churches. Religious Landscape Survey While a majority of Americans age 70 and older (62%) are Protestant. a 19-point difference. It is important to note. The younger group is also more likely than the adult population as a whole to be atheist or agnostic (7% vs. but 10 points lower than Americans age 70 and older.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 38 . 4%). that more than a third (35%) of young adults who have no particular religious affiliation are in the “religious unaffiliated” category. Adults under age 30 are more than three times as likely as those age 70 and older to be unaffiliated with any particular religion (25% vs. the overall population is somewhere in the middle. 8%). This is about 9 points higher than adults under age 30. Middle-aged Americans also fall toward the middle: Approximately half (52%) of Americans in their 40s are Protestant. however. at 51% Protestant. that is. only 43% of young adults ages 18-29 are Protestant. they say that religion is somewhat important or very important in their lives.

At the other end of the spectrum. Religious Landscape Survey Age Distribution of Religious Traditions The relatively older makeup of the membership of mainline Protestant churches becomes even clearer when the survey looks at the age distribution within Protestantism compared with the overall adult population. ” . Among the population as a whole. 2007 Figures in this row updated March 2008. Age Distribution of Major Religious Traditions 18-29 % 20 17 17 14 24 18 24 21 18 20 29 23 18 31 37 34 29 30 41 42 39 38 29 48 40 58 40 36 34 41 43 30-49 % 39 38 39 36 36 24 19 25 27 29 18 30 19 20 16 22 21 20 50-64 % 25 26 26 28 24 16 15 14 17 22 5 7 5 8 12 9 8 7 65+ % 16 20 19 23 15 Total Population Protestant Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically black churches Catholic Mormon Jehovah’s Witness Orthodox Jewish Muslim* Buddhist Hindu Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Secular unaffiliated Religious unaffiliated =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 * From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream. by contrast. the unaffiliated and Muslims tend to be younger than other groups. with 51% age 50 and older. respectively) are under age 50. Approximately half (51%) of the members of mainline Protestant churches are age 50 and older. only 41% fall in this age group. too. Results have been repercentaged to exclude nonresponse.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. About three-in-ten (31% and 29%. figures may not add to 100 and nested figures may not add to the subtotal indicated. Jews. Due to rounding.S. respectively) are under age 30 and more than sevenin-ten (71% and 77%. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 39 . Pew Research Center. tend to be older than other religious groups.

5 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 5 2 <0.S.5 2 <0.5 2 <0..5 Other Religions Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other world religions Other faiths Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Secular unaffiliated Religious unaffiliated Don’t Know/Refused 5 2 1 1 <0.5 <0. % Christian 78 Protestant 51 Evangelical churches 26 Mainline churches 18 Hist.S.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.5 <0.5 <0. Even among black adults who are unaffiliated (12%).5 Share of Total Population (100%) Due to rounding.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0. Religious Landscape Survey Race and Ethnicity Of all the major racial and ethnic groups in the U.5 <0.5 1 16 2 2 6 6 1 100 1 100 (70%) 16 2 3 7 5 White % 78 53 30 23 <0.5 23 3 4 11 5 2 100 (2%) 2 100 (3%) Other/ Asian Mixed Race % % 45 69 27 51 17 34 9 15 <0.5 5 14 1 1 4 8 Latino % 84 23 16 5 3 58 1 1 <0. more than two-thirds Religious Affiliation of Racial and Ethnic Groups Non-Latino Total Pop.5 4 9 14 2 1 20 1 3 7 9 1 100 (12%) 9 1 1 1 1 <0.5 <0. black churches 7 Catholic 24 Mormon 2 Jehovah’s Witness 1 Orthodox 1 Other Christian <0.5 <0. blacks are the most likely to report a formal religious affiliation.5 1 <0. figures may not add to 100 and nested figures may not add to the subtotal indicated.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 1 12 <0.5 22 2 <0.5 1 3 8 1 100 (11%) Black % 85 78 15 4 59 5 <0.5 2 17 14 1 2 <0.5 1 30 <0. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 40 .5 1 <0.

About one-in-five (22%) whites are Catholic and a similar number (23%) are members of mainline Protestant churches. 8%) and. only 1% of blacks identify as atheist or agnostic. are classified in the “religious unaffiliated” group. and more than three-in-four of these are either secular (11% overall). where more than two-thirds (68%) identified as Catholic. Religious Landscape Survey (70%) say that religion is somewhat or very important in their lives and. thus. a solid majority of Hispanics (58%) identify as Catholic. Interestingly. About six-in-ten (59%) black adults are affiliated with historically black Protestant churches. almost twice the number who identify as unaffiliated (16%). (See the section below on Measuring Religious Affiliation Among Latinos for more analysis.) Nearly a third (30%) of all whites are members of evangelical churches. and differences between the two samples. only about two-in-ten are members of predominantly white evangelical (15%) and mainline (4%) Protestant churches. Catholics and members of evangelical churches are equally well represented among Asians. however.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. In the Landscape Survey. Hispanics are about as likely as blacks to say they have no religious affiliation.S. to a lesser extent. 14% of Asians identify as Hindu. To assess the relative impact of each of these explanations. in January 2008 the Forum included the Landscape Survey’s religious affiliation question on a monthly bilingual omnibus Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 41 . What accounts for this discrepancy? Further analysis by the Forum shows that there are two likely explanations for these different results: variation in wording of the religious affiliation question in the two surveys. question wording primarily seems to account for the higher percentage of unaffiliated Latinos in the Landscape Survey compared with the earlier Forum/PHC survey. In the Landscape Survey. Roughly a quarter (23%) of Asians have no religious affiliation. 22%). with 17% identifying with each group. Asians are the ethnic group most likely to be unaffiliated. But it is sampling differences that apparently account for the significant variation in the percentage identifying as Catholic in the two surveys. atheist (3% overall) or agnostic (4% overall). most of the corresponding increase takes place among unaffiliated Latinos (14% vs. but nearly onein-four are members of evangelical (16%) or other (8%) Protestant churches. and very few (2%) say they are atheist or agnostic. Latino Protestants (26% vs. Measuring Religious Affiliation Among Latinos The number of Latinos in the Landscape Survey who identify themselves as Catholic (58%) is considerably lower than in a major survey of Latinos the Forum conducted in 2006 with the Pew Hispanic Center (PHC).

atheist. Roman Catholic.016) (1. Telephone interviews were conducted between Jan. Buddhist. the N (4. Orthodox such as Greek or Russian Orthodox. among a representative sample of 1. if any? Are you Protestant. Jewish.009) (3. Hindu.S. Orthodox such as Greek or Russian Orthodox. Jewish. Roman Catholic. Although question wording Religious Affiliation Among Latinos seems to matter most 2006 Pew in explaining the higher Forum/Pew number of Latinos in the Hispanic 2008 Landscape Landscape Survey who say Center1 ICR Omnibus2 Survey2 they are unaffiliated with any % % % particular religion. something else. Muslim. 68%). Muslim. The Landscape Survey. are more likely to select answers when they are explicitly offered as opposed to when they have to volunteer the answers.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. something else. while the Landscape Survey Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 42 . Jehovah’s Witness. 8 and Jan. Jewish. The findings suggest that the way the affiliation question is worded has a major effect on the number of Latinos who say they are unaffiliated with any particular religion. which fielded the earlier Forum/PHC survey. explicitly asked respondents: “What is your present religion. Muslim. the main Catholic 68 65 58 explanation for the different Protestant/Other Christian 22 19 26 results with respect to Unaffiliated 8 15 14 the lower number of Other/Don’t Know 2 1 2 Catholics appears to lie 100 100 100 elsewhere. agnostic. 21. or nothing in particular?” for the difference between the two estimates (from the Forum/PHC survey and the Landscape Survey) of the proportion of Latinos who are Catholic seems to be that the respective surveys reached a somewhat different sample of Latinos due to the language options in which they were conducted. or an Orthodox church such as the Greek or Russian question found only slightly Orthodox Church?” fewer Catholics than the Forum/PHC survey (65% Question: “What is your present religion. agnostic. atheist. Religious Landscape Survey survey of Latinos conducted by International Communications Research (ICR). or nothing in particular?” It is not surprising that respondents. The main reason Mormon. Mormon. Buddhist. The Forum/PHC survey did not explicitly offer respondents specific choices associated with being unaffiliated with any particular religion. Mormon. Hindu. evangelical or Protestant Christian. if any? Are you Protestant. whether Latinos or other members of the general public. vs. 1 2 The Forum/PHC survey and omnibus survey were conducted with fully bilingual interviewers who could switch between English and Spanish on the spot.S. population that is unaffiliated with any particular religion. 2008. which sought to obtain as accurate a measure as possible of the U.151) omnibus survey using the Landscape’s affiliation Question: “What is your religion – Catholic.009 Latinos in the United States. After all.

population that is Catholic. and even English surveys with a Spanish option. This suggests that caution is also in order when estimating the number of adherents of other religious groups that are disproportionately composed of immigrants. In particular. An analysis of Pew Research Center surveys that were conducted in late 2007 finds that English-only interviewing using the identical question produces an even smaller percentage of Latinos identifying as Catholic (49%) and a noticeably higher percentage identifying as Protestant (33%). By extension. such as Hindus. it falls short of a truly bilingual approach. The impact of language on measuring the religious affiliation of Latinos can be seen by comparing the pattern of religious affiliation that results from these three types of surveys. these other groups also have many members who are unable to complete telephone surveys in English. yields significantly fewer Latino Catholics (58%) and more Latino Protestants (26%) than the fully bilingual survey using the same question (65% Catholic and 19% Protestant). Catholic population that is Latino and marginally underestimate the proportion of the U. samples obtained with fully bilingual interviewers typically include more recently arrived immigrants and respondents who are not proficient in English. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 43 . are probably the most accurate. Muslims.S. This means that the Landscape Survey underestimates the proportion of Latinos who are Catholic.S. it may also slightly underestimate the proportion of the U. Although this approach is preferable to English-only surveys. population overall). This means that when a Spanish-speaking respondent was encountered in the Landscape Survey. So just as utilizing anything other than fully bilingual interviewers may understate the degree of Catholicism within the Latino community (and the number of Catholics in the U.S.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. the interviewer arranged for a Spanishspeaking interviewer to recontact that household. estimates derived from truly bilingual surveys.S. conducted in English with a Spanish option. Religious Landscape Survey was conducted in English with a Spanish option. are likely biased in that their samples do not sufficiently represent the full spectrum of Latinos. Although the percentage among these groups that is not fluent in English is much lower compared with Latinos. Thus. which find that roughly two-thirds of Latinos are Catholic. Which estimates are the most accurate? English-only surveys. Buddhists and members of other world religions. estimates of the size of other religious groups many of whose adherents may not be able to complete interviews in English may be low as well. many of whom are recent immigrants and are unable to complete a telephone survey in English. The Landscape Survey.

Racial and Ethnic Distribution of Religious Traditions Non-Latino White % 71 74 81 91 2 65 86 48 87 77 95 37 53 5 80 73 86 84 79 60 2 3 22 6 11 1 24 4 1 2 8 3 2 5 16 Black % 11 16 6 2 92 2 1 0 2 0 0 20 32 88 1 4 4 4 4 2 Asian % 3 1 2 1 0 2 3 5 3 8 2 15 5 4 13 4 2 4 4 5 Other/ Mixed Race % 3 3 4 3 1 29 7 24 1 4 3 4 6 2 5 11 5 6 8 17 Latino % 12 5 7 3 4 Total Population Protestant Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically black churches Catholic Mormon Jehovah’s Witness Orthodox Other Christian Jewish Muslim* Buddhist Hindu Other faiths Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Secular unaffiliated Religious unaffiliated =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 * From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream. one-in-five (20%) are Asian and 19% are of other races.S. Results have been repercentaged to exclude nonresponse. respectively). it finds that Jews and members of mainline Protestant churches are the groups most heavily comprised of whites (95% and 91%.S. 2007 ” Due to rounding. roughly one-in-four (24%) are black. figures may not add to 100 and nested figures may not add to the subtotal indicated. Muslims are the most racially diverse group in the U. rather than vice versa. Approximately one-in-three (37%) are white. Pew Research Center. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 44 . followed closely by Orthodox Christians (87%) and Mormons (86%).Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Religious Landscape Survey Racial and Ethnic Distribution of Religious Traditions When the survey breaks down the major religious traditions by race and ethnicity.

as noted in Chapter 2. surprisingly. the stability in the proportion of Catholics among the general public obscures the significant ethnic shift that is occurring among younger Catholics. only about a third (32%) of Buddhists in the U. For instance. Religious Landscape Survey Hindus are predominantly Asian (88%). the overwhelming majority of Catholics are white (85% of those age 70 and older). are Asian. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 45 . the largest Latino proportion of any tradition. most are converts to Buddhism. a majority (53%) are white. and nearly a fifth of the group is Hispanic (11%) or black (8%). Looking at the intersection of age. ethnicity and religion among the country’s two largest religious groups. the survey finds that close to half of all adult Catholics under age 40 are Hispanic. Among older cohorts. a vast majority of atheists and agnostics are white (86% and 84% respectively).S. and. blacks comprise nearly a quarter (22%) of Jehovah’s Witnesses.S. Roughly a third of this religious unaffiliated group is comprised of Hispanics (17%) and blacks (16%). As noted previously. figures may not add to 100. Age and Racial Composition of Catholicism and Protestantism All Catholics % 65 2 29 4 100 All Protestants % 74 16 5 4 100 18-29 % 47 3 45 5 100 18-29 % 61 23 10 6 100 Among Catholics ages… 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 % % % % 51 68 75 78 2 2 2 3 44 26 20 17 3 4 4 2 100 100 100 100 Among Protestants ages… 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 % % % % 71 73 77 80 16 16 16 14 9 6 3 3 5 5 4 3 100 100 100 100 70+ % 85 1 12 2 100 70+ % 83 12 2 2 100 % who are… White Black Latino Other/Mixed % who are… White Black Latino Other/Mixed Due to rounding. Hispanics also make up a significant proportion of Jehovah’s Witnesses (24%). But. there are significant racial and ethnic differences among the unaffiliated subgroups. However.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. but whites represent a smaller share (60%) of the “religious unaffiliated” population. The survey also shows that nearly a third (29%) of Catholics are Hispanic. The unaffiliated population more closely resembles the racial composition of the general public than do most other religious groups. Results have been repercentaged to exclude nonresponse. More than seven-in-ten unaffiliated adults are white (73%).

by contrast. a similar racial and ethnic shift is happening among Protestants as well. among Protestants age 50 and older.S. only six-in-ten (61%) are white. Religious Landscape Survey Although not nearly as pronounced. For instance.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. more than three-in-four are white (including 83% of Protestants age 70 and older). while nearly four-in-ten (39%) are non-white. Among Protestants under age 30. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 46 .

S.6 0.4 <0.8 0.3 <0. figures may not add to 100 and nested figures may not add to the subtotal indicated.7 0. the starkly different religious composition of immigrants and the native born is contributing in a major way to the changes in the American religious landscape.8 0. Religious Landscape Survey Religion and Immigration As discussed briefly in Chapter 1. U. % 79 55 28 20 8 21 1.7 0.5 1.6 0.9 1.S.S.4 4 1. Virgin Islands.3 Born in Foreign Country* % 74 24 15 7 2 46 0.5 16 1 2 5 7 Christian Protestant Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically black churches Catholic Mormon Jehovah’s Witness Orthodox Other Christian Other Religions Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other world religions Other faiths Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Secular unaffiliated Religious unaffiliated Don’t Know/Refused Share of Total Population * Includes respondents who were born in U.0 1.3 0.4 0.3 1.0 <0.3 1.) and Puerto Rico Due to rounding.2 16 2 2 6 6 1 100 (100%) 1 100 (88%) 16 2 2 6 6 1 100 (12%) Born in U.3 5 1. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 47 .6 3.8 <0.7 0.S.7 0.3 9 1. etc.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.3 0.7 1. Religious Composition of the Native Born and Foreign Born Total Population % 78 51 26 18 7 24 1.7 0.6 <0. territories (Guam.

S. Religious Landscape Survey Like the U. Nearly half (46%) of immigrants are Catholic. members of several non-Western religions. But the internal composition of this group is markedly different. more than twice the proportion of adult Catholics who were born in the U.S. In the Landscape Survey. the proportion of unaffiliated Americans is the same (16%) for both groups. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 48 . including Islam. (21%). In fact. with more than half of this group (34% of all immigrants) coming from just one country – Mexico. foreign-born adults are only about half as likely to be Protestant (25%) as U. Not surprisingly. Buddhism and Hinduism. Nearly three-quarters (72%) of Mexican immigrants are Catholic. By contrast. the large majority (74%) of immigrants are Christian. are much more highly represented among the foreign-born population than among the native-born population.S.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. only 1% of all Latin American immigrants describe themselves in these terms. population as a whole. more than six-in-ten (61%) adult immigrants to the United States say they are from Latin America (including the Caribbean).-born adults (55%). Mexico accounts for a plurality (34%) of all immigrants coming to the United States. among immigrants from the other Latin American countries. Interestingly. Immigrants from Mexico and other Latin American countries are also the least likely to be atheist or agnostic. only half (51%) are Catholic.S.

5 <0.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.5 <0. 1 100 Share of Immigrant (3%) Population N N=134 Due to rounding.5 2 21 Other Christian <0.5 Catholic 19 72 51 28 27 27 3 9 Mormon 3 1 1 2 <0.5 3 8 2 <0. Religious Landscape Survey Religious Affiliation of Immigrants by Region of Origin Other South.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 49 .5 <0.5 <0.5 <0. Eastern Europe (27%) and East Asia (27%).5 1 <0.5 Orthodox 2 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 3 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 2 19 4 3 7 5 <0.5 1 <0. Other faiths 10 4 2 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 3 19 <0.5 15 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 Unaffiliated 24 Atheist Agnostic Secular unaffiliated Religious unaffiliated Don’t Know/Ref. as are roughly a quarter of immigrants from Western Europe (28%).5 27 2 5 13 7 1 100 (4%) N=256 15 <0.5 14 1 <0. about one-in-five immigrants from Canada (19%) are Catholic.5 1 100 (2%) N=105 71 1 12 1 55 3 <0. churches 19 11 19 15 13 18 9 3 Mainline churches 19 2 5 22 5 11 2 9 Hist.5 1 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 100 (4%) N=165 1 100 (9%) N=315 15 12 2 1 <0. black churches 3 1 5 1 <0.N.5 11 6 7 7 5 1 100 (34%) N=881 <0. For instance. Africa/ Latin Western Eastern East Central Middle Canada Mexico America Europe Europe Asia Asia East % % % % % % % % Christian 65 88 82 70 65 57 16 43 Protestant 41 14 29 37 18 29 11 12 Evang.5 1 Other Religions Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other world rel.S.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 14 4 1 6 3 43 18 24 1 <0.5 Jehovah’s Witness <0.5 1 3 10 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 11 2 2 7 <0.5 100 (28%) N=702 1 100 (11%) N=488 21 4 4 8 5 8 3 1 1 1 <0. figures may not add to 100 and nested figures may not add to the subtotal indicated. Catholics also represent a significant percentage of immigrants who come from outside Latin America.5 <0.

while an additional 12% are Muslim. Meanwhile. The majority (57%) of immigrants from East Asia are Christian. By comparison. about one-in-ten (12%) are Protestant and one-in-three are either Orthodox (21%) or Catholic (9%).Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Religious Landscape Survey Immigrants from Canada are the group with the highest proportion of atheists and agnostics (13%). as are nearly one-in-five immigrants from Eastern Europe. Nearly one-in-ten immigrants from Western Europe (8%) and Eastern Europe (7%) also describe themselves as atheist or agnostic. more than half (55%) of all immigrants from South-Central Asia identify as Hindu. Muslims represent 24% of this group. Jews are 18% and the unaffiliated population accounts for 14%.S. with 27% identifying as Catholic. about four-in-ten immigrants from Canada and Western Europe are Protestant. Of the immigrants coming from North Africa and the Middle East. roughly a quarter of immigrants from this region are not affiliated with any particular religion. Buddhists account for 14%. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 50 . 18% as members of evangelical Protestant churches and 11% as members of mainline Protestant churches.

Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.5 100 (8%) N=340 1 100 (12%) N=432 19701979 % 68 24 15 7 1 39 2 1 2 <0.5 1 18 2 2 5 9 <0.5 1 14 1 2 5 5 2 100 Share of Immigrant Pop.5 Christian Protestant Evangelical churches 13 Mainline churches 19 Historically black churches 1 Catholic 42 Mormon 1 Jehovah’s Witness 1 Orthodox 2 Other Christian <0. Among immigrants who came to the U.S.5 1 19 1 3 8 9 14 1 2 4 6 <0. 19% Religious Affiliation of Immigrants by Time of Arrival 19101959 % 78 33 19601969 % 78 30 15 14 1 44 1 1 2 1 8 3 <0. for decades.5 2 2 <0.5 12 3 2 2 3 <0.S.5 10 2 2 2 3 <0.5 100 (20%) N=608 19801989 % 76 27 17 7 3 45 1 1 2 <0.5 1 <0.5 100 (28%) N=798 1 100 (19%) N=536 8 1 1 1 4 <0.5 <0.5 Other Religions Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other world religions Other faiths Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Secular unaffiliated Religious unaffiliated Don’t Know/Refused 7 3 <0.5 8 1 2 1 4 <0. figures may not add to 100 and nested figures may not add to the subtotal indicated.5 16 1 1 6 8 19901999 % 74 21 13 5 3 49 1 1 2 <0. before 1960.5 <0. Religious Landscape Survey The religious composition of the immigrant population has changed over time. Catholics constitute a plurality of the immigrant population both among those who have arrived recently and among those who have been in the U. But Catholics constitute a larger share of recent immigrants (48%) compared with those who arrived in the 1970s (39%).S. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 51 .5 20002007 % 74 22 13 5 3 48 1 1 2 <0.5 <0. The difference with regard to Protestant immigrants is much more pronounced.5 1 13 Due to rounding. N (6%) N=346 2 2 6 4 <0.

S.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Conversely. among those who immigrated after 1999. were born in another country.S. figures may not add to 100 and nested figures may not add to the subtotal indicated. and an additional 33% are from either Africa or the Middle East. 86%. Nativity by Religious Tradition When the survey breaks down the various religious traditions by nationality. Pew Research Center. Jews are relatively less well represented among the more recent arrivals. only 5% say they are affiliated with a mainline Protestant church. There are three times as many Jews among immigrants coming before 1960 than among those coming after 1989. Religious Landscape Survey are members of mainline Protestant denominations. Born % 88 94 94 95 95 76 93 83 62 89 35 74 14 88 23 6 17 38 10 65 26 86 12 Foreign Born % 12 6 7 5 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Don’t Know % 0 0 0 0 1 Total Population Protestant Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically black churches Catholic Mormon Jehovah’s Witness Orthodox Jewish Muslim* Buddhist Hindu Unaffiliated =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 * From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream. it finds that Hindus. Nativity Distribution of Major Religious Traditions U. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 52 . Muslims and members of Orthodox churches are the groups most heavily comprised of immigrants. Hindus are much better represented among the recently immigrated than among those who arrived earlier. 65% and 38% of these groups. Like Catholics. respectively. 2007 ” Due to rounding. more than one-third (38%) of Orthodox immigrants are from Eastern Europe. For instance. More than four times as many Hindus are found among those immigrating after 1989 than among those who arrived before 1960. however.

5 <0.. Conversely.5 12 3 1 2 3 100 N=412 33 2 1 14 1 3 5 3 100 N=296 Catholic % 1 52 30 6 2 <0. Catholic Church. A majority of Muslims (65%) are also foreign born. more than one-in-five Catholics (23%) were born outside the U. Of these.5 8 2 <0. Religious Landscape Survey Members of all Christian traditions are predominantly native born.S. Among Mormons and members of all three Protestant traditions.5 <0. more than nine-in-ten were born in the U. Africa/Middle East Sub-Saharan Africa Other/Don’t Know Muslim* % <0. figures may not add to 100.S. a fact reflected in the relatively high concentration of Hispanics in the U.5 1 3 100 N=227 N * From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream.5 5 <0.5 1 1 100 N=1. while people belonging to world religions such as Islam and Hinduism are more likely to be foreign born.5 <0.S.5 <0. for example.5 2 3 81 <0. Buddhists. fully 86% were born outside the U.5 3 2 8 1 1 28 50 8 1 100 N=750 Hindu % <0. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 53 . Pew Research Center. 2007 ” Due to rounding. Region of Origin of Foreign-Born Members of Major Religious Traditions Protestant EvanMaingelical line % % 4 8 25 11 37 20 11 3 <0. almost exclusively in South-Central Asia. with only 26% born in another country. Hindus are comprised overwhelmingly of immigrants.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. by contrast.5 5 25 8 2 100 N=138 Unaffiliated % 4 24 26 14 4 2 16 3 2 1 3 100 N=490 Canada Mexico Other Latin America Western Europe Eastern Europe Pacific/Australia East Asia South-Central Asia N.S. Catholics also stand out for their comparatively large share of immigrants.273 Orthodox % 3 1 1 18 38 <0. more than four-in-five (82%) are from Latin America and the Caribbean. are predominantly native born.S.

5 <0. while almost one-in-ten (9%) are members of historically black Protestant churches.5 5 1 1 1 <0.5 1 1 13 6 1 2 2 <0.5 <0. % Christian 78 Protestant 51 Evangelical churches 26 Mainline churches 18 Historically black churches 7 Catholic 24 Mormon 2 Jehovah’s Witness 1 Orthodox 1 Other Christian <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 Other Religions Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other world religions Other faiths Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Secular unaffiliated Religious unaffiliated Don’t Know/Refused 5 2 1 1 <0.5 <0. These religious groups are more highly represented among adults with a high school Religious Affiliation of Educational Groups Total Pop.5 <0. Religious Landscape Survey Education Nearly one-in-three (31%) adults with less than a high school education are members of evangelical Protestant churches.5 1 15 1 2 6 6 1 100 (36%) Some College % 78 52 27 18 7 22 2 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 1 16 1 3 6 5 1 100 (23%) 1 100 (16%) College Grad % 76 48 22 22 5 24 2 <0.5 <0. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 54 .5 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 16 2 2 6 6 1 100 (100%) Less than High School High School Grad % 83 51 31 11 9 29 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 2 19 3 5 8 3 Share of Total Population Due to rounding.5 6 3 1 1 1 <0.5 1 15 1 1 4 9 1 100 (14%) % 81 55 29 17 8 24 1 1 <0.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.5 2 <0.5 <0.5 1 16 2 4 7 4 1 100 (11%) PostGrad % 68 43 16 23 3 21 2 <0.5 3 1 <0.S. figures may not add to 100 and nested figures may not add to the subtotal indicated.

Among those who have obtained post-graduate education. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 55 . compared with only 11% of those with less than a high school education. For instance. more than half of the unaffiliated (9% of all those with this level of education) are in the “religious unaffiliated. By contrast. People with less than a high school education are also somewhat more likely to be Catholic as compared with those with higher levels of education. among people who have obtained a college degree. among those with less than a high school degree. among those with a post-graduate education. fewer than one-in-four (22%) belong to the evangelical tradition. the comparable figures are 16% and 3%. while many more describe themselves as ” either atheist or agnostic (8%). Nearly one-infour adults (23%) with a post-graduate education are members of mainline churches. But among the most well-educated groups. category. less than one-sixth of the unaffiliated population (3% of all those with this level of education) are “religious unaffiliated. while a much smaller number (2% of those with this ” level of education) describe themselves as either atheist or agnostic. The opposite pattern is seen among members of mainline Protestant churches.S. and only 5% belong to historically black churches. Between 15% and 19% of members of all educational groups say they are unaffiliated with any particular religion. the unaffiliated tend to be more secular than among the less well-educated. For example. Religious Landscape Survey education or less than among those with higher levels of education. respectively.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.

2007 ” Due to rounding.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Results have been repercentaged to exclude nonresponse. for example. compared with 42% among members of mainline churches. The findings show. Hindus and Buddhists tend to have higher levels of education than members of other religious traditions. figures may not add to 100 and nested figures may not add to the subtotal indicated. Pew Research Center. Educational Levels of Religious Groups Less than High School High School Grad % % 14 36 14 16 8 19 17 9 19 6 3 21 3 4 13 8 5 10 21 36 30 51 26 19 32 23 12 34 28 22 35 40 38 40 34 40 21 32 22 22 19 23 26 10 24 23 29 24 22 Some College % 23 24 24 24 25 16 18 6 28 24 14 22 26 16 21 23 17 11 College Grad % 16 15 13 20 11 10 10 3 18 35 10 26 48 13 21 20 13 6 PostGrad % 11 9 7 14 5 Total Population =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 Protestant Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically black churches Catholic Mormon Jehovah’s Witness Orthodox Jewish Muslim* Buddhist Hindu Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Secular unaffiliated Religious unaffiliated * From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream. members of evangelical and historically black churches tend to have lower levels of education compared with those belonging to mainline churches. that Jews. Catholics and the unaffiliated closely resemble the general population in terms of education.S. For instance. Religious Landscape Survey Educational Levels of Religious Traditions Looking at the educational makeup of religious groups reveals significant differences by tradition. nearly six-in-ten members of evangelical (56%) and historically black (59%) churches have a high school education or less. Among Protestants. Nearly half (48%) of Hindus. more than one-third (35%) of Jews and a quarter (26%) of Buddhists have a post-graduate education. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 56 . and they are also the most likely to have a post-graduate degree.

only about a third (36%) of atheists have a high school education or less. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 57 . Religious Landscape Survey Although the educational makeup of the unaffiliated group overall resembles that of the general public.S. For instance. more than four-inten atheists (42%) and a similar number of agnostics (43%) have a college degree or post-graduate education. while six-in-ten of the “religious unaffiliated” (61%) have a high school education or less. At the other end of the educational spectrum.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. a rate more than twice as high as among the “religious unaffiliated” (17%). this again obscures major differences within this group.

5 8 4 <0.5 5 1 1 1 1 <0.5 1 18 3 4 7 4 Share of Total Population Due to rounding.5 <0.5 1 16 2 3 7 5 1 100 (13%) 1 100 (18%) % 74 45 20 22 3 26 2 <0.5 Other Religions Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other world religions Other faiths Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Secular unaffiliated Religious unaffiliated Don’t Know/Refused 5 2 1 1 <0.000 % 81 54 29 15 10 24 1 1 <0.5 4 1 <0.5 1 17 1 3 7 6 <0.5 1 <0.000+ % 78 49 24 21 4 25 2 <0. For example.5 1 <0.5 100 (22%) $50.S.999 % 79 54 29 17 8 21 2 1 1 <0.5 <0. Religious Landscape Survey Income The religious affiliation patterns of different income groups largely mirror the differences among educational groups.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.5 1 16 2 2 6 6 1 100 (100%) Under $30. approximately four-in-ten Americans making less than $30.5 <0. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 58 .5 1 <0.999 $100.5 <0.5 1 16 2 3 6 5 1 100 (17%) $75.5 3 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0. % Christian 78 Protestant 51 Evangelical churches 26 Mainline churches 18 Historically black churches 7 Catholic 24 Mormon 2 Jehovah’s Witness 1 Orthodox 1 Other Christian <0.000$74.5 1 15 1 2 5 8 1 100 (31%) $30.5 1 1 <0.999 % 79 52 29 19 5 22 2 1 1 <0.000$99.000$49. figures may not add to 100 and nested figures may not add to the subtotal indicated.000 per year belong to evangelical Protestant churches (29%) or historically black Protestant churches Religious Affiliation by Income Total Pop.5 5 2 1 1 <0.

More than twice the proportion of people making at least $100.000 or less (3%). half of the unaffiliated in this income group (8%) are in the “religious unaffiliated” category.000 per year are atheist or agnostic (7% total) compared with those making $30. Close to a quarter (24%) are Catholic and 15% are unaffiliated. Catholics make up about an equal proportion of adults making over $100.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. But there are proportionally many fewer members of historically black churches (3%) and evangelical churches (20%) in the top income bracket.000 per year and of those making under $30.S. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 59 . However. Religious Landscape Survey (10%).000 per year.

000 under $100. Jehovah’s Witnesses and Muslims earn less than $50. Income Levels of Major Religious Traditions Less than $30. historically black churches. Religious Landscape Survey Income Levels of Religious Traditions When the survey breaks down individual religious traditions into income categories. figures may not add to 100 and nested figures may not add to the subtotal indicated. Results have been repercentaged to exclude nonresponse.000 per year.000+ % 18 15 13 21 8 Total Population Protestant Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically black churches Catholic Mormon Jehovah’s Witness Orthodox Jewish Muslim* Buddhist Hindu Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Secular unaffiliated Religious unaffiliated =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 * From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream. with pluralities of each of these groups making more than $50. 2007 ” Due to rounding.000$50. Buddhists and Orthodox Christians also tend to have higher income levels. majorities of members of evangelical churches. Mormons.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. More than four-in-ten (43% and 46%. Pew Research Center.000 per year. Mainline Protestants. not surprising given their high levels of education.000 % % 22 30 23 24 21 26 30 38 26 29 29 25 34 37 29 31 35 30 25 29 29 33 19 19 16 9 28 46 16 22 43 19 28 25 21 12 $100.000 per year.000under $50.S. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 60 . the results show that Hindus and Jews report higher incomes than others. respectively) of these groups make more than $100. By contrast.000 % 31 32 34 25 47 31 26 42 20 14 35 25 9 29 21 18 25 40 20 21 23 24 11 24 19 10 23 20 22 24 24 $30. Catholics and the unaffiliated population fairly closely resemble the general population in terms of income.

more than double the rate among the “religious unaffiliated.000 per year. Religious Landscape Survey The income breakdown within the unaffiliated population is similar to the educational breakdown within this group. Four-in-ten of the “religious unaffiliated” make less than $30. this is roughly twice the number of atheists and agnostics who earn this amount (21% and 18%. ” Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 61 .000 per year. respectively). By contrast.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.S. about a quarter of atheists and agnostics make more than $100.

6 0.9 19.8 5.5% vs. Moreover.8 0.4 0.4 19.5 0.3 1.6 0.1 6.7 0.5 25.7 0. men are twice as likely to say they are atheist or agnostic as compared with women (5.8 22.9 100 (48%) Women % 82.7 1.9 1.7 0.7 4.3 1.3 4.3 3.0 8.4 0. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 62 .6 2.1 1.S.2 48.6 0. figures may not add to 100 and nested figures may not add to the subtotal indicated.1 12.6 0.6 17 .8 0. 2. Religious Landscape Survey Gender The Landscape Survey finds that men are significantly more likely to claim no religious affiliation than are women.3 <0.4 6. 12.7 100 (52%) Christian Protestant Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically black churches Catholic Mormon Jehovah’s Witness Orthodox Other Christian Other Religions Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other world religions Other faiths Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Secular unaffiliated Religious unaffiliated Don’t Know/Refused Share of Total Population Due to rounding.9 6.2 7 .3 0.6%) men have no formal religious affiliation.4 51.3 5.9 23.0 1. Religious Affiliation of Men and Women Total Population % 78.3 4.5 <0.8 0.8 0.6%).6 0.0 25.3 26.6 2. Nearly one-in-five (19.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.2 16.8% of whom say they are unaffiliated.5 0.6 0.2 1.1 5.2 1.7 0.4 53.3 18.7 0.9 1.8 0.4 <0.3 5.8 26.8 0.3 1.8 100 (100%) Men % 74.7 1. almost seven points more than women.

however. members of Protestant churches are eight percentage points more likely to be women than men (54% to 46%). Gender and Religious Traditions A closer look at the gender makeup of specific religious groups shows that while women make up a greater proportion of nearly every Christian group. Buddhism and Hinduism. For example. Gender Distribution of Major Religious Traditions Male % 48 46 47 46 40 46 44 40 46 52 54 53 61 59 70 64 60 52 54 56 60 54 48 46 47 39 41 30 36 40 48 Female % 52 54 53 54 60 Total Population Protestant Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically black churches Catholic Mormon Jehovah’s Witness Orthodox Jewish Muslim* Buddhist Hindu Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Secular unaffiliated Religious unaffiliated =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 * From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream. women constitute a somewhat higher percentage (60%). 2007 ” Due to rounding. figures may not add to 100. Among historically black Protestant churches and Jehovah’s Witnesses. Religious Landscape Survey Women are more likely than men to be affiliated with nearly every major Christian group. there is significant variation among them. nearly 54% of women are Protestant. including Judaism.S. But men are slightly more likely than women to associate with other religious traditions. a similar gap is seen among Catholics. for instance. Pew Research Center. Islam.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. compared with 49% of men. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 63 .

Overall 59% of this group are men. Muslims and Buddhists are composed of slightly more men than women.S. more than six-in-ten (61%) Hindus are men. compared with 41% who are women. Religious Landscape Survey The situation is reversed for many non-Christian religious groups. Jews. Among agnostics and atheists. the difference is much greater. seven-in-ten atheists and nearly two-thirds (64%) of agnostics are men. Among Hindus. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 64 . the gender gap is even larger. Men also make up a significantly larger share of the unaffiliated population.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.

5 2 26 3 4 10 9 1 100 (6%) Divorced/ Never Separated Widowed Married % % % 79 89 69 56 64 45 28 30 19 19 24 14 9 10 12 21 22 21 1 1 1 1 1 1 <0. divorced.S.5 <0.5 2 16 1 2 6 6 1 100 (12%) 1 100 (8%) 3 2 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 1 <0. generally.5 1 5 2 <0.5 1 <0. with a few exceptions.5 <0.5 <0.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. figures may not add to 100 and nested figures may not add to the subtotal indicated. members of evangelical Protestant churches make up a slightly larger Religious Affiliation by Marital Status Total Pop.5 <0. widowed or have you never been married? Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 65 . Question: Are you currently married.5 1 14 2 2 6 6 1 100 (100%) 1 2 6 5 1 100 (54%) Living with Partner % 68 40 19 14 7 26 1 <0.5 Other Religions Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other world religions Other faiths Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Secular unaffiliated Religious unaffiliated Don’t Know/Refused 5 2 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 4 1 1 1 <0.5 1 16 Share of Total Population Due to rounding.5 <0. Religious Landscape Survey Family Composition The religious profile of married people looks very similar to that of the U. % 78 51 Married % 81 52 29 19 4 25 2 1 1 <0.5 1 7 1 1 3 3 1 100 (19%) 6 2 1 1 <0.5 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 5 2 <0. living with a partner. separated.S.5 2 24 3 5 8 8 Christian Protestant Evangelical churches 26 Mainline churches 18 Historically black churches 7 Catholic 24 Mormon 2 Jehovah’s Witness 1 Orthodox 1 Other Christian <0. For example.

and members of historically black Protestant churches make up a smaller proportion of married people (4%) than of the overall population (7%).S.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. roughly one-in-four (24%) are not affiliated with any particular religious group. and fewer than one-in-four of these (3% of married people overall) are atheist or agnostic. Among married people. and one-third of these (8% of the never married) describe themselves as atheist or agnostic. Among those who have never been married. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 66 . only 14% are not affiliated with any particular religion. Religious Landscape Survey percentage of married people than of the population overall (29% to 26%). by contrast. People who have never been married or who are living with a partner are much more likely than their married counterparts to be unaffiliated with any particular religion.

living with a partner. These two traditions. Pew Research Center. Religious Landscape Survey Marital Status of Religious Traditions When the survey breaks down the various religious groups by marital status. with atheists (37% never married) and agnostics (38% never married) especially unlikely to have ever been married. compared with a similar percentage (34%) who have never been married. also have the lowest rates of never-married members. only 5% have been divorced. respondents were asked. Hindus also have the lowest divorce rate of any group.S. Question: Are you currently married. divorced. only a third (33%) are married. or never been married?” Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 67 . Muslims (28%). Buddhists (31%) and the unaffiliated (28%) also have high rates of members who have never married. figures may not add to 100 and nested figures may not add to the subtotal indicated. Members of historically black churches are the least likely to be married.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. separated. “Are you married. separated. Results repercentaged to exclude nonresponse. widowed or have you never been married? In the 2007 Pew survey of Muslims. Marital Status of Religious Traditions Married % 54 55 59 57 33 58 71 53 58 57 60 45 78 44 46 39 41 49 47 7 3 1 3 6 N/A 8 0 9 10 11 10 11 10 Living with partner % 6 5 5 5 6 10 9 14 9 9 9 12 5 15 12 10 10 11 13 Divorced/ Separated % 12 13 13 12 16 8 5 11 7 8 3 4 2 5 4 3 3 3 4 Widowed % 8 10 9 11 11 17 12 20 22 19 28 31 14 26 28 37 36 26 25 Never married % 19 17 14 15 34 Total Population =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 Protestant Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically black churches Catholic Mormon Jehovah’s Witness Orthodox Jewish Muslim* Buddhist Hindu Other faiths Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Secular unaffiliated Religious unaffiliated * From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream. divorced. the findings show that Hindus (78%) and Mormons (71%) are the most likely to be married. along with members of evangelical churches. widowed. This group is also most likely to be divorced (16%). 2007 ” Due to rounding.

in spite of their much lower rates of marriage. Jews and Buddhists. members of historically black churches also closely resemble the general public in this regard. And. they are more likely to have smaller families. Catholics and members of evangelical Protestant churches have about the same number of children living at home as the general population. Results have been repercentaged to exclude nonresponse. compared with about seven-in-ten members of mainline Protestant churches. Only about half of Mormons (51%) and Muslims (53%) have no children living at home. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 68 . Number of Children at Home for Religious Traditions Number of children under age 18 living at home 0 1 2 3+ % % % % 65 13 13 9 66 65 70 64 61 51 63 70 72 53 70 52 67 75 75 67 60 13 14 16 9 9 13 16 21 13 11 11 15 14 13 13 12 15 15 14 11 14 11 19 11 24 13 10 9 13 14 12 13 12 11 11 21 10 6 8 15 4 3 7 5 4 5 12 8 9 6 10 Total Population Protestant Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically black churches Catholic Mormon Jehovah’s Witness Orthodox Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Secular unaffiliated Religious unaffiliated =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 Due to rounding. figures may not add to 100 and nested figures may not add to the subtotal indicated. and 5% of each group have five or more children at home. Hindus are also less likely than other traditions to have no children living at home (52%).S. But compared with Muslims and Mormons. with only a small number (3%) having three or more children at home. Religious Landscape Survey Family Composition of Religious Groups Mormons and Muslims are the groups most likely to have large families.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. More than one-in-five Mormons (21%) and 15% of Muslims have three or more children living at home.

5 <0. Religious Affiliation of Geographic Regions Total Pop.5 <0. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 69 .5 3 1 <0. Northeasterners are also much more likely to be Jewish (4% are Jewish) than people living in other regions. and the fewest number of people affiliated with evangelical Protestant churches (13%).5 2 <0.5 2 25 6 1 1 1 West % 71 38 20 15 3 Christian Protestant Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically black churches Catholic Mormon Jehovah’s Witness Orthodox Other Christian Other Religions Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other world religions Other faiths Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Secular unaffiliated Religious unaffiliated Don’t Know/Refused Share of Total Population Due to rounding.5 <0.S.5 <0. Religious Landscape Survey Religion and Geography Each region of the United States displays a distinctive pattern of religious affiliation.5 <0. figures may not add to 100 and nested figures may not add to the subtotal indicated.5 7 4 1 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 <0.S. the Northeast has more Catholics (37%).5 1 21 3 4 9 6 6 2 <0.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. For example.5 <0.5 3 1 <0.5 <0.5 1 16 1 2 6 7 1 100 (36%) 13 1 2 4 6 1 100 (22%) South % 83 65 37 17 11 16 1 1 <0. % 78 51 26 18 7 24 2 1 1 <0. than any other region in the U.5 1 16 2 3 7 4 1 100 (23%) Midwest % 80 54 26 22 6 24 1 1 <0.5 1 16 2 2 6 6 1 100 (100%) 1 100 (19%) Northeast % 76 37 13 19 5 37 <0.5 5 2 1 1 <0.

Of the four regions.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. about one-in-five (22%) are members of a mainline Protestant church. A quarter of Westerners are Catholic. and one-in-five is a member of an evangelical Protestant church. the South has the smallest concentration of Catholics (16%) and the unaffiliated population (13%).S. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 70 . About a quarter (26%) of Midwesterners are members of an evangelical Protestant church. nearly one–in-four (37%) are members of evangelical churches. the Midwest most closely resembles the overall religious makeup of the general population. Religious Landscape Survey Among Southerners. The West also has the smallest number of people affiliated with mainline Protestant churches (15%) and the greatest proportion of Mormons (6%). nearly a quarter (24%) are Catholic and 16% are unaffiliated. by contrast. and more than one-in-ten (11%) are affiliated with a historically black church. including the largest proportion of atheists and agnostics (7% total). Of all the regions. These proportions are nearly identical to what the survey finds among the general public. The West has the largest proportion of people unaffiliated with any particular religion (21%).

fully half of members of evangelical Protestant churches live in the South. Chapter 3: Religious Affiliation and Demographic Groups 71 . Geographic Distribution of Religious Traditions Northeast % 19 13 10 19 13 29 4 16 33 14 41 29 17 29 23 19 21 20 21 15 24 7 19 19 23 12 22 15 13 20 23 20 20 22 26 Midwest % 23 25 23 29 19 24 12 36 24 22 26 32 23 32 26 29 23 28 25 37 South % 36 46 50 34 60 23 76 29 25 41 21 18 45 26 31 29 35 32 32 22 West % 22 16 17 18 8 Total Population Protestant Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically black churches Catholic Mormon Jehovah’s Witness Orthodox Other Christian Jewish Muslim* Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Secular unaffiliated Religious unaffiliated =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 *From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream. Religious Landscape Survey Geographic Distribution of Religious Traditions A look at the regional distribution of religious groups reveals that more Catholics live in the Northeast (28%) than in any other region. the largest number live in the West and the South (29% each). figures may not add to 100. 2007 ” Due to rounding.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Pew Research Center. By contrast. and their lowest number lives in the West (23%). compared with only 10% in the Northeast and 17% in the West. Among the unaffiliated. The vast majority of Mormons (76%) live in the West.S.

982 8. rows may not add to 100. widowed.013 576 552 213 360 167 129 676 313 217 1.308 18. Churches Catholic Mormon Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Jehovah’s Witness Orthodox Greek Orthodox Other Christian Jewish Reform Conservative Muslim* Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unitarian and Other Liberal Faiths New Age Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Secular Unaffiliated Religious Unaffiliated Due to rounding.005 504 824 1. Pew Research Center.822 9. divorced. separated. living with a partner. Question: Are you currently married. or have you never been married? Living with Partner % 6 5 5 5 6 7 3 3 1 3 4 10 6 4 5 N/A 8 0 9 10 8 10 11 10 11 10 Divorced/ Separated % 12 13 13 12 16 10 9 9 14 9 8 19 9 11 7 9 12 5 15 14 19 12 10 10 11 13 Widowed % 8 10 9 11 11 8 5 5 11 7 9 6 8 6 15 3 4 2 5 7 1 4 3 3 3 4 Never Married % 19 17 14 15 34 17 12 12 20 22 17 15 19 18 20 28 31 14 26 22 34 28 37 36 26 25 N 35. Religious Landscape Survey Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables Marital Status by Religious Tradition Married % Total Population Total Protestants Members of Evangelical Prot.688 54 55 59 57 33 58 71 71 53 58 61 49 57 61 53 60 45 79 44 48 38 46 39 41 49 47 * From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream. Black Prot.029 410 256 447 296 117 5.421 1.S.419 7 .989 1.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Churches Members of Mainline Protestant Churches Members of Hist. 2007 ” Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 72 .

or have you never been married? Living with Partner % 6 5 5 4 8 7 4 4 7 6 5 9 4 5 3 3 2 3 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 3 6 6 5 5 2 10 Divorced/ Separated % 12 13 14 13 16 16 12 11 15 13 12 15 11 11 11 11 10 12 16 15 19 12 12 13 12 13 11 11 13 12 18 11 Widowed % 8 10 11 10 12 13 12 11 17 4 4 3 12 13 12 15 17 14 8 8 7 11 11 12 11 14 15 14 12 12 10 6 Never Married % 19 17 18 12 16 34 13 12 26 17 16 20 13 12 13 14 17 12 17 14 30 17 18 18 19 14 13 13 16 14 11 23 N 35.537 1.308 18.338 1. widowed.918 736 1.182 1.084 254 706 672 773 616 157 342 298 410 373 106 151 Total Population Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 73 .646 2.166 305 1. separated. divorced. Question: Are you currently married.S. rows may not add to 100.987 626 1.385 207 1.152 318 834 1.885 3.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Religious Landscape Survey Marital Status by Protestant Family Married % 54 Total Protestants 55 Baptist 51 Baptist in the Evangelical Tradition 60 Baptist in the Mainline Tradition 49 Baptist in the Historically Black Tradition 30 Methodist 58 Methodist in the Mainline Tradition 61 Methodist in the Historically Black Tradition 34 Nondenominational 60 Nondenominational in the Evangelical Tradition 63 Nondenominational in the Mainline Tradition 53 Lutheran 60 Lutheran in the Evangelical Tradition 60 Lutheran in the Mainline Tradition 60 Presbyterian 58 Presbyterian in the Evangelical Tradition 55 Presbyterian in the Mainline Tradition 60 Pentecostal 54 Pentecostal in the Evangelical Tradition 58 Pentecostal in the Historically Black Tradition 39 Anglican/Episcopal 55 Anglican/Episcopal in the Mainline Tradition 55 Restorationist 52 Restorationist in the Evangelical Tradition 51 Restorationist in the Mainline Tradition 56 Congregationalist 55 Congregationalist in the Mainline Tradition 56 Holiness 56 Holiness in the Evangelical Tradition 57 Reformed 58 Adventist 50 Due to rounding. living with a partner.272 2.822 5.

) Presbyterian Church in America (Evangelical Tradition) Presbyterian Church USA (Mainline Tradition) Seventh-Day Adventist (Evangelical Tradition) Southern Baptist Convention (Evangelical Tradition) United Church of Christ (Mainline Tradition) United Methodist Church (Mainline Tradition) Due to rounding. widowed.525 246 2. Question: Are you currently married.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. rows may not add to 100. Missouri Synod (Evangelical Tradition) National Baptist Convention (Historically Black Tradition) Nondenominational Charismatic Churches (Evang. Trad. living with a partner. or have you never been married? Living with Divorced/ Partner Separated % % 6 5 2 9 3 5 6 0 6 6 2 5 3 6 5 6 5 7 6 4 4 2 3 10 4 6 4 12 13 16 16 15 12 13 13 19 14 14 11 10 15 12 17 11 16 10 9 18 10 10 11 13 11 11 Widowed % 8 10 16 12 14 8 11 13 6 12 14 10 13 15 9 6 13 15 5 4 7 16 14 7 10 15 12 Never Married % 19 17 27 14 13 10 18 13 30 3 14 18 11 10 12 48 11 26 13 16 10 16 10 25 13 13 12 N 35.308 18. Trad.231 54 55 39 49 55 64 52 60 39 65 56 55 63 54 62 23 60 35 66 68 61 57 62 48 61 55 62 Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 74 .) Nondenominational Evangelical Churches (Evang. Trad.) Nondenominational Fundamentalist Churches (Evang. separated.S.822 125 411 134 478 561 124 158 102 137 474 865 103 910 119 586 547 169 412 103 166 539 135 2. Religious Landscape Survey Marital Status by Protestant Denomination Married % Total Population Total Protestants African Methodist Episcopal (Historically Black Tradition) American Baptist Churches in the USA (Mainline Tradition) Anglican Church (Mainline Tradition) Assemblies of God (Evangelical Tradition) Church of Christ (Evangelical Tradition) Church of God Cleveland. Tennessee (Evangelical Tradition) Church of God in Christ (Historically Black Tradition) Church of the Nazarene (Evangelical Tradition) Disciples of Christ (Mainline Tradition) Episcopal Church in the USA (Mainline Tradition) Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (Mainline Tradition) Free Methodist Church (Evangelical Tradition) Independent Baptist (Evangelical Tradition) Independent Baptist (Historically Black Tradition) Lutheran Church. divorced.

Asian. Black Prot. 2007 ” Due to rounding.955 499 817 1.990 7 . black. rows may not add to 100. such as Mexican.383 1.S. Pew Research Center. Puerto Rican.380 7 .101 18. of Hispanic origin or descent. or some other race? [IF NON-HISPANIC ASK:] What is your race? Are you white. or some other? Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 75 . Cuban. yourself. black Hispanic. Religious Landscape Survey Race by Religious Tradition White Total Population Total Protestants Members of Evangelical Prot.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.987 571 547 212 358 167 126 671 309 218 1. Churches Members of Mainline Protestant Churches Members of Hist. or some other Spanish background? [IF HISPANIC ASK:] Are you white Hispanic.971 1.668 * From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream.753 9. Question: Are you. Churches Catholic Mormon Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Jehovah’s Witness Orthodox Greek Orthodox Other Christian Jewish Reform Conservative Muslim* Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unitarian and Other Liberal Faiths New Age Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Secular Unaffiliated Religious Unaffiliated % 71 74 81 91 2 65 86 87 48 87 95 77 95 95 96 37 53 5 80 88 84 73 86 84 79 60 Black % 11 16 6 2 92 2 3 2 22 6 3 11 1 0 1 24 4 1 2 2 1 8 3 2 5 16 Non-Hispanic Asian % 3 1 2 1 0 2 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 20 32 88 1 2 0 4 4 4 4 2 Other/Mixed % 3 3 4 3 1 2 3 3 5 3 1 8 2 1 1 15 5 4 13 5 10 4 2 4 4 5 Latino % 12 5 7 3 4 29 7 7 24 1 2 4 3 3 2 4 6 2 5 4 5 11 5 6 8 17 N 35.030 405 255 436 291 113 4.

Puerto Rican.S. or some other Spanish background? [IF HISPANIC ASK:] Are you white Hispanic.079 254 695 661 772 615 157 343 298 410 373 106 150 Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 76 . black Hispanic.870 3. of Hispanic origin or descent.529 1.916 734 1. or some other race? [IF NON-HISPANIC ASK:] What is your race? Are you white.160 319 841 1. Question: Are you. black.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Asian.101 18.333 1.384 207 1. rows may not add to 100.645 2. such as Mexican. Religious Landscape Survey Race by Protestant Family White % Total Population 71 Total Protestants 74 Baptist 64 Baptist in the Evangelical Tradition 86 Baptist in the Mainline Tradition 83 Baptist in the Historically Black Tradition 0 Methodist 84 Methodist in the Mainline Tradition 93 Methodist in the Historically Black Tradition 1 Nondenominational 72 Nondenominational in the Evangelical Tradition 75 Nondenominational in the Mainline Tradition 78 Lutheran 96 Lutheran in the Evangelical Tradition 95 Lutheran in the Mainline Tradition 96 Presbyterian 90 Presbyterian in the Evangelical Tradition 88 Presbyterian in the Mainline Tradition 91 Pentecostal 56 Pentecostal in the Evangelical Tradition 67 Pentecostal in the Historically Black Tradition 14 Anglican/Episcopal 90 Anglican/Episcopal in the Mainline Tradition 92 Restorationist 76 Restorationist in the Evangelical Tradition 75 Restorationist in the Mainline Tradition 79 Congregationalist 93 Congregationalist in the Mainline Tradition 93 Holiness 78 Holiness in the Evangelical Tradition 87 Reformed 87 Adventist 45 Due to rounding. or some other? Black % 11 16 29 5 3 97 11 2 95 13 9 6 1 1 1 3 4 3 20 7 68 6 5 13 14 9 3 3 15 5 6 21 Non-Hispanic Asian % 3 1 1 1 2 0 1 1 0 3 3 4 0 1 0 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 4 Other/Mixed % 3 3 3 4 6 0 2 2 3 4 4 5 1 2 1 1 1 2 5 6 3 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 6 5 5 4 Latino % 12 5 3 3 6 3 2 2 2 7 8 7 1 1 2 3 4 2 18 19 13 1 1 6 6 9 1 1 1 1 2 26 N 35. Cuban.278 2.162 300 1.973 619 1.182 1.753 5. yourself.

101 18. of Hispanic origin or descent.) Presbyterian Church in America (Evangelical Tradition) Presbyterian Church USA (Mainline Tradition) Seventh-Day Adventist (Evangelical Tradition) Southern Baptist Convention (Evangelical Tradition) United Church of Christ (Mainline Tradition) United Methodist Church (Mainline Tradition) Due to rounding. or some other Spanish background? [IF HISPANIC ASK:] Are you white Hispanic. black Hispanic. Missouri Synod (Evangelical Tradition) National Baptist Convention (Historically Black Tradition) Nondenominational Charismatic Churches (Evang. yourself. Trad.S.232 71 74 1 81 92 72 76 83 11 95 79 92 97 86 91 0 95 0 75 73 79 86 91 43 85 91 93 Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 77 .) Nondenominational Fundamentalist Churches (Evang.753 125 406 130 477 561 124 158 103 137 468 867 103 905 121 583 549 170 412 103 168 542 134 2.520 246 2. Cuban.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Religious Landscape Survey Race by Protestant Denomination White % Total Population Total Protestants African Methodist Episcopal (Historically Black Tradition) American Baptist Churches in the USA (Mainline Tradition) Anglican Church (Mainline Tradition) Assemblies of God (Evangelical Tradition) Church of Christ (Evangelical Tradition) Church of God Cleveland. black. Asian. Trad.) Nondenominational Evangelical Churches (Evang. such as Mexican. Question: Are you. rows may not add to 100. Puerto Rican. or some other race? [IF NON-HISPANIC ASK:] What is your race? Are you white. Tennessee (Evangelical Tradition) Church of God in Christ (Historically Black Tradition) Church of the Nazarene (Evangelical Tradition) Disciples of Christ (Mainline Tradition) Episcopal Church in the USA (Mainline Tradition) Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (Mainline Tradition) Free Methodist Church (Evangelical Tradition) Independent Baptist (Evangelical Tradition) Independent Baptist (Historically Black Tradition) Lutheran Church. Trad. or some other? Non-Hispanic Black Asian % % 11 16 93 4 6 2 13 2 71 2 8 4 1 7 0 97 2 98 14 10 7 5 4 21 8 4 2 3 1 0 2 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 1 1 5 1 0 1 0 2 4 3 4 2 5 1 0 1 Other/Mixed % 3 3 5 6 0 6 3 3 4 1 3 1 1 3 4 0 1 0 1 4 1 1 1 4 3 4 2 Latino % 12 5 1 7 0 19 6 11 13 2 10 2 1 0 3 3 1 2 9 9 9 4 2 27 2 1 2 N 35.

000. 30 to under $40.000$49. 75 to under $100. (READ IN ORDER) Less than $10.686 1.142 1.000.000 or more. $150. 2007 ” Due to rounding.000.000$74. Churches Catholic Mormon Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Jehovah’s Witness Orthodox Greek Orthodox Other Christian Jewish Reform Conservative Muslim* Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unitarian and Other Liberal Faiths New Age Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Secular Unaffiliated Religious Unaffiliated 31 32 34 25 47 31 26 26 42 20 17 29 14 11 12 35 25 9 28 19 39 29 21 18 25 40 $30. before taxes? Just stop me when I get to the right category.000.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. rows may not add to 100. 40 to under $50.000. Black Prot.741 7 .656 6.000. Religious Landscape Survey Income Level by Religious Tradition Less than $30.424 * From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream.565 512 493 178 290 138 111 520 251 162 868 357 220 378 243 106 4. that is in 2006. Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 78 . Question: Last year.000.000+ % 18 15 13 21 8 19 16 15 9 28 30 23 46 55 43 16 22 43 18 26 9 19 28 25 21 12 N 29. Churches Members of Mainline Protestant Churches Members of Hist. 10 to under $20.000. what was your total family income from all sources.943 6. 100 to under $150.279 439 730 1.999 % 22 23 24 21 26 20 21 21 23 24 22 21 11 8 14 24 19 10 25 25 23 23 20 22 24 24 $50. 50 to under $75.000 % Total Population Total Protestants Members of Evangelical Prot.999 % 17 17 18 18 12 16 22 22 17 16 18 13 17 14 17 15 17 15 16 16 17 16 16 19 17 15 $75.435 15.S. 20 to under $30. Pew Research Center.999 % 13 12 11 15 7 14 16 16 9 13 13 13 12 12 14 10 17 22 13 13 12 13 15 16 13 10 $100.000$99.

135 919 216 580 556 650 529 121 280 239 331 304 129 17 13 17 12 16 9 18 10 14 9 11 6 18 15 19 15 14 9 21 15 22 15 18 16 21 17 21 17 21 17 18 16 16 13 19 18 14 8 15 8 12 8 11 17 12 17 17 11 17 11 18 14 20 15 20 15 18 8 18 10 Too few cases for analysis 11 7 Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 79 . that is in 2006.215 1.999 % $100. 40 to under $50. 30 to under $40.354 1. (READ IN ORDER) Less than $10. 10 to under $20. 20 to under $30. Question: Last year.998 173 1.000. 50 to under $75.000 or more.961 3.000$49.S. $150.000.000+ % 18 15 11 13 10 8 20 21 12 18 18 23 16 17 16 26 20 29 7 7 7 35 35 12 11 21 21 23 7 7 10 N 29.356 528 1.571 597 974 961 278 683 1. 100 to under $150.000.000.000 % Total Population 31 Total Protestants 32 Baptist 39 Baptist in the Evangelical Tradition 34 Baptist in the Mainline Tradition 44 Baptist in the Historically Black Tradition 50 Methodist 25 Methodist in the Mainline Tradition 23 Methodist in the Historically Black Tradition 41 Nondenominational 24 Nondenominational in the Evangelical Tradition 25 Nondenominational in the Mainline Tradition 23 Lutheran 23 Lutheran in the Evangelical Tradition 24 Lutheran in the Mainline Tradition 23 Presbyterian 21 Presbyterian in the Evangelical Tradition 30 Presbyterian in the Mainline Tradition 17 Pentecostal 45 Pentecostal in the Evangelical Tradition 45 Pentecostal in the Historically Black Tradition 48 Anglican/Episcopal 18 Anglican/Episcopal in the Mainline Tradition 17 Restorationist 38 Restorationist in the Evangelical Tradition 39 Restorationist in the Mainline Tradition 33 Congregationalist 26 Congregationalist in the Mainline Tradition 24 Holiness 41 Holiness in the Evangelical Tradition 40 Reformed Adventist 47 Due to rounding.435 15. rows may not add to 100. before taxes? Just stop me when I get to the right category.000.999 % $75.000$99. $30.999 % 22 23 25 25 22 25 22 21 24 21 21 20 22 22 23 19 21 18 25 25 25 19 19 22 23 15 19 19 26 25 25 $50.077 2.000. Religious Landscape Survey Income Level by Protestant Family Less than $30.000. what was your total family income from all sources.021 277 1.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.000. 75 to under $100.741 4.000$74.

10 to under $20. (READ IN ORDER) Less than $10.435 15.999 % 22 23 24 22 16 26 24 27 27 14 19 24 25 19 20 29 23 22 20 19 26 25 20 21 $50.000. rows may not add to 100.000.999 % $100. $150. 30 to under $40. 40 to under $50. what was your total family income from all sources.000+ % 18 15 14 8 39 8 11 8 9 20 35 17 11 8 17 7 11 25 18 28 11 15 18 22 N 29.000$99.S. 50 to under $75.000 % Total Population Total Protestants African Methodist Episcopal (Historically Black Tradition) American Baptist Churches in the USA (Mainline Tradition) Anglican Church (Mainline Tradition) Assemblies of God (Evangelical Tradition) Church of Christ (Evangelical Tradition) Church of God Cleveland.107 197 1. Tennessee (Evangelical Tradition) Church of God in Christ (Historically Black Tradition) Church of the Nazarene (Evangelical Tradition) Disciples of Christ (Mainline Tradition) Episcopal Church in the USA (Mainline Tradition) Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (Mainline Tradition) Free Methodist Church (Evangelical Tradition) Independent Baptist (Evangelical Tradition) Independent Baptist (Historically Black Tradition) Lutheran Church.000.000 or more. Question: Last year.) Nondenominational Fundamentalist Churches (Evang. Trad.) Presbyterian Church in America (Evangelical Tradition) Presbyterian Church USA (Mainline Tradition) Seventh-Day Adventist (Evangelical Tradition) Southern Baptist Convention (Evangelical Tradition) United Church of Christ (Mainline Tradition) United Methodist Church (Mainline Tradition) Due to rounding. that is in 2006. before taxes? Just stop me when I get to the right category.) Nondenominational Evangelical Churches (Evang.000$74.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. $30. 75 to under $100. Trad. Missouri Synod (Evangelical Tradition) National Baptist Convention (Historically Black Tradition) Nondenominational Charismatic Churches (Evang.000. 100 to under $150.000.000.999 % $75.000.000$49. Trad. 20 to under $30.876 31 32 40 46 17 41 37 41 46 31 16 24 37 55 24 46 22 15 34 16 46 30 27 23 17 13 17 12 13 9 16 9 12 15 15 11 17 11 19 6 10 8 Too few cases for analysis 21 14 11 18 21 15 Too few cases for analysis 17 11 13 5 20 18 12 6 26 17 21 18 Too few cases for analysis 16 12 19 18 10 7 19 11 21 14 19 16 Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 80 .741 108 354 113 415 483 100 134 106 394 713 798 104 478 474 153 360 147 452 115 2. Religious Landscape Survey Income Level by Protestant Denomination Less than $30.000.

027 410 250 437 288 116 4.281 7 .271 1. 2007 ” Due to rounding.942 7 . Churches Catholic Mormon Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Jehovah’s Witness Orthodox Greek Orthodox Other Christian Jewish Reform Conservative Muslim* Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unitarian and Other Liberal Faiths New Age Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Secular Unaffiliated Religious Unaffiliated * From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream.494 9.662 Total Population Total Protestants Members of Evangelical Protestant Churches Members of Mainline Protestant Churches Members of Historically Black Prot.856 565 543 207 358 166 127 664 313 212 1.695 18. rows may not add to 100.S. Pew Research Center. Question: What is your age? Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 81 .965 1.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Religious Landscape Survey Age by Religious Tradition 18-29 % 20 17 17 14 24 18 24 25 21 18 8 16 20 13 22 29 23 18 26 18 43 31 37 34 29 30 30-49 % 39 38 39 36 36 41 42 42 39 38 35 35 29 30 23 48 40 58 37 33 43 40 36 34 41 43 50-64 % 25 26 26 28 24 24 19 18 25 27 29 27 29 33 30 18 30 19 27 33 12 20 16 22 21 20 65+ % 16 20 19 23 15 16 15 15 14 17 27 22 22 24 25 5 7 5 10 16 2 8 12 9 8 7 N 34.947 502 818 1.

252 2.163 1.344 198 1. Question: What is your age? Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 82 .798 3.695 18.511 1.594 2. rows may not add to 100.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.142 303 1.933 613 1.143 316 827 1.065 249 679 647 760 606 154 335 292 403 368 103 150 Total Population Total Protestants Baptist Baptist in the Evangelical Tradition Baptist in the Mainline Tradition Baptist in the Historically Black Tradition Methodist Methodist in the Mainline Tradition Methodist in the Historically Black Tradition Nondenominational Nondenominational in the Evangelical Tradition Nondenominational in the Mainline Tradition Lutheran Lutheran in the Evangelical Tradition Lutheran in the Mainline Tradition Presbyterian Presbyterian in the Evangelical Tradition Presbyterian in the Mainline Tradition Pentecostal Pentecostal in the Evangelical Tradition Pentecostal in the Historically Black Tradition Anglican/Episcopal Anglican/Episcopal in the Mainline Tradition Restorationist Restorationist in the Evangelical Tradition Restorationist in the Mainline Tradition Congregationalist Congregationalist in the Mainline Tradition Holiness Holiness in the Evangelical Tradition Reformed Adventist Due to rounding.894 731 1. Religious Landscape Survey Age by Protestant Family 18-29 % 20 17 17 14 20 22 11 11 15 22 21 22 11 12 10 11 13 10 19 16 29 10 10 21 23 12 10 12 15 16 15 18 30-49 % 39 38 38 38 38 36 33 34 28 49 48 50 36 34 37 32 29 33 42 44 34 30 30 31 31 32 30 27 32 31 36 43 50-64 % 25 26 25 26 22 25 29 29 32 22 22 21 29 29 28 29 29 29 25 26 25 34 33 24 24 22 35 36 27 27 27 24 65+ % 16 20 20 21 20 17 26 26 25 8 8 6 24 25 24 29 29 29 14 14 12 27 27 24 22 34 25 25 26 27 21 15 N 34.494 5.S.314 1.

Question: What is your age? 30-49 % 39 38 31 36 26 41 32 30 33 31 33 29 36 31 39 35 32 35 54 51 43 29 31 44 37 27 34 50-64 % 25 26 30 23 33 33 24 24 28 25 21 34 29 27 27 19 31 29 22 22 33 32 30 21 27 34 29 65+ % 16 20 25 23 35 12 22 28 10 28 35 25 27 29 19 10 26 21 6 8 12 27 32 15 22 28 26 N 34. Trad.492 241 2. rows may not add to 100.195 Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 83 .) 19 Nondenominational Fundamentalist Churches (Evang.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Missouri Synod (Evangelical Tradition) 11 National Baptist Convention (Historically Black Tradition) 14 Nondenominational Charismatic Churches (Evang.695 18. Religious Landscape Survey Age by Protestant Denomination 18-29 % Total Population 20 Total Protestants 17 African Methodist Episcopal (Historically Black Tradition) 14 American Baptist Churches in the USA (Mainline Tradition) 18 Anglican Church (Mainline Tradition) 7 Assemblies of God (Evangelical Tradition) 14 Church of Christ (Evangelical Tradition) 22 Church of God Cleveland.S. Tennessee (Evangelical Tradition) 18 Church of God in Christ (Historically Black Tradition) 29 Church of the Nazarene (Evangelical Tradition) 16 Disciples of Christ (Mainline Tradition) 10 Episcopal Church in the USA (Mainline Tradition) 11 Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (Mainline Tradition) 8 Free Methodist Church (Evangelical Tradition) 13 Independent Baptist (Evangelical Tradition) 15 Independent Baptist (Historically Black Tradition) 36 Lutheran Church. Trad.) 18 Nondenominational Evangelical Churches (Evang.) 12 Presbyterian Church in America (Evangelical Tradition) 12 Presbyterian Church USA (Mainline Tradition) 8 Seventh-Day Adventist (Evangelical Tradition) 20 Southern Baptist Convention (Evangelical Tradition) 13 United Church of Christ (Mainline Tradition) 11 United Methodist Church (Mainline Tradition) 11 Due to rounding. Trad.494 120 404 130 473 552 120 153 102 135 455 855 102 897 120 582 538 166 406 102 165 534 134 2.

825 9.985 7 .680 * From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream.009 509 825 1. 2007 ” Due to rounding. Religious Landscape Survey Educational Level by Religious Tradition Less than High School High School Grad % % Total Population Total Protestants Members of Evangelical Prot.990 578 555 211 362 168 129 676 315 218 1. Churches Members of Mainline Protestant Churches Members of Hist.995 1.031 408 253 448 296 118 5. Black Prot. Churches Catholic Mormon Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Jehovah’s Witness Orthodox Greek Orthodox Other Christian Jewish Reform Conservative Muslim* Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unitarian and Other Liberal Faiths New Age Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Secular Unaffiliated Religious Unaffiliated 14 14 16 9 19 17 9 8 19 6 2 12 3 1 4 21 3 4 7 3 13 13 8 5 10 21 36 38 40 34 40 36 30 30 51 26 33 22 19 17 18 32 23 12 25 16 38 34 28 22 35 40 Some College % 23 24 24 24 25 21 32 33 22 22 21 27 19 17 21 23 26 10 28 30 25 24 23 29 24 22 College Graduate Post-graduate % % 16 15 13 20 11 16 18 18 6 28 25 20 24 31 23 14 22 26 18 22 13 16 21 23 17 11 11 9 7 14 5 10 10 10 3 18 18 20 35 35 35 10 26 48 21 29 11 13 21 20 13 6 N 35.S.298 18. rows may not add to 100. Pew Research Center. Question: What is the last grade or class that you completed in school? Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 84 .411 7 .Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.429 1.

383 210 1.539 1.166 306 1.645 2.881 3.987 625 1. Question: What is the last grade or class that you completed in school? Some College % 23 24 22 22 17 23 23 23 26 32 32 31 25 26 25 24 24 24 22 21 27 23 23 23 22 26 21 21 20 22 23 25 College Graduate Post-graduate % 16 15 12 13 8 10 20 21 14 18 17 22 19 18 19 22 19 24 8 7 9 28 29 14 14 17 20 22 9 10 20 15 % 11 9 6 6 6 5 13 14 9 11 11 14 9 8 10 18 12 21 3 3 3 25 25 8 6 17 20 21 5 5 7 5 N 35.080 256 702 668 773 617 156 345 300 409 372 105 150 % 36 38 43 43 48 41 35 34 41 33 34 27 39 39 39 28 32 26 41 41 38 22 21 37 39 30 33 32 42 42 39 32 Total Population Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 85 . Religious Landscape Survey Educational Level by Protestant Family Less than High School High School Grad % 14 Total Protestants 14 Baptist 18 Baptist in the Evangelical Tradition 17 Baptist in the Mainline Tradition 22 Baptist in the Historically Black Tradition 21 Methodist 9 Methodist in the Mainline Tradition 8 Methodist in the Historically Black Tradition 10 Nondenominational 6 Nondenominational in the Evangelical Tradition 6 Nondenominational in the Mainline Tradition 7 Lutheran 8 Lutheran in the Evangelical Tradition 10 Lutheran in the Mainline Tradition 7 Presbyterian 8 Presbyterian in the Evangelical Tradition 13 Presbyterian in the Mainline Tradition 5 Pentecostal 26 Pentecostal in the Evangelical Tradition 27 Pentecostal in the Historically Black Tradition 23 Anglican/Episcopal 2 Anglican/Episcopal in the Mainline Tradition 1 Restorationist 17 Restorationist in the Evangelical Tradition 19 Restorationist in the Mainline Tradition 10 Congregationalist 5 Congregationalist in the Mainline Tradition 3 Holiness 23 Holiness in the Evangelical Tradition 21 Reformed 11 Adventist 24 Due to rounding. rows may not add to 100.336 1.269 2.916 733 1.298 18.158 318 840 1.183 1.S.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.825 5.

298 18.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.229 14 14 10 23 1 24 18 28 27 11 10 1 6 20 18 19 9 22 1 6 5 18 7 24 15 4 8 36 38 35 48 23 41 39 43 35 45 31 20 38 47 45 48 38 38 43 28 35 27 23 30 42 33 34 Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 86 . Missouri Synod (Evangelical Tradition) National Baptist Convention (Historically Black Tradition) Nondenominational Charismatic Churches (Evang.825 127 410 132 478 562 122 160 103 137 473 867 103 908 120 584 546 171 408 103 167 542 134 2.S.525 248 2.) Nondenominational Fundamentalist Churches (Evang. rows may not add to 100. Trad. Trad.) Presbyterian Church in America (Evangelical Tradition) Presbyterian Church USA (Mainline Tradition) Seventh-Day Adventist (Evangelical Tradition) Southern Baptist Convention (Evangelical Tradition) United Church of Christ (Mainline Tradition) United Methodist Church (Mainline Tradition) Due to rounding. Question: What is the last grade or class that you completed in school? Some College % 23 24 29 15 27 23 23 20 27 28 24 22 26 17 22 25 25 22 32 34 31 24 23 26 22 21 23 College Graduate % 16 15 17 9 25 8 14 4 8 10 18 30 19 9 11 5 18 11 13 18 19 19 23 16 14 21 21 Postgraduate % 11 9 9 5 24 4 6 4 3 5 17 27 11 7 5 3 9 6 11 15 11 13 24 5 7 21 14 N 35. Religious Landscape Survey Educational Level by Protestant Denomination Less than High School High School Grad % % Total Population Total Protestants African Methodist Episcopal (Historically Black Tradition) American Baptist Churches in the USA (Mainline Tradition) Anglican Church (Mainline Tradition) Assemblies of God (Evangelical Tradition) Church of Christ (Evangelical Tradition) Church of God Cleveland.) Nondenominational Evangelical Churches (Evang. Trad. Tennessee (Evangelical Tradition) Church of God in Christ (Historically Black Tradition) Church of the Nazarene (Evangelical Tradition) Disciples of Christ (Mainline Tradition) Episcopal Church in the USA (Mainline Tradition) Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (Mainline Tradition) Free Methodist Church (Evangelical Tradition) Independent Baptist (Evangelical Tradition) Independent Baptist (Historically Black Tradition) Lutheran Church.

Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Churches Members of Mainline Protestant Churches Members of Hist. Churches Catholic Mormon Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Jehovah’s Witness Orthodox Greek Orthodox Other Christian Jewish Reform Conservative Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unitarian and Other Liberal Faiths New Age Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Secular Unaffiliated Religious Unaffiliated Due to rounding.989 8.431 18.451 1. Religious Landscape Survey Number of Children by Religious Tradition No Children % Total Population Total Protestants Members of Evangelical Prot.999 1.883 9. Question: Are you the parent or a guardian of any children under 18 now living in your household? (IF YES.029 577 553 215 360 167 129 681 315 219 116 411 256 449 297 118 5.S. Black Prot. rows may not add to 100. ASK: And may I ask how many?) One Child % 13 13 13 12 15 13 14 14 16 9 5 12 9 11 5 13 16 21 15 15 14 13 11 11 15 14 Two Children % 13 12 13 12 11 15 14 14 11 14 14 8 11 14 8 19 11 24 12 13 10 13 10 9 13 14 Three Children % 6 5 6 5 6 7 12 12 6 5 4 4 4 4 2 9 3 2 3 2 6 5 3 3 4 8 Four or more Children % 3 3 3 1 4 4 9 10 4 1 2 4 4 1 2 6 1 1 1 1 0 2 2 1 1 4 N 35.443 7 .694 65 66 65 70 64 61 51 50 63 70 75 72 72 71 82 53 70 52 69 70 70 67 75 75 67 60 Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 87 .031 515 823 1.

002 628 1.085 256 704 670 772 615 157 342 298 410 373 106 151 Total Population Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 88 .171 306 1.653 2. Question: Are you the parent or a guardian of any children under 18 now living in your household? (IF YES.341 1.275 2.923 738 1.185 1.431 18.392 208 1. ASK: And may I ask how many?) One Child % 13 13 14 13 13 15 11 11 18 15 16 16 12 12 12 11 10 12 14 14 13 11 12 11 12 6 11 11 11 10 11 16 Two Children % 13 12 13 13 14 11 11 12 6 17 18 15 11 10 12 10 7 11 13 13 12 12 12 10 10 11 11 11 11 10 7 9 Three Children % 6 5 6 5 7 6 4 4 3 8 8 5 5 6 5 3 2 4 7 7 6 2 3 5 6 2 3 3 2 3 9 10 Four or more Children % 3 3 3 3 1 4 1 1 1 5 5 5 1 2 1 1 2 1 5 4 8 1 1 2 2 4 1 2 3 3 7 3 N 35.905 4.161 320 841 1.883 5. rows may not add to 100. Religious Landscape Survey Number of Children by Protestant Family No Children % 65 Total Protestants 66 Baptist 65 Baptist in the Evangelical Tradition 66 Baptist in the Mainline Tradition 65 Baptist in the Historically Black Tradition 63 Methodist 72 Methodist in the Mainline Tradition 72 Methodist in the Historically Black Tradition 72 Nondenominational 55 Nondenominational in the Evangelical Tradition 54 Nondenominational in the Mainline Tradition 59 Lutheran 70 Lutheran in the Evangelical Tradition 71 Lutheran in the Mainline Tradition 70 Presbyterian 74 Presbyterian in the Evangelical Tradition 79 Presbyterian in the Mainline Tradition 72 Pentecostal 62 Pentecostal in the Evangelical Tradition 62 Pentecostal in the Historically Black Tradition 62 Anglican/Episcopal 73 Anglican/Episcopal in the Mainline Tradition 74 Restorationist 71 Restorationist in the Evangelical Tradition 70 Restorationist in the Mainline Tradition 76 Congregationalist 73 Congregationalist in the Mainline Tradition 73 Holiness 73 Holiness in the Evangelical Tradition 74 Reformed 66 Adventist 63 Due to rounding.543 1.S.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.

Religious Landscape Survey Number of Children by Protestant Denomination No Children % Total Population Total Protestants African Methodist Episcopal (Historically Black Tradition) American Baptist Churches in USA (Mainline Tradition) Anglican Church (Mainline Tradition) Assemblies of God (Evangelical Tradition) Church of Christ (Evangelical Tradition) Church of God Cleveland.) Presbyterian Church in America (Evangelical Tradition) Presbyterian Church USA (Mainline Tradition) Seventh-Day Adventist (Evangelical Tradition) Southern Baptist Convention (Evangelical Tradition) United Church of Christ (Mainline Tradition) United Methodist Church (Mainline Tradition) Due to rounding. Question: Are you the parent or a guardian of any children under 18 now living in your household? (IF YES. Missouri Synod (Evangelical Tradition) National Baptist Convention (Historically Black Tradition) Nondenominational Charismatic Churches (Evang.537 246 2.) Nondenominational Evangelical Churches (Evang. Trad.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.431 18. rows may not add to 100.Trad.S. Trad.883 127 441 132 480 560 124 160 103 137 474 868 103 911 121 587 549 171 411 103 168 542 135 2. ASK: And may I ask how many?) One Child % 13 13 16 14 7 12 13 15 12 10 7 12 11 12 14 17 11 16 22 15 20 10 11 15 13 10 11 Two Children % 13 12 8 13 11 12 10 8 11 12 10 12 13 12 14 15 10 7 16 19 12 6 10 10 13 10 12 Three Children % 6 5 4 7 4 8 5 3 6 4 2 2 5 3 6 4 5 6 9 9 5 2 4 10 4 3 4 Four or more Children N % 3 3 1 2 0 4 2 1 8 4 5 1 1 3 3 4 2 3 8 4 3 3 1 3 3 2 1 35.) Nondenominational Fundamentalist Churches (Evang.238 65 66 71 64 78 64 70 74 63 70 76 73 70 70 63 61 72 68 46 52 59 79 74 62 67 75 72 Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 89 . Tennessee (Evangelical Tradition) Church of God in Christ (Historically Black Tradition) Church of the Nazarene (Evangelical Tradition) Disciples of Christ (Mainline Tradition) Episcopal Church in the USA (Mainline Tradition) Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (Mainline Tradition) Free Methodist Church (Evangelical Tradition) Independent Baptist (Evangelical Tradition) Independent Baptist (Historically Black Tradition) Lutheran Church.

701 * From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream.S.048 515 826 2. rows may not add to 100.006 1. Religious Landscape Survey Region by Religious Tradition Northeast % 19 Total Population Total Protestants 13 Members of Evangelical Protestant Churches 10 Members of Mainline Protestant Churches 19 Members of Historically Black Prot. Churches 13 Catholic 29 Mormon 4 Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 4 Jehovah’s Witness 16 Orthodox 33 Greek Orthodox 38 Other Christian 14 Jewish 41 Reform 41 Conservative 38 Muslim* 29 Buddhist 17 Hindu 29 Other Faiths 23 Unitarian and Other Liberal Faiths 23 New Age 25 Unaffiliated 19 Atheist 21 Agnostic 20 Secular Unaffiliated 21 Religious Unaffiliated 15 Midwest % 23 25 23 29 19 24 7 6 19 19 23 23 12 11 16 22 15 13 20 19 21 23 20 20 22 26 South % 36 46 50 34 60 24 12 12 36 24 20 22 26 27 27 32 23 32 26 26 28 29 23 28 25 37 West % 22 16 17 18 8 23 76 77 29 25 19 41 21 22 19 18 45 26 31 32 26 29 35 32 32 22 N 35.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. 2007 ” Due to rounding.472 7 .054 581 556 215 363 168 129 682 315 219 1.470 1. Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 90 .050 411 257 449 297 118 5. Pew Research Center.995 8.556 18.937 9.

393 210 1.556 18. 11 Nondenominational in the Mainline Tradition 11 Lutheran 15 Lutheran in the Evangelical Tradition 8 Lutheran in the Mainline Tradition 19 Presbyterian 22 Presbyterian in the Evangelical Tradition 17 Presbyterian in the Mainline Tradition 23 Pentecostal 12 Pentecostal in the Evangelical Tradition 10 Pentecostal in the Historically Black Tradition 18 Anglican/Episcopal 26 Anglican/Episcopal in the Mainline Tradition 25 Restorationist 13 Restorationist in the Evangelical Tradition 12 Restorationist in the Mainline Tradition 13 Congregationalist 42 Congregationalist in the Mainline Tradition 43 Holiness 14 Holiness in the Evangelical Tradition 16 Reformed 22 Adventist 19 Due to rounding.914 4.089 256 706 672 776 619 157 345 300 411 374 106 151 Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 91 .S. Religious Landscape Survey Region by Protestant Family Northeast % Total Population 19 Total Protestants 13 Baptist 8 Baptist in the Evangelical Tradition 6 Baptist in the Mainline Tradition 14 Baptist in the Historically Black Tradition 11 Methodist 17 Methodist in the Mainline Tradition 17 Methodist in the Historically Black Tradition 16 Nondenominational 11 Nondenominational in the Evangelical Trad.937 5.657 2.278 2.177 306 1.550 1.926 740 1.345 1.008 628 1. rows may not add to 100. Midwest % 23 25 18 16 24 19 28 29 22 23 23 23 53 61 48 21 20 22 19 18 20 14 14 28 27 37 28 28 35 39 48 18 South % 36 46 65 69 46 63 46 45 58 37 36 32 16 16 16 35 41 32 52 52 52 42 41 44 47 33 15 13 36 30 8 37 West % 22 16 9 9 16 7 9 9 5 30 30 34 15 15 16 22 22 22 17 19 10 19 20 15 14 17 15 16 14 15 21 25 N 35.186 1.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.164 320 844 1.

) 15 Nondenominational Evangelical Churches (Evang.239 Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 92 . Tennessee (Evangelical Tradition) 9 Church of God in Christ (Historically Black Tradition) 15 Church of the Nazarene (Evangelical Tradition) 4 Disciples of Christ (Mainline Tradition) 12 Episcopal Church in the USA (Mainline Tradition) 26 Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (Mainline Tradition) 19 Free Methodist Church (Evangelical Tradition) 20 Independent Baptist (Evangelical Tradition) 10 Independent Baptist (Historically Black Tradition) 11 Lutheran Church. Trad.556 18. Trad.) 13 Nondenominational Fundamentalist Churches (Evang.S. Religious Landscape Survey Region by Protestant Denomination Northeast % Total Population 19 Total Protestants 13 African Methodist Episcopal (Historically Black Tradition) 12 American Baptist Churches in the USA (Mainline Tradition) 19 Anglican Church (Mainline Tradition) 27 Assemblies of God (Evangelical Tradition) 10 Church of Christ (Evangelical Tradition) 12 Church of God Cleveland.539 248 2. Missouri Synod (Evangelical Tradition) 7 National Baptist Convention (Historically Black Tradition) 9 Nondenominational Charismatic Churches (Evang. Trad.937 127 411 134 480 564 124 160 103 137 474 869 103 912 121 588 549 172 413 103 168 544 135 2.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. rows may not add to 100.) 12 Presbyterian Church in America (Evangelical Tradition) 18 Presbyterian Church USA (Mainline Tradition) 22 Seventh-Day Adventist (Evangelical Tradition) 19 Southern Baptist Convention (Evangelical Tradition) 4 United Church of Christ (Mainline Tradition) 41 United Methodist Church (Mainline Tradition) 16 Due to rounding. Midwest % 23 25 26 26 17 19 26 21 20 49 37 13 51 35 23 18 64 18 20 23 31 17 22 17 13 32 29 South % 36 46 57 39 41 46 47 66 53 19 35 40 16 29 55 67 16 66 41 28 32 45 37 38 76 14 46 West % 22 16 5 16 15 24 14 4 12 28 15 21 14 16 12 4 13 8 24 36 25 20 18 26 7 14 8 N 35.

995 8. Religious Landscape Survey Gender by Religious Tradition Male % 48 46 47 46 40 46 44 44 40 46 42 46 52 54 45 54 53 61 54 54 51 59 70 64 60 52 Female % 52 54 53 54 60 54 56 56 60 54 58 54 48 46 55 46 47 39 46 46 49 41 30 36 40 48 N 35.006 1.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Pew Research Center.701 Total Population Total Protestants Members of Evangelical Protestant Churches Members of Mainline Protestant Churches Members of Historically Black Protestant Churches Catholic Mormon Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Jehovah’s Witness Orthodox Greek Orthodox Other Christian Jewish Reform Conservative Muslim* Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unitarian and Other Liberal Faiths New Age Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Secular Unaffiliated Religious Unaffiliated * From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream.472 7 .470 1.054 581 556 215 363 168 129 682 315 219 1.048 515 826 2. rows may not add to 100.937 9.050 411 257 449 297 118 5. 2007 ” Due to rounding.556 18. Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 93 .S.

657 2.186 1.937 5.177 306 1.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.550 1. Religious Landscape Survey Gender by Protestant Family Male % 48 46 45 48 44 40 43 44 37 46 48 44 47 49 47 48 52 46 44 45 42 48 49 43 43 39 43 41 46 47 42 41 Female % 52 54 55 52 56 60 57 56 63 54 52 56 53 51 53 52 48 54 56 55 58 52 51 57 57 61 57 59 54 53 58 59 N 35.556 18.164 320 844 1.278 2.393 210 1. Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 94 .008 628 1.S.345 1.914 4.089 256 706 672 776 619 157 345 300 411 374 106 151 Total Population Total Protestants Baptist Baptist in the Evangelical Tradition Baptist in the Mainline Tradition Baptist in the Historically Black Tradition Methodist Methodist in the Mainline Tradition Methodist in the Historically Black Tradition Nondenominational Nondenominational in the Evangelical Tradition Nondenominational in the Mainline Tradition Lutheran Lutheran in the Evangelical Tradition Lutheran in the Mainline Tradition Presbyterian Presbyterian in the Evangelical Tradition Presbyterian in the Mainline Tradition Pentecostal Pentecostal in the Evangelical Tradition Pentecostal in the Historically Black Tradition Anglican/Episcopal Anglican/Episcopal in the Mainline Tradition Restorationist Restorationist in the Evangelical Tradition Restorationist in the Mainline Tradition Congregationalist Congregationalist in the Mainline Tradition Holiness Holiness in the Evangelical Tradition Reformed Adventist Due to rounding. rows may not add to 100.926 740 1.

937 127 411 134 480 564 124 160 103 137 474 869 103 912 121 588 549 172 413 103 168 544 135 2. Tennessee (Evangelical Tradition) 47 Church of God in Christ (Historically Black Tradition) 44 Church of the Nazarene (Evangelical Tradition) 47 Disciples of Christ (Mainline Tradition) 37 Episcopal Church in the USA (Mainline Tradition) 48 Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (Mainline Tradition) 44 Free Methodist Church (Evangelical Tradition) 47 Independent Baptist (Evangelical Tradition) 46 Independent Baptist (Historically Black Tradition) 39 Lutheran Church. Missouri Synod (Evangelical Tradition) 47 National Baptist Convention (Historically Black Tradition) 39 Nondenominational Charismatic Churches (Evangelical Tradition) 44 Nondenominational Evangelical Churches (Evangelical Tradition) 48 Nondenominational Fundamentalist Churches (Evangelical Tradition) 63 Presbyterian Church in America (Evangelical Tradition) 57 Presbyterian Church USA (Mainline Tradition) 46 Seventh-Day Adventist (Evangelical Tradition) 40 Southern Baptist Convention (Evangelical Tradition) 49 United Church of Christ (Mainline Tradition) 39 United Methodist Church (Mainline Tradition) 43 Due to rounding.556 18. Female % 52 54 63 58 49 57 56 53 56 53 63 52 56 53 54 61 53 61 56 52 37 43 54 60 51 61 57 N 35. Religious Landscape Survey Gender by Protestant Denomination Male % Total Population 48 Total Protestants 46 African Methodist Episcopal (Historically Black Tradition) 37 American Baptist Churches in the USA (Mainline Tradition) 42 Anglican Church (Mainline Tradition) 51 Assemblies of God (Evangelical Tradition) 43 Church of Christ (Evangelical Tradition) 44 Church of God Cleveland.239 Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 95 .539 248 2.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.S. rows may not add to 100.

5% Maine % 15 26 <0. blue numbers indicate instances where the proportion of the corresponding state’s population that belongs to the religious tradition in question is significantly different than the proportion of the national population that belongs to that group.5 <0.5 6 1 1 1 <0.5 7 26 <0.5 <0.5 1 13 1 100 1.5 <0.933 ± 2.5 1 1 <0. Pew Research Center.556 ± 1. Churches Members of Hist. Churches Members of Mainline Prot.5 2 17 1 100 748 ± 4% New Hampshire/ Vermont % 11 23 <0.5 2 23 1 100 482 ± 5% Massachusetts % 11 15 2 43 <0.5 <0.5 100 320 ± 6.5 <0.5% New Jersey % 12 13 5 42 <0.5 4 1 1 1 <0.5 6 1 1 2 <0.6% Northeast % 13 19 5 37 <0.5 1 16 1 100 6.5 29 1 <0.5 <0.5 1 12 2 100 932 ± 4% New York % 11 16 5 39 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 2 1* 1 <0.5 1 1 <0.5 1 <0.556 ± 0. Black Prot. Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 96 .S.5 1 17 1 100 1.5 1 <0.5 1 16 1 100 35.Churches Catholic Mormon Jehovah’s Witness Orthodox Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other World Religions Other Faiths Unaffiliated Don’t Know/Refused Total N Margin of Error 26 18 7 24 2 1 1 <0.5% National % Members of Evang.5 1 <0.5 <0.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0. Religious Landscape Survey Religious Affiliation by State in the Northeast Connecticut/ Rhode Island % 10 13 4 43 <0.5 2 25 <0.5 1 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 2 <0.5 29 1 1 <0.5 <0.5% Pennsylvania % 18 25 7 29 <0. 2007 ” Note: Bold.5 <0. Prot.5 1 1 <0.896 ± 2.5 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 3 <0.5 100 245 ± 7% * From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream.

Religious Landscape Survey Religious Affiliation by State in the Midwest MidNational west % % Members of Evang.5 <0.5 <0. Churches 18 Members of Hist.5 1 <0. Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 97 .5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.275 ± 3.5 <0.5% Illinois % 19 17 9 32 <0.5 <0. Dakota % % % 37 18 6 18 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 1 16 <0.5 <0.S.5 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 1 17 1 100 1.5 <0. Churches 7 Catholic 24 Mormon 2 Jehovah’s Witness 1 Orthodox 1 Other Christian <0.5% Michigan % 26 19 8 23 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0. Bl.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 2 <0.5 <0.5 2 12 1 100 238 ± 7% Ohio % 26 22 7 21 <0. Pew Research Center.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 100 247 ± 7% 24 35 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 25 1 <0.6% 26 22 6 24 1 1 <0. blue numbers indicate instances where the proportion of the corresponding state’s population that belongs to the religious tradition in question is significantly different than the proportion of the national population that belongs to that group.5 Other World Religions <0.5 <0.5 1 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.556 Margin of Error ± 0. Prot.5 <0.5 Other Faiths 1 Unaffiliated 16 1 Don’t Know/Refused Total 100 N 35.5 100 789 ± 4% Ne.5 1 15 1 100 487 ± 5% Kansas % 29 27 3 23 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 15 1 100 1.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 16 1 100 9.5% Minnesota % 21 32 1 28 <0.5 1 16 1 100 824 ± 4% * From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream.5 Jewish 2 Muslim 1* Buddhist 1 Hindu <0.5 <0.5 1 17 1 100 1.5 <0.5 1 1 1 <0.N. Dakota/ Missouri braska S.5 100 879 ± 4% 21 27 3 31 <0.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0. Prot.5 <0.5 <0. Churches 26 Members of Mainl.5 <0.5 1 13 <0.5 16 <0.5 1 1 <0.5 1 <0. 2007 ” Note: Bold.5 100 924 ± 4% Iowa % 24 30 1 25 1 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 <0.654 ± 3% Wisconsin % 24 23 3 29 <0.5 1 16 <0.5 1 14 1 100 421 ± 5. Prot.340 ± 3% Indiana % 34 22 6 18 1 1 <0.078 ± 1.5 <0.5 <0.

5 1 <0.556 12.5 2 3 <0.5% 15 25 18 15 14 8 27 26 <0.5 4 1 19 16 <0. Pew Research Center.5% ± 6.5 <0.5 <0. Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 98 .5 <0.5 13 <0.5 1 100 100 967 599 ± 3.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0. blue numbers indicate instances where the proportion of the corresponding state’s population that belongs to the religious tradition in question is significantly different than the proportion of the national population that belongs to that group.5 <0.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. 2007 ” Note: Bold.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.643 681 Margin of Error ± 0.5 1 <0.5 1 100 100 110 1.5 Other Faiths 1 1 1 Unaffiliated 16 13 8 Don’t Know/Refused 1 1 1 Total 100 100 100 N 35.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0. Prot.Mary.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5% ± 3.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.166 465 ± 6% ± 3.5 1 1 <0. 7 11 18 Catholic 24 16 6 Mormon 2 1 <0.5 10 12 12 18 19 <0.5% ± 3% 38 49 16 17 16 5 12 14 1 <0. Ch. Ch.5 <0.5 <0.5% ± 4.5% ± 5% 45 51 34 31 36 18 18 15 20 32 15 8 8 10 2 8 7 24 14 7 <0.S.5 Jewish 2 1 <0.5 1 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.6% ± 1% ± 4.North Okla.5 <0.5 <0.Arkan.5 <0.266 997 296 ± 5% ± 4% ± 2.5 Muslim 1* Buddhist 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0. 18 17 15 Members of Hist.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.694 ± 10.5 <0. Bl.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 1 100 100 100 100 100 570 837 2.5 Jehovah’s Witness 1 1 1 Orthodox 1 <0. 26 37 49 Members of Mainl.5 <0.5 <0.South TennesVirWest siana land/DC sippi Carolina homa Carolina see Texas ginia Virginia % % % % % % % % % % 31 9 20 28 <0. Prot.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 Other Christian <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 1 1 <0. Religious Landscape Survey Religious Affiliation by State in the South NaAla.5 <0.Georida gia % % Kentucky % Loui.5 1 <0.Delational South bama sas ware % % % % % Members of Evang.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 <0.5 5 <0.5 1 13 12 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 1 6 12 12 1 1 1 100 100 100 333 1.5 <0.5 <0.5 Hindu <0.5 <0. Ch.5 <0.5 100 378 ± 6% Flor.5 100 528 ± 5% 15 20 18 18 <0.5 <0.5% * From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream.5 1 1 1 <0.5 1 17 1 100 756 ± 4% 47 41 53 11 21 16 23 13 3 9 9 12 1 <0.Missis.5 <0.5 <0.5% 53 16 10 5 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 Other World Religions <0. Prot.5 8 <0.5 1 1 <0.

5 18 23 1 <0.5 <0.5 100 272 ± 7% Nevada % 13 11 2 27 11 <0.5 23 5 2 <0.5 1 1 <0. Religious Landscape Survey Religious Affiliation by State in the West National % Members of Evangelical Prot.5 1 <0.5 <0. Churches 7 Catholic 24 Mormon 2 Jehovah’s Witness 1 Orthodox 1 Other Christian <0.5 1 2 25 2 100 590 ± 4.556 Margin of Error ± 0.5 1 21 1 100 228 ±7 .5 2 22 2 100 578 ± 4.5 <0.6% West % 20 15 3 25 6 1 1 1 2 <0.5 <0.5 2 18 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 2 1 <0.5 <0. Black Prot.5 <0.5 2 <0. blue numbers indicate instances where the proportion of the corresponding state’s population that belongs to the religious tradition in question is significantly different than the proportion of the national population that belongs to that group.5 1 1 3 21 2 100 252 ± 7% New Mexico % 25 15 2 26 2 2 <0.S.5 <0.5% Arizona % 23 15 2 25 4 1 <0.5 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 100 521 ± 5% Utah % 7 6 1 10 58 <0.5% Oregon % 30 16 1 14 5 <0.5 1 23 2 100 745 ± 4% * From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream.5 <0.5 2 <0.5 2 <0.5 <0.5 2 1 1 2 <0.5 <0. Churches 18 Members of Hist. Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 99 . Churches 26 Members of Mainline Prot.5 1 <0.5 100 196 ± 8% Montana/ Wyoming % 26 21 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 2 21 1 100 3.5 <0. Pew Research Center.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 2 <0.5 <0.5 Jewish 2 Muslim 1* Buddhist 1 Hindu <0.5 2 21 1 100 7 .5 Other World Religions <0.5 <0.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.279 ± 1.5 <0.574 ± 2% Colorado % 23 19 2 19 2 <0.5% California % 18 14 4 31 2 1 1 1 2 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 16 1 100 323 ± 6% Washington % 25 23 1 16 2 1 <0.5 <0.5 2 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5% Idaho % 22 16 <0. 2007 ” Note: Bold.5 2 20 <0.5 Other Faiths 1 Unaffiliated 16 Don’t Know/Refused 1 Total 100 N 35.5 2 27 <0.

5 <0.5 2 <0.5 2 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5% ± 6% ± 6.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 2 2 1 5 2 3 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 2 <0.5 4 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5% ± 5% ± 5% ± 7% ± 4% ± 2.5 <0.5 Virginia 31 20 10 Washington 25 23 1 West Virginia 36 32 2 Wisconsin 24 23 3 Wyoming/Montana 26 21 <0.5 1 1 <0.5 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 <0.340 924 487 421 599 528 245 756 748 1.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 Total =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 =100 N 35.5 1 <0.5 <0. Christian % % % 1 1 <0.5 1 1 3 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0. Appendix 1: Detailed Data Tables 100 .5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0. Pew Research Center.5 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 1 5 <0.574 590 482 756 110 1.5 <0.694 967 196 1.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 2 1 2 <0.5 1 <0.5 2 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 1 1 58 1 1 2 <0.5 <0.5 1 2 1 1 <0.5 Illinois 19 17 9 Indiana 34 22 6 Iowa 24 30 1 Kansas 29 27 3 Kentucky 49 17 5 Louisiana 31 9 20 Maine 15 26 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 2 <0.275 789 333 879 272 247 252 320 932 228 1.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 <0.5% ± 3% ± 3.5% ± 4.654 465 521 1.5 5 Or.5 1 <0.5% ± 4% ± 7% * From “Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream.5 2 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 Muslim % 1* <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 Catholic % 24 6 25 5 31 19 43 18 27 26 12 18 32 18 25 23 14 28 29 18 43 23 28 9 18 23 31 27 29 42 26 39 9 25 21 12 14 29 43 8 25 7 24 10 29 14 16 7 29 23 Mormon % 2 <0.5 <0.5 <0.S.5 <0.5 1 1 1 <0.5% ± 5% ± 4% ± 10.5 1 <0. % % % 26 18 7 National Alabama 49 15 18 Arizona 23 15 2 Arkansas 53 16 10 California 18 14 4 Colorado 23 19 2 Connecticut/Rhode Island 10 13 4 DC/Maryland 15 20 18 Delaware 15 18 14 Florida 25 15 8 Georgia 38 16 16 Idaho 22 16 <0. Bl.5 1 1 1 1 1 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 2 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 1 2 1 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 <0. Faiths % % <0.5 <0.5 2 <0.5 1 <0.5% ± 5% ± 7% ± 4% ± 4% ± 3.5 <0.5 <0.S.5 1 1 6 2 6 <0.5 1 1 1 <0.5 Ohio 26 22 7 Oklahoma 53 16 3 Oregon 30 16 1 Pennsylvania 18 25 7 Rhode Island/Connecticut 10 13 4 South Carolina 45 18 15 South Dakota/North Dakota 24 35 <0.5 <0.5 Nebraska 21 27 3 Nevada 13 11 2 New Hampshire/Vermont 11 23 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 Hindu % <0.5 2 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 2 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 1 2 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 <0.5% ± 4% ± 6.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 2 Unaffiliated % 16 8 22 13 21 25 23 17 19 16 13 18 15 16 15 14 12 8 25 17 17 17 13 6 16 20 16 21 26 12 21 17 12 12 17 12 27 13 23 10 12 12 12 16 26 18 23 19 16 20 DK/ REF % 1 1 2 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 New Jersey 12 13 5 New Mexico 25 15 2 New York 11 16 5 North Carolina 41 21 13 North Dakota/South Dakota 24 35 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5% ± 3.5 <0.5 1 1 <0.5 <0. Mainline Hist.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 1 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 <0.5 11 1 <0.5 <0.5 2 1 1 1 <0. blue numbers indicate instances where the proportion of the corresponding state’s population that belongs to the religious tradition in question is significantly different than the proportion of the national population that belongs to that group.5% ± 4% ± 6% ± 4% ± 7% ± 7% ± 7% ± 6.5 <0.5% ± 4% ±7 .5 Other Other World Rel.5 Jewish % 2 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.Jehovah’s Other thodox Wit.5 2 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 1 1 1 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 5 <0. Protestant Churches Evang.5 1 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5% ± 6% ± 2% ± 4.5 1 <0.6% ± 4.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5% ± 2.5 Maryland/DC 15 20 18 Massachusetts 11 15 2 Michigan 26 19 8 Minnesota 21 32 1 Mississippi 47 11 23 Missouri 37 18 6 Montana/Wyoming 26 21 <0.896 482 570 238 837 2.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 2 <0.5 <0.5% ± 3.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 <0.5% ± 8% ± 3% ± 4% ± 5% ± 5.5 1 <0.5 1 1 2 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.166 238 1.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 2 <0.5 7 <0.5 1 23 <0.933 1.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 1 2 1 1 <0.5 2 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.556 681 578 378 3.5 1 <0.5% ± 4.5 2 2 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0. 2007 ” Note: Bold.5 <0.5% ± 7% ± 3% ± 5% ± 5% ± 2.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 4 <0.5 <0.5 2 <0.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.266 323 320 997 745 296 824 272 Margin of Error ± 0.5 1 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 2 <0.5 <0.5 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 1 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 7 <0.5 2 1 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 5 3 1 1 <0.5 1 <0.5 2 <0.5 <0.5 <0. Religious Landscape Survey Religious Affiliation by State in the U.5 1 <0.5 2 <0.5 Tennessee 51 18 8 Texas 34 15 8 Utah 7 6 1 Vermont/New Hampshire 11 23 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 Buddhist % 1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.

S. and those who belong to the National Baptist Convention are classified as members of historically black Protestant churches. Pentecostals belong to either the evangelical or historically black Protestant tradition and Lutherans belong to either the evangelical or mainline tradition. those who belong to the American Baptist Churches in the USA are classified as members of mainline Protestant churches. This means that some groups may appear within more than one tradition. Protestant respondents who gave a vague response to denominational questions (e. Religious Landscape Survey Appendix 2: Classification of Protestant Denominations T he following section documents the composition of the three major Protestant traditions (evangelical Protestant churches. mainline Protestant churches and historically black Protestant churches) as they have been defined in this survey. Protestants were grouped into religious traditions based on their specific denomination.. The table below estimates the size of the largest Protestant denominations and identifies the Protestant tradition to which each belongs. all members of the Southern Baptist Convention have been classified as members of evangelical Protestant churches. This appendix concludes with a detailed summary of the composition of each of the Protestant traditions. Note that many denominational families include denominations that are associated with more than one Protestant tradition.g. ” Independent Baptists appear in both the evangelical Protestant tradition and the historically black Protestant tradition. For instance. and a respondent’s placement into one or the other depended on the race of the respondent. Appendix 2: Classification of Protestant Denominations 101 . These cases are noted in the detailed summary at the end of this appendix. For example.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. “I am just a Baptist” or “I know I am Methodist but don’t know which specific Methodist denomination I belong to”) were placed into one of the three Protestant traditions based on their race and/or their response to a question on whether they would describe themselves as a “born-again or evangelical Christian. with a description in italics of the criteria used to classify them. For example. Baptists are found within all three Protestant traditions.

8 4.5 0 1 0 14 100 0 0 0 0 0 8 100 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 10 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 14 0 8 0 16 11 0 3 0 0 0 30 28 0 0 0 0 Mainline Hist.8 1.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.1 0.5 100 % 41 26 10 0 0 0 1 0 0 7 0 5 13 4 2 1 13 5 0 1 3 0 2 6 6 0 <0.3 0.3 0.6 0.5 1.5 0 0 4 1 1 <0. Missouri Synod Nondenominational Nondenominational evangelical churches Nondenominational charismatic churches Nondenominational fundamentalist churches Pentecostal Assemblies of God Church of God in Christ Church of God Cleveland.5 9.4 4.3 1.3 <0.5 1.5 0 1 7 100 2 0 2 8 6 2 0 0 0 4 3 0 0 1 <0.0 1.5 2.4 0.5 0.2 2.0 3.9 51.2 0.8 0.3 <0.4 <0.0 0.5 6.5 0.0 0.5 0.2 0.4 2.3 <0.7 9.8 0.5 0.9 3.0 2.7 8.6 3.1 4. Tennessee Presbyterian Presbyterian Church USA Presbyterian Church in America Restorationist Church of Christ Disciples of Christ Anglican/Episcopal Episcopal Church in the USA Anglican Church Holiness Church of the Nazarene Free Methodist Church Congregationalist United Church of Christ Adventist Seventh-Day Adventist Reformed Anabaptist Pietist Friends Other Evangelical/Fundamentalist Appendix 2: Classification of Protestant Denominations Other/Protestant nonspecific % 17.8 1.0 0.1 1.1 0.4 4.8 2.1 9.5 8.2 0.5 0 2 2 1 1 <0.2 0.2 0.6 2.0 0.5 0.5 2.9 0.4 0. Religious Landscape Survey Large Denominations and Protestant Religious Traditions Evangelical Total All Protestant Population Protestants Churches Baptist Southern Baptist Convention Independent Baptist in the Evangelical Trad.7 1.3 4.9 12. Black Trad.2 5.3 1.4 1.5 1.0 0.2 6.0 3.3 <0.3 0.7 5.S.9 0.3 1.5 0.3% % 33.9 2.4 0.7 2. Black Protestant Protestant Churches Churches % 10 0 0 0 7 0 9 0 6 % 64 0 0 26 0 7 102 .3 0.3 4.1 0. National Baptist Convention American Baptist Churches in the USA Independent Baptist in the Hist.4 2.5 2. Methodist United Methodist Church African Methodist Episcopal Lutheran Evangelical Lutheran Church in America Lutheran Church.5 1.5 1.5 13.

while others were volunteered by respondents. ambiguous affiliation (if nonblack and born again) Nondenominational in the Evangelical Trad.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Missouri Synod Lutheran Church. not further specified (if nonblack and born again) Methodist.S. ambiguous affiliation (if non-black and born again) Methodist in the Evangelical Tradition Primitive Methodist Congregational Methodist “Traditional” Methodist “Evangelical” Methodist Independent Methodist “Missionary” Methodist (if non-black) Methodist. Nondenominational evangelical Nondenominational fundamentalist Nondenominational charismatic Non-denominational Protestant Non-denominational Christian Association of Bridge Churches Interdenominational (if born again) Community Church (if born again) Federated or union church (if born again) Nondenominational. of America Free Will Baptist General Association of Regular Baptists American Baptist Association Baptist Bible Fellowship Primitive Baptist (if non-black) Reformed Baptist (Calvinist) Fundamentalist Baptist (if non-black) Seventh-Day Baptist Baptist General Convention of Texas North American Baptist Slavic Evangelical Baptist Church Full Gospel Baptist Associa tion (if nonblack) “Evangelical” Baptist (if non-black) United Baptist Church Evangelical Free Baptist Baptist. not further specified (if non-black and born again) Nondenominational. Some denominations were offered as explicit response options during the interviews. Religious Landscape Survey Detailed Summary of Protestant Denominations by Tradition and Family The denominations listed below represent answers given by survey respondents. not further specified (if non-black and born again) Baptist. Swedish Baptist Baptist Missionary Association (if nonblack) Conservative Baptist Assoc. Evangelical Protestant Churches Baptist in the Evangelical Tradition Southern Baptist Convention Independent Baptist (if non-black) Baptist General Conference. as noted in ” italics. Wisconsin Synod Lutheran Brethren Church of the Lutheran Confession Free Lutheran Apostolic Lutheran Church in America Appendix 2: Classification of Protestant Denominations 103 . ambiguous affiliation (if non-black and born again) Lutheran in the Evangelical Tradition Lutheran Church. Respondents who gave vague denominational affiliations were assigned to a religious tradition based on their race and/or their response to a question on whether they would describe themselves as a “born-again or evangelical Christian.

Religious Landscape Survey Lutheran Congregations in Mission for Christ Lutheran. not further specified (if born again) Presbyterian. not further specified (if born again) Congregationalist. ambiguous affiliation (if born again) Holiness in the Evangelical Tradition Church of the Nazarene Wesleyan Church Free Methodist Church Christian and Missionary Alliance Church of God (Anderson.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.S. Indiana) Salvation Army Wesleyan Methodist Church Church of God of Findlay. Anglican Orthodox Church Reformed Episcopal Church “Conservative” Anglican Anglican/Episcopal. not further specified (if nonblack) Pentecostal. not further specified (if born again) Restorationist. ambiguous affiliation (if nonblack) Anglican/Episcopal in the Evangelical Trad. Ohio Appendix 2: Classification of Protestant Denominations 104 . ambiguous affiliation (if born again) Pentecostal in the Evangelical Tradition Assemblies of God Church of God Cleveland Tennessee Four Square Gospel Pentecostal Church of God Pentecostal Holiness Church Assembly of Christian Churches Church of God of Prophecy Vineyard Fellowship Open Bible Standard Churches Full Gospel (if non-black) Calvary Chapel Apostolic Pentecostal (if non-black) Church of God not further specified Nondenominational. Independent Pentecostal (if non-black) Missionary Church Elim Fellowship International Pentecostal Church of Christ “Evangelical” Pentecostal Church of God of Kentucky Church of God of the Midwest Church of God of the Apostolic Faith Pentecostal. ambiguous affiliation (if born again) Restorationist in the Evangelical Tradition Church of Christ Christian Churches and Churches of Christ Restorationist. ambiguous affiliation (if born again) Congregational in the Evangelical Trad. not further specified (if born again) Anglican/Episcopal. not further specified (if born again) Lutheran. ambiguous affiliation (if born again) Presbyterian in the Evangelical Tradition Presbyterian Church in America Associate Reformed Presbyterian Cumberland Presbyterian Church Orthodox Presbyterian Evangelical Presbyterian Reformed Presbyterian Congregational Presbyterian Bible Presbyterian Church World Presbyterian Board Conservative Presbyterian Church Independent Presbyterian Community Presbyterian Church in America Presbyterian. Conservative Congregational Christian National Association of Congregational Christian Churches Evangelical Congregational Independent Congregational Church Congregationalist.

Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.S. Religious Landscape Survey

Pilgrim Holiness Church World Gospel Mission, Holiness Missionary Free Holiness Church of God of Michigan Holiness, not further specified (if nonblack) Holiness, ambiguous affiliation (if nonblack) Reformed in the Evangelical Tradition Christian Reformed Church Sovereign Grace United Reformed Churches of North America Evangelical Reformed Evangelical Association of Reformed and Congregational Churches Reformed, not further specified (if born again) Reformed, ambiguous affiliation (if born again) Adventist in the Evangelical Tradition Seventh-Day Adventist Advent Christian Sacred Name Churches Worldwide Church of God Church of God in Abrahamic Faith Church of God of the 7th Day

Church of God General Conference Philadelphia Church of God Anabaptist in the Evangelical Tradition Brethren in Christ Brethren Evangelical, not further specified (if born again) Mennonite Brethren Mennonite, not further specified Amish United Brethren in Christ Apostolic Christian Church Pietist in the Evangelical Tradition Evangelical Covenant Church Evangelical Free Church “Pietist” Evangelical Free Mission Church Church of God Winebrenner Fellowship Other Evangelical/Fundamentalist “Evangelical” “Born again, “Bible-believers, etc. ” ” Evangelical Bible Church Bible, Gospel, Missionary churches “Fundamentalist” not further specified “Charismatic, “Spirit filled” ” Protestant nonspecific in the Evang. Trad. Protestant non-specific (if non-black and born again)

Mainline Protestant Churches
Baptist in the Mainline Tradition American Baptist Churches in USA Cooperative Baptist Fellowship; Baptist Alliance “Liberal/Progressive” Baptist Baptist, not further specified (if non-black and not born again) Baptist, ambiguous affiliation (if non-black and not born again) Methodist in the Mainline Tradition United Methodist Church
Appendix 2: Classification of Protestant Denominations

Evangelical United Brethren Methodist, not further specified (if nonblack and not born again) Methodist, ambiguous affiliation (if nonblack and not born again) Nondenominational in the Mainline Trad. Interdenominational (if not born again) Community church (if not born again) Federated or union church (if not born again) “Emergent church”
105

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“Liberal” Nondenominational Nondenominational, not further specified (if non-black and not born again) Nondenominational, ambiguous affiliation (if non-black and not born again) Lutheran in the Mainline Tradition Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) American Lutheran Church Latvian Evangelical Lutheran Church in America Lutheran, not further specified (if not born again) Lutheran, ambiguous affiliation (if not born again) Presbyterian in the Mainline Tradition Presbyterian Church USA Scotch Presbyterian United Presbyterian “Liberal” Presbyterian Presbyterian Church of Canada Other Presbyterian denomination (if not born again) Presbyterian, not further specified (if not born again) Presbyterian, ambiguous affiliation (if not born again) Anglican/Episcopal in the Mainline Trad. Episcopal Church in the USA Anglican Church (Church of England) Church of Ireland Anglican/Episcopal, not further specified (if not born again) Anglican/Episcopal, ambiguous affiliation (if not born again)

Restorationist in the Mainline Tradition Disciples of Christ Restorationist, not further specified (if not born again) Restorationist, ambiguous affiliation (if not born again) Congregationalist in the Mainline Tradition United Church of Christ Congregationalist, not further specified (if not born again) Congregationalist, ambiguous affiliation (if not born again) Reformed in the Mainline Tradition Reformed Church in America Free Hungarian Reformed Church Congregational Union of Scotland Reformed, not further specified (if not born again) Reformed, ambiguous affiliation (if not born again) Anabaptist in the Mainline Tradition Church of the Brethren Moravian Church Brethren, not further specified (if not born again) Friends in the Mainline Tradition Society of Friends Friends/Quaker, not further specified Other/Protestant nonspecific in the Mainline Tradition Protestant non-specific (if non-black and not born again; also includes “ecumenical”) Metropolitan Community Church

Historically Black Protestant Churches
Baptist in the Historically Black Prot.Trad. National Baptist Convention Progressive Baptist Convention Independent Baptist (if black)
Appendix 2: Classification of Protestant Denominations

“Black” Baptist Christian Baptist Church of God “Evangelical” Baptist (if black) Missionary Baptist (if black)
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Full Gospel Baptist (if black) Fundamentalist Baptist (if black) Primitive Baptist (if black) National/Progressive Baptist Convention International Baptist Baptist Bible Church Baptist, not further specified (if black) Baptist, ambiguous affiliation (if black) Methodist in the Hist. Black Prot. Tradition African Methodist Episcopal African Methodist Episcopal Zion Christian Methodist Episcopal Church Black Methodist Reformed Methodist Missionary Methodist (if black) Methodist, not further specified (if black) Methodist, ambiguous affiliation (if black) Pentecostal in the Hist. Black Prot. Trad. Church of God in Christ Apostolic Pentecostal (if black) World Gospel Mission Church of God in Christ Holiness New Testament Church of God

Nondenominational, Independent Pentecostal (if black) United Pentecostal Church International Full Gospel (if black) United House of Prayer for All People Pentecostal, not further specified (if black) Pentecostal, ambiguous affiliation (if black) Holiness in the Historically Black Prot. Trad. Independent Holiness Apostolic Holiness Church Holiness Baptist Holiness, not further specified (if black) Holiness, ambiguous affiliation (if black) Nondenominational in the Hist. Black Prot. Tradition Nondenominational, not further specified (if black) Nondenominational, ambiguous affiliation (if black) Protestant nonspecific in the Hist. Black Prot. Tradition Protestant non-specific (if black)

Appendix 2: Classification of Protestant Denominations

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Appendix 3:

A Brief History of Religion and the U.S. Census

T

he U.S. Census Bureau has not asked questions about religion since the 1950s, but the federal government did gather some information about religion for about a century before that. Starting in 1850, census takers began asking a few questions about religious organizations as part of the decennial census that collected demographic and social statistics from the general population as well as economic data from business establishments. Federal marshals and assistant marshals, who acted as census takers until after the Civil War, collected information from members of the clergy and other religious leaders on the number of houses of worship in the U.S. and their respective denominations, seating capacities and property values. Although the census takers did not interview individual worshipers or ask about the religious affiliations of the general population, they did ask members of the clergy to identify their denomination – such as Methodist, Roman Catholic or Old School Presbyterian. The 1850 census found that there were 18 principal denominations in the U.S. The same basic questions on religious institutions were included in the 1860 and 1870 censuses. In 1880, census takers started collecting more in-depth information from religious leaders on topics ranging from average worship attendance to church income, expenditures and debt. The scope of inquiry about religion was expanded again in 1890, when census takers gathered information about the number of ministers in each denomination. Classifications for the denominations also were more detailed. The reported number of denominations in the 1890 census totaled 145, most grouped into 18 families. There were no other significant changes in data collection on religious bodies until 1902, when the U.S. Census Bureau was established as a permanent government agency and census officials decided to separate some data collection from the regular decennial census. This led to the statutory creation of the Census of Religious Bodies, which began in 1906 as a stand-alone census to be taken every 10 years. The first Census of Religious Bodies, which was conducted through questionnaires mailed to religious leaders, asked many of the same questions as the 1890 census did, plus added a few new questions. It included, for example, questions on the year the congregations were established; amount of congregational debt; language in which services were conducted; number of ministers and their salaries; number of congregation-operated schools, teachers, scholars and officers; and demographic characteristics of congregation members, such as gender. As in the past, census collectors relied on denominational officers to supply the information.

Appendix 3: A Brief History of Religion and the U.S. Census

108

race. There was a concerted campaign by researchers.S. Cost factors were also a consideration. The 1906 Census of Religious Bodies was the most thorough compilation of religious organizations to date. the Census Bureau explained ” in its report on the 1906 Census of Religious Bodies. other religions. The unpublished results of the Census of Religious Bodies in 1946 and its ultimate demise in 1956 stemmed in part from a growing public debate over the propriety. however. This marked the first time that individuals rather than religious leaders were asked about their religious affiliation in a census. the nation’s primary source of information on America’s labor force. Census Bureau included a few questions on religious affiliation in its Current Population Survey. fertility.S. no religion and religion not reported. Congress failed to appropriate money either to tabulate or to publish the information collected in the 1946 census. civil liberty groups. The Census of Religious Bodies was conducted every 10 years until 1946. In 1957 the . some leaders in the Catholic Church and Census Bureau Director Robert W. urban residence and education among various religious faiths. merit and feasibility of the Census Bureau asking questions about religion. Burgess. During the 1950s. and that it could help religious leaders in planning for future building programs and activities.S. One reason for the increased number of denominations since 1890 was the influx of immigrants to America. an economist and statistician. Neither Burgess’ decision nor the discontinuation of the Census of Religious Bodies signaled the complete end to data collection on religion by the Census Bureau. It reported a total of 186 denominations. the Census Bureau was able to produce a set of tables showing intermarriage. By 1956. however. Because respondents were classified by age. and whether the government was overstepping the constitutional boundaries separating church and state. “Under the circumstances. social scientists and even the Census Bureau’s own staff were sharply divided over the issue. Religious Landscape Survey “As its name implies. Congress had discontinued the funding for this census altogether. Census 109 . gender and education. Individuals’ religious affiliations were classified into major faith traditions. this is a census of the religious organizations in the United States rather than of individuals classified according to their religious affiliation.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. income. But Burgess eventually decided against it after receiving vocal opposition from some religious and civil liberties groups. Burgess said the decision did not preclude the inclusion of a question on ” religion in a future census. Burgess stated in 1957 when he agreed not to include a question ” on religion. religious groups. Those who favored including questions on religion felt there was some value in learning about people’s religious affiliations in states and localities. because the U. The 1936 Census of Religious Bodies was the last one published. employment. most grouped into 27 families. it was not believed that the value of the statistics based on this question would be great enough to justify overriding such an attitude. Several Appendix 3: A Brief History of Religion and the U. “[A]t this time a considerable number of persons would be reluctant to answer such a question in the [c]ensus where a reply is mandatory. Those opposed to including questions on religion had concerns about the protection of religious liberty and privacy rights. to include a “What is your religion?” question in the 1960 Census of Population.

would appear to infringe upon the traditional separation of church and [s]tate. ” By the mid-1970s.. “The decision not to add this question is based essentially on the fact that asking such a question in the decennial census. “Regardless of whether this perception is legally sound. Fall 1984. However.S. in which replies are mandatory. Appendix 3: A Brief History of Religion and the U. such as Canada and Australia. Proponents of including a question on religion stressed the importance of religion in American life and noted that a question on religion was included in the censuses of other countries. Religious Landscape Survey reports from this data were originally planned for publication. that a question on religion would not be included.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Vincent P Barabba. the Census Bureau again considered a number of requests from individuals and organizations to include a question on religion in the regular decennial census. but this information is derived and reprinted from nongovernmental survey organizations. Census and Religious Organizations. but the Census Bureau ultimately released only a short pamphlet that included some of the information from the cross-referenced tables. The Census Bureau also publishes information about religious bodies and religious affiliation in the Statistical Abstract of the United States. ” Barabba’s decision was reinforced in October 1976 when Congress enacted a law containing a number of amendments to the basic census law.S. Social ” Science History. ” according to a 1976 press release drafted by the Census Bureau. In the 1960s and 1970s. Kevin J. such as the Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches and The American Religious Identification Survey. ” Since then. Resources Christiano. the issue arose again and was discussed at public meetings held in cities around the nation about the Census Bureau’s plans. however. the Census Bureau has been allowed to ask questions about religious practices only on a voluntary basis in some population and household surveys. which are not related to the Census Bureau. including a prohibition against any mandatory question concerning a person’s “religious beliefs or to membership in a religious body. announced in April 1976 . This information is included in an annual series on County Business Patterns that reports on most of the nation’s economic activity. decided the question would not be included in the 1970 census because it felt the question would “infringe upon the traditional separation of church and state. Volume 8. The Census Bureau. Census 110 . the Census Bureau director at that time. Number 4. controversy on this very sensitive issue could affect public cooperation in the census and thus jeopardize the success of the census.S. pages 341-370. The only information the Census Bureau now collects and publishes about religion and religious bodies is county-by-county economic data on places of worship and other establishments operated by religious organizations. “Numbering Israel: The U. but it has not opted to do so.

2. Religion Reported by the Civilian Population of the United States: March 1957” Feb. “Tabulations from the 1957 Current Population Survey on Religion: A Contribution to the Demography of American Religion. 2005-2007 . Number 1. Internal historical documents provided by Census Bureau historians William Maury and Jason Gauthier. Tom W.html. Census Bureau.gov (search FAQs for “religion”). Mueller. and Angela V. The Ohio State University Libraries. “Current Population Reports: Population Characteristics. former associate director for demographic fields.. September ” 2002. Part 1. Volume 53.S.S. General Social Survey (GSS) ” Methodological Report 43. U. Samuel A. Lane.. Frequently Asked Questions. Foster.S. Census 111 . Jason. Sociological ” Analysis.S. Rodney. ” Published for the Inter-University Case Program by the University of Alabama Press.census. “The Reliability of Historical United States Census Data on Religion. 1989. Landis. on April 12. Summary and ” General Tables.osu. http://www. php. “A Guide to the Literature on Statistics of Religious Affiliation with References to Related Social Services. Number ..S. 79.census. Appendix 3: A Brief History of Religion and the U. “Oral History interview with Conrad Taeuber. “Measuring America: The Decennial Census from 1790 to 2000. published by the U. htm.S.gov/naics/2007/def/ND813110. U. Religious Landscape Survey Gauthier. 1958. “Classifying Protestant Denominations. June 1959. Census Bureau. 1961. Census Bureau. Number 286. Volume 2. Census Bureau. http://www. 1910. ” Smith.. 1992. Census Bureau officials. Journal of the American Statistical Association. U. Volume ” 54. Benson Y. Stark. The Inter-University Case Program.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Number 4. interviews by the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Special reports.census. Charles R. Number 66. Census Bureau.edu/sites/reference/govdocs/CPR/cprP20-1. Summer 1971. Series P-20.S. “Religious Bodies: 1906. http://library. U. pages 91-95. October 1986. http://www. revised July 1987 .gov/prod/www/abs/ma. 2007 NAICS Definitions. U. “A Question on Religion. Journal for the Scientific Study ” of Religion.S.

S. U. April 16. ” Oct.asp.nationalreview. Department of Commerce Transmittal Form CD-82 (11-14-63). ” Volume 51. “An Approach to the Religious Geography of the United States: Patterns of Church Membership in 1952. Zelinsky. Royce. Appendix 3: A Brief History of Religion and the U. Religious Landscape Survey U. 2.com/comment/vantassell200310020830. 54 and the 1960 Census.S. Van Tassell. Wilbur. 1976. pages 139-193. “Rehashing Old Ground: Prop. Census 112 . Annals of the Association of American Geographers.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. M. Number 2. Bureau Public Information Officer.S. http://www. prescribed by DAO 214-2. press released drafted by Dorothy Whitson. Census Bureau. 2003. June 1961. National Review.S.

households that were . After selection. after selection. As many as 10 attempts were made to contact every sampled telephone number. To supplement the RDD interviews. This sample was provided by Survey Sampling International. an additional 547 interviews were completed from households that were initially contacted and screened out during data collection for the Pew Research Center’s survey of Muslim Americans that was released in May 2007 Specifically. LLC. 13.e. Interviews were done in English and Spanish by Princeton Data Source. identified as being Hindu. Calling procedures and sample management were kept as consistent as possible between two phone rooms.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Appendix 4: Survey Methodology 113 . and Schulman. The survey was conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International (PSRAI). This helped boost the sample size of these low-incidence groups. An analysis of the data revealed no significant differences in the religious makeup of the sample that included cell-only respondents and the full sample based solely on respondents from landline households. cell-only respondents were excluded from the analyses that appear in this report. purposely unlisted or too new to be listed.556 adults living in continental United States telephone households. from May 8 to Aug. interviews were completed with 500 “cellphone only” respondents (i. Calls were staggered over times of day and days of the week to maximize the chance of making contact with potential respondents. As a result.009) came from standard list-assisted random digit dialing (RDD) sample.. (SRBI). Ronca and Bucuvalas. LLC (PDS). This method guaranteed coverage of every assigned phone number regardless of whether that number was directory listed. the numbers were compared against business directories and matching numbers were purged. Inc. Finally. All of the callback interviewing was conducted at PDS. Buddhist or Orthodox Christian were recontacted. The vast majority of the interviews (n=35. Active blocks of telephone numbers (area code + exchange + two-digit block number) that contained three or more residential directory listings were equally likely to be selected. Religious Landscape Survey completed telephone interviews with a nationally representative sample of 35. two more digits were added randomly to complete the number. Religious Landscape Survey Appendix 4: Survey Methodology T he U. weighted to correct known demographic discrepancies.S.S. according to PSRAI specifications. individuals who have and use a cellular telephone and who do not have a landline telephone in their household). Each household received at least one daytime call in an attempt to find someone at home. in addition to the RDD and recontact samples. 2007 Statistical results are .

Once the respondent’s religion was confirmed as Buddhist. country of birth (for Latinos) and population density. education. overrepresented some parts of the country and underrepresented other parts. it corrected for the fact that we were oversampling Buddhists. After the first stage of weighting. region. age. Appendix 4: Survey Methodology 114 . If no male was available. Table 1 compares weighted and unweighted sample distributions to population parameters. the sample demographics were balanced to match national population parameters for sex. Hindu or Orthodox Christian. interviewers first identified the person who was previously contacted when he or she was screened out of the Muslim American survey sample.S. a special iterative sample weighting program that simultaneously balances the distributions of all variables using a statistical technique called the Deming Algorithm. which included all households in the continental United States that had a telephone. For each contacted household in the callback sample. from which the callback sample was pulled. Second. The use of these weights in statistical analysis ensures that the demographic characteristics of the sample closely approximate the demographic characteristics of the national population. interviewers asked to speak with the youngest adult male currently at home. First. Then the respondent was asked screening questions to verify his or her religious affiliation. race. This systematic respondent selection technique has been shown to produce samples that closely mirror the population in terms of age and gender. Hindus and Orthodox Christians. interviewers asked to speak with the youngest adult female at home. Weighting is generally used in survey analysis to adjust for effects of the sample design and to compensate for patterns of nonresponse that might bias results. including an abbreviated battery of religious affiliation questions. Hispanic origin. The second stage of weighting was accomplished using Sample Balancing.S. The first stage of weighting corrected for two disproportionate sample elements. The weighting for the Landscape Survey was accomplished in two stages. These parameters came from a special analysis of the U.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Religious Landscape Survey In each contacted household. it corrected for the fact that the original sample used for the Pew Muslim American survey. Census Bureau’s 2006 Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Weights were trimmed to prevent individual interviews from having too much influence on the final results. the full interview was administered.

8 9. Religious Landscape Survey Table 1: Sample Demographics Parameter % Gender Male Female Age 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+ Education Less than High School Grad.4 20.Highest 48.1 5.3 16.8 17 .2 20.7 20.6 26.2 20.4 5.4 17 .6 19.8 10.5 12.2 19.4 26.1 17 .6 23.9 18.7 23.2 8.8 18.7 19.9 12.8 Unweighted % 45.0 4.5 18.2 51.2 Weighted % 48.5 19.5 35.6 23.8 12.4 25.9 18.1 20.7 23.1 23. High School Grad.3 10.9 12.6 20.0 11.9 35.3 7 .7 70.1 21.0 Appendix 4: Survey Methodology 115 .4 16.0 20.2 51.0 14.1 19.S. Region Northeast Midwest South West Race/Ethnicity White/not Hispanic Black/not Hispanic Hispanic Other/not Hispanic Population Density 1 .4 21.9 77 .6 20. Some College College Grad.4 71.5 35.9 23.0 21.2 21.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.5 14.1 20.7 31.6 36.7 14.5 36.6 13.8 23.Lowest 2 3 4 5 .8 8.8 22.0 17 .3 36.7 15.8 54.1 20.

5 percentage points ± 6.054 581 363 215 129 682 116 411 257 5. For questions that did not appear on both surveys.S.6 percentage points away from their true values in the population.6 percentage points ± 1. Table 2: Total Sample and Subgroup Margins of Sampling Error Total Sample Members of Evangelical Protestant Churches Members of Mainline Protestant Churches Members of Historically Black Protestant Churches Catholics Mormons Orthodox Jehovah’s Witnesses Other Christians Jews Muslims* Buddhists Hindus Unaffiliated N 35.5 percentage points ± 1.048 Approximate Margin of Error ± 0.5 percentage points ± 7 percentage points .472 7 . questionnaire wording and reporting inaccuracy.5 percentage points ± 4.5 percentage points ± 1. the results for Muslims are based on the 116 Muslims interviewed in the Landscape Survey. Appendix 4: Survey Methodology 116 .Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. Other sources.0 percentage points * Note: In 2007 the Pew Research Center conducted a survey among a national probability sample of 1.6 percentage points. Whenever possible. of error of ± 5 percentage points. such as respondent selection bias.995 8.5 percentage points ± 2. Religious Landscape Survey The survey’s margin of error is the largest 95% confidence interval for any estimated proportion based on the total sample – the one around 50%. estimated proportions based on the entire sample will be no more than 0. The margins of error for analyses based on respondents from particular religious traditions are shown below.5 ± 9.050 Muslims in the U. the results reported here for Muslims draw on the 2007 Pew survey of Muslim Americans (and are noted as such).556 9.S that had a margin . For example.5 percentage points ± 6. the margin of error for the entire sample is ± 0. It is important to remember that sampling fluctuations are only one possible source of error in a survey estimate. may contribute additional error of greater or lesser magnitude.5 percentage points ± 7 percentage points . That survey contained many of the same questions included in the Landscape Survey.470 1.5 percentage points ± 10.5 ± 2.5 percentage points ± 4. This means that in 95 out every 100 samples drawn using the same methodology.

1 These disposition codes and reporting are consistent with the American Association for Public Opinion Research standards.S. versus those refused – of 35 percent • Completion rate – the proportion of initially cooperating and eligible interviews that were completed – of 86 percent Thus the response rate for this survey was 24 percent. PSRAI calculated it by taking the product of three component rates:1 • Contact rate – the proportion of working numbers where a request for interview was made – of 80 percent2 • Cooperation rate – the proportion of contacted numbers where a consent for interview was at least initially obtained. 2 Appendix 4: Survey Methodology 117 . Religious Landscape Survey Table 3 reports the disposition of all sampled telephone numbers dialed from the main RDD sample.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U. This assumes that 75 percent of cases that result in a constant disposition of “No answer” or “Busy” are actually not working numbers. The response rate estimates the fraction of all eligible respondents in the sample that were ultimately interviewed.

Religious Landscape Survey Table 3: RDD Sample Disposition Total 429.837 39.929 37.899 126.9% 14.614 21.304 23.009 3.2% 3.713 158.709 36.9% 7 .413 40.7% 767 2.3% 2.723 79.328 35.509 86.3% 3.7% 11.8% PDS 214.145 68.180 93.818 78.500 84.895 79.528 64.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.600 188 95.9% 24.6% 4.087 22.291 315 8.701 43.371 866 17 .965 34.637 33.5% SRBI 214.691 5.8% 23.435 20.8% 5.638 36.1% PSRAI Sample Disposition Total Numbers Dialed Business / Government Computer / Fax Cell Phone Other Not Working Additional Projected Not Working Working Numbers Working Rate No Answer Busy Answering Machine Other Non-Contacts Contacted Numbers Contact Rate Callbacks Refusal 1 .2% 2.892 12.785 92.811 79.371 62.998 13.Refusal after case determined eligible Completes Completion Rate Response Rate Appendix 4: Survey Methodology 118 .6% 288 1.310 24.8% 23.308 29.412 10.009 85.671 17 .S.682 2.910 15.312 10.8% 479 978 20.Refusal before eligibility status known .256 505 191.605 92.105 17 .776 35.HUDI Cooperating Numbers Cooperation Rate No Adult in HH Language Barrier Eligible Numbers Eligibility Rate Refusal 2 .656 317 95.816 15.080 551 9.088 80.726 31.

and nested figures may not sum to subtotals indicated.556 Note: figures may not sum to 100.S. due to rounding Q. Religious Landscape Survey PEW FORUM ON RELIGION & PUBLIC LIFE RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE STUDY (RLS) FINAL TOPLINE May 8 – August 13.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. are you satisfied or dissatisfied with the way things are going in this country today? Don’t know/ Refused Satisfied Dissatisfied Total 27 66 7 100 Total 29 64 7 100 Evangelical churches 27 66 6 100 Mainline churches 17 77 6 100 Historically Black churches 30 63 7 100 Catholic 40 53 8 100 Mormon 34 58 8 100 Orthodox 10 79 11 100 Jehovah’s Witness 19 75 6 100 Other Christian 25 70 5 100 Jewish 38 54 8 100 Muslim* 24 67 8 100 Buddhist 38 51 10 100 Hindu 17 79 4 100 Other Faiths 24 68 7 100 Unaffiliated *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center.1 All in all. conducted JanuaryApril. 2007 N=35. 2007) Topline 119 .

conducted January-April. are you satisfied or dissatisfied with the way things are going in this country today? IF SATISFIED OR DISSATISFIED (1.1 All in all. Religious Landscape Survey Q.1a Would you say that’s very [satisfied/dissatisfied] or just somewhat [satisfied/dissatisfied]? ----------SATISFIED---------NET Very Some what Not sure ----------DISSATISFIED---------NET Very Some what Not sure 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 0 1 1 1 1 DK/ Refused 7 7 6 6 7 8 8 11 6 5 8 8 10 4 7 27 7 20 1 66 38 27 Total 29 7 21 1 64 36 27 Evangelical churches 27 6 21 1 66 37 28 Mainline churches 17 4 12 1 77 47 29 Historically Black churches 30 8 20 1 63 34 28 Catholic 40 9 30 1 53 25 26 Mormon 34 10 23 1 58 32 25 Orthodox 10 2 7 2 79 43 33 Jehovah’s Witness 19 2 16 0 75 45 27 Other Christian 25 6 18 1 70 44 26 Jewish 38 54 Muslim* 24 8 16 0 67 46 21 Buddhist 38 11 26 1 51 26 24 Hindu 17 5 12 1 79 58 21 Other Faiths 24 5 19 1 68 42 26 Unaffiliated *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.S.2 IN Q. 2007) Topline 120 .1) ASK: Q.

are you satisfied or dissatisfied with the way things are going in your personal life? Don’t know/ Refused 2 2 2 3 2 1 4 1 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 Satisfied Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 86 86 88 79 87 89 84 83 84 88 84 90 88 85 84 Dissatisfied 12 12 10 18 11 10 12 16 13 10 14 8 11 13 13 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 121 .Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. Religious Landscape Survey ASK ALL: Q.S.2 All in all.

2 IN Q. Religious Landscape Survey ASK ALL: Q.2 All in all.S.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.2) ASK: Q. are you satisfied or dissatisfied with the way things are going in your personal life? IF SATISFIED OR DISSATISFIED (1.2a Would you say that’s very [satisfied/dissatisfied] or just somewhat [satisfied/dissatisfied]? -----------SATISFIED----------NET Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 86 86 88 79 87 89 84 83 84 88 84 90 88 85 84 Very 59 61 62 47 62 66 54 56 57 64 53 56 62 54 54 Some what 25 23 25 30 24 21 30 23 26 23 28 33 24 29 28 Not sure 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 4 1 1 3 2 2 1 1 ----------DISSATISFIED---------NET 12 12 10 18 11 10 12 16 13 10 14 8 11 13 13 Very 5 5 4 7 4 4 5 4 7 4 5 2 3 4 5 Some what 7 7 6 11 6 6 7 11 6 7 9 6 7 8 8 Not sure 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 DK/ Refused 2 2 2 3 2 1 4 1 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 Topline 122 .

somewhat DISsatisfied or very DISsatisfied? a. somewhat satisfied. Religious Landscape Survey ASK ALL: Q. please tell me how satisfied you are with the following things. RANDOMIZE]? READ FOR FIRST ITEM THEN AS NECESSARY: Are you very satisfied.3a Next. Your standard of living – what you can buy or do Don’t know/ Refused 1 1 1 2 2 0 2 3 1 1 1 1 0 2 1 Very Somewhat Somewhat Very satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 38 38 43 29 37 45 34 32 40 49 37 41 46 33 35 40 40 38 41 40 39 42 41 42 37 46 41 43 40 42 13 12 12 15 13 11 14 14 14 9 9 11 5 17 13 8 9 6 13 7 5 7 11 4 4 8 6 6 8 9 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 123 .S. (First/next).Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. how satisfied are you with… [INSERT.

3b Next. Religious Landscape Survey ASK ALL: Q. RANDOMIZE]? READ FOR FIRST ITEM THEN AS NECESSARY: Are you very satisfied.S. please tell me how satisfied you are with the following things.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. somewhat DISsatisfied or very DISsatisfied? b. how satisfied are you with… [INSERT. Your family life Don’t know/ Refused 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 4 2 1 1 1 3 2 Very satisfied Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 75 76 77 67 77 83 71 69 73 76 72 74 76 71 70 Somewhat satisfied 18 17 17 24 16 13 20 21 18 16 20 21 18 21 22 Somewhat dissatisfied 3 3 3 5 4 3 4 7 1 3 3 3 3 4 3 Very dissatisfied 2 2 2 2 2 0 3 2 4 2 4 1 2 2 3 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 124 . somewhat satisfied. (First/next).

somewhat DISsatisfied or very DISsatisfied? c.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. (First/next). how satisfied are you with… [INSERT. somewhat satisfied. Religious Landscape Survey ASK ALL: Q.3c Next. please tell me how satisfied you are with the following things. The way the political system is working in this country Don’t know/ Refused 4 4 4 3 5 3 8 25 5 2 5 3 6 3 5 Very satisfied Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 6 6 5 4 7 7 7 2 4 7 7 6 10 3 4 Somewhat Somewhat Very satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied 21 24 22 17 23 29 24 9 12 22 18 18 23 11 17 25 26 26 26 26 28 26 17 21 26 20 19 25 18 25 43 40 44 50 40 33 35 47 58 43 50 55 36 66 49 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 125 .S. RANDOMIZE]? READ FOR FIRST ITEM THEN AS NECESSARY: Are you very satisfied.

please tell me how satisfied you are with the following things.S. Religious Landscape Survey ASK ALL: Q. (First/next). somewhat satisfied.3d Next. RANDOMIZE]? READ FOR FIRST ITEM THEN AS NECESSARY: Are you very satisfied. somewhat DISsatisfied or very DISsatisfied? d. how satisfied are you with… [INSERT. Your personal safety from things like crime and terrorism Don’t know/ Refused 3 3 2 2 3 2 5 6 1 2 2 5 4 3 3 Very Somewhat Somewhat Very satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 32 34 35 19 30 42 31 18 39 33 36 39 37 36 34 39 38 41 33 38 38 38 27 39 45 38 38 33 39 41 15 14 14 21 16 11 12 17 14 13 12 11 12 14 13 12 12 8 25 13 7 14 32 8 8 12 8 14 8 10 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 NO QUESTION 4 Topline 126 .Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.

5a Now I’m going to read you a few pairs of statements. For each pair. (READ AND RANDOMIZE ITEMS) a. The government should do more to protect morality in society OR I worry the government is getting too involved in the issue of morality I worry the government is The government should do more to getting too Neither involved in the protect morality /Both DK/ in society issue of morality (VOL) Refused 40 52 Total 50 41 Evangelical churches 33 58 Mainline churches 48 42 Historically Black churches 43 49 Catholic 54 39 Mormon 43 48 Orthodox 38 36 Jehovah’s Witness 23 69 Other Christian 22 71 Jewish 59 29 Muslim* 26 67 Buddhist 44 45 Hindu 18 75 Other Faiths 27 66 Unaffiliated *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center. The first pair is. Religious Landscape Survey Q...S. 2007) 3 4 4 3 3 4 3 10 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 5 5 5 6 5 3 6 16 5 5 8 4 7 4 4 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 127 .Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. tell me whether the FIRST statement or the SECOND statement comes closer to your own views — even if neither is exactly right.

. tell me whether the FIRST statement or the SECOND statement comes closer to your own views — even if neither is exactly right... Homosexuality is a way of life that should be accepted by society OR. 2007) 5 5 6 6 5 5 7 6 6 3 5 2 3 4 5 DK/ Refused 5 5 5 8 7 3 8 5 5 3 7 4 11 3 5 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 128 .Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. The first pair is. Religious Landscape Survey Q.5b Now I’m going to read you a few pairs of statements.. For each pair. (READ AND RANDOMIZE ITEMS) b. Homosexuality is a way of life that should be discouraged by society Homosexuality Homosexuality is a way of life is a way of life that should be that should be Neither accepted by discouraged /Both society by society (VOL) 50 40 Total 26 64 Evangelical churches 56 34 Mainline churches 39 46 Historically Black churches 58 30 Catholic 24 68 Mormon 48 37 Orthodox 12 76 Jehovah’s Witness 69 20 Other Christian 79 15 Jewish 27 61 Muslim* 82 12 Buddhist 48 37 Hindu 84 8 Other Faiths 71 20 Unaffiliated *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center.S.

5c Now I’m going to read you a few pairs of statements.S. For each pair.. 2007) Topline 129 . The first pair is. Neither/ Both (VOL) 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 3 1 3 3 DK/ Refused 2 1 1 2 2 1 3 4 5 1 1 2 2 1 2 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 67 29 Total 71 25 Evangelical churches 68 29 Mainline churches 65 31 Historically Black churches 70 26 Catholic 77 21 Mormon 66 28 Orthodox 57 37 Jehovah’s Witness 52 41 Other Christian 63 32 Jewish 71 26 Muslim* 52 43 Buddhist 71 26 Hindu 54 41 Other Faiths 61 35 Unaffiliated *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center. tell me whether the FIRST statement or the SECOND statement comes closer to your own views — even if neither is exactly right.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.. Religious Landscape Survey Q... Hard work and determination are no guarantee of success for most people Most people who Hard work and want to get ahead determination can make it if are no guarantee they are willing of success for to work hard most people c. (READ AND RANDOMIZE ITEMS) Most people who want to get ahead can make it if they're willing to work hard OR.

even if it means going deeper into debt OR… The government today can’t afford to do much more to help the needy The govt should do more to help needy Americans.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. Religious Landscape Survey Q. even if it means going deeper into debt d.5d Now I’m going to read you a few pairs of statements. For each pair. The government today can’t afford to do much more to help the needy Neither/ Both (VOL) 5 5 6 3 4 7 6 5 10 6 4 6 3 7 6 DK/ Refused 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 11 3 4 6 3 1 4 4 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 62 29 Total 57 34 Evangelical churches 58 33 Mainline churches 79 15 Historically Black churches 63 29 Catholic 49 42 Mormon 62 30 Orthodox 60 24 Jehovah’s Witness 67 20 Other Christian 68 23 Jewish 73 17 Muslim* 73 18 Buddhist 60 36 Hindu 68 21 Other Faiths 65 26 Unaffiliated *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center. tell me whether the FIRST statement or the SECOND statement comes closer to your own views — even if neither is exactly right. The first pair is… (READ AND RANDOMIZE ITEMS) The government should do more to help needy Americans.S. 2007) Topline 130 .

tell me whether the FIRST statement or the SECOND statement comes closer to your own views — even if neither is exactly right..S. Religious Landscape Survey Q.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. The first pair is. (READ AND RANDOMIZE ITEMS) Stricter environmental laws and regulations cost too many jobs and hurt the economy OR… Stricter environmental laws and regulations are worth the cost Stricter environmental Stricter laws and environment regulations al laws and cost too many regulations jobs and hurt are worth the economy the cost e.. Neither/ Both (VOL) 3 4 3 3 3 4 5 8 6 2 3 3 2 3 3 DK/ Refused 6 6 5 7 6 5 5 8 5 5 2 3 6 4 4 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 30 35 28 38 32 36 30 24 22 16 26 19 24 17 24 61 54 64 52 60 55 60 60 66 77 69 75 67 77 69 Topline 131 . For each pair.5e Now I’m going to read you a few pairs of statements.

5f Now I’m going to read you a few pairs of statements. Religious Landscape Survey Q.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. The first pair is… (READ AND RANDOMIZE ITEMS) The best way to ensure peace is through military strength OR… Good diplomacy is the best way to ensure peace The best way to Good ensure peace is diplomacy is Neither/ through military the best way to Both strength ensure peace (VOL) f. DK/ Refused 4 5 3 6 3 2 2 14 4 3 1 3 2 2 3 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 28 38 29 20 25 37 23 9 17 23 12 14 12 17 22 59 46 57 67 64 49 64 55 66 64 84 79 84 70 68 9 11 11 7 8 13 11 21 13 10 3 4 2 10 8 Topline 132 . For each pair. tell me whether the FIRST statement or the SECOND statement comes closer to your own views — even if neither is exactly right.S.

5g Now I’m going to read you a few pairs of statements. DK/ Refused 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 10 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 36 36 40 23 36 51 34 13 34 53 31 41 34 37 34 55 54 52 68 55 37 56 64 56 37 59 45 58 52 58 7 8 8 7 6 10 9 13 8 8 7 11 6 8 7 Topline 133 . (READ AND RANDOMIZE ITEMS) It’s best for the future of our country to be active in world affairs OR… We should pay less attention to problems overseas and concentrate on problems here at home We should pay less attention It is best for to problems the future of overseas and our country to concentrate on Neither/ be active in problems here Both world affairs at home (VOL) g. The first pair is. Religious Landscape Survey Q.S..Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. For each pair.. tell me whether the FIRST statement or the SECOND statement comes closer to your own views — even if neither is exactly right.

6 If you had to choose.S.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. fewer services Bigger government. or a bigger government providing more services? Smaller government. more services Don't know/ refused 6 7 7 5 6 4 7 23 8 7 6 7 5 9 6 Depends (VOL) 5 4 5 5 4 5 6 6 6 7 3 7 5 7 5 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 43 46 Total 48 41 Evangelical churches 51 37 Mainline churches 18 72 Historically Black churches 39 51 Catholic 56 36 Mormon 42 46 Orthodox 23 47 Jehovah’s Witness 44 42 Other Christian 40 46 Jewish 21 70 Muslim* 35 51 Buddhist 31 59 Hindu 38 46 Other Faiths 41 48 Unaffiliated *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center. Religious Landscape Survey Q. 2007) Topline 134 . would you rather have a smaller government providing fewer services.

Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.S. Religious Landscape Survey

Q.7

On another subject, do you think abortion should be (READ): (FORM A READ CATEGORIES IN ORDER, FORM B READ IN REVERSE ORDER)
Don’t Know/ Legal in Legal in Illegal in Illegal in Refused all cases most cases most cases all cases (VOL)

Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated

18 9 20 18 16 8 24 5 33 40 13 35 23 36 29

33 24 42 29 32 19 38 11 42 44 35 46 46 41 41

27 36 25 23 27 61 20 25 13 9 35 10 19 13 16

16 25 7 23 18 9 10 52 6 5 13 3 5 4 8

6 6 7 8 7 4 8 7 7 2 4 6 7 6 6

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Q.8

Some people seem to follow what’s going on in government and public affairs most of the time, whether there’s an election or not. Others aren’t that interested. Would you say you follow what’s going on in government and public affairs…(READ)
Or hardly at all 7 7 5 7 7 4 6 27 2 2 4 4 6 4 9 Don’t know/ Refused (VOL) 1 1 0 1 1 0 2 3 0 1 1 1 2 1 1

Most of the time Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 52 52 58 47 49 54 49 29 61 68 47 60 50 65 49

Some of the time 29 30 28 32 30 34 37 24 27 22 34 26 33 23 28

Only now and then, 11 11 9 13 13 8 7 17 9 7 14 8 10 8 13

Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

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Q.8a

[IF DON’T FOLLOW POLITICS (Q.8=4,9), INSERT: When you do think about; IF FOLLOW POLITICS (Q.8=1-3), INSERT When you think about] government and public affairs, which of the following factors most influences your thinking? Would you say it’s (READ LIST)
what you your the views of have seen or your or DK/ your personal your friends read in the religious something Refused experience and family media beliefs education else? (VOL) Total

Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated

34 29 37 28 35 38 35 13 40 35 28 35 28 42 40

6 6 7 7 7 4 8 3 6 6 9 7 8 4 6

19 16 19 23 23 12 20 10 15 20 19 18 28 14 19

14 28 8 17 9 24 9 60 10 4 13 2 3 4 3

13 8 15 10 14 12 15 3 10 21 18 26 23 22 16

10 9 10 12 9 6 9 8 18 11 12 9 5 13 13

4 4 4 3 5 4 4 3 2 3 2 4 4 2 3

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

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Q. 9

In your opinion, should churches and other houses of worship keep out of political matters – or should they express their views on day-to-day social and political questions?
Should keep out Should express views Don’t know/ Refused

Total

46 50 5 100 Total 32 64 4 100 Evangelical churches 50 46 4 100 Mainline churches 27 69 4 100 Historically Black churches 48 48 5 100 Catholic 48 47 5 100 Mormon 53 42 4 100 Orthodox 82 12 7 100 Jehovah’s Witness 55 41 4 100 Other Christian 63 33 4 100 Jewish 49 43 8 100 Muslim* 56 34 10 100 Buddhist 69 25 7 100 Hindu 63 30 6 100 Other Faiths 61 34 5 100 Unaffiliated *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center, 2007) Question Wording: “In your opinion, should mosques keep out of political matters….”

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Q.10a Now, as I read some statements on a few different topics, please tell me if you completely agree, mostly agree, mostly DISagree or completely disagree with each one. (First/Next) [INSERT; RANDOMIZE].READ FOR FIRST ITEM, THEN REPEAT AS NECESSARY: Do you completely agree, mostly agree, mostly DISagree or completely disagree? a. I often feel that my values are threatened by Hollywood and the entertainment industry
Don't know/ Refused 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 5 2 2 2 4 3 2 2

Completely Mostly Mostly agree agree disagree Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 19 27 17 14 19 34 17 32 13 9 18 10 13 9 10 23 26 24 21 24 33 25 22 18 16 23 21 26 14 18 27 23 29 29 26 18 28 17 30 32 33 29 30 27 32

Completely disagree 29 22 28 34 28 12 28 25 37 40 23 36 29 48 38

Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

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READ FOR FIRST ITEM. Religious Landscape Survey Q. There are clear and absolute standards for what is right and wrong Don't know/ Refused 2 2 2 3 3 1 5 3 6 2 4 3 6 3 2 Completely agree Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 39 51 33 41 38 46 33 55 28 20 37 15 21 20 28 Mostly agree 39 33 44 37 40 43 39 29 44 43 35 37 45 39 39 Mostly Completely disagree disagree 14 10 15 11 13 8 16 8 13 25 16 25 20 25 20 7 4 6 7 6 3 8 6 9 10 7 19 8 13 10 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 140 .S. please tell me if you completely agree. mostly agree. (First/Next) [INSERT. mostly DISagree or completely disagree? b.10b Now. RANDOMIZE]. THEN REPEAT AS NECESSARY: Do you completely agree. as I read some statements on a few different topics. mostly agree. mostly DISagree or completely disagree with each one.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.

THEN REPEAT AS NECESSARY: Do you completely agree. Religious Landscape Survey Q. (First/Next) [INSERT. mostly agree. mostly DISagree or completely disagree with each one.10c Now. mostly DISagree or completely disagree? c. mostly agree. please tell me if you completely agree.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. as I read some statements on a few different topics.S.READ FOR FIRST ITEM. RANDOMIZE]. Evolution is the best explanation for the origins of human life on earth Don't know/ Refused 7 6 8 11 7 3 9 2 7 5 3 5 5 6 6 Completely agree Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 20 7 18 13 24 6 21 3 31 49 16 49 41 37 38 Mostly agree 28 16 33 26 34 15 34 5 32 28 29 32 39 37 34 Mostly disagree 16 16 19 19 18 22 14 12 14 7 14 10 10 12 12 Completely disagree 29 54 23 32 17 54 22 78 16 10 37 4 4 9 11 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 141 .

10d When it comes to questions of right and wrong.S. which of the following do you look to most for guidance? Would you say (READ AND RANDOMIZE) Practical experience and common Scientific sense information 52 39 59 47 57 33 52 19 42 60 41 51 55 58 66 5 2 4 3 7 2 8 1 7 9 14 12 18 8 10 Don't know/ Refused (VOL) 4 3 4 3 5 3 5 4 6 5 2 5 4 4 3 Religious teachings and beliefs Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 29 52 24 43 22 58 25 73 19 10 33 4 9 5 6 Philosophy and reason 9 4 9 4 10 4 11 3 25 15 10 27 15 25 16 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 NO QUESTIONS 11-15 Topline 142 .Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. Religious Landscape Survey Q.

005 54 6 12 Total 59 5 13 Evangelical churches 57 5 12 Mainline churches 33 6 16 Historically Black churches 58 7 10 Catholic 71 3 9 Mormon 58 3 9 Orthodox 53 1 14 Jehovah’s Witness 49 10 19 Other Christian 57 6 9 Jewish 60 N/A 9 Muslim* 45 8 12 Buddhist 79 0 5 Hindu 44 9 15 Other Faiths 46 10 12 Unaffiliated Based on total answering *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. 2007) Topline 143 .013 576 360 213 129 676 1.982 8. Religious Landscape Survey MARITAL Are you currently married.421 1.S. separated. living with a partner.419 7. widowed. divorced. or have you never been married? Living with a partner Divorced/ Separated Never been married 19 14 15 34 17 12 22 20 15 19 28 31 14 26 28 Married Widowed 8 9 11 11 8 5 7 11 6 8 3 4 2 5 4 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 N 35.029 410 256 447 5.308 9.

black.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. Religious Landscape Survey HISP Are you. Asian. black Hispanic. yourself.990 7. such as Mexican. or some other Spanish background? [INTERVIEWER: IF RESPONDENT ANSWERED 1 ‘HISPANIC’ IN HISP. ASK: Are you white Hispanic.380 7. or some other race? IF NON-HISPANIC ASK:] RACE What is your race? Are you white.987 571 358 212 126 671 1. or some other? -----------------Non-Latino-------------other/ mixed White Black Asian race 71 11 3 Total 81 6 2 Evangelical churches 91 2 1 Mainline churches 2 92 0 Historically Black churches 65 2 2 Catholic 86 3 1 Mormon 87 6 2 Orthodox 48 22 0 Jehovah’s Witness 77 11 0 Other Christian 95 1 0 Jewish 37 24 20 Muslim* 53 4 32 Buddhist 5 1 88 Hindu 80 2 1 Other Faiths 73 8 4 Unaffiliated *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center. of Hispanic origin or descent. Cuban.030 405 255 436 4.383 1.955 Topline 144 .101 9. Puerto Rican. 2007) 3 4 3 1 2 3 3 5 8 2 15 5 4 13 4 Latino 12 7 3 4 29 7 1 24 4 3 4 6 2 5 11 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 N 35.S.

agnostic. Hindu. Mormon. or Disciples of Christ. or just nothing in particular?] IF SOMETHING ELSE OR DK/REF (Q. Are you (READ) Baptist. Pentecostal.4 <.9 1. Reformed.1 .4 1.2 16.3 .6 .3 <.” BEFORE REACHING END OF LIST.0 Q.3 .g. Buddhist.S.3 4.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. Jewish.5 <.2 . etc.7 . what denomination or church. Congregational or United Church of Christ. 2007) Topline 145 . Religious Landscape Survey What is your present religion. atheist.1 . PROMPT WITH: and would you say that’s atheist. Something else Or none in particular? INTERVIEWER: DO NOT READ QUESTION IF R VOLUNTEERED DENOMINATION IN PREVIOUS QUESTION. Methodist.3 <. Roman Catholic. Church of Christ. Church of God. DO NOT READ (ENTER "NO" CODE 2) IF PROTESTANT OR CHRISTIAN UNSPECIFIED OR SOMETHING ELSE/CHRISTIAN (Q16=1. if any? Are you Protestant. agnostic. Presbyterian. none.7 . Pagan.7 4. 13 OR {Q. if any. Orthodox such as Greek or Russian Orthodox.2 6.6 2.3 1. 99) ASK: CHR Do you think of yourself as a Christian or not? IF R NAMED A NON-CHRISTIAN RELIGION IN PREVIOUS QUESTION (e.7 .6 . etc.16=11 AND CHR=1}).9 23.3 1. Episcopalian. Percent 51.).3 17. Native American.17 As far as your present religion.16 = 11. Lutheran. Muslim. RECORD RESPONSE IN APPROPRIATE CATEGORY. Wiccan. or nothing in particular? INTERVIEWER: IF R VOLUNTEERS “nothing in particular.8 100. something else. do you identify with most closely? Just stop me when I get to the right one.8 1. Holiness. no religion. Family Non-Specific Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim* Buddhist Hindu Other World Religions Other Faiths Unaffiliated DK/REF Total *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center. Nondenominational or Independent Church.16 Protestant Baptist Family Methodist Family Nondenominational Family Lutheran Family Presbyterian Family Pentecostal Family Episcopalian/Anglican Family Restorationist Family Congregationalist Family Holiness Family Reformed Family Adventist Family Anabaptist Pietist Family Friends Family Other Evangelical/Fund.5 2.2 4.7 .5 4. ASK: Q.

) Don’t know/Refused (VOL. ASK: Q. an independent Baptist church.) Other Baptist (SPECIFY) Baptist not further specified (just a Baptist) (VOL.17=2 AND RACE=1.) Free Will Baptist (VOL.) Baptist Missionary Association (VOL. if any.) IF BAPTIST AND BLACK (Q. 3-9). of America (VOL.A.17d Which of the following Methodist churches. ASK: Q.17c Which of the following Methodist churches.17a Which of the following Baptist churches.. or some other Methodist church? [Response categories below] United Methodist Church Free Methodist Church African Methodist Episcopal (VOL. ASK: Q. the American Baptist Churches in the U.) IF METHODIST AND NON-BLACK (Q. 3-9). do you identify with most closely? The African Methodist Episcopal (PRONOUNCE: uh-PISK-uh-pull) Church. if any.17=1 AND RACE=2).) IF METHODIST AND BLACK (Q. or some other Baptist church? [Response categories below] Southern Baptist Convention American Baptist Churches in USA Independent Baptist Baptist General Conference (VOL. Free Methodist Church. Religious Landscape Survey IF BAPTIST AND NON-BLACK (Q. do you identify with most closely? The Southern Baptist Convention. if any.S. do you identify with most closely? The United Methodist Church. ASK: Q.) Don’t know/Refused (VOL.17=1 & RACE=1.) General Association of Regular Baptists (VOL.S.) Other Baptist (SPECIFY) Baptist not further specified (just a Baptist) (VOL.) Don’t know/Refused (VOL. the African Methodist Episcopal Church Zion. if any.) Conservative Baptist Assoc.17b Which of the following Baptist churches. or some other Baptist church? [Response categories below] National Baptist Convention Progressive Baptist Convention Independent Baptist (VOL) Southern Baptist Convention (VOL.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. the Progressive Baptist Convention.) Other Methodist Church (SPECIFY) Methodist not further specified (just a Methodist) (VOL. the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church. or some other Methodist church? [Response categories below] African Methodist Episcopal African Methodist Episcopal Zion Christian Methodist Episcopal Church Topline 146 . do you identify with most closely? The National Baptist Convention.17=2 AND RACE=2).

) Orthodox Presbyterian (VOL. do you identify with most closely? The Presbyterian Church U.) IF NONDENOMINATIONAL OR INDEPENDENT CHURCH (Q.) Other Lutheran Church (SPECIFY) Lutheran not further specified (just a Lutheran) (VOL. if any.) Don’t know/Refused (VOL.) IF LUTHERAN (Q. or some other church? [Response categories below] Assemblies of God Topline 147 . Wisconsin Synod (VOL. 3-9).Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.) Other Methodist (SPECIFY) Methodist not further specified (just a Methodist) (VOL. do you identify with most closely? An evangelical church. ASK: Q..17=3): Q.) Cumberland Presbyterian Church (VOL.S.) Don’t know/Refused (VOL. ASK: Q. or some other Lutheran church? [Response categories below] Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) Lutheran Church.) Don’t know/Refused (VOL. Religious Landscape Survey United Methodist Church (VOL. fundamentalist church.17f Which of the following Lutheran churches. or some other Presbyterian church? [Response categories below] Presbyterian Church USA Presbyterian Church in America Associate Reformed Presbyterian (VOL.) Don’t know/Refused (VOL.17=5).) IF PRESBYTERIAN (Q. the Lutheran Church Missouri Synod (PRONOUNCE: SIN-id). Presbyterian Church in America. do you identify with most closely? The Assemblies of God. do you identify with most closely? The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.17h Which of the following Pentecostal churches.) Other (SPECIFY) Nondenominational not further specified (just nondenominational) (VOL. if any. Church of God Cleveland Tennessee. Missouri Synod Lutheran Church.) Other Presbyterian Church (SPECIFY) Presbyterian not further specified (just a Presbyterian) (VOL.A. charismatic church.17g Which of the following Presbyterian churches. or some other kind of church? [Response categories below] Nondenominational evangelical Nondenominational fundamentalist Nondenominational charismatic Interdenominational Community church (VOL.S.) IF PENTECOSTAL AND NON-BLACK (Q. if any. ASK: Q. Inter-denominational church.17e Which of the following kinds of nondenominational churches. if any.17=4).17=6 AND RACE=1.

17=6 AND RACE=2).) Church of God of the Apostolic Faith (VOL. Church of God of the Apostolic (PRONOUNCE: Ah-puhSTOL-ik) Faith.) Anglican not further specified (just Anglican) (VOL.) Pentecostal Holiness Church (VOL.) Church of God (Cleveland TN) (VOL.) Pentecostal Holiness Church (VOL. Religious Landscape Survey Church of God Cleveland TN Four Square Gospel (or Four Square) (VOL.) Church of God in Christ (VOL.) IF EPISCOPALIAN OR ANGLICAN (Q.) Don’t know/Refused (VOL. do you identify with most closely? The Church of God in Christ.17=7).17i Which of the following Pentecostal churches.S. if any. or some other church? [Response categories below] Church of Christ Disciples of Christ Christian Churches and Churches of Christ (VOL. ASK: Q.) Other Pentecostal Church (SPECIFY) Pentecostal not further specified (just a Pentecostal) (VOL.17k Which of the following Christian churches. Disciples of Christ. do you identify with most closely? The Episcopal (PRONOUNCE: uh-PISK-uh-pull) Church in the USA. the Anglican Church.) IF CHRISTIAN CHURCH.) Other Pentecostal Church (SPECIFY) Pentecostal not further specified (just a Pentecostal) (VOL. ASK: Q.) Other Episcopalian or Anglican Church (SPECIFY) Episcopalian not further specified (just Episcopalian) (VOL. or some other church? [Response categories below] Church of God in Christ Church of God of the Apostolic Faith Assemblies of God (VOL.17=8).) Pentecostal Church of God (VOL. DISCIPLES OF CHRIST (Q. if any. do you identify with most closely? The Church of Christ.) Assembly of Christian Churches (VOL.) Topline 148 . ASK: Q.) Four Square Gospel (or Four Square) (VOL.) Don’t know/Refused (VOL.) Pentecostal Church of God (VOL.) Reformed Episcopal Church (VOL.) Don’t know/Refused (VOL. CHURCH OF CHRIST. if any.17j Which of the following Episcopalian (PRONOUNCE: uh-pisk-uh-PALE-yun) or Anglican Churches.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.) IF PENTECOSTAL AND BLACK (Q. or some other church? [Response categories below] Episcopal Church in the USA Anglican Church (Church of England) Anglican Orthodox Church (VOL.

17n Which of the following Reformed churches.) Don’t know/Refused (VOL.17=10). if any. the Christian Reformed Church. Conservative Congregational Christian. ASK: Q. do you identify with most closely? The Reformed Church in America.S.17o Which of the following Churches of God. American Rescue workers (VOL.) Other Holiness (SPECIFY) Holiness not further specified (just Holiness) (VOL.) Other (SPECIFY) Christian Church not further specified (VOL. ASK: Q. do you identify with most closely? The Church of God Anderson Indiana.17=11). or something else? [Response categories below] Church of the Nazarene Wesleyan Church Free Methodist Church Christian and Missionary Alliance – alliance (VOL.17l Which of the following congregational churches.) IF REFORMED (Q.) IF CONGREGATIONAL OR UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST (Q. Church of God Cleveland Tennessee. or some other church? [Response categories below] United Church of Christ Conservative Congregational Christian Other Congregational (SPECIFY) Congregational not further specified (just Congregationalist/Church of Christ) (VOL.) Salvation Army. or some other church? [Response categories below] Reformed Church in America Christian Reformed Church Other Reformed (SPECIFY) Reformed not further specified (just Reformed) (VOL.17=9).17m Which of the following Holiness churches.) Nondenominational Christian Church (VOL.) Don’t know/Refused (VOL. Indiana) (VOL.) IF CHURCH OF GOD AND NON-BLACK (Q. if any. the Free Methodist Church. if any. ASK: Q.) IF HOLINESS (Q.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. ASK: Q.17=12 AND RACE=1.) Don’t know/Refused (VOL. if any. 3-9).) “I am just a Christian” (VOL. do you identify with most closely? The United Church of Christ.) Don’t know/Refused (VOL. or some other church? [Response categories below] Topline 149 . the Wesleyan (PRONOUNCE: WES-lee-un) Church.) Church of God (Anderson. do you identify with most closely? The Church of the Nazarene (PRONOUNCE: na-zuh-REEN). Religious Landscape Survey United Church of Christ (VOL.

) Worldwide Church of God (VOL.) Other Church of God (SPECIFY) Church of God not further specified (just Church of God) (VOL.) Don’t know/Refused (VOL. do you identify with most closely? The Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-day Saints.) Worldwide Church of God (VOL.17r Which of the following Orthodox churches.) IF ORTHODOX (Q.17=12 AND RACE=2). if any.) Other Orthodox (SPECIFY) Orthodox not further specified (just Orthodox) (VOL. Tennessee (VOL. do you identify with most closely? The Church of God in Christ. or some other church? [Response categories below] Greek Orthodox Russian Orthodox Orthodox Church in America Armenian Orthodox (VOL. ASK: Q.) Don’t know/Refused (VOL. the Community of Christ.) Church of God in Christ (VOL. Religious Landscape Survey Church of God Anderson. or some other church? [Response categories below] Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints Community of Christ Other Mormon (SPECIFY) Mormon not further specified (just a Mormon) (VOL. Russian Orthodox. ASK: Q.) Serbian Orthodox (VOL. the Church of God of the Apostolic (PRONOUNCE: Ah-puhSTOL-ik) Faith.16=4). ASK: Q.S.) Eastern Orthodox (VOL.) Topline 150 .) Don’t know/Refused (VOL. or some other church? [Response categories below] Church of God in Christ Church of God of the Apostolic (PRONOUNCE: Ah-puh-STOL-ik) Faith Church of God Anderson.) IF CHURCH OF GOD AND BLACK (Q.) IF MORMON OR LATTER-DAY SAINTS (Q. Orthodox Church in America. if any.) Other Church of God (SPECIFY) Church of God not further specified (just Church of God) (VOL. Indiana Church of God Cleveland.16=3). Tennessee Church of God of the Apostolic Faith (VOL.) Don’t know/Refused (VOL. Indiana (VOL) Church of God Cleveland.17q Which of the following Mormon churches.17p Which of the following Churches of God. if any. do you identify with most closely? The Greek Orthodox Church.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.

ASK: Q. if any. do you identify with most closely? Sunni (PRONOUNCE: SOON-e).) Culturally Jewish (VOL. if any.16=6). Orthodox.17s Which Jewish group do you identify with most closely? Reform.) IF MUSLIM (Q. ASK: Q.17u Which of the following Buddhist groups.) Topline 151 .Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.) IF HINDU (Q.16=8). if any. or something else? [Response categories below] Reform Conservative Orthodox Reconstructionist (VOL. or something else? [Response categories below] Theravada (Vipassana) Buddhism Mahayana (Zen) Buddhism Vajrayana (Tibetan) Buddhism Other Buddhist (SPECIFY) Buddhist not further specified (just a Buddhist) (VOL. Vajrayana (PRONOUNCE: vi-rah-YAH-nah) Buddhism (such as Tibetan).16=5). do you identify with most closely? Vaishnava (PRONOUNCE: VICE SH-nuh-vuh) Hinduism or Shaivite (PRONOUNCE: SH-vite) Hinduism.) Don’t know/Refused (VOL.17v Which of the following Hindu groups.) Don’t know/Refused (VOL.) Other Hindu (SPECIFY) Hindu not further specified (just Hindu) (VOL. ASK: Q.S.) Don’t know/Refused (VOL. Shia (PRONOUCE: SHE-ah). ASK: Q.) IF BUDDHIST (Q. or is it something else? [Response categories below] Vaishnava Hinduism Shaivite Hinduism Shaktism Hinduism (VOL. do you identify with most closely? Theravada (PRONOUNCE: ther-ah-VAH-dah) (such as Vipassana (PRONOUNCE: vi-pah-SAH-nah). Mahayana (PRONOUNCE: mah-hah-YAH-nah) Buddhism (such as zen). Conservative.17t Which of the following Muslim groups. Religious Landscape Survey IF JEWISH (Q.) Other (SPECIFY) Jewish not further specified (just Jewish) (VOL.) Don’t know/Refused (VOL. or something else? [Response categories below] Sunni Shia Nation of Islam (Black Muslim) (VOL.16=7).) Other Muslim (SPECIFY) Muslim not further specified (just a Muslim) (VOL.

Independent Pentecostal Church of God of the Apostolic Faith Apostolic Pentecostal in the Evangelical Tradition Other Pentecostal denomination in the Evangelical Tradition Pentecostal in the Evangelical Tradition.1 Baptist in the Evangelical Tradition Southern Baptist Convention Independent Baptist in the Evangelical Tradition Baptist Missionary Association Free Will Baptist General Association of Regular Baptists Other Baptist denomination in the Evangelical Tradition Baptist in the Evangelical Tradition.3 <0. not further specified Jehovah's Witness Orthodox Greek Orthodox Russian Orthodox Other Orthodox church Orthodox.3 <0.3 1.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.3 0.3 <0.3 <0.6 <0.3 <0.3 3.6 2.3 <0.8 0.3 Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Community of Christ Mormon.3 <0.3 <0.3 Other World Religions Other Faiths Unitarians and other liberal faiths Unitarian (Universalist) Liberal faith Spiritual but not religious Eclectic.5 <0.3 0.3 <0.3 0. not further specified Anglican/Episcopal in the Mainline Tradition Episcopal Church in the USA Anglican Church (Church of England) Other Anglican/Episcopal denomination in the Mainline Tradition Anglican/Episcopal in the Mainline Tradition.7 0.3 0.S.0 0.3 <0.3 <0.3 1. not further specified Holiness in the Historically Black Tradition Protestant nonspecific in the Historically Black Tradition 4.3 1.3 0.2 0.5 Unaffiliated Atheist Agnostic Nothing in particular 16.7 1.3 <0.0 <0. not further specified 0.3 <0.9 1.3 <0.S.3 <0.4 0.9 0. not further specified Holiness in the Evangelical Tradition Church of the Nazarene Free Methodist Church Wesleyan Church Christian and Missionary Alliance Church of God (Anderson.3 <0.4 <0.3 0. not further specified Presbyterian in the Mainline Tradition Presbyterian Church USA Other Presbyterian denomination in the Mainline Tradition Presbyterian in the Mainline Tradition.6 <0.8 0. not further specified Presbyterian in the Evangelical Tradition Presbyterian Church in America Other Presbyterian denomination in the Evangelical Tradition Presbyterian in the Evangelical Tradition.4 1.5 Muslim* Sunni Shia Other Muslim groups Muslim.5 <0.2 <0.3 1.5 0.3 <0.8 1.3 <0.8 *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center 2007) .4 1.3 <0.4 <0.4 0. not further specified Anglican/Episcopal in the Evangelical Tradition Restorationist in the Evangelical Tradition Church of Christ Christian Churches and Churches of Christ Restorationist in the Evangelical Tradition. Religious Landscape Survey Religious Composition of the U.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.7 0.6 0.3 0.3 <0. not further specified Restorationist in the Mainline Tradition Disciples of Christ Restorationist in the Mainline Tradition. not further specified Anabaptist in the Mainline Tradition Friends in the Mainline Tradition Other/Protestant nonspecific in the Mainline Tradition 1. not further specified Lutheran in the Evangelical Tradition Lutheran Church.3 0.3 <0.3 <0.3 0.3 <0.9 Hindu Vaishnava Hinduism Shaivite Hinduism Other Hindu groups Hindu.3 <0.3 <0.9 0.3 <0.5 <0.7 0.4 <0.6 5. % of U.4 <0. "a bit of everything.7 1. not further specified Adventist in the Evangelical Tradition Seventh-Day Adventist Other Adventist group in the Evangelical Tradition Anabaptist in the Evangelical Tradition Pietist in the Evangelical Tradition Topline Other Evangelical/Fundamentalist Protestant nonspecific in the Evangelical Tradition 10.8 6.3 <0.3 0.3 <0.3 <0. Wisconsin Synod Other Lutheran denomination in the Evangelical Tradition Lutheran in the Evangelical Tradition.5 <0.3 <0.7 2.3 <0.3 <0.1 <0.3 0.1 <0.3 <0.5 0.3 <0.3 0.3 <0.S.3 <0.3 Jewish Reform Conservative Orthodox Other Jewish groups Jewish.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0. not further specified Methodist in the Historically Black Tradition African Methodist Episcopal African Methodist Episcopal Zion Christian Methodist Episcopal Church Other Methodist denomination in the Historically Black Tradition Methodist in the Historically Black Tradition.3 <0.3 Buddhist Theravada (Vipassana) Buddhism Mahayana (Zen) Buddhism Vajrayana (Tibetan) Buddhism Other Buddhist groups Buddhist.S.3 <0.4 5.3 <0.9 1.9 1.9 152 Don't Know 0.3 0.4 <0.3 <0.3 <0.7 0.4 1.3 <0.1 Catholic 23.3 0. not further specified Reformed in the Mainline Tradition Reformed Church in America Other Reformed denomination in the Mainline Tradition Reformed in the Mainline Tradition.3 <0.3 <0.5 <0. Christ Church Unity Other Metaphysical Other 0. not further specified Lutheran in the Mainline Tradition Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) Other Lutheran denomination in the Mainline Tradition Lutheran in the Mainline Tradition.3 <0. Adult Pop Evangelical Protestant Churches Mormon 26.3 <0.2 0.6 2. not further specified 0.3 0.3 Baptist in the Historically Black Tradition National Baptist Convention Progressive Baptist Convention Independent Baptist in the Historically Black Tradition Missionary Baptist Other Baptist denomination in the Historically Black Tradition Baptist in the Historically Black Tradition.4 <0.7 <0.3 <0.4 1. Adult Pop % of U. not further specified Reformed in the Evangelical Tradition Christian Reformed Church Other Reformed denomination in the Evangelical Tradition Reformed in the Evangelical Tradition.3 Historically Black Churches 6.3 <0.3 <0.4 <0. Missouri Synod Lutheran Church.5 <0.3 <0. not further specified 0.8 2.3 <0. not further specified Pentecostal in the Evangelical Tradition Assemblies of God Church of God Cleveland Tennessee Four Square Gospel Pentecostal Church of God Pentecostal Holiness Church Nondenominational.3 <0.7 0. not further specified Methodist in the Evangelical Tradition Nondenominational in the Evangelical Tradition Nondenominational evangelical Nondenominational charismatic Nondenominational fundamentalist Nondenominational Christian Interdenominational in the Evangelical Tradition Community Church in the Evangelical Tradition Other nondenominational group in the Evangelical Tradition Nondenominational in the Evangelical Tradition.3 <0.4 0.3 <0. not further specified Nondenominational in the Mainline Tradition Interdenominational in the Mainline Tradition Other nondenominational group in the Mainline Tradition Nondenominational in the Mainline Tradition. not further specified Congregationalist in the Evangelical Tradition Conservative Congregational Christian Other Congregationalist denomination in the Evangelical Tradition Congregationalist in the Evangelical Tradition.1 1.3 Baptist in the Mainline Tradition American Baptist Churches in USA Other Baptist denomination in the Mainline Tradition Baptist in the Mainline Tradition.3 <0.7 1. not further specified Methodist in the Mainline Tradition United Methodist Church Other Methodist denomination in the Mainline Tradition Methodist in the Mainline Tradition. Adult Pop % of U.3 <0.3 3.3 2. not further specified 1. Indiana) Other Holiness denomination in the Evangelical Tradition Holiness in the Evangelical Tradition." own beliefs Other liberal faith groups New Age Wica (Wiccan) Pagan Other New Age groups Native American Religions <0.3 <0.3 0.8 1.7 <0.3 0. not further specified Congregationalist in the Mainline Tradition United Church of Christ Congregationalist in the Mainline Tradition.3 <0.3 Other Christian Metaphysical Spiritualist Unity.6 <0.8 1.3 1.3 <0.3 0.3 Mainline Protestant Churches 18. Unity Church.3 <0.3 0. not further specified 0.0 0.9 <0.3 <0.6 0.3 <0.S.3 <0.4 12.3 <0.7 0.3 <0.3 <0. not further specified Nondenominational in the Historically Black Tradition Pentecostal in the Historically Black Tradition Church of God in Christ Apostolic Pentecostal in the Historically Black Tradition United Pentecostal Church International Other Pentecostal denomination in the Historically Black Tradition Pentecostal in the Historically Black Tradition.3 <0.3 0.3 <0.

16=1-4.279]: Q.S.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. ASK [N=28. Religious Landscape Survey IF CHRISTIAN (Q. or not? Don't Know/ Refused 4 2 6 3 5 6 7 10 33 Yes Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian 44 79 25 67 16 21 16 17 15 No 52 18 69 29 79 73 77 73 52 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 153 .18 Would you describe yourself as a "born-again" or evangelical Christian. 13 OR CHR=1).

Seldom OR Never?” Topline 154 .20 Aside from weddings and funerals. once a week.S.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. a few times a year. seldom. Once or twice a month. or never? More than once a week Once or twice a month A few times a year Don't know/ Refused Once a week Seldom Never Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 15 24 15 18 16 11 1 Total 30 28 14 14 9 4 1 Evangelical churches 8 26 19 23 16 7 1 Mainline churches 30 29 16 13 9 3 1 Historically Black churches 9 33 19 20 13 6 0 Catholic 31 44 9 7 4 3 0 Mormon 8 26 21 28 12 4 1 Orthodox 71 11 3 7 5 2 0 Jehovah’s Witness 8 19 21 19 14 17 1 Other Christian 6 10 16 37 19 12 1 Jewish 17 23 8 18 16 18 0 Muslim* 8 9 15 29 22 16 1 Buddhist 10 14 23 34 11 8 0 Hindu 6 8 14 21 24 27 1 Other Faiths 2 3 5 17 35 37 0 Unaffiliated *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center. Religious Landscape Survey QUESTIONS 19A AND 19B HELD FOR FUTURE RELEASE ASK ALL: Q. how often do you attend religious services… more than once a week. once or twice a month. More than once a week. A few times a year especially for the Eid. 2007) Question wording: “On average. Once a week for Jum’ah Prayer. how often do you attend the mosque or Islamic Center for Salah or Jum’ah prayer.

somewhat important.S.21 How important is religion in your life… very important. 2007) NO QUESTIONS 22-26 Topline 155 .Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. or not at all important? Don’t know/ Refused 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not at all important 7 1 3 1 2 1 4 0 6 9 4 6 3 16 33 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 56 26 9 Total 79 17 2 Evangelical churches 52 35 9 Mainline churches 85 13 1 Historically Black churches 56 34 7 Catholic 83 13 3 Mormon 56 31 9 Orthodox 86 10 2 Jehovah’s Witness 60 22 11 Other Christian 31 41 18 Jewish 72 18 5 Muslim* 35 38 18 Buddhist 45 40 12 Hindu 39 30 12 Other Faiths 16 25 25 Unaffiliated *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center. Religious Landscape Survey Q. not too important.

283 5.350 8.350]: Q.27 About how many people belong to the church or house of worship where you attend religious services most often? Just your best estimate will do. ASK [N=26.20=1-4).000 21 17 19 15 33 18 24 3 N/A 32 N/A 13 22 11 13 Don’t know/ Refused (VOL) 3 1 3 1 4 2 3 3 N/A 5 N/A 7 6 7 10 Or more than 2000 10 8 5 10 18 9 9 6 N/A 10 N/A 6 24 9 6 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 100 100 100 N 26.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. Would you say (READ LIST IN ORDER) Less than 100 Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 21 27 21 28 8 7 12 21 N/A 15 N/A 36 16 31 32 Between 100 and 500 44 46 53 46 36 64 51 66 N/A 38 N/A 38 32 42 39 Between 500 and 2.666 538 302 201 N/A 463 N/A 240 208 230 1.789 6. Religious Landscape Survey IF WORSHIP MORE THAN SELDOM (Q.296 Topline 156 .S.838 1.

20=1-4).296 Topline 157 .283 5. participate in a choir or other musical program there At least once a week Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 12 16 9 23 6 18 10 41 N/A 2 N/A 7 8 8 5 Once or twice a month 4 4 3 9 3 8 3 4 N/A 3 N/A 2 9 5 3 Several times a year 4 4 3 5 3 10 6 1 N/A 5 N/A 8 17 5 4 Don’t know/ Seldom Never Refused 9 9 9 9 7 14 8 5 N/A 6 N/A 8 16 14 8 71 65 75 53 81 51 72 49 N/A 84 N/A 74 49 67 80 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 N/A 1 N/A 1 1 0 1 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 100 100 100 N 26. several times a year. ASK [N=26.28a And still thinking about the church or house of worship where you attend religious services most often. Religious Landscape Survey IF WORSHIP MORE THAN SELDOM (Q.350]: Q. seldom or never? And how often do you [INSERT NEXT ITEM]? READ IF NECESSARY: At least once a week.350 8.838 1. several times a year.789 6.666 538 302 201 N/A 463 N/A 240 208 230 1. or never? a. seldom. READ AND RANDOMIZE] – would you say at least once a week. please tell me how often. once or twice a month. you do each of the following.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. once or twice a month. First. if ever.S. how often do you [INSERT.

Religious Landscape Survey IF WORSHIP MORE THAN SELDOM (Q.789 6. First.S. how often do you [INSERT. ASK [N=26.666 538 302 201 N/A 463 N/A 240 208 230 1. several times a year. you do each of the following. once or twice a month.283 5.350]: Q.350 8.296 Topline 158 . if ever.838 1.20=1-4).28b And still thinking about the church or house of worship where you attend religious services most often. please tell me how often. seldom or never? And how often do you [INSERT NEXT ITEM]? READ IF NECESSARY: At least once a week.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. several times a year. do community volunteer work through your place of worship At least once a week Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 11 12 9 17 9 21 8 53 N/A 6 N/A 9 4 14 6 Once or twice a month 15 18 14 20 11 38 16 11 N/A 11 N/A 12 18 15 8 Several times a year 19 21 22 17 17 23 19 4 N/A 24 N/A 20 24 15 13 Don’t know/ Refused 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 2 N/A 1 N/A 1 0 1 1 Seldom 19 19 21 16 20 7 20 7 N/A 23 N/A 24 26 19 18 Never 35 28 34 30 43 11 37 23 N/A 35 N/A 34 28 36 55 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 100 100 100 N 26. seldom. READ AND RANDOMIZE] – would you say at least once a week. once or twice a month. or never? b.

once or twice a month.350 8.283 5. ASK [N=26.S.666 538 302 201 N/A 463 N/A 240 208 230 1.28c And still thinking about the church or house of worship where you attend religious services most often. Religious Landscape Survey IF WORSHIP MORE THAN SELDOM (Q. please tell me how often.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.20=1-4). if ever. how often do you [INSERT. several times a year.296 Topline 159 .would you say at least once a week.838 1. READ AND RANDOMIZE] . once or twice a month. seldom or never? And how often do you [INSERT NEXT ITEM]? READ IF NECESSARY: At least once a week.350]: Q. several times a year.789 6. you do each of the following. seldom. First. work with children or youth there At least once a week Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 17 21 12 27 11 45 14 46 N/A 9 N/A 11 11 17 9 Once or Several twice a times a month year 9 11 8 12 6 13 8 7 N/A 4 N/A 7 13 9 7 10 11 11 10 8 9 12 3 N/A 9 N/A 14 20 10 12 Don’t know/ Refused 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 2 N/A 1 N/A 0 1 0 1 Seldom 16 16 19 13 15 11 16 13 N/A 20 N/A 18 16 16 16 Never 48 41 50 38 59 21 49 30 N/A 57 N/A 50 39 48 55 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 100 100 100 N 26. or never? c.

Religious Landscape Survey IF WORSHIP MORE THAN SELDOM (Q.would you say at least once a week. several times a year. or other gatherings there At least once a week Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 15 20 12 26 9 25 13 31 N/A 9 N/A 14 12 13 9 Once or twice a month 24 30 25 28 16 43 26 22 N/A 18 N/A 23 19 25 12 Several times a year 21 21 23 16 21 21 23 16 N/A 25 N/A 24 30 22 17 Don’t know/ Refused 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 2 N/A 1 N/A 1 0 1 1 Seldom 17 14 19 11 21 5 18 7 N/A 25 N/A 16 21 16 22 Never 22 14 21 18 32 5 19 22 N/A 22 N/A 23 17 22 40 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 100 100 100 N 26. once or twice a month. you do each of the following. several times a year.28d And still thinking about the church or house of worship where you attend religious services most often. seldom or never? And how often do you [INSERT NEXT ITEM]? READ IF NECESSARY: At least once a week. participate in social activities. seldom. ASK [N=26.838 1. such as meals.296 Topline 160 .666 538 302 201 N/A 463 N/A 240 208 230 1. READ AND RANDOMIZE] .350]: Q. or never? d.283 5. if ever. once or twice a month. club meetings.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. please tell me how often.20=1-4).S.350 8.789 6. how often do you [INSERT. First.

S. Religious Landscape Survey ASK ALL: Q.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.29 Are you or your family official members of a local church or house of worship? Don’t know/ refused 1 0 1 0 1 0 2 2 0 1 0 1 2 1 1 Yes Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 61 74 64 83 67 92 68 76 52 55 42 30 32 31 22 No 38 26 35 17 32 8 30 22 48 44 58 69 67 68 78 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 161 .

First… Q.30 Do you believe in God or a universal spirit? Yes. do not believe in Other God (VOL. Religious Landscape Survey Now we have some questions about people’s religious beliefs.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.S.) 5 0 1 0 1 0 4 0 1 10 5 19 5 9 22 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 2 1 3 1 5 3 Don’t know/ refused 2 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 5 1 3 1 3 6 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 162 . believe in God Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 92 99 97 99 97 100 95 98 97 83 92 75 92 82 70 No.

believe in God or a universal spirit----------Absolutely Certain Total Evangelical churches Mainline Churches Historically black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 71 90 73 90 72 90 71 93 82 41 82 39 57 53 36 Fairly Certain 17 8 21 7 21 8 19 4 11 31 9 28 26 23 24 Not too Certain 3 1 2 0 3 1 4 0 2 8 0 3 4 4 7 Not at all Certain 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 4 3 1 2 Not sure how certain 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 2 0 1 Don’t Believe in God 5 0 1 0 1 0 4 0 1 10 5 19 5 9 22 Other/ DK (VOL) 3 1 2 1 2 0 1 2 2 7 2 6 3 9 8 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 163 . fairly certain.30 Do you believe in God or a universal spirit? IF BELIEVE IN GOD/UNIVERSAL SPIRIT (Q. Religious Landscape Survey Now we have some questions about people’s religious beliefs. not too certain.S. First… Q.31 How certain are you about this belief? Are you absolutely certain. ASK: Q.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. or not at all certain? -------------Yes.30=1).

Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.32 Which comes closest to your view of God? God is a person with whom people can have a relationship or God is an impersonal force? ----Yes.S. Religious Landscape Survey Q. believe in God or a universal spirit--Other/ Personal Impersonal Both/ DK/ Neither Refused God force Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 60 79 62 71 60 91 49 82 50 25 41 20 31 29 28 25 13 26 19 29 6 34 11 34 50 42 45 53 41 35 4 4 4 5 4 1 6 4 11 4 7 7 5 9 3 3 3 4 3 4 1 6 1 2 4 3 3 2 3 3 Don’t believe in God 5 0 1 0 1 0 4 0 1 10 5 19 5 9 22 Other/ DK (VOL) 3 1 2 1 2 0 1 2 2 7 2 6 3 9 8 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 164 .30=1). ASK: Q.30 Do you believe in God or a universal spirit? IF BELIEVE IN GOD/UNIVERSAL SPIRIT (Q.

Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. Believe in life after death Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 74 86 78 79 77 98 74 42 82 39 77 68 65 68 48 No.S.) 18 10 14 14 15 1 19 45 10 45 18 24 26 19 39 2 1 1 1 1 0 1 9 3 2 2 2 1 3 2 Don’t know/ refused 7 3 7 6 7 1 6 4 5 14 3 6 7 10 11 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 165 .33 Do you believe in life after death? Yes. Do not believe in Other life after death (VOL. Religious Landscape Survey ASK ALL: Q.

33=1). or not at all certain? Don’t believe in Other/ life after DK death (VOL) 18 10 14 14 15 1 19 45 10 45 18 24 26 19 39 8 5 9 8 8 1 7 13 8 16 5 9 9 13 13 ------------------Yes.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. not too certain.S. Religious Landscape Survey ASK ALL: Q. fairly certain.33 Do you believe in life after death? IF BELIEVE IN LIFE AFTER DEATH (Q. ASK: Q. believe in life after death--------------Absolutely Certain Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 50 71 49 62 45 88 47 37 55 16 67 32 33 42 21 Fairly Certain 19 12 24 13 25 8 23 4 22 15 7 25 21 21 19 Not too certain 4 1 4 3 5 2 3 1 2 5 1 6 7 3 6 Not at all Certain 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 2 2 2 3 1 2 DK/ Refused 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 166 .34 How certain are you about this belief? Are you absolutely certain.

ASK [N=257]: Q. ASK: Q. Don’t believe in Nirvana Other/DK Total 62 26 32 4 0 1 19 18 100 IF HINDU (Q.16=8). fairly certain. or not at all certain? All Hindus Yes.34b How certain are you about this belief? Are you absolutely certain. not too certain.34a Do you believe in nirvana. ASK: Q.16=7). Don’t believe in Reincarnation Other/DK Total 61 34 19 7 0 0 28 12 100 Topline 167 . Religious Landscape Survey IF BUDDHIST (Q. Believe in Nirvana Absolutely Certain Fairly Certain Not too certain Not at all Certain DK/Refused No.34c=1). ASK [N=411]: Q. or not at all certain? All Buddhists Yes. Believe in Reincarnation Absolutely Certain Fairly Certain Not too certain Not at all Certain DK/Refused No.34c Do you believe in reincarnation. the ultimate state transcending pain and desire in which individual consciousness ends? IF BELIEVE IN NIRVANA (Q. that people will be reborn in this world again and again? IF BELIEVE IN REINCARNATION (Q. fairly certain.34d How certain are you about this belief? Are you absolutely certain.34a=1).Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.S. not too certain.

where people who have led good lives are eternally rewarded? Don’t know/ refused 6 2 7 4 6 1 6 4 8 12 2 7 10 8 10 Yes Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 74 86 77 91 82 95 74 46 49 38 85 36 51 32 41 No 17 6 12 3 10 3 17 42 36 48 11 54 35 55 46 Other (VOL.) 3 5 3 3 2 1 4 8 7 2 3 3 3 5 3 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 168 .35 Do you think there is a heaven.S. Religious Landscape Survey ASK ALL: Q.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.

) 3 4 3 2 3 8 4 2 1 1 6 2 4 5 2 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 169 . Religious Landscape Survey Q. where people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally punished? Don’t know/ refused 8 4 11 6 10 5 12 1 5 8 3 7 12 4 9 Yes Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 59 82 56 82 60 59 56 9 21 22 80 26 35 16 30 No 30 10 30 10 27 28 28 88 74 69 11 65 50 76 58 Other (VOL.S.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.36 Do you think there is a hell.

Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.16=7. -----[Holy book] is the word of God-----Word of God. OR Not everything in [Holy book] should be taken literally.37=1). ASK: Q. insert.16=99) AND CHR=2. not taken literally 27 25 35 18 36 50 29 40 26 25 25 9 21 6 13 Word of God.14 OR (Q. word for word.37 Other/ DK (VOL) 9 5 11 8 11 4 12 7 20 10 6 16 16 14 10 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center.9)). Other/DK 3 5 4 4 3 7 4 5 4 2 11 1 4 1 1 Book written by men. insert “the Holy Scripture”. 2007) Topline 170 . 13 OR CHR=1) insert “the Bible”.9. If other non-Christian affiliations (Q. OR [Holy book] is a book written by men and is not the word of God.S. IN ORDER] [Holy book] is the word of God. 9. insert “the Bible”] IF BELIEVE HOLY BOOK IS WORD OF GOD (Q. taken literally word for word Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim* Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 33 59 22 62 23 35 26 48 5 10 50 8 12 5 11 Word of God.38 And would you say that [READ. insert “the Torah”.8. IF DK/REF IN RELIGION (Q.16=11 AND CHR=2. IN ORDER]? [Holy book] is to be taken literally. 10. 12.16=5). word for word.16=6). “the Koran”. Religious Landscape Survey Which comes closest to your view? [READ. If Muslim (Q. If Jewish (Q. not the word of God 28 7 28 9 27 4 29 1 44 53 8 67 47 74 64 Q. [Holy book: If Christian or no religion (Q.16=1-4.

S. For each one. RANDOMIZE]. Miracles still occur today as in ancient times Don’t know/ refused 3 2 3 3 3 0 2 4 3 5 7 4 5 5 4 Completely agree Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 47 61 42 58 47 80 43 15 56 21 39 31 24 37 25 Mostly agree 32 27 39 30 36 16 36 15 31 31 30 31 45 29 30 Mostly disagree 10 7 11 6 9 3 11 18 4 20 14 18 15 13 18 Completely disagree 8 3 5 3 5 1 9 48 6 23 11 16 11 15 23 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 171 . mostly disagree. READ FOR FIRST ITEM THEN AS NECESSARY: Do you completely agree. mostly agree. mostly disagree with it. mostly agree with it.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. Religious Landscape Survey ASK ALL: Q. or completely disagree? a.39a Here are a few statements. please tell me if you completely agree with it. or completely disagree with it. The first/next one is [INSERT ITEM.

The first/next one is [INSERT ITEM.S. or completely disagree with it. READ FOR FIRST ITEM THEN AS NECESSARY: Do you completely agree. For each one.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. mostly disagree with it. Angels and demons are active in the world Don’t know/ refused 5 3 6 4 6 4 5 1 3 7 8 7 8 4 5 Completely Mostly agree agree Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 40 61 31 59 35 59 34 78 26 9 45 14 18 22 18 28 26 34 28 34 29 32 17 34 12 34 23 19 23 22 Mostly Completely disagree disagree 13 6 17 6 15 4 16 1 17 21 8 23 23 19 19 14 4 12 4 10 4 13 3 20 52 5 33 32 32 35 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 172 . mostly agree with it. or completely disagree? b. Religious Landscape Survey ASK ALL: Q.39b Here are a few statements. mostly agree. please tell me if you completely agree with it. RANDOMIZE]. mostly disagree.

The first/next one is [INSERT ITEM. Religion causes more problems in society than it solves Don’t Completely know/ disagree refused 34 50 30 45 33 54 29 27 13 18 47 12 15 10 14 4 4 4 5 4 1 5 8 2 5 4 6 4 4 4 Completely Mostly Mostly agree agree disagree Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 14 7 11 10 13 3 13 29 23 22 11 30 25 36 30 20 13 22 14 20 11 23 22 33 27 16 26 32 27 29 28 26 33 27 31 30 30 14 29 28 21 25 23 23 23 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 173 . mostly agree with it. READ FOR FIRST ITEM THEN AS NECESSARY: Do you completely agree. mostly agree. RANDOMIZE].Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. or completely disagree with it. please tell me if you completely agree with it. Religious Landscape Survey ASK ALL: Q. For each one. or completely disagree? c. mostly disagree. mostly disagree with it.39c Here are a few statements.S.

My religion is the one.40a Now. tell me whether the FIRST statement or the SECOND statement comes closer to your own views even if neither is exactly right. First/next [INSERT: ROTATE PAIRS] a.S. as I read a pair of statements. OR Many religions can lead to eternal life My religion is the one. 13-14 OR CHR=1). true faith leading to eternal life Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths 24 36 12 34 16 57 20 80 8 5 33 5 5 3 Many religions can lead to eternal life 70 57 83 59 79 39 72 16 83 82 56 86 89 85 Neither/ Both equally (VOL) 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 0 4 7 2 5 2 9 Don’t know/ refused 4 5 4 4 3 1 6 3 5 5 9 4 5 2 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 174 .Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. true faith leading to eternal life. Religious Landscape Survey IF HAS A RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION (Q. 11. ASK [N=30.236]: Q.16=1-8.

40b Now. ASK [N=30.236]: Q.16=1-8. First/next [INSERT: ROTATE PAIRS] b. OR There is MORE than one true way to interpret the teachings of my religion There is only ONE true way to interpret the teachings of my religion There is more than one true way to interpret the teachings of my religion Neither/ Don't Both equally know/ (VOL) refused 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 4 4 3 3 4 2 4 4 5 3 5 5 4 3 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 27 68 Total 41 53 Evangelical churches 14 82 Mainline churches 39 57 Historically Black churches 19 77 Catholic 54 43 Mormon 28 68 Orthodox 77 18 Jehovah’s Witness 13 82 Other Christian 6 89 Jewish 33 60 Muslim* 5 90 Buddhist 10 85 Hindu 6 89 Other Faiths *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center. There is only ONE true way to interpret the teachings of my religion. 13-14 OR CHR=1). 11. 2007) Topline 175 . Religious Landscape Survey IF HAS A RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION (Q. as I read a pair of statements. tell me whether the FIRST statement or the SECOND statement comes closer to your own views even if neither is exactly right.S.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.

236]: Q. 11.16=1-8.S. ASK [N=30.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. which of the following statements comes CLOSEST to your view? My church or denomination should [READ IN ORDER] or adjust traditional beliefs and or adopt practices in modern beliefs and light of new circumstances practices 35 25 42 28 42 23 31 21 45 46 30 51 47 40 12 7 14 12 15 3 10 3 15 19 21 20 23 22 preserve its traditional beliefs and practices Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths 44 59 34 48 36 68 49 61 29 26 39 18 16 22 Other (VOL) 1 2 1 2 1 3 1 4 3 1 1 2 2 5 Don’t know/ refused (VOL) 7 7 8 10 7 3 9 11 9 7 9 9 12 11 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 176 . 13-14 OR CHR=1).40c Thinking about your religion. Religious Landscape Survey IF HAS A RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION (Q.

a few times a month.41 People practice their religion in different ways. seldom. Religious Landscape Survey ASK ALL: Q. or never? Several times a Once a day day Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 38 57 30 61 31 66 33 78 58 13 65 25 25 29 13 20 21 23 19 27 16 27 11 13 13 6 20 37 13 9 A few times a week 14 12 20 10 17 8 14 5 16 14 8 11 10 12 11 A few times a month 6 3 7 2 7 3 5 2 2 8 1 9 5 8 7 Don’t know/ Never Refused Total 7 1 3 1 3 0 4 0 3 17 7 16 5 17 32 2 1 2 2 1 0 2 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 2 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Once a week 3 2 3 2 4 1 3 1 0 4 4 2 4 4 2 Seldom 11 4 12 3 10 5 12 1 7 27 9 15 12 15 24 Topline 177 .S. Outside of attending religious services. a few times a week. once a week. do you pray several times a day.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. once a day.

42a Please tell me how often you do each of the following. INSERT ITEM a FIRST. or never? And how often do you [INSERT NEXT ITEM]? READ IF NECESSARY: at least once a week. Religious Landscape Survey Q. seldom. participate in prayer groups. once or twice a month. or never? ASK ALL: a. FOLLOWED BY b. several times a year.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. once or twice a month.S. THEN RANDOMIZE] – would you say at least once a week. several times a year. how often do you [INSERT ITEM. First. seldom. Scripture study groups or religious education programs At least once a week Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 23 41 16 44 13 64 10 82 18 11 29 12 14 10 5 Once or twice a month 9 12 9 13 7 9 11 3 7 7 11 10 15 6 3 Several times a year 8 8 9 8 9 4 10 2 12 11 9 12 16 9 3 Don’t know/ Refused 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 Seldom 16 15 19 14 19 10 20 4 21 20 11 19 18 13 13 Never 43 23 45 20 52 12 48 8 39 49 40 47 35 61 75 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 178 .

read scripture outside of religious services At least once a week Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 35 60 27 60 21 76 22 83 40 14 43 28 23 17 9 Once or twice a month 10 11 12 13 11 7 11 4 12 6 13 11 12 6 6 Several times a year 8 7 11 6 10 4 10 3 6 8 13 9 13 8 6 Don’t know/ Refused 1 1 2 1 1 0 2 0 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 Seldom 17 12 22 12 21 7 23 5 16 20 14 14 21 19 19 Never 28 9 27 8 36 6 32 5 25 50 16 36 30 48 58 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 179 . several times a year. or never? And how often do you [INSERT NEXT ITEM]? READ IF NECESSARY: at least once a week. several times a year.42b Please tell me how often you do each of the following. THEN RANDOMIZE] would you say at least once a week. or never? ASK ALL: b. INSERT ITEM a FIRST.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. once or twice a month. how often do you [INSERT ITEM. once or twice a month. seldom.S. First. FOLLOWED BY b. Religious Landscape Survey Q. seldom.

FOLLOWED BY b.42c Please tell me how often you do each of the following. or never? And how often do you [INSERT NEXT ITEM]? READ IF NECESSARY: at least once a week. or never? ASK ALL: c. seldom. INSERT ITEM a FIRST. THEN RANDOMIZE] would you say at least once a week. once or twice a month. once or twice a month. several times a year. how often do you [INSERT ITEM.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. several times a year. Religious Landscape Survey Q. meditate At least once a week Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 39 46 35 55 36 56 32 72 64 23 46 61 44 64 26 Once or twice a month 7 6 7 6 9 7 8 4 8 6 3 8 9 9 7 Several times a year 4 3 5 3 5 3 7 3 5 5 3 3 7 5 5 Don’t know/ Refused 2 3 3 2 2 2 4 4 1 3 6 4 2 1 2 Seldom 12 9 14 10 13 11 12 4 9 20 10 7 13 11 14 Never 35 32 37 24 35 20 38 14 13 42 32 17 26 9 47 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 180 . seldom. First.S.

FOLLOWED BY b. Religious Landscape Survey Q. once or twice a month. seldom. 13-14 OR CHR=1) ASK [N=30. how often do you [INSERT ITEM. share your faith with non-believers or people from other religious backgrounds At least once a week Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths 23 34 14 42 14 24 11 76 21 7 23 15 9 19 Once or twice a month 13 18 12 13 9 23 10 8 23 8 12 13 10 12 Several times a year 14 16 15 9 13 27 16 5 14 12 15 12 14 11 Don’t know/ Refused 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 4 3 2 2 3 3 Seldom 23 18 27 17 26 18 28 5 24 29 20 29 25 27 Never 24 11 30 15 36 7 34 3 15 42 28 29 39 28 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 181 . several times a year. once or twice a month. or never? And how often do you [INSERT NEXT ITEM]? READ IF NECESSARY: at least once a week.236]: d. several times a year.S. seldom. or never? IF HAS A RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION (Q.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. 11.42d Please tell me how often you do each of the following. THEN RANDOMIZE] – would you say at least once a week.16=1-8. First. INSERT ITEM a FIRST.

INSERT ITEM a FIRST.279]: e. how often do you [INSERT ITEM. speak or pray in tongues At least once a week Total Christian Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian 9 11 4 14 9 4 12 4 4 Once or twice a month 2 3 1 4 2 1 3 1 1 Several times a year 2 2 1 2 2 1 3 1 0 Don’t know/ Refused 4 3 4 3 5 4 11 4 31 Seldom 6 6 5 8 6 5 6 2 2 Never 77 77 84 69 75 86 66 88 63 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 182 . seldom. once or twice a month. Religious Landscape Survey Q. or never? And how often do you [INSERT NEXT ITEM]? READ IF NECESSARY: at least once a week. ASK [N=28. FOLLOWED BY b.16=1-4.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.42e Please tell me how often you do each of the following. or never? IF CHRISTIAN (Q. several times a year. 13 OR CHR=1).S. once or twice a month. several times a year. First. seldom. THEN RANDOMIZE] would you say at least once a week.

once or twice a month. or never? IF HINDU OR BUDDHIST (Q. once or twice a month. pray at a shrine or religious symbol in your home At least once a week Buddhist Hindu 33 62 Once or twice a month 6 5 Several times a year 5 9 Don’t know/ Refused 2 2 Seldom 14 9 Never 39 14 Total 100 100 Topline 183 . INSERT ITEM a FIRST. seldom.42f Please tell me how often you do each of the following.16=7. how often do you [INSERT ITEM. 8). or never? And how often do you [INSERT NEXT ITEM]? READ IF NECESSARY: at least once a week. several times a year. seldom. THEN RANDOMIZE] would you say at least once a week. First. ASK [N=668]: f.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. Religious Landscape Survey Q. several times a year.S. FOLLOWED BY b.

seldom. several times a year.42g Please tell me how often you do each of the following. once or twice a month. or never? And how often do you [INSERT NEXT ITEM]? READ IF NECESSARY: at least once a week.16=9. 10. seldom. 12) OR AMBIGUOUS AFFILIATION (Q.16=99 AND CHR=2.048) Share your views on God and religion…. OR NO RELIGION (Q. once or twice a month.S. Religious Landscape Survey Q. FOLLOWED BY b. share your views on God and religion with religious people All Unaffiliated 13 11 10 31 33 2 100 (N=5.9). At least once a week Once or twice a month Several times a year Seldom Never Don’t know/Refused Total Based on the unaffiliated Topline 184 . THEN RANDOMIZE] would you say at least once a week. AGNOSTIC.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. First. how often do you [INSERT ITEM. INSERT ITEM a FIRST. several times a year. or never? IF ATHEIST. ASK: g.

once or twice a month. Religious Landscape Survey Q. how often do you [INSERT. or never? And how often do you [INSERT NEXT ITEM]? READ IF NECESSARY: at least once a week.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. feel a deep sense of spiritual peace and well-being At least once a week Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 52 68 47 65 47 71 45 77 64 38 64 55 49 60 35 Once or twice a month 14 12 16 12 16 12 15 6 15 14 13 15 7 13 13 Several times a year 12 9 15 8 16 9 17 7 8 13 7 9 22 9 12 Don’t know/ Refused 3 2 4 3 3 2 3 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 Seldom 12 7 13 9 13 5 13 3 7 21 9 11 10 10 21 Never 6 2 5 3 6 0 7 4 3 9 4 6 8 4 16 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 185 . several times a year.S. thinking about some different kinds of experiences. seldom. RANDOMIZE] – would you say at least once a week. once or twice a month. several times a year. seldom. or never? ASK ALL: a.43a Now.

RANDOMIZE] – would you say at least once a week. feel a deep sense of wonder about the universe At least once a week Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 39 41 37 37 34 40 35 49 64 40 53 57 39 65 39 Once or twice a month 14 13 15 14 14 16 12 10 10 12 14 13 12 11 14 Several times a year 14 12 17 10 17 15 20 10 11 16 6 10 23 7 14 Don’t know/ Refused 4 5 4 5 4 3 4 6 4 4 6 4 3 2 3 Seldom 18 16 18 18 20 16 17 7 8 16 14 7 14 9 20 Never 11 12 9 15 12 10 13 18 3 12 7 9 7 5 11 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Topline 186 . how often do you [INSERT. several times a year. seldom. once or twice a month. thinking about some different kinds of experiences.S. or never? ASK ALL: b. or never? And how often do you [INSERT NEXT ITEM]? READ IF NECESSARY: at least once a week.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. once or twice a month. seldom. Religious Landscape Survey Q.43b Now. several times a year.

thinking about some different kinds of experiences.897 7.800 8. receive a definite answer to a specific prayer request? At least once a week Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 24 31 16 36 18 34 13 37 33 15 N/A 26 16 28 18 Once or twice a month 15 18 14 17 13 24 16 14 23 7 N/A 9 12 8 11 Several times a year 23 23 25 19 23 21 27 15 21 17 N/A 17 23 13 19 Don’t know/ Refused 10 10 11 11 10 7 13 16 8 16 N/A 8 16 10 7 Seldom 18 12 23 12 23 11 18 10 11 25 N/A 16 18 20 26 Never 10 5 12 5 13 4 13 9 4 20 N/A 25 15 21 18 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 N/A 100 100 100 100 N 28.018 551 299 210 116 346 N/A 279 207 286 2.43c Now. Religious Landscape Survey Q. how often do you [INSERT. or never? And how often do you [INSERT NEXT ITEM]? READ IF NECESSARY: at least once a week.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. several times a year.989 6.S. RANDOMIZE] – would you say at least once a week. seldom.800]: a. several times a year.058 Topline 187 . or never? IF PRAY MORE THAN SELDOM (Q. ASK [n=28. seldom.296 1. once or twice a month. once or twice a month.41=1-5).

247 1.43d And have you ever experienced or witnessed a divine healing of an illness or injury? [N=32. have not witnessed 62 48 69 43 70 30 62 90 37 78 69 67 66 55 76 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 N 32.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.913 9. have witnessed Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 36 51 28 55 28 69 36 8 60 20 29 30 32 43 22 No.971 7.440 NO QUESTIONS 44-45 Topline 188 .845 578 346 210 125 560 108 304 236 372 3.913]: Q. Religious Landscape Survey IF BELIEVE IN GOD/UNIVERSAL SPIRIT (Q.358 7.913] Don’t know/ Refused 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 3 2 2 1 3 1 2 2 Yes.30=1). ASK [N=32.S.

ASK [N=30. don’t think so Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 40 54 6 Total 49 45 6 Evangelical churches 32 62 6 Mainline churches 46 45 9 Historically Black churches 34 61 5 Catholic 36 60 4 Mormon 35 58 7 Orthodox 59 32 9 Jehovah’s Witness 31 64 5 Other Christian 29 65 6 Jewish 32 63 5 Muslim* 30 65 6 Buddhist 31 62 7 Hindu 33 61 6 Other Faiths *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center. 13-14 OR CHR=1). Religious Landscape Survey IF HAS A RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION (Q. 2007) Topline 189 .46 Do you think there is a natural conflict between being a devout religious person and living in a modern society.16=1-8. or don’t you think so? Yes. 11.236]: Q. there is conflict Don’t know/ refused No.S.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.

Religious Landscape Survey IF RESPONDENT IS AN ATHEIST.47 Do you think there is a natural conflict between being a non-religious person and living in a society where most people are religious. 12) OR AMBIGUOUS AFFILIATION (Q. 10. AGNOSTIC OR HAS NO RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION (Q.16=99 AND CHR=2. ASK: Q.S. there is conflict No. don’t think so Don’t know/refused Total Based on unaffiliated 34 61 6 100 (N=5.048) NO QUESTIONS 48-49 Topline 190 .16=9.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. or don’t you think so? All Unaffiliated Yes.9).

Mormon.3 1.9 . agnostic. or not? IF PROTESTANT OR CHRISTIAN UNSPECIFIED OR SOMETHING ELSE/CHRISTIAN (Q. no religion. Roman Catholic.6 . Jewish.50=1.50 Thinking about when you were a child. Episcopalian.6 <. Church of God. Presbyterian. none.5 5. ASK: Q.8 .50=11. atheist. Methodist.3 .0 Topline 191 . was that? Just stop me when I get to the right one. if any. Holiness. or nothing in particular? [INTERVIEWER: IF R VOLUNTEERS “nothing in particular. Lutheran.4 31.4 . ASK: Q. Buddhist.8 . Muslim.9 8.4 .3 1. etc.3 <. or Disciples of Christ. Religious Landscape Survey ASK ALL: On another subject… Q.4 <. RECORD RESPONSE IN APPROPRIATE CATEGORY. 13 OR {Q50=11 AND Q.4 1. if any? Were you Protestant. in what religion were you raised.3 . Family Non-Specific Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other World Religions Other Faiths Unaffiliated DK/REF Total Percent 53. Pentecostal. Church of Christ.3 <. PROMPT WITH: and would you say that was atheist.3 . Were you (READ) Baptist.3 7.3 <. or just nothing in particular?] IF SOMETHING ELSE OR DK (Q. Protestant Baptist Family Methodist Family Nondenominational Family Lutheran Family Presbyterian Family Pentecostal Family Episcopalian/Anglican Family Restorationist Family Congregationalist Family Holiness Family Reformed Family Adventist Family Anabaptist Pietist Family Friends Family Other Evangelical/Fund.50b What denomination or church. Nondenominational or Independent Church. agnostic.8 .S.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.3 . Congregational or United Church of Christ.8 2.4 3. something else. Orthodox such as Greek or Russian Orthodox. Reformed.50a=1}).9 20.50a And was that a Christian religion.3 3.” BEFORE REACHING END OF LIST.7 100. something else Or none in particular? INTERVIEWER: DO NOT READ QUESTION IF R VOLUNTEERED DENOMINATION IN PREVIOUS QUESTION. Hindu. 99).9 1.3 .5 3.

is that? Just stop me when I get to the right one.3 . Religious Landscape Survey IF MARRIED OR PARTNERED (MARITAL=1.4 3. Jewish. 99).6 <.1 2.9 .183]: Q. none. Muslim. 13 OR {Q51=11 AND Q.” BEFORE REACHING END OF LIST. Lutheran. etc. Hindu. or not? IF PROTESTANT OR UNSPECIFIED CHRISTIAN OR SOMETHING ELSE/CHRISTIAN (Q.6 . Presbyterian.0 Topline 192 . Holiness.51=11. atheist.9 .52=1}). Family Non-Specific Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other World Religions Other Faiths Unaffiliated DK/REF Total Percent 50. or Disciples of Christ. Pentecostal.S.52 And is that a Christian religion.6 . something else. Is your [IF MARITAL=1: spouse/IF MARITAL=2: partner] (READ) Baptist.2). if any? Are they Protestant.51=1.3 .3 4. Mormon.3 <.1 2.3 1. Episcopalian. Orthodox such as Greek or Russian Orthodox. Methodist.7 . Protestant Baptist Family Methodist Family Nondenominational Family Lutheran Family Presbyterian Family Pentecostal Family Episcopalian/Anglican Family Restorationist Family Congregationalist Family Holiness Family Reformed Family Adventist Family Anabaptist Pietist Family Friends Family Other Evangelical/Fund. Church of God.7 11.5 6.3 <. agnostic. agnostic. ASK: Q.5 . Congregational or United Church of Christ. no religion.9 5.2 1. Roman Catholic. ASK: Q.3 29.53 What denomination or church.0 17. Church of Christ. or just nothing in particular?] IF SOMETHING ELSE OR DK (Q.2 .7 .5 1. ASK [N=22. Something else Or none in particular? INTERVIEWER: DO NOT READ QUESTION IF R VOLUNTEERED DENOMINATION IN PREVIOUS QUESTION.3 <.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.7 4.51 And what is your [IF MARITAL=1: spouse’s/IF MARITAL=2: partner’s] religion. if any.3 . RECORD RESPONSE IN APPROPRIATE CATEGORY.5 100. or nothing in particular? [INTERVIEWER: IF R VOLUNTEERS “nothing in particular.6 <. Buddhist.5 1. PROMPT WITH: and would you say they are atheist. Nondenominational or Independent Church. Reformed.

Religious Landscape Survey ASK ALL: CHILDREN Are you the parent or a guardian of any children under 18 now living in your household? (IF YES. ASK: And may I ask how many?) No children one 13 13 12 15 13 14 9 16 12 9 13 16 21 15 13 two 13 13 12 11 15 14 14 11 8 11 19 11 24 12 13 three 6 6 5 6 7 12 5 6 4 4 9 3 2 3 5 Four or more 3 3 1 4 4 9 1 4 4 4 6 1 1 1 2 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 N 35.431 9.989 8.S.029 577 360 215 129 681 116 411 256 449 5.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.451 1.031 Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated Based on total answering NO QUESTION 54 65 65 70 64 61 51 70 63 72 72 53 70 52 69 67 Topline 193 .443 7.

705]: Q.861 670 2.678 249 106 N/A N/A 167 N/A 120 128 126 1. ASK [N=10. First.705 2. do you (READ IN ORDER) a. please tell me if you do any of the following things with (IF CHILDREN=1: your child/IF CHILDREN=2-50: your children).55a As I read a list. Religious Landscape Survey IF CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS (CHILDREN=1-50).Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. Pray or read the Scripture with (IF CHILDREN=1: your child/IF CHILDREN=2-50: any of your children)? Don't know/ Refused 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 N/A N/A 0 N/A 0 2 1 1 Yes No Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 N/A N/A 100 N/A 100 100 100 100 N 10.S.851 1.502 63 36 Total 81 19 Evangelical churches 61 38 Mainline churches 77 22 Historically Black churches 63 37 Catholic 91 9 Mormon 56 44 Orthodox N/A N/A Jehovah’s Witness N/A N/A Other Christian 41 59 Jewish N/A N/A Muslim 37 63 Buddhist 66 32 Hindu 40 59 Other Faiths 31 68 Unaffiliated Based on those with children under age 18 Topline 194 .

Religious Landscape Survey IF CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS (CHILDREN=1-50). do you (READ IN ORDER) b.678 249 106 N/A N/A 167 N/A 120 128 126 1. Send (IF CHILDREN=1: your child/IF CHILDREN=2-50: any of your children) to Sunday school or another religious education program? Don't know/ Refused 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 N/A N/A 0 N/A 0 3 0 1 Yes Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically Black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 60 79 62 77 51 90 58 N/A N/A 56 N/A 24 22 41 35 No 40 21 37 22 48 10 42 N/A N/A 44 N/A 76 75 59 64 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 N/A N/A 100 N/A 100 100 100 100 N 10. please tell me if you do any of the following things with (IF CHILDREN=1: your child/IF CHILDREN=2-50: your children).861 670 2. First.S.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. ASK [N=10.55b As I read a list.705]: Q.851 1.502 Based on those with children under age 18 Topline 195 .705 2.

678 249 106 N/A N/A 167 N/A 120 128 126 1. Home school or send (IF CHILDREN=1: your child/IF CHILDREN=2-50: any of your children) to a religious school instead of a public school? Don't know/ Refused 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 N/A N/A 0 N/A 1 2 0 1 Yes No Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 N/A N/A 100 N/A 100 100 100 100 N 10.S.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. First. please tell me if you do any of the following things with (IF CHILDREN=1: your child/IF CHILDREN=2-50: your children).861 670 2. ASK [N=10.502 15 85 Total 18 81 Evangelical churches 10 89 Mainline churches 11 89 Historically Black churches 20 79 Catholic 6 94 Mormon 30 70 Orthodox N/A N/A Jehovah’s Witness N/A N/A Other Christian 27 73 Jewish N/A N/A Muslim 10 90 Buddhist 5 93 Hindu 10 90 Other Faiths 7 93 Unaffiliated Based on those with children under age 18 NO QUESTIONS 56-59 Topline 196 .705 2. do you (READ IN ORDER) c. Religious Landscape Survey IF CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS (CHILDREN=1-50).55c As I read a list.851 1.705]: Q.

2007) Topline 197 . Religious Landscape Survey ASK ALL: Now. just a few questions for statistical purposes only… SEX [ENTER RESPONDENT’S SEX:] Male Female Total 48 52 100 Total 47 53 100 Evangelical churches 46 54 100 Mainline churches 40 60 100 Historically Black churches 46 54 100 Catholic 44 56 100 Mormon 46 54 100 Orthodox 40 60 100 Jehovah’s Witness 46 54 100 Other Christian 52 48 100 Jewish 54 46 100 Muslim* 53 47 100 Buddhist 61 39 100 Hindu 54 46 100 Other Faiths 59 41 100 Unaffiliated *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.S.

942 7.856 565 358 207 127 664 1.S.281 7.695 9.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. 2007) Topline 198 .271 1.027 410 250 437 4.947 20 39 25 16 Total 17 39 26 19 Evangelical churches 14 36 28 23 Mainline churches 24 36 24 15 Historically Black churches 18 41 24 16 Catholic 24 42 19 15 Mormon 18 38 27 17 Orthodox 21 39 25 14 Jehovah’s Witness 16 35 27 22 Other Christian 20 29 29 22 Jewish 29 48 18 5 Muslim* 23 40 30 7 Buddhist 18 58 19 5 Hindu 26 37 27 10 Other Faiths 31 40 20 8 Unaffiliated Based on total answering *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center. Religious Landscape Survey AGE What is your age? 18-29 30-49 50-64 65+ Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 N 34.

60 Were you born in the United States. or in another country? Born in a foreign country Born in US territories/ Puerto Rico Born in US DK Total 88 11 1 0 100 Total 93 6 1 0 100 Evangelical churches 95 5 0 0 100 Mainline churches 95 4 0 1 100 Historically Black churches 76 22 1 0 100 Catholic 93 6 0 0 100 Mormon 62 38 0 0 100 Orthodox 83 17 0 0 100 Jehovah’s Witness 94 3 1 2 100 Other Christian 89 10 0 0 100 Jewish 35 65 0 0 100 Muslim* 74 26 0 0 100 Buddhist 14 85 1 0 100 Hindu 95 5 0 0 100 Other Faiths 88 12 0 0 100 Unaffiliated *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. question wording: “In what country were you born?” Topline 199 . Religious Landscape Survey ASK ALL: Q. 2007).S.

or in another country? IF BORN OUTSIDE THE U.S. PRE-CODED] [N=3.60a In what country were you born? [OPEN-END.104] Percent Country 35 Mexico 4 India 4 El Salvador 4 Germany 3 United Kingdom 3 Canada 3 Dominican Republic 3 Guatemala 3 Philippines 2 Cuba 2 China 2 Colombia 2 Jamaica 1 Ecuador 1 Honduras 1 Peru 1 Italy 1 Taiwan 1 Korea 1 Vietnam 1 Russia 1 Japan 1 Argentina 1 Trinidad and Tobago 1 Haiti 1 France 1 Panama 1 Poland 1 Ireland 15 Other 2 Don’t know 100 Total Based on those born outside the U.S.S.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.60=2).S.60 Were you born in the United States. ASK: Q. Puerto Rico or U. territories Topline 200 . (Q. Religious Landscape Survey ASK ALL: Q..

60=2). or not? Born in U.S. Not a Citizen/DK† Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 88 6 6 Total 94 3 3 Evangelical churches 95 3 2 Mainline churches 95 2 2 Historically Black churches 77 9 13 Catholic 93 4 3 Mormon 62 29 9 Orthodox 83 6 11 Jehovah’s Witness 95 3 2 Other Christian 90 8 2 Jewish 35 41 25 Muslim* 74 19 7 Buddhist 15 46 40 Hindu 95 4 1 Other Faiths 88 6 6 Unaffiliated † Don’t know responses include people who do not know where they were born *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center.S. 2007) Topline 201 .Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.61 Are you currently a citizen of the United States. Religious Landscape Survey IF BORN OUTSIDE THE U. (Q.---Yes. or U. Citizen No. territory ----Born Outside the U.S.S. ASK: Q.S.

/IN PUERTO RICO/OTHER U.S? -----------------------------Immigrated--------------------------Not Nonsure 1910.62 In what year did you come to live in the U.S.1990.4).3. Religious Landscape Survey ASK ALL: Q. 64 AND 65 HELD FOR FUTURE RELEASE Topline 202 .1980.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.1970. 2007) 2 2 1 1 5 1 8 2 0 2 15 8 17 1 2 3 2 1 1 7 2 11 6 1 2 20 6 29 1 4 2 1 1 1 5 1 7 4 0 1 17 4 20 0 2 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 3 0 5 0 1 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 QUESTIONS 63.S.60 Were you born in the United States.2000Immigrant 1959 1969 1979 1989 1999 2007 when Total 88 1 1 1 Total 93 0 1 1 Evangelical churches 95 1 1 1 Mainline churches 96 0 0 0 Historically Black churches 77 1 2 2 Catholic 93 0 1 2 Mormon 62 3 3 5 Orthodox 83 1 1 2 Jehovah’s Witness 96 1 2 0 Other Christian 90 1 2 2 Jewish 35 1 1 8 Muslim* 74 2 2 4 Buddhist 14 1 4 12 Hindu 95 1 1 1 Other Faiths 88 1 1 2 Unaffiliated *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center.S.60=2.1960. TERRITORY (Q. or in another country? IF BORN OUTSIDE THE U. ASK: Q.

009 14 36 23 Total 16 40 24 Evangelical churches 9 34 24 Mainline churches 19 40 25 Historically Black churches 17 36 21 Catholic 9 30 32 Mormon 6 26 22 Orthodox 19 51 22 Jehovah’s Witness 12 22 27 Other Christian 3 19 19 Jewish 21 32 23 Muslim* 3 23 26 Buddhist 4 12 10 Hindu 7 25 28 Other Faiths 13 34 24 Unaffiliated Based on total answering *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.411 7.298 9. Religious Landscape Survey ASK ALL: EDUC What is the last grade or class that you completed in school? [DO NOT READ] Less than High School High School Graduate/ Trade Some College School College Graduate 16 13 20 11 16 18 28 6 20 24 14 22 26 18 16 Post Graduate 11 7 14 5 10 10 18 3 20 35 10 26 48 21 13 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 N 35.429 1.990 578 362 211 129 676 1.985 7.031 408 253 448 5.S. 2007) Topline 203 .

20 to under $30.000. 40 to under $50.000.000 $49. 2007) 13 11 15 7 14 16 13 9 13 12 10 17 22 13 13 Topline 204 .000 or more Less than $30.000. what was your total family income from all sources. 75 to under $100.$50.656 6.565 512 290 178 111 520 868 357 220 378 4.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U.000. $150.999 $74. before taxes? Just stop me when I get to the right category. 10 to under $20.000$30.000. (READ IN ORDER) Less than $10.142 1.000.S.435 7.943 6.000.000+ 18 13 21 8 19 16 28 9 23 46 16 22 43 18 19 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 N 29. 100 to under $150.000. 30 to under $40.999 $100.279 31 22 17 Total 34 24 18 Evangelical churches 25 21 18 Mainline churches 47 26 12 Historically Black churches 31 20 16 Catholic 26 21 22 Mormon 20 24 16 Orthodox 42 23 17 Jehovah’s Witness 29 21 13 Other Christian 14 11 17 Jewish 35 24 15 Muslim* 25 19 17 Buddhist 9 10 15 Hindu 28 25 16 Other Faiths 29 23 16 Unaffiliated Based on total answering *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center. Religious Landscape Survey INCOME Last year. 50 to under $75. that is in 2006.999 $99.000.000.$75.

Registration Not know/ Lapsed/ Absolutely Registered Refused certain Not sure Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim* Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 73 76 81 77 69 76 69 13 83 84 48 73 42 70 65 3 3 3 5 3 5 4 0 3 2 2 3 4 5 4 17 17 14 15 14 15 17 74 12 10 22 15 14 23 24 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 3 1 1 1 1 Not US Citizen 6 3 2 2 13 3 9 11 2 2 25 7 40 1 6 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center.S. or is there a chance that your registration has lapsed because you moved or for some other reason? ------Yes.60=1.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. TERRITORY (Q. CITIZEN (Q. or move around so often they don't get a chance to re-register.S. ASK: REGIST These days.S. 2007) Topline 205 . registered-----Possible Don't Yes. Are you NOW registered to vote in your precinct or election district or haven't you been able to register so far? IF RESPONDENT ANSWERED '1' YES IN REGIST ASK: REGICERT Are you absolutely certain that you are registered to vote. many people are so busy they can't find time to register to vote./PUERTO RICO/U.4) OR U.3. Religious Landscape Survey IF BORN IN U.S.61=1).

do you consider yourself a Republican.Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. Religious Landscape Survey ASK ALL: PARTY In politics TODAY. or Independent? IF ANSWERED 3. Democrat.S. 4. ASK: PARTYLN As of today do you lean more to the Republican Party or more to the Democratic Party? Republican/ lean Democrat/ Independent lean /Other/DK 18 16 15 12 19 13 15 75 19 10 26 15 24 20 23 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 35 47 Total 50 34 Evangelical churches 41 43 Mainline churches 10 77 Historically Black churches 33 48 Catholic 65 22 Mormon 35 50 Orthodox 10 15 Jehovah’s Witness 26 55 Other Christian 24 66 Jewish 11 63 Muslim* 18 66 Buddhist 13 63 Hindu 13 66 Other Faiths 23 55 Unaffiliated *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center. 5 OR 9 IN PARTY. 2007) Topline 206 .

[READ] Very conservative. would you describe your political views as. Moderate.S..Pew Forum On Religion & Public Life / U. Conservative. Religious Landscape Survey ASK ALL: IDEO In general.. OR Very liberal? Don't know/ Refused 7 7 5 8 8 3 6 50 5 3 19 6 10 8 8 Conservative Total Evangelical churches Mainline churches Historically black churches Catholic Mormon Orthodox Jehovah’s Witness Other Christian Jewish Muslim* Buddhist Hindu Other Faiths Unaffiliated 37 52 36 35 36 60 30 21 20 21 19 12 12 12 20 Moderate 36 30 41 36 38 27 45 12 35 39 38 32 44 33 39 Liberal 20 11 18 21 18 10 20 17 40 38 24 50 35 47 34 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 *Source: Muslim American Survey (Pew Research Center. Liberal. 2007) Topline 207 .

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